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Reduction of Air Pollution Using Bio-Fuels As Form Renewable Energy

Contents

Executive Summary. 3

Introduction. 4

Problem Statement 4

Purpose of study. 5

Literature Review.. 8

Methodology. 12

Data Collection. 13

Data Analysis. 16

References. 17

Executive Summary

The research proposal explored contemporary issue of consumption of energy in detail. As the research, all know that despite the increasing intentions towards energy consumption, the energy demand of the planet is also increasing. There is a rapid increase in the industries and vehicles due to the population explosion. The goal of the paper is to see how air pollution can reduce through Bio-fuels because it is best renewable energy sources. There are many contributing agents towards air pollution for example petroleum, natural gas, and hydrocarbons. The petroleum diesel, which is heavily used in the industries and transportation, emits a number of greenhouse gases. Air Pollution depends upon usage of bio-fuel. Therefore, Air pollution is independent Variable and Bio-Fuel is dependent one. Structure interview and public survey is method to be used for data analyses.

Introduction

This paper seeks to present the research methodology for a research study investigating reduction of air pollution using bio fuels as form renewable energy. The environmental influences of bio-fuels such as corn ethanol have been cause for much debate in recent years (Lee, Speight & Loyalka, 2014). The debate has largely been informed by the disagreements concerning the research methods employed in assessing the impacts under investigation. Another issue, which has served to compromise previous research studies, is founded on the fact that there are many assumptions incorporated in previous research studies due to the prevalence of incomplete data.

Problem Statement

There are two main threats faced by the research planet today as they are directly influencing the future of humans and animals of the planet. These threats are known as air pollution and global warming. The rising prices and decreasing resources of conventional energy the sources are also the threat to economic development and political stability of the planet. The air pollution indoor and outdoor is the sixth largest cause of deaths in the world number over 2.4 million premature deaths in the world (Jacobson, 2009).  Fossil fuels are non-renewable sources contributing significantly to world energy supply. Their usage has created environmental and political concerns. It is estimated that almost 98% of carbon emission results from the fossil fuel combustion. Heat stress, disease, the severity of storms and acidity in oceans is increased as a direct result of the global warming. The global warming and increased emission of carbon shifts viable agriculture and harms the ecosystems. The water supply’s magnitude and timing are also changed as the result of the global warming (Jacobson, 2009).

The concept of bio-fuels is not a new concept. The first bio-fuel using vegetable oil as the replacement of the conventional diesel was introduced in the year 1911 (Jacobson,  2009). It is estimated that the use of bio-fuels in comparison to the conventional fossil fuels might reduce the carbon and hydrocarbon emissions. For a sustainable future growth, it is necessary to reduce almost 80% of present carbon and hydrocarbon emissions. In this paper, the different sources of bio-fuels are evaluated with their impacts on the hydrocarbon emissions. The review also addresses the issues of social implications of the bio-fuels and controversies associated with the development of the fossil fuels. Costs associated with the use of bio-fuels and their implications are also discussed in the literature of the current paper.

Purpose of study

The purpose of this particular research study is to contrast bio-ethanol systems with conventional fuels using the life cycle assessment (LCA) criterion. Previous research studies have emphasized on greenhouse gases and net energy and as such, system boundaries and the divergent assumptions applied point out that there are differences in scope of study approaches (Twidell & ourhir, 2015). This qualitative research study will involve field studies for the collection of data from different locations and the subsequent lab experiences for analysis. The lab experiments will be of great significance owing to the associated internal validity. As such, it is envisaged that the cause and effect affiliations can be best observed within a laboratory environment since it is a man made and controllable setting.  Different elements will be assessed as the units for analysis. The elements will include soil, ecosystem services, biodiversity, water quality, GHG emission, air quality, water quantity and consumption use.

As such, this particular research study will also present a general overview of LCA methodology normally employed in the assessment of the environmental impacts associated with the production and use of bio-fuels (Knothe, Krahl & Van Gerpen, 2015). By examining the contemporary breadth of knowledge about significant environmental effects, this outcome of the research endeavor will be further discussing specific environmental impacts. This will be applicable relative to combustion, conversion to bio-fuels, feedstock production, as overall as the entire lifecycle of bio-fuel applications as the overall as production (Janaun & Ellis, 2010). The methods utilized in the assessment of environmental impacts and the observed effects or forecasted results in peer-reviewed literature will be presented (Knothe, Krahl & Van Gerpen, 2015). It is expected that the availability of data and associated deficiencies will present gaps among the prevalent modeling platforms. This implies that a level of uncertainty will exist in the assessment of different environmental aspects.

This research study will employ regional environmental evaluations concerning bio-fuels production. This is in essence due to the fact that bio-fuel production impacts are basically location specific (Janaun & Ellis, 2010). The resultant findings as the overall as conclusions the researched from the regional environmental evaluations may tend to vary from an evaluation considering the cumulative impacts across an entire state or country.

The LCA tool is highly appropriate for the quantification of environmental impacts of bio-fuels as renewable energy (Huo, Wang, Bloyd & Putsche, 2008). In previous research studies, it will be noted that there is generally an extensive misinterpretations of results. This is mainly due to the various assessment methods employed and as such, it will bring about some considerable degrees of confusion regarding this issue. This is especially the case when particular assumptions and frameworks fail to be mentioned or accorded due credit regarding the form of analysis used.

There are two different but significant approaches towards using the LCA criterion. These two approaches are the consequential and attribution approaches (Huo, Wang, Bloyd & Putsche, 2008). The attribution approach employs a more conventional form and seeks to trace the energy and material flows existing within a typical bio-fuel supply chain. This approach will normally attribute environmental effects to a specific form of bio-fuel as dictated by these flows. On the other hand, the consequential LCA examines environmental effects with regard to the cascading events that arise based on the decision to consider producing or even not producing a particular bio-fuel. The variances witnessed between the two approaches are due to their distinctive applications (Huo, Wang, Bloyd & Putsche, 2008).

Consequential LCA employs marginal data while attribution LCA employs average or progress specific data (Demirbas, 2009). These differences are important to note since this particular research study seeks to use the consequential LCA for data collection. An example as to which this particular approach is best suited for this research as it considers the effects of market mediation for a specific form of bio-fuel (Demirbas, 2009). For instance, it considers the environmental impacts associated with changes in petroleum or crop prices arising from the production of bio-fuels. The consequential LCA also takes into account all of the associated human activities while assigning a distinct bio-fuel to the total effect change due to a decision and action to implement, contract or expand bio-fuel production or not. Conversely, consequential LCA is critical towards policy and regulation evaluation (Demirbas, 2009). Data will be located from various locations and the subsequent analysis conducted in a controlled laboratory environment. The analysis is expected to avail scientific evidence that will imply that as a form of renewable energy, bio-fuels have the potential to reduce air pollution.

Literature Review

Production of Bio-fuels

There are different sources and methods that can be applied to produce the biodiesel. These sources and methods include direct use, blending, microemulsion process, thermal cracking process and the most commonly used technique known transesterification. This method is adopted widely due to the easiness and the process can be carried out in the normal conditions. The quality of the converted fuel is also better as compared to the other methods used for the synthesis of biodiesel (Gashaw, Getachaw,  &Teshita, 2015).

The direct use of vegetable oils as an alternative to the conventional diesel is not favorable. The use of vegetable as a direct fuel is very problematic. The vegetable oils have intrinsic properties which make them similar to the diesel but they require certain chemical modification before they can be used as a direct sourcce of fuel. Some diesel engines can run directly on the fossil fuels but the engines which use turbo charge experience some problems. The vegetable oils in comparison to the conventional diesel have the high viscosity (Teshita et.al, 2015).

The problems of high-viscosity the researchre resolved by the introduction of micro-emulsions. The solvents such as ethanol, methanol and 1-butanol the researchre used as solvents in order to reduce the viscosity of the fossil fuels. The microemulsions can improve the spray properties of the biodiesel by rapid vaporization of the solvents. Thus, microemulsions result in the low-viscosity and an increase in the cetane number of the biodiesel. The repeated use of the microemulsion fuels in the diesel engines caused problems like injector needle sticking, depositing of the carbon and incomplete combustion (Teshita et.al, 2015).

The most common and easiest way to produce the biodiesel is the trans esterification method. In this method a catalyst is used in the chemical reaction of vegetable oil and alcohol to produce the biodiesel. The common catalyst used is a strong base such sodium or potassium hydroxide. The process results in the changes of viscosity of the vegetable oil. The product will viscosity like fossil fuels. There are several factors, which affect the production of the biodiesel as bio-fuel. Temperature is the most important factor among them. It is required to keep the temperature under normal conditions, which is room temperature 25°C (Teshita et.al, 2015).

In the world today, a large global campaign is going on to include the different raw materials such as sugar cane, soybeans and sugar beets as raw materials for fossil fuels. The presentation of the bio-fuels as the perfect alternate for petroleum derivatives will be focus of many studies conducted worldwide. The driving force behind this worldwide exploration is the reduction of environment concerns raised by the use fossil fuels. The use of wood as an alternative source of energy will study and its results for the reduction of fossil fuel carbon emissions are studied (Teshita et.al, 2015).

Emission Reduction from Bio-fuels

There is a significant variation in emission reduction of the fossil fuels using different feedstock and processing alternatives. The production of ethanol from the process of gasification reduced the emission to almost 74% (Lippke, Puettmann, Johnson, Gustafson, Venditti, Steele & Caputo, 2012). When ethanol is prepared by the fermentation of willow the emission was reduced to almost 120%. The reductions greater than 100 percent are achieved when part of woody feedstock is used for the generation of the electricity required for the process. The gasification process requires more quantity of wood to offset fossil fuels for collection and processing submissions. It shows that the amount of reduction is dependent on the amount of wood used rather than the way it is used (Caputo et.al, 2012).

Production of oil from the process pyrolysis of the whole tree thinning reduced the emission from fossil fuel to almost 70% in the US Southeast (Caputo et.al, 2012). The mechanisms used for the reduction of emissions and production of alternate bio-fuels exceeded the threshold placed by the EPA of 60% (Caputo et.al, 2012).The conversion process from woody feedstocks to ethanol using the process of gasification and fermentation results in less carbon reduction efficiency as compared to bio-fuel produced through pyrolysis. The reduction efficiency of converting the woody feedstocks to bio-oils and then to bio-fuel to be used as a substitute for gasoline may be lower than producing bio-oils (Caputo et.al, 2012).

Challenges for Bio-fuels

One of the most used justifications which are used for the adoption of bio-fuels as an alternate source of energy is the anticipated benefits to the environment from the replacement of fossil fuels. The combustion of fossil fuels results in the emission of carbon dioxide and gases known as Green House Gases (GHG) (German, Schoneveld,  & Pacheco, 2011). The promise made by the use of bio-fuels is a greener energy for the transportation. This promise will result in the inclusion of bio-fuels as alternative sources of energy targets in many industrial countries like the United States. Along with the US other interesting parties include EU and several developing countries including Brazil. Some of the researches in the area suggest that the land usage directly or indirectly for the use of bio-fuels can negate the emission of GHG and estimated climatic benefits (Pacheco et.al, 2011).

Considering the above-mentioned factors there is an increase in the recognizing the climatic effects of bio-fuels must include the full life cycle. The full life cycle includes the production, distribution and consumption of the bio-fuels. The lifecycle also includes the direct and indirect land usage for the production of the bio-fuels. The environmental debate mainly focuses on the issue of the climatic change. The other environmental factor associated with the use of bio-fuels must be taken into consideration. Some people claim that the cultivation of bio-fuel feedstocks on the land which could not be cultivated can make these lands productive and thus increase the forest conversion (Pacheco et.al, 2011).

In the 1990’s it was estimated that almost 500 million hectares of uncultivated land are available for cultivation. Out of these 100 million hectares of land was in Latin America, 100 million in Asia and 300 million hectares the researcher in Africa. In Indonesia, 27 million hectares of deforested land will be identifying for the cultivation of palm oils (Pacheco et.al, 2011). In Indonesia to the researcher, many papers and pulp companies have managed to deforest large areas of forest under the guise of palm oil cultivation. Some of this development used timber finances to make it happen, to the researcher, there was no plantation of palm oil in some of the cases or any rural development in the areas. Some of the researchers have focused on quantifying the impacts of bio-fuel feed stock expansion on the forest already present. According to a research, it was estimated that bet the research in 1995 and 2005 55% to 59% of palm oil cultivation in Malaysia and almost 59% of the palm oil cultivation in Indonesia was at the expense of the forests (Pacheco et.al, 2011).

Social and Economic Impacts

The debate on the social and economic impacts of bio-fuels focuses on the two key issues. These issues are the ability of bio-fuels acting as a stimulus to the rural and secondly its effect on access and control of land, and food security. A number of multiple purpose feed stocks have been identified as beneficial for the rural economic development. Under the correct conditions, the bio-fuels can generate financial profits, increase in the value of land, employment, improvement in the infrastructure and income from smallholder cultivation. Soybean cultivation has proved to be beneficial for the landowners and produced several critical economic multipliers in the downstream food industry. One of the primary benefits yielded from the cultivation of feed stocks is the employment of the people. The oil palm industry in Indonesia and Malaysia employs 0.08 to 0.5 persons per hector (Pacheco et.al, 2011).

The bio-fuels have a place in the strategy for renewable energy sthe researchces at a global level. Currently, they supply over 10% of the total energy use at a global level. The liquid bio-fuels only contribute 0.4% of global energy. Most of the time as in past the bio-fuels’ usage is dominated by direct combustion as it is in the case of wood. In recent times, much of the concentration is given to the production of the liquid bio-fuels (booksSekaran and Bougie, 2013). The government of United Kingdom concluded in a report that by the end of the year 2020 will meet only 2% of global energy needs. Using ethanol as an alternative fuel for transportation is not a smart idea as other bio-fuels show greater efficiency. From a realistic, prospective the using of bio-fuels for transportation is not the best choice. However, it can be seen that bio-fuels reduce emission of carbon dioxide and greenhouse gases considerably as compared to fossil fuels. The bio-fuels can play their part in the energy future of the world but they can never be a replacement for the fossil fuels (Zhang et.al, 2012).

Methodology

The methodology discussed here ultimately considered by study. The relation between variables can be represented as below:

Independent Variable                                                                     Dependent Variable

Figure 1: theoretical framework

Air Pollution depends upon the usage of Bio-Fuels.

Data Collection

            The research will collect data with questionnaires and interviews. The research will ensure that the research use structured interview and questionnaires. The research questionnaires will be developed in a manner that they have both open and closed ended questions so that the respondents will have the opportunity to provide all the relevant information they have about the reduction of pollution using bio-fuel as a form of a renewable source of energy (Mugenda and Mugenda, 1999). The research will also use oral interviews so that the research will be able to get direct information from the respondents.

            It is also important to test null and alternative hypothesis where the research null hypothesis will be Bio-fuels reduces air pollution and alternative hypothesis: bio-fuel does not reduce air pollution. Since the research will use large sample where n≥30≤500 sample population, the research will compare the result of the research analysis with z test with the result of the research hypothesis testing (Sekaran & Bougie, 2013). When the research use binomial distribution, the research will have abbreviations such as n, p and q where n will represent number of observations represent probability while q = 1-p. This kind of test is one tail test meaning that alpha will be 0.05 so that the research can measure the error margin. The research will collect the information about the use of bio-fuels to reduce pollution from different households and industries (Mugenda and Mugenda, 1999). In this research, it is very simple to collect data because it is collected from different households. The research can also collect data concerning the use of bio-fuels to reduce pollution from different books and journals since there are many publications which have such kind of information.

            Concerning this study, the research will be able to use both primary and secondary research methods to collect data. This is because the use of bio-fuel is clearly indicated in different books, online and journals how it is being applied to reduce air pollution. This method of data collection will ensure that the research get adequate and reliable source of information which the research will use to understand the truth about the use of bio-fuel to control pollution (Sekaran & Bougie, 2013). The research can also use the format of questions and answer. This is because it can easily be understood by the system since it will be easy to accept the key word used in the question and finally generate ansthe researchr based on the question given. It is also indicated in some recent articles written by students at Purdue that most student use IBM computer to understand firsthand on how the computer uses natural language (Sekaran & Bougie, 2013). The research done by Purdue students contained Indiana state code law that had been evaluated using the version of Watson. Those who have used the bio-fuel to reduce air pollution confirmed that it is able to reduce air pollution only when it is used appropriately. Through this, the research realizes that the research can use Watson’s knowledge in research to determine the application of bio-fuel in the reduction of air pollution. In this the research, the research have previous result is a question-answer format (Mugenda and Mugenda, 1999). This will make it easy to use them when using Watson version. This will help us get a more accurate and correct result for the research analysis.

The important areas, which need to be focused on during the analysis process, will include the accuracy and precision of results generated by machine (Sekaran & Bougie, 2013). Based on the generation of results by the system one can make a comparison on what the treatments the researcher proposed by human in the book versus machine.

            The research will also use an extremely scalable proposal and hybrid cloud computing will be of great importance to retrieve data from the system and since that kind of systems are commonly available in shops, the research will easily get one for the research analysis (Mugenda and Mugenda, 1999). In the final stage, the research will use binomial distribution, level of significance and hypothesis testing to assess the accuracy and reliability of data.

Data Analysis

            In the research, the research will also collect some data using secondary data collection methods by searching some relevant information from the internet and going through different. It will be convenient enough also use secondary the research of data because there is some documentation on the effect of air pollution. To increase the efficiency and accuracy of data collection, the research need to collect the research ll structured data. For this research, the research will collect data from 300 respondents when 95% level confidence is used. This will require research to use large sample that is always ≥30. The research book highlights that in any case there is a need to increase the level of confidence, it is important to use large sample larger than 30. In addition, he also added that it is important to use large sample more than 30  and less than 500 population parameters is usually more appropriate and able to increase research accuracy. It further highlighted that only one hypothesis testing is usually important for the research when a binomial distribution is applied.

Immediately, the data have been collected and cleaned, they will be analyzed through feeding all the reliable and correct data in the version Watson. The feeding of these data is done in a question and the research format. The performance is then observed until the result is produced. In the process, the research must ensure that the research have the version of Watson so that the research can compare the result of the machine and human based results. The best example is when the outcome of the use of Bio-fuel to reduce air pollution can be inputted in this program where it will explore through numerous algorithms to produce three different possible outcomes with the corresponding level of significant. In this software, the research can enter such questions such as.

References

Demirbas, A. (2009). Bio-fuels securing the planet’s future energy needs. Energy Conversion and Management, 50(9), 2239-2249. 

Gashaw, A., Getachaw, T., &Teshita, A. (2015). A Review on Biodiesel Production as Alternative Fuel. Jthe researchnal of Forest Products and Industries, 4(2).

German, L., Schoneveld, G. C., & Pacheco, P. (2011). The Social and Environmental Impacts of Bio-fuel Feedstock Cultivation: Evidence from Multi-Site Research in the Forest Frontier. Ecology and Society, 16(3). doi:10.5751/es-04309-160324

Huo, H., Wang, M., Bloyd, C. & Putsche, V. (2008). Life-cycle assessment of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions of soybean-derived biodiesel and renewable fuels. Environmental science & technology, 43(3), 750-756.  

Jacobson, M. Z. (2009). Review of solutions to global warming, air pollution, and energy security. Energy Environ. Sci, 2(2), 148-173. doi:10.1039/b809990c

Janaun, J. & Ellis, N. (2010). Perspectives on biodiesel as a sustainable fuel. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 14(4), 1312-1320.  

Knothe, G., Krahl, J.& Van Gerpen, J. (Eds.). (2015). The biodiesel handbook. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier. 

Lee, S., Speight, J. G. & Loyalka, S. K. (Eds.). (2014). Handbook of alternative fuel technologies. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. 

Lippke, B., Puettmann, M. E., Johnson, L., Gustafson, R., Venditti, R., Steele, P., … Caputo, J. (2012). Carbon Emission Reduction Impacts from Alternative Bio-fuels*. Forest Products Jthe researchnal, 62(4), 296-304. doi:10.13073/12-00021.1

Mugenda, O and Mugenda, A. (1999). Research Methods: quantitative and qualitative      approaches.Acts press, Nairobi.

Sekaran, U.& Bougie, R. (2013). Research Methods for Business: A Skill-Building Approach. New York:John Wiley & Sons.

Twidell, J., & The researchir, T. (2015). Renewable energy resthe researchces. London, UK: Routledge.

Zhanag, J., & Zhang, W. (2012). Controversies, development and trends of bio-fuel industry in the world. Environment Skeptics and Critics, 1(3), 48-55.

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Argentina crisis in 1998

Table of Contents

Introduction. 2

Reasons for the crisis. 3

Peg to the U.S. dollar 3

Debt ratios rise. 4

Economic History. 5

1989 – 1997 (Battle against inflation) 6

1998 – 2001 (Loss of competitiveness) 6

Fiscal mismanagement 7

Effects on the banking sector 7

Conclusion. 9

References. 10

Argentina crisis in 1998

Introduction

1998 – 2002 was the time of great economic depression in the Argentina. It was actually started in the third quarter of the 1998 and finished in the 2nd quarter of 2002. There was couple of reasons behind that economic depression. This was due to the Brazilian and the Russian financial crisis which started all this. Some of the main reasons were large unemployment rate, the fall of the government, the rise in the alternative currencies, country foreign debt has default and they have pegged the peso fixed exchange rate to the US Dollar.  

 Within the time of 1998 – 2002 the economy have shrank by 28% (Economics.rabobank.com, 2013). The cyclic fiscal policies and the lot of foreign borrowing have put the country in the economic shock and there was severe currency and the banking crisis in the country. With respect to income level, 50% of the people were poor. Out of 10, 7 argentine people were poor at almost the depth in 2002. After the crises ended the economy again grew up in 2003 and it is been said that it grew almost 9% for the five years.

In December 2001, the banking sector was also affected by the economic stress that was caused by the country. We can see that the bank accounts were freeze of the customers. There were protests also due to that. The IMF then has suspended the disbursements and the economy went on the positive side after many years. If we look at the income poverty then we come to know that it grew up to 35.4% in October 2001 and it was at the peak 54.3% on October 2002 (Frbsf.org, 2002).

 Reasons for the crisis

Peg to the U.S. dollar

Argentina’s peg to the U.S. dollar is said to be the one of the strongest reason for the crisis in the country. The affect of that was that there was inability to reduce the public and the external debts.  If we look at the graph we could see that public debt to the GDP in the country have fallen immensely.

This figure is clear and it shows that in the 1995, the Public debt to the GDP was 35% but in the 2001 we can see that it have rise up to 65% (Hornbeck, 2002). This is a huge differene3 almost double and that causes the problems in the country at large. Argentina’s experience remains as opposed to South Korea’s, the place a budgetary emergency in 1997-1998 constrained the administration to mediate to save coming up short banks and prompted a rescheduling of its outside obligation. In South Korea, the general population obligation/GDP proportion climbed strongly, from more than 10% in 1997 to more than 30% in 2000, however then declined (IMF 2002a, p. 18).

In any case, even at its crest, South Korea’s open obligation/GDP proportion was not as much as half Argentina’s, and the way of the obligation stayed underneath that anticipated by the IMF in three separate surveys.

There is no unambiguous limit at which open obligation gets to be unsustainable, and Argentina’s open obligation/GDP proportion of 65% in 2001 was still lower than that saw in some European nations. Nevertheless, given the historical backdrop of defaults and macroeconomic shakiness in developing markets like Argentina, their edge feasible open obligation might be much lower than in innovative economies (Geithner, 2003). Moreover, impediments on expense accumulation capacity infer that a higher open obligation/GDP proportion makes developing markets more helpless against antagonistic movements in business sector notion that raise the expense of assets. In accordance with this, extensive spikes in the yield on open obligation happen in developing markets that are occasionally seen in innovative economies.

Debt ratios rise

There are two big reasons that the debt ratio have increased in the country. Government revenues minus the expenditures exclusive of interest payments on the debt (fiscal surplus) these payments were not enough for the payments. That was the reason the debt ratio have increased in the country.  Somewhere around 1991 and 2000, Argentina’s essential surpluses arrived at the midpoint of 0.14% of GDP (Kaminsky, Mati, & Choueiri, 2009). These surpluses were astounding accomplishments, given Argentina’s history, yet they were still well underneath interest installments, which arrived at the midpoint of 2.4% of GDP over this period. There were huge hindrances to lessening uses and raising incomes.

On the consumption side, the administration was a substantial business (Krueger 2002) and, for political reasons, thought that it was difficult to cut its compensation bill. The focal government likewise thought that it was difficult to control spending by common governments, whose liabilities it was in the end compelled to accept. In the meantime, incomes were antagonistically influenced by troubles in assessment accumulation and, after 1999, by falling yield and rising unemployment.

The second reason we can see is the export growth. The export of the country was not good enough to meet the debt obligations and that is the reason there were problems. The growth rate of the country declined a lot. It has been observed that the rate at that time was around 7.7%. If we compare with the Asian countries like South Korea and Malaysia then we come to know that they are even better as they have the rate of (10% – 11).

Send out development has been hosed by Argentina’s exchange boundaries, which remain moderately high outside the Southern Cone regular business sector territory of Mercosur, of which Argentina is a part. These exchange boundaries have expanded following the emergency broke out. Additionally endured taking after the 1999 breakdown of the Brazilian genuine in light of the fact that Argentina’s unbending coin board game plan delivered exaggerated money  (El-Ghazaly, 2106).. In reality, the emphasis on keeping up an inflexible peg no matter what seems to have redirected consideration far from the dangers of not paying consideration on genuine area essentials.

Economic History

Figure 3: Inflation and Unemployment

In the beginning of the 20th century, Argentina was one of the wealthiest countries in the world. If we talk about its GDP then we come to know that it have exceeded from the countries like France and Germany as well. Slow economic growth started in there after the World War 1. There were bad policy making in the country and they have the oil crisis in the 1970’s. On top on that in the 1980, there was a crisis of Latin America debt crisis. There was a rise in the inflation that can be seen and that was due to the spending could not match the financial market borrowings and the taxation.  We can see the inflation graph and predict the situation better.

1989 – 1997 (Battle against inflation)

At this point, we can see that there was great inflation in the country. The president of the country was very curious about this and he have made some good economic reforms. Some of the good steps that have been taken were he privatized the state owned enterprises; secondly he deregulated the economy and the lower barriers of the state. By doing, this all the economy begin to rise in the markets and it was to be said that Argentina is growing as the emerging market in the world.

The second thing which have been done at that point was that the conversion of Peso to one to one Dollar. By doing this the exchange rate have been stabilized. By doing this people could freely exchange the Peso in to the dollars however, the economy actually stabilizes. Due to this, the economy was stabilized and the time when they grew again.

1998 – 2001 (Loss of competitiveness)

Russia and Brazil have increased the borrowing cost for the different countries and due to the exchange rate of the Brazil; there was great impact on the argentine economy. Brazil was the one of the main trading country for the Argentina.

In the 1998, the brazil has ended the peg with the Us dollar and that was the turning point that there was strong depreciation that could be seen. By doing this, the economy of Brazil actually recovered but there was a great loss for the Argentina. Moreover, the prices of the export products had fallen and the exports were reduced of the country.

However, the price of the dollar had increased at the maximum point at that time and that also hurt the economy of the country. By looking at the situation and the problems in the Argentina’s economy the foreign investors were not interested in investing in that economy as it was not stable. The borrowing cost was too high. However, the country has lost the international investors and the international financial market has fallen down. 

Fiscal mismanagement

The fiscal policies of the economy have also contributed in the crisis of the economy. The fixed exchange rate has been the problem for the economy. The president of the country has reduced the interest rates so that the economy could stand again on their feet. By doing this, the economy should get better but as the result the corruption was increased and there were more problems and the fiscal deficit remains the same. The government was not able to control the expenditures of themselves. Therefore, this type of small policies has also influenced a lot in the destruction of the economy.

Effects on the banking sector

In the 1998, the banking sector of the country was ranked in the second number in the world after the Singapore, which was in the first place. Due to the currency exchange rates, the increase in the defaulters, the rise in the non-performing loans, freezing of the utility companies the default rate of the country banking system raised up to 60%. Due to this the banking sector was destroys and the large private banks were not stable as there were couple of problems and they faces the losses due to that. The losses were caused due to the

  1. The bankruptcy of the bank debtors increased
  2. The loan rate was only 1 Peso per dollar.
  3. The default of the country has increased $93 billion on December 23, 2001.

The triple emergency softened up 2001 when, out of apprehension from the falling apart monetary atmosphere, individuals hurried to pull back their pesos from the banks keeping in mind the end goal to change over them into dollars and boat them abroad. The officially debilitated banks were further crushed when the legislature defaulted on its obligation in December 2001.

As an aftereffect of the budgetary misery, the nation was compelled to leave its coin load up administration, a convertibility program that attached the peso to the dollar at equality. In the meantime, the administration reacted to the bank keeps running by limiting withdrawals, basically solidifying all records. Also, private stores and credit to the private segment declined drastically, which advance debilitated the sickly economy. The determination of the managing an account emergency was a piece of a bigger arrangement of strategies that needed to manage the vast emergency. The administration finished the money board administration in mid 2002 (permitting an enormous cheapening of the peso) and in the long run rebuilt its obligation.

Conclusion

There were many economic events which have causes the distress in the economy of the Argentina.  The pegging of the currency, the overvaluation of the currency, the change in the fiscal policies, the large scale borrowing were there and no plans were made to predict the future changes that what could happen. The external shocks within the economy, the economic rigidities and the capital inflows were also the reasons of the economic downfall of the economy. The crisis of the Argentina is said to be one of the worse crisis that have been faced in the history.

            The change of the Paso to the dollar exchange rate was the one of the biggest problem, which the economies have faced. There was no need to do this as the country has been disturbed by doing this. The fixed rate is not the solution to the problem and the president who has make the changes should focus on the consequences more. Argentina and various other rising economies, and it is a critical essential for accomplishing solidness in a globalized economy.

            After 2000, the Argentina economy has recovered quickly and they have discontinued the policies that were implemented before. The debt level needs to be checked and the economy needs to be looking in to the plans and the debt ratio should be maintain so that there would be no distress caused in the country.  

References

Economics.rabobank.com. (2013). Economic Report. Retrieved May 2, 2106, from https://economics.rabobank.com/publications/2013/august/the-argentine-crisis-20012002-

El-Ghazaly, H. S. (2106). Banking Crises around the World: Different Governments, Different Responses. Retrieved May 02, 2016, from https://www.stlouisfed.org/publications/regional-economist/april-2011/banking-crises-around-the-world-different-governments-different-responses

Frbsf.org. (2002). Economic Letter. Retrieved May 2, 2016, from http://www.frbsf.org/economic-research/publications/economic-letter/2002/october/learning-from-argentina-crisis/

Geithner, T. (2003). Lessons from the Crisis in Argentina . Retrieved May 02, 2016, from https://www.imf.org/external/np/pdr/lessons/100803.pdf

Hornbeck, J. F. (2002). The Argentine Financial Crisis. Retrieved May 02, 2016, from http://fpc.state.gov/documents/organization/8040.pdf

Kaminsky, G., Mati, A., & Choueiri, N. (2009). Thirty Years of Currency Crises in Argentina External Shocks or Domestic Fragility? . Economía 18th Panel Meeting , 1-30.

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“Advertising in social network sites”


Communication and Media Research

“Advertising in social network site”

It is researched that today’s social interaction is becoming the source of advertising for the people; people are getting familiar with the products and services online, the variety of interaction is enable the people to actively participate in buying the product and getting information about the product. It is investigated in the research that how people influenced by the social media and how they attract towards the products to buy. The social influence theory assumed that sharing the interpersonal influence and collective influence can motivates one to buy the product. It is tested from the different sources like Facebook that people strongly influenced towards the products in term of collective influence than the interpersonal influence.

The research is interesting as it tells about the effectiveness of online advertisement, the people on the social websites, comment on the product and services, share their experiences that can influence the online advertisement. The comment on advertising videos influence the public towards the product, user attitude towards the online advertisement is effecting on the people mind. Researchers have find out that advertising vehicles are affecting various advertising material, the online media is a source of effectiveness for the companies. Companies and organizations taking advantages of the online sources, the online sources are becoming the reason of profitability and source of effectives for them, the one who do not do online advertisement not get the advantages as others are getting. The media also influenced surrounding media to promote the media content, the question arises that what influence the people on social media, to buy the products, the answer is people get attracted by each other comments and this is the reason the online advertisements are successful.

The company’s focus on making the perfect advertisement by the professional of media content, nowadays the media content is providing effectiveness, the marketing the social media is given stress, the user generated content is also effective, the general public could also make the advertisement that can effect on one’s mind. The public know much about the mind of then people, sometimes better than the professional so public could be operative in this way. Online advertisement is a source or vehicle now giving advantages to the public as well as the companies. 

Various internet online service are becoming the electronic word of mouth, it is investigated that more people are attracted towards the product by seeing each other’s. The electronic word of mouth is influencing or the motivation for the people or the companies to enhance the profit. It is estimated or considered by the researchers that user generated content is much effective instead of the media professionals, the user generated content is effective as the people have the information about the peer, there are several types to influence the peer or customers, not only single source is effective, the users are fully aware about the sources and they interplay among various sources. 

Social influence as collective influence:

It is based on the social identity theory that depends on the market research. The people are more attracted by the social influence or collective influence. I believe that collective influence is better than any other source of promotion because people see themselves as a representative of a particular group, they do not see them self as an unique individual so the model is effective, the group can perform better rather than individual or the performance could be effective when one is in a group. Social networking services, are more effective or efficient through the collective influence rather than the individual influence, as one have the own preferences and taste, so it might be difficult for the companies or user generative content to target the one, the people or customers when see that people are appreciating the product through the electronic word of mouth, their mind is positivity attracts by increasing the social influence, the source when become well-known to the user or the customer the long-term membership is established.

Behavioral intention can also evoke or changed the recipient’s attitudes the products, the participant can engage themselves in the product and services when they are a part of group. The user generated content, might also engaged the advertise product, the behavior is not always same there are changes in the attitudes and the behavior with the change in the time, that should be or need to be noticed by the advertiser. To keep engage the people with the product and services is not possible for the long-term or time, there are need of innovations if the people or customers needed to be engaged. The study about the behavioral change may have been difficult, but not impossible, one has to stay up-to-date with the time and there is a need of proper researcher of the market and current behaviors of the individuals or groups. 

Some attitudes are difficult to study, not all researches give you the accurate results, and however, the attitudes of a group are matter than the attitude of the individual. It is difficult to study about the every product and the customer response and attitude for the product. The assessment can be helpful for the user-generated content, to know about the priorities of the customers. The lack of influence, like if the advertisement are not designed according to what people demand or desired off, then there could be chance of failure of the product, researches are not accurate all the time, assumptions and expectation could be helpful in future for the design of the advertisement. Fitting the collective connection, is better than the interpersonal connection, to influenced the people by the by the sources are not sufficient all the time, there are need of identification of the connections or attitudes of the people depending on the behavioral intentions. The behavioral interactions or the connections can affect or influence one directly; the positive factor could be take place.

It is concluded by the study or the research that degree of identification is necessary for the selection of the source for advertising. Social identification about the sources could be beneficial for the present and future intervening factors. Based on the research or results that have been conducted on the social groups it is known that group influence is the successful application rather than the others, the study suggest the approach of social identification with the collective influence. However, the online users can also be targeted by the individual or interpersonal influence. 

Both the approaches collective influence and interpersonal are beneficial for the online advertisements or providing the service so the people, there are needed to understand that how to target or approach the people. The user generated contact approach need to view the rational and collective self, if there is the adoption of the interpersonal approach then the traits and attributes with the previous activation processes needed to be researched, he interpersonal and collective approaches could be given the meaning by the social identity approach. 

Evaluation of the methodology:

The researchers use the small or moderate sample size, about 150 samples were collected, however, the results shows the significant affects; the variable collective connection the shows the most significant effects. Four hypotheses were designed by the researcher, the likert scale was used to measure the mean of the five items, the 6 point scale was used. The 6 point scale is ranging from the “I strongly agree” to “I entirely agree”. The purchase intention of the customers was also noticed by collecting the data. 

The results or reliability was satisfactory; however, they have selected the small sample size, the sample size must be increase for the accuracy of the data. The data was placed and then tested by Hayes (2013), by using the SPSS macro. The data, which was highly satisfied, was collective identification; the connection of the advertising by means of collective identification. There were limitation in the research, the collective influence provide examples the original assumptions. 

Discussion:

The data collected, provide the researchers with the positive results, the weakness of the research was very limited sample and the strength was they did research based on the collective identification, that how social media is effecting the minds of people. 

On the practical level the media advertising professionals can control their publishing content, the online content must be effective and must be interesting, before it is, publish, with the behaviors and interest of the people the content need to be focused and then published. The user-generated content is more effective as compared to the professional, by adding comment to the content the users can make it more attractive for the people or customers. The user generated content, is not limited to the Facebook, it is researched that user generated content is also extends to the other social media also along with the advertisements.

The industries have assessed the need of the hour, social media is now providing the opportunities to create the advertisements, and then place it on different websites, the research have shown that the user generated content, are focused on the interpersonal and collective approaches, by understanding the social information. It is assumed that social information could be affective for the social influences; the stronger the social information is the more effective services could be given to the people. Face-to-face communication or electronic word-of-mouth are the best ways to attract the people especially, it can create the social influence. 

The people are influenced more by the websites, like YouTube video can influence the YouTube users, there is just proper need of assessment by the users generated content, the advertisements need to be clearly and closely monitor, the conversation on the online adds should also be monitor to know about the people and their psychological behaviors. The brand online advertisements, in an appropriate way can draw the attention of the consumers to get in touch with the advertisements or the websites is important to get in touch with the customer, the content is needed to share in the favorable way; or that seems favorable to the consumers. Professionally created content can effect or influence the consumers’ minds, to generate best content for the mass audience is the need of the hour. (Knoll & Schramm, 2015)

Reference

Knoll, J., & Schramm, H. (2015). Advertising in social network sites –Investigating the social influence of usergenerated content on online advertising effects. DE GRUYTER MOUTON, 40(3), 341-360.

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Globalization, student and career

Area of interest

There are certain areas of interest that I would like to prefer in productive time. Such area of interest includes globalization, careers, and students as well.

Research question

  1. How the impact of globalization effect on the choice of the TEI’? How choice of careers as well as the choice of degrees in this regard?
  2. How students get awareness about the globalization impact on the careers?
  3. What demographics need to consider for the students towards globalization?
  4. What are the unconventional paths of learning as well as the exploration of career demonstrations?
  5. What is the current thinking of students about the impact of globalization?
  6. What are potential barriers faced by students towards globalization?
  7. Are careers built through globalization?

Type of research

There are certain types of research need to be explored for the research demonstrations.  Such types of research provide credibility in enhances the authenticate research methodology. Therefore, qualitative research must be focused. The qualitative type of research must be focus on the following major aspects

  1. Descriptive analysis of unconventional approaches
  2. Influencing factor for selection
  3. Reason for selecting choice options
  4. Effects and impact of psychological factors
  5. Manner of comprehension as well as understanding the core aspects of the areas of interest

The qualitative research process is used for the identification of respondents of perceptions in essential and adequate manner. The current research studies specifically associated with the qualitative research process.  The qualitative research study does not involve any statistical analysis for data interpretations; in this regard, the qualitative data analysis helps in finding the effective results. Interviews through questionnaire are the major technique used in the qualitative research process. The qualitative research facilitates interpretation of data. From the exploration of qualitative data analysis, it provides the in-depth perception of the respondents to obtain required results. In this regard, globalization recognized as independent variable and student future career is the dependent variable.

Figure 1: Relationship of dependent and independent variable

On the other hand, quantitative data analysis involves statistical exploration as well as rigorous methodological procedures for the data interpretation. It reveals that qualitative data is the best to study to indicate the descriptive data analysis that gained from questionnaire or surveys as well. It is one of the simple tools that examines the behaviors and attitudes of the students towards the impact of globalization on future careers. The current research approach analyzes the student’s responses about their future career regarding globalization with the tools of qualitative data analysis.

Main goals

            The main goals stated the impact of globalization on the student careers. It reveals that how the students have credibility achieve their desired goals for their future careers.  Such goals would be presented to obtain required aim and objectives of research consolidations.  Following are the main goals of research exploration.

  1. To measure the awareness of students that affected by globalization on students future careers
  2. To determine the profile of student adjusted with future careers and globalization
  3. To project the effectiveness of the preferences of the student on the curriculums of teacher education institute TEI’s
  4. To investigate the impact of globalization in student future career
  5. To determine the different options of selecting TEI’s
  6. To find out the different reason behind selection of certain degree to help in future careers
  7. To determine potential barriers faced by students towards globalization
  8. To find out, careers built through globalization

Plan for reliability and validity

Reliability would be gained through following establishments

  • Reliability would be established to ensure questions unmistakable across differences in local languages. On the other hand, if it would be unavoidable to change the words certainly. Therefore, reliability would be recognized as diligent for the best equivalents efforts in a good manner.
  • For the consideration of all subjects, there will be common briefing that gives description review of globalization that ensures the exploration of globalization study.  The reliability of the research study has the great understanding of critical concepts towards globalization as well as the career of students in their future accomplishments.

Validity would be gained through following establishments

  • The evidence of research explored in the research study that focuses on the validity of measurement technique. The current research study definite the internal validity that finds out the impact of globalization on future student career.  In this regard, globalization recognized as independent variable and student future career is the dependent variable.
  • External validity could not be established because the globalization reveals different results for different areas of research that give difference in external validity that need to be generalized. Therefore, the external validity of this research study could not generalize (Tilleczek K. , 2004).
  • It strictly limited the collection of data that executed specifically to a specified period for the elimination factor varying the degree of exposure, that need to be explored under the topic of media.
  • The validity of current research study excluding the students towards preferences of careers that could lead to effect by the globalization, such as working in the government environment.

Plan for sampling

  1. There is the certain plan for the sampling for the current research study to enhances the adequate results for the given qualitative research study. Following are the explorations of the sampling in the current research study.
  2. Only degree has been taken that would be planned or executed with eh global competition excluded in the current research study
  3. The master levels students considered in research for the exploration of the impact of globalization on the students future careers.
  4. Recognition of degrees that enter in government services like diplomacy of foreign excluded in the plan for sampling
  5. Proportional for male, female and LGBT would be 8:8:2
  6. The sample of 30 TEI’s would be selected, whereas 10 TEI is in each percentile of third   ranked in the TEI based on the university performance ranking
  7. Foreign students are excluded in current research study

Data collection method

Data collection is the major integral part of the research study to indicate the best result formulation. The part of data collection specifically based on the primary as well as secondary research data.    Both types of data have immense importance in the research procedure. Data will be collected directly from the respondents to generate the research goals of globalization impact on the student future career.  The current research data will be cross-sectional. Primary data will be collected directly from the respondents that would be university students of a master level (Tilleczeka & Hineb, 2006). 

For specific data collection, questionnaire technique would be used to get appropriate results.  The questionnaire technique is qualitative data analysis to obtain the first-hand quality of students as a specimen. Such themes of data collection will be presented that prepare eventual interviewed for the clarification of thoughts in the subject matter (Tilleczek, Ferguson, Rummens, & Boydell, 2006).

The semi-structured qualitative interview will be used to obtain the attitude and behavior of respondents about the impact of globalization on the student future careers. The semi-structured qualitative interview expands the thoughts of globalization, the role of government, methods of learning unconventional, suitable school careers are the major themes towards the data collection methods in the essential and adequate manner (Ward, 2005).

 Also, the data collection method associated with the description of the communication conversation between interviewee and interviewer as well. The questionnaire helps in providing interviews in the form of face-to-face as well as one on one that appreciates and enhances the intensity of sentiments towards various themes.  Also, AV recorder will be used for the same purpose to record the data in a good way. 

The questions will be developed in advance Interview is the best technique towards qualitative data analysis for the exploration of research methodology. There are two sections of research questions, whereas first section information contains on the respondent’s demographics like education, gender, tenure, semester and occupation. The second portion of the research question is globalization impact on the future of students careers employed accordingly. Ethical consideration would also consider in the data analysis for the gathering data. Approval letter, as well as the letter of consent, will be obtained in advance to indicate the impact of globalization on the future career of students in the university. No personal information will be disclosed like student number, the registration number of students and other personal information as well. 

Data analysis approach

The technique of qualitative data analysis helps in the interpretation of data analysis. Various types of techniques would be used for data analysis. Frequency distribution will be evaluated to obtain the perception of respondents towards impact of globalization on the future careers. The interview questions will be depicted actual review of respondents about effectiveness of globalization on student future career. 

The imagination has descriptions and explanations towards data analysis approach reveal the following objectives

  1. Appreciations of the degree have the significant impact of globalization on the future careers.
  2. Actions, as well as decisions, need to take for encountering the effects of future of globalization.
  3. There would be count to see for the distribution of students aware based on the gender and rank of TEI’s

References

Tilleczek, K. C. (2004). The Illogic of Youth Driving Culture. Journal of Youth Studies , 7 (4), 473-498.

Tilleczek, k., Ferguson, B., Rummens, J., & Boydell, K. (2006). Why leave school? Ask those who do. Education canadian .

Tilleczeka, K. C., & Hineb, D. W. (2006). The meaning of smoking as health and social risk in adolescence. Journal of Adolescence , 29, 273-287.

Ward, M. S. (2005). Child and Adolescent Health in Northern Ontario. Canadian Journal of Public Health .

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Death

Contents

Introduction. 3

Medical and Legal Definition of Death. 3

Medical Definition. 3

Legal Definition. 4

Parameters of Death and who have determined it 4

Law in the United States of America. 4

Presumption of death. 4

Death Penalty in the United States of America. 5

Estate. 5

Assisted Suicide. 5

Arguments in Favor of Assisted Suicide. 6

Arguments against the Assisted Suicide. 7

Conclusion. 8

References. 9

Introduction

It is imperative to understand that death is a bitter reality of the world. Every human being will die at the time due to different reasons. Today, one is going to conduct a study and paper on the topic of death. In this paper, one would include the details about the definition of death. Also, the information about determination of death would be included too in this Investigative Research Paper. It will be the complete study, which would cover the legal and medical aspects of Death. It will clear the concept of the death in the context of government and medical institutions as well. On the other hand, it will help one to understand the different parameters of death about the health law, policies, and regulations. The concept of assisted suicide will discuss in this paper. 

Medical and Legal Definition of Death

In simple words, the death is the end of life. It is very important to understand that death is reality and if a person dies due to an accident or killing or any act or factor, he or she will be declared death.

Medical Definition

In medical perspective, the definition is little change, and the wordings of definition are “the irreversible cessation of all vital functions especially as indicated by the permanent stoppage of the heart, respiration, and brain activity” (Merriam-webster.com, 2016). In other words, The brain activity will stop and system of breath stop working, the person would be declared death medically. 

Legal Definition

The legal definition of death is not changed from the medical definition in words and understandings.  Anyhow, the government officials and institutions declare someone dead, and he or she will be declared death by the community who is following the rule and regulations of the government. It is a fact that legal authorities declare someone dead after the supporting material from the medical authorities.

Parameters of Death and who have determined it

Law in the United States of America

There are two major concepts of the death; one is the cardiopulmonary death, and the other is brain death. The United States of America has maintained a law under the uniform determination of the death act (Foley, 2011). This act defined the above-mentioned two concepts of death, and cardiopulmonary death is a stoppage of heart and breathing, whereas the concept of brain death is somehow the stoppage of brain activity in the human body. In both cases, the authorities are bound to issue the death certificate to the relative or concerned of the finished human being. 

Presumption of death

The death could be announced in assumption and perception in some cases. For instance, the people are on the plane, and it crashes due to bad weather (Cagle, 2013). The authorities and relevant people are failed to found people. The people would be called and declared death after certain efforts to find them. On the other hand, the law, which determines the time of it, varies, according to the different laws and regulations in different states. The US state of Georgia has the time of four years to declare a person death and government of Italy has twenty years for it. 

Death Penalty in the United States of America

In Western countries, the concept of the death penalty has not been in practice for many years. The United States of America is the only place, which is practicing the death penalty to culprits and around 28 people have penalized death in the year 2015. According to the reports, around 31 states of the United States of America and the federal government have been practicing the law of death penalty (Jiang, 2013). On the other hand, the lethal injection is a concept that is used by the America for the death penalty to offenders. The lethal injection is the mean of capital punishment in America and other five countries as well. The country of Vietnam, Thailand and China are also in the list of practicing lethal injection for putting to death.

Estate

The estate laws are also clear and concise in the law of United States of America. Almost no countries, the declared death people have the right to use property. Anyhow, through the testament and will, the people can state the wish about the property before the death, and it is according to the law. On the other hand, it is a fact that laws and state laws are mentioned are clearly in favor of people, and it makes the state a welfare state. 

Assisted Suicide

The concept of assisted suicide is legal in a small number of countries and prohibited in most of the countries. Sometimes, the assisted suicide is described with euthanasia. The definition of assisted suicide is to kill a person by his or her will.  In other words, people goes into the sewer medical and pain condition; they prefer the assisted suicide at that time to stop the continuous pain. It is the very notorious subject, and most of the countries are up to the discussion. It is a fact that most of the United States area is not approving it as a legal concept. On the other hand, the countries like Switzerland, Belgium, Netherlands, and Canada are practicing this in their countries. It means that these countries have provided permission to physicians and doctors to assist and help patients to get rid of sewer pain.

It is imperative to understand that this concept is mostly got confused with the concept of euthanasia. It is obvious that it is quite different from assisted suicide. In simple words, the definition of euthanasia is like a mercy killing.  In this state, a patient does not have the courage to fight against the disease. Therefore, the doctors allowed themselves to react according to this concept using certain parameters. The assisted suicide comes from the will of patients and physicians. In my opinion, it is cleared now the difference between assisted suicide and euthanasia.  Furthermore, one would like to say that there are many arguments in support of the concept of assisted suicide and against the assisted suicide. 

Arguments for Assisted Suicide

There are various arguments in favor of the assisted suicide, and it is a fact that every personal have the right to live and decide about the assisted suicide in sewer conditions.  The first argument in favor of assisted suicide is that a person will get relief ultimately from continues suffering from particular disease and condition (Cohen-Almagor, 2015).

Death of Dignity Act

The death of dignity act was used by people in 2015. They used medications to finish the process of life. Around 61 percent of people died after taking these medications (Deathwithdignity.org, 2016). It is a fact that this death was a peaceful process after following the typical method of killing yourself. 

Studies

On the other hand, the next argument was Different studies and researches for the assisted suicide in the hospitals. The seriously ill people are examined through the eyes of doctors and nurses, and it is concluded that the assisted suicide could be the better way to get relief from all of these certain issues of pain, anxiety, and stress. It must be remembered that it continues the process of pain and hurting. 

Arguments against the Assisted Suicide

On the other side, there are different arguments against the concept of the assisted suicide. Most of the organizations are working for the betterment of human beings and development of the human beings. They cannot support the concept of assisted Suicide (Jeffrey, 2009). 

Vulnerable population

The people who are against the regulations of the assisted Suicide argue that most of the people like to disable communities are in the zone of pain and harm from others. This law will increase the chance of harm to those societies too. There is a chance that people would ask people to die who is suffering from disabilities. 

Medical Ethics and Religion

The people who are against this typical law defending their arguments with different statements and Hippocratic Oath are one of the top sources. They said that people cannot afford medications for death because doctors have the duty to protect the life of patients. On the other hand, the people are arguing against the law of assisted suicide with the religious sources too.  According to them, no religion has permission for assisted suicide for the patient suffering from any disease. 

Conclusion

In the end, one must say that it is a very broader concept to research and study. Anyhow, it is obvious that it is the reality and one has to suffer from it. In the same way, the discussion was about the definition of death and parameters of death. Also, it is mentioned that what is the definition of death in legal and medical terms. In the same way, the stoppage of brain activity and the law and rules mentioned about this particular topic.

In the second phase, the discussion was around the assisted suicide, acts, and laws regarding this controversial subject. The arguments of supporters are discussed, and in the same way, the opposite arguments were mentioned too. Overall, it was comprehensive details on the topic of death and assisted suicide furthermore. Also, it is the fact that this subject needs more space and tables for argument. 

References

Cagle, J. R. (2013). Presumption of Death. Strategic Book Publishing.

Cohen-Almagor, R. (2015). An argument for physician-assisted suicide and against euthanasia. Ethics, Medicine and Public Health , 1, 431-441.

Deathwithdignity.org. (2016). Oregon Health Authority Releases 2015 Data Summary on Death with Dignity Act. Retrieved October 26, 2016, from Death with Dignity: https://www.deathwithdignity.org/news/2016/02/2015-report/

Foley, E. P. (2011). The Law of Life and Death. Harvard University Press.

Jeffrey, D. (2009). Against Physician Assisted Suicide: A Palliative Care Perspective. Radcliffe Publishing.

Jiang, N. (2013). A comparison of wrongful convictions in death penalty. International Journal of Law, Crime and Justice , 41, 144-166.

Merriam-webster.com. (2016). Death. Retrieved October 26, 2016, from Merriam-Webster: http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/death

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Examining the impact of reward, motivation, Training & Development on employee performance: a case of public companies in Saudi Arabia

Research Proposal

In the recent few years, the world has received great development as everything has received the impact of development and things are being transforming within time. Subsequently, the in the wave of development, the business world has also received great change and so the ways of doing business has completely changed.

With the advent of technology, the manual system transformed the business into the automatic system which sped up the business efficiency as well enhance the business accuracy. On the other hand, in the old days, the core purpose of the employers was to maximize the business profit, but human resource was not given any importance.

With the wave of development, humans have also started to realize the importance of the human resource, and since the end of the twentieth century, the employers and owners of the business started to give importance to the key business player. With the passage of time, the things have completely changed as now the focus of the business is not on the key player, but the employers are focusing on to make every employee a key employee for the business organization.

In this regards, leaders of some of the most successful organizations believe that human resource is the most valuable asset for any organization as a key player can take organizations to the heights of success. Therefore, now most of the top world organizations are giving special concern to their employees as they believe that a satisfied and motivated employee performs better than the unsatisfied employees.  Moreover, it is believed that the success of organizations is greatly dependent on the satisfaction of their employees, because, when employees are happy they will go out of the way to give favor to their business.

  • Aims and field or research

The following study is planned by considering the importance of the human resource in the success of business. Therefore, the aim of this study is to create understanding among the students and the readers about the importance of motivational, training, reward and development on the performance of the employees and its effect on the overall success of the organization. Furthermore, it is to analyses the impact of the motivational study on the employees’ performance, the Public companies in Saudi Arabia has selected.

  • Significance of the research

This research has great significance as various motivational strategies have been using by some of the world top most organizations and these organizations have embraced great success as due to the motivational strategies, they have experienced great improvement in the performance of their employees.

Moreover, the significance of the research revolves around the following:

            Employees’ motivation helps to meet the satisfaction of an employee

            A satisfy employee feel secure with the organization and loyal as well

 A loyal employee can go out of the way to give favor to the organization, therefore, a motivated employee performs better than an unsatisfied employee.

  • Methodology and research techniques

There are various techniques are proposed to be adopted to collect data and information for this research. It is aimed to use qualitative and quantitative research interviews, and questionnaires will be used to collect date.  

On the other hand, the already existed research, books, and other material will also be used to collect data for this research. Moreover, the research will be placed in Saudi Arab, as in the research the impact of the employee’s motivational strategies will be accessed in various public companies of the country.

For this purpose, it is decided to collect date from some of the companies by arranging questionnaire from the employees of the organizations and by interviewing the administrative staff of the organizations.

  • Facilities and equipment required

For this assignment, we are required the permission letter from the targeted companies to allow us and cooperate with us by sharing some important information regarding the impact of motivation and reward on the employee’s performance.

Moreover, to record the interview of the administration, we will require a tape recorder or a Smartphone with the option of audio recording. Moreover, some financial funds are also required for this project to arrange the required resources such as the laptop with the internet, paper to develop the questionnaire.

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Chemistry of Ozone Depletion

Table of Contents

Introduction. 3

I.       Background Information: 3

Historical information/Discovery. 3

Scientific Terms. 4

Environmental implications. 4

Current Problem (Human health issue) 5

Solution to the problem.. 6

II.     Discussion: 7

Outline of techniques/Chemical Reactions. 7

The Chapman Cycle: 8

Depletion Process & the Chemistry Behind it: 9

Ozone Depleting Substances: 9

Conclusion: 12

References: 13

Introduction

            This report has included the chemistry of ozone depletion. Chemicals and gasses from the daily activities of the people are continuously damaging the layer of ozone. The ozone layer is important for the safety of the human beings. Ozone layer helps to protect us from the direct rays of the sun. Due to human activities on the earth like factories are continuously excreting gasses into the air. There are vehicles and gasses from refrigerators that are providingconsiderablea direct impact on the ozone layer. These activities are depleting the layer of ozone. This report has included the the environmental implication of this issue and chemical reactions causing this issue. The whole chemical reaction is included in this report. In the last section of the a report, the conclusion has provided for better understanding.

I.                  Background Information:

Historical information/Discovery

Earth is divided into five layers. These layers are classified, a first layer is a troposphere, the second layer is the stratosphere, the third layer is mesosphere, the forth layer is thermosphere and the fifth layer is exosphere. It is extending 3 miles above the surface of the layer. Ozone layer helps in the absorption of ultra virus rays. These rays are dangerous for the skin and health of the human beings.   Ozone resides in the second layer which is the stratosphere. Depletion of the ozone layer is due to the human activities. Human beings are constantly throwing the gasses and chemicals into the atmosphere and it is causing the layer of ozone to deplete (Chem.libretexts.org, 2014).

 It is making human beings vulnerable to the UV-B rays. It is causing infection and skin diseases. It is causing skin cancer in the people. In 1960, Scientists first time introduced the danger of ozone depletion. Scientists have provided their implication nitric acid can react with the layer of ozone, which is O3 to form O2 molecules. NO molecules have half-life; it is very short for making it for the stratosphere.

Scientific Terms

Anthropogenic pollutants: These are influenced and caused by the human beings. These are dangerous for the sustainability of the ecosystem. Synthetic organic metals are also included in this type of substances. These substances are continuously polluting the environment.

Ozone depletion: The continuous reduction in the layer of ozone from stratosphere layer of earth is known as ozone depletion.

Stratosphere layer: Earth is divided into five layers. It is the second layer of the earth.It is known as Stratosphere layer.

UVB rays: UVB rays can penetrate into the deeper layer of the skin. It may results in the premature aging and wrinkling on the skin. These rays burn the super facial skin layer (Andersen, Sarma, & Sinclair, 2012).

Environmental implications

            Ozone depletion has many environmental implications. UVB radiations are affecting directly on the development and growth process of the plants. It also disturbs the timing of development and growth of the plants. There are many human issues. UVB rays can result in plenty of skin diseases including skin cancer. Depletion of ozone is also causing an effect on the marine life. It is disturbing the development of fish, amphibians, and other marine life. It is causing an adverse effect on the environment overall.

Source: http://www.7continents5oceans.com/ozone-layer-depletion-causes-effects-and-solutions

Current Problem (Human health issue)

 There are many environmental issues resulting from the ozone depletion. One major environmental issue is the problems in the skin due to radiation of the sun. Ozone layer depletion is causing many skin diseases in the human beings. It is causing skin cancer, wrinkling, red spots, aging and many other issues in the human beings. UVB rays help in non-melanoma the cancer of the skin. It plays a major role in the development of malignant melanoma. People are continuously affecting due to this an issue in the world. It is not the issue of a specific country but the issue is for the global world (Epa.gov, 2016).

 UVB rays can easily penetrate into the thinner layer of the skin. These rays can produce a chemical reaction that can results in this problem in the people. Ozone depletion is not only causing the skin diseases but also causing an eye infection. It can affect the lenses of an eye. Due to depletion of ozone layer, ultraviolet rays are coming towards the earth. These are infecting eyes lenses, cornea, retina etc. It has analyzed that UVB layers are also weakening the human immune system. It may result in many problems for the people. Immune system disturbance results in developing the stages of skin cancer. The immune system cannot control the initial development of cancer due to this reason. Skin aging affects our personal appearance. One looks older than his actual age.

Solution to the problem

            Ozone depletion is not due to the activity of one person or one country. It is caused due to the contribution of the global world. Every individual and every country are involved in this issue. There is direct need to resolve this issue. One of the important issue discussed above is the health diseases. These diseases belong to skin and eyes on people. Countries should make an international agreement to reduce the depletion of ozone layer. They should work collaboratively to reduce the health issues of the people.

 Countries should jointly contribute to the solution of this problem. Every country should also motivate individuals to play their individual role in reducing the issue of this problem. It is recommended that every individual should play its role to reduce the issue at international level. Sustainability practices by the companies are very important in this case. Companies should work on the green production. They should avoid polluting environment. Individuals should use recycling products to contribute towards the reduction in this issue. Individual should use public transport. It will help to reduce depletion of ozone layer and help to reduce the issues of health in the people. It will help to reduce the issues of the environmental effect of ozone depletion (JAIN, 2015).

II.                Discussion:

Outline of techniques/Chemical Reactions

We all know that the depletion of the ozone layer is of utmost and crucial importance for the environmental sustainability. For removing the causes, which cause this depletion, we first need to understand the chemistry of the ozone layer and its depletion.

The earth stratospheric ozone layer is important in this regard that it plays an important role in the absorption of ultraviolet radiations. These ultraviolet radiations are emitted by the sun. The pollutants are the main cause of the depletion of this ozone layer. The anthropogenic pollutants are the ones, which are historically being considered for the depletion of the ozone layer. However, there are a number of other chemical reactions as well that can cause this depletion. The most crucial and destructive of these include the catalytic destruction, which is played by the halogens in depletion of this layer.

The human environment relies heavily on the ozone layer for the absorption of these ultraviolet radiations. These UV radiations are very dangerous if exposed with. It causes skin cancer and may lead to genetic damages.

The Chapman Cycle:

In the stratosphere, the oxygen molecules and ultraviolet rays are in constant cyclic interaction. This process is considered as constant cyclic because of the reason that constant conversion between the different oxygen molecules is occurring. The Chapman cycle is the reaction of the ultraviolet radiations with the oxygen molecules, which result in the formation of Ozone molecule and atomic oxygen.

It is showed by following reactions:

  1. With the reaction of the Ultraviolet radiation, one oxygen molecule converts into two oxygen radicals.

hv + O2                                                                                                       2O

  • These oxygen radicals react with another oxygen molecule to form Ozone molecule.

O2 + O                                                                               O3

  • This ozone molecule then reacts with oxygen radical to form oxygen molecules.

O3 + O                                                                               2O2

  • Other than this, the ozone layer also is converted into oxygen molecule by the reaction of the photon.

O3 + hv                                                                             O2 + O

These reactions are constantly occurring for millions of years. This is the reason because of which the ozone layer thickness varies for various times. The ozone layer because of this reason is also able to regenerate itself. The introduction of the new oxygen molecules by the process of photosynthesis causes the ozone layer to regenerate itself (Fabian & Dameris, 2014).

Depletion Process & the Chemistry Behind it:

CFC molecules are the main player in the depletion of the ozone layer. These CFC molecules are made of chlorine, fluorine and carbon atoms. These are extremely stable. They are able to move from troposphere to the stratosphere without any changes in their properties. Moreover, they are also able to move to greater altitudes, where the ultraviolet radiations are in state that is more active. The exposure of these CFC molecules with the UV radiations causes their individual components to get free. These free halogen molecules are the main constituent of the ozone depletion. The example of chlorine below shows that how these molecules are able to convert an ozone molecule into molecular oxygen causing the depletion of oxygen.

Cl + O3                                                                        ClO + O2

ClO + O                                                                      Cl + O2

O3 + O                                                                         2O2 (Complete Reaction)

            Chlorine here acts as a catalyst. Because of this, the chlorine atom is able to convert many molecules of ozone. One chlorine atom after converting one ozone molecule into oxygen molecule reacts further with another ozone molecule and convert it too. Like this, one chlorine molecule can convert thousands of ozone molecules. As there are no ozone molecules left, after this destruction, the oxygen molecules left are not able to absorb any ultraviolet radiations letting it pass through it to the earth atmosphere (US Environmental Protection Agency, 2016).

Ozone Depleting Substances:

Below is the list of substances that are considered responsible for the depletion of ozone layer.

Substance Ozone- depletion ­potential
chlorofluorocarbon-11 (CFC–11)  1.0 
chlorofluorocarbon-12 (CFC–12)  1.0 
chlorofluorocarbon-13 (CFC–13)  1.0 
chlorofluorocarbon-111 (CFC–111)  1.0 
chlorofluorocarbon-112 (CFC–112)  1.0 
chlorofluorocarbon-113 (CFC–113)  0.8 
chlorofluorocarbon-114 (CFC–114)  1.0 
chlorofluorocarbon-115 (CFC–115)  0.6 
chlorofluorocarbon-211 (CFC–211)  1.0 
chlorofluorocarbon-212 (CFC–212)  1.0 
chlorofluorocarbon-213 (CFC–213)  1.0 
chlorofluorocarbon-214 (CFC–214)  1.0 
chlorofluorocarbon-215 (CFC–215)  1.0 
chlorofluorocarbon-216 (CFC–216)  1.0 
chlorofluorocarbon-217 (CFC–217)  1.0 
halon-1211  3.0 
halon-1301  10.0
halon-2402  6.0 
carbon tetrachloride  1.1 
methyl chloroform  0.1 
hydrochlorofluorocarbon-22 (HCFC–22) 0.05 
hydrochlorofluorocarbon-123 (HCFC–123) 0.02 
hydrochlorofluorocarbon-124 (HCFC–124) 0.02 
hydrochlorofluorocarbon-141(b) (HCFC–141(b))  0.1 
hydrochlorofluorocarbon-142(b) (HCFC–142(b)) 0.06 

(US Clean Air Act 2010, 2010)

Above is the list of ozone depleting substances of which majority are the CFC molecules. These CFC molecules are formed from the following technological and industrial human activities:

  1. Refrigeration
  2. Aerosols
  3. Foams
  4. Air Conditioning
  5. Electronics
  6. Dry cleaning
  7. Fire Extinguishers
  8. Cleaning and Degreasing of printed circuit boards

(Enviropedia.org.uk, 2016)

The CFCs or the chlorofluorocarbons knew as the Freon are non-toxic, non-carcinogenic and non-flammable molecules. These as depicted from their name contain molecules of chlorine, fluorine, and carbon elements. As mentioned in the list, these CFCs are widely used in the refrigeration process as coolants, and in the air conditioners. As solvents, they are used in cleaners specifically for the cleaning of the electronic circuit boards. As blowing agents, these CFCs are used in the production of foam like fire extinguishers. Furthermore, these CFCs are used as propellants in the aerosols. This shows that the modern life of the 20th century is based entirely on the use of the CFCs (Enviropedia.org.uk, 2016).

Manufactured CFCs are, however, the main culprit of this crime. These CFCs molecules have a lifetime of 20-100 years. In addition, one loose chlorine molecule from any of these CFCs can cause depletion of thousands of ozone molecules. The internal control agreements have caused the world community to look deeply into this problem and the developed world has now largely ceased to contribute to the emissions of the CFCs. However, the world is now taking steps I this regard to seriously stop the emissions and cease further destruction of the ozone layer (Enviropedia.org.uk, 2016)

Conclusion:

            The depletion of the ozone layer is considerably because of the manufactured CFC emissions in the environment. These CFCs are quite stable in their properties and hence are able to move to the highest altitudes of the stratosphere where the photos are highly energetic. The reaction of photos with these CFC causes chlorine molecules to get loose which is the main reactant for the depletion of the ozone layer. These react with ozone to convert it into oxygen molecule, which is unable to absorb these radiations. The exposure of the humans with this radiation causes health problems like skin diseases. For ceasing this depletion, the international community should work together on reducing the emissions of CFC in the environment so that the threat to the health of earth habitats can be lowered.

References:

Andersen, S.O., Sarma, K.M. & Sinclair, L., 2012. Protecting the Ozone Layer: The United Nations History. Earthscan.

Chem.libretexts.org, 2014. Depletion of the Ozone Layer. [Online] Available at: http://chem.libretexts.org/Core/Physical_and_Theoretical_Chemistry/Kinetics/Case_Studies%3A_Kinetics/Depletion_of_the_Ozone_Layer [Accessed 22 October 2016].

Enviropedia.org.uk, 2016. Chlorofluorocarbons. [Online] Available at: http://www.enviropedia.org.uk/Ozone_Depletion/CFCs.php [Accessed 22 October 2016].

Epa.gov, 2016. Health and Environmental Effects of Ozone Layer Depletion. [Online] Available at: https://www.epa.gov/ozone-layer-protection/health-and-environmental-effects-ozone-layer-depletion [Accessed 22 October 2016].

Fabian, P. & Dameris, M., 2014. Ozone in the Atmosphere: Basic Principles, Natural and Human Impacts. Springer Science & Business.

JAIN, A., 2015. Ozone Layer Depletion – Causes, Effects and Solutions. [Online] Available at: http://www.7continents5oceans.com/ozone-layer-depletion-causes-effects-and-solutions [Accessed 22 October 2016].

US Clean Air Act 2010, 2010. 42 U.S. Code § 7671a – Listing of class I and class II substances. [Online] Available at: https://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/42/7671a [Accessed 22 October 2016].

US Environmental Protection Agency, 2016. Basic Ozone Layer Science. [Online] Available at: https://www.epa.gov/ozone-layer-protection/basic-ozone-layer-science [Accessed 22 October 2016].

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Increasing consumption of drugs in youth and its effect on the health

1-b Introduction

            The topic of this research is “Increasing consumption of drugs in youth and its effect on the health”. Consumption of drugs including alcohol and cigarette has increased with the passage of time. It is providing the negative effect on the body and minds of the youth. Youth are considered the important segment of the society. Future of the society relies on the youth segment of the economy. There are many reasons for selection of this topic. Drugs consumption has to become important problem not only in the United States but also in all over the world. It is causing deaths of youth and other people on daily basis.

 There are many diseases associated with this topic. Drug consumption causes many decreases like lungs infection, tongue cancer, heart attack, etc. Another reason of selection of this topic is to control this issue. Many universities and schools are trying to reduce drugs usage in youth but they are unable to control this issue. The reason for selecting this topic is to communicate with youth that what they are doing with their precious life. This has become major social issue nowadays. It does not belong to one person but it links with overall society. More than 23 million youth at the age of 12 are affecting due to the consumption of alcohol (Ncadd.org, 2015).

There is a need to control this issue because it is disturbing the whole economy. Now the parents are worried about the decreasing health of their children. They are not able to control this bad habit of youth. According to estimation, 5000 people are dying annually at the age of 21 due to binge drinking (Pubs.niaaa.nih.gov, 2006). It is important to aware the youth that they are damaging their life from their own hands. This is the reason why this topic has selected. According to the national institute of drug abuse, prescriptive drugs consumption is highest in youth with the record of 5.9% (drugabuse.gov, 2014).

            This study is very important for others because it is one of an important social issue. This study is not only important for youth but also for other old aged people that are suing drugs on the daily basis. It is important for the community and the whole society. Drugs consumption not only affects a single person but his family and friends. It effects on the external environment, like its neighbors etc. This study is also important for parents that do not control their children. They provide excessive freedom to their children.

 This study is also important for other researchers who are interested in this social issue. It is also important for heath care departments. Manufacturers of drugs should also give emphasis on this issue. There are many health issues associated with the use and consumption of drugs in the youth. It causes nausea, vomiting, pain, cardiovascular, seizures, disturbance of immune system etc. The study is not only important for the addicted people, but it is also important fort non-addicted people. They can also take help from the health issues causing by the usage of the drug. It is also important for government. The government should take actions and implement policies to reduce this issue because it is causing serious health issues in youth.

1c: Statement of the Problem

            In this research, problem is to identify the risk and health issues in the youth due to excessive consumption of drugs.

Why problem exists?

There are many reasons for the existence of this problem in the society. One important reason for this problem is excessive freedom from the parents. When children are in their growing age, parents think that excessive pressure on children will lead to providing excessive stress on them. They consider that now their children are grown enough to make their decisions themselves.

 They do not involve in the life of children. Involvement of parents in the life of children is important (Green, Bekman, Miller, Perrott, Brown, & Aarons, 2011). It is important to the success of children. Another important cause of this issue is the culture in the schools and colleges. Bars shops near campuses and discounting offers etc attract attention of the youth towards them. The culture of the society is also another important reason for this issue. In parties and gathering, people prefer to use drugs.

Who the problem effects?

 The direct effect of this problem is on youth. They are affecting directly from excessive usage of drugs and drinking. This problem is providing the indirect effect on parents, teachers, community, health care centers, society and the whole country. 

Who will benefit?

            This research would provide benefit to the society. It will provide benefit to the youth and their parents. This study can save the lives of youth. Academic performance of youth is affecting due to excessive consumption of drugs. This study will help to improve their academic performance. It will help the government to implement policies for manufacturers. The government can implement policies to control this issue. This study will also provide benefit to the other researchers that are interested in this topic, for their future research. It is beneficial for the society and the community.

1-d Statement of Purpose

Drug addiction is a brain disorder. In this situation, the addict is said become dependent on the drugs. Despite knowing about the hazards of drugs, the addict continues to use it he has an uncontrollable desire for the consumption of the drug. In order to obtain drugs, the addicts also involve in compulsive behaviors at times. The addicts cannot control the desire for intake of drugs. a single drug addict at times creates a chain of addicts by involving other friends and family members into this activity.

Drug addiction is more in amongst youth these days. The reasons associated to this are many. These include curiosity, stress, desire, social interaction, lack of confidence, inferiority complex, pressure from peers etc.  Young drug addicts are a serious problem because most of these members are school going boys and girls who actually are future citizens of the nation on whom the country will depend in future or who will work or the welfare of the state. So it is impossible to such youth falling into the pit of drug addiction.

 In order to avoid harmful consequences, it is important to prevent the youth from drug addiction. If young people become aware of the hazards of such drugs before entering into the world of addiction, only then they will be able to avoid them. So parents and the society combined should make the youth aware of the harmful effects of drug addiction. Dug preventive plans must be focused at schools and colleges in order for the program to be effective. Moreover, hidden vendors of drugs must be spotted and punished heavily in order to keep other people away from selling drugs. 

1-e Key Terms:

Binge drinking: Consumption of excess alcohol in the very short time period. One of important drugs type is alcohol drinking in excessive amount. This term has used in this research as identifying drinking habits in youth. It brings the level of alcohol in blood up to 0.08 g/dL.

Drugs: Any substancewhen injected, inhaled, consumed, smoke, through skin path or dissolving under tongue creates a change at physiological level in the body. This term has used in this research for measuring its health effects on the youth.

Nausea: It is a feeling of sickness in which the person feels sickness inclination towards vomiting (International, 2010). This term is being used in the study to show the effect of the drugs on health.

Cardiovascular seizures: Seizure or arrest of the heart is caused by the disruption of communication between the central nervous system and the heart. This can also happen because of the lack of blood supply to the brain from the heart. This term is being used in the study to show the effect of the drugs on health.

Immune system: Immune system is the defense system of the body comprising of many biological components and processes, which provides protection giants diseases. This term is being used in the study to show the effect of the drugs in weakening the immune system of the body. The immune system linked directly with controlling diseases and health issues directly relate to this term. The low immune system increases the chances of health issues in youth population.

References

Drugabuse.gov. (2014, November). Prescription Drug Abuse Adolescents and young adults. Retrieved October 21, 2016, from https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/research-reports/prescription-drugs/trends-in-prescription-drug-abuse/adolescents-young-adults

Green, A. E., Bekman, N. M., Miller, E. A., Perrott, J. A., Brown, S. A., & Aarons, G. A. (2011). Parental Awareness of Substance Use Among Youths in Public Service Sectors. Journal of studies on alcohol and drugs , 72 (1), 44–52.

International, N. (2010). Nursing Diagnoses 2009-2011, Custom: Definitions and Classification. John Wiley & Sons.

Ncadd.org. ( 2015, July 25). ALCOHOL, DRUGS, AND YOUTH. Retrieved October 21, 2016, from https://www.ncadd.org/about-addiction/underage-issues/alcohol-drugs-and-youth

Pubs.niaaa.nih.gov. (2006, January). Why Do Adolescents Drink, What Are the Risks, and How Can Underage Drinking Be Prevented? Retrieved October 21, 2016, from http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/AA67/AA67.htm

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Effect of Student art and design on Performance

Research Proposal

Effect of Student art and design on Performance

Section 1:

The topic, which I have chosen today, is the effect of student art and design on the performance. Here the main point to look at is that there are different designs of the arts wherever we see in the surroundings. There is a misconception that the designing and the structure of art is nothing but just the design. However, it is also said that the designs and the art structure say many by itself and it is really important and effective in the performance of the student. We can say that here we will try to find out that what are the real concerns of the students and what are the reasons that the student’s performance gets low. The designs and the art structure do affect the performance or not.

Here it is important to tell the importance of the topic as the reason is the strong basis should be there in this regard. The topic is very interesting in here and the reason is that yes or no we need to find the effect of art and design on the student’s performance so that if we want to increase the performance of the student the art and design needs to be changed according to him in this case.

If we look at the hypothesis then there will be a hypothesis, which will be as H1= there is a strong relationship in between the art and design and the performance of the student due to that. Here in this study, the main objective which we need to achieve is that what is the effect of the art and design on the performance of the students in real. Here the main argument is presented in an elaborative way so that the reader could understand what we are trying to say in the study.

Section 2:

Here in this study, we will use the secondary sources so that the research has been already done and the related books, journal articles, and the academic references have been already published in this regard. We will use the articles from the published journal, books, and the news article so that the value what we will say would be authentic in this regard.

Looking at the articles, I will like to state that we have taken many different and unique articles in the study as different studies in arts and education the responses, interpretation and the understanding of arts in this case. Articulating aesthetic understanding through art making will also be discussed in here so that the effect of the performance due to the different designs could be known.

There are different articles that are included in this study and some of them are regarding the cultural diversity as the problem based learning through art and craft. Here we can see that yes the art and design are not a simple thing, which we could say. There are a prolonged history and the performance of the students night be disturbed due to that. Different narrative art journals have been consulted in this regard so that we could find the relationship in between the art and design on the performance of the students.

Looking at the all of the above articles and journal we are trying to establish the link so that the performance of the students and the art and the structure could be elaborated in a good manner so that the related theories could be explained and the best way could be told in order to explain the statement. However, it is really an important element that what kind of sources is being used in the paper as it makes the paper credible in the assignment.

Section 3:

Here if I look at the assignment it is very deep and the complex study of arts in fact. Many of the people just think that the picture is drawn on the canvas or the wall. However, there are many fascinating things besides that. We need to look at it in the detail so that we come to know that what the real problem is. While in this assignment looking at the real-time view we come to know that there are not enough people who know about this problem in real. The grading of art in this sense will be one of the difficult things, which I believe.

Section 4:

            Here if we talk about the research for the academic writing it needs to be known that what it really is. It is to explore the hidden aspects of life. Looking at the topic what we have selected in the assignment we come to know that the understand and the true meaning of the art design needs to be explored in this case. The reason is that we need to find what the real problem is what is the effect of the performance of the student due to the art and design in here. This is important to know that what the real problem is in as the performance needs to be enhanced, therefore.

            Looking at the future directions, I would like to state that this research will be very useful in the future and the reason behind it is that many of the students will perform better if the results fetched out are positive. This research is not just for the art lovers. However, we see the painting and the art, design at the every step in here. The reason is we all face at one or the other end of the life. We can see that the best of the art and design needs to be focused so that the performances could be enhanced.

References

Addison, N., & Burgess, L. (2012). Debates in Art and Design Education. illustrated, annotated: Routledge.

Addison, N., & Burgess, L. (2003). Issues in Art and Design Teaching. Routledge.

Arrasjid, J. Y. (2012). IT Architect: Foundation in the Art of Infrastructure Design: A Practical Guide for IT Architects. illustrated: Lulu.com.

Costantino, T. (2002). Problem-based learning: A concrete approach to teaching aesthetics.

Studies in Art Education, 43, 219-231. Retrieved June 8, 2014, from the ProQuest

Database.

Doby-Copeland, C. (2006). Cultural diversity curriculum design: An art therapist’s perspective.

Art Therapy: Journal of the American Art Therapy Association, 23, 172-180. Retrieved

June 3, 2014, from the ERIC database.

Devlin, P. (2016). the effect of arts participation on wellbeing and health. Retrieved October 19, 2016, from http://www.artsforhealth.org: http://www.artsforhealth.org/resources/VAE_Restoring_the_Balance.pdf

Fortier, J. (2000). Wisconsin’s Model Academic Standards for Art and Design Education. Retrieved October 19, 2016, from WWW.Dpi.wi.gov: https://dpi.wi.gov/sites/default/files/imce/standards/pdf/art%26design.pdf

Goldberg, B. (2005). Art of the narrative: Interpreting visual stories. Art Education, 58, 25-32.

Retrieved June 5, 2014, from the ProQuest database.

Hannah, R. (2016). The Effect of Classroom Environment on Student. Retrieved October 19, 2016, from http://smart-thinking.weebly.com: http://smart-thinking.weebly.com/uploads/1/3/0/3/13035516/the_effect_of_classroom_environment_on_student_learning.pdf

Hussein, A. (2015). Impact of GC Design on Power and Performance for Android. 1-10.

Ico-d.org. (2015). Creativity, Design and Business performance. Retrieved October 19, 2016, from http://www.ico-d.org: http://www.ico-d.org/database/files/library/economics_paper15.pdf

Malloy, K. (2014). The Art of Theatrical Design: Elements of Visual Composition, Methods, and Practice. revised: CRC Press.

See, B. H., & Kokotsak, D. (2016). Impact of arts education on the cognitive and non-cognitive outcomes of school-aged children. Retrieved October 19, 2016, from https://educationendowmentfoundation.org.uk: https://educationendowmentfoundation.org.uk/public/files/Publications/Arts_Education_Review.pdf

Ward, F. (2012). No Innocent Bystanders: Performance Art and Audience. illustrated: UPNE.

Webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk. (2016). The impact of office design and performance. Retrieved October 19, 2016, from http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk: http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20110118095356/http:/www.cabe.org.uk/files/impact-office-design-full-research.pdf

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The awareness regarding intravenous drugs and their hazards In Trine University students in Saudi Arabia

Introduction

The question that comes to my mind is that how the Trine University students are provided with information in the international countries and I have chosen Saudi Arabia for this. The issue of drugs is not very common in this country, however; this does not mean that the management of the university should not take any precautionary measures to educate the students on this issue.  The question that comes to my mind is that how the Trine University students in Saudi Arabia are provided with the information on intravenous drugs and their hazards in this country (Trine University, 2016).

Benefits of this research

            The benefits of this research are to understand the current sources of information that the students use to gain knowledge about the intravenous drugs and their hazards and how up to date are these sources. Gaining this information will allow the university’s management as well as SACM not only to take precautionary measure for future concerns but it will also allow them to keep the information updated as well.

Primary research question

How much do Trine University’s students know about dangerous intravenous drugs and their associated hazards?

Secondary sub-questions

  1. How do they get the information about the intravenous drugs and their associated hazards?
  2. What factors influence their knowledge level regarding the intravenous drugs and their associated hazards?

Research Question

How much does information availability influence the knowledge level of the students?

Research Population

The research population for this experiment is 2 other groups of students from the class. Each group will be comprised of 5 students. So the research population for the experiment contains 10 students.

Variable for the testing procedure

The medium used to create awareness about the drug will be used as a variable for the testing procedure.

Experimental procedure

            A questionnaire containing questions about intravenous drugs with 5 questions will be given to both groups. After this test the both groups will be provided with a short paper on intravenous drugs and their hazards and 3 minutes will be provided to them for study. A different questionnaire again containing 5 questions will be given to them. Then a randomly chosen group out of the two will be provided with another short paper with some more details regarding intravenous drugs and their hazards and after that, a 3rd questionnaire will be given to both the groups. In the end, results of all 3 questionnaires will be shown to the class.

Research Hypothesis

            The availability of information improves the knowledge level of all the students.

Research Test

1st Quesionaire

Provide 1 line answers to all 5 questions.

  1. What are intravenous drugs?
  2. Give 3 hazards associated with intravenous drugs?
  3. How do you know about such drugs and their hazards?
  4. What are physical signs of abuse?
  5.  What is detox?

2nd Questionaire

Provide answers to all 5 questions in 2 words.

  1. How do you about the dangerous drugs? Give 2 sources.
  2. Give 2 biggest issues caused by the intravenous drugs.
  3. Define detoxification
  4. How can you tell if someone is addicted?
  5. Define intravenous drugs.

  3rd Questionaire

  1. The 3 risks related with intravenous drugs are ­                                                        
  2. Symptomes of drug addiction are ­                                                                              
  3. Intrevnous drugs are                                                                                                  
  4. Detox is                                                                                                                      
  5. 2 main problems of these drugs are                                                                           

In the end both groups will be asked to identify 3 new things that they have leaned about intravenous drugs from the short papers.

Class Notes

We are using 2 groups of 5 students each for this experiment who all are from this class. The 1st questionnaire will be given to both groups. After this test both groups will be provided with a short paper on intravenous drugs and their hazards and 3 minutes will be provided to them for study. The 2nd questionnaire will be given to them again. Then a randomly chosen group out of the two will be provided with another short paper with some more details regarding intravenous drugs and their hazards and after that, a 3rd questionnaire will be given to both the groups. In the end, results of all 3 questionnaires will be shown to the class and both the groups will be asked about what knew the thing they have learned about intravenous drugs.

Individual requirements

            If everything goes as per the schedule then the answers to the 3rd questionnaire will be more precise and to the point telling us that students now have a clear perspective about the information shared. If the everything does not go according to the schedule then the results might vary. If the test is not conducted in time then results cannot be extracted from the experiment. If everything goes well regarding the representation of data then there is not much issue however, if the if the group that has only gone through one short paper proves to be more knowledgeable about the drugs then the group that has gone through both short papers then it will become very difficult to draw precise results from the experiment. I have learned that designing the experiments is a systematic method in which everything should be performed in accordance with the step by step procedure. This will allow the experiment to be in flow and drawing the results will become a much easier process. I have learned that doing research as a group becomes much simpler as different tasks are assigned to different group members and this keeps everything on track and as planned.

Referneces

SACM. (2016, October 8). About SACM. Retrieved from SACM: http://www.sacm.org/AboutSACM.aspx

Trine University. (2016, September 30). Health and Wellness. Retrieved from Trine University: http://www.trine.edu/campus-life/health-and-wellness/index.aspx

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Critical analysis of quantitative research report Nokia: 2016 Acquisition and Retention Study

Critical analysis of quantitative research report

Background of the report

            The Nokia’s 2016 retention and acquisition strategy is designed to assist mobile operator to make informed decisions. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the drivers of customer retention that are helpful for the company to regain its financial position in the market.  The investigation of the consumer perceptions, causes of the dissatisfaction and decline were also investigated. The survey was conducted across fourteen countries and 20,000 online participants. The report contains online quantitative survey. The study provided specific insights regarding the key drivers fort churn across, use of Wi-Fi usage, security concerns as well as consumers attitudes. The following paper provides critical analysis of the quantitative research report of Nokia. 

Critical analysis:

Reproach purpose

            The purpose and timing of the research is quite appealing. No doubt, once the Nokia was dominating the market. However, the current situation is not as it was before. Competitors, such as Apple and Samsung are dominating the market and Nokia required extensive effort to regain the market share. Thus, the investigation of the retention and acquisition strategy is an important step for developing loyal customer base and expanding business operations across global market.

Survey selection

            Survey of the report is based on online questionnaire that was distributed to 20,000 respondents. It will be more affective if the perceptions will be collected via hard copy as well. The likelihood of the hard copy survey is considered better. 

Length of the survey

            The survey takes 60 minutes to complete. It is a long time for a respondent to respond online. The chances of the type I error could also increase.   The respondents might try to provide unauthentic information just for the sake of the completion of the survey.

Sample selection

            The study is conducted in different continents with fourteen countries. The number of respondents is bit short as compare to the global scale of the study. The use of the online survey could be used to increase the sample size.

Demographic attributes

            More focus is needed to give emphasis on the demographic information of the respondents. This could also include the information about the market segmentation along with other characteristics such as gender, age, qualification and other preferences. This kind of the information is quite better in assessing the retention and acquisition strategy.

Regression model

            The study has employed regression model. This model was created to determine the impact of the individual contributions on the retention of customer experiences. These experiences include the network quality, cost and billing as well as customer care along with level of service and device portfolio. It is to be noted that the regression model also made it possible for the study to investigate the relative operator performance level of the company against its country average. However, it could be better to incorporate correlation along with regression. The correlation analysis provides the linearity and direction of the variables and the regression analysis provides the impact of the independent variable over dependent variable.

Incorporation of the secondary research

            The secondary analysis was also performed to evaluate the existing strategies of the company and its acquisition moves. This was important addition in the research methodology to enhance the magnitude and authenticity of the research.

Source:

https://pages.nokia.com/rs/677-JYK-041/images/Nokia-AR_Global_Summary_Report.pdf
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Research paper on Adderall

  1. What is your name and age?

My name is           and my age is                     .

2. What is your occupation?

I am a student.

3. How long have you been using adderall?

It has been using Adderall since last 6 months.

4. Are you prescribed adderall?

Yes, I have prescribed adderall by my doctor for the treatment of my depression.

5. Do you know about the side effects of Adderall?

At initial stage, I did not know the side effects of Adderall but late on my doctor as well as my friend has informed me and then I have also studied and done research about the side effects of Adderall but it was quite late as I became dependent on it.

6. Why did you first use Adderall?

I started to use Adderall because I was preparing for my examination and I was much stressed because I have to do a lot of work in short time and I knew that if I do not study then I will be dropped and it would be very insulting and wastage of time. My friends are there but one of my friends have suggested me to take Adderall to get relax and to concentrate on my study. 

7. In what situations did you first use adderall?(studying, partying) if so please elaborate.

I used adderall while I was preparing for my examination I was late admitted due to which there was a lot of course which I had to prepare it stressed me out as I have mentioned above that it was a matter of my career and I had to study at all. In this situation, my friend suggested me to take Adderall. Then later when I visited doctor and explained to him that I have been using Adderall, and then he also prescribed me this because I also explained to the doctor that after using Adderall I was so relaxed and it helped me out in my depression session

8. How did you first get your adderall?

I got my very first doze Adderall from my friend and late on I visited my doctor, and he also suggested me Adderall in my depression session.

9. What are some of the causes you chose to take adderall?

I choose Adderall because it helped me to get out of depression as it was exactly what I needed.

10. If you wanted to obtain Adderall how would you go about doing it?

I think it would be a better idea to obtain adderall through a legal way instead of getting it illegally. Therefore, to obtain adderall I will go to the doctor and discuss my case with the doctor as I am depression patient and I have been using adderall therefore I expect you to suggest me adderall as I cannot get it without a medical prescription

11. When you took adderall what name brand did you take and what mg?
There are two names Adderall and Adderall XR

Adderall:  it is a light medicine so it can be taken twice or three times in a day, because each time u take this medicine it will affect you about 3 to 4 hours only
Adderall XR:  it is a strong medicine so it is taken once daily and it affects last for 10 to 12 hours.
 I am using Adderall (20 mg) it is a capsule shape medicine and of orange color and I am taking it twice a day.

12. How would you rate your experience on adderall?

Before using adderall I was very disturbed by my problem, and due to this I was not able to concentrate on my study which was making me more depressed but after visiting my doctor and discussing my problem with him half of my tension was finished because sharing marked you feel light and then taking adderall I was so comfortable, and I can easily focus on my studies. I know that these medicines make you addicted so I will try my level best to low the usage of this medicine and try to control myself on my own

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Shell Retail Petrol Station

Shell Retail Petrol Station

  1. Introduction

            The Shell Retail Petrol Station is the recognized global corporation in the manufacturing distributing and having the retail channels of the crude oil. The company has recently faced tremendous issues in the internal resources for the sustainability of the internal management in the corporation. The key thing in this regard is that the learning of the new processes or strategies that would integrate the management core operations in the business model of the Shell Retail Petrol Station. The transformation process in the scenarios based on the performance-driven management for the individual level of the employees in which they would consider them a part of the dynamic organization that adopts the changing pattern of the global needs of the organization. The flexible range of the programs such as leadership in terms of the Hr forum of training or development of the promotional issues of the individual employees is analyzed. The organizational culture that would adopt the certain level of necessary contemporary business environment changes are essential in order to maintain the sustainability in the open or flexible procedure of resourcing in which the employees would learn the skills-based approach from the adequate staffing, planning and organizing strategy from the Shell Retail Petrol Station (Mahieu, 2001).

  • Academic Endeavour

            The Shell Retail Petrol Station in terms of the essential or the urgent need of the management development in some of the locations especially on the organizational structural for addressing the changes in the organizational culture of UK is monitored. The flexible system as the potential performance along with the core capabilities of the individual employees in the organizational setting meeting the mutual goals or objectives are a highlight in a way that the practical implications. In the finding of this research, paper would address the flexibilities in the core responsibilities of the frontline managers while having a strong relationship with workers and according to the guidelines from the top management in the organizational chart is analyzed in the Shell Retail Petrol Station is occurring. The promotional techniques as per the management core functions are not properly channelized suing the contemporary ranking methods, as the performance of the deserving employees would incorporate to the compensation along with fringe benefits (Maharaj, 2008).

            However, it was a minor or secondary issue, the core aim of this paper is to explicitly analyzing the system of management development in the framework of the organizational culture as a comparison of the overall decision-making strategy in the long-term benefits for the knowledge management in the Shell Retail Petrol Station. The key prospects in the learning of the organizational change development of the core functions of the management as per the maintain capabilities of the position in the market or the industry as it is leading chain in the manufacturing of the oil as fuel especially with context to the UK economic circumstances. The system of the transparency along with the open or flexible chain of commands in the management of the Shell Retail Petrol Station is therefore channelized with the approach driven by the performance only.

            The critical perspective is that changes using the augments approach as per the direction for the procedures in the HR functionalities are the core requirements of the emergent process of the resourcing the development for the mutual agreement of the  finalized method of the management operations. The requirements in the core skills or the technical expertise must be adopted with the passage according to the external dynamic flexibilities of the resources such as the technological tools in the identification of the long term values create in the organizational change management. The guaranteed style of the staff as per the values integrated to the changing needs of the skills using the limited editions of the mobility as a unique strategy in the management of the business core demands that are ever changing as per the number requirement of the staff talent acquisition (Ando, 2011).

             As a new process that would cover in the strategic compliance as the core findings of the research paper is analyzed. For the Shell Retail Petrol Station, which includes the long-term sustainability approach that would awaken anew, the range of the management direction in the perspective of the technological development tools or techniques? In the process of the novel or unique procedures of the resourcing of the staff of the organization or the selecting, the development of the training skills in the change management for the existing employees in the Shell Retail Petrol Station is evaluated. The approach that would highly reflect the open source or the flexibility in the process for the resourcing in the unique aspect from the Shell Retail Petrol Station is the key to addressing the core research objective. such as the line managers when to cope the legal framework of the game of the management rules as positioning in the new vacancy that would occur as a result of the applicant when applying in the Shell Retail Petrol Station. For the specific ratings of the conditions as well as terms listed in the potential traditional system of the management used in the Shell Retail Petrol Station (Ananthram, 2013).

            The planning system of the staff acquisition in the HR department of the Shell Retail Petrol Station is not being reasonable to evaluate the individual issues of the employees in the moving or changing management strategy or policies of HR management that would highly incorporate the system rated as a close pattern of the management loops. The significant aspect in this changing development in the infrastructural development of the organization like the Shell Retail Petrol Station in the perspective of the UK business settings must include the strategic resourcing system. As the poll establishing nature from the top management that would list down the key strength along with threatening series of the application in the individual employees in order to adopt the changes according to the external environment. This is the main concern that we have found as per the academic resources or endeavors in the change developing strategies in the organization (Sluyterman, 2010).

3. Research Question(s)

            The research question for the Shell Retail Petrol Station includes the targets area in the internal management of the business operation in order to get out of the internal resource as per the sustainability in the corporation is concerned.

  • How the developments of the management in the Shell Retail Petrol Station in terms of the flexible techniques, as per the forces such as the liberalization in the economic pressure arise in the company?
  • What is the process of the integration of the change management in the technology along with global operations that would responsible for effective functions of the management in the organization?
  • How the change in the individual along with group management models in the Shell Retail Petrol Station, for this long-term sustainability in the culture of the corporation is managed?

4. Research Objectives

            The objective of the research incorporation model of the Shell Retail Petrol Station as per the organization management change while developing the globally recognized the framework of the management using the technology as the core external resource that would fit into the business model of the company is included. The structure of the management that would promote the career of the internal employees working in the organization in a way that the forces of the economic liberalization are accomplished through the environmental concerns along with the concerns of the customers of the Shell Retail Petrol Station. The organizational larger size of the Shell Retail Petrol Station would incorporate into the network of the corporate social responsibility especially to the individual sought of the employees working in the organization. This is the core development strategy in terms of the program or the feature that would be incorporating the culture of the operations for the Shell Retail Petrol Station is evaluated (A. Panayiotou, 2015).

            The need of the customers as per the expectations that they perceive through the sustainable management of the organization means that the strategy would need to develop that focus on these issues. The barrier in the common global dimensions of the management functions is the language inside the communication pattern of the internal matters of the Shell Retail Petrol Station as a dynamic organization especially in the regions of the UK. The global process of the resourcing that would facilitate the internal employee’s concern such as the core key strength of the Shell Retail Petrol Station is analyzed.

            The relationship as the organizational concern as per the broad range of the operation in the flexible style of the leadership that would address the core challenges of the employee’s problems needs to handle  in the successful approach. As the pull dimension of the management style while appointing the most accurate number of the employees or their immediate supervisors or the managers that would directly report them using the correct quantity as the span of the control for delivering, receiving and sending the orders. The organizational chart is very effective in this concern, as the core responsibility of the individual employees is to maintain corporate social responsibility element as per the environmental concern using the ethical resources especially the use of the technological equipment that would integrate into the change management.

References

A. Panayiotou, N. (2015). A business process modeling-enabled requirements engineering framework for ERP. Business Process Management Journal , 21 (3), 628-664.

Ananthram, S. (2013). Strategic human asset management: evidence from North America. Personnel Review , 42 (3), 281 – 299.

Ando, N. (2011). Isomorphism and foreign subsidiary staffing policies. Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal , 18 (2), 131 – 143.

Maharaj, R. (2008). Shell Canada: over a decade of sustainable development reporting experience. Corporate Governance: The international journal of business in society , 8 (3), 235 – 247.

Mahieu, C. (2001). Management development in Royal Dutch/Shell. Journal of Management Development , 20 (2), 121 – 130.

Sluyterman, K. (2010). Royal Dutch Shell: Company Strategies for Dealing with Environmental Issues. The Business History Review , 84 (2), 203-226.

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Sociology

Conflicts between Parents & Children in Arab Society

In context of

Emotional Security Theory by Patrick T. Davies and Cummings EM

Outline:

  1. Introduction
  2. Emotional Security Theory by Patrick T. Davies and Cummings EM

The theory of the emotional security by Patrick T. Davies is the empirical study of the psychological or the emotional behaviors in terms of the physiological patterns in the development of the adulthood with respect to age is analyzed. The gap is studied as a psychological tools with cognitive behavior pattern in the Arab society while identifying the core reasons behind the relationship flaws of the children and their parents using the approaches of the constructive conceptual behavior models and the destructive application of the materials as per the psychological adjustment in the changing behavior of the children.

Hypothesis

The generation gap is associated with the relationship with child-parent relationship in Arab community that leads towards the psychological, emotional changes in behaviors in-terms of social limitations in the social interaction context on the children relying on traditional socio-cultural behavior patterns. The controlling or the authoritative style from the parents at the pro social contextual and the role of the emotional security threat that implies to the minds of the children in terms social, psychological or physiological stage of the growth is important reason.

  1. Conclusion

The relationship is analyzed using the psychological patterns of the conflict challenges as they raise because of the material social approach of the adjustments in the behaviors while investigation is analytically composed of the positive outcomes and the negative outcomes of the applying the social emotional security theory in the context of the Arab community. The meanderings are found in the cross mixing or amalgamation of the various western cultures comprised of the technological advancements or the social liberty of the children and the other side where the restrictions are made on the children according to the social interactions or technological use of the resources or tools.

  • The Affects of Parental conflict on the Children Behavior

There is a huge impact on the minds of the children especially in the dimension of the pre social adoptions of the lifestyle of the children in their growing stage or adolescence. The marriages as per the conflict caused among the parents or the couples, disputes regarding the decision-making of the mutual need fulfillment, sexual desires, the asset management household polices are include in the list of the behavior pattern of the emotional attitudes or feelings that have the very negative impacts on the minds of children especially in the Arab community. The children are the creature of the God who wants an advantage in terms of the social, cultural context of the physiological decision-makings while learning a lot form the external environment and the sanctions put on the lifestyle of the cultural patterns is the most important issue that must be addressed. The common issues of qualrrel among the parental or the couple in the Arab community are mostly related to the social right of spending te life, the practical limitations for the women while doing the job or the employment concerns. The personal issues including the marriages within the family, the decision of birth of child along with family planning inefficiencies are analyzed. The children when found that the situation in which they do not have the ideal scenario to learn form the role models such as the parents, they found the mental stress and the physiological changes in terms of the emotional risks aroused in them. Te strategy that the children in terms of the generation gap for the social interactions having the circles with the friends, or the other closed community. They pro found the changing in terms of the material sources of getting them out of the trouble. The parents usually do not notice or ignore the situation most of the times while arguing or treating the women in the bad way that leads towards the divorce is the common example that is illustrated in this paper at many occasions. The divorce is the major cause of the psychological changing impact as the emotional attitudes or the feelings of the children in the Arab community is related as per the core findings of the emotional security.  

  • Understanding of Family System
  • Theoretical Perspective of Family as a System
    • Functionalism
    • Symbolic Interaction
    • Conflict theory
  • Social functions of the Family
  • Arab Family System
  • The changing Arab Family
    • Factors causing the changes in Arab Family
  • Conflicts between Parents & Children
  • Conflict resolution
  • Solution to Conflict between societies
    • Symbolic interaction theories supporting conflict resolution
  • Conclusion
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Virtues & Vices – The Doctor (1991)

Virtues & Vices – The Doctor (1991)

            In this movie, there are plenty of examples of virtues and vices as well. The story is about a Dr. Jack MacKee who is a successful surgeon at a hospital. However in the earlier scenes of the movie he has been depicted to show CRUELTY towards her wife and son because he is too much busy in the job and the same behavior goes with his patients as well. He works long hours and spends to much time at his work that he starts to lose his interest at home and family and becomes emotionally dead. Nevertheless, his bedside manner with the patients at work is not right as well. The character of Dr. MacKee is depicted to show NO REMORSE towards the patients. His mood has become very casual and even in the operation theater the doctors are used to listening rock or country music.

However, his transformation begins when one night he is with his wife and throws blood while coughing and after a biopsy, he is told by the doctor that he has throat cancer. The doctor who does the biopsy is also depicted a COLD behavior towards him. In other scenes, the REMORSELESS behavior of doctors and EMPATHETIC behavior among the patients is depicted. Now MacKee realizes what he has been doing all these years with the patients whom he has been mistreating. He also develops a friendship with another cancer patient June Ellis with an inoperable tumor in her brain. June exhibits CARING for other patients and gets Jack to promise and never mistreat a patient again. The Jack starts to yell at the hospital establishment and he exhibits FRUSTRATION. As Jack and June go to watch a local native show Jack’s wife begins to show CONCERN about their relationship.

When the laser treatment of the Jacks vocal cords is unsuccessful he again shows ANGER and DESPAIR and gets into a confrontation with Dr. Abbott and then he asks Dr. Eli to perform his surgery. Jack had previously EMBARRASSED Eli but she responds with a smile and sets an example of perfect bedside manner.

However, after his successful treatment, he realizes the issue and then trains the new interns by dressing them up like patients and letting them know that what attitude should a doctor needs to have when he is treating the patients. A beautiful message is given to the audience especially to the doctors that they should be treating their patient with great care as they are already going through intense psychological pressure and pain and they should be comforting them rather than mistreating them. Jack realizes the issue when he becomes a patient and understands that what the patients are going through and what they have to deal with when they have to face the delays and rudeness of their doctors. This incident transformed him as a doctor and as a human being as well.  The story conveys a message to the doctors and the medical staff to have some REMORSE for the patients whom they are treating and towards their family members as well.

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A not for profit medical research center

Proposal for A not for profit medical research center

Abstract

Acting as a director of external affairs towards the establishment of the medical research center is to gain desired funding for process execution in project planning. The overall paper contributes the efforts to make the efficient availability of resources for the accomplishment of the project. The paper specifically focuses on the marketing and promotional efforts to reach potential donors for the funds to increase the overall execution of medical research center. Detailed testimonials describe from patients to make awareness about the efforts and facilitation of medical research center in the society. The current project plan specifies assumptions of the project, work break down structure, network diagram, detailed plan scheduling with the allocation of days and list of activities for the accomplishment of the project execution.

Introduction

The project provides the detail information for the improvement in medical research center to indicate the major consolidations in the project execution. Detailed documentation provided to intake promotional strategically implication for fundraising for the medical research center. The current project plan specifies assumptions of the project, work break down structure and list of activities for the accomplishment of the project execution (Devaux, 2014). A not for profit medical research center research on diseases and their work depends on the funds from the multiple sources. The main goal of the project to the readable report in both aspects of marketing and promotional activities to gain more funding from multiple sources. There are four members in the project proposal execution that assigned specific roles and responsibilities to product effective scope of the project (Forbes.com, 2014). 

Summary

Establish the project objective and make a list of your assumptions about the project

There are certain objectives of the project that need to be explored in terms of promotional and marketing activities. In this regard, the additional medical research center established to get awareness of the donors and get more funding for the research center. The report specifically executes source to inform donors about the progressive efforts of the medical research center. The management of medical research project for additional center effectively manages the resources of funding that has previously taken in the operations of medical research centers (Mattiske, 2012). 

  1. Project Assumptions

Information of financial would be taken from December 2015. Patients, as well as families, experienced positive results in the medical research center would provide their reviews and opinions for recognized testimonials. The resources used in the establishment of new medical research center need hardware and software availability for the prevention of additional cost. Each department in the medical research center corporate is to provide needed information adequately. Every team member in the project devoted 4 hours per day to the project planning. Coordinating as well as recording progress on weekly basis is that sure to achieve desired plan for the development of additional medical research center.

  • Develop a work breakdown structure
7.1 Evaluation  
7.2 Proposal  
2.1 Visiting sites  
4.1 Financial  
4.2 Non-Financial  
7.2.1 Final report  
  • Prepare a list of the specific activities that need to be performed to accomplish the project objective

Initiation of the project: For the initiation of the project, hold meetings to gives the detailed scheduling of project execution.

Taking Snaps: Taking pictures from institutions that support the medical research center additional facility to build trust of new donors

Development of testimonials: Positive experience of patients would be explored to identify potential benefits of research center

Obtaining financial and non-financial information: Information regarding financial and non-financial information extracts to help the community.

Strategic marketing: Marketing and promotional tactics would be recognized like integrated marketing communication mix to attract more donors

Previous funding information: The funding records helps in getting desired donors from the previous record to contact them adequately

Developing rough draft: Rough draft gives the detailed overview of project proposal for the establishment of medical research center

Evaluate reported draft: Assessing each aspect of the draft to intake the integration of the resource allocation to match the desired needs is produced in essential and adequate manner. 

Proposal development: Final report would be build

Publish report: Final report would be published

  • For each activity, assign the person who will be responsible
Work activity Alexis Grace Levi Lakshya
Initiation of project P S S  
Taking Snaps P   S P
Development of testimonials P     S
Obtaining financial and non-financial information S     S
Strategic marketing S P S P
Previous funding information P P S  
Developing rough draft P P P  
Evaluate reported draft P S S S
Proposal development P S P  
Publish report S   P  
  • Create a network diagram that shows the sequence and dependent relationships of all the activities.

PAGE 194 questions

  1. Develop an estimated duration for each activity.
Work activity Immediate processors Estimation days
Initiation of project 1 20
Taking Snaps 1 15
Development of testimonials 1 15
Obtaining financial and non-financial information 1 10
Strategic marketing 1 25
Previous funding information 2 30
Developing rough draft 3,4 10
Evaluate reported draft 5 5
Proposal development 6 10
Publish report 7 10

2. Using a project start time of 0 (or May 15) and a required project completion time of 180 days (or November 15), calculate the ES, EF, LS, and LF times and total slack for each activity. If your calculations result in a project schedule with negative total slack, revise the project scope, activity estimated durations and/or sequence or dependent relationships among activities to arrive at an acceptable baseline schedule for completing the project within 180 days (or by November 15). Describe the revisions you made.

Work activity Responsibility ED ES EF LS LF TS
Initiation of project Grace 20 0 15 0 15 15
Taking Snaps Lakshya 15 15 10 10 20 10
Development of testimonials Lakshya 15 15 10 15 20 10
Obtaining financial and non-financial information Levi 10 15 15 25 30 14
Strategic marketing Levi 25 10 20 30 30 20
Previous funding information Alexis 30 10 30 25 50 30
Developing rough draft Alexis 10 25 35 40 50 40
Evaluate reported draft Alexis 5 30 40 50 70 50
Proposal development Alexis 10 30 50 55 80 60
Publish report Alexis 10 30 60 50 50 80
  • Determine the critical path and identify the activities that make up the critical path.

The estimation of duration days not exceeding values of the project towards total slack values. The critical paths in the above-mentioned table associated with the initiation of project, collection of information, strategic marketing, recording information, rough draft, evaluation of report draft, proposal of repotting and publishing report recognized as critical paths for the identification of activities

Page 233 Question

Using the responsibility assignments you made in chapter 4, and baseline
schedule you developed in chapter 5, now develop a resource requirements table.

Estimated Resource Requirements for A Not-for-Profit Medical Research Center

Team members Working activities Days Duration
Grace 1 15 0 to 15
Lakshya 2,3 25 15 to 25
Levi 4,5 45 15 to 30
Alexis 6,7 55 30 to 80

Summary and Conclusion

Thus to sum up all discussion about the proposal development of medical research center is gives the detailed credibility in performing committed values for the research center. The overall project will be completed in 150 days. The accomplishment of goals identified in overall project report planning for the development of research center establishment. The main objective of project report planning is to execute needed promotional and marketing strategy such as integrated communication channels to reach donors and fundraisers for a not for profit medical research center. The overall report planning enables to facilitate the secure financial funding from the individual estates, federal government, foundations and general public as well. All four team members effectively allocated in resource commitment to generate required planning report for the medical research center.

References:

Devaux, S. A. (2014). Managing Projects as Investments: Earned Value to Business Value. CRC Press.

Forbes.com. (2014). Four Project Management Lessons You Can Learn From Software Engineers. Retrieved October 10, 2016, from http://www.forbes.com/sites/theyec/2014/01/31/four-project-management-lessons-you-can-learn-from-software-engineers/

Mattiske, C. (2012). Successful Project Management. AudioInk.

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Humanities

Rock Art: Southern Africa

Research Questions

Questions: Here are three focused questions I have about my topic:

  1. To what extent the animals are present in Southern African rock art?
  2. Is the Southern African rock art limited in comparison with other regions?
  3. Are the characters drawn accurate enough to depict the exact picture?

Significance: 

My topic reflects the humanities disciplines of the Southern African regions in these ways:

The study of rock art and various other related details depict the level of development among the societies in relation with humanities. My research will help in understanding the cultural development in the Southern African regions and how it correlates with other regional rock arts.

My preliminary research shows me this about my topic that there are different sort of variation among the rock art and I want to research that how much the Southern African Rock art is different from other regional rock arts in terms of pictography.

The 3 key words I will use include:

Rock Art

Southern African

Pictography

Stereotypes or assumptions associated with the topic

Africa is considered to be one of the richest and culturally diverse regions and this might lead to assumption that many of the rock art formation have been sourced from this area or it ay have been sourced from other regions.

primary (creative) work for this topic might include:

The book: Rock Art Studies – News of the World, Volume 3 by Natalie Franklin and Matthias Strecker

Work Cited

Bednarik, Robert G. “More on Rock Art Removal.” The South African Archaeological Bulletin 63.187 (2008): 82-84.

Clottes, Jean. “Rock Art: An Endangered Heritage Worldwide.” Journal of Anthropological Research 64.1 (2008): 1-18.

Deacon, Janette. “Rock Art Conservation and Tourism.” Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 13.4 (2006): 379-399.

Franklin, Natalie R. and Matthias Strecker. Rock Art Studies – News of the World. Vol. 3. Oxbow Books, 2008. 11 October 2016.

Henry, Leila. “A History of Removing Rock Art in South Africa.” The South African Archaeological Bulletin 62.185 (2007): 44-48.

Jopela, Albino. “Towards a condiition monitoring of rock art sites: The case of BNE 1 in the Free State Province, South Africa.” The South African Archaeological Bulletin 65.191 (2010): 58-66.

Langley, Michelle C. and Paul S.C. Taçon. “The Age of Australian Rock Art: A Review.” Australian Archaeology 71 (2010): 70-73.

O’Sullivan, Muiris and Liam Downey. “Rock Art.” Archaeology Ireland 25.4 (2011): 15-18.

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Research Paper Outline

Conflicts between Parents & Children in Arab Society

In context of

Emotional Security Theory by Patrick T. Davies and Cummings EM

Outline:

  1. Introduction
  2. Emotional Security Theory by Patrick T. Davies and Cummings EM
    1. Hypothesis
    1. Conclusion
  3. The Affects of Parental conflict on the Children Behavior
  4. Understanding of Family System
  5. Theoretical Perspective of Family as a System
    1. Functionalism
    1. Symbolic Interaction
    1. Conflict theory
  6. Social functions of the Family
  7. Arab Family System
  8. The changing Arab Family
    1. Factors causing the changes in Arab Family
  9. Conflicts between Parents & Children
  10. Conflict resolution
  11. Solution to Conflict between societies
    1. Symbolic interaction theories supporting conflict resolution
  12. Conclusion
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Research Topic Proposal On Environmental Science

Research Topic Proposal

Regulations for Sustainable development on Mitigating Global Climate Change:

Climate change is currently the hot topic, which is being getting the limelight from the politicians and celebrities as well. There are a number of scientific and historical theories, which suggest that there is a link between the human advancement and the climatic change. The earth is not static, and the changes in its environment and subsequently in its climate are expected. However, in the recent years, the environmental issues have caused drastic change in climate. Lately, the scientists have been worried about the adverse climatic changes that these environmental changes have causing. There is a point of view, which views this change as cyclical expecting it to soon dissipate, whereas the other point of view thinks of it as out of norm and consider it as damaging to the inhabitants of the planet earth. It is now imperative to have legal framework in order to ensure sustainable development.

Sources:

Daniels, B. (2011). Addressing Global Climate Change in an Age of Political Climate Change. Brigham Young University Law Review .

Goulder, L. H., & Pizer., a. W. (2006). The economics of climate change. National Bureau of Economic Research .

Halvorssen, A. M. (2010). International Law and Sustainable Development-Tools for Addressing Climate Change. Denv. J. Int’l L. & Pol’y , 397.

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Secondary Data Research in Digital Age

Contents

Introduction. 3

Advantages and disadvantages of secondary data (Appendix) 3

Analysis of secondary data for marketing research. 4

Internal and the sources of proprietor of the view point of secondary data. 4

Secondary data as External sources. 4

Impact of globalization of secondary data research using the single resource. 5

Conclusion. 5

References. 6

Appendix. 7

Chapter 7 Secondary Data Research in Digital Age  

Report Summary

Introduction

            The paper highlights the theoretical along with practical cross-dimensional analytical views about the secondary data research in digital age. The main advantage of the secondary data is the easy to access and less expensive form of the data in the research that is already collected by someone else. The core disadvantage of the secondary data is researcher’s primary need is to not going to fulfill through this data. The three different types of the marketing techniques from the secondary data are include such as the fact-finding approach, the marketing techniques of research as per the database and building the approach of model based research. Then proprietary sources as well different aspects of single source of the secondary data are monitor and analyzed explicitly. Finally we have analyzed the dimensions such as the internet, interchange of the data electronically rather than traditional methods for a researcher (Zikmund, 2006).

Advantages and disadvantages of secondary data (Appendix)

            The data in the research process, which has already been gathered or accumulated from the other external resources of dimensional framework, has the correct means of the purposes especially taken into the broader context for the person who is cruelty doing the dynamic research in the certain or specific subject. The most significant advantage is that the secondary data could act a source of the easily accessible resource or very inexpensive sought of material other than the core data such as primary data. That is why this advantage is rated as the chief benefit since the data could be obtained through rapid transactional approaches rather than profound the researcher oneself into the complex that the research could obtain from this sought of the dynamic categorical stases of the secondary data or the data from the other researcher. The other key advantage that the researcher doing the basic or especially applied research in terms of the available on the spontaneous occasions is possible just because of this sought of the secondary data in the process of the rigorous research. Otherwise, the researcher would not find out that quick access of the information too early from any bother dynamic core abilities mode (Zikmund, 2006). 

            However apart from the unique beneficial terms of the secondary data in the research process we have globe through towards dome of the downsides of the secondary research these include the researcher core demands along with the integration of the needs of the principle statement of problem is not found in the secondary data resources. The other key challenge of the secondary data for the researcher include the factors of the hallmarks of the rigorous form of research such as the biasness in the data or the key results as well as findings, the soundness of the data. The issue of checking the data using the cross analysis approach for accuracy of data is also not found in this type of the secondary resources of data for the research in the hole dynamic piece of research process (B RY M AN, 2006).

Analysis of secondary data for marketing research

            There are many problems interlinked with the marketing rigorous research issues. The objectives in the marketing research that is integrated with the use of the secondary data resources are comprised of the approach in which the fact-finding methodologies are used. Thes second is the developing the research models and the last one is the marketing through use of te databases as a random proportion tactics. The study or research in the fact-finding approach includes the pattern or the trend for a specific product in terms of the behavior of consumption fro the customers using the specific framework or approach. This is for the true identification of the industry behavior towards that specific product in the current scenario as well as future developments. Te next approach for the marketing research is the building the dynamic models which is more a complex set of dimension which includes the identification, analysis and then evaluation of the relationship among the various variables within each other. The database approach in the marketing research includes the maintenance of the records of the personal, secret, or the private information or data about the customers using the individual terms approach such as name, address, buying intensions and many more. The information patterns in the database approach for the past behaviors of the customer purchasing history, reaction of the customers while incorporating the various promotion techniques of marketing and the financial track of records for the customers (Zikmund, 2006).

Internal and the sources of proprietor of the view point of secondary data

            The information accessibility form the mangers of the origination are include the international resources sought of approach of propriety as the valid or reliable sources which include the records of the accounting data or information as well. The strategy of the data mining in which the researcher digs the data and finding the useful information from the high scale volume of the abundant information wisely is analyzed. The use of the highly developed computer resources or skills in order to track down the useful information about the core or the loyal customers of the company as well as the core products or the services that the company offer towards the customer in a very dynamic pattern. The broad method is the basic application of the data mining that can also applied easily suing the techniques of the super ways of using computer as resource effectively in order to trap down the information about the key aspects in the marketing analysis.

Secondary data as External sources

            The resources of the external data could be managed or stored from the external individual or group entities after generating the key information or data. The newspaper in the various fields, the resources of the government, the journals that are available after publishing, the associations of the trade along with the other relevant institutions are involved in this process fo creating the external source of the information of secondary data into the research. The old-fashioned styles were the sue of the published articles for the disseminating this sought of information using the pathway of the information generating entity towards the research personnel as well as the libraries associated for the general use for public could act as intermediary or also the indirect approach of this external secondary data towards the researcher. However, in the modern or contemporary innovative context of the dissemination of the information towards the researcher include the archives for the data using the digital or screen approaches, the dynamic way of interchange the  modes of data using the electric devices such as the computers, the use of the internet has made the revolutionary change. In the accessibility of the external secondary data into the hands of the researcher as the integration between both the forms of the internal as well as external data is accomplished. This is without having any sought of trouble at all especially in point of view of the researcher placed for the marketing trends, analysis, research and the core findings of the industrial aspects of the customers as well products offer in the different markets.

Impact of globalization of secondary data research using the single resource

            The marketing of the various sought of multi-dimensional research data using the approach of a single level resource has an immense or the significant influence over the globalized version of secondary research analysis. The businesses in having the global operations can easily find out the quantitative operational of the efforts that they put into the marketing as sought of promotional strategy, the characteristics of the intension of purchase. From the each individual entity of the customer from the database for a specific core product as well as core service, a business has for its buyers are analytically highlighted. The next key approach in this digital single source of the secondary data in terms of the global point of view or perspective is that industry of the secondary research is integrate with the global dimensions of the core operations, activities, processes, rules and policies in all over the world very effectively. The disadvantages should be incorporated from the researchers using the secondary data single source for the global businesses in terms of the data collection and the most important research suing the strategy of cross-cultural method of collection of data in the whole research process. The problems such as the availability along with the data reliability are the main concern especially in the global dynamics of the secondary data as a single source research (Zikmund, 2006).

Conclusion

            In the end, we have analyzed that the digital age of the secondary data as the best source for collecting already available information or data, which includes the usage of the computers for attaining the characteristics of the customers along with the core products. The archives dimensions of the data into the revolutionaries manner is the core strategy behind getting the secondary data as the single source tool for the accurate or rigorous type of marketing research. The global dimensions or the impact such as the efforts in the promotion marketing strategy include the list of issues like validity of ted at can be addressed in more accurate manner.

References

B RY M AN, A. L. (2006). Integrating quantitative and qualitative. Integrating quantitative and qualitative research , 6 (1), 97-113.

Zikmund, W. (2006). Exploring Marketing Research. Cengage Learning.

Appendix

1

Difference between primary and secondary research

Source: http://www.financewalk.com/collect-information-equity-research-report/

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Evaluating sampling technique and reviewing literature articles

  1. Evaluating sampling technique: USA Today/Gallup Poll

            The survey was conducted to anticipate the perceptions of the US citizens towards the status of the USA being a great nation and leading country in the world. Telephone interviews were conducted, and the sampling technique used for the survey was simple random sampling. The sample was based on 1019 respondents with age of 18+. Random digital sampling for used for that purpose. The confidence interval was 95% wit margin of error of ± 4. The respondents were selected from the households. The population of the survey was the non institutionalized citizens of the US. The age of the population was above 18 years.

            The respondents were the telephone households that were the citizens of the US and living in the country.  The claims being used in the sample regarding the survey technique used were valid. The simple random sampling was the most appropriate choice in that situation. The random sampling was adopted for the use of the random table, and it was the most convenient sampling technique in the sample. Thus, the selection of the sampling technique was quiet appropriate. Construct and external validity of the survey were ensured. The sample was the generalized sample and represents the characteristics of the population.

  Therefore, it can be inferred that the sample has strong external validity with population characteristics such as gender, age, education, region and phone lines.  Moreover, the study has minimized systematic error to reduce internal validity. The margin of error is in the range. Thus it can be concluded that the issue of validities was resolved din the sample and appropriate sampling technique was employed in the sample to make sure that the right number of the respondents were selected in the sample. The target population was also appropriate as per the purpose of the sample survey.

  • Review articles
  • Relationship of OPAC users’ satisfaction with their demographic characteristics, computer skills, user education, user assistance, and user-friendly OPAC

            The following paper is written in educational context. Te aim and the purpose of the article is to investigate the role of the user demographic characteristics such as user education, skills, abilities as well as online public access catalog. These characteristics are very important for educational achievement and developments. Besides, their assessments, its impact were also evaluated on the user satisfaction. The study was conducted in the Indian university setting. The following review is conducted to evaluate the purpose, methodology, results and finfi9ngs of the research article. 

            Major development in the field and other contributions were also discussed.  The survey technique involved in the study to collect the data was a questionnaire. The questionnaire was used because it was convenient, cost efficient and easy to conduct. The sample was consisted of 384 students that participated in the survey. The number of the students in the survey was quite sufficient for the purpose of the study. However, it was much better to increase the size of the sample. The sample was drawn from the three universities that were located in the Chandigarh and Punjab state (Kumar, 2014).

            These areas famous for the education in the India and lot of educational activities are being done in that region. The researcher has used the SPSS package was used to evaluate the results. The cross tabulation methodology was used to produce the results. Also, the researcher has used chi-square testing to evaluate the association of the user satisfaction with the variables identified in the study. The findings of the article indicate that the level of satisfaction among the users was low.

            The users were less satisfied with the possession of the characteristics and their impact on the level of satisfaction. Only with the exception of the academic major of the students, there was no statistically significant difference in the satisfaction of the users and the characteristics. The level of the overall satisfaction was higher for those students that have access to the OPAC. This was an important finding of the study. The characteristics of the necessary education were also an important factor. The level of satisfaction of OPAC was higher at those times whenever its using ability was higher. The staff assistance and helping hand were also an important factor in that regard.

            Also, it was also found in the research article that  all users were well equipped with the technology that was necessary to be used in the research process. The use of the computers as well as other attained level of skills was also important and frequently used and searched.  The use of the web, as well as the mere possession of computer and other technical skills, was very important and not sufficient for affective and efficient use of the OPAC. This resulted in the level of attainment of a high level of satisfaction in all of its aspects.

            The paper has quite an important contribution to the literature. The paper is quite important and essential to bring forth the findings and the fact that how user the demographic characteristics adopted by them contribute in the level of the satisfaction. These characteristics include computer skills as well as user education along with user assistance and the use of the user-friendly OPAC. Their level of influence was evaluated and explored on user satisfaction in the realm of the university and its level of educational set up.

            It is to be noted that the role of the findings of the research paper is quite important.  The endings of the research paper will be appropriate for increasing the level of the user’s satisfaction. These levels are used to evaluate and retain the existing OPAC users. It is further investigated that the role of the OPAC will continue to be a necessary tool that is used for accessing the level of quality academic information that is needed to be review and available both in the form of print as well as electronic format. Thus, it can be concluded that the article is a good attempt to investigate the impact of the user’s characteristics such as age, access to OPAC and other facilities on their level of satisfaction. Therefore, the study has affectively contributed in that realm and explored new findings and expanded the depth of the literature in that regard.

  1. Correlation analysis between users’ educational level and mobile reading behavior

 The article is written to investigate the use of the mobile reading among the students in Chinese universities. It was also investigated that how the level of education in the Chinese universities impact their ability to engage in the mobile reading. The results of the research study were helpful for the marketers to use for the sake of the differentiation. For the sake of the collection of the data, the online questionnaire was used to evaluate the impact of the role of the education in Chinese online reading behavior.

             Both graduated and non-graduated students were involved in the questionnaire. The questions involved in the surveys were related to the profiles and mobile reading behaviors of the students in the graduate level. Te response of the survey was quite healthy, and the total numbers of respondents in the survey were 479 in the research study. The sampling technique involved in the study was quite appropriate, and that was the random sampling. The questionnaire was composed of the two parts and the first part of the questionnaire was composed of demographic characteristics of the respondents and the second part was composed of the actual questions related to the perceptions of the respondents regarding the level of education and its impact on the ability to read online.

            The results of the study show that the there was significant relationship between the level of the education and the online reading tendency. The educational levels used in the research study were under bachelor, bachelor, above bachelor and master degree. The findings indicate that all of the educational levels have significant relations with the user’s ability to read online (P < 0.05).  The sources of the online reading material were also included. It is mentioned that the online literature was the most readable source of the reading online. Of the total responses, 61.5% of the respondents used the online source to read the literature.

 Moreover, the Chinese classic used 34.4% of the literature and bedsides; the e-magazine was accounted for 45.9%. This was the most readable source in that regard. Other includes comics, academic papers and other. Therefore, it can be concluded that the role of the education is quite significant in that regard. The education is the most powerful source that impact on the readers is reading ability on line. One must adhere to the core requirement of the educational capability in order read online. Today is the era of online and communication technologies, and the internet is the reality of the today’s environment. Thus the role of online communication and its impact on the education is quite important.

 The findings indicate that the mobile reading is regarded as the early developmental stages and it is going to be high market place in the future. Therefore, such realities not needed to be ignored. This is the most and important fact in the online reading material. 

            The level of pay reading is not up to the mark. They are not in a position to capture the market. Most of the users in the market prefer to rely upon the level of free services available in the market to get benefit in that realm. The well-educated respondents showed the tendency that they pay for the academic literature, however, other users rely on the free browsing on the internet. Thus, the results of the study indicate that the role of the online reading is important. However, it has yet to be capturing its roots in the market to develop a niche that is quite important and accessible to everybody. The user segmentation is also required, and it is based on the development of the field in that regard (Zhang, Ma, & China, 2011).

 Thus, it is important to have focused on the enhancement of the education and the accessibility of the online education material. The more it will be available for the users, the more they will be in a position to focus on the use of literary through online. The paper is first of its kinds to the best knowledge of the researcher that sheds light on the role of online education in upcoming times. The world is digital, and it is quite common to promote the online reading with the help of the digital material. The enhancement of the education level and the availability of the online material is an important factor in that regard. 

 The steps must be taken to make sure that the more and more free online material is available for the literature. The user’s tendency shows that they are more prone to focus on the free valuable literature in the Chinese market. The low level of subscription can play an important role in that regard. Today is the era of research and development, and promotion of the online content is necessary for the academic purposes. Therefore, it should be promoted and for both the academic and nonacademic purposes. 

References:

Kumar, S. (2014). Relationship of OPAC users’ satisfaction with their demographic characteristics, computer skills, user education, user assistance and user-friendly OPAC. The Electronic Library, 32 (1), 106-12.

Zhang, L., Ma, W., & China, W. (2011). Correlation analysis between users’ educational level and mobile reading behavior. Library Hi Tech, 424-435.

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Trine Saudi Community’s awareness of dangerous intravenous drug use

Project: Trine Saudi Community’s awareness of dangerous intravenous drug use

Primary Research Question

How much do Trine University’s students know about dangerous intravenous drugs and their associated hazards?

The purpose of this research is to identify the level of awareness among the students of Trine University in Saudi Arabia about intravenous drugs. There are numerous disadvantages that are associated with dangerous intravenous drugs. For instance, there are chances of infection, scarring of the veins, and increased chance of overdose, social stigma, increased addiction chances and damage to the arteries. Saudi Arabia Cultural Mission (SACM) is responsible to deliver information about these issues to the students which is program created by the Saudi Arabian government in 1951 for the purpose of administering cultural and educational policies for the students.

Secondary sub-questions

How do they get the information about the intravenous drugs and their associated hazards?

The university has a special health and wellness center but that is only concerned with regular medical concerns of the students. The university currently itself is not running any program to provide information about the intravenous drugs to the students. This information is available to the students through a governmental program named Saudi Arabia Culture Mission. This mission also provides health insurance to the students and also assist students by arranging meetings as well.

What factors influence their knowledge level regarding the intravenous drugs and their associated hazards?

The university has health and wellness center that only provides basic medical assistance to the students. However, these programs are not regularly updated to provide the latest information on these issues to the students at all times. The information available at the SACM is not updated and more information should be added. The students have easy access to these programs through the website and on campus as well. However the available information needs to be improved. There should be a separate section designed to serve this purpose.

References

SACM. (2016, October 8). About SACM. Retrieved from SACM: http://www.sacm.org/AboutSACM.aspx

Trine University. (2016, September 30). Health and Wellness. Retrieved from Trine University: http://www.trine.edu/campus-life/health-and-wellness/index.aspx

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predetermined overhead allocation rate

Arabica Manufacturing uses a predetermined overhead allocation rate based on a percentage of

direct labor cost. At the beginning of 2015, Arabica estimated total manufacturing overhead costs

at $1,050,000 and total direct labor costs at $840,000. In June, 2015, Arabica completed Job 511. The

details of Job 511 are shown below.

Direct materials cost $27,500

Direct labor cost $13,000

Direct labor hours 400 hours

Units of product produced 200

How much was the total job cost of Job 511?

A) $50,900 B) $40,500 C) $56,750 D) $74,875

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wahaha menu gainesville

Gregory G. Dess University of Texas at Dallas

G. T. Lumpkin Syracuse University

Alan B. Eisner Pace University

Gerry McNamara Michigan State University

SEVENTH EDITION

strategic management

text and cases

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STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT: TEXT AND CASES, SEVENTH EDITION Published by McGraw-Hill Education, 2 Penn Plaza, New York, NY 10121. Copyright © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Previous editions © 2012, 2010, and 2008. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education, including, but not limited to, in any network or other electronic storage or transmission, or broadcast for distance learning.

Some ancillaries, including electronic and print components, may not be available to customers outside the United States.

This book is printed on acid-free paper.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 DOW/DOW 1 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3

ISBN 978-0-07-786252-7 MHID 0-07-786252-X

Senior Vice President, Products & Markets: Kurt L. Strand Vice President, Content Production & Technology Services: Kimberly Meriwether David Managing Director: Paul Ducham Executive Brand Manager: Michael Ablassmeir Executive Director of Development: Ann Torbert Development Editor II: Laura Griffin Editorial Coordinator: Claire Wood Marketing Manager: Elizabeth Trepkowski Lead Project Manager: Harvey Yep Senior Buyer: Michael R. McCormick Design: Matt Diamond Cover Image: Getty Images Senior Content Licensing Specialist: Jeremy Cheshareck Senior Media Project Manager: Susan Lombardi Typeface: 10/12 Times Roman Compositor: Laserwords Private Limited Printer: R. R. Donnelley

Photo Credits: page C180: © Niels Poulsen DK / Alamy (left) and © epa european press photo agency b.v. / Alamy (right)

All credits appearing on page or at the end of the book are considered to be an extension of the copyright page.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Dess, Gregory G. Strategic management : text and cases / Gregory G. Dess, G.T. Lumpkin, Alan B. Eisner, Gerry McNamara.—Seventh edition. pages cm Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-07-786252-7 (alk. paper)—ISBN 0-07-786252-X (alk. paper) 1. Strategic planning. I. Lumpkin, G. T. II. Eisner, Alan B. III. Title. HD30.28.D4743 2014 658.4’012—dc23 2013029306

The Internet addresses listed in the text were accurate at the time of publication. The inclusion of a website does not indicate an endorsement by the authors or McGraw-Hill Education, and McGraw-Hill Education does not guarantee the accuracy of the information presented at these sites.

www.mhhe.com

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iii

To my family, Margie and Taylor; my parents, Bill and Mary Dess; and Walter Descovich

–Greg

To my lovely wife, Vicki, and my students and colleagues

–Tom

To my family, Helaine, Rachel, and Jacob

–Alan

To my wonderful wife, Gaelen; my children, Megan and AJ; and my parents, Gene and Jane

–Gerry

DEDICATION

dedication

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iv

Gregory G. Dess is the Andrew R. Cecil Endowed Chair in Management at the University of Texas at Dallas. His primary research interests are in strategic management, organization–environment relationships, and knowledge management. He has published numerous articles on these subjects in both academic and practitioner- oriented journals. He also serves on the editorial boards of a wide range of practitioner-oriented and academic journals. In August 2000, he was inducted into the Academy of Management Journal ’s Hall of Fame as one of its charter members. Professor Dess has conducted executive programs in the United States, Europe, Africa, Hong Kong, and Australia. During 1994 he was a Fulbright Scholar in Oporto, Portugal. In 2009, he received an honorary doctorate from the University of Bern (Switzerland). He received his PhD in Business Administration from the University of Washington (Seattle) and a BIE degree from Georgia Tech.

G. T. (Tom) Lumpkin is the Chris J. Witting Chair and Professor of Entrepreneurship at Syracuse University in New York. Prior to joining the faculty at Syracuse, Tom was the Kent Hance Regents Endowed Chair and Professor of Entrepreneurship at Texas Tech University. His research interests include entrepreneurial orientation, opportunity recognition, strategy-making processes, social entrepreneurship, and innovative forms of organizing work. He has published numerous research articles in journals such as Strategic Management Journal, Academy of Management Journal, Academy of Management Review, Journal of Business Venturing, and Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice. He is a member of the editorial review boards of Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, and the Journal of Business Venturing. He received his PhD in management from the University of Texas at Arlington and MBA from the University of Southern California.

ABOUT THE AUTHORS

about the authors

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v

Alan B. Eisner is Professor of Management and Department Chair, Management and Management Science Department, at the Lubin School of Business, Pace University. He received his PhD in management from the Stern School of Business, New York University. His primary research interests are in strategic management, technology management, organizational learning, and managerial decision making. He has published research articles and cases in journals such as Advances in Strategic Management, International Journal of Electronic Commerce, International Journal of Technology Management, American Business Review, Journal of Behavioral and Applied Management, and Journal of the International Academy for Case Studies. He is the former Associate Editor of the Case Association’s peer reviewed journal, The CASE Journal.

Gerry McNamara is a Professor of Management at Michigan State University. He received his PhD from the Carlson School of Management at the University of Minnesota. His research focuses on strategic decision making, organizational risk taking, and mergers and acquisitions. His research has been published in numerous journals, including the Academy of Management Journal, Strategic Management Journal, Organization Science, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Journal of Management, and Journal of International Business Studies. His research on mergers and acquisitions has been abstracted in the New York Times, Bloomberg Businessweek, The Economist, and Financial Week. He is currently an Associate Editor for the Academy of Management Journal.

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vi

PREFACE

preface

Welcome to the Seventh Edition of Strategic Management: Text and Cases! We are all very pleased with the positive market response to our previous edition. Below is some of the encouraging feedback we have received from our reviewers:

The text is thorough and all-inclusive. I don’t need to refer to another book as a back-up. It addresses all aspects of strategic management from the initial inspiration of a vision to the nuts and bolts of putting the plan to work. It is well structured; it is clear how each chapter not only builds on the previous ones, but also how analysis, formulation, and implementation are interrelated.

Lois Shelton, California State University, Northridge

I use Strategic Management in a capstone course required of all business majors, and students appreciate the book because it synergizes all their business education into a meaningful and understandable whole. My students enjoy the book’s readability and tight organization, as well as the contemporary examples, case studies, discussion questions and exercises.

William Sannwald, San Diego State University

It is very easy for students to read because it presents strategy concepts in a simple but comprehensive manner. It covers important developments in the strategic management field that are usually ignored by other textbooks (e.g., concepts like social networks and social capital, the balanced scorecard, and new forms of organizational structure).

Moses Acquaah, University of North Carolina at Greensboro

Content is current and easy for students to grasp; good graphs and charts to illustrate important points in the chapter. Book is well organized around the AFI framework.

Lise Anne D. Slatten, University of Louisiana at Lafayette

It is the best written textbook for the undergraduate course that I have come across. Application materials tie concepts to real-world practice.

Justin L. Davis, University of West Florida

The Dess text takes a practical/easy approach to explain very difficult subject matter. It integrates a number of real-life scenarios to aid the student in their comprehension of key concepts. The standout of the text is the Reflecting on Career Implications. These end-of-chapter questions aid the student in applying their learning to their workplace in a manner that promotes career success.

Amy Patrick, Wilmington University

The Dess book overcomes many of the limitations of the last book I used in many ways: (a) presents content in a very interesting and engrossing manner without compromising the depth and comprehensiveness, (b) inclusion of timely and interesting illustrative examples, (c) includes an excellent array of long, medium, and short cases that can be used to balance depth and variety, and (d) EOC exercises do an excellent job of complementing the chapter content.

Sucheta Nadkami, Drexel University

We are always striving to improve our work, and we are most appreciative of the extensive and constructive feedback that many strategy professionals have graciously given us. As always,

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we have worked hard to incorporate their ideas into the Seventh Edition—and we acknowledge them by name later in the Preface.

We believe we have made valuable improvements throughout our many revised editions of Strategic Management. At the same time, we strive to be consistent and “true” to our original overriding objective: a book that satisfies three R’s: relevant, rigorous, and readable. That is, our tagline (paraphrasing the well-known Secret deodorant commercial) is: “Strong enough for the professor; made for the student.” And we are pleased that we have received feedback (such as the comments on the previous page) that is consistent with what we are trying to accomplish.

To continue to earn the support of strategy instructors (and students!) we try to use an engaging writing style that minimizes unnecessary jargon and covers all of the traditional bases. We also integrate some central themes throughout the book—such as globalization, technology, ethics, environmental sustainability, and entrepreneurship—that are vital in understanding strategic management in today’s global economy. We draw on short examples from business practice to bring concepts to life by providing 85 Strategy Spotlights (more detailed examples in sidebars).

Unlike other strategy texts, we provide three separate chapters that address timely topics about which business students should have a solid understanding. These are the role of intellectual assets in value creation (Chapter 4), entrepreneurial strategy and competitive dynamics (Chapter 8), and fostering entrepreneurship in established organizations (Chapter 12). We also provide an excellent set of cases to help students analyze, integrate, and apply strategic management concepts.

In developing Strategic Management: Text and Cases, we certainly didn’t forget the instructors. As we all know, you have a most challenging (but rewarding) job. We did our best to help you. We provide a variety of supplementary materials that should help you in class preparation and delivery. For example, our chapter notes do not simply summarize the material in the text. Rather (and consistent with the concept of strategy!), we ask ourselves: “How can we add value?” Thus, for each chapter, we provide numerous questions to pose to help guide class discussion, at least 12 boxed examples to supplement chapter material, and three detailed “teaching tips” to further engage students. Also, the author team completed the chapter notes—along with the entire test bank—ourselves. That is, unlike many of our rivals, we didn’t simply farm the work out to others. Instead, we felt that such efforts help to enhance quality and consistency—as well as demonstrate our personal commitment to provide a top-quality total package to strategy instructors. With the seventh edition, we also benefited from valued input by our strategy colleagues to further improve our work.

Let’s now address some of the key substantive changes in the Seventh Edition. Then we will cover some of the major features that we have had in previous editions.

What’s New? Highlights of the Seventh Edition We have endeavored to add new material to the chapters that reflects both the feedback that we have received from our reviewers as well as the challenges that face today’s managers. Thus, we all invested an extensive amount of time carefully reviewing a wide variety of books, academic and practitioner journals, and the business press.

We also worked hard to develop more concise and tightly written chapters. Based on feedback from some of the reviewers, we have tightened our writing style, tried to eliminate redundant examples, and focused more directly on what we feel is the most important content in each chapter for our audience. The overall result is that we were able to update our material, add valuable new content, and—at the same time—shorten the length of the chapters.

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PREFACE

Here are some of the major changes and improvements in the Seventh Edition:

• All of the 12 opening “Learning from Mistakes” vignettes that lead off each chapter are totally new. Unique to this text, they are all examples of what can go wrong, and they serve as an excellent vehicle for clarifying and reinforcing strategy concepts. After all, what can be learned if one simply admires perfection!

• Well over half of our “Strategy Spotlights” (sidebar examples) are brand new, and many of the others have been thoroughly updated. Although we have reduced the number of Spotlights from the previous edition to conserve space, we still have a total of 85—by far the most in the strategy market. We focus on bringing the most important strategy concepts to life in a concise and highly readable manner. And we work hard to eliminate unnecessary detail that detracts from the main point we are trying to make. Also, consistent with our previous edition, many of the Spotlights focus on three “hot” issues that are critical in leading today’s organizations: ethics, environmental sustainability, and crowdsourcing.

• We have added a new feature—Issue for Debate—at the end of each chapter. We have pretested these situations and find that students become very engaged (and often animated!) in discussing an issue that has viable alternative points of view. It is an exciting way to drive home key strategy concepts. For example, in Chapter 1, Seventh Generation is faced with a situation that confronts their values, and they must decide whether or not to provide their products to some of their largest customers. In Chapter 3, some interesting tradeoffs arose when The World Triathlon Corporation expanded their exclusive branding of Ironman to products that didn’t reflect the “spirit” of the brand. And, in Chapter 6, Delta Airlines’ diversification into the oil business via their acquisition of an oil refinery poses an issue for some interesting alternative points of view.

• Throughout the chapters, we provide many excerpts from interviews with top executives from Adam Bryant’s The Corner Office. Such viewpoints provide valuable perspectives from leading executives and help to drive home the value and purpose of key strategy concepts. For example, we include the perspectives of Tim Brown (CEO of IDEO) on employee empowerment, John Stumpf (CEO of Wells Fargo) on strategy implementation, and Gordon Bethune (former CEO of Continental Airlines) on the importance of incentive systems.

• We have completely rewritten the “Reflecting on Career Implications . . .” feature that we introduced in the Sixth Edition of Strategic Management. Based on reviewer feedback, we directed our attention to providing insights that are closely aligned with and directed to three distinct issues faced by our readers: prepare them for a job interview (e.g., industry analysis), help them with current employers or their career in general, or help them find potential employers and decide where to work. We feel this feature is significantly improved and should be of more value to students’ professional development.

Key content changes for the chapters include:

• Chapter 1 makes a strong business case for environmental sustainability and draws on Porter’s concept of “shared value” that was initially introduced in the Sixth Edition. Such issues advance the notion that firms should go far beyond a narrow focus on shareholder returns. Further, shared value promotes practices that enhance the competitiveness of the company while simultaneously advancing the social and economic conditions in which it operates.

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• Chapter 2 makes the distinction between “hard trends” and “soft trends” that was articulated by Dan Burrus in his recent book Flash Foresight. This distinction is important in determing the importance of current trends and their evolution over time. Soft trends are something that might happen and a probability with which it might happen can be assigned. In contrast, hard trends are based on measurable facts, events, or objects—they are something that will happen. We provide the example of how the identification of hard trends (in technology) led the renowned Mayo Clinic to develop a CD to help customers to access useful medical information. This initiative provided the Mayo Clinic with significant financial and nonfinancial benefits!

• Chapter 4 addresses two issues that are important to not only developing human capital in organizations but also for students entering—or enhancing their success in—an organization: mentorship versus sponsorship and the “trap” of ineffective networks. Knowing the distinction between mentors and sponsors has valuable implications for one’s career. Mentors may provide coaching and advice, and prepare one for the next position. Sponsors, on the other hand, are typically somebody in a senior position who can advocate and facilitate career moves. We also draw on research that suggests three types of “network traps” that professionals should work hard to avoid: the wrong structure, the wrong relationship, and the wrong behavior.

• Chapter 6 discusses when actions taken to change the scope of businesses in which a corporation competes lead to positive outcomes for the firm. We highlight the characteristics of both acquisitions and divestitures that lead to positive outcomes. With acquisitions, we focus on how the characteristics of the acquiring firm as well as the acquisition itself lead to positive reactions by the stock market to the announcement of the deal. With divestitures, we draw on the work by the Boston Consulting Group to highlight seven principles for effective divestitures.

• Chapter 7 looks into the hidden costs of offshoring. In recent years, many firms have moved parts of their operations to lower wage countries. In many cases, they have found that the expected cost savings were illusory. We discuss seven reasons why firms would not achieve the anticipated savings through offshoring and provide examples of firms that have benefited by bringing their operations back home.

• Chapter 8 includes an examination of crowdfunding, a rapidly growing means to finance entrepreneurial ventures. Crowdfunding involves drawing relatively small amounts of funding from a wide net of investors to provide potentially large pools of capital for entrepreneurial ventures. We discuss both the tremendous potential as well as the pitfalls of crowdfunding for entrepreneurs. Knowing that some of our students may want to be investors in these ventures, we also discuss issues that crowdfunding investors should consider when looking into these investment opportunities.

• Chapter 9 addresses how firms can build effective boards of directors. We identify how firms need to go beyond standard categories, such as insider versus outsider board members, to develop favorable board dynamics. We also discuss how the structure of boards has changed over the past 25 years.

• Chapter 10 examines the costs and benefits of nurturing strong relationships to ensure cooperation and achieve high levels of performance. Over the past 30 years, many scholars have argued that relational systems, where decisions regarding how to facilitate control and coordination are driven by relationships rather than bureaucratic systems and contracts, are superior to more traditional control systems. We examine this issue and discuss how relational systems have both advantages and disadvantages. We conclude with a brief discussion of when managers may want to rely more on relationship systems and when they may want to rely more on formal structure and reward systems.

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• Chapter 11 introduces the concept of “competency companions,” an important idea for managers to consider in developing their leadership ability. The idea is that leaders can benefit most by identifying and developing complementary strengths instead of continually working on already great qualities that they may possess. For example, a leader who has a strong competence in developing innovative ideas can extend that competency by developing strong communication skills.

• Chapter 13 updates our Appendix: Sources of Company and Industry Information. Here, we owe a big debt to Ruthie Brock and Carol Byrne, library professionals at the University of Texas at Arlington. These ladies have graciously provided us with comprehensive and updated information that is organized in a range of issues. These include competitive intelligence, annual report collections, company rankings, business websites, and strategic and competitive analysis. Such information is invaluable in analyzing companies and industries.

• Alan Eisner, our case editor, has worked hard to further enhance our excellent case package.

• Approximately half of our cases are author-written (much more than the competition).

• We have updated our users’ favorite cases, creating fresh stories about familiar companies to minimize instructor preparation time and “maximize freshness” of the content.

• We have added 6 exciting new cases to the lineup, including Boston Beer, Campbell Soup, Kickstarter, and Zynga.

• We have also extensively updated 23 familiar cases, including Apple, eBay, Ford, Johnson & Johnson, and many others.

• A major focus on fresh and current cases on familiar firms. • Many videos on the Online Learning Center (OLC) or Connect to match the cases.

What Remains the Same: Key Features of Earlier Editions Let’s now briefly address some of the exciting features that remain from the earlier editions.

• Traditional organizing framework with three other chapters on timely topics. Crisply written chapters cover all of the strategy bases and address contemporary topics. First, the chapters are divided logically into the traditional sequence: strategy analysis, strategy formulation, and strategy implementation. Second, we include three chapters on such timely topics as intellectual capital/knowledge management, entrepreneurial strategy and competitive dynamics, and fostering corporate entrepreneurship and new ventures.

• “Learning from Mistakes” chapter-opening cases. To enhance student interest, we begin each chapter with a case that depicts an organization that has suffered a dramatic performance drop, or outright failure, by failing to adhere to sound strategic management concepts and principles. We believe that this feature serves to underpin the value of the concepts in the course and that it is a preferred teaching approach to merely providing examples of outstanding companies that always seem to get it right! After all, isn’t it better (and more challenging) to diagnose problems than admire perfection? As Dartmouth’s Sydney Finkelstein, author of Why Smart Executives Fail, notes: “We live

PREFACE

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in a world where success is revered, and failure is quickly pushed to the side. However, some of the greatest opportunities to learn—both for individuals and organizations— come from studying what goes wrong.”* We’ll see how, for example, Borders went from enjoying enormous success as an innovative firm—with revenues of nearly $4 billion in 2005—to bankruptcy six years later. We will also explore why Daimler’s “ultra-urban” Smart car—despite its initial acclaim—has cost the firm $5.3 billion in cumulative losses over the years. And we’ll explore why Cisco’s eagerness to enter the digital video market via its acquisition of Pure Digital Technologies didn’t pan out.

• Consistent chapter format and features to reinforce learning. We have included several features in each chapter to add value and create an enhanced learning experience. First, each chapter begins with an overview and a set of bullets pointing to key learning objectives. Second, as previously noted, the opening case describes a situation in which a company’s performance eroded because of a lack of proper application of strategy concepts. Third, at the end of each chapter there are four different types of questions/exercises that should help students assess their understanding and application of material:

1. Summary review questions. 2. Experiential exercises. 3. Application questions and exercises. 4. Ethics questions

Given the centrality of online systems to business today, each chapter contains at least one exercise that allows students to explore the use of the Web in implementing a firm’s strategy.

• “Reflecting on Career Implications” for each chapter. This feature—at the end of each chapter—will help instructors drive home the immediate relevance/value of strategy concepts. It focuses on how an understanding of key concepts helps business students early in their careers.

• Key Terms. Approximately a dozen key terms for each chapter are identified in the margins of the pages. This addition was made in response to reviewer feedback and improves students’ understanding of core strategy concepts.

• Clear articulation and illustration of key concepts. Key strategy concepts are introduced in a clear and concise manner and are followed by timely and interesting examples from business practice. Such concepts include value-chain analysis, the resource-based view of the firm, Porter’s five-forces model, competitive advantage, boundaryless organizational designs, digital strategies, corporate governance, ethics, and entrepreneurship.

• Extensive use of sidebars. We include 85 sidebars (or about seven per chapter) called “Strategy Spotlights.” The Strategy Spotlights not only illustrate key points but also increase the readability and excitement of new strategy concepts.

• Integrative themes. The text provides a solid grounding in ethics, globalization, environmental sustainability, and technology. These topics are central themes throughout the book and form the basis for many of the Strategy Spotlights.

• Implications of concepts for small businesses. Many of the key concepts are applied to start-up firms and smaller businesses, which is particularly important since many students have professional plans to work in such firms.

*Personal communication, June 20, 2005.

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PREFACE

• Not just a textbook but an entire package. Strategic Management features the best chapter teaching notes available today. Rather than merely summarizing the key points in each chapter, we focus on value-added material to enhance the teaching (and learning) experience. Each chapter includes dozens of questions to spur discussion, teaching tips, in-class group exercises, and about a dozen detailed examples from business practice to provide further illustrations of key concepts.

• Excellent Case Studies. We have selected an excellent collection of current and classic cases for this edition, carefully including a wide variety of cases matched to key strategic concepts and organized to create maximum flexibility. We have a balance of short, concise, and longer, comprehensive cases while maintaining currency and name recognition of our cases with many new and updated classroom-tested cases. We also have updated many of the favorites from the Sixth Edition, such as Apple, eBay, Ford, Johnson & Johnson, and many others.

Student Support Materials Online Learning Center (OLC) The following resources are available to students via the publisher’s OLC at www.mhhe.com/ dess7e :

• Chapter quizzes students can take to gauge their understanding of material covered in each chapter.

• A selection of PowerPoint slides for each chapter. • Links to strategy simulations the Business Strategy Game & GLO-BUS. Both provide

a powerful and constructive way of connecting students to the subject matter of the course with a competition among classmates on campus and around the world.

Instructor Support Materials Instructor’s Manual (IM) Prepared by the textbook authors, along with valued input from our strategy colleagues, the accompanying IM contains summary/objectives, lecture/discussion outlines, discussion questions, extra examples not included in the text, teaching tips, reflecting on career implications, experiential exercises, and more.

Test Bank Revised by Christine Pence of the University of California–Riverside, the test bank contains more than 1,000 true/false, multiple-choice, and essay questions. It has now been tagged with learning objectives as well as Bloom’s Taxonomy and AACSB criteria.

• Assurance of Learning Ready. Assurance of Learning is an important element of many accreditation standards. Dess 7e is designed specifically to support your Assurance of Learning initiatives. Each chapter in the book begins with a list of numbered learning objectives that appear throughout the chapter, as well as in the end-of-chapter questions and exercises. Every test bank question is also linked to one of these objectives, in addition to level of difficulty, topic area, Bloom’s Taxonomy level, and AACSB skill area. EZ Test, McGraw-Hill’s easy-to-use test bank software, can search the test bank by these and other categories, providing an engine for targeted Assurance of Learning analysis and assessment.

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• AACSB Statement. The McGraw-Hill Companies is a proud corporate member of AACSB International. Understanding the importance and value of AACSB accreditation, Dess 7e has sought to recognize the curricula guidelines detailed in the AACSB standards for business accreditation by connecting selected questions in Dess 7e and the test bank to the general knowledge and skill guidelines found in the AACSB standards. The statements contained in Dess 7e are provided only as a guide for the users of this text. The AACSB leaves content coverage and assessment within the purview of individual schools, the mission of the school, and the faculty. While Dess 7e and the teaching package make no claim of any specific AACSB qualification or evaluation, we have labeled selected questions within Dess 7e according to the six general knowledge and skills areas.

• Computerized Test Bank Online. A comprehensive bank of test questions is provided within a computerized test bank powered by McGraw-Hill’s flexible electronic testing program, EZ Test Online ( www.eztestonline.com ). EZ Test Online allows you to create paper and online tests or quizzes in this easy-to-use program! Imagine being able to create and access your test or quiz anywhere, at any time without installing the testing software. Now, with EZ Test Online, instructors can select questions from multiple McGraw-Hill test banks or author their own, and then either print the test for paper distribution or give it online.

• Test Creation. • Author/edit questions online using the 14 different question type templates. • Create printed tests or deliver online to get instant scoring and feedback. • Create questions pools to offer multiple versions online – great for practice. • Export your tests for use in WebCT, Blackboard, PageOut, and Apple’s iQuiz. • Compatible with EZ Test Desktop tests you’ve already created. • Sharing tests with colleagues, adjuncts, TAs is easy.

• Online Test Management. • Set availability dates and time limits for your quiz or test. • Control how your test will be presented. • Assign points by question or question type with drop-down menu. • Provide immediate feedback to students or delay until all finish the test. • Create practice tests online to enable student mastery. • Your roster can be uploaded to enable student self-registration.

• Online Scoring and Reporting. • Automated scoring for most of EZ Test ’s numerous question types. • Allows manual scoring for essay and other open response questions. • Manual rescoring and feedback is also available. • EZ Test ’s grade book is designed to easily export to your grade book. • View basic statistical reports.

• Support and Help. • User’s guide and built-in page-specific help. • Flash tutorials for getting started on the support site. • Support website: www.mhhe.com/eztest. • Product specialist available at 1-800-331-5094. • Online Training: http://auth.mhhe.com/mpss/workshops/.

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PowerPoint Presentation Prepared by Pauline Assenza of Western Connecticut State University and consists of more than 400 slides incorporating an outline for the chapters tied to learning objectives. Also included are instructor notes, multiple-choice questions that can be used as Classroom Performance System (CPS) questions, and additional examples outside of the text to promote class discussion. Case Study PowerPoint slides are available to facilitate case study coverage.

McGraw-Hill Connect™ Management Less Managing. More Teaching. Greater Learning. McGraw-Hill Connect Management is an online assignment and assessment solution that connects students with the tools and resources thev’ll need to achieve success.

• McGraw-Hill Connect Management Features. Connect Management offers a number of powerful tools and features to make managing assignments easier, so faculty can spend more time teaching. With Connect Management, students can engage with their coursework anytime and anywhere, making the learning process more accessible and efficient. Connect Management offers you the features described below.

• There are chapter quizzes for the 12 chapters, consisting of 15–25 multiple- choice questions, testing students’ overall comprehension of concepts presented in the chapter.

• There are 2 specially crafted interactives for each of the 12 chapters that drill students in the use and application of the concepts and tools of strategic analysis.

• Connect also includes special case exercises for approximately one-third of the 35 cases in this edition that require students to develop answers to a select number of the assignment questions.

• Additionally, there will be financial analysis exercises related to the case exercises. • The majority of the Connect exercises are automatically graded, thereby

simplifying the task of evaluating each class member’s performance and monitoring the learning outcomes.

• Student Progress Tracking. Connect Management keeps instructors informed about how each student, section, and class is performing, allowing for more productive use of lecture and office hours. The progress-tracking function enables you to

• View scored work immediately and track individual or group performance with assignment and grade reports.

• Access an instant view of student or class performance relative to learning objectives.

• Collect data and generate reports required by many accreditation organizations, such as AACSB.

• Smart Grading. When it comes to studying, time is precious. Connect Management helps students learn more efficiently by providing feedback and practice material when they need it, where they need it. When it comes to teaching, your time also is precious. The grading function enables you to

• Have assignments scored automatically, giving students immediate feedback on their work and side-by-side comparisons with correct answers.

• Access and review each response, manually change grades, or leave comments for students to review.

• Reinforce classroom concepts with practice tests and instant quizzes.

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• Simple Assignment Management. With Connect Management, creating assignments is easier than ever, so you can spend more time teaching and less time managing. The assignment management function enables you to

• Create and deliver assignments easily with selectable test bank items. • Streamline lesson planning, student progress reporting, and assignment grading to

make classroom management more efficient than ever. • Go paperless with online submission and grading of student assignments.

• Instructor Library. The Connect Management Instructor Library is your repository for additional resources to improve student engagement in and out of class. You can select and use any asset that enhances your lecture. The Connect Management Instructor Library includes

• Instructor Manual • Case Teaching Notes • PowerPoint ® files • Test Bank

Videos A set of videos related to both chapters and selected cases can be found on the Online Learning Center (OLC) or Connect to support your classroom or student lab, or for home viewing. These thought-provoking video clips are available upon adoption of this text.

Online Learning Center (OLC) The instructor section of www.mhhe.com/dess7e also includes the Instructor’s Manual, PowerPoint Presentations, Case Grid, and Case Study Teaching Notes as well as additional resources.

The Business Strategy Game and GLO-BUS Online Simulations Both allow teams of students to manage companies in a head-to-head contest for global market leadership. These simulations give students the immediate opportunity to experiment with various strategy options and to gain proficiency in applying the concepts and tools they have been reading about in the chapters. To find out more or to register, please visit www.mhhe.com/ thompsonsims.

e-book Options e-books are an innovative way for students to save money and to “go-green,” McGraw-Hill’s e-books are typically 40% of bookstore price. Students have the choice between an online and a downloadable CourseSmart e-book.

Through CourseSmart, students have the flexibility to access an exact replica of their textbook from any computer that has internet service without plug-ins or special software via the version, or create a library of books on their harddrive via the downloadable version. Access to the CourseSmart e-books is one year.

Features: CourseSmart e-books allow students to highlight, take notes, organize notes, and share the notes with other CourseSmart users. Students can also search terms across all e-books in their purchased CourseSmart library. CourseSmart e-books can be printed (5 pages at a time).

More info and purchase: Please visit www.coursesmart.com for more information and to purchase access to our e-books. CourseSmart allows students to try one chapter of the e-book, free of charge, before purchase.

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Additional Resources Create Craft your teaching resources to match the way you teach! With McGraw-Hill Create, www.mcgrawhillcreate.com, you can easily rearrange chapters, combine material from other content sources, and quickly upload content you have written, like your course syllabus or teaching notes. Find the content you need in Create by searching through thousands of leading McGraw-Hill textbooks. Arrange your book to fit your teaching style. Create even allows you to personalize your book’s appearance by selecting the cover and adding your name, school, and course information. Order a Create book and you’ll receive a complimentary print review copy in three to five business days or a complimentary electronic review copy (eComp) via email in about one hour. Go to www.mcgrawhillcreate.com today and register. Experience how McGraw-Hill Create empowers you to teach your students your way.

McGraw-Hill Higher Education and Blackboard McGraw-Hill Higher Education and Blackboard have teamed up. What does this mean for you?

1. Your life, simplified. Now you and your students can access McGraw-Hill’s Connect and Create right from within your Blackboard course—all with one single sign-on. Say goodbye to the days of logging in to multiple applications.

2. Deep integration of content and tools. Not only do you get single sign-on with Connect and Create, you also get deep integration of McGraw-Hill content and content engines right in Blackboard. Whether you’re choosing a book for your course or building Connect assignments, all the tools you need are right where you want them—inside of Blackboard.

3. Seamless gradebooks. Are you tired of keeping multiple gradebooks and manually synchronizing grades into Blackboard? We thought so. When a student completes an integrated Connect assignment, the grade for that assignment automatically (and instantly) feeds your Blackboard grade center.

4. A solution for everyone. Whether your institution is already using Blackboard or you just want to try Blackboard on your own, we have a solution for you. McGraw-Hill and Blackboard can now offer you easy access to industry-leading technology and content, whether your campus hosts it or we do. Be sure to ask your local McGraw-Hill representative for details.

McGraw-Hill Customer Care Contact Information At McGraw-Hill, we understand that getting the most from new technology can be challenging. That’s why our services don’t stop after you purchase our products. You can e-mail our product specialists 24 hours a day to get product training online. Or you can search our knowledge bank of Frequently Asked Questions on our support website. For customer support, call 800-331-5094, email hmsupport@mcgraw-hill.com, or visit www.mhhe.com/support. One of our technical support analysts will be able to assist you in a timely fashion.

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Acknowledgments Strategic Management represents far more than just the joint efforts of the four co-authors. Rather, it is the product of the collaborative input of many people. Some of these individuals are academic colleagues, others are the outstanding team of professionals at McGraw-Hill/Irwin, and still others are those who are closest to us—our families. It is time to express our sincere gratitude.

First, we’d like to acknowledge the dedicated instructors who have graciously provided their insights since the inception of the text. Their input has been very helpful in both pointing out errors in the manuscript and suggesting areas that needed further development as additional top- ics. We sincerely believe that the incorporation of their ideas has been critical to improving the fi nal product. These professionals and their affi liations are:

The Reviewer Hall of Fame

Moses Acquaah, University of North Carolina–Greensboro

Todd Alessandri, Northeastern University

Larry Alexander, Virginia Polytechnic Institute

Brent B. Allred, College of William & Mary

Allen C. Amason, University of Georgia

Kathy Anders, Arizona State University

Lise Anne D. Slatten, University of Louisiana at Lafayette

Peter H. Antoniou, California State University, San Marcos

Dave Arnott, Dallas Baptist University Marne L. Arthaud-Day, Kansas State University

Jay Azriel, York University of Pennsylvania Jeffrey J. Bailey, University of Idaho

Dennis R. Balch, University of North Alabama

Bruce Barringer, University of Central Florida

Barbara R. Bartkus, Old Dominion University

Barry Bayon, Bryant University Brent D. Beal, Louisiana State University

Joyce Beggs, University of North Carolina–Charlotte

Michael Behnam, Suffolk University

Kristen Bell DeTienne, Brigham Young University

Eldon Bernstein, Lynn University David Blair, University of Nebraska at Omaha

Daniela Blettner, Tilburg University

Dusty Bodie, Boise State University

William Bogner, Georgia State University

Scott Browne, Chapman University

Jon Bryan, Bridgewater State College

Charles M. Byles, Virginia Commonwealth University

Mikelle A. Calhoun, Valparaiso University

Thomas J. Callahan, University of Michigan, Dearborn

Samuel D. Cappel, Southeastern Louisiana State University

Gary Carini, Baylor University

Shawn M. Carraher, University of Texas, Dallas

Tim Carroll, University of South Carolina

Don Caruth, Amberton University

Maureen Casile, Bowling Green State University

Gary J. Castrogiovanni, Florida Atlantic University

Radha Chaganti, Rider University

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PREFACE

Erick PC Chang, Arkansas State University

Theresa Cho, Rutgers University

Bruce Clemens, Western New England College

Betty S. Coffey, Appalachian State University

Wade Coggins, Webster University, Fort Smith Metro Campus

Susan Cohen, University of Pittsburgh

George S. Cole, Shippensburg University

Joseph Coombs, Texas A & M University

Christine Cope Pence, University of California, Riverside

James J. Cordeiro, SUNY Brockport

Stephen E. Courter, University of Texas at Austin

Jeffrey Covin, Indiana University

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Jonathan Doh, Villanova University

Tom Douglas, Clemson University

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Jon Down, Oregon State University

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Niran Harrison, University of Oregon

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Paula Harveston, Berry College

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Homer Johnson, Loyola University, Chicago

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James R. Morgan, Dominican University and UC Berkeley Extension

Sara A. Morris, Old Dominion University

Carolyn Mu, Baylor University

Stephen Mueller, Northern Kentucky University

John Mullane, Middle Tennessee State University

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PREFACE

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Kenneth Robinson, Kennesaw State University

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John K. Ross III, Texas State University, San Marcos

Robert Rottman, Kentucky State University

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Yolanda Sarason, Colorado State University

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Terry Sebora, University of Nebraska–Lincoln

John Seeger, Bentley College

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Lois Shelton, California State University, Northridge

Herbert Sherman, Long Island University

Weilei Shi, Baruch College–CUNY

Chris Shook, Auburn University

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Mark Simon, Oakland University, Michigan

Rob Singh, Morgan State University

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Roy Suddaby, University of Iowa

Michael Sullivan, UC Berkeley Extension

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PREFACE

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Craig A. Turner, Ph.D., East Tennessee State University

Beverly Tyler, North Carolina State University

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Jay A. Vora, St. Cloud State University

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Kenneth E. A. Wendeln, Indiana University Robert R. Wharton, Western Kentucky University Laura Whitcomb, California State University– Los Angeles

Scott Williams, Wright State University

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Second, the authors would like to thank several faculty colleagues who were particularly helpful in the review, critique, and development of the book and supplementary materials. Greg’s colleagues at the University of Texas at Dallas also have been helpful and supportive. These individuals include Mike Peng, Joe Picken, Kumar Nair, John Lin, Larry Chasteen, Seung-Hyun Lee, Tev Dalgic, and Jane Salk. His administrative assistant, Mary Vice, has been extremely helpful. Three doctoral students, Brian Pinkham, Steve Saverwald and Ciprian Stan, have provided many useful inputs and ideas, along with a research associate, Kimberly Flicker. He also appreciates the support of his dean and associate dean, Hasan Pirkul and Varghese Jacob, respectively. Tom would like to thank Gerry Hills, Abagail McWilliams, Rod Shrader, Mike Miller, James Gillespie, Ron Mitchell, Kim Boal, Keith Brigham, Jeremy Short, Tyge Payne, Bill Wan, Andy Yu, Abby Wang, Johan Wiklund, Mike Haynie, Alex McKelvie, Denis Gregoire, Alejandro Amezcua, Maria Minniti, Cathy Maritan, Ravi Dharwadkar, and Pam Brandes. Spe- cial thanks also to Jeff Stambaugh for his valuable contributions. Tom also extends a special thanks to Benyamin Lichtenstein for his support and encouragement. Both Greg and Tom wish to thank a special colleague, Abdul Rasheed at the University of Texas at Arlington, who cer- tainly has been a valued source of friendship and ideas for us for many years. He provided many valuable contributions to all editions. Alan thanks his colleagues at Pace University and the Case Association for their support in developing these fi ne case selections. Special thanks go to Jamal Shamsie at Michigan State University for his support in developing the case selections for this edition. Gerry thanks all of his colleagues at Michigan State University for their help and support over the years. He also thanks his mentor, Phil Bromiley, as well as the students and former students he has had the pleasure of working with, including Becky Luce, Cindy Devers, Federico Aime, Mike Mannor, Bernadine Dykes, Mathias Arrfelt, Kalin Kolev, Seungho Choi, Rob Davison, Dustin Sleesman, Danny Gamache, Adam Steinbach, and Daniel Chaffi n.

Third, we would like to thank the team at McGraw-Hill for their outstanding support throughout the entire process. As we work on the book through the various editions, we always appreciate their hard work and recognize how so many people “add value” to our fi nal package! This began with John Biernat, formerly publisher, who signed us to our original contract. He

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was always available to us and provided a great deal of support and valued input throughout sev- eral editions. Presently, in editorial, Paul Ducham, managing director, executive brand manager Mike Ablassmeir, and senior development editor Laura Griffi n, kept things on track, responded quickly to our seemingly endless needs and requests, and offered insights and encouragement. We appreciate their expertise—as well as their patience! Once the manuscript was completed and revised, content project manager Harvey Yep expertly guided it through the print produc- tion process. Pam Verros provided excellent design, photo selection, and artwork guidance. Susan Lombardi, content project manager, did a superb job adding value to our supplementary materials and digital content. We also appreciate marketing manager Elizabeth Trepkowski and marketing specialist Liz Steiner for their energetic, competent, and thorough marketing efforts. Last, but certainly not least, we thank MHE’s 70-plus outstanding book reps—who serve on the “front lines”—as well as many in-house sales professionals based in Dubuque, Iowa. Clearly, they deserve a lot of credit (even though not mentioned by name) for our success.

Fourth, we acknowledge the valuable contributions of many of our strategy colleagues for their excellent contributions to our supplementary and digital materials. Such content really adds a lot of value to our entire package! We are grateful to Pauline Assenza, Western Connecticut State University, for her superb work on case teaching notes as well as chapter and case PowerPoints. We thank Doug Sanford, Towson University, for his expertise in developing several pedagogical features, including the teaching notes for the “Learning from Mistakes . . .” and carefully reviewing our Instructor Manual’s chapters. Justin Davis, University of West Florida, along with Noushi Rahman, Pace University, deserve our thanks for their hard work in developing excellent digital materials for Connect. And fi nally, we thank Christine Pence, University of California–Riverside, for her important contributions in revising our test bank and Todd Moss, Oregon State University, for his hard work in putting together an excellent set of videos online, along with the video grid that links videos to chapter material.

Finally, we would like to thank our families. For Greg this includes his parents, William and Mary Dess, who have always been there for him. His wife, Margie, and daughter, Taylor, have been a constant source of love and companionship. He would like to acknowledge his late uncle, Walter Descovich. Uncle Walt was truly a member of Tom Brokaw’s Greatest Genera- tion. He served in the U.S. Navy during World War II—where he learned electronics —and later became a superintendent at Consolidated Edison in New York City. He, his wife, Eleanor, and his family have been an inspiration to Greg over the years. Tom thanks his wife, Vicki, for her constant love and companionship. Tom also thanks Lee Hetherington and Thelma Lumpkin for their inspiration, as well as his mom, Katy, and his sister, Kitty, for a lifetime of support. Alan thanks his family—his wife, Helaine, and his children, Rachel and Jacob—for their love and support. He also thanks his parents, Gail Eisner and the late Marvin Eisner, for their support and encouragement. Gerry thanks his wife, Gaelen, for her love, support, and friendship and his children, Megan and AJ, for their love and the joy they bring to his life. He also thanks his parents, Gene and Jane, for their encouragement and support in all phases of his life.

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Learning from Mistakes In 1997, Daimler AG introduced an “ultra-urban” car at the Frankfurt Motor Show amid much fanfare. 1 Envisioned by Nicholas Hayek (inventor of Swatch Watch) and Mercedes- Benz, it received acclaim for its innovation, advanced engineering, and functionality as well as being simply fun to drive. Over one million were sold worldwide before it entered the U.S. market a decade later. What was this car that was transforming the urban transportation market? It was the Smart fortwo—a pocket-sized two-seater, high- efficiency vehicle made with cutting-edge materials that were as light as they were strong and had an impressively engineered Mercedes-Benz engine that made it fun to drive.

On January 16, 2008, the first Smart fortwo streaked through the streets of Manhattan, New York. The Smart fortwo was an immediate sensation in the United States, with sales of 24,600 units in its first year. With rising gas prices, a buoyant economy, and increasingly ecologically- aware consumers, Daimler had not only found a market, but also it was blazing a trail all across the United States. However, sales quickly dropped—just 20,000 cars were sold over the following three years. So where did Smart take a wrong turn?

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Learning Objectives Learning Objectives numbered LO5.1, LO5.2, LO5.3, etc. with corresponding icons in the margins to indicate where learning objectives are covered in the text.

I h l 2000 P&G f d h i h ld h i

NGOs AS MONITORS OF MNCs Although the number of NGOs worldwide is hard to determine, according to a recent study there are at least 40,000 multinational NGOs. There are also hundreds of thousands based in individual countries, with India leading the pack with one NGO for 400 of its citizens. What are NGOs and what do they do? NGOs such as Greenpeace or World Wildlife Fund include a wide array of groups and organizations—from activist groups “reclaiming the streets” to development organizations delivering aid and providing essential public services. Other NGOs are research-driven policy organiza- tions, looking to engage with decision makers. Still others see them- selves as watchdogs, casting a critical eye over current events.

Some NGOs recently broadened their monitoring or watchdog role of multinational corporations (MNCs) to include not just the MNC itself but also the MNC’s supply chain. As an example, Apple in 2011 received massive media scrutiny from Chinese environ- mental NGOs because the beloved U.S. technology giant ignored pollution violations of some of its Chinese suppliers. Following intense media pressure, Apple quickly arranged talks with the Chi- nese environmental NGOs and eventually increased environmental standards for its suppliers. However, the responsibility of MNCs does not stop with their immediate supplier base. International brands such as Nike and Adidas were targets of international

media attention because they procured finished goods from Chinese textile companies with questionable environmental prac- tices. These cases highlight that MNCs face substantial challenges in what is commonly assumed to be an arm’s length market transaction.

Although many MNCs are quick to react to environmental con- cerns raised by NGOs, a more proactive management of environ- mental issues in their supply chain may prevent public scrutiny and other embarrassments. Apparel company Levi Strauss takes a proactive approach that encourages self-monitoring by their suppliers. For each false or misleading environmental record, Levi Strauss issues the supplier a “zero tolerance” warning and will terminate the relationship after three such warnings. However, if the supplier voluntarily reports environmental issues, Levi Strauss does not issue a warning, but instead works with the supplier to correct the problems. This proactive approach encourages self- monitoring and decreases the risk of becoming the target of NGO attention and media pressure.

Sources: Esty, D. C. & Winston, A. S. 2009. Green to Gold. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley: 69–70; Barboza, D. 2011. Apple cited as adding to pollution in China. The New York Times, September 1: np; Plambeck, E., Lee, H.L., and Yatsko, P. 2011. Improving environmental performance in your Chinese supply chain. MIT Sloan Management Review, 53(2): 43–51; and Shukla, A. 2010. First official estimate: An NGO for every 400 people in India. www.indianexpress.com , July 7: np.

STRATEGY SPOTLIGHT 1.3 ETHICS

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Learning from Mistakes Learning from Mistakes are examples of where things went wrong. Failures are not only interesting but also sometimes easier to learn from. And students realize strategy is not just about “right or wrong” answers, but requires critical thinking.

Strategy Spotlight These boxes weave themes of ethics, globalization, and technology into every chapter of the text, providing students with a thorough grounding necessary for understanding strategic management. Select boxes incorporate crowdsourcing, environmental sustainability, and ethical themes.

guided

tour

Business-Level Strategy: Creating and Sustaining Competitive Advantages

After reading this chapter, you should have a good understanding of the following learning objectives:

LO5.1 The central role of competitive advantage in the study of strategic management, and the three generic strategies: overall cost leadership, differentiation, and focus.

LO5.2 How the successful attainment of generic strategies can improve a firm’s relative power vis-à-vis the five forces that determine an industry’s average profitability.

LO5.3 The pitfalls managers must avoid in striving to attain generic strategies.

LO5.4 How firms can effectively combine the generic strategies of overall cost leadership and differentiation.

LO5.5 What factors determine the sustainability of a firm’s competitive advantage.

LO5.6 How Internet-enabled business models are being used to improve strategic positioning.

LO5.7 The importance of considering the industry life cycle to determine a firm’s business-level strategy and its relative emphasis on functional area strategies and value-creating activities.

LO5.8 The need for turnaround strategies that enable a firm to reposition its competitive position in an industry.

Learning from Mistak Some of the most widely known brands and snack foods arena have been owned Corporation. 1 Since the 1930s, Hostess Br founded as Interstate Bakeries) produce popular baked goods, including Wonder B Ring Dings, Yodels, Zingers, and many o Even with its iconic brands and sales in o year, Hostess Brands found itself in a perilou went into bankruptcy in 2012. Unable to f solution to remain viable, in November closed down all of its bakeries and was for and sell off its brands to other bakeries. W of their brands and their longstanding ma was a surprise to many seeing the firm f wrong?

The viability of a fi rm’s business-level strat by both the internal operations of a fi rm an and preferences of the market. Firms that s the appropriate resources and cost structure needs of the environment. Hostess had long themselves in the baked goods business simple yet fl avorful baked snack goods that in kids’ lunchboxes for generations. Their stro the environment was undone by a combinati

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GUIDED TOUR

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and everyone else “fends for themselves” in their independent, isolated functional areas. Instead, people throughout the organization must strive toward overall goals.

The need for such a perspective is accelerating in today’s increasingly complex, inter- connected ever-changing global economy As noted by Peter Senge of MIT the days

THE BUSINESS CASE FOR SUSTAINABILITY The corporate sustainability, or “green,” movement describes a business philosophy that goes beyond legal compliance with envi- ronmental regulations. Historically, companies engaged in social issues by handing out checks to charities or victims of natural disasters. While these forms of “green marketing” are here to stay, the new corporate sustainability movement wants not only to do good but also to save big bucks.

Companies across the world embrace the concept of sus- tainability as a powerful source of innovation and improving operational effectiveness. Companies that translate sustainable business practices into improved operational performance focus on the opportunity cost represented by waste instead of the short- term cost of implementing sustainable business practices. One industry in which sustainability creates competitive advantage is retailing. Take Walmart for example. Walmart is far ahead of its major competitors Target and Sears in terms of reducing waste and the weight of its packaging. In 2009, Walmart’s Japanese Seiyu chain converted the packaging for its private-label fresh-cut

fruit and salads from oil-based to corn-based plastic. This opera- tional improvement reduced packaging weight by 25 percent and lowered freight and warehouse costs by 13 percent, saving Walmart more than $195,000 a year.

International Paper (IP), a global paper and packaging com- pany, is another company that benefits from sustainable business practices. IP recognized that its future profitability depends on a steady supply of trees, and it has planted more than 4 billion tree seedlings since the 1950s. The company also cut dependence on fossil fuel by 21 percent from 2005 to 2010—partially achieved by burning limbs and other biomass debris from tree processing. These sustainability decisions paid off and saved IP $221 million annually. IP also formalized specific sustainability goals, such as reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 20 percent by 2020, high- lighting the company’s commitment to sustainability.

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If you’re wondering why we’re bringing you a new edition of Psychology: Core Concepts . . .

1 In the new seventh edition, we feature new cutting-edge research on the neuroscience of social interaction, cul- tural influences on perception, daydreaming, taste, and meditation, as well as updates on bullying, the slower rise of IQ scores (the Flynn effect) in developed coun- tries, the myth of multitasking, and much more. We also introduce readers to a groundbreaking modification of Maslow’s famous hierarchy of needs, newly framed by evolutionary psychologists.

2 Our lead author Philip Zimbardo has recently published a detailed description and analysis of his famous Stanford Prison Experiment in The Lucifer Effect: Understanding How Good People Turn Evil. We are pleased to include in Psychology: Core Concepts some of the insights he presented in Lucifer—particularly the notion of the effect of impersonal social systems, as well as social situations, on human behavior. Ours is the only introductory text in which you will find a discussion of how these social systems, such as organizations and bureaucracies, create a context that can profoundly influence the behavior of groups and individuals.

3 Dr. Zimbardo has also done important new work on the differences among people in their time perspective, re- ferring to a focus on the past, the present, or the future. This text is the only introduction to psychology to dis- cuss the powerful influence of time perspective on our decisions and actions.

4 In this edition, Read on MyPsychLab icons appear in the margins indicating that additional readings are

available for students to explore. For example, one of the Read features in Chapter 3 (Sensation and Percep- tion) deals with the classic study of backward masking. In Chapter 12 (Disorders and Therapy), you can read more about an African perspective on mental disorder.

5 One of our goals in this new edition is, again, to help you learn to “think like psychologists.” To do so, we have placed new emphasis on two kinds of psychological think- ing: (1) problem solving and (2) critical thinking. Every chapter begins with a Problem and ends with a critical analysis of an important psychological question, such as gender differences or repressed memory.

6 We have made a special effort in the seventh edition to provide clues throughout the chapter to help you un- derstand the solution to the chapter-opening Problem— which proved to be a popular feature in the last edition. The Chapter Summary now gives a brief “answer” to the problem as well.

7 We have designed the Critical Thinking applications at the end of each chapter to build upon a set of critical thinking skills introduced in Chapter One. Each of these focuses on an issue that is popularly misunderstood (e.g., the Mozart Effect) or contentious within the field (e.g., the evidence- based practice debate within clinical psychology). In this edition, we have also included the gist of the Critical Thinking section in the Chapter Summary.

8 Reflecting advances in multicultural and cross-cultural research, we have added even more coverage of culture and gender throughout the text. Our goal here is two- fold: We want you to see the relevance of psychology in your life, and we want you to understand that psychol- ogy is the science of behavior and mental processes that both generalizes and differs across cultures.

Why Do You Need This New Edition?

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Psychology

Philip G. Zimbardo Stanford University

Robert L. Johnson Umpqua Community College

Vivian McCann Portland Community College

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Seventh Edition

Core Concepts

Student Edition ISBN-10: 0-205-18346-8

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Zimbardo, Philip G.

Psychology : core concepts / Philip G. Zimbardo, Robert L. Johnson, Vivian McCann. — 7th ed.

p. cm.

Includes bibliographical references and index.

ISBN-13: 978-0-205-18346-3

ISBN-10: 0-205-18346-8

1. Psychology. I. Johnson, Robert L. (Robert Lee) II. McCann, Vivian. III. Title.

BF121.Z53 2012

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2011027587

1 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

1 Mind, Behavior, and Psychological Science 2 2 Biopsychology, Neuroscience, and Human Nature 40 3 Sensation and Perception 86 4 Learning and Human Nurture 132 5 Memory 170 6 Thinking and Intelligence 212 7 Development Over the Lifespan 264 8 States of Consciousness 322 9 Motivation and Emotion 362 10 Personality: Theories of the Whole Person 412 11 Social Psychology 458 12 Psychological Disorders 514 13 Therapies for Psychological Disorders 554 14 From Stress to Health and Well-Being 596 Glossary G-1 References R-1 Answers to Discovering Psychology Program Review Questions A-1 Photo Credits C-1 Name Index I-1 Subject Index I-7

B R I E F C O N T E N T S

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C O N T E N T S

CHAPTER 1 Mind, Behavior, and Psychological Science 2

PROBLEM: How would psychologists test the claim that sugar makes children hyperactive? 3

1.1 What Is Psychology—And What Is It Not? 4 Psychology: It’s More Than You Think 4 Psychology Is Not Psychiatry 6 Thinking Critically about Psychology

and Pseudo-Psychology 7

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology 10

1.2 What Are Psychology’s Six Main Perspectives? 11 Separation of Mind and Body and the Modern Biological

Perspective 12 The Founding of Scientific Psychology and the Modern

Cognitive Perspective 13 The Behavioral Perspective: Focusing on Observable

Behavior 16

The Whole-Person Perspectives: Psychodynamic, Humanistic, and Trait and Temperament Psychology 17

The Developmental Perspective: Changes Arising from Nature and Nurture 19

The Sociocultural Perspective: The Individual in Context 19 The Changing Face of Psychology 20

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Psychology as a Major 22

1.3 How Do Psychologists Develop New Knowledge? 23 Four Steps in the Scientific Method 24 Five Types of Psychological Research 27 Controlling Biases in Psychological Research 31 Ethical Issues in Psychological Research 32

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: The Perils of Pseudo-Psychology 33

CRITICAL THINKING APPLIED: Facilitated Communication 35

Chapter Summary 36 Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide 38

PROBLEM: What does Jill Bolte Taylor’s experience teach us about how our brain is organized and about its amazing ability to adapt? 42

2.1 How Are Genes and Behavior Linked? 43 Evolution and Natural Selection 43 Genetics and Inheritance 45

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Choosing Your Children’s Genes 48

2.2 How Does the Body Communicate Internally? 49 The Neuron: Building Block of the Nervous System 50 The Nervous System 56 The Endocrine System 58

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: How Psychoactive Drugs Affect the Nervous System 60

2.3 How Does the Brain Produce Behavior and Mental Processes? 62 Windows on the Brain 63 Three Layers of the Brain 65 Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex 69 Cerebral Dominance 73

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology 79

CRITICAL THINKING APPLIED: Left Brain versus Right Brain 80

Chapter Summary 81 Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide 84

CHAPTER 2 Biopsychology, Neuroscience, and Human Nature 40

CHAPTER 3 Sensation and Perception 86

PROBLEM: Is there any way to tell whether the world we “see” in our minds is the same as the external world—and whether we see things as most others do? 88

3.1 How Does Stimulation Become Sensation? 89 Transduction: Changing Stimulation to Sensation 90 Thresholds: The Boundaries of Sensation 91 Signal Detection Theory 93

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Sensory Adaptation 93

3.2 How Are the Senses Alike? How Are They Different? 94 Vision: How the Nervous System Processes Light 94 Hearing: If a Tree Falls in the Forest . . . 100 How the Other Senses Are Like Vision and Hearing 104 Synesthesia: Sensations across the Senses 108

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: The Sense and Experience of Pain 109

3.3 What Is the Relationship between Sensation and Perception? 112 Perceptual Processing: Finding Meaning in Sensation 112 Perceptual Ambiguity and Distortion 114 Theoretical Explanations for Perception 117 Seeing and Believing 124

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology 125

CRITICAL THINKING APPLIED: Subliminal Perception and Subliminal Persuasion 126

Chapter Summary 128 Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide 130 vii

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CHAPTER 4 Learning and Human Nurture 132

PROBLEM: Assuming Sabra’s fear of flying was a response she had learned, could it also be treated by learning? If so, how? 134

4.1 What Sort of Learning Does Classical Conditioning Explain? 136 The Essentials of Classical Conditioning 137 Applications of Classical Conditioning 139

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Taste Aversions and Chemotherapy 142

4.2 How Do We Learn New Behaviors By Operant Conditioning? 142 Skinner’s Radical Behaviorism 143 The Power of Reinforcement 143 The Problem of Punishment 149 A Checklist for Modifying Operant Behavior 152 Operant and Classical Conditioning Compared 153

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology 155

4.3 How Does Cognitive Psychology Explain Learning? 156 Insight Learning: Köhler in the Canaries with Chimps 157 Cognitive Maps: Tolman Finds Out What’s on a

Rat’s Mind 158 Observational Learning: Bandura’s Challenge to

Behaviorism 159 Brain Mechanisms and Learning 161 “Higher” Cognitive Learning 162

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Fear of Flying Revisited 162

CRITICAL THINKING APPLIED: Do Different People Have Different “Learning Styles”? 164

Chapter Summary 166 Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide 168

CHAPTER 5 Memory 170

PROBLEM: How can our knowledge about memory help us evaluate claims of recovered memories? 172

5.1 What Is Memory? 172 Metaphors for Memory 173 Memory’s Three Basic Tasks 174

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Would You Want a “Photographic” Memory? 175

5.2 How Do We Form Memories? 177 The First Stage: Sensory Memory 178 The Second Stage: Working Memory 180 The Third Stage: Long-Term Memory 184

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: “Flashbulb” Memories: Where Were You When . . . ? 189

5.3 How Do We Retrieve Memories? 190 Implicit and Explicit Memory 190 Retrieval Cues 191 Other Factors Affecting Retrieval 193

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: On the Tip of Your Tongue 194

5.4 Why Does Memory Sometimes Fail Us? 195 Transience: Fading Memories Cause Forgetting 196 Absent-Mindedness: Lapses of Attention Cause

Forgetting 198 Blocking: Access Problems 198 Misattribution: Memories in the Wrong Context 199 Suggestibility: External Cues Distort or Create Memories 200 Bias: Beliefs, Attitudes, and Opinions Distort Memories 201 Persistence: When We Can’t Forget 202 The Advantages of the “Seven Sins” of Memory 202 Improving Your Memory with Mnemonics 203

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology 204

CRITICAL THINKING APPLIED: The Recovered Memory Controversy 206

Chapter Summary 207 Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide 210

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CHAPTER 7 Development Over the Lifespan 264

PROBLEM: Do the amazing accounts of similarities in twins reared apart indicate we are primarily a product of our genes? Or do genetics and environment work together to influence growth and development over the lifespan? 266

7.1 What Innate Abilities Does the Infant Possess? 268 Prenatal Development 268 The Neonatal Period: Abilities of the Newborn Child 269 Infancy: Building on the Neonatal Blueprint 271

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Not Just Fun and Games: The Role of Child’s Play in Life Success 277

7.2 What Are the Developmental Tasks of Childhood? 279 How Children Acquire Language 279 Cognitive Development: Piaget’s Theory 282 Social and Emotional Development 288

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: The Puzzle of ADHD 294

7.3 What Changes Mark the Transition of Adolescence? 296 Adolescence and Culture 296

Physical Maturation in Adolescence 297 Adolescent Sexuality 298 Neural and Cognitive Development in Adolescence 299 Moral Development: Kohlberg’s Theory 300 Social and Emotional Issues in Adolescence 302

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology: Cognitive Development in College Students 304

7.4 What Developmental Challenges Do Adults Face? 305 Early Adulthood: Explorations, Autonomy, and Intimacy 306 The Challenges of Midlife: Complexity and Generativity 308 Late Adulthood: The Age of Integrity 310

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: A Look Back at the Jim Twins and Your Own Development 313

CRITICAL THINKING APPLIED: The Mozart Effect 315

Chapter Summary 316 Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide 320

CHAPTER 6 Thinking and Intelligence 212

PROBLEM: What produces “genius,” and to what extent are the people we call “geniuses” different from others? 214

6.1 What Are the Components of Thought? 215 Concepts 215 Imagery and Cognitive Maps 217 Thought and the Brain 218 Intuition 219

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Schemas and Scripts Help You Know What to Expect 221

6.2 What Abilities Do Good Thinkers Possess? 223 Problem Solving 223 Judging and Making Decisions 227 Becoming a Creative Genius 229

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology 232

6.3 How Is Intelligence Measured? 233 Binet and Simon Invent a School Abilities Test 234 American Psychologists Borrow Binet and Simon’s Idea 235 Problems with the IQ Formula 236 Calculating IQs “on the Curve” 237 IQ Testing Today 238

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: What Can You Do for an Exceptional Child? 239

6.4 Is Intelligence One or Many Abilities? 242 Psychometric Theories of Intelligence 242 Cognitive Theories of Intelligence 243 The Question of Animal Intelligence 247

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Test Scores and the Self-Fulfilling Prophecy 249

6.5 How Do Psychologists Explain IQ Differences Among Groups? 250 Intelligence and the Politics of Immigration 251 What Evidence Shows That Intelligence Is Influenced

by Heredity? 251 What Evidence Shows That Intelligence is Influenced

by Environment? 252 Heritability (Not Heredity) and Group Differences 253 PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Stereotype Threat 256

CRITICAL THINKING APPLIED: The Question of Gender Differences 258

Chapter Summary 259 Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide 262

CHAPTER 8 States of Consciousness 322

PROBLEM: How can psychologists objectively examine the worlds of dreaming and other subjective mental states? 324

8.1 How Is Consciousness Related to Other Mental Processes? 324 Tools for Studying Consciousness 326 Models of the Conscious and Nonconscious Minds 327 What Does Consciousness Do for Us? 329 Coma and Related States 330

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology 331

8.2 What Cycles Occur in Everyday Consciousness? 332 Daydreaming 332

Sleep: The Mysterious Third of Our Lives 333 Dreaming: The Pageants of the Night 338

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Sleep Disorders 341

8.3 What Other Forms Can Consciousness Take? 344 Hypnosis 345 Meditation 347 Psychoactive Drug States 348

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Dependence and Addiction 354

CRITICAL THINKING APPLIED: The Unconscious—Reconsidered 356

Chapter Summary 358 Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide 360

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CHAPTER 10 Personality: Theories of the Whole Person 412

PROBLEM: What influences were at work to produce the unique behavioral patterns, high achievement motivation, and consistency over time and place that we see in the personality of Mary Calkins? 414

10.1 What Forces Shape Our Personalities? 415 Biology, Human Nature, and Personality 416 The Effects of Nurture: Personality and the Environment 416 The Effects of Nature: Dispositions and Mental

Processes 417 Social and Cultural Contributions to Personality 417 PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Explaining Unusual People

and Unusual Behavior 418

10.2 What Persistent Patterns, or Dispositions, Make Up Our Personalities? 420

Personality and Temperament 421 Personality as a Composite of Traits 422 PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Finding Your Type 426

10.3 Do Mental Processes Help Shape Our Personalities? 428 Psychodynamic Theories: Emphasis on Motivation

and Mental Disorder 428

Humanistic Theories: Emphasis on Human Potential and Mental Health 439

Social-Cognitive Theories: Emphasis on Social Learning 442

Current Trends: The Person in a Social System 445 PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn

Psychology 445

10.4 What “Theories” Do People Use to Understand Themselves and Others? 447

Implicit Personality Theories 447 Self-Narratives: The Stories of Our Lives 448 The Effects of Culture on Our Views of Personality 449 PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: The Personality of Time 450

CRITICAL THINKING APPLIED: The Person–Situation Controversy 453

Chapter Summary 454 Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide 456

CHAPTER 9 Motivation and Emotion 362

PROBLEM: Motivation is largely an internal and subjective process: How can we determine what motivates people like Lance Armstrong to work so hard at becoming the best in the world at what they do? 364

9.1 What Motivates Us? 364 Why People Work: McClelland’s Theory 365 The Unexpected Effects of Rewards on Motivation 367 PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn

Psychology 368

9.2 How Are Our Motivational Priorities Determined? 369 Instinct Theory 369 Drive Theory 370 Freud’s Psychodynamic Theory 371 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs 372 Putting It All Together: A New Hierarchy of Needs 373

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Determining What Motivates Others 374

9.3 Where Do Hunger and Sex Fit into the Motivational Hierarchy? 375 Hunger: A Homeostatic Drive and a Psychological

Motive 376 The Problem of Will Power and Chocolate Cookies 379

Sexual Motivation: An Urge You Can Live Without 380 Sex, Hunger, and the Hierarchy of Needs 384

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: The What and Why of Sexual Orientation 385

9.4 How Do Our Emotions Motivate Us? 387 What Emotions Are Made Of 388 What Emotions Do for Us 389 Counting the Emotions 389 Cultural Universals in Emotional Expression 390

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Gender Differences in Emotion Depend on Biology and Culture 391

9.5 What Processes Control Our Emotions? 392 The Neuroscience of Emotion 393 Arousal, Performance, and the Inverted U 396 Theories of Emotion: Resolving Some Old Issues 397 How Much Conscious Control Do We Have Over Our

Emotions? 399

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Detecting Deception 403

CRITICAL THINKING APPLIED: Do Lie Detectors Really Detect Lies? 405

Chapter Summary 407 Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide 410

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CHAPTER 11 Social Psychology 458

PROBLEM: What makes ordinary people willing to harm other people, as they did in Milgram’s shocking experiment? 461

11.1 How Does the Social Situation Affect Our Behavior? 462 Social Standards of Behavior 463 Conformity 465 Obedience to Authority 471 Cross-Cultural Tests of Milgram’s Research 475 Some Real-World Extensions of the Milgram Obedience

to Authority Paradigm 477 The Bystander Problem: The Evil of Inaction 478 Need Help? Ask for It! 480

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: On Being “Shoe” at Yale U 482

11.2 Constructing Social Reality: What Influences Our Judgments of Others? 483 Interpersonal Attraction 484 Loving Relationships 488

Making Cognitive Attributions 490 Prejudice and Discrimination 492

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Stereotype Lift and Values Affirmations 498

11.3 How Do Systems Create Situations That Influence Behavior? 500 The Stanford Prison Experiment 500 Chains of System Command 502 Preventing Bullying by Systematic Changes and Reframing 504

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology 507

CRITICAL THINKING APPLIED: Is Terrorism “a Senseless Act of Violence, Perpetrated by Crazy Fanatics”? 508

Chapter Summary 510 Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide 512

PROBLEM: Is it possible to distinguish mental disorder from merely unusual behavior? That is, are there specific signs that clearly indicate mental disorder? 516

12.1 What Is Psychological Disorder? 517 Changing Concepts of Psychological Disorder 518 Indicators of Abnormality 521 A Caution to Readers 522

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: The Plea of Insanity 522

12.2 How Are Psychological Disorders Classified in the DSM-IV ? 524 Overview of the DSM-IV Classification System 524 Mood Disorders 526 Anxiety Disorders 530 Somatoform Disorders 534 Dissociative Disorders 535 Schizophrenia 537

Developmental Disorders 541 Personality Disorders 542 Adjustment Disorders and Other Conditions: The Biggest

Category of All 544 Gender Differences in Mental Disorders 544

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Shyness 544

12.3 What Are the Consequences of Labeling People? 545 Diagnostic Labels, Labeling, and Depersonalization 546 The Cultural Context of Psychological Disorder 546

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology 547

CRITICAL THINKING APPLIED: Insane Places Revisited—Another Look at the Rosenhan Study 548

Chapter Summary 550 Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide 552

CHAPTER 12 Psychological Disorders 514

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Glossary G-1 References R-1 Answers to Discovering Psychology Program Review Questions A-1 Photo Credits C-1 Name Index I-1 Subject Index I-7

CHAPTER 14 From Stress to Health and Well-Being 596

PROBLEM: Were the reactions and experiences of the 9/11 firefighters and others at the World Trade Center attacks typical of people in other stressful situations? And what factors explain individual differences in our physical and psychological responses to stress? 598

14.1 What Causes Distress? 600 Traumatic Stressors 601 Chronic Stressors 606

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Student Stress 611

14.2 How Does Stress Affect Us Physically? 613 Physiological Responses to Stress 614 Stress and the Immune System 617

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Cognitive Appraisal of Ambiguous Threats 619

14.3 Who Is Most Vulnerable to Stress? 620 Type A Personality and Hostility 622 Locus of Control 623 Hardiness 624

Optimism 625 Resilience 626

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology 628

14.4 How Can We Transform Negative Stress Into Positive Life Strategies? 629 Psychological Coping Strategies 630 Positive Lifestyle Choices: A “Two-for-One” Benefit to Your

Health 634 Putting It All Together: Developing Happiness and Subjective

Well-Being 637

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Behavioral Medicine and Health Psychology 639

CRITICAL THINKING APPLIED: Is Change Really Hazardous to Your Health? 641

Chapter Summary 643 Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide 646

CHAPTER 13 Therapies for Psychological Disorders 554

PROBLEM: What is the best treatment for Derek’s depression: psychological therapy, drug therapy, or both? More broadly, the problem is this: How do we decide among the available therapies for any of the mental disorders? 556

13.1 What Is Therapy? 556 Entering Therapy 557 The Therapeutic Alliance and the Goals of Therapy 557 Therapy in Historical and Cultural Context 559

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Paraprofessionals Do Therapy, Too 560

13.2 How Do Psychologists Treat Psychological Disorders? 561 Insight Therapies 562 Behavior Therapies 568 Cognitive–Behavioral Therapy: A Synthesis 571 Evaluating the Psychological Therapies 574

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Where Do Most People Get Help? 576

13.3 How Is the Biomedical Approach Used to Treat Psychological Disorders? 577 Drug Therapy 577

Other Medical Therapies for Psychological Disorders 581 Hospitalization and the Alternatives 583

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: What Sort of Therapy Would You Recommend? 584

13.4 How Do the Psychological Therapies and Biomedical Therapies Compare? 585 Depression and Anxiety Disorders: Psychological versus

Medical Treatment 587 Schizophrenia: Psychological versus Medical

Treatment 587 “The Worried Well” and Other Problems: Not Everyone Needs

Drugs 588

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology 588

CRITICAL THINKING APPLIED: Evidence-Based Practice 589

Chapter Summary 592 Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide 594

P R E FA C E xiii

T O T H E S T U D E N T . . .

There is one simple formula for academic success, and the following demonstration will show you what it is. Study this array of letters for a few seconds: I B M U F O F B I C I A

Now, without peeking, write down as many of the letters as you can (in the correct order).

Most people remember about five to seven letters correctly. A few people get them all. How do these exceptional few do it? They find a pattern. (You may have noticed some familiar initials in the array above: IBM, UFO, FBI, CIA.) Finding the pattern greatly eases the task because you can draw on material that is already stored in mem- ory. In this case, all that needs to be remembered are four “chunks” of information instead of 12 unrelated letters.

The same principle applies to material you study for your psychology class. If you try to remember each piece of information as a separate item, you will have a difficult time. But if instead you look for patterns, you will find your task greatly simplified— and much more enjoyable.

USING PSYCHOLOGY TO LEARN PSYCHOLOGY So, how can you identify the patterns? Your friendly authors have developed several learning features that will make meaningful patterns in the text stand out clearly:

Core Concepts We have organized each major section of every chapter around a single big idea called a Core Concept. For example, one of the four Core Concepts in Chapter 5, Memory, says:

Core Concept 5.4 Human memory is an information-processing system that works constructively to encode, store, and retrieve information.

The Core Concept, then, becomes the central theme around which about 10 pages of material—including several new terms—are organized. As you read each chapter, keep- ing the Core Concept in mind will help you encode the new terms and ideas related to that concept, store them in your memory, and later retrieve them when you are being tested. To borrow an old saying, the Core Concepts become the “forest,” while the details of the chapter become the “trees.”

Key Questions Each Core Concept is introduced by a Key Question that also serves as a main heading in the chapter. Here, for example, is a Key Question from the Memory chapter:

5.4 KEY QUESTION Why Does Memory Sometimes Fail Us?

Key Questions such as this will help you anticipate the most important point, or the Core Concept, in the section. In fact, the Core Concept always provides a brief answer to the Key Question. Think of the Key Question as the high beams on your car, helping

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you focus on what lies ahead. Our Key Questions should also serve as guides for you in posing questions of your own about what you are reading.

Both the Key Questions and the Core Concepts later reappear as organizing fea- tures of the Chapter Summary.

Psychology Matters Psychology has many captivating connections with events in the news and in everyday life, and we have explored one of these connections at the end of each major section in every chapter. To illustrate, here are some examples from the Memory chapter:

• Would You Want a “Photographic” Memory? • “Flashbulb” Memories: Where Were You When . . . ? • On the Tip of Your Tongue

Such connections—practical, down to earth, and fascinating—will help you link your study of psychology with your real-life experiences. They will also help you critically evaluate many of the psychological ideas you encounter in the media—as when you see news stories that begin with “psychological research shows that . . .” By the end of this course, you will become a much wiser consumer of such information.

Psychology Matters: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology A special Psychology Matters section in every chapter explains how you can apply new knowledge from the chapter to make your studying more effective. For example, in Chapter 2, Biopsychology, Neuroscience, and Human Nature, we tell you how to put your understanding of the brain to work for more efficient learning. Similarly, at the end of Chapter 9, Motivation and Emotion, we explain how to use the psychological concept of “flow” to boost your academic motivation. Thus, Using Psychology to Learn Psychology not only reinforces points that you have studied but also brings the material home with immediate and practical applications to your life in college.

Do It Yourself! Throughout the book we have scattered active-learning demonstrations like the one in which you were asked to memorize the letters I B M U F O F B I C I A. Besides being fun, these activities have the serious purpose of illustrating important principles discussed in the text. In Chapter 5, for example, one Do It Yourself! box helps you find the capacity of your short-term memory; another lets you test your “photographic memory” ability.

Check Your Understanding Whether you’re learning psychology, soccer, or the saxophone, you need feedback on your progress, and that’s exactly what you will get from the Check Your Understanding quizzes. These quizzes appear at the end of every major section in the chapter, offering you a quick checkup indicating whether you have assimilated the main points from what you have read. Some questions call for simple recall; others call for deeper analysis or application of material. Some are multiple- choice questions; some are short-answer essay questions. These exercises will help you determine how well you have mastered the material.

MyPsychLab Integration Throughout the text, you will find marginal icons that link to important videos, simulations, podcasts, and activities you can find on MyPsychLab. New to this edition, we have developed reading activities (called Read on MyPsychLab) that will allow you to explore interesting topics more deeply. There are many more resources on MyPsychLab than those highlighted in the text, but the icons draw attention to some of the most high-interest materials. If you did not receive an access code with your text, you can purchase access at www.mypsychlab.com.

Connection Arrows Links to important topics discussed in other chapters are often cross-referenced with an arrow in the margin, as you can see in the sample here. These links will help you integrate your new knowledge with information you have already learned, or will show you where in a later chapter you can find out more

Study and Review at MyPsychLab

Read the Document at MyPsychLab

Simulate the Experiment at MyPsychLab

Explore the Concept at MyPsychLab

Watch the Video at MyPsychLab

Listen to the Podcast at MyPsychLabwww.mypsychlab.com

T O T H E S T U D E N T xv

about what you are reading. Connecting these concepts in your mind will help you remember them.

Marginal Glossary The most important terms appear in boldface, with their glossary definitions readily accessible in the margin. We list these key terms again in the Chapter Summary. Then, at the end of the book, a comprehensive Glossary gathers together all the key terms and definitions from each chapter in one easy-to-find location.

Chapter Summaries We have written our Chapter Summaries to provide you with an overview of main points in each chapter—to help you preview and review the chapter. The summaries are organized around the Key Questions and Core Concepts introduced within the chapter to facilitate review and mastery of chapter material. But we offer one caution: Reading the Chapter Summary will not substitute for reading the entire chapter! Here’s a helpful hint: We recommend that you read the summary before you read the rest of the chapter to get a flavor of what’s ahead, then reread the summary after you finish the chapter. Reading the summary before will provide a framework for the material so that it can be more easily encoded and stored in your memory. And, naturally, reviewing the summary after reading the chapter will reinforce what you have just learned so that you can retrieve it when needed on an examination.

THINKING LIKE A PSYCHOLOGIST Learning all the facts and definitions of psychology won’t make you a psychologist. Beyond the facts, thinking like a psychologist requires learning some problem-solving skills and critical thinking techniques that any good psychologist should possess. With this goal in mind, we have added two unique features to this book.

Chapter-Opening Problems Each chapter begins with an important problem that you will learn how to solve with the tools you acquire in your reading. Examples of the chapter- opening problems include testing the claim that sweet treats give children a “sugar high,” evaluating claims of recovered memories, and judging the extent to which the people we call “geniuses” are different from the rest of us.

Critical Thinking Applied At the end of each chapter, you will be asked to consider issues disputed among psychologists and issues raised in the media, such as the nature of the unconscious mind and the effects of subliminal persuasion. Each of these issues requires a skeptical attitude and the application of a special set of critical thinking skills that we will introduce in Chapter 1.

DISCOVERING PSYCHOLOGY VIDEOS At the end of each chapter, you will notice viewing guides for Discovering Psychology, a 26-part video series produced by WGBH and Annenberg Media and narrated by the lead author of this textbook, Phil Zimbardo. The videos provide an overview of his- toric and current theories of human behavior and feature many of the researchers and studies introduced in this textbook. You can access the Discovering Psychology videos and additional viewing resources through MyPsychLab (www.mypsychlab.com), the online companion to this textbook.

We have one final suggestion to help you succeed in psychology: This book is filled with examples to illustrate the most important ideas, but you will remember these ideas longer if you generate your own examples as you study. This habit will make the information yours as well as ours. And so we wish you a memorable journey through the field we love.

Phil Zimbardo Bob Johnson

Vivian McCannwww.mypsychlab.com

T O T H E I N S T R U C T O R . . .

Psychology has undergone remarkable changes since 2008, when we finished writing the previous edition of Psychology: Core Concepts. Here are just a few examples of the new developments we have included in this seventh edition:

• The brain’s “default network,” involving parts of the temporal lobe, the prefrontal cortex, and the cingulate cortex, becomes active when people focus their attention internally—when they are remembering personal events, making plans, or imagin- ing the perspectives of others. Unfortunately, daydreamers activating this default network while studying will probably not remember the material they have just studied.

• New research shows that analgesics such as Tylenol, normally used to treat physical pain, can reduce the painful psychological sensations resulting from social rejection and ruminating about unhappy relationships.

• Also in the realm of sensation, taste researcher Linda Bartoshuk has discovered a “Rosetta Stone,” enabling her to compare objectively the intensities of taste sensations experienced by different individuals.

• Meanwhile, perceptual psychologists have recently used brain scans to confirm the assertion that Americans and Asians perceive scenes differently.

• Brain scans have also enabled researchers to assess patients who have been classi- fied as in persistent vegetative states—and predict which ones might improve.

• In healthy individuals, scans have detected changes in the brains of volunteers who have undergone intensive training in meditation. The changes are most obvious in brain areas associated with memory, emotional processing, attention, and stress reduction.

• As cognitive psychologists continue to puzzle over the Flynn effect, IQ scores con- tinue to rise—but new studies show that the rise is slowing in developed countries of the West.

• Cognitive research also shows that one in four auto accidents results from the driver failing to notice hazardous conditions while using a cell phone—a bad decision probably deriving from a mistaken belief in multitasking. (Perhaps future research will determine whether the IQs of these drivers fall above or below the rising average.)

• New research by our own Phil Zimbardo shows that decisions can also be influenced by a personality trait that he calls time perspective—referring to a past, present, or future orientation.

• However, the ultimate influence on our decisions lies in natural selection, accord- ing to evolutionary psychologists—who have recently proposed a major new and controversial modification of Maslow’s famous hierarchy of needs.

In all, we have included some 350 new references in this new edition—gleaned from literally thousands we have perused. Which is to say that psychological knowledge continues to grow, with no end in sight. As a result, many introductory textbooks have grown to daunting proportions. Meanwhile, our introductory courses remain the same length—with the material ever more densely packed. We cannot possibly introduce students to all the concepts in psychology, nor can our students possibly remember everything.

The problem is not just one of volume and information overload; it is also a prob- lem of meaningfulness. So, while we have aimed to cover less detail than do the more encyclopedic texts, we have not given you a watered-down “brief edition” book. The result is an emphasis on the most important and meaningful ideas in psychology.

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Our inspiration for Psychology: Core Concepts came from psychological research: specifically, a classic study of chess players by Dutch psychologist and chess master Adriaan de Groot (1965). His work, as you may recall, involved remembering the locations of pieces on a chessboard. Significantly, when the pieces were placed on the board at random, chess experts did no better than novices. Only when the pat- terns made sense—because they represented actual game situations—did the experts show an advantage. Clearly, meaningful patterns are easier to remember than random assignments.

In applying de Groot’s findings to Psychology: Core Concepts, our goal has been to present a scientific overview of the field of psychology within meaningful patterns that will help students better remember what they learn so that they can apply it in their own lives. Thus, we have organized each major section of every chapter around a single, clear idea that we call a Core Concept, which helps students focus on the big picture so they don’t become lost in the details.

From the beginning, our intention in writing Psychology: Core Concepts has been to offer students and instructors a textbook that combines a sophisticated introduc- tion to the field of psychology with pedagogy that applies the principles of psychology to the learning of psychology, all in a manageable number of pages. Even with all the new material we have included, the book remains essentially the same size—which, of course, meant making some tough decisions about what to include, what to delete, and what to move into our extensive collection of ancillary resources.

Our goal was to blend great science with great teaching and to provide an alter- native to the overwhelmingly encyclopedic tomes or skimpy “brief edition” texts that have been traditionally offered. We think you will like the introduction to psychol- ogy presented in this book—both the content and the pedagogical features. After all, it’s a text that relies consistently on well-grounded principles of psychology to teach psychology.

NEW TO THIS EDITION This edition of Psychology: Core Concepts is certainly no perfunctory revision or slap- dash update. And here’s why . . .

We have reconceptualized our goal of helping students learn to “think like psychologists.” These days, of course, everyone emphasizes critical thinking. The new edition of Psychology: Core Concepts, however, gives equal weight to that other essen- tial thinking skill: problem solving.

To encourage the sort of problem solving psychologists do, every chapter begins with a Problem, a feature we introduced in the last edition. The Problem grows out of the opening vignette and requires, for its solution, material developed in the chapter. In this edition, we have focused on helping readers discover, throughout each chapter, the “clues” that lead to the solution of the problem.

But we have not neglected critical thinking. Throughout the text, we deal with common psychological misconceptions—such as the notion that venting anger gets it “out of your system” or the belief that punishment is the most effective way of chang- ing behavior. And in our Critical Thinking Applied segment at the end of each chapter, we also focus on an important psychological issue in the popular media or an ongoing debate within the field:

• Can “facilitated communication” help us understand people with autism? • Left vs. right brain: Do most of us use only one side of the brain? • Can our choices be influenced by subliminal messages? • Do people have different “learning styles”? • The recovered memory controversy: How reliable are reports of long-forgotten

memories of sexual abuse? • Gender issues: Are we more alike or more different? • The “Mozart Effect”: Can music make babies smarter?

xviii T O T H E I N S T R U C T O R

• The Unconscious reconsidered: Has modern neuroscience reshaped Freud’s concept of the unconscious mind?

• Do lie detectors really detect lies? • The person-situation controversy: Which is the more important influence on our

behavior? • Is terrorism “a senseless act of violence, perpetrated by crazy fanatics”? • Insane places revisited: Did Rosenhan get it right? • Evidence-based practice: Should clinicians be limited by the tested-and-true? • Is change really hazardous to your health?

But that’s not all. We have made extensive updates to the text (in addition to the new research listed above). And we have improved the pedagogical features for which Psychology: Core Concepts is known and loved. To give a few examples, we have:

• added MyPsychLab icons throughout the margins to highlight important videos, simulations, podcasts, and additional resources for students to explore online. New to this edition, we have created Read on MyPsychLab activities that allow students to read and answer questions about many interesting topics more deeply online.

• shifted the focus of psychology’s six main perspectives to practical applications, giving a concrete example of a real-life problem for each.

• clarified and updated our discussion of the scientific method to reflect more accurately how research is done in a real-world context.

• added material on interpreting correlations—to help students use the notions of correlation and causation more accurately in their everyday lives.

• simplified and consolidated our discussion of the split-brain experiments. • updated material on flashbulb memories, using up-to-date examples. • created a new section on cognitive theories of intelligence. • added a new Psychology Matters piece entitled “Not Just Fun and Games: The

Role of Child’s Play in Life Success,” telling of the growing role of self-control in life success, and how parents and teachers can help nurture this important ability.

• added new material on Vygotsky’s theory, including scaffolding and the zone of proximal development, plus new material on neural development in adolescence.

• revised and expanded the sections on daydreaming and on both REM and NREM sleep to reflect important new research.

• changed the order of topics in the Motivation and Emotion chapter, bringing in new material on practical ways of motivating people, updating the section on sexual orientation, and presenting a revised hierarchy of needs based in evolutionary psychology.

• added new material on cross-cultural differences in shyness, Carol Dweck’s research on mindset, and individual differences in time perspective.

• updated the section on positive psychology. • updated the Heroic Defiance section, including new examples from the recent

Egyptian protests and new material on events at the Abu Ghraib prison. • added new examples of recent replications of Milgram’s obedience experiment. • added new material on bullying, the jigsaw classroom, and stereotype lift. • reconceptualized depression in terms of Mayberg’s model, which emphasizes three

factors: biological vulnerability, external stressors, and abnormality of the mood- regulation circuits in the brain. Also presented the new studies on the value of exercise in combating depression and the anxiety disorders.

• added new material on psychopathy—which is attracting increasing interest but is not a DSM-IV disorder.

• discussed the growing rift within clinical psychology (and between APA and APS) over empirically supported treatments and empirically based practice.

T O T H E I N S T R U C T O R xix

• updated the information on telehealth therapy strategies. • connected the discussion of traumatic stress to the 2011 earthquake in Japan. • added a new Do It Yourself! The Undergraduate Stress Questionnaire: How Stressed

Are You?

We think you will find the seventh edition up-to-date and even more engaging for students than the previous edition. But the changes are not limited to the book itself. Please allow us to toot our horns for the supplements available to adopters.

TEACHING AND LEARNING PACKAGE The following supplements will also enhance teaching and learning for you and your students:

Instructor’s Manual Written and compiled by Sylvia Robb of Hudson County Community College, includes suggestions for preparing for the course, sample syllabi, and current trends and strategies for successful teaching. Each chapter offers integrated teaching outlines, lists the Key Questions, Core Concepts, and Key Terms for each chapter for quick reference, an extensive bank of lecture launchers, handouts, and activities, crossword puzzles, and suggestions for integrating third-party videos, music, and Web resources. The electronic format features click-and-view hotlinks that allow instructors to quickly review or print any resource from a particular chapter. This resource saves prep work and helps you maximize your classroom time.

Test Bank Written by Jason Spiegelman of Community College of Baltimore County, has provided an extensively updated test bank containing more than 2,000 accuracy- checked questions, including multiple choice, completion (fill-in-the-blank and short answer), and critical essays. Test item questions have been also written to test student comprehension of select multimedia assets found with MyPsychLab for instructors who wish to make MyPsychLab a more central component of their course. In addition to the unique questions listed previously, the Test Bank also includes all of the Check Your Understanding questions from the textbook and all of the test questions from the Discovering Psychology Telecourse Faculty Guide for instructors who wish to reinforce student use of the textbook and video materials. All questions include the correct answer, page reference, difficulty ranking, question type designation, and correlations to American Psychological Association (APA) Learning Goal/Outcome. A new feature of the Test Bank is the inclusion of rationales for each correct answer and the key distracter in the multiple- choice questions. The rationales help instructors reviewing the content to further evaluate the questions they are choosing for their tests and give instructors the option to use the rationales as an answer key for their students. Feedback from current customers indicates this unique feature is very useful for ensuring quality and quick response to student queries. A two-page Total Assessment Guide chapter overview makes creating tests easier by listing all of the test items in an easy-to-reference grid. The Total Assessment Guide organizes all test items by text section and question type/level of difficulty. All multiple- choice questions are categorized as factual, conceptual, or applied.

The Test Bank comes with Pearson MyTest, a powerful assessment-generation program that helps instructors easily create and print quizzes and exams. Ques- tions and tests can be authored online, allowing instructors ultimate flexibility and the ability to efficiently manage assessments anytime, anywhere! Instructors can easily access existing questions and then edit, create, and store them using simple drag-and- drop and Word-like controls. Data on each question provide information relevant to dif- ficulty level and page number. In addition, each question maps to the text’s major section and learning objective. For more information, go to www.PearsonMyTest.com.

NEW Interactive PowerPoint Slides These slides, available on the Instructor’s Resource DVD (ISBN 0-205-58439-7), bring the Psychology: Core Concepts design right into the classroom, drawing students into the lecture and providing wonderful interactivewww.PearsonMyTest.com

xx T O T H E I N S T R U C T O R

activities, visuals, and videos. A video walk-through is available and provides clear guidelines on using and customizing the slides. The slides are built around the text’s learning objectives and offer many links across content areas. Icons integrated throughout the slides indicate interactive exercises, simulations, and activities that can be accessed directly from the slides if instructors want to use these resources in the classroom.

A Set of Standard Lecture PowerPoint Slides Written by Beth M. Schwartz, Randolph College, is also offered and includes detailed outlines of key points for each chapter supported by selected visuals from the textbook. A separate Art and Figure version of these presentations contains all art from the textbook for which Pearson has been granted electronic permissions.

Classroom Response System (CRS) Power Point Slides Classroom Response System questions (“Clicker” questions) are intended to form the basis for class discussions as well as lectures. The incorporation of the CRS questions into each chapter’s slideshow facilitates the use of “clickers”—small hardware devices similar to remote controls, which process student responses to questions and interpret and display results in real time. CRS questions are a great way to get students involved in what they are learning, especially because many of these questions address specific scientific thinking skills highlighted in the text. These questions are available on the Instructor’s Resource DVD (ISBN 0-205-85439-7) and also online at http://pearsonhighered.com/irc.

Instructor’s Resource DVD (ISBN 0-205-85439-7) Bringing all of the Seventh Edition’s instructor resources together in one place, the Instructor’s DVD offers both versions of the PowerPoint presentations, the Classroom Response System (CRS), the electronic files for the Instructor’s Manual materials, and the Test Item File to help instructors customize their lecture notes.

The NEW MyPsychLab The NEW MyPsychLab combines original online materials with powerful online assessment to engage students, assess their learning, and help them succeed. MyPsychLab ensures students are always learning and always improving.

• New video: New, exclusive 30-minute video segments for every chapter take the viewer from the research laboratory to inside the brain to out on the street for real-world applications.

• New experiments: A new experiment tool allows students to experience psychol- ogy. Students do experiments online to reinforce what they are learning in class and reading about in the book.

• New BioFlix animations: Bring difficult-to-teach biological concepts to life with dramatic “zoom” sequences and 3D movement.

• eText: The Pearson eText lets students access their textbook anytime, anywhere, in any way they want it, including listening to it online.

• New concept mapping: A new concept-mapping tool allows students to create their own graphic study aids or notetaking tools using preloaded content from each chapter. Concept maps can be saved, e-mailed, or printed.

• Assessment: With powerful online assessment tied to every video, application, and chapter of the text, students can get immediate feedback. Instructors can see what their students know and what they don’t know with just a few clicks. Instruc- tors can then personalize MyPsychLab course materials to meet the needs of their students.

• New APA assessments: A unique bank of assessment items allows instructors to assess student progress against the American Psychological Association’s Learning Goals and Outcomes. These assessments have been keyed to the APA’s latest pro- gressive Learning Outcomes (basic, developing, advanced) published in 2008.

Proven Results Instructors and students have been using MyPsychLab for nearly ten years. To date, more than 500,000 students have used MyPsychLab. During that time,http://pearsonhighered.com/irc

T O T H E I N S T R U C T O R xxi

three white papers on the efficacy of MyPsychLab were published. Both the white papers and user feedback show compelling results: MyPsychLab helps students succeed and improve their test scores. One of the key ways MyPsychLab improves student outcomes is by providing continuous assessment as part of the learning process. Over the years, both instructor and student feedback have guided numerous improvements, making MyPsychLab even more flexible and effective.

Please contact your local Pearson representative for more information on MyPsychLab. For technical support for any of your Pearson products, you and your students can contact http://247.pearsoned.com.

NEW MyPsychLab Video Series (17 episodes) This new video series offers instructors and students the most current and cutting-edge introductory psychology video content available anywhere. These exclusive videos take the viewer into today’s research laboratories, inside the body and brain via breathtaking animations, and onto the street for real-world applications. Guided by the Design, Development and Review team, a diverse group of introductory psychology instructors, this comprehensive series features 17 half-hour episodes organized around the major topics covered in the introductory psychology course syllabus. For maximum flexibility, each half-hour episode features several brief clips that bring psychology to life:

• The Big Picture introduces the topic of the episode and provides the hook to draw students fully into the topic.

• The Basics uses the power of video to present foundational topics, especially those that students find difficult to understand.

• Special Topics delves deeper into high-interest and cutting-edge topics, showing research in action.

• In the Real World focuses on applications of psychological research. • What’s in It for Me? These clips show students the relevance of psychological

research to their own lives.

Available in MyPsychLab and also on DVD to adopters of Pearson psychology text- books (ISBN 0-205-03581-7).

Discovering Psychology Telecourse Videos Written, designed, and hosted by Phil Zimbardo and produced by WGBH Boston in partnership with Annenberg Media, this series is a perfect complement to Psychology: Core Concepts. Discovering Psychology is a landmark educational resource that reveals psychology’s contribution not only to understanding the puzzles of behavior but also to identifying solutions and treatments to ease the problems of mental disorders. The video series has won numerous prizes and is widely used in the United States and internationally. The complete set of 26 half-hour videos is available for purchase (DVD or VHS format) from Annenberg Media. The videos are also available online in a streaming format that is free (www.learner.org), and, for the convenience of instructors and students using Psychology: Core Concepts, links to these online videos have been included in the MyPsychLab program that accompanies the textbook. A student Viewing Guide is found at the end of every chapter within Psychology: Core Concepts, with additional Viewing Guide resources also available online within MyPsychLab.

Discovering Psychology Telecourse Faculty Guide (ISBN 0-205-69929-4) The Telecourse Faculty Guide provides guidelines for using Discovering Psychology as a resource within your course. Keyed directly to Psychology: Core Concepts, the faculty guide includes the complete Telecourse Study Guide plus suggested activities; suggested essays; cited studies; instructional resources, including books, articles, films, and websites; video program test questions with answer key; and a key term glossary. Test questions for Discovering Psychology also reappear in the textbook’s test bank and MyTest computerized test bank.

Student Study Guide (ISBN 0-205-25299-0) This robust study guide, written by Jane P. Sheldon of University of Michigan-Dearborn, is filled with guided activities and in-depth exercises to promote student learning. Each chapter includes worksheets thatwww.learner.orghttp://247.pearsoned.com

xxii T O T H E I N S T R U C T O R

give students a head start on in-class note taking; a full list of key terms with page references; a collection of demonstrations, activities, exercises, and three short practice quizzes; and one comprehensive chapter exam with critical-thinking essay questions and concept maps to help you study for your quizzes and exams. The appendix includes answers to all of the practice activities, tests, and concept maps.

ACCESSING ALL RESOURCES

For a list of all student resources available with Psychology: Core Concepts, Seventh Edition, go to www.mypearsonstore.com, enter the text ISBN (0-205-18346-8), and check out the “Everything That Goes with It” section under the book cover.

For access to all instructor supplements for Psychology: Core Concepts, Seventh Edition go to http://pearsonhighered.com/irc and follow the directions to register (or log in if you already have a Pearson user name and password). Once you have registered and your status as an instructor is verified, you will be e-mailed a log-in name and password. Use your log-in name and password to access the catalog. Click on the “online catalog” link, click on “psychology” followed by “introductory psychology,” and then the Zimbardo/Johnson/McCann, Psychology: Core Concepts, Seventh Edition text. Under the description of each supplement is a link that allows you to download and save the supplement to your desktop.

You can request hard copies of the supplements through your Pearson sales representa- tive. If you do not know your sales representative, go to http://www.pearsonhighered.com/ replocator/ and follow the directions. For technical support for any of your Pearson prod- ucts, you and your students can contact http://247.pearsoned.com.

A NOTE OF THANKS Nobody ever realizes the magnitude of the task when taking on a textbook-writing project. Acquisitions Editor Amber Chow and Executive Editor Stephen Frail deftly guided (and prodded) us through this process. The vision of the seventh edition con- fronted reality under the guidance of Deb Hanlon, our tenacious Senior Development Editor, who made us work harder than we had believed possible. Assistant Editor Kerri Hart-Morris managed our spectacular ancillaries package.

The job of making the manuscript into a book fell to Shelly Kupperman, our Production Project Manager at Pearson Education; Andrea Stefanowicz, our Senior Project Manager at PreMediaGlobal; and Kim Husband, our copyeditor. We think they did an outstanding job—as did our tireless photo researcher, Ben Ferrini.

We are sure that none of the above would be offended if we reserve our deepest thanks for our spouses, closest colleagues, and friends who inspired us, gave us the caring support we needed, and served as sounding boards for our ideas. Phil thanks his wonderful wife, Christina Maslach, for her endless inspiration and for modeling what is best in academic psychology. He has recently passed a milestone of 50 years of teaching the introductory psychology course, from seminar size to huge lectures to more than 1,000 students. Phil continues to give lectures and colloquia to college and high school groups throughout the country and overseas. He still gets a rush from lec- turing and from turning students on to the joys and fascination of psychology. His new “psych rock star” status comes mostly from generations of students who have grown up watching him perform on the Discovering Psychology video series in their high school and college psychology courses.

Bob is grateful to his spouse, best friend, and best editor Michelle, who has for years put up with his rants on topics psychological, his undone household chores, and much gratification delayed—mostly without complaint. She has been a wellspring of understand- ing and loving support and the most helpful of reviewers. His thanks, too, go to Rebecca, their daughter, who has taught him the practical side of developmental psychology—and now, much to her own astonishment and an undergraduate lapse into sociology, pos- sesses her own graduate degree in psychology. In addition, he is indebted to many friends,www.mypearsonstore.comhttp://247.pearsoned.comhttp://www.pearsonhighered.com/replocator/http://www.pearsonhighered.com/replocator/http://pearsonhighered.com/irc

T O T H E I N S T R U C T O R xxiii

most of whom are not psychologists but who are nevertheless always eager to raise and debate interesting issues about the applications of psychology to everyday life. Readers will find topics they have raised throughout the book and especially in the chapter-opening “problems” and in the critical thinking sections at the end of each chapter.

Vivian’s thanks go first to her husband, Shawn, and their sons, Storm and Blaze. All three of these amazing men are endless sources of love, support, inspiration, fun, and delight. They also generously allow Vivian to use them as examples of a multi- tude of concepts in her classes! Vivian also appreciates the many students, friends, and colleagues who have both encouraged and challenged her over the years.

We would especially like to thank Michelle Billies, Nikita Duncan, George Slavich, and Christina Zimbardo for their exceptional help as we revised and prepared this edition for print.

Many psychological experts and expert teachers of introductory psychology also shared their constructive criticism with us on every chapter and feature of the seventh edition of this text:

Thomas Beckner, Trine University Chris Brill, Old Dominion University Allison Buskirk-Cohen, Delaware Valley

College Christie Chung, Mills College Elizabeth Curtis, Long Beach City College Linda DeKruif, Fresno City College Meliksah Demir, Northern Arizona

University Roger Drake, Western State College of

Colorado Denise Dunovant, Hudson County

Community College Arthur Frankel, Salve Regina University Marjorie Getz, Bradley University Nancy Gup, Georgia Perimeter College Carrie Hall, Miami University Jeremy Heider, Stephen F. Austin State

University Allen Huffcutt, Bradley University Kristopher Kimbler, Florida Gulf Coast

University Sue Leung, Portland Community College Brian Littleton, Kalamazoo Valley

Community College Annette Littrell, Tennessee Tech University Mark Loftis, Tennessee Tech University Lillian McMaster, Hudson County

Community College

Karen Marsh, University of Minnesota–Duluth

Jim Matiya, Florida Gulf Coast University Nancy Melucci, Long Beach City College Jared Montoya, The University of Texas

at Brownsville Suzanne Morrow, Old Dominion

University Katy Neidhart, Cuesta College Donna Nelson, Winthrop University Barbara Nova, Dominican University of

California Elaine Olaoye, Brookdale Community

College Karl Oyster, Tidewater Community

College Sylvia Robb, Hudson County

Community College Nancy Romero, Lone Star College Beverly Salzman, Housatonic

Community College Hildur Schilling, Fitchburg State College Bruce Sherwin, Housatonic Community

College Hilary Stebbins, Virginia Wesleyan

College Doris Van Auken, Holy Cross College Matthew Zagummy, Tennessee Tech

University

We also thank the reviewers of the previous editions of Psychology: Core Concepts and hope that they will recognize their valued input in all that is good in this text:

Gordon Allen, Miami University Beth Barton, Coastal Carolina

Community College Linda Bastone, Purchase College, SUNY Susan Beck, Wallace State College

Michael Bloch, University of San Francisco Michele Breault, Truman State University John H. Brennecke, Mount San Antonio

College T. L. Brink, Crafton Hills College

xxiv T O T H E I N S T R U C T O R

Jay Brown, Southwest Missouri State University

Sally S. Carr, Lakeland Community College

Saundra Ciccarelli, Gulf Coast Community College

Wanda Clark, South Plains College Susan Cloninger, The Sage Colleges John Conklin, Camosun College (Canada) Michelle L. Pilati Corselli (Rio Hondo

College) Sara DeHart-Young, Mississippi State

University Janet DiPietro, John Hopkins University Diane Finley, Prince George’s

Community College Krista Forrest, University of Nebraska at

Kearney Lenore Frigo, Shasta College Rick Froman, John Brown University Arthur Gonchar, University of LaVerne Peter Gram, Pensacola Junior College Jonathan Grimes, Community College of

Baltimore County Lynn Haller, Morehead State University Mary Elizabeth Hannah, University of

Detroit Jack Hartnett, Virginia Commonwealth

University Carol Hayes, Delta State University Karen Hayes, Guilford College Michael Hillard, Albuquerque TVI

Community College Peter Hornby, Plattsburgh State

University Deana Julka, University of Portland Brian Kelley, Bridgewater College Sheila Kennison, Oklahoma State

University Laurel Krautwurst, Blue Ridge

Community College Judith Levine, Farmingdale State College Dawn Lewis, Prince George’s

Community College Deborah Long, East Carolina University

Margaret Lynch, San Francisco State University

Jean Mandernach, University of Nebraska, Kearney

Marc Martin, Palm Beach Community College

Richard Mascolo, El Camino College Steven Meier, University of Idaho Nancy Mellucci, Los Angeles

Community College District Yozan Dirk Mosig, University of

Nebraska Melinda Myers-Johnson, Humboldt

State University Michael Nikolakis, Faulkner State

College Cindy Nordstrom, Southern Illinois

University Laura O’Sullivan, Florida Gulf Coast

University Ginger Osborne, Santa Ana College Vernon Padgett, Rio Hondo College Jeff Pedroza, Santa Ana College Laura Phelan, St. John Fisher College Faye Plascak-Craig, Marian College Skip Pollock, Mesa Community College Chris Robin, Madisonville Community

College Lynne Schmelter-Davis, Brookdale

County College of Monmouth Mark Shellhammer, Fairmont State

College Christina Sinisi, Charleston Southern

University Patricia Stephenson, Miami Dade

College Mary Ellen Dello Stritto, Western

Oregon University Mario Sussman, Indiana University of

Pennsylvania John Teske, Elizabethtown College Stacy Walker, Kingwood College Robert Wellman, Fitchburg State

University Alan Whitlock, University of Idaho

Finally, we offer our thanks to all of the colleagues whose feedback has improved our book. Thanks also to all instructors of this most-difficult-to-teach course for taking on the pedagogical challenge and conveying to students their passion about the joys and relevance of psychological science and practice.

If you have any recommendations of your own that we should not overlook for the next edition, please write to us! Address your comments to Dr. Robert Johnson, CoreConcepts7@gmail.com.

A B O U T T H E A U T H O R S

Philip Zimbardo, PhD, Stanford University professor, has been teaching the introductory psychology course for 50 years and has been writing the basic text for this course, as well as the faculty guides and student workbooks, for the past 35 years. In addition, he has helped to develop and update the PBS-TV series, Discovering Psychol- ogy, which is used in many high school and university courses both nationally and internationally. He has been called “The Face and Voice of Psychology” because of this popular series and his other media presentations. Phil also loves to conduct and publish research on a wide variety of subjects, as well as teach and engage in public and social service activities. He has published more than 400 professional and popular articles and chapters, including 50 books of all kinds. He recently published a trade book on the psychology of evil, The Lucifer Effect, that relates his classic Stanford Prison Experiment to the abuses at Iraq’s Abu Ghraib Prison. His new book is The Time Paradox, but his new passion is helping to create wise and effective everyday heroes as part of his Heroic Imagination Project. Please see these websites for more information: www.zimbardo.com; www.prisonexp.org; www.PsychologyMatters.org; www.theTimeParadox.com; www.LuciferEffect.com; www.HeroicImagination.org.

Robert Johnson, PhD, taught introductory psychology for 28 years at Umpqua Community College. He acquired an interest in cross-cultural psychology during a Fulbright summer in Thailand, followed by many more trips abroad to Japan, Korea, Latin America, Britain, and, most recently, to Indonesia. Currently, he is working on a book on the psychology in Shakespeare. Bob is especially interested in applying psy- chological principles to the teaching of psychology and in encouraging linkages be- tween psychology and other disciplines. In keeping with those interests, he founded the Pacific Northwest Great Teachers Seminar, of which he was the director for 20 years. Bob was also one of the founders of Psychology Teachers at Community Colleges (PT@CC), serving as its executive committee chair during 2004. That same year, he also received the Two-Year College Teaching Award given by the Society for the Teaching of Psychology. Bob has long been active in APA, APS, the Western Psychological Association, and the Council of Teachers of Undergraduate Psychology.

Vivian McCann, a senior faculty member in psychology at Portland Community College in Portland, Oregon, teaches a wide variety of courses, including introductory psychology, human relations, intimate relationships, and social psychology. Born and raised in the California desert just 10 miles from the Mexican border, she learned early on the importance of understanding cultural backgrounds and values in effective communication and in teaching, which laid the foundation for her current interest in teaching and learning psychology from diverse cultural perspectives. She loves to travel and learn about people and cultures and to nurture the same passions in her students. She has led groups of students on four trips abroad, and in her own travels has visited 24 countries so far. Vivian maintains a strong commitment to teaching excellence and has developed and taught numerous workshops in that area. She has served on the APA’s Committee for Psychology Teachers at Community Colleges (PT@CC) and is an active member of the Western Psychological Association and APS. She is also the author of Human Relations: The Art and Science of Building Effective Relationships.

xxvwww.zimbardo.comwww.prisonexp.orgwww.PsychologyMatters.orgwww.theTimeParadox.comwww.LuciferEffect.comwww.HeroicImagination.org

Mind, Behavior, and Psychological Science1

Psychology MattersCore ConceptsKey Questions/Chapter Outline

1.1 What Is Psychology—and What Is It NOT ? Psychology: It’s More Than You Think Psychology Is Not Psychiatry Thinking Critically about Psychology and

Pseudo-Psychology

Psychology is a broad field with many specialties, but fundamentally, psychology is the science of behavior and mental processes.

Using Psychology to Learn Psychology

In this book, Key Questions and Core Concepts help you organize what you learn.

1.2 What Are Psychology’s Six Main Perspectives?

Separation of Mind and Body and the Modern Biological Perspective

The Founding of Scientific Psychology and the Modern Cognitive Perspective

The Behavioral Perspective: Focusing on Observable Behavior

The Whole-Person Perspectives: Psychodynamic, Humanistic, and Trait and Temperament

The Developmental Perspective: Changes Arising from Nature and Nurture

The Sociocultural Perspective: The Individual in Context

The Changing Face of Psychology

Six main viewpoints dominate modern psychology—the biological, cognitive, behavioral, whole-person, developmental, and sociocultural perspectives—each of which grew out of radical new concepts about mind and behavior.

Psychology as a Major

To call yourself a psychologist, you’ll need graduate training.

Psychologists, like all other scientists, use the scientific method to test their ideas empirically.

The Perils of Pseudo-psychology

Critical thinking failures often result in disastrous consequences.

CHAPTER PROBLEM How would psychology test the claim that sugar makes children hyperactive?

CRITICAL THINKING APPLIED Facilitated Communication

1.3 How Do Psychologists Develop New Knowledge?

Four Steps in the Scientific Method Five Types of Psychological Research Controlling Biases in Psychological Research Ethical Issues in Psychological Research

3

A FTER THE KIDS HAD ALL THAT SUGAR—THE CAKE, ICE CREAM, PUNCH, and candy—they were absolutely bouncing off the walls!” said one of our friends who was describing a birthday party for her 8-year-old daughter.I must have had a skeptical look on my face, because she stopped her story short and asked, “You don’t believe it?” Then she added, “You psychologists just don’t believe

in common sense, do you?”

I responded that what people think of as “common sense” can be wrong, reminding her

that common sense once held that Earth was flat. “Perhaps,” I suggested, “it might be wrong

again—this time about the so-called ‘sugar high’ people think they observe.

“It could have been just the excitement of the party,” I added.

“Think they observe?” my friend practically shouted. “Can you prove that sugar doesn’t

make children hyperactive?”

“No,” I said. “Science doesn’t work that way. But what I could do,” I ventured, “is perform

an experiment to test the idea that sugar makes children ‘hyper.’ Then we could see whether

your claim passes or fails the test.”

My timing wasn’t the best for getting her involved in a discussion of scientific experiments,

so let me pose the problem to you.

PROBLEM: How would psychology test the claim that sugar makes children hyperactive?

We invite you to think about how we might set up such an experiment. We could, for example,

give kids a high-sugar drink and see what happens. But because people often see only what

4 C H A P T E R 1 Mind, Behavior, and Psychological Science

they expect to see, our expectations about sugar and hyperactivity could easily influence our

observations. So how could we design an experiment about sugar and hyperactivity that also

accounts for our expectations? It is not an easy problem, but we will think it through together,

and by the end of this chapter, you will have the tools you need to solve it.

Every chapter in the book will begin with a problem such as this—a problem aimed at

getting you actively involved in learning psychology and thinking critically about some impor-

tant concepts in the chapter. Solving the problem with us, rather than just passively reading

the words, will make the concepts more meaningful to you and more easily remembered (see

Chapter 5 to find out why).

The important concept illustrated by the “sugar high” problem is one of the most fun-

damental concepts in all of psychology: using the scientific method to explore the mind and

behavior. But before we get into the details of the scientific method, let’s clarify what we mean

by the term psychology itself.

1.1 KEY QUESTION What Is Psychology—and What Is It NOT?

“I hope you won’t psychoanalyze me,” says the student at the office door. It is a frequent refrain and an occupational hazard for professors of psychology. But students need not worry about being psychoanalyzed, for two reasons. First, not all psychologists diagnose and treat mental problems—in fact, those who do are actually in the minority among pro- fessors of psychology. Second, only a few psychologists are actually psychoanalysts. The term psychoanalysis refers to a highly specialized and relatively uncommon form of ther- apy. You will learn more about the distinction between psychologists and psychoanalysts later in the chapter—but, in the meantime, don’t fret that your professor will try to find something wrong with you. In fact, your professor is much more likely to be interested in helping you learn the material than in looking for signs of psychological disorder.

So, you might wonder, if psychology is not all about mental disorders and therapy, what is it all about?

The term psychology comes from psyche, the ancient Greek word for “mind,” and the suffix -ology, meaning “a field of study.” Literally, then, psychology means “the study of the mind.” Most psychologists, however, use the broader definition given in our Core Concept for this section of the chapter:

Core Concept 1.1 Psychology is a broad field, with many specialties, but fundamentally psychology is the science of behavior and mental processes.

One important point to note about this definition: Psychology includes not only mental processes but also behaviors. In other words, psychology’s domain covers both internal mental processes that we observe only indirectly (such as thinking, feeling, and desiring) as well as external, observable behaviors (such as talking, smiling, and running). A second important part of our definition concerns the scientific compo- nent of psychology. In brief, the science of psychology is based on objective, verifiable evidence—not just the opinions of experts and authorities, as we often find in non- scientific fields. We will give a more complete explanation of the science of psychol- ogy in the last part of this chapter. For now, though, let’s take a closer look at what psychologists actually do.

Psychology: It’s More Than You Think Psychology covers more territory than most people realize. As we have seen, not all psychologists are therapists. Many work in education, industry, sports, prisons,

psychology The science of behavior and mental processes.

What Is Psychology—and What Is It NOT? 5

government, churches and temples, private practice, human relations, advertising, and in the psychology departments of colleges and universities (see Figure 1.1). Others work for engineering firms, consulting firms, and the courts (both the judicial and the NBA variety). In these diverse settings, psy- chologists perform a wide range of tasks, including teaching, research, testing, and equipment design—as well as psycho- therapy. In fact, psychology’s specialties are too numerous to cover them all here, but we can give you a taste of the field’s diversity by first dividing psychology into three broad groups.

Three Ways of Doing Psychology Broadly speaking, psychologists cluster into three main categories: experi- mental psychologists, teachers of psychology, and applied psychologists. Some overlap exists among these groups, how- ever, because many psychologists take on multiple roles in their work.

Experimental psychologists (sometimes called research psychologists) constitute the smallest of the three groups. Nevertheless, they perform most of the research that creates new psychological knowledge (Frincke & Pate, 2004).1 For example, an experimental psychologist would be well equipped to study the effects of sugar on hyperactivity in children. While some experimental psychologists can be found in in- dustry or private research institutes, the majority work at a college or university, where most also teach.

Teachers of psychology are traditionally found at colleges and universities, where their assignments typically involve not only teaching but also research and publica- tion. Increasingly, however, psychologists can be found at community colleges and high schools, where their teaching load is higher because these institutions generally do not require research (American Psychological Association, 2007b; Johnson & Rudmann, 2004).

Applied psychologists use the knowledge developed by experimental psychologists to tackle human problems of all kinds, such as toy or equipment design, criminal analy- sis, and psychological treatment. They work in a wide variety of places, ranging from schools, clinics, and social service agencies to factories, airports, hospitals, and casinos. All told, about two-thirds of the doctoral-level psychologists in the United States work primarily as applied psychologists (Kohout & Wicherski, 2000; Wicherski et al., 2009).

Applied Psychological Specialties Some of the most popular applied specialties include:

• Industrial and organizational psychologists (often called I/O psychologists) specialize in personnel selection and in tailoring the work environment to maximize productivity and morale. They may, for example, create programs to motivate employees or to improve managers’ leadership skills. I/O psychologists also conduct market research and examine current issues such as attitudes toward pregnancy in the workplace (Shrader, 2001).

• Sports psychologists help athletes improve their performance by planning effective practice sessions, enhancing motivation, and learning to control emotions under pressure. Some focus exclusively on professional athletes, and others work with recreational athletes. Sports psychologists may also, for example, study various types of personalities and their relation to high-risk endeavors such as firefighting, parachuting, or scuba diving.

1Throughout this book, you will find citations in parentheses, calling your attention to a complete bibliographic reference found in the References section, beginning on p. R-1, near the end of this book. These brief in-text citations give the authors’ last names and the publication date. With the complete references in hand, your library can help you find the original source.

experimental psychologists Psychologists who do research on basic psychological processes—as contrasted with applied psychologists. Experimental psychologists are also called research psychologists.

teachers of psychology Psychologists whose primary job is teaching, typically in high schools, colleges, and universities.

applied psychologists Psychologists who use the knowledge developed by experimental psychologists to solve human problems.

FIGURE 1.1 Work Settings of Psychologists

Source: 2009 Doctorate Employment Survey, APA Center for Workforce Studies. March 2011.

Independent practiceOther counseling

sevices

Other educational settings

Government

Business, Consulting, Other

Hospitals and HMOs

Universities, colleges, and medical schools

6% 6%

8%

33%21%

15%

11%

Read MyPsychLab

about I/O Psychology at

6 C H A P T E R 1 Mind, Behavior, and Psychological Science

• School psychologists are experts in teaching and learning. They deal with issues impacting learning, family or personal crises influencing school performance, or social conditions such as gangs, teen pregnancy, or substance abuse. They sometimes diagnose learning or behavioral problems and work with teachers, students, and parents to help students succeed in school. Many school psychologists work for school districts, where their work includes administering, scoring, and interpreting psychological tests.

• Clinical and counseling psychologists help people improve social and emotional adjustment or work through difficult choices in relationships, careers, or education. Almost half of all doctoral-level psychologists list clinical or counseling psychology as their specialty (Wichersky et al., 2009).

• Forensic psychologists provide psychological expertise to the legal and judicial system. One of the most recently recognized specialties in psychology, forensic psychology has gained rapid popularity due in part to such TV shows as

Criminal Minds, Profiler, and CSI. And, while a real day in the life of forensic psychologists may not be as glamorous or fast paced as their television counter- parts, the field is burgeoning with opportunities. Forensic psychologists may test inmates in prisons or forensic hospitals to determine readiness for release or fitness to stand trial, evaluate testimony in cases of rape or child abuse, or help with jury selection (Clay, 2009; Huss, 2001).

• Environmental psychologists aim to improve human interaction with our envi- ronment. They may, for example, study the impact of inner-city garden spaces on children’s academic performance or determine how best to encourage environmen- tally friendly behavior such as recycling. In private practice, environmental psy- chologists sometimes help clients maintain their commitment to sustainability or conduct workshops teaching people the mental health benefits of interacting with nature (Novotney, 2009).

More information on career possibilities in psychology can be found in Careers in Psychology for the Twenty-First Century, published by the American Psychological Association (2003a) and available online at www.apa.org/careers/resources/guides/ careers.pdf.

Psychology Is Not Psychiatry Just as beginning psychology students may think all psychologists are clinical psychol- ogists, they also may not know the distinction between psychology and psychiatry. So let’s clear up that confusion, just in case you encounter a test question on the topic.

Virtually all psychiatrists, but only some psychologists, treat mental disorders—and there the resemblance ends. Psychiatry is a medical specialty, not part of psychology at all. Psychiatrists hold MD (Doctor of Medicine) degrees and, in addition, have special- ized training in the treatment of mental and behavioral problems, typically with drugs. Therefore, psychiatrists are licensed to prescribe medicines and perform other medical procedures. Consequently, psychiatrists tend to treat patients with more severe mental disorders (such as schizophrenia) and also to view patients from a medical perspective, as persons with mental “diseases.”

By contrast, psychology is a much broader field that encompasses the whole range of human behavior and mental processes, from brain function to social interaction and from mental well-being to mental disorder. For most psychologists, graduate training emphasizes research methods, along with advanced study in a specialty such as those listed earlier. Moreover, while psychologists usually hold doctoral degrees, their train- ing is not usually medical training, and thus they are not generally licensed to prescribe medications (Carlat, 2010; Practice Directorate Staff, 2005). Psychologists, then, work

C O N N E C T I O N CHAPTER 13

Clinical psychologists help people deal with mental disorders and other psychological problems (p. 558).

psychiatry A medical specialty dealing with the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders.

Applying psychological principles of learning and motivation, sports psychologists work with athletes to improve performance.

Explore the Concept Psychologists at Work at MyPsychLabwww.apa.org/careers/resources/guides/careers.pdfwww.apa.org/careers/resources/guides/careers.pdf

What Is Psychology—and What Is It NOT? 7

in a wide variety of fields, all of which view people from a psychological perspective. This perspective is il- lustrated by clinical and counseling psychologists, who are likely to view the people they are helping as clients rather than patients.

So, now you know that psychiatry is not psychol- ogy. Next, we’ll look at something else that often gets confused with psychology: pseudo-psychology.

Thinking Critically about Psychology and Pseudo-Psychology TV series like Medium and Supernatural continue a long tradition of programs that play on people’s fasci- nation with claims of mysterious powers of the mind and supernatural influences on our personalities. Your daily horoscope does the same thing—never mind that astrology has been thoroughly debunked (Schick & Vaughn, 2001). Neither is there any factual basis for graphology (the bogus science of handwriting analysis), fortune telling, or the supposed power of subliminal messages to influence our behavior. All these fall under the heading of pseudo-psychology: unsupported psychological beliefs masquerading as scientific truth.

Certainly horoscopes and paranormal claims can be fun as pure entertainment, but it is important to know where fact-based reality ends and imagination-based fantasy begins. After all, you wouldn’t want to stake an important decision about your health or welfare on false information, would you? Thus, one of the goals of this text is to help you think critically when you hear extraordinary claims about behavior and mental processes.

What Is Critical Thinking? Those who talk about critical thinking often find them- selves in the position of Supreme Court Justice Potter Stewart, who famously was unable to define pornography but concluded, “I know it when I see it.” Like Justice Stewart, your fearless authors (Phil, Bob, and Vivian) cannot offer a definition of criti- cal thinking with which everyone will agree. Nevertheless, we are willing to jump into the fray with a list of six critical thinking skills we wish to emphasize in this text. Each is based on a specific question we believe should be asked when confronting new ideas.

1. What is the source? Does the person making the claim have real expertise in the field? Suppose, for example, you hear a newscast on which a politician or pundit declares that juvenile lawbreakers can be “scared straight.” The story explains that, in the program, first-time offenders receive near-abusive treatment from felons who try to scare them away from a life of crime with tales of harsh prison life. Such programs have, in fact, been tried in several states (Finckenauer et al., 1999). But does the person making the claim have any real knowledge of the subject? Does the claimant have legitimate credentials, or is he or she merely a self-proclaimed “expert?” One way to find out is to go online and examine the individual’s ref- erences and standing within the field. Also, find out whether the source has something substantial to gain from the claim. If it’s a medical breakthrough, for example, does the claimant stand to make money from a new drug or medical device? In the case of a “scared straight” program, is the source trying to score political points or get votes?

2. Is the claim reasonable or extreme? Life is too short to be critical of everything, of course, so the trick is to be selective. How? As the famous astronomer Carl Sagan once said about reports of alien abductions, “Extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence” (Nova Online, 1996). Critical thinkers, then, are skeptical

pseudo-psychology Erroneous assertions or practices set forth as being scientific psychology.

critical thinking skills This book emphasizes six critical thinking skills, based on the following ques- tions: What is the source? Is the claim reasonable or extreme? What is the evidence? Could bias contaminate the conclusion? Does the reasoning avoid common fallacies? Does the issue require multiple perspectives?

Fortune tellers, astrologers, and other practitioners of pseudo-psychology don’t bother to verify their claims with careful research—nor do their clients engage in critical thinking about such practices.

8 C H A P T E R 1 Mind, Behavior, and Psychological Science

of claims touted as “breakthroughs” or “revolutionary.” Certainly, there are occasionally breakthroughs or revolutionary new treatments that work—but they are relatively rare. Most new scientific developments are extensions of existing knowledge. So, claims that conflict with well-established knowledge should raise a red flag. For example, beware of ads that promise to help you quit smoking or lose weight with little or no effort. In the case of “scared straight” programs or any other quick fix for a difficult problem, remember that simple solutions to complex problems rarely exist.

3. What is the evidence? This is one of the most important guidelines to critical think- ing, and you will learn more about what constitutes scientific evidence in the last section of this chapter. For now, though, beware of anecdotal evidence or testimoni- als proclaiming the dramatic effects of a new program. These first-hand accounts tend to be quite convincing, so they often lure us into believing them. Testimonials and anecdotes, though—no matter how compelling—are not scientific evidence. They merely represent the experiences of a few carefully selected individuals. It would be risky, and perhaps even dangerous, to assume that what seems true for some people must also be true for everyone.

What does the evidence say about “scared straight” programs? Not only do they not work, but they can also actually inoculate juveniles against fears about prison. Surprising as it may seem, the hard evidence indicates that teens exposed to such treatments, on average, subsequently get into more trouble than do those not given the “scared straight” treatment (Petrosino et al., 2003).

4. Could bias contaminate the conclusion? Critical thinkers know the conditions under which biases are likely to occur and can recognize common types of bias we will examine in this chapter. For example, they would question whether medi- cal researchers who are involved in assessing new drugs can truly remain unbiased if they are receiving money from the companies whose drugs they are testing (McCook, 2006).

The form of bias most applicable to our “scared straight” example is emotional bias: People not only fear crime and criminals but also are often in favor of harsh treatments for criminal behavior, as evidenced by the recent spate of “three strikes” laws (which mandate a lifetime in prison after three felony convictions). Accordingly, the “scared straight” approach may appeal to people simply because of its harshness. Also, people with a loved one who has gotten into some trouble may be especially vulnerable to promises of easy reform: Their desire for help can interfere with clear thinking.

Another common form of bias is confirmation bias, the all-too-human ten- dency to remember events that confirm our beliefs and ignore or forget contra- dictory evidence (Halpern, 2002; Nickerson, 1998). For example, confirmation bias explains why people persist in their beliefs that astrology works: They remember the predictions that seemed accurate and forget the ones that missed the mark. Confirmation bias also explains why gamblers have better recollections for their wins than for their losses, or why we persist in thinking a particular object is our lucky charm. Amazingly, recent research reveals this bias may be partly biological in nature. In a study done before a recent presidential election, people listened to their favorite politicians making statements that contradicted themselves. Upon hearing the contradictory statement, brain circuits associated with reasoning in the listeners suddenly shut down, while brain regions most in- volved with emotion remained active (Shermer, 2006; Westen et al., 2006). It was as though the brain was saying, “I don’t want to hear anything that conflicts with my beliefs.” Thus, we may have to exert extra effort and diligence to overcome this bias.

5. Does the reasoning avoid common fallacies? We will study several common logical fallacies in this book, but the one most applicable to the “scared straight” example is the assumption that common sense is a substitute for scientific evidence. In fact,

emotional bias The tendency to make judgments based on attitudes and feelings, rather than on the basis of a rational analysis of the evidence.

confirmation bias The tendency to attend to evidence that complements and confirms our beliefs or expectations, while ignoring evidence that does not.

anecdotal evidence First-hand accounts that vividly describe the experiences of one or a few people, but may erroneously be assumed to be scientific evidence.

What Is Psychology—and What Is It NOT? 9

in many cases there exists common sense to support both sides of an issue. For example, we hear that “Birds of a feather flock together”—but we also hear that “Opposites attract.” Similarly, we are told that “The early bird gets the worm,” but aren’t we also cautioned that “Haste makes waste?” Which, then, is true? Only an examination of the evidence can reliably provide the answer. Stay tuned later in this chapter, and in Chapter 6, for other common fallacies that derail critical thinking.

6. Does the issue require multiple perspectives? The “scared straight” intervention makes the simplistic assumption that fear of punishment is the best deterrent to delinquency, so inducing fear will prevent delinquency. A more sophisticated view sees delinquency as a complex problem that demands scrutiny from several perspectives. Psychologists, for example, may look at delinquency from the stand- points of learning, social influence, or personality traits. Economists would be interested in the financial incentives for delinquency. And sociologists would focus on such things as gangs, poverty, and community structures. Surely such a multi- faceted problem will require a more complex solution than a threatening program.

Thinking Critically about the Chapter Problem How would you apply these criti- cal thinking guidelines to the chapter-opening problem about whether sugar makes children hyperactive? First, consider the source: Is the mother of an 8-year-old an ex- pert on biological effects of sugar? Assuming she is not, you’d have to wonder if the source of her belief is a reliable one or if she is just repeating some “common sense” she’s often heard but never questioned. Second, examine the evidence: Have scientific tests been conducted to measure the effects of sugar on children? Third, could any bi- ases be at work? For example, if we expect children to be hyperactive after consuming sugar, that is likely what we will observe. Fourth, is the claimant avoiding common fallacies in reasoning? In this case, even if we can prove that kids who consume more sugar are more hyperactive, we can’t be sure that sugar is the cause: Alternatively, per- haps kids who are already hyperactive eat more sugar as a means of maintaining their high need for activity. Finally, we should recognize that there are probably other rea- sons kids get excited at parties. We will explore some of these competing perspectives in the second section of this chapter.