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Method of Interview

Table Of Content

Introduction. 4

Face to Face Interview.. 5

Approach Used in Interview.. 5

Rules of interview.. 6

Rehearse: 6

Research: 6

Body Language: 7

Questions: 7

Stick to the main Topic: 7

Time limits: 8

Proper ending: 8

Merits of the Live Interview: 9

De-Merits of Live Interview: 9

Limitations in our research. 10

Incomplete Information: 10

Mental Disturbing: 10

Mood of the other Person: 11

Poor Record: 11

Snap Judgment: 12

Recommendations for Future Studies 12

Road Map: 12

Teamwork: 13

Make some questions open ended. 13

Ask what you don’t know.. 14

Get Authentic Information: 14

References. 15

Introduction

Discussing about the interview in the research, which we have done, it is a way of communication in this era. Through interview, we have tried to find out information about the specific person or anything related to him or her. In past interview were mainly done face-to-face but with the advancement in technology now we can also interview any person across the globe either through the phone call or the internet. We have used a specific type of interviews in our research, which will be discussed below. The way of communication has become fast due to which interviews become easier to conduct.

There are four basic types of interview, and each of the types has its specifications. These are listed below:

  • Face-to-Face interviews
  • Telephone interviews
  • Video interviews
  • Taped interviews

Each interview has its unique ability and benefits, but we have taken the most famous one, which is still the most effective is the live interview commonly referred to as the Face-to-Face interview. The interview is the basic tool in the media industry (Mike, 2016). Politics and celebrities give interviews it can be based on either some incident or their personal life. Mostly interview is done to extract the information from the person about the current affairs. There are some techniques while doing the interview but before that, a person should do proper research about the person he or she is going to interview. This is thing, which we adopted and done the proper practice before that.

Face to Face Interview

This is the type of an interview that we have used in the Research here the interview is done with one person only which keeps the focus very clear. The interview has given the opportunity to us to become friendly with the corresponding person. On the other hand, this facility is not available in the other interviews that are the reason we have chosen this type of interview. As it can be seen in the video of the YouTube that both persons feel comfortable and confident while having the conversation this was the case with is too we were also comfortable and confident as well.

Approach Used in Interview

The approach we had used was professional and the reason is that the person who is going to give interview should know that the other person is professional. That is the reason in our case the boundary limit across both had a borderline of respect. This is very important because due to this there was respect in between us (Opdenakker, 2016). The conversation had started with the formal introduction, as the interviewee knows us so that is out of the question to ask his or her personal introduction.

Other person needs to introduce him and that what how the introduction starts. We have kept the good eye contact in the interview and polite voice was used in the interview to have better approach. Another thing is the questions which interviewee is going to ask the interviewer and for this purpose, a person who is going to take interview must be able to understand the nature of the other person. That is the reason we have taken control and understood with interviewee as well. This requires preparation before going for the original interview. All the questions should be listed in a good manner and that was what happened at the time of interview. There was no question, which diverts the attention of both of us from the actual task. We started the interview with a kind of formal presentation and that is the suitable thing so that whole interview goes smooth in the formal way.

Rules of interview

Before the live interviews start, we have defined all the rules of the interview to the interviewee. This actually helped us to create the friendly environment and avoid any misunderstanding. We have made certain rules for the interview, which is listed below:

Rehearse:

Rehearsal is the key in live interviews, as we know that what kind of questions we need to ask and we have done that in order to carry out the successful interview. Some interviewers do not get this point because they are over confident but this is very crucial part in the live interviews. We have prepared our self before going for an original interview. We have carried the best outfit and it should be either at home or at office because the first impression is the last impression.

Research:

We have not done the research as the instructions were given to us. The research should be about the recent current affairs in the politics and get enough knowledge to talk about the specific topic for the whole time. If the interview is about the personality, then the person should know about the personality, style, and history of another person. However, in our case the interview was an academic person, therefore we have talked about the academia a lot to be comfortable with him. This helps to keep moving the conversation and avoid asking too many questions at the same time because this makes other person feel uncomfortable (Maharjan, 2016). We have adopted the same strategy and that have helped us in this way.

Body Language:

We have kept the body language professional while taking an interview as it is the good way of doing it. Our body language was positive and up to the mark and this is what it is required. If a person who do not know how to sit properly and talk with polite voice it shows he or she has bad body language. That is the reason we have ignored that. The body language of the person tells everything that either the person has ethical and moral values or not because this is what creates the first impression on the person. Looking at all these things in our mind, our body language was positive so that the interview could go smooth.

Questions:

As it is the integral part of the interview, the rule about this part is that if you are taking professional interview of someone. Therefore, we have stayed classy and showed the professionalism. This is how we have extracted the valuable information. We have not asked too many questions and we have not asked irrelevant questions as in professional interviews it is not the right way. As in the video, it is clear that the reporter does not ask abrupt questions as she first tries to listen to the other person and then politely ask the other question. That is the reason we have done the same thing and copied the professional interview. If we do not agree on some point of the other person, then we have avoided the argument although we can argue a little but there is no use of it.

Stick to the main Topic:

In general this is very important as the mostly interview goes wrong because the person who is taking interview does not stick to the topic. We have not done this mistake at all. Either he or she becomes friendly which deviates the conversation, and the main theme of the interview does not gets any attention. In the professional field, the friendly manner is not good that is the reason we have avoided that. We have only asked the questions, which were relevant to the topic of the interview. As in the YouTube, the reporter asks the same questions, which can help her in the project. Which shows that they have the clear mind and focus therefore we have attempted the same thing in the interview. We had the proper list of questions in our mind, which shows that we rehearsed about the interview very well. We have also prepared questions, which were relevant and able to give the valuable information.

Time limits:

In any live interview time, limit is the constraints, which everyone has to experience. This should be handle, with care as the personalities and celebrities they don’t have much time to give an interview again and again. Here in the interview we have taken care of it in a well manner. We have prepared our questions according to the time limits. Questions, which were asked they were in a good so that they gave us the strong idea and reasons to get the valuable information. Time management plays an important role in this case because time is always short and information to gather is always long. To balance both things we have asked most important questions at first and then with the help of those questions and background of the person ability we have easily find out the answers to the other minor category questions (Hansen, 2016).

Proper ending:

Just as the proper start of the interview is necessary the proper ending matters a lot because there must be professional ending of any interview. That is the reason we have prepared some lines which shows that how we are grateful for the other person to give his precious time for the interview also we have acknowledged the person who done the remarkable job during the interview and helped to make this interview possible. While ending the interview we have made sure that the person who has given the interview is happy and he feels comfortable. If the person does not feel good at the end of the interview, this means the interview did not go well, and they can be the reason of decrease in your reputation in front of people and company (Randall, 2016). We have managed everything in a systematic way. It also helped us to increase the efficiency of the organization and business.

These are some of the rules which should be followed during the live interviews as now a day live interviews usually watched by millions of people so any mishap on the live interview can result in the insult and embarrassing moment. That was the main reason we have taken care of the professionalism in the interview.

Merits of the Live Interview:

  • Precise results have gathered
  • We were able to understand the point of view of another person
  • Allows the person to ask friendly questions
  • It has provides the flexibility in the approach
  • It capture verbal and non-verbal hints
  • Allow the person to have the focus on the topic

De-Merits of Live Interview:

  • Live interviews are much costly than others
  • Quality of data can be effected with the behavior of interviewer
  • Sample size gets limit
  • Manual Data Entry
  • Time limit
  • Question limit

Limitations in our research

While finding the data, there are several things due to which our research becomes limited. As in our case of the live interview, there are also limitations and problems which have an impact on the information of the interviewer. Limitations and problems make us difficult and to handle the time. Our limitations are discussed below in detail.

Incomplete Information:

This is the first problem that we encountered in our research, as the interview does not always give the comprehensive answer of the questions instead interview only gives the bullet points. Now connecting the dot is the crucial task for us because upon this the interview information depends on. That is why incomplete information is always a problem during the live interview, and there are a lot of assumption has to be done from the interviewee side. Same is the case what we have faced in this research. This is the reason because of the incomplete process, which is also the problem that almost every journalist has to face. The incomplete path or the process can lead to the danger and tragedy, which we are afraid of (Gottsman, 2016).

Mental Disturbing:

As we know, everyone has right to give a free opinion on the other things. That’s why the two people who is going to face each other in an interview should have the proper mental understanding otherwise the interview can become a bad experience for both of them. During our research, although we have done a thorough study on the personality and behavior of the person of which we are going to take interview but still there was a roadblock in the interview. If the interview reaches the dead end, it means either the reporter or interviewee is unable to handle this or the interviewer does not want to share any information. In our research sometimes we have also come to this position, however it was handled wisely as well.

Mood of the other Person:

The spirit of the person of whom we take interview was good, so we were lucky to extract the maximum amount of information from him. However, this does not happen all the time as mostly the celebrities are annoyed when they come to the interview for which they are forced by the other person or companies. In our research, we had to make to clear first that the person who is coming for the interview has the best attitude and ethical values because this can help to keep the interview going.

If the person is not in a good mood this means he or she is not going to share much information and can answer rudely to some of the questions. That is why for some people it is very difficult to handle this kind of problems. The best way to do that is to observe the behavior of the person right from the start of the interview. If a person moves a lot in a chair and his or her facial expression is not pleasant means they show stress and anxiety, then you must be careful while asking questions. That was the thing, which we have noticed in the research and we have taken care of these things.

Poor Record:

In the live interview, the record can’t be kept as it becomes difficult for the person to remind each and everything of the interview due to which a little bit data is lost during the interview phase. Although people try to write down what they hear from the other person that still don’t work, but now this problem is solved because of the technology. As now, people don’t need the paper to write about interview all they do either tape it or just save on their video camera. In this way, they can listen to the interview several time and can do analysis on it (Maharjan, 2016). An ideal approach to do that is to watch the conduct of the individual right from the meeting.

Snap Judgment:

This problem is also related to the time limitation. Because we have done research in a specific time for the interview. We do not have all the time to stick around with the person after the interview to understand their personality. Therefore, in a just a couple of hours, we have to gather all the necessary information and then join that information with other research, which we did without an interview. This is the part where problems occurred as sometimes the answer of the questions does not match and cause huge misunderstanding.

The above-mentioned are the real problems, which we faced during the research because people are not willing to help now a day free. Especially when you want to know about some personality personal life information or other valuable information that comes with the heavy prices. That is why live interviews are the only option to get information within the short period. Hence, time is a major constraint in each activity for implementing techniques.

Recommendations for Future Studies

The research we did was successful as it covers our basic objectives and we were able to extract some valuable information through the live interview, but this was not a difficult task. The limitation is enough to give the insight of problems that we faced during this research. There are some of the recommendations, which is important for the person to make while doing the interview.

Road Map:

This is important although in our research we had a proper plan the road map was not available. The advantage of this road map is that once the person enters into the dead end then the road map can help him or her to get out of that situation. In the interview or any kind of research, reaching the dead end is normal but there should be a proper way to get out of this, and this is usually defined in the road map.

That is why this is important because interviewee cannot afford to reach the dead end as it can cause the problem in getting information and this is the waste of time. To make a road map, the meeting with the top management or the leader of the team is required to make sure that it will go well.

Teamwork:

During our research, there was a lack of teamwork due to which we were unable to handle the load of work. This is a major drawback and should be minimized in the further studies. Every member of the team must contribute to the research. Any person who is going to take the interview must have some team behind him or her, which can handle the critical situations during the interview. During the live interview, the things get tense when the interviewer and the other person both reach the dead end at that time the team can help to get out of the situation. However it is important that in the preparation of the interview, the team plays a crucial role also (Livecareer.com, 2016).

Make some questions open ended

As we have done research but they were on the topic and they were specific. However, what I think is there should be some kind of questions that needs to be open-ended as well. The reason is that the interviewee can tell us something, which could be useful for us. For this reason, it should not be ignored and added as well. It is important to ask any open ended in the future research.

Ask what you don’t know

There are couples of things, which we as the interviewer do not know that what is the exact answer of it and that is the reason we have not asked them as well. However what I recommend in the future for the others is that we should also ask some kind of questions which we do not know as the knowledge will be enhanced and we will come to know about the knowledge of the person we are interviewing (Israel, 2012).

Get Authentic Information:

Usually, during the research, people keep on moving in a circle where they focus on the useless information and do not pay focus to the real issue and problem. This happens a lot in the live interview as at one point the both people in an interview get distract from the real idea of the interview and start debating in the useless issue. 

This is very wrong a person should avoid this as in our research we experienced this but were able to tackle it at the right time. The authentic information is the key factor to the success of the interview but mostly there is only one or two groundbreaking information in the interview. Even this information is enough to keep the record and connects the dot of the other research. That is why to focus on the authentic information, not the fake or useless debates is always good (Mike, 2016).

We have mentioned some of the recommendation, which should be used in the future to get the precise results of the information and never rely on the incomplete information. As we know, there is nothing danger than the half knowledge about something.

References

Gottsman, D. (2016). The 10 Rules of Interview Etiquette. Retrieved October 29, 2016, from https://www.themuse.com/advice/the-10-rules-of-interview-etiquette

Hansen, R. S. (2016). 10 Best Job Interview Tips for Job-Seekers. Retrieved from https://www.livecareer.com/quintessential/job-interview-tips

Israel, S. (2012). 9 Tips on Conducting Great Interviews. Retrieved October 29, 2016, from http://www.forbes.com/sites/shelisrael/2012/04/14/8-tips-on-conducting-great-interviews/#21133f81387a

Livecareer.com. (2016). International Job Interview. Retrieved October 29, 2016, from https://www.livecareer.com/interview-questions/international-job-interview

Maharjan, P. (2016). Strengths and Limitations of Interview. Retrieved October 29, 2016, from https://www.businesstopia.net/human-resource/strengths-and-limitations-interview

Mike, D. (2016). Different Methods of Interviewing and Different Interview Venues. Retrieved from http://2012books.lardbucket.org/books/job-searching-in-six-steps/s12-03-different-methods-of-interview.html

Opdenakker, R. (2016). Advantages and Disadvantages of Four Interview Techniques in Qualitative Research. Retrieved October 29, 2016, from http://www.qualitative-research.net: http://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/175/391#g2

Randall, S. (2016). Ten Rules for Job Interview Success. Retrieved October 29, 2016, from https://www.livecareer.com/quintessential/interview-success

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If you’re wondering why we’re bringing you a new edition of Psychology: Core Concepts . . .

1 In the new seventh edition, we feature new cutting-edge research on the neuroscience of social interaction, cul- tural influences on perception, daydreaming, taste, and meditation, as well as updates on bullying, the slower rise of IQ scores (the Flynn effect) in developed coun- tries, the myth of multitasking, and much more. We also introduce readers to a groundbreaking modification of Maslow’s famous hierarchy of needs, newly framed by evolutionary psychologists.

2 Our lead author Philip Zimbardo has recently published a detailed description and analysis of his famous Stanford Prison Experiment in The Lucifer Effect: Understanding How Good People Turn Evil. We are pleased to include in Psychology: Core Concepts some of the insights he presented in Lucifer—particularly the notion of the effect of impersonal social systems, as well as social situations, on human behavior. Ours is the only introductory text in which you will find a discussion of how these social systems, such as organizations and bureaucracies, create a context that can profoundly influence the behavior of groups and individuals.

3 Dr. Zimbardo has also done important new work on the differences among people in their time perspective, re- ferring to a focus on the past, the present, or the future. This text is the only introduction to psychology to dis- cuss the powerful influence of time perspective on our decisions and actions.

4 In this edition, Read on MyPsychLab icons appear in the margins indicating that additional readings are

available for students to explore. For example, one of the Read features in Chapter 3 (Sensation and Percep- tion) deals with the classic study of backward masking. In Chapter 12 (Disorders and Therapy), you can read more about an African perspective on mental disorder.

5 One of our goals in this new edition is, again, to help you learn to “think like psychologists.” To do so, we have placed new emphasis on two kinds of psychological think- ing: (1) problem solving and (2) critical thinking. Every chapter begins with a Problem and ends with a critical analysis of an important psychological question, such as gender differences or repressed memory.

6 We have made a special effort in the seventh edition to provide clues throughout the chapter to help you un- derstand the solution to the chapter-opening Problem— which proved to be a popular feature in the last edition. The Chapter Summary now gives a brief “answer” to the problem as well.

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Why Do You Need This New Edition?

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Psychology

Philip G. Zimbardo Stanford University

Robert L. Johnson Umpqua Community College

Vivian McCann Portland Community College

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Zimbardo, Philip G.

Psychology : core concepts / Philip G. Zimbardo, Robert L. Johnson, Vivian McCann. — 7th ed.

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ISBN-13: 978-0-205-18346-3

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2011027587

1 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

1 Mind, Behavior, and Psychological Science 2 2 Biopsychology, Neuroscience, and Human Nature 40 3 Sensation and Perception 86 4 Learning and Human Nurture 132 5 Memory 170 6 Thinking and Intelligence 212 7 Development Over the Lifespan 264 8 States of Consciousness 322 9 Motivation and Emotion 362 10 Personality: Theories of the Whole Person 412 11 Social Psychology 458 12 Psychological Disorders 514 13 Therapies for Psychological Disorders 554 14 From Stress to Health and Well-Being 596 Glossary G-1 References R-1 Answers to Discovering Psychology Program Review Questions A-1 Photo Credits C-1 Name Index I-1 Subject Index I-7

B R I E F C O N T E N T S

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C O N T E N T S

CHAPTER 1 Mind, Behavior, and Psychological Science 2

PROBLEM: How would psychologists test the claim that sugar makes children hyperactive? 3

1.1 What Is Psychology—And What Is It Not? 4 Psychology: It’s More Than You Think 4 Psychology Is Not Psychiatry 6 Thinking Critically about Psychology

and Pseudo-Psychology 7

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology 10

1.2 What Are Psychology’s Six Main Perspectives? 11 Separation of Mind and Body and the Modern Biological

Perspective 12 The Founding of Scientific Psychology and the Modern

Cognitive Perspective 13 The Behavioral Perspective: Focusing on Observable

Behavior 16

The Whole-Person Perspectives: Psychodynamic, Humanistic, and Trait and Temperament Psychology 17

The Developmental Perspective: Changes Arising from Nature and Nurture 19

The Sociocultural Perspective: The Individual in Context 19 The Changing Face of Psychology 20

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Psychology as a Major 22

1.3 How Do Psychologists Develop New Knowledge? 23 Four Steps in the Scientific Method 24 Five Types of Psychological Research 27 Controlling Biases in Psychological Research 31 Ethical Issues in Psychological Research 32

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: The Perils of Pseudo-Psychology 33

CRITICAL THINKING APPLIED: Facilitated Communication 35

Chapter Summary 36 Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide 38

PROBLEM: What does Jill Bolte Taylor’s experience teach us about how our brain is organized and about its amazing ability to adapt? 42

2.1 How Are Genes and Behavior Linked? 43 Evolution and Natural Selection 43 Genetics and Inheritance 45

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Choosing Your Children’s Genes 48

2.2 How Does the Body Communicate Internally? 49 The Neuron: Building Block of the Nervous System 50 The Nervous System 56 The Endocrine System 58

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: How Psychoactive Drugs Affect the Nervous System 60

2.3 How Does the Brain Produce Behavior and Mental Processes? 62 Windows on the Brain 63 Three Layers of the Brain 65 Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex 69 Cerebral Dominance 73

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology 79

CRITICAL THINKING APPLIED: Left Brain versus Right Brain 80

Chapter Summary 81 Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide 84

CHAPTER 2 Biopsychology, Neuroscience, and Human Nature 40

CHAPTER 3 Sensation and Perception 86

PROBLEM: Is there any way to tell whether the world we “see” in our minds is the same as the external world—and whether we see things as most others do? 88

3.1 How Does Stimulation Become Sensation? 89 Transduction: Changing Stimulation to Sensation 90 Thresholds: The Boundaries of Sensation 91 Signal Detection Theory 93

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Sensory Adaptation 93

3.2 How Are the Senses Alike? How Are They Different? 94 Vision: How the Nervous System Processes Light 94 Hearing: If a Tree Falls in the Forest . . . 100 How the Other Senses Are Like Vision and Hearing 104 Synesthesia: Sensations across the Senses 108

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: The Sense and Experience of Pain 109

3.3 What Is the Relationship between Sensation and Perception? 112 Perceptual Processing: Finding Meaning in Sensation 112 Perceptual Ambiguity and Distortion 114 Theoretical Explanations for Perception 117 Seeing and Believing 124

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology 125

CRITICAL THINKING APPLIED: Subliminal Perception and Subliminal Persuasion 126

Chapter Summary 128 Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide 130 vii

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CHAPTER 4 Learning and Human Nurture 132

PROBLEM: Assuming Sabra’s fear of flying was a response she had learned, could it also be treated by learning? If so, how? 134

4.1 What Sort of Learning Does Classical Conditioning Explain? 136 The Essentials of Classical Conditioning 137 Applications of Classical Conditioning 139

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Taste Aversions and Chemotherapy 142

4.2 How Do We Learn New Behaviors By Operant Conditioning? 142 Skinner’s Radical Behaviorism 143 The Power of Reinforcement 143 The Problem of Punishment 149 A Checklist for Modifying Operant Behavior 152 Operant and Classical Conditioning Compared 153

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology 155

4.3 How Does Cognitive Psychology Explain Learning? 156 Insight Learning: Köhler in the Canaries with Chimps 157 Cognitive Maps: Tolman Finds Out What’s on a

Rat’s Mind 158 Observational Learning: Bandura’s Challenge to

Behaviorism 159 Brain Mechanisms and Learning 161 “Higher” Cognitive Learning 162

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Fear of Flying Revisited 162

CRITICAL THINKING APPLIED: Do Different People Have Different “Learning Styles”? 164

Chapter Summary 166 Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide 168

CHAPTER 5 Memory 170

PROBLEM: How can our knowledge about memory help us evaluate claims of recovered memories? 172

5.1 What Is Memory? 172 Metaphors for Memory 173 Memory’s Three Basic Tasks 174

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Would You Want a “Photographic” Memory? 175

5.2 How Do We Form Memories? 177 The First Stage: Sensory Memory 178 The Second Stage: Working Memory 180 The Third Stage: Long-Term Memory 184

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: “Flashbulb” Memories: Where Were You When . . . ? 189

5.3 How Do We Retrieve Memories? 190 Implicit and Explicit Memory 190 Retrieval Cues 191 Other Factors Affecting Retrieval 193

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: On the Tip of Your Tongue 194

5.4 Why Does Memory Sometimes Fail Us? 195 Transience: Fading Memories Cause Forgetting 196 Absent-Mindedness: Lapses of Attention Cause

Forgetting 198 Blocking: Access Problems 198 Misattribution: Memories in the Wrong Context 199 Suggestibility: External Cues Distort or Create Memories 200 Bias: Beliefs, Attitudes, and Opinions Distort Memories 201 Persistence: When We Can’t Forget 202 The Advantages of the “Seven Sins” of Memory 202 Improving Your Memory with Mnemonics 203

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology 204

CRITICAL THINKING APPLIED: The Recovered Memory Controversy 206

Chapter Summary 207 Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide 210

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CHAPTER 7 Development Over the Lifespan 264

PROBLEM: Do the amazing accounts of similarities in twins reared apart indicate we are primarily a product of our genes? Or do genetics and environment work together to influence growth and development over the lifespan? 266

7.1 What Innate Abilities Does the Infant Possess? 268 Prenatal Development 268 The Neonatal Period: Abilities of the Newborn Child 269 Infancy: Building on the Neonatal Blueprint 271

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Not Just Fun and Games: The Role of Child’s Play in Life Success 277

7.2 What Are the Developmental Tasks of Childhood? 279 How Children Acquire Language 279 Cognitive Development: Piaget’s Theory 282 Social and Emotional Development 288

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: The Puzzle of ADHD 294

7.3 What Changes Mark the Transition of Adolescence? 296 Adolescence and Culture 296

Physical Maturation in Adolescence 297 Adolescent Sexuality 298 Neural and Cognitive Development in Adolescence 299 Moral Development: Kohlberg’s Theory 300 Social and Emotional Issues in Adolescence 302

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology: Cognitive Development in College Students 304

7.4 What Developmental Challenges Do Adults Face? 305 Early Adulthood: Explorations, Autonomy, and Intimacy 306 The Challenges of Midlife: Complexity and Generativity 308 Late Adulthood: The Age of Integrity 310

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: A Look Back at the Jim Twins and Your Own Development 313

CRITICAL THINKING APPLIED: The Mozart Effect 315

Chapter Summary 316 Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide 320

CHAPTER 6 Thinking and Intelligence 212

PROBLEM: What produces “genius,” and to what extent are the people we call “geniuses” different from others? 214

6.1 What Are the Components of Thought? 215 Concepts 215 Imagery and Cognitive Maps 217 Thought and the Brain 218 Intuition 219

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Schemas and Scripts Help You Know What to Expect 221

6.2 What Abilities Do Good Thinkers Possess? 223 Problem Solving 223 Judging and Making Decisions 227 Becoming a Creative Genius 229

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology 232

6.3 How Is Intelligence Measured? 233 Binet and Simon Invent a School Abilities Test 234 American Psychologists Borrow Binet and Simon’s Idea 235 Problems with the IQ Formula 236 Calculating IQs “on the Curve” 237 IQ Testing Today 238

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: What Can You Do for an Exceptional Child? 239

6.4 Is Intelligence One or Many Abilities? 242 Psychometric Theories of Intelligence 242 Cognitive Theories of Intelligence 243 The Question of Animal Intelligence 247

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Test Scores and the Self-Fulfilling Prophecy 249

6.5 How Do Psychologists Explain IQ Differences Among Groups? 250 Intelligence and the Politics of Immigration 251 What Evidence Shows That Intelligence Is Influenced

by Heredity? 251 What Evidence Shows That Intelligence is Influenced

by Environment? 252 Heritability (Not Heredity) and Group Differences 253 PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Stereotype Threat 256

CRITICAL THINKING APPLIED: The Question of Gender Differences 258

Chapter Summary 259 Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide 262

CHAPTER 8 States of Consciousness 322

PROBLEM: How can psychologists objectively examine the worlds of dreaming and other subjective mental states? 324

8.1 How Is Consciousness Related to Other Mental Processes? 324 Tools for Studying Consciousness 326 Models of the Conscious and Nonconscious Minds 327 What Does Consciousness Do for Us? 329 Coma and Related States 330

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology 331

8.2 What Cycles Occur in Everyday Consciousness? 332 Daydreaming 332

Sleep: The Mysterious Third of Our Lives 333 Dreaming: The Pageants of the Night 338

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Sleep Disorders 341

8.3 What Other Forms Can Consciousness Take? 344 Hypnosis 345 Meditation 347 Psychoactive Drug States 348

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Dependence and Addiction 354

CRITICAL THINKING APPLIED: The Unconscious—Reconsidered 356

Chapter Summary 358 Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide 360

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CHAPTER 10 Personality: Theories of the Whole Person 412

PROBLEM: What influences were at work to produce the unique behavioral patterns, high achievement motivation, and consistency over time and place that we see in the personality of Mary Calkins? 414

10.1 What Forces Shape Our Personalities? 415 Biology, Human Nature, and Personality 416 The Effects of Nurture: Personality and the Environment 416 The Effects of Nature: Dispositions and Mental

Processes 417 Social and Cultural Contributions to Personality 417 PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Explaining Unusual People

and Unusual Behavior 418

10.2 What Persistent Patterns, or Dispositions, Make Up Our Personalities? 420

Personality and Temperament 421 Personality as a Composite of Traits 422 PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Finding Your Type 426

10.3 Do Mental Processes Help Shape Our Personalities? 428 Psychodynamic Theories: Emphasis on Motivation

and Mental Disorder 428

Humanistic Theories: Emphasis on Human Potential and Mental Health 439

Social-Cognitive Theories: Emphasis on Social Learning 442

Current Trends: The Person in a Social System 445 PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn

Psychology 445

10.4 What “Theories” Do People Use to Understand Themselves and Others? 447

Implicit Personality Theories 447 Self-Narratives: The Stories of Our Lives 448 The Effects of Culture on Our Views of Personality 449 PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: The Personality of Time 450

CRITICAL THINKING APPLIED: The Person–Situation Controversy 453

Chapter Summary 454 Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide 456

CHAPTER 9 Motivation and Emotion 362

PROBLEM: Motivation is largely an internal and subjective process: How can we determine what motivates people like Lance Armstrong to work so hard at becoming the best in the world at what they do? 364

9.1 What Motivates Us? 364 Why People Work: McClelland’s Theory 365 The Unexpected Effects of Rewards on Motivation 367 PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn

Psychology 368

9.2 How Are Our Motivational Priorities Determined? 369 Instinct Theory 369 Drive Theory 370 Freud’s Psychodynamic Theory 371 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs 372 Putting It All Together: A New Hierarchy of Needs 373

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Determining What Motivates Others 374

9.3 Where Do Hunger and Sex Fit into the Motivational Hierarchy? 375 Hunger: A Homeostatic Drive and a Psychological

Motive 376 The Problem of Will Power and Chocolate Cookies 379

Sexual Motivation: An Urge You Can Live Without 380 Sex, Hunger, and the Hierarchy of Needs 384

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: The What and Why of Sexual Orientation 385

9.4 How Do Our Emotions Motivate Us? 387 What Emotions Are Made Of 388 What Emotions Do for Us 389 Counting the Emotions 389 Cultural Universals in Emotional Expression 390

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Gender Differences in Emotion Depend on Biology and Culture 391

9.5 What Processes Control Our Emotions? 392 The Neuroscience of Emotion 393 Arousal, Performance, and the Inverted U 396 Theories of Emotion: Resolving Some Old Issues 397 How Much Conscious Control Do We Have Over Our

Emotions? 399

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Detecting Deception 403

CRITICAL THINKING APPLIED: Do Lie Detectors Really Detect Lies? 405

Chapter Summary 407 Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide 410

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CHAPTER 11 Social Psychology 458

PROBLEM: What makes ordinary people willing to harm other people, as they did in Milgram’s shocking experiment? 461

11.1 How Does the Social Situation Affect Our Behavior? 462 Social Standards of Behavior 463 Conformity 465 Obedience to Authority 471 Cross-Cultural Tests of Milgram’s Research 475 Some Real-World Extensions of the Milgram Obedience

to Authority Paradigm 477 The Bystander Problem: The Evil of Inaction 478 Need Help? Ask for It! 480

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: On Being “Shoe” at Yale U 482

11.2 Constructing Social Reality: What Influences Our Judgments of Others? 483 Interpersonal Attraction 484 Loving Relationships 488

Making Cognitive Attributions 490 Prejudice and Discrimination 492

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Stereotype Lift and Values Affirmations 498

11.3 How Do Systems Create Situations That Influence Behavior? 500 The Stanford Prison Experiment 500 Chains of System Command 502 Preventing Bullying by Systematic Changes and Reframing 504

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology 507

CRITICAL THINKING APPLIED: Is Terrorism “a Senseless Act of Violence, Perpetrated by Crazy Fanatics”? 508

Chapter Summary 510 Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide 512

PROBLEM: Is it possible to distinguish mental disorder from merely unusual behavior? That is, are there specific signs that clearly indicate mental disorder? 516

12.1 What Is Psychological Disorder? 517 Changing Concepts of Psychological Disorder 518 Indicators of Abnormality 521 A Caution to Readers 522

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: The Plea of Insanity 522

12.2 How Are Psychological Disorders Classified in the DSM-IV ? 524 Overview of the DSM-IV Classification System 524 Mood Disorders 526 Anxiety Disorders 530 Somatoform Disorders 534 Dissociative Disorders 535 Schizophrenia 537

Developmental Disorders 541 Personality Disorders 542 Adjustment Disorders and Other Conditions: The Biggest

Category of All 544 Gender Differences in Mental Disorders 544

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Shyness 544

12.3 What Are the Consequences of Labeling People? 545 Diagnostic Labels, Labeling, and Depersonalization 546 The Cultural Context of Psychological Disorder 546

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology 547

CRITICAL THINKING APPLIED: Insane Places Revisited—Another Look at the Rosenhan Study 548

Chapter Summary 550 Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide 552

CHAPTER 12 Psychological Disorders 514

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Glossary G-1 References R-1 Answers to Discovering Psychology Program Review Questions A-1 Photo Credits C-1 Name Index I-1 Subject Index I-7

CHAPTER 14 From Stress to Health and Well-Being 596

PROBLEM: Were the reactions and experiences of the 9/11 firefighters and others at the World Trade Center attacks typical of people in other stressful situations? And what factors explain individual differences in our physical and psychological responses to stress? 598

14.1 What Causes Distress? 600 Traumatic Stressors 601 Chronic Stressors 606

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Student Stress 611

14.2 How Does Stress Affect Us Physically? 613 Physiological Responses to Stress 614 Stress and the Immune System 617

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Cognitive Appraisal of Ambiguous Threats 619

14.3 Who Is Most Vulnerable to Stress? 620 Type A Personality and Hostility 622 Locus of Control 623 Hardiness 624

Optimism 625 Resilience 626

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology 628

14.4 How Can We Transform Negative Stress Into Positive Life Strategies? 629 Psychological Coping Strategies 630 Positive Lifestyle Choices: A “Two-for-One” Benefit to Your

Health 634 Putting It All Together: Developing Happiness and Subjective

Well-Being 637

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Behavioral Medicine and Health Psychology 639

CRITICAL THINKING APPLIED: Is Change Really Hazardous to Your Health? 641

Chapter Summary 643 Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide 646

CHAPTER 13 Therapies for Psychological Disorders 554

PROBLEM: What is the best treatment for Derek’s depression: psychological therapy, drug therapy, or both? More broadly, the problem is this: How do we decide among the available therapies for any of the mental disorders? 556

13.1 What Is Therapy? 556 Entering Therapy 557 The Therapeutic Alliance and the Goals of Therapy 557 Therapy in Historical and Cultural Context 559

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Paraprofessionals Do Therapy, Too 560

13.2 How Do Psychologists Treat Psychological Disorders? 561 Insight Therapies 562 Behavior Therapies 568 Cognitive–Behavioral Therapy: A Synthesis 571 Evaluating the Psychological Therapies 574

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Where Do Most People Get Help? 576

13.3 How Is the Biomedical Approach Used to Treat Psychological Disorders? 577 Drug Therapy 577

Other Medical Therapies for Psychological Disorders 581 Hospitalization and the Alternatives 583

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: What Sort of Therapy Would You Recommend? 584

13.4 How Do the Psychological Therapies and Biomedical Therapies Compare? 585 Depression and Anxiety Disorders: Psychological versus

Medical Treatment 587 Schizophrenia: Psychological versus Medical

Treatment 587 “The Worried Well” and Other Problems: Not Everyone Needs

Drugs 588

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology 588

CRITICAL THINKING APPLIED: Evidence-Based Practice 589

Chapter Summary 592 Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide 594

P R E FA C E xiii

T O T H E S T U D E N T . . .

There is one simple formula for academic success, and the following demonstration will show you what it is. Study this array of letters for a few seconds: I B M U F O F B I C I A

Now, without peeking, write down as many of the letters as you can (in the correct order).

Most people remember about five to seven letters correctly. A few people get them all. How do these exceptional few do it? They find a pattern. (You may have noticed some familiar initials in the array above: IBM, UFO, FBI, CIA.) Finding the pattern greatly eases the task because you can draw on material that is already stored in mem- ory. In this case, all that needs to be remembered are four “chunks” of information instead of 12 unrelated letters.

The same principle applies to material you study for your psychology class. If you try to remember each piece of information as a separate item, you will have a difficult time. But if instead you look for patterns, you will find your task greatly simplified— and much more enjoyable.

USING PSYCHOLOGY TO LEARN PSYCHOLOGY So, how can you identify the patterns? Your friendly authors have developed several learning features that will make meaningful patterns in the text stand out clearly:

Core Concepts We have organized each major section of every chapter around a single big idea called a Core Concept. For example, one of the four Core Concepts in Chapter 5, Memory, says:

Core Concept 5.4 Human memory is an information-processing system that works constructively to encode, store, and retrieve information.

The Core Concept, then, becomes the central theme around which about 10 pages of material—including several new terms—are organized. As you read each chapter, keep- ing the Core Concept in mind will help you encode the new terms and ideas related to that concept, store them in your memory, and later retrieve them when you are being tested. To borrow an old saying, the Core Concepts become the “forest,” while the details of the chapter become the “trees.”

Key Questions Each Core Concept is introduced by a Key Question that also serves as a main heading in the chapter. Here, for example, is a Key Question from the Memory chapter:

5.4 KEY QUESTION Why Does Memory Sometimes Fail Us?

Key Questions such as this will help you anticipate the most important point, or the Core Concept, in the section. In fact, the Core Concept always provides a brief answer to the Key Question. Think of the Key Question as the high beams on your car, helping

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you focus on what lies ahead. Our Key Questions should also serve as guides for you in posing questions of your own about what you are reading.

Both the Key Questions and the Core Concepts later reappear as organizing fea- tures of the Chapter Summary.

Psychology Matters Psychology has many captivating connections with events in the news and in everyday life, and we have explored one of these connections at the end of each major section in every chapter. To illustrate, here are some examples from the Memory chapter:

• Would You Want a “Photographic” Memory? • “Flashbulb” Memories: Where Were You When . . . ? • On the Tip of Your Tongue

Such connections—practical, down to earth, and fascinating—will help you link your study of psychology with your real-life experiences. They will also help you critically evaluate many of the psychological ideas you encounter in the media—as when you see news stories that begin with “psychological research shows that . . .” By the end of this course, you will become a much wiser consumer of such information.

Psychology Matters: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology A special Psychology Matters section in every chapter explains how you can apply new knowledge from the chapter to make your studying more effective. For example, in Chapter 2, Biopsychology, Neuroscience, and Human Nature, we tell you how to put your understanding of the brain to work for more efficient learning. Similarly, at the end of Chapter 9, Motivation and Emotion, we explain how to use the psychological concept of “flow” to boost your academic motivation. Thus, Using Psychology to Learn Psychology not only reinforces points that you have studied but also brings the material home with immediate and practical applications to your life in college.

Do It Yourself! Throughout the book we have scattered active-learning demonstrations like the one in which you were asked to memorize the letters I B M U F O F B I C I A. Besides being fun, these activities have the serious purpose of illustrating important principles discussed in the text. In Chapter 5, for example, one Do It Yourself! box helps you find the capacity of your short-term memory; another lets you test your “photographic memory” ability.

Check Your Understanding Whether you’re learning psychology, soccer, or the saxophone, you need feedback on your progress, and that’s exactly what you will get from the Check Your Understanding quizzes. These quizzes appear at the end of every major section in the chapter, offering you a quick checkup indicating whether you have assimilated the main points from what you have read. Some questions call for simple recall; others call for deeper analysis or application of material. Some are multiple- choice questions; some are short-answer essay questions. These exercises will help you determine how well you have mastered the material.

MyPsychLab Integration Throughout the text, you will find marginal icons that link to important videos, simulations, podcasts, and activities you can find on MyPsychLab. New to this edition, we have developed reading activities (called Read on MyPsychLab) that will allow you to explore interesting topics more deeply. There are many more resources on MyPsychLab than those highlighted in the text, but the icons draw attention to some of the most high-interest materials. If you did not receive an access code with your text, you can purchase access at www.mypsychlab.com.

Connection Arrows Links to important topics discussed in other chapters are often cross-referenced with an arrow in the margin, as you can see in the sample here. These links will help you integrate your new knowledge with information you have already learned, or will show you where in a later chapter you can find out more

Study and Review at MyPsychLab

Read the Document at MyPsychLab

Simulate the Experiment at MyPsychLab

Explore the Concept at MyPsychLab

Watch the Video at MyPsychLab

Listen to the Podcast at MyPsychLabwww.mypsychlab.com

T O T H E S T U D E N T xv

about what you are reading. Connecting these concepts in your mind will help you remember them.

Marginal Glossary The most important terms appear in boldface, with their glossary definitions readily accessible in the margin. We list these key terms again in the Chapter Summary. Then, at the end of the book, a comprehensive Glossary gathers together all the key terms and definitions from each chapter in one easy-to-find location.

Chapter Summaries We have written our Chapter Summaries to provide you with an overview of main points in each chapter—to help you preview and review the chapter. The summaries are organized around the Key Questions and Core Concepts introduced within the chapter to facilitate review and mastery of chapter material. But we offer one caution: Reading the Chapter Summary will not substitute for reading the entire chapter! Here’s a helpful hint: We recommend that you read the summary before you read the rest of the chapter to get a flavor of what’s ahead, then reread the summary after you finish the chapter. Reading the summary before will provide a framework for the material so that it can be more easily encoded and stored in your memory. And, naturally, reviewing the summary after reading the chapter will reinforce what you have just learned so that you can retrieve it when needed on an examination.

THINKING LIKE A PSYCHOLOGIST Learning all the facts and definitions of psychology won’t make you a psychologist. Beyond the facts, thinking like a psychologist requires learning some problem-solving skills and critical thinking techniques that any good psychologist should possess. With this goal in mind, we have added two unique features to this book.

Chapter-Opening Problems Each chapter begins with an important problem that you will learn how to solve with the tools you acquire in your reading. Examples of the chapter- opening problems include testing the claim that sweet treats give children a “sugar high,” evaluating claims of recovered memories, and judging the extent to which the people we call “geniuses” are different from the rest of us.

Critical Thinking Applied At the end of each chapter, you will be asked to consider issues disputed among psychologists and issues raised in the media, such as the nature of the unconscious mind and the effects of subliminal persuasion. Each of these issues requires a skeptical attitude and the application of a special set of critical thinking skills that we will introduce in Chapter 1.

DISCOVERING PSYCHOLOGY VIDEOS At the end of each chapter, you will notice viewing guides for Discovering Psychology, a 26-part video series produced by WGBH and Annenberg Media and narrated by the lead author of this textbook, Phil Zimbardo. The videos provide an overview of his- toric and current theories of human behavior and feature many of the researchers and studies introduced in this textbook. You can access the Discovering Psychology videos and additional viewing resources through MyPsychLab (www.mypsychlab.com), the online companion to this textbook.

We have one final suggestion to help you succeed in psychology: This book is filled with examples to illustrate the most important ideas, but you will remember these ideas longer if you generate your own examples as you study. This habit will make the information yours as well as ours. And so we wish you a memorable journey through the field we love.

Phil Zimbardo Bob Johnson

Vivian McCannwww.mypsychlab.com

T O T H E I N S T R U C T O R . . .

Psychology has undergone remarkable changes since 2008, when we finished writing the previous edition of Psychology: Core Concepts. Here are just a few examples of the new developments we have included in this seventh edition:

• The brain’s “default network,” involving parts of the temporal lobe, the prefrontal cortex, and the cingulate cortex, becomes active when people focus their attention internally—when they are remembering personal events, making plans, or imagin- ing the perspectives of others. Unfortunately, daydreamers activating this default network while studying will probably not remember the material they have just studied.

• New research shows that analgesics such as Tylenol, normally used to treat physical pain, can reduce the painful psychological sensations resulting from social rejection and ruminating about unhappy relationships.

• Also in the realm of sensation, taste researcher Linda Bartoshuk has discovered a “Rosetta Stone,” enabling her to compare objectively the intensities of taste sensations experienced by different individuals.

• Meanwhile, perceptual psychologists have recently used brain scans to confirm the assertion that Americans and Asians perceive scenes differently.

• Brain scans have also enabled researchers to assess patients who have been classi- fied as in persistent vegetative states—and predict which ones might improve.

• In healthy individuals, scans have detected changes in the brains of volunteers who have undergone intensive training in meditation. The changes are most obvious in brain areas associated with memory, emotional processing, attention, and stress reduction.

• As cognitive psychologists continue to puzzle over the Flynn effect, IQ scores con- tinue to rise—but new studies show that the rise is slowing in developed countries of the West.

• Cognitive research also shows that one in four auto accidents results from the driver failing to notice hazardous conditions while using a cell phone—a bad decision probably deriving from a mistaken belief in multitasking. (Perhaps future research will determine whether the IQs of these drivers fall above or below the rising average.)

• New research by our own Phil Zimbardo shows that decisions can also be influenced by a personality trait that he calls time perspective—referring to a past, present, or future orientation.

• However, the ultimate influence on our decisions lies in natural selection, accord- ing to evolutionary psychologists—who have recently proposed a major new and controversial modification of Maslow’s famous hierarchy of needs.

In all, we have included some 350 new references in this new edition—gleaned from literally thousands we have perused. Which is to say that psychological knowledge continues to grow, with no end in sight. As a result, many introductory textbooks have grown to daunting proportions. Meanwhile, our introductory courses remain the same length—with the material ever more densely packed. We cannot possibly introduce students to all the concepts in psychology, nor can our students possibly remember everything.

The problem is not just one of volume and information overload; it is also a prob- lem of meaningfulness. So, while we have aimed to cover less detail than do the more encyclopedic texts, we have not given you a watered-down “brief edition” book. The result is an emphasis on the most important and meaningful ideas in psychology.

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Our inspiration for Psychology: Core Concepts came from psychological research: specifically, a classic study of chess players by Dutch psychologist and chess master Adriaan de Groot (1965). His work, as you may recall, involved remembering the locations of pieces on a chessboard. Significantly, when the pieces were placed on the board at random, chess experts did no better than novices. Only when the pat- terns made sense—because they represented actual game situations—did the experts show an advantage. Clearly, meaningful patterns are easier to remember than random assignments.

In applying de Groot’s findings to Psychology: Core Concepts, our goal has been to present a scientific overview of the field of psychology within meaningful patterns that will help students better remember what they learn so that they can apply it in their own lives. Thus, we have organized each major section of every chapter around a single, clear idea that we call a Core Concept, which helps students focus on the big picture so they don’t become lost in the details.

From the beginning, our intention in writing Psychology: Core Concepts has been to offer students and instructors a textbook that combines a sophisticated introduc- tion to the field of psychology with pedagogy that applies the principles of psychology to the learning of psychology, all in a manageable number of pages. Even with all the new material we have included, the book remains essentially the same size—which, of course, meant making some tough decisions about what to include, what to delete, and what to move into our extensive collection of ancillary resources.

Our goal was to blend great science with great teaching and to provide an alter- native to the overwhelmingly encyclopedic tomes or skimpy “brief edition” texts that have been traditionally offered. We think you will like the introduction to psychol- ogy presented in this book—both the content and the pedagogical features. After all, it’s a text that relies consistently on well-grounded principles of psychology to teach psychology.

NEW TO THIS EDITION This edition of Psychology: Core Concepts is certainly no perfunctory revision or slap- dash update. And here’s why . . .

We have reconceptualized our goal of helping students learn to “think like psychologists.” These days, of course, everyone emphasizes critical thinking. The new edition of Psychology: Core Concepts, however, gives equal weight to that other essen- tial thinking skill: problem solving.

To encourage the sort of problem solving psychologists do, every chapter begins with a Problem, a feature we introduced in the last edition. The Problem grows out of the opening vignette and requires, for its solution, material developed in the chapter. In this edition, we have focused on helping readers discover, throughout each chapter, the “clues” that lead to the solution of the problem.

But we have not neglected critical thinking. Throughout the text, we deal with common psychological misconceptions—such as the notion that venting anger gets it “out of your system” or the belief that punishment is the most effective way of chang- ing behavior. And in our Critical Thinking Applied segment at the end of each chapter, we also focus on an important psychological issue in the popular media or an ongoing debate within the field:

• Can “facilitated communication” help us understand people with autism? • Left vs. right brain: Do most of us use only one side of the brain? • Can our choices be influenced by subliminal messages? • Do people have different “learning styles”? • The recovered memory controversy: How reliable are reports of long-forgotten

memories of sexual abuse? • Gender issues: Are we more alike or more different? • The “Mozart Effect”: Can music make babies smarter?

xviii T O T H E I N S T R U C T O R

• The Unconscious reconsidered: Has modern neuroscience reshaped Freud’s concept of the unconscious mind?

• Do lie detectors really detect lies? • The person-situation controversy: Which is the more important influence on our

behavior? • Is terrorism “a senseless act of violence, perpetrated by crazy fanatics”? • Insane places revisited: Did Rosenhan get it right? • Evidence-based practice: Should clinicians be limited by the tested-and-true? • Is change really hazardous to your health?

But that’s not all. We have made extensive updates to the text (in addition to the new research listed above). And we have improved the pedagogical features for which Psychology: Core Concepts is known and loved. To give a few examples, we have:

• added MyPsychLab icons throughout the margins to highlight important videos, simulations, podcasts, and additional resources for students to explore online. New to this edition, we have created Read on MyPsychLab activities that allow students to read and answer questions about many interesting topics more deeply online.

• shifted the focus of psychology’s six main perspectives to practical applications, giving a concrete example of a real-life problem for each.

• clarified and updated our discussion of the scientific method to reflect more accurately how research is done in a real-world context.

• added material on interpreting correlations—to help students use the notions of correlation and causation more accurately in their everyday lives.

• simplified and consolidated our discussion of the split-brain experiments. • updated material on flashbulb memories, using up-to-date examples. • created a new section on cognitive theories of intelligence. • added a new Psychology Matters piece entitled “Not Just Fun and Games: The

Role of Child’s Play in Life Success,” telling of the growing role of self-control in life success, and how parents and teachers can help nurture this important ability.

• added new material on Vygotsky’s theory, including scaffolding and the zone of proximal development, plus new material on neural development in adolescence.

• revised and expanded the sections on daydreaming and on both REM and NREM sleep to reflect important new research.

• changed the order of topics in the Motivation and Emotion chapter, bringing in new material on practical ways of motivating people, updating the section on sexual orientation, and presenting a revised hierarchy of needs based in evolutionary psychology.

• added new material on cross-cultural differences in shyness, Carol Dweck’s research on mindset, and individual differences in time perspective.

• updated the section on positive psychology. • updated the Heroic Defiance section, including new examples from the recent

Egyptian protests and new material on events at the Abu Ghraib prison. • added new examples of recent replications of Milgram’s obedience experiment. • added new material on bullying, the jigsaw classroom, and stereotype lift. • reconceptualized depression in terms of Mayberg’s model, which emphasizes three

factors: biological vulnerability, external stressors, and abnormality of the mood- regulation circuits in the brain. Also presented the new studies on the value of exercise in combating depression and the anxiety disorders.

• added new material on psychopathy—which is attracting increasing interest but is not a DSM-IV disorder.

• discussed the growing rift within clinical psychology (and between APA and APS) over empirically supported treatments and empirically based practice.

T O T H E I N S T R U C T O R xix

• updated the information on telehealth therapy strategies. • connected the discussion of traumatic stress to the 2011 earthquake in Japan. • added a new Do It Yourself! The Undergraduate Stress Questionnaire: How Stressed

Are You?

We think you will find the seventh edition up-to-date and even more engaging for students than the previous edition. But the changes are not limited to the book itself. Please allow us to toot our horns for the supplements available to adopters.

TEACHING AND LEARNING PACKAGE The following supplements will also enhance teaching and learning for you and your students:

Instructor’s Manual Written and compiled by Sylvia Robb of Hudson County Community College, includes suggestions for preparing for the course, sample syllabi, and current trends and strategies for successful teaching. Each chapter offers integrated teaching outlines, lists the Key Questions, Core Concepts, and Key Terms for each chapter for quick reference, an extensive bank of lecture launchers, handouts, and activities, crossword puzzles, and suggestions for integrating third-party videos, music, and Web resources. The electronic format features click-and-view hotlinks that allow instructors to quickly review or print any resource from a particular chapter. This resource saves prep work and helps you maximize your classroom time.

Test Bank Written by Jason Spiegelman of Community College of Baltimore County, has provided an extensively updated test bank containing more than 2,000 accuracy- checked questions, including multiple choice, completion (fill-in-the-blank and short answer), and critical essays. Test item questions have been also written to test student comprehension of select multimedia assets found with MyPsychLab for instructors who wish to make MyPsychLab a more central component of their course. In addition to the unique questions listed previously, the Test Bank also includes all of the Check Your Understanding questions from the textbook and all of the test questions from the Discovering Psychology Telecourse Faculty Guide for instructors who wish to reinforce student use of the textbook and video materials. All questions include the correct answer, page reference, difficulty ranking, question type designation, and correlations to American Psychological Association (APA) Learning Goal/Outcome. A new feature of the Test Bank is the inclusion of rationales for each correct answer and the key distracter in the multiple- choice questions. The rationales help instructors reviewing the content to further evaluate the questions they are choosing for their tests and give instructors the option to use the rationales as an answer key for their students. Feedback from current customers indicates this unique feature is very useful for ensuring quality and quick response to student queries. A two-page Total Assessment Guide chapter overview makes creating tests easier by listing all of the test items in an easy-to-reference grid. The Total Assessment Guide organizes all test items by text section and question type/level of difficulty. All multiple- choice questions are categorized as factual, conceptual, or applied.

The Test Bank comes with Pearson MyTest, a powerful assessment-generation program that helps instructors easily create and print quizzes and exams. Ques- tions and tests can be authored online, allowing instructors ultimate flexibility and the ability to efficiently manage assessments anytime, anywhere! Instructors can easily access existing questions and then edit, create, and store them using simple drag-and- drop and Word-like controls. Data on each question provide information relevant to dif- ficulty level and page number. In addition, each question maps to the text’s major section and learning objective. For more information, go to www.PearsonMyTest.com.

NEW Interactive PowerPoint Slides These slides, available on the Instructor’s Resource DVD (ISBN 0-205-58439-7), bring the Psychology: Core Concepts design right into the classroom, drawing students into the lecture and providing wonderful interactivewww.PearsonMyTest.com

xx T O T H E I N S T R U C T O R

activities, visuals, and videos. A video walk-through is available and provides clear guidelines on using and customizing the slides. The slides are built around the text’s learning objectives and offer many links across content areas. Icons integrated throughout the slides indicate interactive exercises, simulations, and activities that can be accessed directly from the slides if instructors want to use these resources in the classroom.

A Set of Standard Lecture PowerPoint Slides Written by Beth M. Schwartz, Randolph College, is also offered and includes detailed outlines of key points for each chapter supported by selected visuals from the textbook. A separate Art and Figure version of these presentations contains all art from the textbook for which Pearson has been granted electronic permissions.

Classroom Response System (CRS) Power Point Slides Classroom Response System questions (“Clicker” questions) are intended to form the basis for class discussions as well as lectures. The incorporation of the CRS questions into each chapter’s slideshow facilitates the use of “clickers”—small hardware devices similar to remote controls, which process student responses to questions and interpret and display results in real time. CRS questions are a great way to get students involved in what they are learning, especially because many of these questions address specific scientific thinking skills highlighted in the text. These questions are available on the Instructor’s Resource DVD (ISBN 0-205-85439-7) and also online at http://pearsonhighered.com/irc.

Instructor’s Resource DVD (ISBN 0-205-85439-7) Bringing all of the Seventh Edition’s instructor resources together in one place, the Instructor’s DVD offers both versions of the PowerPoint presentations, the Classroom Response System (CRS), the electronic files for the Instructor’s Manual materials, and the Test Item File to help instructors customize their lecture notes.

The NEW MyPsychLab The NEW MyPsychLab combines original online materials with powerful online assessment to engage students, assess their learning, and help them succeed. MyPsychLab ensures students are always learning and always improving.

• New video: New, exclusive 30-minute video segments for every chapter take the viewer from the research laboratory to inside the brain to out on the street for real-world applications.

• New experiments: A new experiment tool allows students to experience psychol- ogy. Students do experiments online to reinforce what they are learning in class and reading about in the book.

• New BioFlix animations: Bring difficult-to-teach biological concepts to life with dramatic “zoom” sequences and 3D movement.

• eText: The Pearson eText lets students access their textbook anytime, anywhere, in any way they want it, including listening to it online.

• New concept mapping: A new concept-mapping tool allows students to create their own graphic study aids or notetaking tools using preloaded content from each chapter. Concept maps can be saved, e-mailed, or printed.

• Assessment: With powerful online assessment tied to every video, application, and chapter of the text, students can get immediate feedback. Instructors can see what their students know and what they don’t know with just a few clicks. Instruc- tors can then personalize MyPsychLab course materials to meet the needs of their students.

• New APA assessments: A unique bank of assessment items allows instructors to assess student progress against the American Psychological Association’s Learning Goals and Outcomes. These assessments have been keyed to the APA’s latest pro- gressive Learning Outcomes (basic, developing, advanced) published in 2008.

Proven Results Instructors and students have been using MyPsychLab for nearly ten years. To date, more than 500,000 students have used MyPsychLab. During that time,http://pearsonhighered.com/irc

T O T H E I N S T R U C T O R xxi

three white papers on the efficacy of MyPsychLab were published. Both the white papers and user feedback show compelling results: MyPsychLab helps students succeed and improve their test scores. One of the key ways MyPsychLab improves student outcomes is by providing continuous assessment as part of the learning process. Over the years, both instructor and student feedback have guided numerous improvements, making MyPsychLab even more flexible and effective.

Please contact your local Pearson representative for more information on MyPsychLab. For technical support for any of your Pearson products, you and your students can contact http://247.pearsoned.com.

NEW MyPsychLab Video Series (17 episodes) This new video series offers instructors and students the most current and cutting-edge introductory psychology video content available anywhere. These exclusive videos take the viewer into today’s research laboratories, inside the body and brain via breathtaking animations, and onto the street for real-world applications. Guided by the Design, Development and Review team, a diverse group of introductory psychology instructors, this comprehensive series features 17 half-hour episodes organized around the major topics covered in the introductory psychology course syllabus. For maximum flexibility, each half-hour episode features several brief clips that bring psychology to life:

• The Big Picture introduces the topic of the episode and provides the hook to draw students fully into the topic.

• The Basics uses the power of video to present foundational topics, especially those that students find difficult to understand.

• Special Topics delves deeper into high-interest and cutting-edge topics, showing research in action.

• In the Real World focuses on applications of psychological research. • What’s in It for Me? These clips show students the relevance of psychological

research to their own lives.

Available in MyPsychLab and also on DVD to adopters of Pearson psychology text- books (ISBN 0-205-03581-7).

Discovering Psychology Telecourse Videos Written, designed, and hosted by Phil Zimbardo and produced by WGBH Boston in partnership with Annenberg Media, this series is a perfect complement to Psychology: Core Concepts. Discovering Psychology is a landmark educational resource that reveals psychology’s contribution not only to understanding the puzzles of behavior but also to identifying solutions and treatments to ease the problems of mental disorders. The video series has won numerous prizes and is widely used in the United States and internationally. The complete set of 26 half-hour videos is available for purchase (DVD or VHS format) from Annenberg Media. The videos are also available online in a streaming format that is free (www.learner.org), and, for the convenience of instructors and students using Psychology: Core Concepts, links to these online videos have been included in the MyPsychLab program that accompanies the textbook. A student Viewing Guide is found at the end of every chapter within Psychology: Core Concepts, with additional Viewing Guide resources also available online within MyPsychLab.

Discovering Psychology Telecourse Faculty Guide (ISBN 0-205-69929-4) The Telecourse Faculty Guide provides guidelines for using Discovering Psychology as a resource within your course. Keyed directly to Psychology: Core Concepts, the faculty guide includes the complete Telecourse Study Guide plus suggested activities; suggested essays; cited studies; instructional resources, including books, articles, films, and websites; video program test questions with answer key; and a key term glossary. Test questions for Discovering Psychology also reappear in the textbook’s test bank and MyTest computerized test bank.

Student Study Guide (ISBN 0-205-25299-0) This robust study guide, written by Jane P. Sheldon of University of Michigan-Dearborn, is filled with guided activities and in-depth exercises to promote student learning. Each chapter includes worksheets thatwww.learner.orghttp://247.pearsoned.com

xxii T O T H E I N S T R U C T O R

give students a head start on in-class note taking; a full list of key terms with page references; a collection of demonstrations, activities, exercises, and three short practice quizzes; and one comprehensive chapter exam with critical-thinking essay questions and concept maps to help you study for your quizzes and exams. The appendix includes answers to all of the practice activities, tests, and concept maps.

ACCESSING ALL RESOURCES

For a list of all student resources available with Psychology: Core Concepts, Seventh Edition, go to www.mypearsonstore.com, enter the text ISBN (0-205-18346-8), and check out the “Everything That Goes with It” section under the book cover.

For access to all instructor supplements for Psychology: Core Concepts, Seventh Edition go to http://pearsonhighered.com/irc and follow the directions to register (or log in if you already have a Pearson user name and password). Once you have registered and your status as an instructor is verified, you will be e-mailed a log-in name and password. Use your log-in name and password to access the catalog. Click on the “online catalog” link, click on “psychology” followed by “introductory psychology,” and then the Zimbardo/Johnson/McCann, Psychology: Core Concepts, Seventh Edition text. Under the description of each supplement is a link that allows you to download and save the supplement to your desktop.

You can request hard copies of the supplements through your Pearson sales representa- tive. If you do not know your sales representative, go to http://www.pearsonhighered.com/ replocator/ and follow the directions. For technical support for any of your Pearson prod- ucts, you and your students can contact http://247.pearsoned.com.

A NOTE OF THANKS Nobody ever realizes the magnitude of the task when taking on a textbook-writing project. Acquisitions Editor Amber Chow and Executive Editor Stephen Frail deftly guided (and prodded) us through this process. The vision of the seventh edition con- fronted reality under the guidance of Deb Hanlon, our tenacious Senior Development Editor, who made us work harder than we had believed possible. Assistant Editor Kerri Hart-Morris managed our spectacular ancillaries package.

The job of making the manuscript into a book fell to Shelly Kupperman, our Production Project Manager at Pearson Education; Andrea Stefanowicz, our Senior Project Manager at PreMediaGlobal; and Kim Husband, our copyeditor. We think they did an outstanding job—as did our tireless photo researcher, Ben Ferrini.

We are sure that none of the above would be offended if we reserve our deepest thanks for our spouses, closest colleagues, and friends who inspired us, gave us the caring support we needed, and served as sounding boards for our ideas. Phil thanks his wonderful wife, Christina Maslach, for her endless inspiration and for modeling what is best in academic psychology. He has recently passed a milestone of 50 years of teaching the introductory psychology course, from seminar size to huge lectures to more than 1,000 students. Phil continues to give lectures and colloquia to college and high school groups throughout the country and overseas. He still gets a rush from lec- turing and from turning students on to the joys and fascination of psychology. His new “psych rock star” status comes mostly from generations of students who have grown up watching him perform on the Discovering Psychology video series in their high school and college psychology courses.

Bob is grateful to his spouse, best friend, and best editor Michelle, who has for years put up with his rants on topics psychological, his undone household chores, and much gratification delayed—mostly without complaint. She has been a wellspring of understand- ing and loving support and the most helpful of reviewers. His thanks, too, go to Rebecca, their daughter, who has taught him the practical side of developmental psychology—and now, much to her own astonishment and an undergraduate lapse into sociology, pos- sesses her own graduate degree in psychology. In addition, he is indebted to many friends,www.mypearsonstore.comhttp://247.pearsoned.comhttp://www.pearsonhighered.com/replocator/http://www.pearsonhighered.com/replocator/http://pearsonhighered.com/irc

T O T H E I N S T R U C T O R xxiii

most of whom are not psychologists but who are nevertheless always eager to raise and debate interesting issues about the applications of psychology to everyday life. Readers will find topics they have raised throughout the book and especially in the chapter-opening “problems” and in the critical thinking sections at the end of each chapter.

Vivian’s thanks go first to her husband, Shawn, and their sons, Storm and Blaze. All three of these amazing men are endless sources of love, support, inspiration, fun, and delight. They also generously allow Vivian to use them as examples of a multi- tude of concepts in her classes! Vivian also appreciates the many students, friends, and colleagues who have both encouraged and challenged her over the years.

We would especially like to thank Michelle Billies, Nikita Duncan, George Slavich, and Christina Zimbardo for their exceptional help as we revised and prepared this edition for print.

Many psychological experts and expert teachers of introductory psychology also shared their constructive criticism with us on every chapter and feature of the seventh edition of this text:

Thomas Beckner, Trine University Chris Brill, Old Dominion University Allison Buskirk-Cohen, Delaware Valley

College Christie Chung, Mills College Elizabeth Curtis, Long Beach City College Linda DeKruif, Fresno City College Meliksah Demir, Northern Arizona

University Roger Drake, Western State College of

Colorado Denise Dunovant, Hudson County

Community College Arthur Frankel, Salve Regina University Marjorie Getz, Bradley University Nancy Gup, Georgia Perimeter College Carrie Hall, Miami University Jeremy Heider, Stephen F. Austin State

University Allen Huffcutt, Bradley University Kristopher Kimbler, Florida Gulf Coast

University Sue Leung, Portland Community College Brian Littleton, Kalamazoo Valley

Community College Annette Littrell, Tennessee Tech University Mark Loftis, Tennessee Tech University Lillian McMaster, Hudson County

Community College

Karen Marsh, University of Minnesota–Duluth

Jim Matiya, Florida Gulf Coast University Nancy Melucci, Long Beach City College Jared Montoya, The University of Texas

at Brownsville Suzanne Morrow, Old Dominion

University Katy Neidhart, Cuesta College Donna Nelson, Winthrop University Barbara Nova, Dominican University of

California Elaine Olaoye, Brookdale Community

College Karl Oyster, Tidewater Community

College Sylvia Robb, Hudson County

Community College Nancy Romero, Lone Star College Beverly Salzman, Housatonic

Community College Hildur Schilling, Fitchburg State College Bruce Sherwin, Housatonic Community

College Hilary Stebbins, Virginia Wesleyan

College Doris Van Auken, Holy Cross College Matthew Zagummy, Tennessee Tech

University

We also thank the reviewers of the previous editions of Psychology: Core Concepts and hope that they will recognize their valued input in all that is good in this text:

Gordon Allen, Miami University Beth Barton, Coastal Carolina

Community College Linda Bastone, Purchase College, SUNY Susan Beck, Wallace State College

Michael Bloch, University of San Francisco Michele Breault, Truman State University John H. Brennecke, Mount San Antonio

College T. L. Brink, Crafton Hills College

xxiv T O T H E I N S T R U C T O R

Jay Brown, Southwest Missouri State University

Sally S. Carr, Lakeland Community College

Saundra Ciccarelli, Gulf Coast Community College

Wanda Clark, South Plains College Susan Cloninger, The Sage Colleges John Conklin, Camosun College (Canada) Michelle L. Pilati Corselli (Rio Hondo

College) Sara DeHart-Young, Mississippi State

University Janet DiPietro, John Hopkins University Diane Finley, Prince George’s

Community College Krista Forrest, University of Nebraska at

Kearney Lenore Frigo, Shasta College Rick Froman, John Brown University Arthur Gonchar, University of LaVerne Peter Gram, Pensacola Junior College Jonathan Grimes, Community College of

Baltimore County Lynn Haller, Morehead State University Mary Elizabeth Hannah, University of

Detroit Jack Hartnett, Virginia Commonwealth

University Carol Hayes, Delta State University Karen Hayes, Guilford College Michael Hillard, Albuquerque TVI

Community College Peter Hornby, Plattsburgh State

University Deana Julka, University of Portland Brian Kelley, Bridgewater College Sheila Kennison, Oklahoma State

University Laurel Krautwurst, Blue Ridge

Community College Judith Levine, Farmingdale State College Dawn Lewis, Prince George’s

Community College Deborah Long, East Carolina University

Margaret Lynch, San Francisco State University

Jean Mandernach, University of Nebraska, Kearney

Marc Martin, Palm Beach Community College

Richard Mascolo, El Camino College Steven Meier, University of Idaho Nancy Mellucci, Los Angeles

Community College District Yozan Dirk Mosig, University of

Nebraska Melinda Myers-Johnson, Humboldt

State University Michael Nikolakis, Faulkner State

College Cindy Nordstrom, Southern Illinois

University Laura O’Sullivan, Florida Gulf Coast

University Ginger Osborne, Santa Ana College Vernon Padgett, Rio Hondo College Jeff Pedroza, Santa Ana College Laura Phelan, St. John Fisher College Faye Plascak-Craig, Marian College Skip Pollock, Mesa Community College Chris Robin, Madisonville Community

College Lynne Schmelter-Davis, Brookdale

County College of Monmouth Mark Shellhammer, Fairmont State

College Christina Sinisi, Charleston Southern

University Patricia Stephenson, Miami Dade

College Mary Ellen Dello Stritto, Western

Oregon University Mario Sussman, Indiana University of

Pennsylvania John Teske, Elizabethtown College Stacy Walker, Kingwood College Robert Wellman, Fitchburg State

University Alan Whitlock, University of Idaho

Finally, we offer our thanks to all of the colleagues whose feedback has improved our book. Thanks also to all instructors of this most-difficult-to-teach course for taking on the pedagogical challenge and conveying to students their passion about the joys and relevance of psychological science and practice.

If you have any recommendations of your own that we should not overlook for the next edition, please write to us! Address your comments to Dr. Robert Johnson, CoreConcepts7@gmail.com.

A B O U T T H E A U T H O R S

Philip Zimbardo, PhD, Stanford University professor, has been teaching the introductory psychology course for 50 years and has been writing the basic text for this course, as well as the faculty guides and student workbooks, for the past 35 years. In addition, he has helped to develop and update the PBS-TV series, Discovering Psychol- ogy, which is used in many high school and university courses both nationally and internationally. He has been called “The Face and Voice of Psychology” because of this popular series and his other media presentations. Phil also loves to conduct and publish research on a wide variety of subjects, as well as teach and engage in public and social service activities. He has published more than 400 professional and popular articles and chapters, including 50 books of all kinds. He recently published a trade book on the psychology of evil, The Lucifer Effect, that relates his classic Stanford Prison Experiment to the abuses at Iraq’s Abu Ghraib Prison. His new book is The Time Paradox, but his new passion is helping to create wise and effective everyday heroes as part of his Heroic Imagination Project. Please see these websites for more information: www.zimbardo.com; www.prisonexp.org; www.PsychologyMatters.org; www.theTimeParadox.com; www.LuciferEffect.com; www.HeroicImagination.org.

Robert Johnson, PhD, taught introductory psychology for 28 years at Umpqua Community College. He acquired an interest in cross-cultural psychology during a Fulbright summer in Thailand, followed by many more trips abroad to Japan, Korea, Latin America, Britain, and, most recently, to Indonesia. Currently, he is working on a book on the psychology in Shakespeare. Bob is especially interested in applying psy- chological principles to the teaching of psychology and in encouraging linkages be- tween psychology and other disciplines. In keeping with those interests, he founded the Pacific Northwest Great Teachers Seminar, of which he was the director for 20 years. Bob was also one of the founders of Psychology Teachers at Community Colleges (PT@CC), serving as its executive committee chair during 2004. That same year, he also received the Two-Year College Teaching Award given by the Society for the Teaching of Psychology. Bob has long been active in APA, APS, the Western Psychological Association, and the Council of Teachers of Undergraduate Psychology.

Vivian McCann, a senior faculty member in psychology at Portland Community College in Portland, Oregon, teaches a wide variety of courses, including introductory psychology, human relations, intimate relationships, and social psychology. Born and raised in the California desert just 10 miles from the Mexican border, she learned early on the importance of understanding cultural backgrounds and values in effective communication and in teaching, which laid the foundation for her current interest in teaching and learning psychology from diverse cultural perspectives. She loves to travel and learn about people and cultures and to nurture the same passions in her students. She has led groups of students on four trips abroad, and in her own travels has visited 24 countries so far. Vivian maintains a strong commitment to teaching excellence and has developed and taught numerous workshops in that area. She has served on the APA’s Committee for Psychology Teachers at Community Colleges (PT@CC) and is an active member of the Western Psychological Association and APS. She is also the author of Human Relations: The Art and Science of Building Effective Relationships.

xxvwww.zimbardo.comwww.prisonexp.orgwww.PsychologyMatters.orgwww.theTimeParadox.comwww.LuciferEffect.comwww.HeroicImagination.org

Mind, Behavior, and Psychological Science1

Psychology MattersCore ConceptsKey Questions/Chapter Outline

1.1 What Is Psychology—and What Is It NOT ? Psychology: It’s More Than You Think Psychology Is Not Psychiatry Thinking Critically about Psychology and

Pseudo-Psychology

Psychology is a broad field with many specialties, but fundamentally, psychology is the science of behavior and mental processes.

Using Psychology to Learn Psychology

In this book, Key Questions and Core Concepts help you organize what you learn.

1.2 What Are Psychology’s Six Main Perspectives?

Separation of Mind and Body and the Modern Biological Perspective

The Founding of Scientific Psychology and the Modern Cognitive Perspective

The Behavioral Perspective: Focusing on Observable Behavior

The Whole-Person Perspectives: Psychodynamic, Humanistic, and Trait and Temperament

The Developmental Perspective: Changes Arising from Nature and Nurture

The Sociocultural Perspective: The Individual in Context

The Changing Face of Psychology

Six main viewpoints dominate modern psychology—the biological, cognitive, behavioral, whole-person, developmental, and sociocultural perspectives—each of which grew out of radical new concepts about mind and behavior.

Psychology as a Major

To call yourself a psychologist, you’ll need graduate training.

Psychologists, like all other scientists, use the scientific method to test their ideas empirically.

The Perils of Pseudo-psychology

Critical thinking failures often result in disastrous consequences.

CHAPTER PROBLEM How would psychology test the claim that sugar makes children hyperactive?

CRITICAL THINKING APPLIED Facilitated Communication

1.3 How Do Psychologists Develop New Knowledge?

Four Steps in the Scientific Method Five Types of Psychological Research Controlling Biases in Psychological Research Ethical Issues in Psychological Research

3

A FTER THE KIDS HAD ALL THAT SUGAR—THE CAKE, ICE CREAM, PUNCH, and candy—they were absolutely bouncing off the walls!” said one of our friends who was describing a birthday party for her 8-year-old daughter.I must have had a skeptical look on my face, because she stopped her story short and asked, “You don’t believe it?” Then she added, “You psychologists just don’t believe

in common sense, do you?”

I responded that what people think of as “common sense” can be wrong, reminding her

that common sense once held that Earth was flat. “Perhaps,” I suggested, “it might be wrong

again—this time about the so-called ‘sugar high’ people think they observe.

“It could have been just the excitement of the party,” I added.

“Think they observe?” my friend practically shouted. “Can you prove that sugar doesn’t

make children hyperactive?”

“No,” I said. “Science doesn’t work that way. But what I could do,” I ventured, “is perform

an experiment to test the idea that sugar makes children ‘hyper.’ Then we could see whether

your claim passes or fails the test.”

My timing wasn’t the best for getting her involved in a discussion of scientific experiments,

so let me pose the problem to you.

PROBLEM: How would psychology test the claim that sugar makes children hyperactive?

We invite you to think about how we might set up such an experiment. We could, for example,

give kids a high-sugar drink and see what happens. But because people often see only what

4 C H A P T E R 1 Mind, Behavior, and Psychological Science

they expect to see, our expectations about sugar and hyperactivity could easily influence our

observations. So how could we design an experiment about sugar and hyperactivity that also

accounts for our expectations? It is not an easy problem, but we will think it through together,

and by the end of this chapter, you will have the tools you need to solve it.

Every chapter in the book will begin with a problem such as this—a problem aimed at

getting you actively involved in learning psychology and thinking critically about some impor-

tant concepts in the chapter. Solving the problem with us, rather than just passively reading

the words, will make the concepts more meaningful to you and more easily remembered (see

Chapter 5 to find out why).

The important concept illustrated by the “sugar high” problem is one of the most fun-

damental concepts in all of psychology: using the scientific method to explore the mind and

behavior. But before we get into the details of the scientific method, let’s clarify what we mean

by the term psychology itself.

1.1 KEY QUESTION What Is Psychology—and What Is It NOT?

“I hope you won’t psychoanalyze me,” says the student at the office door. It is a frequent refrain and an occupational hazard for professors of psychology. But students need not worry about being psychoanalyzed, for two reasons. First, not all psychologists diagnose and treat mental problems—in fact, those who do are actually in the minority among pro- fessors of psychology. Second, only a few psychologists are actually psychoanalysts. The term psychoanalysis refers to a highly specialized and relatively uncommon form of ther- apy. You will learn more about the distinction between psychologists and psychoanalysts later in the chapter—but, in the meantime, don’t fret that your professor will try to find something wrong with you. In fact, your professor is much more likely to be interested in helping you learn the material than in looking for signs of psychological disorder.

So, you might wonder, if psychology is not all about mental disorders and therapy, what is it all about?

The term psychology comes from psyche, the ancient Greek word for “mind,” and the suffix -ology, meaning “a field of study.” Literally, then, psychology means “the study of the mind.” Most psychologists, however, use the broader definition given in our Core Concept for this section of the chapter:

Core Concept 1.1 Psychology is a broad field, with many specialties, but fundamentally psychology is the science of behavior and mental processes.

One important point to note about this definition: Psychology includes not only mental processes but also behaviors. In other words, psychology’s domain covers both internal mental processes that we observe only indirectly (such as thinking, feeling, and desiring) as well as external, observable behaviors (such as talking, smiling, and running). A second important part of our definition concerns the scientific compo- nent of psychology. In brief, the science of psychology is based on objective, verifiable evidence—not just the opinions of experts and authorities, as we often find in non- scientific fields. We will give a more complete explanation of the science of psychol- ogy in the last part of this chapter. For now, though, let’s take a closer look at what psychologists actually do.

Psychology: It’s More Than You Think Psychology covers more territory than most people realize. As we have seen, not all psychologists are therapists. Many work in education, industry, sports, prisons,

psychology The science of behavior and mental processes.

What Is Psychology—and What Is It NOT? 5

government, churches and temples, private practice, human relations, advertising, and in the psychology departments of colleges and universities (see Figure 1.1). Others work for engineering firms, consulting firms, and the courts (both the judicial and the NBA variety). In these diverse settings, psy- chologists perform a wide range of tasks, including teaching, research, testing, and equipment design—as well as psycho- therapy. In fact, psychology’s specialties are too numerous to cover them all here, but we can give you a taste of the field’s diversity by first dividing psychology into three broad groups.

Three Ways of Doing Psychology Broadly speaking, psychologists cluster into three main categories: experi- mental psychologists, teachers of psychology, and applied psychologists. Some overlap exists among these groups, how- ever, because many psychologists take on multiple roles in their work.

Experimental psychologists (sometimes called research psychologists) constitute the smallest of the three groups. Nevertheless, they perform most of the research that creates new psychological knowledge (Frincke & Pate, 2004).1 For example, an experimental psychologist would be well equipped to study the effects of sugar on hyperactivity in children. While some experimental psychologists can be found in in- dustry or private research institutes, the majority work at a college or university, where most also teach.

Teachers of psychology are traditionally found at colleges and universities, where their assignments typically involve not only teaching but also research and publica- tion. Increasingly, however, psychologists can be found at community colleges and high schools, where their teaching load is higher because these institutions generally do not require research (American Psychological Association, 2007b; Johnson & Rudmann, 2004).

Applied psychologists use the knowledge developed by experimental psychologists to tackle human problems of all kinds, such as toy or equipment design, criminal analy- sis, and psychological treatment. They work in a wide variety of places, ranging from schools, clinics, and social service agencies to factories, airports, hospitals, and casinos. All told, about two-thirds of the doctoral-level psychologists in the United States work primarily as applied psychologists (Kohout & Wicherski, 2000; Wicherski et al., 2009).

Applied Psychological Specialties Some of the most popular applied specialties include:

• Industrial and organizational psychologists (often called I/O psychologists) specialize in personnel selection and in tailoring the work environment to maximize productivity and morale. They may, for example, create programs to motivate employees or to improve managers’ leadership skills. I/O psychologists also conduct market research and examine current issues such as attitudes toward pregnancy in the workplace (Shrader, 2001).

• Sports psychologists help athletes improve their performance by planning effective practice sessions, enhancing motivation, and learning to control emotions under pressure. Some focus exclusively on professional athletes, and others work with recreational athletes. Sports psychologists may also, for example, study various types of personalities and their relation to high-risk endeavors such as firefighting, parachuting, or scuba diving.

1Throughout this book, you will find citations in parentheses, calling your attention to a complete bibliographic reference found in the References section, beginning on p. R-1, near the end of this book. These brief in-text citations give the authors’ last names and the publication date. With the complete references in hand, your library can help you find the original source.

experimental psychologists Psychologists who do research on basic psychological processes—as contrasted with applied psychologists. Experimental psychologists are also called research psychologists.

teachers of psychology Psychologists whose primary job is teaching, typically in high schools, colleges, and universities.

applied psychologists Psychologists who use the knowledge developed by experimental psychologists to solve human problems.

FIGURE 1.1 Work Settings of Psychologists

Source: 2009 Doctorate Employment Survey, APA Center for Workforce Studies. March 2011.

Independent practiceOther counseling

sevices

Other educational settings

Government

Business, Consulting, Other

Hospitals and HMOs

Universities, colleges, and medical schools

6% 6%

8%

33%21%

15%

11%

Read MyPsychLab

about I/O Psychology at

6 C H A P T E R 1 Mind, Behavior, and Psychological Science

• School psychologists are experts in teaching and learning. They deal with issues impacting learning, family or personal crises influencing school performance, or social conditions such as gangs, teen pregnancy, or substance abuse. They sometimes diagnose learning or behavioral problems and work with teachers, students, and parents to help students succeed in school. Many school psychologists work for school districts, where their work includes administering, scoring, and interpreting psychological tests.

• Clinical and counseling psychologists help people improve social and emotional adjustment or work through difficult choices in relationships, careers, or education. Almost half of all doctoral-level psychologists list clinical or counseling psychology as their specialty (Wichersky et al., 2009).

• Forensic psychologists provide psychological expertise to the legal and judicial system. One of the most recently recognized specialties in psychology, forensic psychology has gained rapid popularity due in part to such TV shows as

Criminal Minds, Profiler, and CSI. And, while a real day in the life of forensic psychologists may not be as glamorous or fast paced as their television counter- parts, the field is burgeoning with opportunities. Forensic psychologists may test inmates in prisons or forensic hospitals to determine readiness for release or fitness to stand trial, evaluate testimony in cases of rape or child abuse, or help with jury selection (Clay, 2009; Huss, 2001).

• Environmental psychologists aim to improve human interaction with our envi- ronment. They may, for example, study the impact of inner-city garden spaces on children’s academic performance or determine how best to encourage environmen- tally friendly behavior such as recycling. In private practice, environmental psy- chologists sometimes help clients maintain their commitment to sustainability or conduct workshops teaching people the mental health benefits of interacting with nature (Novotney, 2009).

More information on career possibilities in psychology can be found in Careers in Psychology for the Twenty-First Century, published by the American Psychological Association (2003a) and available online at www.apa.org/careers/resources/guides/ careers.pdf.

Psychology Is Not Psychiatry Just as beginning psychology students may think all psychologists are clinical psychol- ogists, they also may not know the distinction between psychology and psychiatry. So let’s clear up that confusion, just in case you encounter a test question on the topic.

Virtually all psychiatrists, but only some psychologists, treat mental disorders—and there the resemblance ends. Psychiatry is a medical specialty, not part of psychology at all. Psychiatrists hold MD (Doctor of Medicine) degrees and, in addition, have special- ized training in the treatment of mental and behavioral problems, typically with drugs. Therefore, psychiatrists are licensed to prescribe medicines and perform other medical procedures. Consequently, psychiatrists tend to treat patients with more severe mental disorders (such as schizophrenia) and also to view patients from a medical perspective, as persons with mental “diseases.”

By contrast, psychology is a much broader field that encompasses the whole range of human behavior and mental processes, from brain function to social interaction and from mental well-being to mental disorder. For most psychologists, graduate training emphasizes research methods, along with advanced study in a specialty such as those listed earlier. Moreover, while psychologists usually hold doctoral degrees, their train- ing is not usually medical training, and thus they are not generally licensed to prescribe medications (Carlat, 2010; Practice Directorate Staff, 2005). Psychologists, then, work

C O N N E C T I O N CHAPTER 13

Clinical psychologists help people deal with mental disorders and other psychological problems (p. 558).

psychiatry A medical specialty dealing with the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders.

Applying psychological principles of learning and motivation, sports psychologists work with athletes to improve performance.

Explore the Concept Psychologists at Work at MyPsychLabwww.apa.org/careers/resources/guides/careers.pdfwww.apa.org/careers/resources/guides/careers.pdf

What Is Psychology—and What Is It NOT? 7

in a wide variety of fields, all of which view people from a psychological perspective. This perspective is il- lustrated by clinical and counseling psychologists, who are likely to view the people they are helping as clients rather than patients.

So, now you know that psychiatry is not psychol- ogy. Next, we’ll look at something else that often gets confused with psychology: pseudo-psychology.

Thinking Critically about Psychology and Pseudo-Psychology TV series like Medium and Supernatural continue a long tradition of programs that play on people’s fasci- nation with claims of mysterious powers of the mind and supernatural influences on our personalities. Your daily horoscope does the same thing—never mind that astrology has been thoroughly debunked (Schick & Vaughn, 2001). Neither is there any factual basis for graphology (the bogus science of handwriting analysis), fortune telling, or the supposed power of subliminal messages to influence our behavior. All these fall under the heading of pseudo-psychology: unsupported psychological beliefs masquerading as scientific truth.

Certainly horoscopes and paranormal claims can be fun as pure entertainment, but it is important to know where fact-based reality ends and imagination-based fantasy begins. After all, you wouldn’t want to stake an important decision about your health or welfare on false information, would you? Thus, one of the goals of this text is to help you think critically when you hear extraordinary claims about behavior and mental processes.

What Is Critical Thinking? Those who talk about critical thinking often find them- selves in the position of Supreme Court Justice Potter Stewart, who famously was unable to define pornography but concluded, “I know it when I see it.” Like Justice Stewart, your fearless authors (Phil, Bob, and Vivian) cannot offer a definition of criti- cal thinking with which everyone will agree. Nevertheless, we are willing to jump into the fray with a list of six critical thinking skills we wish to emphasize in this text. Each is based on a specific question we believe should be asked when confronting new ideas.

1. What is the source? Does the person making the claim have real expertise in the field? Suppose, for example, you hear a newscast on which a politician or pundit declares that juvenile lawbreakers can be “scared straight.” The story explains that, in the program, first-time offenders receive near-abusive treatment from felons who try to scare them away from a life of crime with tales of harsh prison life. Such programs have, in fact, been tried in several states (Finckenauer et al., 1999). But does the person making the claim have any real knowledge of the subject? Does the claimant have legitimate credentials, or is he or she merely a self-proclaimed “expert?” One way to find out is to go online and examine the individual’s ref- erences and standing within the field. Also, find out whether the source has something substantial to gain from the claim. If it’s a medical breakthrough, for example, does the claimant stand to make money from a new drug or medical device? In the case of a “scared straight” program, is the source trying to score political points or get votes?

2. Is the claim reasonable or extreme? Life is too short to be critical of everything, of course, so the trick is to be selective. How? As the famous astronomer Carl Sagan once said about reports of alien abductions, “Extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence” (Nova Online, 1996). Critical thinkers, then, are skeptical

pseudo-psychology Erroneous assertions or practices set forth as being scientific psychology.

critical thinking skills This book emphasizes six critical thinking skills, based on the following ques- tions: What is the source? Is the claim reasonable or extreme? What is the evidence? Could bias contaminate the conclusion? Does the reasoning avoid common fallacies? Does the issue require multiple perspectives?

Fortune tellers, astrologers, and other practitioners of pseudo-psychology don’t bother to verify their claims with careful research—nor do their clients engage in critical thinking about such practices.

8 C H A P T E R 1 Mind, Behavior, and Psychological Science

of claims touted as “breakthroughs” or “revolutionary.” Certainly, there are occasionally breakthroughs or revolutionary new treatments that work—but they are relatively rare. Most new scientific developments are extensions of existing knowledge. So, claims that conflict with well-established knowledge should raise a red flag. For example, beware of ads that promise to help you quit smoking or lose weight with little or no effort. In the case of “scared straight” programs or any other quick fix for a difficult problem, remember that simple solutions to complex problems rarely exist.

3. What is the evidence? This is one of the most important guidelines to critical think- ing, and you will learn more about what constitutes scientific evidence in the last section of this chapter. For now, though, beware of anecdotal evidence or testimoni- als proclaiming the dramatic effects of a new program. These first-hand accounts tend to be quite convincing, so they often lure us into believing them. Testimonials and anecdotes, though—no matter how compelling—are not scientific evidence. They merely represent the experiences of a few carefully selected individuals. It would be risky, and perhaps even dangerous, to assume that what seems true for some people must also be true for everyone.

What does the evidence say about “scared straight” programs? Not only do they not work, but they can also actually inoculate juveniles against fears about prison. Surprising as it may seem, the hard evidence indicates that teens exposed to such treatments, on average, subsequently get into more trouble than do those not given the “scared straight” treatment (Petrosino et al., 2003).

4. Could bias contaminate the conclusion? Critical thinkers know the conditions under which biases are likely to occur and can recognize common types of bias we will examine in this chapter. For example, they would question whether medi- cal researchers who are involved in assessing new drugs can truly remain unbiased if they are receiving money from the companies whose drugs they are testing (McCook, 2006).

The form of bias most applicable to our “scared straight” example is emotional bias: People not only fear crime and criminals but also are often in favor of harsh treatments for criminal behavior, as evidenced by the recent spate of “three strikes” laws (which mandate a lifetime in prison after three felony convictions). Accordingly, the “scared straight” approach may appeal to people simply because of its harshness. Also, people with a loved one who has gotten into some trouble may be especially vulnerable to promises of easy reform: Their desire for help can interfere with clear thinking.

Another common form of bias is confirmation bias, the all-too-human ten- dency to remember events that confirm our beliefs and ignore or forget contra- dictory evidence (Halpern, 2002; Nickerson, 1998). For example, confirmation bias explains why people persist in their beliefs that astrology works: They remember the predictions that seemed accurate and forget the ones that missed the mark. Confirmation bias also explains why gamblers have better recollections for their wins than for their losses, or why we persist in thinking a particular object is our lucky charm. Amazingly, recent research reveals this bias may be partly biological in nature. In a study done before a recent presidential election, people listened to their favorite politicians making statements that contradicted themselves. Upon hearing the contradictory statement, brain circuits associated with reasoning in the listeners suddenly shut down, while brain regions most in- volved with emotion remained active (Shermer, 2006; Westen et al., 2006). It was as though the brain was saying, “I don’t want to hear anything that conflicts with my beliefs.” Thus, we may have to exert extra effort and diligence to overcome this bias.

5. Does the reasoning avoid common fallacies? We will study several common logical fallacies in this book, but the one most applicable to the “scared straight” example is the assumption that common sense is a substitute for scientific evidence. In fact,

emotional bias The tendency to make judgments based on attitudes and feelings, rather than on the basis of a rational analysis of the evidence.

confirmation bias The tendency to attend to evidence that complements and confirms our beliefs or expectations, while ignoring evidence that does not.

anecdotal evidence First-hand accounts that vividly describe the experiences of one or a few people, but may erroneously be assumed to be scientific evidence.

What Is Psychology—and What Is It NOT? 9

in many cases there exists common sense to support both sides of an issue. For example, we hear that “Birds of a feather flock together”—but we also hear that “Opposites attract.” Similarly, we are told that “The early bird gets the worm,” but aren’t we also cautioned that “Haste makes waste?” Which, then, is true? Only an examination of the evidence can reliably provide the answer. Stay tuned later in this chapter, and in Chapter 6, for other common fallacies that derail critical thinking.

6. Does the issue require multiple perspectives? The “scared straight” intervention makes the simplistic assumption that fear of punishment is the best deterrent to delinquency, so inducing fear will prevent delinquency. A more sophisticated view sees delinquency as a complex problem that demands scrutiny from several perspectives. Psychologists, for example, may look at delinquency from the stand- points of learning, social influence, or personality traits. Economists would be interested in the financial incentives for delinquency. And sociologists would focus on such things as gangs, poverty, and community structures. Surely such a multi- faceted problem will require a more complex solution than a threatening program.

Thinking Critically about the Chapter Problem How would you apply these criti- cal thinking guidelines to the chapter-opening problem about whether sugar makes children hyperactive? First, consider the source: Is the mother of an 8-year-old an ex- pert on biological effects of sugar? Assuming she is not, you’d have to wonder if the source of her belief is a reliable one or if she is just repeating some “common sense” she’s often heard but never questioned. Second, examine the evidence: Have scientific tests been conducted to measure the effects of sugar on children? Third, could any bi- ases be at work? For example, if we expect children to be hyperactive after consuming sugar, that is likely what we will observe. Fourth, is the claimant avoiding common fallacies in reasoning? In this case, even if we can prove that kids who consume more sugar are more hyperactive, we can’t be sure that sugar is the cause: Alternatively, per- haps kids who are already hyperactive eat more sugar as a means of maintaining their high need for activity. Finally, we should recognize that there are probably other rea- sons kids get excited at parties. We will explore some of these competing perspectives in the second section of this chapter.

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which of the following is a correctly worded main point for a speech preparation outline?

1. How do the following main points for a speech about the achievements of Ida Wells-Barnett violate the guidelines presented in your textbook for organizing main points?
I. As a teacher, Wells-Barnett spoke out against inferior school facilities for African-American children.
II. As a journalist, Well-Barnett campaigned against lynching.
III. In the early 20th century, Wells-Barnett expanded her activities. (Points : 2) 
The main points should have been arranged in causal order.
The main points don’t each deal with a separate aspect of the topic.
The main points don’t divide the topic consistently.
all of the above.

2. All of the following are basic objectives of a speech introduction except (Points : 2) 
Establish credibility and goodwill.
Support your main points.Reveal the topic of the speech.
Preview the body of the speech
Get the audience’s attention and interest.


3. Which of the following is a correctly worded main point for a speech preparation outline? (Points : 2) 
Leadership.
What are the major types of leadership?
Two major types of leadership.
There are two major types of leadership.Leadership: major types.


1. Which of the following elements is NOT suggested by the text as an effective method for contacting potential employers? (Points : 2) 
Send a unique cover letter along with your resume to each company you apply to.
Send resumes to every company in the area.Develop a personal network.
Conduct background research


2. Survey results indicate that the leading factor shaping interviewers’ initial impressions of the candidates is (Points : 2) 
the appearance of the resume.

the clothing the candidate wears to the interview.
the candidate’s eye contact during the rapport stage of the interview.
the firmness of the candidate’s handshake.


3. Choose the best answer to the interview question, “Why should we hire you?” (Points : 2) 
I understand from your website that your most popular product is Zanos. I’ve been using Zanos for three years now. I’ve shown several of my friends how effective it is, and now they’re buying it, too. With my knowledge of the product and my enthusiasm for it, I can be a sincere and valuable sales rep.””I really need the money.”
“I just completed my Associate Degree, and I’m ready to work.”
“I am a hard-working, motivate, people-person.”

1. When the general purpose of your speech is to _____, you act primarily as a teacher or lecturer. (Points : 2) 
inform
convince
entertain
persuade
convert


2. Here are the main points for an informative speech about the anatomy of the human ear.
I. The outer ear includes the ear flap and the ear canal.
II. The middle ear includes the eardrum and three tiny, interconnected bones.
III. The inner ear includes the cochlea, the semicircular canals, and the auditory nerve.
These main points are arranged in ______ order. (Points : 2) 
spatial
descending
chronological
ascending
topical


3. Which organizational method is used in a speech with the following main points?
I. Many citizens are victimized every year by incompetent lawyers.
II. A bill requiring lawyers to stand for recertification every 10 years will do much to help solve the problem. (Points : 2) 
legal
topical
chronological
problem-solution
analytical

1. Which of the following is recommended by your textbook as a way to improve your listening? (Points : 2) 
Try to remember everything the speaker says.
Pay close attention to feedback from other listeners.
Concentrate solely on the speaker’s gestures and eye contact.
Suspend judgment until you hear all the speaker has to say.
Do not take written notes as the speech is in progress.


2. The person who assumes a leadership role in a small group because of her or his ability, personality, or talkativeness is termed a(n) (Points : 2) 
specific leader.
implied leader.
emergent leader.
insistent leader.
designated leader.


3. Three purposes of a career research interview are to (Points : 2) 
get references, get referrals, write your resume.
be remembered, prepare a resume, get references
read, remember, write.
conduct research, be remembered, get referrals.

1. “Are you married, divorced, or single?” (Points : 2) 
lawful
unlawful


2. People spend more time __________ than in any other communication activity. (Points : 2) 
speaking
writing 
reading
listening
discussing


3. Julia is listening to her meteorology professor explain how to interpret images from Doppler radar. Because Julia’s goal is to understand the information being presented, she is engaged in __________ listening. (Points : 2) 
attentive
comprehensive
appreciative
empathic
critical

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all of the following are advantages of sole proprietorship except ________.

is most often associated with manufacturing defects, design or marketing defects, and a failure to warn.

1 pts

  • Negligence
  • Product liability
  • Uniform commercial code
  • Intentional tort
  • Patents

Which of the following points does the existence of a business plan demonstrate?

1 pts

  • The business process has been carefully planned.
  • The business fulfills an important market need.
  • The business has full-time employees.
  • The business has a unique idea.
  • The business will be financially successful.

Companies MOST often resort to mergers and acquisitions when they want to expand their markets and product lines because ________.

1 pts

  • more than 70 percent of all mergers exceed financial expectations
  • it minimizes conflicts that are rooted on hidden agendas and power struggles
  • it minimizes time and investment to research and develop new products
  • upper management prefers to concentrate on day-to-day activities
  • employees are motivated to work harder because of the resulting stability

One disadvantage of sole proprietorship is the ________.

1 pts

  • burden of all the required paperwork that must be filed
  • fact that any income earned by this type of business is taxed twice
  • cost of starting or ending the company is higher than other businesses
  • unlimited liability the owner has for the debts of the company
  • possibility of disagreements between different owners

A franchise is a method of doing business in which ________.

1 pts

  • a company buys ownership of another company and absorbs its employees and customer base into its own structure
  • a business is able to achieve rapid sales growth in the service sector due to taking advantage of many advertising opportunities
  • a company’s products or services are sold to independent third-party operators under the company’s name
  • an entrepreneur sets up and manages a small business based on an innovative idea or product
  • a small company is bought by a larger one and is absorbed into its existing structure

A(n) ________ is a type of entrepreneur who prefers to keep his or her business small.

1 pts

  • petitpreneur
  • nanopreneur
  • micropreneur
  • intrapreneur
  • minipreneur

Traci and Sally have considered starting their own business but are concerned about the possibility of losing their personal assets if the business fails. One way for Traci and Sally to avoid this risk would be to organize their company as a ________.

1 pts

  • corporation
  • general partnership
  • sole proprietorship
  • limited partnership
  • merger

The government agency whose sole purpose is to cater to the needs of small businesses is ________.

1 pts

  • the Entrepreneurs Organization
  • Service Corps of Retired Executives
  • the Small Business Administration
  • the Small Business Agency
  • National Business Incubators Association

Unlike trademarks and patents, trade secrets ________.

1 pts

  • are not protected under state laws
  • are not protected under federal statutes
  • cannot be processes
  • are protected only when the secret is disclosed
  • must be physical devices

James lives near a university and observes that almost every student uses a cell phone. He decides to open a small shop offering repair services for cell phones. His shop is an instant success. James has satisfied an area of need called ________.

1 pts

  • an opportunity niche
  • fertile ground
  • a bandwidth need
  • the marketplace
  • an unconscious demand

Which of the following is NOT an advantage of buying an existing business?

1 pts

  • It might be easier to obtain financing to purchase the existing business.
  • An existing business has an existing customer base.
  • An existing business has less competition.
  • There is a reduction in start-up time and energy.
  • It is simpler than beginning a new business from scratch.

Which of the following is NOT one of the elements of a contract that must be in place for it to be valid?

1 pts

  • consideration must be given
  • the terms must be formally drafted
  • the offer must be accepted
  • the parties must understand and agree on the terms
  • an offer must be made

Rick’s business plan cover sheet includes basic company information, the month and year of the business plan, and the names of the people who prepared his plan. What key information did Rick not include on the cover sheet?

1 pts

  • anticipated challenges and planned responses
  • unique record number
  • brief description of the owner(s)
  • brief description of the business
  • the mission statement

Which section contains an analysis of whether there will be enough customers to purchase the product in the future?

1 pts

  • market investment
  • promotional plan
  • competitive assessment
  • financials
  • market research

Which of the following is ALWAYS TRUE about the purchases of existing businesses?

1 pts

  • Once under new ownership, remaining staff are suspicious or fearful of the new owner.
  • Once under new ownership, consumer curiosity about the new ownership will cause a spike in sales.
  • Once under new ownership, existing customers will be resentful toward the new owner.
  • Once under new ownership, existing businesses outperform initial revenue projections.
  • Once under new ownership, any underlying problems are the responsibility of the new owner.

All of the following are reasons why people start small businesses EXCEPT ________.

1 pts

  • more control of business decisions
  • lack of other employment opportunities
  • financial independence
  • idea for product or service not currently available
  • reduced levels of responsibility

Rashan has been working as a pharmacist at a large drug store chain. He would like to open his own small pharmacy but is not sure if he could be successful given the predominance of large competitors. What part of his business plan would best address his concern?

1 pts

  • marketing plan
  • mission statement
  • operational plan
  • company information
  • risk analysis

________ is the process of performing research and analysis of a business to uncover any hidden problems associated with it.

1 pts

  • Demographic surveying
  • Due diligence
  • Risk auditing
  • Business assessment
  • Valuation

When a not-for-profit corporations dissolves, its assets are ________.

1 pts

  • seized by the state
  • transferred to the federal government
  • passed to the owners’ families
  • given to a similar not-for-profit group
  • distributed among major donors

Which of the following is the limit of liability of a limited partner?

1 pts

  • the amount of their personal assets
  • the amount of his/her share of the profits
  • the amount of their investment
  • the amount of business capital
  • the amount of their shared profits

Why did the FTC block the merger of Staples and Office Depot?

1 pts

  • The merger would have increased the number of competing stores in some parts of the country.
  • The merger would have made it easier for other competitors to enter the market.
  • The merger would have resulted in new efficiencies by combining operations.
  • The merger would have allowed for higher pricing, costing consumers millions of dollars.
  • The merger would have resulted in a decrease in the variety and quality of products offered to consumers.

Which of the following is a disadvantage of forming a corporation?

1 pts                                                                     

  • double taxation
  • difficult transfer of ownership
  • unlimited liability of owners
  • less flexibility raising capital
  • limited life

The Nike swoosh, McDonald’s golden arches, and Apple’s apple are all examples of ________.

1 pts

  • digital rights
  • trademarks
  • trade secrets
  • patents
  • copyrights

The United States is a federalist system, meaning ________.

1 pts

  • only the U.S. government is divided into executive, legislative, and judicial branches
  • states don’t have written constitutions
  • the fifty states have no autonomy
  • the national government has complete authority
  • there is government authority at both the national and state levels

A ________ business is one that has at least 20 percent sales growth per year for five years, starting with a base of at least $100,000.

1 pts

  • hyper-growth
  • consistent-growth
  • enterprise zone
  • gazelle
  • cheetah

A disadvantage of a limited liability company is that it ________.

1 pts

  • requires earnings to be taxed at the corporate rate
  • has more restrictive ownership rules than S corporations
  • requires the division of profits in a fixed proportion
  • is required to hold annual meetings
  • must dissolve when an owner leaves the company

A cooperative is a type of business that is owned by ________ who use its products or services.

1 pts

  • shareholders
  • directors
  • outside investors
  • partners
  • members

The following are all components of a business plan EXCEPT ________.

1 pts

  • the table of contents
  • sales and promotion details
  • product descriptions
  • the executive summary
  • the chapter summary

All of the following are advantages of sole proprietorship EXCEPT ________.

1 pts

  • control and flexibility
  • single ownership
  • limited liability
  • ease of formation
  • no separate tax form

Alex Garcia has an idea for an Internet technology business that involves innovative search engine tools. He was referred to an organization that helps start-up businesses by offering resources such as administrative services, technical support, and business networking. This type of organization is called ________.

1 pts

  • the Small Business Administrative Assistants
  • the Service Corps of Retired Executives
  • the Entrepreneurs Organization
  • a business incubator
  • an angel investor group

A merger involving a computer manufacturer and an electronics retailer that sells its computers would be an example of a ________.

1 pts

  • product extension merger
  • conglomeration
  • vertical merger
  • horizontal merger
  • market extension merger

Which of the following does NOT apply to intellectual property law?

1 pts

  • trade secrets
  • patents
  • trademarks
  • copyrights
  • negotiable instruments

Which of the following is the MOST compelling argument for incorporating a business?

1 pts

  • to complete minimal legal requirements
  • to avoid paying federal taxes
  • to avoid lots of paperwork
  • to hire more employees
  • to protect the owners’ personal assets

When a wealthy individual invests his or her own money into a business project or start-up company with little intention to influence decision making, he or she is MOST often called a(n) ________.

1 pts

  • business incubator
  • shadow partner
  • financier
  • angel investor
  • venture capitalist

Which of the following is NOT covered under copyright law?

1 pts

  • a song
  • a play
  • a painting
  • a poem
  • a logo

Which of the following statements about S corporations is MOST accurate?

1 pts

  • S corporation are easier to set up than sole proprietorships and partnerships.
  • S corporations enable owners to avoid the problem of double taxation.
  • S corporations must have fewer than 5 employees.
  • S corporations can have an unlimited number of owners.
  • S corporations have unlimited liability.

A ________ is a formal document that states the goals of the business as well as the intended process for reaching those goals.

1 pts

  • strategy
  • prospectus
  • vision statement
  • business plan
  • marketing plan

Mr. Gonzales wants to help fellow farmers in his community, but he is not interested in making a personal profit. His main goal is to join with other farmers so they can have better bargaining power when purchasing supplies. Which of the following business types will Mr. Gonzales MOST likely form?

1 pts

  • not-for-profit corporation
  • cooperative
  • sole proprietorship
  • C corporation
  • general partnership

Chapter 11 bankruptcy ________.

1 pts

  • requires that the business ceases operation
  • allows a business to pay its creditors over time
  • is the most common form of bankrupty for individuals
  • demands that creditors be paid within 3-5 years
  • can only be filed voluntarily

Small business owners can seek professional advice at no cost through ________.

1 pts

  • the Volunteer Corps of America
  • Fortune 500 companies
  • the Service Corps of Retired Executives
  • the Better Business Bureau
  • McKinsey & Company management consulting

Which of the following types of entrepreneurs does NOT become involved in starting his or her own business?

1 pts

  • growth entrepreneur
  • micropreneur
  • intrapreneur
  • contract entrepreneur
  • quasipreneur

All of the following EXCEPT ________ would be an advantage to partnership.

1 pts

  • unlimited liability
  • increased financial resources
  • no separate tax return required
  • pooled skills
  • increased available time

Small businesses are important to the economy because ________.

1 pts

  • they are more innovative than larger companies
  • they improve productivity by hiring less-expensive staff in countries outside the United States
  • they create more than two-thirds of the U.S. gross domestic product
  • they generate about 65 percent of net new jobs in the United States
  • they export more than one-half of total U.S. exported goods and services

It’s important for partners to spell out the details of their partnership arrangements in writing because ________.

1 pts

  • the law requires these arrangements to be filed with state and federal authorities
  • doing so will make it easier to convert the business to a corporation at a later date
  • a written agreement will help reduce misunderstandings and disagreements among the partners
  • the partnership is not a legally recognized business until the arrangement is in writing
  • putting the agreement in writing will limit the liability of each partner to a specified level

An advisory board is composed of ________.

1 pts

  • a group of individuals who offer guidance to the new business owner
  • a group of experts who make decisions on behalf of the new business owner
  • a group of professionals who provide expertise in return for a share of the new business’s profits
  • a group of individuals who fill in for the management team members when needed
  • a group of interns who assist with administrative duties

All of the following are reasons business owners consider using a corporation structure of ownership EXCEPT ________.

1 pts

  • protection from significant loss of personal assets
  • ease of transferring ownership
  • eased ability of raising capital
  • the appearance of stability and legitimacy
  • ease of forming and setting up the structure

Kris and Amy own a workout facility in which they are co-owners. Both take an active role in the management of the business and each accepts unlimited liability. Kris and Amy operate as a ________.

1 pts

  • limited partnership
  • cooperative
  • joint venture
  • general partnership
  • dual proprietorship

A(n) ________ occurs when two companies of about the same size mutually agree to create a new combined company.

1 pts

  • takeover
  • cooperative
  • acquisition
  • synergy
  • merger

Kyle is an entrepreneur who runs his own advertising agency. He can see the whole picture of what is involved in growing his company, and he has developed a solid plan for every aspect of the business, including production, financing, and marketing. This approach to his business indicates that Kyle is a ________.

1 pts

  • motivator
  • holistic owner
  • producer
  • system thinker
  • visionary

Which of the following statements is TRUE about the components of a business plan?

1 pts

  • All business plans are unique and share no common characteristics or components.
  • Potential business owners can use a common template to write a business plan because all plans share the same components.
  • All business plans are different depending on the business; however, most have a few components in common.
  • Business plans all have the same key components; however, some may be included in a different order.
  • All business plans discuss the specific product before analyzing how the product fits the market.

________ form the basis for much personal and business interaction, including when a company hires another company or individual to do work for them or when property is bought and sold.

1 pts

  • Principles
  • Courts
  • Contracts
  • Codes
  • Precedents

Many new business owners prefer a limited liability structure because there are ________.

1 pts

  • fewer corporate formalities
  • limits on the number of members
  • fewer lawsuits
  • typically higher profits than other forms of ownership
  • more informal agreements

Which of the following is a benefit of forming a corporation?

1 pts

  • Owners of a corporation are subject to unlimited liability.
  • Owners of a corporation are passive investors.
  • Corporations can offer stock options to employees.
  • Corporations can be double taxed.
  • There is little paperwork to file when forming a corporation.
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Data Section: This will be the grid sheet just put into that section of the report.

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what is the implied main idea of the passage

  1. What is the implied main idea of the passage?
    11,191 results
    ELA
    What is the implied main idea of the passage>

asked by KK on December 13, 2016
Language Arts
Passage: “Harriet Tubman: Conductor on the Underground Railroad” by Ann Petry 1) What is the implied main idea of the passage? A) Harriet and the fugitives only survived because of the kindness of others. B) Harriet worked hard to ensure the fugitives

asked by Mopdopnop on December 23, 2016
developmental reading
what are the processes in finding the main idea and where can you find the main idea? There are several articles here which discuss the “main idea” of something.

asked by klar maesen on July 3, 2007
6th grade ELA
an implied main idea is ___ in a paragraph. can someone help me with this fill in the blank question???

asked by Kate on November 8, 2011
ELA

  1. What is the implied main idea of the passage? (1 point) Harriet and the fugitives only survived because of the kindness of others.Harriet worked hard to ensure the fugitives survived the harsh winter.Harriet and the fugitives wished they could go back

asked by KK on December 13, 2016

English
What is the main idea of this passage? (look up fighting hitler a holocaust story scholastic scope pdf on google). What is the main idea of this poem? (look up A Wagon Of Shoes – Poem by Abraham Sutzkever). Tell why scope magazine decided to pair these

asked by kms on May 22, 2017
6th grade ELA
An implied main idea is ___ in a paragraph.You have to ask yourself:What do all the supporting details add up to? Can someone please help me with this fill in the blank question???

asked by Kate on November 8, 2011
English 3
How can a reader find the main idea of a passage

asked by Cd on June 4, 2013
3 grade english ms sue
MAIN IDEA AND DETAILS THE MAIN IDEA IS THE MOST IMPORTANT IDEA IN A SELECTION OR A PARAGRAPH. DETAILS ARE THE SMALL PIECES OF INFORMATION THAT TELL ABOUT THE MAIN IDEA. DIRECTION- READ THE FOLLOWING PASSAGE. THEN ANSWER THE QUESTIONS BELOW. Every day,Juan

asked by dw on March 9, 2012
English
Is this paragraph’s main idea stated or implied? The greatest gift the Sumerians gave the world was the invention of writing. The Sumerians were a wealthy people. They needed some way to keep track of what they owned. They began drawing pictures. They

asked by Rebecca on June 24, 2016
developmental reading
Please explain to me the ff: 1. Main idea that is directly stated in the fisrt sentence. 2. Main idea that is stated in the last sentence. 3. Main idea that is stated in part of one sentence. 4. Where two sentences are used to express main idea. 5. Main

asked by klar maesen on July 7, 2007
Reading
James Baldwin’s eloquent, forceful style has given his work its wide recognition… Which of the following statements best summarizes the main idea of the passage?

asked by Anonymous on November 12, 2014
3 grade english ms sue
the topic is what a piece of writing is about. the main idea is the most important idea about the topic. details are small pieces of information that tell more about the main idea. directions read the following passage. then answer the questions below.

asked by dw on April 23, 2012
english
List and briefly describe each step in the three-step method for identifying the stated or unstated main idea in a passage

asked by lola on April 23, 2010
ENglish
List and briefly describe each step in the three-step method for identifying the stated or unstated main idea in a passage

asked by lola on April 23, 2010

conclusions
What function do conclusions serve in essays? A. Conclusions provide the supporting details of an essay. B. Conclusions develop the main idea of an essay. C. Conclusions sum up the main idea of an essay. (MY ANSWER) D. Conclusions introduce new ideas

asked by Rebecca on July 5, 2016
English
from “Harriet Tubman: Conductor on the Underground Railroad”by Ann Petry 1 That first winter in St. Catharines was a terrible one. Canada was a strange frozen land, snow everywhere, ice everywhere, and a bone-biting cold the like of which none of them

asked by Anonymous on December 17, 2018
3 grade english ms sue
main idea and details the topic is what a piece of writing is about. the main idea is the most important idea about the topic details are small pieces of information that tell more about the main idea. directions read the following passage. then fill in

asked by dw on April 26, 2012
Grammar ( Need help Ms. Sue )
Directions: Read each passage and ask yourself, ”What is the author doing in this paragraph?” Write each anser in the summary box and then think of an appropriate title for the passage based on the main idea of the passage. 1 A penny for your thoughts?

asked by Losa on June 21, 2012
Brave New World
Have any f you read “Brave New World?” If so, I would appreciate if you could give me a thesis, or rather a main idea that i could use for my essay. I am thinking of writing about how Huxley uses new vocabulary and how words have taken a new meaning.

asked by Moi on April 21, 2009
English 3 & 4)
How did one village bring disaster on itself? On a morning in early spring, 1873, the people of Oberfest left their houses and took refuge in the town hall. No one knows why precisely. A number of rumors had raced through the town during recent weeks, were

asked by Anonymous on June 5, 2010
reading/english
what is the toic and implied main idea of this paragraph? I don’t understand it Where do our notions of family come from? One way we get information is through experience and that of our friends and relatives. Another important source of information is the

asked by jerson on October 13, 2009
english
Main Idea: The big rivers in the center of the United States have a constant power that is greater than the human uses for the rivers. I need to provide 3 supporting details for main idea.

asked by zac on April 25, 2012
Science
What is the main idea and list a least 2 details about the main idea? Edwin Hubble came up with a way to classify galaxies by shape.He labeled elliptical galaxies E.He classified by th size of the galaxy’s nucleus and the tightness of it’s arms.

asked by Frances on April 13, 2011
science
what is the main idea for Joule and give a detail to it and an example. Also for calorie, kilocalorie and caloric values…. I need help I don’t know what is their main idea and detail and example..

asked by nin on April 5, 2011

“write a paragraph on book’s thesis”?
I’m going into AP (advanced placement) European History, grade 10, and our summer reading assignment was to read a A World Lit Only By Fire, a book about the tenaissance. Along with this assignment, I’m required to write a paragraph about the book’s

asked by christine on August 31, 2005
LA HELP! 2
Passage: from “Life Without Gravity” by Robert Zimmerman Worse, weightlessness can sometimes be downright unpleasant. Your body gets upset and confused. Your face puffs up, your nose gets stuffy, your back hurts, your stomach gets upset, and you throw

asked by Agala on December 5, 2016
Business Communication
When communicating a message, the best approach for a boss to take would likely be the __. a. state the main idea right away to get it over with. b. hint at the main idea and let the employees read between the lines. c. tell employees bad news

asked by Emily on November 19, 2014
reading
Read the passage labeled number 2 starting on p. 473 in your text. As you read, either use the Two Column Note (see directions on how to create a table below these directions) or the Spider Web graphic organizer to identify the main idea and supporting

asked by mizz lynn on March 2, 2009
English
I need some help on figuring out the main idea of “The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn.” I know that for most of the part, Huck and Jim float on a raft down the Mississippi River and on the way, they encounter many people and obstacles. At the end of the

asked by Anonymous on September 19, 2013
english
what are some of the main ideas and details of the olaudah Equiano story I know one of the main ideas is the slaves on the ship were kept in close confinement under terrible conditions and I have the detail for that main idea. any other ones?

asked by lamisha on November 5, 2016
History
I have a paper I must do and have been trying all summer to finish. I have read the book The Story of Sacagawea and now what I need to do is write what the main idea/topic is ( which I know is Sacagawea) but then I have to write a main idea’s # 1 and # 2

asked by Sandy on August 15, 2013
English

  1. Will you summarize the passage? 2. Will you tell us summary of the passage? 3. Will you make a summary of the passage and say it to us? 4. Will you tell us about the summary of the reading text? 5. Will you summarize the passage and say it out loud in

asked by rfvv on September 18, 2016
English
The strategies for writing positive or neutral message. is my response correct?: In the opening avoid personal information state your main idea so it wouldn’t be overlooked. In the body of the message provide reasons and/or details for the main idea. Close

asked by Bryan on November 6, 2011
word meaning
what does the word “implied” mean in this sentence?: “What was implied after Billy’s mother found him using her scissors?”

asked by Thanks to all Jiskha Teachers on December 5, 2010

Language Arts
from “Harriet Tubman: Conductor on the Underground Railroad” by Ann Petry. 1 That first winter in St. Catharines was a terrible one. Canada was a strange frozen land, snow everywhere, ice everywhere, and a bone-biting cold the like of which none of them

asked by Callie on November 26, 2014
History
How many main sects are in Christianity? I know that “main” can be interpreted differently, but I want a reasonable number so I get the idea.

asked by Anonymous on September 24, 2014
language arts pls check!
My answers are in parentheses The first two questions use this passage. You must have only positive thoughts in your heart that you’re going to cripple this monster. Stick a piece of garlic in your pocket for good luck. A woman my mother knew in Palermo

asked by fab on November 18, 2016
Language Art (Please Check)
1.C But mama told me never mind.She said i didn’t need a bracelet to remember laurie,just as i didn’t need anything to remember pap or our home in berkeley or all the people and things we loved and had left behind What is the main idea of this passage? A.

asked by matt on March 20, 2014
English

  1. Which idea is central to a literary analysis? A. the number of images in the work B. the order of the images in the work C. how the imagery relates to the work as a whole D. Imagery is not central to a literary analysis I think it’s C? 2. Which should

asked by anthony on May 16, 2011
Writing Skills
Which of the following statements about connecting paragraphs is correct? A. A good connection between two paragraphs is an implied transition. B. Two paragraphs may be joined by an action verb. C. You can use a pointing word that that refers to a word in

asked by Brooke on December 9, 2015
ELA

  1. Which of the following statements about connecting paragraphs is correct? A. Two paragraphs may be joined by an action verb. B. A good connection between two paragraphs is an implied transition. C. You can use a pointing word that that refers to

asked by Brooklyn on June 2, 2015
writing
need help please with writing. I need to explain the purpose / main idea of the presentation. But I have no idea how to do that.

asked by Alie on November 7, 2016
English
Is it self plagerism if I take the same argument or main idea from a paper that I wrote last semester and use that same principle/argument/main idea/thesis in another paper for the next semester if it’s is completely rewritten with different words and

asked by Jhon on December 27, 2011
businesscommunication
What is a proper organizational strategy for an informative message? (Points: 5) Background information, negative elements, main idea(s), goodwill ending, benefits Benefits, negative elements, main idea(s), benefits, background information, goodwill ending

asked by Anonymous on June 4, 2011

social studies
Passage: from “Life Without Gravity” by Robert Zimmerman Being weightless in space seems so exciting. Astronauts bounce about from wall to wall, flying! They float, they weave, they do somersaults and acrobatics without effort. Heavy objects can be

asked by whats upp on December 17, 2018
Social Studies
Which of the following did the populist party believe would solve U.S economic problems? A)currency reform*** B)saving Banks C)new policies on Native Americans D)renewed immigration policies ~I can’t really type this because passage but the next thing it

asked by Nawa101 (ANYONE HELP) The Labor Movement Quiz on January 22, 2018
English
Please help me interpret this-I’m in 8th grade and I don’t have any idea: What is the main idea? Read the following quote from Thomas Paine’s pamphlet, Common Sense. Summarize the main idea of the passage. “Some writers have so confounded society with

asked by Erik on September 8, 2010
English
I have to write a thesis paper with the main, broad idea being the similarities and differences between The Epic of Gilgamesh and Toy Story. I have no idea what the connections, or lack thereof, are between the two.

asked by Morgan on September 5, 2013
History
16.)The defect of the Confederation is that the United States has no powers to exact obedience, or punish disobedience to their resolutions. Which statement summarizes the main idea of this passage? A.)A Bill of Rights would protect citizens from excessive

asked by YRN DJ on November 30, 2015
English
The cracker was named by Josiah Bent. One day Mr. Bent was making biscuits. He baked the biscuits until they were very crisp. The biscuits crackled when he chewed, so he called them crackers. What is main idea? The cracker was named by Josiah Bent What

asked by Hayden on October 24, 2016
Logic
From these premises… Ken is a killer and Sam is a saint. Ken is a killer. …which of the following conclusions are implied? a. Sam is a saint. b. Ken is a killer or Sam is a saint. c. Sam is a saint or Sam is not a saint. d. All of the above are implied

asked by Anonymous on September 22, 2008
Business Law
A contract cannot involve both and implied warranty of merchantability and an implied warranty of fitness for a particular purpose?

asked by Erika on August 22, 2009
history
what event convinced south Carolina to spend representatives to the first continental congress ? A. passage of the currency act B. passage of the intolerable act C. passage of the navigation act D. passage of the stamp act is it D

asked by jack on October 20, 2015
AP English
Refer to the passage from Benedict de Spinoza’s On the Improvement of the Understanding, translated by R.H.M. Elwes. The last sentence in the passage is: 1. A summary of a main idea in the passage 2. An example that illustrates a hypothesis 3. A transition

asked by Sean on May 22, 2018

Business law
A contract cannot involve both and implied warranty of merchant ability and an implied warranty of

asked by Kathy on December 3, 2017
Law
Would food be covered by an express or implied warranty? I answered with an implied warranty called warranty of merchantability. Am I correct?

asked by Justine on December 5, 2015
reading
In this passage I need to find the main idea and 3 supporting details. You have probably gone on a merry-go-around. Theres one at most theme and carnivals. You find a painted horse or other animal. You climb up on its back. Most of the animals are on the

asked by christy on April 6, 2011
Language Arts
Could someone read the passage and please tell me which answer is correct? Some kids collect coins. I can’t keep a quarter without spending it. Some kids collect stuffed animals. Cute, but my room is the size of a closet. Where am I going to put alot of

asked by Jessica on March 6, 2007
english grade 12
i’m to make an note making frame work which includes main idea and examples or supporting ideas or key words. the video is naming canada. Main Idea: Discovering our nation Canada 1. Native language Kanata was translated as our nation country name. 2. The

asked by vanessa on September 12, 2013
Manipal university
Write a passage using rhetorical device on a person idea or ideology.

asked by Reetu mele on September 27, 2011
english
How to write a passage using rhetorical devices on a person, idea or ideology

asked by yangdond on June 24, 2011
english
write a passage using rhetorical devices on aperson, idea or ideology

asked by sandip on March 3, 2011
English
How could I compare the passage from “from Dust Tracks on a Road” and “from The Autobiography”? Please give an idea.

asked by bindiya farswani on September 20, 2010
English
Write a passage using rhetorical device on aperson,idea or ideology in about 300words

asked by Paden on March 4, 2012

English
Can you look at my rough outline to see if my points and my main idea is relevant to my focus? And if it isn’t, please give me specific ideas on how to improve? —- I’m writing a paragraph on the focus: A leader is a representative of the totalitarian

asked by Anonymous on December 1, 2007
LA helppp
1)The most catastrophic natural disaster in the U.S was a Category 4, or extreme, hurricane that struck Galveston, Texas on September 8,1900. 2)A 15-foot storm surge killed more than 8,000 people on the low-lying island. 3) In an effort to prevent a

asked by Haley on October 3, 2017
bege101
write a passage using rhetorical devices on a person ,idea or ideology in about 300 words

asked by sonu on July 23, 2012
english
write a passage (300 words)using rhetorical devices on a person,idea or ideology.

asked by pat on March 23, 2010
english
using rhetorical devices write a passage(300 words) on a person, idea or ideology.

asked by pat on March 23, 2010
English
Write a passage using rhetorical device on a person, idea or ideology(300 words)

asked by priyanka on April 24, 2010
Language Arts
(1)The most catastrophic natural disaster in the United States was a category 4 or extreme, hurricane that struck Galveston, Texas, on September 8, 1900.(2) A 15-foot storm surge killed more than 8,000 people on the low-lying island.(3) In a effort to

asked by Sid.V on December 2, 2016
Englsih

  1. Tressa likes to generate ideas and relationships about a topic by writing a central idea in the middle of a piece of paper and then surrounding it with related ideas connected to each other and the main idea with a series of lines or arrows. This

asked by studnet on February 17, 2017
english
which of the following sentences contains an implied metaphor? a. the small sailboat bobbed about like a cork on the huge ocean b. the wind looked down upon the tiny craft, laughed, and then attacked c. the battle between wind and boat raged on for an hour

asked by y912f on May 27, 2009
writing
19) Which of the following does not belong in the speaker’s process of summarizing a source’s ideas for his/her speech? a) Reading the entire text, noting the key points and main ideas b) Putting into your own words the main idea c) Including all of the

asked by Anonymous on May 10, 2012

English
Which sentence best summarizes the main idea of the article? A. You can do an experiment with a baggie, cup, water, food color, and a marker. B. When the water in a cloud falls as precipitation, it may fall on land or water. C. In the water cycle, water

asked by hunter on December 6, 2018
Language Art
Read this sentence from the third paragraph: First, it has large fins at the top of its head that look like ears. What is the main purpose of this sentence in the paragraph? A: To introduce a list of features B: To introduce a new topic C: To make

asked by Sam on May 25, 2017
biology
What is the main idea of metabolism. please help

asked by Josh2817 on August 24, 2011
English
How do you know what the topic and main idea of a paragraph is?

asked by 3rd Grader on April 28, 2010
english
What is the main idea of the shepards daughter

asked by Anonymous on January 27, 2011
English
What could the main idea of Through The Tunnel be, in a sentence?

asked by Anonymous on November 5, 2014
english
Both texts deal with racial discrimination. How does the structure of poem help convey this meaning in a way that the prose passage does not? A) The poem conveys meaning through imagery; the prose passage does not. B) The poem uses first person point of

asked by Bizuwerk 😉 on December 20, 2014
english
main idea: The idea that women are not equal to men has been a prevailing, common theme in literature since the beginning of time. Like their predecessors, Renaissance writers staunchly laid down the tenet that women were less valuable throughout the pages

asked by ezekiel on October 9, 2013
Juniors Enligsh 3 Honors
My online honors class had us read The Awakening by Kate Chopin and the assignment is to answer 15 questions, but I’m having trouble with these last 6. I have an idea about how to answer some of them, but I can’t fully articulate an answer. Please help? 9.

asked by Natalie on December 18, 2009
reading
Is there a difference between a main idea and a central theme?

asked by Kathy on April 10, 2008

history
which of these best states the main idea of “the drive-in movies”?

asked by destan on October 2, 2018
english
How do I re word a sentence that is the main idea in a paragraph

asked by Vicky on August 15, 2012
English

  1. Referring to Mike’s passage, complete the next passage about the way from school to your house. 1-2. Referring to Mike’s passage, write the way from school to your house in the next incomplete passage. (There are two passages;one is Mike’s passage, and

asked by John on October 30, 2008
Reading Help
Think about the rites of passage that individuals confront in the following literature The bass, the river, and Shelia Mant by W.D Wetherell Oranges by gary Soto I have no idea what im supposed to do here. Please help me.

asked by Alex on September 26, 2013
english
Write a 150- to 200-word paragraph to explain how purpose, audience, tone, and content impact academic writing. Be sure to use the three components of a good paragraph covered in this weekâ??s readings. Underline the topic sentence and bold the concluding

asked by Anonymous on July 22, 2012
reading/english
When studying the world of living things, biologists and other scientists use the scientific process. Observtions along with precious data are used to formulate a hypothesis. New observations and or experiments are carried out in order to test the

asked by jerson on September 30, 2009
English Expression

  1. After you read the first passage, mark all the things you can know about Hana Middle School. 2. Write down the names of the places where you can do the following activities from the first passage of the reading text. 3. Compare the classroom in the

asked by John on April 17, 2008
reading
what is an main idea when you are thalkig about king and poor people

asked by sckid30 on December 1, 2016
social studies
What was the main idea of the declaration of the rights of man and citizen?

asked by Renee on May 27, 2008
english
main idea of A Screamingly Good Science Lesson

asked by thomas on February 6, 2019

English
What is the main idea of from the Interesting Life of Olaudah Equiano

asked by SARAH on September 18, 2014
Health
What is the main idea of the film “supersize me” and the reason of the movie

asked by Anwar on May 18, 2011
English – Thiong’o Decolonising the mind
What is the main idea of Thiong’o’s essay, Decolonising The Mind?

asked by Bam on January 9, 2011
English

  1. canal: a passage of water that boats can travel canal: a passage of water that boats can travel [What is the part of speech of that in the phrase?] 2. Boats can travel a passage of water. 3. Boats can travel on a passage of water. 4. Boats can

asked by rfvv on August 13, 2018
lovely bones
i was wondering if someone could either suggest to me some good websites or actually post the info about the gist of the book “lovely bones” esp. the main character…i have no idea what this book is about or anything, but there is an attempt at a

asked by B on September 3, 2007

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identify the sentence in which the underlined verb does not agree with its subject

electron configuration of Cr3 ? I think is Cr: [Ar] 4s1,3d5 but how about Cr , Cr2 , Cr3 ?
3,090 results
chemistry final-urgent
electron configuration of Cr3+? I think is Cr: [Ar] 4s1,3d5 but how about Cr+, Cr2+, Cr3+? Please explain?

asked by lianne on December 14, 2010
AP Chemistry
Which of the following electron configurations correspond to an excited state? Identify the atoms and write the ground-state electron configuration where appropriate. If the configuration is a noble gas, enter the noble gas in brackets, for example [Ne]

asked by Ferdinand on October 30, 2011
Chemistry
How many unpaired electrons are in the electron structure of 24 Cr, [Ar]4s1 3d5

asked by dody on December 5, 2010
Chemistry
1) A Cobalt (II) ion has the electron configuration ? and is ? The answer choices were: [Ar] 3d5 4s2 diamagnetic [Ar] 3d7 paramagnetic [Ar] 3d5 4s2 para [Ar] 3d7 dia None of these I chose [Ar] 3d5 4s2 diamagnetic 2) Choose the corect statement

asked by Hannah on November 2, 2011
chem
There are several exceptions to the octet rule found along the transition and rare earth metal sections. These exceptions are tied to the observed phenomenon that atoms are more stable if orbital systems are either whole or half filled. In other words, the

asked by Alexa on November 19, 2006

Chemistry
You write the electron structure like this. 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s1 is the neutral Cu atom. Remove the two outside electrons to make the Cu^+2 ion. That leaves us with 3d9 as the outside and since that is an odd number, one electron must be unpaired.

asked by Anonymous on October 19, 2010
chemistry
Hi! Can somebody please help me with a coupla questions? Thanks loads!!! Describe physical and chemical properties of isotopes of the same element. Given the electron configuration of an element, how can you tell whether it represents the element in its

asked by Marge on December 10, 2006
chemistry
I just need a definitive answer because I’ve searched everywhere and it’s made me second guess my original answer. How many valence electrons does copper have? I thought it was one but now I’m unsure. I know it’s electron configuration is [Ar]4s1 3d10, so

asked by Sierra on November 24, 2014
CHEM
Confirm that the experimentally observed electronic configuration of K, 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s1 is energetically more stable than the configuration 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d1. __ i know that it is energetically favorable for the electron to occupy the 4s

asked by Kimora on December 10, 2008
chem
If you maximize the unshared electrons in the boron atom, the electron configuration is? i know the electron configuration at ground state is 1S2 2S2 2P1 but when it maximizes unshared electrons i don’t understand how it affects the configuration

asked by B on August 24, 2015
Chemistry
How do you write the electron configuration of Curium (Cm) and copper (Cu)? I’m confused of writing electron configuration with d and f orbitals. Please help. Thanks.

asked by Anonymous on December 27, 2009
chemistry electron config
I need to know the predicted and actual electron configuration for Lanthanum I know for lets say Cr the predicted config is [Ar] 3d44s2 and the actual is [Ar]3d54s1 but lanthanum is different and i don’t know how to do it. Any help? You can find the actual

asked by Mike on April 2, 2007
chemistry
what is the complete electron configuration and the abbreviated electron configuration of copper (II) ion? what is the complete electron configuration and the abbreviated electron configuration of bromide ion?

asked by shay on April 20, 2011
Chemistry-electron configuration CONFUSED!!
I need help with electron configuration. I do not understand any of it!! I bombed a test ad have a chance to retake it. Any info on electron configuration is great! It is really hard to help you if we don’t know what is wrong. Here is a site that may help.

asked by cbarnett on October 25, 2006
Chemistry (Check)
Q: Name the group that has a general electron configuration of ns^2 and provide an example of an atom with this general configuration. A: Alkaline Earth Metals and Beryllium [He] 2s^2 Q: Name the group that has a general electron configuration of ns^2np^6

asked by Anonymous on September 13, 2015

Chemistry
What is the electron configuration of the complex: Fe(C2O4)3 3- I am not really quite sure how to go about doing this and whether the electron configuration are supposed to be for each atom.

asked by Anonymous on April 20, 2009
Lauren
Write the electron configuration of Sn and Sn2+ Give the electron configuration of Cu+ and Cu2+

asked by Chemistry on November 14, 2007
Chemistry (very simple)
Why does Ga have one unpaired electron? Such as for example P has three unpaired electrons (because of its electron configuration) but I don’t understand why Ga has one unpaired electron – wouldn’t it be five (electron configuration)? Thank you!

asked by Anonymous on December 9, 2018
Chemistry

  1. When chromium loses two electrons, its configuration changes to A. [Ar]4s1. B. [Ar]3d4. C. [Ar]4s13d5. D. [Ar]4s13d4. I’m guessing it’s B but I just want to double check

asked by Hannah on August 7, 2013
chemistry
How can I determine which elements have higher first and second ionization energies than other elements? Also, how can I find the number of valence electrons from the electron configuration? Also, how can I use the electron configuration to find out what

asked by Anonymous on March 1, 2009
Chemisrty
Answer the questions below for an element that has the electron configuration 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s1. A. What is the symbol for this element? B. What is the atomic number of this element? C. How many unpaired electrons does an atom of this elelemt have?

asked by Kristen on October 20, 2013
Chem help
Answer the questions below for an element that has the electron configuration 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s1. A. What is the symbol for this element? B. What is the atomic number of this element? C. How many unpaired electrons does an atom of this elelemt have?

asked by Lena on October 17, 2012
chemistry
How do i calculate the effective nuclear charge of a 3d electron of copper? what is the zeff. for a electron in the 3d orbital of copper. i looked up the answer to be 13.20, but i calculated 13.05 this is my work: (1s2)(2s2 2p6)(3s2 3p6)(3d10)(4s1)

asked by mandy on November 10, 2008
Chemistry
Metals lose electrons under certain conditions to attain a noble-gas electron configuration. How many electrons must be lost by the element Ca? Is it 2 e^-? Which noble-gas electron configuration is attained in this process? argon radon krypton xenon

asked by Bill on October 28, 2012
Chemistry
What is the electron configuration called that has 18 electrons in the outer energy level and all of the orbitals filled? Noble gas configuration

asked by Bryan on November 16, 2006

Chemistry
Consider the following electron configuration. (σ3s)2 (σ3s)2 (σ3p)2 (π3p)4 (π3p)4 Select four species that, in theory, would have this electron configuration.

asked by Tracey on October 9, 2009
Chemistry
Consider the following electron configuration. (σ3s)2 (σ3s)2 (σ3p)2 (π3p)4 (π3p)4 Select four species that, in theory, would have this electron configuration.

asked by Sarah on March 4, 2012
physics
what is the electron configuration in the Noble Gas configuration?

asked by may on October 18, 2009
Chemistry
WHy is Copper an exception in electron configuration? Copper is not an exception except in our minds. The exception lies in our attempt to explain electron configurations. In the case of Cu and Cr for the 3d series, they don’t fall into our neat pattern;

asked by John on October 7, 2006
Chemistry
Electron configuration for phosphorus is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p3. So the number of electron must be 15 , right ? But , what if m = 1 ? Does it effect the number of electron ?

asked by Lily on June 23, 2015
College Chemistry
Write a complete set of quantum numbers for the 5th electron added to H ion..(5th electron in any electron configuration). n= l= m(l)= m(s)=

asked by Anonymous on November 19, 2010
electronic configuration
how do you figure out electronic configuration of excited state? ex: identify atom & write ground state conig. 1s2 2s2 2p6 4s1 Isn’t there eleven electrons here? Element number 11 is… 1s23s

asked by hawkstar on October 1, 2006
Chemistry
Which group of elements is characterized by an s2p3 configuration? What is the electron configuration of group 15? http://www.chemsoc.org/visElements/pages/data/intro_groupv_data.html thanks

asked by Larry on November 12, 2006
Chem 1C
What is the electron configuration of an isolated Fe atom (no ligands bound to it)? (Use notation like [Ne]3s^23p^6 for your answer) B. What is the electron configuration of an isolated Fe3+ cation? (Use notation like [Ne]3s^23p^6 for your answer)

asked by M.R. on June 30, 2010
Chemistry
I am having trouble figuring out the electron configuration for a carbon atom when it is in a molecule such as methane. I know that the ground state configuration for carbon is 1s2 2s2 2p2 but im not sure how to figure it out when it is bonded to other

asked by Abbey on September 1, 2014

CHEMISTRY

  1. For the ion Fe3+ what is the electron configuration and electron atrangement? please explain… i do not understand… 2. F- +. Br2—-> Br- + Cl2—–>

asked by Student on September 27, 2013
Chemistry
What is the l quantum number for the last electron added in the Aufbau procedure for forming the electron configuration of barium?

asked by Austin on February 8, 2018
Chemistry
What is the n quantum number for the last electron added in the Aufbau procedure for forming the electron configuration of uranium?

asked by Austin on February 8, 2018
Chemistry
Large jumps in ionization energy tend to occur whenever the removal of that electron disrupts an electron configuration ending in: a. ns^2 b. ns^1 c. np^6 d. np^4

asked by Anonymous on June 5, 2013
Chemistry
Write the symbol and electron configuration for each ion and name the noble gas with the same configuration. a. nitride _____________ b. oxide _______________ c. sulfide _____________ d. bromide _____________

asked by Greg on October 9, 2012
chemistry
Identify the neutral element represented by this excited-state electron configuration, then write the ground-state electron configuration for that element. Excited State: 1s2 2s2 2p2 3s1 Element Symbol: ? Ground State: ?

asked by Kim on September 30, 2013
Chemistry
what is the electron arrangement and electron configuration of Fe3+? it loses 3 electrons so is it vanadium…. please explain.. by the way is this a transition metal? if so are there any rules?…… i don’t understand!!!

asked by Anonymous on September 26, 2013
Chemistry
Shown below are several options for the box notations of the ground state electron configuration of the following gas-phase species. Identify the correct electronic configuration. i. Al2− ii. Mn (a)Select the reason that best explains why the first

asked by c on January 11, 2013
Chemistry(Please help)
For a carbon atom that is sp2 hybridized, I understand that the electron configuration would be Yes, 1s2 2s1 2p3 which is a 2s up arrow,and 3 orbtials that are 2p up arrows but then since the four bonds hybridize to form four sp3 hybrid bonds how do I

asked by Abbey on September 2, 2014
AP Chem
What is the electron configuration for carbon with sp hybridization? I have no idea. I know carbon has 4 electrons to use (6 electrons total, but 4 to move around for hybridization purposes), I know that the sp orbitals would take up two of the electrons,

asked by Anonymous on January 25, 2016

Chemistry
Use these answers for questions 4 – 7. (A) 1s2 2s22p5 3s23p5 (B) 1s2 2s22p6 3s23p6 (C) 1s2 2s22p62d10 3s23p6 (D) 1s2 2s22p6 3s23p63d5 (E) 1s2 2s22p6 3s23p63d3 4s2 4. An impossible electronic configuration 5. The ground-state configuration for the atoms of

asked by Rachel on April 12, 2007
Chemistry
Large jumps in ionization energy tend to occur whenever the removal of that electron disrupts an electron configuration ending in: a. ns2 b. ns1 c. np6 d. np4

asked by Anonymous on June 5, 2013
Potassium (chem)
Confirm that the experimentally observed electronic configuration of K, 1s22s22p63s23p64s1 is energetically more stable than the configuration 1s22s22p63s23p63d1. __ i know that it is energetically more stable for the electron to occupy the 4s orbital than

asked by Kimora on December 10, 2008
chemistry – exam practice help!!
Given the table below predict the numerical value of the standard cell potential for the reaction: 2 Cr(s) + 3 Cu2+(aq) 2 Cr3+(aq) + 3 Cu(s) Half Reaction E (volts) (1) Cr3+ + 3 e- Cr E= -0.74 (2) Cr3+ + e- Cr2+ E=-0.41 (3) Cr2O72- + 14 H+ + 6 e- 2 Cr3+ +

asked by Anya on December 13, 2012
Chemistry
An element with the symbol Z has the electron configuration 2.8.6. Which species is this elrment most likely to form? A. The ion Z 2+ B. The ion Z 6+ C. The compound H subscript 2 Z D. The compound Z subscript 6 F Which ionization requires the most energy?

asked by Anonymous on September 21, 2013
Chemistry
Where Can i find drawing of the electron dot structure of the following atoms. Argon,Calcium,Iodine www.webelements.com will give you the electron configuration. Scroll down the menu on the left side. The electron dot structure is done this way: Write the

asked by Bryan on November 11, 2006
Chemistry Electron Configuration Questions
I do not understand anything about electron configuration. How do you figure out if the element is in P,D,S,orF? What do the subscripts represent? What is a subshell? I am so confused!! You figure it out by using the Aufgau principle, placing electrons in

asked by cbarnett on October 25, 2006
Chemistry
Element x has the highest first electron affinity in its period, the ground state electron configuration of its common is: [Kr] 5s2 4d10 5p6 Element Y is the second largest element in its period; its valence electron are in orbital(s) that have n= 6. What

asked by Kara on June 22, 2017
Chemistry
What would be concept in which you would have to use electron configurations in order to solve? and how would you determine the answer? One uses the electron configuration to solve the bonding preferences and energies.

asked by Danni on March 29, 2007
Chemistry
Name an element that has 5 electrons in the third energy level. How do i determine the third energy level Row three on the periodic table is third energy level If memory serves me will, it begins with sodium. Ok. iS Krypton the electron configuration that

asked by Bryan on November 12, 2006

chemistry
Ca + Br2 –> CaBr2 its synthesis and the reason the reaction happens is stable electron configuration but i don’t understand why. Responses chemistry – DrBob222, Wednesday, January 21, 2009 at 10:06pm Synthesis because it’s two elements combining to form a

asked by lyne on January 21, 2009
Chemistry
what is electron configuration?

asked by Shika on November 14, 2008
chemistry
what is the electron configuration for S?

asked by taysha on September 19, 2007
chemistry
what is the configuration of an electron

asked by kathy on September 13, 2013
Chemistry
1) What is the atomic # for selenium? 34 2) Write the full electron configuration for selenium following the (n+l) rule? I am not sure what is meant by n+l 3) write the electron configuration, grouping electrons by their “n” values. [Ar]3d10 4s2 4p4 Are

asked by Hannah on November 1, 2011
Chemistry
Which stereoisomer configuration would be more stable, the z configuration or the e configuration? I tried searching for this, but I only got answers for cis/trans instead of e/z. Can anyone help with it? ty

asked by Neee on July 29, 2010
CHEM
Consider the following neutral electron configurations in which ‘n’ has a constant value. Which configuration would belong to the element with the most negative electron affinity, E-ea? a) ns^2 b) ns^2 np^2 c) ns^2 np^5 d) ns^2 np^6 would the answer be

asked by K on November 13, 2007
George School
The following questions relate to the bonding in the OH-1 ion. (16 points) Write the electron configuration for H. (1 point) Write the electron configuration for O. (1 point) Draw the molecular orbital diagram for OH-1. (5 points) Draw the Lewis Structure

asked by Daniel on May 20, 2008
Chemistry: Electron Configuration
The following questions relate to the bonding in the OH-1 ion. (16 points) Write the electron configuration for H. (1 point) Write the electron configuration for O. (1 point) Draw the molecular orbital diagram for OH-1. (5 points) Draw the Lewis Structure

asked by Daniel on May 20, 2008
Chemistry
What is the electron configuration of 3s23p4?

asked by Jennifer on December 12, 2010

Chemistry
What is the electron configuration of Cu2+?

asked by Jim on November 10, 2009
chemistry
what is the electron configuration for carbon

asked by keith on September 30, 2009
Chemistry
Which element has the following electron configuration: [Xe] 6s^(2) 5d^(1) 4f^(1)

asked by Jimmy on March 16, 2009
Chemistry hnrs
what is the electron configuration of vanadium?

asked by Pamela on September 14, 2012
Chemistry
What is electron configuration of Bi5+?

asked by Anonymous on February 19, 2008
Chemistry 192
Give the electron configuration for the following: A) Ni^2+ B) Br^-

asked by Taylor Beach on February 24, 2014
chemistry
give electron configuration for a> Na b) Na+ c) O d)O ^2-

asked by jerson on May 22, 2008
Science
How to find Electron Configuration

asked by Anonymous on December 13, 2014
Chemistry
What is the electron configuration of the element with 27 protons?

asked by Dean on May 24, 2018
Chemistry
Which electron configuration best represents bromine?

asked by Anonymous on November 14, 2011

Chemistry
Which element’s 4+ ion would have the following electron configuration? [Kr]4d^10

asked by Rucha on November 12, 2015
chemistry
How do i figure out the electron configuration of Fe(C2O4)3^3- ?

asked by help!! on April 22, 2008
chemistry 121
how can i write the electron configuration for copper (ii)

asked by ngugi on June 17, 2010
chem
what is the electron configuration for Au+ ? where does f block fit in?

asked by natash on November 1, 2008
Chemistry
What do they mean by central metal, charge on metal ion and Abbreviated electron configuration for the electron ion? And I’m looking at CoCl2·6H20.

asked by Anonymous on October 19, 2010
chemistry
Balance the following redox reaction occurring in acidic solution. H+ + Cr –> H2 + Cr3+ H+ –> H2 do I add H+ to this side since H2 = 0? Also what about electrons. Cr -> Cr3+ + 3e- Hope I make sense

asked by Monique on November 18, 2011
chemistry
which element has the ground-stat electron configuration [Ar]4s^2 3d^10?

asked by Raynique on October 20, 2010
Lauren
For each of the following, write the electron configuration and Lewis symbol: A. In B. In- C. K+ D. I-

asked by Chemistry on November 14, 2007
chemistry
which element has the ground-state electron configuration [Kr]5s^2 4d^10 5p^4

asked by Raynique on October 20, 2010
Chemistry
What atom is indicated by the following electron configuration. 1s^22s^12p^1 ?

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chemestry
The oxide ion O2- has the same electron configuration as neon?

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chemestry
what is the electron configuration of lithium after making an octet

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What is the expected electron configuration for each of the following ions. A)Cu+ B)Ti2+

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Science
A chemical element with the symbol X has the electron arrangement 2,8,6 (electron configuration 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p4). Which chemical species is this chemical element most likely to form?

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Chemistry – electron configuration
Hello Dr.Bob. Could you please take a look at the following question? I know the correct answer for it, but I’m not sure how to go about solving it. Which ground state electronic configuration will most readily ionize to a 2 + cation? A)

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chemistry
what is the electron configuration of a calcium atom whose atomic number is 20

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chemistry
What is another way to write Fe or Ba electron configuration, charge,and number os unpaired e-?

asked by kim on November 22, 2010
Chemistry
Electron Configuration: What numerical values of l are possible for n=4. 1,3,5,7 what ae their corresponding letters. s,p,d,f Are these correct?

asked by Hannah on October 30, 2011
chemistry
Can you explain the electron configuration for the transition metal ions?

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how do i write the complete electron configuration for Ga3+ and Mg2+????????????

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chem 1
what is the electron configuration of Iron (metal) ? what is the 0rbital notation?

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What element has the final electron configuration as 3s2 3p4?

asked by Jennifer on December 12, 2010
Chemistry
Write down the electron configuration of sodium in the format 1s2_2s2_2p6_etc_etc.

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Chemistry
What is the symbol for the element whose electron configuration ends with 4p6?

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two methods of estimating uncollectible receivables are​ ________.

Page 1 of 10

Basic Statistics

MTH107.920 Fall 2017

Class location: Online via Blackboard and WebAssign Instructor: Amy Frankel Communication:

 BEST OPTION: Send/receive Waubonsee email via http://mywcc.waubonsee.edu to afrankel@waubonsee.edu or send via Blackboard Send E-mail tool (choose “all instructor users”). Note that emails from non-Waubonsee email addresses will be labeled as junk-mail in my email client. So using your WCC email is definitely the best way to go. I will try to answer within 24 hours.

 Phone: (630)466-7900, ext. 2554

 To subscribe to text message or personal email updates/reminders: send @wccstats to 81010 (Note you can now chat using the Remind App or Webpage! Video tutorial). Or go to https://www.remind.com/join/wccstats.

Office Location: Bodie 229, Sugar Grove campus Office Hours: M – Th 11:30am-12:30pm, W 5pm-6pm, or by appointment. For in-person appointment requests use: https://amy.youcanbook.me/. For web conferences please send via email a few dates and times that you would be available to meet. Students do not need to make an appointment to meet with me during office hours. Web site: http://www.waubonsee.edu/faculty/afrankel Required course materials:

 WebAssign access code which provides you with the e-book of Introductory Statistics, 1st ed. by Illowsky and Dean, OpenStax College 2013. Students MUST purchase a WebAssign Course Key. Students may start with temporary access for 14 days, but then a code must be purchased BEFORE the end of the temporary access period. See this handout for more details.

WebAssign Course Key: waubonsee 5082 1614  The textbook is also available in the following formats:

o Hard cover book from the bookstore o On the web o Downloadable pdf (high resolution) or (low resolution) o Offline HTML copy (zip file) o Bookshare o Download to iBooks o Print Copy from Amazon

 A calculator: TI-83, TI-83+, TI-84, TI-84+, TI-84+ CE are recommended since all calculator instructions will be for these models of calculator.

Course Description: A course designed to assist the student in the understanding and use of numerical data. Topics covered include descriptive methods, probability, distributions, statistical inference, confidence intervals, tests of hypotheses, and correlation and regression.http://mywcc.waubonsee.edu/mailto:afrankel@waubonsee.eduhttps://youtu.be/ow7LCRr7R5Qhttps://www.remind.com/join/wccstatshttps://amy.youcanbook.me/http://www.waubonsee.edu/faculty/afrankelhttps://www.dropbox.com/s/j83s7kaws448cw8/WA_Student_Quick_Start.pdf?dl=0https://cnx.org/contents/30189442-6998-4686-ac05-ed152b91b9dehttps://d3bxy9euw4e147.cloudfront.net/oscms-prodcms/media/documents/Statistics-OP.pdfhttps://d3bxy9euw4e147.cloudfront.net/oscms-prodcms/media/documents/Statistics-LR.pdfhttp://cnx.org/exports/30189442-6998-4686-ac05-ed152b91b9de%4018.11.zip/introductory-statistics-18.11.ziphttps://www.bookshare.org/browse/book/751376https://itunes.apple.com/us/book/introductory-statistics/id898910154?mt=13https://www.amazon.com/Introductory-Statistics-OpenStax-College/dp/1938168208/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1503023782&sr=8-1&keywords=illowsky

Page 2 of 10

Course Objectives:

1. Students will define and identify the properties of basic statistical descriptors related to the gathering of data: population, sample, parameter, statistic, sampling, bias, observational study, experiment, variables, qualitative, quantitative, continuous variable, discrete variable, levels of measurement, error, frequency, relative frequency.

2. Students will organize univariate and bivariate data and then graph the data using the following visual representations: stem-and-leaf plot, histogram, bar graph, dotplot, pareto chart, time-series graph, scatterplot, pie chart, line chart.

3. Students will explain the definitions, properties, and functions of the following descriptive statistics, calculate their values from small data sets, and interpret the results: means, medians, variances, standard deviations, quartiles, percentiles; For large data sets, students will employ the use of technology to calculate descriptive statistics.

4. Students will determine probabilities of events through the application of the standard ideas in elementary probability: addition rule, multiplication rule, counting techniques, independence of events, conditional probability.

5. Students will identify the properties of normal distribution and find, by using technology, probabilities, associated with random variables with these distributions.

6. Students will calculate the mean and standard deviation of the binomial probability distribution.

7. Students will apply the 68-95-99.5 Rule to identify statistically significant events.

8. Students will explain the Central Limit Theorem as it applies to sample means and proportions and apply it to identify statistically significant events.

9. With the aid of technology, students will compute confidence intervals of population means and proportions based on sample data using both the normal distribution and the t-distribution

10. Students will calculate the sample size necessary to obtain a confidence interval of desired width.

11. Students will conduct hypothesis testing on population means and proportions using confidence intervals, critical values, the P-value method, and two-way tables, and hypothesis testing on variances using one-way ANOVA.

12. Students will define and differentiate between correlation and causality.

13. Students will utilize technology to identify the line of best fit and correlation coefficient based on a set of data, and then explain whether the fit is statistically significant.

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Course Outcomes: At the end of this course, the student will be able to… 1. Organize data. 2. Conduct a statistical study using hypothesis testing.

College Learning Outcomes CRITICAL THINKING Students will be able to acquire, analyze, synthesize, and evaluate information for efficacy in order to develop conclusions and implement solutions while actively engaging in learning and questioning beyond the content of any one course, making connections between courses, disciplines, life experiences, and accumulated knowledge. COMMUNICATION Students will be able to read, comprehend, and interpret multimedia (oral, written, and visual texts) situated in various contexts; deliver clear, well-organized speeches, presentations, visuals, or ideas appropriate to various contexts and audiences; and write clear, concise communications appropriate to various contexts and audiences. QUANTITATIVE LITERACY Students will be able to acquire, analyze, use, and represent mathematical and scientific data and information symbolically, visually, numerically, and verbally to recognize and understand problems and trends, to conduct experiments and observations, to develop appropriate solutions and conclusions, and to understand the interrelatedness of quantitative reasoning and other disciplines. Grading Criteria Please keep in mind that your grade is neither a reward nor a punishment, but is a reflection of your performance and level of mastery of the material in the class. This is a challenging class. It is in your best interest to study and complete your assignments on time. The distribution of points is weighted so that a student must earn at least a 60% average on the tests in order to earn a C or higher in the course. Homework: Homework will be completed in WebAssign. Each homework will have a deadline of Noon Central on Monday and corresponds to the lesson for that week. (see individual due dates in the course schedule and weekly checklist below) Students may work each problem up to 5 times. After the first submission, assistive tools like hints, practice another version, and tutorials will be made available for attempts 2-5. Student’s last answer is counted toward grade. Students may request a 1 day extension via WebAssign, but a 10% deduction will automatically be taken for each extension requested, with the Saturday after the deadline as the final deadline for all extensions. Each homework is weighted at a maximum of 1 point. To calculate your score take the percent score and divide by 100. IN ADDITION: students must score at least an 80% on homework in order to unlock the quiz for that lesson. There are 13 homework assignments, so there is a maximum of 13 points from homework.

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Quizzes: Quizzes will be completed in WebAssign. Each Quiz will have a deadline of Noon Central on Monday. (see individual due dates in the course schedule and weekly checklist below). Students must score at least an 80% on the homework in order to gain access to the quiz for that lesson. Students may work each quiz problem 2 times with the last submitted answer counting toward the grade. No assistive tools are available during quizzes, but will be available after the quiz is completed and the deadline has passed. Students may request an extension via WebAssign, but a 10% deduction will automatically be taken for each extension requested. Each quiz is weighted at a maximum of 2 points. To calculate your score take the percent score and divide by 50. Proctored Tests: Details about each test can be found in Blackboard under Course Lessons & Info. There will be 2 proctored tests that you must take in person at one of the Waubonsee Assessment Centers or at another testing center an accredited institution (you will need to make arrangements with Waubonsee’s Assessment Center if you need to take the tests at another location – more information will be sent out during Week 1). Assessment Center hours and contact info can be found here on their web page. Proctored tests are worth 100 points each for a total of 200 points from tests (% score = pts earned). Deadlines for tests can be found in the Course Schedule below and on the Student Checklist attached at the end of the syllabus. Tests may be taken any day the Assessment Center is open as long as they are taken by the deadline (so you can take the test early if needed). If you miss the deadline for one of these tests, you may take the test, but with a 10% penalty for each day past the deadline. If you miss the deadline for a test you must contact the professor as soon as possible in order to make arrangements to take the missed test. You will not be allowed to take the test past the deadline until you have made arrangements with the professor. Project: Details about the project can be found in Blackboard after the third week of the class. There is one project that will be completed in 3 parts during the semester. Deadlines for submissions are in the Course Schedule below and on the Student Checklist attached at the end of the syllabus. If a student fails to submit any part of the project during the semester by its deadline, the student’s project grade will be reduced by 10% per week on that part that is submitted late (days 1-7 late are a 10% reduction, days 8-14 are a 20% reduction, and so on). The project is worth 13 points total; Part 1 is 3 points, Part 2 is 4 points, Part 3 is 6 points. Extra Credit: In WebAssign, I will make available a few extra credit assignments throughout the course. Extra credit must be submitted by the indicated deadline – no extensions, no exceptions.

Grading scale and point distribution: There will be a total of 250 points assigned throughout the semester. Grades will be assigned as follows: A: 90% – 100%, 225-250 points B: 80% – 89%, 200-224 points C: 70% – 79%, 175-199 points D: 60% – 69%, 150-174 points F: 0% – 59%, 0-149 points DOES NOT COUNT TOWARD GRADE: In Blackboard, there are discussion forums available as a place to ask for help on HOMEWORK problems. Below are the guidelines for posting a request for help, and for posting an answer. Do not post questions about the quizzes. There is a nice feature in WebAssign called “Ask Your Teacher” that students should use for Quizzes.http://www.waubonsee.edu/learning/success/assessment/

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Class Discussion Guideline Criteria Description of High Level of

Performance

Description of Low Level of

Performance

Post asking for help on a

Homework problem

Subject of post contains the

problem number from the HW.

Post contains the full problem

(either transcribed or a screen

grab) and an attempt at a solution.

Contains few or no spelling and

grammar mistakes.

Post is disrespectful or threatening

or demeaning (may result in being

reported to the Student Conduct

Board). Post does not include the

full question, and/or does not

include an attempt at a solution,

and/or contains several spelling

and grammar mistakes.

Reply to a student’s question Reply is thorough and uses correct

terminology, interprets concepts

accurately, adds to the

conversation, contains no or very

few spelling and grammar mistakes,

and is respectful.

Post is disrespectful or threatening

or demeaning (may result in being

reported to the Student Conduct

Board). Post uses terminology

incorrectly, and/or inaccurately

applies concepts, and/or contains

several spelling and grammar

mistakes. Does not add to the

conversation or is just repeating

what others have posted.

Course Policies Attendance policy: Even though we are not meeting in a physical classroom, it is expected that you “attend” class weekly by checking your WCC email messages and/or the Announcements board in Blackboard a few times during the week. There will be times when I will need to make an announcement or communicate something important to the class, and I will use Waubonsee email, and Announcements in Blackboard to do so. Online courses provide a level of flexibility. However flexibility does not translate as easier. IMPORTANT: You should expect to spend between 6 and 9 hours each week on this course which is typical for a 3 credit online course. In a face-to-face course you would spend 3 hours in class for lecture and expect to spend 3-6 hours outside of class reviewing, reading and completing assignments. For an online class the textbook and my posted lessons & videos are your classroom/lecture. So you can expect to spend about 3 hours on reading the book and lessons and watching videos and then an additional 3-6 on reviewing and completing assignments. I know many of you have a full plate (full course load or an overload, jobs, families, etc.). That is why I am telling you up front what sort of time commitment you can expect. I will not lower expectations or the level of accountability, or integrity of the course. If you have a serious life event that occurs during the semester (hospitalization, death of an immediate family member), PLEASE let me know as soon as possible, do not wait until the end of the semester or until you fall seriously behind. Late work/make-up policy: It is expected that you will submit assignments on time, however if for some reason you are not able to submit something by the deadline here are the policies for each assignment:

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 Homework: Must be completed by deadline, then a 10% reduction per extension up through the Saturday after the deadline.

 Quizzes: Must be completed by deadline, then a 10% reduction per extension up through the Saturday after the deadline.

 Proctored Tests: 10% will be deducted for each day past the deadline. Must contact Professor.

 Project: Per part 10% penalty per week, starting at day 1 past the deadline.

 Extra credit: No late work accepted – no extensions – no exceptions.

Withdrawals: I will not withdraw students from this course, with the following exceptions: It is college policy that if you have not attended class as of the 10th day of the semester (with respect to this online course this means that you have not completed any assignments in WebAssign, and have not posted in the Discussion Board for week O by the 10th day), or if you have not been making sufficient progress in the course as of the midterm (completed fewer than 4 graded assignments in WebAssign), I am required to drop you from this course and you will receive a W grade (considered a withdrawal on your transcript). Otherwise STUDENTS ARE REPSONSIBLE FOR WITHDRAWING THEMSELVES via the Student tab on mywcc.waubonsee.edu or by contacting the Office of Registration and Records. I WILL NOT WITHDRAW STUDENTS AFTER November 27th. You may withdraw yourself at any time during the semester until November 27, 2017. The last day to drop this course is November 27, 2017. Please refer to Waubonsee’s Academic Calendar for other important dates.

Access and Accommodation Statement: I wish to fully include persons with disabilities in the course. Please inform me or the Access Center for Disability Resources know if you need any special accommodations in the curriculum, instruction, or assessments of this course to enable you to fully participate. I will try to maintain the confidentiality of the information you share with me. You can contact the Access center at (630)466-7900, ext. 2564. Academic Integrity Statement: Waubonsee Community College believes that all members of the community (students, faculty, staff, and administrators) have a responsibility to participate in learning with honesty, respect, and integrity. We must commit to engage in learning both in and out of the classroom, value each member in our learning community, demonstrate original thought, and help foster ethical, open, safe learning environments for all. For more information, please see the Academic Integrity Resources section in the Waubonsee Student Handbook. Cheating/Plagiarism Policy: Waubonsee firmly upholds sound principles of academic integrity and responsibility. Plagiarism and cheating are serious infractions of academic integrity, and, as such, are considered breaches of the Code of Student Conduct. If a student has violated this policy, I will report the infraction to the Dean for Students and the student may fail the assignment or the course, depending on the severity or the number of infractions. Any student found cheating or plagiarizing on any assignment (discussion, homework, project, test, quiz) will be given a grade of F/0 for that homework/test/discussion board post and reported to the Student Conduct board for further disciplinary action. The instructor reserves the right to adjust this course syllabus as needed. Revisions to course policies will be communicated via Blackboard course announcement and college email.https://www.waubonsee.edu/admission/dates/academic-calendar/https://www.waubonsee.edu/learning/academic-support/access/

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Weekly Course Schedule

Week Course Schedule

Week O: 8/21 – 8/28

Lesson O: Introductions and acclimating, Homework O and Discussion Board Introduction due NOON Monday 8/28.

Week #1: 8/28 – 9/4

Lesson 1: Homework 1, Quiz 1 due NOON Monday 9/4 (remember that you must score at least 80% on the HW to access the Quiz).

Week #2: 9/4 – 9/11

Lesson 2: Homework 2, Quiz 2 due NOON Monday 9/11 (remember that you must score at least 80% on the HW to access the Quiz).

Week #3: 9/11 – 9/18

Lesson 3: Homework 3, Quiz 3 due NOON Monday 9/18 (remember that you must score at least 80% on the HW to access the Quiz).

Week #4: 9/18 – 9/25

Lesson 4: Homework 4, Quiz 4 due NOON Monday 9/25 (remember that you must score at least 80% on the HW to access the Quiz).

Week #5: 9/25 – 10/2

Lesson 5: Homework 5, Quiz 5 due NOON Monday 10/2 (remember that you must score at least 80% on the HW to access the Quiz).

Week #6: 10/2 – 10/9

Extra Credit Review Quiz 1 due by Noon on Monday, 10/9. Proctored Test 1 must be taken by closing time of the Assessment Center on MONDAY 10/9. Part 1 of project due by Noon Monday 10/9

Week #7: 10/9 – 10/16

Lesson 6: Homework 6, Quiz 6 due NOON Monday 10/16 (remember that you must score at least 80% on the HW to access the Quiz).

Week #8: 10/16 – 10/23

Lesson 7: Homework 7, Quiz 7 due NOON Monday 10/23 (remember that you must score at least 80% on the HW to access the Quiz) .

Week #9: 10/23 – 10/30

Lesson 8: Homework 8, Quiz 8 and due NOON Monday 10/30 (remember that you must score at least 80% on the HW to access the Quiz),

Week #10: 10/30 – 11/6

Lesson 9: Homework 9, Quiz 9 due NOON Monday 11/6 (remember that you must score at least 80% on the HW to access the Quiz). Part 2 of Project due by Noon on Monday 11/6.

Week #11: 11/6 – 11/13

Lesson 10: Homework 10, Quiz 10 due NOON Monday 11/13 (remember that you must score at least 80% on the HW to access the Quiz).

Week #12: 11/13 – 11/20

Lesson 11: Homework 11, Quiz 11 due NOON Monday 11/20 (remember that you must score at least 80% on the HW to access the Quiz).

11/20 – 11/26 Thanksgiving Break

Week #13: 11/27 – 12/4

Lesson 12: Homework 12, Quiz 12 due NOON Monday 12/4 (remember that you must score at least 80% on the HW to access the Quiz).

Week #14, 15: 12/4 – 12/15

Extra Credit Review Quiz 2 due by Noon on Wednesday, 12/13. Proctored Test 2 must be taken by the time the Assessment Center closes on Wednesday 12/13. Part 3 of the Project due by Noon Friday 12/15.

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Resource Links and Locations The following are useful resources that are available to students at Waubonsee Community College: Access Center for Disability Resources – Student Center 201 Career Services Center – Student Center 209 Learning Assessment and Testing Services – Student Center 230, Aurora Downtown 275, Plano 129, Aurora Fox Valley 229 Counseling, Advising and Transfer Center – Student Center 262, Aurora Downtown 110, Plano 135, Aurora Fox Valley 231 Emergency Preparedness and Safety Guide – Posted in classrooms Financial Aid – Student Center 234, Aurora Downtown 241, Plano 126, Aurora Fox Valley 231 Student Handbook (includes Student Code of Conduct) – Also available in Admissions, Student Life and Counseling offices. Todd Library – Collins Hall 2nd floor, Aurora Downtown South Side 1st floor, Plano 122, Aurora Fox Valley 225 Registration and Records/Bursar – Student Center 2nd floor windows, Aurora Downtown 110, Plano 126,

Aurora Fox Valley 231

TRIO/Student Support Services – Manager – Student Center 262, Tutoring – Collins Hall 136

(Help for students who are first generation, limited income, or students with learning/physical disabilities)

Tutoring Centers – Collins Hall 144, Aurora Downtown 215, Plano library, Aurora Fox Valley library, Online 24/7 on MyWCC Student Portlet under Student Success, Tutoring and Support

Waubonsee Community College Campus Information:

Sugar Grove Campus Route 47 at Waubonsee Drive Sugar Grove, IL 60554-9454 (630) 466-7900

Aurora Downtown Campus 18 South River Street Aurora, IL 60506-4178 (630) 801-7900

Aurora Fox Valley Campus 2060 Ogden Avenue Aurora, IL 60504-7222 (630) 585-7900

Plano Campus 100 Waubonsee Drive Plano, IL 60545-2276 (630) 552-7900

www.waubonsee.eduhttps://www.waubonsee.edu/learning/academic-support/access/index.phphttps://www.waubonsee.edu/learning/academic-support/access/index.phphttp://www.waubonsee.edu/experience/services/career/http://www.waubonsee.edu/learning/success/assessment/https://www.waubonsee.edu/experience/services/counseling/http://www.waubonsee.edu/downloads/pdf/safety/Emergency_Preparedness_and_Safety_Guide.pdfhttp://www.waubonsee.edu/admission/financial-aid/http://www.waubonsee.edu/downloads/studentHandbook.pdfhttps://library.waubonsee.edu/https://www.waubonsee.edu/experience/services/records/https://www.waubonsee.edu/ssshttps://www.waubonsee.edu/learning/academic-support/tutoring/index.php../AppData/X00000142/AppData/Local/AppData/Local/AppData/Local/AppData/Local/AppData/Local/Downloads/www.waubonsee.edu

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Basic Statistics Weekly Checklist All deadlines are Noon Central on Monday, unless otherwise noted

below

Done? Score

Orientation Week, Week O, 8/21-8/28

Print out and Read Syllabus

Read Lesson O in Blackboard

Register with WebAssign

Self-Introduction Post in Discussion Board in Blackboard

Homework O – Orientation in WebAssign ____%/100 = ____pts

Week 1, 8/28 – 9/4

Read Text

Read Lesson 1 in Blackboard

Homework 1 in WebAssign ____%/100 = ____pts

Discussion in Blackboard for HW 1-if help is needed

Quiz 1 in WebAssign ____%/50 = ____pts

Week 2, 9/4 – 9/11

Read Text

Read Lesson 2 in Blackboard

Homework 2 in WebAssign ____%/100 = ____pts

Discussion in Blackboard for HW 2-if help is needed

Quiz 2 in WebAssign ____%/50 = ____pts

Week 3, 9/11 – 9/18

Read Text

Read Lesson 3 in Blackboard

Homework 3 in WebAssign ____%/100 = ____pts

Discussion in Blackboard for HW 3-if help is needed

Quiz 3 in WebAssign ____%/50 = ____pts

Week 4, 9/18 – 9/25

Read Text

Read Lesson 4 in Blackboard

Homework 4 in WebAssign ____%/100 = ____pts

Discussion in Blackboard for HW 4-if help is needed

Quiz 4 in WebAssign ____%/50 = ____pts

Week 5, 9/25 – 10/2

Read Text

Read Lesson 5 in Blackboard

Homework 5 in WebAssign ____%/100 = ____pts

Discussion in Blackboard for HW 5-if help is needed

Quiz 5 in WebAssign ____%/50 = ____pts

Week 6, 10/2 – 10/9

Extra Credit Test 1 Review Quiz ____pts/(5)

Proctored Test 1 due by close of Assessment Center on Monday 10/9

MONDAY10/12 10/12

NHAT THE DEADLINE IS SATURDAY NOT MONDAY

____% = ____pts

===______pts Part 1 of Project ____pts out of 3

Week 7, 10/9 – 10/16

Read Text

Read Lesson 6 in Blackboard

Homework 6 in WebAssign ____%/100 = ____pts

Discussion in Blackboard for HW 6-if help is needed

Page 10 of 10

Quiz 6 in WebAssign ____%/50 = ____pts

Week 8, 10/16 – 10/23

Read Text

Read Lesson 7 in Blackboard

Homework 7 in WebAssign ____%/100 = ____pts

Discussion in Blackboard for HW 7-if help is needed

Quiz 7 in Blackboard ____%/50 = ____pts

Week 9, 10/23 – 10/30

Read Text

Read Lesson 8 in Blackboard

Homework 8 in WebAssign ____%/100 = ____pts

Discussion in Blackboard for HW 8-if help is needed

Quiz 8 in WebAssign ____%/50 = ____pts

Week 10, 10/30 – 11/6

Read Text

Read Lesson 9 in Blackboard

Homework 9 in WebAssign ____%/100 = ____pts

Discussion in Blackboard for HW 9-if help is needed

Quiz 9 in WebAssign ____%/50 = ____pts

Part 2 of Project ____pts out of 4

Week 11, 11/6 – 11/13

Read Text

Read Lesson 10 in Blackboard

Homework 10 in WebAssign ____%/100 = ____pts

Discussion in Blackboard for HW 10

Quiz 10 in WebAssign ____%/100 = ____pts

Week 12, 11/13 – 11/20

Read Text

Read Lesson 11 in Blackboard

Homework 11 in WebAssign ____%/100 = ____pts

Discussion in Blackboard for HW 11-if help is needed

Quiz 11 in WebAssign ____%/50 = ____pts

Thanksgiving Break 11/20-11/26

Week 13, 11/27 – 12/4

Read Text

Read Lesson 12 in Blackboard

Homework 12 in WebAssign ____%/100 = ____pts

Discussion in Blackboard for HW 12-if help is needed

Quiz 12 in WebAssign ____%/50 = ____pts

Week 14 & 15, 12/4 – 12/16

Extra Credit Test 2 Review Quiz by NOON WEDNESDAY 12/13 ____pts/(5)

Proctored Test 2 by close of Assessment Center, WEDNESDAY 12/13

5/13

____% = ____pts

Part 3 of Project, NOON FRIDAY 12/15 ____pts out of 6

TOTAL POINTS EARNED (Add up all POINTS earned) ______/250 = _____ grade

NOTE: At any point during the semester you can determine your current grade by adding up the points you’ve earned

and dividing by the total points available to that point, and then multiply by 100.

Categories
college paper writing service pay someone to write my paper write my research paper

boosting morale in a workplace through reorientation is accomplished by giving employees _____.

Strategic Management Model

Gathering Information

Societal Environment: General forces

Natural Environment: Resources and

climate

Task Environment:

Industry analysis

Internal: Strengths and Weaknesses

Structure: Chain of command

Culture: Beliefs, expectations,

values

Resources: Assets, skills, competencies,

knowledge

External: Opportunities

and Threats

Developing Long-range Plans

Mission

Reason for existence Objectives

What results to accomplish by when

Strategies

Plan to achieve the mission & objectives

Policies

Broad guidelines for decision making

Environmental Scanning:

Strategy Formulation:

Feedback/Learning: Make corrections as needed

Putting Strategy into Action

Monitoring Performance

Programs

Activities needed to accomplish a plan

Budgets

Cost of the programs Procedures

Sequence of steps needed to do the job

Performance

Actual results

Strategy Implementation:

Evaluation and Control:

THIRTEENTH EDITION

Strategic Management

and Business Policy

TOWARD GLOBAL SUSTAINABILITY

This page intentionally left blank

THIRTEENTH EDITION

Thomas L. Wheelen Formerly with University of Virginia Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland

J. David Hunger Iowa State University St. John’s University

Strategic Management

and Business Policy

TOWARD GLOBAL SUSTAINABILITY

with major contributions by

Kathryn E. Wheelen

Alan N. Hoffman Bentley University

Boston Columbus Indianapolis New York San Francisco Upper Saddle River Amsterdam Cape Town Dubai London Madrid Milan Munich Paris Montreal

Toronto Delhi Mexico City Sa~o Paulo Sydney Hong Kong Seoul Singapore Taipei Tokyo

Editorial Director: Sally Yagan Editor in Chief: Eric Svendsen Senior Acquisitions Editor: Kim Norbuta Editorial Project Manager: Claudia Fernandes Editorial Assistant: Carter Anderson Director of Marketing: Patrice Lumumba Jones Senior Marketing Manager: Nikki Ayana Jones Marketing Assistant: Ian Gold Senior Managing Editor: Judy Leale Production Project Manager: Becca Groves Senior Operations Supervisor: Arnold Vila Operations Specialist: Cathleen Petersen Creative Director: Blair Brown

Credits and acknowledgments borrowed from other sources and reproduced, with permission, in this textbook appear on the appropriate page within text.

Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. Manufactured in the United States of America. This publication is protected by Copyright, and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. To obtain permission(s) to use material from this work, please submit a written request to Pearson Education, Inc., Permissions Department, One Lake Street, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458, or you may fax your request to 201-236-3290.

Many of the designations by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this book, and the publisher was aware of a trademark claim, the designations have been printed in initial caps or all caps.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Wheelen, Thomas L.

Strategic management and business policy : toward global sustainability / Thomas L. Wheelen, J. David Hunger. — 13th ed.

p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN-13: 978-0-13-215322-5 ISBN-10: 0-13-215322-X

1. Strategic planning. 2. Strategic planning—Case studies. 3. Sustainability. I. Hunger, J. David, II. Title.

HD30.28.W43 2012 658.4’012—dc22

2011013549

Senior Art Director/Supervisor: Janet Slowik Cover Designer: Liz Harasymcuk Cover Photo: Courtesy of NASA/Shutterstock Interior Designer: Maureen Eide Media Project Manager, Editorial: Denise Vaughn Media Project Manager, Production: Lisa Rinaldi Full-Service Project Management: Emily Bush, S4Carlisle Publishing Services Composition: S4Carlisle Publishing Services Printer/Binder: Courier/Kendalville Cover Printer: Lehigh-Phoenix Color/Hagerstown Text Font: 10/12 Times Roman

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 ISBN 10: 0-13-215322-X ISBN 13: 978-0-13-215322-5

Dedicated to

KATHY, RICHARD, AND TOM BETTY, KARI AND JEFF, MADDIE AND MEGAN, SUZI AND NICK, SUMMER AND KACEY, LORI, MERRY AND DYLAN, AND WOOFIE (ARF!).

SPECIAL DEDICATION TO KATHRYN WHEELEN:

Kathryn has worked on every phase of the case section of this book. Until this edition, she also managed the construction of the Case Instructor’s Manual. She has done every job with a high level of dedication

and concern for both the case authors and the readers of this book.

NOLA AKALA

DAVID ALEVY

TARA ALGEO

DAVID ARMSTRONG

MIKE ASKEW

LAURA BAILEY

NICK BAKER

ALICIA BARNES

ASHLEY BARNES

ALICE BARR

SHERRY BARTEL

KENDRA BASSI

JAY BECKENSTEIN

JOSH BECKENSTEIN

NICOLE BELL

CATHY BENNETT

KATIE BOLLIN

SCOTT BORDEN

JENNIFER BOYLE

AUNDREA BRIDGES

SUZANNE BROWN

ALEXANDRA BUEHLER

KYLE BURDETTE

WHITNEY CAMERON

RUTH CARDIFF

AMY CAREY

MEGAN CARRICO

MARTI CARTER

ANDREA CATULLO-LINN

MEREDITH CHANDLER

LUKE CLAEYS

KAYLEE CLAYMORE

BRIAN COBB

JENNIFER COLE

TARYLL CONNOLLY

THAYNE CONRAD

DONNA CONROY

CAITLIN COUTHEN

MEGAN JOY COWART

CYNDI CRIMMINS

KASEY CROCKETT

DAN CURRIER

KELLY DAN

MICHLENE DAOUD HEALY

STACY DAVIS

FRANK DEL CASTILLO

MEREDITH DELA ROSA

CHRIS DELANEY

GEORGE DEVENNEY

DANA DODGE (Frick)

KATE DOLDER

BARBARA DONLON

HEIDI DRESSLER

TRACY DYBALSKI

BRIAN DYK

KIM ECK

TRISH EICHHOLD

KRISTIN ELBER

KELSEY ELLIOTT

KATIE EYNON

GENEVA FARROW

MARIA FELIBERTY

MIKE FINER

MICHELLE FINNERTY

CANDAS FLETCHER

ROBERT FLORY

MARCIA FLYNN

BRAD FORRESTER

MARGARET FRENCH

STEPHANIE FRITSON

MARK GAFFNEY

MICHELLE GARCIA-JUCHTER

SYBIL GERAUD

AMBER GOECKE

CAROLYN GOGOLIN

ADAM GOLDSTEIN

BETH GRUNFELD

MICAELA HAIDLE

GREG HAITH

DEMETRIUS HALL

BRIDGET HANNENBERG

BRYAN HARRELL

TARA HARTLEY

KENNY HARVEY

ALISON HASKINS

CAROL HAWKS

JENNIFER HEILBRUNN

CHRISTINE HENRY

LYNN HICKS

JULIE HILDEBRAND

DAUNNE HINGLE

WENDI HOLLAND

CHRISTY HUMENIUK

GENE HUMENIUK

ANDREA IORIO

SUSAN JACKSON

PAM JEFFRIES

BRITTANY JUCHNOWSKI

ANJALI JUSTUS

CHERYL KABB

LAURA KAPPES

GIA KAUL

JULIE KESTENBAUM

KARTAPURKH KHALSA

KIM KIEHLER

AMANDA KILLEEN

WALT KIRBY

MARY-JO KOVACH

ROBYN KOVAR

GREG KRAMP

DANIEL KRAUSS

MICHAEL KRISANDA

GINA LaMANTIA

CHAFIKA LANDERS

DOROTHY LANDRY

DUSTIN LANGE

ALIX LaSCOLA

JOE LEE

APRIL LEMONS

KIMBERLY LENAGHAN

This book is also dedicated to the following Prentice Hall/Pearson sales representatives who work so hard to promote this book:

vi

TRICIA LISCIO

BETH LUDWIG

CARY LUNA

JEMINA MACHARRY

KATIE MAHAN

LAURA MANN

PATRICIA MARTINEZ

CHRISTINA MASTROGIOVANNI

SONNY MATHARU

TONY MATHIAS

BROOK MATTHEWS

GEORGIA MAY

ALICIA MCAULIFFE

MASON McCARTNEY

KAREN McFADYEN

BRIAN McGARRY

MICHELLE McGOVERN

IRENE McGUINNESS

RYAN McHENRY

CRISTIN McMICHAEL

KEVIN MEASELLE

RAY MEDINA

KELLY MEIERHOFER

MOLLY MEINERS

MATT MESAROS

SHALON MILLER

JAMI MINARD

WILLIAM MINERICH

EMILY MITCHELL

JILINE MIX

JULIE MOREL

RAFAEL MORENO

TRACY MORSE

OLIVIA MOUG

DOLLY MUNIZ

TRICIA MURPHY

LAUREN MURROW

AMBER MYLLION (Parks)

LINDA NELSON

LYNNE NICLAIR

BOB NISBET

BETSY NIXON

TOM NIXON

LAURA NOAH

COLLEEN O’DELL

DEBBIE OGILIVE

SARI ORLANSKY

DAVE OSTROW

DARCEY PALMER

KRISTINA PARKER

TONI PAYNE

JULIANNE PETERSON

MELISSA PFISTNER

CANDACE PINATARO

BELEN POLTORAK

ELIZABETH POPIELARZ

MEGAN PRENDERGAST

NICOLE PRICE

JILL PROMESSO

LENNY ANN RAPER

JOSH RASMUSSEN

AMANDA RAY

SONYA REED

RICHARD RESCH

MARY RHODES

BRAD RITTER

DAN ROBERTSON

MATT ROBINSON

JENNIFER ROSEN

DOROTHY ROSENE

KELLEEN ROWE

RICH ROWE

PEYTON ROYTEK

SENG SAECHAO

STEVE SARTORI

LYNDA SAX

BOB SCANLON

MARCUS SCHERER

KIMBERLY SCHEYVING

HEIDI SCHICK (Miller)

BRAD SCHICK

CHRIS SCHMIDT

DEBORAH SCHMIDT

MOLLY SCHMIDT

CORRINA SCHULTZ

WHITNEY SEAGO

CHRISTIANA SERLE

MARTHA SERNAS

MARY SHAPIRO

BARBARA SHERRY

KEN SHIPBAUGH

DAVE SHULER

JESSICA SIEMINSKI

LEA SILVERMAN

AUTUMN SLAUGHTER

KRISTA SLAVICEK

SCOTT SMITH

ADRIENNE SNOW

LEE SOLOMONIDES

BEN STEPHEN

DAN SULLIVAN

JOHN SULLIVAN

LORI SULLIVAN

STEPHANIE SURFUS

AMANDA SVEC

CHRISTINA TATE

SARAH THOMAS

ABBY THORNBLADH

KATY TOWNLEY

ELIZABETH TREPKOWSKI

TARA TRIPP

CAROLYN TWIST

JOE VIRZI

AMANDA VOLZ

BRITNEY WALKER

MADELEINE WATSON

BEN WEBER

DANIEL WELLS

MARK WHEELER

LIZ WILDES

MICHELLE WILES

BRIAN WILLIAMS

ERIN WILLIAMS

CINDY WILLIAMSON

RACHEL WILLIS

SIMON WONG

KIMBERLY WOODS

JACKIE WRIGHT

HEATHER WRUBLESKY

GEORGE YOUNG

MARY ZIMMERMANN

KACIE ZIN

DEDICATION vii

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Brief Contents

PART ONE Introduction to Strategic Management and Business Policy 1

C H A P T E R 1 Basic Concepts of Strategic Management 2 C H A P T E R 2 Corporate Governance 42 C H A P T E R 3 Social Responsibility and Ethics in Strategic Management 70

PART TWO Scanning the Environment 93

C H A P T E R 4 Environmental Scanning and Industry Analysis 94 C H A P T E R 5 Internal Scanning: Organizational Analysis 136

PART THREE Strategy Formulation 173

C H A P T E R 6 Strategy Formulation: Situation Analysis and Business Strategy 174 C H A P T E R 7 Strategy Formulation: Corporate Strategy 204 C H A P T E R 8 Strategy Formulation: Functional Strategy and Strategic Choice 236

PART FOUR Strategy Implementation and Control 269

C H A P T E R 9 Strategy Implementation: Organizing for Action 270 C H A P T E R 1 0 Strategy Implementation: Staffing and Directing 300 C H A P T E R 1 1 Evaluation and Control 328

PART FIVE Introduction to Case Analysis 363

C H A P T E R 1 2 Suggestions for Case Analysis 364

PART SIX WEB CHAPTERS Other Strategic Issues

W E B C H A P T E R A Strategic Issues in Managing Technology & Innovation W E B C H A P T E R B Strategic Issues in Entrepreneurial Ventures & Small Businesses W E B C H A P T E R C Strategic Issues in Not-For-Profit Organizations

PART SEVEN Cases in Strategic Management 1-1

GLOSSARY G-1

NAME INDEX I-1

SUBJECT INDEX I-7

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Contents

Preface xxix

PART ONE Introduction to Strategic Management and Business Policy 1

C H A P T E R 1 Basic Concepts of Strategic Management 2 1.1 The Study of Strategic Management 5

Phases of Strategic Management 5

Benefits of Strategic Management 6

1.2 Globalization and Environmental Sustainability: Challenges to Strategic Management 7

Impact of Globalization 8

Impact of Environmental Sustainability 8

Global Issue: REGIONAL TRADE ASSOCIATIONS REPLACE NATIONAL TRADE BARRIERS 9

Environmental Sustainability Issue: PROJECTED EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE 12

1.3 Theories of Organizational Adaptation 12

1.4 Creating a Learning Organization 13

1.5 Basic Model of Strategic Management 14

Environmental Scanning 16

Strategy Formulation 17

Strategy Highlight 1.1: DO YOU HAVE A GOOD MISSION STATEMENT? 18

Strategy Implementation 21

Evaluation and Control 22

Feedback/Learning Process 23

1.6 Initiation of Strategy: Triggering Events 23

Strategy Highlight 1.2: TRIGGERING EVENT AT UNILEVER 24

1.7 Strategic Decision Making 25

What Makes a Decision Strategic 25

Mintzberg’s Modes of Strategic Decision Making 25

Strategic Decision-Making Process: Aid to Better Decisions 27

1.8 The Strategic Audit: Aid to Strategic Decision-Making 28

1.9 End of Chapter Summary 29

APPENDIX 1.A Strategic Audit of a Corporation 34

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C H A P T E R 2 Corporate Governance 42 2.1 Role of the Board of Directors 45

Responsibilities of the Board 45

Members of a Board of Directors 48

Strategy Highlight 2.1: AGENCY THEORY VERSUS STEWARDSHIP THEORY IN CORPORATE GOVERNANCE 50

Nomination and Election of Board Members 53

Organization of the Board 54

Impact of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act on U.S. Corporate Governance 55

Global Issue: CORPORATE GOVERNANCE IMPROVEMENTS THROUGHOUT THE WORLD 56

Trends in Corporate Governance 57

2.2 The Role of Top Management 58

Responsibilities of Top Management 58

Environmental Sustainability Issue: CONFLICT AT THE BODY SHOP 59

2.3 End of Chapter Summary 62

C H A P T E R 3 Social Responsibility and Ethics in Strategic Management 70 3.1 Social Responsibilities of Strategic Decision Makers 72

Responsibilities of a Business Firm 72

Sustainability: More than Environmental? 75

Corporate Stakeholders 75

Environmental Sustainability Issue: THE DOW JONES SUSTAINABILITY INDEX 76

Strategy Highlight 3.1: JOHNSON & JOHNSON CREDO 78

3.2 Ethical Decision Making 79

Some Reasons for Unethical Behavior 79

Strategy Highlight 3.2: UNETHICAL PRACTICES AT ENRON AND WORLDCOM EXPOSED BY “WHISTLE-BLOWERS” 80

Global Issue: HOW RULE-BASED AND RELATIONSHIP-BASED GOVERNANCE SYSTEMS AFFECT ETHICAL BEHAVIOR 81

Encouraging Ethical Behavior 83

3.3 End of Chapter Summary 86

Ending Case for Part One: BLOOD BANANAS 90

PART TWO Scanning the Environment 93

C H A P T E R 4 Environmental Scanning and Industry Analysis 94 4.1 Environmental Scanning 98

Identifying External Environmental Variables 98

Environmental Sustainability Issue: MEASURING AND SHRINKING YOUR PERSONAL CARBON FOOTPRINT 100

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Global Issue: IDENTIFYING POTENTIAL MARKETS IN DEVELOPING NATIONS 107

Identifying External Strategic Factors 108

4.2 Industry Analysis: Analyzing the Task Environment 109

Porter’s Approach to Industry Analysis 110

Industry Evolution 114

Categorizing International Industries 114

International Risk Assessment 115

Strategic Groups 115

Strategic Types 117

Hypercompetition 117

Using Key Success Factors to Create an Industry Matrix 118

Strategy Highlight 4.1: MICROSOFT IN A HYPERCOMPETITIVE INDUSTRY 118

4.3 Competitive Intelligence 120

Sources of Competitive Intelligence 121

Strategy Highlight 4.2: EVALUATING COMPETITIVE INTELLIGENCE 122

Monitoring Competitors for Strategic Planning 122

4.4 Forecasting 123

Danger of Assumptions 123

Useful Forecasting Techniques 124

4.5 The Strategic Audit: A Checklist for Environmental Scanning 125

4.6 Synthesis of External Factors—EFAS 126

4.7 End of Chapter Summary 127

APPENDIX 4.A Competitive Analysis Techniques 133

C H A P T E R 5 Internal Scanning: Organizational Analysis 136 5.1 A Resource-Based Approach to Organizational Analysis 138

Core and Distinctive Competencies 138

Using Resources to Gain Competitive Advantage 139

Determining the Sustainability of an Advantage 140

5.2 Business Models 142

5.3 Value-Chain Analysis 143

Strategy Highlight 5.1: A NEW BUSINESS MODEL AT SMARTYPIG 144

Industry Value-Chain Analysis 145

Corporate Value-Chain Analysis 146

5.4 Scanning Functional Resources and Capabilities 147

Basic Organizational Structures 147

Corporate Culture: The Company Way 149

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Global Issue: MANAGING CORPORATE CULTURE FOR GLOBAL COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE: ABB VERSUS MATSUSHITA 150

Strategic Marketing Issues 151

Strategic Financial Issues 153

Strategic Research and Development (R&D) Issues 154

Strategic Operations Issues 156

Strategic Human Resource (HRM) Issues 158

Environmental Sustainability Issue: USING ENERGY EFFICIENCY FOR COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE AND QUALITY OF WORK LIFE 161

Strategic Information Systems/Technology Issues 162

5.5 The Strategic Audit: A Checklist for Organizational Analysis 163

5.6 Synthesis of Internal Factors 164

5.7 End of Chapter Summary 165

Ending Case for Part Two: BOEING BETS THE COMPANY 170

PART THREE Strategy Formulation 173

C H A P T E R 6 Strategy Formulation: Situation Analysis and Business Strategy 174 6.1 Situation Analysis: SWOT Analysis 176

Generating a Strategic Factors Analysis Summary (SFAS) Matrix 176

Finding a Propitious Niche 177

Global Issue: SAB DEFENDS ITS PROPITIOUS NICHE 181

6.2 Review of Mission and Objectives 181

6.3 Generating Alternative Strategies by Using a TOWS Matrix 182

6.4 Business Strategies 183

Porter’s Competitive Strategies 183

Environmental Sustainability Issue: PATAGONIA USES SUSTAINABILITY AS DIFFERENTIATION COMPETITIVE STRATEGY 187

Cooperative Strategies 195

6.5 End of Chapter Summary 199

C H A P T E R 7 Strategy Formulation: Corporate Strategy 204 7.1 Corporate Strategy 206

7.2 Directional Strategy 206

Growth Strategies 207

Strategy Highlight 7.1: TRANSACTION COST ECONOMICS ANALYZES VERTICAL GROWTH STRATEGY 210

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Global Issue: COMPANIES LOOK TO INTERNATIONAL MARKETS FOR HORIZONTAL GROWTH 212

Strategy Highlight 7.2: SCREENING CRITERIA FOR CONCENTRIC DIVERSIFICATION 215

Controversies in Directional Growth Strategies 216

Stability Strategies 217

Retrenchment Strategies 218

7.3 Portfolio Analysis 220

BCG Growth-Share Matrix 221

Environmental Sustainability Issue: GENERAL MOTORS AND THE ELECTRIC CAR 222

GE Business Screen 223

Advantages and Limitations of Portfolio Analysis 225

Managing a Strategic Alliance Portfolio 225

7.4 Corporate Parenting 226

Developing a Corporate Parenting Strategy 227

Horizontal Strategy and Multipoint Competition 228

7.5 End of Chapter Summary 229

C H A P T E R 8 Strategy Formulation: Functional Strategy and Strategic Choice 236 8.1 Functional Strategy 238

Marketing Strategy 238

Financial Strategy 239

Research and Development (R&D) Strategy 241

Operations Strategy 242

Global Issue: INTERNATIONAL DIFFERENCES ALTER WHIRLPOOL’S OPERATIONS STRATEGY 243

Purchasing Strategy 244

Environmental Sustainability Issue: OPERATIONS NEED FRESH WATER AND LOTS OF IT! 245

Logistics Strategy 246

Human Resource Management (HRM) Strategy 246

Information Technology Strategy 247

8.2 The Sourcing Decision: Location of Functions 247

8.3 Strategies to Avoid 250

8.4 Strategic Choice: Selecting the Best Strategy 251

Constructing Corporate Scenarios 251

Process of Strategic Choice 257

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8.5 Developing Policies 258

8.6 End of Chapter Summary 259

Ending Case for Part Three: KMART AND SEARS: STILL STUCK IN THE MIDDLE? 266

PART FOUR Strategy Implementation and Control 269

C H A P T E R 9 Strategy Implementation: Organizing for Action 270 9.1 Strategy Implementation 272

9.2 Who Implements Strategy? 273

9.3 What Must Be Done? 273

Developing Programs, Budgets, and Procedures 274

Environmental Sustainability Issue: FORD’S SOYBEAN SEAT FOAM PROGRAM 274

Strategy Highlight 9.1: THE TOP TEN EXCUSES FOR BAD SERVICE 277

Achieving Synergy 278

9.4 How Is Strategy to Be Implemented? Organizing for Action 278

Structure Follows Strategy 279

Stages of Corporate Development 280

Organizational Life Cycle 283

Advanced Types of Organizational Structures 285

Reengineering and Strategy Implementation 288

Six Sigma 289

Designing Jobs to Implement Strategy 290

Strategy Highlight 9.2: DESIGNING JOBS WITH THE JOB CHARACTERISTICS MODEL 291

9.5 International Issues in Strategy Implementation 291

International Strategic Alliances 292

Stages of International Development 293

Global Issue: MULTIPLE HEADQUARTERS: A SIXTH STAGE OF INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT? 294

Centralization Versus Decentralization 294

9.6 End of Chapter Summary 296

C H A P T E R 1 0 Strategy Implementation: Staffing and Directing 300 10.1 Staffing 302

Staffing Follows Strategy 303

Selection and Management Development 305

Strategy Highlight 10.1: HOW HEWLETT-PACKARD IDENTIFIES POTENTIAL EXECUTIVES 306

Problems in Retrenchment 308

International Issues in Staffing 309

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10.2 Leading 311

Managing Corporate Culture 311

Environmental Sustainability Issue: ABBOTT LABORATORIES’ NEW PROCEDURES FOR GREENER COMPANY CARS 312

Action Planning 316

Management by Objectives 318

Total Quality Management 318

International Considerations in Leading 319

Global Issue: CULTURAL DIFFERENCES CREATE IMPLEMENTATION PROBLEMS IN MERGER 321

10.3 End of Chapter Summary 322

C H A P T E R 1 1 Evaluation and Control 328 11.1 Evaluation and Control in Strategic Management 330

11.2 Measuring Performance 332

Appropriate Measures 332

Types of Controls 332

Activity-Based Costing 334

Enterprise Risk Management 335

Primary Measures of Corporate Performance 335

Environmental Sustainability Issue: HOW GLOBAL WARMING COULD AFFECT CORPORATE VALUATION 340

Primary Measures of Divisional and Functional Performance 342

International Measurement Issues 344

Global Issue: COUNTERFEIT GOODS AND PIRATED SOFTWARE: A GLOBAL PROBLEM 346

11.3 Strategic Information Systems 347

Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) 347

Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) 348

Divisional and Functional IS Support 348

11.4 Problems in Measuring Performance 348

Short-Term Orientation 349

Goal Displacement 350

11.5 Guidelines for Proper Control 351

Strategy Highlight 11.1: SOME RULES OF THUMB IN STRATEGY 351

11.6 Strategic Incentive Management 352

11.7 End of Chapter Summary 354

Ending Case for Part Four: HEWLETT-PACKARD BUYS EDS 360

CONTENTS xvii

PART FIVE Introduction to Case Analysis 363

C H A P T E R 1 2 Suggestions for Case Analysis 364 12.1 The Case Method 365

12.2 Researching the Case Situation 366

12.3 Financial Analysis: A Place to Begin 366

Analyzing Financial Statements 369

Environmental Sustainability Issue: IMPACT OF CARBON TRADING 370

Global Issue: FINANCIAL STATEMENTS OF MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS: NOT ALWAYS WHAT THEY SEEM 371

Common-Size Statements 371

Z-value and Index of Sustainable Growth 371

Useful Economic Measures 372

12.4 Format for Case Analysis: The Strategic Audit 373

12.5 End of Chapter Summary 375

APPENDIX 12.A Resources for Case Research 377

APPENDIX 12.B Suggested Case Analysis Methodology Using the Strategic Audit 380

APPENDIX 12.C Example of a Student-Written Strategic Audit 383

Ending Case for Part Five: IN THE GARDEN 391

GLOSSARY G-1

NAME INDEX I-1

SUBJECT INDEX I-1

PART SIX WEB CHAPTERS Other Strategic Issues

W E B C H A P T E R A Strategic Issues in Managing Technology and Innovation 1 The Role of Management

Strategy Highlight 1: EXAMPLES OF INNOVATION EMPHASIS IN MISSION STATEMENTS

2 Environmental Scanning

External Scanning

Internal Scanning

3 Strategy Formulation

Product vs. Process R&D

Technology Sourcing

Global Issue: USE OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY AT HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES

Importance of Technological Competence

Categories of Innovation

Product Portfolio

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4 Strategy Implementation

Developing an Innovative Entrepreneurial Culture

Organizing for Innovation: Corporate Entrepreneurship

Strategy Highlight 2: HOW NOT TO DEVELOP AN INNOVATIVE ORGANIZATION

5 Evaluation and Control

Evaluation and Control Techniques

Evaluation and Control Measures

6 End of Chapter Summary

W E B C H A P T E R B Strategic Issues in Entrepreneurial Ventures and Small Businesses 1 Importance of Small Business and Entrepreneurial Ventures

Global Issue: ENTREPRENEURSHIP: SOME COUNTRIES ARE MORE SUPPORTIVE THAN OTHERS

Definition of Small-Business Firms and Entrepreneurial Ventures

The Entrepreneur as Strategist

2 Use of Strategic Planning and Strategic Management

Degree of Formality

Usefulness of the Strategic Management Model

Usefulness of the Strategic Decision-Making Process

3 Issues in Corporate Governance

Boards of Directors and Advisory Boards

Impact of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act

4 Issues in Environmental Scanning and Strategy Formulation

Sources of Innovation

Factors Affecting a New Venture’s Success

Strategy Highlight 1: SUGGESTIONS FOR LOCATING AN OPPORTUNITY AND FORMULATING A BUSINESS STRATEGY

5 Issues in Strategy Implementation

Substages of Small Business Development

Transfer of Power and Wealth in Family Businesses

6 Issues in Evaluation and Control

7 End of Chapter Summary

W E B C H A P T E R C Strategic Issues in Not-for-Profit Organizations 1 Why Not-for-Profit?

Global Issue: WHICH IS BEST FOR SOCIETY: BUSINESS OR NOT-FOR-PROFIT?

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2 Importance of Revenue Source

Sources of Not-for-Profit Revenue

Patterns of Influence on Strategic Decision Making

Usefulness of Strategic Management Concepts and Techniques

3 Impact of Constraints on Strategic Management

Impact on Strategy Formulation

Impact on Strategy Implementation

Impact on Evaluation and Control

4 Not-for-Profit Strategies

Strategic Piggybacking

Strategy Highlight 1: RESOURCES NEEDED FOR SUCCESSFUL STRATEGIC PIGGYBACKING

Mergers

Strategic Alliances

5 End of Chapter Summary

PART SEVEN Cases in Strategic Management 1-1

S E C T I O N A Corporate Governance and Social Responsibility: Executive Leadership

CASE 1 The Recalcitrant Director at Byte Products Inc.: Corporate Legality versus Corporate Responsibility 1-7 (Contributors: Dan R. Dalton, Richard A. Cosier, and Cathy A. Enz) A plant location decision forces a confrontation between the board of directors and the CEO regarding an issue in social responsibility and ethics.

CASE 2 The Wallace Group 2-1 (Contributor: Laurence J. Stybel) Managers question the company’s strategic direction and how it is being managed by its founder and CEO. Company growth has resulted not only in disorganization and confusion among employees, but in poor overall performance. How should the board deal with the company’s founder?

S E C T I O N B Business Ethics

CASE 3 Everyone Does It 3-1 (Contributors: Steven M. Cox and Shawana P. Johnson) When Jim Willis, Marketing VP, learns that the launch date for the company’s new satellite will be late by at least a year, he is told by the company’s president to continue using the earlier published date for the launch. When Jim protests that the use of an incorrect date to market contracts is unethical, he is told that spacecraft are never launched on time and that it is common industry practice to list unrealistic launch dates. If a realistic date was used, no one would contract with the company.

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CASE 4 The Audit 4-1 (Contributors: John A. Kilpatrick, Gamewell D. Gantt, and George A. Johnson) A questionable accounting practice by the company being audited puts a new CPA in a difficult position. Although the practice is clearly wrong, she is being pressured by her manager to ignore it because it is common in the industry.

S E C T I O N C International Issues in Strategic Management

CASE 5 Starbucks’ Coffee Company: The Indian Dilemma 5-1 (Contributors: Ruchi Mankad and Joel Sarosh Thadamalla) Starbucks is the world’s largest coffee retailer with over 11,000 stores in 36 countries and over 10,000 employees. The case focuses on India as a potential market for the coffee retailer, presenting information on India’s societal environment and beverage industry. Profiles are provided for various existing coffee shop chains in India. The key issue in the case revolves around the question: Are circumstances right for Starbucks to enter India?

CASE 6 Guajilote Cooperativo Forestal: Honduras 6-1 (Contributors: Nathan Nebbe and J. David Hunger) This forestry cooperative has the right to harvest, transport, and sell fallen mahogany trees in La Muralla National Park of Honduras. Although the cooperative has been successful thus far, it is facing some serious issues: low prices for its product, illegal logging, deforestation by poor farmers, and possible world trade restrictions on the sale of mahogany.

S E C T I O N D General Issues in Strategic Management

I N D U S T RY O N E : Information Technology CASE 7 Apple Inc.: Performance in a Zero-Sum World Economy 7-1

(Contributors: Kathryn E. Wheelen, Thomas L. Wheelen II, Richard D. Wheelen, Moustafa H. Abdelsamad, Bernard A. Morin, Lawrence C. Pettit, David B. Croll, and Thomas L. Wheelen) Apple, the first company to mass-market a personal computer, had become a minor player in an industry dominated by Microsoft. After being expelled from the company in 1985, founder Steve Jobs returned as CEO in 1997 to reenergize the firm. The introduction of the iPod in 2001, followed by the iPad, catapulted Apple back into the spotlight. However, in 2011 Jobs was forced to take his third medical leave, leading to questions regarding his ability to lead Apple. How can Apple continue its success? How dependent is the company on Steve Jobs?

CASE 8 iRobot: Finding the Right Market Mix? 8-1 (Contributor: Alan N. Hoffman) Founded in 1990, iRobot was among the first companies to introduce robotic technology into the consumer market. Employing over 500 robotic professionals, the firm planned to lead the robotics industry. Unfortunately, its largest revenue source, home care robots, are a luxury good and vulnerable to recessions. Many of iRobot’s patents are due to expire by 2019. The firm is highly dependent upon suppliers to make its consumer products and the U.S. government for military sales. What is the best strategy for its future success?

CASE 9 Dell Inc.: Changing the Business Model (Mini Case) 9-1 (Contributor: J. David Hunger) Dell, once the largest PC vendor in the world, is now battling with Acer for second place in the global PC market. Its chief advantages—direct marketing and power over suppliers—no longer provided a competitive advantage. The industry’s focus has shifted from desktop PCs to mobile computing, software, and technology services, areas of relative weakness for Dell. Is it time for Dell to change its strategy?

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CASE 10 Rosetta Stone Inc.: Changing the Way People Learn Languages 10-1 (Contributors: Christine B. Buenafe and Joyce P. Vincelette) Rosetta Stone’s mission was to change the way people learn languages. The company blended language learning with technology at a time when globalization connected more and more individuals and institutions to each other. How should the company move forward? Would it be appropriate for Rosetta Stone to offer products like audio books or services in order to increase market share? Which international markets could provide the company with a successful future?

CASE 11 Logitech (Mini Case) 11-1 (Contributor: Alan N. Hoffman) Logitech, the world’s leading provider of computer peripherals, was on the forefront of mouse, keyboard, and video conferencing technology. By 2010, however, Logitech’s products were threatened by new technologies, such as touch pads, that could replace both the mouse and keyboard. As the peripherals market begins to disintegrate, Logitech is considering a change in strategy.

I N D U S T RY T W O : INTERNET COMPANIES

CASE 12 Google Inc. (2010): The Future of the Internet Search Engine 12-1 (Contributor: Patricia A. Ryan) Google, an online company that provides a reliable Internet search engine, was founded in 1998 and soon replaced Yahoo as the market leader in Internet search engines. By 2010, Google was one of the strongest brands in the world. Nevertheless, its growth by acquisition strategy was showing signs of weakness. Its 2006 acquisition of YouTube had thus far not generated significant revenue growth. Groupon, a shopping Web site, rebuffed Google’s acquisition attempt in 2010. Is it time for a strategic change?

CASE 13 Reorganizing Yahoo! 13-1 (Contributors: P. Indu and Vivek Gupta) Yahoo! created the first successful Internet search engine, but by 2004 it was losing its identity. Was it a search engine, a portal, or a media company? On December 5, 2006, Yahoo’s CEO announced a reorganization of the company into three groups. It was hoped that a new mission statement and a new structure would make Yahoo leaner and more responsive to customers. Would this be enough to turn around the company?

I N D U S T RY T H R E E : ENTERTAINMENT AND LEISURE

CASE 14 TiVo Inc.: TiVo vs. Cable and Satellite DVR: Can TiVo survive? 14-1 (Contributors: Alan N. Hoffman, Randy Halim, Rangki Son, and Suzanne Wong) TiVo was founded to create a device capable of recording digitized video on a computer hard drive for television viewing. Even though revenues had jumped from $96 million in 2003 to $259 million in 2007, the company had never earned a profit. Despite many alliances, TiVo faced increasing competition from generic DVRs offered by satellite and cable companies. How long can the company continue to sell TiVo DVRs when the competition sells generic DVRs at a lower price or gives them away for free?

CASE 15 Marvel Entertainment Inc. 15-1 (Contributors: Ellie A. Fogarty and Joyce P. Vincelette) Marvel Entertainment was known for its comic book characters Captain America, Spider Man, the Fantastic Four, the Incredible Hulk, the Avengers, and the X-Men. With its 2008 self-produced films, Iron Man and The Incredible Hulk, Marvel had expanded out of comic books to become a leader in the entertainment industry. The company was no longer competing against other comic book publishers like DC Comics, but was now competing against entertainment giants like Walt Disney and NBC Universal. What should Marvel’s management do to ensure the company’s future success?

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CASE 16 Carnival Corporation and plc (2010) 16-1 (Contributors: Michael J. Keeffe, John K. Ross III, Sherry K. Ross, Bill J. Middlebrook, and Thomas L. Wheelen) With its “fun ship,” Carnival Cruises changed the way people think of ocean cruises. The cruise became more important than the destination. Through acquisition, Carnival expanded its product line to encompass an entire range of industry offerings. How can Carnival continue to grow in the industry it now dominates?

I N D U S T RY F O U R : TRANSPORTATION

CASE 17 Chrysler in Trouble 17-1 (Contributors: Barnali Chakraborty and Vivek Gupta) On April 30, 2009, Chrysler Motors, the third-largest auto manufacturer in the United States, filed for bankruptcy protection along with its 24 wholly owned U.S. subsidiaries. As a condition of the U.S. federal government’s loan of more than $8 billion, Fiat was given 20% of the new Chrysler Corporation with the option of increasing its stake to 51% by 2016 after the new company had repaid the federal government’s loan. What does Chrysler need to do to ensure the success of its partnership with Fiat?

CASE 18 Tesla Motors Inc. (Mini Case) 18-1 (Contributor: J. David Hunger) Tesla Motors was founded in 2004 to produce electric automobiles. Its first car, the Tesla Roadster, sold for $101,000. It could accelerate from zero to 60 mph in 3.9 seconds and cruise for 236 miles on a single charge. In contrast to existing automakers, Tesla sold and serviced its cars through the Internet and its own Tesla stores. With the goal of building a full line of electric vehicles, Tesla Motors faced increasing competition from established automakers. How could Tesla Motors succeed in an industry dominated by giant global competitors?

CASE 19 Harley-Davidson Inc. 2008: Thriving through a Recession 19-1 (Contributors: Patricia A. Ryan and Thomas Wheelen) Harley-Davidson 2008: Thriving Through Recession is a modern success story of a motorcycle company that turned itself around by emphasizing quality manufacturing and image marketing. After consistently growing through the 1990s, sales were showing signs of slowing as the baby boomers continued to age. Safety was also becoming an issue. For the first time in recent history, sales and profits declined in 2007 from 2006. Analysts wondered how the company would be affected in a recession. How does Harley-Davidson continue to grow at its past rate?

CASE 20 JetBlue Airways: Growing Pains? 20-1 (Contributors: Shirisha Regani and S. S. George) JetBlue Airways had been founded as a “value player” in the niche between full service airlines and low-cost carriers. Competition had recently intensified and several airlines were taking advantage of bankruptcy protection to recapture market share through price cuts. JetBlue’s operating costs were rising as a result of increasing fuel costs, aircraft maintenance expenses, and service costs. Has JetBlue been growing too fast and was growth no longer sustainable?

CASE 21 TomTom: New Competition Everywhere! 21-1 (Contributor: Alan N. Hoffman) TomTom, an Amsterdam-based company that provided navigation services and devices, led the navigation systems market in Europe and was second in popularity in the United States. However, the company was facing increasing competition from other platforms using GPS technology like cell phones and Smartphones with a built-in navigation function. As its primary markets in the United States and Europe mature, how can the company ensure its future growth and success?

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I N D U S T RY F I V E : CLOTHING

CASE 22 Volcom Inc.: Riding the Wave 22-1 (Contributors: Christine B. Buenafe and Joyce P. Vincelette) Volcom was formed south of Los Angeles in 1991 as a clothing company rooted in the action sports of skateboarding, surfing, and snowboarding. By 2008, Volcom-branded products were sold throughout the United States and in over 40 countries. It did not own any manufacturing facilities, but instead worked with foreign contract manufacturers. As a primary competitor in the boardsports community, Volcom was committed to maintaining its brand, position, and lifestyle and needed to reassess its strategy.

CASE 23 TOMS Shoes (Mini Case) 23-1 (Contributor: J. David Hunger) Founded in 2006 by Blake Mycoskie, TOMS Shoes is an American footwear company based in Santa Monica, California. Although TOMS Shoes is a for-profit business, its mission is more like that of a not-for-profit organization. The firm’s reason for existence is to donate to children in need one new pair of shoes for every pair of shoes sold. By 2010, the company had sold over one million pairs of shoes. How should the company plan its future growth?

I N D U S T RY S I X : SPECIALTY RETAILING

CASE 24 Best Buy Co. Inc.: Sustainable Customer Centricity Model? 24-1 (Contributor: Alan N. Hoffman) Best Buy, the largest consumer electronics retailer in the United States, operates 4,000 stores in North America, China, and Turkey. Best Buy distinguishes itself from competitors by deploying a differentiation strategy based on superior service rather than low price. The recent recession has stressed its finances and the quality of its customer service. How can Best Buy continue to have innovative products, top-notch employees, and superior customer service while facing increased competition, operational costs, and financial stress?

CASE 25 The Future of Gap Inc. 25-1 (Contributor: Mridu Verma) Gap Inc. offered clothing, accessories, and personal care products under the Gap, Banana Republic, and Old Navy brands. After a new CEO introduced a turnaround strategy, sales increased briefly, then fell. Tired of declining sales, the board of directors hired Goldman Sachs to explore strategies to improve, ranging from the sale of its stores to spinning off a single division.

CASE 26 Rocky Mountain Chocolate Factory Inc. (2008) 26-1 (Contributors: Annie Phan and Joyce P. Vincelette) Rocky Mountain Chocolate Factory had five company-owned and 329 franchised stores in 38 states, Canada, and the United Arab Emirates. Even though revenues and net income had increased from 2005 through 2008, they had been increasing at a decreasing rate. Candy purchased from the factory by the stores had actually dropped 9% in 2008 from 2007. Was the bloom off the rose at Rocky Mountain Chocolate?

CASE 27 Dollar General Corporation (Mini Case) 27-1 (Contributor: Kathryn E. Wheelen) With annual revenues of $12.7 billion and 9,200 stores in 35 states, Dollar General is the largest of the discount “dollar stores” in the United States. Although far smaller than its “big brothers” Wal-Mart and Target, Dollar General has done very well during the recent economic recession. In 2011, it plans to open 625 new stores in three new states. Given that the company has substantial long-term debt, is this the right time to expand the company’s operations?

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xxiv CONTENTS

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I N D U S T RY S E V E N : MANUFACTURING

CASE 28 Inner-City Paint Corporation (Revised) 28-1 (Contributors: Donald F. Kuratko and Norman J. Gierlasinski) Inner-City Paint makes paint for sale to contractors in the Chicago area. However, the founder’s lack of management knowledge is creating difficulties for the firm, and the company is in financial difficulty. Unless something is done soon, it may go out of business.

CASE 29 The Carey Plant 29-1 (Contributors: Thomas L. Wheelen and J. David Hunger) The Carey Plant was a profitable manufacturer of quality machine parts until it was acquired by the Gardner Company. Since its acquisition, the plant has been plagued by labor problems, increasing costs, leveling sales, and decreasing profits. Gardner Company’s top management is attempting to improve the plant’s performance and better integrate its activities with those of the corporation by selecting a new person to manage the plant.

I N D U S T RY E I G H T: FOOD AND BEVERAGE

CASE 30 The Boston Beer Company: Brewers of Samuel Adams Boston Lager (Mini Case) 30-1 (Contributor: Alan N. Hoffman) The Boston Beer Company was founded in 1984 by Jim Koch, viewed as the pioneer of the American craft beer revolution. Brewing over 1 million barrels of 25 different styles of beer, Boston Beer is the sixth-largest brewer in the United States. Even though overall domestic beer sales declined 1.2% in 2010, sales of craft beer have increased 20% since 2002, with Boston Beer’s increasing 22% from 2007 to 2009. How can the company continue its rapid growth in a mature industry?

CASE 31 Wal-Mart and Vlasic Pickles 31-1 (Contributor: Karen A. Berger) A manager of Vlasic Foods International closed a deal with Wal-Mart that resulted in selling more pickles than Vlasic had ever sold to any one account. The expected profit of one to two cents per jar was not sustainable, however, due to unplanned expenses. Vlasic’s net income plummeted and the company faced bankruptcy. Given that Wal-Mart was Vlasic’s largest customer, what action should management take?

CASE 32 Panera Bread Company (2010): Still Rising Fortunes? 32-1 (Contributors: Joyce Vincelette and Ellie A. Fogarty) Panera Bread is a successful bakery-café known for its quality soups and sandwiches. Even though Panera’s revenues and net earnings have been rising rapidly, new unit expansion throughout North America has fueled this growth. Will revenue growth stop once expansion slows? The retirement of CEO Ronald Shaich, the master baker who created the “starter” for the company’s phenomenal growth, is an opportunity to rethink Panera’s growth strategy.

CASE 33 Whole Foods Market (2010): How to Grow in an Increasingly Competitive Market? (Mini Case) 33-1 (Contributors: Patricia Harasta and Alan N. Hoffman) Whole Foods Market is the world’s leading retailer of natural and organic foods. The company differentiates itself from competitors by focusing on innovation, quality, and service excellence, allowing it to charge premium prices. Although the company dominates the natural/organic foods category in North America, it is facing increasing competition from larger food retailers, such as Wal- Mart, who are adding natural/organic foods to their offerings.

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CONTENTS xxv

CASE 34 Burger King (Mini Case) 34-1 (Contributor: J. David Hunger) Founded in Florida in 1953, Burger King has always trailed behind McDonald’s as the second-largest fast-food hamburger chain in the world. Although its total revenues dropped only slightly from 2009, its 2010 profits dropped significantly, due to high expenses. Burger King’s purchase by an investment group in 2010 was an opportunity to rethink the firm’s strategy.

CASE 35 Church & Dwight: Time to Rethink the Portfolio? 35-1 (Contributor: Roy A. Cook) Church & Dwight, the maker of ARM & HAMMER Baking Soda, has used brand extension to successfully market multiple consumer products based on sodium bicarbonate. Searching for a new growth strategy, the firm turned to acquisitions. Can management successfully achieve a balancing act based on finding growth through expanded uses of sodium bicarbonate while assimilating a divergent group of consumer products into an expanding international footprint?

S E C T I O N E Web Mini Cases Additional Mini Cases Available on the Companion Web Site at www.pearsonhighered.com/wheelen.

W E B C A S E 1 Eli Lily & Company (Contributor: Maryanne M. Rouse) A leading pharmaceutical company, Eli Lilly produces a wide variety of ethical drugs and animal health products. Despite an array of new products, the company’s profits declined after the firm lost patent protection for Prozac. In addition, the FDA found quality problems at several of the company’s manufacturing sites, resulting in a delay of new product approvals. How should Lily position itself in a very complex industry?

W E B C A S E 2 Tech Data Corporation (Contributor: Maryanne M. Rouse) Tech Data, a distributor of information technology and logistics management, has rapidly grown through acquisition to become the second-largest global IT distributor. Sales and profits have been declining, however, since 2001. As computers become more like a commodity, the increasing emphasis on direct distribution by manufacturers threaten wholesale distributors like Tech Data.

W E B C A S E 3 Stryker Corporation (Contributor: Maryanne M. Rouse) Stryker is a leading maker of specialty medical and surgical products, a market expected to show strong sales growth. Stryker markets its products directly to hospitals and physicians in the United States and 100 other countries. Given the decline in the number of hospitals due to consolidation and cost containment efforts by government programs and health care insurers, the industry expects continued downward pressure on prices. How can Stryker effectively deal with these developments?

W E B C A S E 4 Sykes Enterprises (Contributor: Maryanne M. Rouse) Sykes provides outsourced customer relationship management services worldwide in a highly competitive, fragmented industry. Like its customers, Sykes has recently been closing its call centers in America and moving to Asia in order to reduce costs. Small towns felt betrayed by the firm’s decision to leave—especially after providing financial incentives to attract the firm. Nevertheless, declining revenue and net income has caused the company’s stock to drop to an all-time low.

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W E B C A S E 5 Pfizer Inc. (Contributor: Maryanne M. Rouse) With its acquisition in 2000 of rival pharmaceutical firm Warner-Lambert for its Lipitor prescription drug, Pfizer has become the world’s largest ethical pharmaceutical company in terms of sales. Already the leading company in the United States, Pfizer’s purchase of Pharmacia in 2002 moved Pfizer from fourth to first place in Europe. Will large size hurt or help the company’s future growth and profitability in an industry facing increasing scrutiny?

W E B C A S E 6 Williams-Sonoma (Contributor: Maryanne M. Rouse) Williams-Sonoma is a specialty retailer of home products. Following a related diversification growth strategy, the company operates 415 Williams-Sonoma, Pottery Barn, and Hold Everything retail stores throughout North America. Its direct sales segment includes six retail catalogues and three e-commerce sites. The company must deal with increasing competition in this fragmented industry characterized by low entry barriers.

W E B C A S E 7 Tyson Foods Inc. (Contributor: Maryanne M. Rouse) Tyson produces and distributes beef, chicken, and pork products in the United States. It acquired IBP, a major competitor, but has been the subject of lawsuits by its employees and the EPA. How should management deal with its poor public relations and position the company to gain and sustain competitive advantage in an industry characterized by increasing consolidation and intense competition?

W E B C A S E 8 Southwest Airlines Company (Contributor: Maryanne M. Rouse) The fourth-largest U.S. airline in terms of passengers carried and second-largest in scheduled domestic departures, Southwest was the only domestic airline to remain profitable in 2001. Emphasizing high- frequency, short-haul, point-to-point, and low-fare service, the airline has the lowest cost per available seat mile flown of any U.S. major passenger carrier. Can Southwest continue to be successful as competitors increasingly imitate its competitive strategy?

W E B C A S E 9 Outback Steakhouse Inc. (Contributor: Maryanne M. Rouse) With 1,185 restaurants in 50 states and 21 foreign countries, Outback (OSI) is one of the largest casual dining restaurant companies in the world. In addition to Outback Steakhouse, the company is composed of Carrabba’s Italian Grill, Fleming’s Prime Steakhouse & Wine Bar, Bonefish Grill, Roy’s, Lee Roy Selmon’s, Cheeseburger in Paradise, and Paul Lee’s Kitchen. Analysts wonder how long OSI can continue to grow by adding new types of restaurants to its portfolio.

W E B C A S E 10 Intel Corporation (Contributor: J. David Hunger) Although more than 80% of the world’s personal computers and servers use its microprocessors, Intel is facing strong competition from AMD in a maturing market. Sales growth is slowing. Profits are expected to rise only 5% in 2006 compared to 40% annual growth previously. The new CEO decides to reinvent Intel to avoid a fate of eventual decline.

W E B C A S E 11 AirTran Holdings Inc. (Contributor: Maryanne M. Rouse) AirTran (known as ValuJet before a disastrous crash in the Everglades) is the second-largest low- fare scheduled airline (after Southwest) in the United States in terms of departures and, along with Southwest, the only U.S. airline to post a profit in 2004. The company’s labor costs as a percentage of sales are the lowest in the industry. Will AirTran continue to be successful in this highly competitive industry?

CONTENTS xxvii

W E B C A S E 12 Boise Cascade/Office Max (Contributor: Maryanne M. Rouse) Boise Cascade, an integrated manufacturer and distributor of paper, packaging, and wood products, purchased OfficeMax, the third-largest office supplies catalogue retailer (after Staples and Office Depot), in 2003. Soon thereafter, Boise announced that it was selling its land, plants, headquarters location, and even its name to an equity investment firm. Upon completion of the sale in 2004, the company assumed the name of OfficeMax. Can this manufacturer become a successful retailer?

W E B C A S E 13 H. J. Heinz Company (Contributor: Maryanne M. Rouse) Heinz, a manufacturer and marketer of processed food products, pursued global growth via market penetration and acquisitions. Unfortunately, its modest sales growth was primarily from its acquisitions. Now that the firm has divested a number of lines of businesses and brands to Del Monte Foods, analysts wonder how a 20% smaller Heinz will grow its sales and profits in this very competitive industry.

W E B C A S E 14 Nike Inc. (Contributor: Maryanne M. Rouse) Nike is the largest maker of athletic footwear and apparel in the world with a U.S. market share exceeding 40%. Since almost all its products are manufactured by 700 independent contractors (99% of which are in Southeast Asia), Nike is a target of activists opposing manufacturing practices in developing nations. Although industry sales growth in athletic footwear is slowing, Nike refused to change its product mix in 2002 to suit Foot Locker, the dominant global footwear retailer. Is it time for Nike to change its strategy and practices?

W E B C A S E 15 Six Flags Inc.: The 2006 Business Turnaround (Contributor: Patricia A. Ryan) Known for its fast roller coasters and adventure rides, Six Flags has successfully built a group of regional theme and water parks in the United States. Nevertheless, the company has not turned a profit since 1998. Long-term debt had increased to 61% of total assets by 2005. New management is implementing a retrenchment strategy, but industry analysts are unsure if this will be enough to save the company.

W E B C A S E 16 Lowe’s Companies Inc. (Contributor: Maryanne M. Rouse) As the second-largest U.S. “big box” home improvement retailer (behind Home Depot), Lowe’s competes in a highly fragmented industry. The company has grown with the increase in home ownership and has no plans to expand internationally. With more than 1,000 stores in 2004, Lowe’s intended to increase its U.S. presence with 150 store openings per year in 2005 and 2006. Are there limits to Lowe’s current growth strategy?

W E B C A S E 17 Movie Gallery Inc. (Contributor: J. David Hunger) Movie Gallery is the second-largest North American video retail rental company, specializing in the rental and sale of movies and video games through its Movie Gallery and Hollywood Entertainment stores. Growing through acquisitions, the company is heavily in debt. The recent rise of online video rental services, such as Netflix, is cutting into retail store revenues and reducing the company’s cash flow. With just $135 million in cash at the end of 2005, Movie Gallery’s management finds itself facing possible bankruptcy.

xxviii CONTENTS

Preface

Welcome to the 13th edition of Strategic Management and Business Policy! Although the chapters are the same as those in the 12th edition, many of the cases are new and different. We completely revised seven of your favorite cases (Apple, Dell, Google, Carnival, Panera Bread, Whole Foods, and Church & Dwight) and added 12 brand-new ones (iRobot, Rosetta Stone, Logitech, Chrysler, Tesla Motors, TomTom, Volcom, TOMS Shoes, Best Buy, Dollar General, Boston Beer, and Burger King) for a total of 19 new cases! More than half of the cases in this book are new to this edition! Although we still make a distinction between full-length and mini cases, we have interwoven them throughout the book to better identify them with their industries.

This edition continues the theme that runs throughout all 12 chapters: global environmental sustainability. This strategic issue will become even more important in the years ahead, as all of us struggle to deal with the consequences of climate change, global warming, and energy availability. We continue to be the most comprehensive strategy book on the market, with chapters ranging from corporate governance and social responsibility to competitive strategy, functional strategy, and strategic alliances. To keep the size of the book manageable, we offer special issue chapters dealing with technology, entrepreneurship, and not-for-profit organiza- tions on the Web site (www.pearsonhighered.com/wheelen).

FEATURES NEW TO THIS 13th EDITION Nineteen New Cases: Both Full Length and Mini Length Eleven full-length new or updated comprehensive cases and eight mini-length cases have been added to support the 16 popular full-length cases carried forward from past editions. Twelve of the cases are brand new. Seven are updated favorites from past editions. Of the 35 cases appearing in this book, 22 are exclusive and do not appear in other books.

� Five of the new cases deal with technology issues (Apple, iRobot, Dell, Rosetta Stone, and Logitech).

� One of the new cases deals with the Internet (Google). � One new case involves entertainment (Carnival). � Three new cases are of old and new transportation firms (Chrysler, TomTom, and Tesla

Motors). � Two new cases are of entrepreneurial clothing companies (Volcom and TOMS Shoes). � Two new specialty retailing cases spotlight electronics (Best Buy) and variety (Dollar

General). � Five new cases come from the food, beverage, and restaurant industries (Boston Beer,

Panera Bread, Whole Foods Market, Burger King, and Church & Dwight).

HOW THIS BOOK IS DIFFERENT FROM OTHER STRATEGY TEXTBOOKS This book contains a Strategic Management Model that runs through the first 11 chapters and is made operational through the Strategic Audit, a complete case analysis methodology. The Strategic Audit provides a professional framework for case analysis in terms of external

xxixwww.pearsonhighered.com/wheelen

and internal factors and takes the student through the generation of strategic alternatives and implementation programs.

To help the student synthesize the many factors in a complex strategy case, we developed three useful techniques:

� External Factor Analysis (EFAS) Table in Chapter 4 This reduces the external Opportunities and Threats to the 8 to 10 most important exter- nal factors facing management.

� Internal Factor Analysis (IFAS) Table in Chapter 5 This reduces the internal Strengths and Weaknesses to the 8 to 10 most important internal factors facing management.

� Strategic Factor Analysis Summary (SFAS) Matrix in Chapter 6 This condenses the 16 to 20 factors generated in the EFAS and IFAS Tables into the 8 to 10 most important (strategic) factors facing the company. These strategic factors become the basis for generating alternatives and a recommendation for the company’s future direction.

Suggestions for Case Analysis are provided in Appendix 12.B (end of Chapter 12) and contain step-by-step procedures for how to use the Strategic Audit in analyzing a case. This appendix includes an example of a student-written Strategic Audit. Thousands of students around the world have applied this methodology to case analysis with great success. The Case Instructor’s Manual contains examples of student-written Strategic Audits for each of the full-length comprehensive strategy cases.

FEATURES FOCUSED ON ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY � Each chapter contains a boxed insert dealing with an issue in environmental sustainability.

� Each chapter ends with Eco Bits, interesting tidbits of ecological information, such as the number of plastic bags added to landfills each year.

� Special sections on sustainability are found in Chapters 1 and 3.

� A section on the natural environment is included in the societal and task environments in Chapter 4.

TIME-TESTED FEATURES This edition contains many of the same features and content that helped make previous editions success- ful. Some of the features are the following:

xxx PREFACE

� A Strategic Management Model runs through- out the first 11 chapters as a unifying concept. (Explained in Chapter 1)

� The Strategic Audit, a way to operationalize the strategic decision- making process, serves as a checklist in case analysis. (Chapter 1)

� Corporate governance is examined in terms of the roles, re- sponsibilities, and interactions of top management and the board of directors and includes the impact of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. (Chapter 2)

� Social responsibility and managerial ethics are examined in detail in terms of how they affect strategic decision making. They include the process of stakeholder analysis and the concept of social capital. (Chapter 3)

� Equal emphasis is placed on environmental scan- ning of the societal environment as well as on the task environment. Topics include forecasting and Miles and Snow’s typology in addition to compet- itive intelligence techniques and Porter’s industry analysis. (Chapter 4)

Discretionary

Ethical

LegalEconomic

Social Responsibilities

FIGURE 3–1 Responsibilities

of Business

SOURCE: Based on A. B. Carroll, “A Three Dimensional Conceptual Model of Corporate Performance,” Academy of Management Review (October 1979), pp. 497–505; A. B. Carroll, “Managing Ethically with Global Stakeholders: A Present and Future Challenge,” Academy of Management Executive (May 2004), pp. 114–120; and A. B. Carroll, “The Pyramid of Corporate Social Responsibility: Toward the Moral Management of Organizational Stakeholders,” Business Horizons (July–August 1991), pp. 39–48.

� Core and distinctive competencies are examined within the framework of the resource- based view of the firm. (Chapter 5)

� Organizational analysis includes material on business models, supply chain management, and corporate reputation. (Chapter 5)

� Internal and external strategic factors are emphasized through the use of specially designed EFAS, IFAS, and SFAS tables. (Chapters 4, 5, and 6)

� Functional strategies are examined in light of outsourcing. (Chapter 8)

PREFACE xxxi

� Two chapters deal with issues in strategy implementation, such as organizational and job design plus strategy-manager fit, action planning, corporate culture, and international strate- gic alliances. (Chapters 9 and 10)

� A separate chapter on evaluation and control explains the importance of measurement and incentives to organizational performance. (Chapter 11)

� Suggestions for in-depth case analysis pro- vide a complete listing of financial ratios, rec- ommendations for oral and written analysis, and ideas for further research. (Chapter 12)

xxxii PREFACE

� The Strategic Audit Worksheet is based on the time-tested Strategic Audit and is designed to help students organize and structure daily case preparation in a brief period of time. The worksheet works exceedingly well for checking the level of daily student case preparation—especially for open class dis- cussions of cases. (Chapter 12)

� Special chapters deal with strategic issues in managing technology and innovation, entrepreneurial ventures and small businesses, and not-for-profit organizations. (Web Chapters A, B, and C, respectively) These issues are often ignored by other strategy textbooks, but are available on this book’s Web site at www.pearsonhighered.com/wheelen.

� An experiential exercise focusing on the material covered in each chapter helps the reader to apply strategic concepts to an actual situation.

� A list of key terms and the pages in which they are discussed enable the reader to keep track of important concepts as they are introduced in each chapter.

� Learning objectives begin each chapter. � Each Part ends with a short case that acts to integrate the material discussed within

the previous chapters. � Timely, well-researched, and class-tested cases deal with interesting companies and

industries. Many of the cases are about well-known, publicly held corporations—ideal subjects for further research by students wishing to “update” the cases.

Both the text and the cases have been class-tested in strategy courses and revised based on feedback from students and instructors. The first 11 chapters are organized around a Strategic Management Model that begins each chapter and provides a structure for both content and case analysis. We emphasize those concepts that have proven to be most useful in under- standing strategic decision making and in conducting case analysis. Our goal was to make the text as comprehensive as possible without getting bogged down in any one area. Endnote references are provided for those who wish to learn more about any particular topic. All cases are about actual organizations. The firms range in size from large, established multinationals to small, entrepreneurial ventures, and cover a broad variety of issues. As an aid to case analysis, we propose the Strategic Audit as an analytical technique.

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who is the speaker in sandburg’s grass

Exam: 986828RR – Lesson 5 Poetry, Part 2

When you have completed your exam and reviewed your answers, click Submit Exam. Answers will not be recorded until you hit Submit Exam. If you need to exit before completing the exam, click Cancel Exam.

Questions 1 to 20: Select the best answer to each question. Note that a question and its answers may be split across a page break, so be sure that you have seen the entire question and all the answers before choosing an answer.

1. In the last line of “God’s Grandeur,” we see an unusual and complicated use of A. repetition.

B. consonance.

C. alliteration.

D. assonance.

2. Which one of the following lines is written in iambic pentameter? A. “And sorry I could not travel both”

B. “When the proofs, the figures, were ranged in columns before me”

C. “Not that the pines are darker there”

D. “I lift my lamp beside the golden door”

3. In the poem “God’s Grandeur,” we find the words reck and rod. By analysis we can determine that the word rod probably comes from the Bible and means A. God’s wrath.

B. God’s power.

C. a principle of ethics.

D. a tool of correction.

4. A villanelle is A. a narrative poem written in blank verse.

B. a favorite technique of John Donne.

C. a formal poem using extensive repetition.

D. a type of complex sonnet.

5. A theological argument offered by Donne in “Death Be Not Proud” may be summarized as A. death cannot be overcome.

B. chance and fate rule all.

C. the human essence is immortal.

D. life is illusion.

6. Consider the line “(the soil)/ Is bare now, nor can feet feel, being shod.” By analysis, we deduce that Hopkins means people are out of touch with God because they’re A. out of touch with the earth.

B. depending on worthless machinery.

C. too concerned with property.

D. moving to cities.

7. Emily Dickinson’s poetry was rescued for posterity by A. the residents of Amherst.

B. a cleric from Boston.

C. her secret lover.

D. her sister.

8. Who is the speaker in Sandburg’s “Grass”? A. A conductor

B. A passenger

C. The grass

D. Napoleon

9. In “Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night,” Dylan Thomas’s phrase “wild men” describes A. those who celebrate life.

B. people who deny death.

C. people who embrace death.

D. those who trade dignity for madness.

10. Which poet, who seems be using iambic pentameter, bends the meter most? A. Emily Dickinson

B. Gerard Manley Hopkins

C. Emma Lazarus

D. John Donne

This question is based on the following poem. How Doth the Little Crocodile How doth the little crocodile Improve his shining tail, And pour the waters of the Nile On every golden scale! How cheerfully he seems to grin, How neatly spreads his claws, And welcomes little fishes in With gently smiling jaws!

11. What is the rhyme scheme in “How Doth the Little Crocodile”? A. ABAB ABAB

B. ABBA ABBA

C. ABAB CDCD

D. AABB CCDD

12. Describing the chariot that bears the human soul as “frugal” is an example of A. realism.

B. denotation.

C. paradox.

D. epiphany.

13. The theme of the poem “Richard Cory” is that A. Richard Cory was a victim of fate.

B. a person’s inner reality is often hidden.

C. money can’t buy love.

D. surface glitter may be fool’s gold.

14. One difference between the English sonnet and the Italian sonnet is its A. meter.

B. rhyme scheme.

C. theme.

D. subject matter.

15. Which one of the following poems depends heavily on the use of allusion for effect? A. “Grass”

B. “Death, Be Not Proud”

C. “God’s Grandeur”

D. “Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night”

16. In Donne’s sonnet, what does the phrase “one short sleep past” mean? A. Death is more permanent than sleep.

B. Death is unavoidable.

C. Death comes sooner than expected.

D. Death, like a nap, isn’t permanent.

17. Which one of the following elements is characteristic of the poem “Richard Cory”? A. Sonnet form

B. Surprise ending

C. Blank verse

D. Lack of rhyme scheme

End of exam

18. What type of poem is “Death, Be Not Proud”? A. Narrative

B. Discursive

C. Reflective

D. Descriptive

19. The form of the poem “God’s Grandeur” is that of A. blank verse.

B. an English sonnet.

C. an Italian sonnet.

D. a villanelle.

20. In “The New Colossus,” the Statue of Liberty is compared to a/an A. immigrant.

B. door.

C. mother.

D. European queen.

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mexico’s central plateau is an important region because


  1. Mexico’s Central Plateau is an important region because (1 point)

it is a mountainous region where few people live, but minerals are mined.
most of the country’s people live there.
it is a place where active volcanoes and earthquakes make life difficult.
it has a climate that is pleasant and therefore attracts many tourists.


  1. When El Niño warms the Pacific Ocean, (1 point)

plants grow.
fishing improves.
it does not affect weather on land.
the fishing industry suffers.


  1. Some Caribbean islands are formed from the tops of underwater mountains while others are formed from (1 point)

earthquakes and hurricanes.
the skeletons of tiny sea animals.
active volcanoes.
high, flat plateaus.


  1. The tropical wet and dry climate of the Caribbean is good for farming (1 point)

bananas and sugarcane.
potatoes and tea.
alfalfa and wheat.
corn and apples.


  1. The long mountain chain that runs along the west coast of South America is called the (1 point)

Rockies.
Sierra Nevada.
Andes.
Sierra Madre.


  1. The Amazon River Basin is home to (1 point)

the rolling highlands called pampas.
South America’s gauchos.
the largest tropical rain forest in the world.
the world’s biggest volcano.


  1. Among the factors that affect climate in Latin America are (1 point)

earthquakes, hurricanes, and volcanoes.
elevation, the equator, and wind patterns.
vegetation, elevation, and earthquakes.
El Niño, hurricanes, and volcanoes.


  1. Two South American countries that produce coffee as a key crop are (1 point)

Brazil and Colombia.
Mexico and Cuba.
Paraguay and Argentina.
Nicaragua and Chile.


  1. To reduce their reliance on one natural resource or crop, many Latin American nations have begun to (1 point)

increase exports.
reduce imports.
depend more on oil.
diversify their economies.

  1. The drop in oil prices in the 1980s probably helped to convince Venezuela to
    (1 point)

import more oil.

increase its use of hydroelectricity.

diversity its economy

stop pumping oil.

0 0 641
asked by Anonymous
Mar 30, 2013
I’ll be glad to check your answers.

0 0
👩‍🏫
Ms. Sue
Mar 30, 2013
oops! forgot to put my choices HAHA my bad one sec.

0 0
posted by Anonymous
Mar 30, 2013
here are my answers:
1)B
2)D
3)B
4)A
5)C
6)C
7)D
8)C
9)D
10)A

Ok thanks plz tell me if there correct or not ^.^

1 0
posted by Anonymous
Mar 30, 2013
7, 8, 10 are wrong.

The others are right.

0 0
👩‍🏫
Ms. Sue
Mar 30, 2013

here are my new answers:
7)B
8)A
10)B

umm are these correct now or incorrect???

0 0
posted by Anonymous
Mar 30, 2013
I agree. 🙂

0 0
👩‍🏫
Ms. Sue
Mar 30, 2013
yay!

0 0
posted by Anonymous
Mar 30, 2013
100% YAY THX!!!

0 0
posted by Anonymous
Mar 30, 2013
You’re welcome. 🙂

0 0
👩‍🏫
Ms. Sue
Mar 30, 2013

I did a quiz similar to this!! only some of the questions were the same tho,

0 0
posted by Moon Ember
Apr 26, 2013
STOP CHEATING IDIOT!!
U DON’T GO ON WEB SITES AND POST AN ENTIRE TEST/QUIZ!!!
cheating terd

0 1
posted by Besty
Apr 26, 2013
i am in in 6th grade and i have the same questions , weird….

0 0
posted by glam
May 7, 2014
thnx for the help ms. sue

0 0
posted by Mr. Anon. Y. Mouse
Mar 4, 2015
TEN IS C NOT B

0 0
posted by Mr. Anon. Y. Mouse
Mar 4, 2015

10 is wrong… it is C

0 0
posted by Helper
Mar 10, 2015
Ok guys, I just did the test and got a 100!
The answers are…

  1. B
  2. D
  3. B
  4. A
  5. C
  6. C
  7. B
  8. A
  9. D
    10.C

Remember… 10. is C not B.
Hope this help!!!

0 1
posted by Angel
Mar 13, 2015
I think we should all thank Ms. Su here ;3

0 0
posted by Leafpool
Mar 17, 2015
are you in connections academy, because i have the same quiz with the same questions

0 0
posted by …
Mar 20, 2015
I’m in connections academy and I also have the same quiz weird right

0 0
posted by Rose11
Mar 24, 2015

I JUST GOT 100%!!! THE CORRECT ANSWERS ARE…

  1. B
  2. D
  3. B
  4. A
  5. C
  6. C
  7. B
  8. A
  9. D
    10.C

Hope it helps! ;~}

0 0
posted by …..
Mar 25, 2015
YOU ARE ALL RONG

0 0
posted by Anonymous
Apr 17, 2015
i will never ask mrs. sue for help her answers all all wrong I got a 2/20 on my text !@#$%^& MRS. SUE

0 0
posted by JAYLAN HILL
Apr 27, 2015
U LIED ANGEL U GOT MEH A 2/20

0 0
posted by nate
Apr 27, 2015
Lol get ready for the state test.

Thank you Rock Girl for your kindness.

0 0
posted by Candy
May 2, 2015

hey ms sue i need help my !@#$%^& is limp u think u can help out?

0 0
posted by everyone
May 8, 2015
for those of you that are not sure who to listen to both “…..” and “Angels” answers were correct I got a %100 not lying see for your self

0 0
posted by lilly
Mar 2, 2016
angel is correct

0 0
posted by llp
Mar 16, 2016
Angel is correct!! 🙂 I just took the quiz. Don’t worry you can trust me,I sure don’t lie to other people. ;)Hope you all trust me on this! !
|
*

0 0
posted by #Nataly G
Mar 23, 2016
u were right I jst got a 100

0 0
posted by Deonte
Mar 23, 2016

Omg!!! Guys quit cursing on this site…people need help we r not all that smart!!! I got a 100% thanks!

0 0
posted by Paige
Mar 23, 2016
1.B
2.D
3.C
4.A
5.C
6.C
7.B
8.A
9.D
10.C NOT B

Here are the real answeres i got a 90 but this will give you a 100% because it gave me all the answeres!

0 0
posted by RainbowCandy
Mar 23, 2016
Angel and ….. Are 100% correct for 7b unit 3 lesson 3 for connections academy

0 0
posted by Phoenix
Mar 27, 2016
Angle and …. r right cuz i got a 100% my grade is an A now Yay

0 0
posted by Rebbeca
Mar 29, 2016

  1. is B!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 0 0
    posted by Chumpy
    Mar 30, 2016

chumpy is right 3. is b but rainbow right except 3 got 90/100

0 0
posted by i am who i am
Apr 1, 2016
what is your really name ms sue

0 0
posted by sb
Apr 3, 2016
1)B
2)D
3)B
4)A
5)C
6)C
7)B
8)A
9)D
10)C
I took it then saw That on the 1st person who answered got numbers,7,8 and 10 wrong. I wanted to make sure that this got fixed so hear are the answers. You are going to get 100% by using these answers I promise.

0 1
posted by Lulu
Apr 7, 2016
Angel and ….. are correct ms. sue is a lier

0 0
posted by Slim shaady
Apr 12, 2016
Angel is right I got an 10/10

0 0
posted by The_Meta13
Apr 18, 2016

this is all a lie i would have made a 90 but i came here and made a 10

0 0
posted by Anonymous
May 3, 2016
c not b for number 10

0 0
posted by Anonymous
May 4, 2016
THIS QUESTION HS BEEN GOING FOR 3 YEARS LOL THANKS GUYS FOR THE ANSWERS

0 0
posted by amanda
May 27, 2016
and now I just made it 4

0 0
posted by Anonymous
Feb 13, 2017
i used to first correct answers and i only got 1 right

0 0
posted by tt
Mar 3, 2017

everything is correct but number 6 is c

0 0
posted by hi
Mar 9, 2017
LULU IS RIGHT! i took the test and got 100% 😉

0 0
posted by my name is jeff
Mar 9, 2017
Some of the posts are not nice

0 0
posted by Lol
Mar 14, 2017
I missed 10 and it was C not B but oh well only missing one is ok. 🙂

0 0
posted by Ciel
Mar 16, 2017
Angel is right

0 0
posted by !!!
Mar 16, 2017

MOST RECENT UPDATE: LULU IS CORRECT 100%

3/16/2017

0 0
posted by LULU IS CORRECT
Mar 16, 2017
I just want to comment to the person getting angry about answers posted on this site. I’m grateful for it because I use it to check my son’s work. The lack of integrity is on the person cheating and will show when they test in the classroom and is none of your concern. Worry about yourself. The purpose for this site is to check answers. Thank you for those who answered correctly.

1 0
posted by Kv
Mar 20, 2017
I got a 1/10 🙁

0 0
posted by idk
Mar 21, 2017
1)B
2)D
3)B
4)A
5)C
6)C
7)B
8)A
9)D
10)C

I swear that these are the 100% correct and updated answers. Thank you Lulu! 🙂

0 0
posted by Rose Williams
Mar 21, 2017
I give this 100% approval

Rose Williams,Lulu. are correct

0 0
posted by Jarzzapan
Mar 22, 2017

Thank you, I got 100% by checking my answers against Rose Williams.

0 0
posted by Update!
Mar 22, 2017
thks Angel i got a 100%

0 0
posted by Tony
Mar 23, 2017
what are you guys always cheating Ms. Sue you say cheater r forbidden on this website and this west is always cheating!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

0 1
posted by I hate everyone here
Mar 23, 2017
NUMBER 10 IS C NOT B

0 0
posted by Anonymous
Mar 23, 2017
4 years of fighting new record!

0 0
posted by foxy the pirate fox
Mar 24, 2017

Oh and people who say othar people are wrong they just dont want us to cheat.

0 0
posted by foxy the pirate fox
Mar 24, 2017
Wow…I got them correct….but seriously, if people are going to be like this, i will stop using this. there is no need for cyberbullying, or just being mean. rude and disrespectful. 🙁

0 0
posted by Frosty
Mar 27, 2017
Also, if u are from Connections Academy, you should watch the bullying and cyberbullying videos on BrainPOP. they will make u a much nicer and better person, especially if u insist on being mean.

0 0
posted by FrostyplayROBLOX
Mar 27, 2017
lulu was right i got 100% 🙂

0 0
posted by hasterlover
Mar 27, 2017
rose williams is right i got 100%

0 0
posted by LL
Mar 29, 2017

CAN WE KEEP IT GOING FRO ANOTHER YEAR???? LETS SEE ALL SAVE THIS PAGE AND LETS COMMENT EVERY MONTH

0 0
posted by SugarPie
Mar 29, 2017
Lol so many answers and peeps are still bickering.

0 0
posted by I’m an Acorn
Mar 30, 2017
Lol

0 0
posted by SugarPie
Mar 30, 2017
I wasnt kidding i am commenting every single day

0 0
posted by SugarPie
Mar 31, 2017
lol^^^^^^^^^

0 0
posted by SugarPie
Apr 1, 2017

you didnt do every single day ^^^^

0 0
posted by Natasha
Apr 4, 2017
i know natasha lol

0 0
posted by SugarPie
Apr 5, 2017
Right answers are 100% i swear
A
D
A
C
B
A
C
C
A
D

0 0
posted by Mr.always right
Apr 5, 2017
Mr.always right is wrong. check angels answer shes right. #BAN MR.ALWAYS WRONG

0 0
posted by marx
Apr 7, 2017
1)b
2)d
3)b
4)a
5)c
6)c
7)b
8)a
9)d
10)c

0 0
posted by anon
Apr 20, 2017

I am back :3

0 0
posted by SugarPie
Aug 9, 2017
its been several months but im still here

0 0
posted by SugarPie
Nov 7, 2017
2018!!! WOOOOOO XD

0 0
posted by Olive Sue 😀
Mar 2, 2018
lol btw, the answers for Connexus 6th grade Modern World Studies Lesson 3 Unit 3 (Please trust I would never lie to yall)
1.C
2.B
3.D
4.A
5.A
6.C
7.B
9.A
10.B

0 0
posted by Olive Sue 😀
Mar 2, 2018
u wrong olive

0 0
posted by Anonymous
Mar 8, 2018

PikaCHUUU!!! Rose Williams is 100% correct, for connexus students , Pika, please trust me if you want a 100% on that quiz please!

0 0
posted by Pikachu
Mar 12, 2018
B
D
B
A
C
C
B
A
D
C
I promise you on my life these are right!!! 10/10

0 0
posted by I hate online school so imma help the rest of y’all
Mar 13, 2018
Thank you for the help! Angel and …. are completely 100% correct. I couldn’t have done it without you…actually I could’ve I just didn’t…

0 0
posted by MustStayAnonymus
Mar 13, 2018
Trust “….”. 100%

0 0
posted by Wolves and Foxes
Mar 15, 2018
Connections Education
Lesson 3: Resources and Land Use
Social Studies 7 B Unit 3: Build a Regional Background: Latin America


  1. Mexico’s Central Plateau is an important region because (1 point)

it is a mountainous region where few people live, but minerals are mined.
most of the country’s people live there.
it is a place where active volcanoes and earthquakes make life difficult.
it has a climate that is pleasant and therefore attracts many tourists.


  1. When El Niño warms the Pacific Ocean, (1 point)

plants grow.
fishing improves.
it does not affect weather on land.
the fishing industry suffers.


  1. Some Caribbean islands are formed from the tops of underwater mountains while others are formed from (1 point)

earthquakes and hurricanes.
the skeletons of tiny sea animals.
active volcanoes.
high, flat plateaus.


  1. The tropical wet and dry climate of the Caribbean is good for farming (1 point)

bananas and sugarcane.
potatoes and tea.
alfalfa and wheat.
corn and apples.


  1. The long mountain chain that runs along the west coast of South America is called the (1 point)

Rockies.
Sierra Nevada.
Andes.
Sierra Madre.


  1. The Amazon River Basin is home to (1 point)

the rolling highlands called pampas.
South America’s gauchos.
the largest tropical rain forest in the world.
the world’s biggest volcano.


  1. Among the factors that affect climate in Latin America are (1 point)

earthquakes, hurricanes, and volcanoes.
elevation, the equator, and wind patterns.
vegetation, elevation, and earthquakes.
El Niño, hurricanes, and volcanoes.


  1. Two South American countries that produce coffee as a key crop are (1 point)

Brazil and Colombia.
Mexico and Cuba.
Paraguay and Argentina.
Nicaragua and Chile.


  1. To reduce their reliance on one natural resource or crop, many Latin American nations have begun to (1 point)

increase exports.
reduce imports.
depend more on oil.
diversify their economies.

  1. The drop in oil prices in the 1980s probably helped to convince Venezuela to
    (1 point)

import more oil.

increase its use of hydroelectricity.

diversity its economy

stop pumping oil.

1 b most of the country’s people live there.
2 d the fishing industry suffers.
3 b the skeletons of tiny sea animals
4 a bananas and sugarcane
5 c Andes
6 c the largest tropical rainforest in the world
7 b elevation, the equator, and wind patterns.
8 a Brazil and Colombia
9 d diversify their economies.
10 c diversity its economy

1 0
posted by Kit-Kat
Mar 16, 2018

Angel got me a 4/10, my mom’s going to flip 🙂

0 0
posted by wow
Mar 19, 2018
kit-kat is right listen to them

0 0
posted by Annie
Mar 19, 2018
kit kat is wrong I got 1 out of 10

0 0
posted by aswd at connexus
Mar 20, 2018
ROSE and LULU are 100% correct for SS 7B Unit 3 Lesson 3

1.B
2.D
3.B
4.A
5.C
6.C
7.B
8.A
9.D
10.C

I swear this is 100% correct

0 0
posted by Lexi Wonder
Mar 21, 2018
Somehow this reminds me of Roblox Chat

0 0
posted by LEL NO NAME FOR YOU
Apr 4, 2018

@LEL NO NAME FOR YOU
same, lol
But …. does have the correct answers for connexus.

0 0
posted by Vixen-Connexus
Apr 4, 2018
wooopde doo. This is still going on April!! AYYY

0 0
posted by M i l e s
Apr 9, 2018
It does remind me of roblox chat except people can cuss without tags

0 0
posted by aswd at connexus
Apr 17, 2018
10 is C not B got a 9/10 because the previous answers

0 0
posted by Emily
May 1, 2018
yasss 2019 peeps who do i believe to check my answers?

0 0
posted by connexus student
Mar 18, 2019

I SWEAR ON EVERYTHING THAT THE ANSWERS ARE WRONG I GOT A 10% DO NOT LISTEN TO THEM ITS ALL WRONGGGGGG

0 0
posted by me
Mar 18, 2019
Yall are omg. Skip Number 1 the answer for number 1 is c
And then plug in the answers that they give you.
6b Unit 3 lesson unit 3 is
c
b
d
b
a
c
c
b
a
d
(KEEP IN MIND THIS IS FOR THE SIXTH GRADE QUIZ THAT IS SIMILLAR TWO SEVENTH BESIDES 2 QUESTIONS 1 And 10 Are diffrent

0 0
posted by nun ya
Mar 26, 2019
OMG THX!!!

0 0
posted by Graciebway
Mar 27, 2019
Respond to this Question
First Name

Your Response

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More Similar Questions

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the net price equivalent rate of 9/15/18 is:

Bus. Math
What is the net price equivalent Rate of 9-15/18?

a) .63427
b) .36427
c) .63573
d) .36573

Answer: B?

1 0 827
asked by Ash
Mar 23, 2016
What is a rate of 9-15/18?

Did you mean consecutive discounts of 9%, 15%, and 18% ?

if so final percentage
= .91(.85)(.82) = .63427
or 63.427% of the original price

looks like b) is correct and you are right.

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Mar 23, 2016

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network design proposals

You have been hired as part of the networking team at UMUC. After completing orientation and training in your first week, your manager calls you into a meeting to discuss your first project.

The university has recently leased a building in Adelphi, Maryland. The building will house some offices, classrooms, a library, and computer labs. Security is very important for UMUC, as the university must protect students’ and employees’ data, as well as any intellectual property that UMUC has on its servers and computers. As a result, IT management would like to take the time to review some proposals on how best to move forward. As a network engineer, you have been asked to prepare a network proposal on how to set up a secure network infrastructure in this new building to support university operations.

After speaking to your manager, you are excited about the project, but you realize you will have a busy schedule. As you write your proposal, you will also have to prepare for the Network+ Certification exam. One of the conditions of your employment at this company is that you obtain this certification within 60 days of being hired. You will have to manage your time wisely, because you will have to take a practice certification test just as you are completing your final project.

In this learning demonstration, you will use the TestOut Network Pro (LabSim) to learn about the different types of networks and how to configure them. These activities will prepare you for the CompTIA Network+ Certification exam. In order to identify your strengths and weaknesses, you will first complete the Network+ Certification Practice exam. The practice exam is designed to assess your preparedness for the CompTIA Network+ certification exam. Then, during the course of the next eight weeks, as you step through each set of activities in LabSim, you will also be drafting sections of your design proposal.

Use the results of the certification practice exam you took at the beginning of the class to help guide you on which areas within LabSim you should pay closer attention to. You must complete all online labs in LabSim; these are the activities with the computer mouse icon. Some of the other areas in LabSim are optional. You can complete any or all of those if you feel you need to learn more about the topics at hand.

To get started, follow the steps below.

OVERVIEW

you will provide detailed network design proposal. Your task is to design the network for this new building with the following criteria:

·         Student-accessed computers should be on separate network from the staff-accessed computers. Computers for public use should be on a separate network.

·         There must be a minimum of 40 Mbps Internet connection, with a backup line capable of at least 20Mbps. Cable, DSL, or FIOS should not be used for primary Internet service.

·         The network should use physical cable, not wireless. But do provide wireless access in the Student Lobby area (second-floor hallway). Set the maximum simultaneous wireless users to 254.

·         The network has been assigned the 10.11.12.0/23 network address for all computers and devices

Your proposal should have three major sections:

1.    Physical Network Design

2.    Network Addressing

3.    Network Services Design

To learn how you will be assessed on this assignment, please take a moment to review the rubric.  The final deliverable should adhere to the following criteria:

·         Include at least five scholarly references.

·         Use IEEE-style citation.

·         Use correct network terminology.

·         The use of diagrams is encouraged.

Use this template as a guide while creating your final deliverable.

Physical Network Design

In this section, address each of the following.

1.    Define the topology that will be used.

2.    Select the appropriate network media.

3.    Select the appropriate network connecting devices, including network security devices.

4.    Select the appropriate computer systems to use to support the network design.

5.    Determine a physical layout of the computers on the floor plan, along with the network wires (network wiring diagram).

6.    Provide justifications for each element of your network design (numbers 1–4 above)

Network Addressing

In this section, address each of the following.

1.    Define the subnets (based on rooms, floor, department, or other criteria).

2.    For each subnet, explain which devices/‌groups/‌users/‌rooms will be on this subnet, define the network address, subnet mask, and available IP addresses to be used by computers or devices.

Network Services Design

In this section, address each of the following.

1.    Identify network services needed.

2.    List additional servers or network devices needed to implement the network.

3.    List network security measures to be implemented.

4.    Justify the need for the network services, security measures, and devices you’ve selected.

5.    

6. Building Details

7. –

The 50-year-old, two-story building has the following layout:

Building dimensions: Length: 240 Feet, Width: 95 Feet, Height: 30 Feet

The building will house six computer labs that will be used for instruction. In the building diagrams above, the labs are labeled Classroom #1, Classroom #2, and Classroom #4 on the first floor and Classroom #1, Classroom #2, and Classroom #5 on the second floor; each computer lab will have a closet.  Each lab will have 32 computers: 30 student computers, 1 instructor computer, and 1 server in the closet for instructional use.

In addition, there will be a Student Computer Lab that will provide computer access to students to do their homework. There will be 50 computers in this lab and a server in the closet. To allow students access to library resources, the library will also have 10 computers for students and 5 computers for library staff.

Finally, there are various offices in the building. Each of these offices will have one computer for staff use, with the exception of the admissions office, which will have five computers. There will be two server rooms, one on the first floor and one on the second floor.

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william f baxter addresses environmental ethics by noting

Help your students think outside the classroom impact of environmental ethics issues Updated several times a day, Cengage Learning’s Global Environmental Ethics Watch is an ideal one-stop site for classroom discussion and research projects.

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Environmental Ethics

An Introduction to Environmental Philosophy

F I FTH ED IT ION

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One summer morning, while driving through the countryside, my four-year-old son asked, “Daddy, what are trees good for?” Sensing a precious moment of parenthood,

I began gently to explain that as living things they don’t need to be good for anything, but that trees do provide homes to many other living things, that they make and

clean the air that we breathe, that they can be majestic and beautiful. “But daddy,” he said, “I’m a scientist and I know more than you because you forgot the most

important thing. Trees are good for climbing.” I hope that I have not missed too many other such obvious truths in writing

this book, which I dedicate to Michael and Matthew.

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Contents

PREFACE x i

I Basic Concepts 1

1 Science, Politics, and Ethics 3

Discussion: Global Climate Change 3

Discussion Topics 6

1.1 Introduction: Why Philosophy? 6

1.2 Science and Ethics 8

1.3 Philosophy, Politics, and Ethical Relativism 15

1.4 Environmental Ethics: An Overview 16

1.5 Summary 18

Notes 19

Discussion Questions 19

Global Environmental Ethics Watch 20

2 Ethical Theories and the Environment 21

Discussion: Why Protect Endangered Species? 21

Discussion Topics 22

2.1 Introduction 23

2.2 Philosophial Ethics: Getting Comfortable with the Topic 24

2.3 The Natural Law Tradition—Teleology and Virtues 27

2.4 Contemporary Perspectives on Teleology 30

2.5 The Utilitarian Tradition 33

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2.6 Contemporary Perspectives on Utilitarianism 36

2.7 Deontology: An Ethics of Duty and Rights 37

2.8 Contemporary Perspectives on Deontological Ethics 38

2.9 Environmental Ethics and Religious Principles 40

The Good of God’s Creation 41

Finding the Divine in Nature 41

The Ultimate Respect for and Value of Life 42

Social Justice Ministries 42

Stewardship 43

2.10 Summary and Conclusions 43

Notes 44

Discussion Questions 44

Global Environmental Ethics Watch 45

II Environmental Ethics as Applied Ethics 47

3 Ethics and Economics: Managing Public Lands 49

Discussion: BP’s Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill 49

Discussion Topics 50

3.1 Introduction 51

3.2 Conservation or Preservation? 51

3.3 Managing the National Forests 54

3.4 Pollution and Economics 59

3.5 Ethical Issues in Economic Analysis 62

3.6 Cost-Benefit Analysis 64

3.7 Ethical Analysis and Environmental Economics 66

3.8 Summary and Conclusions 71

Notes 71

Discussion Questions 73

Global Environmental Ethics Watch 73

4 Sustainability and Responsibilities to the Future 74

Discussion: Sustainability: Fad or Future? 74

Discussion Topics 76

4.1 Introduction 77

4.2 Do We Have Responsibilities to Future Generations? 78

4.3 What do We Owe Future Generations? 81

4.4 Consumption and Sustainable Development 88

4.5 Summary and Conclusions 92

vi CONTENTS

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Notes 92

Discussion Questions 94

Global Environmental Ethics Watch 94

5 Responsibilities to the Natural World: From Anthropocentric to Nonanthropocentric Ethics 95

Discussion: Industrial Farming: Mass Producing Animals as Food 95

Discussion Topics 97

5.1 Introduction 97

5.2 Moral Standing in the Western Tradition 98

5.3 Early Environmental Ethics 101

5.4 Moral Standing 105

5.5 Do Trees Have Standing? 108

5.6 Peter Singer and the Animal Liberation Movement 110

5.7 Tom Regan and Animal Rights 112

5.8 Ethical Implications of Animal Welfare 114

5.9 Critical Challenges 115

5.10 Summary and Conclusions 119

Notes 119

Discussion Questions 121

Global Environmental Ethics Watch 122

III Theories of Environmental Ethics 123

6 Biocentric Ethics and the Inherent Value of Life 125

Discussion: Synthetic Biology and the Value of Life 125

Discussion Topics 127

6.1 Introduction 127

6.2 Instrumental Value and Intrinsic Value 129

6.3 Biocentric Ethics and the Reverence for Life 132

6.4 Ethics and Character 135

6.5 Taylor’s Biocentric Ethics 136

6.6 Practical Implications 140

6.7 Challenges and Developments 143

6.8 Summary and Conclusions 145

Notes 146

Discussion Questions 147

Global Environmental Ethics Watch 148

CONTENTS vii

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7 Wilderness, Ecology, and Ethics 149

Discussion: Wilderness Management: Fighting Fires in Yellowstone 149

Discussion Topics 151

7.1 Introduction 151

7.2 The Wilderness Ideal 153

7.3 The Wilderness “Myth”: The Contemporary Debate 157

7.4 From Ecology to Philosophy 163

7.5 From Ecology to Ethics 169

7.6 Varieties of Holism 171

7.7 Summary and Conclusions 173

Notes 173

Discussion Questions 175

Global Environmental Ethics Watch 176

8 The Land Ethic 177

Discussion: Hunting, Ethics, and the Environment 177

Discussion Topics 178

8.1 Introduction 179

8.2 The Land Ethic 180

8.3 Leopold’s Holism 183

8.4 Criticisms of the Land Ethic: Facts and Values 185

8.5 Criticisms of the Land Ethic: Holistic Ethics 189

8.6 Callicott’s Revisions 195

8.7 Summary and Conclusions 199

Notes 200

Discussion Questions 201

Global Environmental Ethics Watch 202

9 Radical Environmental Philosophy: Deep Ecology and Ecofeminism 203

Discussion: Environmental Activism or Ecoterrorism? 203

Discussion Topics 205

9.1 Introduction 205

9.2 Deep Ecology 207

9.3 The Deep Ecology Platform 208

9.4 Metaphysical Ecology 209

9.5 From Metaphysics to Ethics 212

9.6 Self-Realization And Biocentric Equality 216

viii CONTENTS

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9.7 Criticisms of Deep Ecology 218

9.8 Ecofeminism: Making Connections 221

9.9 Ecofeminism: Recent Developments 224

9.10 Summary and Conclusions 227

Notes 228

Discussion Questions 231

Global Environmental Ethics Watch 231

10 Environmental Justice and Social Ecology 232

Discussion: Environmental Refugees 232

Discussion Topics 233

10.1 Introduction 233

10.2 Property Rights and Libertarian Justice 234

10.3 Justice as Fairness 238

10.4 Environmental Justice and Environmental Racism 240

10.5 Murray Bookchin’s Social Ecology 243

10.6 Critical Reflections 246

10.7 Summary and Conclusions 248

Notes 249

Discussion Questions 251

Global Environmental Ethics Watch 252

11 Pluralism, Pragmatism, and Sustainability 253

Discussion: Carbon Mitigation and Stabilization Wedges 253

Discussion Topics 254

11.1 Introduction: Agreement and Disagreement in Environmental Ethics 255

11.2 Moral Pluralism and Moral Monism 256

11.3 Environmental Pragmatism 259

11.4 Conclusion: Sustainability Revisited 263

Notes 265

Global Environmental Ethics Watch 265

GLOSSARY 267

INDEX 271

CONTENTS ix

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Preface

One winter evening some years ago, I reread Aldo Leopold’s A Sand CountyAlmanac. This occurred a few months after I had moved to rural Minnesota from suburban Philadelphia. I came upon Leopold’s entry for February:

There are two spiritual dangers in not owning a farm. One is the danger of supposing that breakfast comes from the grocery, and the other that heat comes from the furnace. To avoid the first danger, one should plant a garden, preferably where there is no grocer to confuse the issue. To avoid the second, he should lay a split of good oak on the andirons, preferably where there is no furnace.

This passage struck me in a way that it never could have had I still been living in a metropolitan area. The fact that it was 27 degrees below zero outside, and I was sitting in front of a roaring oak fire might have had something to do with this. I recognized that there are more than just two spiritual dangers in not owning a farm; one other concerns divorcing your life from your work. That evening, I realized that teaching courses on environmental and ecological issues would mean more to me now, personally and professionally, than it could have in the city. This book grows out of a commitment to integrate more fully my life with my work.

The primary aim of this book is simple: to provide a clear, systematic, and comprehensive introduction to the philosophical issues underlying environmen- tal and ecological controversies. At the beginning of the twenty-first century, it is fair to say that human beings face environmental challenges unprecedented in the history of this planet. Largely through human activity, the very climate of the Earth is changing, and life on Earth faces the greatest mass extinctions since the end of the dinosaur age sixty-five million years ago. The natural resources that sustain life on this planet—air, water, and soil—are being polluted or depleted at alarming rates. Human population growth is increasing exponentially. When the first edition of this book was begun in 1990, the world population was 5.5 billion people.

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By 2012 it will have grown to 7 billion, a 27 percent increase in just over twenty years. The prospects for continued degradation and depletion of natural resources multiply with this population growth. Toxic wastes that will plague future genera- tions continue to accumulate worldwide. The world’s wilderness areas—its forests, wetlands, mountains, and grasslands—are being developed, paved, drained, burned, and overgrazed out of existence.

The tendency in our culture is to treat such issues as simply scientific, techno- logical, or political problems. But they are much more than that. These environ- mental and ecological controversies raise fundamental questions about what we as human beings value, about the kind of beings we are, the kinds of lives we should live, our place in nature, and the kind of world in which we might flourish. In short, environmental problems raise fundamental questions of ethics and philosophy. This book seeks to provide a systematic introduction to these philosophical issues.

OVERVIEW

A significant amount of philosophically interesting and important research on environmental and ecological issues has been conducted during the past few dec- ades. The structure of this book reflects the way the fields of environmental ethics and environmental philosophy have developed during that period.

Two initial chapters introduce the relevance of philosophy for environmental concerns and some traditional ethical theories and principles. Chapters 3 and 4 sur- vey topics that essentially fit an “applied ethics” model. Traditional philosophical theories and methodologies are applied to environmental issues with the aim of clarification and evaluation. The applied ethics model, it seems to me, accounts for much of the early work in environmental ethics.

Philosophers soon recognized that traditional theories and principles were inadequate to deal with new environmental challenges. In response, philosophers began to extend traditional concepts and principles, so that they might become environmentally relevant. Chapter 5 examines attempts to extend moral standing to such things as individual animals, future generations, trees, and other natural objects. Within much of this thinking, traditional theories and principles remain essentially intact, but their scope and range are extended to cover topics not previously explored by philosophers.

Many philosophers working in this field have come to believe that ethical extensionism is an inadequate philosophical response to environmental issues and controversies. To many of these thinkers, traditional ethical theories and principles are part of a worldview that has been responsible for much environmental and ecological destruction. What is needed, in their eyes, is a more radical philosophi- cal approach that includes rethinking metaphysical, epistemological, and political, as well as ethical, concepts. At this point, the field once identified as environmental ethics is better conceived of as environmental philosophy. The final seven chapters examine more comprehensive environmental and ecological philosophies. These views include biocentrism (the view that all living things deserve moral standing),

xii PREFACE

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ecocentrism (the view that shifts away from traditional environmental concerns to a more holistic and ecological focus), deep ecology, social ecology, and ecofeminism.

THE FIFTH EDITION

One strong temptation in writing a new edition is to create a much longer book. Keeping pace with new developments, including all the latest cases and environ- mental controversies, and embracing new ideas would all lead one to include more and more material. But one important lesson we learn from ecology is to recognize that not every change is an improvement and not all growth is devel- opment. My primary goal for this book remains what it was in the first edition, now nearly twenty years ago: to provide a clear and concise introduction to the philosophical issues underlying environmental controversies. This book has proved popular for use in courses taught outside of philosophy, which I take as some measure of success in achieving this goal.

This new edition attempts to respond to suggestions and advice from faculty and students who have been using this book. I owe a great debt to all the generous people who have contributed recommendations for this edition. The primary goal of this new edition is to keep apace of recent developments in the field, without sacrificing the original goal of writing a concise introductory text. I continue to seek a balance between philosophical depth and practical relevance. Admittedly, students do not always appreciate the details of philosophical debates and would rather we “get to the point.” But if there is any lesson to be drawn from the present political climate of rancorous partisan disagreement, it is that the world needs more, not less, careful and considered judgment.

Changes to this edition include new or significantly revised and updated dis- cussion cases at the start of most chapters. New material includes cases on global climate change, BP’s Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill, Synthetic Biology, Animals and Food, Sustainability, Hunting, Environmental Refugees, and Carbon Mitigation. I hope this new material will keep the book fresh for students and faculty alike. But the same basic format remains. Previous editions developed what has proven to be a coherent structure for presenting and teaching the content of environmental ethics and, for the most part, I have kept that structure as is.

But I have also done some minor restructuring of this edition to achieve greater clarity and coherence. I have combined the previous Chapter 9 (Deep Ecology) and Chapter 11 (Ecofeminsim) into a single chapter. I agree with reviewers who believe that neither field has developed much in the past decade, and that the material was no longer as cutting-edge as it had been. But both deep ecology and ecofeminism present intriguing and philosophically interesting perspectives that deserve attention, and each has had a significant impact on contemporary environmentalism. I have combined them into a single chapter because each is an example of a type of envi- ronmentalism—what I call radical environmentalism—which rejects reform in favour of more dramatic, radical social change.

PREFACE xiii

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Careful readers will notice several other minor changes. The section on eth- ical relativism has been moved from the chapter on ethical theory (Chapter 2) into Chapter 1, so that it can be included in a new section on “Philosophy, Politics, and Ethical Relativism.” Chapter 1 also discusses the present partisan political climate in that same context, and backs away from a previous concern with an over-reliance on science in setting environmental policy. If only that were now the case that I thought it was two decades ago.

Finally, what previously was an epilogue has become a more extended discussion of pluralism, pragmatism, and sustainability. When I first added the epi- logue, issues of pluralism and pragmatism were just emerging as a serious topic among environmental philosophers. I have tried to extend this discussion to include some final reflections on sustainability. It seems to me that while theorists continue to debate the relative merits of various environmental philosophies, the issue that motivates us all—environmental destruction—marches on. The philosophical debates concerning pluralism and pragmatism, in my opinion, share with the issue of sustainable development an urgent need that something be done in the mean- time. Those who address these three topics seek a reasoned way to proceed even when a unified consensus on more theoretical issues remains elusive.

TO STUDENTS AND TEACHERS

Writing a book like this carries two intellectual dangers. One is the danger of supposing that students are as motivated by and interested in abstract philosophical issues as their teachers. The other is that in pointing to the immense practical relevance of environmental ethics, I ignore or understate the importance of care- ful and rigorous conceptual analysis. I have tried to address these dangers in a number of ways.

Each chapter begins with a description of a contemporary environmental controversy that can be used as an entry into the philosophical discussion that follows. These discussion cases describe issues that are at the forefront of the con- temporary environmental scene, and they implicitly raise fundamental ethical and philosophical questions. My hope is that after some directed reflection and discussion, students will see the need to address philosophical questions in devel- oping their own environmental and ecological positions. Each chapter also ends with a series of discussion questions that can be used either as the basis for a chapter review or as the basis for further study.

To avoid the second danger, I have tried to follow the philosophical debates far enough to provide an accurate example of how philosophers reason and how reasoning can make progress. There can be no substitute for a careful study and reading of the many primary sources that I have used in this book. But the nature of this book requires that these debates not be so comprehensive that readers get lost in, or bored by, the detail.

I have not always been successful in my own teaching at balancing a relevant introduction to the issues with an in-depth analysis. Without a clear context to

xiv PREFACE

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motivate the need to know, students often get lost in philosophical analysis. On the other hand, without depth, students can become convinced too easily that they now know all the answers. Class time spent providing context, of course, takes away from time spent developing analysis; time spent following through on the debates prevents the forest from being seen for all the trees.

I wrote this book to address that tension. I suspect that for many teachers, the book provides a context and introduction, allowing them to use class time for fuller development of selected issues. They might do this in a number of ways: by reading classic or contemporary primary sources; by studying more empirical resources such as the Worldwatch publications; by keeping current on environ- mental controversies on the Web; by using some of the many excellent videos on environmental topics that are now available; and by addressing the claims of more activist groups ranging from the Sierra Club to Earth First!. However individual instructors choose to develop their courses, I hope that this book can provide a context to ensure that students remain as connected to the important philosophical issues as they so often are to the practical environmental ones.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I owe my greatest debts to those thinkers who are doing the original research in this field. I have tried to acknowledge their work at every turn, but if I have missed someone, I hope this general acknowledgment will suffice.

Through the years many reviewers have provided thorough, insightful, and tremendously helpful advice. Some have been willing to help on more than one occasion, and I must especially acknowledge Claudia Card of the University of Wisconsin, Arthur Millman of the University of Massachusetts in Boston, and Ellen Klein of the University of North Florida. Although their advice improved this book immeasurably, the usual disclaimers of responsibility apply. I have espe- cially benefited from advice offered by Holmes Rolston and Ernie Diedrich. My thanks also to previous edition reviewers Mary Brentwood, California State University, Sacramento; Douglas Browning, University of Texas, Austin; Larry D. Harwood, Viterbo University; Ned Hettinger, College of Charleston; Donald Hubin, Ohio State University; Dale Jamieson, University of Colorado; Kathie Jenni, University of Redlands; Sheldon Krimsky, Tufts University; Donald C. Lee, University of New Mexico; Eugene G. Maurakis, University of Richmond; Jon McGregor, Arizona State University; Greg Peterson, South Dakota State University; Wade Robinson, Rochester Institute of Technology; Arthur Skidmore, Kansas University; William O. Stephens, Creighton University; Charles Taliaferro, Saint Olaf College; Eugene Troxell, San Diego State University; and Charles Verharen, Howard University. And thanks to the new edition reviewers Benita Beamon, University of Washington; Joseph Chartkoff, Michigan State University; Johnna Fisher, University of British Columbia; Andre Goddu, Stonehill College; Gail Grabowsky, Chaminade University; Benjamin Hale, University of Colorado; Susan Mooney, Stonehill College; Paul Ott, Loyola University, Chicago; Kyle

PREFACE xv

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Powys, Michigan State University; Patrick Walsh, University of Manitoba; Wei-Ming Wu, Butte College; and Jason Wyckoff, Marquette University.

My students at the College of St. Benedict and St. John’s University worked through early versions of this text. We were all students in those classes, and their comments helped substantively and pedagogically. The College of St. Benedict provided financial support for research during the writing of this book. Everyone associated with Wadsworth Publishing has once again provided generous, skillful, and intelligent support.

Global Environmental Ethics Watch

Updated several times a day, the Global Environmental Ethics Watch is a focused portal into GREENR—our Global Reference on the Environment, Energy, and Natural Resources—an ideal one-stop site for classroom discussion and research projects. This resource center keeps courses up-to-date with the most current news on environmental ethics. Users get access to information from trusted aca- demic journals, news outlets, and magazines, as well as statistics, an interactive world map, videos, primary sources, case studies, podcasts, and much more. Please contact your Cengage Learning Representative for information on how to get your students access to the Global Environmental Ethics Watch.

xvi PREFACE

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P A R T I

Basic Concepts

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1

Science, Politics, and Ethics

DISCUSSION: Global Climate Change

Scientists have long known that carbon dioxide is one of several atmospheric gases, along with water vapor, ozone, methane, and nitrous oxide which are responsible for maintaining stability in the Earth’s temperature. These so-called “greenhouse gases” function much as the glass in a greenhouse, which admits warming sunlight while preventing the warmer air from radiating back outside. This greenhouse effect is the reigning scientific explanation for how the atmo- sphere regulates the Earth’s temperature.

For over a century it has been under- stood that human activities, primarily those associated with burning fossil fuels in automobiles and industry, have been adding significant amounts of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is a major by-product of burning fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and gasoline, and as human use of such fuels has increased, so too has the amount of carbon dioxide increased. By the 1980s,

some observers were claiming that increases in greenhouse gases could lead, and likely was leading, to an increase in global temperatures, or “global warming.” Many people predicted that an increase in global temperatures would cause considerable environmental dam- age and human suffering and, as a result, recommended policy changes to minimize the use of fossil fuels and otherwise limit the discharge of greenhouse gases.

The natural process associated with global warming is straightforward. Sunlight strikes the Earth’s surface and is radiated back as heat into the atmo- sphere. The Earth’s atmosphere is com- posed primarily of nitrogen (78 percent) and oxygen (21 percent). But many of the remaining trace elements, especially carbon dioxide, water vapor, methane, and ozone, have molecular structures that absorb the radiated heat and reflect it back into the atmosphere and back onto the Earth. The initial global warming

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hypothesis claimed that because green- house gases trap heat in the atmosphere, an increase in the amount of greenhouse gases will result in an increase in the heat reflected back, thus increasing global temperature. In turn, an increase in global temperature could lead to such conse- quences as a rise in ocean levels due to melting of snow and ice in the Earth’s polar regions, climatic shifts, worldwide droughts and famine, shifts in oceanic currents, and massive extinctions of plant and animal life as a result of ecosystem disruptions.

Given such dire predictions, many environmentalists have advocated for significant policy and lifestyle changes, particularly involving reduction in CO2 emissions. Many recommended that countries should reduce their reliance on fossil fuels and support international treaties mandating CO2 reductions. Gov- ernments should create incentive pro- grams to reduce the use of carbon-based fuels, including taxes and carbon-trading credits. Governments should also provide incentives and subsidies for alternative energy sources. Institutions such as busi- nesses and universities should pledge to become “carbon-neutral.” Virtually every aspect of modern industrial economies would be affected by policies aimed at reducing carbon emissions.

Critics have challenged each step in this line of reasoning. While some early critics challenged the very idea of a greenhouse effect or the reality of increasing global temperatures, more recent critics have focused on the role of human activities in increasing the green- house effect and affecting climate change. While any cold spell or blizzard will be cited by some as evidence against global warming, scientific data has increasingly persuaded most observers that average overall global temperatures are increasing, even if not everyone agrees on the significance of the increase. Skeptics tend now to suggest that fluc- tuations in CO2 and other greenhouse gas levels are within normal limits when viewed over the long range. They suggest that the Earth’s climate has always fluc- tuated, and there is nothing to show that any changes presently occurring are not

within this normal range or that they are caused by humans. Many critics also dispute the catastrophic predictions based on the alleged fact of global warming. For example, increased temperatures could result in greater cloud cover due to increased evaporation, thereby reducing the overall amount of sunlight that reaches the Earth’s surface, thus reducing temperatures. Increasing temperatures could simply shift global climate making previously inhospitable areas more tem- perate and livable. The bottom line is that no one knows for certain what slightly increased global temperatures will bring about. Whatever changes occur will occur slowly, thereby giving the ever-adaptable human species plenty of time to adapt.

Further, critics reject many of the pro- posed policy changes that are offered by defenders of global warming. Less devel- oped countries argue that the costs of any reduction in worldwide CO2 levels will fall disproportionately on the poor. Having achieved high standards of living through fossil-fuel based economies, the rich now want to limit economic development of poorer countries in the name of reducing their carbon footprint. Furthermore, the economic changes required by a massive shift away from fossil fuels are likely to create as many new problems as would be avoided and, frankly, there really is no viable alternative to coal, natural gas, and oil to power the Earth’s economies.

As these debates developed, there has been a shift away from the language of “global warming” in favor of the lan- guage of “global climate change.” The rationale is that global warming refers to the average mean surface temperature, while global climate change refers to a broad range of climatic changes that would result from an increase in the average global temperature. Predictions made decades ago that increasing atmo- spheric carbon dioxide would lead to an increase in global temperatures have been proven true. But the consequences of those increased average temperatures are still evolving. An increase in greenhouse gases and an increase in overall average surface temperature does not necessarily result in warmer temperatures every- where and at all times. The complex

4 PART I BASIC CONCEPTS

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relationships between air temperature, rainfall, ocean temperature, ocean cur- rents, and ocean levels could result in weather patterns that include lower tem- peratures in some places and fiercer win- ter storms. Defenders of this language change claim that greater clarity and pre- cision can be brought to these debates by speaking of global climate change rather than global warming.

Critics see this as a rhetorical ploy to shift attention away from lack of evidence for warming and allow environmentalists to claim that any change in the weather or climate is evidence for the result of increased CO2 emissions. If every weather event can be claimed as evidence of global climate change, then this alleged problem can never be tested and this suggests that it is not a scientifically validated empirical claim after all. In addition, while “global climate change” rhetorically suggests major and catastrophic changes, the fact is that the global climate is constantly changing and always has. Global climate change is the norm, not the problem it is made out to be.

At first glance, it might appear that debates about global warming are pri- marily scientific debates. The greenhouse effect would seem to involve questions about such phenomena as solar radiation and the structure of certain molecules in such science disciplines as atmospheric science, physics, and chemistry. Science would also seem to be the proper domain for determining the degree to which human activity is causing an increase in CO2 and other greenhouse gases. By measuring and comparing such things as the amount of CO2 at various levels of the polar ice cap or the growth rate found in the rings of old or fossilized trees, scien- tists can determine the degree of correla- tion between the amount of atmospheric CO2 and global temperatures in earlier periods of Earth’s history. Using such cor- relations, science predicts future tem- peratures based on anticipated CO2 levels. Over shorter terms, science can also trace trends in global temperatures, relative size of glaciers, ocean levels and tem- peratures, and habitat change, especially in northern climates.

In other words, resolving debates about global warming would seem to be

a matter of determining the facts, and facts, as we usually understand things, are the proper domain of science. If we simply do more and better science, gather more data, establish greater patterns of correlation and causality, and confirm more predictions, we will arrive at stron- ger conclusions and reach consensus on policy options. Many also conclude that if there is a scientific consensus on the facts of global warming and climate change, the practical conclusions for what we ought to do about it logically follow.

But despite increasing scientific study, disputes remain, and they remain because debates about global warming are not simply about the science and facts. Espe- cially within the United States, global warming has emerged as something of a political litmus test, as partisan as debates over big government, taxes, and abortion. One’s view on global warming seems to be determined as much by one’s political beliefs as by the facts. A 2008 Gallup poll reported that the gap between Democrats and Republicans has steadily increased during the past decade on such statements as “the effects of global warming have already begun,” “global warming is due more to human activities than natural causes,” and “global warming is occurring.” In each case, Republicans are much less convinced by the science of global warming than Democrats. The Congressional elections of 2010 produced Republican leaders who made skepticism about global warming a central political tenet. Within a month of becoming the new chairman of the House Energy and Commerce Committee, Congressman Fred Upton denied that climate change is human caused. Republican Congressman John Shimkus, who sits on both the House Energy and Commerce Committee and the Subcommittee on Energy and Environ- ment, expressed his skepticism about cli- mate change in terms of his belief in God’s promise to Noah that the Earth would not be destroyed by a flood for a second time.1

The prospect of global warming and global climate change raise fundamental questions concerning what we ought to do, both individually and as a society, about what we value, and about how we ought to live our lives. That is, they raise

CHAPTER 1 SCIENCE, POLITICS, AND ETHICS 5

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fundamental questions not only for sci- ence but for ethics as well. Knowledge of the facts alone does not determine what should be done. Political debates about global warming also raise important questions on what we should believe, and the degree to which we should rely on science when making policy decisions. In other words, the prospect of global warming, like so many other environmen- tal issues, requires us to ask fundamental philosophical questions: What should we believe andwhy?What shouldwe do, both as individuals and as a society?What dowe value? What should we do when beliefs and values conflict? How should we live our lives?

DISCUSSION TOPICS: 1. Individuals seldom have the ability to

evaluate by themselves the validity of a scientific claim and often have to trust the judgments of experts. Consider how often you must trust the judg- ments of doctors and engineers for example. What evidence would per- suade you to trust those scientists who claim that global warming or global climate change is a factual event?What evidence would cause you to doubt those scientists? Where do you get your own information about global

warming? Is this a reliable source? Are the advocates on both sides of these debates equally worthy of trust? How would you distinguish between scien- tific “experts” who are persuaded by global warming and those who are skeptical?

2. Hundreds of college and university presidents have signed the “Presidents’ Climate Commitment,” which pledges their schools to achieve “climate neutrality as soon as possible.” (http:// www.presidentsclimatecommitment. org/) Has your school’s president signed this commitment? Why or why not? What steps, if any, has your school taken to reduce greenhouse gas emissions? Do you support this commitment by your school?

3. Do you think that more developed countries such as the United States, Canada, England, and Germany have a greater responsibility for reducing greenhouse gas emissions than devel- oping countries such as China, India, and Brazil? What arguments can be offered for each side of this debate?

4. Would you support a tax on carbon emissions, and therefore higher prices for electricity and gasoline, as a means to reduce greenhouse gases? Why, or why not?

1 .1 I NTRODUCT ION : WHY PH ILOSOPHY?

In the early decades of the twenty-first century it is fair to say that human beings face environmental challenges unprecedented in the history of this planet. Largely through human activity, life on Earth faces the greatest number of mass extinctions since the end of the dinosaur age 65 million years ago. Some esti- mates suggest that more than 100 species are becoming extinct every day and that this rate could double or triple within the next few decades.2 The natural resources that sustain life on our planet—the climate, air, water, and soil—are being changed, polluted, or depleted at alarming rates. Human population growth is increasing exponentially. World population reached 7 billion people in 2011, just 12 years after reaching 6 billion. Although it took all of human history until 1804 for world population to first reach 1 billion people, the most recent increase of 1 billion took just 12 years. The rate of population increase is slowing somewhat. It is estimated that it may take 15 years to add the next

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1 billion people. Unfortunately, however, disease, famine, poverty, and war are among the factors contributing to this decline in the rate of growth. The pros- pects for continued degradation and depletion of natural resources multiply with population growth. Not only are there more people using more resources, but the lifestyles of that growing population place increasing demands on the bio- sphere. Toxic wastes that will plague future generations continue to accumulate worldwide. Some forms of nuclear waste will remain deadly for tens of thousands of years. The world’s wilderness areas—its forests, wetlands, topsoils, mountains, and grasslands—are being developed, paved, drained, burned, and overgrazed out of existence. Destruction of large areas of the ozone layer and a significant increase in greenhouse gases that could result in global warming demonstrate that human activity threatens to disrupt the very atmosphere and climate of the planet Earth.

Complicating matters is the fact that many environmental topics, from global warming to land use, from energy policy to food production, have become embroiled in bitter partisan politics, especially within the United States. The days in which a Republican President (Richard Nixon) and a Democratic Congress could be unified in passing sweeping environmental legislation such as the Clean Water Act, the Clean Air Act, and the Endangered Species Act within a three-year period, are a distant memory.

Faced with such a potentially catastrophic environmental future, we are challenged with momentous decisions. But how do we even begin making the right decisions, especially in such a political climate as the present? We should also acknowledge that many of our present environmental challenges are the result of decisions made, not by thoughtless or dishonorable people, but in good faith by previous generations. In fact, many of those decisions had very beneficial consequences to both prior and present generations in the form of adequate food, affordable energy, and increased life expectancy. But these deci- sions have had devastating consequences as well. How can we be sure that the decisions about energy policy, population, and food production that we likewise make in good faith will not have equally ambiguous consequences? Before making such momentous decisions, it seems only reasonable that we should step back to reflect on the decision-making process itself.

In many ways, philosophical ethics is just this process of stepping back to reflect on our decision making. Philosophical ethics involves a self-conscious stepping back from our own lives to reflect on what type of life we should live, how we should act, and what kind of people we should be. This textbook will introduce environmental ethics by working across two levels of thought: the practical level of deciding what we should do and how we should live, and the more abstract and academic level of stepping back to think about how we decide what to do and what to value. As used in this book, philosophical ethics involves elements of practical normative ethics—deciding what one ought or ought not do—and critical thinking—evaluating the reasoning used to justify and defend such practical decisions.

Philosophical ethics in the West is exemplified by Socrates’s questioning of Athenian society and an individual’s role within it. When speaking with a self-proclaimed authority on what the gods expect of humans, Socrates set the

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standard of philosophical reasoning 2,500 years ago by refusing to accept a con- clusion based solely on the words of an authority. When the religious authority Euthyphro claimed that he knew many things about the gods’ desires of which most people were ignorant, Socrates responded with what is perhaps the most crucial philosophical call: “Let us examine what we are saying” so that we might all come to learn for ourselves what is true.

This textbook invites you on a similar Socratic journey with respect to envi- ronmental topics. Let us examine what is being said so that we might think for ourselves and better understand what is true and what we ought to do. This text introduces the many ways in which ethics and philosophy can contribute to the creation of a sane and judicious environmental policy. Environmental challenges such as global warming raise fundamental scientific and political questions, but they raise important philosophical questions as well. Ethics is the branch of phi- losophy that addresses questions on fundamental values, and these will be the primary focus of this book. However, as we shall see, engaging in a full analysis of environmental issues will require that we also address a wide range of ques- tions from other branches of philosophy. Topics such as the allocation and distribution of environmental benefits and dangers raise important questions of social justice and political philosophy. Issues of moral standing for future generations, animals, and other nonhuman forms of life and the nature of such abstract entities as species and ecosystems raise important questions in epis- temology and metaphysics.

A basic assumption of this book is that environmental policy ought to be decided in the political arena and not by experts in scientific laboratories, corpo- rate boardrooms, or government bureaucracies. But to say this is not to say that all political opinions are equal. In an era when name-calling, shouting matches, and demonization of those with whom one disagrees passes for political debate, the need for critical thinking—careful, logical examination of controversial issues—has never been greater. Philosophical ethics will ask you to put aside what you hear from political pundits and commentators on Fox News or the Daily Show, sus- pend your assumptions and what you think you already know, and think carefully in as unbiased and balanced way as you can.

Thus an implicit goal of this textbook is to empower citizens to become full and thoughtful participants in these critical public policy debates. Familiarity with the ethical and philosophical issues involved in such debates is an important first step in this direction. Every position staked out in an environmental controversy will involve philosophical assumptions. Your challenge is to separate the good arguments from the bad, the rational conclusions from the unproven. Join with Socrates to examine what we are saying so that we might come to know what is true.

1 .2 SC IENCE AND ETH ICS

Environmentalists have long had an ambiguous relationship with science and technology. On one hand, science provides exactly the type of unbiased and rational source of information that citizens need for informed and rational policy

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making. Trusting science seems a reasonable strategy. Technology offers hope for addressing most, if not all, environmental challenges. On the other hand, science and technology have also played a major role in bringing about some of the worst environmental problems that we face. Blind trust of science and technol- ogy can appear as unreasonable as blind trust of political pundits. Surely science and technology must be a major partner in addressing environmental chal- lenges, but it is important that we not abdicate decision-making responsibility to science alone and that we think carefully about the proper role of science and technology.

One of the pivotal events of the modern environmental movement was the publication of Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring in 1962. This book focused inter- national attention on the deadly effects of DDT and other chemical pesticides. The continued indiscriminate use of these “elixirs of death” would, according to Carson, lead to a time when death and poisoning would silence the “voices of spring.” This book profoundly influenced the public’s attitude toward chemical pollution and environmental protection. For the first time, widespread public doubt was raised about the safety and desirability of technological solutions to environmental problems.

Although chemical agents have been used to control pests and fertilize crops since the beginning of agriculture, the decades immediately after World War II witnessed tremendous development in the discovery, production, and use of synthetic chemical pesticides and fertilizers. Increasing population growth and a corresponding increase in demand on agriculture, along with a decrease in the number of farmers, led to intense pressures to increase agricultural productivity. One large part of this effort involved the use of chemicals to limit crop loss from pests and to enhance the growth of crops. Before the publication of Silent Spring, the only question generally asked about chemical pesticides and fertilizers, by both scientists and the public, concerned their effectiveness: Do they eliminate undesirable pests without harming humans or their crops? Do they increase yield? After Carson’s work, the long-term consequences to both humans and the natural world, as well as the political and ethical implications of chemically enhanced agriculture, came to the forefront.

Even seemingly innocuous issues such as fertilizer and pesticide use can raise philosophical questions. For example, do we have any ethical responsibility to preserve the various life forms around us? Is there anything wrong with defining some living organisms as pests and working to eradicate them? Philosophical assumptions are involved wherever we stand in this debate. Should pesticides be proved safe before they are used, or should the burden of proof rest with those who predict danger? Answering this question also involves issues in ethics and political philosophy.

Relying on science or technology (or on economics or the law) without also considering the ethical and philosophical issues involved can raise as many problems as it solves. Leaving environmental decisions to the “experts” in science and tech- nology does not mean that these decisions will be objective and value-neutral. It means only that the values and philosophical assumptions that do decide the issue will be those that these experts hold.

CHAPTER 1 SCIENCE, POLITICS, AND ETHICS 9

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Whereas this book relies on philosophical ethics for guidance, many people look instead to science and technology for answers. If only we could develop safe, inexpensive, and effective chemical pesticides. If only we could engineer a carbon sequestration process to contain the carbon dioxide produced by burning fossil fuels. If only we could engineer more efficient solar panels or harness the energy potential of geothermal, wind, or tidal power. If only we could develop hydrogen fuel cell technology as an alternative to the internal combustion engine. If only we could master cold fusion.

For many people in our culture, and especially for many in policy-making positions, science and technology offer the only hope for solving environmental problems. Because environmental problems often involve highly technical mat- ters, it is only reasonable to turn to experts in these technical areas for answers. Who better than meteorologists to tell us about the effects of global climate change? Who better than chemists to tell us about the safety and effectiveness of pesticides? Because science offers objective and factual answers in an area in which emotions run high and controversies abound, many believe that science is the obvious place to turn for help with environmental concerns. The only alternative to looking to science seems to be a pessimistic surrender to the type of controversy and disagreement so typical of talk television.

As Rachel Carson’s writing suggests, we take risks when we treat environmen- tal problems merely as technical problems awaiting solution from some specialized discipline. This is partly because the dimensions of environmental issues are seldom limited to the specific boundaries of any one particular discipline. Pesticide pollu- tion, for example, involves agriculture, various branches of biology and chemistry, medicine, economics, politics, and law. Global climate change involves an equally diverse group of disciplines. But it is impossible to find an environmental issue that does not raise basic questions of value. Approaching any serious environ- mental issue with the hope of finding a technical quick fix guarantees only a narrow and parochial understanding of what is at stake. Carson’s Silent Spring testifies to the dangers inherent in this approach. As seen in these examples, tech- nological or scientific “solutions” have often inflicted as many new problems as they have solved.

Turning to science for help in understanding how the world works is a hallmark of a reasonable and educated citizen. But turning to science and tech- nology for solutions to problems that are fundamentally ethical and political may not be. For example, in response to increasing levels of CO2 and global warming, some have proposed technological and geo-engineering solutions on a massive scale. Manipulating the biophysical processes of both the atmosphere and the ocean have been proposed means to lessen the effects of increasing atmospheric CO2. Skepticism about such grand experiments seems, as someone like Rachel Carson might advise, to be the mark of a reasonable and educated citizen.

But the danger in over-reliance on science and technology extends well beyond this technological complexity. Science is not as value-neutral as many assume. Our culture has a profound belief in science as the ultimate authority on questions of knowledge and truth. Although it is important not to overstate

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this point (science, of course, does have tremendous potential for helping us to understand and solve environmental problems), science is not always the purely objective and value-neutral resource that so many assume it to be.

For example, economics plays a dominant role in many environmental con- troversies. It is fair to say that economics is the primary tool relied on in making most major public policy decisions concerning the environment. The rationale for this reliance is that the social science of economics provides an objective methodology for analyzing social costs and benefits. Chapter 3 in this book, however, offers an in-depth analysis of the role of economics in environmental policy and demonstrates that the supposedly value-neutral science of economics is heavily value-laden. That chapter will show how such economic concepts as utility, happiness, costs, benefits, and self-interest involve controversial assumptions in philosophy and ethics.

This is not the place for a full discussion of the issue of scientific objectivity, but several points should give us pause when we are tempted to turn solely to science and technology for solutions to environmental problems. In some ways, science is nothing more than a detailed, careful, verified, and documented approach to knowledge. Science demands that its practitioners minimize assump- tions, seek to eliminate bias, verify results, and limit conclusions to what the evidence supports. In this sense, the scientific method has a real “ethic” that aims to ensure arrival at an impartial, accurate, and rational result. To the degree that scientific practice measures up to this ethic, we can have confidence in the rationality of its results. This unbiased approach to knowledge also provides a vital alternative to the vitriolic rhetoric so common in contemporary political debates.

Nevertheless, this method may have hidden assumptions that can influence scientific practice. For example, Chapter 9 considers the claim that modern science is dominated by models imported from physics. In that view, we best understand something (a physical object, for example) when we reduce that object to its simplest elements (such as atoms and electrons) and investigate the forces that work on those elements (for example, gravity and electromagnetism). According to critics, however, that reductionist approach is inappropriate for other fields. Social sciences such as economics, sociology, and political science may well distort reality if they reduce “society” to a mere collection of individuals mechanically driven by the forces of self-interest.3 What is more relevant to our concerns is that some biologists believe that the physics model is particularly misleading in the study of ecosystems. The reductionist tendency can ignore or distort the com- plex relations that exist within an ecosystem. Reductionism literally fails to see the forests for the trees.

Likewise, a commitment to mechanistic explanations can distort our under- standing of ecological relationships. For example, debates that concern our understanding of animal behavior are sometimes framed in mechanistic terms. Either animal behavior is caused by environmental conditioning, or it is con- trolled by genetic programming. Either way, the explanation can be stated as invariable, deterministic, mechanistic “laws of nature.” Again, for many biolo- gists this represents a distorted and oversimplified account of animal behavior.

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Even the simplest organism is capable of changing its environment as much as it and its progeny are changed by the environment.

Biological and environmental changes seem to occur as much through ran- dom chance as according to deterministic laws.4 Accordingly, a policy of wildlife management based on a mechanistic model of animal behavior would have differ- ent consequences and recommendations from a policy that assumes that change rather than constancy is the norm. Thus, despite the commitment of science to the values of impartiality and objectivity, the practice of science is not always the unbiased procedure it is taken to be.

Science is also sometimes understood not as a method or procedure but as a body of information or facts. Surely facts are objective, and if science discovers the facts, scientific knowledge must be objective, or so the myth of scientific objectivity would have us believe. How comfortable should we be when we rely solely on scientific information to meet environmental challenges? Even when the facts are established through a careful, methodical, and verified procedure, we need to recognize that the facts seldom tell the whole story. Reliance on well-established scientific information can be risky if that informa- tion fails to give us a complete explanation. Perhaps the greatest obstacle to getting the whole story is not science’s inability to get answers but science’s limits in asking questions. Before relying on scientific answers to solve environ- mental problems, we need to know what questions the scientists are asking, and the questions they ask are often determined by factors that lie outside the realm of science.

For example, political leaders in my hometown have recently been faced with a proposal to build a four-lane road through a major wetland and rare and environmentally sensitive oak woodland. Before debating the specifics of this proposal, the local city council requested that the city engineer conduct a study and provide a recommendation. The city engineer returned with a recommen- dation that the road should be built because the facts demonstrated that a road was needed. Thus the public received a recommendation for what we should do based on the facts determined by a scientific study. What “facts” led to this con- clusion? The city engineer produced a report full of graphs and numbers reflect- ing projections about population growth, housing density, traffic counts, and construction costs. The engineer admitted that environmental and neighborhood concerns were not included because they could not be measured in a scientific and objective manner.

Recognize what happens in such a situation. Society is faced with a decision that raises several concerns. Some of those concerns can be measured and quan- tified scientifically while others cannot. Given this, policy makers have two options. They can ignore the concerns that cannot be measured scientifically and decide solely on the basis of “scientific fact,” or they can reject science as the appropriate basis for decision making. In this all too common situation, public officials nearly always defer to the judgment of science.

Amory Lovins, an internationally recognized energy scientist, makes a similar point when he reminds us that the “answers you get depend on the questions you ask.”5 Lovins uses an example from energy policy to develop this point.

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If we define our energy problem as a supply problem, we can easily conclude that we are running out of energy and need new energy sources. Science can docu- ment the facts of resource depletion; calculate the known reserves of coal, oil, and uranium; compare the technological advantages of various energy sources; and predict the costs and efficiencies of coal, oil, nuclear-powered generating plants, and so forth. We might thus imagine collecting a significant amount of relevant scientific data on the various alternatives of energy production. We can also imagine that, given these facts, one alternative (for example, nuclear reactors) might emerge as the most reasonable option. This decision, we can well imagine, is based on the objective, neutral facts of science.6

But if we define our energy problem as a question of demand, we come up with different answers. We begin to ask questions about energy use, matching energy sources with energy use, energy efficiencies, appropriate technologies, and the like. A scientist who asks these questions is more likely to focus on such issues as home heating, insulation, efficiency of electric motors, lighting, appliances, fuel-efficient cars, mass transportation, hydrogen fuel cells and solar power. Clearly, the information emerging from efforts to answer these ques- tions, which is every bit as factual and objective as the information coming from supply questions, will suggest different energy policies. These facts might well prove that heating homes with electricity is quite unreasonable, even if the source of that electricity is safe and efficient compared to alterna- tive sources.

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carl warden was one of the first researchers to demonstrate observational learning in animals.

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If you’re wondering why we’re bringing you a new edition of Psychology: Core Concepts . . .

1 In the new seventh edition, we feature new cutting-edge research on the neuroscience of social interaction, cul- tural influences on perception, daydreaming, taste, and meditation, as well as updates on bullying, the slower rise of IQ scores (the Flynn effect) in developed coun- tries, the myth of multitasking, and much more. We also introduce readers to a groundbreaking modification of Maslow’s famous hierarchy of needs, newly framed by evolutionary psychologists.

2 Our lead author Philip Zimbardo has recently published a detailed description and analysis of his famous Stanford Prison Experiment in The Lucifer Effect: Understanding How Good People Turn Evil. We are pleased to include in Psychology: Core Concepts some of the insights he presented in Lucifer—particularly the notion of the effect of impersonal social systems, as well as social situations, on human behavior. Ours is the only introductory text in which you will find a discussion of how these social systems, such as organizations and bureaucracies, create a context that can profoundly influence the behavior of groups and individuals.

3 Dr. Zimbardo has also done important new work on the differences among people in their time perspective, re- ferring to a focus on the past, the present, or the future. This text is the only introduction to psychology to dis- cuss the powerful influence of time perspective on our decisions and actions.

4 In this edition, Read on MyPsychLab icons appear in the margins indicating that additional readings are

available for students to explore. For example, one of the Read features in Chapter 3 (Sensation and Percep- tion) deals with the classic study of backward masking. In Chapter 12 (Disorders and Therapy), you can read more about an African perspective on mental disorder.

5 One of our goals in this new edition is, again, to help you learn to “think like psychologists.” To do so, we have placed new emphasis on two kinds of psychological think- ing: (1) problem solving and (2) critical thinking. Every chapter begins with a Problem and ends with a critical analysis of an important psychological question, such as gender differences or repressed memory.

6 We have made a special effort in the seventh edition to provide clues throughout the chapter to help you un- derstand the solution to the chapter-opening Problem— which proved to be a popular feature in the last edition. The Chapter Summary now gives a brief “answer” to the problem as well.

7 We have designed the Critical Thinking applications at the end of each chapter to build upon a set of critical thinking skills introduced in Chapter One. Each of these focuses on an issue that is popularly misunderstood (e.g., the Mozart Effect) or contentious within the field (e.g., the evidence- based practice debate within clinical psychology). In this edition, we have also included the gist of the Critical Thinking section in the Chapter Summary.

8 Reflecting advances in multicultural and cross-cultural research, we have added even more coverage of culture and gender throughout the text. Our goal here is two- fold: We want you to see the relevance of psychology in your life, and we want you to understand that psychol- ogy is the science of behavior and mental processes that both generalizes and differs across cultures.

Why Do You Need This New Edition?

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Psychology

Philip G. Zimbardo Stanford University

Robert L. Johnson Umpqua Community College

Vivian McCann Portland Community College

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Zimbardo, Philip G.

Psychology : core concepts / Philip G. Zimbardo, Robert L. Johnson, Vivian McCann. — 7th ed.

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ISBN-13: 978-0-205-18346-3

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1. Psychology. I. Johnson, Robert L. (Robert Lee) II. McCann, Vivian. III. Title.

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2011027587

1 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

1 Mind, Behavior, and Psychological Science 2 2 Biopsychology, Neuroscience, and Human Nature 40 3 Sensation and Perception 86 4 Learning and Human Nurture 132 5 Memory 170 6 Thinking and Intelligence 212 7 Development Over the Lifespan 264 8 States of Consciousness 322 9 Motivation and Emotion 362 10 Personality: Theories of the Whole Person 412 11 Social Psychology 458 12 Psychological Disorders 514 13 Therapies for Psychological Disorders 554 14 From Stress to Health and Well-Being 596 Glossary G-1 References R-1 Answers to Discovering Psychology Program Review Questions A-1 Photo Credits C-1 Name Index I-1 Subject Index I-7

B R I E F C O N T E N T S

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C O N T E N T S

CHAPTER 1 Mind, Behavior, and Psychological Science 2

PROBLEM: How would psychologists test the claim that sugar makes children hyperactive? 3

1.1 What Is Psychology—And What Is It Not? 4 Psychology: It’s More Than You Think 4 Psychology Is Not Psychiatry 6 Thinking Critically about Psychology

and Pseudo-Psychology 7

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology 10

1.2 What Are Psychology’s Six Main Perspectives? 11 Separation of Mind and Body and the Modern Biological

Perspective 12 The Founding of Scientific Psychology and the Modern

Cognitive Perspective 13 The Behavioral Perspective: Focusing on Observable

Behavior 16

The Whole-Person Perspectives: Psychodynamic, Humanistic, and Trait and Temperament Psychology 17

The Developmental Perspective: Changes Arising from Nature and Nurture 19

The Sociocultural Perspective: The Individual in Context 19 The Changing Face of Psychology 20

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Psychology as a Major 22

1.3 How Do Psychologists Develop New Knowledge? 23 Four Steps in the Scientific Method 24 Five Types of Psychological Research 27 Controlling Biases in Psychological Research 31 Ethical Issues in Psychological Research 32

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: The Perils of Pseudo-Psychology 33

CRITICAL THINKING APPLIED: Facilitated Communication 35

Chapter Summary 36 Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide 38

PROBLEM: What does Jill Bolte Taylor’s experience teach us about how our brain is organized and about its amazing ability to adapt? 42

2.1 How Are Genes and Behavior Linked? 43 Evolution and Natural Selection 43 Genetics and Inheritance 45

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Choosing Your Children’s Genes 48

2.2 How Does the Body Communicate Internally? 49 The Neuron: Building Block of the Nervous System 50 The Nervous System 56 The Endocrine System 58

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: How Psychoactive Drugs Affect the Nervous System 60

2.3 How Does the Brain Produce Behavior and Mental Processes? 62 Windows on the Brain 63 Three Layers of the Brain 65 Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex 69 Cerebral Dominance 73

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology 79

CRITICAL THINKING APPLIED: Left Brain versus Right Brain 80

Chapter Summary 81 Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide 84

CHAPTER 2 Biopsychology, Neuroscience, and Human Nature 40

CHAPTER 3 Sensation and Perception 86

PROBLEM: Is there any way to tell whether the world we “see” in our minds is the same as the external world—and whether we see things as most others do? 88

3.1 How Does Stimulation Become Sensation? 89 Transduction: Changing Stimulation to Sensation 90 Thresholds: The Boundaries of Sensation 91 Signal Detection Theory 93

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Sensory Adaptation 93

3.2 How Are the Senses Alike? How Are They Different? 94 Vision: How the Nervous System Processes Light 94 Hearing: If a Tree Falls in the Forest . . . 100 How the Other Senses Are Like Vision and Hearing 104 Synesthesia: Sensations across the Senses 108

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: The Sense and Experience of Pain 109

3.3 What Is the Relationship between Sensation and Perception? 112 Perceptual Processing: Finding Meaning in Sensation 112 Perceptual Ambiguity and Distortion 114 Theoretical Explanations for Perception 117 Seeing and Believing 124

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology 125

CRITICAL THINKING APPLIED: Subliminal Perception and Subliminal Persuasion 126

Chapter Summary 128 Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide 130 vii

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CHAPTER 4 Learning and Human Nurture 132

PROBLEM: Assuming Sabra’s fear of flying was a response she had learned, could it also be treated by learning? If so, how? 134

4.1 What Sort of Learning Does Classical Conditioning Explain? 136 The Essentials of Classical Conditioning 137 Applications of Classical Conditioning 139

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Taste Aversions and Chemotherapy 142

4.2 How Do We Learn New Behaviors By Operant Conditioning? 142 Skinner’s Radical Behaviorism 143 The Power of Reinforcement 143 The Problem of Punishment 149 A Checklist for Modifying Operant Behavior 152 Operant and Classical Conditioning Compared 153

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology 155

4.3 How Does Cognitive Psychology Explain Learning? 156 Insight Learning: Köhler in the Canaries with Chimps 157 Cognitive Maps: Tolman Finds Out What’s on a

Rat’s Mind 158 Observational Learning: Bandura’s Challenge to

Behaviorism 159 Brain Mechanisms and Learning 161 “Higher” Cognitive Learning 162

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Fear of Flying Revisited 162

CRITICAL THINKING APPLIED: Do Different People Have Different “Learning Styles”? 164

Chapter Summary 166 Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide 168

CHAPTER 5 Memory 170

PROBLEM: How can our knowledge about memory help us evaluate claims of recovered memories? 172

5.1 What Is Memory? 172 Metaphors for Memory 173 Memory’s Three Basic Tasks 174

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Would You Want a “Photographic” Memory? 175

5.2 How Do We Form Memories? 177 The First Stage: Sensory Memory 178 The Second Stage: Working Memory 180 The Third Stage: Long-Term Memory 184

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: “Flashbulb” Memories: Where Were You When . . . ? 189

5.3 How Do We Retrieve Memories? 190 Implicit and Explicit Memory 190 Retrieval Cues 191 Other Factors Affecting Retrieval 193

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: On the Tip of Your Tongue 194

5.4 Why Does Memory Sometimes Fail Us? 195 Transience: Fading Memories Cause Forgetting 196 Absent-Mindedness: Lapses of Attention Cause

Forgetting 198 Blocking: Access Problems 198 Misattribution: Memories in the Wrong Context 199 Suggestibility: External Cues Distort or Create Memories 200 Bias: Beliefs, Attitudes, and Opinions Distort Memories 201 Persistence: When We Can’t Forget 202 The Advantages of the “Seven Sins” of Memory 202 Improving Your Memory with Mnemonics 203

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology 204

CRITICAL THINKING APPLIED: The Recovered Memory Controversy 206

Chapter Summary 207 Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide 210

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CHAPTER 7 Development Over the Lifespan 264

PROBLEM: Do the amazing accounts of similarities in twins reared apart indicate we are primarily a product of our genes? Or do genetics and environment work together to influence growth and development over the lifespan? 266

7.1 What Innate Abilities Does the Infant Possess? 268 Prenatal Development 268 The Neonatal Period: Abilities of the Newborn Child 269 Infancy: Building on the Neonatal Blueprint 271

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Not Just Fun and Games: The Role of Child’s Play in Life Success 277

7.2 What Are the Developmental Tasks of Childhood? 279 How Children Acquire Language 279 Cognitive Development: Piaget’s Theory 282 Social and Emotional Development 288

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: The Puzzle of ADHD 294

7.3 What Changes Mark the Transition of Adolescence? 296 Adolescence and Culture 296

Physical Maturation in Adolescence 297 Adolescent Sexuality 298 Neural and Cognitive Development in Adolescence 299 Moral Development: Kohlberg’s Theory 300 Social and Emotional Issues in Adolescence 302

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology: Cognitive Development in College Students 304

7.4 What Developmental Challenges Do Adults Face? 305 Early Adulthood: Explorations, Autonomy, and Intimacy 306 The Challenges of Midlife: Complexity and Generativity 308 Late Adulthood: The Age of Integrity 310

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: A Look Back at the Jim Twins and Your Own Development 313

CRITICAL THINKING APPLIED: The Mozart Effect 315

Chapter Summary 316 Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide 320

CHAPTER 6 Thinking and Intelligence 212

PROBLEM: What produces “genius,” and to what extent are the people we call “geniuses” different from others? 214

6.1 What Are the Components of Thought? 215 Concepts 215 Imagery and Cognitive Maps 217 Thought and the Brain 218 Intuition 219

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Schemas and Scripts Help You Know What to Expect 221

6.2 What Abilities Do Good Thinkers Possess? 223 Problem Solving 223 Judging and Making Decisions 227 Becoming a Creative Genius 229

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology 232

6.3 How Is Intelligence Measured? 233 Binet and Simon Invent a School Abilities Test 234 American Psychologists Borrow Binet and Simon’s Idea 235 Problems with the IQ Formula 236 Calculating IQs “on the Curve” 237 IQ Testing Today 238

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: What Can You Do for an Exceptional Child? 239

6.4 Is Intelligence One or Many Abilities? 242 Psychometric Theories of Intelligence 242 Cognitive Theories of Intelligence 243 The Question of Animal Intelligence 247

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Test Scores and the Self-Fulfilling Prophecy 249

6.5 How Do Psychologists Explain IQ Differences Among Groups? 250 Intelligence and the Politics of Immigration 251 What Evidence Shows That Intelligence Is Influenced

by Heredity? 251 What Evidence Shows That Intelligence is Influenced

by Environment? 252 Heritability (Not Heredity) and Group Differences 253 PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Stereotype Threat 256

CRITICAL THINKING APPLIED: The Question of Gender Differences 258

Chapter Summary 259 Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide 262

CHAPTER 8 States of Consciousness 322

PROBLEM: How can psychologists objectively examine the worlds of dreaming and other subjective mental states? 324

8.1 How Is Consciousness Related to Other Mental Processes? 324 Tools for Studying Consciousness 326 Models of the Conscious and Nonconscious Minds 327 What Does Consciousness Do for Us? 329 Coma and Related States 330

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology 331

8.2 What Cycles Occur in Everyday Consciousness? 332 Daydreaming 332

Sleep: The Mysterious Third of Our Lives 333 Dreaming: The Pageants of the Night 338

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Sleep Disorders 341

8.3 What Other Forms Can Consciousness Take? 344 Hypnosis 345 Meditation 347 Psychoactive Drug States 348

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Dependence and Addiction 354

CRITICAL THINKING APPLIED: The Unconscious—Reconsidered 356

Chapter Summary 358 Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide 360

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CHAPTER 10 Personality: Theories of the Whole Person 412

PROBLEM: What influences were at work to produce the unique behavioral patterns, high achievement motivation, and consistency over time and place that we see in the personality of Mary Calkins? 414

10.1 What Forces Shape Our Personalities? 415 Biology, Human Nature, and Personality 416 The Effects of Nurture: Personality and the Environment 416 The Effects of Nature: Dispositions and Mental

Processes 417 Social and Cultural Contributions to Personality 417 PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Explaining Unusual People

and Unusual Behavior 418

10.2 What Persistent Patterns, or Dispositions, Make Up Our Personalities? 420

Personality and Temperament 421 Personality as a Composite of Traits 422 PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Finding Your Type 426

10.3 Do Mental Processes Help Shape Our Personalities? 428 Psychodynamic Theories: Emphasis on Motivation

and Mental Disorder 428

Humanistic Theories: Emphasis on Human Potential and Mental Health 439

Social-Cognitive Theories: Emphasis on Social Learning 442

Current Trends: The Person in a Social System 445 PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn

Psychology 445

10.4 What “Theories” Do People Use to Understand Themselves and Others? 447

Implicit Personality Theories 447 Self-Narratives: The Stories of Our Lives 448 The Effects of Culture on Our Views of Personality 449 PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: The Personality of Time 450

CRITICAL THINKING APPLIED: The Person–Situation Controversy 453

Chapter Summary 454 Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide 456

CHAPTER 9 Motivation and Emotion 362

PROBLEM: Motivation is largely an internal and subjective process: How can we determine what motivates people like Lance Armstrong to work so hard at becoming the best in the world at what they do? 364

9.1 What Motivates Us? 364 Why People Work: McClelland’s Theory 365 The Unexpected Effects of Rewards on Motivation 367 PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn

Psychology 368

9.2 How Are Our Motivational Priorities Determined? 369 Instinct Theory 369 Drive Theory 370 Freud’s Psychodynamic Theory 371 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs 372 Putting It All Together: A New Hierarchy of Needs 373

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Determining What Motivates Others 374

9.3 Where Do Hunger and Sex Fit into the Motivational Hierarchy? 375 Hunger: A Homeostatic Drive and a Psychological

Motive 376 The Problem of Will Power and Chocolate Cookies 379

Sexual Motivation: An Urge You Can Live Without 380 Sex, Hunger, and the Hierarchy of Needs 384

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: The What and Why of Sexual Orientation 385

9.4 How Do Our Emotions Motivate Us? 387 What Emotions Are Made Of 388 What Emotions Do for Us 389 Counting the Emotions 389 Cultural Universals in Emotional Expression 390

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Gender Differences in Emotion Depend on Biology and Culture 391

9.5 What Processes Control Our Emotions? 392 The Neuroscience of Emotion 393 Arousal, Performance, and the Inverted U 396 Theories of Emotion: Resolving Some Old Issues 397 How Much Conscious Control Do We Have Over Our

Emotions? 399

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Detecting Deception 403

CRITICAL THINKING APPLIED: Do Lie Detectors Really Detect Lies? 405

Chapter Summary 407 Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide 410

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CHAPTER 11 Social Psychology 458

PROBLEM: What makes ordinary people willing to harm other people, as they did in Milgram’s shocking experiment? 461

11.1 How Does the Social Situation Affect Our Behavior? 462 Social Standards of Behavior 463 Conformity 465 Obedience to Authority 471 Cross-Cultural Tests of Milgram’s Research 475 Some Real-World Extensions of the Milgram Obedience

to Authority Paradigm 477 The Bystander Problem: The Evil of Inaction 478 Need Help? Ask for It! 480

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: On Being “Shoe” at Yale U 482

11.2 Constructing Social Reality: What Influences Our Judgments of Others? 483 Interpersonal Attraction 484 Loving Relationships 488

Making Cognitive Attributions 490 Prejudice and Discrimination 492

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Stereotype Lift and Values Affirmations 498

11.3 How Do Systems Create Situations That Influence Behavior? 500 The Stanford Prison Experiment 500 Chains of System Command 502 Preventing Bullying by Systematic Changes and Reframing 504

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology 507

CRITICAL THINKING APPLIED: Is Terrorism “a Senseless Act of Violence, Perpetrated by Crazy Fanatics”? 508

Chapter Summary 510 Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide 512

PROBLEM: Is it possible to distinguish mental disorder from merely unusual behavior? That is, are there specific signs that clearly indicate mental disorder? 516

12.1 What Is Psychological Disorder? 517 Changing Concepts of Psychological Disorder 518 Indicators of Abnormality 521 A Caution to Readers 522

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: The Plea of Insanity 522

12.2 How Are Psychological Disorders Classified in the DSM-IV ? 524 Overview of the DSM-IV Classification System 524 Mood Disorders 526 Anxiety Disorders 530 Somatoform Disorders 534 Dissociative Disorders 535 Schizophrenia 537

Developmental Disorders 541 Personality Disorders 542 Adjustment Disorders and Other Conditions: The Biggest

Category of All 544 Gender Differences in Mental Disorders 544

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Shyness 544

12.3 What Are the Consequences of Labeling People? 545 Diagnostic Labels, Labeling, and Depersonalization 546 The Cultural Context of Psychological Disorder 546

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology 547

CRITICAL THINKING APPLIED: Insane Places Revisited—Another Look at the Rosenhan Study 548

Chapter Summary 550 Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide 552

CHAPTER 12 Psychological Disorders 514

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Glossary G-1 References R-1 Answers to Discovering Psychology Program Review Questions A-1 Photo Credits C-1 Name Index I-1 Subject Index I-7

CHAPTER 14 From Stress to Health and Well-Being 596

PROBLEM: Were the reactions and experiences of the 9/11 firefighters and others at the World Trade Center attacks typical of people in other stressful situations? And what factors explain individual differences in our physical and psychological responses to stress? 598

14.1 What Causes Distress? 600 Traumatic Stressors 601 Chronic Stressors 606

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Student Stress 611

14.2 How Does Stress Affect Us Physically? 613 Physiological Responses to Stress 614 Stress and the Immune System 617

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Cognitive Appraisal of Ambiguous Threats 619

14.3 Who Is Most Vulnerable to Stress? 620 Type A Personality and Hostility 622 Locus of Control 623 Hardiness 624

Optimism 625 Resilience 626

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology 628

14.4 How Can We Transform Negative Stress Into Positive Life Strategies? 629 Psychological Coping Strategies 630 Positive Lifestyle Choices: A “Two-for-One” Benefit to Your

Health 634 Putting It All Together: Developing Happiness and Subjective

Well-Being 637

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Behavioral Medicine and Health Psychology 639

CRITICAL THINKING APPLIED: Is Change Really Hazardous to Your Health? 641

Chapter Summary 643 Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide 646

CHAPTER 13 Therapies for Psychological Disorders 554

PROBLEM: What is the best treatment for Derek’s depression: psychological therapy, drug therapy, or both? More broadly, the problem is this: How do we decide among the available therapies for any of the mental disorders? 556

13.1 What Is Therapy? 556 Entering Therapy 557 The Therapeutic Alliance and the Goals of Therapy 557 Therapy in Historical and Cultural Context 559

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Paraprofessionals Do Therapy, Too 560

13.2 How Do Psychologists Treat Psychological Disorders? 561 Insight Therapies 562 Behavior Therapies 568 Cognitive–Behavioral Therapy: A Synthesis 571 Evaluating the Psychological Therapies 574

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Where Do Most People Get Help? 576

13.3 How Is the Biomedical Approach Used to Treat Psychological Disorders? 577 Drug Therapy 577

Other Medical Therapies for Psychological Disorders 581 Hospitalization and the Alternatives 583

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: What Sort of Therapy Would You Recommend? 584

13.4 How Do the Psychological Therapies and Biomedical Therapies Compare? 585 Depression and Anxiety Disorders: Psychological versus

Medical Treatment 587 Schizophrenia: Psychological versus Medical

Treatment 587 “The Worried Well” and Other Problems: Not Everyone Needs

Drugs 588

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology 588

CRITICAL THINKING APPLIED: Evidence-Based Practice 589

Chapter Summary 592 Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide 594

P R E FA C E xiii

T O T H E S T U D E N T . . .

There is one simple formula for academic success, and the following demonstration will show you what it is. Study this array of letters for a few seconds: I B M U F O F B I C I A

Now, without peeking, write down as many of the letters as you can (in the correct order).

Most people remember about five to seven letters correctly. A few people get them all. How do these exceptional few do it? They find a pattern. (You may have noticed some familiar initials in the array above: IBM, UFO, FBI, CIA.) Finding the pattern greatly eases the task because you can draw on material that is already stored in mem- ory. In this case, all that needs to be remembered are four “chunks” of information instead of 12 unrelated letters.

The same principle applies to material you study for your psychology class. If you try to remember each piece of information as a separate item, you will have a difficult time. But if instead you look for patterns, you will find your task greatly simplified— and much more enjoyable.

USING PSYCHOLOGY TO LEARN PSYCHOLOGY So, how can you identify the patterns? Your friendly authors have developed several learning features that will make meaningful patterns in the text stand out clearly:

Core Concepts We have organized each major section of every chapter around a single big idea called a Core Concept. For example, one of the four Core Concepts in Chapter 5, Memory, says:

Core Concept 5.4 Human memory is an information-processing system that works constructively to encode, store, and retrieve information.

The Core Concept, then, becomes the central theme around which about 10 pages of material—including several new terms—are organized. As you read each chapter, keep- ing the Core Concept in mind will help you encode the new terms and ideas related to that concept, store them in your memory, and later retrieve them when you are being tested. To borrow an old saying, the Core Concepts become the “forest,” while the details of the chapter become the “trees.”

Key Questions Each Core Concept is introduced by a Key Question that also serves as a main heading in the chapter. Here, for example, is a Key Question from the Memory chapter:

5.4 KEY QUESTION Why Does Memory Sometimes Fail Us?

Key Questions such as this will help you anticipate the most important point, or the Core Concept, in the section. In fact, the Core Concept always provides a brief answer to the Key Question. Think of the Key Question as the high beams on your car, helping

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you focus on what lies ahead. Our Key Questions should also serve as guides for you in posing questions of your own about what you are reading.

Both the Key Questions and the Core Concepts later reappear as organizing fea- tures of the Chapter Summary.

Psychology Matters Psychology has many captivating connections with events in the news and in everyday life, and we have explored one of these connections at the end of each major section in every chapter. To illustrate, here are some examples from the Memory chapter:

• Would You Want a “Photographic” Memory? • “Flashbulb” Memories: Where Were You When . . . ? • On the Tip of Your Tongue

Such connections—practical, down to earth, and fascinating—will help you link your study of psychology with your real-life experiences. They will also help you critically evaluate many of the psychological ideas you encounter in the media—as when you see news stories that begin with “psychological research shows that . . .” By the end of this course, you will become a much wiser consumer of such information.

Psychology Matters: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology A special Psychology Matters section in every chapter explains how you can apply new knowledge from the chapter to make your studying more effective. For example, in Chapter 2, Biopsychology, Neuroscience, and Human Nature, we tell you how to put your understanding of the brain to work for more efficient learning. Similarly, at the end of Chapter 9, Motivation and Emotion, we explain how to use the psychological concept of “flow” to boost your academic motivation. Thus, Using Psychology to Learn Psychology not only reinforces points that you have studied but also brings the material home with immediate and practical applications to your life in college.

Do It Yourself! Throughout the book we have scattered active-learning demonstrations like the one in which you were asked to memorize the letters I B M U F O F B I C I A. Besides being fun, these activities have the serious purpose of illustrating important principles discussed in the text. In Chapter 5, for example, one Do It Yourself! box helps you find the capacity of your short-term memory; another lets you test your “photographic memory” ability.

Check Your Understanding Whether you’re learning psychology, soccer, or the saxophone, you need feedback on your progress, and that’s exactly what you will get from the Check Your Understanding quizzes. These quizzes appear at the end of every major section in the chapter, offering you a quick checkup indicating whether you have assimilated the main points from what you have read. Some questions call for simple recall; others call for deeper analysis or application of material. Some are multiple- choice questions; some are short-answer essay questions. These exercises will help you determine how well you have mastered the material.

MyPsychLab Integration Throughout the text, you will find marginal icons that link to important videos, simulations, podcasts, and activities you can find on MyPsychLab. New to this edition, we have developed reading activities (called Read on MyPsychLab) that will allow you to explore interesting topics more deeply. There are many more resources on MyPsychLab than those highlighted in the text, but the icons draw attention to some of the most high-interest materials. If you did not receive an access code with your text, you can purchase access at www.mypsychlab.com.

Connection Arrows Links to important topics discussed in other chapters are often cross-referenced with an arrow in the margin, as you can see in the sample here. These links will help you integrate your new knowledge with information you have already learned, or will show you where in a later chapter you can find out more

Study and Review at MyPsychLab

Read the Document at MyPsychLab

Simulate the Experiment at MyPsychLab

Explore the Concept at MyPsychLab

Watch the Video at MyPsychLab

Listen to the Podcast at MyPsychLabwww.mypsychlab.com

T O T H E S T U D E N T xv

about what you are reading. Connecting these concepts in your mind will help you remember them.

Marginal Glossary The most important terms appear in boldface, with their glossary definitions readily accessible in the margin. We list these key terms again in the Chapter Summary. Then, at the end of the book, a comprehensive Glossary gathers together all the key terms and definitions from each chapter in one easy-to-find location.

Chapter Summaries We have written our Chapter Summaries to provide you with an overview of main points in each chapter—to help you preview and review the chapter. The summaries are organized around the Key Questions and Core Concepts introduced within the chapter to facilitate review and mastery of chapter material. But we offer one caution: Reading the Chapter Summary will not substitute for reading the entire chapter! Here’s a helpful hint: We recommend that you read the summary before you read the rest of the chapter to get a flavor of what’s ahead, then reread the summary after you finish the chapter. Reading the summary before will provide a framework for the material so that it can be more easily encoded and stored in your memory. And, naturally, reviewing the summary after reading the chapter will reinforce what you have just learned so that you can retrieve it when needed on an examination.

THINKING LIKE A PSYCHOLOGIST Learning all the facts and definitions of psychology won’t make you a psychologist. Beyond the facts, thinking like a psychologist requires learning some problem-solving skills and critical thinking techniques that any good psychologist should possess. With this goal in mind, we have added two unique features to this book.

Chapter-Opening Problems Each chapter begins with an important problem that you will learn how to solve with the tools you acquire in your reading. Examples of the chapter- opening problems include testing the claim that sweet treats give children a “sugar high,” evaluating claims of recovered memories, and judging the extent to which the people we call “geniuses” are different from the rest of us.

Critical Thinking Applied At the end of each chapter, you will be asked to consider issues disputed among psychologists and issues raised in the media, such as the nature of the unconscious mind and the effects of subliminal persuasion. Each of these issues requires a skeptical attitude and the application of a special set of critical thinking skills that we will introduce in Chapter 1.

DISCOVERING PSYCHOLOGY VIDEOS At the end of each chapter, you will notice viewing guides for Discovering Psychology, a 26-part video series produced by WGBH and Annenberg Media and narrated by the lead author of this textbook, Phil Zimbardo. The videos provide an overview of his- toric and current theories of human behavior and feature many of the researchers and studies introduced in this textbook. You can access the Discovering Psychology videos and additional viewing resources through MyPsychLab (www.mypsychlab.com), the online companion to this textbook.

We have one final suggestion to help you succeed in psychology: This book is filled with examples to illustrate the most important ideas, but you will remember these ideas longer if you generate your own examples as you study. This habit will make the information yours as well as ours. And so we wish you a memorable journey through the field we love.

Phil Zimbardo Bob Johnson

Vivian McCannwww.mypsychlab.com

T O T H E I N S T R U C T O R . . .

Psychology has undergone remarkable changes since 2008, when we finished writing the previous edition of Psychology: Core Concepts. Here are just a few examples of the new developments we have included in this seventh edition:

• The brain’s “default network,” involving parts of the temporal lobe, the prefrontal cortex, and the cingulate cortex, becomes active when people focus their attention internally—when they are remembering personal events, making plans, or imagin- ing the perspectives of others. Unfortunately, daydreamers activating this default network while studying will probably not remember the material they have just studied.

• New research shows that analgesics such as Tylenol, normally used to treat physical pain, can reduce the painful psychological sensations resulting from social rejection and ruminating about unhappy relationships.

• Also in the realm of sensation, taste researcher Linda Bartoshuk has discovered a “Rosetta Stone,” enabling her to compare objectively the intensities of taste sensations experienced by different individuals.

• Meanwhile, perceptual psychologists have recently used brain scans to confirm the assertion that Americans and Asians perceive scenes differently.

• Brain scans have also enabled researchers to assess patients who have been classi- fied as in persistent vegetative states—and predict which ones might improve.

• In healthy individuals, scans have detected changes in the brains of volunteers who have undergone intensive training in meditation. The changes are most obvious in brain areas associated with memory, emotional processing, attention, and stress reduction.

• As cognitive psychologists continue to puzzle over the Flynn effect, IQ scores con- tinue to rise—but new studies show that the rise is slowing in developed countries of the West.

• Cognitive research also shows that one in four auto accidents results from the driver failing to notice hazardous conditions while using a cell phone—a bad decision probably deriving from a mistaken belief in multitasking. (Perhaps future research will determine whether the IQs of these drivers fall above or below the rising average.)

• New research by our own Phil Zimbardo shows that decisions can also be influenced by a personality trait that he calls time perspective—referring to a past, present, or future orientation.

• However, the ultimate influence on our decisions lies in natural selection, accord- ing to evolutionary psychologists—who have recently proposed a major new and controversial modification of Maslow’s famous hierarchy of needs.

In all, we have included some 350 new references in this new edition—gleaned from literally thousands we have perused. Which is to say that psychological knowledge continues to grow, with no end in sight. As a result, many introductory textbooks have grown to daunting proportions. Meanwhile, our introductory courses remain the same length—with the material ever more densely packed. We cannot possibly introduce students to all the concepts in psychology, nor can our students possibly remember everything.

The problem is not just one of volume and information overload; it is also a prob- lem of meaningfulness. So, while we have aimed to cover less detail than do the more encyclopedic texts, we have not given you a watered-down “brief edition” book. The result is an emphasis on the most important and meaningful ideas in psychology.

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Our inspiration for Psychology: Core Concepts came from psychological research: specifically, a classic study of chess players by Dutch psychologist and chess master Adriaan de Groot (1965). His work, as you may recall, involved remembering the locations of pieces on a chessboard. Significantly, when the pieces were placed on the board at random, chess experts did no better than novices. Only when the pat- terns made sense—because they represented actual game situations—did the experts show an advantage. Clearly, meaningful patterns are easier to remember than random assignments.

In applying de Groot’s findings to Psychology: Core Concepts, our goal has been to present a scientific overview of the field of psychology within meaningful patterns that will help students better remember what they learn so that they can apply it in their own lives. Thus, we have organized each major section of every chapter around a single, clear idea that we call a Core Concept, which helps students focus on the big picture so they don’t become lost in the details.

From the beginning, our intention in writing Psychology: Core Concepts has been to offer students and instructors a textbook that combines a sophisticated introduc- tion to the field of psychology with pedagogy that applies the principles of psychology to the learning of psychology, all in a manageable number of pages. Even with all the new material we have included, the book remains essentially the same size—which, of course, meant making some tough decisions about what to include, what to delete, and what to move into our extensive collection of ancillary resources.

Our goal was to blend great science with great teaching and to provide an alter- native to the overwhelmingly encyclopedic tomes or skimpy “brief edition” texts that have been traditionally offered. We think you will like the introduction to psychol- ogy presented in this book—both the content and the pedagogical features. After all, it’s a text that relies consistently on well-grounded principles of psychology to teach psychology.

NEW TO THIS EDITION This edition of Psychology: Core Concepts is certainly no perfunctory revision or slap- dash update. And here’s why . . .

We have reconceptualized our goal of helping students learn to “think like psychologists.” These days, of course, everyone emphasizes critical thinking. The new edition of Psychology: Core Concepts, however, gives equal weight to that other essen- tial thinking skill: problem solving.

To encourage the sort of problem solving psychologists do, every chapter begins with a Problem, a feature we introduced in the last edition. The Problem grows out of the opening vignette and requires, for its solution, material developed in the chapter. In this edition, we have focused on helping readers discover, throughout each chapter, the “clues” that lead to the solution of the problem.

But we have not neglected critical thinking. Throughout the text, we deal with common psychological misconceptions—such as the notion that venting anger gets it “out of your system” or the belief that punishment is the most effective way of chang- ing behavior. And in our Critical Thinking Applied segment at the end of each chapter, we also focus on an important psychological issue in the popular media or an ongoing debate within the field:

• Can “facilitated communication” help us understand people with autism? • Left vs. right brain: Do most of us use only one side of the brain? • Can our choices be influenced by subliminal messages? • Do people have different “learning styles”? • The recovered memory controversy: How reliable are reports of long-forgotten

memories of sexual abuse? • Gender issues: Are we more alike or more different? • The “Mozart Effect”: Can music make babies smarter?

xviii T O T H E I N S T R U C T O R

• The Unconscious reconsidered: Has modern neuroscience reshaped Freud’s concept of the unconscious mind?

• Do lie detectors really detect lies? • The person-situation controversy: Which is the more important influence on our

behavior? • Is terrorism “a senseless act of violence, perpetrated by crazy fanatics”? • Insane places revisited: Did Rosenhan get it right? • Evidence-based practice: Should clinicians be limited by the tested-and-true? • Is change really hazardous to your health?

But that’s not all. We have made extensive updates to the text (in addition to the new research listed above). And we have improved the pedagogical features for which Psychology: Core Concepts is known and loved. To give a few examples, we have:

• added MyPsychLab icons throughout the margins to highlight important videos, simulations, podcasts, and additional resources for students to explore online. New to this edition, we have created Read on MyPsychLab activities that allow students to read and answer questions about many interesting topics more deeply online.

• shifted the focus of psychology’s six main perspectives to practical applications, giving a concrete example of a real-life problem for each.

• clarified and updated our discussion of the scientific method to reflect more accurately how research is done in a real-world context.

• added material on interpreting correlations—to help students use the notions of correlation and causation more accurately in their everyday lives.

• simplified and consolidated our discussion of the split-brain experiments. • updated material on flashbulb memories, using up-to-date examples. • created a new section on cognitive theories of intelligence. • added a new Psychology Matters piece entitled “Not Just Fun and Games: The

Role of Child’s Play in Life Success,” telling of the growing role of self-control in life success, and how parents and teachers can help nurture this important ability.

• added new material on Vygotsky’s theory, including scaffolding and the zone of proximal development, plus new material on neural development in adolescence.

• revised and expanded the sections on daydreaming and on both REM and NREM sleep to reflect important new research.

• changed the order of topics in the Motivation and Emotion chapter, bringing in new material on practical ways of motivating people, updating the section on sexual orientation, and presenting a revised hierarchy of needs based in evolutionary psychology.

• added new material on cross-cultural differences in shyness, Carol Dweck’s research on mindset, and individual differences in time perspective.

• updated the section on positive psychology. • updated the Heroic Defiance section, including new examples from the recent

Egyptian protests and new material on events at the Abu Ghraib prison. • added new examples of recent replications of Milgram’s obedience experiment. • added new material on bullying, the jigsaw classroom, and stereotype lift. • reconceptualized depression in terms of Mayberg’s model, which emphasizes three

factors: biological vulnerability, external stressors, and abnormality of the mood- regulation circuits in the brain. Also presented the new studies on the value of exercise in combating depression and the anxiety disorders.

• added new material on psychopathy—which is attracting increasing interest but is not a DSM-IV disorder.

• discussed the growing rift within clinical psychology (and between APA and APS) over empirically supported treatments and empirically based practice.

T O T H E I N S T R U C T O R xix

• updated the information on telehealth therapy strategies. • connected the discussion of traumatic stress to the 2011 earthquake in Japan. • added a new Do It Yourself! The Undergraduate Stress Questionnaire: How Stressed

Are You?

We think you will find the seventh edition up-to-date and even more engaging for students than the previous edition. But the changes are not limited to the book itself. Please allow us to toot our horns for the supplements available to adopters.

TEACHING AND LEARNING PACKAGE The following supplements will also enhance teaching and learning for you and your students:

Instructor’s Manual Written and compiled by Sylvia Robb of Hudson County Community College, includes suggestions for preparing for the course, sample syllabi, and current trends and strategies for successful teaching. Each chapter offers integrated teaching outlines, lists the Key Questions, Core Concepts, and Key Terms for each chapter for quick reference, an extensive bank of lecture launchers, handouts, and activities, crossword puzzles, and suggestions for integrating third-party videos, music, and Web resources. The electronic format features click-and-view hotlinks that allow instructors to quickly review or print any resource from a particular chapter. This resource saves prep work and helps you maximize your classroom time.

Test Bank Written by Jason Spiegelman of Community College of Baltimore County, has provided an extensively updated test bank containing more than 2,000 accuracy- checked questions, including multiple choice, completion (fill-in-the-blank and short answer), and critical essays. Test item questions have been also written to test student comprehension of select multimedia assets found with MyPsychLab for instructors who wish to make MyPsychLab a more central component of their course. In addition to the unique questions listed previously, the Test Bank also includes all of the Check Your Understanding questions from the textbook and all of the test questions from the Discovering Psychology Telecourse Faculty Guide for instructors who wish to reinforce student use of the textbook and video materials. All questions include the correct answer, page reference, difficulty ranking, question type designation, and correlations to American Psychological Association (APA) Learning Goal/Outcome. A new feature of the Test Bank is the inclusion of rationales for each correct answer and the key distracter in the multiple- choice questions. The rationales help instructors reviewing the content to further evaluate the questions they are choosing for their tests and give instructors the option to use the rationales as an answer key for their students. Feedback from current customers indicates this unique feature is very useful for ensuring quality and quick response to student queries. A two-page Total Assessment Guide chapter overview makes creating tests easier by listing all of the test items in an easy-to-reference grid. The Total Assessment Guide organizes all test items by text section and question type/level of difficulty. All multiple- choice questions are categorized as factual, conceptual, or applied.

The Test Bank comes with Pearson MyTest, a powerful assessment-generation program that helps instructors easily create and print quizzes and exams. Ques- tions and tests can be authored online, allowing instructors ultimate flexibility and the ability to efficiently manage assessments anytime, anywhere! Instructors can easily access existing questions and then edit, create, and store them using simple drag-and- drop and Word-like controls. Data on each question provide information relevant to dif- ficulty level and page number. In addition, each question maps to the text’s major section and learning objective. For more information, go to www.PearsonMyTest.com.

NEW Interactive PowerPoint Slides These slides, available on the Instructor’s Resource DVD (ISBN 0-205-58439-7), bring the Psychology: Core Concepts design right into the classroom, drawing students into the lecture and providing wonderful interactivewww.PearsonMyTest.com

xx T O T H E I N S T R U C T O R

activities, visuals, and videos. A video walk-through is available and provides clear guidelines on using and customizing the slides. The slides are built around the text’s learning objectives and offer many links across content areas. Icons integrated throughout the slides indicate interactive exercises, simulations, and activities that can be accessed directly from the slides if instructors want to use these resources in the classroom.

A Set of Standard Lecture PowerPoint Slides Written by Beth M. Schwartz, Randolph College, is also offered and includes detailed outlines of key points for each chapter supported by selected visuals from the textbook. A separate Art and Figure version of these presentations contains all art from the textbook for which Pearson has been granted electronic permissions.

Classroom Response System (CRS) Power Point Slides Classroom Response System questions (“Clicker” questions) are intended to form the basis for class discussions as well as lectures. The incorporation of the CRS questions into each chapter’s slideshow facilitates the use of “clickers”—small hardware devices similar to remote controls, which process student responses to questions and interpret and display results in real time. CRS questions are a great way to get students involved in what they are learning, especially because many of these questions address specific scientific thinking skills highlighted in the text. These questions are available on the Instructor’s Resource DVD (ISBN 0-205-85439-7) and also online at http://pearsonhighered.com/irc.

Instructor’s Resource DVD (ISBN 0-205-85439-7) Bringing all of the Seventh Edition’s instructor resources together in one place, the Instructor’s DVD offers both versions of the PowerPoint presentations, the Classroom Response System (CRS), the electronic files for the Instructor’s Manual materials, and the Test Item File to help instructors customize their lecture notes.

The NEW MyPsychLab The NEW MyPsychLab combines original online materials with powerful online assessment to engage students, assess their learning, and help them succeed. MyPsychLab ensures students are always learning and always improving.

• New video: New, exclusive 30-minute video segments for every chapter take the viewer from the research laboratory to inside the brain to out on the street for real-world applications.

• New experiments: A new experiment tool allows students to experience psychol- ogy. Students do experiments online to reinforce what they are learning in class and reading about in the book.

• New BioFlix animations: Bring difficult-to-teach biological concepts to life with dramatic “zoom” sequences and 3D movement.

• eText: The Pearson eText lets students access their textbook anytime, anywhere, in any way they want it, including listening to it online.

• New concept mapping: A new concept-mapping tool allows students to create their own graphic study aids or notetaking tools using preloaded content from each chapter. Concept maps can be saved, e-mailed, or printed.

• Assessment: With powerful online assessment tied to every video, application, and chapter of the text, students can get immediate feedback. Instructors can see what their students know and what they don’t know with just a few clicks. Instruc- tors can then personalize MyPsychLab course materials to meet the needs of their students.

• New APA assessments: A unique bank of assessment items allows instructors to assess student progress against the American Psychological Association’s Learning Goals and Outcomes. These assessments have been keyed to the APA’s latest pro- gressive Learning Outcomes (basic, developing, advanced) published in 2008.

Proven Results Instructors and students have been using MyPsychLab for nearly ten years. To date, more than 500,000 students have used MyPsychLab. During that time,http://pearsonhighered.com/irc

T O T H E I N S T R U C T O R xxi

three white papers on the efficacy of MyPsychLab were published. Both the white papers and user feedback show compelling results: MyPsychLab helps students succeed and improve their test scores. One of the key ways MyPsychLab improves student outcomes is by providing continuous assessment as part of the learning process. Over the years, both instructor and student feedback have guided numerous improvements, making MyPsychLab even more flexible and effective.

Please contact your local Pearson representative for more information on MyPsychLab. For technical support for any of your Pearson products, you and your students can contact http://247.pearsoned.com.

NEW MyPsychLab Video Series (17 episodes) This new video series offers instructors and students the most current and cutting-edge introductory psychology video content available anywhere. These exclusive videos take the viewer into today’s research laboratories, inside the body and brain via breathtaking animations, and onto the street for real-world applications. Guided by the Design, Development and Review team, a diverse group of introductory psychology instructors, this comprehensive series features 17 half-hour episodes organized around the major topics covered in the introductory psychology course syllabus. For maximum flexibility, each half-hour episode features several brief clips that bring psychology to life:

• The Big Picture introduces the topic of the episode and provides the hook to draw students fully into the topic.

• The Basics uses the power of video to present foundational topics, especially those that students find difficult to understand.

• Special Topics delves deeper into high-interest and cutting-edge topics, showing research in action.

• In the Real World focuses on applications of psychological research. • What’s in It for Me? These clips show students the relevance of psychological

research to their own lives.

Available in MyPsychLab and also on DVD to adopters of Pearson psychology text- books (ISBN 0-205-03581-7).

Discovering Psychology Telecourse Videos Written, designed, and hosted by Phil Zimbardo and produced by WGBH Boston in partnership with Annenberg Media, this series is a perfect complement to Psychology: Core Concepts. Discovering Psychology is a landmark educational resource that reveals psychology’s contribution not only to understanding the puzzles of behavior but also to identifying solutions and treatments to ease the problems of mental disorders. The video series has won numerous prizes and is widely used in the United States and internationally. The complete set of 26 half-hour videos is available for purchase (DVD or VHS format) from Annenberg Media. The videos are also available online in a streaming format that is free (www.learner.org), and, for the convenience of instructors and students using Psychology: Core Concepts, links to these online videos have been included in the MyPsychLab program that accompanies the textbook. A student Viewing Guide is found at the end of every chapter within Psychology: Core Concepts, with additional Viewing Guide resources also available online within MyPsychLab.

Discovering Psychology Telecourse Faculty Guide (ISBN 0-205-69929-4) The Telecourse Faculty Guide provides guidelines for using Discovering Psychology as a resource within your course. Keyed directly to Psychology: Core Concepts, the faculty guide includes the complete Telecourse Study Guide plus suggested activities; suggested essays; cited studies; instructional resources, including books, articles, films, and websites; video program test questions with answer key; and a key term glossary. Test questions for Discovering Psychology also reappear in the textbook’s test bank and MyTest computerized test bank.

Student Study Guide (ISBN 0-205-25299-0) This robust study guide, written by Jane P. Sheldon of University of Michigan-Dearborn, is filled with guided activities and in-depth exercises to promote student learning. Each chapter includes worksheets thatwww.learner.orghttp://247.pearsoned.com

xxii T O T H E I N S T R U C T O R

give students a head start on in-class note taking; a full list of key terms with page references; a collection of demonstrations, activities, exercises, and three short practice quizzes; and one comprehensive chapter exam with critical-thinking essay questions and concept maps to help you study for your quizzes and exams. The appendix includes answers to all of the practice activities, tests, and concept maps.

ACCESSING ALL RESOURCES

For a list of all student resources available with Psychology: Core Concepts, Seventh Edition, go to www.mypearsonstore.com, enter the text ISBN (0-205-18346-8), and check out the “Everything That Goes with It” section under the book cover.

For access to all instructor supplements for Psychology: Core Concepts, Seventh Edition go to http://pearsonhighered.com/irc and follow the directions to register (or log in if you already have a Pearson user name and password). Once you have registered and your status as an instructor is verified, you will be e-mailed a log-in name and password. Use your log-in name and password to access the catalog. Click on the “online catalog” link, click on “psychology” followed by “introductory psychology,” and then the Zimbardo/Johnson/McCann, Psychology: Core Concepts, Seventh Edition text. Under the description of each supplement is a link that allows you to download and save the supplement to your desktop.

You can request hard copies of the supplements through your Pearson sales representa- tive. If you do not know your sales representative, go to http://www.pearsonhighered.com/ replocator/ and follow the directions. For technical support for any of your Pearson prod- ucts, you and your students can contact http://247.pearsoned.com.

A NOTE OF THANKS Nobody ever realizes the magnitude of the task when taking on a textbook-writing project. Acquisitions Editor Amber Chow and Executive Editor Stephen Frail deftly guided (and prodded) us through this process. The vision of the seventh edition con- fronted reality under the guidance of Deb Hanlon, our tenacious Senior Development Editor, who made us work harder than we had believed possible. Assistant Editor Kerri Hart-Morris managed our spectacular ancillaries package.

The job of making the manuscript into a book fell to Shelly Kupperman, our Production Project Manager at Pearson Education; Andrea Stefanowicz, our Senior Project Manager at PreMediaGlobal; and Kim Husband, our copyeditor. We think they did an outstanding job—as did our tireless photo researcher, Ben Ferrini.

We are sure that none of the above would be offended if we reserve our deepest thanks for our spouses, closest colleagues, and friends who inspired us, gave us the caring support we needed, and served as sounding boards for our ideas. Phil thanks his wonderful wife, Christina Maslach, for her endless inspiration and for modeling what is best in academic psychology. He has recently passed a milestone of 50 years of teaching the introductory psychology course, from seminar size to huge lectures to more than 1,000 students. Phil continues to give lectures and colloquia to college and high school groups throughout the country and overseas. He still gets a rush from lec- turing and from turning students on to the joys and fascination of psychology. His new “psych rock star” status comes mostly from generations of students who have grown up watching him perform on the Discovering Psychology video series in their high school and college psychology courses.

Bob is grateful to his spouse, best friend, and best editor Michelle, who has for years put up with his rants on topics psychological, his undone household chores, and much gratification delayed—mostly without complaint. She has been a wellspring of understand- ing and loving support and the most helpful of reviewers. His thanks, too, go to Rebecca, their daughter, who has taught him the practical side of developmental psychology—and now, much to her own astonishment and an undergraduate lapse into sociology, pos- sesses her own graduate degree in psychology. In addition, he is indebted to many friends,www.mypearsonstore.comhttp://247.pearsoned.comhttp://www.pearsonhighered.com/replocator/http://www.pearsonhighered.com/replocator/http://pearsonhighered.com/irc

T O T H E I N S T R U C T O R xxiii

most of whom are not psychologists but who are nevertheless always eager to raise and debate interesting issues about the applications of psychology to everyday life. Readers will find topics they have raised throughout the book and especially in the chapter-opening “problems” and in the critical thinking sections at the end of each chapter.

Vivian’s thanks go first to her husband, Shawn, and their sons, Storm and Blaze. All three of these amazing men are endless sources of love, support, inspiration, fun, and delight. They also generously allow Vivian to use them as examples of a multi- tude of concepts in her classes! Vivian also appreciates the many students, friends, and colleagues who have both encouraged and challenged her over the years.

We would especially like to thank Michelle Billies, Nikita Duncan, George Slavich, and Christina Zimbardo for their exceptional help as we revised and prepared this edition for print.

Many psychological experts and expert teachers of introductory psychology also shared their constructive criticism with us on every chapter and feature of the seventh edition of this text:

Thomas Beckner, Trine University Chris Brill, Old Dominion University Allison Buskirk-Cohen, Delaware Valley

College Christie Chung, Mills College Elizabeth Curtis, Long Beach City College Linda DeKruif, Fresno City College Meliksah Demir, Northern Arizona

University Roger Drake, Western State College of

Colorado Denise Dunovant, Hudson County

Community College Arthur Frankel, Salve Regina University Marjorie Getz, Bradley University Nancy Gup, Georgia Perimeter College Carrie Hall, Miami University Jeremy Heider, Stephen F. Austin State

University Allen Huffcutt, Bradley University Kristopher Kimbler, Florida Gulf Coast

University Sue Leung, Portland Community College Brian Littleton, Kalamazoo Valley

Community College Annette Littrell, Tennessee Tech University Mark Loftis, Tennessee Tech University Lillian McMaster, Hudson County

Community College

Karen Marsh, University of Minnesota–Duluth

Jim Matiya, Florida Gulf Coast University Nancy Melucci, Long Beach City College Jared Montoya, The University of Texas

at Brownsville Suzanne Morrow, Old Dominion

University Katy Neidhart, Cuesta College Donna Nelson, Winthrop University Barbara Nova, Dominican University of

California Elaine Olaoye, Brookdale Community

College Karl Oyster, Tidewater Community

College Sylvia Robb, Hudson County

Community College Nancy Romero, Lone Star College Beverly Salzman, Housatonic

Community College Hildur Schilling, Fitchburg State College Bruce Sherwin, Housatonic Community

College Hilary Stebbins, Virginia Wesleyan

College Doris Van Auken, Holy Cross College Matthew Zagummy, Tennessee Tech

University

We also thank the reviewers of the previous editions of Psychology: Core Concepts and hope that they will recognize their valued input in all that is good in this text:

Gordon Allen, Miami University Beth Barton, Coastal Carolina

Community College Linda Bastone, Purchase College, SUNY Susan Beck, Wallace State College

Michael Bloch, University of San Francisco Michele Breault, Truman State University John H. Brennecke, Mount San Antonio

College T. L. Brink, Crafton Hills College

xxiv T O T H E I N S T R U C T O R

Jay Brown, Southwest Missouri State University

Sally S. Carr, Lakeland Community College

Saundra Ciccarelli, Gulf Coast Community College

Wanda Clark, South Plains College Susan Cloninger, The Sage Colleges John Conklin, Camosun College (Canada) Michelle L. Pilati Corselli (Rio Hondo

College) Sara DeHart-Young, Mississippi State

University Janet DiPietro, John Hopkins University Diane Finley, Prince George’s

Community College Krista Forrest, University of Nebraska at

Kearney Lenore Frigo, Shasta College Rick Froman, John Brown University Arthur Gonchar, University of LaVerne Peter Gram, Pensacola Junior College Jonathan Grimes, Community College of

Baltimore County Lynn Haller, Morehead State University Mary Elizabeth Hannah, University of

Detroit Jack Hartnett, Virginia Commonwealth

University Carol Hayes, Delta State University Karen Hayes, Guilford College Michael Hillard, Albuquerque TVI

Community College Peter Hornby, Plattsburgh State

University Deana Julka, University of Portland Brian Kelley, Bridgewater College Sheila Kennison, Oklahoma State

University Laurel Krautwurst, Blue Ridge

Community College Judith Levine, Farmingdale State College Dawn Lewis, Prince George’s

Community College Deborah Long, East Carolina University

Margaret Lynch, San Francisco State University

Jean Mandernach, University of Nebraska, Kearney

Marc Martin, Palm Beach Community College

Richard Mascolo, El Camino College Steven Meier, University of Idaho Nancy Mellucci, Los Angeles

Community College District Yozan Dirk Mosig, University of

Nebraska Melinda Myers-Johnson, Humboldt

State University Michael Nikolakis, Faulkner State

College Cindy Nordstrom, Southern Illinois

University Laura O’Sullivan, Florida Gulf Coast

University Ginger Osborne, Santa Ana College Vernon Padgett, Rio Hondo College Jeff Pedroza, Santa Ana College Laura Phelan, St. John Fisher College Faye Plascak-Craig, Marian College Skip Pollock, Mesa Community College Chris Robin, Madisonville Community

College Lynne Schmelter-Davis, Brookdale

County College of Monmouth Mark Shellhammer, Fairmont State

College Christina Sinisi, Charleston Southern

University Patricia Stephenson, Miami Dade

College Mary Ellen Dello Stritto, Western

Oregon University Mario Sussman, Indiana University of

Pennsylvania John Teske, Elizabethtown College Stacy Walker, Kingwood College Robert Wellman, Fitchburg State

University Alan Whitlock, University of Idaho

Finally, we offer our thanks to all of the colleagues whose feedback has improved our book. Thanks also to all instructors of this most-difficult-to-teach course for taking on the pedagogical challenge and conveying to students their passion about the joys and relevance of psychological science and practice.

If you have any recommendations of your own that we should not overlook for the next edition, please write to us! Address your comments to Dr. Robert Johnson, CoreConcepts7@gmail.com.

A B O U T T H E A U T H O R S

Philip Zimbardo, PhD, Stanford University professor, has been teaching the introductory psychology course for 50 years and has been writing the basic text for this course, as well as the faculty guides and student workbooks, for the past 35 years. In addition, he has helped to develop and update the PBS-TV series, Discovering Psychol- ogy, which is used in many high school and university courses both nationally and internationally. He has been called “The Face and Voice of Psychology” because of this popular series and his other media presentations. Phil also loves to conduct and publish research on a wide variety of subjects, as well as teach and engage in public and social service activities. He has published more than 400 professional and popular articles and chapters, including 50 books of all kinds. He recently published a trade book on the psychology of evil, The Lucifer Effect, that relates his classic Stanford Prison Experiment to the abuses at Iraq’s Abu Ghraib Prison. His new book is The Time Paradox, but his new passion is helping to create wise and effective everyday heroes as part of his Heroic Imagination Project. Please see these websites for more information: www.zimbardo.com; www.prisonexp.org; www.PsychologyMatters.org; www.theTimeParadox.com; www.LuciferEffect.com; www.HeroicImagination.org.

Robert Johnson, PhD, taught introductory psychology for 28 years at Umpqua Community College. He acquired an interest in cross-cultural psychology during a Fulbright summer in Thailand, followed by many more trips abroad to Japan, Korea, Latin America, Britain, and, most recently, to Indonesia. Currently, he is working on a book on the psychology in Shakespeare. Bob is especially interested in applying psy- chological principles to the teaching of psychology and in encouraging linkages be- tween psychology and other disciplines. In keeping with those interests, he founded the Pacific Northwest Great Teachers Seminar, of which he was the director for 20 years. Bob was also one of the founders of Psychology Teachers at Community Colleges (PT@CC), serving as its executive committee chair during 2004. That same year, he also received the Two-Year College Teaching Award given by the Society for the Teaching of Psychology. Bob has long been active in APA, APS, the Western Psychological Association, and the Council of Teachers of Undergraduate Psychology.

Vivian McCann, a senior faculty member in psychology at Portland Community College in Portland, Oregon, teaches a wide variety of courses, including introductory psychology, human relations, intimate relationships, and social psychology. Born and raised in the California desert just 10 miles from the Mexican border, she learned early on the importance of understanding cultural backgrounds and values in effective communication and in teaching, which laid the foundation for her current interest in teaching and learning psychology from diverse cultural perspectives. She loves to travel and learn about people and cultures and to nurture the same passions in her students. She has led groups of students on four trips abroad, and in her own travels has visited 24 countries so far. Vivian maintains a strong commitment to teaching excellence and has developed and taught numerous workshops in that area. She has served on the APA’s Committee for Psychology Teachers at Community Colleges (PT@CC) and is an active member of the Western Psychological Association and APS. She is also the author of Human Relations: The Art and Science of Building Effective Relationships.

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is forum shopping ethical

 Fundamentals of the Legal Environment of Business : A Managerial Approach: theory of practice. 3rd edition by Sean P. Melvin -Busi 301

Chapter 3 review pages 100-101

 **must be 300 words** 

APA format  2 sources 

Case Study: Forum Shopping

In its user service agreement, Facebook includes a forum selection clause that requires users with legal disputes to file any lawsuits against Facebook in courts physically located near its northern California corporate headquarters. Review the discussion of this issue in your textbook (Legal Strategy 101, pp. 100-101); then, analyze the following questions:

  1. Is forum shopping ethical? What are you using as your ethical standard?
  2. Should courts enforce forum selection clauses in business-to-consumer contracts like the Facebook user agreement? Why or why not?
  3. Suppose Facebook did not have a forum selection clause in its user agreement. Would Facebook be subject to the jurisdiction of every state court in the United States, since it has millions of users in every U.S. state?

Refer to the Assignment Instructions folder of the course for general directions and grading rubrics for Discussion Boards, including requirements for word length, scholarly sources, and integration of a Biblical worldview.

Use the words “Ethical” or “Not Ethical” in the subject line of your thread to identify your conclusion. Do not use attachments, as these are cumbersome and inhibit the discussion process.

Thread Requirements

To begin a discussion assignment, review the case study presented in the forum and consider the questions at the end. Research sources in support of your answers. At least 2 sources in current APA format must be used, and can include the Bible. Then, compose a post in current APA format which addresses those questions and incorporates your research. Include a works cited list at the end of your composition (this list does not count toward the word count requirements). The purpose of this research criterion is to encourage you to contribute academic content to the course; therefore, failure to do so will result in a substantial deduction to your grade. First-person voice is allowed, but your writing must otherwise be as professional as possible. It must be free of spelling, punctuation, and grammar errors.

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diet analysis project

NUTR 100 – Diet Analysis Project Template (Parts I, II & III)

Part I: 24-hour Food & Beverage Recall with Predictions

Use this template in conjunction with the Complete Dietary Analysis Project Instructions. Submit this template when finished with each Part (there are Parts I, II and III included).

Personal information of person interviewed (please include all):

Gender: Female

Height: 5’5

Weight: 222

Age: 42

Activity level: none

Date/Day of the Week (add rows if needed & divide by meals/snacks):

TimeFood/Condiment/BeverageHow Much Ate/Drank(use cups or ounces, tablespoons)
9:12 amOatmeal, regular, cooked (no salt or fat added)1 cup
9:12 amBacon, pork cooked3 medium slices
9:12 amwater16 ounces
1:32pmSalad, grilled chicken, bacon, cheese, lettuce, tomato, carrots, no dressing1 ½ cup
7:25 pmPizza, with meat and vegetables, thick crust 1 pizza (5″ across pizza)5” across pizza
7:25pmSalad, Caesar, with dressing1 cup
7:25 pmwater16.9 ounces
8:00pmwine3.5 ounces

Predictions (2 parts):

Part 1: Original charts with your predictions

Total CaloriesDietary FiberFood GroupsMacronutrientsMicronutrients
VegFruitWhole GrainsDairyProteinCarbsFatVitamins/ Minerals
Lowxxxxx
Adequatexxxx
Highx
SodiumSaturated fatCholesterol
Lowxx
Moderatex
High

Part 2:

Write at least five sentences explaining why you are predicting what you predict for each category. Please address the micronutrients in general (if you think overall the 24-hour recall diet will be too low, adequate/moderate or too high in most vitamins and minerals) and also specifically address the mineral, sodium and the sub-categories, saturated fat, cholesterol and dietary fiber in your write-up. You will lose points for not addressing all categories noted here.

NUTR 100 – Dietary Analysis Project Template

Part II: Data Findings and Analysis of Original 24-hour Food Recall

Data Findings & Analysis

Getting Started:

Please submit this Template for Part II, which should include your completed Part I above and any corrections needed per the instructors feedback. Also, be sure to submit the Nutrient Intake Report.

Use this template in conjunction with the Complete Dietary Analysis Project Instructions. Submit this template when finished with each Part.

· Start with the Daily Food Group Targets. Click on “View by Meal” (located under the graph on the Food Tracker page). You will want to copy and paste the Food Groups table into this document, replacing the example below. You may not be able to simply copy and paste depending on your computer. You can also take a screenshot, and then crop the graphic as needed (see example below).

Food Group Table

· Next, look at the Daily Food Group Graph (next to the word data and below the daily food group targets). Take a screenshot, and then crop the graphic as needed (see example below); then answer the questions and write a summary of your findings per the instructions below.

Food Group Graph

Food Group Questions:

· What are the total percentages of the target for each food group?

· Example: Grains are 94%, Vegetables are 151%, Fruits are 111%, Dairy is 53% and Protein is 71% of the targets.

· For grains, what percent is whole and what percent is refined (hover the arrow over the sections on the chart and it will show this)?

· Example: Whole grains are 65% of total grains

· For dairy, what percent is from milk/yogurt and what percent is from cheese?

· Example: Milk and yogurt are 80% of dairy intake; cheese is 20% of dairy intake

· For fruit, what percent is from whole fruit and what percent is from fruit juice?

· Whole fruit is 60% of fruit intake and fruit juice is 40% of fruit intake.

· Write at least five sentences addressing your findings regarding the food groups for the diet recall. Address, what foods from the 24-hour diet recall caused the food groups to be in these proportions? How can they be improved upon for the revised diet?

· Next, look at Daily Limits. This is below the graph you were just looking over on SuperTracker.

As with the above graphs, these charts need to be used in the final presentation, so save them now (sometimes right clicking and selecting “save picture as” will work). You may copy and paste into this template, you may use screenshots (replace the example below).

Daily Limits Graph

Daily Limits Questions: (please answer them all together in paragraph form)

· Write at least five sentences summarizing your findings for daily limits. Address, what foods from the 24-hour diet recall caused these levels of daily limits? How can they be improved upon for the revised diet? Include answers to the questions below as well.

· What are total calories eaten for the day? Are they within 100 calories of the total limit? If not, how can this be achieved with the revised menu?

· Should added sugar be reduced in order to be lower than the limit? If yes, how can you revise the menu to meet this target while meeting other targets?

· How much saturated fat, and sodium were eaten and what were those limits? If these are above the limits how can they be improved upon in the revised menu?

The next step is to open the Nutrient Intake Report (just below the graph, smaller print, next to “Related Links”). You will need to submit this report with your Part II submission as well as with the final presentation, so make sure to save it! I strongly recommend exporting it as a word document so you can edit it per the requirements for Part III. The report will list the target (or RDA), average eaten, and the status. Make note of those that exceed guidelines and those that do not meet the guidelines. For now, you can assess this as over or under the guideline just based on the status provided. In your final presentation submission you will be converting these to percentages. Remember that for saturated fat, cholesterol and sodium you want to be below the value, so no need to comment if you fall below, only if you exceed it.

You now have all the information you need to assess the data and write up your findings. Keep this information, as you will need it for the final presentation of your work.

Outcomes of Your Predictions

See if your predictions matched up with the findings. Include both charts below with your original predictions and findings.

Original Charts with Your Predictions:

Total CaloriesFiberFood GroupsMacronutrientsMicronutrients
VegFruitWhole GrainsDairyProteinCarbsFatVitamins/ Minerals
Too Low
Adequate
Too High
SodiumSaturated fatCholesterol
Low
Moderate
High

Analysis Charts with Your Findings:

Total CaloriesFiberFood GroupsMacronutrientsMicronutrients
VegFruitWhole GrainsDairyProteinCarbsFatVitamins/ Minerals
Too Low
Adequate
Too High
SodiumSaturated fatCholesterol
Low
Moderate
High

Outcomes of your predictions summary:

(Write at least 5 sentences discussing and comparing your predictions with the findings. Please summarize which of your predictions were accurate (or close) and which were not. For those predictions that were not in line with the findings discuss why you think your predictions were off)

NUTR 100 – Dietary Analysis Project Template

Part III: Original 24-hour Food Recall with Revised 24-hour Final Menu & Analysis

Getting Started:

Please use the provided Template for Parts I, II & III, which should include your completed Part I & II and any corrections needed per the instructors feedback. Label all graphs and tables as “Revised” so it’s easy for me to distinguish between the original menu data and the revised menu data. IMPORTANT: before starting Part III take a look at the check list of requirements for the revised menu at the end of this document.

Date/Day of the Week (add rows if needed):

ORIGINAL 24-hour recallREVISED 24-hour menu
TimeOriginal: Food/Condiment/BeverageHow Much Ate/Drank(use cups or ounces, tablespoons)TimeFood/Condiments/BeveragesAmount

(Revised) Daily Food Group Targets (insert screen shot using revised 24-hour menu you created)

Location Note: the two charts below can be generated using SuperTracker, located under the Daily Food Group Targets, select “View By Meal”, they are the last two charts on the screen.

Macintosh HD:Users:erikapied:Desktop:Screen Shot 2016-06-21 at 7.43.34 PM.png

(Revised) Daily Food Group Graph (insert screen shot using revised 24-hour menu you created)

(Revised) Daily Limits (insert screen shot using revised 24-hour menu you created)

Fill in the following “Master Comparison Table” to help you address and compare the following areas:

Target (per SuperTracker)Original 24-hour recall MenuRevised 24-hour Menu
Total Calories
Whole GrainsAt least 50%
Added SugarsLimit:
Saturated FatLimit:
SodiumLimit: 2300 mg
Cholesterol<300 mg
Dietary Fiber>25 g

Revised Menu Questions: (please include at least 8 sentences addressing these questions)

· Based on your findings what were the areas (food groups, nutrients etc.) that needed revising from the original menu?

· Were you successful at improving these areas? If so, how did you improve these areas in the revised menu? If not, why not?

· What were your challenges with revising the menu?

· How did you overcome them?

Checklist of Requirements for Revised Menu:

To be considered a correct, revised menu, the following should be met: (Use this as a checklist before submitting; part of your grade will be showing you can meet these targets)

· Total calories should be within 100 calories from the target calories. For example, if the target calories are 1800 calories, then your revised menu have calories totaling between 1700-1900 calories.

· Daily Food Groups Report: Should read OK; it is acceptable to go over, as long as total calories are +/- 100 calories for the day and there is balance between the overages (for example, 110% grains, 110% dairy, 120% vegetables versus 110% fruit, 350% protein, 200% dairy).

· Graph (Food Group bar graph): Should be at 100% (+/-10%) for all targets, acceptable to go over as long as total calories are +/- 100 calories for the day and there is balance between the overages (for example, 110% grains, 110% dairy, 120% vegetables versus 110% fruit, 350% protein, 200% dairy).

· For grains, at least 50% should be whole grains. Fruit juice should not be in excess.

· Daily Limit: Should be within +/- 100 calories of the target. Added sugar, saturated fat, cholesterol and sodium should not exceed their limits.

· Nutrient Intake Report: There are more nutrients than we are looking at listed on this report, so only focus on the nutrients we covered extensively in class (calories, protein grams and %, carbohydrate grams and %, total fat and %, saturated fat, cholesterol, dietary fiber and all vitamins and minerals listed). There are a few extra that we did not cover as extensively in class, so please do not worry about discussing those (they are: monounsaturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, linoleic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, omega-3 EPA and omega 3-DHA).

· ***IMPORTANT*** Highlight total calories if the average eaten is +/- 100 calories of the target, if the number is outside of the range, write “Less than 100 calories below” or “Greater than 100 calories above.”

· All macronutrients (carbs, protein and total fat) % Calories should be within the AMDR target range listed under Target. Any macronutrient outside of the AMDR should be highlighted and indicated as “Over” or “Under.”

· Dietary Fiber should be at least 25 grams, anything less should be highlighted and labeled as “Under”.

· For Saturated fat , anything over 10 percent should be highlighted and indicated as “Over.”

· For Cholesterol , anything over 300 mg should be highlighted and indicated as “Over.”

· For Sodium , anything over 2400 mg should be highlighted and indicated as “Over.”

· For micronutrients (vitamins and minerals), calculate the % of the target for each and enter it in the status column. To do this, divide the actual intake by the target and multiple by 100. Type this percentage in to the Word version of the report next to the status (for example, OK 105%). This will make it easier for you to make comments on this for the final presentation. Highlight any that are less than 80% or greater than 200% of the target. It may say OK, but we still want to be careful not to go too far over each day. Only highlight those when greater than 200% or less than 80% along with their calculated percentage.

Please note: If the person you are creating a menu for has very high calorie needs (2800 calories or more), you will likely need to exceed 200% for many of the vitamins and minerals because you will need a larger amount of total food to meet the calorie needs. Just make sure that the macronutrients are still within the AMDR, even at the higher calorie level. If you have a menu where the calorie needs are 2800 or more you will be graded based on 300% instead of 200% for the high end of the range.

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Renaissance anatomical illustrations often followed artistic conventions (situating the skeleton in a lifelike pose in a landscape) and played wittily on the tensions between life and death. The contemplation of the skull prefigures Hamlet’s later meditation. Line drawing, Valverde de Hamusco, Historia de la composicion del cuerco humano (Rome: A. Salamanca & A. Lafreri, 1556).

TO Mikuláš Teich,

true friend and scholar

Sick – Sick – Sick. . . O Sick – Sick – Spew DAVID GARRICK, in a letter

I’m sick of gruel, and the dietetics, I’m sick of pills, and sicker of emetics, I’m sick of pulses, tardiness or quickness, I’m sick of blood, its thinness or its thickness, – In short, within a word, I’m sick of sickness!

THOMAS HOOD, ‘Fragment’, c. 1844

They are shallow animals, having always employed their minds about Body and Gut, they imagine that in the whole system of things there is nothing but Gut and Body.

SAMUEL TAYLOR COLERIDGE, on doctors (1796)

CONTENTS

LIST OF FIGURES

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I Introduction

II The Roots of Medicine

III Antiquity

IV Medicine and Faith

V The Medieval West

VI Indian Medicine

VII Chinese Medicine

VIII Renaissance

IX The New Science

X Enlightenment

XI Scientific Medicine in the Nineteenth Century

XII Nineteenth-Century Medical Care

XIII Public Medicine

XIV From Pasteur to Penicillin

XV Tropical Medicine, World Diseases

XVI Psychiatry

XVII Medical Research

XVIII Clinical Science

XIX Surgery

XX Medicine, State and Society

XXI Medicine and the People

XXII The Past, the Present and the Future

FURTHER READING

INDEX

More praise for: The Greatest Benefit to Mankind

FIGURES

The main organs of the body The four humours and the four elements The heart and circulation, as understood by Harvey Neurones and synapses, as understood by neurologists c. 1900

ILLUSTRATIONS

Imhotep. Portrait of Hippocrates. Portrait of Galen by Georg Paul Busch. Portrait of Hildegard of Bingen by W. Marshall. Portrait of Moses Maimonides by M. Gur-Aryeh. The Wound Man, from Feldtbuch der Wundartzney by H. von Gersdorf. The common willow, from The Herball, or General Historie of Plantes by J. Gerard. St Cosmas and St Damian performing the miracle of the black leg by Alonso de Sedano. A medieval Persian anatomical drawing. A medieval European anatomy, from Margarita Philosophica by Gregorius Reisch. A Chinese acupuncture chart. ‘Two Surgeons Amputating the Leg and Arm of the Same Patient’ by ZS. The frontispiece to Vesalius’s De humani corporis fabrica. A medicine man or shaman. An Indian doctor taking the pulse of a patient. Portrait of Vesalius. Portrait of William Harvey by J. Hall. Portrait of Louise Bourgeois. Portrait of William Hunter by J. Thomas. Portrait of Benjamin Rush by R. W. Dodson. An early seventeenth-century dissection.

Scenes from the plague in Rome of 1656. A mother and baby, from Anatomia uteri humani gravidi by William Hunter. Three stages of dissection. Opthamology instruments, eye growths, a cateract operation and other eye defects by R. Parr. The preserved skull of a woman who had been suffering from syphilis. Punch Cures the Gout, the Colic, and the Tisick by James Gillray. Breathing a vein by J. Sneyd. An Apothecary with a Pestle and Mortar to Make up a Prescription by A. Park. The interior of a pharmaceutical laboratory with people at work. Philadelphia College of Pharmacy and Science. Portrait of René Théophile Hyacyinthe Laennec Portrait of Louis Pasteur by E. Pirou. Portrait of William Gorgas. Portrait of Joseph Lister. Christiaan Barnard, photographed by B. Govender. Mentally ill patients in the garden of an asylum by K. H. Merz. Sigmund Freud, Carl Gustav Jung, Ernest Jones, Sandor Ferenczi, Abraham Bill and G. Stanley Hall. A male smallpox patient in sickness and in health. A Fijian man with elephantiasis of the left leg and scrotum. An Allegory of Malaria by Maurice Dudevant. A white doctor vaccinating African girls all wearing European clothes at a mission station by Meisenbach. Portrait of Florence Nightingale. A Nurse Checking on a Playful Child by J. E. Sutcliffe. ‘A district health centre where crowds of local children are being vaccinated’ by E. Buckman. Franklin D. Roosevelt. The Hôtel Dieu.

Lister and his assistants in the Victoria Ward. A British hospital ward in the 1990s photographed by Emma Taylor. The bones of a hand, with a ring on one finger, viewed through X-ray. Tomographic scan of a brain in a skull.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

THE USUAL SUSPECTS will be heartily tired of hearing their praises sung yet again. As always, Frieda Houser has been a marvellous secretary, keeping everything on the road while I was deep in this book; Caroline Overy an infallible research assistant; Sheila Lawler and Jan Pinkerton indefatigable on the word-processor, and Andy Foley a wiz on the xerox machine. I have been so lucky having their help and friendship for so long. Thanks! New to me have been the help and friendship I have received from

Fontana Press. The series of which this book forms a part was first planned ten years ago, and since then Stuart Proffitt, Philip Gwyn Jones and Toby Mundy have been ever supportive, skilled equally in the use of sticks and carrots. Biddy Martin’s copy editing uncovered ghastly errors and eliminated stylistic horrors, and Drusella Calvert compiled a truly thorough index. Friends old and new have read this book at various stages and shared

their thoughts, knowledge and criticisms with me. My thanks to Michael Neve, who always reads my manuscripts, and to Bill Bynum and Tilli Tansey for being patient with one who lacks a sound medico-scientific education; and to Hannah Augstein, Cristina Alvarez, Natsu Hattori, Paul Lerner, Eileen Magnello, Diana Manuel, Chandak Sengoopta, Sonu Shamdasani and Cassie Watson, all of whom have read the text, saved me from constellations of errors, shared insights and information, levelled cogent criticisms and helped to keep me going at the moments when all seemed sisyphean. Catherine Draycott and William Schupbach have been immensely helpful with the illustrations. My aim first and foremost is to tell a story that is clear, interesting and informative to students and general readers alike. My thanks to all who have helped the book in that

direction. I also wish to thank all the medical historians and other scholars whose

papers I have heard, whose books I have read, and whose company I have shared over the last twenty years. I have the deepest admiration for the expertise and the historical vision of scholars in this field. Panning from Stone Age to New Age, from Galen to Gallo, I cannot pretend personal knowledge

on more than a few frames of the times and topics covered. As will be plain to see, I am everywhere profoundly dependent on the work of others. It would simply be distracting in a work like this to acknowledge all such debts one after another in thickets of footnotes. The Further Reading must serve not just by way of recommendation for what to read next but as a collective thank-you to all upon whose work I have freely and gratefully drawn. I have written this book because when my students and people at large

have asked me to recommend an up-to-date and readable single-volume history of medicine, I have felt at a loss to know what to suggest. Rather than bemoaning this fact, I thought I should have a shot at filling the gap. Writing it has made it clear why so few have attempted this foolhardy task.

The author is grateful to the following for permission to reproduce extracts: from The Illustrated History of Surgery by Knut Haeger, courtesy of Harold Starke Publishers; from A History of Medicine by Jean Starobinski, courtesy of Prentice Hall; from Hippocrates I-IV and The Complete Letters of Sigmund Freud to Wilhelm Fleiss, 1887–1904 , edited by Jeffrey Masson, courtesy of Harvard University Press; from The Odes of Pindar, edited and translated by Richmond Lattimore, courtesy of Chicago University Press; from Medicine Out of Control: The Anatomy of Malignant Technology by Richard Taylor, courtesy of Sun Books; from A History of Syphilis by Claude Quétel, courtesy of Blackwell Publishers; from Doctor Dock: Teaching and Learning Medicine at the Turn of the

Century by Horace W. Davenport, courtesy of Rutgers University Press; from Steven Sondheim’s West Side Story , copyright 1956, 1959 by the Estate of Leonard Bernstein Music Publishing Company UC, Publisher; Boosey & Hawkes Inc., Sole Agent. International Copyright secured. All rights reserved; from The Horse Buggy and Doctor by A. E. Hertzler, courtesy of the Hertzler Research Foundation; from Inequalities in Health: The Black Report, crown copyright, reproduced with permission of the Controller of Her Majesty’s Stationary Office: from the British Medical Journal (1876), courtesy of the BMJ Publishing Group; from The Doctor’s Job by Carl Binger © 1945 by W. W. Norton & Co. Inc., renewed © 1972 by Carl Binger. Reprinted by permission of W. W. Norton & Co. Inc.; from Women’s Secrets: A Translation of Pseudo- Albertus Magnus’s ‘De secretis mulierum’ by Helen Rodnite Lemay, courtesy of the State University of New York Press © 1992; from Diary of a Medical Nobody by Kenneth Lane, courtesy of Peters, Fraser and Dunlop; from Sketch for a Historical Picture of the Progress of the Human Mind translated by June Barra-clough, courtesy of Weidenfeld & Nicholson. All reasonable efforts have been made by the author and the publisher to trace the copyright holders of the quotations contained in this publication. In the event that any of the untraceable copyright holders comes forward after the publication of this edition, the author and the publishers will endeavour to rectify the situation accordingly.

The main organs of the body

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

THESE ARE STRANGE TIMES , when we are healthier than ever but more anxious about our health. According to all the standard benchmarks, we’ve never had it so healthy. Longevity in the West continues to rise – a typical British woman can now expect to live to seventy-nine, eight years more than just half a century ago, and over double the life expectation when Queen Victoria came to the throne in 1837. Break the figures down a bit and you find other encouraging signs even in the recent past; in 1950, the UK experienced 26,000 infant deaths; within half a century that had fallen by 80 per cent. Deaths in the UK from infectious diseases nearly halved between 1970 and 1992; between 1971 and 1991 stroke deaths dropped by 40 per cent and coronary heart disease fatalities by 19 per cent – and those are diseases widely perceived to be worsening. The heartening list goes on and on (15,000 hip replacements in 1978,

over double that number in 1993). In myriad ways, medicine continues to advance, new treatments appear, surgery works marvels, and (partly as a result) people live longer. Yet few people today feel confident, either about their personal health or about doctors, healthcare delivery and the medical profession in general. The media bombard us with medical news – breakthroughs in biotechnology and reproductive technology for instance. But the effect is to raise alarm more than our spirits. The media specialize in scare-mongering but they also capture a public

mood. There is a pervasive sense that our well-being is imperilled by ‘threats’ all around, from die air we breathe to the food in the shops. Why should we now be more agitated about pollution in our lungs than during the awful urban smogs of the 1950s, when tens of thousands died of winter bronchitis? Have we become health freaks or hypochondriacs luxuriating in health anxieties precisely because we are so healthy and long-lived that we have the leisure to enjoy the luxury of worrying? These may be questions for a psychologist but, as this book aims to

demonstrate, they are also matters of historical inquiry, examining the dialectics of medicine and mentalities. And to understand the dilemmas of our times, such facts and fears need to be put into context of time and place. We are today in the grip of opposing pressures. For one thing, there is the ‘rising-expectations trap’: we have convinced ourselves that we can and should be fitter, more youthful, sexier. In the long run, these are impossibly frustrating goals, because in the long run we’re all dead (though of course some even have expectations of cheating death). Likewise, we are healthier than ever before, yet more distrustful of doctors and the powers of what may broadly be called the ‘medical system’. Such scepticism follows from the fact that medical science seems to be fulfilling the wildest dreams of science fiction: the first cloning of a sheep was recently announced and it will apparently be feasible to clone a human being within a couple of years. In the same week, an English widow was given permission to try to become pregnant with her dead husband’s sperm (but only so long as she did it in Belgium). These are amazing developments. We turn doctors into heroes, yet feel equivocal about them. Such ambiguities are not new. When in 1858 a statue was erected in the

recently built Trafalgar Square to Edward Jenner, the pioneer of smallpox vaccination, protests followed and it was rapidly removed: a country doctor amidst the generals and admirals was thought unseemly (it may seem that those responsible for causing deaths rather than saving lives are worthy of public honour). Even in Greek times opinions about medicine

were mixed; the word pharmakos meant both remedy and poison – ‘kill’ and ‘cure’ were apparently indistinguishable. And as Jonathan Swift wryly reflected early in the eighteenth century, ‘Apollo was held the god of physic and sender of diseases. Both were originally the same trade, and still continue.’ That double idea – death and the doctors riding together – has loomed large in history. It is one of the threads we will follow in trying to assess the impact of medicine and responses to it – in trying to assess Samuel Johnson’s accolade to the medical profession: ‘the greatest benefit to mankind.’

‘The art has three factors, the disease, the patient, the physician,’ wrote Hippocrates, the legendary Greek physician who has often been called the father of medicine; and he thus suggested an agenda for history. This book will explore diseases, patients and physicians, and their interrelations, concentrating on some more than others. It is, as its sub- title suggests, a medical history. My focus could have been on disease and its bearing on human history.

We have all been reminded of the devastating effects of pestilence by the AIDS epidemic. In terms of death toll, cultural shock and socio-economic destruction, the full impact of AIDS cannot yet be judged. Other ‘hot viruses’ may be coming into the arena of history which may prove even more calamitous. Historians at large, who until recently tended to chronicle world history in blithe ignorance of or indifference to disease, now recognize the difference made by plague, cholera and other pandemics. Over the last generation, distinguished practitioners have pioneered the study of ‘plagues and peoples’; and have tried to give due consideration to these epidemiological and demographic matters in the following chapters. But they are not my protagonists, rather the backdrop. Equally this book might have focused upon everyday health, common

health beliefs and routine health care in society at large. The social history of medicine now embraces ‘people’s history’, and one of its most exciting developments has been the attention given to beliefs about the

body, its status and stigmas, its race, class and gender representations. The production and reproduction, creation and recreation of images of Self and Other have formed the subject matter of distinguished books. Such historical sociologies or cultural anthropologies – regarding the body as a book to be decoded – reinforce our awareness of the importance, past and present, of familiar beliefs about health and its hazards, about taboo and transgression. When a body becomes a clue to meaning, popular ideas of health and sickness, life and death, must be of central historical importance. I have written, on my own and with others, numerous books exploring lay health cultures in the past, from a ‘bottom- up’, patients’ point of view, and hope soon to publish a further work on the historical significance of the body. This history, however, is different. It sets the history of medical

thinking and medical practice at stage centre. It concentrates on medical ideas about disease, medical teachings about healthy and unhealthy bodies, and medical models of life and death. Seeking to avoid anachronism and judgmentalism, I devote prime attention to those people and professional groups who have been responsible for such beliefs and practices – that is healers understood in a broad sense. This book is principally about what those healers have done, individually and collectively, and the impact of their ideas and actions. While placing developments in a wider context, it surveys medical theory and practices. This approach may sound old-fashioned, a resurrection of the

Whiggish ‘great docs’ history which celebrated the triumphal progress of medicine from ignorance through error to science. But I come not to praise medicine – nor indeed to blame it. I do believe that medicine has played a major and growing role in human societies and for that reason its history needs to be explored so that its place and powers can be understood. I say here, and I will say many times again, that the prominence of medicine has lain only in small measure in its ability to make the sick well. This always was true, and remains so today.

I discuss disease from a global viewpoint; no other perspective makes sense. I also examine medicine the world over. Chapter 2 surveys the emergence of health practices and medical beliefs in some early societies; Chapter 3 discusses the rise of formal, written medicine in the Middle East and Egypt, and in Greece and Rome; Chapter 4 explores Islam; separate chapters discuss Indian and Chinese medicine; Chapter 8 takes in the Americas; Chapter 15 surveys medicine in more recent colonial contexts, and other chapters have discussions of disorders in the Third World, for instance deficiency diseases. The book is thus not narrowly or blindly ethnocentric. Nevertheless, I devote most attention to what is called ‘western’

medicine, because western medicine has developed in ways which have made it uniquely powerful and led it to become uniquely global. Its ceaseless spread throughout the world owes much, doubtless, to western political and economic domination. But its dominance has increased because it is perceived, by societies and the sick, to ‘work’ uniquely well, at least for many major classes of disorders. (Parenthetically, it can be argued that western political and economic domination owes something to the path-breaking powers of quinine, antibiotics and the like.) To the world historian, western medicine is special. It is conceivable that in a hundred years time traditional Chinese medicine, shamanistic medicine or Ayurvedic medicine will have swept the globe; if that happens, my analysis will look peculiarly dated and daft. But there is no real indication of that happening, while there is every reason to expect the medicine of the future to be an outgrowth of present western medicine – or at least a reaction against it. What began as the medicine of Europe is becoming the medicine of humanity. For that reason its history deserves particular attention. Western medicine, I argue, has developed radically distinctive

approaches to exploring the workings of the human body in sickness and in health. These have changed the ways our culture conceives of the body and of human life. To reduce complex matters to crass terms, most

peoples and cultures the world over, throughout history, have construed life (birth and death, sickness and health) primarily in the context of an understanding of the relations of human beings to the wider cosmos: planets, stars, mountains, rivers, spirits and ancestors, gods and demons, the heavens and the underworld, and so forth. Some traditions, notably those reflected in Chinese and Indian learned medicine, while being concerned with the architecture of the cosmos, do not pay great attention to the supernatural. Modern western thinking, however, has become indifferent to all such elements. The West has evolved a culture preoccupied with the self, with the individual and his or her identity, and this quest has come to be equated with (or reduced to) the individual body and the embodied personality, expressed through body language. Hamlet wanted this too solid flesh to melt away. That – except in the context of slimming obsessions – is the last thing modern westerners want to happen to their flesh; they want it to last as long as possible. Explanations of why and how these modern, secular western attitudes

have come about need to take many elements into account. Their roots may be found in the philosophical and religious traditions they have grown out of. They have been stimulated by economic materialism, the preoccupation with worldly goods generated by the devouring, reckless energies of capitalism. But they are also intimately connected with the development of medicine – its promise, project and products. Whereas most traditional healing systems have sought to understand

the relations of the sick person to the wider cosmos and to make readjustments between individual and world, or society and world, the western medical tradition explains sickness principally in terms of the body itself – its own cosmos. Greek medicine dismissed supernatural powers, though not macrocosmic, environmental influences; and from the Renaissance the flourishing anatomical and physiological programmes created a new confidence among investigators that everything that needed to be known could essentially be discovered by probing more deeply and ever more minutely into the flesh, its systems, tissues, cells, its DNA.

This has proved an infinitely productive inquiry, generating first knowledge and then power, including on some occasions the power to conquer disease. The idea of probing into bodies, living and dead (and especially human bodies) with a view to improving medicine is more or less distinctive to the European medical tradition. For reasons technical, cultural, religious and personal, it was not done in China or India, Mesopotamia or pharaonic Egypt. Dissection and dissection-related experimentation were performed only on animals in classical Greece, and rarely. A medicine that seriously and systematically investigated the stuff of bodies came into being thereafter – in Alexandria, then in the work of Galen, then in late medieval Italy. The centrality of anatomy to medicine’s project was proclaimed in the Renaissance and became the foundation stone for the later edifice of scientific medicine: physiological experimentation, pathology, microscopy, biochemistry and all the other later specialisms, to say nothing of invasive surgery. This was not the only course that medicine could have taken; as is

noted below, it was not the course other great world medical systems took, cultivating their own distinct clinical skills, diagnostic arts and therapeutic interventions. Nor did it enjoy universal approval: protests in Britain around 1800 about body-snatching and later antivivisectionist lobbies show how sceptical public opinion remained about the activities of anatomists and physicians, and suspicion has continued to run high. However, that was the direction western medicine followed, and, bolstered by science at large, it generated a powerful medicine, largely independent of its efficacy as a rational social approach to good health. The emergence of this high-tech scientific medicine may be a prime

example of what William Blake denounced as ‘single vision’, the kind of myopia which (literally and metaphorically) comes from looking doggedly down a microscope. Single vision has its limitations in explaining the human condition; this is why Coleridge called doctors ‘shallow animals’, who ‘imagine that in the whole system of things there is nothing but Gut and Body’. Hence the ability of medicine to understand

and counter pathology has always engendered paradox. Medicine has offered the promise of ‘the greatest benefit to mankind’, but not always on terms palatable to and compatible with cherished ideals. Nor has it always delivered the goods. The particular powers of medicine, and the paradoxes its rationales generate, are what this book is about.

* * *

It may be useful to offer a brief resumé of the main themes of the book, by way of a sketch map for a long journey. All societies possess medical beliefs: ideas of life and death, disease

and cure, and systems of healing. Schematically speaking, the medical history of humanity may be seen as a series of stages. Belief systems the world over have attributed sickness to illwill, to malevolent spirits, sorcery, witchcraft and diabolical or divine intervention. Such ways of thinking still pervade the tribal communities of Africa, the Amazon basin and the Pacific; they were influential in Christian Europe till the ‘age of reason’, and retain a residual shadow presence. Christian Scientists and some other Christian sects continue to view sickness and recovery in providential and supernatural terms; healing shrines like Lourdes remain popular within the Roman Catholic church, and faith-healing retains a mass following among devotees of television evangelists in the United States. In Europe from Graeco-Roman antiquity onwards, and also among the

great Asian civilizations, the medical profession systematically replaced transcendental explanations by positing a natural basis for disease and healing. Among educated lay people and physicians alike, the body became viewed as integral to law-governed cosmic elements and regular processes. Greek medicine emphasized the microcosm/macrocosm relationship, the correlations between the healthy human body and the harmonies of nature. From Hippocrates in the fifth century BC through to

Galen in the second century AD, ‘humoral medicine’ stressed the analogies between the four elements of external nature (fire, water, air and earth) and the four humours or bodily fluids (blood, phlegm, choler or yellow bile and black bile), whose balance determined health. The humours found expression in the temperaments and complexions that marked an individual. The task of hygiene was to maintain a balanced constitution, and the role of medicine was to restore the balance when disturbed. Parallels to these views appear in the classical Chinese and Indian medical traditions. The medicine of antiquity, transmitted to Islam and then back to the

medieval West and remaining powerful throughout the Renaissance, paid great attention to general health maintenance through regulation of diet, exercise, hygiene and lifestyle. In the absence of decisive anatomical and physiological expertise, and without a powerful arsenal of cures and surgical skills, the ability to diagnose and make prognoses was highly valued, and an intimate physician-patient relationship was fostered. The teachings of antiquity, which remained authoritative until the eighteenth century and still supply subterranean reservoirs of medical folklore, were more successful in assisting people to cope with chronic conditions and soothing lesser ailments than in conquering life-threatening infections which became endemic and epidemic in the civilized world: leprosy, plague, smallpox, measles, and, later, the ‘filth diseases’ (like typhus) associated with urban squalor. This personal tradition of bedside medicine long remained popular in

the West, as did its equivalents in Chinese and Ayurvedic medicine. But in Europe it was supplemented and challenged by the creation of a more ‘scientific’ medicine, grounded, for the first time, upon experimental anatomical and physiological investigation, epitomized from the fifteenth century by the dissection techniques which became central to medical education. Landmarks in this programme include the publication of De humani corporis fabrica (1543) by the Paduan professor, Andreas Vesalius, a momentous anatomical atlas and a work which challenged

truths received since Galen; and William Harvey’s De motu cordis (1628) which put physiological inquiry on the map by experiments demonstrating the circulation of the blood and the heart’s role as a pump. Post-Vesalian investigations dramatically advanced knowledge of the

structures and functions of the living organism. Further inquiries brought the unravelling of the lymphatic system and the lacteals, and the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries yielded a finer grasp of the nervous system and the operations of the brain. With the aid of microscopes and the laboratory, nineteenth-century investigators explored the nature of body tissue and pioneered cell biology; pathological anatomy came of age. Parallel developments in organic chemistry led to an understanding of respiration, nutrition, the digestive system and deficiency diseases, and founded such specialities as endocrinology. The twentieth century became the age of genetics and molecular biology. Nineteenth-century medical science made spectacular leaps forward in

the understanding of infectious diseases. For many centuries, rival epidemiological theories had attributed fevers to miasmas (poisons in the air, exuded from rotting animal and vegetable material, the soil, and standing water) or to contagion (person-to-person contact). From the 1860s, the rise of bacteriology, associated especially with Louis Pasteur in France and Robert Koch in Germany, established the role of micro organic pathogens. Almost for the first time in medicine, bacteriology led directly to dramatic new cures. In the short run, the anatomically based scientific medicine which

emerged from Renaissance universities and the Scientific Revolution contributed more to knowledge than to health. Drugs from both the Old and New Worlds, notably opium and Peruvian bark (quinine) became more widely available, and mineral and metal-based pharmaceutical preparations enjoyed a great if dubious vogue (e.g., mercury for syphilis). But the true pharmacological revolution began with the introduction of sulfa drugs and antibiotics in the twentieth century, and surgical success was limited before the introduction of anaesthetics and antiseptic

operating-room conditions in the mid nineteenth century. Biomedical understanding long outstripped breakthroughs in curative medicine, and the retreat of the great lethal diseases (diphtheria, typhoid, tuberculosis and so forth) was due, in the first instance, more to urban improvements, superior nutrition and public health than to curative medicine. The one early striking instance of the conquest of disease – the introduction first of smallpox inoculation and then of vaccination – came not through ‘science’ but through embracing popular medical folklore. From the Middle Ages, medical practitioners organized themselves

professionally in a pyramid with physicians at the top and surgeons and apothecaries nearer the base, and with other healers marginalized or vilified as quacks. Practitioners’ guilds, corporations and colleges received royal approval, and medicine was gradually incorporated into the public domain, particularly in German-speaking Europe where the notion of ‘medical police’ (health regulation and preventive public health) gained official backing in the eighteenth century. The state inevitably played the leading role in the growth of military and naval medicine, and later in tropical medicine. The hospital sphere, however, long remained largely the Church’s responsibility, especially in Roman Catholic parts of Europe. Gradually the state took responsibility for the health of emergent industrial society, through public health regulation and custody of the insane in the nineteenth century, and later through national insurance and national health schemes. These latter developments met fierce opposition from a medical profession seeking to preserve its autonomy against encroaching state bureaucracies. The latter half of the twentieth century has witnessed the continued

phenomenal progress of capital-intensive and specialized scientific medicine: transplant surgery and biotechnology have captured the public imagination. Alongside, major chronic and psychosomatic disorders persist and worsen – jocularly expressed as the ‘doing better but feeling worse’ syndrome – and the basic health of the developing world is deteriorating. This situation exemplifies and perpetuates a key facet and

paradox of the history of medicine: the unresolved disequilibrium between, on the one hand, the remarkable capacities of an increasingly powerful science-based biomedical tradition and, on the other, the wider and unfulfilled health requirements of economically impoverished, colonially vanquished and politically mismanaged societies. Medicine is an enormous achievement, but what it will achieve practically for humanity, and what those who hold the power will allow it to do, remain open questions.

The late E. P. Thompson (1924–1993) warned historians against what he called the enormous condescension of posterity. I have tried to understand the medical systems I discuss rather than passing judgment on them; I have tried to spell them out in as much detail as space has permitted, because engagement with detail is essential if the cognitive power of medicine is to be appreciated. Eschewing anachronism, judgmentalism and history by hindsight does

not mean denying that there are ways in which medical knowledge has progressed. Harvey’s account of the cardiovascular system was more correct than Galen’s; the emergence of endocrinology allowed the development in the 1920s of insulin treatments which saved the lives of diabetics. But one must not assume that diabetes then went away: no cure has been found for that still poorly understood disease, and it continues to spread as a consequence of western lifestyles. Indeed one could argue that the problem is now worse than when insulin treatment was discovered. Avoiding condescension equally does not mean one must avoid

‘winners’ history. This book unashamedly gives more space to the Greeks than the Goths, more attention to Hippocrates than to Greek root- gatherers, and stresses strands of development leading from Greek medicine to the biomedicine now in the saddle. I do not think that ‘winners’ should automatically be privileged by historians (I have myself written and advocated writing medical history from the patients’ view), but there is a good reason for bringing the winners to the foreground – not

because they are ‘best’ or ‘right’ but because they are powerful. One can study winners without siding with them. Writing this book has not only made me more aware than usual of my

own ignorance; it has brought home the collective and largely irremediable ignorance of historians about the medical history of mankind. Perhaps the most celebrated physician ever is Hippocrates yet we know literally nothing about him. Neither do we know anything concrete about most of the medical encounters there have ever been. The historical record is like the night sky: we see a few stars and group them into mythic constellations. But what is chiefly visible is the darkness.

CHAPTER II

THE ROOTS OF MEDICINE

PEOPLES AND PLAGUES

IN THE BEGINNING WAS THE GOLDEN AGE . The climate was clement, nature freely bestowed her bounty upon mankind, no lethal predators lurked, the lion lay down with the lamb and peace reigned. In that blissful long-lost Arcadia, according to the Greek poet Hesiod writing around 700 BC, life was ‘without evils, hard toil, and grievous disease’. All changed. Thereafter, wrote the poet, ‘thousands of miseries roam among men, the land is full of evils and full is the sea. Of themselves, diseases come upon men, some by day and some by night, and they bring evils to the mortals.’ The Greeks explained the coming of pestilences and other troubles by

the fable of Pandora’s box. Something similar is offered by Judaeo- Christianity. Disguised in serpent’s clothing, the Devil seduces Eve into tempting Adam to taste the forbidden fruit. By way of punishment for that primal disobedience, the pair are banished from Eden; Adam’s sons are condemned to labour by the sweat of their brow, while the daughters of Eve must bring forth in pain; and disease and death, unknown in the paradise garden, become the iron law of the post-lapsarian world, thenceforth a vale of tears. As in the Pandora fable and scores of parallel legends the world over, the Fall as revealed in Genesis explains how suffering, disease and death become the human condition, as a

consequence of original sin. The Bible closes with foreboding: ‘And I looked, and behold a pale horse’ prophesied the Book of Revelation: ‘and his name that sat on him was Death, and Hell followed with him. And power was given unto them over the fourth part of the earth, to kill with sword, and with hunger, and with death, and with the beasts of the earth.’ Much later, the eighteenth-century physician George Cheyne drew

attention to a further irony in the history of health. Medicine owed its foundation as a science to Hippocrates and his successors, and such founding fathers were surely to be praised. Yet why had medicine originated among the Greeks? It was because, the witty Scotsman explained, being the first civilized, intellectual people, with leisure to cultivate the life of the mind, they had frittered away the rude vitality of their warrior ancestors – the heroes of the Iliad- and so had been the first to need medical ministrations. This ‘diseases of civilization, paradox had a fine future ahead of it, resonating throughout Nietzsche and Freud’s Civilization and its Discontents(1930). Thus to many, from classical poets up to the prophets of modernity, disease has seemed the dark side of development, its Jekyll-and-Hyde double: progress brings pestilences, society sickness. Stories such as these reveal the enigmatic play of peoples, plagues and

physicians which is the thread of this book, scotching any innocent notion that the story of health and medicine is a pageant of progress. Pandora’s box and similar just-so stories tell a further tale moreover,

that plagues and pestilences are not acts of God or natural hazards; they are of mankind’s own making. Disease is a social development no less than the medicine that combats it.

In the beginning . . . Anthropologists now maintain that some five million years ago in Africa there occurred the branching of the primate line which led to the first ape men, the low-browed, big-jawed hominid Australopithecines. Within a mere three million years Homo erectus had emerged, our first entirely upright, large-brained ancestor, who learned

how to make fire, use stone tools, and eventually developed speech. Almost certainly a carnivorous hunter, this palaeolithic pioneer fanned out a million years or so ago from Africa into Asia and Europe. Thereafter a direct line leads to Homo sapiens who emerged around 150,000 BC. The life of early mankind was not exactly arcadian. Archaeology and

paleopathology give us glimpses of forebears who were often malformed, racked with arthritis and lamed by injuries – limbs broken in accidents and mending awry. Living in a dangerous, often harsh and always unpredictable environment, their lifespan was short. Nevertheless, prehistoric people escaped many of the miseries popularly associated with the ‘fall’; it was later developments which exposed their descendants to the pathogens that brought infectious disease and have since done so much to shape human history. The more humans swarmed over the globe, the more they were

themselves colonized by creatures capable of doing harm, including parasites and pathogens. There have been parasitic helminths (worms), fleas, ticks and a host of arthropods, which are the bearers of ‘arbo’ (arthropod-borne) infections. There have also been the micro-organisms like bacteria, viruses and protozoans. Their very rapid reproduction rates within a host provoke severe illness but, as if by compensation, produce in survivors immunity against reinfection. All such disease threats have been and remain locked with humans in evolutionary struggles for the survival of the fittest, which have no master plot and grant mankind no privileges. Despite carbon-14 and other sophisticated techniques used by

palaeopathologists, we lack any semblance of a day-to-day health chart for early Homo sapiens. Theories and guesswork can be supported by reference to so-called ‘primitive’ peoples in the modern world, for instance Australian aborigines, the Hadza of Tanzania, or the !Kung San bush people of the Kalahari. Our early progenitors were hunters and gatherers. Pooling tools and food, they lived as nomadic opportunistic

omnivores in scattered familial groups of perhaps thirty or forty. Infections like smallpox, measles and flu must have been virtually unknown, since the micro-organisms that cause contagious diseases require high population densities to provide reservoirs of susceptibles. And because of the need to search for food, these small bands did not stay put long enough to pollute water sources or accumulate the filth that attracts disease-spreading insects. Above all, isolated hunter-foragers did not tend cattle and the other tamed animals which have played such an ambiguous role in human history. While meat and milk, hides and horns made civilization possible, domesticated animals proved perennial and often catastrophic sources of illness, for infectious disease riddled beasts long before spreading to humans. Our ‘primitive’ ancestors were thus practically free of the pestilences

that ambushed their ‘civilized’ successors and have plagued us ever since. Yet they did not exactly enjoy a golden age, for, together with dangers, injuries and hardships, there were ailments to which they were susceptible. Soil-borne anaerobic bacteria penetrated through skin wounds to produce gangrene and botulism; anthrax and rabies were picked up from animal predators like wolves; infections were acquired through eating raw animal flesh, while game would have transmitted the microbes of relapsing fever (like typhus, a louse-borne disease), brucellosis and haemorrhagic fevers. Other threats came from organisms co-evolving with humans, including tapeworms and such bacteria as Treponema, the agent of syphilis, and the similar skin infection, yaws. Hunter-gatherers being omnivores, they were probably not

malnourished, at least not until rising populations had hunted to extinction most of the big game roaming the savannahs and prairies. Resources and population were broadly in balance. Relative freedom from disease encouraged numbers to rise, but all were prey to climate, especially during the Ice Age which set in from around 50,000 BC. Famine took its toll; lives would have been lost in hunting and skirmishing; childbirth was hazardous, fertility probably low, and

infanticide may have been practised. All such factors kept numbers in check. For tens of thousands of years there was ample territory for dispersal,

as pressure on resources drove migration ‘out of Africa’ into all corners of the Old World, initially to the warm regions of Asia and southern Europe, but then farther north into less hospitable climes. These nomadic ways continued until the end of the last Ice Age (the Pleistocene) around 12,000–10,000 years ago brought the invention of agriculture. Contrary to the Victorian assumption that farming arose out of

mankind’s inherent progressiveness, it is now believed that tilling the soil began because population pressure and the depletion of game supplies left no alternative: it was produce more or perish. By around 50,000 B c, mankind had spilled over from the Old World to New Guinea and Australasia, and by 10,000 BC (perhaps much earlier) to the Americas as well (during the last Ice Age the lowering of the oceans made it possible to cross by land bridge from Siberia to Alaska). But when the ice caps melted around ten thousand years ago and the seas rose once more, there were no longer huge tracts of land filled with game but empty of humans and so ripe for colonization. Mankind faced its first ecological crisis – its first survival test. Necessity proved the mother of invention, and Stone Age stalkers,

faced with famine – elk and gazelle had thinned out, leaving hogs, rabbits and rodents – were forced to grow their own food and settle in one place. Agriculture enhanced mankind’s capacity to harness natural resources, selectively breeding wild grasses into domesticated varieties of grains, and bringing dogs, cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, horses and poultry under control. This change had the rapidity of a revolution: until around 10,000 years ago, almost all human groups were hunter-gatherers, but within a few thousand years cultivators and pastoralists predominated. The ‘neolithic revolution’ was truly epochal. In the fertile crescent of the Middle East, wheat, barley, peas and

lentils were cultivated, and sheep, pigs and goats herded; the neolithic

peoples of south-east Asia exploited rice, sweet potatoes, ducks and chickens; in Mesoamerica, it was maize, beans, cassava, potatoes and guinea pigs. The land which a nomadic band would have stripped like locusts before moving on was transformed by new management techniques into a resource reservoir capable of supporting thousands, year in, year out. And once agriculture took root, with its systematic planting of grains and lentils and animal husbandry, numbers went on spiralling, since more could be fed. The labour-intensiveness of clearing woodland and scrub, weeding fields, harvesting crops and preparing food encouraged population growth and the formation of social hierarchies, towns, courts and kingdoms. But while agriculture rescued people from starvation, it unleashed a fresh danger: disease. The agricultural revolution ensured human domination of planet earth:

the wilderness was made fertile, the forests became fields, wild beasts were tamed or kept at bay; but pressure on resources presaged the disequilibrium between production and reproduction that provoked later Malthusian crises, as well as leading to ecological deterioration. As hunters and gatherers became shepherds and farmers, the seeds of disease were sown. Prolific pathogens once exclusive to animals were transferred to swineherds and goatherds, ploughmen and horsemen, initiating the ceaseless evolutionary adaptations which have led to a current situation in which humans share no fewer than sixty-five micro-organic diseases with dogs (supposedly man’s best friend), and only slightly fewer with cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, horses and poultry.

Many of the worst human diseases were created by proximity to animals. Cattle provided the pathogen pool with tuberculosis and viral poxes like smallpox. Pigs and ducks gave humans their influenzas, while horses brought rhinoviruses and hence the common cold. Measles, which still kills a million children a year, is the result of rinderpest (canine distemper) jumping between dogs or cattle and humans. Moreover, cats, dogs, ducks, hens, mice, rats and reptiles carry bacteria like Salmonella,

leading to often fatal human infections; water polluted with animal faeces also spreads polio, cholera, typhoid, viral hepatitis, whooping cough and diphtheria. Settlement helped disease to settle in, attracting disease-spreading

insects, while worms took up residence within the human body. Parasitologists and palaeopathologists have shown how the parasitic roundworm Ascaris, a nematode growing to over a foot long, evolved in humans, probably from pig ascarids, producing diarrhoea and malnutrition. Other helminths or wormlike fellow-travellers became common in the human gut, including the Enterobius (pinworm or threadworm), the yards-long hookworm, and the filarial worms which cause elephantiasis and African river blindness. Diseases also established themselves where agriculture depended upon irrigation – in Mesopotamia, Egypt, India and around the Yellow (Huang) River in China. Paddyfields harbour parasites able to penetrate the skin and enter the bloodstream of barefoot workers, including the forked-tailed blood fluke Schistosoma which utilizes aquatic snails as a host and causes bilharzia or schistosomiasis (graphically known as ‘big belly’), provoking mental and physical deterioration through the chronic irritation caused by the worm. Investigation of Egyptian mummies has revealed calcified eggs in liver and kidney tissues, proving the presence of schistosomiasis in ancient Egypt. (Mummies tell us much more about the diseases from which Egyptians suffered; these included gallstones, bladder and kidney stones, mastoiditis and numerous eye diseases, and many skeletons show evidence of rheumatoid arthritis.) In short, permanent settlement afforded golden opportunities for insects, vermin and parasites, while food stored in granaries became infested with insects, bacteria, fungoid toxins and rodent excrement. The scales of health tipped unfavourably, with infections worsening and human vitality declining.* Moreover, though agriculture enabled more mouths to be fed, it meant

undue reliance on starchy cereal monocultures like maize, high in

calories but low in proteins, vitamins and minerals; reduced nutritional levels allowed deficiency diseases like pellagra, marasmus, kwashiorkor and scurvy to make their entry onto the human stage. Stunted people are more vulnerable to infections, and it is a striking comment on ‘progress’ that neolithic skeletons are typically some inches shorter than their palaeolithic precursors.

MALARIA

Settlement also brought malaria. ‘There is no doubt’, judged the distinguished Australian immunologist, Macfarlane Burnet (1899–1985), ‘that malaria has caused the greatest harm to the greatest number’ – not through cataclysms, as with bubonic plague, but through its continual winnowing effect. First in sub-Saharan Africa and elsewhere since, conversion of forests into farmland has created environments tailormade for mosquitoes: warm waterholes, furrows and puddles ideal for rapid breeding. Malaria is worth pausing over, since it has coexisted with humans for thousands of years and remains out of control across much of the globe. The symptoms of malarial fevers were familiar to the Greeks, but were

not explained until the advent of tropical medicine around 1900. They are produced by the microscopic protozoan parasite Plasmodium, which lives within the body of an Anopheles mosquito, and is transmitted to humans through mosquito bites. The parasites move through the bloodstream to the liver, where they breed during an incubation stage of a couple of weeks. Returning to the blood, they attack red blood cells, which break down, leading to waves of violent chills and high fever. Malarial parasites have distinct periodicities. Plasmodium vivax, the

organism causing benign tertian malaria, once present in the English fenlands, has an incubation period of ten to seventeen days. The fever lasts from two to six hours, returning every third day (hence ‘tertian’); marked by vomiting and diarrhoea, such attacks may recur for two months or longer. In time, as Greek doctors observed, the spleen enlarges,

and the patient becomes anaemic and sometimes jaundiced. Quartan malaria, caused by Plasmodium malariae, is another mild variety. Malignant tertian malaria, caused by Plasmodium falciparum, is the

most lethal, producing at least 95 per cent of all malarial deaths. The incubation period is shorter but the fever more prolonged; it may be continuous, remittent or intermittent. Plasmodium falciparum proliferates fast, producing massive destruction of red blood cells and hence dangerous anaemia; the liver and spleen also become enlarged. Malaria may sometimes appear as quotidian fever, with attacks lasting

six to twelve hours – the result of multiple infection. Patients may also develop malarial cachexia, with yellowing of the skin and severe spleen and liver enlargement; autopsy shows both organs darkened with a black pigment derived from the haemoglobin of the destroyed red blood cells. What the ancients called melancholy may have been a malarial condition. Malaria shadowed agricultural settlements. From Africa, it became

established in the Near and Middle East and the Mediterranean littoral. The huge attention Graeco-Roman medicine paid to ‘remittent fevers’ shows how seriously the region was affected, and some historians maintain the disease played its part in the decline and fall of the Roman empire. Within living memory, malaria remained serious in the Roman Campagna and the Pontine marshes along Italy’s west coast. Coastal Africa was and remains heavily malarial, as are the Congo, the

Niger and hundreds of other river basins. Indigenous West African populations developed a genetically controlled characteristic, the ‘sickle- cell’, which conferred immunity against virulent Plasmodium falciparum. But, though protective, this starves its bearers, who are prone to debility and premature death: typical of such evolutionary trade-offs, gains and losses are finely balanced. India was also ripe for malarial infection. Ayurvedic medical texts (see

Chapter Six) confirm the antiquity of the disease in the subcontinent. China, too, became heavily infected, especially the coastal strip from Shanghai to Macao. And from the sixteenth century Europeans shipped it

to Mesoamerica: vivax malaria went to the New World in the blood of the Spanish conquistadores, while falciparum malaria arrived with the African slaves whom the Europeans imported to replace the natives they and their pestilences had wiped out. Malaria was just one health threat among many which set in with

civilization as vermin learned to cohabit with humans, insects spread gastroenteric disorders, and contact with rodents led to human rickettsial (lice-, mite- and tick-borne) arbo diseases like typhus. Despite such infections encouraged by dense settlement and its waste and dirt, man’s restless inventive energies ensured that communities, no matter how unhealthy, bred rising populations; and more humans spawned more diseases in upward spirals, temporarily and locally checked but never terminated. Around 10,000 BC, before agriculture, the globe’s human population may have been around 5 million; by 500 BC it had probably leapt to 100 million; by the second century AD that may have doubled; the 1990 figure was some 5,292 million, with projections suggesting 12 billion by 2100. Growing numbers led to meagre diets, the weak and poor inevitably

bearing the brunt. But though humans were often malnourished, parasite- riddled and pestilence-smitten, they were not totally defenceless. Survivors of epidemics acquired some protection, and the mechanisms of evolution meant that these acquired sophisticated immune systems enabling them to coexist in a ceaseless war with their micro-organic assailants. Immunities passed from mothers across the placenta or through breast-feeding gave infants some defence against germ invasion. Tolerance was likewise developed towards parasitic worms, and certain groups developed genetic shields, as with the sickle-cell trait. Biological adaptation might thus take the edge off lethal afflictions.

THE ERA OF EPIDEMICS

Some diseases, however, were not so readily coped with: those caused by the zoonoses (animal diseases transmissible to man) which menaced once

civilization developed. By 3000 BC cities like Babylon, with populations of scores of thousands, were rising in Mesopotamia and Egypt, in the Indus Valley and on the Yellow River, and later in Mesoamerica. In the Old World, such settlements often maintained huge cattle herds, from which lethal pathogens, including smallpox, spread to humans, while originally zoognostic conditions – diphtheria, influenza, chicken-pox, mumps – and other illnesses also had a devastating impact. Unlike malaria, these needed no carriers; being directly contagious, they spread readily and rapidly. The era of epidemics began. And though some immunity would

develop amongst the afflicted populations, the incessant outreach of civilization meant that merchants, mariners and marauders would inevitably bridge pathogen pools, spilling diseases onto virgin susceptibles. One nation’s familiar ‘tamed’ disease would be another’s plague, as trade, travel and war detonated pathological explosions. The immediate consequence of the invasion of a town by smallpox or

another infection was a fulminating epidemic and subsequent decimation. Population recovery would then get under way, only for survivors ‘heirs to be blitzed by the same or a different pestilence, and yet another, in tide upon tide. Settlements big enough to host such contagions might shrink to become too tiny. With almost everybody slain or immune, the pestilences would withdraw, victims of their own success, moving on to storm other virgin populations, like raiders seeking fresh spoils. New diseases thus operated as brutal Malthusian checks, sometimes shaping the destinies of nations. Cities assumed a decisive epidemiological role, being magnets for

pathogens no less than people. Until the nineteenth century, towns were so insanitary that their populations never replaced themselves by reproduction, multiplying only thanks to the influx of rural surpluses who were tragically infection-prone. In this challenge and response process, sturdy urban survivors turned into an immunological elite – a virulently infectious swarm perilous to less seasoned incomers, confirming the

notoriety of towns as death-traps. The Old Testament records the epidemics the Lord hurled upon the

Egypt of the pharaohs, and from Greek times historians noted their melancholy toll. The Peloponnesian War of 431 to 404 BC, the ‘world war’ between Athens and Sparta, spotlights the traffic in pestilence that came with civilization. Before that war the Greeks had suffered from malaria and probably tuberculosis, diphtheria and influenza, but they had been spared truly calamitous plagues. Reputedly beginning in Africa and spreading to Persia, an unknown epidemic hit Greece in 430 BC, and its impact on Athens was portrayed by Thucydides (460 – after 404 BC). Victims were poleaxed by headaches, coughing, vomiting, chest pains and convulsions. Their bodies became reddish or livid, with blisters and ulcers; the malady often descended into the bowels before death spared sufferers further misery. The Greek historian thought it killed a quarter of the Athenian troops, persisting on the mainland for a farther four years and annihilating a similar proportion of the population. What was it? Smallpox, plague, measles, typhus, ergotism and even

syphilis have been proposed in a parlour game played by epidemiologists. Whatever it was, by killing or immunizing them, it destroyed the Greeks’ ability to host it and, proving too virulent for its own good, the disease disappeared. With it passed the great age of Athens. Most early nations probably experienced such disasters, but Greece alone had a Thucydides to record it. Epidemics worsened with the rise of Rome. With victories in

Macedonia and Greece (146 BC), Persia (64 BC) and finally Egypt (30 BC), the Roman legions vanquished much of the known world, but deadly pathogens were thus given free passage around the empire, spreading to the Eternal City itself. The first serious outbreak, the so-called Antonine plague (probably smallpox which had smouldered in Africa or Asia before being brought back from the Near East by Roman troops) slew a quarter of the inhabitants in stricken areas between AD 165 and 180, some five million people in all. A second, between AD 211 and 266, reportedly

destroyed some 5,000 a day in Rome at its height, while scourging the countryside as well. The virulence was immense because populations had no resistance. Smallpox and measles had joined the Mediterranean epidemiological melting-pot, alongside the endemic malaria. Wherever it struck a virgin population, measles too proved lethal.

There are some recent and well-documented instances of such strikes. In his Observations Made During the Epidemic of Measles on the Faroe Islands in the Year 1846 , Peter Panum (1820–85) reported how measles had attacked about 6,100 out of 7,864 inhabitants on a remote island which had been completely free of the disease for sixty-five years. In the nineteenth century, high mortality was also reported in measles epidemics occurring in virgin soil populations (‘island laboratories’) in the Pacific Ocean: 40,000 deaths in a population of 150,000 in Hawaii in 1848, 20,000 (perhaps a quarter of the population) on Fiji in 1874. Improving communications also widened disease basins in the Middle

East, the Indian subcontinent, South Asia and the Far East. Take Japan: before AD 552, the archipelago had apparently escaped the epidemics blighting the Chinese mainland. In that year, Buddhist missionaries visited the Japanese court, and shortly afterwards smallpox broke out. In 585 there was a further eruption of either smallpox or measles. Following centuries brought waves of epidemics every three or four years, the most significant being smallpox, measles, influenza, mumps and dysentery. This alteration of occasional epidemic diseases into endemic ones

typical of childhood – it mirrors the domestication of animals – represents a crucial stage in disease ecology. Cities buffeted by lethal epidemics which killed or immunized so many that the pathogens themselves disappeared for lack of hosts, eventually became big enough to house sufficient non-immune individuals to retain the diseases permanently; for this an annual case total of something in the region of 5,000–40,000 may be necessary. Measles, smallpox and chickenpox turned into childhood ailments which affected the young less severely and conferred immunity to future attacks.

The process marks an epidemiological watershed. Through such evolutionary adaptations – epidemic diseases turning endemic – expanding populations accommodated and surmounted certain once- lethal pestilences. Yet they remained exposed to other dire infections, against which humans were to continue immunologically defenceless, because they were essentially diseases not of humans but of animals. One such is bubonic plague, which has struck humans with appalling ferocity whenever populations have been caught up in a disease net involving rats, fleas and the plague bacillus (Yersinia pestis ). Diseases like plague, malaria, yellow fever, and others with animal reservoirs are uniquely difficult to control.

PLAGUE

Bubonic plague is basically a rodent disease. It strikes humans when infected fleas, failing to find a living rat once a rat host has been killed, pick a human instead. When the flea bites its new host, the bacillus enters the bloodstream. Filtered through the nearest lymph node, it leads to the characteristic swelling (bubo) in the neck, groin or armpit. Bubonic plague rapidly kills about two-thirds of those infected. There are two other even more fatal forms: septicaemic and, deadliest of all, pneumonic plague, which doesn’t even need an insect vector, spreading from person to person directly via the breath. The first documented bubonic plague outbreak occurred, predictably

enough, in the Roman empire. The plague of Justinian originated in Egypt i n AD 540; two years later it devastated Constantinople, going on to massacre up to a quarter of the eastern Mediterranean population, before spreading to western Europe and ricocheting around the Mediterranean for the next two centuries. Panic, disorder and murder reigned in the streets of Constantinople, wrote the historian Procopius: up to 10,000 people died each day, until there was no place to put the corpses. When this bout of plague ended, 40 per cent of the city’s population were dead. It was a subsequent plague cycle, however, which made the greatest

impact. Towards 1300 the Black Death began to rampage through Asia before sweeping westwards through the Middle East to North Africa and Europe. Between 1346 and 1350 Europe alone lost perhaps twenty million to the disease. And this pandemic was just the first wave of a bubonic pestilence that raged until about 1800 (see Chapter 5). Trade, war and empire have always sped disease transmission between

populations, a dramatic instance being offered by early modern Spain. The cosmopolitan Iberians became subjects of a natural Darwinian experiment, for their Atlantic and Mediterranean seaports served as clearing-houses for swarms of diseases converging from Africa, Asia and the Americas. Survival in this hazardous environment necessitated becoming hyper-immune, weathering a hail of childhood diseases – smallpox, measles, diphtheria and the like, gastrointestinal infections and other afflictions rare today in the West. The Spanish conquistadores who invaded the Americas were, by consequence, immunological supermen, infinitely more deadly than ‘typhoid Mary’; disease gave them a fatal superiority over the defenceless native populations they invaded.

TYPHUS

Though the Black Death ebbed away from Europe, war and the movements of migrants ensured that epidemic disease did not go away, and Spain, as one of the great crossroads, formed a flashpoint of disease. Late in 1489, in its assault on Granada, Islam’s last Iberian stronghold, Spain hired some mercenaries who had lately been in Cyprus fighting the Ottomans. Soon after their arrival, Spanish troops began to go down with a disease never before encountered and possessing the brute virulence typical of new infections: typhus. It had probably emerged in the Near East during the Crusades before entering Europe where Christian and Muslim armies clashed. It began with headache, rash and high fever, swelling and darkening of

the face; next came delirium and the stupor giving the disease its name –

typhos is Greek for ‘smoke’. Inflammation led to gangrene that rotted fingers and toes, causing a hideous stench. Spain lost 3,000 soldiers in the siege but six times as many to typhus. Having smuggled itself into Spain, typhus filtered into France and

beyond. In 1528, with the Valois (French) and Habsburg (Spanish) dynasties vying for European mastery, it struck the French army encircling Naples; half the 28,000 troops died within a month, and the siege collapsed. As a result, Emperor Charles V of Spain was left master of Italy, controlling Pope Clement VII – with important implications for Henry VIII’s marital troubles and the Reformation in England. With the Holy Roman Empire fighting the Turks in the Balkans, typhus

gained a second bridgehead into Europe. In 1542, the disease killed 30,000 Christian soldiers on the eastern front; four years later, it struck the Ottomans, terminating their siege of Belgrade; while by 1566 the Emperor Maximilian II had so many typhus victims that he was driven to an armistice. His disbanded troops relayed the disease back to western Europe, and so to the New World, where it joined measles and smallpox in ravaging Mexico and Peru. Typhus subsequently smote Europe during the Thirty Years War (1618–48), and remained widespread, devastating armies as ‘camp fever’, dogging beggars (road fever), depleting jails (jail fever) and ships (ship fever). It was typhus which joined General Winter to turn Napoleon’s Russian

invasion into a rout. The French crossed into Russia in June 1812. Sickness set in after the fall of Smolensk. Napoleon reached Moscow in September to find the city abandoned. During the next five weeks, the grande armée suffered a major typhus epidemic. By the time Moscow was evacuated, tens of thousands had fallen sick, and those unfit to travel were abandoned. Thirty thousand cases were left to die in Vilna alone, and only a trickle finally reached Warsaw. Of the 600,000 men in Napoleon’s army, few returned, and typhus was a major reason. Smallpox, plague and typhus indicate how war and conquest paved the

way for the progress of pathogens. A later addition, at least as far as the

West was concerned, was cholera, the most spectacular ‘new’ disease of the nineteenth century.

COLONIZATION AND INDUSTRIALIZATION

Together with civilization and commerce, colonization has contributed to the dissemination of infections. The Spanish conquest of America has already been mentioned; the nineteenth-century scramble for Africa also caused massive disturbance of indigenous populations and environmental disruption, unleashing terrible epidemics of sleeping sickness and other maladies. Europeans exported tuberculosis to the ‘Dark Continent’, especially once native labourers were jammed into mining compounds and the slums of Johannesburg. In the gold, diamond and copper producing regions of Africa, the operations of mining companies like De Beers and Union Minière de Haute Katanga brought family disruption and prostitution. Capitalism worsened the incidence of infectious and deficiency diseases for those induced or forced to abandon tribal ways and traditional economies – something which medical missionaries were pointing out from early in the twentieth century. While in the period after Columbus’s voyage, advances in agriculture,

plant-breeding and crop exchange between the New and Old Worlds in some ways improved food supply, for those newly dependent upon a single staple crop the consequence could be one of the classic deficiency diseases: scurvy, beriberi or kwashiorkor (from a Ghanaian word meaning a disease suffered by a child displaced from the breast). Those heavily reliant on maize in Mesoamerica and later, after it was brought back by the conquistadores, in the Mediterranean, frequently fell victim to pellagra, caused by niacin deficiency and characterized by diarrhoea, dermatitis, dementia and death. Another product of vitamin B (thiamine) deficiency is beriberi, associated with Asian rice cultures. The Third World, however, has had no monopoly on dearth and

deficiency diseases. The subjugation of Ireland by the English, complete around 1700, left an impoverished native peasantry ‘living in Filth and

Nastiness upon Butter-milk and Potatoes, without a Shoe or stocking to their Feet’, as Jonathan Swift observed. Peasants survived through cultivating the potato, a New World import and another instance of how the Old World banked upon gains from the New. A wonderful source of nutrition, rich in vitamins B1, B2 and C as well as a host of essential minerals, potatoes kept the poor alive and well-nourished, but when in 1727 the oat crop failed, the poor ate their winter potatoes early and then starved. The subsequent famine led Swift to make his ironic ‘modest proposal’ as to how to handle the island’s surplus population better in future:

a young healthy Child, well nursed is, at a Year old, a most delicious, nourishing and wholesome Food; whether Stewed, Roasted, Baked, or Boiled; and, I make no doubt, that it will equally serve in a Fricassee, or Ragout. . . I grant this Food will be somewhat dear, and therefore very proper for Landlords.

With Ireland’s population zooming, disaster was always a risk. From a base of two million potato-eating peasants in 1700, the nation multiplied to five million by 1800 and to close on nine million by 1845. The potato island had become one of the world’s most densely populated places. When the oat and potato crops failed, starving peasants became prey to various disorders, notably typhus, predictably called ‘Irish fever’ by the landlords. During the Great Famine of 1845–7, typhus worked its way through the island; scurvy and dysentery also returned. Starving children aged so that they looked like old men. Around a million people may have died in the famine and in the next decades millions more emigrated. Only a small percentage of deaths were due directly to starvation; the overwhelming majority occurred from hunger-related disease: typhus, relapsing fevers and dysentery. The staple crops introduced by peasant agriculture and commercial

farming thus proved mixed blessings, enabling larger numbers to survive but often with their immunological stamina compromised. There may have been a similar trade-off respecting the impact of the Industrial Revolution, first in Europe, then globally. While facilitating population growth and greater (if unequally distributed) prosperity, industrialization spread insanitary living conditions, workplace illnesses and ‘new diseases’ like rickets. And even prosperity has had its price, as Cheyne suggested. Cancer, obesity, gallstones, coronary heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, emphysema, Alzheimer’s disease and many other chronic and degenerative conditions have grown rapidly among today’s wealthy nations. More are of course now living long enough to develop these conditions, but new lifestyles also play their part, with cigarettes, alcohol, fatty diets and narcotics, those hallmarks of life in the West, taking their toll. Up to one third of all premature deaths in the West are said to be tobacco-related; in this, as in so many other matters, parts of the Third World are catching up fast. And all the time ‘new’ diseases still make their appearance, either as

evolutionary mutations or as ‘old’ diseases flushed out of their local environments (their very own Pandora’s box) and loosed upon the wider world as a result of environmental disturbance and economic change. The spread of AIDS, Ebola, Lassa and Marburg fevers may all be the result of the impact of the West on the ‘developing’ world – legacies of colonialism. Not long ago medicine’s triumph over disease was taken for granted.

At the close of the Second World War a sequence of books appeared in Britain under the masthead of ‘The Conquest Series’. These included The Conquest of Disease, The Conquest of Pain, The Conquest of Tuberculosis, The Conquest of Cancer, The Conquest of the Unknown and The Conquest of Brain Mysteries, and they celebrated ‘the many wonders of contemporary medical science today’. And this was before the further ‘wonder’ advances introduced after 1950, from tranquillizers to transplant surgery. A signal event was the world-wide eradication of

smallpox in 1977. In spite of such advances, expectations of a conclusive victory over

disease should always have seemed naive since that would fly in the face of a key axiom of Darwinian biology: ceaseless evolutionary adaptation. And that is something disease accomplishes far better than humans, since it possesses the initiative. In such circumstances it is hardly surprising that medicine has proved feeble against AIDS, because the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) mutates rapidly, frustrating the development of vaccines and antiviral drugs. The systematic impoverishment of much of the Third World, the

disruption following the collapse of communism, and the rebirth of an underclass in the First World resulting from the free-market economic policies dominant since the 1980s, have all assisted the resurgence of disease. In March 1997 the chairman of the British Medical Association warned that Britain was slipping back into the nineteenth century in terms of public health. Despite dazzling medical advances, world health prospects at the close of the twentieth century seem much gloomier than half a century ago. The symbiosis of disease with society, the dialectic of challenge and

adaptation, success and failure, sets the scene for the following discussion of medicine. From around 2000 BC, medical ideas and remedies were written down. That act of recording did not merely make early healing accessible to us; it transformed medicine itself. But there is more to medicine than the written record, and the remainder of this chapter addresses wider aspects of healing – customary beliefs about illness and the body, the self and society – and glances at medical beliefs and practices before and beyond the literate tradition.

MAKING SENSE OF SICKNESS

Though prehistoric hunting and gathering groups largely escaped epidemics, individuals got sick. Comparison with similar groups today, for instance the Kalahari bush people, suggests they would have managed

their health collectively, without experts. A case of illness or debility directly affected the well-being of the band: a sick or lame person is a serious handicap to a group on the move; hence healing rituals or treatment would be a public matter rather than (as Western medicine has come to see them) private. Anthropologists sometimes posit two contrasting ‘sick roles’: one in

which the sick person is treated as a child, fed and protected during illness or incapacity; the other in which the sufferer either leaves the group or is abandoned or, as with lepers in medieval Europe, ritually expelled, becoming culturally ‘dead’ before they are biologically dead. Hunter-gatherer bands were more likely to abandon their sick than to succour them. With population rise, agriculture, and the emergence of epidemics, new

medical beliefs and practices arose, reflecting growing economic, political and social complexities. Communities developed hierarchical systems, identified by wealth, power and prestige. With an emergent division of labour, medical expertise became the métier of particular individuals. Although the family remained the first line of defence against illness, it was bolstered by medicine men, diviners, witch- smellers and shamans, and in due course by herbalists, birth-attendants, bone-setters, barber-surgeons and healer-priests. When that first happened we cannot be sure. Cave paintings found in France, some 17,000 years old, contain images of men masked in animal heads, performing ritual dances; these may be the oldest surviving images of medicine-men. Highly distinctive was the shaman. On first encountering such folk

healers, westerners denounced them as impostors. In 1763 the Scottish surgeon John Bell (1691–1780) described the ‘charming sessions’ he witnessed in southern Siberia:

[the shaman] turned and distorted his body into many different postures, till, at last, he wrought himself up to such a degree of fury

that he foamed at the mouth, and his eyes looked red and staring. He now started up on his legs, and fell a dancing, like one distracted, till he trod out the fire with his bare feet. These unnatural motions were, by the vulgar, attributed to the

operations of a divinity. . . He now performed several legerdemain tricks; such as stabbing himself with a knife, and bringing it up at his mouth, running himself through with a sword and many others too trifling to mention.

This Calvinist Scot was not going to be taken in by Asiatic savages: ‘nothing is more evident than that these shamans are a parcel of jugglers, who impose on the ignorant and credulous vulgar.’ Such a reaction is arrogantly ethnocentric: although shamans perform magical acts, including deliberate deceptions, they are neither fakes nor mad. Common in native American culture as well as Asia, the shaman combined the roles of healer, sorcerer, seer, educator and priest, and was believed to possess god-given powers to heal the sick and to ensure fertility, a good harvest or a successful hunt. His main healing techniques have been categorized as contagious magic (destruction of enemies, through such means as the use of effigies) and direct magic, involving rituals to prevent disease, fetishes, amulets (to protect against black magic), and talismans (for good luck). In 1912 Sir Baldwin Spencer (1860–1929) and F.J. Gillen (1856–1912)

described the practices of the aborigine medicine-man in Central Australia:

In ordinary cases the patient lies down, while the medicine man bends over him and sucks vigorously at the part of the body affected, spitting out every now and then pieces of wood, bone or stone, the presence of which is believed to be causing the injury and pain. This suction is one of the most characteristic features of native medical treatment, as pain in any part of the body is always

attributed to the presence of some foreign body that must be removed.

Stone-sucking is a symbolic act. As the foreign body had been introduced into the body of the sick man by a magical route, it had to be removed in like manner. For the medicine-man, the foreign body in his mouth attracts the foreign body in the patient. As such specialist healers emerged, and as labour power grew more

valuable in structured agricultural and commercial societies, the appropriate ‘sick role’ shifted from abandonment to one modelled on child care. The exhausting physical labour required of farm workers encouraged medicines that would give strength; hence, together with drugs to relieve fevers, dysentery and pain, demand grew for stimulants and tonics such as tobacco, coca, opium and alcohol. In hierarchical societies like Assyria or the Egypt of the pharaohs, with

their military-political elites, illness became unequally distributed and thus the subject of moral, religious and political teachings and judgments. Its meanings needed to be explained. Social stratification meanwhile offered fresh scope for enterprising healers; demand for medicines grew; social development created new forms of healing as well as of faith, ritual and worship; sickness needed to be rationalized and theorized. In short, with settlement and literacy, conditions were ripe for the development of medicine as a belief-system and an occupation.

APPROACHES TO HEALING

Like earthquakes, floods, droughts and other natural disasters, illness colours experiences, outlooks and feelings. It produces pain, suffering and fear, threatens the individual and the community, and raises the spectre of that mystery of mysteries – death. Small wonder impassioned and contested responses to sickness have emerged: notions of blame and shame, appeasement and propitiation, and teachings about care and

therapeutics. Since sickness raises profound anxieties, medicine develops alongside religion, magic and social ritual. Nor is this true only of ‘primitive’ societies; from Job to the novels of Thomas Mann, the experience of sickness, ageing and death shapes the sense of the self and the human condition at large. AIDS has reminded us (were we in danger of forgetting) of the poignancy of sickness in the heyday of life. Different sorts of sickness beliefs took shape. Medical ethnologists

commonly suggest a basic divide: natural causation theories, which view illness as a result of ordinary activities that have gone wrong – for example, the effects of climate, hunger, fatigue, accidents, wounds or parasites; and personal or supernatural causation beliefs, which regard illness as harm wreaked by a human or superhuman agency. Typically, the latter is deliberately inflicted (as by a sorcerer) through magical devices, words or rituals; but it may be unintentional, arising out of an innate capacity for evil, such as that possessed by witches. Pollution from an ‘unclean’ person may thus produce illness – commonly a corpse or a menstruating woman. Early beliefs ascribed special prominence to social or supernatural causes; illness was thus injury, and was linked with aggression. This book focuses mostly upon the naturalistic notions of disease

developed by and since the Greeks, but mention should be made of the supernatural ideas prominent in non-literate societies and present elsewhere. Such ideas are often subdivided by scholars into three categories: mystical, in which illness is the automatic consequence of an act or experience; animistic, in which the illness-causing agent is a personal supernatural being; and magical, where a malicious human being uses secret means to make someone sick. The distribution of these beliefs varies. Africa abounds in theories of mystical retribution, in which broken taboos are to blame; ancestors are commonly blamed for sickness. Witchcraft, the evil eye and divine retribution are frequently used to explain illness in India, as they were in educated Europe up to the seventeenth century, and in peasant parts beyond that time.

Animistic or volitional illness theories take various forms. Some blame objects for illness – articles which are taboo, polluting or dangerous, like the planets within astrology. Other beliefs blame people – sorcerers or witches. Sorcerers are commonly thought to have shot some illness-causing object into the victim, thus enabling healers to ‘extract’ it via spectacular rituals. The search for a witch may involve divination or public witch-hunts, with cathartic consequences for the community and calamity for the scapegoat, who may be punished or killed. Under such conditions, illness plays a key part in a community’s collective life, liable to disrupt it and lead to persecutions, in which witchfinders and medicine men assume a key role. There are also systems that hinge on spirits – and the recovery of lost

souls. The spirits of the dead, or nature spirits like wood demons, are believed to attack the sick; or the patient’s own soul may go missing. By contrast to witchcraft, these notions of indirect causation allow for more nuanced explanations of the social troubles believed to cause illness; there need be no single scapegoat, and purification may be more general. Shamanistic healers will use their familiarity with worlds beyond to grasp through divination the invisible causes behind illness. Some groups use divining apparatus – shells, bones or entrails; a question will be put to an oracle and its answer interpreted. Other techniques draw on possession or trance to fathom the cause of sickness. Responses to sickness may take many forms. They may simply involve

the sick person hiding away on his own, debasing himself with dirt and awaiting his fate. More active therapies embrace two main techniques – herbs and rituals. Medicines are either tonics to strengthen the patient or ‘poisons’ to drive off the aggressor. Choice of the right herbal remedy depends on the symbolic properties of the plant and on its empirical effects. Some are chosen for their material properties, others for their colour, shape or resonances within broader webs of symbolic meaning. But if herbs may be symbolic, they may also be effective; after much pooh-poohing of ‘primitive medicine’, pharmacologists studying

ethnobotany now acknowledge that such lore provided healers with effective analgesics, anaesthetics, emetics, purgatives, diuretics, narcotics, cathartics, febrifuges, contraceptives and abortifacients. From the herbs traditionally in use, modern medicine has derived such substances as salicylic acid, ipecac, quinine, cocaine, colchicine, ephedrine, digitalis, ergot, and other drugs besides. Medicines are not necessarily taken only by the patient, for therapy is

communal and in traditional healing it is the community that is being put to rights, the patient being simply the stand-in. Certain healing rituals are rites de passage, with phases of casting out and reincorporation; others are dramas; and often the patient is being freed from unseen forces (exorcism). Some rituals wash a person clean; others use smoke to drive harm out. A related approach, Dreckapotheke, involves dosing the patient with disgusting decoctions or fumigations featuring excrement, noxious insects, and so forth, which drive the demons away. A great variety of healing methods employ roots and leaves in

elaborate magical rituals, and all communities practise surgery of some sort. Many tribes have used skin scarifications as a form of protection. Other kinds of body decoration, clitoridectomies and circumcision are common (circumcision was performed in Egypt from around 2000 BC). To combat bleeding, traditional surgeons used tourniquets or cauterization, or packed the wound with absorbent materials and bandaged it. The Masai in East Africa amputate fractured limbs, but medical amputation has been rare. There is archaeological evidence, however, from as far apart as France, South America and the Pacific that as early as 5000 BC trephining was performed, which involved cutting a small hole in the skull. Flint cutting tools were used to scrape away portions of the cranium, presumably to deliver sufferers from some devil tormenting the soul. Much skill was required and callous formations on the edges of the bony hole show that many of the patients survived.

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piedmont fasteners

Cheryl Montoya picked up the phone and called her boss, Wes Chan, Vice President of Marketing at Piedmont Fasteners Corporation.

Cheryl: “Wes, I’m not sure how to go about answering the questions that came up at the meeting with the President yesterday.”

Wes: “What’s the problem?”

Cheryl: “The president wanted to know the break-even point for each of the company’s products, but I am having trouble figuring them out.”

Wes: “I’m sure you can handle it, Cheryl. And, by the way, I need your analysis on my desk tomorrow morning at 8:00 sharp in time for the follow-up meeting at 9:00.”

Piedmont Fasteners Corporation makes three different clothing fasteners at its manufacturing facility in North Carolina. Data concerning these products appear below:

Velcro

Metal

Nylon

Normal annual sales   volume

100,000 units

200,000 units

400,000 units

Unit selling price

$1.65

$1.50

$0.85

Variable cost per unit

$1.25

$0.70

$0.25

Total fixed expenses are $400,000 per year.

All three products are sold in highly competitive markets, so the company is unable to raise its prices without losing unacceptably large numbers of customers.

The company has a very effective lean production system, so there is no beginning or ending work in process or finished-goods inventories.

Using the module readings, the Argosy University online library resources, and the Internet, research break-even point and costing systems. Analyze the case based on your research and what you have learned so far in the course.

Respond to the following:

  • Calculate the company’s overall      break-even point in total sales dollars. Explain your methodology      (approximately 2 pages). 
  • Of the total fixed costs of      $400,000: $20,000 could be avoided if the Velcro product were dropped,      $80,000 if the Metal product were dropped, and $60,000 if the Nylon      product were dropped. The remaining fixed costs of $240,000 consist of      common fixed costs such as administrative salaries and rent on the factory      building that could be avoided only by going out of business entirely      (approximately 2 pages): 

a. Calculate the break-even point in units for each product. Explain your methodology. 

b. Determine the overall profit of the company if the company sells exactly the break-even quantity of each product. Present your results. 

Evaluate costing systems for this company. Explain if this company should be using a job order or process-costing system to accumulate costs (1 page).  

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how is the word myth used popularly

Write a 600- to 875-word paper, in which you answer the following questions:

  • How is the word myth used popularly? For example, what does the statement, “It’s a myth” mean? In contrast, how is the word myth used in the academic context? After considering the definition in your textbooks and course materials, write a definition in your own words.
  • What are the most common mythological themes across different cultures? Why do myths from different cultures around the world address such similar or universal themes? Do we see these same themes in today’s myths? Think about how myths explain the unknown and the tribulations of mankind.


Format your citations and references according to the appropriate course level APA guidelines.
Submit your assignment to the Assignment Files tab.