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Evaluating The Job Position Of Credit Risk Management

Evaluating The Job Position Of Credit Risk Management

Risk management position

            Risk management is defined as the identification, assessment and prioritizing of the risks. This process if followed by the economic and coordinated application of the minimization, monitoring and controlling the probability and the impact of unfortunate events. The risk management maximizes the realization of the opportunities. Therefore, the risk management bears the responsibility to assure that the uncertainty does not negatively impact the organizational goals.  The risk comes from various forms. The technological change, change in the business conditions, failure of the projects and the catastrophic events are some of the type of the risk that impedes the performance of the business and negatively impacts the profitability ( Coleman, 2011).

            Therefore, this is the responsibility of the risk management to mitigate or eliminate the risks. The risk management is a crucial position in the organization. The risk manager and their team is responsible for early detecting of the risk and taking important and immediate steps to avoid that risks. Otherwise, the occurring of the risk could adversely impact the business and its financial condition. The internal and the external environment of the business is always subject to vary and changes frequently occurs that impact the business. Therefore, it is important to manage the risk. Therefore, the risk management position in the organization is very important in the realm of risk mitigation and elimination in order to prevent financial losses and agitation in the organization.

Job duties and responsibilities

            There are diverse job duties and responsibilities of the position of the risk manager. The risk manager id responsible for establishing as well as monitor the key risk indicators of the organization with which he/she operates. Moreover, he/she is also responsible for implementing corrective action plans for the organization to mitigate or eliminate the risks. This is very important and crucial for the better management of the business and the organization.   This is included in the duty to analyze transactions and to prepare internal reports for the organization. The management of the financial information of the organization regarding the potential fraud risks is also necessary( Crouhy, 2014).

He/she is obliged to maintain reports of the organization about the significant risks and to develop and present the recommendation to mitigate or to eliminate such risks. Creation of the policies, procedures is important to sort out the potential risks of the organizations.

            In addition, the control assessments are also done by the risk manager in order to identify the risks. Internal control framework is necessary for the internal management of the organization to sort out internal risks. Therefore, the evaluation of the effectiveness of the organizations’ internal control framework is necessary in order to address the risks of the company. The accomplishment of the company’s goals and objectives are important to be aligned with this. Lastly, he/she is also responsible for providing training and development along with technical support to the management of the organization and the employees regarding the risk management and strategies and the programs.

Critical success factors

            There are diverse critical success factors for the position of the risk management. If the candidate possesses such factors he/she would be definitely successful in performing his/her job.The first and the important factor is an ability to perform the internal audit. The internal auditing can be performed in a number of areas in the organizations. These areas include but not limited to strategic management and marketing, human resources, finance, marketing, internal and external business environment and the business planning. To down and bottom up risk assessment is also an important factor that scrutiny every kind of the risk that is going to happen in the organizations. Therefore, such kind of complete risk assessment is necessary to be effective risk manager or the related position ( Curtis, 2016).

            The Proper channel of risk identification in the organization is needed to address the risk. For that purpose, different kinds of the strategies could be adopted. These strategies include but not limited to the questionnaire, interviews or observations. This should be the ability of the risk assessor to identify which opportunity is more appropriate in order to identify the risk. The management of the risk inventories is extremely important. The risk inventories needed to be updated in order to make sure that the organization is in the position to delay with every kind of risk that is going to be occurring possibly in the organization.

            The risk manager must keep an eye on the different type of the risks that an organization went through. Therefore, he/she must update that list of the risk. Management of the risk velocity and the scope is necessary. The only identification of the risk is not enough. The risk manager must evaluate its scope and the velocity with which it occurs. Therefore, both kinds of the things are important to be noted that the keen observation and interaction with the management is also important in order to make sure that the risk is managed appropriately ( Pritchard, 2014).

Credit risk philosophy and loan loss target

            The major risk philosophy of the position of risk management is centered on the following theme:

            “In the realm of conducting risk management position, I am exposed to a variety of risks that is going to be encountered by my organization and these risks include but nut not limited to including market, external and internal business environment, credit, financial, liquidity, operational as well as other risks. These risks are material and require comprehensive controls to mitigate or eliminate and they need constant oversight as well. These risks are monitored by my core business responsibility and the management along with our independent risk groups that are operating in our organization”

            This philosophy is important to address all kinds of the risks that are going to be encountered by the organization. Therefore, philosophy paves the way for addressing such risk and their mitigation and elimination process. The organizations face multiple risks and they are not subject to the specific kind of risk that is going to hit the organizations.  Therefore, it is important that the philosophy supports a holistic approach to addressing the possibility of occurring multiple risks in the organization to better dealt with the potential occurring of the risks.

 Relationships with operating units

            The risk management position requires constant interactions with the multiple operating units. These operating units include sales group, internal auditors, and compliance people along with national bank regulators.  It is important that the risk management is done in accordance with the day to day activities and the responsibilities that are going to be perfumed with such groups. The interaction with sales group, internal auditors and compliance people along with national bank regulator needed to execute in accordance with the regional and national laws governing the risk management. Therefore, the relationships with the operating units are an important aspect of the risk management job ( Tuttle , 2014).

Sales group

            Sales groups are engaged in the selling of the products of the organization in large number. The mitigation of the risks is equally important in sales group to estimate the exact number of sales that are required to fulfill the demand of the customers. The demand anticipation and the seasonal changes and the business cycles impact the sales teams and the groups. They must aware of the demand fluctuation and the change in the needs and the wants of the consumers. The risk management position must provide them authentic information about the possible demand of the market. The utilization of big data is an important factor in that regard.

            The big data is used to assess the customer and transactional information to anticipate the needs and the wants of the consumers and the likely fluctuation in the future that could be the major risk for the business. The risk manager or the related personnel must identify such information and provide correct information to the sales groups. It is important for the business and the sales groups to be equipped with right information and the level of the inventories that are adequate in order to deliver the right amount of sales products. Therefore, the relationships with the sales groups are an important aspect of the risk management job.

Internal auditors

            The internal auditors are those people who are responsible for making an audit of the organization. These auditors are internally appointed and responsible for making audit of the different operations of the organizations e.g. marketing human resources, management, finance, and operations. Therefore, the risk management position requires making constant interaction with the internal auditor. It is necessary to make sure that the internal auditors are equipped with right information regarding the conducts of the operations of the company. The risk manager is responsible providing information about the internal business environment of the organization and the external as well. Although an internal auditor is well aware of the internal business conditions of the organization, the risk manager is also important in order to provide the internal auditor with the possible risk that could also impact the internal auditing process of the organizations. The sudden fluctuation in the internal business conditions is an important factor in that regard. Therefore, the relationships with the internal auditors are an important aspect of the risk management job.

Compliance people

            The compliance department of the organization makes sure that the organization, the employees adhere to the rules, and regulations of the securities exchange commission and the financial industry regulatory authority. Lack of compliance may result in the lawsuits and the litigation procedures. Therefore, the risk manager works with close monitoring of the compliance standards that govern in the organization in order to make sure that the risk of lack of compliance is eliminated. The lack of compliance leads to distortion of the company’s goodwill, its image and the financial losses due to court proceedings and the litigation procedure. The risk management job also requires that the compliance people must inform about the risks that are associated with the lack of implementation of compliance standards in the organizations. Therefore, the relationships with the compliance people are an important aspect of the risk management job.

National bank regulators

            National bank regulation is important for the governing procedures of the organizations. The different kind of regulations regarding interest rates, tariffs, excise duties and other regulations are important in order to run the financial matters. Therefore, the risks associated with debt equity and other funding from financial institutions are important to scrutinize but the risk manager to avoid any discrepancies. The risk manager informs about the current and updated regulations of the National bank and            prevent any uncertainties for the organization to acquire debt equity and to deal with other matters governing the organizations.Therefore, the relationships with the national bank regulations are an important aspect of the risk management job.        

References:

Coleman, T. (2011). A Practical Guide to Risk Management. Research Foundation of CFA Institute .

Crouhy, M. (2014). The Essentials of Risk Management, Second Edition. McGraw-Hill Education.

Curtis, G. (2016). Get A Job In Compliance. Retrieved 2016, from investopedia.com: http://www.investopedia.com/articles/financialcareers/07/compliance-job.asp

Pritchard PMP PMI-RMP EVP, C. (2014). Risk Management: Concepts and Guidance, Fifth Edition. Auerbach Publications.

Tuttle , B. (2014). How to get a job in compliance with little or no experience. Retrieved 2016, from news.efinancialcareers.com: http://news.efinancialcareers.com/us-en/140343/how-to-get-a-job-in-compliance/

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Business plan

Section 1

Cover memo

Bugshan hospital

Internal communication

To:CEO

From: XYZ

Date: 8 April 2016

Re: Business plan for establishing inpatient unit for department of Psychiatry in Bugshan hospital In Jeddah.

This paper contains information about business plan for starting a psychology service in the private hospital in Saudi Arabia. Selected city for this proposal is Jeddah. In this paper, feasibility analysis, operating plan and risk are covered for this proposed business. The mission of this new business is to serve the community by providing them a good mental health. The purpose of starting this business in Saudi Arabia is there is less number of hospitals in Saudi Arabia. Selection of city was appropriate for this proposed business. Jeddah only contains one hospital that is providing this service to patients with inpatient unit. I hope that you will find information in this business plan effective for providing operating and financial help for this hospital. Bugshan hospital should participate in financial and operating help for this proposed business.

Title page

A proposal

To establish

Inpatient unit

For

Psychiatry department in privet hospital

Submitted by:

ABC

Bugshan hospital

Planning department

April 2016

Table of contents

Section 1. 2

Cover memo. 2

Executive Summary. 6

Description of Initiative. 7

Organizational Structure. 8

Section 2. 9

Market analysis. 9

Marketing plan. 10

Financial resource planning. 11

Section 3. 16

Project Inputs. 17

Project Outputs. 17

Cash Flow.. 17

What If Analysis. 18

Section 4. 18

Implementation and operation Plan. 18

Business Operations. 18

Memo to the Head of Hospital for permission. 18

Business Process. 19

Resource Management Department 19

Department Head. 19

Seniors and Juniors Doctor 20

Paramedical Staff. 20

Customer relationship officer 20

Accounts department 20

Key Performance Measure. 21

Patient Feedback. 21

Peers Feedback. 21

Strength of Business. 21

Weakness. 22

Risk. 22

Implementation: 22

Business plan read. 23

Section 5. 24

Successful business plan. 24

References. 27

Appendix. 28

Proforma Balance Sheet 28

Executive Summary

Bugshan Hospital in Jeddah is one of the most renowned hospitals in the region and of Saudi Arabia for their medical services and patient care. By considering the need of the mental health in the Jeddah region, the department of Psychiatry Bugshan hospital proposed to establish a new inpatient unit of Psychiatry for providing good mental health. It is expected that this business is a potentiated Capital Investment opportunity

Psychiatry department has planned to provide a specialized treatment for the people suffering with psychological, emotional and behavioral disorders. The core purpose of this project is to help and treat the mental patient through the possibly best medical treatments. The skilled professional doctors will be hired to treat the patient with a purpose to add value to live a normal life.

Bugshan Hospital has a to develop an In-patient Care department in hospital which is proposed to deal as a General Clinics for General Adult Psychiatry and Clinic for Paediatric Psychiatry.

Patients will be admitted within the hospital as average number of inpatients for offering a variety of therapeutic techniques to get well quickly and they will be provided secure therapeutic environment. In treatment, a special procedure involves for treatment is Electroconvulsive therapy, Psychometric testing, Cognitive behavior therapy, Psychotherapy.

Psychiatry department in Bugshan Hospital is the first inpatient unit by department of Psychiatry in Jeddah city by a private hospital and second overall psychiatry hospital as one is situated as Jeddah National Hospital. In business point of view this will investment plan will not only earn a good reputation but it will give great financially benefits to the investors. Market analysis in Jeddah city shows a high demand for this treatment unit as social life have many problems which are increasing the number of mental patient day by day.

Taking a total perspective, inpatient unit for department of Psychiatry in Bugshan hospital In Jeddah will have professionally skilled and experienced doctors, paramedical staff and advanced medical equipment’s, patient friendly environment to meet all the required standards. As the medical science and technology is changing rapidly due to the modern research and inventions, therefore this idea is well suited to utilize these newly developed medical tactics and technology for the betterment of human.

Bugshan hospital department of Psychiatry is aimed to get itself developed into one of the best healthcare institutions in Jeddah with the specialists of the relevant field and the mission is to provide compassionate healthcare of the highest quality at an affordable cost to serve the nation and humanity. However to make this plan successful, there is need to focus on the weaknesses such as the unavailability of the staff in the local market. If theses weakness will be affectively addressed then this business plan could receive great success. (Mattiske, 2012)

Description of Initiative

The purpose of starting a Psychiatry department in Bugshan Hospital is to provide patients good mental health. Mental health of patients is important for their development. It provides better community participation. In this department, our business would provide different services to patients including behavior disorder, psychiatric disease, emotional problems, etc. This department would provide treatment to adolescents and children in their mental disturbance like suicide attempts, mood disorder, disruptive behavior, anxiety disorder etc. This proposed project is important because, in Saudi Arabia, problems related to mental health have been increasing. (Wysocki, 2011) Mental illness has become important issue in Saudi Arabia. For better participation of people in the development of the community is associated with their mental development. They can perform better if they are mentally strong. The importance of this project is to provide better prosperity of life to patients. It has researched that only one hospital in Jeddah is providing this inpatient service to its patients. This department only has limited space for treatment. It only consisted of 20 beds (AD & DO., 2002).

Organizational Structure

The Bugshan Hospital will come up with good organizational structure. The organizational involve all following stakeholders. These are director general, secretary of DG, Office Director, Committees, Assistant Director, financial department, radiology department, medical department, medical record department and hospital affair department.

In addition, different sections are workforce, surgery, training, information, specialized programs sections, media affair section, supplier section and establishment of the Hospital.

The management intends to have different departments in the company and enable effective communication process. The organizational structure seems good, as it is based on coordination of different departments. There will be inclusion of all departments in this structure, which will carry different business operations (Almoshawah, 2010).

 The inclusion of all medical departments cannot be compromised in this project, as it is the main purpose of this new development. For Instance, there will be all facilities for patients, which justified this organizational structure. The most important thing is coordination, which each department will have with others.

The finance department will look after all other departments regarding the financial resources and costing. Effective communication in this organizational structure will help this department to share the knowledge and feasibility reports with other departments in order have all necessary aspects.  This is a fact that this organizational structure will be a base for this develop, which enhances the chances of success after completion (Bahri, 2012).

Relative to organizational structure, the consideration of the management is to have a complete unit in form of complete organizational structure. The hospital already exist and the most important thing will be the retention of old departments, coordination and communication process. Obviously, the management intends to have flexible structure, which can be modified according to time and situation.  The organizational structure is pertinent to mission and vision of a company, as it reliable and can be made as a baseline for strategic decision-making (Cain, 2012).

Section 2

Market analysis

Market analysis has conducted for analyzing the demand for this service in the city. Current problems in mental health in Saudi Arabia indicate high demand for this service. The proposed business plan is to establish this service in Jeddah. In a research, the author concluded high rate of emotional disorders in young people in Saudi Arabia. Many studies have conducted for analyzing the rate of emotional disorders in children in school. He concluded that average age for this disease is 17 years and mostly students are female. From these studies, 16 to 59% studies concluded significant emotional and mental symptoms in students of secondary school. (Koenig, et al., 2014).

            Another study having a sample size of 609 concluded that 46.6% men have mental illness and 53.4% women. It was concluded from the study that 1/3rd of patients have the problem of mental illness. It was concluded that rate is high ion young people from age 15 to age 65 years. It was also concluded from the study that rate is high in widows and divorced women in Saudi Arabia. (AD & DO., 2002)  Another study concluded that current services have weaknesses in satisfying demand of patients (Almoshawah, 2010). This is the reason why more services are required in this area. Market research has provided high demand of Psychiatry service in Saudi Arabia. Demand for service is higher than its present or current supply in the country especially.

Market analysis has concluded that there is the presence of psychological disorder in Saudi Arabia patients. Due to the limitation of hospitals having this department, patients are facing challenges in fighting this disease. There is the need to open this department in the hospital so that patients can get better services in the city of Jeddah.

Marketing plan

             In this section, marketing activities of this proposed business have provided. Marketing plan provided detail of pricing strategies and advertising techniques. Prices of services would be based on income level of patients. This department is going to start in Bugshan hospital that is the private hospital in Saudi Arabia. Private hospital charges high prices as compared to government hospitals. There would be different services. Prices would range from the severity of the disease. Services include treatment of behavior disorder, mental illness, suicide attempts, mood disorders, psychotic disorders etc (Elbashier, 2006).

             Each service would have the different price. Prices would be based on a strategy of not too high and not too less for the hospital. It will match with existing pricing strategy of the hospital. Market share would be gained due to the good reputation of the hospital. Bugshan hospital is one of the main private hospital in Jeddah. Market share would be obtained by proving high-quality services to customers with better satisfaction. Innovation would be one of the effective strategy for improving the market share of this proposed business. Our qualified professionals would increase the satisfaction of patients. We will provide training to our professionals to increase market share and patients recovery rate (Jerman & Završnik, 2013).

                        Different marketing strategies would be effective for this business. One of effective marketing strategy would be the word of mouth. After getting satisfactory services, patients would recommend this to their friends and relatives. Social media marketing is another competitive marketing strategy. Patients would be able to take appointment from their doctors using the internet. Social media marketing would cover advertisement on Facebook, twitter, web page, etc. This business would motivate customers by satisfying their diversified demand.

            Other marketing strategies would include advertising on television and radio. Customers would provide the good image of services. Customer’s feedback and suggestions would be other important marketing strategies for this business. Their suggestions would be considered for better results in future. Patients would be treated with care in hospitals. They would be given treatment after accessing their information (Parker, 2010).

Financial resource planning

            Availability of finance is the important requirement for every new or existing business. Finance provides directions to management. It provides them information that how they can plan for their resources. For starting, a new department in existing hospital would require different expenses. This department would contain the requirement of 100 beds. These include expenses for buying machinery and equipment, beds, chairs and all other utilities including medicines. Other expenses would include the hiring of professionals and nurses. Marketing and advertising expenses would also be included in this category. Other expenses would include insurance expenses.

            Revenue sources in this business would include treatment of different diseases in patients. Revenue would be collected from selling services to customers at reasonable prices through doctors. The total cost of starting this new department is approximately 1 million. It also covered the cost of hiring skilled and trained professionals. Planning of resources is necessary for operations of business. Planning provides better ideas of decision making to businesses. No need of land is required in this project because this unit was established in Bugshan hospital. We have requested hospital to satisfy the demand of finance for starting this new department. This new department would also improve growth of the hospital. This business can be operated if finance requirement is met (Zimmerman & Ng, 2012).

Despite having a huge need of capital for this department, this is important for this hospital to come up with good budgeting techniques. The management of this hospital contains a plan to raise funds from different resources despite having a reasonable revenue. This is a fact that the current financial resouyrces and allocations are not pertinent to build this department. This justifies the need to identify different resources.

Financial resource planning

            Availability of finance is the important requirement for every new or existing business. Finance provides directions to management. It provides them information that how they can plan for their resources. For starting, a new department in existing hospital would require different expenses. This department would contain the requirement of 100 beds.

            These include expenses for buying machinery and equipment, beds, chairs and all other utilities including medicines. Other expenses would include the hiring of professionals and nurses. Marketing and advertising expenses would also be included in this category. Other expenses would include insurance expenses (Zimmerman & Blythe, 2013).

            Revenue sources in this business would include treatment of different diseases in patients. Revenue would be collected from selling services to customers at reasonable prices through doctors. The total cost of starting this new department is approximately 1 million. It also covered the cost of hiring skilled and trained professionals.

            Planning of resources is necessary for operations of business. Planning provides better ideas of decision making to businesses. No need of land is required in this project because this unit was established in Bugshan hospital. We have requested hospital to satisfy the demand of finance for starting this new department.

            This new department would also improve growth of the hospital. This business can be operated if finance requirement is met. Despite having a huge need of capital for this department, this is important for this hospital to come up with good budgeting techniques. The management of this hospital contains a plan to raise funds from different resources despite having reasonable revenue.

            This is a fact that the current financial resources and allocations are not pertinent to build this department. This justifies the need to identify different resources. The financial plan is pertinent to strategy, mission and vision of this hospital. The financial management has a plan to measure the budget with current financial performances in different departments.

            This is vital for the hospital management to make a budget according to different section in this particular department. The initial estimation is $2.5 million, which will well enough to build the department. To have best utilization of budget, the management will use variance analysis and mid course correlations. This will help the management to relate all unit cost in this department with the budget. Moreover, the revenues are going to be more than 4 million for first year after the completion (Umar Iqbal, 2013).

$1 million is estimated for development and construction process. One million has been estimated for hiring new employees, training and all other maintenance expenses and installation of machinery. The rest of five hundred thousand is estimated for marketing other operational costs such as medical services.

            The financial planning includes the conventional budget. This is better option for financial department to include to consider previous year figures, the managers, incremental charges and top management. The financial management will estimate charges in different situation in development. However, these charges are to include in budget.

The management of this hospital has a plan to make developments with sanctions. Different unites of the department will be divided according to their cost and technical equipments for the patients. The hospital management will contain the financial reserves for further expansion and developments according to need and time (Malshe, Al-Khatib, Al-Habib, & Ezzi, 2012).

            The estimation of working capital is necessary to consider for the financial department in this hospitals to have best utilization of budget and cash flows. The cost consideration will revolve around the labor costs, material costs, overhead costs and other possible financial costs. Thus, the financial plan is effective for this hospital to create a new department. However, the most important thing is to depict workable implementation, which is a base for this development.

Section 3

    PRIVATE HOSPITAL      
          Traditional Project Analysis      
           
           
           
INPUT DATA:                KEY OUTPUT:  
           
Land initial cost   $0 NPV $363,958
Land opportunity cost (and salvage value) $0 IRR 14.7%
Building/equipment cost   $2,500,000 MIRR 14.7%
Build/equipment salvage value $1,500,000 Payback 5.1
Procedures per day   20 Break Even Units 630
Average net revenue per procedure $600    
Procedures per year   7000    
Labor costs     $70,400    
Utilities costs     $30,000    
Incremental overhead   $33,000    
Supply cost ($/procedure)   $500    
Inflation rate on charges   3.0%    
Inflation rate on costs   3.0%    
Tax rate     0.0%    
Revenues lost from inpatient surgeries $500,000    
Reduction in inpatient surgery costs $500,000    
Cost of capital   10.0%    

Project Inputs

It can be seen that if there is no initial and no opportunity cost then the building and equipment costs $2,500,000 and the salvage value of the building is $1,500,000, the procedures that are in place are 20 and the net revenue per procedure is $600. It can be seen that the per year procedures become 7000 and the annual cost of labor becomes $70,400 and the Utilities cost is $30,000 and the overhead increment is $33,000 the supply cost of completing one procedure is $500 and the rate of inflation on revenues is the same as the rate of inflation on costs, that inflation rate is 3%. There is no tax rate as it is a nonprofit organizational project. The loss of revenue in patient surgeries per year is $500,000 and the reduction in the costs of patient’s surgery costs is also $500,000. The cost of capital for this project is 10%.

Project Outputs

When taking the above variables as inputs it can be seen that the NPV from this project is $363,958 and the IRR is 14.7% and the MIRR from this project is 14.7% too. The payback period is 5.1 years. All the financials prove that the project is acceptable

Break-even analysis shows that if the annual number of complete procedures is 630 then the hospital can reach it breakeven. It can be observed that the results are far above that number so the hospital is in profit. It is vital for any organization to attain profit or move past break even as it is an essential component of this study.

Cash Flow

The cash flow illustrates an outflow in form of investment of $2,500,000 and the other outflows in the remaining 5 years. It can be said that the project yields a positive NPV and an IRR that is more than the required rate of return. The Payback period of the project is late. It is almost 5.09 years for a project completing in 6 years.

What If Analysis

It can be observed in the scenario analysis that the worst case scenario has a negative NPV value and the best case has a huge positive cash flow.

Scenario Summary        
    Current Values: Worst Case Best Case Most Likely
Changing Cells:        
  Average net revenue per procedure $1,000 $800 $1,200 $1,000
  Procedures per day 20 10 25 20
  Build/equipment salvage value $5,000,000 $4,000,000 $6,000,000 $5,000,000
Result Cells:        
  NPV $1,236,361.41 ($5,140,091.56) $7,012,424.36 $1,236,361.41

 Value that changes in terms of Average revenue per procedure, Procedures per day and salvage value of machinery

Section 4

Implementation and operation Plan

To achieve the effective resulted from the business plan of establishing inpatient unit for department of Psychiatry in Bugshan hospital In Jeddah is directly linked to the effective implementation of the business plan. Following process will take place in the implementation of the business:

Business Operations

Memo to the Head of Hospital for permission

At the initial state, the business is required to get permission from the authority of the Bughashan Hospital to establish a 100 bed inpatient hospital for the psychiatrist patient.  In this process of implementation, a memo will be written to the head of the hospital that will brief the business plan of establishing the psychiatrist inpatient department by addressing the need and advantages of the psychiatrist department.     

This project is planned to start in an ongoing hospital, therefore, there is no need to gain property. Therefore, after the getting permission, the second important step will be to arrange the resources for the hospital operations and then to hire the staff for the restaurant operations.

Business Process

The process will start as the patient will arrange meeting with the CRM officer and according to the meeting time, the patient will meet the senior doctor. Senior doctor will decide whether the patient has to admit or not. In case of admission, the required medical tests will be taken by the Paramedical staff, the technologist officer will develop a report and then on the advice of Senior and junior doctors, the process of treatment will take place. Following are some of the important departments.

Resource Management Department

The resource management will be manage by the procurement officer who will be responsible to make sure the availability of the resources such as Medical Technology, the availability of beds and to maintain the resources during the hospital operations.

Department Head

Department head will take care of the psychiatrist management and he will works as a bridge in between the employees and Hospital management to make sure the working of the hospital according to the standard. He will be answerable about the performance of the hospital in front of the hospital management. He will have three assistance officers. The HR department will make sure the availability of the staff. HR will timely measure the performance of the staff. They will also arrange any training required for the staff to integrate their knowledge as well as they will manage the issues of the staff.

 Seniors and Juniors Doctor

To run the hundred bed hospital there is need to make sure the availability of the senior and junior doctors all the time. Therefore, the 6 senior doctors will be hire and 6 junior doctors will be hired and their shift will be divided into 8 hours. Every time two senior and two junior doctors will be available to treat the patients.

Paramedical Staff

Total 36 nurses will be hired who will work in 3 shifts of eight hours. At a time 12 nurses will be available to look after the patients.

Medical Technicians will also be hired to operate the Medical technology. For this aspect 6 medical technician officer and 3 senior technicians will be hired so that every time 1 senior technologist to develop the report and two officers will be available to operate the medical technology. 

Customer relationship officer

3 customer relationship officers will be hired. They will communicate with the patients and will arrange patient doctor meeting. He will also manage the internet facility to arrange online meeting. 

Accounts department

Accounts department will manage all the in and out transactions. They will also be liable to pay salaries to the staff. In accounts department 6 officers will be hire. Every time 2 accounts officers will be available.

Key Performance Measure

Patient Feedback

Patient feedback will be considered as the most important performance measure. This will be helpful to make a firm idea about the performance of the of the Inpatient Psychiatrist department.

Peers Feedback

The seniors will be asked about their juniors whether they are learning properly and making improvement. Secondly, the juniors will also be asked about the seniors whether they are cooperating with their juniors and help them to learn.

Some of the following dimensions will also be analyzed to measure the performance of the inpatient Psychiatrist Department.

  • Health Service outcomes
  • Quality compare with the other Hospitals of same discipline
  • Safety
  • Financial outputs
  • Patient Satisfaction
  • Business Responsiveness
  • Relationship among the staff members

Strength of Business

As it is mentioned above that the old researches has found that more than 60% of the people are suffering from the mental problems and there is only one hospital is working and it has low capacity as there is only 20 beds space. Considering this aspect, the planned hospital will be of 100 beds which is the strength. Moreover, people have fewer options therefore the greater demand will give success to the business. Another considerable strength is that to start a large project, there is no need to purchase or to get land on rent which saves huge investment. The proposed business is going to be started in an ongoing and famous hospital therefore, the positive image of the hospital will be a strength of the business as the new department would not have to strive hard to build its trust.

Weakness

This is a new business but expectations are very high but the staff will be new and at the starting stage, the staff will be less experienced as well as they will require time to build relationship. It would be dangerous for the hospital. Staff arrangement is challenging because in local market staff is not available. This factor will increase the cost of business.

Risk

Risk are always associated with any new business subsequently, this new project has some risks. The most important risk associated to the business is that it is a large project, and if the marketing will not be done appropriately then the patient will not come to the business. Secondly, the cultural factor would be a risk as most of the people in Saudi Arab do not allow their women to go to the male doctors. Moreover, it is expected that to find the professional staff would be a challenge, because in Saudi Arab, it would be hard to find the medical and paramedical staff.

Implementation:

BUGSHAN hospital In Jeddah Time and duration
Memo to the Head of Hospital for permission (1 month) From July 1, 2016 to July 30, 2016
Resource Management Department (1 Year) From October 1, 2016 to September 30, 2017
Department Head (6 months) From July 1, 2016 to August 1, 2016
 Seniors and Juniors Doctor (1 Year) From July 1, 2016 to June 29, 2017
Order of beds ( 6 months) From August 1, 2016 to January 30, 2017
Paramedical Staff (3 months) From October 1, 2016 to December 2, 2016
Customer relationship officer (6 months) From October 1, 2016 to March 3, 2017
Accounts department (3 months) From November 1, 2016 to January 30, 2017

Business plan read

The business-planning read investigate the specific accumulation in business planning to enhance the readers credibility in funding source for the financial. Each aspect in the business planning clearly demonstrated to understands the core values of project planning execution.   Each section in the business planning provides in-depth analysis for the feasibility of report.

            The first section provides the information of Initiative- Organizational structure to intake major consolidations.  In the next section the detailed description of market analysis, marketing plan, as well as demonstrations of financial resource planning requirements are discussed to understand the core areas of project execution to understand the readers. In the third section Financial feasibility analysis incorporated to reveals the major consolidations in the capital investment proposal, such financial feasibility analysis provides evident how the project could be successfully implement in well manner. In the next section Implementation or operational planning towards the indication of key performance indicators in project execution has been taken place. In addition, measurements for the successfully implementation of business planning provides the credibility to highlight he major evidence in the project execution planning. The over summary of strength and weaknesses including the risks ensures the reader for the final decision regarding the capital investment. In last section reasons behind successful business plan presented to generate effective outcomes.

Section 5

Successful business plan

The paper specifically associated with the demonstrations of business planning by adding new department function in the hospital services. A successful business plan incorporates in managing the business functions and its related outcomes to generate positive outcomes in essential and adequate manner.  The current business plan provides to establish inpatient unit for department of Psychiatry in Bugshan hospital In Jeddah.

Starting a psychology service in the private hospital in Saudi Arabia, need to required detail process with challenges and risk in the business planning.  The selected hospital is in Jeddah to generate effective outcomes.  The paper incorporated with the financial feasibility, operational planning and associated risk in establishment of new unit in the hospitals.  The probability of risk occurrence identify in advance for successfully implementation of business plan.

 The success of business plan reveals the major considerations of marketing analysis to seek its potential in the hospital industry. In addition marketing plan to communicate the core values are given under the business planning.  The clear demonstration of financial resource planning delivers the successive values of business planning. The cash flows and project outputs are in favorable of business planning that leads to initiate such project execution planning. There is strong potential of establishment of new unit in the hospital intake the major execution for the health care for the society in well manner.

The mission of this new business is to serve the community as well as people society by providing them mental health solutions. The successful of business plan are also in favor due to effective formulation of implementation planning with the hierarch management that which roles and responsibilities are important in this regard. The main reasons for selecting Jeddah city of bugshan hospital is due to service to patients with inpatient unit are provided. Effective business planning with favorable financial resource planning indicates best formulation of business planning. In this regard, the Bugshan hospital must participate in the financial as well as operational planning execution to help for this proposed business planning. Enhancing the mental health feasibility is the aim of and objective of project planning.  Thus to sum up all discussion about the establish inpatient unit for department of Psychiatry in Bugshan hospital In Jeddah reveals the major consideration to initiates such planning. The successful business planning indicates towards the financial feasibility as well as effective utilization of resource planning sure the credibility in managing the business planning in effective way.

References

AD, A.-K., & DO., O. (2002). Prevalence of mental illness among Saudi adult primary-care patients in Central Saudi Arabia. Saudi Medical Journal , 23 (6), 721-724.

Almoshawah, S. A. (2010). An Evaluation of Psychiatrist View Towards the Mental Health Services in Saudi Arabia. Journal of Taibah University Medical Sciences , 5 (1), 36 – 48.

Bahri, S. (2012, Feburary 12). Boost Your Brand and Marketing Activities Through Social Media Tools. Retrieved November 16, 2015, from marketing-segmentation-concept.blogspot.com: http://marketing-segmentation-concept.blogspot.com/

Cain, K. (2012, October 29). Measuring Marketing Effectiveness: 6 Metrics You Need to Track. Retrieved April 30, 2015, from http://contentmarketinginstitute.com/2012/10/measuring-marketing-effectiveness-metrics/

Denis Smith, M. F. (2009). The changing nature of risk and risk management: The challenge of borders, uncertainty and resilience. Risk Management , 11 (1), 1-12.

Elbashier, A. (2006). Export Marketing in the Middle East. The Importance of Cultural Differences. European Journal of Marketing , 17 (1), 68 – 81.

Erm.ncsu. (2010). Risk Management Practices that are Working for Public and Private Sectors. Retrieved May 7, 2016, from https://erm.ncsu.edu/library/article/risk-management-practices

Jerman, D., & Završnik, B. (2013). Can Marketing management affct consumer behaviour. Economics Management Information Technology , 1 (4).

Koenig, H. G., Zaben, F. A., Sehlo, M. G., Khalifa, D. A., Ahwal, M. S., Qureshi, N. A., et al. (2014). Mental Health Care in Saudi Arabia: Past, Present and Future. Open Journal of Psychiatry , 4 (1), 113-130.

Malshe, A., Al-Khatib, J., Al-Habib, M., & Ezzi, S. (2012). Exploration of sales-marketing interface nuances in Saudi Arabia. Journal of Business Research , 65 (8), 1119–1125.

Mattiske, C. (2012). Successful Project Management. AudioInk.

Parker, C. (2010). 301 Ways to Use Social Media To Boost Your Marketing. McGraw Hill Professional.

Umar Iqbal, A. Z. (2013, June 3). Role Of Brand Loyalty And Its Factors Marketing Essay. Retrieved Feburary 20, 2015, from uniassignment.com: http://www.uniassignment.com/essay-samples/marketing/role-of-brand-loyalty-and-its-factors-marketing-essay.php

Wysocki, R. K. (2011). Effective Project Management: Traditional, Agile, Extreme. John Wiley & Sons.

Zimmerman, A., & Blythe, J. (2013). Business to Business Marketing Management: A Global Perspective. Routledge.

Zimmerman, J., & Ng, D. (2012). Social Media Marketing All-in-One For Dummies. John Wiley & Sons.

Appendix

Proforma Balance Sheet

ASSETS   1 2 3 4
Current Assets        
Cash   $54 $57 $59 $64
Net accounts receivable $367 $396 $426 $435
Inventory   $177 $191 $203 $205
Temporary investment $12 $12 $12 $12
Prepaid expenses $2 $2 $2 $2
  Total Current Assets $612 $658 $702 $718
           
Fixed Assets        
Long-term investments $42 $43 $43 $46
Land   $656 $656 $684 $727
Buildings (net of depreciation) $903 $928 $983 $1,021
Plant & equipment (net) $608 $631 $642 $654
Furniture & fixtures (net) $61 $65 $68 $72
  Total Net Fixed Assets $2,270 $2,323 $2,420 $2,520
TOTAL ASSETS $2,882 $2,981 $3,122 $3,238
           
LIABILITIES          
Current Liabilities        
Accounts payable $246 $252 $258 $277
Short-term notes $24 $25 $26 $28
Current portion of long-term notes $14 $14 $14 $15
Accruals & other payables $14 $14 $14 $14
  Total Current Liabilities $298 $305 $312 $334
           
Long-term Liabilities        
Mortgage   $897 $931 $978 $1,021
Other long-term liabilities $443 $485 $527 $576
  Total Long-term Liabilities $1,340 $1,416 $1,505 $1,597
           
SHAREHOLDERS’ EQUITY      
Capital stock $300 $300 $300 $300
Retained earnings $944 $960 $1,005 $1,007
  Total Shareholders’ Equity $1,244 $1,260 $1,305 $1,307
TOTAL LIABILITIES & EQUITY $2,882 $2,981 $3,122 $3,238

Proforma Income Statement

REVENUE   2010 2011 2012 2013
Gross sales   $500 $650 $720 $850
  Less sales returns and allowances 200 230 280 320
Net Sales   $300 $420 $440 $530
           
COST OF SALES        
Beginning inventory $350 $360 $420 $435
  Plus goods purchased / manufactured 120 165 185 190
Total Goods Available $470 $525 $605 $625
  Less ending inventory 360 420 435 440
Total Cost of Goods Sold $110 $105 $170 $185
           
Gross Profit (Loss) $190 $315 $270 $345
           
OPERATING EXPENSES        
Selling          
  Salaries and wages $35 $41 $46 $52
  Commissions 12 14 16 18
  Advertising 10 12 14 20
  Depreciation 14 15 16 16
  Other 5 6 6 7
Total Selling Expenses $76 $88 $98 $113
           
General/Administrative        
  Salaries and wages $12 $14 $16 $18
  Employee benefits 4 5 5 6
  Payroll taxes 2 3 3 4
  Insurance 6 6 7 7
  Rent 8 8 9 9
  Utilities 2 2 2 3
  Depreciation & amortization 3 4 4 5
  Office supplies 1 1 1 1
  Travel & entertainment 3 3 3 4
  Postage 1 1 1 2
  Equipment maintenance & rental 0 0 1 1
  Interest 0 1 1 2
  Furniture & equipment 3 4 4 5
Total General/Administrative Expenses $45 $52 $57 $67
           
Total Operating Expenses $121 $140 $155 $180
           
           
Net Income Before Taxes $69 $175 $115 $165
  Taxes on income 22 32 26 28
Net Income After Taxes $47 $143 $89 $137
           
Extraordinary gain or loss $0 $0 $43 $0
Income tax on extraordinary gain 0 0 12 0
           
NET INCOME (LOSS) $47 $143 $120 $137
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Cast Iron material in civil engineering application


Cast Iron material in civil Engineering Application

Introduction:

Civil engineering involves the construction, maintenance and designing of the naturally build environment. Construction and maintenance include roads, buildings, canals, bridges, Dams etc. Engineering field is also classified, for example, biomedical engineering, construction engineering, electrical engineering, mechanical engineering etc. All engineering fields have specific requirements or we can say require specific tools to perform the specific task.  In the case of civil engineering, engineers utilize many material and tools made of a combination of material to construct a building, dam bridge, road and maintenance of the already build structure (Columbia.edu, 2016).

Civil engineering is one of the most important engineering fields in this world. It is the civil engineering that the engineers become able to construct the huge buildings, dams long distance roads and bridges that the world decades ago cannot imagine will exist some day.  At present, civil engineering lead many countries to become developed by having proper road system, buildings, bridges etc. 

Metals are considered as the backbone of civil engineering projects. Metals are usually found as the compounds and sulfates and oxides, carbonates, phosphate etc. Different kinds of metals and combination or metal material are used in the civil engineering. There are many types of metals and combination of metals that have specific property for example Cast Iron, Fiber Glass, and wood, that can be used for specific purposes in civil engineering like a construction of buildings, bridges, dams etc.

Cast iron:

Cast Iron was introduced in 1830 as a farming material and the builders at that time used the Cast iron metal as an alternative to masonry bearing walls. Cast iron is considered as strong and heavy metal. After the invention of Cast iron material in 1830, people used it to construct the huge or taller buildings. At present, the use of Cast Iron, become more important to civil engineers. Cast iron has important and unique properties that led civil engineers to use it

Properties of Cast Iron:

Cast iron is made by adding carbon and limestone in the pig iron o that the purer form of the metal is obtained which is known as Cast Iron. However, there is a variation in the amount of carbon present in the Cast Iron for example; it varies from 2 to 4.5%. Cast Iron has a coarse Crystalline and fibrous structure. On breaking or fractured Cast Iron has a grayish color appearance. Cast iron is the form of material that cannot be welded and magnetized.  Cast iron has the property that does not rust. It is a hard metal and requires tools to work with it (Csengineermag.com, 2014). 

Gray Cast Iron in the field of civil engineering is specially used for the construction of building and bridges. Cast Iron is brittle, somehow sensitive to fatigue weights, become weak in high-tension etc. melting point of the cast iron is 12000oC and its gravity is 7.5. It becomes strong on compression (Metals used in Civil Engineering, 2015).

Application of Cast Iron in Civil engineering

  • Cast Iron In construction:

Cast iron is used for many different purposes in Civil engineering. The use of metallic materials in the structural application evolved over the past few decades.  In the field of civil engineering, it is important to know the strength and the properties of the metals be used for the specific purpose because engineers cannot take risk of people life by constructing bridges, buildings, and roads with a poor and impure material (Zoghi, 2013).  

  • Cast Iron in Structures:

In early times, the cast iron was used to build the beams and columns in the building. 9in 1790’s the textiles mills was constructed with the Cast Iron material because of its properties. As it as strong metal so beams made by cast iron can handle the weight of the heavy machinery (Bussell, 2016). 

Source: http://www.buildingconservation.com/articles/structural-ironwork/structural-ironwork.htm

In civil engineering at present, cast iron can be used for the constructing the water system, pipe system or sanitary system of a specific region or area for example; cast iron pipes and fittings are used for the waste, rainwater, and soil pipe system. These pipes are made by gray Cast Iron. There are many other uses of the cast iron for example; cast iron can be used in the manufacturing of the stairs, structural connection used in the buildings, dams. It can also be used to make the fences, columns, and balusters. Moreover, it can also be used as the stoves, firebacks, tools, utensils etc.

Present use of Cast Iron in Civil engineering:

At present, because of the innovation and technology, the use of Cast iron is increasing in the field of civil engineering.  The innovative use of the cast iron is considered to be in the railroad systems and rail bridges. Now the engineers use the Cast Iron for the construction of large warehouses for the materials and machinery. 

Problems with the Cast Iron:

Cast iron in the past was considered to be reliable material for the construction of bridges and the large structures like the buildings etc. but somehow, there are some problems with the  cast iron as it is not reliable for the log purposes and for heavy materials. History includes many cases regarding the problems of the cast iron bridges and structure in 1876, Ashtabula the railroad disaster occurred because of the failure of the Cast iron bridge. 

Conclusion:

Cast Iron has specific properties and  can be used for the specific purposes, but for the civil engineers it is important to know the properties and strengths of the metal before constructing a heavy structure like bridges and building. 

Reference:

Bussell, M. (2016, April 7). 19th-century Structural Ironwork in Buildings. Retrieved Nov 5, 2016, from buildingconservation.com: http://www.buildingconservation.com/articles/structural-ironwork/structural-ironwork.htm

Columbia.edu. ( 2016, October 9). What is Civil Engineering? Retrieved Nov 5, 2016, from columbia.edu: http://civil.columbia.edu/what-civil-engineering

Csengineermag.com. (2014, 19th, February ). CAST IRON: A HISTORICAL BACKGROUND. Retrieved Nov 5, 2016, from Csengineermag.com: http://csengineermag.com/article/cast-iron-a-historical-background/

Metals used in Civil Engineering. (2015, Dec 2). Retrieved Nov 5, 2016, from aboutcivil.org: http://www.aboutcivil.org/Metals-used-in-Engineering.html

Zoghi, M. (2013). The International Handbook of FRP Composites in Civil Engineering. CRC Press.

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Biomedical Engineering

The biomedical engineering is the dynamic vast field of principles of the engineering applications and concepts applied to the medicine in the biological designing framework as a model of healthcare dealing purposefully which includes the diagnostic along with the applications of therapeutic. The biomedical engineering is field which is provides tool to eliminate the gap between the engineering dynamics and medicine concepts in which the engineering techniques of problem-solving are applied in a manner to integrate with the sciences of biological or medical treatments. Especially in the sciences of health care which includes the medical areas like diagnosis, biomedical therapy tools, and finally monitoring.

            Recently the biomedical engineering itself has become a vast field of research or study as compared to other networks engineering fields or areas. The specialization in engineering unique approach of interdisciplinary has made a revolutionary transition from the currently developed engineering fields. The major works in this biomedical engineering field are mainly comprised of the research or development, which includes the secondary or subset areas of engineering research. The applications of the biomedical engineering, which are considered the dynamic area of research, are comprised of prostheses in terms of biocompatible specialization in different methodologies of diagnosis along with the necessary medical devices used in therapeutic examinations.

            The medical different ranges of the therapeutic devices including the core equipment used in the clinical environment ranging from the implants at micro levels, the common sought of equipment such as MRIs used for the imaging along with the various arrangements of EEGs. The other core biomedical engineering equipment includes the tissues of the regeneration growths, drugs used in the pharmaceuticals along with the biological applications implemented in the therapeutic. For example, the ultrasound technology for the telescopic prostate of hyperplastic representing in a cumulative manner is a relevant example of this vast field of biomedical engineering.

            The area for future research related to the biomedical engineering includes the ‘Biomechanics’ which is an area of study of the functioning along with the examination of structures in the systems of biological dynamics. These including the study of human beings, animals, or plants, functions of the organs and tiny structure of cells while applying the methodologies of the biomedical engineering mechanics are analyzed. The study of biomechanics is very much linked with the conventional areas of the engineering sciences that are used for the in-depth analysis of the systems applied to biological sciences. For example, the mechanism of the Newtonian and the sciences of materials are relevant examples of the applied to the biological sciences.

            The features of the biomedical engineering include the bioinformatics, an interdisciplinary research area with the software analytical techniques or tools for examination of the biological information. The biomaterial is the dynamic feature of this major, which is the study of interaction with the relevant style of livings; the tissue engineering is also the vast feature of this major, which is the integration, or interaction of biotechnological with the BME. The genetic engineering is a great dynamic feature that plays a great role in this major, which studies the DNA in terms of recombinant technology and the modifications in the genetic terms like GM.

            I chose this major biomedical engineering because it enables me to learn the principles engineering science and the techniques applied to solve the medical complex problems or issues. The skills are developed in a person of various ranges that could be implemented in the establishing the software tools of imaging, the logical or mathematical concepts along with modeling, in terms of instrumentation, and the computational expertise of engineering accomplishing the high performance in this field.

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Vocabulary & Concept Map Annotated Figures

Masuyama, H., Mitsui, T., Eguchi, T., Tamada, S., & Hiramatsu, Y. (2016). The effects of paternal high-fat diet exposure on offspring metabolism with epigenetic changes in the mouse adiponectin and leptin gene promoters. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab , 311, E236–E245.

  1. Who are the authors? Check out their web page. Where are they working? What is their main research focus? What stage of career when the author, what stage now?

This article is written by Hisashi Masuyama, Takashi Mitsui, Takeshi Eguchi, Shoko Tamada, and Yuji Hiramatsu and they are currently working at Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, Japan. Their main focus is studying the effects of high-fat exposure of the parent on the metabolism of their offspring along with Epigenetics variations in leptin and adiponectin promoters in mice.

  • Summarize in your own words what this paper is about.

This article focuses on the effects of high-fat diet exposures of the parents on the offspring metabolism in accordance with the epigenetic variations in the leptin and adiponectin gene promoters in mice. As per the study the effects of parental high fat diet exposure on the body weight displays result in the gain of mass in the offspring as well. As there are significant variations at conceptions within high fat diet fed male and female mice and CD fed male and female mice.

  • What are 3 questions you have about this paper?

Q1       How can high protein diet influence the outcome here?

Q2       Can this study be applied for any cases of mutation?

Q3       Can specific forms of diet be used to get particular results in the offspring?

  • How does this paper relate to your research or interests?

To study highly focuses on the aspects that what type of traits in offspring can adopt from their parents especially emphasizing on the fat gain. I am currently working on the study that how can the results in the offspring be influenced with help of particular diet as the study shoes that the offspring does show positive effects from the test and this can be very useful my for my study.

Vocabulary List

Epigenetic

Te study of variations in organisms due to the result of changes of gene expression rather than modification of the genetic code

Adiponectin

It is also known as GBP-28, Acrp30, apM1 and AdipoQ and is kind of protein and is encoded in AdipoQ gene within the humans. It is used to control the levels of glucose along with the breakdown of fatty acids.

High Fat Diet

The diet in which the contents of fat are high and contents of protein are low.

Leptin

It is a kind of safety hormone which is made by the adipose cells and is used to control the energy balance and is opposed by the hunger hormone known as Ghrelin.

Metabolic Syndrome

It is related with a group of conditions which usually include high blood pressure along with high blood sugar and excessive body fat as well as abnormal cholesterol levels. This increases the risk of diseases related with circulatory or digestive systems.

Annotated Figure

Concept Mapping

McKay, J. A., & Mathers, J. C. (2011). Diet induced epigenetic changes and their implications for health. Acta Physiol , 202, 103-118.

  1. Who are the authors? Check out their web page. Where are they working? What is their main research focus? What stage of career when the author, what stage now?

This article has been written by J.A. McKay and J.C. Mathers. They both have been working in Human Nutrition Research Centre at Institute for Ageing and Health, Newcastle University located in Framlington Place, Newcastle upon Tyne in United Kingdom. They have been conducting research on epigenetic variations and the aftermath of diet inductions on the health of the offspring. They have also contributed in researches related to various epigenetic modifications.

  • Summarize in your own words what this paper is about.

Exposures to different types of diets of the parents can have multiple effects on their offspring and these effects may take years to develop. Therefore, they have to be studied with profound emphasis so that the exposure patterns and their results can be memorized. The epigenetic modification can influence nutrition and may contribute to the development of chronic diseases.  Histone modification, non-coding micro-RNAs and DNA methylation have a huge role to play during the cellular differentiation and throughout the lifetime of the offspring.

  • What are 3 questions you have about this paper?

Q1       Is the repressor function of micro-RNAs dependent upon their transcription act?

Q2       The biology of micro-RNAs is unusual, does it explain their function?

Q3       Can specific forms of diet be used to get particular results in the offspring?

  • How does this paper relate to your research or interests?

I am currently working on studying the effects of different foods and nutrition on epigenetic marks as well as processes and this article provides some valuable information on how epigenetic variations in the nutrition can influence the health of the offspring.  

Vocabulary List

Epigenetic

The study of variations in organisms due to the result of changes of gene expression rather than modification of the genetic code

Histone modifications

It is a covalent post-translational variation procedure to histone proteins that includes methylation, acetylation, ubiquitylation, phosphorylation and sumoylation. The post-translational variation procedure made to histones can impact gene expression by changing chromatin structure or recruiting histone modifiers.

DNA methylation

It is an epigenetic phenomenon which is used by cells for the purpose of controlling gene expression. Various mechanisms are available to control gene expression in eukaryotes however; DNA methylation is a commonly used epigenetic signaling tool which can fix genes in the off-position

Annotated Figure

Concept Mapping

Standage, D., Berens, A., Glastad, K., Severin, A., Brendel, V., & Toth, A. (2016). Genome, transcriptome and methylome sequencing of a primitively eusocial wasp reveal a greatly reduced DNA methylation system in a social insect. Molecular Ecology , 25, 1769–1784.

  1. Who are the authors? Check out their webpage. Where are they working? What is their main research focus? What stage of career when author, what stage now?

This article has been written by Daniel Standage how works at Department of Biology at Indiana University in Bloomington alongside Volker Brendel and Amy Toth who are also contributors to this research study alongside Ali Berens who works at Department of Ecology, Evolution and Organizmal Biology at Iowa State University. Karl Glastad of School of Biology at Georgia Institute of Technology and Andrew Severin who works at School of Informatics and computing in Indiana University located in Bloomington.

  • Summarize in your own words what this paper is about.

The article emphasizes on comparative genomics of the social insects, which is a topic that has been research a lot in the recent times. The goal of all these studies is to provide insight in the development of the social behavior and the associated with genomic and epigenomic levels. The study identifies different variations in the caste within gene expressions. The study provides an insight that both novel and conserved genes are directly related with the differences of the caste.

  • What are 3 questions you have about this paper?

Q1       What will be the level of similarity if the tests have been conducted on organisms?

Q2       Can we dictate or predict the outcomes of imprinting evolution with help of epigenetic modifications?

Q3       Why a consistent pattern has not been developed yet, despite all the progress on testing the predictions?

  • How does this paper relate to your research or interests?

I am currently working on studying the cause related with disruptions involved in genomic imprinting. The article provides concise information about molecular as well as experimental evolution and also provides valuable information regarding their comparison especially in association with current study of insects and this will be very helpful in further studies as well.

Vocabulary List

Epigenetic

The study of variations in organisms due to the result of changes of gene expression rather than modification of the genetic code

Caste

It is specialized group based on the behavior within eusocial colony

Dnmt3

It is a part of DNA methyltansferase family of enzymes which is used for transfer of methyl group to DNA and serves a variety of other purposes as well.

Eusociality

It is the highest level of sociality within animals which involves brood care cooperation, division of labor among the non-reproductive and reproductive classes as well as cross-generation colony of adults.

Genome

It is a set of chromosomes within the microorganisms or at the cellular level of the multi-cellular organisms.

Methylation

It is an epigenetic phenomenon which is used by cells for the purpose of controlling gene expression. Various mechanisms are available to control gene expression in eukaryotes however; methylation is a commonly used epigenetic signaling tool which can fix genes in the off-position.

Transcriptome

It is a collection of all the messenger RNA molecules which are expressed from all the genes of a particular organism.

Concept Mapping

Annotated Figure

Yan, H., Simola, D. F., Bonasio, R., Liebig, J., Berger, S. L., & Reinberg, D. (2014). Eusocial insects as emerging models for behavioural epigenetics. Genetics , 15, 677-688.

  • Who are the authors? Check out their webpage. Where are they working? What is their main research focus? What stage of career when author, what stage now?

The authors of this article are Hua Yan1, Daniel F. Simola, Roberto Bonasio, Jürgen Liebig, Shelley L. Berger and Danny Reinberg. They all have been part of researches that are conducted in their respective institutions including Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology in New York University School of Medicine, Department of Cell and Developmental Biology in Perelman School of Medicine at University of Pennsylvania,   Epigenetics Program, University of Pennsylvania,  School of Life Sciences in Arizona State University in Tempe, Arizona, Department of Biology at University of Pennsylvania, Department of Genetics, Perelman School of Medicine at University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and Howard Hughes Medical Institute in New York University at School of Medicine, New York.

  • Summarize in your own words what this paper is about.

The article provides a deep understanding at molecular basis that how the states of behavior are developed and how they are maintained or altered as per the environmental requirements. The article provides an understanding that the epigenetic alterations have a major role to play in the regulatory purposes for shaping the behavioral responses based on cues related with environment.  

  • What are 3 questions you have about this paper?

Q1       Is this study limited to eusocial insects?

Q2       What roles do epigenetic modifications have to play in imprinting evolution?

Q3       Why there are no consistent patterns predicted despite the availability of all the data/

  • How does this paper relate to your research or interests?

I am currently working on studying the role of epigenetic modifications in disease cells and this study helps me in understanding that what roles do these epigenetic modification have to play in the behavioral cues as it can be very beneficial in understanding the cellular responses to certain modifications.

Vocabulary List

Epigenetic

The study of variations in organisms due to the result of changes of gene expression rather than modification of the genetic code

Caste

It is specialized group based on the behavior within eusocial colony

DNA methyltansferase

It is a part of DNA methyltansferase family of enzymes which is used for transfer of methyl group to DNA and serves a variety of other purposes as well.

Eusociality

It is the highest level of sociality within animals which involves brood care cooperation, division of labor among the non-reproductive and reproductive classes as well as cross-generation colony of adults.

Methylation

It is an epigenetic phenomenon which is used by cells for the purpose of controlling gene expression. Various mechanisms are available to control gene expression in eukaryotes however; methylation is a commonly used epigenetic signaling tool which can fix genes in the off-position.

Concept Mapping

Annotated Figure

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Smarter logistics

MATH202_Week5Lab

Bonus lab: Smarter logistics

Lab 5: Bonus Lab

Question 1:

Question 2:

P

Let

 = 0

Nkp-KP2 – Na

Kp2– NkP +Na = 0

Now P can be find by

P =

As ax2 + bx +c = 0

Now a = k

b = -Nk

And c = Na

Now by putting the values in the formula we get

P =

P =

P =

The possible point of equilibrium will be

P1 =  and P2 =

As shown in the graph, by fixing the values of a2 the values of a1 is unstable as well as the values of K are also unstable. P1 is a sink and p2  is a source.

Question 3:

P

Let b = 1 and if a= a2 what will happen to fish population for various initial conditions

In the given equation and the case, “b” is a parameter that controls the frequency of the harvesting period on the other hand “a” in the given expression represents the amplitude of the harvesting period. For the required expression, the max harvesting can be reach to “2a” and the minimum can be “0”.

In the above expression, when t=0 and b=1 then the sin (0) will be 0. Therefore, it is not logical for the population when

Initial population= 0


Figure 1: fish population for initial conditions

It can be seen from the graph that at the initial value of K, N and a the fish population decreases

Question 4:

The expression mentioned in the part two, when a= a2 the fish population the rapid decrease in the fish population occurred as shown in the figure


figure: fish population for various conditions

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GrandBox

GrandBox is the online subscription website, which gives the grandbox to the loved ones on a monthly basis. It is observed that the company is working from 2014 and they are doing a great job. Here the most important thing to know is that they have targeted people over 65 like your parents, mother, father, grandparents, any uncle aunt or so. However, the package can be delivered to someone close to you, however; the only thing, which needs to take care, is that he or she should be the elder citizen (Grandbox.com, 2016).

Looking in detail, we come to know that every month there is a different theme box. It could be something from holiday gifts, birthdays, eating stuff, back to school or any perfect theme. The reason of sending these boxes is to make the loved one smile and so that the essentials are fulfilled. However, we can also send around 5 pictures and a customized note as well in the box every month.

Develop a list of personas within a broader target market

Looking at the Personas who comes in the target market are

  • Parents
  • Grandparents
  • Older loved ones

For each persona: Identify the various buyer roles

Discussing the Parents, grandparents or the loved ones there is only one way that can be selected. For instance, for the parents their children’s will pay for the package and rest of the responsibility is the grandbox team. They have professionals who are doing a good job in this instant and the select and send the package to your parents.

For the grandparents their grandson will pay for the package and same the grandbox team will do the rest as they will pick the box and deliver on time.

For the loved ones, it could be some of your older friends, aunt, and uncle or so you will pay for the package and the rest of the responsibility belongs to the company’s team.

Consider the needs and situational triggers for the product/service of your choice and describe them

As it has been stated earlier, the company only deals with the older age people. Here we need to know that they have already segregated a specific target market for them. However, this box is given every month around 15th of the month. The products or the box will be customized according to the season and the requirements. The team is highly professional, and they know what kind of goods they need to deliver to them. However, it can be seen that the ordering person an email the company maximum of five photos and a personal note every month which can be adjusted in the box.

Moreover, there are some of the events like the mother’s day or father’s day, birthdays or so. Here the box can be sent as well and here the box will be set up according to the occasion as well. However, it needs to be noted that the customization will be done by the management team. It is so true that everyone is so busy in his or her lives and that is the reason we are sending the boxes. Therefore the company takes this responsibility.

Create messaging objectives for your SMM campaign

Looking at the social media marketing campaign, I would like to say that the company is doing well in this regard as many people know about it. However creating the SMM campaign, I will say that the messaging objective here will be “Hello to the loved ones” this will be the Slogan, and it will be marketed over the web, on the Facebook, on the Google advertisements and so. The objective of this campaign is to give the awareness to the people who are looking for this service or who do not have time for their loved ones. Here they do have the opportunity to keep in touch and to communicate with them from their busy life.

Choose an “optimal target market” for your campaign and explain why you chose them

            Here discussing the optimal target market, I would say there are some people who come into the target market for the company. There might be three categories,  one who have love and care for the parents, the second who can afford and want to spend money, the third category lies here is who do not have time for the parents. Looking in detail, we come to know that yes all three categories do lay in the target market for the Campaign. However, the optimum target market will be the people who have love, care for the parents, who are willing to spend on them as well, and they do not have time to do so. A person possesses all three traits will lie in the optimum target market for this campaign.

Reference

Grandbox.com. (2016). GrandBox is curated for those 65 and older. Retrieved October 29, 2016, from http://www.mygrandbox.com: http://www.mygrandbox.com/whats_inside

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Why Emotional Intelligence Should Matter to Management

  1. c) Monitor one’s  own and others’
  2. b) Internal Causes
  3. False
  4. Emotional Quotient
  5. a) Psychological Adaption
  6. True
  7. Threshold Competence: A minimal capability that everyone in a given pool must have to get and keep their job.  
  8. The three key areas of emotional competence, identified in the article, by Daniel Goleman, are Self-awareness, self-management and achievement-drive.

The True Measure of CEO

  1. d)
  2. c) The Workers be charged more for their room and board
  3. True
  4. d) Requiring Workers to have or be Working toward a college degree
  5. a) Costco work culture promotes initiatives and trusts workers to solve problems without supervision.
  6. True
  7. The Essence is that it develops trust between management and workforce, increase their potential and prepare them for emergency. In addition, workforce becomes more sincere, devoted and diligent.
  8. A) Am I taking more in my share of rewards than my contribution warrants?

B) Does the distribution of Goods have negative effect on the morale?

Embracing Confusion: What Leaders do when they know what to do?

  1. C) Managers can remain in charge, while admitting their confusion and seeking appropriate guidance.
  2. B) The Lost Leader Syndrome
  3. True
  4. D) encourages automatic support for the speaker
  5. A) Process openly his/her responses
  6. A) Gained time for Analysis
  7. True
  8. The never develop a mechanism or instrument to address the problem appropriately; therefore, next-time problem occurs with more intense nature and causes more damage.
  9. Learning will increase, by embracing confusion, and better mechanisms, methods and instruments will be developed to address an issue.

Trend’s Shaping Tomorrow’s World

  1. D) Can only be predicted past the year 2050
  2. C) China
  3. False
  4. D) Services
  5. A) The elders
  6. C) Cultural Extremism
  7. True
  8. False
  9. Jobless societies will affect in two manner; one by reducing consumption, which would reduce incentive for private sector and other by migrating these unemployed to urban or developed countries, putting additional pressure economic system and infrastructure.
  10. Lifelong learning indicates that Millennials prefer an extended learning process that develops their intellect to manage affairs and address challenges. For corporate systems, this means a perpetual evolution of organizations and more optimal use of resources. This is also true for their personal lives, as more refined knowledge will be implied for better results.

 Form 1

Title of Article

Embracing Confusion: What Leaders Do When They Don’t Know What to Do

Number of Article

3rd in the line

State the Main Idea

Confusion, at corporate level, has become a norm and because of that it has become a defining feature. The article asserts that confusion should not suppressed or avoided, but rather embraced to develop method and instruments to address challenges and issue that are faced by managers.

Three Important Facts

  • Confusion has become a norm and a defining feature
  • Suppressing confusion complicates challenges
  • Most of the managers try to suppress confusion to avoid embarrassment

What Information or Idea

The changing nature of corporate/organizations that yields panic and confusion, at a certain level, and demands better managing of affairs through prudence and development of methods/instruments.

Bias and faulty reasons

The arguments, which are used in the article, are based on evidence and therefore, they are not faulty or bias; however, there could be more methods to address challenges than prescribed or suggested by the author/researcher.

New Terms and Concepts

There were not any.

Form 2

Title of Article

The True Measure of CEO

Number of Article

2nd in the line

State the Main Idea

CEOs have adopted the policy to put additional pressure on workforce to increase their share of profit. A CEO must create such environment that increases the potential and productivity of labor. For that purpose, it can use incentives and other such methods. The principle is that CEO must practice, which he/she preaches.

Three Important Facts

  • Companies have abandoned COSTCA approach
  • Top managers are more self-centered
  • Workforce is neglected and that is why negative work deviance increases

What Information or Idea

In the textbook, this has been discussed that a positive work environment increases the potential and productivity of workforce. In addition, it augments diligence, sincerity and commitment. This results in long-term relationship between employees and employers.

Bias and faulty reasons

The evidence, which has been used in the research work, is primarily based on structural observations, which could be faulty. However, case studies have also been discussed to draw conclusions and support arguments.

New Terms and Concepts

I did not find any term and concept, in this article, which I had not learned about in my text.

Form 3

Title of Article

Why Emotional Intelligence Should Matter to Management

Number of Article

First (1) in line

State the Main Idea

It has been asserted in the article, on the basis of evidence, that Emotional Intelligence matters more than IQ, which is traditionally used by organizations as an instrument to evaluate and predict a potential employee.

Three Important Facts

  • IQ test is not the best predictor.
  • Emotionally stable people are more effective employees
  • Timing, regarding Emotional Expression, in corporate environment, matters

     What Information or Idea

In the textbooks, we have studied that IQ is not the best evaluator and predictor, as it only tests intelligence and not the other aspects of personality, which are equally important. For instance, highly intelligent people could be emotionally unstable and for that reasons less productive.

Bias and faulty reasons

The arguments and assertions are evidence-based and for that reasons, they not fault. However, the research has strongly questions the worth of IQ test, which is not true to the extent it has been claimed in the article.

New Terms and Concepts

The new term I have learned is emotional competency.

Form 4

Title of Article

Trend Shaping Tomorrow’s World

Number of Article

4th in the line

State the Main Idea

By using precise projecting tools, which sort data to forecast long-term changes, we can prepare for tomorrow. The accuracy, of forecaster, is high for long-term and low for short-term.

Three Important Facts

  • Forecasters, especially long-term, are improving.
  • Various variables, of interest, can be forecasted.
  • Accuracy of the forecaster used, is high

      What Information or Idea

In the textbook, we studied that because of the increasing changes in demographics, realities and values, of particular geographic are changing. This has also been asserted in the article.

Bias and faulty reasons

As entire exercise of research is based on scrutiny and sorting of evidence/data; therefore, it is not apparently bias. These are projections based on the gathered evidence.

New Terms and Concepts

There was no new term I learned, but learned about how and why projections, long term, are more precise than the short-term projections.

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Comparison

There are four companies under analysis. Two of which are a component of Dow Jones Industrial Average and the rest two are a part of NASDAQ exchange. The two companies from Dow Jones are Exxon Mobile and General Electric, on the other hand, the companies from NASDAQ are Microsoft and Apple.

Exxon Mobile is a company that focuses on the industry of Integrated Oil and Gas. This company explores and produces two of the above-discussed products in the United States, Canada, Africa, Europe, Australia, Asia and South America. This company is also responsible for the manufacturing of other petrochemical products. On December 31, 2015, the company had 35,909 operated wells, and this number is jumping at an exponential rate. The company was incorporated in 1870 and has its headquarters in Irving, Texas. This company is a major player in the above industry and has managed to remain at the top for more than a decade (Yahoo Finance, 2016).

The Future Direction of Exxon mobile is to make innovative breakthroughs in technology to make itself environment-friendly. It is also upgrading its environment performance and preserve the environment by liquefying Natural Gas and reducing spills to protect water of this planet. It is also working on organizational transparency and effective corporate governance principles, along with aligning itself with the latest trends, by diversifying into opening service stations and providing efficient credit card system along with quality fuel and motor oil manufacturing. The introduction of petrochemical products into the plastics and bodies of vehicles, for strength, durability, and flexibility.

General Electric, on the other hand, is a useful and operating benchmark for a company that provides financial services and develops infrastructure on a scale that is formidable and impacts the overall growth of this factor. It can also be observed that the possible basis for the composition of machines that operate by steam or gas powered engines. The tend to manufacture everything starting from a nuclear reactor to water treatment plants that could use their engines. It also specializes in building oceanic platforms, Sea drilling, and Turbines manufacturing equipment. The digital and potentially analytic overview of their business revolve around the development of machinery of diversified nature  (Yahoo Finance, 2016).

General Electric is moving towards expansion rather than innovation, which is more important in their line of work. General Electric tends to partner with several of the global developers like UPS and powerful economies like China and Switzerland. To bolster its growth and ensure its survival. It is, however, moving towards innovation on a smaller scale and tends to lead its economic growth, the preliminary requirement in this growth is digital transformation, and potential aviation. It has its innovation developed at a smaller level. This level makes a start from magnetic bearing to generators used in a hydropower plant.

Microsoft is next on the list; this represents the potential and competitor that has dominated the industry since the advent of computers. The primary business of this company remotely moves around software and its application in various fields of work. The direction of the company under analysis removes the boundaries of imagination and provides a software solution to all the potential problems faced by businesses and individuals alike. The company has numerous segments including entertainment, consoles, communications, office operations, cloud services and software support for all of the above products. In 1975, this organization was incorporated and owned its headquarters in Redmond, Washington (Yahoo Finance, 2016).

The future trend does seem promising for this company. There are currently four-star segments in the minds of officials of Microsoft. This depicts that the trend seems that the promising new Windows ten would get to a whole new next level. It has already started its integration cross-platform. Further office 365 is a whole new add-on to the portfolio that is accessible on every platform, starting from Cell phone to the desktop PC. Microsoft is also highlighting development portfolio of visual studio 2015, this integrates and shares several features of a new up to the marking system and eases the job of the developer to make the website top-notch. The CRM software for Microsoft Dynamics is another featuring product that is coming up next in 2017.

The last but not the least in this list is Apple. This company has a rich history, since 1977, Cupertino, California. This makes the company fine steel as it has gone through many transformations, each more successful than the previous one. Apple specializes and leads the market in Mobile Communication, Personal Computers, Media Devices and Portable devices worldwide. Moreover, the customers of the company belong to every cycle and every size; they can vary from a young Japanese to an old Brazilian; they can also vary from an individual, or a small business to a whole Government or a giant conglomerate of organizations (Yahoo Finance, 2016).

Apple is top of the line, so its aim is also top notch. It tends to lead the market, the trends, and the gaps in this potential industry are considered top-notch. It is moving towards launching a new iPhone and iPad. Both of these products have always been the key signature products of the organization. The direction also indicates that Apple might be launching a new series of watches named Apple Watch 2. This is the potential products that are to be launched in this scenario. This overall depiction also denotes that the products of Apple are of their unique nature and in their new iPhone they tend to increase the battery, camera, and audio along with including water resistant to the given portfolio.

The Overall depiction of all four companies can be summarized in the form of the following table

Components Dow Jones Nasdaq
Company Exxon Mobile General Electric Microsoft Apple
Market Industry Major Integrated Oil & Gas Diversified Machinery Business Software & Services Electronic Equipment
Stock Symbol XOM GE MSFT AAPL
Prices
Q1-2015 87.37 27.08 48.64 125.15
Q2-2015 79.21 26.1 46.7 121.3
Q3-2015 82.74 28.92 52.64 119.5
Q4-2015 77.85 29.1 55.09 97.34
Q1-2016 88.4 30.75 49.87 93.74
Q2-2016 88.95 31.14 56.68 104.21
Q3-2016 86.91 28.92 61 117.65
Outstanding Shares Million 8961 4146 7775 5338
Enterprise Value Billion 360.39 259.16 474.83 633.95

References

Yahoo Finance. (2016, October 28). Apple Inc. (AAPL). Retrieved from finance.yahoo.com: https://finance.yahoo.com/quote/AAPL/profile?p=AAPL

Yahoo Finance. (2016, October 28). Exxon Mobil Corporation (XOM). Retrieved from finance.yahoo.com: https://finance.yahoo.com/quote/XOM/profile?p=XOM

Yahoo Finance. (2016, October 28). General Electric Company (GE). Retrieved from finance.yahoo.com: https://finance.yahoo.com/quote/GE/profile?p=GE

Yahoo Finance. (2016, October 28). Microsoft Corporation (MSFT). Retrieved from finance.yahoo.com: https://finance.yahoo.com/quote/MSFT/profile?p=MSFT

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opioid epidemic

How bad is the opioid epidemic? Explain.

Many people today are dying because of the opioid epidemic. This is causing causalities, and this factor is becoming crucial day by day. People are moving towards the drugs and drugs are causing deaths. The overdoses of the drugs are very crucial for health. Although a little amount of drug can kill people. The most number of deaths due to the overdose of the drugs was in the year 2014. The majority of the deaths were due to the overdose of the opioid. Opioid is in the form of heroin, or it is also being used in the medicines. Especially the pain relievers have a high quantity of these drugs, and thus these can affect the opioid epidemic. In 2014, there was a high-intensity increase in the ratio of opioid epidemic deaths (Pbs.org, 2016).

Describe some of the contributing factors (causes) to the opioid epidemic.

The main causing factors in the opioid epidemic are the negligence regarding the usage of drugs. It was the responsibility of the government or other organizations to make people aware regarding the consequence of the drugs usage and the overdoses of the drugs can lead towards death. This all had a very crucial impact on the increase in the opioid epidemic. This epidemic has caused enough issues and its control is necessary but the main thing is that before stopping the epidemic, we have to analyze the factors. The drugs usage should be restricted and prohibited. Also, the medicines having heroin and opioid should be given on official prescription from the doctor (Pbs.org, 2016).    

What are some of the consequences of the opioid epidemic? Explain.

The major consequence of the opioid epidemic is the death ratio increase. Daily hundreds of people are dying due to this, and it is leading towards an increased ratio of the deaths. 2014 was the most crucial year regarding this all as the most number of deaths were in that year. People are buying drugs daily; the drugs are totally affecting their cognitive and immune system, and this leads towards death for them (Pbs.org, 2016). 

What can you do personally to help improve this epidemic? Explain.

The whole scenario is very tragic and causal. This is very crucial for a nation that people are dying daily for the usage of the drugs. This all should be prevented and stopped. This is all with the aid of some steps. There should be some campaigns regarding the usage of the drugs. Drugs should there should be banners and flexes representing the drug usage. As people mostly today are using the social networks and people are spending most of the time there, so there can be online campaigns, social groups, forum and other counseling services so that people do not have to go to the rehabilitation centers and they can quit drugs (Pbs.org, 2016). 

What policies should be created, implemented, and enforced to help with this issue? Explain.

There should be rehabilitation centers, and there should be campaigns properly so that people can get aware of the drug usage and they should be prevented. The usage of media, banners and advertisement, can help people preventing the usage of the drugs. There should be medical assisted treatment, and the prescription should be given carefully considering the medicines having drugs like heroin and opioid (Pbs.org, 2016).

Discuss two things that you found interesting/alarming in the documentary. Explain your thoughts thoroughly.

One thing which was affecting me is the number of deaths due to the opioid epidemic. It was a shocking fact to get to know. The other thing was that people are not much aware of preventing drugs usage. There are no proper arrangements for the authoritative persons as if they had considered it properly; it would not have gone this much bad (Pbs.org, 2016).

References

Pbs.org. (2016). Chasing Heroin. Retrieved October 27, 2016, from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/frontline/film/chasing-heroin/

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Excavation Work Project Estimation

Memorandum

To: Mr. Chuck

From: XYZ

Subject:

Date: October 26, 2016

Purpose         

The purpose of creating the memo is to present the better overview of the cost project to the Chuck, However, in the memo the safe procedure recommendation and of the project is given; the detail of the excavation work, package estimation is given in the detail by trench excavation.[G1] [G2] [G3] [G4] 

Summary

The memo presents the foundation of excavation work project, which estimates the cost, along with the details of the calculated estimation. The important recommendations and information about the safety, which is needed during the trench excavation procedure, is also addressed.

Discussion

In the document, the information of the excavation project is given, the recommendations and the cost analysis is also given, the improvement of working environment for the labors is focused, however, in the memo the rules and regulation, which are regulated by the OSHA are also given. However, the total cost of the factors, which are contributing towards the of excavation work project is also given, the final figures, related to the labor and financial recourses are also being focused, there is the complete perspective of the resources, the resources estimation or the calculates prices of eth resources is about 37,883 $. In every organization, the responsibilities of the employees or the workers are needed to be considering, so that all the function should be carried out safely, and labor force can complete the project with the safety measures. OSHA should-should include in the processes or the function of the organization while doing the estimation of the cost.[G5] [G6] [G7] [G8] [G9] 

The factors that were used for the calculation of the work package of foundation evaluation are equipment cost and the productivity of the materials. These were provided in a scheme of per hour. A different number of labor for different activities was activities were used for calculating the cost under different categories. For each destination, cost summary was also calculated. It included the labor rate per hour. Other materials included in this calculation were excavation cost and quantity as well as the price of per unit. The materials were bedding material. Pipe material, compact bedding, joint pipe, backfill trench, etc. These were included in the overhead cost. The profit was also included in the calculations. Profit % was kept as 10% on the [G10] [G11] [G12] [G13] [G14] cost. Lose Cubic Yards LCY was used for all measurements of the materials. Computation of total cost included total quantity and unit price product. Estimation for total cost has provided in the tabular form.[G15] [G16] 

Estimation Table showing Estimates (Foundation Excavation Work Package)

Item # Description Quantity Unit Price Total Price
1 Trench Excavation       1,628.00  $       0.74  $   1,505.90
2 Pipe Material       2,000.00  $       4.00  $   8,000.00
3 Bedding Material          363.54  $     17.00  $   6,180.18
4 Place Bedding Material          363.54  $     65.00  $      944.23
5 Compact Bedding Material          338.82  $       1.06  $      357.79
6 Lay & Joint Pipe       2,000.00  $       2.66  $   5,320.00
7 Backfill Trench          753.88  $       0.76  $      575.88
8 Compact Backfill          753.88  $       1.09  $      819.44
9 Project Overhead          172.00  $     50.50  $   8,686.00
      Total Cost  $ 32,389.42
10 Profit 10% of Costs    $   3,238.94
      Total Price  $ 35,628.36

Recommendations:

Following are the suggestion in context of the dimensions of the excavation project:

  1. (1926.651(b)(2), 1994).[G17] 
  2. The boundary of the excavation can deform due to heavy load; it should be made sure that there is no heavy load kept at the [G18] boundaries.[G19] 
  3. It should be made sure that the workers do not have to work under any heavy load, which may get accidently down, or fall from a height (OSHA, 1994).
  4. An emergency exit must be provided to all the workers to use it for emergency cases (OSHA, 1994).[G20] 
  5. The workplace of the workers should be kept and arranged far from any traffic. Other than this, the workers should be provided with any special jacket or uniform, which could be seen by the people showing that work, is in progress (OSHA, 1994).

Appendices:

Calculations:

  1. Trench Excavation

Total Price =

Unit Price $0.74 /LCY
Quantity
A 5
Slope C 5
2.24
Quantity (Volume) 44000 Cubic feet
44000*0.037 1628 Cubic yards
25% swell Factor (Expand) 407 LCY
Quantity with Swell Factor 2035 LCY
Total Price $1,505.90
  • Pipe Material

Total Price =

Unit Price= $4
Quantity= 2,000.00
Total Price= $         8,000.00
  • Bedding Material

Total Price =

Unit Price= $17
Quantity=
Volume           10,000.00
Circle               174.600
            9,825.40  cubic feet
Quantity=                 363.54 LCY
Total Price  $         6,180.18
  • Place Bedding Material

Total Price =

Labor unit Price $65
Unit Price=  $                 2.60 /LCY
Quantity=                 363.54 LCY
Total Price  $             944.23 /LCY
  • Lay & Joint Pipe

Total Price =

Labor unit Price $125
Unit Price= $2.66 /LF
Quantity=             2,000.00
Total Price  $         5,320.00
  • Compact Bedding Material

Total Price =

Labor unit Price $20
Unit Price= 1.056 /LCY
Quantity=                 363.54 LCY
Shrinkage Factor of 6.8%                   24.72
Quantity after the deduction of shrinkage factor                 338.82 LCY
Total Price  $             357.79
  • Compact Backfill

Total Price =

Labor unit Price $35
Unit Price=  $                 1.09
Quantity=
Back fill (Left side)           9,370.000
Back fill (Right side)
A                      2.24
B                      0.50
C 4
Volume           13,472.14
          22,842.14 cubic feet
Quantity=                 845.16 LCY
shrinkage Reduction by 10.8%                   91.28
shrinkage Reduction by 10.8%                 753.88 LCY
Total Price  $             819.44
  • Backfill Trench

Total Price =

Labor unit Price $35
Unit Price=  $                 0.76
Quantity=                 753.88 LCY
Total Price  $             575.88
  • Project Overhead

Total Price =

Labor unit Price 35
Unit Price= $50.50
Quantity= 172
Total Price $8,686.00

Work Cited:

1926.651(b)(2). (1994, August). Retrieved October 26, 2016, from www.osha.gov: https://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=standards&p_id=10775

OSHA. (1994). 1926.651(c)(1)(i). Retrieved October 26, 2016, from www.osha.gov: https://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=standards&p_id=10775

OSHA. (1994). 1926.651.(e). Retrieved October 26, 2016, from www.osha.gov: https://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=standards&p_id=10775


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Hindrance in Contemporary IT tools to ensure customer centricity by Standard Chartered and Citibank

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Introduction. 4

1.1 Background of the study. 4

1.2 Problem.. 5

1.3 Significance of the study. 5

1.4 Objectives of the study. 6

1.5 Research Questions. 6

Chapter 2 Literature review.. 7

2.1 Internet banking. 7

2.2 Awareness. 8

2.3 Ease of use. 9

2.4Security. 11

2.5Low usage on internet banking. 12

Chapter3 Methodology. 14

3.0 Research Design. 14

3.1 Introduction. 14

3.2 Research Framework. 14

3.3 Hypothesis Generation. 15

3.4 Methods. 16

3.5 Sampling and Data. 16

3.5.1 Sample Selection. 16

3.5.2 Description of Data. 17

3.5.3 Data Sources and Collection. 17

3.5.4 The variable and Measurements. 18

3.5.5 Equations and Statistical procedures. 18

Chapter4Result and Findings. 20

4.1 Introduction. 20

4.2 Descriptive Analysis. 20

4.2.1 Frequency and bar charts. 20

4.3 Central Tendencies of Measurements. 30

4.4 Reliability test 33

4.5 Factor analysis. 33

Bartlett’s test and KMO.. 33

4.6 Pearson Correlation. 35

4.7 Multiple Linear Regressions. 36

4.7 Test of significance. 38

Chapter 5 Conclusion. 39

5.1 Limitations of the study. 39

5.2 Recommendations for future study. 39

5.3 Conclusion of study. 39

Hindrance in Contemporary IT tools to ensure customer centricity by Standard Chartered and Citibank

Chapter 1 Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Internet banking is the word by which got access to a new digitalized world that is based on technology. It can be seen that many of the people are not much familiar with the word internet banking as it is a new term which is recently introduced. The reason is that they do not keep themselves up to as they always look towards the comfort of their life which they do not want to change at all. However, it can be seen that the internet banking is one of the important tools and it is the thing which ends to be checked (Yaghoubi, 2010).

It can be seen that the advanced countries look towards the internet banking facility as a great way to improve and ease their life. The main thing, which needs to focus here, is that the internet banking does not require a big PC and the internet. The fact is that all we needed to access internet banking is the internet access and then we can do the stuff like online banking. It has been seen that not only the Pc is the requirement as the internet banking can be done over the tablets, the phone, or any gadgets that needs to be passed. Internet banking has improved our life, and for common person it has become so easy to manage its banking-related activities.

1.2 Problem

As internet banking is at its initial stage in most of the developing countries, therefore, there are many problems and resistance in using the internet banking. It has been noticed that there are many countries in the world that are not focusing on the internet banking technology such as Malaysia. Moreover, it is found that initially lot of users was attracted towards the internet banking, However, with the passage of time the users of the internet banking have been decreased due to ineffective working of emerging technology.

MCMC (2009) has reported that during 2007 to 2009, Malaysians increased using the Internet from 47.8% to 65.7% respectively. However, according to another study by (Raman and Annamalai, 2010), it was found that in the year of 2010 the Internet banking used by Malaysians decreased from 11% to 8%, respectively. Only 23% of the people in Malaysia utilize Internet banking facility although they are aware of advantages of using these systems (Ramayah, 2003).

1.3 Significance of the Study

During the last decade of 20th century, Internet banking facility came into existence to facilitate the banking needs of banking consumers as quoted by Delft (2013) from (Jaleshgari, 1999).With the advent of Internet banking, the key to all the banking need was handed over to the consumer. Now banking clients can access their transactions summary, transactions statement, check balances and pay their utility bills, etc. with the ease of just one click (Delft, 2013).

1.4 Objectives of the study

There are a couple of objective that are attached to the study; we can see that the main objective of the study is to examine the main reasons of the hindrance in the Contemporary IT tools needs to be known. People of the country are using internet banking less . Therefore, it is aimed to find that why the trend of internet banking is not attracting people though it offers the great facility to them. Furthermore, the other objective of the study is to find the ways to overcome the problems that are resisting the people to get advantage from the internet banking.

1.5 Research Questions

  • What is the impact of Security on Banks consumer’s usage of Internet banking?
  • What is the impact of Ease of Use on Banks consumer’s usage of Internet banking?
  • What is the impact of Awareness on Banks consumer’s usage of Internet banking?


 

Chapter 2 Literature review

2.1 Internet banking

There are many countless ways to use the internet for the useful purposes. It is one of the major things, which needs to be focused, and one of the most beneficial technologies that people can use for multiple purposes. People are using the internet to communicate with their friends, for the business communication, for getting knowledge as well as the internet has become a major source of information and communication which enables the people to get connected from thousand miles and see each other in real time. Subsequently, using the bank account, making the funds transfer, paying the bills and many others have become possible through the use of internet banking. We have seen that there are many differences in the usage of internet banking. It has been seen that the level of usage of internet banking is not same in every part of the world. It has seen that some of the modern countries or the non-Asian states are far better and advanced in the internet banking (Laukkanen, 2016).

One of the other problems that is resisting people to use internet banking is the users are not satisfied with the services of the bank that they have been provided in the name of internet banking. It needs to be checked that many of the customers are not willing to move from the traditional banking to the online internet banking. There are many reasons that people do not want that at all. However, it can be seen that the internet banking needs to be enhanced in the reason behind it that the best thing what we can see is the ease that has been provided by the internet banking. It has a negative impact on the economy that the people of the country are not using the internet banking at all (Asad, 2016). 

It can be seen that there is also an effect of the globalization index because from here we can see that many people in the country are connected to the internet, and it can be seen that if people are not using the internet banking in the country then they cannot compete well all over the world. It has also been seen that if they move to the other country, there would be issues that are the reason the issues that are in between they need to be checked in this case (Khater, 2013).

2.2 Awareness

It has been seen that unawareness is the big problem that creates the issues for consumers that they are not using the internet banking as they have no idea about the internet, so they do not have trust in internet banking.The main thing which has been seen in between the people is that many of them do not know that what is the internet banking and what are its features. For this purpose, if the internet banking Customers would say that they are looking for a bank that provides the good services at all. The problem seen is that the internet banking is very good at different countries, but the point to notice is that the awareness is not up to the mark (Sakshi, 2012

It can be seen that the awareness needed to be created among the potential customers. They need to give the awareness to the Customers so that they do not feel the hesitation in using the internet banking technology. We have also noticed that many of the researchers have also said that the awareness is the major issue in the developing countries. It is also noticed that many customers are not much educated and they do not know how to learn and write. This is the point and the issue due to which there are many people who are afraid of using interne banking (Wadie, 2011)

Looking at the reasons for the less use of internet banking, it is found that many of them do not know about the internet and its usefulness. However, it can be seen that in the USA, UK, and the European countries internet banking is used as a great source because people have full awareness about the uses and benefits of it. It has been seen that some of the Asian countries including China, Japan, Malaysia, Pakistan, India, and other countries, the awareness level of the internet banking are not too good as compare to some of the European or the American countries (Padachi, 2010).

Main reason is that the awareness needs to be created so that the common citizen of the country would know what the real situation is and how it can be formed in the better way. Therefore, it can be seen that the awareness is the fact, which is needed to be increased, and due to this the usage of internet banking will be increased (Chaoualia & Yahia, 2016). Here we can see that the author emphasizes that awareness needs to be increased to achieve the desired goal related to the internet technology.

2.3 Ease of use

It can be seen in various studies that one of the main problems is that the internet banking is not easy to use. It can be seen that there are many issues in the usage of the internet banking. It has been coming in many researchers that the internet banking is not so easy in the area and the reason behind it is that the best of the best thing wanted to go through. Further, it has been mentioned in the file that what are the issues that are prevailing in the account. Many people have told that they are not working with the internet banking and the reason behind it is that they are not comfortable with that in the similar way as they are with the traditional banking (Yaghoubi, 2010)

We can see that in the many studies it have been mentioned that the easy is not there for the people so that they could use the internet banking. Here it can be seen that the main reasons behind that are we need to look at the points, which will be at the constant point. Further, it is looking at the easy availability needs to make sure so that the main aim of the internet banking could be made sustainable and the main idea of the theory remain constant (Takieddine, 2015).

It has been seen that looking at the internet banking adoption is an easy access is one of the major reason that is shown. Obviously, everyone in this world needs the better position, and they are looking for the best and the convenience. However, the reason they are not using or utilizing that is the ease of access. There are many reasons that have been noticed in as there are many communities and groups that are needed to use the internet banking but they cannot. The reason behind that is that the internet is not available. Maybe they are living in the country or the area where the ease of the resources are not available, or there could be other problems (Muzividzi, 2013).

Therefore, we need to check that what the real problem is and why it is being ignored regarding the internet banking. There is communities in the world that can be seen are not educated well or are in their old age. If we specifically talk about them, we come to know that they are less educated or they are not willing to change their patterns. Here we can see that the education plays an important role in this aspect. The point, which needs to be noted, is that they do not feel that it will relief their life (Montazemi, 2013).

They feel that this is the complex thing, this will bring the changes to their account, and that is the reason they are afraid of this internet banking. The awareness needs to be there for that this problem could be eliminated and the best purposes that are in practice could be should be in the implementation phase so that the best of all the internet banking in the world could be enhanced (Hanafizadeh, 2014). Looking at the above statements, we come to know that authors have also stated that the ease is one of the variables that need to be taken care of.

2.4Security

Security conflicts associated with the internet are the major concerns, therefore, most of the people do not want to add their personal information over the internet. It can be seen that there are many frauds all over have happened through the internet and it can be said that this is the reason people are not comfortable with internet banking. There are many things which have been seen that the transfer of funds electronically does not mean anything to the community. What the main problem is that they are not satisfied that they need to transfer funds and they do not have any physical receipt. This is the major issue, and this kind of problems does prevail in here as people do not trust the internet as the hackers are always around and the trust factor comes in between it (Sakshi Agrawal, 2012)

Security issues over the privacy are the main reasons that people are not living their lives to the full. It has been noticed that in the internet banking the threat is quite greater than the physical existence of the person. It has been seen in the past many hackers that are over the internet and doing frauds. This is the main reason which can be seen in the internet banking that people do not trust that and they are on the back step for using the internet services and giving the passwords for them. This scenario has been checked, as many persons do not like that at all. Obviously, there are many persons who are not using the internet banking due to the security threats and do not give card numbers over the phone or the web (Yee & Faziharudean, 2010).

They are the people who want to lay very safe and instead of learning more about the technology they are dependent on other as their education level is very low. It is a fact that in today’s world website is not so secure and anything can happen over it. However, there are chances that some mishap could happen and the customer’s money could be stolen of transferred and so on. It has been seen that many researchers have been some according to the main security reasons. It can be seen that many frauds have been going on in the world. We can see that no one wants to lose their money in real and this is what the real matter is people do not trust the online thing as they do not know the processes that involved into it (Daneshgadeh, 2014).

Many researchers have published in this regards that there was not much trust among the people for internet banking at all. The reason behind it is, they do not want anyone to involve in their transactions over the internet, and they prefer to go to banks, to the physical transactions, and by doing this they are much more comfortable, and they are happy for that too (Devi, 2010). As said by different authors we come to know that security is one of the main issues that need to be resolved to achieve the desired level.

2.5Low usage on internet banking

It can be seen that web keeping money is used by the developed nations. Nonetheless, it has been seen that there are numerous Asian or the African nations that can be seen the web saving money is not up to the imprint. It can be seen that web managing an account is not all that acquainted with the general population who don’t have enough training or they don’t have a great part of the assets. This thing should be watched that what to do and what not to do. Nonetheless, it is said that the portion of the assets doesn’t have enough attention to the web managing an account in the nation. Clench hand toward the end it should be watched that what the primary issues that there are confronting are. Large portions of the measurements have been seen that what are the fundamental issues that the principle web can be said that in would be so finished also (Al-Smadi, 2012).

There are different nations such as developed and developing nations and in developed nations people feel secure to use the internet such USA, UK, Europeans. We have to see that what are the elements have an impact the high use of web saving money and it can see in a portion of the low monetary nations the low utilization of web saving money have been watched. Taking a gander at this, we can see that what is the fundamental issue and what viewpoints do they have or what sorts of issues they have what truly should be done in here (Martinsa, Oliveiraa, & Popoviča, 2014).

Chapter3 Methodology

3.0 Research Design

The research methodology is the most important part in research that can make the base of the research. As we have examined through study that independent variables and awareness ease the use of internet and improve its security. We will study here about the relation between the independent and dependent variables that are the main cause of the hindrance of internet banking in the Malaysian and some developing countries. We have arranged questionnaires to see the response of the public through the quantities analyses. Based on the result of this questionnaire, we can make some decisions to prevent the problem of using internet banking. 

3.1 Introduction

In this section, we will examine the effective use of internet banking in detail as well as the main issue in the banking sector will also be analyzed as the Internet banking is the main purpose of our study. We are going to use a questionnaire to find the reasons and to get results regarding the research. The main issue in this study is “The main purposes or reasons that are preventing the customer from buying his her desired products and services online which is called the internet banking.”

3.2 Research Framework

We are going to show main problems of the issue under this section. The main framework is shown in the picture below

Figure 2: Research Framework of the Study

3.3 Hypothesis Generation

Many of the hypotheses, which is derived from the study are mentioned on the following page

H0 = It indicates that there is no relation between ease of use and reduction of internet banking.

H1 = It indicates that there is the relation between ease of use and reduction of internet banking.

H0 = It indicates that there is no impact of security on a reduction of internet banking.

H2 = It indicates that there is some impact of security on a reduction of internet banking.

H0 = It indicates that there is no impact of awareness on a reduction of internet banking.

H3 = It indicates that there is some impact of awareness on a reduction of internet banking.

3.4 Methods

It is clear in this study that the questionnaire is being used for the study of a low trend of the internet banking and the work on this topic is quantitative in fact. We will find the result by entering this data in the SPSS, about the causes of a reduction in the internet banking. We will find the result through tests for example correlation, regression, PCA and through some other techniques. This will show the impact of the independent variable on the dependent variable. 

This questionnaire is based on the 3 steps through which we will find out the relation between independent and dependent variables. Under this section, each variable has three different questions, which are analyzed by the way. In the questionnaire, we also have some demographics. This is because we want to know the information regarding the topic from the respondents.

3.5 Sampling and Data

3.5.1 Sample Selection

Here we have used Customers and employees as the sample. These Customers and employees are working and dealing with the banking sector in Malaysia. We have chosen 300 Bank Customers associated with different banks in the Malaysia. The sample size of 300 has been taken because (Raosoft, 2004) has estimated the sample size of 280 as a minimum level. Therefore to make it secure we have made it to 300. The banks that are involved in this research are many some of those are Standard Chartered Bank and Citibank.

3.5.2 Description of Data

Let us have a look at the data we have gathered through filling questionnaires by the Customers associated with the different banks of Malaysia. We have tried to use the easiest way to collect the samples and to find the respondents easily to continue our work.

3.5.3 Data Sources and Collection

The main source we have used to continue our work process is Data collection. We have collected all data from different distinctions that all are banks. These banks include Standard Chartered Bank and Citibank. Some other banks are also included in the list of these banks that are being used for the research. All the respondents that are used in the research of why internet banking is not attracting the customer are those who are working in the banks. Some others are used who have experience of working in the banks for at least one year. During this research, we have to know that the respondents are well educated and well experienced and they can help us to get the result of our research. Some of the questionnaires are collected online by talking to the respondents or by sending them a questionnaire file. Some others are being asked questions live and data has been collected finally.

3.5.4 The variable and Measurements

            It is very clear in the study of the topic that Ease of Use, Security and Awareness all are independent variables. We will see here the relationship between dependent variables and independent variables to find out the reasons of reduction or low usage of the internet banking. In our research, we have used 3 different variables that are independent and in the questionnaire. There are 6 different questions in each of the variables. This will explain the reasons more effectively and in more detail. Under this study of the low usage of internet banking It is realized that they are the Likert Scale, which starts with agree, strongly agree, neutral, disagree and strongly disagree. To find the relationship we have analyzed through SPSS and through different tests and questions to find the result which the relationship between independent and dependent variables.

3.5.5 Equations and Statistical procedures

Under this study, we have conducted a pre-test, which includes 25 respondents. The reason behind this pre-test was to identify if the variables and questionnaire are valid to understand the reason behind the low usage of internet banking or not. After assessing the reliability of the variables and questionnaire, we had a reliability analysis, which indicated us that the variable is highly strong and that the Cronbach’s Alpha is closer to the value 1. This analysis gives us more confidence that now we can apply this to our study. However, it is certain, and we are sure for now that our questionnaire and variables are more valid and reliable. This study gives us a result that our pre-test conducted successfully and the value comes out which is 0.712. After this success, we can go forward for more tests.

We are going to do some more tests, and after these tests, we will apply results of these tests on the study. After the application of these tests, we found that PCA is most important in the study so the variables can be absorbed. The reason behind this phenomenon is that we have to put these questions in one variable so that it may be used in different tests. We have to apply the battles test in the study and the factors which are loading under this study program this is only the basic reason to compress the variable to have the true result of our study.

            By moving forward, we need to run the correlation in this study during descriptive analysis. This descriptive analysis will give us some figures of how many individual variable effects on a dependent variable. Whereas the direction and the strength of the value are indicating that, how much an independent variable affects a dependent variable. After assessment of this all, we will go for the regression to apply it to the study matters so that we can analyze the pressure of the independent variable all over on dependent variables and the result will appear in percentage. After this process, the results will be insignificance of a percentage that how much an independent variable can affect the dependent variable. 

            Questionnaires and the quantitative data have been used for the paper. The results are showing that there are some descriptive and frequency tables that are different and are involved in this process to reach the result. In this study process, we come to know that reliability is applied. After that, the coefficient analysis, regression, and the correlation will be applied on the results.

Chapter4Result and Findings

4.1 Introduction

In this study we have used 300 respondents mainly from the banks of Malaysia. Different tests have applied. Correlation, reliability, regression and frequencies are shown the details are below.

4.2 Descriptive Analysis

4.2.1 Frequency and bar charts

The analysis of demographics can be seen with frequency tables and the bar charts

Gender
  Frequency value Percentage Valid Percentage Cumulative Percentage
Valid FEMALE, 145 48.3 48.3 48.3
MALE. 155 51.7 51.7 100.0
Total 300 100.0 100.0  

There were 145 females and 155 males have participated in the study.

age
  Frequency value Percentage Valid Percentage Cumulative Percentage
Valid LESS THAN 18 48 16.0 16.0 16.0
18-25 104 34.7 34.7 50.7
26-39 106 35.3 35.3 86.0
GREATER THAN 39 42 14.0 14.0 100.0
Total 300 100.0 100.0  

Here looking at the age slabs we can see that 48 people are in less than 18, 104 in between 18-25, 106 in between 26-39 and 42 are greater than 39.

Monthly income
  Frequency value Percentage Valid Percentage Cumulative Percentage
Valid <RM1,001 64 21.3 21.3 21.3
RM1,001 – RM2,002 83 27.7 27.7 49.0
RM2,002 – RM3,003 102 34.0 34.0 83.0
RM3,003 – RM5,999 51 17.0 17.0 100.0
Total 300 100.0 100.0  

Looking at monthly income 64 people lies in less than 1000, 83 lies in between 1000-2000, 102 people lie in between 2000-3000 and 51 lies in between 3000-6000.

education
  Frequency value Percentage Valid Percentage Cumulative Percentage
Valid GRADUATE 42 14.0 14.0 14.0
UNDERGRADUATE 109 36.3 36.3 50.3
A LEVEL 103 34.3 34.3 84.7
NONE 46 15.3 15.3 100.0
Total 300 100.0 100.0  

Looking at the education, we come to know that 42 are a graduate, 109 are undergraduate, 103 are A-level and 46 do not have an education.

nationality
  Frequency value Percentage Valid Percentage Cumulative Percentage
Valid International 135 45.0 45.0 45.0
Malaysian national 165 55.0 55.0 100.0
Total 300 100.0 100.0  

Here 165 people are Malaysian, and 135 are international in the research

Currentdailyresponsibilities
  Frequency value Percentage Valid Percentage Cumulative Percentage
Valid Doing Job 144 48.0 48.0 48.0
As a Student 156 52.0 52.0 100.0
Total 300 100.0 100.0  

The current daily responsibilities of the people are they do the job (144), and as a student, there are 156 respondents.

The contemporary information technology tools that are used by the bank to facilitate are up to the mark.
  Frequency value Percentage Valid Percentage Cumulative Percentage
Valid Somehow 65 21.7 21.7 21.7
Always 82 27.3 27.3 49.0
Never 82 27.3 27.3 76.3
Don’t know 71 23.7 23.7 100.0
Total 300 100.0 100.0  

By asking about the facilitation 65 says somehow, 82 says always, 82 says never, and 71 says do not know.

Which IT tool is the best as far performance is concerned.
  Frequency value Percentage Valid Percentage Cumulative Percentage
Valid Internet Website 65 21.7 21.7 21.7
Mobile banking 88 29.3 29.3 51.0
Sms banking 106 35.3 35.3 86.3
Other 41 13.7 13.7 100.0
Total 300 100.0 100.0  

65 says best IT tool is internet website, 88 says mobile banking, 106 says Sms banking and 41 says other reasons.

In your opinion, what tool needs to be improved so that customer could be satisfied?
  Frequency value Percentage Valid Percentage Cumulative Percentage
Valid Sms banking 44 14.7 14.7 14.7
Email and internet services 123 41.0 41.0 55.7
Mobile application 84 28.0 28.0 83.7
All of above 49 16.3 16.3 100.0
Total 300 100.0 100.0  

Here 44 says that Sms banking needs to be improved, 123 says email and internet services, 84 says mobile application and 49 says all of above.

Customer engagement can be improved by
  Frequency value Percentage Valid Percentage Cumulative Percentage
Valid Improving services 52 17.3 17.3 17.3
Giving incentives 89 29.7 29.7 47.0
Giving monetary incentives 106 35.3 35.3 82.3
All of above 53 17.7 17.7 100.0
Total 300 100.0 100.0  

52 says that CE can be improved by improving services, 89 says that by giving incentives, 106 says by monetary incentives and 53 says all of above.

4.3 Central Tendencies of Measurements

Now further S.D and mean values have been given to all variables

Awareness

Descriptive Statistics
  N Mean Std. Deviation
There is not much awareness to the customers 300 3.1156 1.17829
Awareness needs to be enhanced among people 300 3.0444 1.20926
Customers needs to have the awareness of the Internet tools 300 3.0711 1.22995
There is not much awareness to the customers 300 3.1156 1.17829
Awareness needs to be enhanced among people 300 3.0444 1.20926
Customers needs to have the awareness of the Internet tools 300 3.0711 1.22995
Valid N (listwise) 300    

Here in the descriptive analysis, we can see that the independent variable that has been used in the study is Awareness, we can see that all 300 respondents have given their answers in here. The minimum value recorded is 1 and the maximum value that has been recorded is the 5. Further, the mean and standard deviation can see that they are in between these values as 1.17829, 1.20926, 1.22995, 1.17829, 1.20926 and 1.22995.

Ease of Use

Descriptive Statistics
  N Mean Std. Deviation
Internet banking is not easy to use 300 3.0133 1.18954
Ease of access is not common in the country 300 2.9022 1.16468
Looking at IT tools they are difficult to use 300 2.9111 1.22150
Internet banking is not easy to use 300 3.0133 1.18954
Ease of access is not common in the country 300 2.9022 1.16468
Looking at IT tools they are difficult to use 300 2.9111 1.22150
Valid N (listwise) 300    

Here in the descriptive analysis, we can see that the independent variable that has been used in the study is Ease of Use, we can see that all 300 respondents have given their answers in here. The minimum value recorded is 1 and the maximum value that has been recorded is the 5. Further, the mean and standard deviation can be seen that they are in between these values as 1.18954, 1.16468, 1.22150, 1.18954, 1.16468 and 1.22150.

Security

Descriptive Statistics
  N Mean Std. Deviation
There is a threat of security as private information is there 300 2.8889 1.18061
Security issues is the big threat to us 300 3.0356 1.24949
Security over the internet is not a safe thing 300 2.9333 1.23201
There is a threat of security as private information is there 300 2.8889 1.18061
Security issues is the big threat to us 300 3.0356 1.24949
Security over the internet is not a safe thing 300 2.9333 1.23201
Valid N (listwise) 300    

Here in the descriptive analysis, we can see that the independent variable that has been used in the study is Security, we can see that all 300 respondents have given their answers in here. The minimum value recorded is 1 and the maximum value that has been recorded is the 5. Further, the mean and standard deviation can be seen that they are in between these values as 1.18061, 1.24949, 1.23201, 1.18061, 1.24949 and 1.23201.

4.4 Reliability test

Now we will check the reliability of the study so that the questions and the variables that are taken could be validated. It is said that the values must be above that 0.70 as it is accepted after

Variable name Cronbach’s Alpha Value Number of Items included
Awareness 0.790 6
Ease of Use 0.746 6
Security 0.759 6

4.5 Factor analysis

We can see that in the study further the Factor analysis is done so that the variables in the study could be summarized in the manner so that further analysis could be done on the study. The KMO and Bartlett’s have been found out in the following tables

Bartlett’s test and KMO

Variables Items K-M-O Bartlett’s value Significance
Awareness 6 .696 123.21 .000
Ease of Use 6 .854 251.321 .000
Security 6 .754 854.356 .000

We can see that there are three variables that are summarized in here and all three has 6 items in it. Further, the values of KMO are greater than 0.6, which means the tests can be applied further. That is the reasoned analysis has been done. Further, the Bartlett’s value is also positive, and the significance is observed in this case.

Eigen values and variance

    Variables     Parts Eigen values explained
Total.. Percentage Cumulative Percentage
Awareness 1 6.32 54.32 54.32
Ease of Use 1 8.25 45.95 45.95
Security 1 4.24 78.30 78.30

In the above table, it can be seen that Eigen values have been mentioned. Further, we can see that all three variables in the study have only one component and they are not break up into further variables. Further, the total percentages have been shown which is positive as well. We can see that the percentage the variable hold has also been given here as well.

 

 

4.6 Pearson Correlation

Now correlation has been applied to see what is the effect of independent variables on the low internet banking

Awareness

Correlations
  Awareness Low_Internet
Awareness Pearson Correlation 1 .547
Sig. (2-tailed)   .000
N 300 300
Low_Internet Pearson Correlation .547 1
Sig. (2-tailed) .000  
N 300 300

For Awareness, the data is significant as it is 0.00 and the relation is positive in between both variables as well, which is .547. Here the strength between the variables is strong.

Ease of Use

Correlations
  Low_Internet Ease_of_access
Low_Internet Pearson Correlation 1 .445
Sig. (2-tailed)   .000
N 300 300
Ease_of_access Pearson Correlation .445 1
Sig. (2-tailed) .000  
N 300 300

For Ease of Use, the data is significant as it is 0.00 and the relation is positive in between both variables as well, which is .445.Here the strength between the variables is Modetrate.

Security

Correlations
  Low_Internet Security
Low_Internet Pearson Correlation 1 .388
Sig. (2-tailed)   .000
N 300 300
Security Pearson Correlation .388 1
Sig. (2-tailed) .000  
N 300 300

For Security, the data is significant as it is 0.00 and the relation is positive in between both variables as well, which is .388.Here the strength between the variables is Modetrate.

4.7 Multiple Linear Regressions

Now in the study we have applied the regression so that the total effect of independent variables on the dependent variables could be seen

Model Summary
Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate
1 .268a .372 .616 .55252
a. Predictors: (Constant), Security, Awareness, Ease_of_access

Here in the model summary we can see that there is 61% effect of independent variable on the dependent variable in the study.

ANOVAa
Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
1 Regression 6.896 3 .326 354.765 .001b
Residual 89.448 221 .251    
Total 96.344 224      
a. Dependent Variable: Low_Internet
b. Predictors: (Constant), Security, Awareness, Ease_of_access

Looking at ANOVAstable, we can see that F is positive and states the model is good fit. Further, the data is significant as the value is 0.01

Coefficients

Coefficientsa
Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig.
B Std. Error Beta
1 (Constant) 2.506 .246   10.180 .000
Awareness .048 .049 .067 2.995 .000
Ease_of_access .087 .051 .115 1.708 .000
Security .034 .049 .046 5.684 .000
a. Dependent Variable: Low_Internet

Here the coefficients can be seen that the standard error of every variable is less than 1. Further, the significance value of all can be seen that it is less than 0.05, which says the values are significant. Here by looking at the values of the beta, we come to know that there is a positive relationship between all the variables. The reason is that all the values are positive in here. Further, the standard error is also minimum, and the significance value is less than 0.05 as well.

4.7 Test of significance

Hypothesis 1

H1 is accepted as p is greater than 0.05

The P value is less than 0.05 that is why H1 is accepted.

Hypothesis 2

H1 is accepted as p is greater than 0.05

The P value is less than 0.05 that is why H1 is accepted.

Hypothesis 3

H1 is accepted as p is greater than 0.05

The P value is less than 0.05 that is why H1 is accepted.

If we look at the above hypothesis, we come to know that the H1 are accepted in here, and that is the reason we can say that there is the strong effect of the independent variables on the dependent variable.

Chapter 5 Conclusion

5.1 Limitations of the study

Only computer literate banking clients of Scope International were eligible to participate in our survey since the purpose of this study is to understand the factors, which contribute to limited Internet banking usage. Further, we can say that the sample size is limited up to 300 only. The study is conducted in Malaysia only that is the reason we cannot say that the study can be generalized worldwide. However, this is only quantitative study, and some more variables could be explored so that it could have a better impact.

5.2 Recommendations for future study

Couples of recommendations are given to improve the internet banking usage in Malaysia. It can be seen that the study could be useful for the bank owners to grow the business through internet banking as they have realized that it is very important to create awareness among the people regarding the benefits of internet banking. People should be more concerned about the internet banking as it is increasing throughout the globe. Further, there is needed to be more focused to communicate the people about the features and advantages of internet banking.

5.3 Conclusion of study

Now focusing on the conclusion of the study, it is concluded that the main thing, which needs to be focused is that there is a positive effect of the independent variables on the dependent variables in the study. Looking at the regression, we can see that there is 61.6% effect in here. Moreover, it is found that the interment banking has great potential to grow in Malaysia, but there is a need to manage and resolve the issues such as developing trust among the consumers by communicating them about the features and benefits of the Internet banking. Most importantly, it is needed to take the people in trust by making sure about the security and privacy of internet banking.Further, it can also be seen that the variables that have been discussed in the paper need to be focused if the internet banking needs to be increased in the country.

References

Asad, M. M. (2016). Prioritizing Factors Affecting Customer Satisfaction in the Internet Banking System Based on Cause and Effect Relationships. Procedia Economics and Finance , 210-219.

Al-Smadi, D. M. (2012). Factors Affecting Adoption of Electronic Banking: An Analysis of the Perspectives of Banks’ Customers. International Journal of Business and Social Science , 294-309.

Chaoualia, W., & Yahia, I. B. (2016). The interplay of counter-conformity motivation, social influence, and trust in customers’ intention to adopt Internet banking services: The case of an emerging country. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 28, 209–218.

Daneshgadeh, S. (2014). Empirical Investigation of Internet Banking Usage: The Case of Turkey. Procedia Technology, 16, 322-331.

Devi, T. (2010). World Journal of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development . World Journal of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development , 12-24.

Hanafizadeh, P. (2014). A systematic review of Internet banking adoption. Telematics and Informatics, 31 (3), 492–510.

Khater, A. H. (2013). Factors Influencing Customers’ Acceptance of Internet Banking Services in Sudan . International Journal of Science and Research , 1-22.

Laukkanen, T. (2016). Consumer adoption versus rejection decisions in seemingly similar service innovations: The case of the Internet and mobile banking. Journal of Business Research, 69 (7), 2432–2439.

Muzividzi, D. K. (2013). AN ANALYSIS OF FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE INTERNET BANKING ADOPTION AMONG INTELLECTUALS. INTERDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH IN BUSINESS , 15-30.

Montazemi, A. R. (2013). Factors Affecting Internet Banking Pre-Usage Expectation Formation. Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences , 1-18.

Martinsa, C., Oliveiraa, T., & Popoviča, A. (2014). Understanding the Internet banking adoption: A unified theory of acceptance and use of technology and perceived risk application. International Journal of Information Management, 34 (1), 1-13.

Padachi, K. (2010). Analyzing the factors that influence the adoption of internet banking in Mauritius. Computer Science and IT Education , 112-133.

Sakshi Agrawal. (2012). Factors Affecting Usage of Internet Banking Services. Social science research network , 1-15.

Takieddine, S. (2015). Internet banking diffusion: A country-level analysis. Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, 14 (5), 361–371.

Wadie Nasri. (2011). Factors Influencing the Adoption of Internet Banking in Tunisia. International Journal of Business and Management , 143-160.

Yee, B. Y., & Faziharudean, T. (2010). Factors Affecting Customer Loyalty of Using Internet Banking in Malaysia. Journal of Electronic Banking Systems , 1-21.

Yaghoubi, N.-M. (2010). Factors Affecting the Adoption of Online Banking An Integration of Technology Acceptance Model and Theory of. International Journal of Business and Management , 159-165.

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Comparison

There are 4 companies under analysis. Two of which are a component of Dow Jones Industrial Average and the rest to are a part of NASDAQ exchange. The two companies from Dow Jones are Exxon Mobile and General Electric, on the other hand, the companies from Nasdaq are Microsoft and Apple.

Exxon Mobile is a company that focuses on the industry of Integrated Oil and Gas.This company explores and produces two of the above-discussed products in the United States, Canada, Africa, Europe, Australia, Asia and South America. This company is also responsible for the manufacturing of other petrochemical products. On December 31, 2015, the company had 35,909 operated wells, and this number is jumping at an exponential rate. The company was incorporated in 1870 and has its headquarters in Irving, Texas. This company is a major player in the above industry and has managed to remain at the top for more than a decade.

The Future Direction of Exxon mobile is to make innovative breakthroughs in technology to make itself environment-friendly. It is also upgrading its environment performance and preserve the environment by liquefying Natural Gas and reducing spills to preserve waters of this planet. It is also working on organizational transparency and affective corporate governance principles, along with aligning itself with the latest trends, by diversifying into opening service stations and providing efficient credit card system along with quality fuel and motor oil manufacturing. The introduction of petrochemical products into the plastics and bodies of vehicles, for strength, durability, and flexibility.

General Electric, on the other hand, is a functional and operating benchmark for a company that provides financial services and develops infrastructure on a scale that is formidable and impacts the overall growth of this factor. It can also be observed that the potential basis for the composition of machines that operate by steam or gas powered engines. The tend to manufacture everything starting from a nuclear reactor to water treatment plants that could use their engines. It also specializes in building oceanic platforms, Sea drilling, and Turbines manufacturing equipment. The digital and potentially analytic overview of their business revolve around the development of machinery of diversified nature.

General Electric is moving towards expansion rather than innovation, which is more important in their line of work. General Electric tends to partner with several of the global developers like UPS and powerful economies like China and Switzerland. to bolster its growth and ensure its survival.It is, however, moving towards innovation on a smaller scale and tends to lead its economic growth, the preliminary requirement in this growth is digital transformation, and potential aviation. It has its innovation developed at a smaller level. This level makes a start from magnetic bearing to generators used in a hydropower plant.

Microsoft is next on the list; this represents the potential and competitor that has dominated the industry since the advent of computers. The major business of this company remotely moves around software and its application in various fields of work. The direction of the company under analysis removes the boundaries of imagination and provides a software solution to all the potential problems faced by businesses and individuals alike. The company has numerous segments including entertainment, consoles, communications, office operations, cloud services and software support for all of the above products. This company was incorporated in the year 1975 and has its headquarters in Redmond, Washington.

The future trend does seem promising for this company. There are currently four-star segments in the minds of officials of Microsoft. This depicts that the trend seems that the promising new Windows ten would get to a whole new next level. It has already started its integration cross-platform. Further office 365 is a whole new add-on to the portfolio that is accessible on every platform, starting from Cell phone to the desktop PC. Microsoft is also highlighting development portfolio of visual studio 2015, this integrates and shares several features of a new up to the marking system and eases the job of the developer to make the website top-notch. The CRM software for Microsoft Dynamics is another featuring product that is coming up next in 2017.

The last but not the least in this list is Apple. This company has a fine history, since 1977, Cupertino, California. This makes the company fine steel as it has gone through many transformations, each more successful than the previous one. Apple specializes and leads the market in Mobile Communication, Personal Computers, Media Devices and Portable devices worldwide. Moreover, the customers of the company belong to every cycle and every size; they can vary from a young Japanese to an old Brazilian; they can also vary from an individual, or a small business to a whole Government or a giant conglomerate of organizations.

Apple is top of the line, so its aim is also top notch. It tends to lead the market, the trends, and the gaps in this potential industry is considered top-notch. It is moving towards launching a new iPhone and iPad. Both of these products have always been the key signature products of the organization. The direction also indicates that Apple might be launching a new series of watches named Apple Watch 2. This is the potential products that are to be launched in this scenario. This overall depiction also denotes that the products of Apple are of their unique nature and In their new iPhone they tend to increase the battery, camera, and audio along with including water resistant to the given portfolio.

The Overall depiction of all four companies can be summarized in the form of the following table

Components Dow Jones Nasdaq
Company Exxon Mobile General Electric Microsoft Apple
Market Industry Major Integrated Oil & Gas Diversified Machinery Business Software & Services Electronic Equipment
Stock Symbol XOM GE MSFT AAPL
Prices
Q1-2015 87.37 27.08 48.64 125.15
Q2-2015 79.21 26.1 46.7 121.3
Q3-2015 82.74 28.92 52.64 119.5
Q4-2015 77.85 29.1 55.09 97.34
Q1-2016 88.4 30.75 49.87 93.74
Q2-2016 88.95 31.14 56.68 104.21
Q3-2016 86.91 28.92 61 117.65
Outstanding Shares Million 8961 4146 7775 5338
Enterprise Value Billion 360.39 259.16 474.83 633.95
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Bonus lab 2: Errors of Euler and Implicit Euler

  1. Use Forward Euler to approximate the solution of the IVP

X0(t) = x2(t) 4tx(t) + 4t2 4x(t) + 8t − 3 , x(0) = 1 ,

where x ∈ C1([0,10]; R). How does the approximation change when the step size is changed? Interpret your results.

To approximate the above expression;

X0(t) = x2(t) 4tx(t) + 4t2 4x(t) + 8t − 3

By taking time that is t = 0 and

When x(0) = 1

Using forward Euler method

Y1 = y0 + ∆t f(t0, y0)

X1 = -1 + 0.1[(-1)2 – 4(0)(-1)+ 4(0)2 – 4(-1) + 8(0) – 3]

X1 = 1 + 0.1[1-0+0+4+0-3]

X1 = -1+0.2

X1 = -0.8

Now by taking t=1 and  then x2 is

X2= – 0.8 + 0.1[(1)2 – 4(1)(-0.8)+ 4(1)2 – 4(-0.8) + 8(1) – 3]

X2= – 0.8 + 0.1[-0.64+3.2+4+3.2+8-3]

X2= – 0.8 + 0.1[5.96]

X2= – 0.8 + 0.596

X2= -0.204

Now by taking t = 0 and

X1 = -1 + 0.2[(-1)2 – 4(0)(-1)+ 4(0)2 – 4(-1) + 8(0) – 3]

X1 = -1 + 0.2[1-0+0+4+0-3]

X1 = -1 + 0.2[2]

X1 = -0.6

Now by taking t = 1 and

X2= – 0.6 + 0.2[(-0.6)2 – 4(1)(-0.6)+ 4(1)2 – 4(-0.6) + 8(1) – 3]

X2= – 0.6 + 0.2(1+2.4+4+2.4+8-3]

X2= – 0.6 + 2.88

X2= 2.23

Interpretation:

Time t Step size  X1 X2
0 0.1 -0.8 -0.204
1 0.2 -0.6 2.23
  • Use Forward and Backward Euler to approximate the solution of the initial-value problem where x ∈ C1([t0,10]; R) and t0 (0,10).

X0(t) = 2, x(t0) = 1

Now by using forward Euler method that is

Y1 = y0 + ∆t f(t0, y0)

Taking t=0 and ∆t = 0.1

X1 = 1+0.1[2 ]

X1 = 1+0.1[2]

X1 = 1.2

Taking t=1 and ∆t = 0.1

X2 = 1.2+0.1[2 ]

X2 = 1.2+ 0.1[2.19]

X2 = 1.2+0.219

X2 = 1.419

Now by taking

Taking t=0 and ∆t = 0.2

X1 = 1+0.2[2 ]

X1 = 1+0.4

X1 = 1.4

Taking t=1 and ∆t = 0.2

X2 = 1.4+0.2[2 ]

X2 = 1.4+0.2[2.366]

X2 = 1.4+0.473

X2 =1.873

Time t Step size  X1 X2
0 0.1 1.2 1.419
1 0.2 1.4 1.873

Error can be calculated by the

X1 = 1.2+0.1[2] = 1.419

X2 = 1.419+0.1[2 ] = 1.657

X1 = 1.4+0.2[2 ]= 1.873

X2 = 1.873+0.2[2 ]= 2.42

Time t Step size Approximate X1 Exact X1 Approximate X2 Exact X2 Error X1 Error X2
0 0.1 1.2 1.419 1.419 1.657 0.219 0.238
1 0.2 1.4 1.873 1.873 2.42 0.473 0.574

Backward Euler method:

At t=0 and

Xn+1 =

X1 =

X1 =1.18

At t=1 and

X2 =

X2 =1.36

At t=0 and

Xn+1 =

X1 =

X1 =1.51

At t=1 and

X2 =

X2 =1.83

Error can be calculated by the

X1 = = 1.36

X2 = = 1.68

X1 =  =1.83

X2 =  = 2.14

Time t Step size Approximate X1 Exact X1 Approximate X2 Exact X2 Error X1 Error X2
0 0.1 1.18 1.36 1.36 1.68 0.18 0.32
1 0.2 1.51 1.83 1.83 2.14 0.32 0.31

For the given expression, the backward Euler method is good because the error in the approximated and exact values is less than the Forward Euler method.

  • Investigate numerically what happens as you take x(t0) approaches to0 in part 2 above. Approximate the solution for smaller and smaller values of x(t0).

Let x(t­0) = 0.3 then

X1 =

X1 =0.54

Let x(t­0) = 0.2 then

X1 =

X1 =0.33

Let x(t­0) = 0.1 then

At t=0 and

X1 =

X1 =0.173

The above behavior shows that the small value of x(t­0) when approaches to zero, the values of x(t­0) is decreasing.

  • What happens to the error for Forward Euler as x(t0) becomes small? Can you explain this result theoretically? What does the Picard theorem say?

In the Forward Euler method when error becomes small it means, the values are accurate and approximately approaches to exact values.  According to the Picard iteration, less error is obtained by setting small set size.

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Perceptions of Ergonomics Importance

Perceptions of Ergonomics Importance at Workplace and Safety Culture amongst Safety & Health (SH) Practitioners in Malaysia

Evaluation

In this particular article, authors are focusing on the rules and principles of ergonomics and its importance in the workplace. The authors are trying to convey a real message to the business world that it is very necessary to understand the significance of ergonomics.  It is comprehensive paper, and everything regarding the issue has conveyed. I accept the concept of safety culture element and these are motivation, safety management practice, commitment, and leadership.

Reflection

The method of collecting data and figures is quite well managed. In my perspective, it is very imperative to understand the role of ergonomics awareness in today workplace. Most of the companies are following the principles of health commission and policies. This article has provided the great ideas and solutions in the light of Ergonomics awareness as well. It is a fact that every company needs to adopt such cultures to resolve the problems at the workplace. On the other hand, the paper is going to deliver all-important information that can use as a reference as well.

Review

This paper has comprehensive information about the thoughts of the people and practitioners in Malaysia. In my perspective, it includes all the relevant material for the course and project information provided.  It has explained the safety health officers are examining the specific solutions to the problems in work environment.

Learning 

It would be helpful in learning the safety measures in an accident and workplaces. In the same way, it would be very helpful for me to learn the upcoming topics in the relevant course as well (Rozlina, Awaluddin, Hamid, & Norhayati, 2012).

Patient transfer skills and safety culture

Evaluation

This paper is about healthcare issues of patients around the world. The patients would be the people who are employees of the different companies. The authors have explained different relevant concern to accomplish the goals of safety cultures in work environment. The authors have made an analysis based on content analysis approach.

Reflection

 This particular paper, one of the best things is the results, and these results are clearly pointing out the health impact and practice for better health impact. In my perspective, I would like to say that it is the comprehensive article based on safety in the workplace for better employee’s efficiency. It is very imperative to understand that safety at the workplace is quite significant. In this paper, it is analyzed that method to experiment is quite accurate. On the other hand, it is a fact too that most of the employees are getting sick due to the less importance of safety culture in business and practical environment.

Review

In my opinion, it is quite relevant to our course objective and components. It is very important to understand the management to manage the employees. The health of employees is very necessary to point, and it should be for the management of any company. It is obvious that most of the health issues occurred due to the less managed environment for employees, labor, and same goes for our project.

Learning

I think this paper would be very effective in the studies of human safety in the workplace. The workplace should be quite comfortable for the employees and safety is very important too. Therefore, it is strongly linked to the course and component of our subject (Hellesø, Nordtug, & Brataas, 2016). 

Ergonomic Evaluation

Evaluation

This particular paper is about to provide understanding the ergonomics evaluation in the recent period. It is also observed that authors tried to explain that efficient performances could not deliver the safe work environment. The authors explained the work stress and injuries related to the work environment. Furthermore, the article simplified the ideas and concepts about a safe workplace.

Reflection

 The goal and purpose of the paper are to organize the way to live better and perform better in the workplace. The workplace environment should be calm and satisfactory for the people to work. In this paper, it is observed that every organization, like airlines and employees from universities has been discussed. The main purpose is to clear the concept and methods for better work at workplaces.

Review

The effective work and efficient employees require the risk-free environment. On the other hand, it is obvious that ergonomic evaluation is quite necessary for better workplaces. The methods of the research in this paper were interesting, and employees from three firms were selected. In the results, one can observe the different perspectives from the health care department and employees as well.

Learning

It is a fact that ergonomic evaluation has been the important aspect in employee’s management and I think this studies and paper will help us in to achieve the specific objects in the course and upcoming topics. On the other hand, it will be beneficial in the understanding of ergonomic evaluation in work environment for better future. Furthermore, the efficiency of employees can occur by better management (Grayson, Dale, Bohr, Wolf, & Evanoff, 2005).

Ergonomic Involvement for Occupational Safety and Health Improvements in the Oil and Gas Industry

Evaluation

This particular paper is about the ergonomic involvement for occupational safety and health improvements in the oil and gas industry. It is imperative to understand that this specific industry also needs to adopt health safety measures for better efficiency in the work of employees. The authors of this paper tried to express the real terms in favor of safe workplace in the oil and gas industry.

Reflection

On the other hand, they described the improvement factors too in this regard as well.  In this paper, it is also expressed that employees used to face the heat exposure and they should be communicated to the management how to adopt safety measures. One thing is very important that this industry has various risk factors for the employees and in my perspective; it is a complete and comprehensive paper on the issues of the employees. One can understand the real importance and significance of the ergonomic involvement in workplaces.

Review

It is a fact that workplaces are quite Risky in such industries such as lifting heavy machines and weight could damage the body parts as well.  Also, I would say that this paper has provided the solutions to resolve the matters and problems associated with risk in oil and gas industry.

Learning

These points are strongly linked to our course and project. Because our project is about the injuries in the workplace to employees and one can realize the similarity in the context of both contents. In my perspective, this paper would provide us the clear understanding about the ergonomic involvement as well (Kim, 2016). 

Material Handling Equipment Selection: New Classifications of Equipment and Attributes

Evaluation

This paper is about material equipment handling, and attribution of equipment has explained in this regard. It is very imperative to understand that this particular paper has analyzed the 27 articles on the internet about material handling. The authors of this paper have tried to explain the attributes of material handling and equipment handling as well.

Reflection

On the other hand, it is a fact that types of equipment should be quite friendly to labor and employees as well. The tools, which are not friendly to the labor, could provide harm to the employees on the field.  In my perspective, the companies and industries should realize the importance of the health of employees. It is a fact that significance of the equipment health is necessary too. Also, the management and companies should understand that employees are the backbone and labor should facilitate in every situation as well.

Review

In this particular paper, the great point is the one by one analysis of the equipment and machinery at the workplace. Furthermore, the attributes analysis is done too in the paper and classification of the material handling equipment. Older and newer classification of material handling equipment is comprehensively performed in the paper.  In my perspective, the paper is quite helpful for all of us in this particular course. 

Learning

One can get a lot of guidance from the paper about material handling equipment. In the same way, the material is quite beneficial in the understanding of our project and accident in the workplace. More importantly, the ergonomics awareness would help us to maintain high standards in future workplaces.

Reference

Grayson, D., Dale, A. M., Bohr, P., Wolf, L., & Evanoff, B. (2005). Ergonomic Evaluation. Aaohn Journal , 53(10), 450-457.

Hellesø, N. S., Nordtug, B., & Brataas, H. V. (2016). Patient transfer skills and safety culture. Journal of Nursing Education and Practice , 6, 93-100.

Kim, I.-J. (2016). Ergonomic Involvement for Occupational Safety and Health Improvements in the Oil and Gas Industry. Journal of Ergonomics , 6(3), 1-3.

Riopel, D., & Bouh, M. A. (2015). material Handling Equipment Selection: New Classifications of Equipment and Attributes. Cirrelt .

Rozlina, M. S., Awaluddin, M. S., Hamid, S. H., & Norhayati, Z. (2012). Perceptions of Ergonomics Importance at Workplace and Safety Culture amongst Safety & Health (SH) Practitioners in Malaysia. Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering , 1.

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Fighting women abuse

Contents

Introduction to Women abuse. 3

Examples of maltreating (Women abuse) 7

Discussion. 9

Conclusion. 9

References. 11

Fighting women abuse

Introduction to Women Abuse

It can be seen in the past and the present world that there is Women abuse all over the world. Looking in the past, we have seen there are many cultures that are practicing, or in the past, they were practicing the part that the women belong to the lower level and she should not be respected or given respect at all. Here now if we look at the present scenario we come to know that in many developing countries or different regions of the world, it can be seen that abusing women’s through various ways are seen commonly still in different areas. There is much kind of abuses if we talk in detail. 

We can see that women submit as much private accomplice brutality as men. It can be seen that the men are the real cause of the brutality in this case. We can see that the women’s are beaten by the men, and they are not even ashamed off. This has however turned into a worldview, an irrefutable beginning stage. The outcome is unquestionable: women are left with significantly more genuine injuries much more frequently.

This is seen from a long period that the women do not have the rights to speak, it can be seen that in many religions all over the world that the women do not feel good going into the courts. They practice this wrong thing, as that is the reason men are bad to them. Ladies show improvement over ever some time recently, the compensation hole is gradually shutting, more callings are interested in women, and they are achieving the top in business and governmental issues. Has everything been without any result? There are numerous regions in which extraordinary advance has been made (Baba & Kataoka, 2014).

Looking in the past, we come to know that the women’s in the past are treated as a puppet and in the older civilizations they were not a good sign for the family as well. This trend carries on, and men infect feels superior as compared to the women. Abuse against women and young women is an across the board and precise infringement of crucial human rights infringement and a persisting type of sex-based segregation. Each legislature particularly through political, authoritative, and equity structures, components and procedures are responsible for ending society’s resilience of and states’ absence of responsiveness to this unavoidable scourge on society. It happens in each nation of the world, rich and poor, stable and in a struggle, and influences most women and young women, paying little heed to their age or financial status.

It can be seen that the men have the control most of the time and the women are unable to give the opinion. Looking at the Islamic history or the Islamic countries, we come to know that Women hide everything from the world and they are not the important part for them as a whole; the women’s are treated as the minorities, and this goes on from the very beginning. This extraordinary articulation of male control and control over women frequently starts at earliest stages and may go with a woman for the duration of her life to seniority, through different connections as the girl, sister, simply accomplice, spouse, and mother. Around the world, ladies are helpless and at hazard continuing enthusiastic and mental injury through provocation, fear and dangers, terrorizing, embarrassment, debasement, misuse and physical, particularly sexual, damage, mangling and incapacity, all with incessant wellbeing results even passing.

All types of brutality against ladies and young ladies happen around us once a day, in our homes, families, groups, establishments, working environments and the tunes, movies, and pictures of famous media. It is not just the ‘regular man,’ the grassroots, uneducated or poor man, who confers savagery against women. The establishments of Government, culture, religion, common society and trade are not susceptible from sex-based brutality inside their particular structures and associations, among their individuals and voting public (Matthews, 2014).

We are all are responsible for joining to end brutality against women. Te governments, the men and the people in power do not make such kind of laws where the women feel her safe. However, if any mishap happens it needs to be resolved and this is the major thing here. The privilege to carry on with an existence free from brutality is a right that all women must request a right that all men must accord them. Abuse against women denies women their most essential rights and opportunities, including flexibility of assessment, uniformity and equity under the steady gaze of the law, to wed as indicated by their choice, to portability, support, to vote, to have entry data and instruction, to work, to be utilized.

Questions

There are many questions that raises in mind, some of them, which we will address in the paper, are

  • What is the cause behind the women abuse
  • What are the reasons the women do not speak for themselves
  • What are the steps that can be taken to reduce the violence
  • How men and women can combine to reduce the women abuse all over the world

In the semiotic analysis, we can see that the things which we can see need to be explained in such a way that the original meaning would depict in it. However, the reality shows something else in here. The main this is to analyze what is being shown in the picture is the reality, which the reader needs to know.

Case study

Here it is seen that the sexual abuse is there, physical abuse is common, Emotional abuse, torture, fighting, beating, Abuse at work, and Domestic partner violence and others are commonly seen in the society. We can see there are many cases of abuse that are seen in the world. However, the thing which is seen the women do not speak for their right. It can be seen that they do not express any feelings or they do not like to go to court against the person. The reason is that she will be exposed in front of the world.

Here we can see that the picture in which all is visible. The women are hurt in here. However, she does not want to show it to the world. On the other hand, she also does not want to go in courts for her rights as well.

            If we talk about the picture of the women that is in the veil, we can see there are many aspects that can be discussed in here. The eye of the women that is shown in the picture is not normal. It is beaten up by someone from her family or outside. The point here to discuss is that what the reasons that the women was quite and did not call for help. Another thing, which needs to be considered, is that women are trying to cover the beaten part; however, she is unable to do so even in the veil.

This is the major thing, which needs to be known. There could be many reasons and the different circumstances besides that.  However, it needs to be known that what were the main effect and the reasons this is happening all over the world.  

There are many aspects in which we couple look into the picture, the thing, which a common person would understand, is that a woman in the veil and the eye is not normal she is hurt, or there might be a disease. However, the right way to look into the deep analysis is that first thing which I come to know 9is that the woman is wearing the veil. This is not the normal thing, as not every woman wear a veil in the society. Looking in detail I come to know that only Muslim women do wear the veil as it can be said that in their religion it is said to be in the part of their cloths.

Here the picture depicts that the women are a Muslim that is what it can be seen in the analysis. However, now coming to the eye of the women, we can see that it is hurt in real. May be it is damaged, or someone has beaten her. Now if I analyze, then I would like to say that if she would not be a Muslim woman then the veil would not be there. Hence, we can conclude that the Muslim women do not like to show themselves in real.

The story behind the picture can be depicted that weather the eye is damaged accidently or someone has beaten her, the real thing we come to know that the Muslim women are in the picture and she is hiding the scars. Now going deep into the picture, we come to know that someone has beaten her and it can be seen that she is trying to hide the maltreating that had occurred. Looking at the society, we can say that Muslim man beat their women, and this is not an act of kindness, this is the one scenario, we can portray.

  However, this could be the real thing as the beating or the women abuse can be seen all over the world and may be in this picture we can see that the veil is in this picture and the reason is that she want to hide it from the rest of the world and face the realities. She is all alone and cannot face the world; there might be some of the main reasons, which are unknown at this point.

            Another aspect, which can be fetched out from the picture, is that the women’s all around the world are not treated in a good way; however, they try not to show the grief to the common person. The thing, which needs to be looked here is that what so ever, I mean whatever the women does to hide the reality of life or the maltreat done by anyone that cannot be hide in any case. As looking into the picture, we can see that the main thing here the women is trying to hide the scar face, however, she is unable to do that in any case.  

Examples of maltreating (Women abuse)

Looking at the law, we come to know that there is many kinds of laws that are in here but women do not use them as to protect themselves. The enactment obviously characterizes sexual offenses against kids; grows the meaning of interbreeding to cover more classifications of connections; enhances court methods to ensure survivors’ security and respect; expands the meaning of assault, and makes conjugal assault offense.

It has been looked that the females are mostly beaten up, and even the sexual activities are carried out in here. Female sex specialists say their grievances to police of sexual viciousness are frequently not recorded in light of the fact that numerous police consider that sex laborers “can’t be assaulted” or decline to make a move without sexual supports consequently. Even more, largely, a long history of receptive and ruthless policing strategies and following human rights infringement has driven numerous parts of the group to dread and question police. Ladies are especially hesitant to report situations where there is stand out the culprit (as opposed to a gathering of men) as they are more averse to be trusted that the sex was non-consensual.

The bad behavior of men’s or the society is the common thing that is seen in the society. Police are much of the time culprits of sexual orientation based savagery, including abusive behavior at home and pack assault. This can be seen that the women’s do not like to be treated in the wrong way and the reason is that they are also humans and want their right in this case. Numerous women say they fear to report wrongdoings to police since they fear being requested that do sexual supports before their grumblings will be followed up on or being assaulted

This has been recorded that most of the time women’s are beaten up in their homes, and that is the reason police cannot do anything. However, it can be seen that they do not go to courts or file a case as they are the part of the family and she keeps quite. Alternatively, maybe, women are sent home and told their issues are “family matters” or ought to be managed by the town court. Neglected to manage the cost of women protection or affect ability when recording their announcements; neglected to consider the continuous well-being worry of casualties, and set weight on women to settle on the choice on whether and what charges ought to be laid. Absolution International found that most police: neglected to elude women to bolster administrations; neglected to illuminate women about their rights and the advance of examinations.

There are many courts that facilitate the women’s right in this case as they stand up for them even with very little charges. However, the women need to stand up for themselves. This may happen because the casualty is scared or debilitated into dropping the grievance and there is overpowering weight to determine the matter outside of the criminal equity framework through the installment of pay. While access to open specialists is free, as a rule, there is insignificant access to such administrations because of asset constraints 

Looking at the women abuse, we can see that Violence in the American Family,” expresses that one out of 26 American Wives-more than 1.8 million a year get beaten by their spouses every year, except that number, runs considerably higher in instances of husband-beating. Christine Hoff Somers, in her book entitled “Who Stole Feminism?” 1994, refers to measurements guaranteeing that of all women who have been included in instances of abusive behavior at home, between 33% and one-half are rehash guilty parties.

Discussion

Looking in here, we come to know that the women in the society are not what she should be. Men are responsible for the miss treating her in this way. The women respect needs to be taken care. The activist women’s activists had even prevailed about having laws passed that permit police to appropriate property (weapons) from spouses with a defensive request against them, notwithstanding when the husband had no hearing before the defensive request was issued. Plainly, the taking of property from a man without him having any hearing is unlawful yet appears not to stress feeble willed state officials who are threatened by activist women’s activists. Women’s are said to be the property of the men, and she is unable to do anything. This is not the best thing, and it could be looked at the details and given the rights as well. 

Presently, States Attorney’s document criminal charges construct exclusively in light of the expression of a woman, even with no confirmation of physical mischief. The lawful framework is helping women in rationally manhandling their kids through dissent of associations with their fathers. Kids shout out in the depression brought on by pernicious and misinformed people. In the meantime, the spouse is hit with the pitiless defensive request that denies him of access to his kids or property conceded by a judge without a hearing. The risk has been increased. Presently, spouses wishing to battle for care confronts false, remorseless and criminal cases, enormously expanding the husband’s legitimate costs and lessening the assets accessible to battle for care.

Conclusion

Here we can see that women abuse is basic all over the place, we have seen that a considerable measure of writing has been talked about in such manner. We cannot and ought not to acknowledge brutality as given, something that has happens in all societies and through the ages. Brutality is not satisfactory neither in the lanes nor at home, Keeping in mind the end goal to manage brutality, you require all individuals, everybody. In any case, it can be seen that the photos likewise portrays the viciousness done to the people in here. Not on the off chance, that it is finished by men, nor on the off chance that it is finished by women. Not towards accomplices, and unquestionably not towards the elderly or youngsters everybody is qualified for wellbeing and opportunity, those are basic human rights.

Here we can conclude that the women in this world are taken as a piece or as an object which is not signified, the threats are there and men used to beat them as well. We can see that the women are trying to hide all the realities of life but on the other side, we can see that it is not the reality and the best thing, which we can do, is to stop the violence so that the importance or the requirement of the veil is no more wanted.

It can be seen that the women’s here are not treated in a good way and that is the reason it needs to be checked, and the awareness needs to be given in this regard. However, the best thing to practice is not to abuse the women or be harsh at them. History of adolescence mishandle can have the noteworthy impact on the recuperation and backslides of women with the mental issue. Referral and treatment could decrease the bleakness connected with this psychiatric issue in women who have encountered adolescence manhandle. Our discovering highlights the significance of surveying the nearness and seriousness of physical, enthusiastic and sexual mishandle when directing routine emotional wellness assessment confinement setting.

We can see that the women’s are to be same as men as both are the same species, there should be no difference in both genders. However, there are some men who violate the reasoning and do come harsh on the females, here females need to raise their voices as well. The examination discoveries that have been exhibited in this article uncover a marvel whereby a developing number of mishandled women are denounced, or undermined to be blamed, of “parental distance.” Inattention to that, the idea of “parental estrangement” constitutes a procedure, among numerous others, to dominate male’s viciousness against people and kids in the public arena. Now, it is unrealistic to completely comprehend the mind-boggling instruments that position mishandled ladies as “taking part in the parental distance,” and this is the reason assist inquire about should be directed around there. The way that it saturates proficient practices in frameworks that should guarantee both women’s and kids’ security and prosperity makes the issue significantly even more concerning.

References

Baba, K., & Kataoka, Y. (2014). Identifying child abuse and neglect risk among postpartum women in Japan using the Japanese version of the Kempe Family Stress Checklist. Child Abuse & Neglect , 38, 1813–1821.

Matthews, K. A. (2014). Child abuse is related to inflammation in mid-life women: Role of obesity. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity , 36, 29–34.

Unicef.org. (2010). Ending violence against women and girls Evidence, Data and Knowledge in the Pacific Island Countries. Retrieved October 22, 2016, from http://www.unicef.org: http://www.unicef.org/pacificislands/evaw.pdf

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‘Secure cyberspace’ as grand engineering challenge

Does the challenge exist in secure cyberspace?

http://www.engineeringchallenges.org/File.aspx?id=16273

            Issa Atoum, has revaled core purpose of the security in terms of cyber analytical framework explores as holistic HCS-IF that provides a tool in the ground reality for systematic manner, conceptual understanding. The coherent implementation approach for the consolidation has been used. Using the dimension of unique strategies is also good for security. For cyber crimes, using the techniques along with the consideration of is also in the limelight [1].

Source: http://www.engineeringchallenges.org/challenges/cyberspace.aspx

            Randy Borum discusses strategic importance of the security of cyber crime, which highlights the model of the risk frame decision-making, It would also identify the set objectives as the core elements of the strategic cyber intelligence as domain, set into the cybersecurity to solve the complex problem. For making huge investments to improve the architectural designs, focusing on problem identification that would support information in the systems integrated into cyber security and the relevant experimentation (Borum, 2015).

Grand challenge for secure cyberspace

The similar conceptual framework is also used in the development of the electric mutual sharing of information through the web as securing the cyberspace in dynamic manner of organizational or national security issues addresses in a way that the main problem is identified through the applications mentioned in the study. These include the deterring of the critical information for computing the accurate information communicating while addressing the challenges in the engineering pros of information that would transmit easily for identification of the situations that prevent the threats of confidentiality especially from hackers [1].

Cyber.jpg
http://www.tripwire.com/state-of-security/government/a-comparative-cyber-study-of-national-security-strategies-uk-and-the-u-s/

Compare and contrasting the problem of secure cyberspace

            There are some differences in the core identification of the complex problems in the study of the grand challenge of security in cyberspace.  The integration from the author Issa Atoum has revealed the integration of analytical frameworks of the CSSs in the software engineering for the proposal of criteria in the out performs from the point of view of government. Along with private practicing is overarching in the controls of the cyber security for implementation holistic model. The results indicated challenges that require the accurate control of the systematic strategies in the solutions of the CSSs are highly integrated with the framework for implementation of the study of holistic cyber crime tools in engineering (Atoum, 2014). the Prevention techniques for hackers are leading towards the specific goals, which can protect the systems. Detections can be enhanced through using the software such as firewalls.  The approach of proactive or risk supported, preventions in focusing the efforts for the cyber security integrated with the strategy of information system in the cyber intelligence organizational domains. [1]. The data, used in the computers for the organizations, is controlling the cyber risk of traffics. It flow the information, which depend on the communication using the strategy of computer or cyber-security systems. The consequences in the literature while identifying the core solution of the problem as the viruses in the computer at both small and large scale are put into the commerce as well as plague into the computers [1].

cybercrime-top-20-countries-pie-chart.jpg

Source: http://www.enigmasoftware.com/top-20-countries-the-most-cybercrime/

References

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[1] engineeringchallenges.org. (2016) engineeringchallenges.org. [Online]. http://www.engineeringchallenges.org/challenges/cyberspace.aspx
[2] Issa Atoum, “A holistic cyber security implementation framework,” Information Management & Computer Security, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 251 – 264, 2014.
[3] Randy Borum, “Strategic cyber intelligence,” Information & Computer Security, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 317 – 332, 2015.
[4] DAVID BISSON. (2015, February) A Comparative “Cyber” Study of National Security Strategies – UK and the U.S. [Online]. http://www.tripwire.com/state-of-security/government/a-comparative-cyber-study-of-national-security-strategies-uk-and-the-u-s/
[5] Enigmasoftware.com. (2015, March) Top 20 Countries Found to Have the Most Cybercrime. [Online]. http://www.enigmasoftware.com/top-20-countries-the-most-cybercrime/

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Brand Growth Strategies

Relationship between Brand Growth Strategies and Ansoff’s Growth Strategy Mix

The brand growth strategy is the planning to build a brand and reputation of the brand in the market in order to get revenue ultimately. There is a different type of strategies for new and existing brands. The strategies also vary according to the product class and type. For a new brand, there would be new brand strategy and flanker/fighting brand strategy. On the other hand, the existing brand would get facilitation through brand extension strategy and line extension strategy.  Alternatively, the Ansoff’s growth strategy is another marketing and business tool for examining the market position of the brand and product. It is also known strategies for diversification. The brand growth strategies closely associated with the Ansoff’s Growth Strategy Mix. It is because the both strategies are the planning tools for product and brand development.  

In my perspective, brand growth strategies and Ansoff’s Growth Strategy Mix would associate closely if the management or businessperson would produce or launch a new product. In brand growth strategy, if someone is going to introduce the new brand and new product, he must introduce new brand strategy.  For instance, you want to launch the new brand of pen, The Ansoff’s growth strategy recommends you to use diversification strategy. It means that one must launch product or pen in some other market, which is not popular for a pen. Therefore, it is obvious that brand growth strategy along Ansoff‘s growth strategy helps a producer or marketer to launch a product or brand.  

On the other hand, the Ansoff’s Growth Strategy Mix would help us to decide how to put that product in market development and diversification as well. In the same way, brand growth strategies provide the solution and plan to enhance the product level in the existing market or competition.  It is with the help of brand extension and line extension strategy. On the other hand, Ansoff’s growth strategy mix would help the strategy of market penetration. It is obvious that it would be very helpful in order to enhance market and product development for new brand and existing brand as well. 

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Challenge of deteriorating urban infrastructure and its replacement

Does the challenge exist to restore and improve Urban Infrastructure?

            Yes, the challenge exists. Improvements in existing urban infrastructure are a matter of debate today. Social scientists, engineers and metropolitan planners say that the challenge of the restoration of urban infrastructure is a need of the time. It is believed that the urban infrastructure of the United States and its countries is aging and failing and there is need to replace the existing structure with modernized one to prevent the dangers of natural disasters, catastrophic events, floods and accidents. Moreover, the challenge of the sustainability is also an important issue, as role of the population increase is also an important issue in that regard.

pie_chart1.png
http://cdia.asia/who-we-are/what-is-cdia/

Grand challenge for rebuilding of urban infrastructure

The grand challenge associated with the deterioration of urban infrastructure. It is getting old and with the passage of time, it will no longer able to cope with the challenge of the 21st century. Such a problem is recognized from poor planning of infrastructure that is leading to severe consequences in the society. The development of the transportation systems, extraction of the natural resources and other measures are important in order to transform the existing urban structure in to modernize. Degradation of natural areas the major challenges in the urban areas and this challenge has been discussed in both articles to obtain desired outcomes of the solution [1].

Compare and contrasting the problem of urban infrastructure redevelopment 

Both papers contribute the solutions for the deterioration of existing urban infrastructure to indicate major implementation in the infrastructure planning. Urban planning has been constructed for conserving the urban infrastructure problems.  The green infrastructure is also an important factor in the realm of an aging urban infrastructure. Therefore, it is important aspect, which is reducing the minimal impact on the conserved areas in essential and adequate manner. Both the article provides the discussion of the deterioration of the urban infrastructure including the need for biodiversity and their respective solutions. The integrity of biological aspects towards the green infrastructure delivered in the article that provides different solutions control the biodiversity deterioration during infrastructure planning [2].

screen-shot-2014-06-15-at-12-10-09-pm.png

            Therefore, while replacing the existing urban structure, the deliberation must be taken in to place to preserve the green house impact and the environmental sustainability. The need for rebuilding of the urban infrastructure and conservation subdivision are discussed in both articles that demonstrate the impact of problems on the society and reveals adequate solutions. Urban green infrastructure specifically contributed to the service provisions in the infrastructure planning, as it helped the society to contain eco friendly environment. The concept of green infrastructure in terms of eco-system is defined in both aspects of biodiversity problems.  The services of ecosystem explored to define the way of reduction of environmental impact. The development of urban green infrastructure in the form of parks, street trees, and green space allotments are recognized as supportive efforts of green environment. Therefore, the rebuilding of roads and other infrastructure components according to the modern criteria is the need of the time. For Instance, there is a need to integrate modern technology in the transportation process with the modern infrastructure to depict the rapid process and efficiency.   Both the articles focus on the development of green infrastructure planning for the reduction of environment impact in the essential and adequate manner [3].

http://www.engineeringchallenges.org/File.aspx?id=16275

Source: http://www.engineeringchallenges.org/challenges/infrastructure.aspx

There are certain differences between the two articles that need to be explored to identify different proposing solutions of deteriorating biodiversity due to poor infrastructure planning.  The environmental policy is discussed to educate the programs of environmental impact. The study focuses on education kiosks, web pages, and resource issues to control the infrastructure issues.  The proper biodiversity management explored in the article to recognized the maintenance of green landscape. The article provides different ways of biodiversity that can be conserved and solved by specific planning attribution. This article mainly focuses on the industrial aspects of the reduction in the biodiversity impact on the infrastructure planning execution. Therefore, it is certain that the change in the existing urban infrastructure is quite existent and needs to be resolved. The new infrastructure must be built in order to cope with the challenges of the 21st century [4].

On the other hand, the article describes the importance of domestic gardens in the current environment. The management of domestic gardens identifies the key factors, which may let them to gain the success for a long run. The other article focuses on the specific planning of infrastructure while the article provides the development of domestic green gardens to initiates the major executions in the urban planning of green environment solutions. The improvement in the green environment by air cooling and mitigation of flooding is beneficial to contain the eco friendly environment.  The article specifically focuses on domestic garden and well-being of the human society. The significance of the domestic garden from several aspects explored to specific consolidations in the green environment. This article focuses on the domestic exploration towards an eco-friendly environment (Cameron, et al., 2012). Reduction in carbon footprints individually as well as the development of green environment strategy for the domestic purpose has recognized to absorb it in a good manner. Green spaces and private gardens drive the credibility for the society revolution to obtain the credibility in managing the green environment.

References:

x

[1] Cdia.asia. (2015, March) Promoting sustainable and equitable urban development. [Online]. http://cdia.asia/who-we-are/what-is-cdia/
[2] Paula Restrepo Cadavid. (2014, June) Declining cities (I): an increasing trend? [Online]. https://favelissues.com/2014/06/15/declining-cities-i-an-increasing-trend/
[3] Gineeringchallenges.org. (2016, October) What is infrastructure? [Online]. http://www.engineeringchallenges.org/challenges/infrastructure.aspx
[4] Ni.com. (2013, October) Restoring and Improving Urban Infrastructure. [Online]. http://www.ni.com/newsletter/51814/en/

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Junk food

  1. Abstract

Who wrote the article and when was it published?

Kayla de la Haye, Garry Robins, Philip Mohr, and Carlene Wilson are the names of article writers. The publisher of this article is journal of research on adolescence was published in 2013.

What did the researchers want to find out?

The researcher finding out the effect of junk food intake by adolescents, mechanism processes driving consumption similarities among adolescent’s friends.  The study observes the low nutrient energy dense food taken by adolescents and exploration of their mechanism as well. 

What method of research did they use?

Three waves of data collected of Australian students from grade 8. Social networks of longitudinal models used for the demonstration of similarities as well as potential of co founding factors. The study approves by human research ethics committees. Primary data consolidated towards total 378 students with separate friendship network

What did they find out?

The results highlighted the measurement of food intake as well as related cognitions on towards grade mates’ friendship. The finding results give adolescent intake junk food among their friends that specifically accounting co founding and pre existing similarities factors.

  • Evaluate the research.

Are there any problems with their sample? (Yes or no; explain)

No, there is not any problem with the sample, because they selected specific sample models from selected students with peer effects on obesity. Two public high schools in Australian city selected which is sufficient to improvise the adequate results.

Are there any extraneous variables they should have included but did not?

Extraneous variables like junk food impact on health and leads to obesity must be demonstrated in the variables to heighten the impact of junk food on the health effects significantly.
Any problems with their internal validity or external validity? 

There is not any problem with the internal and external validity of research consolidations. The cofounding variables are successfully eliminated and study findings generalize the population towards external validity (Haye, Robins, Mohr, & Wilson, 2013).

Hawthorne effect?

 This effect could be realize by the individual observe response towards junk food impact on the adolescents. Current research study improves the behavior of individuals.
Any logical errors?

There is not any logical error in the research findings that gives clear understanding of junk food impact on the adolescent’s intake and adolescent’s cognition. Only the standard error recognized to support the findings of research on the junk food intake adolescents.

Are their conclusions supported by the evidence they gathered? Do they confuse correlation with causation?

 The model of social network longitudinal that specifically investigate the dynamic relationship between intake junk food and friendship network of adolescents that significantly impact on the LNED food over time. No, there is not any confusion correlation with causation.

Reference:

Haye, K. d., Robins, G., Mohr, P., & Wilson, C. (2013). Adolescents’ Intake of Junk Food: Processes and Mechanisms Driving Consumption Similarities Among Friends. JOURNAL OF RESEARCH ON ADOLESCENCE , 23 (3), 524–536.

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Site Maintenance

Site Maintenance

Every website needed to be maintained at some point, there is the need to do maintenance, of the site or just a portion of a site. There is the need to keep the maintenance page simple so that steps could be taken at every point, however, if the site is maintained then the visitors will be happy and enjoy search on it, there can be a maximum number of the visitors. Cite can be maintained through the WordPress management system, there is the need to monitor the site timely and need to notice the performance issues, the number or customer support need to be given on the website. The website should fully customizable, there is the need to change the color, background, text etc. so that the customers can be attracted (Smashing Magazine, 2015).

Future Recommendation

One need to be updated about the website, there should be real-time security and need to arrange the backups, so must be helpful in the future. The website needs to be the check on the daily basis, there is the need to monitor the site. However, there is the need to maintain the existence content, to prepare for the future, there is the need to make the plans or strategies so the customers may be attracted, designer, developer, editor, need to be contacted on timely, so that the changes and affectivity can be there. Data collection and data analysis are also important to maintain, as missing content like images are needed to be focused, the size of the page need to be noticed, it should be not large nor small (Jin & Lin, 2012). 

Customers Feedback

Customer feedbacks can play an important role, in knowing about the status of the website and to know about that how other perceives the site, however, there is the need to provide the email or number on the page so that the customers can easily contact. The social media icons should be noticed, there should be the focus on the responsive designs so the customers can be attracted and they can realize that the company or website really cares (Jin & Lin, 2012). There are various ways, through which the clients can be contacted, example, e-mail, chat, post, satisfaction rating, instant message, telephone etc. The feedback should be collected and then investigation and follow-up, with the customers should be there.

References:

Jin, D., & Lin, S. (2012). Advances in Future Computer and Control Systems, Volume 1. Springer Science & Business Media.

Smashing Magazine. (2015). WordPress Maintenance: Keeping Your Website Safe And Efficient. Smashing Magazine.

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Project planning and presentation

  1. Potential risk (CZOPEK’s home)
  • Faulty appliances
  • High cost of house as compare to original cost to finish
  • Unable to select subcontractors and suppliers to finish the project
  • Recognition of more amount of material then expected
  • Changing mind of Czopek’s for specific part of the house
  • Strike by workers
  • Uncertainty of weather like earthquake, rain & snow etc
  • Risk assessment form
Risk event Likelihood Impact Detection difficulties When
Faulty appliances 2 5 2 Completion of project when installing appliances
High cost of house as compare to original cost to finish 2 4 2 Completion of project
Unable to select subcontractors and suppliers to finish the project 2 4 2 Initiation of project
Recognition of more amount of material then expected 3 4 3 Early stages
Changing mind of Czopek’s for specific part of the house 3 3 4 After project framework
Strike by workers 3 5 5 It could happen at any stage
Uncertainty of weather like earthquake, rain & snow etc 2 5 5 Unable to predict
  • Risk response matrix
Risk event Response Contingency plan Trigger Who is responsible
Faulty appliances installation Avoid/transfer Selection of authenticate supplier Malpractice and manipulation in appliance material Supplier companies
High cost of house as compare to original cost to finish Avoid Warranties Huge budgeting Supplier companies  and labor
Unable to select subcontractors and suppliers to finish the project Mitigate Strategic sourcing Supplier selection and evaluation General subcontractor
Recognition of more amount of material then expected Avoid Avoid such order Avoid such order at the initiation of project General contractor
Changing mind of Czopek’s for specific part of the house Retain Demonstrated benefit insights Additional information Contract companies
Strike by workers Avoid/Transfer Alternatives Collective bargaining Labor workforce team
Uncertainty of weather like earthquake, rain & snow etc Avoid Emergency management Unfavorable to detect Nature by mother
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Solectron case

Solectron case

Question 3

    This has been a god journey for this organization to move from the contract manufacturing to supply chain integrator.  The management of the company has contained some effective dimensions to depict this change. For Instance, collaborating planning process, new business models, and effective workfare coordination is prominent business dimensions for this conversion process. The management has emphasized on penetrating new markets, developments of new services for the clients along with the rapid responses. The management of the company has adopted the global trends regarding the supply chain and increased the order variability regarding the supply chain through best possible strategic considerations.

    Also, this has been revealed that the management of the company has worked with top suppliers around the globe. The navigation of suppliers along with the consideration of customer concept has helped the company to depict this conversion process.  The management has a production experience, which has helped it to integrate it with the effective supply chain process. The best thing is to sustain the relations with the tip suppliers round the globe to be competitive and sustainable in the competitive supply chain industry. The company has focused on continuous change and integrated the technology to make the difference. 

Question 4

    The company has been successful regarding the integration of the acquisition. The most important thing is to integrate with the employees of other company and use them as resources. The acquisition refers the integration of human resource, information technology, production, and finance management. This is good for any organization to come up with an effective checklist to examine the credibility and value of the acquisition. For Instance, this company has made an effective checklist and created some goals for the different department integration. Furthermore, the management of the company has collaborated with each department to give and take some strategic measures to retain and sustain the success for a long run. Obviously, the company has to shift or move forward in the business.

    Therefore, the change was necessary to make the difference. Moreover, this is all about to share the culture, ideas, and market to create the values and increase the positive and aggressive customer perception. This is a fact that the company’s checklist was an effective tool to navigate or measure the acquisition process with the passage of the time. Thus, the acquisition has been successful, and the management is looking forwards to demonstrate the change with the passage of time.

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Collaborative Leadership Style

Brief History

It is the fact that effective leadership is the key to success in all the tasks in an organization. Today, it is the world of competition and technology, and everyone wishes to become exceptional in their fields. To get a competitive advantage over the competitors, it becomes very important for companies to produce and hire effective leaders (Boss, 2016).  In this regard, the leaders are coming with new styles of leadership to get success in required tasks. The collaborative leadership style is the collaborative skill of the person or leader.  The collaborative leader used to collaborative techniques between different groups and people to get success in tasks and missions. 

There is a difference between traditional leadership and collaborative leadership as well. The very first difference is the control and authority; because the traditional leadership style has believed in control remain in the pocket of authority. On the other hand, the collaborative leadership style has trust in the collective team approach. The second difference is the ownership of information and knowledge, in earlier times; it was the concern and asset of traditional leaders only. Today, in collaborative leadership style, it becomes open to all of the teams and everyone can access to the information and share ideas (Sanaghan & Gabriel, 2011). The third difference is performance review strategy where one can observe that leadership does the review annually. On the other hand, the collaborative leadership believes in instant review and feedback. It could help employees to make things correct to perform well and efficiency in the tasks. 

There are various advantages of collaborative leadership style, and one of the first is work division. The work would be dividing after the meetings and collaboration amongst team players and leaders. On the other hand, I must say that it will increase the efficiency of the work because everyone would perform according to his or her capability as well. Also, it will increase the creativity in the work, and collaborative leadership style would allow anyone to work according to his or her capability (Archer & Cameron, 2013). It will maximize the output of the efforts of the work.  On the other hand, there would be a disadvantage, which the flexibility in collaborative leadership style would allow people to behave like leaders.  It may cause worries for the collaborative leader, and he or she has to make things clear to other people that I am a leader for you, the ultimate authority. 

Companies Using Collaborative Leadership Style

In the modern world, most of the companies believe that collaboration style is the requirement of time because the world is changing. The first example is the Vilardell Purtí Company, which adopted the collaborative style of leadership and got success in the time of 2006-2011.  On the other hand, the collaborative style has adopted by the two companies; those are Hospital Sant Joan de Déu and Miquel Rius. The first one is hospital taking care of children’s health and another one is a stationery business. According to reports, this hospital is working with many businesses to achieve different targets regarding health and life (Turiera & Cros, 2013).

Corning Incorporated is the third example of collaboration style of leadership. The highly motivated company is working with great technology styles. Also, it works in an electronics systems and devices. Volkswagen Company has also collaborated with Corning Incorporated to advance the services of the company. The collaborative style has adopted by the Corning Incorporated with a company named “Sharp” to maximize the technology in devices like Led.  The Biotherm Company has been dealing in skin care products, and it has worked in the field of the collaborative style of leadership. The other company with Biotherm is Renault Company; the purpose of an automobile company and Skin Care Company is to make things easy for the environment and skin care.     

These were some examples of collaborative leadership and collaborative thought of the new world companies; the only purpose is the development of environment and employees as well.  One can understand that collaboration could play an important role in the progress of human development and intellectual development in the company. On the other hand, the changing world is demanding that everyone should play the role and put the part in the progressive world (Sanker, 2011).  It can only happen from the efforts of the collaborative leadership style as well.  It is very important to understand that collaborative leadership style is very different from the old traditional style of leadership. It always encourages the people to deliver efficiently to the required tasks.

Reference

Archer, D., & Cameron, A. (2013). Collaborative Leadership: Building Relationships, Handling Conflict and Sharing Control. Routledge.

Boss, J. (2016). 5 Leadership Lessons Learned From The Military And What They Mean For You. Retrieved October 08, 2016, from Forbes: http://www.forbes.com/sites/jeffboss/2016/05/04/5-leadership-lessons-i-learned-from-the-military-and-what-they-mean-for-you/#6d249f132727

Sanaghan, P., & Gabriel, P. A. (2011). Collaborative Leadership in Action: A Field Guide for Creating Meetings That Make a Difference. Human Resource Development.

Sanker, D. (2011). Collaborate: The Art of We. John Wiley & Sons.

Turiera, T., & Cros, S. (2013). 50 examples of business collaboration. Retrieved October 08, 2016, from Co-Society: http://www.co-society.com/wp-content/uploads/CO_business_2013.pdf

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predetermined overhead allocation rate

Arabica Manufacturing uses a predetermined overhead allocation rate based on a percentage of

direct labor cost. At the beginning of 2015, Arabica estimated total manufacturing overhead costs

at $1,050,000 and total direct labor costs at $840,000. In June, 2015, Arabica completed Job 511. The

details of Job 511 are shown below.

Direct materials cost $27,500

Direct labor cost $13,000

Direct labor hours 400 hours

Units of product produced 200

How much was the total job cost of Job 511?

A) $50,900 B) $40,500 C) $56,750 D) $74,875