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Reduction of Air Pollution Using Bio-Fuels As Form Renewable Energy

Contents

Executive Summary. 3

Introduction. 4

Problem Statement 4

Purpose of study. 5

Literature Review.. 8

Methodology. 12

Data Collection. 13

Data Analysis. 16

References. 17

Executive Summary

The paper explored contemporary issue of consumption of energy in detail. As we, all know that despite the increasing intentions towards energy consumption, the energy demand of the planet is also increasing. There is a rapid increase in the industries and vehicles due to the population explosion. The goal of the paper is to see how air pollution can reduce through Bio-fuels because it is best renewable energy sources. There are many contributing agents towards air pollution for example petroleum, natural gas, and hydrocarbons. The petroleum diesel, which is heavily used in the industries and transportation, emits a number of greenhouse gases. Air Pollution depends upon usage of bio-fuel. Therefore, Air pollution is independent Variable and Bio-Fuel is dependent one. Structure interview and public survey is method to be used for data analyses.

Introduction

This paper seeks to present the research methodology for a research study investigating reduction of air pollution using bio fuels as form renewable energy. The environmental influences of bio-fuels such as corn ethanol have been cause for much debate in recent years (Lee, Speight & Loyalka, 2014). The debate has largely been informed by the disagreements concerning the research methods employed in assessing the impacts under investigation. Another issue, which has served to compromise previous research studies, is founded on the fact that there are many assumptions incorporated in previous research studies due to the prevalence of incomplete data.

Problem Statement

There are two main threats faced by our planet today as they are directly influencing the future of humans and animals of the planet. These threats are known as air pollution and global warming. The rising prices and decreasing resources of conventional energy sources are also the threat to economic development and political stability of the planet. The air pollution indoor and outdoor is the sixth largest cause of deaths in the world number over 2.4 million premature deaths in the world (Jacobson, 2009).  Fossil fuels are non-renewable sources contributing significantly to world energy supply. Their usage has created environmental and political concerns. It is estimated that almost 98% of carbon emission results from the fossil fuel combustion. Heat stress, disease, the severity of storms and acidity in oceans is increased as a direct result of the global warming. The global warming and increased emission of carbon shifts viable agriculture and harms the ecosystems. The water supply’s magnitude and timing are also changed as the result of the global warming (Jacobson, 2009).

The concept of bio-fuels is not a new concept. The first bio-fuel using vegetable oil as the replacement of the conventional diesel was introduced in the year 1911 (Jacobson,  2009). It is estimated that the use of bio-fuels in comparison to the conventional fossil fuels might reduce the carbon and hydrocarbon emissions. For a sustainable future growth, it is necessary to reduce almost 80% of present carbon and hydrocarbon emissions. In this paper, the different sources of bio-fuels are evaluated with their impacts on the hydrocarbon emissions. The review also addresses the issues of social implications of the bio-fuels and controversies associated with the development of the fossil fuels. Costs associated with the use of bio-fuels and their implications are also discussed in the literature of the current paper.

Purpose of study

The purpose of this particular research study is to contrast bio-ethanol systems with conventional fuels using the life cycle assessment (LCA) criterion. Previous research studies have emphasized on greenhouse gases and net energy and as such, system boundaries and the divergent assumptions applied point out that there are differences in scope of study approaches (Twidell & Weir, 2015). This qualitative research study will involve field studies for the collection of data from different locations and the subsequent lab experiences for analysis. The lab experiments will be of great significance owing to the associated internal validity. As such, it is envisaged that the cause and effect affiliations can be best observed within a laboratory environment since it is a man made and controllable setting.  Different elements will be assessed as the units for analysis. The elements will include soil, ecosystem services, biodiversity, water quality, GHG emission, air quality, water quantity and consumption use.

As such, this particular research study will also present a general overview of LCA methodology normally employed in the assessment of the environmental impacts associated with the production and use of bio-fuels (Knothe, Krahl & Van Gerpen, 2015). By examining the contemporary breadth of knowledge about significant environmental effects, this outcome of the research endeavor will be further discuss specific environmental impacts. This will be applicable relative to combustion, conversion to bio-fuels, feedstock production, as well as the entire lifecycle of bio-fuel applications as well as production (Janaun & Ellis, 2010). The methods utilized in the assessment of environmental impacts and the observed effects or forecasted results in peer-reviewed literature will be presented (Knothe, Krahl & Van Gerpen, 2015). It is expected that the availability of data and associated deficiencies will present gaps among the prevalent modeling platforms. This implies that a level of uncertainty will exist in the assessment of different environmental aspects.

This research study will employ regional environmental evaluations concerning bio-fuels production. This is in essence due to the fact that bio-fuel production impacts are basically location specific (Janaun & Ellis, 2010). The resultant findings as well as conclusions sourced from the regional environmental evaluations may tend to vary from an evaluation considering the cumulative impacts across an entire state or country.

The LCA tool is highly appropriate for the quantification of environmental impacts of bio-fuels as renewable energy (Huo, Wang, Bloyd & Putsche, 2008). In previous research studies, it has been noted that there is generally an extensive misinterpretations of results. This is mainly due to the various assessment methods employed and as such, this has brought about some considerable degrees of confusion regarding this issue. This is especially the case when particular assumptions and frameworks fail to be mentioned or accorded due credit regarding the form of analysis used.

There are two different but significant approaches towards using the LCA criterion. These two approaches are the consequential and attribution approaches (Huo, Wang, Bloyd & Putsche, 2008). The attribution approach employs a more conventional form and seeks to trace the energy and material flows existing within a typical bio-fuel supply chain. This approach will normally attribute environmental effects to a specific form of bio-fuel as dictated by these flows. On the other hand, the consequential LCA examines environmental effects with regard to the cascading events that arise based on the decision to consider producing or even not producing a particular bio-fuel. The variances witnessed between the two approaches are due to their distinctive applications (Huo, Wang, Bloyd & Putsche, 2008).

Consequential LCA employs marginal data while attributional LCA employs average or progress specific data (Demirbas, 2009). These differences are important to note since this particular research study seeks to use the consequential LCA for data collection. An example as to which this particular approach is best suited for this research as it considers the effects of market mediation for a specific form of bio-fuel (Demirbas, 2009). For instance, it considers the environmental impacts associated with changes in petroleum or crop prices arising from the production of bio-fuels. The consequential LCA also takes into account all of the associated human activities while assigning a distinct bio-fuel to the total effect change due to a decision and action to implement, contract or expand bio-fuel production or not. Conversely, consequential LCA is critical towards policy and regulation evaluation (Demirbas, 2009). Data will be located from various locations and the subsequent analysis conducted in a controlled laboratory environment. The analysis is expected to avail scientific evidence that will imply that as a form of renewable energy, bio-fuels have the potential to reduce air pollution.

Literature Review

Production of Bio-fuels

There are different sources and methods that can be applied to produce the biodiesel. These sources and methods include direct use, blending, microemulsion process, thermal cracking process and the most commonly used technique known transesterification. This method is adopted widely due to the easiness and the process can be carried out in the normal conditions. The quality of the converted fuel is also better as compared to the other methods used for the synthesis of biodiesel (Gashaw, Getachaw,  &Teshita, 2015).

The direct use of vegetable oils as an alternative to the conventional diesel is not favorable. The use of vegetable as a direct fuel is very problematic. The vegetable oils have intrinsic properties which make them similar to the diesel but they require certain chemical modification before they can be used as a direct source of fuel. Some diesel engines can run directly on the fossil fuels but the engines which use turbo charge experience some problems. The vegetable oils in comparison to the conventional diesel have the high viscosity (Teshita et.al, 2015).

The problems of high-viscosity were resolved by the introduction of micro-emulsions. The solvents such as ethanol, methanol and 1-butanol were used as solvents in order to reduce the viscosity of the fossil fuels. The microemulsions can improve the spray properties of the biodiesel by rapid vaporization of the solvents. Thus, microemulsions result in the low-viscosity and an increase in the cetane number of the biodiesel. The repeated use of the microemulsion fuels in the diesel engines caused problems like injector needle sticking, depositing of the carbon and incomplete combustion (Teshita et.al, 2015).

The most common and easiest way to produce the biodiesel is the transesterification method. In this method a catalyst is used in the chemical reaction of vegetable oil and alcohol to produce the biodiesel. The common catalyst used is a strong base such sodium or potassium hydroxide. The process results in the changes of viscosity of the vegetable oil. The product has viscosity like fossil fuels. There are several factors, which affect the production of the biodiesel as bio-fuel. Temperature is the most important factor among them. It is required to keep the temperature under normal conditions, which is room temperature 25°C (Teshita et.al, 2015).

In the world today, a large global campaign is going on to include the different raw materials such as sugar cane, soybeans and sugar beets as raw materials for fossil fuels. The presentation of the bio-fuels as the perfect alternate for petroleum derivatives has been the focus of many studies conducted worldwide. The driving force behind this worldwide exploration is the reduction of environment concerns raised by the use fossil fuels. The use of wood as an alternative source of energy has been studied and its results for the reduction of fossil fuel carbon emissions are studied (Teshita et.al, 2015).

Emission Reduction from Bio-fuels

There is a significant variation in emission reduction of the fossil fuels using different feedstock and processing alternatives. The production of ethanol from the process of gasification reduced the emission to almost 74% (Lippke, Puettmann, Johnson, Gustafson, Venditti, Steele & Caputo, 2012). When ethanol is prepared by the fermentation of willow the emission was reduced to almost 120%. The reductions greater than 100 percent are achieved when part of woody feedstock is used for the generation of the electricity required for the process. The gasification process requires more quantity of wood to offset fossil fuels for collection and processing submissions. It shows that the amount of reduction is dependent on the amount of wood used rather than the way it is used (Caputo et.al, 2012).

Production of oil from the process pyrolysis of the whole tree thinning reduced the emission from fossil fuel to almost 70% in the US Southeast (Caputo et.al, 2012). The mechanisms used for the reduction of emissions and production of alternate bio-fuels exceeded the threshold placed by the EPA of 60% (Caputo et.al, 2012).The conversion process from woody feedstocks to ethanol using the process of gasification and fermentation results in less carbon reduction efficiency as compared to bio-fuel produced through pyrolysis. The reduction efficiency of converting the woody feedstocks to bio-oils and then to bio-fuel to be used as a substitute for gasoline may be lower than producing bio-oils (Caputo et.al, 2012).

Challenges for Bio-fuels

One of the most used justifications which are used for the adoption of bio-fuels as an alternate source of energy is the anticipated benefits to the environment from the replacement of fossil fuels. The combustion of fossil fuels results in the emission of carbon dioxide and gases known as Green House Gases (GHG) (German, Schoneveld,  & Pacheco, 2011). The promise made by the use of bio-fuels is a greener energy for the transportation. This promise has resulted in the inclusion of bio-fuels as alternative sources of energy targets in many industrial countries like the United States. Along with the US other interesting parties include EU and several developing countries including Brazil. Some of the researches in the area suggest that the land usage directly or indirectly for the use of bio-fuels can negate the emission of GHG and estimated climatic benefits (Pacheco et.al, 2011).

Considering the above-mentioned factors there is an increase in the recognizing the climatic effects of bio-fuels must include the full life cycle. The full life cycle includes the production, distribution and consumption of the bio-fuels. The lifecycle also includes the direct and indirect land usage for the production of the bio-fuels. The environmental debate mainly focuses on the issue of the climatic change. The other environmental factor associated with the use of bio-fuels must be taken into consideration. Some people claim that the cultivation of bio-fuel feedstocks on the land which could not be cultivated can make these lands productive and thus increase the forest conversion (Pacheco et.al, 2011).

In the 1990’s it was estimated that almost 500 million hectares of uncultivated land are available for cultivation. Out of this 100 million hectares of land was in Latin America, 100 million in Asia and 300 million hectares were in Africa. In Indonesia, 27 million hectares of deforested land has been identified for the cultivation of palm oils (Pacheco et.al, 2011). In Indonesia however, many papers and pulp companies have managed to deforest large areas of forest under the guise of palm oil cultivation. Some of this development used timber finances to make it happen, however, there was no plantation of palm oil in some of the cases or any rural development in the areas. Some of the researchers have focused on quantifying the impacts of bio-fuel feed stock expansion on the forest already present. According to a research, it was estimated that between 1995 and 2005 55% to 59% of palm oil cultivation in Malaysia and almost 59% of the palm oil cultivation in Indonesia was at the expense of the forests (Pacheco et.al, 2011).

Social and Economic Impacts

The debate on the social and economic impacts of bio-fuels focuses on the two key issues. These issues are the ability of bio-fuels acting as a stimulus to the rural and secondly its effect on access and control of land, and food security. A number of multiple purpose feedstocks have been identified as beneficial for the rural economic development. Under the correct conditions, the bio-fuels can generate financial profits, increase in the value of land, employment, improvement in the infrastructure and income from smallholder cultivation. Soybean cultivation has proved to be beneficial for the landowners and produced several critical economic multipliers in the downstream food industry. One of the primary benefits yielded from the cultivation of feedstocks is the employment of the people. The oil palm industry in Indonesia and Malaysia employs 0.08 to 0.5 persons per hector (Pacheco et.al, 2011).

The bio-fuels have a place in the strategy for renewable energy sources at a global level. Currently, they supply over 10% of the total energy use at a global level. The liquid bio-fuels only contribute 0.4% of global energy. Most of the time as in past the bio-fuels’ usage is dominated by direct combustion as it is in the case of wood. In recent times, much of the concentration is given to the production of the liquid bio-fuels (booksSekaran and Bougie, 2013).. The government of United Kingdom concluded in a report that by the end of the year 2020 will meet only 2% of global energy needs. Using ethanol as an alternative fuel for transportation is not a smart idea as other bio-fuels show greater efficiency. From a realistic, prospective the using of bio-fuels for transportation is not the best choice. However, it can be seen that bio-fuels reduce emission of carbon dioxide and greenhouse gases considerably as compared to fossil fuels. The bio-fuels can play their part in the energy future of the world but they can never be a replacement for the fossil fuels (Zhang et.al, 2012).

Methodology

The methodology discussed here ultimately considered by study. The relation between variables can be represented as below:

Independent Variable                                                                     Dependent Variable

Figure 1: theoretical framework

Air Pollution depends upon the usage of Bio-Fuels.

Data Collection

            We will collect data through the use of questionnaires and interviews. We will ensure that we use structured interview and questionnaires. Our questionnaires will be developed in a manner that they have both open and closed ended questions so that the respondents will have the opportunity to provide all the relevant information they have about the reduction of pollution using bio-fuel as a form of a renewable source of energy (Mugenda and Mugenda, 1999). We will also use oral interviews so that we will be able to get direct information from the respondents.

             In our research, we will also collect some data using secondary data collection methods by searching some relevant information from the internet and also going through different.It will be convenient enough to also use secondary sources of data because there is some documentation on the effect of air pollution. To increase the efficiency and accuracy of data collection, we need to collect a well structured data. For this research we will collect data from 300 respondents when 95% levelconfidence is used. This will require us to use large sample which is always ≥30. The research book highlights that in any case there is a need to increase the level of confidence, it is important to use large sample larger than 30 (Sekaran&Bougie, 2013). In addition, he also added that it is important to use large sample more than 30  and less than 500 population parameters is usually more appropriate and able to increase research accuracy. He further highlighted that only one hypothesis testing is usually important for the research when a binomial distribution is applied.

            It is also important to test null and alternative hypothesis where our null hypothesis will be Bio-fuels reduces air pollution and alternative hypothesis: bio-fuel does not reduce air pollution. Since we will use large sample where n≥30≤500 sample population, we will compare the result of our analysis with z test with the result of our hypothesis testing (Sekaran & Bougie, 2013). When we use binomial distribution, we will have abbreviations such as n, p and q where n will represent number of observations represent probability while q = 1-p. This kind of test is one tail test meaning that alpha will be 0.05 so that we can measure the error margin. We will collect the information about the use of bio-fuels to reduce pollution from different households and industries (Mugenda and Mugenda, 1999). In this research, it is very simple to collect data because it is collected from different households. We can also collect data concerning the use of bio-fuels to reduce pollution from different books and journals since there are many publications which have such kind of information.

            Concerning this study, we will be able to use both primary and secondary research methods to collect data. This is because the use of bio-fuel is clearly indicated in different books, online and journals how it is being applied to reduce air pollution. This method of data collection will ensure that we get adequate and reliable source of information which we will use to understand the truth about the use of bio-fuel to control pollution(Sekaran & Bougie, 2013). We can also use the format of questions and answers. This is because it can easily be understood by the system since it will be easy to accept the key word used in the question and finally generate answer based on the question given. It is also indicated in some recent articles written by students at Purdue that most student use IBM computer to understand firsthand on how the computer uses natural language (Sekaran & Bougie, 2013). The research done by Purdue students contained Indiana state code law that had been evaluated using the version of Watson. Those who have used the bio-fuel to reduce air pollution confirmed that it is able to reduce air pollution only when it is used appropriately. Through this, we realize that we can use Watson’s knowledge in research to determine the application of bio-fuel in the reduction of air pollution. In this our research, we have previous result is a question-answer format (Mugenda and Mugenda, 1999). This will make it easy to use them when using Watson version. This will help us get a more accurate and correct result for our analysis.

Assuming that Watson already has the information pertaining to questions stored in its cloud system. The important areas, which need to be focused on during the analysis process, will include the accuracy and precision of results generated by machine (Sekaran & Bougie, 2013). Based on the generation of results by the system one can make a comparison on what the treatments were proposed by human in the book versus machine.

            We will also use an extremely scalable proposal and hybrid cloud computing will be of great importance to retrieve data from the system and since that kind of systems are commonly available in shops, we will easily get one for our analysis (Mugenda and Mugenda, 1999). In the final stage, we will use binomial distribution, level of significance and hypothesis testing to assess the accuracy and reliability of data.

Data Analysis

            Immediately, the data have been collected and cleaned, they will be analyzed through feeding all the reliable and correct data in the version Watson. The feeding of these data is done in a question answer format. The performance is then observed until the result is produced. In the process, we must ensure that we have the version of Watson so that we can compare the result of the machine and human based results. The best example is when the outcome of the use of Bio-fuel to reduce air pollution can be inputted in this program where it will explore through numerous algorithms to produce three different possible outcomes with the corresponding level of significant. In this software, we can enter such questions such as (IBM Watson Developer Cloud, n.d.):

References

Demirbas, A. (2009). Bio-fuels securing the planet’s future energy needs. Energy Conversion and Management, 50(9), 2239-2249. 

Gashaw, A., Getachaw, T., &Teshita, A. (2015). A Review on Biodiesel Production as Alternative Fuel. Journal of Forest Products and Industries, 4(2).

German, L., Schoneveld, G. C., & Pacheco, P. (2011). The Social and Environmental Impacts of Bio-fuel Feedstock Cultivation: Evidence from Multi-Site Research in the Forest Frontier. Ecology and Society, 16(3). doi:10.5751/es-04309-160324

Huo, H., Wang, M., Bloyd, C. & Putsche, V. (2008). Life-cycle assessment of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions of soybean-derived biodiesel and renewable fuels. Environmental science & technology, 43(3), 750-756.  

Jacobson, M. Z. (2009). Review of solutions to global warming, air pollution, and energy security. Energy Environ. Sci, 2(2), 148-173. doi:10.1039/b809990c

Janaun, J. & Ellis, N. (2010). Perspectives on biodiesel as a sustainable fuel. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 14(4), 1312-1320.  

Knothe, G., Krahl, J.& Van Gerpen, J. (Eds.). (2015). The biodiesel handbook. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier. 

Lee, S., Speight, J. G. & Loyalka, S. K. (Eds.). (2014). Handbook of alternative fuel technologies. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. 

Lippke, B., Puettmann, M. E., Johnson, L., Gustafson, R., Venditti, R., Steele, P., … Caputo, J. (2012). Carbon Emission Reduction Impacts from Alternative Bio-fuels*. Forest Products Journal, 62(4), 296-304. doi:10.13073/12-00021.1

Mugenda, O and Mugenda, A. (1999). Research Methods: quantitative and qualitative      approaches.Acts press, Nairobi.

Sekaran, U.& Bougie, R. (2013). Research Methods for Business: A Skill-Building Approach. New York:John Wiley & Sons.

Twidell, J., & Weir, T. (2015). Renewable energy resources. London, UK: Routledge.

Zhanag, J., & Zhang, W. (2012). Controversies, development and trends of bio-fuel industry in the world. Environment Skeptics and Critics, 1(3), 48-55.

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Communication and Media Research “Advertising in social network sites”

Communication and Media Research

“Advertising in social network site”

It is researched that today’s social interaction is becoming the source of advertising for the people; people are getting familiar with the products and services online, the variety of interaction is enable the people to actively participate in buying the product and getting information about the product. It is investigated in the research that how people influenced by the social media and how they attract towards the products to buy. The social influence theory assumed that sharing the interpersonal influence and collective influence can motivates one to buy the product. It is tested from the different sources like Facebook that people strongly influenced towards the products in term of collective influence than the interpersonal influence.

The research is interesting as it tells about the effectiveness of online advertisement, the people on the social websites, comment on the product and services, share their experiences that can influence the online advertisement. The comment on advertising videos influence the public towards the product, user attitude towards the online advertisement is effecting on the people mind. Researchers have find out that advertising vehicles are affecting various advertising material, the online media is a source of effectiveness for the companies. Companies and organizations taking advantages of the online sources, the online sources are becoming the reason of profitability and source of effectives for them, the one who do not do online advertisement not get the advantages as others are getting. The media also influenced surrounding media to promote the media content, the question arises that what influence the people on social media, to buy the products, the answer is people get attracted by each other comments and this is the reason the online advertisements are successful.

The company’s focus on making the perfect advertisement by the professional of media content, nowadays the media content is providing effectiveness, the marketing the social media is given stress, the user generated content is also effective, the general public could also make the advertisement that can effect on one’s mind. The public know much about the mind of then people, sometimes better than the professional so public could be operative in this way. Online advertisement is a source or vehicle now giving advantages to the public as well as the companies.

Various internet online service are becoming the electronic word of mouth, it is investigated that more people are attracted towards the product by seeing each other’s. The electronic word of mouth is influencing or the motivation for the people or the companies to enhance the profit. It is estimated or considered by the researchers that user generated content is much effective instead of the media professionals, the user generated content is effective as the people have the information about the peer, there are several types to influence the peer or customers, not only single source is effective, the users are fully aware about the sources and they interplay among various sources.

Social influence as collective influence:

It is based on the social identity theory that depends on the market research. The people are more attracted by the social influence or collective influence. I believe that collective influence is better than any other source of promotion because people see themselves as a representative of a particular group, they do not see them self as an unique individual so the model is effective, the group can perform better rather than individual or the performance could be effective when one is in a group. Social networking services, are more effective or efficient through the collective influence rather than the individual influence, as one have the own preferences and taste, so it might be difficult for the companies or user generative content to target the one, the people or customers when see that people are appreciating the product through the electronic word of mouth, their mind is positivity attracts by increasing the social influence, the source when become well-known to the user or the customer the long-term membership is established.

Behavioral intention can also evoke or changed the recipient’s attitudes the products, the participant can engage themselves in the product and services when they are a part of group. The user generated content, might also engaged the advertise product, the behavior is not always same there are changes in the attitudes and the behavior with the change in the time, that should be or need to be noticed by the advertiser. To keep engage the people with the product and services is not possible for the long-term or time, there are need of innovations if the people or customers needed to be engaged. The study about the behavioral change may have been difficult, but not impossible, one has to stay up-to-date with the time and there is a need of proper researcher of the market and current behaviors of the individuals or groups.

Some attitudes are difficult to study, not all researches give you the accurate results, and however, the attitudes of a group are matter than the attitude of the individual. It is difficult to study about the every product and the customer response and attitude for the product. The assessment can be helpful for the user-generated content, to know about the priorities of the customers. The lack of influence, like if the advertisement are not designed according to what people demand or desired off, then there could be chance of failure of the product, researches are not accurate all the time, assumptions and expectation could be helpful in future for the design of the advertisement. Fitting the collective connection, is better than the interpersonal connection, to influenced the people by the by the sources are not sufficient all the time, there are need of identification of the connections or attitudes of the people depending on the behavioral intentions. The behavioral interactions or the connections can affect or influence one directly; the positive factor could be take place.

It is concluded by the study or the research that degree of identification is necessary for the selection of the source for advertising. Social identification about the sources could be beneficial for the present and future intervening factors. Based on the research or results that have been conducted on the social groups it is known that group influence is the successful application rather than the others, the study suggest the approach of social identification with the collective influence. However, the online users can also be targeted by the individual or interpersonal influence.

Both the approaches collective influence and interpersonal are beneficial for the online advertisements or providing the service so the people, there are needed to understand that how to target or approach the people. The user generated contact approach need to view the rational and collective self, if there is the adoption of the interpersonal approach then the traits and attributes with the previous activation processes needed to be researched, he interpersonal and collective approaches could be given the meaning by the social identity approach.

Evaluation of the methodology:

The researchers use the small or moderate sample size, about 150 samples were collected, however, the results shows the significant affects; the variable collective connection the shows the most significant effects. Four hypotheses were designed by the researcher, the likert scale was used to measure the mean of the five items, the 6 point scale was used. The 6 point scale is ranging from the “I strongly agree” to “I entirely agree”. The purchase intention of the customers was also noticed by collecting the data.

The results or reliability was satisfactory; however, they have selected the small sample size, the sample size must be increase for the accuracy of the data. The data was placed and then tested by Hayes (2013), by using the SPSS macro. The data, which was highly satisfied, was collective identification; the connection of the advertising by means of collective identification. There were limitation in the research, the collective influence provide examples the original assumptions.

Discussion:

The data collected, provide the researchers with the positive results, the weakness of the research was very limited sample and the strength was they did research based on the collective identification, that how social media is effecting the minds of people.

On the practical level the media advertising professionals can control their publishing content, the online content must be effective and must be interesting, before it is, publish, with the behaviors and interest of the people the content need to be focused and then published. The user-generated content is more effective as compared to the professional, by adding comment to the content the users can make it more attractive for the people or customers. The user generated content, is not limited to the Facebook, it is researched that user generated content is also extends to the other social media also along with the advertisements.

The industries have assessed the need of the hour, social media is now providing the opportunities to create the advertisements, and then place it on different websites, the research have shown that the user generated content, are focused on the interpersonal and collective approaches, by understanding the social information. It is assumed that social information could be affective for the social influences; the stronger the social information is the more effective services could be given to the people. Face-to-face communication or electronic word-of-mouth are the best ways to attract the people especially, it can create the social influence.

The people are influenced more by the websites, like YouTube video can influence the YouTube users, there is just proper need of assessment by the users generated content, the advertisements need to be clearly and closely monitor, the conversation on the online adds should also be monitor to know about the people and their psychological behaviors. The brand online advertisements, in an appropriate way can draw the attention of the consumers to get in touch with the advertisements or the websites is important to get in touch with the customer, the content is needed to share in the favorable way; or that seems favorable to the consumers. Professionally created content can effect or influence the consumers’ minds, to generate best content for the mass audience is the need of the hour. (Knoll & Schramm, 2015)

Reference

Knoll, J., & Schramm, H. (2015). Advertising in social network sites –Investigating the social influence of usergenerated content on online advertising effects. DE GRUYTER MOUTON, 40(3), 341-360.

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Economic Analysis of Values and Institutions

Economic Analysis of Values and Institutions

Abstract

            The present paper analyzes the need of values and institutions in economic analysis. The incorporation of ethical values and institutions is a matter of debate in today’s economics. It is believed that the economic activity should not merely concern with profit maximization. The real essence of the economics is the conducts of the economic activities with ethical value system. The mare focus on the self-interest and profit maximization is harmful for the individuals and the societies. The 21st century has witnessed large number of movements that focus on the incorporation of moral value in the societies. In such a realm, the economic sector is no exception.

            Today, the economists also emphasizes on the incorporation of values in the analysis. The moral and ethical conduct of the economic activities is an important factor that is designed to involve in economic activities.   The real well-being and the prosperity in the society comes when the economic agent follow ethics in their conducts. Lack of ethical consideration in the economic activities, lead to the illegal and immoral conduct of trading; which is considered burden on the society and the communities.  Therefore, it is strongly recommended that the incorporation of institution and the values in economic analysis is necessary.

Introduction

            The incorporation of values and institutions in the economic analysis is a matter of debate in today’s economic world. There was a time when the role of the values was considered as an alien in the realm of economic analysis. However, today, the values in economic analysis are an integral part of the economic activities. The economic is not just seen as earning pattern that is attributed with self-interest of the person who is initiating economic activities just because of earning. The means of earning and the beneficiaries in the society that is also important factors that lies under the economic analysis.

Formal and informal social institutions

            The profit maximization, trading and earning is not the only reason behind economic activities. The role of the values and the institutions emphasizes on the moral and ethical conduct of the economic activities that benefit every member of the society and the communities. Social institution is defined as the valued, stable and recurring pattern of the behavior that formed up in the societies. The institutions govern the social and behavioral patterns of the individuals in the societies. The institutions convey social purpose in the life of the people in the societies.

            The people derive meaning of their life, message of social good and their behaviors from those institutions. Similarly, the social values and ethics of the societies determine the degree of importance and the priorities in life to do or live. Therefore, there are large number of values exist in the societies that are important for the individuals and the communities. For instance, helping other, honesty, integrity, hard work and the sense of the purpose are some of the values that ere practiced by the people and that contribute in the social good of the people.

            Therefore, these institutions and the values are also important for the economic activities and its analysis. They cannot be separated from the economics. Economics cannot be regarded as a mare act of earning regardless of the means of earning and its impact on the societies. Therefore, economist emphasizes on the incorporation of social institutions and the social values on in economics. The present research paper investigates the incorporation of the social institutions and the societies. The following research questions are formulated for the present paper that will be analyzed subsequently.

RQ: Why incorporation of institution and the values in economic analysis is necessary?

Literature review

Norms values, ethics and regulations

            The relationship between the ethics, values and social institution is important to find. The economic activities must be ruled by the ethics and the moral norms and social obligation of the economists must fulfill. The institutions that are developed in the societies are always the results of the human beings (Akitoby and Stratmann, 2009) Therefore, they always contain ethical conduct in the societies regardless whether they are purposeful or not. The ethics is a broad term that does not contain a class of social norm or the value that is separate from the ethical consideration.  Values always matter in the economics. There is two-way interaction between the values and the economic activities in the societies. The incorporation of the values in the economic analysis is important for three major reasons. These reasons are as follows:

  1. The values identify the cost of the economic arrangements in the society and to some extent; they contribute in the determination of the cost of the economic transactions as well. 
  2. Values are necessary for the impasses in the theory of the strategic interaction
  3. Contemporary society is suffering from the lack of values that has also impacted the economic system of the world

            The lack of the values, ethics and the social institutions lead towards the economic activities for self-interests. The economic agents act as butchers and they do not consider the right and the wrong of the society. The self-interest is the only thing that is in front of them. Therefore, such kind of economic activities results in the deterioration of the societies and the blockade of the economic well being in their real essence. The self well-being and the parties who are involved in the transactions are become obvious. Value producing production becomes mild and the self-interest stands above all (Amartya, 2012).

Economic theories

            The value creation process in the society becomes weak and the economic efforts tend to ran away from the value creation for the members of the societies and the communities. Moreover, lack of social institutions and the values in the economic analysis lead to inappropriate use of different things that is theft, fraud, lies and immoral means of the trading. These acts are against the economic activities that generate well being in the society. Therefore, it is strongly recommended that the values and the social ethics must incorporate in the economic analysis. 

            In fact, the genuine trading activities reduce and the immoral means of economic activities tend to increase in the societies.  Therefore, the strategic interaction of the values and the greater good of the humankind in the form of economic activities also suffer. Moreover, there is also a cost of the economic activities, which are self-centered, for instance, the economic activities with immoral activities are burden on the societies (Antonio, 1991). The economic resources go waste and the resources are utilized to eliminate illegal economic activities.

            The 21st century has seen lot of movements that are centered on the social good of the people. The human right movement, feminism, equality, labor rights and the related movements are important steps in that regard. These movements have ultimate objectives to deliver the values to the end users. They propagate the true values of moral values and ethics in the societies (Cambridge University Press, 1998). They also are the advocate of the strengths of the social institutions in the societies. It is important to be noted that the values and ethics are important steps in the realm of the economic analysis. 

The growth of the countries is linked with the economic activities. The real prosperity and the well-being come when the trading activities are done on moral grounds. For instance, there are different indicators that contribute in the development of economic development. These factors include but not limited to GDP, per capital income, GNP and purchasing power of the people. The GDP of the country increases that indicate the trading and economic activities are also increasing (Folbre, 2002). However, if the value system does not prevail in the country and the economic activities are done with lack of ethical consociation, then the GDP do not represent the true economic well-being.

            The people contribute in the development of the GDP and if they are not given right wages, labor hours and their efforts are not rewarded up to their inputs. These indicators do not reflect the true picture of the economic development. Such production in the country is not attributing with the incorporation of the values and the institutions in the societies (Gatzweiler, 2003). Therefore, such literature reviews analysis emphasis on the incorporation of the values and the social institutions in the economic analysis. Today economic market in the world is majorly free market economy.

            The capitalist economic system is prevailing in the societies. The people have compliant about that system. It is believe that the system is suitable for the capitalists. The wealth is centered on few hands and the equal distribution of wealth is lacking in the societies. Few people are in position to acquire large number of wealth. They are not willing to share the wealth with other people (Mujahid & Zafar, 2012).  The employers are powerful and the common people have no option to work on their own terms and conditions. The capitalists sets their own level of rules and regulation to govern the markets, which are self centered the common people have no choice but to work for them own their own conditions.

            Long working hours, lack of job flexibility, inappropriate working conditions and other problems are the common obstacles of the economic system that lacks values and the ethics. Therefore, this is the time for need fulfillment to incorporate values ethics in the society and the economics. The ethical economic conducts is the real solution to bring long lasting prosperity and wealth in the societies (Mujahid & Zafar, 2012). The equal distribution of the wealth and the right means of the economic pattern are the real solution.  The economic activities must be performed with focus on the fundamental ethical values and the social institutions that are the need of the society.

Analysis

            The present research paper investigates the need of the incorporation of ethical values in the economic activities.The research question was posed whetherwhy incorporation of institution and the values in economic analysis is necessary. The review analysis reveals that the role of ethical values is an important factor in the economic analysis today (Pejovich, 1997).  There is a relationship between the ethical values and social institution as well as the economic conduct.  It is to be noted that the social institutions that are developed in the societies are always the results of the human beings. The human civilizations and societies build such institutions over the time being.

               Therefore, they are always attributed with ethical conduct in the societies regardless whether they are purposeful or not. Therefore, when economic activities interact with such social institutions, the need for ethical economic conducts occurs. The lack of ethical values and code of conduct affects the economic system of the world. Moreover, strategic interaction also suffers and the values identify the cost of the economic arrangements. When there is lack of ethical and moral conducts of economic activities, the economic agents act as butchers. They are self-centered and they do not consider the right and the wrong of the society.

            Such kind of economic activities are toxic for the societies and they result in the deterioration of the societies. Moreover, the economic well-being suffers and it does not flourish in their real essence. In addition, the value producing production becomes mild. The economic agent sets the self-interest stands above all means (Soman, 2015).  It is also important to be noted that the lack of social institutions and the values lead to the economic analysis that is inappropriate. The use of wrong means of economic activities emerges such as theft, fraud, lies and immoral means of the trading.

            Such activities are expensive and bare burden on the societies. Moreover, these acts are against the economic well-being and those kinds of activities that generate well being in the society.  The awareness of ethical values is on rise in the 21st century. Many movements are taking place in the century that focused on the incorporation of values in the societies.   These values are not only limited to the ethical and moral code of conduct in the business (Wilson, 2015). The movements such human right movement, feminism, equality, labor rights and the related movements also have impact on the moral economic conducts

            Therefore, these movements are important steps in that regard. The economic growth of the countries is linked with the economic activities that take place in economic scenario of a particular country.  Therefore, the real prosperity and the well-being come when the trading activities are done on moral grounds and the economic agents are not acting just for the sake of self-interest of themselves. Therefore, it is strongly recommend that the incorporation of ethical values and the social institution is must for the economic analysis. It cannot be separated from the economic analysis and it is the essential need in this regard.

Conclusion

            The ethics and ethical social institutions have integral role in the societies. It is not only limited to our social interactions abut have profound impact on the economic activities in our daily life.  The following research paper has analyzed the need of ethical values in the realm of economic analysis. The research question was posed whether the Why incorporation of institution and the values in economic analysis is necessary. The findings of the analysis revealed that there is severe need of the incorporation of ethical and moral values in the economic conduct. The economic agents must work in accordance with the ethical and moral code of conduct.

            Their ultimate purpose is to bring prosperity and well-being in the society instead of just pursuing self-interest and the profit maximization. When the economic activities are carried out with the consideration of only profit maximization, this is known as the exclusion of ethical values and the institutions form the economic conducts. Therefore, it is highly recommended that the ethical and moral principles must be incorporated in order to pursue economic activities that are delivered in the best interest of the societies. It is not worthy that the economic analysis is free of moral; obligations.

References:

Akitoby, B., & Stratmann, T. (2009). The Value of Institutions for Financial Markets: Evidence from Emerging Markets. Retrieved April 30, 2016

Amartya, S. (2012). Values and institutions in economic analysis. Economics, values, and organization, 3-70.

Antonio. (1991). values, Institutions and ethics. Retrieved April 30, 2016

Cambridge University Press. (1998). Economics, Values, and Organization. Cambridge University Press.

Folbre, N. (2002). The Invisible Heart: Economics and Family Values. The New Press.

Gatzweiler, F. (2003). Economic Values, Institutions and Ecosystems – The Shift from. Retrieved April 30, 2016

Mujahid, N., & Zafar, N. u. (2012). Economic Growth-Female Labour Force Participation Nexus: An Empirical Evidence for Pakistan. Retrieved June 12, 2015, from pide.org.pk/.

Pejovich, S. (1997). Economic Analysis of Institutions and Systems (International Studies in Economics and Econometrics. Springer.

Soman, D. (2015). The Last Mile: Creating Social and Economic Value from Behavioral Insights (Rotman-UTP Publishing). Rotman-UTP Publishing.

Wilson, T. C. (2015). Value and Capital Management: A Handbook for the Finance and Risk Functions of Financial Institutions (The Wiley Finance Series). Wiley.

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Argentina crisis in 1998

Table of Contents

Introduction 2

Reasons for the crisis 3

Peg to the U.S. dollar 3

Debt ratios rise 4

Economic History 5

1989 – 1997 (Battle against inflation) 6

1998 – 2001 (Loss of competitiveness) 6

Fiscal mismanagement 7

Effects on the banking sector 7

Conclusion 9

References 10

Argentina crisis in 1998

Introduction

1998 – 2002 was the time of great economic depression in the Argentina. It was actually started in the third quarter of the 1998 and finished in the 2nd quarter of 2002. There was couple of reasons behind that economic depression. This was due to the Brazilian and the Russian financial crisis which started all this. Some of the main reasons were large unemployment rate, the fall of the government, the rise in the alternative currencies, country foreign debt has default and they have pegged the peso fixed exchange rate to the US Dollar.  

 Within the time of 1998 – 2002 the economy have shrank by 28% (Economics.rabobank.com, 2013). The cyclic fiscal policies and the lot of foreign borrowing have put the country in the economic shock and there was severe currency and the banking crisis in the country. With respect to income level, 50% of the people were poor. Out of 10, 7 argentine people were poor at almost the depth in 2002. After the crises ended the economy again grew up in 2003 and it is been said that it grew almost 9% for the five years. 

In December 2001, the banking sector was also affected by the economic stress that was caused by the country. We can see that the bank accounts were freeze of the customers. There were protests also due to that. The IMF then has suspended the disbursements and the economy went on the positive side after many years. If we look at the income poverty then we come to know that it grew up to 35.4% in October 2001 and it was at the peak 54.3% on October 2002 (Frbsf.org, 2002).

 Reasons for the crisis

Peg to the U.S. dollar

Argentina’s peg to the U.S. dollar is said to be the one of the strongest reason for the crisis in the country. The affect of that was that there was inability to reduce the public and the external debts.  If we look at the graph we could see that public debt to the GDP in the country have fallen immensely. 

This figure is clear and it shows that in the 1995, the Public debt to the GDP was 35% but in the 2001 we can see that it have rise up to 65% (Hornbeck, 2002). This is a huge differene3 almost double and that causes the problems in the country at large. Argentina’s experience remains as opposed to South Korea’s, the place a budgetary emergency in 1997-1998 constrained the administration to mediate to save coming up short banks and prompted a rescheduling of its outside obligation. In South Korea, the general population obligation/GDP proportion climbed strongly, from more than 10% in 1997 to more than 30% in 2000, however then declined (IMF 2002a, p. 18). 

In any case, even at its crest, South Korea’s open obligation/GDP proportion was not as much as half Argentina’s, and the way of the obligation stayed underneath that anticipated by the IMF in three separate surveys. 

There is no unambiguous limit at which open obligation gets to be unsustainable, and Argentina’s open obligation/GDP proportion of 65% in 2001 was still lower than that saw in some European nations. Nevertheless, given the historical backdrop of defaults and macroeconomic shakiness in developing markets like Argentina, their edge feasible open obligation might be much lower than in innovative economies (Geithner, 2003). Moreover, impediments on expense accumulation capacity infer that a higher open obligation/GDP proportion makes developing markets more helpless against antagonistic movements in business sector notion that raise the expense of assets. In accordance with this, extensive spikes in the yield on open obligation happen in developing markets that are occasionally seen in innovative economies.

Debt ratios rise

There are two big reasons that the debt ratio have increased in the country. Government revenues minus the expenditures exclusive of interest payments on the debt (fiscal surplus) these payments were not enough for the payments. That was the reason the debt ratio have increased in the country.  Somewhere around 1991 and 2000, Argentina’s essential surpluses arrived at the midpoint of 0.14% of GDP (Kaminsky, Mati, & Choueiri, 2009). These surpluses were astounding accomplishments, given Argentina’s history, yet they were still well underneath interest installments, which arrived at the midpoint of 2.4% of GDP over this period. There were huge hindrances to lessening uses and raising incomes. 

On the consumption side, the administration was a substantial business (Krueger 2002) and, for political reasons, thought that it was difficult to cut its compensation bill. The focal government likewise thought that it was difficult to control spending by common governments, whose liabilities it was in the end compelled to accept. In the meantime, incomes were antagonistically influenced by troubles in assessment accumulation and, after 1999, by falling yield and rising unemployment.

The second reason we can see is the export growth. The export of the country was not good enough to meet the debt obligations and that is the reason there were problems. The growth rate of the country declined a lot. It has been observed that the rate at that time was around 7.7%. If we compare with the Asian countries like South Korea and Malaysia then we come to know that they are even better as they have the rate of (10% – 11). 

Send out development has been hosed by Argentina’s exchange boundaries, which remain moderately high outside the Southern Cone regular business sector territory of Mercosur, of which Argentina is a part. These exchange boundaries have expanded following the emergency broke out. Additionally endured taking after the 1999 breakdown of the Brazilian genuine in light of the fact that Argentina’s unbending coin board game plan delivered exaggerated money  (El-Ghazaly, 2106).. In reality, the emphasis on keeping up an inflexible peg no matter what seems to have redirected consideration far from the dangers of not paying consideration on genuine area essentials.

Economic History 

Figure 3: Inflation and Unemployment

In the beginning of the 20th century, Argentina was one of the wealthiest countries in the world. If we talk about its GDP then we come to know that it have exceeded from the countries like France and Germany as well. Slow economic growth started in there after the World War 1. There were bad policy making in the country and they have the oil crisis in the 1970’s. On top on that in the 1980, there was a crisis of Latin America debt crisis. There was a rise in the inflation that can be seen and that was due to the spending could not match the financial market borrowings and the taxation.  We can see the inflation graph and predict the situation better. 

1989 – 1997 (Battle against inflation)

At this point, we can see that there was great inflation in the country. The president of the country was very curious about this and he have made some good economic reforms. Some of the good steps that have been taken were he privatized the state owned enterprises; secondly he deregulated the economy and the lower barriers of the state. By doing, this all the economy begin to rise in the markets and it was to be said that Argentina is growing as the emerging market in the world. 

The second thing which have been done at that point was that the conversion of Peso to one to one Dollar. By doing this the exchange rate have been stabilized. By doing this people could freely exchange the Peso in to the dollars however, the economy actually stabilizes. Due to this, the economy was stabilized and the time when they grew again. 

1998 – 2001 (Loss of competitiveness)

Russia and Brazil have increased the borrowing cost for the different countries and due to the exchange rate of the Brazil; there was great impact on the argentine economy. Brazil was the one of the main trading country for the Argentina. 

In the 1998, the brazil has ended the peg with the Us dollar and that was the turning point that there was strong depreciation that could be seen. By doing this, the economy of Brazil actually recovered but there was a great loss for the Argentina. Moreover, the prices of the export products had fallen and the exports were reduced of the country.

However, the price of the dollar had increased at the maximum point at that time and that also hurt the economy of the country. By looking at the situation and the problems in the Argentina’s economy the foreign investors were not interested in investing in that economy as it was not stable. The borrowing cost was too high. However, the country has lost the international investors and the international financial market has fallen down.  

Fiscal mismanagement

The fiscal policies of the economy have also contributed in the crisis of the economy. The fixed exchange rate has been the problem for the economy. The president of the country has reduced the interest rates so that the economy could stand again on their feet. By doing this, the economy should get better but as the result the corruption was increased and there were more problems and the fiscal deficit remains the same. The government was not able to control the expenditures of themselves. Therefore, this type of small policies has also influenced a lot in the destruction of the economy. 

Effects on the banking sector

In the 1998, the banking sector of the country was ranked in the second number in the world after the Singapore, which was in the first place. Due to the currency exchange rates, the increase in the defaulters, the rise in the non-performing loans, freezing of the utility companies the default rate of the country banking system raised up to 60%. Due to this the banking sector was destroys and the large private banks were not stable as there were couple of problems and they faces the losses due to that. The losses were caused due to the 

  1. The bankruptcy of the bank debtors increased
  2. The loan rate was only 1 Peso per dollar.
  3. The default of the country has increased $93 billion on December 23, 2001. 

The triple emergency softened up 2001 when, out of apprehension from the falling apart monetary atmosphere, individuals hurried to pull back their pesos from the banks keeping in mind the end goal to change over them into dollars and boat them abroad. The officially debilitated banks were further crushed when the legislature defaulted on its obligation in December 2001. 

As an aftereffect of the budgetary misery, the nation was compelled to leave its coin load up administration, a convertibility program that attached the peso to the dollar at equality. In the meantime, the administration reacted to the bank keeps running by limiting withdrawals, basically solidifying all records. Also, private stores and credit to the private segment declined drastically, which advance debilitated the sickly economy. The determination of the managing an account emergency was a piece of a bigger arrangement of strategies that needed to manage the vast emergency. The administration finished the money board administration in mid 2002 (permitting an enormous cheapening of the peso) and in the long run rebuilt its obligation.

Conclusion

There were many economic events which have causes the distress in the economy of the Argentina.  The pegging of the currency, the overvaluation of the currency, the change in the fiscal policies, the large scale borrowing were there and no plans were made to predict the future changes that what could happen. The external shocks within the economy, the economic rigidities and the capital inflows were also the reasons of the economic downfall of the economy. The crisis of the Argentina is said to be one of the worse crisis that have been faced in the history.

The change of the Paso to the dollar exchange rate was the one of the biggest problem, which the economies have faced. There was no need to do this as the country has been disturbed by doing this. The fixed rate is not the solution to the problem and the president who has make the changes should focus on the consequences more. Argentina and various other rising economies, and it is a critical essential for accomplishing solidness in a globalized economy.

After 2000, the Argentina economy has recovered quickly and they have discontinued the policies that were implemented before. The debt level needs to be checked and the economy needs to be looking in to the plans and the debt ratio should be maintain so that there would be no distress caused in the country.  

References

Economics.rabobank.com. (2013). Economic Report. Retrieved May 2, 2106, from https://economics.rabobank.com/publications/2013/august/the-argentine-crisis-20012002-

El-Ghazaly, H. S. (2106). Banking Crises around the World: Different Governments, Different Responses. Retrieved May 02, 2016, from https://www.stlouisfed.org/publications/regional-economist/april-2011/banking-crises-around-the-world-different-governments-different-responses

Frbsf.org. (2002). Economic Letter. Retrieved May 2, 2016, from http://www.frbsf.org/economic-research/publications/economic-letter/2002/october/learning-from-argentina-crisis/

Geithner, T. (2003). Lessons from the Crisis in Argentina . Retrieved May 02, 2016, from https://www.imf.org/external/np/pdr/lessons/100803.pdf

Hornbeck, J. F. (2002). The Argentine Financial Crisis. Retrieved May 02, 2016, from http://fpc.state.gov/documents/organization/8040.pdf

Kaminsky, G., Mati, A., & Choueiri, N. (2009). Thirty Years of Currency Crises in Argentina External Shocks or Domestic Fragility? . Economía 18th Panel Meeting , 1-30.

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Paradoxical Leadership and the Competing Values Framework

What is the research question(s)?

What are the means to develop leadership skills in order to understand the relationship between leadership and paradox?

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Conflicts between Parents & Children in Arab Society

Contents

Introduction. 3

Emotional Security Theory by Patrick T. Davies and Cummings EM… 3

Hypothesis. 4

The Affects of Parental conflict on the Children Behavior 4

Understanding of Family System.. 5

Theoretical Perspective of Family as a System.. 7

Functionalism.. 7

Symbolic Interaction. 8

Conflict theory. 9

Social functions of the Family. 9

The changing Arab Family. 12

Factors causing the changes in Arab Family. 13

Conflicts between Parents & Children. 15

Conflict resolution. 18

Solution to Conflict between societies. 20

Symbolic interaction theories supporting conflict resolution. 21

Conclusion. 22

References. 24

Conflicts between Parents & Children in Arab Society

In context of

Emotional Security Theory by Patrick T. Davies and Cummings EM

Introduction

            The conflicts between the parents and the children in Arab community are recognized through applying the analytical framework of the psychological cognitive theory of emotions proposed by the Patrick T. Davies and the Cummings EM. The psychological behavior in terms of the emotions, feelings, attitudes and the generation gap as per the life cycle or growth stage of the children is interlinked with the family system, core cultural, religious values. The lack of space as per the security theory of emotions in the psychological behavior of the children is analyzed as the marriages or social context setting is impacted by the changes in behaviors that leads towards the conflict between the parents and their children in the Arab community. The system of the family as per the functionalities and the theory of conflicts deeply review in this paper as the changes in the mindset or behaviors such as space must be provided in the decision making of personal as well as professional life (Robert Sedgwick, 2001).

Emotional Security Theory by Patrick T. Davies and Cummings EM

            The theory of the emotional security by Patrick T. Davies is the empirical study of the psychological or the emotional behaviors in terms of the physiological patterns in the development of the adulthood with respect to age is analyzed. The gap is studied as a psychological tool with cognitive behavior pattern in the Arab society while identifying the core reasons behind the relationship flaws of the children and their parents. Using the approaches of the constructive conceptual behavior models and the destructive application of the materials as per the psychological adjustment in the changing behavior of the children is analyzed (Davies & Cummings, 2009).

Hypothesis

            The generation gap is associated with the relationship with the child-parent relationship in Arab community that leads towards the psychological, emotional changes in behaviors in terms of social limitations in the social interaction context on the children relying on traditional socio-cultural behavior patterns. The controlling or the authoritative style from the parents at the pro-social contextual and the role of the emotional security threat that implies to the minds of the children in terms social, psychological or physiological stage of the growth is an important reason.  

The Affects of Parental conflict on the Children Behavior

            There is a huge impact on the minds of the children especially in the dimension of the pre-social adoptions of the lifestyle of the children in their growing stage or adolescence. The marriages as per the conflict caused among the parents or the couples, disputes regarding the decision-making of the mutual need fulfillment, sexual desires, the asset management household policies are include in the list of the behavior pattern of the emotional attitudes or feelings that have the very negative impacts on the minds of children especially in the Arab community.

            The children are the creature of the God who wants an advantage in terms of the social, cultural context of the physiological decision-makings while learning a lot from the external environment and the sanctions put on the lifestyle of the cultural patterns is the most important issue that must be addressed. The common issues of quarrel among the parental or the couple in the Arab community are mostly related to the social right of spending the life, the practical limitations for the women while doing the job or the employment concerns. The personal issues including the marriages within the family, the decision of birth of child along with family planning inefficiencies are analyzed. The children when found that the situation in which they do not have the ideal scenario to learn from the role models such as the parents, they found the mental stress and the physiological changes in terms of the emotional risks aroused in them. The strategy that the children in terms of the generation gap for the social interactions having the circles with the friends, or the other closed community (Bensi, Giusberti, Raffaella Nori, & Gambetti, 2010).

            They profound the changing in terms of the material sources of getting them out of the trouble. The parents usually do not notice or ignore the situation most of the times while arguing or treating the women in the bad way that leads towards the divorce is the common example that is illustrated in this paper at many occasions. The divorce is the major cause of the psychological changing impact as the emotional attitudes or the feelings of the children in the Arab community are related as per the core findings of the emotional security.  

Understanding of Family System

            There is no as such concept of the independent living style or pattern in terms of the economic trend of lifestyle, the social beliefs, or the way of interaction as a life spending cognitive approach and the living together as a family of a single unit. The family system in the Arab background is include of the pure joint system of the family spending, living pattern or approach, relying on each other on the social, financial state or the elements of the well-being. The Arab cannot imagine living a life an independent state of mindset. They proclaim that the joint venture or the style of the family is beneficial for them in sought of the socio-economic independence while relying on others, as the social prevention of the complexity social framework of reference as the dwellings in the cultural aspects are highlighted according to the compound system of the family rather than living independently (saudiarabia.angloinfo.com, 2011).

            The big question arises that the physiological and the psychological subconscious state of the young people in the Arab community is Patrick T. Davies as per the theory of the emotional theory for the security of the feelings in the adulthood as they are in the growing stage is most important to interpret. Since this allows the system of the social gathering as the factor of alienation for lacking the core skills or abilities to do all the private work or tasks in a way that all the closed circle of the family. That would be monitoring as the risk of the element of the psychological sought of the interpersonal manner is examined using the analytical framework.

            The qualitative aspects of the emotional attitudes in the behaviors of the human lifestyle especially in the young age, while marinating the challenging behaviors for the child when one perceives the immense level of the difficulty while representing the feelings to the other person in the society. Te theory that linked with the stress of the stress of the emotional feelings as per the rate of the intrapersonal reference and the interpersonal cognition factors that would impact the relationship of the child with the parents especially in the dimensions of the core Arabian society or the community. The distinctive psychological perspective is that the generation gap is highly illustrated in the core dimensions of the psychological depending on the theory of the security in terms of the setting that develop the cultural frame of precise informing about the limitations. This prevails that the children in the Arab society could highly monitor as the foundation of the psychological rights of the threats of social security (Workman, 2014).

Theoretical Perspective of Family as a System

            The theoretical prospects of the family systems in the Arab community are highlighted as per the joint system as the impact on the lives of the psychopathology through the developmental concerns in the threats of the security treated as the social dimensions. The framework used to study the dimensions of the system of the family in the community of the Arab region is described in a way that the innovative process of the ideal family system is imposed as the proposed solution under such circumstances.

Functionalism

            The values that discover the psychological cognitive frame of reference in the social context of the psychological pattern to perceive the system is analyzed. The Patrick Davies highly emphasize on the point that it is very crucial for the parents to represent an ideal psychological scenario in the external model of reference that children would follow. The constructive functional approach works best in the way when the adoptions would occur as the primary psychological need with the perspective of both the parent-child that the generation gap would be removed from the threat or the factor risk as the social security in the minds of the children in the Arab community in an explicit way.

            The greatest suggestion that the functional approach of the system of the family in the concurrence rate of the psychological preference of the children social as per the context of the system of the family is the  primary goal. The discord between the strong or the sound relationship of the parent with the children is treated as the emotional stage of values that would fifer at many times in the pre-growth life cycle or stage of the growth, the behavioral cognitive factor that would use the core values of the Arab socio-economic dimensions. The processes of the physiological growth in the minds of the children that would consider highly interactive in terms of the conscious settings would occur in this psychopath matrix (Crossman, 2012).

Symbolic Interaction

            The most important phase in the lifecycle of the parent-children relationship as per the context of the child-parent is that at least the symbolic relationship as per the social interaction that treats as the social interpersonal as the adjustment of the emotional key elements for the concerns of the family adopting the core sound interaction as relationship is maintained. The revolutionary origins that characterizing the conflict resolution theories with the behaviors in the schools, home to the outside environment with community, awareness of the global progressive state of the art in technology with the healthy directions with the parents as per the trajectory that reaches to the highest level of the sequel. The core factor that would rate symbolic interaction with parents as per the psychological challenges  for the broader aspect of the social security that would rate as the behavioral proportions in the dilemma attitude that study the guidelines for social behaviors of the Arab children.

            The latest strategy as per the psychological regard of the emotional feelings as the threat reducing roots is the development of the objectives that any cost ethological such as following both the use core beliefs of the socio-cultural boundaries that are imposed by the parents. The translation that regards the functioning of the children and the liberty to express oneself as the cognate restructuring of the psychological abilities in the academic or practical compliances is analyzed. This would definitely produce the threat to the cognitive psychological security for the anxiety as well as creating tension in the life of the children.

Conflict theory

            Strife speculations are viewpoints in human science and social brain science that underline the social, political, or material disparity of a social gathering, that investigate the wide socio-political framework, or that generally take away from support functionalism and ideological conservatism. Struggle hypotheses attract consideration regarding power differential, for example, class strife, and by and large differentiation verifiably overwhelming belief systems. It is consequently a full-scale level examination of society. While a considerable lot of these points of view hold parallels, strife hypothesis does not allude to a brought together school of thought, and ought not to be mistaken for, for incidence, peace, and struggle examine, or some other particular hypothesis of the social class. Karl Marx is the father of the social clash hypothesis, which is a segment of the four ideal models of human science. Certain contention hypothesis set out to highlight the ideological viewpoints inborn in customary thought.

Social functions of the Family

            Generally, the Bedouin lived by raising camels, sheep, and goats and took after their crowds looking for touching ranges. Just 5 percent of Bedouin still live as peaceful migrants; the rest of settled in towns and towns Starting in the last third of the twentieth century, peaceful itinerant turned out to be progressively uncommon due to country states with shut outskirts and the quick urbanization of the area’s populaces. Subsequently, the Bedouin have turned out to be progressively stationary.

            The Bedouin family, as other Arab families, is moored in a culture-bound financial and political system. The biggest unit in the Bedouin system is the Qabilah, or country, comprising of a few tribes (ashira, plural ashir) each with its own particular land and pioneer. A matrilineal family relationship structure of a few eras includes a wide system of blood relations plunged through the male line. Previously, the hamula gave its individuals, who lived and meandered together and shared land and work, with monetary security and insurance. The tribe is a union of more distant families, or hamula (plural hamail). The hamula constitutes the momentous family. With the loss of the Bedouin’s predictable employments, the hamula is less ready to satisfy these capacities. Regardless it serves, in any case, as significant wellspring of personality and psychosocial backing and economic good. The atomic family, hamula, and tribe are steadfastly bound by broad common duties and commitments. The atomic group of guardians and kids is the littlest family.

            This interpersonal organization is supported and kept up by a profoundly imbued arrangement of qualities and desires that oversee the conduct and the connections of the individuals. People are relied upon to show unreliability and obligation to the group, to place its great over their own, and to take after the guidelines and charges of those above them in the chain of importance. The key qualities are agreeableness, connection camaraderie, and order. The Bedouin nervous tension participation, adjustment, settlement, and family attachment is analyzed.

Arab Family System

            The way of life of the Arab world is profoundly commanded by center Muslim esteem frameworks, for example, respect, duty, feeling, confront sparing and a few other definitive practices. It is attention to be the coupling power and is considered critical in all the social and financial exercises. The three examples of society in the Arab culture integrate the Bedouin tribes and individuals living in the provincial and urban ranges. The family is thought to be the essential unit of social union in the conventional and old Arab society. Solidarity and unity is an essential part of the Arab culture as every one of the individuals coordinate concordantly to secure its vocation and enhance to enhance its notoriety in the group. The realization or disappointment of an individual part turns into that of the family overall.

            The sentiment congruity and harmony is exceedingly up and coming amongst the families. This is because of the way that family association gives high level of security. The idea of monetary commonality in the families in the Arab culture is under genuine risk by different schools of musings and other social foundations in the innovative world. Bedouins demonstrate awesome respect and high level of dependability toward their families. The family unit emotionally supportive network is thought to be amazingly occupant and it is esteemed as the individual’s definitive asylum.

            This prompts the making of turmoil as it obliterates the distinction of individuals living in the group. This perspective gives security on one hand furthermore prompts strife for the people then again. There might be the times when the people feel that they have distinctive thoughts, which are not in friendship with that of gathering.

            The father is the key figure in the family framework and he appreciates incredible self-sufficiency over the whole family. The state of mind of father may get unbending grim, stern, and to a great degree definitive, though the mother is wonderfully adoring and merciful. Bedouins take a gander at life personalized. They are worried about individuals and sentiments and place accentuation on human variables when they settle on choices towards individuals. This is to a great degree inimitable in the way of life of Arab world in overwhelmingly all the Arab nations.

The changing Arab Family

The Arab family might be depicted as the essential unit of generation and the focal point of Arab social association and financial exercises. The Arab Family as a Central Socioeconomic Unit The customary Arab family constitutes a monetary and social unit since all individuals collaborate to guarantee its maintenance and enhance its remaining in the group. Endeavors, for example, shops, industrial facilities, organizations, and fields are regularly claimed and worked for the advantage of all. It developed into a patriarchal, pyramidal various level (especially as for sex and age), and amplified foundation. Give us a chance to take a gander at each of these qualities thusly. As of not long ago, when the state started to give administrations to its natives, the family attempted such varied undertakings and duties as instruction, socialization, preparing, protection, welfare, job, and religious childhood.

The family is at the focal point of social association in each of the three Arab examples of living (Bedouin, provincial, and urban) and especially among tribes, laborers, and the urban poor. It additionally gives security and backing in times of individual and societal push. The achievement or disappointment of an personality part turns into that of the family all in all. Each individual from the family might be considered in charge of the demonstrations of each other part. The family constitute the prevailing social establishment through which people and gatherings acquire their religious, class, and social affiliations. The sexual trouble making of a young lady, for instance, reflects upon herself as fit as upon her dad, her sibling, and her family in general.

In this way the “wrongdoing of respect,” which now and again still happens in firmly weave groups, is an endeavor to reestablish the family’s respect and place in the group by executing a sister or little girl who has been eminent in sexual unfortunate behavior. Guardians, and especially the mother, deny themselves for their youngsters. The wellspring of the mother’s satisfaction is the joy and flourishing of her youngsters. One’s dedication to the family may include widespread abstinence.  In a just right world, both kids and guardians are completely dedicated to the family itself. The very idea of family in Arabic ( ‘aila or usra ) reflects such shared odd jobs and connections of association and correspondence.

The foundation of the word ‘aila furthermore of usra signifies “to bolster.” While the father’s part is characterized as that of supplier ( janna ) and the mother’s part as that of homemaker ( banna ), kids change from being ‘iyal (wards) to sanadi (supporters) once their folks achieve seniority. This symbolizes the dropping of one’s individual character and appropriation rather than the personality or part of parenthood or parenthood. This clarifies why guardians in a few sections of the Arab world may allude to a tyke as sanadi (my backing). Another outflow of the dedication and restraint of guardians is the convention in the eastern Arab universe of getting to be known as “Abu,” father of, or “Umm,” mother of, one’s eldest child. A tape sent by a young fellow from a Syrian town to his dad and mom, who were on a two-month visit to their higher-ranking two children contemplate in the United States, reveals extensive insight into the inward progression of Arab employee families.

Factors causing the changes in Arab Family

There are the diverse systems used by these procedures have added to the ascent of another circumstance whereby the old and the new exist one next to the other. It has altered the structure, capacity and part of marriage. In will of the fact that we cannot say that patriarchal family in Gulf society has vanished as far as preceded with male power and control over family issues, This new circumstance has escalated existing social issues and made new ones. It has brought on changes in the structures and elements of social establishments, most remarkably the 12 family. we can in any case watch a few markers that mean constriction and withdraw in patriarchal family structures.

Emphasize that adjustments in Gulf family structure and capacities were not exclusively brought about by the strengths and procedures of globalization.  Some of these weights are section of Gulf ladies into the work market; ladies’ support in numerous exercises and regions that were not passable before; the changing spouse wife relationship; change in the relationship of guardians with their youngsters. the way youth identify with society; Nevertheless, these strengths and procedures have expanded and strengthened these weights, overall. the expanding financial, instructive and social weight of bringing up kids; the debilitating of customary techniques and method for socialization. Globalized correspondences play an imperative and compelling part in today’s socialization of kids and youth.

The mother or grandma is no more the principle operator of bringing up kids or of managing them. Issues relating to socialization no more appear as qualities and background got from grown-ups (senior people) or starting grown-ups’ supply of experience. These sources are a portion of the section doors to social stereotyping made by globalization. Propels in method for communication, which are an item and instrument of globalization, to be had ascend to new factors and standards are dictated by the new culture of globalization. Such values and information are gotten from books, TV, telephone system and the Internet.

Despite the fact that we don’t have exact and clear information on, for instance, the marriage cases that occur through web visiting, we do realize that numerous relational unions in the Gulf area occurred as an aftereffect of bracket together over settled or cell phone lines. In addition, despite the fact that we have no precise experimental information on the element of cell phones in the ascent of marriage rates, some daily paper reports allude to the way that cell phones have encouraged contacts among youth of both gender outside family and societal control. The simplicity by which an individual can claim a cell phone line, men and ladies alike, even among the most conservative gatherings and groups helped people defeat the boundaries of separation and isolation forced by society and the family on the relationship of men and ladies in Gulf social orders.

In addition, travel and touristic trips opened the entryway for sex-tourism to Gulf people who go to some East Asian nations, and to different nations for this reason. The thriving and development of business shopping centers gave the chance to guys and females to meet. A great deal of dating happens in coffeehouses and stores situated in advanced selling shopping centers. Travel and sightseeing additionally offer ascent to instances of blended relational unions or outside relational unions finished up by people and females from the Gulf area

Conflicts between Parents & Children

They have hormones dashing around inside, which abandons them stuck on a passionate indirect. They are finding their identity and experimenting with assorted personalities, which imply they can be unruly and challenge your power. Amid pre-adulthood, young people feel pulled in a hundred unique headings by every one of the progressions that are occurring in and around them. Their body is changing, which can make them undergo cumbersome and humiliated. Being acknowledged by their associates goes up against significantly more noteworthy significance, which implies they may instigate acting or carrying on in an unexpected way.

Regardless they need to satisfy their folks (trust it or not!), which can appear inconsistent with everything else that is continuing for them. Being a parent in a multicultural society like Australia can be exceptionally testing, especially if group values about how kids ought to be raised and how they ought to act are not quite the same as your own. They feel under weight to do well at school or locate the right occupation, which can make them on edge and questionable. They are trying their freedom and figuring out how to settle on choices for themselves, which implies they will require your backing and direction.

Obviously, there are numerous advantages to raising kids in a various group – they can be instructed to be glad for their legacy and still figure out how to esteem and value the distinctions in alternate societies around them. In any case, as your tyke achieves immaturity, and begins investing more energy far from the family, it’s basic for strains to erupt For example, at home youngsters may be relied upon to obey rules without question. However, outside the home, it is not ill bred for youngsters to have their own particular perspectives and to communicate. . Your adolescent may explore different avenues regarding new thoughts and ways to deal with perceive how they ‘fit’. They may begin to scrutinize your social and religious qualities.

It is unavoidable that there will be times when you and your adolescent bolt horns. Some of the time, the explanation behind this comes down to a conflict of societies and qualities. Whatever the reason, it is essential to attempt and work towards determining your disparities. Adhering unbendingly to your thoughts could imply that your tyke moves in the opposite direction of you. Now and then it is because of your youngster is growing up. Then again, young people who have a decent association with no less than one parent are less inclined to get into genuine inconvenience. There are frequently no “privilege” or “wrong” responses to taking care of an issue. Alternatively, maybe, it’s critical to take an ideal opportunity to listen to your youngster and comprehend what they’re stating, regardless of the possibility that you don’t concur with them.

In case you are having, genuine clash hold a family meeting and permit everybody to talk straightforwardly and sincerely. search for an assortment of conceivable arrangements ask a regarded relative or group part to take a seat and chat with the family look for help and counsel from somebody in your group who you trust create fellowships with different guardians in your group – the backing of a ‘more distant family’ can be essential. Different guardians may have the same battles.

Guardians who have solid associations with their youngsters are frequently in a decent position to manage issues that surface. Here are some approaches to fabricate trust and regard with your adolescent.

  • Be positive and empowering – see the great things they do.
  • Respect your kid’s security.
  • Get to know them and the things they are keen on.
  • Be accessible for them.
  • Do not be hesitant to say sorry on the off chance that you have committed an error.
  • Learn to joke and mess around with each other.
  • Show them that you give it a second thought

They truly do need to realize that you adore them and will be there for them! Not adapting in spite of the fact that it is ordinary for young people to have times when they are grouchy, bad tempered and defiant; furthermore, recollect no issue is excessively shocking or humiliating, making it impossible to discuss it. This does not imply that guardians ought to endure unsatisfactory conduct, particularly on the off chance that it grows into physical savagery. You may achieve a phase when you require outside offer assistance. Numerous individuals and associations can offer secret help and backing.

Conflict resolution

Distinctive dialects pass on various renditions of reality. To handle what individuals think about, for instance, the expression “compromise,” we should first discover what they mean by the comparable idea in their own dialect. In the event that compromise suggests in their dialect the substitution of disdain by affection, then diverse direct will be fitting than if it essentially implies reestablishing the routine of everyday life. Obviously, what the heroes really do in a given circumstance relies on upon conditions; what they will expect of compromise will be educated by the neighborhood learning that illuminates their comprehension of the term. however, we would expect clear examples of conduct to rise in total. By looking into the semantic fields and meanings of ideas like “clash” and “determination” in different dialects, we can reveal insight into likenesses and contrasts (Arévalo-Flechas, 2014).

At a down to earth level, this can recognize potential pitfalls and openings, in actuality, struggle determination crosswise over societies. Most of the writing takes a gander at the subject nonexclusively, which implies that regular basic elements of contention determination that cut crosswise over societies are underscored. As a rule, the presumption of all inclusiveness is certain. P.H. Gulliver unequivocally thoroughly analyzes the transaction of debate in various societies to uncover the hidden and invariant rationale of the procedure. Huge advance has been made in late decades in the investigation of contention determination, and a voluminous group of work has been delivered that would be difficult to compress briefly.  His purpose of flight is “the speculation that there are normal examples and regularities of communication between the gatherings in arrangement, regardless of the specific setting or the issues in debate.”

            This approach appears to be supported in the main occasion in light of the fact that the significant classes of contention determination in English-transaction, settling, intervention, and mediation have all the earmarks of being widespread and share family similitude’s. Gulliver’s speculation on the suspicion of all inclusiveness has paid off liberally at both the hypothetical and connected levels. Additionally, at the establishment of a teaching it is proper to build up a common calculated structure, regardless of the fact that this implies briefly putting aside abnormalities. It has conveyed us to the point where there is a set up train and generous accord at any rate in a great part of the English-talking world (Australia, Britain, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States)- about the utility of integrative dealing and elective (or fitting) question determination (ADR) methods (Edmonds, 2015).

            Morals aside, there is developing acknowledgment that contradictions are occasionally took care of viably by a distraction with relative pick up to others’ detriment, thoughtless uncompromising nature, or savagery. Where fundamental, the aptitudes of prepared outsiders are drawn upon. No one is considered to have a syndication of truth and equity, and results are looked for that neither leave triumphalism champions nor upset failures. The critical thinking way to deal with struggle determination keeps up those genuine needs instead of strategic positions ought to be tended to, and innovativeness and practicality connected to the settlement of contrasts. As Jeffrey Rubin aptly put it: “As opposed to view transaction as a pull of war in which each of two sides endeavors to surrender as meager of its goals as could be expected under the circumstances, the common increases approach sees arrangement as a bewilder to be understood.”

            It is a declaration to the accomplishment of Gulliver’s theory that we can now certainly relax the presumption of comprehensiveness and concentrate on more socially particular components of contention determination. As social orders become progressively multicultural and globalization prompts a blossoming of contacts crosswise over social orders, contrasts turn out to be more remarkable. Incidentally, the more the worldwide framework looks like a worldwide group, the more open door there is for scraped spot. Contact advances understanding, as well as conflict. There is a justifiable reason explanation behind this change in accentuation from purposes of similarity to varieties crosswise over societies. For whatever length of time that the onus is on struggle determination inside sensibly homogenous social orders, or inside groups commanded by a hegemonic culture, there is no squeezing need to examine assortment (Hergenhahn, 2013).

Solution to Conflict between societies

            The expression “sulha” gets from the Arabic word Sulh. The dynamic idea of peace is Salaam; however, the exacting demonstration of ceasing strife and subsiding into peace is Sulh. The word can likewise signify “compromise,” “collaboration” or “pardoning.”

            The standards of sulha are “installed in tribal culture and in intelligence and experience went down from era to era.” Much of the writing on the procedure is set with regards to physical ambush conferred by an individual from one family or tribe against an individual from another, and the least demanding approach to comprehend the wide standards of sulha is to set the clarification in that theoretical connection: An assault by one relative against an individual from an alternate family. Sulha emerged to react to the need to reestablish arrange between families, tribes or towns so that fights and quarrels don’t debilitate the steadiness of the bigger community.

            This statute, nevertheless, may subject the group to savagery in its middle for a long time, as retribution sustains dependable quarrels. Keeping in mind the end goal to counteract such brokenness, the custom of sulha is summoned. By custom, a family has the privilege, as well as the commitment to exact retribution an assault on one of its individuals. “To retaliate for the murder of a nearby brother is decent; to neglect to do as such is shameful.”

            Instantly upon the assault having happened, the group of the aggressor approaches one or even more exceedingly regarded, persuasive individuals, soliciting that they intercede for benefit from the gathering. Certain expressions of supplication are generally utilized, begging the jaha to accept the accountability. Among them may be “We are in your home and you should help us .Our child has perpetrated a wrongdoing and our family is in your grasp.” These interveners are alluded to overall as the jaha. There is no supporting of the certainties or of the family’s obligation. The deed is admitted and the jaha is requested that follow up on that premise. The assailant’s family should actually ask the jaha to go up against the matter; generally, when they do visit the oppressed family it will not have the capacity to convey the power required.

Symbolic interaction theories supporting conflict resolution

            The interactions in the symbolic direction that would support the relationship in the mutual consent or agreement between the parents along with their children in a way that the exposure would decrease in the form of risk as social or emotional challenging behavior of the children in the community of Arab regions is monitored. The wide array of the impairments is accomplished from the depression level as the cognitive psychological significant challenges in the inter-parental interaction that would highlight the physiological inter-parental factors of well being socially, financially, hospitality and health. The significant level of problems that exist between the family as the development stage of the child is raise while organizing the core dimensional issues for the settings that would treat as the extra-familial guidelines in the exposure of the families regularities that are deliberately forced onto the behaviors of the young people in the Arab families (Hergenhahn, 2013).

Conclusion

            In the end, it is concluded that the main reason behind the conflict of the relationship between the parents with their children in the Arab community is the psychological cognitive emotions, feelings, non-flexibility in the family system in this culture as according to the social security theory proposed from the Patrick and Cummins. The most important theory that plays the role in this manner is the conflict theory which defines the complexities in the interaction with the peers, adaptations to the behaviors with reference to the external environment in a way that the balance and the sustainable relationship for parent-child is highly maintain. With the effort that encourages the psychological trajectories for the inter-parental as the translation of the discord could achieve through certain issues are necessary in this regard. The family system in the Arab community demands the children must possess the cultural beliefs, core norms that bind them towards the cultural limitations in the development of lifecycle. The relationship is analyzed using the psychological patterns of the conflict challenges as they raise because of the material social approach of the adjustments in the behaviors while the investigation is analytically composed of the positive outcomes and the negative outcomes of the applying the social-emotional security theory in the context of the Arab community. The meanderings are found in the cross mixing or amalgamation of the various western cultures comprised of the technological advancements or the social liberty of the children and the other side where the restrictions are made on the children according to the social interactions or technological use of the resources or tools (Arévalo-Flechas, 2014).

References

Arévalo-Flechas, L. C. (2014). Latino Alzheimer’s caregivers: what is important to them? Journal of Managerial Psychology , 29 (6), 661-684.

Bensi, L., Giusberti, F., Raffaella Nori, R., & Gambetti, E. (2010). Individual differences and reasoning: A study on personality traits. British Journal of Psychology , 101 (3), 545-562.

Crossman, A. (2012). Charles Horton Cooley. Retrieved april 20, 2015, from http://sociology.about.com/od/Profiles/p/Charles-Horton-Cooley.htm

Davies, P. T., & Cummings, E. M. (2009). Constructive and destructive marital conflict, emotional security and children’s prosocial behavior. J Child Psychol Psychiatry , 50 (3), 270–279.

Davis, D. (2003). Auguste Comte: Theories & Contributions to Sociology. Retrieved april 20, 2015, from http://study.com/academy/lesson/auguste-comte-theories-contributions-to-sociology.html

Edmonds, L. (2015, january 6). The Seasons of Life. Retrieved May 6, 2015, from https://www.psychologytoday.com/articles/201501/the-seasons-life?collection=167224

Hergenhahn, B. R. (2013). An Introduction to the History of Psychology. Cengage Learning.

Robert Sedgwick. (2001, november 1). Education in Saudi Arabia. Retrieved october 12, 2015, from http://wenr.wes.org/2001/11/wenr-nov-dec-2001-education-in-saudi-arabia/

saudiarabia.angloinfo.com. (2011). The School System in Saudi Arabia. Retrieved october 12, 2015, from http://saudiarabia.angloinfo.com/family/schooling-education/the-school-system/

SmileySammy. (2011, may 7). Positive and Negative Deviance. Retrieved april 20, 2015, from http://haassociology32444.blogspot.com/2011/05/positive-and-negative-deviance.html

Workman, L. (2014). Evolutionary Psychology. Cambridge University Press.

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International Trade Theory

Ricardian Model of Comparative Advantage

In the classical economic model, which were closed economic model, international trade was not a subject and therefore, very little literature is available on this subject and its possible consequences. The international trade theory, developed by David Ricardo, not only advocated on the international but also asserted that opportunity costs must be considered so that specialization in the certain product can be achieved. This specialization will allow countries to benefit from trade, no matter what the size of economy and state of industrial development (Fletcher, 2008).

After the surfacing of this theory, many economists accepted it, and today most of the economists are for international trade. However, the consequence and results of international trade have compelled some economists to question the very foundations of Theory of Comparative Advantage, proposed by David Ricardo. 

It is very apparent that modern trade theory is based on Ricardo’s Model of Comparative Advantage, as per which, comparative advantage creates a win-win situation for all trading countries when trade is based on specialization. However, the evidence suggests that this, not the case, as capital and technology, can easily mobilize from one economy to another economy. Therefore, this concept of comparative advantage is not fixed to the nation, as we have seen large corporations are not more restricted to certain geography, making economies not just vulnerable to the possible flight of capital/technology, but also undermines the International Trade concept, based on comparative advantage.

Another contradiction, regarding the pure theory of International trade, pertains to its monetary aspect. When developing the theory, the focus of Ricardo remained on specialization and exchange of goods; however, it misses the monetary aspect of the trade, when the size and direction of trade determine the flow of currency, which directly affects foreign exchange.

Smith’s original perception regarding trade

Adam Smith is considered architect classical of the capitalist system, which was a prevalent economic system in most of the European countries after the industrial revolution and before The Great Depression. As per Adam Smith, the international trade corresponds to International trade. He asserted and argued that international trade, without any cost (free exportation and importation), would make states as provinces of the large empire. This we had witnessed when free trade model was introduced. Schumacher has used other assertions, of Adam Smith, in his research work and has tested them against the given realities.

For instance, he has asserted that international trade does not impact wages and general-rate-of-profit; therefore, they do not affect any economic reality on a large scale. This questions not only Ricardian model, of International Trade, but also it questions the models that are variations of the Ricardian model and are constructed by using neo-classical tools.

This is the very reason why two Ricardian models, wage model, and profit-increasing model, do not integrate (Schumacher, 2012).

Paley’s observations

For economists, statistics not only produce questions but also provide answers. Therefore, all economists, whether liberal or classical, are of the view that statistics must be observed to understand the dynamics of implemented economic model and policies. As per the research work, of Thomas I Palley, the focus should be on the fact that mobilization of resources is not as hard as it used to be. This fact has changed economic realities and gave birth to new economic realities that directly pertain to International Trade. In the paper there are three primary focuses; one is regarding the increasing returns of scale 2) is regarding allocation of production across countries and 3) is regarding the easy mobilization of resources, such as capital and technology.

Palley asserts that profit-maximizing firms increase output and this translates into an increase in global output; however, this does not necessarily mean the increase in national output, which questions the very concept of International Trade based on the notions of comparative advantage. Therefore, in the era of globalization, Palley refers to invest in human capital and technology, both industrial and other, to benefit from trade, as results of international trade suggest that comparative advantage is not the basis of international trade (Palley, 2008).

Conclusion

It is apparent from the studies that there are flaws in the theory of comparative advantage. The monetary aspect of trade and easy mobilization of resources (technology and capital) are questioning the rationale of international trade based on Ricardian Model. Many regional and international trade agreements have produced results that are certainly for a particular country, which is contrary to what David Ricardo had predicted in his model.

The trade agreements like North Atlantic Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and World Trade Organization (WTO) have not only benefitted particular countries but also became the very reason of de-industrialization, as aptly mentioned by Palley in his research work. Therefore, it is imperative to readdress the International Trade model, based on Ricardian notions of trade and economics. International trade must be fair, and it must benefit all parties that are part of the trade agreement.

Reference

Fletcher, I. (2008). Fatal Flaws in the Theory of Comparative Advantage. Retrieved October 10, 2016, from American Economic Alert: http://www.americaneconomicalert.org/view_art.asp?Prod_ID=3076

Palley, T. I. (2008). RETHINKING TRADE AND TRADE POLICY. Retrieved October 10, 2016, from Levy-Institute: http://www.levyinstitute.org/pubs/ppb_86.pdf

Schumacher, R. (2012). Deconstructing the Theory of Comparative Advantage. World Economic Review , 83-105.

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“Snoopy” cartoon

  1. Reference the “Snoopy” cartoon above.
    1. State the null and alternative hypothesis that Charlie Brown should make re: the above Situation. Hint: Cast this in terms of a “research hypothesis”, and specifically, reference frame 4, 5 and 9.

Null Hypothesis: Involuntary Muscle Spasm at the same moment of kicking the ball could not occur.

Alternate Hypothesis: Involuntary Muscle Spasm at the same moment of kicking the ball could occur.

The hypothesis was derived by the reference frames 4,5 and 9 these frames in the cartoon state the key element that is under research and null hypothesis is obviously a denial of the fact that is under investigation.

  • Differentiate between Type I and Type II errors.

The Type I error is the wrong rejection of a null hypothesis. In this case if the snoopy cartoon depicts that involuntary muscle spasm could occur, when it cannot, is a type I error.

Type II error is reverse of Type I error. If Snoopy accepts that the muscle spasm cannot occur, when it can, is a type II error. In short type II error is a research process where a null hypothesis has to be rejected but, is not.

  • What type of error, of any, did Charlie Brown make? Explain your answer.

Charlie Brown made a type II error, as he accepted the null hypothesis of the nonoccurrence of the involuntary muscle spasm at moment of the kick so he tried to kick the ball.

  • Explain in common English what you mean when you say 99% confidence interval

Confidence Interval is the trust of data in accordance with the prospects of research being conducted. 99% confidence interval indicates that the data is to be tested if it is 99% aligned with the research and its flow.

  • Since it is possible to test statistical hypothesis with any size sample, explain why a researcher would prefer larger sample size?

A larger sample size denotes that it is easier to apply the research to the overall area of analysis.

  • Use simple plain English to define and distinguish between the following:
    • P-Value and Alpha-Value:

The data is tested via p value value is for the variables, in short, and Alpha Value is for the questionnaire or the tool used for measuring it.

  • Standard deviation and standard error of the mean:

Standard deviation tells the ability of the sample to change and standard error shows that if the calculation of means is correct.

  • You are confronted with a set of data on the blood cell count change of patients treated with new drug. You wish to statistically evaluate whether the drug has caused a significant change in cell count. What all you must do before actually doing the evaluation? (list proper sequence the specific steps you must take before conducting the statistical test to evaluate the hypothesis). (NOTE: you might want to mention the use of alpha, beta, and P-values).

Step1: A method should be devised for this evaluation. Including development of hypothesis and test mechanism.

Step2: Test study should be conducted in order to verify the tools (Alpha Value)

Step3: A proper study with a representative sample should be conducted.

Step4: Results should be regressed in such a way that New Drug usage is the independent variable and blood cell count is the dependent variable.

Step5: Significance should be tested and alpha and beta should be analyzed. Significance is the basis of acceptance or rejection of null hypothesis. Alpha denotes the blood count independent of drug and beta denotes the relationship between drug usage and blood count. If beta is positive, this indicates that with drug usage blood count increases and if it is negative, this indicates that the drug usage reduces the blood cells in a human body.

  • A nutrition researcher believed that the mean protein intake of students on campus was at least 65 grams/day. One hundred randomly chosen individuals kept 21-day diet record, and their average daily protein intake (in grams) was recorded. The mean intake was 61.9 (+or-) 15.9 grams/day.       
    • Formulate an appropriate null and alternative hypothesis relative to the information presented. Explain you rational for your response

H0: The Mean nutrition intake of the sample is not the same as that of the campus

H1: The Mean nutrition intake of the sample and the population is the same.

The rationale behind this hypothesis is that if the null hypothesis is rejected it can be concluded that the sample represents the population and if it is not there that null hypothesis would be rejected

  • A Mean of five picocuries/liter or below is considered a safe level of radioactivity in drinking water. Ten Samples of drinking water were collected from a reservoir near a nuclear power plant in order to monitor radioactivity levels. The following measurements were recorded (in picocuries/liter):

5.2, 4.7, 6.1, 4.1, 5.5, 4.5, 5.1, 6.0, 5.3, 4.9. The mean of this sample is 5.14 ± 0.629 picocuries/liter. 

  1. Compute a 95% confidence interval for the population mean. Express your results as upper limit and lower limit ± CI. Show all your work.
Data  
5.2  
4.7  
6.1  
4.1  
5.5  
4.5  
5.1  
6  
5.3  
4.9  
Mean 5.14
SD 0.629285
 
Upper Limit 5.769285
Lower Limit 4.510715
  • On the basis of these results, can it be concluded that the levels of radioactivity in the drinking supply are unsafe? State clearly your assumption(s) as well as the appropriate null and alternative hypotheses.

The above results show that the sample’s upper and lower limit lie outside the accepted water levels for the region. Therefore, hypotheses are as follows

H0: The Drinking water in the lake is not safe for drinking.

H1: The Drinking water in the lake is safe for drinking.

In this case null hypothesis is accepted due to the above given facts.
Sampling was not random as all the trees were selected from the selected geographic area. This can also be seen that the potential trees are the whole lot of them.

  • Identify whether the following variables are numerical or categorical. If numerical, state whether the variable is discrete or continuous. If categorical, state whether the variable is nominal or ordinal.
  Numerical Scale Categorical State
  Discrete Continuous Nominal Ordinal
Number of Sexual Partners in a year by college students        
Petal Area of Rose Flowers        
Key on the musical scale        
Heart beats per minute of Tour de France Cyclists        
Stage of Fruit ripeness (under ripe, ripe, over ripe)        
Angle of flower orientation relative to position of sun        
Letter grade on high school report card        
Tree Species        
Year of Birth        
  • The Average age of pinon Juniper trees in the coastal region of California was investigated by placing a 10-hectare plot randomly on a distribution map of the tree in California using a computer. Researchers then record the location of the random plot, found it in the field, and flagged it using compass and measuring tape. They then proceeded to measure the age of every pinon juniper tree within the 10-hectare plot. The average age within the plot was used to estimate the average age of the whole California Population
    • What is the population of interest in this study?

The population of interest in this study is the California Population of Pinon Juniper trees.

  • Were the trees sampled randomly from this population? Why or Why not?

No this was not completely random sampling though this did select a 10 hectare plot randomly by the trees in that region do not necessarily depict the whole lot of population, in fact this does not proclaim to be the ultimate random sample.

  1. Can environmental factors influence the incidence of Schizophrenia? A recent project measured incidence of the disease among children born in a region of eastern China. 192 of 13,748 babies born in the midst of a severe famine in the region in 1960 later developed schizophrenia. This compared with 483 schizophrenics out of 59088 births in 1956, before the famine, and 695 out of 83,536 births in 1965, after the famine (St Claire et al. (2005)).
    1. What two variables are compared in this example?

The variables compared in this example are births during famine and development of schizophrenia.

  • Are the variables numerical or categorical? If numerical, are they continuous or discrete; if categorical are they nominal or ordinal?

The variable of births during famine, is discrete variable in the numerical category and the variable of development of schizophrenia is nominal in the categorical variable.

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what is the enthalpy for the following reaction? overall: c2h4 + h2o→c2h5oh

What is the enthalpy for the following reaction? C2H4 H2O—
17,023 results
Chem
What is the enthalpy for the following reaction? C2H4+H2O—>C2H5OH

asked by Kay on November 4, 2010
Chem
What is the enthalpy for the following reaction? overall: C2H4+H2O—>C2H5OH is -1411kJ correct??

asked by Angel on November 4, 2010
chemistry
If you need to multiply the following reaction by 2 to be an intermediate reaction in a Hess’s law problem, what would be the final value for the enthalpy of reaction you use for this intermediate reaction? C2H4 + 3 O2 2 CO2 + 2 H2O, H = -1410 kJ

asked by Anonymous on November 24, 2014
chemistry
For the reaction shown below complete the following calculations. H2(g) + C2H4(g) –> C2H6(g) (a) Estimate the enthalpy of reaction using the bond energy values in Table 9.4. (b) Calculate the enthalpy of reaction, using standard enthalpies of formation.

asked by hannah on October 27, 2008
Chemistry
Calculate the enthalpy change for: C2H4(g) + H2 –> C2H6(g) delta Hrxn: H2(g) + 1/2O2 –> H2O (l) C2H4(g) + 3O2 –> 2H20(l) + 2CO2(g) C2H6(g) + 7/2O2(g) –> 3H20(l) + 2CO2(g) I know I have to flip the third reaction but I don’t know what to do next

asked by Jessica on October 29, 2014

chemistry

  1. Calculate the enthalpy change of combustion for ethene gas (C2H4) given the following enthalpy changes of formation: ΔHºf(C2H4)(g) = +52 kJ mol^-1 ΔHºf(CO2)(g) = -394 kJ mol^-1 ΔHºf(H2O)(g) = -286 kJ mol^-1

asked by John on July 19, 2014
Chemistry
Calculate the work involved if a reaction with an enthalpy change of -2418 kJ is carried out in a vessel with a mobile, frictionless piston. Other details: the reaction is H2(g) + 1/2Oxygen2(g) yields H2O(g) with enthalpy change of -241.8 kJ/mol. The

asked by Mark on November 22, 2008
chemistry
Calculate the ΔH of reaction for: C2H4(g) + H2O(l) = C2H5OH(l) if the ΔH of formation for C2H4(g), H2O(l) and C2H5OH are +52, -286 and -278 kJ/mol, respectively? Enter a numerical value below and be sure to include a minus sign if needed. The error

asked by danny 16 on January 31, 2015
Chemistry
I know I posted this question before, but can you clarify it?? MY QUESTION IS AFTER YOU SWITCHED THE DELTA H1 THE CHANGE IN THE ENTHALPY IS NEGATIVE…. BUT THAT DOES NOT MAKE SENSE BECAUSE THE CHANGE IN ENTHALPY OF THE ORIGINAL DELTA H1 IS

asked by Anonymous on November 14, 2013
CHEMISTRY
I know I posted this question before, but can you clarify it?? MY QUESTION IS AFTER YOU SWITCHED THE DELTA H1 THE CHANGE IN THE ENTHALPY IS NEGATIVE…. BUT THAT DOES NOT MAKE SENSE BECAUSE THE CHANGE IN ENTHALPY OF THE ORIGINAL DELTA H1 IS

asked by Anonymous on November 14, 2013
chemistry

  1. Calculate the standard enthalpy change for the reaction: C2H4(g) + H2(g) → C2H6(g) given that the enthalpy of combustion for the reactants and products are: ΔHºc(C2H4)(g) = -1411 kJ mol^-1 ΔHºc(C2H6)(g) = -1560 kJ mol^-1 ΔHºc(H2)(g) = -286 kJ

asked by John on July 19, 2014
Chemistry
Calculate enthalpy of reaction C2H4 + H2 gives C2H6.enthalpy of combustion of ethene, H2,and ethane are -1410,-286,-15.60kj/mol respectively

asked by Shaika on November 7, 2016
Chemistry
Ethanol (C2H5OH) is synthesized for industrial use by the following reaction, carried out at very high pressure. C2H4(g) + H2O(g) → C2H5OH(l) What is the maximum amount, in kg, of ethanol that can be produced when 1.65 kg of ethylene (C2H4) and 0.0610 kg

asked by Brittney on October 6, 2013
Chemistry
Ethanol (C2H5OH) is synthesized for industrial use by the following reaction, carried out at very high pressure. C2H4(g) + H2O(g) C2H5OH(l) What is the maximum amount of ethanol (in grams) that can be produced when 1.0 kg of ethylene (C2H4) and 0.014 kg of

asked by Jack on November 1, 2011
chemistry
What is the maximum amount of ethanol (in grams) that can be produced when 1.0 kg of ethylene (C2H4) and 0.014 kg of steam are placed into the reaction vessel? Ethanol (C2H5OH) is synthesized for industrial use by the following reaction, carried out at

asked by Amanda on November 1, 2011

NEED HELP WITH CHEM HW
Ethanol (C2H5OH) is synthesized for industrial use by the following reaction, carried out at very high pressure. C2H4(g) + H2O(g) C2H5OH(l) What is the maximum amount of ethanol (in grams) that can be produced when 2.2 kg of ethylene (C2H4) and 0.014 kg of

asked by Anonymous on October 1, 2011
Chemistry 2!
consider the following reaction, equilibrium concentrations, and equilibrium constant at a particular temperature. Determine the equilibrium concentration of H2O(g) C2H4(g) + H2O(g) C2H5OH(g) kc= 7.0* 10^3 [C2H4]= 0.010M [C2H5OH]= 1.99M

asked by anonymous. on December 10, 2014
Chemistry
Consider the following reaction, equilibrium concentrations, and equilibrium constant at a particular temperature. Determine the equilibrium concentration of H2O(g). C2H4(g) + H2O(g) C2H5OH(g) Kc = 9.0 × 103 [C2H4]eq = 0.015 M [C2H5OH]eq = 1.69 M

asked by Jane on December 2, 2014
Chemistry
CONTINUE>>>>>>>>>>> The enthalpy changes for two different hydrogenation reactions of C2H2 are: C2H2+H2—->C2H4 Delta H 1 (there is a degree sign….standard enthalpy of formation??) *WAIT A SECOND, IF I USE THE HEAT OF FORMATION VALUES TO CALCULATE

asked by Anonymous on November 14, 2013
Chemistry
Calculate the standard entropy, ΔS°rxn, of the following reaction at 25.0 °C using the data in this table. The standard enthalpy of the reaction, ΔH°rxn, is –44.2 kJ·mol–1. C2H4(G)+H20 —> C5H5OH ΔS°rxn= __ JK^-1mol^-1 Then, calculate

asked by Patrick Panasko on November 30, 2014
CHEMISTRY
Please explain. The enthalpy changes for two different hydrogenation reactions of C2H2 are: C2H2+H2—->C2H4 Delta H 1 C2H2+2H2—->C2H6 Delta H 2 Which expression represents the enthalpy change for the reaction below? C2H4+H2—->C2H6 Delta H = ? A. Delta

asked by Anonymous on November 11, 2013
Chemistry
Please explain. The enthalpy changes for two different hydrogenation reactions of C2H2 are: C2H2+H2—->C2H4 Delta H 1 C2H2+2H2—->C2H6 Delta H 2 Which expression represents the enthalpy change for the reaction below? C2H4+H2—->C2H6 Delta H = ? A. Delta

asked by Anonymous on November 11, 2013
Science
The enthalpy change for the reaction 2 H2 + O2 > 2 H20 is -571.6 kJ. Determine the enthalpy change for the decomposition of 24.0g H2O. My Process -571.6 is the enthalpy of 2 mols of H2O. So the enthalpy of 1 mol of H2O will be -285.8. Since it’s

asked by Mike on July 9, 2015
Chemistry
Calculate the work involved if a reaction with an enthalpy change of -2418 kJ is carried out in a vessel with a mobile, frictionless piston. Other details: the reaction is H2(g) + 1/2Oxygen2(g) yields H2O(g) with enthalpy change of -241.8 kJ/mol. The

asked by Mark on November 23, 2008
Chemistry
Ethylene glycol, HOCH2CH2OH, is used as antifreeze. It is produced from ethylene oxide, C2H4O, by the following reaction. C2H4O(g) + H2O(l) → HOCH2CH2OH(l) Use Hess’s law to obtain the enthalpy change for this reaction from the following enthalpy

asked by Mariam on December 13, 2009

chemistry
Ethylene glycol, HOCH2CH2OH, is used as antifreeze. It is produced from ethylene oxide, C2H4O, by the following reaction. C2H4O(g) + H2O(l) → HOCH2CH2OH(l) Use Hess’s law to obtain the enthalpy change for this reaction from the following enthalpy

asked by caroline on October 29, 2010
chemistry-Thermochemistry (grade 12)
calculate enthalpy of H for the reaction N2H4(l) + 2H2O(l) -> N2(g) + 4H2)(l) Given the reactions N2H4(l) + O2(g) -> N2(g) + 2H2O(l) Enthalpy of H = -6.22.2 kJ H2(g) + (1/2)O2(g) -> H2O(l) enthalpy of H = -285.8 kJ/mol H2(g) + O2(g) -> H2O2(l) enthalpy of

asked by Rose Bud on February 16, 2012
chemistry-Thermochemistry (grade 12)
calculate enthalpy of H for the reaction N2H4(l) + 2H2O(l) -> N2(g) + 4H2)(l) Given the reactions N2H4(l) + O2(g) -> N2(g) + 2H2O(l) Enthalpy of H = -6.22.2 kJ H2(g) + (1/2)O2(g) -> H2O(l) enthalpy of H = -285.8 kJ/mol H2(g) + O2(g) -> H2O2(l) enthalpy of

asked by Rose Bud on February 16, 2012
Chemistry!
Calculate the work involved if a reaction with an enthalpy change of -2418 kJ is carried out in a vessel with a mobile, frictionless piston. Other details: the reaction is H2(g) + 1/2Oxygen2(g) yields H2O(g) with enthalpy change of -241.8 kJ/mol. The

asked by Elizabeth on November 23, 2008
Chemistry due soon
What is enthalpy? A. Enthalpy is the kinetic energy of a system. B. Enthalpy is the heat involved in a reaction. C. Enthalpy is the temperature of a reaction. D. Enthalpy is the mass involved in a reaction. I think the answer is a or b

asked by Morgan on November 6, 2014
chemistry
Given the following equations: 2 H2O2 (aq) → 2 H2O (l) + O2 (g) and C2H4 (g) + 3 O2 (g) → 2 CO2 (g) + 2 H2O (l) The first reaction is the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen gas. The oxygen gas generated in the first reaction is

asked by april on July 1, 2018
CHEMISTRY
calculate the delta h for the reaction 2C+2H–> C2H4 C+O2–> Co2 delta h= -393.5 C2H4+ 3O2–> 2CO2+ 2H2O delta h= 1410.9 H2+ 1/2 O2–> H2O delta h= -285.8 2CO+ O2–> 2CO2 delta h= -566.0 do you flip the first two equations and times the first and third one

asked by Anonymous on June 6, 2010
chemistry
A scientist measures the standard enthalpy change for the following reaction to be -53.4 kJ : Ca(OH)2(aq) + 2 HCl(aq) CaCl2(s) + 2 H2O(l) Based on this value and the standard enthalpies of formation for the other substances, the standard enthalpy of

asked by Austin on March 18, 2012
chemistry
A scientist measures the standard enthalpy change for the following reaction to be -53.4 kJ : Ca(OH)2(aq) + 2 HCl(aq) CaCl2(s) + 2 H2O(l) Based on this value and the standard enthalpies of formation for the other substances, the standard enthalpy of

asked by Austin on March 18, 2012
chemistry
Calculate enthalpy change of reaction for the combustion of gaseous ethanol. C2H5OH + 3O2 >> CO2 + 3H2O. Using standard molar enthalpies of formation. C2H5OH -235.3 ( it’s negative sign) CO2 -393.5 H2O -241.8 (1) Calculate the enthalpy change of reaction

asked by Alex on April 20, 2010

Chemistry
C2H4(g) + H2O(l) → C2H5O(l) what is the rendition percentage if 4.50g of C2H4 produce 4.7g of ethyl alcohol?

asked by Alex on September 11, 2012
Chemistry
Calculate the enthalpy change for the reaction 2C (s) + H2 (g) yield C2H2 (g) given the following reactions and their respective enthalpy changes: C2H2(g) + 5/2 O2(g) yield 2CO2(g) + H2O (l) = -1299.6kJ C(s) + O2(g) yield CO2 (g) -393.5 H2(g) + 1/2 O2(g)

asked by Lucy on December 29, 2007
Chemistry
Calculate the enthalpy change for the reaction 2C + H2 yield C2H2 given the following reactions and their respective enthalpy changes: C2H2 + 5/2 O2 yield 2CO + H2O -1299.6 C + O yield CO2 -393.5 H2 + 1/2 O2 yield H2O -285.9 I don’t even know how to start

asked by Lucy on December 24, 2007
chemistry
Calculate the enthalpy of reaction for the combustion of ethene. Express the enthalpy of reaction calculated in question above as a molar enthalpy of reaction per mole of carbon dioxide.

asked by shyanne on January 8, 2013
chemistry
c2h4(g) + 3O2(g) -> 2 CO2 (g) + 2 H2O (g) What volume of oxygen will react with 18 ml of ehtylene, c2h4, assuming that the gases are present at the same temperature and pressure?

asked by Monica on April 19, 2010
Chemistry
The standard enthalpy of formation of H2O (l) is -285.8 kJ/mol. Calculate ∆E° for the following reaction. H2O (l) → H2 (g) + 1/2 O2 (g)

asked by Mahnoor on November 15, 2014
Chemistry
The standard enthalpy of formation of H2O (l) is -285.8 kJ/mol. Calculate DEO for the following reaction. H2O (l) → H2 (g) + 1/2 O2 (g)

asked by Mahnoor on November 15, 2014
CHemistry
Given the following information calculate the heat of formation of C2H4. C2H4 + 3 O2 ¡æ 2 CO2 + 2 H2O ¥ÄH¡Æ = -414 kJ/mol C + O2 ¡æ CO2 ¥ÄH¡Æ = -393.5 kJ/mol H2 + ¨ö O2 ¡æ H2O ¥ÄH¡Æ = -241.8 kJ/mol

asked by sam on April 26, 2015
Chemistry
Reposted: Use Hess’s law to calculate the enthalpy change for the reaction: 3C(s) + 3H2(g) yield C3H6(g) Given the following thermochemical equations: 2C3H6(g) + 9O2(g) yield 6CO2(g) + 6H2O(l) enthalpy change= -4116.0 kJ/mol C(s) + O2(g) yield CO2(g)

asked by Hailee on March 17, 2012
Chemisty
I need a recap of how to do the question below. I just need the basic guidelines: The enthalpy change for the reaction 2H2(g)+O2 > 2H2O is -571.6kJ. Determine the enthalpy change for the decomposition of 24.0g H2O.

asked by Todd on June 26, 2015

chemistry
Consider the reaction, C2H4(g) + H2(g) ® C2H6(g), where DH = – 137 kJ. How many kilojoules are released when 55.3 g of C2H4 reacts?

asked by Cooper on October 21, 2011
Chemistry
Find the enthalpy for : 4Fe + 3O2 = 2Fe2O3 I got the following informations: Fe + 3H2O = Fe(OH)3 + 3/2H2 – Enthalpy is 160.9 kj H2 + 1/2O2 = H2O – Enthalpy is -285.8 kj Fe2O3 + 3H2O = 2Fe(OH)3 – Enthalpy is 288.6 I try using Hess Law but cannot solve it.

asked by Shadow on May 13, 2013
Chemistry
Which of the following is the best definition of Hess’ Law? A. Heat is always released by the decomposition of 1 mole of a compound into its constitute elements. B. The enthalpy of a process is the difference between the enthalpy of the products and the

asked by Anonymous on February 20, 2008
please check my answer
Consider the following equations. N2H4(l) + O2(g) N2(g) + 2 H2O(l) ÄH = -622.2 kJ H2(g) + 1/2 O2(g) H2O(l) ÄH = -258.5 kJ H2(g) + O2(g) H2O2(l) ÄH = -187.8 kJ Use this information to calculate the enthalpy change for the reaction shown below. N2H4(l) +

asked by hannah on November 6, 2012
chem- i reallyneed help
Consider the following equations. N2H4(l) + O2(g) N2(g) + 2 H2O(l) ÄH = -622.2 kJ H2(g) + 1/2 O2(g) H2O(l) ÄH = -258.5 kJ H2(g) + O2(g) H2O2(l) ÄH = -187.8 kJ Use this information to calculate the enthalpy change for the reaction shown below. N2H4(l) +

asked by hannah on November 6, 2012
chemistry- stoichiometry problems
C2H4+3 O2->2 co2+2 H2O If you start wit 45 grams of C2H4 how many grams of carbon dioxide will be produced?

asked by anon on April 22, 2009
Chemistry
Which of the following is the best definition of Hess’ Law? A. Heat evolved in a given process can be expressed as the sum of the heats of several processes that, when added, yield the process of interest. B. The enthalpy of a process is the difference

asked by Jared on May 7, 2007
Hess’ law
Which of the following is the best definition of Hess’ Law? A. Heat is always released by the decomposition of 1 mole of a compound into its constitute elements. B. Since enthalpy is a state function, it will be different if a reaction takes place in one

asked by christine on February 9, 2007
college chem
Calculate the molar enthalpy of reaction standard enthalpy of formation below. H20 = -285.8 kj/mole H+ = 0.0 kj/mole OH- = -229.9 kj/mol H+(aq) + OH-(aq)→H2O(l) For this, don’t you do the summation of products x stoichemtry + the sum of reactants x

asked by sam on November 20, 2014
Enthalypy Reaction
What is the standard enthalpy of reaction for the following chemical reaction? CO2(g) + 2KOH(s) –> H2O(g) + K2CO3 (s) Express your answers numerically in kJ.

asked by Sarah on September 23, 2008

Chemistry
Please write the chemical equation and calculate the reaction enthalpy (or energy) for the total chlorination (addition of chlorine gas to all double bonds) of cyclopentadiene (if you do not know what cyclopentadiene is, assume C2H4).

asked by Eddie on December 6, 2010
chemistry
Please write the chemical equation and calculate the reaction enthalpy (or energy) for the total bromination (addition of bromine gas to all double bonds) of 2,3-dimethylbutadiene (if you do not know what 2,3-dimethylbutadiene is, assume C2H4).

asked by Eddie on December 7, 2010
Chemistry-Thermochemistry (grade 12)
Thermochemistry determine the final temperature if 45.67 kJ of heat energy is removed from 18.5 g of H2O (g) at 122 degrees Celsius useful information sp. heat H2O (s) = 2.03 J/g(degree C) sp heat H2O (l) = 4.18 J/g(degree C) Sp heat H2O (g) = 2.01

asked by Rose Bud on February 15, 2012
Chemistry
Which of the following is the best definition of Hess’ Law? A. Since enthalpy is a state function, it will be different if a reaction takes place in one step or a series of steps. B. Heat is always released by the decomposition of 1 mole of a compound into

asked by Anonymous on February 24, 2008
Chemistry
Consider the reaction of Lithium with water: 2 Li(s) + 2H2O(l) —-> 2 LiOH(aq) + H2(g) The delta H of the reaction is -160 KJ The enthalpy of fusion of H2O is 6.0 kJ/mol The specific heat capacity of H2O(l) is 4.18 J/gC When 10 grams of Li(s) is dropped

asked by Vinit on October 27, 2015
Chemistry
With a platinum catalyst, ammonia will burn in oxygen to give nitric oxide, NO. 4 NH3(g) + 5 O2(g) 4 NO(g) + 6 H2O(g) ÄH = -906 kJ What is the enthalpy change for the following reaction? NO(g) + 3/2 H2O(g) NH3(g) + 5/4 O2(g)

asked by Glenna on October 18, 2008
Chemistry
What is the standard enthalpy of reaction for the following reaction: H2 + 1/2 O2 –> H2O(g)

asked by Lauren on March 11, 2011
Chemistry
Calculate the enthalpy of the reaction 2B2H6 + 6O2=2B2O3 +6H2O given the following pertinent information: A. B2O3(s) + 2H2) )g) = 3O2 (g) + B2H6 (g), delta H= +2035kJ B. 2B (s) + 3H2 (g) =B2H6 (g), delta H= +36 kJ C. H2 (g) + 1/2)2 (g) =H2O (l), delta

asked by B on April 22, 2012
Chemistry
The enthalpy of formation for a substance corresponds to the enthalpy change for a reaction. Write the specific chemical reaction defining the enthalpy of formation of butane: Just checking to make sure this is correct: 4C + 5H2 —> C4H10

asked by AJ on March 26, 2017
chemistry
A scientist measures the standard enthalpy change for the following reaction to be -2923.0 kJ : 2C2H6(g) + 7 O2(g) 4CO2(g) + 6 H2O(g) Based on this value and the standard enthalpies of formation for the other substances, the standard enthalpy of formation

asked by Anonymous on October 24, 2012

Chemistry
A calorimeter contains 30.0 mL of water at 15.0 C. When 1.50 g of X (a substance with a molar mas of 46.0g/ mol is added, it dissolves via the reaction X (s) + H2O (l) —-> X (aq) and the temperature of the solution increases to 26.5 C. Calculate the

asked by Student on March 11, 2016
chemistry
The reaction SO2 + H2O =H2SO4 Is the last step in the commercial production of sulfuric acid . the enthalpy change for this reaction is -227 KJ . In designing a sulfuric acid plant is it necessary to provide for heating or cooling of the reaction mixture ?

asked by mathew on November 12, 2014
Chemistry
Table sugar consists mostly of sucrose, C12H22O11. The standard enthalpy of combustion for sucrose is the standard state delta H for the reaction: C12H22O11 + 12 O 2 —> 12 CO2 + 11 H2O Calculate this standard state delta H. Give answer in units of kJ to

asked by Eli on December 3, 2016
chemistry
Consider the reaction, C2H4 (g) + H2 (g)- C2H6 (g) where -137kJ of heat is released. How many kilojoules are released when 55.3g of C2H4 reacts?

asked by Sandy on July 10, 2011
Chemistry
Estimate the enthalpy change for the following reaction OH(g)+CH4(g)==>CH3(g)+H2O(g)

asked by West on April 19, 2011
College Chemistry
Estimate the enthalpy change for the following reaction OH(g)+CH4(g)==>CH3(g)+H2O(g)

asked by West on April 21, 2011
chemistry
Calculate the standard enthalpy change for the following reaction at 25 °C. H2O+C(graphite)(s) –> H2(g) +CO(g)

asked by anon on October 28, 2016
chemistry
estimate the enthalpy change for the following reaction: OF2 + H2O = O2 + 2HF

asked by small on November 27, 2016
Chemistry
how many C2H4 molecules are contained in 45.8 mg C2H4 when the molar mass of C2H4 is 28.05g/mol

asked by Thomissa on September 5, 2011
chemistry please help!
Calculate the enthalpy of the reaction of boron trioxide with steam: B2O3(s) + 3H2O(g) → 3O2(g) + B2H6(g) Given: H2O(l) H2(g) + 1⁄2 O2(g) 2B(s) + 3H2(g) 2B(s) + 3/2 O2(g) → B2O3(s) → H2O(g) → H2O(l) → B2H6(g) 44 kJ/mol -286 kJ/mol 36 kJ/mol

asked by Lay on October 19, 2015

college chemistry
The chemical reaction representing production of water gas is as follows: C(s)+H2O(l)=CO(g)+H2(g) calculate the enthalpy change in the production of 200L(at 500mmHg and 65degree celcius) of hydrogen by this reaction.

asked by bennett on November 3, 2008
chemistry URGENT (2)
Label each of the following reactions as exothermic or endothermic (“exo” or “endo”), and according to whether work is done on or by the system (“on” or “by”)? Note that no “en-on” cases appear here, as these are always thermodynamically unfavourable.

asked by Anonymous on November 16, 2008
chemistry
Label each of the following reactions as exothermic or endothermic (“exo” or “endo”), and according to whether work is done on or by the system (“on” or “by”)? Note that no “en-on” cases appear here, as these are always thermodynamically unfavourable.

asked by Anonymous on November 16, 2008
Chemistry
The equation for the complete combustion of ethene (C2H4) is C2H4(g) + 3 O2(g) ==> 2CO2(g) + 2H2O(g) If 2.70 mol C2H4 is reacted with 6.30 mole O2, identify the limiting reagent. show all work.

asked by Danny on March 27, 2010
Chemistry
The reaction between 0.045 g of calcium with an excess of water was carried out in an ice calorimeter as used in this lab. The volume of water in the calorimeter decreased by 0.18 mL during the reaction a) Write the equation for the reaction which occurs.

asked by Sean on June 3, 2009
chemistry
When NH3 is treated with oxygen gas, the products obtained are N2(g) and H2O(l). If standard enthalpies of formation at 298 K for NH3(g) and H2O(l) are –46.00 kJ/mol and –286.0 kJ/mol respectively, calculate the enthalpy change of the reaction.

asked by Shana on January 27, 2015
chem
When NH3 is treated with oxygen gas, the products obtained are N2(g) and H2O(l). If standard enthalpies of formation at 298 K for NH3(g) and H2O(l) are –46.00 kJ/mol and –286.0 kJ/mol respectively, calculate the enthalpy change of the reaction.

asked by shana on January 27, 2015
Chemistry
Question 9 Unsaved What is the rate law for the following reaction, if the order of the reaction is m, an unknown? H2O2(aq) → H2O(l) + ½O2(g) a. k [H2O2]m b.k [H2O]m [O2]1/2 c.k [H2O] m /[H2O][O2 d.k[H2O] m [O2]m Thanks in advance. The k and m are meant

asked by Ramon on March 23, 2018
Chemistry
‘At 600.0 K, the equilibrium constant based on pressure is Kp = 1.83 x 10^2. Gaseous C2H4 and H2O are placed in a 1.2 L closed flask at 600.0 K. At equilibrium, the flask contains 0.0062 mol of C2H4 and 0.041 mol of H2O. Determine the equilibrium

asked by SaraF275 on January 30, 2018
Chemistry practice
Using the form of energy diagram,make a concept map of the two different methods of calculation of reaction enthalpy(via the bond enthalpy and via the enthalpy of formation)

asked by Gift on July 31, 2011

Chemistry
When a chemist burns ammonia according to the reaction below she finds that the reaction releases heat. (It is exothermic.) 4NH3(g) + 3O2(g) 2N2(g) + 6H2O(g) The enthalpy of the reaction DH = -1267 kJ. What is the enthalpy change (in kJ) when 7 grams of

asked by Devin on January 12, 2015
Chemisty
Calculate the standard enthalpy change for the following reaction at 25 °C. MgCl2(s)+H2O(l)–>MgO(s)+2HCl

asked by Orton on April 1, 2013
Chemistry
Calculate the standard enthalpy change for the following reaction at 25 °C. MgCl2(s) + H2o(l) —> MgO(s) + 2HCl(g)

asked by Matt on June 19, 2013
Chemistry
In the dehydrogenation of ethane two reactions take place: C2H6 => C2H4 + H2 C2H6 + H2 => 2CH4 The mass distribution of the product is: 27% C2H6; 33% C2H4; 13% H2; 27% CH4. 1. What was the conversion of C2H6 to CH4? 2. What was the yield of C2H4 expressed

asked by Hoang on November 24, 2016
Chemistry
O3 + NO –> O2 + NO2 (all in gas state) Calculate the change in enthalpy for the reaction at room temp. using the following data ^Hf: O3 = 143 NO = 90 NO2 = 33 So, I have 143+90–> X + 33. I don’t know what the enthalpy of O2 is. I assume you simply

asked by Anonymous on February 18, 2008
Chemistry
Calculate the enthalpy of formation if 78.5 g of carbon dioxide in the following reaction: C(s) + H2O(g) –> CO2(g) Use the following equations: a) H2O(l) –> H2(g) + (1/2)O2(g): Δ°f = +285.8 kJ/mol b) C2H6(g) –> 2C(s) + 3H2(g): Δ°f = +84.7 kJ/mol c)

asked by anon on March 23, 2017
Chemistry
Using standard enthalpies information, calculate the standard enthalpy change for this reaction. a)(thermite reaction) 2Al(s) + Fe2O3(s) = Al2O3(s) + 2Fe(s) b)Mg(OH)2(s) = MgO(s) + H2O(I) c)N2O4(g) + 4H2(g) = N2(g) + 4H2O(g) d)SiCl4(I) + 2H2O(I) = SiO2(s)

asked by Dan on July 3, 2014
Chemistry
Using standard enthalpies information, calculate the standard enthalpy change for this reaction: a) (thermite reaction) 2Al(s) + Fe2O3(s) = Al2O3(s) + 2Fe(s) b) Mg(OH)2(s) = MgO(s) + H2O(I) c) N2O4(g) + 4H2(g) = N2(g) + 4H2O(g) d) SiCl4(I) + 2H2O(I) =

asked by Brett on July 3, 2014
chemistry
Calculate the molar enthalpy change for this reaction: HCl(aq 1.00M) + NaOH -> NaCl(aq,.500M)+ H2O Initial temp: 22.15 degrees Celsius Extrapolated temp: 25.87 degrees Celsius DT: 3.72 degrees Celsius Notes: Calculate the enthalpy change for this reaction.

asked by Failure on November 10, 2015
chemistry
The reaction between 0.045 g of calcium with an excess of water was carried out in an ice calorimeter as used in this lab. The volume of water in the calorimeter decreased by 0.18 mL during the reaction a) Write the equation for the reaction which occurs.

asked by Anonymous on November 10, 2008

chem
Are bond energies (single and multiple bonds) applicable only to gas phase?? For instance, I can use the bond energy data to calculate for enthalpy of reaction for the formation of water: 2 H2(g) + O2(g) -> H2O(g) But I can’t directly use it to calculate

asked by Namie on September 19, 2012
chemistry
Are bond energies (single and multiple bonds) applicable only to gas phase?? For instance, I can use the bond energy data to calculate for enthalpy of reaction for the formation of water: 2 H2(g) + O2(g) -> H2O(g) But I can’t directly use it to calculate

asked by Namie on September 19, 2012
Chemistry
Calculate the enthalpy change, ΔrH, for the following reaction, 4 NH3 (g) + 5 O2(g) → 4 NO (g) + 6 H2O (g) given the thermochemical equations below. N2 (g) + O2 (g) → 2 NO (g) ΔrH° = +181 kJ N2 (g) + 3 H2 (g) → 2 NH3 (g) ΔrH° = 91.8 kJ 2 H2

asked by Hannah on October 2, 2011
physics 30
Given the reaction 3 NO2(g) + H2O(l) ¨ 2 HNO3(l) + NO(g) ƒ¢rH = -72.0 kJ, calculate the molar enthalpy of reaction, rH for: 1) NO2(g) 2) H20 (l) 3) HNO3 (l) 4) NO (g) Express you answer in Kj/mol

asked by ?????halp on February 10, 2015
Chemistry
The homework question is : Calculate the Delta H for the following reaction: C6H6 + O2 -> C + H2O(l) State whether the reaction is exothermic or endothermic. I’m not sure where to go with this but so far I balanced out the formula to this C6H6 + (3/2)O2 ->

asked by Alexa on December 1, 2014

Categories
research paper for sale research paper help write my paper for me

branding provides a way for a firm to differentiate its product offerings from those of its _____.

Gregory G. Dess University of Texas at Dallas

G. T. Lumpkin Syracuse University

Alan B. Eisner Pace University

Gerry McNamara Michigan State University

SEVENTH EDITION

strategic management

text and cases

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STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT: TEXT AND CASES, SEVENTH EDITION Published by McGraw-Hill Education, 2 Penn Plaza, New York, NY 10121. Copyright © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Previous editions © 2012, 2010, and 2008. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education, including, but not limited to, in any network or other electronic storage or transmission, or broadcast for distance learning.

Some ancillaries, including electronic and print components, may not be available to customers outside the United States.

This book is printed on acid-free paper.

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ISBN 978-0-07-786252-7 MHID 0-07-786252-X

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All credits appearing on page or at the end of the book are considered to be an extension of the copyright page.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Dess, Gregory G. Strategic management : text and cases / Gregory G. Dess, G.T. Lumpkin, Alan B. Eisner, Gerry McNamara.—Seventh edition. pages cm Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-07-786252-7 (alk. paper)—ISBN 0-07-786252-X (alk. paper) 1. Strategic planning. I. Lumpkin, G. T. II. Eisner, Alan B. III. Title. HD30.28.D4743 2014 658.4’012—dc23 2013029306

The Internet addresses listed in the text were accurate at the time of publication. The inclusion of a website does not indicate an endorsement by the authors or McGraw-Hill Education, and McGraw-Hill Education does not guarantee the accuracy of the information presented at these sites.

www.mhhe.com

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To my family, Margie and Taylor; my parents, Bill and Mary Dess; and Walter Descovich

–Greg

To my lovely wife, Vicki, and my students and colleagues

–Tom

To my family, Helaine, Rachel, and Jacob

–Alan

To my wonderful wife, Gaelen; my children, Megan and AJ; and my parents, Gene and Jane

–Gerry

DEDICATION

dedication

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Gregory G. Dess is the Andrew R. Cecil Endowed Chair in Management at the University of Texas at Dallas. His primary research interests are in strategic management, organization–environment relationships, and knowledge management. He has published numerous articles on these subjects in both academic and practitioner- oriented journals. He also serves on the editorial boards of a wide range of practitioner-oriented and academic journals. In August 2000, he was inducted into the Academy of Management Journal ’s Hall of Fame as one of its charter members. Professor Dess has conducted executive programs in the United States, Europe, Africa, Hong Kong, and Australia. During 1994 he was a Fulbright Scholar in Oporto, Portugal. In 2009, he received an honorary doctorate from the University of Bern (Switzerland). He received his PhD in Business Administration from the University of Washington (Seattle) and a BIE degree from Georgia Tech.

G. T. (Tom) Lumpkin is the Chris J. Witting Chair and Professor of Entrepreneurship at Syracuse University in New York. Prior to joining the faculty at Syracuse, Tom was the Kent Hance Regents Endowed Chair and Professor of Entrepreneurship at Texas Tech University. His research interests include entrepreneurial orientation, opportunity recognition, strategy-making processes, social entrepreneurship, and innovative forms of organizing work. He has published numerous research articles in journals such as Strategic Management Journal, Academy of Management Journal, Academy of Management Review, Journal of Business Venturing, and Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice. He is a member of the editorial review boards of Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, and the Journal of Business Venturing. He received his PhD in management from the University of Texas at Arlington and MBA from the University of Southern California.

ABOUT THE AUTHORS

about the authors

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Alan B. Eisner is Professor of Management and Department Chair, Management and Management Science Department, at the Lubin School of Business, Pace University. He received his PhD in management from the Stern School of Business, New York University. His primary research interests are in strategic management, technology management, organizational learning, and managerial decision making. He has published research articles and cases in journals such as Advances in Strategic Management, International Journal of Electronic Commerce, International Journal of Technology Management, American Business Review, Journal of Behavioral and Applied Management, and Journal of the International Academy for Case Studies. He is the former Associate Editor of the Case Association’s peer reviewed journal, The CASE Journal.

Gerry McNamara is a Professor of Management at Michigan State University. He received his PhD from the Carlson School of Management at the University of Minnesota. His research focuses on strategic decision making, organizational risk taking, and mergers and acquisitions. His research has been published in numerous journals, including the Academy of Management Journal, Strategic Management Journal, Organization Science, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Journal of Management, and Journal of International Business Studies. His research on mergers and acquisitions has been abstracted in the New York Times, Bloomberg Businessweek, The Economist, and Financial Week. He is currently an Associate Editor for the Academy of Management Journal.

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PREFACE

preface

Welcome to the Seventh Edition of Strategic Management: Text and Cases! We are all very pleased with the positive market response to our previous edition. Below is some of the encouraging feedback we have received from our reviewers:

The text is thorough and all-inclusive. I don’t need to refer to another book as a back-up. It addresses all aspects of strategic management from the initial inspiration of a vision to the nuts and bolts of putting the plan to work. It is well structured; it is clear how each chapter not only builds on the previous ones, but also how analysis, formulation, and implementation are interrelated.

Lois Shelton, California State University, Northridge

I use Strategic Management in a capstone course required of all business majors, and students appreciate the book because it synergizes all their business education into a meaningful and understandable whole. My students enjoy the book’s readability and tight organization, as well as the contemporary examples, case studies, discussion questions and exercises.

William Sannwald, San Diego State University

It is very easy for students to read because it presents strategy concepts in a simple but comprehensive manner. It covers important developments in the strategic management field that are usually ignored by other textbooks (e.g., concepts like social networks and social capital, the balanced scorecard, and new forms of organizational structure).

Moses Acquaah, University of North Carolina at Greensboro

Content is current and easy for students to grasp; good graphs and charts to illustrate important points in the chapter. Book is well organized around the AFI framework.

Lise Anne D. Slatten, University of Louisiana at Lafayette

It is the best written textbook for the undergraduate course that I have come across. Application materials tie concepts to real-world practice.

Justin L. Davis, University of West Florida

The Dess text takes a practical/easy approach to explain very difficult subject matter. It integrates a number of real-life scenarios to aid the student in their comprehension of key concepts. The standout of the text is the Reflecting on Career Implications. These end-of-chapter questions aid the student in applying their learning to their workplace in a manner that promotes career success.

Amy Patrick, Wilmington University

The Dess book overcomes many of the limitations of the last book I used in many ways: (a) presents content in a very interesting and engrossing manner without compromising the depth and comprehensiveness, (b) inclusion of timely and interesting illustrative examples, (c) includes an excellent array of long, medium, and short cases that can be used to balance depth and variety, and (d) EOC exercises do an excellent job of complementing the chapter content.

Sucheta Nadkami, Drexel University

We are always striving to improve our work, and we are most appreciative of the extensive and constructive feedback that many strategy professionals have graciously given us. As always,

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we have worked hard to incorporate their ideas into the Seventh Edition—and we acknowledge them by name later in the Preface.

We believe we have made valuable improvements throughout our many revised editions of Strategic Management. At the same time, we strive to be consistent and “true” to our original overriding objective: a book that satisfies three R’s: relevant, rigorous, and readable. That is, our tagline (paraphrasing the well-known Secret deodorant commercial) is: “Strong enough for the professor; made for the student.” And we are pleased that we have received feedback (such as the comments on the previous page) that is consistent with what we are trying to accomplish.

To continue to earn the support of strategy instructors (and students!) we try to use an engaging writing style that minimizes unnecessary jargon and covers all of the traditional bases. We also integrate some central themes throughout the book—such as globalization, technology, ethics, environmental sustainability, and entrepreneurship—that are vital in understanding strategic management in today’s global economy. We draw on short examples from business practice to bring concepts to life by providing 85 Strategy Spotlights (more detailed examples in sidebars).

Unlike other strategy texts, we provide three separate chapters that address timely topics about which business students should have a solid understanding. These are the role of intellectual assets in value creation (Chapter 4), entrepreneurial strategy and competitive dynamics (Chapter 8), and fostering entrepreneurship in established organizations (Chapter 12). We also provide an excellent set of cases to help students analyze, integrate, and apply strategic management concepts.

In developing Strategic Management: Text and Cases, we certainly didn’t forget the instructors. As we all know, you have a most challenging (but rewarding) job. We did our best to help you. We provide a variety of supplementary materials that should help you in class preparation and delivery. For example, our chapter notes do not simply summarize the material in the text. Rather (and consistent with the concept of strategy!), we ask ourselves: “How can we add value?” Thus, for each chapter, we provide numerous questions to pose to help guide class discussion, at least 12 boxed examples to supplement chapter material, and three detailed “teaching tips” to further engage students. Also, the author team completed the chapter notes—along with the entire test bank—ourselves. That is, unlike many of our rivals, we didn’t simply farm the work out to others. Instead, we felt that such efforts help to enhance quality and consistency—as well as demonstrate our personal commitment to provide a top-quality total package to strategy instructors. With the seventh edition, we also benefited from valued input by our strategy colleagues to further improve our work.

Let’s now address some of the key substantive changes in the Seventh Edition. Then we will cover some of the major features that we have had in previous editions.

What’s New? Highlights of the Seventh Edition We have endeavored to add new material to the chapters that reflects both the feedback that we have received from our reviewers as well as the challenges that face today’s managers. Thus, we all invested an extensive amount of time carefully reviewing a wide variety of books, academic and practitioner journals, and the business press.

We also worked hard to develop more concise and tightly written chapters. Based on feedback from some of the reviewers, we have tightened our writing style, tried to eliminate redundant examples, and focused more directly on what we feel is the most important content in each chapter for our audience. The overall result is that we were able to update our material, add valuable new content, and—at the same time—shorten the length of the chapters.

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PREFACE

Here are some of the major changes and improvements in the Seventh Edition:

• All of the 12 opening “Learning from Mistakes” vignettes that lead off each chapter are totally new. Unique to this text, they are all examples of what can go wrong, and they serve as an excellent vehicle for clarifying and reinforcing strategy concepts. After all, what can be learned if one simply admires perfection!

• Well over half of our “Strategy Spotlights” (sidebar examples) are brand new, and many of the others have been thoroughly updated. Although we have reduced the number of Spotlights from the previous edition to conserve space, we still have a total of 85—by far the most in the strategy market. We focus on bringing the most important strategy concepts to life in a concise and highly readable manner. And we work hard to eliminate unnecessary detail that detracts from the main point we are trying to make. Also, consistent with our previous edition, many of the Spotlights focus on three “hot” issues that are critical in leading today’s organizations: ethics, environmental sustainability, and crowdsourcing.

• We have added a new feature—Issue for Debate—at the end of each chapter. We have pretested these situations and find that students become very engaged (and often animated!) in discussing an issue that has viable alternative points of view. It is an exciting way to drive home key strategy concepts. For example, in Chapter 1, Seventh Generation is faced with a situation that confronts their values, and they must decide whether or not to provide their products to some of their largest customers. In Chapter 3, some interesting tradeoffs arose when The World Triathlon Corporation expanded their exclusive branding of Ironman to products that didn’t reflect the “spirit” of the brand. And, in Chapter 6, Delta Airlines’ diversification into the oil business via their acquisition of an oil refinery poses an issue for some interesting alternative points of view.

• Throughout the chapters, we provide many excerpts from interviews with top executives from Adam Bryant’s The Corner Office. Such viewpoints provide valuable perspectives from leading executives and help to drive home the value and purpose of key strategy concepts. For example, we include the perspectives of Tim Brown (CEO of IDEO) on employee empowerment, John Stumpf (CEO of Wells Fargo) on strategy implementation, and Gordon Bethune (former CEO of Continental Airlines) on the importance of incentive systems.

• We have completely rewritten the “Reflecting on Career Implications . . .” feature that we introduced in the Sixth Edition of Strategic Management. Based on reviewer feedback, we directed our attention to providing insights that are closely aligned with and directed to three distinct issues faced by our readers: prepare them for a job interview (e.g., industry analysis), help them with current employers or their career in general, or help them find potential employers and decide where to work. We feel this feature is significantly improved and should be of more value to students’ professional development.

Key content changes for the chapters include:

• Chapter 1 makes a strong business case for environmental sustainability and draws on Porter’s concept of “shared value” that was initially introduced in the Sixth Edition. Such issues advance the notion that firms should go far beyond a narrow focus on shareholder returns. Further, shared value promotes practices that enhance the competitiveness of the company while simultaneously advancing the social and economic conditions in which it operates.

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• Chapter 2 makes the distinction between “hard trends” and “soft trends” that was articulated by Dan Burrus in his recent book Flash Foresight. This distinction is important in determing the importance of current trends and their evolution over time. Soft trends are something that might happen and a probability with which it might happen can be assigned. In contrast, hard trends are based on measurable facts, events, or objects—they are something that will happen. We provide the example of how the identification of hard trends (in technology) led the renowned Mayo Clinic to develop a CD to help customers to access useful medical information. This initiative provided the Mayo Clinic with significant financial and nonfinancial benefits!

• Chapter 4 addresses two issues that are important to not only developing human capital in organizations but also for students entering—or enhancing their success in—an organization: mentorship versus sponsorship and the “trap” of ineffective networks. Knowing the distinction between mentors and sponsors has valuable implications for one’s career. Mentors may provide coaching and advice, and prepare one for the next position. Sponsors, on the other hand, are typically somebody in a senior position who can advocate and facilitate career moves. We also draw on research that suggests three types of “network traps” that professionals should work hard to avoid: the wrong structure, the wrong relationship, and the wrong behavior.

• Chapter 6 discusses when actions taken to change the scope of businesses in which a corporation competes lead to positive outcomes for the firm. We highlight the characteristics of both acquisitions and divestitures that lead to positive outcomes. With acquisitions, we focus on how the characteristics of the acquiring firm as well as the acquisition itself lead to positive reactions by the stock market to the announcement of the deal. With divestitures, we draw on the work by the Boston Consulting Group to highlight seven principles for effective divestitures.

• Chapter 7 looks into the hidden costs of offshoring. In recent years, many firms have moved parts of their operations to lower wage countries. In many cases, they have found that the expected cost savings were illusory. We discuss seven reasons why firms would not achieve the anticipated savings through offshoring and provide examples of firms that have benefited by bringing their operations back home.

• Chapter 8 includes an examination of crowdfunding, a rapidly growing means to finance entrepreneurial ventures. Crowdfunding involves drawing relatively small amounts of funding from a wide net of investors to provide potentially large pools of capital for entrepreneurial ventures. We discuss both the tremendous potential as well as the pitfalls of crowdfunding for entrepreneurs. Knowing that some of our students may want to be investors in these ventures, we also discuss issues that crowdfunding investors should consider when looking into these investment opportunities.

• Chapter 9 addresses how firms can build effective boards of directors. We identify how firms need to go beyond standard categories, such as insider versus outsider board members, to develop favorable board dynamics. We also discuss how the structure of boards has changed over the past 25 years.

• Chapter 10 examines the costs and benefits of nurturing strong relationships to ensure cooperation and achieve high levels of performance. Over the past 30 years, many scholars have argued that relational systems, where decisions regarding how to facilitate control and coordination are driven by relationships rather than bureaucratic systems and contracts, are superior to more traditional control systems. We examine this issue and discuss how relational systems have both advantages and disadvantages. We conclude with a brief discussion of when managers may want to rely more on relationship systems and when they may want to rely more on formal structure and reward systems.

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• Chapter 11 introduces the concept of “competency companions,” an important idea for managers to consider in developing their leadership ability. The idea is that leaders can benefit most by identifying and developing complementary strengths instead of continually working on already great qualities that they may possess. For example, a leader who has a strong competence in developing innovative ideas can extend that competency by developing strong communication skills.

• Chapter 13 updates our Appendix: Sources of Company and Industry Information. Here, we owe a big debt to Ruthie Brock and Carol Byrne, library professionals at the University of Texas at Arlington. These ladies have graciously provided us with comprehensive and updated information that is organized in a range of issues. These include competitive intelligence, annual report collections, company rankings, business websites, and strategic and competitive analysis. Such information is invaluable in analyzing companies and industries.

• Alan Eisner, our case editor, has worked hard to further enhance our excellent case package.

• Approximately half of our cases are author-written (much more than the competition).

• We have updated our users’ favorite cases, creating fresh stories about familiar companies to minimize instructor preparation time and “maximize freshness” of the content.

• We have added 6 exciting new cases to the lineup, including Boston Beer, Campbell Soup, Kickstarter, and Zynga.

• We have also extensively updated 23 familiar cases, including Apple, eBay, Ford, Johnson & Johnson, and many others.

• A major focus on fresh and current cases on familiar firms. • Many videos on the Online Learning Center (OLC) or Connect to match the cases.

What Remains the Same: Key Features of Earlier Editions Let’s now briefly address some of the exciting features that remain from the earlier editions.

• Traditional organizing framework with three other chapters on timely topics. Crisply written chapters cover all of the strategy bases and address contemporary topics. First, the chapters are divided logically into the traditional sequence: strategy analysis, strategy formulation, and strategy implementation. Second, we include three chapters on such timely topics as intellectual capital/knowledge management, entrepreneurial strategy and competitive dynamics, and fostering corporate entrepreneurship and new ventures.

• “Learning from Mistakes” chapter-opening cases. To enhance student interest, we begin each chapter with a case that depicts an organization that has suffered a dramatic performance drop, or outright failure, by failing to adhere to sound strategic management concepts and principles. We believe that this feature serves to underpin the value of the concepts in the course and that it is a preferred teaching approach to merely providing examples of outstanding companies that always seem to get it right! After all, isn’t it better (and more challenging) to diagnose problems than admire perfection? As Dartmouth’s Sydney Finkelstein, author of Why Smart Executives Fail, notes: “We live

PREFACE

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in a world where success is revered, and failure is quickly pushed to the side. However, some of the greatest opportunities to learn—both for individuals and organizations— come from studying what goes wrong.”* We’ll see how, for example, Borders went from enjoying enormous success as an innovative firm—with revenues of nearly $4 billion in 2005—to bankruptcy six years later. We will also explore why Daimler’s “ultra-urban” Smart car—despite its initial acclaim—has cost the firm $5.3 billion in cumulative losses over the years. And we’ll explore why Cisco’s eagerness to enter the digital video market via its acquisition of Pure Digital Technologies didn’t pan out.

• Consistent chapter format and features to reinforce learning. We have included several features in each chapter to add value and create an enhanced learning experience. First, each chapter begins with an overview and a set of bullets pointing to key learning objectives. Second, as previously noted, the opening case describes a situation in which a company’s performance eroded because of a lack of proper application of strategy concepts. Third, at the end of each chapter there are four different types of questions/exercises that should help students assess their understanding and application of material:

1. Summary review questions. 2. Experiential exercises. 3. Application questions and exercises. 4. Ethics questions

Given the centrality of online systems to business today, each chapter contains at least one exercise that allows students to explore the use of the Web in implementing a firm’s strategy.

• “Reflecting on Career Implications” for each chapter. This feature—at the end of each chapter—will help instructors drive home the immediate relevance/value of strategy concepts. It focuses on how an understanding of key concepts helps business students early in their careers.

• Key Terms. Approximately a dozen key terms for each chapter are identified in the margins of the pages. This addition was made in response to reviewer feedback and improves students’ understanding of core strategy concepts.

• Clear articulation and illustration of key concepts. Key strategy concepts are introduced in a clear and concise manner and are followed by timely and interesting examples from business practice. Such concepts include value-chain analysis, the resource-based view of the firm, Porter’s five-forces model, competitive advantage, boundaryless organizational designs, digital strategies, corporate governance, ethics, and entrepreneurship.

• Extensive use of sidebars. We include 85 sidebars (or about seven per chapter) called “Strategy Spotlights.” The Strategy Spotlights not only illustrate key points but also increase the readability and excitement of new strategy concepts.

• Integrative themes. The text provides a solid grounding in ethics, globalization, environmental sustainability, and technology. These topics are central themes throughout the book and form the basis for many of the Strategy Spotlights.

• Implications of concepts for small businesses. Many of the key concepts are applied to start-up firms and smaller businesses, which is particularly important since many students have professional plans to work in such firms.

*Personal communication, June 20, 2005.

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• Not just a textbook but an entire package. Strategic Management features the best chapter teaching notes available today. Rather than merely summarizing the key points in each chapter, we focus on value-added material to enhance the teaching (and learning) experience. Each chapter includes dozens of questions to spur discussion, teaching tips, in-class group exercises, and about a dozen detailed examples from business practice to provide further illustrations of key concepts.

• Excellent Case Studies. We have selected an excellent collection of current and classic cases for this edition, carefully including a wide variety of cases matched to key strategic concepts and organized to create maximum flexibility. We have a balance of short, concise, and longer, comprehensive cases while maintaining currency and name recognition of our cases with many new and updated classroom-tested cases. We also have updated many of the favorites from the Sixth Edition, such as Apple, eBay, Ford, Johnson & Johnson, and many others.

Student Support Materials Online Learning Center (OLC) The following resources are available to students via the publisher’s OLC at www.mhhe.com/ dess7e :

• Chapter quizzes students can take to gauge their understanding of material covered in each chapter.

• A selection of PowerPoint slides for each chapter. • Links to strategy simulations the Business Strategy Game & GLO-BUS. Both provide

a powerful and constructive way of connecting students to the subject matter of the course with a competition among classmates on campus and around the world.

Instructor Support Materials Instructor’s Manual (IM) Prepared by the textbook authors, along with valued input from our strategy colleagues, the accompanying IM contains summary/objectives, lecture/discussion outlines, discussion questions, extra examples not included in the text, teaching tips, reflecting on career implications, experiential exercises, and more.

Test Bank Revised by Christine Pence of the University of California–Riverside, the test bank contains more than 1,000 true/false, multiple-choice, and essay questions. It has now been tagged with learning objectives as well as Bloom’s Taxonomy and AACSB criteria.

• Assurance of Learning Ready. Assurance of Learning is an important element of many accreditation standards. Dess 7e is designed specifically to support your Assurance of Learning initiatives. Each chapter in the book begins with a list of numbered learning objectives that appear throughout the chapter, as well as in the end-of-chapter questions and exercises. Every test bank question is also linked to one of these objectives, in addition to level of difficulty, topic area, Bloom’s Taxonomy level, and AACSB skill area. EZ Test, McGraw-Hill’s easy-to-use test bank software, can search the test bank by these and other categories, providing an engine for targeted Assurance of Learning analysis and assessment.

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• AACSB Statement. The McGraw-Hill Companies is a proud corporate member of AACSB International. Understanding the importance and value of AACSB accreditation, Dess 7e has sought to recognize the curricula guidelines detailed in the AACSB standards for business accreditation by connecting selected questions in Dess 7e and the test bank to the general knowledge and skill guidelines found in the AACSB standards. The statements contained in Dess 7e are provided only as a guide for the users of this text. The AACSB leaves content coverage and assessment within the purview of individual schools, the mission of the school, and the faculty. While Dess 7e and the teaching package make no claim of any specific AACSB qualification or evaluation, we have labeled selected questions within Dess 7e according to the six general knowledge and skills areas.

• Computerized Test Bank Online. A comprehensive bank of test questions is provided within a computerized test bank powered by McGraw-Hill’s flexible electronic testing program, EZ Test Online ( www.eztestonline.com ). EZ Test Online allows you to create paper and online tests or quizzes in this easy-to-use program! Imagine being able to create and access your test or quiz anywhere, at any time without installing the testing software. Now, with EZ Test Online, instructors can select questions from multiple McGraw-Hill test banks or author their own, and then either print the test for paper distribution or give it online.

• Test Creation. • Author/edit questions online using the 14 different question type templates. • Create printed tests or deliver online to get instant scoring and feedback. • Create questions pools to offer multiple versions online – great for practice. • Export your tests for use in WebCT, Blackboard, PageOut, and Apple’s iQuiz. • Compatible with EZ Test Desktop tests you’ve already created. • Sharing tests with colleagues, adjuncts, TAs is easy.

• Online Test Management. • Set availability dates and time limits for your quiz or test. • Control how your test will be presented. • Assign points by question or question type with drop-down menu. • Provide immediate feedback to students or delay until all finish the test. • Create practice tests online to enable student mastery. • Your roster can be uploaded to enable student self-registration.

• Online Scoring and Reporting. • Automated scoring for most of EZ Test ’s numerous question types. • Allows manual scoring for essay and other open response questions. • Manual rescoring and feedback is also available. • EZ Test ’s grade book is designed to easily export to your grade book. • View basic statistical reports.

• Support and Help. • User’s guide and built-in page-specific help. • Flash tutorials for getting started on the support site. • Support website: www.mhhe.com/eztest. • Product specialist available at 1-800-331-5094. • Online Training: http://auth.mhhe.com/mpss/workshops/.

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PowerPoint Presentation Prepared by Pauline Assenza of Western Connecticut State University and consists of more than 400 slides incorporating an outline for the chapters tied to learning objectives. Also included are instructor notes, multiple-choice questions that can be used as Classroom Performance System (CPS) questions, and additional examples outside of the text to promote class discussion. Case Study PowerPoint slides are available to facilitate case study coverage.

McGraw-Hill Connect™ Management Less Managing. More Teaching. Greater Learning. McGraw-Hill Connect Management is an online assignment and assessment solution that connects students with the tools and resources thev’ll need to achieve success.

• McGraw-Hill Connect Management Features. Connect Management offers a number of powerful tools and features to make managing assignments easier, so faculty can spend more time teaching. With Connect Management, students can engage with their coursework anytime and anywhere, making the learning process more accessible and efficient. Connect Management offers you the features described below.

• There are chapter quizzes for the 12 chapters, consisting of 15–25 multiple- choice questions, testing students’ overall comprehension of concepts presented in the chapter.

• There are 2 specially crafted interactives for each of the 12 chapters that drill students in the use and application of the concepts and tools of strategic analysis.

• Connect also includes special case exercises for approximately one-third of the 35 cases in this edition that require students to develop answers to a select number of the assignment questions.

• Additionally, there will be financial analysis exercises related to the case exercises. • The majority of the Connect exercises are automatically graded, thereby

simplifying the task of evaluating each class member’s performance and monitoring the learning outcomes.

• Student Progress Tracking. Connect Management keeps instructors informed about how each student, section, and class is performing, allowing for more productive use of lecture and office hours. The progress-tracking function enables you to

• View scored work immediately and track individual or group performance with assignment and grade reports.

• Access an instant view of student or class performance relative to learning objectives.

• Collect data and generate reports required by many accreditation organizations, such as AACSB.

• Smart Grading. When it comes to studying, time is precious. Connect Management helps students learn more efficiently by providing feedback and practice material when they need it, where they need it. When it comes to teaching, your time also is precious. The grading function enables you to

• Have assignments scored automatically, giving students immediate feedback on their work and side-by-side comparisons with correct answers.

• Access and review each response, manually change grades, or leave comments for students to review.

• Reinforce classroom concepts with practice tests and instant quizzes.

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• Simple Assignment Management. With Connect Management, creating assignments is easier than ever, so you can spend more time teaching and less time managing. The assignment management function enables you to

• Create and deliver assignments easily with selectable test bank items. • Streamline lesson planning, student progress reporting, and assignment grading to

make classroom management more efficient than ever. • Go paperless with online submission and grading of student assignments.

• Instructor Library. The Connect Management Instructor Library is your repository for additional resources to improve student engagement in and out of class. You can select and use any asset that enhances your lecture. The Connect Management Instructor Library includes

• Instructor Manual • Case Teaching Notes • PowerPoint ® files • Test Bank

Videos A set of videos related to both chapters and selected cases can be found on the Online Learning Center (OLC) or Connect to support your classroom or student lab, or for home viewing. These thought-provoking video clips are available upon adoption of this text.

Online Learning Center (OLC) The instructor section of www.mhhe.com/dess7e also includes the Instructor’s Manual, PowerPoint Presentations, Case Grid, and Case Study Teaching Notes as well as additional resources.

The Business Strategy Game and GLO-BUS Online Simulations Both allow teams of students to manage companies in a head-to-head contest for global market leadership. These simulations give students the immediate opportunity to experiment with various strategy options and to gain proficiency in applying the concepts and tools they have been reading about in the chapters. To find out more or to register, please visit www.mhhe.com/ thompsonsims.

e-book Options e-books are an innovative way for students to save money and to “go-green,” McGraw-Hill’s e-books are typically 40% of bookstore price. Students have the choice between an online and a downloadable CourseSmart e-book.

Through CourseSmart, students have the flexibility to access an exact replica of their textbook from any computer that has internet service without plug-ins or special software via the version, or create a library of books on their harddrive via the downloadable version. Access to the CourseSmart e-books is one year.

Features: CourseSmart e-books allow students to highlight, take notes, organize notes, and share the notes with other CourseSmart users. Students can also search terms across all e-books in their purchased CourseSmart library. CourseSmart e-books can be printed (5 pages at a time).

More info and purchase: Please visit www.coursesmart.com for more information and to purchase access to our e-books. CourseSmart allows students to try one chapter of the e-book, free of charge, before purchase.

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Additional Resources Create Craft your teaching resources to match the way you teach! With McGraw-Hill Create, www.mcgrawhillcreate.com, you can easily rearrange chapters, combine material from other content sources, and quickly upload content you have written, like your course syllabus or teaching notes. Find the content you need in Create by searching through thousands of leading McGraw-Hill textbooks. Arrange your book to fit your teaching style. Create even allows you to personalize your book’s appearance by selecting the cover and adding your name, school, and course information. Order a Create book and you’ll receive a complimentary print review copy in three to five business days or a complimentary electronic review copy (eComp) via email in about one hour. Go to www.mcgrawhillcreate.com today and register. Experience how McGraw-Hill Create empowers you to teach your students your way.

McGraw-Hill Higher Education and Blackboard McGraw-Hill Higher Education and Blackboard have teamed up. What does this mean for you?

1. Your life, simplified. Now you and your students can access McGraw-Hill’s Connect and Create right from within your Blackboard course—all with one single sign-on. Say goodbye to the days of logging in to multiple applications.

2. Deep integration of content and tools. Not only do you get single sign-on with Connect and Create, you also get deep integration of McGraw-Hill content and content engines right in Blackboard. Whether you’re choosing a book for your course or building Connect assignments, all the tools you need are right where you want them—inside of Blackboard.

3. Seamless gradebooks. Are you tired of keeping multiple gradebooks and manually synchronizing grades into Blackboard? We thought so. When a student completes an integrated Connect assignment, the grade for that assignment automatically (and instantly) feeds your Blackboard grade center.

4. A solution for everyone. Whether your institution is already using Blackboard or you just want to try Blackboard on your own, we have a solution for you. McGraw-Hill and Blackboard can now offer you easy access to industry-leading technology and content, whether your campus hosts it or we do. Be sure to ask your local McGraw-Hill representative for details.

McGraw-Hill Customer Care Contact Information At McGraw-Hill, we understand that getting the most from new technology can be challenging. That’s why our services don’t stop after you purchase our products. You can e-mail our product specialists 24 hours a day to get product training online. Or you can search our knowledge bank of Frequently Asked Questions on our support website. For customer support, call 800-331-5094, email hmsupport@mcgraw-hill.com, or visit www.mhhe.com/support. One of our technical support analysts will be able to assist you in a timely fashion.

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Acknowledgments Strategic Management represents far more than just the joint efforts of the four co-authors. Rather, it is the product of the collaborative input of many people. Some of these individuals are academic colleagues, others are the outstanding team of professionals at McGraw-Hill/Irwin, and still others are those who are closest to us—our families. It is time to express our sincere gratitude.

First, we’d like to acknowledge the dedicated instructors who have graciously provided their insights since the inception of the text. Their input has been very helpful in both pointing out errors in the manuscript and suggesting areas that needed further development as additional top- ics. We sincerely believe that the incorporation of their ideas has been critical to improving the fi nal product. These professionals and their affi liations are:

The Reviewer Hall of Fame

Moses Acquaah, University of North Carolina–Greensboro

Todd Alessandri, Northeastern University

Larry Alexander, Virginia Polytechnic Institute

Brent B. Allred, College of William & Mary

Allen C. Amason, University of Georgia

Kathy Anders, Arizona State University

Lise Anne D. Slatten, University of Louisiana at Lafayette

Peter H. Antoniou, California State University, San Marcos

Dave Arnott, Dallas Baptist University Marne L. Arthaud-Day, Kansas State University

Jay Azriel, York University of Pennsylvania Jeffrey J. Bailey, University of Idaho

Dennis R. Balch, University of North Alabama

Bruce Barringer, University of Central Florida

Barbara R. Bartkus, Old Dominion University

Barry Bayon, Bryant University Brent D. Beal, Louisiana State University

Joyce Beggs, University of North Carolina–Charlotte

Michael Behnam, Suffolk University

Kristen Bell DeTienne, Brigham Young University

Eldon Bernstein, Lynn University David Blair, University of Nebraska at Omaha

Daniela Blettner, Tilburg University

Dusty Bodie, Boise State University

William Bogner, Georgia State University

Scott Browne, Chapman University

Jon Bryan, Bridgewater State College

Charles M. Byles, Virginia Commonwealth University

Mikelle A. Calhoun, Valparaiso University

Thomas J. Callahan, University of Michigan, Dearborn

Samuel D. Cappel, Southeastern Louisiana State University

Gary Carini, Baylor University

Shawn M. Carraher, University of Texas, Dallas

Tim Carroll, University of South Carolina

Don Caruth, Amberton University

Maureen Casile, Bowling Green State University

Gary J. Castrogiovanni, Florida Atlantic University

Radha Chaganti, Rider University

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PREFACE

Erick PC Chang, Arkansas State University

Theresa Cho, Rutgers University

Bruce Clemens, Western New England College

Betty S. Coffey, Appalachian State University

Wade Coggins, Webster University, Fort Smith Metro Campus

Susan Cohen, University of Pittsburgh

George S. Cole, Shippensburg University

Joseph Coombs, Texas A & M University

Christine Cope Pence, University of California, Riverside

James J. Cordeiro, SUNY Brockport

Stephen E. Courter, University of Texas at Austin

Jeffrey Covin, Indiana University

Keith Credo, Auburn University

Deepak Datta, University of Texas at Arlington

James Davis, Utah State University

Justin L. Davis, University of West Florida

David Dawley, West Virginia University

Helen Deresky, State University of New York, Plattsburgh

Rocki-Lee DeWitt, University of Vermont

Jay Dial, Ohio State University

Michael E. Dobbs, Arkansas State University

Jonathan Doh, Villanova University

Tom Douglas, Clemson University

Meredith Downes, Illinois State University

Jon Down, Oregon State University

Alan E. Ellstrand, University of Arkansas

Dean S. Elmuti, Eastern Illinois University

Clare Engle, Concordia University

Mehmet Erdem Genc, Baruch College, CUNY

Tracy Ethridge, Tri-County Technical College

William A. Evans, Troy State University, Dothan

Frances H. Fabian, University of Memphis

Angelo Fanelli, Warrington College of Business

Michael Fathi, Georgia Southwestern University

Carolyn J. Fausnaugh, Florida Institute of Technology

Tamela D. Ferguson, University of Louisiana at Lafayette

David Flanagan, Western Michigan University

Dave Foster, Montana State University

Isaac Fox, University of Minnesota

Deborah Francis, Brevard College

Steven A. Frankforter, Winthrop University

Vance Fried, Oklahoma State University

Karen Froelich, North Dakota State University

Naomi A. Gardberg, CNNY Baruch College

J. Michael Geringer, California Polytechnic State University

Diana L. Gilbertson, California State University, Fresno

Matt Gilley, St. Mary’s University

Debbie Gilliard, Metropolitan State College–Denver

Yezdi H. Godiwalla, University of Wisconsin–Whitewater

Sanjay Goel, University of Minnesota, Duluth

Sandy Gough, Boise State University

Allen Harmon, University of Minnesota, Duluth

Niran Harrison, University of Oregon

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Paula Harveston, Berry College

Ahmad Hassan, Morehead State University

Donald Hatfield, Virginia Polytechnic Institute

Kim Hester, Arkansas State University

Scott Hicks, Liberty University

John Hironaka, California State University, Sacramento

Alan Hoffman, Bentley College

Gordon Holbein, University of Kentucky

Stephen V. Horner, Pittsburg State University

Jill Hough, University of Tulsa

John Humphreys, Eastern New Mexico University

James G. Ibe, Morris College

Jay J. Janney, University of Dayton

Lawrence Jauch, University of Louisiana–Monroe

Dana M. Johnson, Michigan Technical University

Homer Johnson, Loyola University, Chicago

James Katzenstein, California State University, Dominguez Hills

Joseph Kavanaugh, Sam Houston State University

Franz Kellermanns, University of Tennessee

Craig Kelley, California State University, Sacramento

Donna Kelley, Babson College

Dave Ketchen, Auburn University

John A. Kilpatrick, Idaho State University

Helaine J. Korn, Baruch College,CUNY

Stan Kowalczyk, San Francisco State University

Daniel Kraska, North Central State College

Donald E. Kreps, Kutztown University

Jim Kroeger, Cleveland State University

Subdoh P. Kulkarni, Howard University

Ron Lambert, Faulkner University

Theresa Lant, New York University

Ted Legatski, Texas Christian University

David J. Lemak, Washington State University–Tri-Cities

Cynthia Lengnick-Hall, University of Texas at San Antonio

Donald L. Lester, Arkansas State University

Wanda Lester, North Carolina A&T State University

Benyamin Lichtenstein, University of Massachusetts at Boston

Jun Lin, SUNY at New Paltz

Zhiang (John) Lin, University of Texas at Dallas

Dan Lockhart, University of Kentucky

John Logan, University of South Carolina

Franz T. Lohrke, Samford University

Kevin Lowe, University of North Carolina, Greensboro

Leyland M. Lucas, Morgan State University

Doug Lyon, Fort Lewis College

Rickey Madden, Ph.D., Presbyterian College

James Maddox, Friends University

Ravi Madhavan, University of Pittsburgh

Paul Mallette, Colorado State University

Santo D. Marabella, Moravian College

Catherine Maritan, Syracuse University

Daniel Marrone, Farmingdale State College, SUNY

Sarah Marsh, Northern Illinois University

John R. Massaua, University of Southern Maine

Hao Ma, Bryant College

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Larry McDaniel, Alabama A&M University

Jean McGuire, Louisiana State University

Abagail McWilliams, University of Illinois, Chicago

Ofer Meilich, California State University–San Marcos

John E. Merchant, California State University, Sacramento

John M. Mezias, University of Miami

Michael Michalisin, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale

Doug Moesel, University of Missouri–Columbia

Fatma Mohamed, Morehead State University

Mike Montalbano, Bentley University

Debra Moody, University of North Carolina, Charlotte

Gregory A. Moore, Middle Tennessee State University

James R. Morgan, Dominican University and UC Berkeley Extension

Sara A. Morris, Old Dominion University

Carolyn Mu, Baylor University

Stephen Mueller, Northern Kentucky University

John Mullane, Middle Tennessee State University

Chandran Mylvaganam, Northwood University

Sucheta Nadkarni, Drexel University

Anil Nair, Old Dominion University V.K. Narayanan, Drexel University

Maria L. Nathan, Lynchburg College

Louise Nemanich, Arizona State University

Charles Newman, University of Maryland, University College

Stephanie Newport, Austin Peay State University

Gerry Nkombo Muuka, Murray State University Bill Norton, University of Louisville

Yusuf A. Nur, SUNY Brockport

Jeffrey R. Nystrom, University of Colorado

William Ross O’Brien, Dallas Baptist University

d.t. ogilvie, Rutgers University

Floyd Ormsbee, Clarkson University

Karen L. Page, University of Wyoming

Jacquelyn W. Palmer, University of Cincinnati

Julie Palmer, University of Missouri, Columbia

Gerald Parker, Saint Louis University

Daewoo Park, Xavier University

Ralph Parrish, University of Central Oklahoma

Amy Patrick, Wilmington University

Douglas K. Peterson, Indiana State University

Edward Petkus, Mary Baldwin College

Michael C. Pickett, National University

Peter Ping Li, California State University, Stanislaus

Michael W. Pitts, Virginia Commonwealth University

Laura Poppo, Virginia Tech

Steve Porth, Saint Joseph’s University

Jodi A. Potter, Robert Morris University

Scott A. Quatro, Grand Canyon University

Nandini Rajagopalan, University of Southern California

Annette L. Ranft, Florida State University

Abdul Rasheed, University of Texas at Arlington

Devaki Rau, Northern Illinois University

George Redmond, Franklin University

Kira Reed, Syracuse University

PREFACE

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Clint Relyea, Arkansas State University

Barbara Ribbens, Western Illinois University

Maurice Rice, University of Washington

Violina P. Rindova, University of Texas, Austin

Ron Rivas, Canisius College

David Robinson, Indiana State University– Terre Haute

Kenneth Robinson, Kennesaw State University

Simon Rodan, San Jose State University

Patrick R. Rogers, North Carolina A&T State University

John K. Ross III, Texas State University, San Marcos

Robert Rottman, Kentucky State University

Matthew R. Rutherford, Gonzaga University

Carol M. Sanchez, Grand Valley State University

William W. Sannwald, San Diego State University

Yolanda Sarason, Colorado State University

Marguerite Schneider, New Jersey Institute of Technology

Roger R. Schnorbus, University of Richmond

Terry Sebora, University of Nebraska–Lincoln

John Seeger, Bentley College

Jamal Shamsie, Michigan State University

Mark Shanley, University of Illinois at Chicago

Lois Shelton, California State University, Northridge

Herbert Sherman, Long Island University

Weilei Shi, Baruch College–CUNY

Chris Shook, Auburn University

Jeremy Short, University of Oklahoma

Mark Simon, Oakland University, Michigan

Rob Singh, Morgan State University

Bruce Skaggs, University of Massachusetts

Wayne Smeltz, Rider University

Anne Smith, University of Tennessee

Andrew Spicer, University of South Carolina

James D. Spina, University of Maryland

John Stanbury, George Mason University & Inter-University Institute of Macau, SAR China

Timothy Stearns, California State University, Fresno

Elton Stephen, Austin State University

Charles E. Stevens, University of Wyoming

Alice Stewart, Ohio State University

Ram Subramanian, Grand Valley State University

Roy Suddaby, University of Iowa

Michael Sullivan, UC Berkeley Extension

Marta Szabo White, Georgia State University

Stephen Takach, University of Texas at San Antonio

Justin Tan, York University, Canada

Qingju Tao, Lehigh University

Linda Teagarden, Virginia Tech

Bing-Sheng Teng, George Washington University

Alan Theriault, University of California–Riverside

Tracy Thompson, University of Washington, Tacoma

Karen Torres, Angelo State University

Robert Trumble, Virginia Commonwealth University

Francis D. (Doug) Tuggle, Chapman University

K.J. Tullis, University of Central Oklahoma

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Craig A. Turner, Ph.D., East Tennessee State University

Beverly Tyler, North Carolina State University

Rajaram Veliyath, Kennesaw State University

S. Stephen Vitucci, Tarleton State University– Central Texas

Jay A. Vora, St. Cloud State University

Bruce Walters, Louisiana Tech University

Jorge Walter, Portland State University

Edward Ward, St. Cloud State University N. Wasilewski, Pepperdine University Andrew Watson, Northeastern University

Larry Watts, Stephen F. Austin University

Paula S. Weber, St. Cloud State University

Kenneth E. A. Wendeln, Indiana University Robert R. Wharton, Western Kentucky University Laura Whitcomb, California State University– Los Angeles

Scott Williams, Wright State University

Diana Wong, Bowling Green State University

Beth Woodard, Belmont University

John E. Wroblewski, State University of New York–Fredonia

Anne York, University of Nebraska, Omaha

Michael Zhang, Sacred Heart University

Monica Zimmerman, Temple University

Second, the authors would like to thank several faculty colleagues who were particularly helpful in the review, critique, and development of the book and supplementary materials. Greg’s colleagues at the University of Texas at Dallas also have been helpful and supportive. These individuals include Mike Peng, Joe Picken, Kumar Nair, John Lin, Larry Chasteen, Seung-Hyun Lee, Tev Dalgic, and Jane Salk. His administrative assistant, Mary Vice, has been extremely helpful. Three doctoral students, Brian Pinkham, Steve Saverwald and Ciprian Stan, have provided many useful inputs and ideas, along with a research associate, Kimberly Flicker. He also appreciates the support of his dean and associate dean, Hasan Pirkul and Varghese Jacob, respectively. Tom would like to thank Gerry Hills, Abagail McWilliams, Rod Shrader, Mike Miller, James Gillespie, Ron Mitchell, Kim Boal, Keith Brigham, Jeremy Short, Tyge Payne, Bill Wan, Andy Yu, Abby Wang, Johan Wiklund, Mike Haynie, Alex McKelvie, Denis Gregoire, Alejandro Amezcua, Maria Minniti, Cathy Maritan, Ravi Dharwadkar, and Pam Brandes. Spe- cial thanks also to Jeff Stambaugh for his valuable contributions. Tom also extends a special thanks to Benyamin Lichtenstein for his support and encouragement. Both Greg and Tom wish to thank a special colleague, Abdul Rasheed at the University of Texas at Arlington, who cer- tainly has been a valued source of friendship and ideas for us for many years. He provided many valuable contributions to all editions. Alan thanks his colleagues at Pace University and the Case Association for their support in developing these fi ne case selections. Special thanks go to Jamal Shamsie at Michigan State University for his support in developing the case selections for this edition. Gerry thanks all of his colleagues at Michigan State University for their help and support over the years. He also thanks his mentor, Phil Bromiley, as well as the students and former students he has had the pleasure of working with, including Becky Luce, Cindy Devers, Federico Aime, Mike Mannor, Bernadine Dykes, Mathias Arrfelt, Kalin Kolev, Seungho Choi, Rob Davison, Dustin Sleesman, Danny Gamache, Adam Steinbach, and Daniel Chaffi n.

Third, we would like to thank the team at McGraw-Hill for their outstanding support throughout the entire process. As we work on the book through the various editions, we always appreciate their hard work and recognize how so many people “add value” to our fi nal package! This began with John Biernat, formerly publisher, who signed us to our original contract. He

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was always available to us and provided a great deal of support and valued input throughout sev- eral editions. Presently, in editorial, Paul Ducham, managing director, executive brand manager Mike Ablassmeir, and senior development editor Laura Griffi n, kept things on track, responded quickly to our seemingly endless needs and requests, and offered insights and encouragement. We appreciate their expertise—as well as their patience! Once the manuscript was completed and revised, content project manager Harvey Yep expertly guided it through the print produc- tion process. Pam Verros provided excellent design, photo selection, and artwork guidance. Susan Lombardi, content project manager, did a superb job adding value to our supplementary materials and digital content. We also appreciate marketing manager Elizabeth Trepkowski and marketing specialist Liz Steiner for their energetic, competent, and thorough marketing efforts. Last, but certainly not least, we thank MHE’s 70-plus outstanding book reps—who serve on the “front lines”—as well as many in-house sales professionals based in Dubuque, Iowa. Clearly, they deserve a lot of credit (even though not mentioned by name) for our success.

Fourth, we acknowledge the valuable contributions of many of our strategy colleagues for their excellent contributions to our supplementary and digital materials. Such content really adds a lot of value to our entire package! We are grateful to Pauline Assenza, Western Connecticut State University, for her superb work on case teaching notes as well as chapter and case PowerPoints. We thank Doug Sanford, Towson University, for his expertise in developing several pedagogical features, including the teaching notes for the “Learning from Mistakes . . .” and carefully reviewing our Instructor Manual’s chapters. Justin Davis, University of West Florida, along with Noushi Rahman, Pace University, deserve our thanks for their hard work in developing excellent digital materials for Connect. And fi nally, we thank Christine Pence, University of California–Riverside, for her important contributions in revising our test bank and Todd Moss, Oregon State University, for his hard work in putting together an excellent set of videos online, along with the video grid that links videos to chapter material.

Finally, we would like to thank our families. For Greg this includes his parents, William and Mary Dess, who have always been there for him. His wife, Margie, and daughter, Taylor, have been a constant source of love and companionship. He would like to acknowledge his late uncle, Walter Descovich. Uncle Walt was truly a member of Tom Brokaw’s Greatest Genera- tion. He served in the U.S. Navy during World War II—where he learned electronics —and later became a superintendent at Consolidated Edison in New York City. He, his wife, Eleanor, and his family have been an inspiration to Greg over the years. Tom thanks his wife, Vicki, for her constant love and companionship. Tom also thanks Lee Hetherington and Thelma Lumpkin for their inspiration, as well as his mom, Katy, and his sister, Kitty, for a lifetime of support. Alan thanks his family—his wife, Helaine, and his children, Rachel and Jacob—for their love and support. He also thanks his parents, Gail Eisner and the late Marvin Eisner, for their support and encouragement. Gerry thanks his wife, Gaelen, for her love, support, and friendship and his children, Megan and AJ, for their love and the joy they bring to his life. He also thanks his parents, Gene and Jane, for their encouragement and support in all phases of his life.

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Learning from Mistakes In 1997, Daimler AG introduced an “ultra-urban” car at the Frankfurt Motor Show amid much fanfare. 1 Envisioned by Nicholas Hayek (inventor of Swatch Watch) and Mercedes- Benz, it received acclaim for its innovation, advanced engineering, and functionality as well as being simply fun to drive. Over one million were sold worldwide before it entered the U.S. market a decade later. What was this car that was transforming the urban transportation market? It was the Smart fortwo—a pocket-sized two-seater, high- efficiency vehicle made with cutting-edge materials that were as light as they were strong and had an impressively engineered Mercedes-Benz engine that made it fun to drive.

On January 16, 2008, the first Smart fortwo streaked through the streets of Manhattan, New York. The Smart fortwo was an immediate sensation in the United States, with sales of 24,600 units in its first year. With rising gas prices, a buoyant economy, and increasingly ecologically- aware consumers, Daimler had not only found a market, but also it was blazing a trail all across the United States. However, sales quickly dropped—just 20,000 cars were sold over the following three years. So where did Smart take a wrong turn?

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Learning Objectives Learning Objectives numbered LO5.1, LO5.2, LO5.3, etc. with corresponding icons in the margins to indicate where learning objectives are covered in the text.

I h l 2000 P&G f d h i h ld h i

NGOs AS MONITORS OF MNCs Although the number of NGOs worldwide is hard to determine, according to a recent study there are at least 40,000 multinational NGOs. There are also hundreds of thousands based in individual countries, with India leading the pack with one NGO for 400 of its citizens. What are NGOs and what do they do? NGOs such as Greenpeace or World Wildlife Fund include a wide array of groups and organizations—from activist groups “reclaiming the streets” to development organizations delivering aid and providing essential public services. Other NGOs are research-driven policy organiza- tions, looking to engage with decision makers. Still others see them- selves as watchdogs, casting a critical eye over current events.

Some NGOs recently broadened their monitoring or watchdog role of multinational corporations (MNCs) to include not just the MNC itself but also the MNC’s supply chain. As an example, Apple in 2011 received massive media scrutiny from Chinese environ- mental NGOs because the beloved U.S. technology giant ignored pollution violations of some of its Chinese suppliers. Following intense media pressure, Apple quickly arranged talks with the Chi- nese environmental NGOs and eventually increased environmental standards for its suppliers. However, the responsibility of MNCs does not stop with their immediate supplier base. International brands such as Nike and Adidas were targets of international

media attention because they procured finished goods from Chinese textile companies with questionable environmental prac- tices. These cases highlight that MNCs face substantial challenges in what is commonly assumed to be an arm’s length market transaction.

Although many MNCs are quick to react to environmental con- cerns raised by NGOs, a more proactive management of environ- mental issues in their supply chain may prevent public scrutiny and other embarrassments. Apparel company Levi Strauss takes a proactive approach that encourages self-monitoring by their suppliers. For each false or misleading environmental record, Levi Strauss issues the supplier a “zero tolerance” warning and will terminate the relationship after three such warnings. However, if the supplier voluntarily reports environmental issues, Levi Strauss does not issue a warning, but instead works with the supplier to correct the problems. This proactive approach encourages self- monitoring and decreases the risk of becoming the target of NGO attention and media pressure.

Sources: Esty, D. C. & Winston, A. S. 2009. Green to Gold. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley: 69–70; Barboza, D. 2011. Apple cited as adding to pollution in China. The New York Times, September 1: np; Plambeck, E., Lee, H.L., and Yatsko, P. 2011. Improving environmental performance in your Chinese supply chain. MIT Sloan Management Review, 53(2): 43–51; and Shukla, A. 2010. First official estimate: An NGO for every 400 people in India. www.indianexpress.com , July 7: np.

STRATEGY SPOTLIGHT 1.3 ETHICS

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Learning from Mistakes Learning from Mistakes are examples of where things went wrong. Failures are not only interesting but also sometimes easier to learn from. And students realize strategy is not just about “right or wrong” answers, but requires critical thinking.

Strategy Spotlight These boxes weave themes of ethics, globalization, and technology into every chapter of the text, providing students with a thorough grounding necessary for understanding strategic management. Select boxes incorporate crowdsourcing, environmental sustainability, and ethical themes.

guided

tour

Business-Level Strategy: Creating and Sustaining Competitive Advantages

After reading this chapter, you should have a good understanding of the following learning objectives:

LO5.1 The central role of competitive advantage in the study of strategic management, and the three generic strategies: overall cost leadership, differentiation, and focus.

LO5.2 How the successful attainment of generic strategies can improve a firm’s relative power vis-à-vis the five forces that determine an industry’s average profitability.

LO5.3 The pitfalls managers must avoid in striving to attain generic strategies.

LO5.4 How firms can effectively combine the generic strategies of overall cost leadership and differentiation.

LO5.5 What factors determine the sustainability of a firm’s competitive advantage.

LO5.6 How Internet-enabled business models are being used to improve strategic positioning.

LO5.7 The importance of considering the industry life cycle to determine a firm’s business-level strategy and its relative emphasis on functional area strategies and value-creating activities.

LO5.8 The need for turnaround strategies that enable a firm to reposition its competitive position in an industry.

Learning from Mistak Some of the most widely known brands and snack foods arena have been owned Corporation. 1 Since the 1930s, Hostess Br founded as Interstate Bakeries) produce popular baked goods, including Wonder B Ring Dings, Yodels, Zingers, and many o Even with its iconic brands and sales in o year, Hostess Brands found itself in a perilou went into bankruptcy in 2012. Unable to f solution to remain viable, in November closed down all of its bakeries and was for and sell off its brands to other bakeries. W of their brands and their longstanding ma was a surprise to many seeing the firm f wrong?

The viability of a fi rm’s business-level strat by both the internal operations of a fi rm an and preferences of the market. Firms that s the appropriate resources and cost structure needs of the environment. Hostess had long themselves in the baked goods business simple yet fl avorful baked snack goods that in kids’ lunchboxes for generations. Their stro the environment was undone by a combinati

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GUIDED TOUR

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and everyone else “fends for themselves” in their independent, isolated functional areas. Instead, people throughout the organization must strive toward overall goals.

The need for such a perspective is accelerating in today’s increasingly complex, inter- connected ever-changing global economy As noted by Peter Senge of MIT the days

THE BUSINESS CASE FOR SUSTAINABILITY The corporate sustainability, or “green,” movement describes a business philosophy that goes beyond legal compliance with envi- ronmental regulations. Historically, companies engaged in social issues by handing out checks to charities or victims of natural disasters. While these forms of “green marketing” are here to stay, the new corporate sustainability movement wants not only to do good but also to save big bucks.

Companies across the world embrace the concept of sus- tainability as a powerful source of innovation and improving operational effectiveness. Companies that translate sustainable business practices into improved operational performance focus on the opportunity cost represented by waste instead of the short- term cost of implementing sustainable business practices. One industry in which sustainability creates competitive advantage is retailing. Take Walmart for example. Walmart is far ahead of its major competitors Target and Sears in terms of reducing waste and the weight of its packaging. In 2009, Walmart’s Japanese Seiyu chain converted the packaging for its private-label fresh-cut

fruit and salads from oil-based to corn-based plastic. This opera- tional improvement reduced packaging weight by 25 percent and lowered freight and warehouse costs by 13 percent, saving Walmart more than $195,000 a year.

International Paper (IP), a global paper and packaging com- pany, is another company that benefits from sustainable business practices. IP recognized that its future profitability depends on a steady supply of trees, and it has planted more than 4 billion tree seedlings since the 1950s. The company also cut dependence on fossil fuel by 21 percent from 2005 to 2010—partially achieved by burning limbs and other biomass debris from tree processing. These sustainability decisions paid off and saved IP $221 million annually. IP also formalized specific sustainability goals, such as reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 20 percent by 2020, high- lighting the company’s commitment to sustainability.

Sources: Stanford, D. 2011. Why sustainability is winning over CEOs. Bloomberg BusinessWeek, March 31: np; Gupta, N.J. & Benson, C. 2011. Sustainability and competitive advantage: An empirical study of value creation. Competitive Forum, 9(1): 121–136; International Paper. 2012. International Paper announces 12 voluntary sustainability goals to be achieved by 2020. www.internationalpaper.com , May 16: np.

STRATEGY SPOTLIGHT 1.4 ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY

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and everyone else “fends for themselves” in their independent, isolated functional areas. Instead, people throughout the organization must strive toward overall goals.

The need for such a perspective is accelerating in today’s increasingly complex, inter- connected ever-changing global economy As noted by Peter Senge of MIT the days

issues by handing out checks to charities or victims of natural disasters. While these forms of “green marketing” are here to stay, the new corporate sustainability movement wants not only to do good but also to save big bucks.

Companies across the world embrace the concept of sus- tainability as a powerful source of innovation and improving operational effectiveness. Companies that translate sustainable business practices into improved operational performance focus on the opportunity cost represented by waste instead of the short- term cost of implementing sustainable business practices. One industry in which sustainability creates competitive advantage is retailing. Take Walmart for example. Walmart is far ahead of its major competitors Target and Sears in terms of reducing waste and the weight of its packaging. In 2009, Walmart’s Japanese Seiyu chain converted the packaging for its private-label fresh-cut

International Paper (IP), a global paper and packaging pany, is another company that benefits from sustainable bus practices. IP recognized that its future profitability depends steady supply of trees, and it has planted more than 4 billion seedlings since the 1950s. The company also cut dependen fossil fuel by 21 percent from 2005 to 2010—partially ach by burning limbs and other biomass debris from tree proces These sustainability decisions paid off and saved IP $221 m annually. IP also formalized specific sustainability goals, su reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 20 percent by 2020, lighting the company’s commitment to sustainability.

Sources: Stanford, D. 2011. Why sustainability is winning over CEOs. Bloombe BusinessWeek, March 31: np; Gupta, N.J. & Benson, C. 2011. Sustainability and competitive advantage: An empirical study of value creation. Competitive Forum 9(1): 121–136; International Paper. 2012. International Paper announces 12 volu sustainability goals to be achieved by 2020. www.internationalpaper.com , May m

HOW GOLDCORP USED CROWDSOURCING TO STRIKE GOLD! About 15 years ago, Toronto-based gold mining company Gold- corp was in big trouble. Besieged by strikes, lingering debts, and an exceedingly high cost of production, the firm had terminated mining operations. Conditions in the marketplace were quite poor, and the gold market was contracting. Most analysts assumed that the company’s 50-year-old mine in Red Lake, Ontario, was nearly dead. Without solid evidence of substantial new gold deposits, Goldcorp was likely to fold.

Clearly, CEO Robert McEwen needed a miracle. He was frus- trated with his in-house geologists’ reliability in estimating the value and location of gold on his property. He did something that was unprecedented in the industry: He published his geological data on the Web for all to see and challenged the world to do the prospecting. The “Goldcorp Challenge” posted a total of $575,000 in prize money to be awarded to the participants who submitted the best methods and estimates.

His reasoning: If he could attract the attention of world-class talent to the problem of finding more gold in Red Lake, just as Linux managed to attract world-class programmers to the cause of better software, he could tap into thousands of minds that he wouldn’t otherwise have access to. He could also speed up explo-

50 countries downloaded the company’s data and started their exploration. Says McEwen:

“We had math, advanced physics, intelligent systems, computer graphics, and organic solutions to inorganic problems. There were capabilities I had never seen before in the industry. When I saw the computer graphics, I almost fell out of my chair.”

The panel of five judges was astonished by the creativity of the submissions. The top winner, which won $105,000, was a collabo- ration by two groups in Australia: Fractal Graphics, of West Perth, and Taylor Wall & Associates, in Queensland. Together they had developed a powerful 3-D graphical depiction of the mine. One of the team members humorously stated, “I’ve never been to a mine. I’d never even been to Canada.” Overall, the contestants identified 110 targets on the Red Lake property, more than 80 percent of which yielded substantial quantities of gold. In fact, since the chal- lenge was initiated, an astounding 8 million ounces of gold have been found—worth well over $3 billion (given gold’s fluctuating market value). Most would agree that this is a pretty solid return on a half million dollar investment!

In 2012, Goldcorp had annual revenues of over $5 billion and a market value of $36 billion! Not bad for a once failing firm . . .

STRATEGY SPOTLIGHT 2.5 CROWDSOURCING

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Reflecting on Career Implications . . . Creating the Environmentally Aware Organization:

Advancing your career requires constant scanning, monitoring, and intelligence gathering to find out not only future job opportunities but also to understand how employers’ expectations are changing. Consider using websites such as LinkedIn to find opportunities. Merely posting your resume on a site such as LinkedIn may not be enough. Instead, consider in what ways you can use such sites for scanning, monitoring, and intelligence gathering.

SWOT Analysis: As an analytical method, SWOT analysis is applicable for individuals as it is for firms. It is important for you to periodically evaluate your strengths and weaknesses as well as potential opportunities and threats to your career. Such analysis should be followed by efforts to address your weaknesses by improving your skills and capabilities.

General Environment: The general environment consists of several segments, such as the demographic, sociocultural, political/legal, technological, economic, and global environments. It would be useful to evaluate how each of these segments can affect your career opportunities. Identify two or three specific trends (e.g., rapid technological change, aging of the population, increase in minimum wages) and their impact on your choice of careers. These also provide possibilities for you to add value for your organization.

Five-Forces Analysis: Before you go for a job interview, consider the five forces affecting the industry within which the firm competes. This will help you to appear knowledgeable about the industry and increase your odds of landing the job. It also can help you to decide if you want to work for that organization. If the “forces” are unfavorable, the long-term profit potential of the industry may be unattractive, leading to fewer resources available and—all other things being equal— fewer career opportunities.

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Reflecting on Career Implications This new section before the summary of every chapter consists of examples on how understanding of key concepts helps business students early in their careers.

Cases Updated case lineup provides 6 new cases. The remaining have been revised to “maximize freshness” and minimize instructor preparation time. New cases for this edition include well-known companies such as Boston Beer, Campbell Soup, KickStarter, and Zynga.

Key Terms Key Terms defined in the margins have been added to improve students’ understanding of core strategy concepts.

competitive advantage A firm’s resources and capabilities that enable it to overcome the competitive forces in its industry(ies).

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CASE 19 :: ZYNGA C123

CASES

Zynga, located in San Francisco, California, has become a dominant player in the online gaming field, almost entirely through the use of social media platforms. The com- pany name was established by the CEO, Mark Pincus, to pay tribute to his late beloved pet bulldog named Zinga. Although this seems whimsical, Zynga was actually quite a powerful company. To exemplify Zynga’s prominence, Facebook, which in 2012 had revenues exceeding $3.7 bil- lion, was reported to have earned roughly 12 percent of that revenue from the operations of Zynga’s virtual mer- chandise sales. 1

No other direct competitor is close to this revenue lead. Zynga’s collection of games continues to increase, with more and more success stories emerging. Being a rela- tively new company to the market, their quick success is astonishing, something that not many others have been able to mimic. However, Zynga’s impressive financials may be at risk because of what may be considered ques- tionable decision making. Many of Zynga’s competitors, and even some partners, are displeased with their actions and have begun to show it in the form of litigation. Agin- court, a plaintiff of a recent lawsuit brought against Zynga, was quoted as saying, “Zynga’s remarkable growth has not been driven by its own ingenuity. Rather it has been widely reported that Zynga’s business model is to copy creative ideas and game designs from other game developers and then use its market power to bulldoze the games’ origina- tors.” 2 If these lawsuits and other ethical issues continue to arise for Zynga as often as they have been, Zynga’s power- ful bulldog may start looking more like a poodle.

The Product With a newfound abundance of software developers, the ability to create and distribute these games is increasing by the day, and the demand to play them is equally high. How- ever, while many people find these games fun, and better yet therapeutic, others can’t understand the hype. The best way to illuminate the sudden infatuation is to observe it as a relaxation method. In the movies, often you see large executive offices with putting greens, dart boards, or even a bar full of alcoholic beverages. These all mean to serve the same purpose: to relieve stress during a hard day’s work. We’ve all been there and all look for a way to cope. How- ever, few of us have the opportunity to use such things as

putting greens to unwind at the workplace. And even if we did, how long could we really afford to partake in such an activity before being pulled back to our desks? This is one of the many purposes that these virtual games fulfill. No need to leave your desk. No need to make others around you aware of your relaxation periods. Better yet, no need to separate the task of relaxation from sitting at your com- puter while you work. The ability to log onto these games from the very same screen and “relax” here and there as the day goes by makes it all the more enticing. This, of course, is just one of many uses for the games. Others play it after work or at the end of a long day. With the takeover of smartphones, people of all ages can play these games on the go throughout the day. Sitting on the bus, in the waiting room of a doctor’s office, or at the DMV, it has never been easier to interact through gameplay that is readily available with the click of a button.

Market Size Compared to other game developers with games present on the Facebook platform, Zynga is a dominant force. It ranks first in market share at about 39 percent and first in revenue generation at over $500 million. It has 38 percent of the daily Facebook game players, and about 240 million monthly users, roughly 18 percent of all Facebook’s users as of 2012 (see Exhibits 1 and 2 ). Zynga’s nearest competitor, EA Play- fish, recorded just an estimated $90 million in revenue, or 6.5 percent of the market (as of 2010). 3 Zynga has gained almost all of its following through Facebook and its users, and this has led to a substantial portion of Zynga’s profits.

Zynga’s virtual games give the opportunity for con- stant build-up and improvements, offering the user virtual goods and services to increase their gaming experience. These items can be purchased using a credit card and are often needed to accomplish fast progressions in the games. These goods are advertised throughout the games and entice you by offering price cuts for larger purchases. On top of its lucrative business model selling virtual goods and advertisements, Zynga also recently raised approxi- mately $1 billion in capital, during its initial public offer- ing when it began trading on NASDAQ in December 2011 (see Exhibits 3 and 4 ).

Zynga’s virtual games can be played both remotely and through social media platforms, most commonly Facebook. As of February 2012, Zynga’s games had over 240 million monthly users on Facebook. 4 Five of Zynga’s games, FarmVille, CityVille, Empire and Allies, Cas- tleVille, and Texas HoldEm Poker, continue to be some of

CASE 19 ZYNGA *

*This case was developed by graduate student Eric S. Engelson and Professor Alan B. Eisner, Pace University. Material has been drawn from published sources to be used for class discussion. Copyright © 2013 Alan B. Eisner.

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CASE 20 :: THE BOSTON BEER COMPANY C128

CASE 20 THE BOSTON BEER COMPANY * The Boston Beer Company, known for its Samuel Adams brand, is the largest craft brewery in the United States, holding a 1 percent stake in the overall beer market. 1 It faces growing competitive threats from other breweries, both large and small. In the past several years, the beer industry as a whole has been on a decline, while sales of wines and spirits have increased. The Boston Beer Com- pany competes within the premium beer industry, which includes craft beer and premium imported beers like Heineken and Corona. Although the beer industry has been on a decline, the premium beer industry has seen a small amount of growth, and the craft beer industry has seen a surge in popularity. Because of this success of the craft breweries in particular the major breweries have taken notice and many new craft breweries have sprung up.

Anheuser-Busch Inbev and MillerCoors, LLC, account for over 80 percent of the beer market in the United States. 2 They have caught on to the current trend in the beer industry toward higher quality beers and have started releasing their own higher quality beers. For example, Anheuser-Busch Inbev has released Bud Light Wheat and Bud Light Platinum in an effort to provide quality beers to their loyal customers. MillerCoors makes Blue Moon beer, which is the most popular craft beer in the United States. Anheuser-Busch Inbev released ShockTop to combat the popularity of Blue Moon. These companies have also begun to purchase smaller craft breweries, whose products have been rising in popularity. Anheuser-Busch Inbev pur- chased Goose Island Brewing Company in March 2011. MillerCoors has started a group within the company titled Tenth and Blake Beer Company for the purpose of creating and purchasing craft breweries. According to MillerCoors CEO Tom Lang, the plan is to grow Tenth and Blake Beer Company by 60 percent within the next three years. 3 The two major companies plan to use their massive marketing budgets to tell people about their craft beers.

According to the Brewers Association, 1,940 craft breweries and 1,989 total breweries operated in the United States for some or all of 2011. While craft brewer- ies account for over 97 percent of all the breweries in the United States, they only produce approximately 25 percent of all beer sold. 4 However, with the rise in popularity of premium beers, the craft breweries will continue to grab

more of the market. As the country’s largest craft brew- ery, the Boston Beer Company had revenue of over $500 million in 2011 and sold over 2 million barrels of beer. Other large craft breweries include New Belgium Brewing Company and Sierra Nevada Brewing Company, which sold over 580,000 and 720,000 barrels of beer in 2011, respectively. 5 In addition, some smaller breweries have been merging to take advantage of economies of scale and enhance their competitive position.

According to the Boston Beer Company, there are approximately 770 craft breweries that ship their prod- uct domestically, up from 420 in 2006. There are also an expected 800 craft breweries in the planning stage, expect- ing to be operational within the next 2–3 years. Boston Beer Company assumes that 300 of those 800 will be shipping breweries (i.e., breweries that sell their prod- uct beyond their local market). Thus, within the next few years, Samuel Adams beer may be competing with over 1,000 other craft breweries around the country.

The Boston Beer Company competes not only with domestic craft breweries but also with premium beer imports, such as Heineken and Corona, which sell beer in a similar price range. Like Anheuser-Busch Inbev and MillerCoors, Heineken and Corona have large financial resources and can influence the market. It is projected that premium imported beers will grow by 6 percent over the next five years.

The Brewers Association defines a craft brewery as brewing less than six million barrels per year and being less than 25 percent owned or controlled by another economic interest. Maintaining status as a craft brewery can be impor- tant for image and, therefore, sales. Thus, MillerCoors purchased less than a 25 percent stake in Terrapin Beer, still allowing it to maintain its craft brewery status. The size of the Boston Beer Company, however, is an issue. With con- tinued growth, the brewery could potentially increase its volume output to more than 6 million barrels per year, thus losing its craft brewery status. Furthermore, with the size of the company and their ability to market nationwide, the company runs the risk of alienating itself from other craft breweries who believe Samuel Adams no longer fits the profile. Many craft breweries already believe the company, which has been public since 1995, is more concerned with making money than with providing quality beer and edu- cating the public on craft beers.

Size does have advantages, of course, with more money for marketing and, especially in the beer business, with distribution. A heavy complaint for all craft breweries is

CASES

*This case was developed by graduate students Peter J. Courtney and Eric S. Engelson and Professor Alan B. Eisner, Pace University. Material has been drawn from published sources to be used for class discussion. Copyright © 2013 Alan B. Eisner.

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EXHIBIT 1.3 The Strategic Management Process

Chapter 1 Introduction

and Analyzing Goals and Objectives

Chapter 4 Assessing Intellectual

Capital

Chapter 2 Analyzing

the External Environment

Chapter 3 Analyzing

the Internal Environment

Chapter 13 Case

Analysis

Case Analysis

Strategic Formulation Strategic Implementation

Strategic Analysis

Chapter 5 Formulating

Business-Level Strategies

Chapter 8 Entrepreneurial

Strategy and Competitive Dynamics

Chapter 6 Formulating Corporate-

Level Strategies

Chapter 7 Formulating International Strategies

Chapter 9 Strategic

Control and Corporate

Governance

Chapter 12 Fostering Corporate

Entrepreneur- ship

Chapter 10 Creating Effective

Organizational Designs

Chapter 11 Strategic Lead- Iership Excel- lence, Ethics and Change

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Exhibits Both new and improved exhibits in every chapter provide visual presentations of the most complex concepts covered to support student comprehension.

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CASE 28 :: PROCTER & GAMBLE C196

There was a visible sign of relief in the voice of Bob McDonald, the embattled CEO of Procter & Gamble, when he announced the firm’s quarterly numbers on Janu- ary 25, 2013. Sales had actually risen by 3 percent, beat- ing analysts’ expectations. This was a rare moment of achievement for McDonald, who has struggled to show results for P&G since he took over in 2009. Back then, he had boldly announced that the company’s sales would rise from $75 billion in 2009 to over $100 billion by 2013. Instead, the firm had only managed to raise sales to about $84 billion, while its net income had dropped by as much as 20 percent.

Since its founding 175 years ago, P&G had risen to the status of an American icon with well-known consumer prod- ucts such as Pampers, Tide, Downy, and Crest. In fact, the firm has long been admired for its superior products, its mar- keting brilliance, and the intense loyalty of its employees, who have respectfully come to be known as Proctoids. With 25 brands that each generate more than $1 billion in sales, P&G has become the largest consumer products company in the world.

It was therefore clear to McDonald that he was taking on the mantle of one of the biggest companies in the world, one that had shown consistent growth for most of its exis- tence. Beyond this, he was succeeding Alan G. Lafley, who had resurrected P&G after its last major downturn. Lafley had electrified a then-demoralized organization by shak- ing things up. He shepherded products such as Swiffer and Febreze to megahit status and acquired Gillette to provide P&G with a major presence in the men’s market for the first time. Finally, by relaunching Olay and acquiring Clai- rol, Lafley had pushed the firm into higher-margin beauty products (see Exhibit 1 ).

Under McDonald, however, P&G’s growth has stalled, as it has been losing market share in two-thirds of its markets. Recession-battered consumers have abandoned the firm’s premium-priced products for cheaper alterna- tives even as the company’s efforts to build market share in the developing world have been stymied by newly nimble rivals such as Unilever and Colgate-Palmolive. New products that have targeted lower-income consumers have not generated sufficient sales to make up for the loss of sales to the struggling middle-class segment (see

CASE 28 PROCTER & GAMBLE *

CASES

*Case developed by Professor Jamal Shamsie, Michigan State University, with the assistance of Professor Alan B. Eisner, Pace University. Material has been drawn from published sources to be used for purposes of class discussion. Copyright © 2013 Jamal Shamsie and Alan B. Eisner.

Key Products Billion Dollar Brands

Fabric care & home care

Air care Batteries Dish care Fabric care Pet care

Ace Ariel Dawn Downy Duracell Febreze Gain Tide Iams

Beauty Cosmetics Deodorants Hair Care Personal Cleansing Fragrances Skin Care

Head & Shoulders Olay Pantene Wella SK-II

Baby care & family care

Baby wipes Bath & facial tissue Diapers Paper towels

Bounty Charmin Pampers

Health care Feminine care Oral care Rapid diagnostics Personal health care

Always Crest Oral B Vicks

Grooming Blades and Razors Face and Shave Products Hair care appliances

Braun Fusion Gillette Mach 3

EXHIBIT 1 Business Segments

Source: P&G.

Exhibits 2 to 4). More significantly, the firm’s vaunted innovation machine has stalled, with no major product success over the last five years.

P&G’s woes have eroded morale among employees, with many managers taking early retirement or bolting to competitors. Says Ed Artzt, who was CEO from 1990 to 1995, “The most unfortunate aspect of this whole thing is the brain drain. The loss of good people is almost irrepa- rable when you depend on promotion from within to con- tinue building the company.” 1 Critics claim that the current turmoil may have serious implications for the long-term prospects for the firm. Ali Dibadj, a senior analyst at San Bernstein expanded on this view: “The next six months may be the most crucial in P&G’s 175-year history.” 2

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Key Products Billion Dollar Brands

ome Air care Batteries Dish care Fabric care Pet care

Ace Ariel Dawn Downy Duracell Febreze Gain Tide Iams

Cosmetics Deodorants Hair Care Personal Cleansing Fragrances Skin Care

Head & Shoulders Olay Pantene Wella SK-II

mily Baby wipes Bath & facial tissue Diapers Paper towels

Bounty Charmin Pampers

Feminine care Oral care Rapid diagnostics Personal health care

Always Crest Oral B Vicks

Blades and Razors Face and Shave Products Hair care appliances

Braun Fusion Gillette Mach 3

Business Segments

4). More significantly, the firm’s vaunted achine has stalled, with no major product he last five years. es have eroded morale among employees,

anagers taking early retirement or bolting to Says Ed Artzt, who was CEO from 1990 to ost unfortunate aspect of this whole thing is n. The loss of good people is almost irrepa- u depend on promotion from within to con- the company.” 1 Critics claim that the current

have serious implications for the long-term the firm. Ali Dibadj, a senior analyst at San anded on this view: “The next six months

ost crucial in P&G’s 175-year history.” 2

CASE 33 :: UNITED WAY WORLDWIDE C246

CASE 33 UNITED WAY WORLDWIDE * In 2012, while charitable donations in the United States grew by 1.7 percent on a year-over-year basis, United Way once again failed to maintain upward sloping revenues compared to the year prior. In 2012 revenue totaled $3.9 billion, as compared with $4.2 billion in 2011. In 2010 America’s wealthiest individuals gave less to charity than they had since 2000; and in 2009, some of the biggest U.S. charities saw donations fall by 11 percent, the worst decline in 20 years. 1 This continued trend—reduction in giving, increase in need—had prompted United Way to change strategy. On July 1, 2009, United Way of America (UWA) changed its name to United Way Worldwide (UWW) and merged with United Way International (UWI). UWW also initiated a 10-year program, “Live United,” focused less on distribution of funds and more on advancing the common good by addressing underlying causes of problems in the core areas of education, financial stability, and health. Yet with positive financial results still seemingly inexistent, would donors finally become reenergized and create real change in the communities United Way served, or have universal struggles weakened the ability and eagerness to donate of even those most able to do so?

UWW provided support for over 1,800 local United Way members or affiliates operating in 46 countries. These local organizations relied on their respective parents for resources such as leadership education, public policy advocacy, mar- keting support, and standards for ethical governance and financial reporting. United Ways worldwide were part of a federation of nonprofits formed by caring people to serve the needs of their communities. According to UWW’s website, “We advance the common good by focusing on improving education, helping people achieve financial stability, and promoting healthy lives, and by mobiliz- ing millions of people to give, advocate, and volunteer to improve the conditions in which they live.” United Way raised and distributed funds to the most effective local ser- vice providers; built alliances and coordinated volunteer support among charities, businesses, and other entities; and acted as best-practice models of management and financial accountability—but this last item had become a source of problems. With three high-profile ethical scandals since

1995 at both the national and local level, the United Way brand had to combat an erosion of trust, at the same time that it was dealing with an increasingly competitive and changing environment for charitable contributors.

Even after over 120 years of solid financial performance and steady growth, since the year 2000 United Way had seemingly reached a plateau of fund-raising in the United States. Certainly, there were options for growth from interna- tional members and from the energy and direction of nation- wide objectives stated by United Way of America (education about and implementation of the national 2-1-1 phone net- work; the early childhood educational initiatives Success by 6 and Born Learning; encouragement of nationwide volun- tarism through the Lend a Hand public service announce- ments funded by a donation from the NFL; and the Assets for Family Success economic self-sufficiency program for working families). Yet charitable donations still had not topped the inflation-adjusted peak-year campaign of 1989. 2

In addition, in 2011 veteran fund-raisers on all fronts were citing challenges, such as competition for donations, difficulty recruiting and keeping qualified fund-raisers, difficulty raising money for general operating costs, and a growing focus on large gifts from very wealthy individuals, which, when publicized, could reduce the motivation for smaller donors to contribute. (Small donors might think, “If someone like Bill Gates is providing funds, why do they need my dollars?”) 3 From the donors’ perspective, the opportunities for both individuals and businesses to engage in charitable giving had expanded, with over 40 percent of new nonprofits appearing since 2000. 4 Many of these, especially those supporting disaster relief in the wake of 9/11, Hurricane Katrina, and Hurricane Sandy, had a single-issue focus that had the potential for creating a close bond with the donor. This meant that some individ- uals might have bypassed organizations such as the United Way, believing that the United Way had support targets that were too broad, preferring, instead, to specify exactly where donations should go. (Such a donor might think, “If I’m giving, I want to make sure my money is going where I want it to go, to the cause I want to support.”)

Even prior to 9/11, American donors had expressed concern about their ability to access information regarding how their donations were going to be used, what percentage of the charity’s spending went toward actual current pro- grams, how their privacy was going to be protected when giving via the Internet, and whether the charity met volun- tary standards of conduct. 5 It didn’t help that many non- profits, including United Way of America, suffered widely

CASES

*By Professor Alan B. Eisner of Pace University, Associate Professor Pauline Assenza, Western Connecticut State University, and graduate student Luz Barrera of Pace University. This case is based upon public documents and was developed for class discussion rather than to illustrate either effective or ineffective handling of the situation. This research was supported in part by the Wilson Center for Social Entrepreneurship, Pace University. Copyright © 2013 & Alan B. Eisner.

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Go to library tab in Connect to access Case Financials.

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Online Learning Center (OLC) The website www.mhhe.com/dess7e follows the text chapter-by-chapter. OLC content is ancillary and supplementary germane to the textbook. As students read the book, they can go online to take self-grading quizzes, review material, or work through interactive exercises. It includes chapter quizzes, student PowerPoint slides, and links to strategy simulations The Business Strategy Game and GLO-BUS.

The instructor section also includes the Instructor’s Manual, PowerPoint Presentations, Case Study Teaching Notes, Case Grid, and Video Guide as well as all student resources.

support materials

GUIDED TOUR

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Preface vi

part 1 Strategic Analysis 1 Strategic Management: Creating Competitive

Advantages 2

2 Analyzing the External Environment of the Firm 34

3 Assessing the Internal Environment of the Firm 70

4 Recognizing a Firm’s Intellectual Assets: Moving beyond a Firm’s Tangible Resources 104

part 2 Strategic Formulation 5 Business-Level Strategy: Creating and Sustaining

Competitive Advantages 140

6 Corporate-Level Strategy: Creating Value through Diversification 178

7 International Strategy: Creating Value in Global Markets 210

8 Entrepreneurial Strategy and Competitive Dynamics 246

part 3 Strategic Implementation 9 Strategic Control and Corporate Governance 276

10 Creating Effective Organizational Designs 310

11 Strategic Leadership: Creating a Learning Organization and an Ethical Organization 344

12 Managing Innovation and Fostering Corporate Entrepreneurship 376

part 4 Case Analysis 13 Analyzing Strategic Management Cases 412

Cases C-1

Indexes I-1

brief contents

BRIEF CONTENTS

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Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi

PART 1 Strategic Analysis CHAPTER 1 Strategic Management: Creating Competitive Advantages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

What Is Strategic Management? . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Defining Strategic Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 The Four Key Attributes of Strategic Management . . . . . . .8

The Strategic Management Process . . . . . . . . . . 9 Intended versus Realized Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Strategy Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Strategy Formulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Strategy Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13

The Role of Corporate Governance and Stakeholder Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Alternative Perspectives of Stakeholder

Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Social Responsibility and Environmental

Sustainability: Moving beyond the Immediate Stakeholders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17

The Strategic Management Perspective: An Imperative throughout the Organization . . . . . 20 Ensuring Coherence in Strategic Direction . . . . 22 Organizational Vision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 Mission Statements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 Strategic Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29

CHAPTER 2 Analyzing the External Environment of the Firm: Creating Competitive Advantages . . . . 34

Creating the Environmentally Aware Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 The Role of Scanning, Monitoring, Competitive

Intelligence, and Forecasting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36 SWOT Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41

The General Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 The Demographic Segment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42 The Sociocultural Segment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42 The Political/Legal Segment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44 The Technological Segment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45 The Economic Segment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45 The Global Segment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46 Relationships among Elements of the General

Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46

The Competitive Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Porter’s Five-Forces Model of Industry

Competition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49 How the Internet and Digital Technologies

Are Affecting the Five Competitive Forces . . . . . . . . . .55 Using Industry Analysis: A Few Caveats . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59 Strategic Groups within Industries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .65

CHAPTER 3 Assessing the Internal Environment of the Firm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70

Value-Chain Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Primary Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .74 Support Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76 Interrelationships among Value-Chain Activities

within and across Organizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79 The “Prosumer” Concept: Integrating Customers

into the Value Chain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .80 Applying the Value Chain to Service

Organizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .81

Resource-Based View of the Firm . . . . . . . . . . . 82 Types of Firm Resources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83

contents

CONTENTS

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Firm Resources and Sustainable Competitive Advantages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85

The Generation and Distribution of a Firm’s Profits: Extending the Resource-Based View of the Firm . . . . .90

Evaluating Firm Performance: Two Approaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 Financial Ratio Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92 Integrating Financial Analysis and Stakeholder

Perspectives: The Balanced Scorecard . . . . . . . . . . . . .94 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .98

CHAPTER 4 Recognizing a Firm’s Intellectual Assets: Moving beyond a Firm’s Tangible Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104

The Central Role of Knowledge in Today’s Economy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 Human Capital: The Foundation of Intellectual Capital . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Attracting Human Capital . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .110 Developing Human Capital . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .112 Retaining Human Capital . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .116 Enhancing Human Capital: The Role of Diversity

in the Workforce . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .117

The Vital Role of Social Capital . . . . . . . . . . . 118 How Social Capital Helps Attract and Retain Talent . . . .120 Social Networks: Implications for Knowledge

Management and Career Success . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .120 The Potential Downside of Social Capital . . . . . . . . . . . .125

Using Technology to Leverage Human Capital and Knowledge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 Using Networks to Share Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .126 Electronic Teams: Using Technology to Enhance

Collaboration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .127 Codifying Knowledge for Competitive Advantage . . . . . .128

Protecting the Intellectual Assets of the Organization: Intellectual Property and Dynamic Capabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 Intellectual Property Rights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .131 Dynamic Capabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .131 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .133

PART 2 Strategic Formulation CHAPTER 5 Business-Level Strategy: Creating and Sustaining Competitive Advantages . . . . . . . . . 140

Types of Competitive Advantage and Sustainability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 Overall Cost Leadership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .143 Differentiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .147 Focus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .152 Combination Strategies: Integrating Overall

Low Cost and Differentiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .154

Can Competitive Strategies Be Sustained? Integrating and Applying Strategic Management Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 Atlas Door: A Case Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .158 Are Atlas Door’s Competitive Advantages

Sustainable? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .159

How the Internet and Digital Technologies Affect the Competitive Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 Overall Cost Leadership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .160 Differentiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .161 Focus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .161 Are Combination Strategies the Key to E-Business

Success? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .162

Industry Life-Cycle Stages: Strategic Implications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 Strategies in the Introduction Stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .164 Strategies in the Growth Stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .165 Strategies in the Maturity Stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .165 Strategies in the Decline Stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .166 Turnaround Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .169 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .172

CHAPTER 6 Corporate-Level Strategy: Creating Value through Diversification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178

Making Diversification Work: An Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181

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Related Diversification: Economies of Scope and Revenue Enhancement . . . . . . . 182 Leveraging Core Competencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .182 Sharing Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .184

Enhancing Revenue and Differentiation . . . . . 185 Related Diversification: Market Power . . . . . . 185 Pooled Negotiating Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .185 Vertical Integration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .186

Unrelated Diversification: Financial Synergies and Parenting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189 Corporate Parenting and Restructuring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .189 Portfolio Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .190 Caveat: Is Risk Reduction a Viable Goal

of Diversification? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .192

The Means to Achieve Diversification . . . . . . 193 Mergers and Acquisitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .193 Strategic Alliances and Joint Ventures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .199 Internal Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .200

How Managerial Motives Can Erode Value Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 Growth for Growth’s Sake . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .201 Egotism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .201 Antitakeover Tactics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .202 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .204

CHAPTER 7 International Strategy: Creating Value in Global Markets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210

The Global Economy: A Brief Overview . . . . . 212 Factors Affecting a Nation’s Competitiveness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214 Factor Endowments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .214 Demand Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .214 Related and Supporting Industries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .215 Firm Strategy, Structure, and Rivalry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .215 Concluding Comment on Factors Affecting

a Nation’s Competitiveness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .215

International Expansion: A Company’s Motivations and Risks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217 Motivations for International Expansion . . . . . . . . . . . . .217

Potential Risks of International Expansion . . . . . . . . . . . .220 Global Dispersion of Value Chains: Outsourcing

and Offshoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .223

Achieving Competitive Advantage in Global Markets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225 Two Opposing Pressures: Reducing Costs

and Adapting to Local Markets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .225 International Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .228 Global Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .228 Multidomestic Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .230 Transnational Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .232 Global or Regional? A Second Look at Globalization . . . . .233

Entry Modes of International Expansion . . . . . 234 Exporting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .235 Licensing and Franchising . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .236 Strategic Alliances and Joint Ventures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .237 Wholly Owned Subsidiaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .238 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .241

CHAPTER 8 Entrepreneurial Strategy and Competitive Dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246

Recognizing Entrepreneurial Opportunities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248 Entrepreneurial Opportunities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .248 Entrepreneurial Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .251 Entrepreneurial Leadership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .255

Entrepreneurial Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256 Entry Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .257 Generic Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .260 Combination Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .262

Competitive Dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262 New Competitive Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .263 Threat Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .264 Motivation and Capability to Respond . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .266 Types of Competitive Actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .267 Likelihood of Competitive Reaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .269 Choosing Not to React: Forbearance and

Co-opetition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .270 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .272

CONTENTS

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PART 3 Strategic Implementation CHAPTER 9 Strategic Control and Corporate Governance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276

Ensuring Informational Control: Responding Effectively to Environmental Change . . . . . . . 278 A Traditional Approach to Strategic Control . . . . . . . . . .278 A Contemporary Approach to Strategic Control. . . . . . . .279

Attaining Behavioral Control: Balancing Culture, Rewards, and Boundaries . . . . . . . . . 281 Building a Strong and Effective Culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . .281 Motivating with Rewards and Incentives . . . . . . . . . . . . .283 Setting Boundaries and Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .284 Behavioral Control in Organizations:

Situational Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .286 Evolving from Boundaries to Rewards and Culture . . . . .287

The Role of Corporate Governance . . . . . . . . 288 The Modern Corporation: The Separation of Owners

(Shareholders) and Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .290 Governance Mechanisms: Aligning the Interests

of Owners and Managers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .291 CEO Duality: Is It Good or Bad? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .297 External Governance Control Mechanisms . . . . . . . . . . .298 Corporate Governance: An International

Perspective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .301 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .305

CHAPTER 10 Creating Effective Organizational Designs . . . . . 310

Traditional Forms of Organizational Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312 Patterns of Growth of Large Corporations:

Strategy-Structure Relationships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .312 Simple Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .314 Functional Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .314 Divisional Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .316 Matrix Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .319 International Operations: Implications for

Organizational Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .321

Global Start-Ups: A Recent Phenomenon . . . . . . . . . . . . .322 How an Organization’s Structure Can Influence

Strategy Formulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .324

Boundaryless Organizational Designs . . . . . . 324 The Barrier-Free Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .324 The Modular Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .328 The Virtual Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .329 Boundaryless Organizations: Making Them Work . . . . . .331

Creating Ambidextrous Organizational Designs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336 Ambidextrous Organizations: Key Design Attributes . . . .336 Why Was the Ambidextrous Organization the

Most Effective Structure? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .337 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .338

CHAPTER 11 Strategic Leadership: Creating a Learning Organization and an Ethical Organization . . . . . 344

Leadership: Three Interdependent Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346 Setting a Direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .347 Designing the Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .348 Nurturing a Culture Committed to Excellence

and Ethical Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .349

Getting Things Done: Overcoming Barriers and Using Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350 Overcoming Barriers to Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .350 The Effective Use of Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .351

Emotional Intelligence: A Key Leadership Trait . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354 Self-Awareness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .354 Self-Regulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .354 Motivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .355 Empathy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .355 Social Skill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .356 Emotional Intelligence: Some Potential

Drawbacks and Cautionary Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .357

Developing Competency Companions and Creating a Learning Organization . . . . . . 358 Inspiring and Motivating People with a Mission

or Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .360

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Empowering Employees at All Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .360 Accumulating and Sharing Internal Knowledge . . . . . . . .361 Gathering and Integrating External Information . . . . . . . .362 Challenging the Status Quo and Enabling

Creativity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .363

Creating an Ethical Organization . . . . . . . . . . 364 Individual Ethics versus Organizational Ethics . . . . . . . .365 Integrity-Based versus Compliance-Based

Approaches to Organizational Ethics . . . . . . . . . . . . .366 Role Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .368 Corporate Credos and Codes of Conduct . . . . . . . . . . . . .368 Reward and Evaluation Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .369 Policies and Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .370 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .372

CHAPTER 12 Managing Innovation and Fostering Corporate Entrepreneurship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376

Managing Innovation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378 Types of Innovation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .378 Challenges of Innovation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .381 Cultivating Innovation Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .382 Defining the Scope of Innovation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .384 Managing the Pace of Innovation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .385 Staffing to Capture Value from Innovation . . . . . . . . . . . .386 Collaborating with Innovation Partners . . . . . . . . . . . . . .386

Corporate Entrepreneurship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387 Focused Approaches to Corporate

Entrepreneurship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .390 Dispersed Approaches to Corporate

Entrepreneurship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .391 Measuring the Success of Corporate

Entrepreneurship Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .393

Real Options Analysis: A Useful Tool . . . . . . . 395 Applications of Real Options Analysis to Strategic

Decisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .395

Potential Pitfalls of Real Options Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . .396

Entrepreneurial Orientation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 398 Autonomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .399 Innovativeness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .400 Proactiveness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .401 Competitive Aggressiveness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .402 Risk Taking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .403 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .406

PART 4 Case Analysis CHAPTER 13 Analyzing Strategic Management Cases . . . . . . 412

Why Analyze Strategic Management Cases? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413 How to Conduct a Case Analysis . . . . . . . . . . 415 Become Familiar with the Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .418 Identify Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .418 Conduct Strategic Analyses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .419 Propose Alternative Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .419 Make Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .421

How to Get the Most from Case Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422 Useful Decision-Making Techniques in Case Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424 Conflict Inducing Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .427

Following the Analysis-Decision-Action Cycle in Case Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .436 Appendix 1 to Chapter 13: Financial Ratio

Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437 Appendix 2 to Chapter 13: Sources of Company and

Industry Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 447

Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-1

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1 ROBIN HOOD Hypothetical; Classic Robin Hood and his Merrymen are in trouble, as wealthy travelers are avoiding Sherwood Forest. This classic case is an excellent introduction to strategic management using a nonbusiness solution . . . . . . . . C2

2 EDWARD MARSHALL BOEHM, INC. Housewares and Accessories, Porcelain Collectibles; Classic This classic case concerns the future direction of a small, high-quality porcelain art objects company . . . . . . . . C3

3 AMERICAN INTERNATIONAL GROUP AND THE BONUS FIASCO Insurance AIG, one of the largest and most respected insurance companies in the world, found itself in big financial distress in September 2008. Unable to post collateral, AIG approached the government for a bailout . . . . . C4

4 PIXAR Movies Disney CEO Bob Iger worked hard to clinch the deal to acquire Pixar, whose track record has made it one of the world’s most successful animation companies. Iger realized, however, that he must try to protect Pixar’s creative culture while also trying to carry that culture over to some of Disney’s animation efforts . . . . . . . C7

5 THE CASINO INDUSTRY Casino Industry To deal with the slower growth in gaming revenues, casinos have felt the need to spend more and more in order to entice more gamblers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C11

6 APPLE INC.: STILL TAKING A BITE OUT OF THE COMPETITION? Computers, Consumer Electronics Apple was flying high on the success of the iPad mini and iPhone 5. However, CEO Tim Cook had big shoes to fill without founder Steve Jobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C17

7 WEIGHT WATCHERS INTERNATIONAL INC. Weight Loss Weight Watchers was reinventing weight loss for a new generation and hoping profits would jump off the scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C29

8 JAMBA JUICE Smoothies / QSR Jamba Juice Company gradually expanded its product line over the past several years to offer Jamba products that pleased a broader palate, but was the company biting off more than it could chew? After years of same-store sales declines and financial losses, CEO James White had his work cut out for him . . . . . . . C39

9 ANN TAYLOR Retail, Women’s Fashion The founding brand, the Ann Taylor division, struggled to maintain focus and present basic, professional clothing to its iconic customers after being upstaged by its younger sister, Ann Taylor Loft . . . . . . . . . . . . . C47

10 HEINEKEN Beer Heineken can lay claim to a brand that may be the closest thing to a global beer brand. But in the United States, Heineken has lost its leading position among imported beers to Corona, the Mexican beer that is often served with a garnish of lime. Would the move to acquire Asian Pacific Breweries and Tiger Beer brand help it in Asia? . . . . . . C58

11 QVC Retail Nail clippers that catch clippings, bicycle seats built for bigger bottoms, and novelty items shaped like coffins were among the nearly 600 products trying out for a spot on the QVC home shopping channel. However, QVC’s CEO Mike George is concerned about where the opportunities for further growth will come from for the world’s largest television home shopping channel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C63

cases

CASES

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12 WORLD WRESTLING ENTERTAINMENT Entertainment WWE’s potent mix of shaved, pierced, and pumped-up muscled hunks; buxom, scantily clad, and sometimes cosmetically enhanced beauties; and body-bashing clashes of good versus evil had resulted in an empire that claimed over 35 million fans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C68

13 EBAY: EXPANDING INTO CHINA Internet eBay announced that its PayPal business would set up an international ecommerce hub in Chongqing, China, as the company tried to gain the local expertise it desperately needed to compete with China’s top auction site, Taobao. However, little ground was gained and CEO John Donahoe would have to reconcile why one of the fastest-growing companies in history was moving so slowly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C74

14 MICROFINANCE: GOING GLOBAL . . . AND GOING PUBLIC? Banking With the global success of the microfinance concept, the number of private microfinance institutions exploded and initial public offerings for these institutions was on the rise. This transfer of control to public buyers creates a fiduciary duty of the bank’s management to maximize shareholder value. Will this be a good thing for these typically “do good” banks? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C85

15 MCDONALD’S Restaurant McDonald’s turnaround strategy was working, but the firm still faced a rapidly fragmenting market where changes in the tastes of consumers had made once-exotic foods like sushi and burritos everyday options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C88

16 THE MOVIE EXHIBITION INDUSTRY 2013 Movies Movies remain as popular as ever, but opportunities for viewing outside the theater have greatly increased. While motion picture studios increased revenues through product licensing, DVD sales, and international expansion, the exhibitors—movie theaters—have seen their business decline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C94

17 IS DIPPIN’ DOTS FROZEN OUT? Ice Cream Dippin’ Dots Ice Cream is faced with mounting competition for its flagship tiny beads of ice cream that are made and served at super-cold temperatures. Can it survive the chill of the economic downturn? . . . . C106

18 JOHNSON & JOHNSON Pharmaceuticals, Personal Care Products, Medical Devices Executives from health care conglomerate Johnson & Johnson had known about a critical design flaw with an artificial hip but decided to conceal this information from physicians and patients. Johnson & Johnson’s DePuy Orthopaedics unit kept selling the hip replacement. Could more centralized control improve quality? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C116

19 ZYNGA Multimedia and Online Games The company name appears to have been whimsically chosen by the CEO Mark Pincus, to pay tribute to his late beloved pet bulldog. However the online gaming revenues were no joking matter. Zynga’s partner, Facebook, reported that roughly 12 percent of its $3.7 billion in revenue was from the operations of Zynga’s virtual merchandise sales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C123

20 THE BOSTON BEER COMPANY Beer Boston Beer Company was in a tough position as the largest craft brewery in the United States; holding a one percent stake in the overall beer market. Both the smaller craft breweries and the larger breweries such as MillerCoors’ Blue Moon brand beer and Anheuser-Busch Inbev’s ShockTop craft brew, wanted to complete with them. Only time will tell if Boston Beer will continue to brew flavorful beers that people enjoy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C128

21 SOUTHWEST AIRLINES: IS LUV SOARING OR SOUR? Airline Southwest Airlines has emerged as the largest domestic carrier. As Southwest is becoming a different creature, how long can it hold on to its “underdog” image? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C137

CASES

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22 JETBLUE AIRLINES: GETTING OVER THE “BLUES”? Airline This airline start-up success story is facing new challenges as operational problems have surfaced and the founder has left the CEO’s seat . . . . . . . . . . . C146

23 BEIERSDORF AG: EXPANDING NIVEA’S GLOBAL REACH Skin Care Products and Cosmetics German skin care producer Beiersdorf faced opposition to a restructuring plan from employees and work councils. The Nivea brand’s ineffective China entry, strong competitors, and a slow economic recovery were big challenges for this skin care concern . . . . . . . C155

24 LOUIS VUITTON Luxury Consumer Goods Louis Vuitton, the flagship group within Moët Hennessy Louis Vuitton (LVMH), had contributed to the stellar growth of the group in 2010 and 2011. But there were clouds on the horizon. Was the recent growth sustainable? What steps should Louis Vuitton take to address upcoming challenges? . . . . . . . . . C166

25 NINTENDO’S WII U Video Games Nintendo’s Wii was no longer the only video console game with motion-sensing controllers. Are Nintendo’s days of dominance over or will the next innovative console controller, the Wii U, be a home run? . . . C177

26 BACKERS BEWARE: KICKSTARTER IS NOT A STORE Crowd-Source Funding Crowd-funding allowed ventures to draw on relatively small contributions from a relatively large number of individuals using the Internet, without standard financial intermediaries. KickStarter offers a platform for crowdfunding of new ventures, but the field is crowded . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C185

27 SAMSUNG ELECTRONICS Consumer Electronics Samsung’s Galaxy smartphones and tablets have emerged as the most potent challenger to Apple, but there are questions as to whether Samsung has the right combination of hardware and software to really compete . . . . . . . . C191

28 PROCTER & GAMBLE Consumer Products Procter & Gamble was the world’s largest consumer products conglomerate, with billion-dollar brands such as Tide, Crest, Pampers, Gillette, Right Guard, and Duracell. However, sales were down as consumers were coping with the economic downturn by switching to P&G’s lower-priced brands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C196

29 FRESHDIRECT: IS IT REALLY FRESH? Grocery Can FreshDirect, a New York City–based online grocer, maintain high product quality while keeping product prices low, leading to razor-thin margins among abundant competition from both online and traditional groceries? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C201

30 GENERAL MOTORS Automotive GM experienced a sharp decline in its domestic market share, dropping to its lowest level in more than 50 years. Was GM, the largest U.S. automaker, running on empty? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C214

31 IS ONE FORD REALLY WORKING? Automotive Was the One Ford plan really working all around the world or was Ford North America carrying weaknesses elsewhere in the system? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C220

32 CAMPBELL: IS THE SOUP STILL SIMMERING? Processed and Packaged Goods Change was stirring at Campbell Soup with the launch of more than 50 new products, including 32 new soups, yet profit slipped by 5 percent. Will Campbell’s soup simmer to perfection or will the company be in hot water? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C235

33 UNITED WAY WORLDWIDE Nonprofit Brian Gallagher, United Way Worldwide CEO, established new membership standards for United Way affiliates’ operations, rebranded United Way as doing “what matters” in the communities it served, and addressed the long-term needs of communities. Gallagher needed to convince the United Way affiliates to buy into the change effort, but he did not have much leverage over them . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C246

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34 KEURIG: CONVENIENCE, CHOICE, AND COMPETITIVE BRANDS Coffee Green Mountain Coffee Roasters’ Keurig single- cup- brewing coffeemaker business followed a razor and razor-blade business model. With some patents expiring, the competition was perking up in this caffeine charged business, would Keurig’s brew be strong enough? . . . C256

35 YAHOO! Internet Marissa Mayer, Yahoo’s new CEO, was determined to make the company a stronger force on smartphones and

tablets. Would Mayer be able to lure back advertisers, reinvigorate a muddled brand, and improve morale at a company that has been marred by executive churn, constant cost-cutting, and mass layoffs? . . . . . . . C268

Indexes I-1 Company I-1 Name I-13 Subject I-27

CASES

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Chapter 1 Introduction

and Analyzing Goals and Objectives

Chapter 4 Assessing Intellectual

Capital

Chapter 2 Analyzing

the External Environment

Chapter 3 Analyzing

the Internal Environment

Chapter 13 Case

Analysis

Case Analysis

Strategic Formulation Strategic Implementation

Strategic Analysis

Chapter 5 Formulating

Business-Level Strategies

Chapter 8 Entrepreneurial

Strategy and Competitive Dynamics

Chapter 6 Formulating Corporate-

Level Strategies

Chapter 7 Formulating International Strategies

Chapter 9 Strategic

Control and Corporate

Governance

Chapter 12 Fostering Corporate

Entrepreneur- ship

Chapter 10 Creating Effective

Organizational Designs

Chapter 11 Strategic Lead- Iership Excel- lence, Ethics and Change

The Strategic Management Process

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PART 1: STRATEGIC ANALYSIS

Strategic Management Creating Competitive Advantages

chapter 1

After reading this chapter, you should have a good understanding of the following learning objectives:

LO1.1 The definition of strategic management and its four key attributes.

LO1.2 The strategic management process and its three interrelated and principal activities.

LO1.3 The vital role of corporate governance and stakeholder management, as well as how “symbiosis” can be achieved among an organization’s stakeholders.

LO1.4 The importance of social responsibility, including environmental sustainability, and how it can enhance a corporation’s innovation strategy.

LO1.5 The need for greater empowerment throughout the organization.

LO1.6 How an awareness of a hierarchy of strategic goals can help an organization achieve coherence in its strategic direction.

Learning from Mistakes What makes the study of strategic management so interesting? For one, struggling firms can become stars, while high flyers can become earthbound very rapidly. As colorfully noted by Arthur Martinez, Sears’ former chairman: “Today’s peacock is tomorrow’s feather duster.” Consider, for example, the change in membership on the prestigious Fortune 500 list of the largest U.S. firms: 1

• Of the 500 companies that appeared on the first list in 1955, only 62, ranked by revenue, have appeared on the list every year since.

• Some of the most powerful companies on today’s list—businesses like Intel, Apple, and Google— grew from nothing to great on the strength of new technologies, bumping venerable old companies off the list.

• Nearly 2,000 companies have appeared on the list since its inception, and most are long gone from it. Just making the list guarantees nothing about your ability to endure.

• Between 2009 and 2013, admittedly more volatile years than most, over one hundred companies— including Bear Stearns, Chrysler, Circuit City, Merrill Lynch, RadioShack, and Tribune—dropped off the 500.

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PART 1: STRATEGIC ANALYSIS

Maintaining competitive success or even surviving over long periods of time is indeed very difficult for companies of any size. As John Donahue, CEO of eBay, notes, “Almost every company has hot moments. But only great companies achieve strong, sustainable performance over time. While it’s fun to be hot; it’s far more gratifying to create an enduring, sustainable business.” 2 Next, we will look at Borders, a firm which after years of success went into a rapid decline that eventually led to its death.

In 1971, Louis and Tom Borders opened their first store in Ann Arbor, Michigan. 3 The brothers, while students at the University of Michigan, created a then-revolutionary system to track sales and inventory—and for years executives called it the company’s “secret sauce.” With their “Book Inventory System,” Borders could oversee the flow of a huge number of titles broken into thousands of different subject categories across multiple stores. As it grew, Borders provided the knowledge and feel of the independents with its distinctive architecture, comfortable chairs, and reading nooks. In addition, the stores carefully screened and trained employees, paying them relatively well along with a generous set of benefits. It seemed like a winning strategy—and it worked for quite a while. By the 1990s it, along with Barnes and Noble, controlled 40 percent of the retail book market. Borders’ financials were impressive: between 2003 and 2005, sales increased 11 percent to nearly $4 billion and net income jumped 23 percent to $132 million. Unfortunately, 2005 was its last profitable year. By 2009 and 2010, Borders was well into the red, losing a combined $293 million. In February 2011 it filed for bankruptcy protection. Attempts at reorganization failed, it soon began its final liquidation of assets, and its last remaining stores closed their doors on September 18, 2011. What went wrong?

Sticking to what you know best can be dangerous. We’ve all heard the old adage: Focus on your “core competency” and don’t get distracted by trends or flashy ideas. Borders became a multibillion dollar business because of its physical retail presence. However, this approach also led to its demise.

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4 PART 1 :: STRATEGIC ANALYSIS

Borders focused on its retail strategy in the 2000s, expanding aggressively in the United States and internationally—and taking on debt. It strove to improve the in-store experience for shoppers, added cafes, and experimented with new concepts. Such a strategy may have worked a few decades earlier, but while Borders was investing in physical real estate, shoppers were flocking to the Internet. Borders was left with a conflicted strategy: Declining sales forced it to close hundreds of stores (including its entire Waldenbooks chain), while it doubled down on other retail outlets.

Unfortunately, it treated the Internet like a passing trend instead of as a transformational phenomenon. The company outsourced its Web operation to Amazon—which obviously became a fierce rival. It waited until 2008 to develop its own Web strategy. Meanwhile, Amazon became the dominant player in online bookselling and e-books, introducing the Kindle e-reader. Its big brick- and-mortar rival, Barnes & Noble, a laggard itself, later introduced the popular Nook e-reader and invested heavily in its own website. Borders was clearly late to the party—by then it had taken on quite a bit of debt and had little to invest. In essence, it was forced to rely on third-party readers from Sony and Kobo, which made it impossible to distinguish its Web offerings.

During its last eleven years, Borders was led by six different CEOs. None were around long enough to make a lasting change or provide the vision that could maneuver the debt-laden company through a shifting landscape. To the end, it kept a traditional mindset—focusing on rivals with which it was most familiar. As the book industry continued to consolidate, this meant Barnes & Noble. However, discounters like Walmart and Target sell a ton of books—at big discounts—and their prices are usually matched by Amazon. Borders was faced with a dilemma: It could take the losses and match the discounters, or it could justify its higher prices by convincing customers that they’d enjoy a premium experience. Neither worked. As noted by Michael Souers, an analyst at Standard & Poor’s: “They over-expanded and built up some debt on their balance sheet. Instead of leading and being innovative, they were certainly a follower.”

A concluding note: Amazon continues to outdistance its rivals. Its sales have grown from $25  billion to $57 billion over the last three years. During the same period, Amazon’s stock has soared over 100 percent, and its market capitalization stands at an impressive $121 billion as of mid-2013. Jeff Bezos, Amazon’s founder and CEO, can boast a net worth of over $23.6 billion. In contrast, Borders is extinct.

Discussion Questions 1. What lessons can we learn from Borders’ failure? 2. What was their most critical error? Why? 3. What could Best Buy, a firm now facing a powerful challenge from Amazon, learn from Borders?

The recent demise of Borders illustrates how even well-established firms can fail in the marketplace if they do not anticipate and respond proactively to changes in the environment. Today’s leaders face a large number of complex challenges in the global marketplace. In considering how much credit (or blame) they deserve, two perspectives of leadership come immediately to mind: the “romantic” and “external control” perspectives. 4 First, let’s look at the romantic view of leadership. Here, the implicit assumption is that the leader is the key force in determining an organization’s success—or lack thereof. 5 This view dominates the popular press in business magazines such as Fortune, BusinessWeek, and Forbes, wherein the CEO is either lauded for his or her firm’s success or chided for the organization’s demise. 6

romantic view of leadership situations in which the leader is the key force determining the organization’s success— or lack thereof.

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CHAPTER 1 :: STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT 5

Consider, for example, the credit that has been bestowed on leaders such as Jack Welch, Andrew Grove, and Herb Kelleher for the tremendous accomplishments when they led their firms, General Electric, Intel, and Southwest Airlines, respectively.

Similarly, Apple’s success in the last decade has been attributed almost entirely to the late Steve Jobs, its former CEO, who died on October 5, 2011. 7 Apple’s string of hit prod- ucts, such as iMac computers, iPods, iPhones, and iPads, are testament to his genius for developing innovative, user-friendly, and aesthetically pleasing products. In addition to being a perfectionist in product design, Jobs also was a master showman with a cult fol- lowing. During his time as CEO between 1997 and 2011, Apple’s market value soared by over $300 billion!

On the other hand, when things don’t go well, much of the failure of an organization can also, rightfully, be attributed to the leader. 8 Border’s leadership clearly failed to respond effectively to changes taking place in the book retailing industry. In contrast, Apple fully capitalized on emerging technology trends with a variety of products, including sophisti- cated smartphones.

The contrasting fortunes of Hewlett-Packard under two different CEOs also demonstrate the influence leadership has on firm performance. 9 When Carly Fiorina was fired as CEO of the firm, HP enjoyed an immediate increase in its stock price of 7 percent—hardly a strong endorsement of her leadership! Her successor, Mark Hurd, led the firm to five years of out- standing financial results. Interestingly, when he abruptly resigned on August 6, 2010, the firm’s stock dropped 12 percent almost instantly! (To provide some perspective, this repre- sents a decrease in HP’s market value of about $12 billion.) And, since Hurd’s departure, HP’s market capitalization has dropped about 80 percent—as of early 2013!

However, this reflects only part of the picture. Consider another perspective, called the external control view of leadership. Here, rather than making the implicit assumption that the leader is the most important factor in determining organizational outcomes, the focus is on external factors that may positively (or negatively) affect a firm’s success. We don’t have to look far to support this perspective. Developments in the general environ- ment, such as economic downturns, governmental legislation, or an outbreak of major internal conflict or war, can greatly restrict the choices that are available to a firm’s execu- tives. Borders, as well as several other book retailers, found the consumer shift away from brick and mortar bookstores to online book buying (e.g., Amazon) and digital books an overwhelming environmental force against which they had few defenses.

Major unanticipated developments can often have very negative consequences for busi- nesses regardless of how well formulated their strategies are.

Let’s look at a few recent examples: 10

• Hurricane Katrina in 2007 had a disastrous effect on businesses located along the Gulf Coast.

• The financial meltdown of 2008 and the resultant deep recession during the following two years forced once proud corporations like General Motors and Citigroup to ask for government bailouts. Others, such as Merrill Lynch and Washington Mutual, had to be acquired by other firms.

• In the aftermath of BP’s disastrous oil well explosion on April 20, 2010, the fishing and tourism industries in the region suffered significant downturns. BP itself was forced to pay a $20 billion fine to the U.S. government.

• On March 11, 2011, a 9.0 earthquake and tsunami devastated Japan and resulted in the loss of more than 20,000 lives. During the next two trading days, the country’s stock exchange (Nikkei) suffered its biggest loss in 40 years. The disaster hit nearly every industry hard—especially energy companies. For example, Tokyo Electric Power Co., which operates a nuclear power plant that was severly damaged, fell 24.7 percent, and Toshiba Corp., a maker of nuclear power plants, slid 19.5 percent.

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organizational culture is related to the polc function of:

C H A P T E R 8 Organizational Culture

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FIGURE 8.1 3M Corporation has been able to continue their innovative culture by allowing employees to use up to 15% of their workweek to develop new innovations such as their famous Post-it Notes.

© Thinkstock

C H A P T E R L E A R N I N G O B J E C T I V E S

Reading this chapter will help you accomplish the following:

1. Describe what organizational culture is and why it is important for an organization.

2. Understand the dimensions that make up a company’s culture. 3. Understand the creation and maintenance of organizational culture. 4. Understand the factors that create cultural change. 5. Develop personal culture management skills.

Organizations, like individuals, have their own personalities—often referred to as organizational cultures.

Understanding how culture is created, communicated, and changed will help individuals understand the cultures

that best suit their personalities as well as methods to become more effective managers.

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FIGURE 8.2 The P-O-L-C Framework

1. UNDERSTANDING ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE

L E A R N I N G O B J E C T I V E S

1. Define organizational culture. 2. Understand why organizational culture is important. 3. Understand the different levels of organizational culture.

1.1 What Is Organizational Culture? Organizational culture refers to a system of shared assumptions, values, and beliefs that indicate appro- priate and inappropriate behavior within a given organization.[1] These values have a strong influence on employee behavior as well as organizational performance.[2] The concept of organizational culture was first made popular in the 1980s when Peters and Waterman’s best-selling book, In Search of Excel- lence, made the argument that company success could be attributed to an organizational culture that was decisive, customer-oriented, empowering, and people-oriented. Since then, organizational culture has become the subject of numerous research studies, books, and articles. Organizational culture is still a relatively new concept in contrast to a topic such as leadership, which has a history spanning several centuries.

Culture is largely invisible to individuals, since many elements of an organization’s culture are a function of intangible social cues rather than explicit written policies. Even though culture affects all employee behaviors, thinking, and behavioral patterns, individuals tend to become more aware of their organization’s culture when they have the opportunity to compare it to other organizations. Culture is related to the organizational facet of the P-O-L-C framework. The organizing function involves creat- ing and implementing organizational design decisions. The culture of the organization is closely linked to organizational design. For instance, a culture that empowers employees to make decisions could prove extremely resistant to a centralized organizational design, hampering the manager’s ability to im- plement such a design. However, a culture that supports the organizational structure can be very powerful.

1.2 Why Does Organizational Culture Matter? An organization’s culture may be one of its strongest assets or its biggest liability. In fact, it has been ar- gued that organizations that have a rare and hard-to-imitate culture enjoy a competitive advantage.[3] In a survey conducted by the management consulting firm Bain & Company, worldwide business lead- ers identified corporate culture to be as important as corporate strategy for business success.[4] This comes as no surprise to leaders of successful businesses, who are quick to attribute their company’s success to their organization’s culture.

Researchers find a relationship between organizational cultures and company performance with respect to success indicators such as revenue, sales volume, market share, and stock prices.[5] At the same time, it is important to have a culture that fits with the demands of the company’s environment. To the extent that shared values are proper for the company in question, company performance may benefit from culture.[6] For example, if a company is in the high-tech industry, having a culture that

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FIGURE 8.3 Organizational Culture Levels

Source: Adapted from Schein, E. H. (1992). Organizational

Culture and Leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

assumptions

Beliefs about human nature and reality that are taken for granted.

values

Shared principles, standards, and goals.

artifacts

The visible and tangible elements of culture.

encourages innovativeness and adaptability will support its performance. However, if a company in the same industry has a culture characterized by stability, a high respect for tradition, and a strong prefer- ence for upholding rules and procedures, the company may suffer because of its culture. In other words, just as having the “right” culture may be a competitive advantage for an organization, having the “wrong” culture may lead to performance difficulties, be responsible for organizational failure, and act as a barrier preventing the company from changing and taking risks.

In addition to having implications for organizational performance, organizational culture is an effective control mechanism dictating employee behavior. Culture is a more powerful way of controlling and managing employee behaviors than organizational rules and regulations. For example, when a company is trying to improve the quality of its customer service, rules may not be helpful, particularly when the problems customers present are unique. Instead, creating a culture of customer service may achieve better results by encouraging employees to think like customers, knowing that the company priorities in this case are clear: Keeping the customer happy is preferable to other concerns, such as saving the cost of a refund. Therefore, the ability to understand and influence organizational culture is an important item for managers to have in their tool kit when they are carrying out the controlling and organizing functions of the P-O-L-C framework.

1.3 Levels of Organizational Culture Organizational culture consists of some aspects that are relatively visible, as well as as- pects that may lie below one’s conscious awareness. Organizational culture can be thought of as consisting of three interrelated levels.[7]

At the deepest level, below our awareness, lie basic assumptions. These assump- tions are taken for granted and reflect beliefs about human nature and reality. At the second level, values exist. Values are shared principles, standards, and goals. Finally, at the surface, we have artifacts, or visible, tangible aspects of organizational culture. For example, in an organization, a basic assumption employees and managers share might be that happy employees benefit their organizations. This might be translated into val- ues such as egalitarianism, high-quality relationships, and having fun. The artifacts reflecting such values might be an executive “open door” policy, an office layout that includes open spaces and gathering areas equipped with pool tables, and frequent com- pany happy hours or picnics.

Understanding the organization’s culture may start from observing its artifacts: its physical environment, employee interactions, company policies, reward systems, and other observable characteristics. When you are interviewing for a position, observing the physical environment, how people dress, where they relax, and how they talk to

others is definitely a good start to understanding the company’s culture. However, simply looking at these tangible aspects is unlikely to give a full picture of the organization, since an important chunk of what makes up culture exists below one’s degree of awareness. The values and, deeper, the assumptions that shape the organization’s culture can be uncovered by observing how employees interact and the choices they make, as well as by inquiring about their beliefs and perceptions regarding what is right and appropriate behavior. Some companies such as online eyeglass maker Warby Parker institute spe- cific culture teams that plan activities and luncheons to ensure culture is maintained and on the fore- front of employee’s minds on a weekly basis.[8]

K E Y T A K E A W A Y

Organizational culture is a system of shared assumptions, values, and beliefs that help individuals understand which behaviors are and are not appropriate within an organization. Cultures can be a source of competitive advantage for organizations. Strong organizational cultures can be an organizing as well as a controlling mechanism for organizations. Finally, organizational culture consists of three levels: assumptions that are be- low the surface, values, and artifacts.

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innovative cultures

Cultures that are flexible, adaptable, and experiment with new ideas.

aggressive cultures

Cultures that value competitiveness and outperforming competitors.

outcome-oriented cultures

Cultures that emphasize achievement, results, and action.

D I S C U S S I O N Q U E S T I O N S

1. Why do companies need culture?

2. Give an example of a company culture being a strength as well as a weakness.

3. In what ways does culture serve as a controlling mechanism?

4. If assumptions are below the surface, why do they matter?

5. Share examples of artifacts you have noticed at different organizations.

2. MEASURING ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE

L E A R N I N G O B J E C T I V E S

1. Understand different dimensions of organizational culture. 2. Understand the role of culture strength. 3. Explore subcultures within organizations.

2.1 Dimensions of Culture Which values characterize an organization’s culture? Even though all aspects of culture may not be im- mediately observable, identifying a set of values that might be used to describe an organization’s cul- ture helps us identify, measure, and manage culture more effectively. For this purpose, several re- searchers have proposed various culture typologies. One popular typology is the Organizational Cul- ture Profile (OCP), where culture is represented by seven distinct values.[9]

Innovative Cultures

According to the OCP framework, companies that have innovative cultures are flexible and adapt- able, and experiment with new ideas. These companies are characterized by a flat hierarchy and titles and other status distinctions tend to be downplayed. For example, Apple has been named by Fast Com- pany magazine as one of the most innovative companies in the world.[10] While they do not invent new technology, the innovations they introduced to personal computers, mobile phones, and tablets, with products such as the iPhone and iPad, changed the daily life of consumers and created entire industries working on Apple platforms. This is a culture that values accountability and agility. With a simple or- ganizational chart and clearly defined responsibilities, they are able to achieve clear focus on a small number of products and engage in quick course corrections. In order to maintain agility, the company uses small teams—for example, putting two engineers in charge of writing the code for adapting the Sa- fari browser for iPad.[11]

Aggressive Cultures

Companies with aggressive cultures value competitiveness and outperforming competitors. For ex- ample, Microsoft is often identified as a company with an aggressive culture. The company has faced a number of antitrust lawsuits and disputes with competitors over the years. In aggressive companies, people may use language such as “we will kill our competition.” In the past, Microsoft executives made statements such as “we are going to cut off Netscape’s air supply… Everything they are selling, we are going to give away,” and its aggressive culture is cited as a reason for getting into new legal troubles be- fore old ones are resolved.[12] An overly aggressive and cutthroat culture has been cited by some as leading to the emissions-cheating scandal at Volkswagon.[13]

Outcome-Oriented Cultures

The OCP framework describes outcome-oriented cultures as emphasizing achievement, results, and action as important values. A good example of an outcome-oriented culture may be the electronics re- tailer Best Buy. Having a culture emphasizing sales performance, Best Buy tallies revenues and other relevant figures daily by department. Employees are trained and mentored to sell company products effectively, and they learn how much money their department made every day.[14] In 2005, the com- pany implemented a Results Oriented Work Environment (ROWE) program that allows employees to

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work anywhere and anytime; they are evaluated based on results and fulfillment of clearly outlined ob- jectives.[15] Outcome-oriented cultures hold employees as well as managers accountable for success and use systems that reward employee and group output. In these companies, it is more common to see re- wards tied to performance indicators as opposed to seniority or loyalty. Research indicates that organ- izations that have a performance-oriented culture tend to outperform companies that are lacking such a culture.[16] At the same time, when performance pressures lead to a culture where unethical behaviors become the norm, individuals see their peers as rivals, and short-term results are rewarded, the result- ing unhealthy work environment serves as a liability.[17] Perhaps due to such potential problems, as a pioneer in the ROWE practice, Best Buy abandoned this philosophy in 2013.[18]

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FIGURE 8.4 Dimensions of the Organizational Culture Profile

Source: Retrieved October 8, 2012 from (second from top) Vincent van der Heijden, http://www.flickr.com/photos/flo_and_me/3836753819/; (third

from bottom) Cherrysweetdeal, http://www.flickr.com/photos/cherrysweetdeal/4322582205/; all other images © Thinkstock.

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Stable cultures

Cultures that are predictable, rule-oriented, and bureaucratic.

FIGURE 8.5

From their social initiatives to extensive support of their own employees, Starbucks is the epitome of a people- oriented culture.

Source: http://www.flickr.com/

photos/montagecomms/2328936178

People-oriented cultures

Cultures that value fairness, supportiveness, and respecting individual rights.

team-oriented cultures

Cultures that are collaborative and emphasize cooperation among employees.

detail-oriented culture

Cultures that emphasize precision and paying attention to details.

Stable Cultures

Stable cultures are predictable, rule-oriented, and bureaucratic. When the environment is stable and certain, these cultures may help the organization to be effective by providing stable and constant levels of direction and output.[19] These cultures prevent quick action and, as a result, may be a misfit to a changing and dynamic environment. Public sector institutions may be viewed as stable cultures. In the private sector, GM is cited as having a bureaucractic culture, something the automaker has been strug- gling to change while recovering from its bankruptcy in 2009. The company is characterized by slow decision making, with several meetings and premeetings for key decisions, resulting in slow adoption of new technology and decision-making failures, such as allowing engineers to continue working on a Hummer sports utility vehicle long after they realized the project would fail.[20]

People-Oriented Cultures

People-oriented cultures value fairness, supportiveness, and respect for individual rights. In these organizations, there is a greater emphasis on and expectation of treating people with respect and dig- nity.[21] One study of new employees in accounting companies found that employees, on average, stayed 14 months longer in companies with people-oriented cultures.[22] Starbucks is an example of a people-oriented culture. The company pays employees above minimum wage, offers health care and tuition reimbursement benefits to its part-time as well as full-time employees, and has creative perks such as weekly free coffee for all associates and the opportunity to earn a degree online. As a result of these policies, the company benefits from a turnover rate much lower than the industry average.[23]

Team-Oriented Cultures

Companies with a team-oriented culture are collaborative and emphasize cooperation among em- ployees. For example, Southwest Airlines facilitates a team-oriented culture by cross-training its em- ployees so that they are capable of helping one another when needed. The company also emphasizes training intact work teams.[24] In Southwest’s selection process, applicants who are not viewed as team players are not hired as employees.[25] In team-oriented organizations, members tend to have more positive relationships with their coworkers and particularly with their managers.[26]

FIGURE 8.6

The growth in the number of passengers flying with Southwest Airlines from 1973 to 2012 shows Southwest as one of the most-flown U.S. airlines. While price has played a role in this, their emphasis on service has been a key piece of their culture and competitive advantage and has helped Southwest remain profitable for more than 39 consecutive years.

Source: Adapted from http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/69/Southwest-airlines-passengers.jpg

Detail-Oriented Cultures

Organizations with a detail-oriented culture are characterized in the OCP framework as emphasiz- ing precision and attention to details. Such a culture gives a competitive advantage to companies in the hospitality industry by helping them differentiate themselves from others. For example, Four Seasons and Ritz Carlton are among hotels who keep records of all customer requests such as which newspaper the guest prefers or what type of pillow the customer uses. This information is put into a computer

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strong culture

A culture that is shared by organizational members.

FIGURE 8.7

Walt Disney created a strong culture at his company that has evolved since its founding in 1923.

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/

Image:Walt_disney_portrait.jpg

system and used to provide better service to returning customers. Any requests hotel employees re- ceive, as well as overhear, might be entered into the database to serve customers better.

2.2 Strength of Culture A strong culture is one that is shared by organizational members[27] —that is, a culture in which most employees in the organization show consensus regarding the values of the company. The stronger a company’s culture, the more likely it is to affect the way employees think and behave. For example, cul- tural values emphasizing customer service will lead to higher-quality customer service if there is wide- spread agreement among employees on the importance of customer-service-related values.[28]

It is important to realize that a strong culture may act as an asset or a liability for the organization, depending on the types of values that are shared. For example, imagine a company with a culture that is strongly outcome-oriented. If this value system matches the organizational environment, the com- pany may perform well and outperform its competitors. This is an asset as long as members are behav- ing ethically. However, a strong outcome-oriented culture coupled with unethical behaviors and an ob- session with quantitative performance indicators may be detrimental to an organization’s effectiveness. Movies such as Wall Street, Glengarry Glen Ross, Boiler Room, and The Wolf of Wall Street illustrate the dangers associated with strong organizational cultures, where the need to “always be closing” a deal overshadows ethical concerns of other stakeholders. Enron is an extreme example of this dysfunctional type of strong culture.

One limitation of a strong culture is the difficulty of changing established organizational behaviors. In an organization where certain values are widely shared, if the organization decides to adopt a differ- ent set of values, unlearning the old values and learning the new ones will be a challenge because em- ployees will need to adopt new ways of thinking, behaving, and responding to critical events. For ex- ample, Home Depot had a decentralized, autonomous culture where many business decisions were made using “gut feelings” while ignoring the available data. When Robert Nardelli became CEO of the company in 2000, he decided to change its culture starting with centralizing many of the decisions that were previously left to individual stores. This initiative met with substantial resistance, and many high- level employees left during Nardelli’s first year. Despite getting financial results such as doubling the sales of the company, many of the changes he made were criticized. He left the company in January 2007.[29]

A strong culture may also be a liability during a merger. During mergers and acquisitions, com- panies inevitably experience a clash of cultures, as well as a clash of structures and operating systems. Culture clash becomes more problematic if both parties have unique and strong cultures. For example, during the 2010 merger of United Airlines and Continental, one of the key issues was the integration of corporate cultures. United Airlines had consumer satisfaction ratings below industry average, whereas Continental had above-average ratings and a quality focus. United employees had contentious relations with management and unionization rates exceeding 80%, while Continental employees enjoyed more positive relations with management and were 40% unionized. The creation of a unique, unified com- pany culture is key to the success of such a merger.[30]

Music Rap-Up: Where Do I Belong

Twinprov perform a rap discussing different organizational cultures.

Youtube

View the video online at: http://www.youtube.com/embed/4YK23j6VnQU?rel=0

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subcultures

A set of values unique to a limited cross section of the organization.

counterculture

Shared values and beliefs that are in direct opposition to the values of the broader organizational culture.

2.3 Do Organizations Have a Single Culture? The examples and profiles discussed as part of the Organizational Culture Profile may suggest that a company has a single culture that is shared throughout the organization. In reality there might be mul- tiple cultures within the organization. For example, people working on the sales floor may experience a different culture from that experienced by people working in the warehouse. Cultures that emerge within different departments, branches, or geographic locations are called subcultures. Subcultures may arise from the personal characteristics of employees and managers, as well as the different condi- tions under which work is performed. In addition to understanding the broader organization’s values, managers will need to make an effort to understand subculture values to see their effect on workforce behavior and attitudes.

Sometimes, a subculture may take the form of a counterculture. Defined as shared values and be- liefs that are in direct opposition to the values of the broader organizational culture,[31] countercultures are often shaped around a charismatic leader. For example, within a largely bureaucratic organization, an enclave of innovativeness and risk taking may emerge within a single department. A counterculture may be tolerated by the organization as long as it is bringing in results and contributing positively to the effectiveness of the organization. However, its existence may be perceived as a threat to the broader organizational culture. In some cases, this may lead to actions that would take away the autonomy of the managers and eliminate the counterculture.

K E Y T A K E A W A Y

Culture can be understood in terms of seven different culture dimensions, depending on what is most em- phasized within the organization. For example, innovative cultures are flexible, adaptable, and experiment with new ideas, while stable cultures are predictable, rule-oriented, and bureaucratic. Strong cultures can be an asset or liability for an organization but can be challenging to change. Multiple cultures may coexist in a single organization in the form of subcultures and countercultures.

D I S C U S S I O N Q U E S T I O N S

1. Think about an organization you are familiar with. On the basis of the dimensions of OCP, how would you characterize its culture?

2. Out of the culture dimensions described, which dimension do you think would lead to higher levels of employee satisfaction and retention? Which one would be related to company performance?

3. What are pros and cons of an outcome-oriented culture?

4. When bureaucracies were first invented, they were considered quite innovative. Do you think that different cultures are more or less effective at different points in time and in different industries? Why or why not?

5. Can you imagine an effective use of subcultures within an organization?

3. CREATING AND MAINTAINING ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE

L E A R N I N G O B J E C T I V E S

1. Understand how cultures are created. 2. Learn how to maintain a culture. 3. Recognize organizational culture signs.

3.1 How Are Cultures Created? Where do cultures originate? Understanding this question is important in understanding how they can be changed. An organization’s culture is shaped as the organization faces and deals with external and

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internal challenges. When the organization’s way of doing business provides a successful adaptation to environmental challenges and ensures success, those values are retained. These values and ways of do- ing business are taught to new members as the way to do business.[32]

The factors that are most important in the creation of an organization’s culture include founders’ values, preferences, and industry demands.

FIGURE 8.8 Model Describing How Cultures Are Created and Maintained

Founder Values

A company’s culture, particularly during its early years, is inevitably tied to the personality, back- ground, and values of its founder or founders, as well as their vision for the future of the organization. When entrepreneurs establish their own businesses, the way they want to do business determines the organization’s rules, the structure set up in the company, and the people they hire to work with them. For example, some of the existing corporate values of the ice cream company Ben & Jerry’s can easily be traced to the personalities of its founders, Ben Cohen and Jerry Greenfield. In 1978, the two high school friends opened up their first ice-cream shop in a renovated gas station in Burlington, Vermont. Their strong social convictions led them to buy only from the local farmers and devote a certain per- centage of their profits to charities. The core values they instilled in their business can still be observed in the current company’s devotion to social activism and sustainability, continuous contributions to charities, use of environmentally friendly materials, and dedication to creating jobs in low-income areas. Their culture even extends to general charity to the local community with their annual “Free Cone Day” from numerous participating outlets and franchisees.[33] Even though Unilever acquired the company in 2000, the social activism component remains unchanged, and Unilever has expressed its commitment to traditional Ben & Jerry’s values.[34]

Founder values become part of the corporate culture to the degree to which they help the company be successful. For example, the social activism of Ben & Jerry’s was instilled in the company because the founders strongly believed in these issues. However, these values probably would not endure three dec- ades later if they had not helped the company fuel its early success. In the case of Ben & Jerry’s, these values helped distinguish their brand from larger corporate brands and attracted a loyal customer base. Thus, by providing a competitive advantage, these values were retained as part of the corporate culture and were taught to new members as the right way to do business.

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FIGURE 8.9

Ben & Jerry’s managed to preserve the most unique aspects of its organizational culture despite being acquired by Unilever. The success of a merger often depends on successful harmonizing of the cultures of two distinct organizations.

Source:

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/

Image:BenJerry-UnitedSquare.jpg

Industry Demands

While founders undoubtedly exert a powerful influence over corporate cultures, the industry charac- teristics also play a role. Companies within the same industry can sometimes have widely differing cul- tures. At the same time, the industry characteristics and demands often act as a powerful force to create similarities among organizational cultures. For example, despite some differences, many companies in the insurance and banking industries are stable and rule-oriented, many companies in the high-tech in- dustry have innovative cultures, and those in the nonprofit sector may be people-oriented. If the in- dustry is one with a large number of regulatory requirements—for example, aviation, banking, health care, and high-reliability (such as nuclear power) industries—then we might expect the presence of a large number of rules and regulations, a bureaucratic company structure, and a stable culture. The in- dustry influence over culture is also important to acknowledge because this shows that it may not be possible to imitate the culture of a company in a different industry, even though it may seem admirable to outsiders.

3.2 How Are Cultures Maintained? As a company matures, its cultural values are refined and strengthened. The early values of a com- pany’s culture exert influence over its future values. Organizational culture determines what types of people are hired by an organization and what types of people are left out. Moreover, once new employ- ees are hired, the company assimilates new employees and teaches them the way things are done in the organization. We call these processes attraction-selection-attrition and onboarding processes. We will also examine the role of leaders and reward systems in shaping and maintaining an organization’s culture.

Attraction-Selection-Attrition

Organizational culture is maintained through a process known as attraction-selection-attrition (ASA). First, applicants are attracted to organizations they perceive they will fit in as successful employees. Someone who has a competitive nature may feel comfortable in and may prefer to work in a company where interpersonal competition is the norm. Others may prefer to work in a team-oriented workplace. Research shows that employees with different personality traits find different cultures attractive. For example, out of the Big Five personality traits, employees who demonstrate neurotic personalities were less likely to be attracted to innovative cultures, whereas those who had openness to experience were more likely to be attracted to innovative cultures.[35]

Of course, this process is imperfect, and value similarity is only one reason a candidate might be attracted to a company. There may be other, more powerful attractions such as good benefits. The second component of the ASA framework prevents applicants who may not be a strong fit with the or- ganization from getting in: selection. Just as candidates are looking for places where they will fit in, companies are also looking for people who will fit into their current corporate culture. Many compan- ies are hiring people for fit with their culture, as opposed to fit with a certain job. For example, Southw- est Airlines prides itself for hiring employees based on personality and attitude rather than specific job- related skills, which they learn after they are hired. Companies use different techniques to weed out candidates who do not fit with corporate values. For example, Google relies on multiple interviews with future peers. By introducing the candidate to several future coworkers and learning what these cowork- ers think of the candidate, it becomes easier to assess the level of fit.

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onboarding

The process through which new employees learn the attitudes, knowledge, skills, and behaviors required to function effectively within an organization.

FIGURE 8.10 The ASA Framework

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:OU_Great_Reading_Room.jpg

Even after a company selects individuals for person-organization fit, there may be new employees who do not fit in long-term. Some candidates may be skillful in impressing recruiters and signal high levels of culture fit even though they do not necessarily share the company’s values. In such cases, the organ- ization is likely to gradually eliminate candidates who do not fit in through attrition. Attrition refers to the natural process where candidates with poor organizational fit will leave the company. Research in- dicates that person-organization misfit is one of the key reasons for employee turnover.[36]

Because of the ASA process, the company attracts, selects, and retains people who share its core values, whereas those people who are different in core values will be excluded from the organization either during the hiring process or later on through naturally occurring turnover. Thus, organizational culture will act as a self-defending organism where intrusive elements are kept out. Supporting the ex- istence of such self-protective mechanisms, research shows that organizations demonstrate a certain level of homogeneity regarding personalities and values of organizational members.[37]

New Employee Onboarding

Another way in which an organization’s values, norms, and behavioral patterns are transmitted to em- ployees is through onboarding (also referred to as the organizational socialization process).[38] On- boarding refers to the process through which new employees learn the attitudes, knowledge, skills, and behaviors required to function effectively within an organization. If an organization can successfully socialize new employees into becoming organizational insiders, new employees will feel accepted by their peers and confident regarding their ability to perform; they will also understand and share the as- sumptions, norms, and values that are part of the organization’s culture. This understanding and con- fidence in turn translate into more effective new employees who perform better and have higher job

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formal orientation program

A program used to indoctrinate new employees to the company culture, as well as introducing them to their new jobs and colleagues.

mentor

A trusted person who provides an employee with advice and support regarding career-related matters.

satisfaction, stronger organizational commitment, and longer tenure within the company.[39] Organiza- tions engage in different activities to facilitate onboarding, such as implementing orientation programs or matching new employees with mentors.

What Can Employees Do during Onboarding? New employees who are proactive, seek feedback, and build strong relationships tend to be more suc- cessful than those who do not.[40] For example, feedback seeking helps new employees. Especially on a first job, a new employee can make mistakes or gaffes and may find it hard to understand and interpret the ambiguous reactions of coworkers. By actively seeking feedback, new employees may find out sooner rather than later any behaviors that need to be changed and gain a better understanding of whether their behavior fits with the company culture and expectations.

Relationship building or networking (a facet of the organizing function) is another important be- havior new employees may demonstrate. Particularly when a company does not have a systematic ap- proach to onboarding, it becomes more important for new employees to facilitate their own onboard- ing by actively building relationships. According to one estimate, 35% of managers who start a new job fail and either voluntarily leave or are fired within 18 months. Of these, over 60% report being unable to form effective relationships with colleagues as the primary reason for this failure.[41]

What Can Organizations Do during Onboarding? Many organizations, including Microsoft, UPS, and Bank of America, take a more structured and sys- tematic approach to new employee onboarding, while others follow a “sink or swim” approach where new employees struggle to figure out what is expected of them and what the norms are in their organization.

A formal orientation program indoctrinates new employees to the company culture, and intro- duces them to their new jobs and colleagues. An orientation program has a role in making new em- ployees feel welcome in addition to imparting information that may help them be successful in their new jobs. Many large organizations have formal orientation programs consisting of lectures, video- tapes, and written material, while some may follow more informal approaches. According to one es- timate, most orientations last anywhere from one to five days, and some companies are currently switching to a computer-based orientation. Ritz Carlton Hotel Company uses a very systematic ap- proach to employee orientation and views orientation as the key to retention. In the two-day classroom orientation, employees spend time with management, dine in the hotel’s finest restaurant, and witness the attention to customer service detail firsthand. During these two days, they are introduced to the company’s intensive service standards, team orientation, and its own language. Later, on their 21st day, they are tested on the company’s service standards and are certified.[42] Research shows that formal ori- entation programs are helpful in teaching employees about the goals and history of the company, as well as communicating the power structure. Moreover, these programs may also help with a new em- ployee’s integration to the team. However, these benefits may not be realized to the same extent in computer-based orientations. In fact, compared to those taking part in a regular, face-to-face orienta- tion, those undergoing a computer-based orientation were shown to have lower understanding of their job and the company, indicating that different formats of orientations may not substitute for each oth- er.[43]

What Can Organizational Insiders Do during Onboarding? One of the most important ways in which organizations can help new employees adjust to a company and a new job is through organizational insiders—namely, supervisors, coworkers, and mentors. Lead- ers have a key influence over onboarding and the information and support they provide determine how quickly employees learn about the company politics and culture, while coworker influence determines the degree to which employees adjust to their teams. Mentors can be crucial to helping new employees adjust by teaching them the ropes of their jobs and how the company really operates. A mentor is a trusted person who provides an employee with advice and support regarding career-related matters. Although a mentor can be any employee or manager who has insights that are valuable to the new em- ployee, mentors tend to be relatively more experienced than their protégés. Mentoring can occur nat- urally between two interested individuals or organizations can facilitate this process by having formal mentoring programs. These programs may successfully bring together mentors and protégés who would not come together otherwise.

Research indicates that the existence of these programs does not guarantee their success, and there are certain program characteristics that may make these programs more effective. For example, when mentors and protégés feel that they had input in the mentor-protégé matching process, they tend to be more satisfied with the arrangement. Moreover, when mentors receive training beforehand, the out- comes of the program tend to be more positive.[44] Because mentors may help new employees interpret and understand the company’s culture, organizations may benefit from selecting mentors who

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FIGURE 8.11

One of the most famous mentor-protégé relationships in history is that of Socrates and his equally famous student, Plato.

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/

File:Socrates_and_Plato.jpg

personify the company’s values. Thus, organizations may need to design these programs carefully to in- crease their chance of success.

Leadership

Leaders are instrumental in creating and changing an organization’s culture. There is a direct correspondence between the leader’s style and an organization’s culture. For ex- ample, when leaders motivate employees through inspiration, corporate culture tends to be more supportive and people-oriented. When leaders motivate by making rewards contingent on performance, the corporate culture tended to be more performance-ori- ented and competitive.[45] In these and many other ways, what leaders do directly in- fluences the cultures of their organizations. This is a key point for managers to consider as they carry out their leading P-O-L-C function.

Part of the leader’s influence over culture is through role modeling. Many studies have suggested that leader behavior, the consistency between organizational policy and leader actions, and leader role modeling determine the degree to which the organiza- tion’s culture emphasizes ethics.[46] The leader’s own behaviors will signal to individu- als what is acceptable behavior and what is unacceptable. In an organization in which high-level managers make the effort to involve others in decision making and seek opinions of others, a team-oriented culture is more likely to evolve. By acting as role models, leaders send signals to the organization about the norms and values that are ex- pected to guide the actions of its members.

Leaders also shape culture by their reactions to the actions of others around them. For example, do they praise a job well done or do they praise a favored employee re- gardless of what was accomplished? How do they react when someone admits to mak- ing an honest mistake? What are their priorities? In meetings, what types of questions do they ask? Do they want to know what caused accidents so that they can be preven- ted, or do they seem more concerned about how much money was lost because of an accident? Do they seem outraged when an employee is disrespectful to a coworker, or does their reaction depend on whether they like the harasser? Through the behaviors they encourage and actions they tolerate, leaders shape and maintain an organization’s culture.

Reward Systems

Finally, the company culture is shaped by the type of reward systems used in the organization and the kinds of behaviors and outcomes it chooses to reward and punish. One relevant element of the reward system is whether the organization rewards behaviors or results. Some companies have reward systems that emphasize intangible elements of performance as well as more easily observable metrics. In these companies, supervisors and peers may evaluate an employee’s performance by assessing the person’s behaviors as well as the results. In such companies, we may expect a culture that is relatively people- or team-oriented, and employees act as part of a family.[47] However, in companies in which goal achieve- ment is the sole criterion for reward, there is a focus on measuring only the results without much re- gard to the process. In these companies, we might observe outcome-oriented and competitive cultures. Whether the organization rewards performance or seniority would also make a difference in culture. When promotions are based on seniority, it would be difficult to establish a culture of outcome orienta- tion. Finally, the types of behaviors that are rewarded or ignored set the tone for the culture. Which be- haviors are rewarded, which ones are punished, and which are ignored will determine how a com- pany’s culture evolves. A reward system is one tool managers can wield when undertaking the con- trolling function.

3.3 Signs of Organizational Culture How do individuals learn about a company’s culture? One way of finding out about a company’s cul- ture is by observing employees or interviewing them. At the same time, culture manifests itself in some visible aspects of the organization’s environment. In this section, we discuss five ways in which culture shows itself to observers and employees.

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FIGURE 8.12 Visual Elements of Culture

Source: (From top to bottom) © Thinkstock; http://www.flickr.com/photos/revjim5000/2349161623/; http://www.flickr.com/photos/ell-r-brown/

4374203580/; http://www.flickr.com/photos/lilivanili/6990868344/; http://www.flickr.com/photos/37796451@N00/4857349094/.

Mission Statement

A mission statement that is taken seriously and widely communicated may provide insights into an or- ganization’s corporate culture. For example, the Mayo Clinic’s mission statement is, “To inspire hope and contribute to health and well-being by providing the best care to every patient through integrated clinical practice, education, and research.” This statement ties to their primary value, “The needs of the patient come first.” This value evolved from the founders, who are quoted as saying, “The best interest of the patient is the only interest to be considered.” The Mayo Clinic has a corporate culture that puts patients first. For example, no incentives are given to physicians based on the number of patients they see. Because doctors are salaried, they have no interest in retaining a patient for themselves, and they refer the patient to other doctors when needed.[48]

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FIGURE 8.13

Rituals are important at Mary Kay Cosmetics, where pink Cadillacs are given to top performers at large annual events.

Source: Retrieved October 8, 2012

from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/

Image:MK_Cadillacs.jpg

Rituals

Repetitive activities within an organization that have symbolic meaning.

Rituals

Rituals refer to repetitive activities within an organization that have symbolic meaning.[49] Usually rituals have their roots in the history of a company’s culture. They create camaraderie and a sense of belonging among employees. They also serve to teach employees corporate values and create identifica- tion with the organization. For example, at the cosmetics firm Mary Kay Inc., employees attend cere- monies recognizing their top salespeople with an award of a new car—traditionally a pink Cadillac. These ceremonies are conducted in large auditoriums where participants wear elaborate evening gowns and sing company songs that create emotions and excitement. During this ritual, employees feel a con- nection to the company culture and its values such as self-determination, willpower, and enthusi- asm.[50] Another example of rituals is the Saturday-morning meetings of Walmart. This ritual was first created by the company founder Sam Walton, who used these meetings to discuss which products and practices were doing well and which required adjustment. He was able to use this information to make changes in Walmart stores before the start of the week, which gave him a competitive advantage over rival stores that made their adjustments based on weekly sales figures during the middle of the follow- ing week. Today, hundreds of Walmart associates attend the Saturday-morning meetings in the Bentonville, Arkansas, headquarters. The meetings traditionally start and end with the Walmart cheer; the agenda includes a discussion of weekly sales figures and merchandising tactics. As a ritual, the meetings help maintain a small-company atmosphere, ensure employee involvement and accountabil- ity, communicate a performance orientation, and demonstrate taking quick action.[51]

Rules and Policies

Another way in which an observer may find out about a company’s culture is to examine its rules and policies. Companies create rules to determine acceptable and unacceptable behavior and, thus, the rules that exist in a company will signal the type of values it has. Policies about issues such as decision mak- ing, human resources, and employee privacy reveal what the company values and emphasizes. For ex- ample, a company that has a policy such as “all pricing decisions of merchandise will be made at cor- porate headquarters” is likely to have a centralized culture that is hierarchical, as opposed to decentral- ized and empowering. Swiss Bank UBS once issued a 43-page dress code that advised employees on how long their skirts should be, how to “enhance personality” using makeup, and what not to eat to have fresh breath, which could be taken as signs of its customer-oriented, detail-oriented, and rule-ori- ented corporate culture.[52] The presence or absence of policies on sensitive issues such as English-only rules, bullying and unfair treatment of others, workplace surveillance, open-door policies, sexual har- assment, workplace romances, and corporate social responsibility all provide pieces of the puzzle that make up a company’s culture. This highlights how interrelated the P-O-L-C functions are in practice. Through rules and policies, the controlling function affects the organization’s culture, a facet of organizing.

Physical Layout

A company’s building, layout of employee offices, common areas, and other workspaces communicate important messages about a company’s culture. For example, visitors walking into the Nike campus in Beaverton, Oregon, can witness firsthand some of the distinguishing characteristics of the company’s culture. The campus is set on 74 acres and boasts an artificial lake, walking trails, soccer fields, and cutting-edge fitness centers. The campus functions as a symbol of Nike’s values such as energy, physical fitness, an emphasis on quality, and a competitive orientation. In addition, at fitness centers on the Nike headquarters, only those using Nike shoes and apparel are allowed in. This sends a strong signal that loyalty is expected. The company’s devotion to athletes and their winning spirit are manifested in campus buildings named after famous athletes, photos of athletes hanging on the walls, and their statues dotting the campus.[53]

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FIGURE 8.14

Google promotes a creative and fun atmosphere by enhancing their buildings with a vast array of visual stimuli, such as this dinosaur sculpture of “Stan” and his pink friends who reside at the Googleplex.

Source:

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/

File:Don%27t_be_evil_-_Googleplex

_-_IMG_2445.JPG

The layout of the office space is also a strong indicator of a company’s culture. A company that has an open layout where high-level managers interact with employees may have a culture of team orienta- tion and egalitarianism, whereas a company where most high-level managers have their own floor may indicate a higher level of hierarchy. Microsoft employees tend to have offices with walls and a door be- cause the culture emphasizes solitude, concentration, and privacy. In contrast, Intel is famous for its standard cubicles, which reflect its egalitarian culture. The same value can also be observed in its avoid- ance of private and reserved parking spots.[54] The degree to which playfulness, humor, and fun are part of a company’s culture may be indicated in the office environment. For example, entertainment website The Chive boasts headquarters in Austin, Texas, that includes an indoor slide, hot tub, and second-story bar.[55]

Stories and Language

Perhaps the most colorful and effective way in which organizations communicate their culture to new employees and organizational members is through the skillful use of stories. A story can highlight a critical event an organization faced and the organization’s response to it, or a heroic effort of a single employee illustrating the company’s values. The stories usually engage employees emotionally and gen- erate employee identification with the company or the heroes of the tale. A compelling story may be a key mechanism through which managers motivate employees by giving their behavior direction and by energizing them toward a certain goal.[56] Moreover, stories shared with new employees communicate the company’s history, its values and priorities, and create a bond between the new employee and the organization. For example, Arthur Fry, a scientist at 3M, was using slips of paper to mark the pages of hymns in his church choir, but they kept falling off. He remembered a superweak adhesive that had been invented in 3M’s labs, and he coated the markers with this adhesive. Thus, Post-it Notes were born. However, marketing surveys showed that interest in such a product was weak and the distribut- ors were not convinced that it had a market. Instead of giving up, Fry distributed samples of the small yellow sticky notes to secretaries throughout his company. Once they tried them, people loved them and asked for more. Word spread and this led to the ultimate success of the product. This story effect- ively describes the core values of a 3M employee: being innovative by finding unexpected uses for ob- jects, persevering, and being proactive in the face of negative feedback.[57]

Language is another way to identify an organization’s culture. Companies often have their own ac- ronyms and buzzwords that are clear to them and help set apart organizational insiders from outsiders. Such code is known as jargon. Jargon is the language of specialized terms used by a group or profes- sion. Every profession, trade, and organization has its own specialized terms.

K E Y T A K E A W A Y

Organizational cultures are created by a variety of factors, including founders’ values and preferences, industry demands, and early values, goals, and assumptions. Culture is maintained through attraction-selection-attri- tion, new employee onboarding, leadership, and organizational reward systems. Signs of a company’s culture include the organization’s mission statement, stories, physical layout, rules and policies, and rituals.

D I S C U S S I O N Q U E S T I O N S

1. Do you think it is a good idea for companies to emphasize person-organization fit when hiring new employees? What advantages and disadvantages do you see when hiring people who fit with company values?

2. What is the influence of company founders on company culture? Can you think of an example based on your personal knowledge?

3. What are the methods companies use to aid with employee onboarding? What is the importance of onboarding for organizations?

4. What type of a company do you feel you would fit in best? What type of a culture would be a misfit for you? In your past work experience, were there any moments when you felt that you did not fit in? Why?

5. What is the role of physical layout as an indicator of company culture? What type of a physical layout would you expect from a company that is people-oriented? Team-oriented? Stable?

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4. CREATING CULTURE CHANGE

L E A R N I N G O B J E C T I V E

1. Understand the process of culture change.

4.1 How Do Cultures Change? Culture is a product of its founder’s values, its history, and collective experiences. Hence culture is part of a company’s DNA and is resistant to change efforts. Many organizations realize that their current culture constitutes a barrier against organizational productivity and performance. Particularly when there is a mismatch between an organization’s values and the demands of its environment, changing the culture becomes the key to the company turnaround.

Achieving culture change is challenging, and there are many companies that ultimately fail in this mission. Research surrounding companies that successfully changed their culture indicates that the fol- lowing six steps increase the chances of success.[58]

FIGURE 8.15 Process of Culture Change

Creating a Sense of Urgency

For the change effort to be successful, it is important to communicate the need for change to employ- ees. One way of doing this is to create a sense of urgency on the part of employees, explaining to them why changing the fundamental way in which business is done is so important. In successful culture change efforts, leaders communicate with employees and present a case for culture change as the essen- tial element that will lead the company to eventual success. As an example, consider the situation at IBM in 1993 when Lou Gerstner was brought in as CEO and chairman. After decades of dominating the market for mainframe computers, IBM was rapidly losing market share to competitors, and its

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efforts to sell personal computers—the original PC—were seriously undercut by cheaper “clones.” In the public’s estimation, the name IBM had become associated with obsolescence. Gerstner recalls that the crisis IBM was facing became his ally in changing the organization’s culture. Instead of spreading optimism about the company’s future, he used the crisis at every opportunity to get buy-in from em- ployees.[59] While IBM sold its personal computer business in 2005, the company continues to be known for exceptional innovation and leadership.

Changing Leaders and Other Key Players

A leader’s vision is an important factor that influences how things get done in an organization. Thus, culture change often follows changes at the highest levels of the organization. Moreover, to implement the change effort quickly and efficiently, a company may find it helpful to remove managers and other powerful employees who are acting as a barrier to change.[60] Because of political reasons, self-interest, or habits, managers may create powerful resistance to change efforts. In such cases, replacing these pos- itions with employees and managers giving visible support to the change effort may increase the likeli- hood that the change effort succeeds.

Role Modeling

Role modeling is the process by which employees modify their own beliefs and behaviors to reflect those of the leader.[61] CEOs must model the behaviors that are expected of employees to change the culture because these behaviors will trickle down to lower-level employees. One negative example of this type of role modeling is the scandal involving Hewlett-Packard board members. In 2006, when board members were suspected of leaking confidential company information to the press, the com- pany’s top-level executives hired a team of security experts to find the source of the leak. The investig- ators sought the phone records of board members, looking for links to journalists. For this purpose, they posed as board members and called phone companies to obtain itemized home phone records of board members and journalists. When the investigators’ methods came to light, HP’s chairman and four other top executives faced criminal and civil charges. When such behavior is modeled at top levels, it is likely to have an adverse effect on the company culture.[62]

Training

Well-crafted training programs may be instrumental in bringing about culture change by teaching em- ployees the new norms and behavioral styles. For example, when auto repairer Midas felt the need to change its culture to be more committed to customers, they developed a program to train employees to be more familiar with customer emotions and connect better with them. Customer reports have been overwhelmingly positive in stores that underwent this training.[63]

Changing the Reward System

The criteria with which employees are rewarded and punished have a powerful role in determining the cultural values of an organization. Switching from a commission-based incentive structure to a straight salary system may be instrumental in bringing about customer focus among sales employees. Moreover, by rewarding and promoting employees who embrace the company’s new values and pro- moting these employees, organizations can make sure that changes in culture have a lasting effect. If the company wants to develop a team-oriented culture where employees collaborate with one another, then using individual-based incentives may backfire. Instead, distributing bonuses to intact teams might be more successful in bringing about culture change.

Creating New Symbols and Stories

Finally, the success of the culture change effort may be increased by developing new rituals, symbols, and stories. Prior to its merger with United Airlines, Continental Airlines was a company that success- fully changed its culture to be less bureaucratic and more team-oriented in the 1990s. One of the first things management did to show employees that they really meant to abolish many of the company’s detailed procedures and create a culture of empowerment was to burn the heavy 800-page company policy manual in their parking lot. The new manual was only 80 pages. This action symbolized the up- coming changes in the culture and served as a powerful story that circulated among employees. Anoth- er early action was redecorating waiting areas and repainting all their planes, again symbolizing the new order of things.[64] By replacing the old symbols and stories, the new symbols and stories will help enable the culture change and ensure that the new values are communicated.

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K E Y T A K E A W A Y

Organizations need to change their culture to respond to changing conditions in the environment, to remain competitive, and to avoid complacency or stagnation. Culture change often begins by the creation of a sense of urgency. Next, a change of leaders and other key players may enact change and serve as effective role mod- els of new behavior. Training can also be targeted toward fostering these new behaviors. Reward systems are changed within the organization. Finally, the organization creates new stories and symbols. Successful culture change requires managers that are proficient at all of the P-O-L-C functions. Creating and communicating a vision is part of planning; leadership and role modeling are part of leading; designing effective reward systems is part of controlling; all of which combine to influence culture, a facet of organizing.

D I S C U S S I O N Q U E S T I O N S

1. Can new employees change a company’s culture? If so, how?

2. Are there any conditions under which change is not possible? If so, what would such conditions be?

3. Have you ever observed a change process at an organization you were involved with? If so, what actions worked well and what actions failed?

4. What recommendations would you have for someone considering a major change of culture within their own organization?

5. DEVELOPING YOUR PERSONAL SKILLS: LEARNING TO FIT IN

L E A R N I N G O B J E C T I V E S

1. Understand what individuals can proactively do to understand a new organizational environment.

2. Learn effective guidelines for proactive onboarding.

5.1 Before You Join How do you find out about a company’s culture before you join? Several tips will allow you to more ac- curately gauge the culture of a company you are interviewing with.

First, do your research. Talking to friends and family members who are familiar with the company, doing an online search for news articles about the company, browsing the company’s Web site, and reading its mission statement would be a good start.

Second, observe the physical environment. Do people work in cubicles or in offices? What is the dress code? What is the building structure? Do employees look happy, tired, or stressed? The answers to these questions are all pieces of the puzzle.

Third, read between the lines. For example, the absence of a lengthy employee handbook or de- tailed procedures might mean that the company is more flexible and less bureaucratic.

Fourth, reflect on how you are treated. The recruitment process is your first connection to the com- pany. Were you treated with respect? Do they maintain contact with you or are you being ignored for long stretches at a time?

Fifth, ask questions. What happened to the previous incumbent of this job? What does it take to be successful in this firm? What would their ideal candidate for the job look like? The answers to these questions will reveal a lot about the way they do business.

Finally, listen to your gut. Your feelings about the place in general, and your future manager and coworkers in particular, are important signs that you should not ignore.[65]

CHAPTER 8 ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE 231

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FIGURE 8.16 Managing Workplace Impressions

© Thinkstock

232 PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT VERSION 3.0

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K E Y T A K E A W A Y

There are a number of ways to learn about an organization’s culture before you formally accept a job. Take the time to consider whether the culture you are observing truly seems like the right fit for you. Once you join a new organization, several strategies exist to maximize onboarding success.

D I S C U S S I O N Q U E S T I O N S

1. What clues does your college or school give about its culture?

2. What are four things you could do today to learn more about an organization you are interested in?

3. Imagine that your good friend is starting a new job next week. What recommendations would you give your friend to help him or her do a great job onboarding into the organization?

6. CASE IN POINT: GOOGLE CREATES UNIQUE CULTURE

FIGURE 8.17

Source: Used with permission from Google, Inc.

Google is one of the best-known and most admired companies around the world, so much so that “googling” is the term many use to refer to searching information on the Web. Started out as a student project by two Stanford University graduates—Larry Page and Sergey Brin—in 1996, Google became the most frequently used Web search engine on the Internet with 5.9 billion searches per day in 2013, as well as other innovative applications such as Gmail, Google Earth, Google Maps, Google Chrome, and YouTube. Google grew from 10 employees working in a garage in Palo Alto to over 52,000 employees operating around the world by 2014. What is the formula behind this success? Google strives to operate based on solid principles that may be traced back to its founders. Their mission statement summarizes their commitment to end-user needs: “To or- ganize the world’s information and to make it universally accessible and useful.” While other companies were focused on marketing their sites and increasing advertising revenues, Google stripped the search page of all distractions and presented users with a blank page consisting only of a company logo and a search box.

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Google resisted pop-up advertising because the company felt that it was annoying to end-users. They insisted that all their advertisements would be clearly marked as “sponsored links.” This emphasis on improving user experience and always putting it before making more money in the short term seems to have been critical to their success.

Keeping their employees happy is also a value they take to heart. Google created a unique work environment that attracts, motivates, and retains the best players in the field. Google was ranked as the number 1 “Best Place to Work For” by Fortune magazine in 2014, and held this position several times in its history. This is not surprising if one looks closer to how Google treats employees. On their Mountain View, California, campus called the “Googleplex,” employees are treated to free gourmet food options in the company’s 25 cafes, with one employee noting that they are never more than 150 feet away from a stocked pantry. In fact, many em- ployees complain that once they started working for Google, they tend to gain 10 to 15 pounds! Employees have access to gyms, a bowling alley, video games, on-site childcare, sleep pods, massages, and doctors. Google provides four months of parental leave with 75% of full pay and offers $500 for take-out meals for fam- ilies with a newborn. These perks create a place where employees feel that they are treated well and their needs are met. Moreover, they contribute to the feeling that they are working at a unique and cool place that is different from everywhere else they may have worked.

In addition, Google encourages employee risk taking and innovation. In fact, one of the key reasons Google is an attractive employer is that individuals have the opportunity to work on potentially industry changing and life-altering projects that are interesting and meaningful. How is the risk-taking orientation maintained? When a vice president in charge of the company’s advertising system made a mistake costing the company millions of dollars and apologized for the mistake, she was commended by Larry Page, who congratulated her for mak- ing the mistake and noting that he would rather run a company where they are moving quickly and doing too much, as opposed to being too cautious and doing too little. This attitude toward acting fast and accepting the cost of resulting mistakes as a natural consequence of working on the cutting edge may explain why the company is performing much ahead of competitors such as Microsoft and Yahoo! One of the current chal- lenges for Google is to expand to new fields outside of their Web search engine business. To promote new ideas, Google encourages all engineers to spend 20% of their time working on their own ideas.

Google’s culture is reflected in their decision making as well. Decisions at Google are made in teams. It is com- mon for several small teams to attack each problem and for employees to try to influence each other using ra- tional persuasion and data. Gut feeling has little impact on how decisions are made. In some meetings, people reportedly are not allowed to say “I think …” but instead must say “the data suggest ….” To facilitate teamwork, employees work in open office environments where private offices are assigned only to a select few.

How do they maintain these unique values? In a company emphasizing hiring the smartest people, it is very likely that they will attract big egos that may be difficult to work with. Google realizes that its strength comes from its “small company” values that emphasize risk taking, agility, and cooperation. Therefore, they take their hiring process very seriously. Hiring is extremely competitive and getting to work at Google is not unlike ap- plying to a college. As they get bigger, they relaxed their admission standards a little bit, but this means in- stead of conducting twelve screening interviews with the same job candidate, they may now conduct four or five. Candidates may be asked to write essays about how they will perform their future jobs. Recently, they tar- geted potential new employees using billboards featuring brainteasers directing potential candidates to a website where they were subjected to more brainteasers. Each candidate may be interviewed by as many as eight people on several occasions. Through this scrutiny, they are trying to select “Googley” employees who will share the company’s values, perform at high levels, and be liked by others within the company.

Will this culture survive in the long run? It may be too early to tell, given that the company was only founded in 1998. The founders emphasized that their initial public offering (IPO) would not change their culture and they would not introduce more rules or change the way things are done in Google to please Wall Street, and so far, they seem to be right. But can a public corporation really act like a start-up? Can a global giant facing scrutiny on issues including privacy, copyright, and censorship maintain its culture rooted in its days in a Palo Alto garage? Larry Page is quoted as saying, “We have a mantra: don’t be evil, which is to do the best things we know how for our users, for our customers, for everyone. So I think if we were known for that, it would be a wonderful thing.”

Case written by Berrin Erdogan and Talya Bauer to accompany Bauer, T. & Erdogan, B. (2015). Organizational Be- havior (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: Flat World Knowledge. Partially based on information from Elgin, B., Hof, R. D., & Greene, J. (2005, August 8). Revenge of the nerds—again. BusinessWeek. Retrieved July 29, 2014, from ht- tp://www.businessweek.com/technology/content/jul2005/tc20050728_5127_tc024.htm; Hardy, Q. (2005, November 14). Google thinks small. Forbes, 176(10); Lashinky, A. (2006, October 2). Chaos by design. Fortune, 154(7); Mangalindan, M. (2004, March 29). The grownup at Google: How Eric Schmidt imposed better manage- ment tactics but didn’t stifle search giant. Wall Street Journal, p. B1; Lohr, S. (2005, December 5). At Google, cube culture has new rules. New York Times. Retrieved July 29, 2014, from http://www.nytimes.com/2005/12/

234 PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT VERSION 3.0

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05/technology/05google.html; Schoeneman, D. (2006, December 31). Can Google come out to play? New York Times. Retrieved July 20, 2013 from http://www.nytimes.com/2006/12/31/fashion/31google.html; Tkaczyk, C., Keating, C., Konrad, A.,, Vandermey, A. & Kapelke, C. (2/6/2012). The 100 best companies to work for. Fortune, 165(2); Warner, M. (2004, June). What your company can learn from Google. Business 2.0, 5(5).

C A S E D I S C U S S I O N Q U E S T I O N S

1. Culture is an essential element of organizing in the P-O-L-C framework. Do you think Google has a strong culture? What would it take to make changes in that culture for better or for worse?

2. Do you think Google’s unique culture will help or hurt Google in the long run?

3. What factors are responsible for the specific culture that exists at Google?

4. What type of decision-making approach has Google taken? Do you think this will remain the same over time? Why or why not?

5. Do you see any challenges Google may face in the future because of its emphasis on having a risk-taking culture?

CHAPTER 8 ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE 235

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Arogyaswamy, B., & Byles, C. M. (1987). Organizational culture: Internal and external fits. Journal of Management, 13, 647–658; Chatman, J. A., & Eunyoung Cha, S. (2003). Leading by leveraging culture. California Management Review, 45, 20–34.

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63.

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Adapted from ideas in Daniel, L., & Brandon, C. (2006). Finding the right job fit. HR Magazine, 51, 62–67; Sacks, D. (2005). Cracking your next company’s culture. Fast Company, 99, 85–87.

CHAPTER 8 ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE 237

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238 PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT VERSION 3.0

© 2018 Boston Academic Publishing, Inc., d.b.a. FlatWorld. All rights reserved. Created exclusively for Essa AlSaeed <essa.alsaeed@live.mercer.edu>

  • Chapter 8: Organizational Culture
    • Understanding Organizational Culture
      • What Is Organizational Culture?
      • Why Does Organizational Culture Matter?
      • Levels of Organizational Culture
    • Measuring Organizational Culture
      • Dimensions of Culture
        • Innovative Cultures
        • Aggressive Cultures
        • Outcome-Oriented Cultures
        • Stable Cultures
        • People-Oriented Cultures
        • Team-Oriented Cultures
        • Detail-Oriented Cultures
      • Strength of Culture
      • Do Organizations Have a Single Culture?
    • Creating and Maintaining Organizational Culture
      • How Are Cultures Created?
        • Founder Values
        • Industry Demands
      • How Are Cultures Maintained?
        • Attraction-Selection-Attrition
        • New Employee Onboarding
          • What Can Employees Do during Onboarding?
          • What Can Organizations Do during Onboarding?
          • What Can Organizational Insiders Do during Onboarding?
        • Leadership
        • Reward Systems
      • Signs of Organizational Culture
        • Mission Statement
        • Rituals
        • Rules and Policies
        • Physical Layout
        • Stories and Language
    • Creating Culture Change
      • How Do Cultures Change?
        • Creating a Sense of Urgency
        • Changing Leaders and Other Key Players
        • Role Modeling
        • Training
        • Changing the Reward System
        • Creating New Symbols and Stories
    • Developing Your Personal Skills: Learning to Fit In
      • Before You Join
    • Case in Point: Google Creates Unique Culture
    • Endnotes
Categories
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sas curriculum pathway

Journal

FOCUS QUESTION: How and why are chemical equations balanced?

TAB 1: Equations Read the questions below. Then complete this Journal by interacting with the online Simulation. Remember: the Journal does NOT check your answers. Review your text entries and make sure you’ve transferred data to the correct table rows.

Chemical equations represent what happens during the course of chemical reactions. Reactants and products, their quantities, and their physical states can be represented, as in the following equation: Zn (s) + 2 HCl (aq)0020 2192→ ZnCl2 (aq) + H2 (g). In words, solid zinc reacts with aqueous hydrochloric acid (hydrogen chloride) to yield aqueous zinc chloride and hydrogen gas. The “2” in front of HCl is called a coefficient. Coefficients indicate the simplest, whole-number ratios between the substances in the reaction. Their purpose is to ensure that the equation is balanced and that matter is conserved. In a balanced equation, the number of atoms of an element on the reactant side of the equation equals the number of atoms of that same element on the product side.

In this section, you will learn how to count the number of atoms within a substance and to recognize balanced and unbalanced chemical equations.

In the Simulation (to the right) select a reaction from the pull-down menu. Drag the molecules to the two- pan balance to count the numbers of reactant and product atoms and to determine if the equation is balanced.

1.1 Data Collection For each chemical reaction:

• Pay attention to the Data panel as you drag each molecule to the balance. Observe how the atom counts change. • Use the Transfer Data button ( ) to transfer the atom count from the Data panel to the table. • Then, use the pull-down menus to indicate if each substance is balanced.

Reaction 1: CO + 2 H20020 2192→ CH3OH elements: C O H

# of reactant atoms: 1 1 4

# of product atoms: 1 1 4

balanced? yes yes yes

Reaction 2: Fe2O3 + 3 Mg0020 2192→ MgO + 2 Fe elements: Fe O Mg

# of reactant atoms: 2 3 3

# of product atoms: 2 1 1

balanced? yes no no

Reaction 3: 2 NH3 + O20020 2192→ 2 NO + 3 H2O elements: N H O

# of reactant atoms: 2 6 2

# of product atoms: 2 6 5

balanced? yes yes no

Science 1194 SAS® Curriculum Pathways®

Chemical Equations: Journal

NAME: ray CLASS: chem90 DATE: 10/27/2013

Copyright © 2013, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA, All Rights Reserved Page 1 of 6

Reaction 4: (NH4)2PtCl60020 2192→ 2 NH4Cl + Pt + 2 Cl2 elements: N H Pt Cl

# of reactant atoms: 2 8 1 6

# of product atoms: 2 8 1 6

balanced? yes yes yes yes

Reaction 5: 2 C2H6 + 7 O20020 2192→ 4 CO2 + 6 H2O elements: C H O

# of reactant atoms: 4 12 14

# of product atoms: 4 12 14

balanced? yes yes yes

1.2 Name and state the law requiring chemical equations to be balanced (discussed in the Welcome video).

It is the law of conservation of mass. It states that the mass is neither created nor destroyed. Thus, the mass in the reactacnt should be the same in the product.

1.3 For Reaction 2, putting a coefficient of 3 in front of MgO produces a balanced equation. Explain why the equation cannot be balanced by changing MgO to Mg3O3.

Putting in front 3 MgO is technically not allowed. Besides the law of definite composition states that chemical compounds are composed of fixed ratio of elements by mass. Thus there’s only MgO and not Mg3O3

1.4 Can Reaction 3 be balanced by putting a coefficient of 5/2 in front of O2? Why or why not?

It can be balanced but it is not customary to leave coeficients as fractions. We need to multiply coefficients in both sides by two as per the law of multiple proportion which states that masses of one element which combine with a fixed mass of second element are in a ratio of whole numbers.

1.5 In Reaction 4, 2 NH4Cl molecules are formed. In total, how many atoms of each element do these two molecules contain? Explain your reasoning.

N = 2 H = 8 Cl = 2 .In doing so, we only need to multiply each coefficient with the subscript to obtain the number of atoms in each element. So for N its 2×1 = 2. for H its 2×4=8 and for Cl its 2×1=2 .

1.6 In Reaction 5, the atom count for oxygen is 14. Explain how the product side of the equation represents 14 oxygen atoms.

In 4O2 the number of Oxygen atoms is 4×2 = 8 In 6H2O the number of oxygen atoms is 6×1 = 6 So 6+8 there are now 14 oxygen atoms in total

TAB 2: Balancing In this section, you will develop your equation-balancing skills. The process of balancing a chemical equation could involve trial and error, but having a procedure to follow makes the task simpler. To view a step-by-step process, click the “how-to” button.

In the Simulation (to the right) select a reaction from the pull-down menu. Balance the equation by dragging substances to the reactant and product areas. The Simulation displays a Congratulations message when the equation is correct. Pay close attention to the Data panel as you work.

Science 1194 SAS® Curriculum Pathways®

Copyright © 2013, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA, All Rights Reserved Page 2 of 6

2.1 Data Collection After balancing an equation, use the Transfer Data button ( ) to transfer both the equation and atom count from the Data panel to the table.

Reaction 1: 1 FeCl3 + 3 KOH0020 2192→ 3 KCl + 1 Fe(OH)3 elements: Fe Cl K O H

# of reactant atoms: 1 3 3 3 3

# of product atoms: 1 3 3 3 3

Reaction 2: 2 Na3PO4 + 3 Cu(NO3)20020 2192→ 1 Cu3(PO4)2 + 6 NaNO3 elements: Na P O Cu N

# of reactant atoms: 6 2 26 3 6

# of product atoms: 6 2 26 3 6

Reaction 3: 2 Y(OH)3 + 3 H2SO40020 2192→ 1 Y2(SO4)3 + 6 H2O elements: Y O H S

# of reactant atoms: 2 18 12 3

# of product atoms: 2 18 12 3

Reaction 4: 4 PH3 + 8 O20020 2192→ 1 P4O10 + 6 H2O elements: P H O

# of reactant atoms: 4 12 16

# of product atoms: 4 12 16

Reaction 5: 2 CH3OH + 3 O20020 2192→ 2 CO2 + 4 H2O elements: C H O

# of reactant atoms: 2 8 8

# of product atoms: 2 8 8

Reaction 6: 1 C6H5CH3 + 9 O20020 2192→ 7 CO2 + 4 H2O elements: C H O

# of reactant atoms: 7 8 18

# of product atoms: 7 8 18

TAB 3: Practice In this section, you will continue to develop skills in generating balanced chemical equations.

In the Simulation (to the right) select a reaction from the pull-down menu. Balance the equation by dragging substances to the reactant and product areas. The Simulation displays a Congratulations message when the equation is correct.

Science 1194 SAS® Curriculum Pathways®

Copyright © 2013, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA, All Rights Reserved Page 3 of 6

3.1 Data Collection • Enter the atom counts in the table as you work to balance an equation. • Use the Transfer Data button ( ) to transfer the balanced equation from the Data panel to the table. • Make sure your final atom counts are based on the balanced equation.

Reaction 1: 2 Na + 2 H2O0020 2192→ 2 NaOH + 1 H2 elements: Na H O

# of reactant atoms: 2 4 2

# of product atoms: 2 4 2

Reaction 2: 1 Fe2O3 + 3 CO0020 2192→ 2 Fe + 3 CO2 elements: Fe O C

# of reactant atoms: 2 6 3

# of product atoms: 2 6 3

Reaction 3: 2 Fe(OH)3 + 3 H2S0020 2192→ 1 Fe2S3 + 6 H2O elements: Fe O H S

# of reactant atoms: 2 6 12 3

# of product atoms: 2 6 12 3

Reaction 4: 1 P4S3 + 8 O20020 2192→ 1 P4O10 + 3 SO2 elements: P S O

# of reactant atoms: 4 3 16

# of product atoms: 4 3 16

Reaction 5: 4 KO2 + 2 CO20020 2192→ 2 K2CO3 + 3 O2 elements: K O C

# of reactant atoms: 4 12 2

# of product atoms: 4 12 2

Reaction 6: 1 Mg3N2 + 8 HCl0020 2192→ 3 MgCl2 + 2 NH4Cl elements: Mg N H Cl

# of reactant atoms: 3 2 8 8

# of product atoms: 3 2 8 8

Reaction 7: 1 P4O10 + 12 HClO40020 2192→ 4 H3PO4 + 6 Cl2O7 elements: P O H Cl

# of reactant atoms: 4 58 12 12

# of product atoms: 4 58 12 12

Science 1194 SAS® Curriculum Pathways®

Copyright © 2013, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA, All Rights Reserved Page 4 of 6

Analysis

TAB 4: Analysis Refer to the Journal, as needed, to answer the following questions.

Balancing Equations A.1 Using what you learned in the first three tabs, balance the following equations.

• Complete each table by entering the appropriate coefficients and atom counts. • Coefficients of “1” do not need to be entered.

Reaction 1: 4 FeS2 + 11 O20020 2192→ 2 Fe2O3 + 8 SO2 elements: Fe S O

# of reactant atoms: 4 8 22

# of product atoms: 4 8 22

Reaction 2: 2 C7H6O2 + 15 O20020 2192→ 14 CO2 + 6 H2O elements: C H O

# of reactant atoms: 14 12 34

# of product atoms: 14 12 34

Reaction 3: 4 C3H5NO + 19 O20020 2192→ 12 CO2 + 4 NO2 + 10 H2O elements: C H N O

# of reactant atoms: 12 20 4 42

# of product atoms: 12 20 4 42

Reaction 4: C6H12O6 + 4 KClO30020 2192→ 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + 4 KCl elements: C H O K Cl

# of reactant atoms: 6 12 18 4 4

# of product atoms: 6 12 18 4 4

Conclusion A.2 Focus Question — How and why are chemical equations balanced? In answering this question, discuss:

• the reason equations must be balanced • what you can change to balance an equation • the process of equation-balancing

Finally, to demonstrate your understanding, balance the following equation (from the end of the Welcome video): Cu(NO3)2 + Na3PO40020 2192→ NaNO3 + Cu3(PO4)2. NOTE: you cannot type subscripts in the text box below. Cu(NO3)2, for example, would be entered as Cu(NO3)2.

Science 1194 SAS® Curriculum Pathways®

Chemical Equations: Analysis

NAME: ray CLASS: chem90 DATE: 10/27/2013

Copyright © 2013, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA, All Rights Reserved Page 5 of 6

Answer to Focus Question: Equations should be balanced in accordance with the law of conservation of mass which states that the mass is neither created nor destroyed which means we have to balance equation such that the mass in the reactant is the same as the product. In balancing equation it is the coefficients that we can change. To balance equation, we need to find the right coefficients in the reactants and products that will yield the same number of atoms of each elements in each side. Answer to balancing equation: 3 Cu(NO3)2 + 2Na3PO4 -> 6NaNO3 + Cu3(PO4)2

Science 1194 SAS® Curriculum Pathways®

Copyright © 2013, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA, All Rights Reserved Page 6 of 6

  • Journal
    • TAB 1: Equations
    • TAB 2: Balancing
    • TAB 3: Practice
  • Analysis
    • TAB 4: Analysis
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cis 500

CIS 500 WEEK 1 DISCUSSION

Shadow IT for Business Operations (20 points)

Organizations do not always provide information systems that allow their staff to perform their responsibilities efficiently and effectively. Read the article, “Lifting the Veil Off Shadow IT.” Then, respond to the following:

o Take a position favoring or opposing shadow IT.

o If you are in favor, give one reason that shadow IT should be allowed. If you are not in favor, provide one way that the organization can reduce the risks of shadow IT.

o What is the best way an IT department can meet users’ technology needs without additional cost or risk to the organization? Justify your answer by responding to another student’s post that differs from your answer. Explain why your idea is preferable.

o Do not repeat suggestions from the article or that have been posted by another student.

NOTE: MORE THAN ONE ANSWER POSTED AS A BONUS CHOOSE ANY YOU LIKE

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all of the following are advantages of sole proprietorship except ________.

is most often associated with manufacturing defects, design or marketing defects, and a failure to warn.

1 pts

  • Negligence
  • Product liability
  • Uniform commercial code
  • Intentional tort
  • Patents

Which of the following points does the existence of a business plan demonstrate?

1 pts

  • The business process has been carefully planned.
  • The business fulfills an important market need.
  • The business has full-time employees.
  • The business has a unique idea.
  • The business will be financially successful.

Companies MOST often resort to mergers and acquisitions when they want to expand their markets and product lines because ________.

1 pts

  • more than 70 percent of all mergers exceed financial expectations
  • it minimizes conflicts that are rooted on hidden agendas and power struggles
  • it minimizes time and investment to research and develop new products
  • upper management prefers to concentrate on day-to-day activities
  • employees are motivated to work harder because of the resulting stability

One disadvantage of sole proprietorship is the ________.

1 pts

  • burden of all the required paperwork that must be filed
  • fact that any income earned by this type of business is taxed twice
  • cost of starting or ending the company is higher than other businesses
  • unlimited liability the owner has for the debts of the company
  • possibility of disagreements between different owners

A franchise is a method of doing business in which ________.

1 pts

  • a company buys ownership of another company and absorbs its employees and customer base into its own structure
  • a business is able to achieve rapid sales growth in the service sector due to taking advantage of many advertising opportunities
  • a company’s products or services are sold to independent third-party operators under the company’s name
  • an entrepreneur sets up and manages a small business based on an innovative idea or product
  • a small company is bought by a larger one and is absorbed into its existing structure

A(n) ________ is a type of entrepreneur who prefers to keep his or her business small.

1 pts

  • petitpreneur
  • nanopreneur
  • micropreneur
  • intrapreneur
  • minipreneur

Traci and Sally have considered starting their own business but are concerned about the possibility of losing their personal assets if the business fails. One way for Traci and Sally to avoid this risk would be to organize their company as a ________.

1 pts

  • corporation
  • general partnership
  • sole proprietorship
  • limited partnership
  • merger

The government agency whose sole purpose is to cater to the needs of small businesses is ________.

1 pts

  • the Entrepreneurs Organization
  • Service Corps of Retired Executives
  • the Small Business Administration
  • the Small Business Agency
  • National Business Incubators Association

Unlike trademarks and patents, trade secrets ________.

1 pts

  • are not protected under state laws
  • are not protected under federal statutes
  • cannot be processes
  • are protected only when the secret is disclosed
  • must be physical devices

James lives near a university and observes that almost every student uses a cell phone. He decides to open a small shop offering repair services for cell phones. His shop is an instant success. James has satisfied an area of need called ________.

1 pts

  • an opportunity niche
  • fertile ground
  • a bandwidth need
  • the marketplace
  • an unconscious demand

Which of the following is NOT an advantage of buying an existing business?

1 pts

  • It might be easier to obtain financing to purchase the existing business.
  • An existing business has an existing customer base.
  • An existing business has less competition.
  • There is a reduction in start-up time and energy.
  • It is simpler than beginning a new business from scratch.

Which of the following is NOT one of the elements of a contract that must be in place for it to be valid?

1 pts

  • consideration must be given
  • the terms must be formally drafted
  • the offer must be accepted
  • the parties must understand and agree on the terms
  • an offer must be made

Rick’s business plan cover sheet includes basic company information, the month and year of the business plan, and the names of the people who prepared his plan. What key information did Rick not include on the cover sheet?

1 pts

  • anticipated challenges and planned responses
  • unique record number
  • brief description of the owner(s)
  • brief description of the business
  • the mission statement

Which section contains an analysis of whether there will be enough customers to purchase the product in the future?

1 pts

  • market investment
  • promotional plan
  • competitive assessment
  • financials
  • market research

Which of the following is ALWAYS TRUE about the purchases of existing businesses?

1 pts

  • Once under new ownership, remaining staff are suspicious or fearful of the new owner.
  • Once under new ownership, consumer curiosity about the new ownership will cause a spike in sales.
  • Once under new ownership, existing customers will be resentful toward the new owner.
  • Once under new ownership, existing businesses outperform initial revenue projections.
  • Once under new ownership, any underlying problems are the responsibility of the new owner.

All of the following are reasons why people start small businesses EXCEPT ________.

1 pts

  • more control of business decisions
  • lack of other employment opportunities
  • financial independence
  • idea for product or service not currently available
  • reduced levels of responsibility

Rashan has been working as a pharmacist at a large drug store chain. He would like to open his own small pharmacy but is not sure if he could be successful given the predominance of large competitors. What part of his business plan would best address his concern?

1 pts

  • marketing plan
  • mission statement
  • operational plan
  • company information
  • risk analysis

________ is the process of performing research and analysis of a business to uncover any hidden problems associated with it.

1 pts

  • Demographic surveying
  • Due diligence
  • Risk auditing
  • Business assessment
  • Valuation

When a not-for-profit corporations dissolves, its assets are ________.

1 pts

  • seized by the state
  • transferred to the federal government
  • passed to the owners’ families
  • given to a similar not-for-profit group
  • distributed among major donors

Which of the following is the limit of liability of a limited partner?

1 pts

  • the amount of their personal assets
  • the amount of his/her share of the profits
  • the amount of their investment
  • the amount of business capital
  • the amount of their shared profits

Why did the FTC block the merger of Staples and Office Depot?

1 pts

  • The merger would have increased the number of competing stores in some parts of the country.
  • The merger would have made it easier for other competitors to enter the market.
  • The merger would have resulted in new efficiencies by combining operations.
  • The merger would have allowed for higher pricing, costing consumers millions of dollars.
  • The merger would have resulted in a decrease in the variety and quality of products offered to consumers.

Which of the following is a disadvantage of forming a corporation?

1 pts                                                                     

  • double taxation
  • difficult transfer of ownership
  • unlimited liability of owners
  • less flexibility raising capital
  • limited life

The Nike swoosh, McDonald’s golden arches, and Apple’s apple are all examples of ________.

1 pts

  • digital rights
  • trademarks
  • trade secrets
  • patents
  • copyrights

The United States is a federalist system, meaning ________.

1 pts

  • only the U.S. government is divided into executive, legislative, and judicial branches
  • states don’t have written constitutions
  • the fifty states have no autonomy
  • the national government has complete authority
  • there is government authority at both the national and state levels

A ________ business is one that has at least 20 percent sales growth per year for five years, starting with a base of at least $100,000.

1 pts

  • hyper-growth
  • consistent-growth
  • enterprise zone
  • gazelle
  • cheetah

A disadvantage of a limited liability company is that it ________.

1 pts

  • requires earnings to be taxed at the corporate rate
  • has more restrictive ownership rules than S corporations
  • requires the division of profits in a fixed proportion
  • is required to hold annual meetings
  • must dissolve when an owner leaves the company

A cooperative is a type of business that is owned by ________ who use its products or services.

1 pts

  • shareholders
  • directors
  • outside investors
  • partners
  • members

The following are all components of a business plan EXCEPT ________.

1 pts

  • the table of contents
  • sales and promotion details
  • product descriptions
  • the executive summary
  • the chapter summary

All of the following are advantages of sole proprietorship EXCEPT ________.

1 pts

  • control and flexibility
  • single ownership
  • limited liability
  • ease of formation
  • no separate tax form

Alex Garcia has an idea for an Internet technology business that involves innovative search engine tools. He was referred to an organization that helps start-up businesses by offering resources such as administrative services, technical support, and business networking. This type of organization is called ________.

1 pts

  • the Small Business Administrative Assistants
  • the Service Corps of Retired Executives
  • the Entrepreneurs Organization
  • a business incubator
  • an angel investor group

A merger involving a computer manufacturer and an electronics retailer that sells its computers would be an example of a ________.

1 pts

  • product extension merger
  • conglomeration
  • vertical merger
  • horizontal merger
  • market extension merger

Which of the following does NOT apply to intellectual property law?

1 pts

  • trade secrets
  • patents
  • trademarks
  • copyrights
  • negotiable instruments

Which of the following is the MOST compelling argument for incorporating a business?

1 pts

  • to complete minimal legal requirements
  • to avoid paying federal taxes
  • to avoid lots of paperwork
  • to hire more employees
  • to protect the owners’ personal assets

When a wealthy individual invests his or her own money into a business project or start-up company with little intention to influence decision making, he or she is MOST often called a(n) ________.

1 pts

  • business incubator
  • shadow partner
  • financier
  • angel investor
  • venture capitalist

Which of the following is NOT covered under copyright law?

1 pts

  • a song
  • a play
  • a painting
  • a poem
  • a logo

Which of the following statements about S corporations is MOST accurate?

1 pts

  • S corporation are easier to set up than sole proprietorships and partnerships.
  • S corporations enable owners to avoid the problem of double taxation.
  • S corporations must have fewer than 5 employees.
  • S corporations can have an unlimited number of owners.
  • S corporations have unlimited liability.

A ________ is a formal document that states the goals of the business as well as the intended process for reaching those goals.

1 pts

  • strategy
  • prospectus
  • vision statement
  • business plan
  • marketing plan

Mr. Gonzales wants to help fellow farmers in his community, but he is not interested in making a personal profit. His main goal is to join with other farmers so they can have better bargaining power when purchasing supplies. Which of the following business types will Mr. Gonzales MOST likely form?

1 pts

  • not-for-profit corporation
  • cooperative
  • sole proprietorship
  • C corporation
  • general partnership

Chapter 11 bankruptcy ________.

1 pts

  • requires that the business ceases operation
  • allows a business to pay its creditors over time
  • is the most common form of bankrupty for individuals
  • demands that creditors be paid within 3-5 years
  • can only be filed voluntarily

Small business owners can seek professional advice at no cost through ________.

1 pts

  • the Volunteer Corps of America
  • Fortune 500 companies
  • the Service Corps of Retired Executives
  • the Better Business Bureau
  • McKinsey & Company management consulting

Which of the following types of entrepreneurs does NOT become involved in starting his or her own business?

1 pts

  • growth entrepreneur
  • micropreneur
  • intrapreneur
  • contract entrepreneur
  • quasipreneur

All of the following EXCEPT ________ would be an advantage to partnership.

1 pts

  • unlimited liability
  • increased financial resources
  • no separate tax return required
  • pooled skills
  • increased available time

Small businesses are important to the economy because ________.

1 pts

  • they are more innovative than larger companies
  • they improve productivity by hiring less-expensive staff in countries outside the United States
  • they create more than two-thirds of the U.S. gross domestic product
  • they generate about 65 percent of net new jobs in the United States
  • they export more than one-half of total U.S. exported goods and services

It’s important for partners to spell out the details of their partnership arrangements in writing because ________.

1 pts

  • the law requires these arrangements to be filed with state and federal authorities
  • doing so will make it easier to convert the business to a corporation at a later date
  • a written agreement will help reduce misunderstandings and disagreements among the partners
  • the partnership is not a legally recognized business until the arrangement is in writing
  • putting the agreement in writing will limit the liability of each partner to a specified level

An advisory board is composed of ________.

1 pts

  • a group of individuals who offer guidance to the new business owner
  • a group of experts who make decisions on behalf of the new business owner
  • a group of professionals who provide expertise in return for a share of the new business’s profits
  • a group of individuals who fill in for the management team members when needed
  • a group of interns who assist with administrative duties

All of the following are reasons business owners consider using a corporation structure of ownership EXCEPT ________.

1 pts

  • protection from significant loss of personal assets
  • ease of transferring ownership
  • eased ability of raising capital
  • the appearance of stability and legitimacy
  • ease of forming and setting up the structure

Kris and Amy own a workout facility in which they are co-owners. Both take an active role in the management of the business and each accepts unlimited liability. Kris and Amy operate as a ________.

1 pts

  • limited partnership
  • cooperative
  • joint venture
  • general partnership
  • dual proprietorship

A(n) ________ occurs when two companies of about the same size mutually agree to create a new combined company.

1 pts

  • takeover
  • cooperative
  • acquisition
  • synergy
  • merger

Kyle is an entrepreneur who runs his own advertising agency. He can see the whole picture of what is involved in growing his company, and he has developed a solid plan for every aspect of the business, including production, financing, and marketing. This approach to his business indicates that Kyle is a ________.

1 pts

  • motivator
  • holistic owner
  • producer
  • system thinker
  • visionary

Which of the following statements is TRUE about the components of a business plan?

1 pts

  • All business plans are unique and share no common characteristics or components.
  • Potential business owners can use a common template to write a business plan because all plans share the same components.
  • All business plans are different depending on the business; however, most have a few components in common.
  • Business plans all have the same key components; however, some may be included in a different order.
  • All business plans discuss the specific product before analyzing how the product fits the market.

________ form the basis for much personal and business interaction, including when a company hires another company or individual to do work for them or when property is bought and sold.

1 pts

  • Principles
  • Courts
  • Contracts
  • Codes
  • Precedents

Many new business owners prefer a limited liability structure because there are ________.

1 pts

  • fewer corporate formalities
  • limits on the number of members
  • fewer lawsuits
  • typically higher profits than other forms of ownership
  • more informal agreements

Which of the following is a benefit of forming a corporation?

1 pts

  • Owners of a corporation are subject to unlimited liability.
  • Owners of a corporation are passive investors.
  • Corporations can offer stock options to employees.
  • Corporations can be double taxed.
  • There is little paperwork to file when forming a corporation.
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genogram example with key

Constructing a Genogram

Constructing a Genogram Program Transcript

TRACEY PHILLIPS: Hi, I’m Dr. Tracey Phillips. Genograms are like family trees in many ways. They use symbols and lines to represent relationships between parents and children across generations. Typically, however, a family tree only represents basic biological information such as siblings, parent-child relationships, marriages, et cetera. A genogram provides a more sophisticated level of information that may be of use to medical or mental health professionals working with an individual or a family.

Genograms use a broader array of symbols and family trees to represent family relationships– for example, cohabitation, divorce, or even a love affair; emotional relationships– for example, estranged, abuse, in love, manipulative; diseases or health risks– for example, substance abuse, cancer, diabetes, and even social relationships outside of traditional family spheres such as neighbor, mentor, spiritual leader, or co-worker.

Genograms are very useful to human service professionals, because they provide a visual representation of the relationships, emotional bonds, and patterns that exist in an individual or family’s past or present. They can be very useful not only to help the professional identify the patterns, but are a great tool to help explain patterns to clients.

For this assignment you will gain experience by completing a genogram and constructing one of you and a non-family member, To give you an idea of what a genogram looks like, here is an example. Somewhere in your genogram you will first have to have a key. The key is there for the reader to be able to understand the relationships that exist within the family members.

In this example, you will see that males are indicated by a square and females are indicated by a circle. If the male is alive, then the square is yellow. If the female is alive, the square is pink. If the male or female are deceased, you will notice that the square and circle are blue.

Also, on the key you will have the nature of the relationship. If the relationship is intact, there will be a solid line. If the relationship is broken, then there will be a dotted line or a broken line, as you can see on this example at the bottom. Inside each circle or square you will be able to see, according to the key, the nature of that person’s status.

For example, if the person is alive and well, you will see an A&W as indicated by the key. If the person has or had cancer, it will say, CANC. You can go down the key to see each individual status. So let’s go through the example. The client, as you will notice, is in the middle. The client is a 37-year-old female. She is alive and well as indicated by A&W.

© 2016 Laureate Education, Inc. 1

Constructing a Genogram

If you go to the left, you will see that the client had a spouse– a 40-year-old male– as indicated by the yellow square. The reason you know the client and the spouse are divorced is the broken relationship or the broken line between them. He also was an alcoholic. As you can see under it says, ALC.

They have two children– a 12-year-old female and an 8-year-old male who are both alive and well. To the right of the client you’ll notice that she has two siblings– a 32-year-old male and a 30-year-old female who are both alive and well. As you move up in your genogram, you’ll go back three generations.

In this example, you see the mother and the father of the client. The mother is a 60-year-old female who suffers from mitral valve prolapse. The father is a 66- year-old male who suffers from hypertension. You can also go further up into the grandparents.

And you can see that three of the client’s grandparents are deceased– one a 68- year-old male who died of cancer, an 80-year-old female who died of hypertension, and a 70-year-old male who died of cardiovascular disease. The client has a 77-year-old living grandmother who currently suffers from hypertension and breast cancer.

As you complete your genogram, you will go back three generations. And you will indicate the relationship status within family members as well as whether or not they are alive or deceased and their current physical or emotional state. You’ll create your own key to let the reader know what the status of each family member is.

© 2016 Laureate Education, Inc. 2

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two methods of estimating uncollectible receivables are​ ________.

Page 1 of 10

Basic Statistics

MTH107.920 Fall 2017

Class location: Online via Blackboard and WebAssign Instructor: Amy Frankel Communication:

 BEST OPTION: Send/receive Waubonsee email via http://mywcc.waubonsee.edu to afrankel@waubonsee.edu or send via Blackboard Send E-mail tool (choose “all instructor users”). Note that emails from non-Waubonsee email addresses will be labeled as junk-mail in my email client. So using your WCC email is definitely the best way to go. I will try to answer within 24 hours.

 Phone: (630)466-7900, ext. 2554

 To subscribe to text message or personal email updates/reminders: send @wccstats to 81010 (Note you can now chat using the Remind App or Webpage! Video tutorial). Or go to https://www.remind.com/join/wccstats.

Office Location: Bodie 229, Sugar Grove campus Office Hours: M – Th 11:30am-12:30pm, W 5pm-6pm, or by appointment. For in-person appointment requests use: https://amy.youcanbook.me/. For web conferences please send via email a few dates and times that you would be available to meet. Students do not need to make an appointment to meet with me during office hours. Web site: http://www.waubonsee.edu/faculty/afrankel Required course materials:

 WebAssign access code which provides you with the e-book of Introductory Statistics, 1st ed. by Illowsky and Dean, OpenStax College 2013. Students MUST purchase a WebAssign Course Key. Students may start with temporary access for 14 days, but then a code must be purchased BEFORE the end of the temporary access period. See this handout for more details.

WebAssign Course Key: waubonsee 5082 1614  The textbook is also available in the following formats:

o Hard cover book from the bookstore o On the web o Downloadable pdf (high resolution) or (low resolution) o Offline HTML copy (zip file) o Bookshare o Download to iBooks o Print Copy from Amazon

 A calculator: TI-83, TI-83+, TI-84, TI-84+, TI-84+ CE are recommended since all calculator instructions will be for these models of calculator.

Course Description: A course designed to assist the student in the understanding and use of numerical data. Topics covered include descriptive methods, probability, distributions, statistical inference, confidence intervals, tests of hypotheses, and correlation and regression.http://mywcc.waubonsee.edu/mailto:afrankel@waubonsee.eduhttps://youtu.be/ow7LCRr7R5Qhttps://www.remind.com/join/wccstatshttps://amy.youcanbook.me/http://www.waubonsee.edu/faculty/afrankelhttps://www.dropbox.com/s/j83s7kaws448cw8/WA_Student_Quick_Start.pdf?dl=0https://cnx.org/contents/30189442-6998-4686-ac05-ed152b91b9dehttps://d3bxy9euw4e147.cloudfront.net/oscms-prodcms/media/documents/Statistics-OP.pdfhttps://d3bxy9euw4e147.cloudfront.net/oscms-prodcms/media/documents/Statistics-LR.pdfhttp://cnx.org/exports/30189442-6998-4686-ac05-ed152b91b9de%4018.11.zip/introductory-statistics-18.11.ziphttps://www.bookshare.org/browse/book/751376https://itunes.apple.com/us/book/introductory-statistics/id898910154?mt=13https://www.amazon.com/Introductory-Statistics-OpenStax-College/dp/1938168208/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1503023782&sr=8-1&keywords=illowsky

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Course Objectives:

1. Students will define and identify the properties of basic statistical descriptors related to the gathering of data: population, sample, parameter, statistic, sampling, bias, observational study, experiment, variables, qualitative, quantitative, continuous variable, discrete variable, levels of measurement, error, frequency, relative frequency.

2. Students will organize univariate and bivariate data and then graph the data using the following visual representations: stem-and-leaf plot, histogram, bar graph, dotplot, pareto chart, time-series graph, scatterplot, pie chart, line chart.

3. Students will explain the definitions, properties, and functions of the following descriptive statistics, calculate their values from small data sets, and interpret the results: means, medians, variances, standard deviations, quartiles, percentiles; For large data sets, students will employ the use of technology to calculate descriptive statistics.

4. Students will determine probabilities of events through the application of the standard ideas in elementary probability: addition rule, multiplication rule, counting techniques, independence of events, conditional probability.

5. Students will identify the properties of normal distribution and find, by using technology, probabilities, associated with random variables with these distributions.

6. Students will calculate the mean and standard deviation of the binomial probability distribution.

7. Students will apply the 68-95-99.5 Rule to identify statistically significant events.

8. Students will explain the Central Limit Theorem as it applies to sample means and proportions and apply it to identify statistically significant events.

9. With the aid of technology, students will compute confidence intervals of population means and proportions based on sample data using both the normal distribution and the t-distribution

10. Students will calculate the sample size necessary to obtain a confidence interval of desired width.

11. Students will conduct hypothesis testing on population means and proportions using confidence intervals, critical values, the P-value method, and two-way tables, and hypothesis testing on variances using one-way ANOVA.

12. Students will define and differentiate between correlation and causality.

13. Students will utilize technology to identify the line of best fit and correlation coefficient based on a set of data, and then explain whether the fit is statistically significant.

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Course Outcomes: At the end of this course, the student will be able to… 1. Organize data. 2. Conduct a statistical study using hypothesis testing.

College Learning Outcomes CRITICAL THINKING Students will be able to acquire, analyze, synthesize, and evaluate information for efficacy in order to develop conclusions and implement solutions while actively engaging in learning and questioning beyond the content of any one course, making connections between courses, disciplines, life experiences, and accumulated knowledge. COMMUNICATION Students will be able to read, comprehend, and interpret multimedia (oral, written, and visual texts) situated in various contexts; deliver clear, well-organized speeches, presentations, visuals, or ideas appropriate to various contexts and audiences; and write clear, concise communications appropriate to various contexts and audiences. QUANTITATIVE LITERACY Students will be able to acquire, analyze, use, and represent mathematical and scientific data and information symbolically, visually, numerically, and verbally to recognize and understand problems and trends, to conduct experiments and observations, to develop appropriate solutions and conclusions, and to understand the interrelatedness of quantitative reasoning and other disciplines. Grading Criteria Please keep in mind that your grade is neither a reward nor a punishment, but is a reflection of your performance and level of mastery of the material in the class. This is a challenging class. It is in your best interest to study and complete your assignments on time. The distribution of points is weighted so that a student must earn at least a 60% average on the tests in order to earn a C or higher in the course. Homework: Homework will be completed in WebAssign. Each homework will have a deadline of Noon Central on Monday and corresponds to the lesson for that week. (see individual due dates in the course schedule and weekly checklist below) Students may work each problem up to 5 times. After the first submission, assistive tools like hints, practice another version, and tutorials will be made available for attempts 2-5. Student’s last answer is counted toward grade. Students may request a 1 day extension via WebAssign, but a 10% deduction will automatically be taken for each extension requested, with the Saturday after the deadline as the final deadline for all extensions. Each homework is weighted at a maximum of 1 point. To calculate your score take the percent score and divide by 100. IN ADDITION: students must score at least an 80% on homework in order to unlock the quiz for that lesson. There are 13 homework assignments, so there is a maximum of 13 points from homework.

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Quizzes: Quizzes will be completed in WebAssign. Each Quiz will have a deadline of Noon Central on Monday. (see individual due dates in the course schedule and weekly checklist below). Students must score at least an 80% on the homework in order to gain access to the quiz for that lesson. Students may work each quiz problem 2 times with the last submitted answer counting toward the grade. No assistive tools are available during quizzes, but will be available after the quiz is completed and the deadline has passed. Students may request an extension via WebAssign, but a 10% deduction will automatically be taken for each extension requested. Each quiz is weighted at a maximum of 2 points. To calculate your score take the percent score and divide by 50. Proctored Tests: Details about each test can be found in Blackboard under Course Lessons & Info. There will be 2 proctored tests that you must take in person at one of the Waubonsee Assessment Centers or at another testing center an accredited institution (you will need to make arrangements with Waubonsee’s Assessment Center if you need to take the tests at another location – more information will be sent out during Week 1). Assessment Center hours and contact info can be found here on their web page. Proctored tests are worth 100 points each for a total of 200 points from tests (% score = pts earned). Deadlines for tests can be found in the Course Schedule below and on the Student Checklist attached at the end of the syllabus. Tests may be taken any day the Assessment Center is open as long as they are taken by the deadline (so you can take the test early if needed). If you miss the deadline for one of these tests, you may take the test, but with a 10% penalty for each day past the deadline. If you miss the deadline for a test you must contact the professor as soon as possible in order to make arrangements to take the missed test. You will not be allowed to take the test past the deadline until you have made arrangements with the professor. Project: Details about the project can be found in Blackboard after the third week of the class. There is one project that will be completed in 3 parts during the semester. Deadlines for submissions are in the Course Schedule below and on the Student Checklist attached at the end of the syllabus. If a student fails to submit any part of the project during the semester by its deadline, the student’s project grade will be reduced by 10% per week on that part that is submitted late (days 1-7 late are a 10% reduction, days 8-14 are a 20% reduction, and so on). The project is worth 13 points total; Part 1 is 3 points, Part 2 is 4 points, Part 3 is 6 points. Extra Credit: In WebAssign, I will make available a few extra credit assignments throughout the course. Extra credit must be submitted by the indicated deadline – no extensions, no exceptions.

Grading scale and point distribution: There will be a total of 250 points assigned throughout the semester. Grades will be assigned as follows: A: 90% – 100%, 225-250 points B: 80% – 89%, 200-224 points C: 70% – 79%, 175-199 points D: 60% – 69%, 150-174 points F: 0% – 59%, 0-149 points DOES NOT COUNT TOWARD GRADE: In Blackboard, there are discussion forums available as a place to ask for help on HOMEWORK problems. Below are the guidelines for posting a request for help, and for posting an answer. Do not post questions about the quizzes. There is a nice feature in WebAssign called “Ask Your Teacher” that students should use for Quizzes.http://www.waubonsee.edu/learning/success/assessment/

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Class Discussion Guideline Criteria Description of High Level of

Performance

Description of Low Level of

Performance

Post asking for help on a

Homework problem

Subject of post contains the

problem number from the HW.

Post contains the full problem

(either transcribed or a screen

grab) and an attempt at a solution.

Contains few or no spelling and

grammar mistakes.

Post is disrespectful or threatening

or demeaning (may result in being

reported to the Student Conduct

Board). Post does not include the

full question, and/or does not

include an attempt at a solution,

and/or contains several spelling

and grammar mistakes.

Reply to a student’s question Reply is thorough and uses correct

terminology, interprets concepts

accurately, adds to the

conversation, contains no or very

few spelling and grammar mistakes,

and is respectful.

Post is disrespectful or threatening

or demeaning (may result in being

reported to the Student Conduct

Board). Post uses terminology

incorrectly, and/or inaccurately

applies concepts, and/or contains

several spelling and grammar

mistakes. Does not add to the

conversation or is just repeating

what others have posted.

Course Policies Attendance policy: Even though we are not meeting in a physical classroom, it is expected that you “attend” class weekly by checking your WCC email messages and/or the Announcements board in Blackboard a few times during the week. There will be times when I will need to make an announcement or communicate something important to the class, and I will use Waubonsee email, and Announcements in Blackboard to do so. Online courses provide a level of flexibility. However flexibility does not translate as easier. IMPORTANT: You should expect to spend between 6 and 9 hours each week on this course which is typical for a 3 credit online course. In a face-to-face course you would spend 3 hours in class for lecture and expect to spend 3-6 hours outside of class reviewing, reading and completing assignments. For an online class the textbook and my posted lessons & videos are your classroom/lecture. So you can expect to spend about 3 hours on reading the book and lessons and watching videos and then an additional 3-6 on reviewing and completing assignments. I know many of you have a full plate (full course load or an overload, jobs, families, etc.). That is why I am telling you up front what sort of time commitment you can expect. I will not lower expectations or the level of accountability, or integrity of the course. If you have a serious life event that occurs during the semester (hospitalization, death of an immediate family member), PLEASE let me know as soon as possible, do not wait until the end of the semester or until you fall seriously behind. Late work/make-up policy: It is expected that you will submit assignments on time, however if for some reason you are not able to submit something by the deadline here are the policies for each assignment:

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 Homework: Must be completed by deadline, then a 10% reduction per extension up through the Saturday after the deadline.

 Quizzes: Must be completed by deadline, then a 10% reduction per extension up through the Saturday after the deadline.

 Proctored Tests: 10% will be deducted for each day past the deadline. Must contact Professor.

 Project: Per part 10% penalty per week, starting at day 1 past the deadline.

 Extra credit: No late work accepted – no extensions – no exceptions.

Withdrawals: I will not withdraw students from this course, with the following exceptions: It is college policy that if you have not attended class as of the 10th day of the semester (with respect to this online course this means that you have not completed any assignments in WebAssign, and have not posted in the Discussion Board for week O by the 10th day), or if you have not been making sufficient progress in the course as of the midterm (completed fewer than 4 graded assignments in WebAssign), I am required to drop you from this course and you will receive a W grade (considered a withdrawal on your transcript). Otherwise STUDENTS ARE REPSONSIBLE FOR WITHDRAWING THEMSELVES via the Student tab on mywcc.waubonsee.edu or by contacting the Office of Registration and Records. I WILL NOT WITHDRAW STUDENTS AFTER November 27th. You may withdraw yourself at any time during the semester until November 27, 2017. The last day to drop this course is November 27, 2017. Please refer to Waubonsee’s Academic Calendar for other important dates.

Access and Accommodation Statement: I wish to fully include persons with disabilities in the course. Please inform me or the Access Center for Disability Resources know if you need any special accommodations in the curriculum, instruction, or assessments of this course to enable you to fully participate. I will try to maintain the confidentiality of the information you share with me. You can contact the Access center at (630)466-7900, ext. 2564. Academic Integrity Statement: Waubonsee Community College believes that all members of the community (students, faculty, staff, and administrators) have a responsibility to participate in learning with honesty, respect, and integrity. We must commit to engage in learning both in and out of the classroom, value each member in our learning community, demonstrate original thought, and help foster ethical, open, safe learning environments for all. For more information, please see the Academic Integrity Resources section in the Waubonsee Student Handbook. Cheating/Plagiarism Policy: Waubonsee firmly upholds sound principles of academic integrity and responsibility. Plagiarism and cheating are serious infractions of academic integrity, and, as such, are considered breaches of the Code of Student Conduct. If a student has violated this policy, I will report the infraction to the Dean for Students and the student may fail the assignment or the course, depending on the severity or the number of infractions. Any student found cheating or plagiarizing on any assignment (discussion, homework, project, test, quiz) will be given a grade of F/0 for that homework/test/discussion board post and reported to the Student Conduct board for further disciplinary action. The instructor reserves the right to adjust this course syllabus as needed. Revisions to course policies will be communicated via Blackboard course announcement and college email.https://www.waubonsee.edu/admission/dates/academic-calendar/https://www.waubonsee.edu/learning/academic-support/access/

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Weekly Course Schedule

Week Course Schedule

Week O: 8/21 – 8/28

Lesson O: Introductions and acclimating, Homework O and Discussion Board Introduction due NOON Monday 8/28.

Week #1: 8/28 – 9/4

Lesson 1: Homework 1, Quiz 1 due NOON Monday 9/4 (remember that you must score at least 80% on the HW to access the Quiz).

Week #2: 9/4 – 9/11

Lesson 2: Homework 2, Quiz 2 due NOON Monday 9/11 (remember that you must score at least 80% on the HW to access the Quiz).

Week #3: 9/11 – 9/18

Lesson 3: Homework 3, Quiz 3 due NOON Monday 9/18 (remember that you must score at least 80% on the HW to access the Quiz).

Week #4: 9/18 – 9/25

Lesson 4: Homework 4, Quiz 4 due NOON Monday 9/25 (remember that you must score at least 80% on the HW to access the Quiz).

Week #5: 9/25 – 10/2

Lesson 5: Homework 5, Quiz 5 due NOON Monday 10/2 (remember that you must score at least 80% on the HW to access the Quiz).

Week #6: 10/2 – 10/9

Extra Credit Review Quiz 1 due by Noon on Monday, 10/9. Proctored Test 1 must be taken by closing time of the Assessment Center on MONDAY 10/9. Part 1 of project due by Noon Monday 10/9

Week #7: 10/9 – 10/16

Lesson 6: Homework 6, Quiz 6 due NOON Monday 10/16 (remember that you must score at least 80% on the HW to access the Quiz).

Week #8: 10/16 – 10/23

Lesson 7: Homework 7, Quiz 7 due NOON Monday 10/23 (remember that you must score at least 80% on the HW to access the Quiz) .

Week #9: 10/23 – 10/30

Lesson 8: Homework 8, Quiz 8 and due NOON Monday 10/30 (remember that you must score at least 80% on the HW to access the Quiz),

Week #10: 10/30 – 11/6

Lesson 9: Homework 9, Quiz 9 due NOON Monday 11/6 (remember that you must score at least 80% on the HW to access the Quiz). Part 2 of Project due by Noon on Monday 11/6.

Week #11: 11/6 – 11/13

Lesson 10: Homework 10, Quiz 10 due NOON Monday 11/13 (remember that you must score at least 80% on the HW to access the Quiz).

Week #12: 11/13 – 11/20

Lesson 11: Homework 11, Quiz 11 due NOON Monday 11/20 (remember that you must score at least 80% on the HW to access the Quiz).

11/20 – 11/26 Thanksgiving Break

Week #13: 11/27 – 12/4

Lesson 12: Homework 12, Quiz 12 due NOON Monday 12/4 (remember that you must score at least 80% on the HW to access the Quiz).

Week #14, 15: 12/4 – 12/15

Extra Credit Review Quiz 2 due by Noon on Wednesday, 12/13. Proctored Test 2 must be taken by the time the Assessment Center closes on Wednesday 12/13. Part 3 of the Project due by Noon Friday 12/15.

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Resource Links and Locations The following are useful resources that are available to students at Waubonsee Community College: Access Center for Disability Resources – Student Center 201 Career Services Center – Student Center 209 Learning Assessment and Testing Services – Student Center 230, Aurora Downtown 275, Plano 129, Aurora Fox Valley 229 Counseling, Advising and Transfer Center – Student Center 262, Aurora Downtown 110, Plano 135, Aurora Fox Valley 231 Emergency Preparedness and Safety Guide – Posted in classrooms Financial Aid – Student Center 234, Aurora Downtown 241, Plano 126, Aurora Fox Valley 231 Student Handbook (includes Student Code of Conduct) – Also available in Admissions, Student Life and Counseling offices. Todd Library – Collins Hall 2nd floor, Aurora Downtown South Side 1st floor, Plano 122, Aurora Fox Valley 225 Registration and Records/Bursar – Student Center 2nd floor windows, Aurora Downtown 110, Plano 126,

Aurora Fox Valley 231

TRIO/Student Support Services – Manager – Student Center 262, Tutoring – Collins Hall 136

(Help for students who are first generation, limited income, or students with learning/physical disabilities)

Tutoring Centers – Collins Hall 144, Aurora Downtown 215, Plano library, Aurora Fox Valley library, Online 24/7 on MyWCC Student Portlet under Student Success, Tutoring and Support

Waubonsee Community College Campus Information:

Sugar Grove Campus Route 47 at Waubonsee Drive Sugar Grove, IL 60554-9454 (630) 466-7900

Aurora Downtown Campus 18 South River Street Aurora, IL 60506-4178 (630) 801-7900

Aurora Fox Valley Campus 2060 Ogden Avenue Aurora, IL 60504-7222 (630) 585-7900

Plano Campus 100 Waubonsee Drive Plano, IL 60545-2276 (630) 552-7900

www.waubonsee.eduhttps://www.waubonsee.edu/learning/academic-support/access/index.phphttps://www.waubonsee.edu/learning/academic-support/access/index.phphttp://www.waubonsee.edu/experience/services/career/http://www.waubonsee.edu/learning/success/assessment/https://www.waubonsee.edu/experience/services/counseling/http://www.waubonsee.edu/downloads/pdf/safety/Emergency_Preparedness_and_Safety_Guide.pdfhttp://www.waubonsee.edu/admission/financial-aid/http://www.waubonsee.edu/downloads/studentHandbook.pdfhttps://library.waubonsee.edu/https://www.waubonsee.edu/experience/services/records/https://www.waubonsee.edu/ssshttps://www.waubonsee.edu/learning/academic-support/tutoring/index.php../AppData/X00000142/AppData/Local/AppData/Local/AppData/Local/AppData/Local/AppData/Local/Downloads/www.waubonsee.edu

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Basic Statistics Weekly Checklist All deadlines are Noon Central on Monday, unless otherwise noted

below

Done? Score

Orientation Week, Week O, 8/21-8/28

Print out and Read Syllabus

Read Lesson O in Blackboard

Register with WebAssign

Self-Introduction Post in Discussion Board in Blackboard

Homework O – Orientation in WebAssign ____%/100 = ____pts

Week 1, 8/28 – 9/4

Read Text

Read Lesson 1 in Blackboard

Homework 1 in WebAssign ____%/100 = ____pts

Discussion in Blackboard for HW 1-if help is needed

Quiz 1 in WebAssign ____%/50 = ____pts

Week 2, 9/4 – 9/11

Read Text

Read Lesson 2 in Blackboard

Homework 2 in WebAssign ____%/100 = ____pts

Discussion in Blackboard for HW 2-if help is needed

Quiz 2 in WebAssign ____%/50 = ____pts

Week 3, 9/11 – 9/18

Read Text

Read Lesson 3 in Blackboard

Homework 3 in WebAssign ____%/100 = ____pts

Discussion in Blackboard for HW 3-if help is needed

Quiz 3 in WebAssign ____%/50 = ____pts

Week 4, 9/18 – 9/25

Read Text

Read Lesson 4 in Blackboard

Homework 4 in WebAssign ____%/100 = ____pts

Discussion in Blackboard for HW 4-if help is needed

Quiz 4 in WebAssign ____%/50 = ____pts

Week 5, 9/25 – 10/2

Read Text

Read Lesson 5 in Blackboard

Homework 5 in WebAssign ____%/100 = ____pts

Discussion in Blackboard for HW 5-if help is needed

Quiz 5 in WebAssign ____%/50 = ____pts

Week 6, 10/2 – 10/9

Extra Credit Test 1 Review Quiz ____pts/(5)

Proctored Test 1 due by close of Assessment Center on Monday 10/9

MONDAY10/12 10/12

NHAT THE DEADLINE IS SATURDAY NOT MONDAY

____% = ____pts

===______pts Part 1 of Project ____pts out of 3

Week 7, 10/9 – 10/16

Read Text

Read Lesson 6 in Blackboard

Homework 6 in WebAssign ____%/100 = ____pts

Discussion in Blackboard for HW 6-if help is needed

Page 10 of 10

Quiz 6 in WebAssign ____%/50 = ____pts

Week 8, 10/16 – 10/23

Read Text

Read Lesson 7 in Blackboard

Homework 7 in WebAssign ____%/100 = ____pts

Discussion in Blackboard for HW 7-if help is needed

Quiz 7 in Blackboard ____%/50 = ____pts

Week 9, 10/23 – 10/30

Read Text

Read Lesson 8 in Blackboard

Homework 8 in WebAssign ____%/100 = ____pts

Discussion in Blackboard for HW 8-if help is needed

Quiz 8 in WebAssign ____%/50 = ____pts

Week 10, 10/30 – 11/6

Read Text

Read Lesson 9 in Blackboard

Homework 9 in WebAssign ____%/100 = ____pts

Discussion in Blackboard for HW 9-if help is needed

Quiz 9 in WebAssign ____%/50 = ____pts

Part 2 of Project ____pts out of 4

Week 11, 11/6 – 11/13

Read Text

Read Lesson 10 in Blackboard

Homework 10 in WebAssign ____%/100 = ____pts

Discussion in Blackboard for HW 10

Quiz 10 in WebAssign ____%/100 = ____pts

Week 12, 11/13 – 11/20

Read Text

Read Lesson 11 in Blackboard

Homework 11 in WebAssign ____%/100 = ____pts

Discussion in Blackboard for HW 11-if help is needed

Quiz 11 in WebAssign ____%/50 = ____pts

Thanksgiving Break 11/20-11/26

Week 13, 11/27 – 12/4

Read Text

Read Lesson 12 in Blackboard

Homework 12 in WebAssign ____%/100 = ____pts

Discussion in Blackboard for HW 12-if help is needed

Quiz 12 in WebAssign ____%/50 = ____pts

Week 14 & 15, 12/4 – 12/16

Extra Credit Test 2 Review Quiz by NOON WEDNESDAY 12/13 ____pts/(5)

Proctored Test 2 by close of Assessment Center, WEDNESDAY 12/13

5/13

____% = ____pts

Part 3 of Project, NOON FRIDAY 12/15 ____pts out of 6

TOTAL POINTS EARNED (Add up all POINTS earned) ______/250 = _____ grade

NOTE: At any point during the semester you can determine your current grade by adding up the points you’ve earned

and dividing by the total points available to that point, and then multiply by 100.

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XPO Logistics, Inc. (NYSE: XPO) is a top ten global logistics provider of cutting-edge supply chain solutions to the most successful companies in the world. The company operates as a highly integrated network of people, technology and physical assets in 34 countries, with over 87,000 employees and 1,425 locations. XPO uses its network to help more than 50,000 customers manage their goods more effiff ciently throughout their supply chains. The company has two reportrr ing segments: transportrr ation and logistics, and within these segments, its business is well diversified by geographies, vertrr icals and types of servrr ice. XPO’s corporate headquartrr ers is in Greenwich, Conn., USA, and its European headquartrr ers is in LyLL on, France. www.xpo.comp

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To Our Stockholders

In 2016, XPO Logistics delivered high growth and high returns as one of the largest transportation and logistics companies in the world. We generated record results for full-year net income, cash flow from operations, adjusted EBITDA1 and free cash flow1, while continuing to invest in growth.

There were two main drivers behind our performance. Our healthy diversification across regions, verticals and services kept us resilient in a mixed global environment. At the same time, we realized numerous company- specific profit improvements that were unrelated to macro conditions.

One of the most notable tailwinds was the ongoing growth of e-commerce. XPO has been well positioned in e-commerce since 2013, when we entered the U.S. home delivery space as a last mile market leader. We specialize in last mile logistics for appliances, large electronics and other heavy goods—categories that are increasingly purchased online. We then expanded our role in the e-commerce supply chain by establishing XPO as the second largest contract logistics provider worldwide, with the largest outsourced e-fulfillment platform in Europe.

2016 was also a period of significant integration, following two major acquisitions a year earlier. Those integrations are now largely complete. This has precipitated the transfer of knowledge across business units and geographies in areas such as customer service, sales, safety, warehouse operations, cross-dock operations, maintenance, training and human resources. Many of the best practices we’re adopting will be further enhanced by our technological development.

Our cloud-based technology and the cross-fertilization of best practices are two critical differentiators for our company. They leverage our scale, enhance our agility and unite us more strongly as an organization. In 2016, we elevated service to customers by sharing data globally with our senior salespeople, brought our brokerage software and last mile expertise to Europe, and instilled best-in-class practices across regions.

Also in 2016, we introduced proprietary pricing systems for our less-than-truckload operations and deployed 14,000 new handheld devices to improve dockworker and driver efficiency. In last mile, we rolled out software that gives us new capabilities for complex installations while maintaining our leading consumer satisfaction scores. Our proprietary Freight Optimizer and Rail Optimizer platforms are the industry’s most advanced technology for truck brokerage and intermodal operations.

In logistics, our warehouses are becoming high-tech hubs with a combination of automated systems and robotics. Our technology creates labor efficiencies, improves inventory accuracy, and helps customers speed their products to market. For example, we use robots to automate the returns process for millions of telecommunication products a year. Robots wipe the items clean while our systems run through automated processes for warranty management, refurbishment, repair and resale. We can also customize products on the fly very close to fulfillment.

All of our initiatives boil down to one simple concept: results matter. Our goal is to help customers operate more efficiently and take out costs, while creating superior value for our investors. The clarity of this vision is a major reason why our employees are so highly engaged, and why our customers entrust us with over 150,000 shipments and five billion inventory units a day. In 2016, our more than 87,000 employees did an outstanding job of showing the world what we can achieve together as a global team. Our people are heroes to our customers. They inspire me every day with their drive and their pride in XPO.

1 Adjusted EBITDA and free cash flow are non-GAAP measures. Reconciliations to GAAP measures are provided in the attached financial tables on the last page of this annual report.

For our investors, our strategic execution has significantly increased XPO’s stock price since present management took over in late 2011, far outpacing the Dow Jones Industrial Average, the Dow Jones Transportation Average, the S&P 500, and other relevant benchmarks. Our company is now even better positioned to create future shareholder appreciation, with a strong global brand and value proposition.

Financial Highlights

For the full year 2016, XPO reported revenue of $14.6 billion, net income attributable to common shareholders of $63 million, adjusted EBITDA of $1.25 billion, cash flow from operations of $625 million, and free cash flow of $211 million.

The strongest organic growth came from our last mile unit in North America and our global contract logistics operations, both of which benefitted from e-commerce. In our North American less-than-truckload unit, higher yield and lower SG&A drove a 440 basis point improvement in operating margin versus 20152, as we transformed the operations during integration.

Our focus remains on further enhancing customer service while realizing the many profit improvement opportunities embedded in our business. This year, we’ll get the full 12-month benefit of the numerous efficiencies we implemented throughout 2016 in procurement, real estate, back office operations and workplace technologies. We have more savings to realize in each of these areas, along with cross-dock and warehouse automation, labor productivity and the global adoption of best practices.

In August 2016, we completed an opportunistic refinancing of $2.6 billion of debt. In October, we divested our asset-based truckload operation in North America, using the proceeds to pay down $550 million of debt. In March 2017, we refinanced our $1.5 billion existing term loan agreement at more favorable terms. We estimate that these actions together reduced our cash interest expense by more than $75 million annually.

Our leverage is comfortably within our long-term target of three to four times net debt over adjusted EBITDA. Approximately 89% of our debt matures in 2021 or later, and all of our debt is covenant-light. We expect that free cash flow in 2017 will provide additional opportunities to reduce debt, should we choose to do so.

Outlook

Our 2016 performance is a springboard for robust returns. Going forward, we expect a 17% year-over-year increase in adjusted EBITDA in 2017, and another 17% in 2018, with cash generation growing at a significantly faster pace than EBITDA each year. Our financial targets are:

• For 2017, full-year adjusted EBITDA of at least $1.350 billion.

• For 2018, full-year adjusted EBITDA of at least $1.575 billion.

• For 2017—2018, cumulative free cash flow of approximately $900 million, including at least $350 million of free cash flow generated in 2017.

Last year, we became a Fortune 500 company for the first time and were named the fastest-growing company on the list. Forbes ranked us #17 among innovative growth companies and #263 among America’s best employers. We appreciate these accolades as recognition that our growth strategy is working: we’re leveraging our network of people, technology and assets to simultaneously create value for all our stakeholders.

Here’s what I find most exciting about XPO: As large as we are, we hold just a 1.5% share of a $1 trillion addressable market. We’re standing on the threshold of this massive opportunity with internal initiatives underway around the world to serve our customers even better, continuously improve our performance, lower our procurement costs, expand our global sales efforts, and compensate and motivate our people.

Our service range is managed by industry veterans in each line of business, led by an executive team and board whose interests align with our investors. We have a high-caliber sales organization cooperating on a $3.25 billion

2 Year-over-year comparison is based on 2015 acquisition pro forma for the full year.

pipeline of active bids. Our cutting-edge technology differentiates our brand, and our value proposition resonates with customers, particularly large companies that operate in fast-growing sectors. Over 60% of Fortune 100 companies use our services, an indication of how quickly we’ve earned trust in a few short years.

Along the way, we’ve met or exceeded every financial target we issued. Now we’re on track to accelerate EBITDA and free cash flow in 2017, and again in 2018, while helping our customers achieve greater success— once again delivering the results that matter.

April 17, 2017

Bradley S. Jacobs Chairman and Chief Executive Officer

XPO LOGISTICS, INC.

Five American Lane Greenwich, Connecticut 06831

NOTICE OF ANNUAL MEETING OF STOCKHOLDERS To Be Held on May 10, 2017

To the Stockholders of XPO Logistics, Inc.:

Notice is hereby given that the annual meeting of stockholders of XPO Logistics, Inc. will be held on Wednesday, May 10, 2017 at 10:00 a.m. Eastern Daylight Time at Five Greenwich Office Park, Greenwich, Connecticut 06831, for the following purposes as more fully described in the proxy statement:

• To elect seven (7) members of our Board of Directors for a term to expire at the 2018 annual meeting of stockholders or until their successors are duly elected and qualified;

• To ratify the appointment of KPMG LLP as our independent registered public accounting firm for fiscal year 2017;

• To conduct an advisory vote to approve the executive compensation of our named executive officers as disclosed in this proxy statement;

• To consider and act upon a stockholder proposal, if properly presented at the annual meeting; and

• To consider and transact such other business as may properly come before the annual meeting or any adjournments or postponements thereof.

Only stockholders of record of our common stock, par value $0.001 per share, and our Series A Convertible Perpetual Preferred Stock, par value $0.001 per share, as of the close of business on March 24, 2017, the “Record Date,” are entitled to receive notice of, and to vote at, the annual meeting or any adjournment or postponement of the annual meeting.

Please note that if you plan to attend the annual meeting in person, you will need to register in advance and receive an admission ticket in order to be admitted. Please follow the instructions on pages 4 – 9 of the proxy statement.

Your vote is important. Whether or not you plan to attend the annual meeting in person, it is important that your shares be represented. We ask that you vote your shares as soon as possible.

By Order of the Board of Directors,

Bradley S. Jacobs Chairman and Chief Executive Officer

Greenwich, Connecticut April 17, 2017

Important Notice Regarding the Availability of Proxy Materials for the Annual Meeting of Stockholders to Be Held on May 10, 2017

This Proxy Statement and our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the Year Ended December 31, 2016 are available at www.edocumentview.com/XPO.

Table of Contents

PROXY STATEMENT SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS ABOUT OUR ANNUAL MEETING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 BOARD OF DIRECTORS AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

Directors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Summary of Director Qualifications and Experience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Role of the Board and Board Leadership Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Board Risk Oversight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Committees of the Board and Committee Membership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Director Compensation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Compensation Committee Interlocks and Insider Participation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Corporate Governance Guidelines and Codes of Ethics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Exclusive Forum Bylaw Amendment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Director Independence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Director Selection Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Human Capital Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Stockholder Communication with the Board . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Stockholder Proposals for Next Year’s Annual Meeting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS AND RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 SECURITY OWNERSHIP OF CERTAIN BENEFICIAL OWNERS AND MANAGEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

Compensation Discussion and Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Compensation Committee Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Compensation Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Employment Agreements with Named Executive Officers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

EQUITY COMPENSATION PLAN INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 SECTION 16(a) BENEFICIAL OWNERSHIP REPORTING COMPLIANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 AUDIT-RELATED MATTERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54

Report of the Audit Committee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Policy Regarding Pre-Approval of Services Provided by the Outside Auditors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Services Provided by the Outside Auditors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

PROPOSALS TO BE PRESENTED AT THE ANNUAL MEETING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 PROPOSAL 1: ELECTION OF DIRECTORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 PROPOSAL 2: RATIFICATION OF THE APPOINTMENT OF KPMG LLP AS OUR

INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM FOR 2017 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 PROPOSAL 3: ADVISORY VOTE TO APPROVE EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 PROPOSAL 4: STOCKHOLDER PROPOSAL REGARDING AN ANNUAL SUSTAINABILITY

REPORT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 OTHER MATTERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 AVAILABILITY OF ANNUAL REPORT AND PROXY STATEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64

Important Notice Regarding the Availability of Proxy Materials for the Annual Meeting of Stockholders to Be Held on May 10, 2017

This Proxy Statement and our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the Year Ended December 31, 2016 are available at www.edocumentview.com/XPO.

PROXY STATEMENT SUMMARY

This proxy statement sets forth information relating to the solicitation of proxies by the Board of Directors of XPO Logistics, Inc. in connection with our company’s 2017 annual meeting of stockholders. This summary highlights information contained elsewhere in this proxy statement. This summary does not contain all of the information that you should consider, and you should read the entire proxy statement carefully before voting.

2017 Annual Meeting of Stockholders

Date and Time: May 10, 2017 at 10:00 a.m. Eastern Daylight Time

Place: Five Greenwich Office Park, Greenwich, Connecticut 06831

Record Date: You can vote if you were a stockholder of record of our company as of the close of business on March 24, 2017.

Admission: You will need an admission ticket to enter the annual meeting. You may request an admission ticket by providing the name under which you hold shares of record or, if your shares are held in the name of a bank, broker or other holder of record, the evidence of your beneficial ownership of the shares, the number of admission tickets you are requesting and your contact information.

You can submit your request by sending an e-mail to annualmeeting@xpo.com OR by calling us toll-free at (855) 976-6951.

Voting Matters and Board Recommendations

The Board is not aware of any matter that will be presented for a vote at the 2017 annual meeting of stockholders other than those shown below.

Board Vote Recommendation

Page Reference (for more detail)

Proposal 1: Election of Directors To elect seven (7) members of our Board of Directors for a term to expire at the 2018 annual meeting of stockholders or until their successors are duly elected and qualified

FOR each Director Nominee

10-23, 57

Proposal 2: Ratification of Appointment of Independent Public Accounting Firm FOR 54-56, 58 To ratify the appointment of KPMG LLP as our independent registered public accounting firm for fiscal year 2017

Proposal 3: Advisory Vote to Approve Executive Compensation FOR 29-51, 59 To conduct an advisory vote to approve the executive compensation of our named executive officers (the “NEOs”) as disclosed in this proxy statement

Proposal 4: Stockholder Proposal Regarding an Annual Sustainability Report AGAINST 60-63 To issue an annual sustainability report regarding environmental, social and governance related issues affecting the company

How to Cast Your Vote (page 7 and proxy card)

If you are a registered stockholder (i.e., you hold your shares in your own name), you can vote by proxy in three convenient ways:

• By telephone: Call toll-free 1-800-652-VOTE (8683) and follow the instructions.

• By internet: Go to www.envisionreports.com/XPO and follow the instructions.

• By mail: Complete, sign, date and return your proxy card in the provided envelope.

1

Telephone and internet voting facilities for stockholders of record will be available 24 hours a day and will close at 1:00 a.m. Eastern Daylight Time on May 10, 2017.

If you are the beneficial owner of shares, please follow the voting instructions provided by your broker, trustee or other nominee.

Board of Director Nominees (pages 10-23, 57)

The following table provides summary information about each director nominee. Each director is elected annually by a majority of the votes cast. The average age of our director nominees is 61 years and the average tenure is 4.4 years.

Committee Memberships

Name Age Director

Since Occupation Independent AC CC NCGC AcqC

Bradley S. Jacobs 60 2011 Chairman and CEO, XPO Logistics, Inc.

Gena L. Ashe 55 2016 Executive Vice President, Chief Legal Officer and Corporate Secretary (retired), BrightView Landscapes, LLC

Y C

Louis DeJoy 59 2015 Chief Executive Officer, Supply Chain (retired), XPO Logistics, Inc.

Michael G. Jesselson 65 2011 Lead Independent Director, XPO Logistics, Inc. President and Chief Executive Officer, Jesselson Capital Corporation

Y ✓ ✓

Adrian P. Kingshott 57 2011 Chief Executive Officer, AdSon LLC

Y ✓ C ✓

Jason D. Papastavrou* 54 2011 Founder and Chief Investment Officer, ARIS Capital Management, LLC

Y ✓ ✓ ✓ C

Oren G. Shaffer* 74 2011 Vice Chairman and Chief Financial Officer (retired), Qwest Communications International, Inc.

Y C

C = Committee Chair ✓ = Committee Member * = Audit Committee Financial Expert

AC = Audit Committee CC = Compensation Committee NCGC = Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee

AcqC = Acquisition Committee

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Governance and Compensation Highlights

Board Independence Five of our seven current directors are independent; the Audit Committee, Compensation Committee and Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee consist entirely of independent directors.

Board Leadership In 2016, our Board added a robust lead independent director position to its leadership structure to complement the roles of our independent committees and independent committee chairs in providing effective Board oversight. These independent structures work in conjunction with the dual roles served by our Chairman and Chief Executive Officer. The Board believes that the Board and company’s leadership structure functions well for our company and is in the best interests of our stockholders based on the current strategy and ownership structure.

Board Refreshment Our Board is committed to practices that create an effective mix of useful expertise and fresh perspectives, including the thoughtful refreshment of the Board when appropriate. In 2015, the Board initiated a process to seek out highly qualified director candidates who bring relevant experience to the Board and reflect our company’s growing scale and diversity. This resulted in the addition of two new directors, one in 2015 and one in 2016. We regularly review our Board practices and composition.

Committee Chair Rotations As part of its annual review of Board committee composition and committee chair assignments, in March 2016, the Board reconstituted the committees and rotated committee chairs in order to enhance the effective functioning of the committees and bring fresh perspectives to committee processes.

Annual Director Elections All directors are elected annually for one-year terms until their successors are elected and qualified.

Majority Voting for Director Elections

Our bylaws provide for a majority voting standard in uncontested elections, and further require that a director who fails to receive a majority vote must tender his or her resignation to the Board.

Board Evaluations Our Board evaluates committee and director performance and practices regularly.

Risk Oversight and Financial Reporting

Our Board seeks to provide robust oversight of current and potential risks facing our company and its business and demonstrate strong financial reporting practices.

Clawback Policy Our Named Executive Officers (“NEOs”) and other policy-making executive officers are subject to clawback provisions with respect to annual and long-term cash incentive compensation.

Lock-up Restrictions Our NEOs are subject to lock-up restrictions that generally prohibit the sale of any equity awarded by our company until September 2, 2018.

Stock Ownership Guidelines In 2016, our Board established stock ownership guidelines for our NEOs and other executive officers to further align their interests with those of our stockholders.

No Hedging or Pledging of Company Securities

Under our insider trading policy, our company’s directors and executive officers, including the NEOs, are prohibited from pledging and hedging transactions involving our company’s securities.

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PROXY STATEMENT

This proxy statement sets forth information relating to the solicitation of proxies by the Board of Directors (our “Board of Directors” or our “Board”) of XPO Logistics, Inc. (“XPO Logistics” or our “company”) in connection with our company’s 2017 annual meeting of stockholders or any adjournment or postponement of the annual meeting. This proxy statement is being furnished by our Board of Directors for use at the annual meeting of stockholders to be held on May 10, 2017 at 10:00 a.m. Eastern Daylight Time at Five Greenwich Office Park, Greenwich, Connecticut 06831.

This proxy statement and form of proxy are first being mailed on or about April 17, 2017, to our stockholders of record as of the close of business on March 24, 2017 (the “Record Date”).

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS ABOUT OUR ANNUAL MEETING

The following questions and answers address some questions you may have regarding the annual meeting. These questions and answers may not include all the information that may be important to you as a stockholder of our company. Please refer to the more detailed information contained elsewhere in this proxy statement.

What items of business will be voted on at the annual meeting?

We expect that the business put forth for a vote at the annual meeting will be as follows:

• To elect seven (7) members of our Board of Directors for a term to expire at the 2018 annual meeting of stockholders or until their successors are duly elected and qualified (Proposal 1);

• To ratify the appointment of KPMG LLP (“KPMG”) as our independent registered public accounting firm for 2017 (Proposal 2);

• To conduct an advisory vote to approve the executive compensation of our named executive officers as disclosed in this proxy statement (Proposal 3);

• To consider and act upon a stockholder proposal, if properly presented at the annual meeting (Proposal 4); and

• To consider and transact such other business as may properly come before the annual meeting or any adjournments or postponements thereof.

In addition, senior management of XPO Logistics and representatives of our outside auditor, KPMG, will be available to respond to questions.

Who can attend and vote at the annual meeting?

You are entitled to receive notice of and to attend and vote at the annual meeting, or any adjournment or postponement thereof, if, as of the close of business on March 24, 2017, the Record Date, you were a holder of record of our common stock or Series A Convertible Perpetual Preferred Stock (the “Series A Preferred Stock”).

As of the Record Date, there were issued and outstanding 111,551,028 shares of common stock, each of which is entitled to one vote on each matter to come before the annual meeting. In addition, as of the Record Date, there were issued and outstanding 71,510 shares of Series A Preferred Stock. Each share of Series A Preferred Stock is entitled to vote together with our common stock on each matter to come before the annual meeting as if the share of Series A Preferred Stock were converted into shares of common stock as of the Record Date, meaning that each share of Series A Preferred Stock is entitled to approximately 143 votes on each matter to come before the annual meeting. As a result, a total of 121,766,742 votes are eligible to be cast at the annual meeting based on the number of outstanding shares of our common stock and Series A Preferred Stock, voting together as a single class.

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If you wish to attend the annual meeting and your shares are held in an account at a broker, dealer, commercial bank, trust company or other nominee (i.e., in “street name”), you will need to bring a copy of your voting instruction card or statement reflecting your share ownership as of the Record Date, as well as an admission card as outlined below. Street name holders who wish to vote at the annual meeting will need to obtain a proxy from the broker, dealer, commercial bank, trust company or other nominee that holds their shares.

Do I need a ticket to attend the annual meeting?

Yes, you will need an admission card to enter the annual meeting. You may request tickets by providing the name under which you hold shares of record or, if your shares are held in the name of a bank, broker or other holder of record, the evidence of your beneficial ownership of the shares as of the Record Date, the number of tickets you are requesting and your contact information. You can submit your request in the following ways:

• By sending an e-mail to annualmeeting@xpo.com; or

• By calling us toll-free at (855) 976-6951.

Stockholders also must present a form of personal photo identification in order to be admitted to the annual meeting.

How many shares must be present to conduct business at the annual meeting?

A quorum is necessary to hold a valid meeting of stockholders. For each of the proposals to be presented at the annual meeting, the holders of shares of our common stock or Series A Preferred Stock outstanding on the Record Date representing 60,883,372 votes must be present at the annual meeting, in person or by proxy. If you vote—including by internet, telephone or proxy card—your shares voted will be counted towards the quorum for the annual meeting. Abstentions and broker non-votes are counted as present for the purpose of determining a quorum.

What are my voting choices?

With respect to the election of directors, you may vote “FOR” or “AGAINST” each of the director nominees, or you may “ABSTAIN” from voting for one or more of such nominees. With respect to the other proposals to be considered at the annual meeting, you may vote “FOR” or “AGAINST” or you may “ABSTAIN” from voting on any proposal. If you sign your proxy or voting instruction card without giving specific instructions, your shares will be voted in accordance with the recommendations of our Board of Directors and in the discretion of the proxy holders on any other matters that properly come before the annual meeting.

What vote is required to approve the proposals being considered at the annual meeting?

• Proposal 1: Election of seven (7) directors. The election of each of the seven (7) director nominees named in this proxy statement requires the affirmative vote of a majority of the votes cast (meaning the number of shares voted “for” a nominee must exceed the number of shares voted “against” such nominee) by holders of shares of our common stock (including those that would be issued if all our outstanding Series A Preferred Stock had converted into shares of our common stock as of the Record Date) at the annual meeting at which a quorum is present. If any incumbent director standing for re-election receives a greater number of votes “against” his or her election than votes “for” such election, our bylaws require that such person must promptly tender his or her resignation to our Board of Directors. You may not accumulate your votes for the election of directors.

Brokers may not use discretionary authority to vote shares on the election of directors if they have not received specific instructions from their clients. If you are a beneficial owner of shares, for your vote to be counted in the election of directors, you will need to communicate your voting decisions to your

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bank, broker or other nominee before the date of the annual meeting in accordance with their specific instructions. Abstentions and broker non-votes are not considered votes cast for purposes of tabulation of such vote, and will have no effect on the election of director nominees.

• Proposal 2: Ratification of the appointment of KPMG LLP as our independent registered public accounting firm for 2017. Ratification of the appointment of KPMG as our independent registered public accounting firm for the year ending December 31, 2017, requires the affirmative vote of a majority of the votes cast (meaning the number of shares voted “for” such proposal must exceed the number of shares voted “against” such proposal) by holders of shares of our common stock (including those that would be issued if all our outstanding Series A Preferred Stock had converted into shares of our common stock as of the Record Date) at the annual meeting at which a quorum is present. Abstentions are not considered votes cast for purposes of tabulation of the foregoing vote, and will have no effect on the ratification of KPMG. We do not expect any broker non-votes as brokers have discretionary authority to vote on this proposal.

• Proposal 3: Advisory vote to approve executive compensation. Advisory approval of the resolution on executive compensation of our named executive officers as disclosed in this proxy statement requires the affirmative vote of a majority of the votes cast (meaning the number of shares voted “for” such proposal must exceed the number of shares voted “against” such proposal) by holders of shares of our common stock (including those that would be issued if all our outstanding Series A Preferred Stock had converted into shares of our common stock as of the Record Date) at the annual meeting at which a quorum is present. This resolution, commonly referred to as a “say-on-pay” resolution, is non-binding on our Board of Directors. Although non-binding, our Board of Directors and the Compensation Committee will review and consider the voting results when making future decisions regarding our executive compensation program.

Brokers may not use discretionary authority to vote shares on the advisory vote to approve executive compensation if they have not received specific instructions from their clients. If you are a beneficial owner of shares, for your vote to be counted in the advisory vote to approve executive compensation, you will need to communicate your voting decisions to your bank, broker or other nominee before the date of the annual meeting in accordance with their specific instructions. Abstentions and broker non-votes are not considered votes cast for purposes of tabulation of such vote, and will have no effect on the advisory vote to approve executive compensation.

• Proposal 4: Stockholder proposal regarding an annual sustainability report. Approval of the issuance of an annual sustainability report regarding environmental, social and governance related issues affecting the company requires the affirmative vote of a majority of the votes cast (meaning the number of shares voted “for” such proposal must exceed the number of shares voted “against” such proposal) by holders of shares of our common stock (including those that would be issued if all our outstanding Series A Preferred Stock had converted into shares of our common stock as of the Record Date) at the annual meeting at which a quorum is present.

Brokers may not use discretionary authority to vote shares on the stockholder proposal if they have not received specific instructions from their clients. If you are a beneficial owner of shares, for your vote to be counted in favor of the stockholder proposal regarding annual sustainability reporting, you will need to communicate your voting decisions to your bank, broker or other nominee before the date of the annual meeting in accordance with their specific instructions. Abstentions and broker non-votes are not considered votes cast for purposes of tabulation of such vote, and will have no effect on the vote on this stockholder proposal.

In general, other business properly brought before the annual meeting requires the affirmative vote of a majority of the votes cast (meaning the number of shares voted “for” such proposal must exceed the number of shares voted “against” such proposal) by holders of shares of our common stock (including those that would be issued if all our outstanding Series A Preferred Stock had converted into shares of our common stock as of the Record Date) at the annual meeting at which a quorum is present.

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How does the Board of Directors recommend that I vote?

Our Board of Directors, after careful consideration, recommends that our stockholders vote “FOR” the election of each director nominee named in this proxy statement, “FOR” ratification of KPMG as our independent registered public accounting firm for 2017, “FOR” advisory approval of the resolution to approve executive compensation, and “AGAINST” the approval of the stockholder proposal regarding annual sustainability reporting, if such proposal is properly brought at the meeting.

What do I need to do now?

We urge you to read this proxy statement carefully. Then just mail your completed, dated and signed proxy card in the enclosed return envelope as soon as possible so that your shares can be voted at the annual meeting of stockholders. Holders of record may also vote by telephone or the internet by following the instructions on the proxy card.

How do I cast my vote?

Registered Stockholders. If you are a registered stockholder (i.e., you hold your shares in your own name through our transfer agent, Computershare Trust Company, N.A., and not through a broker, bank or other nominee that holds shares for your account in “street name”), you may vote by proxy via the internet, by telephone, or by mail by following the instructions provided on the proxy card. Proxies submitted via telephone or internet must be received by 1:00 a.m. Eastern Daylight Time on May 10, 2017. Please see the proxy card provided to you for instructions on how to submit your proxy by telephone or the internet. Stockholders of record who attend the annual meeting may vote in person by obtaining a ballot from the inspector of elections.

Beneficial Owners. If you are a beneficial owner of shares (i.e., your shares are held in the name of a brokerage firm, bank or a trustee), you may vote by proxy by following the instructions provided in the voting instruction form or other materials provided to you by the brokerage firm, bank or other nominee that holds your shares. To vote in person at the annual meeting, you must obtain a legal proxy from the brokerage firm, bank or other nominee that holds your shares.

What is the deadline to vote?

If you hold shares as the stockholder of record, your vote by proxy must be received before the polls close at the annual meeting. As indicated on the proxy card provided to you, proxies submitted via telephone or internet must be received by 1:00 a.m. Eastern Daylight Time on May 10, 2017.

If you are the beneficial owner of shares, please follow the voting instructions provided by your broker, trustee or other nominee.

What happens if I do not respond or if I respond and fail to indicate my voting preference or if I abstain from voting?

If you fail to sign, date and return your proxy card or fail to vote by telephone or internet as provided on your proxy card, your shares will not be counted towards establishing a quorum for the annual meeting, which requires holders representing a majority of the outstanding shares of our common stock (including those that would be issued if all of our outstanding Series A Preferred Stock had converted into shares of our common stock as of the Record Date) to be present in person or by proxy. Failure to vote, assuming the presence of a quorum, will have no effect on the tabulation of the vote on the proposals.

If you are a stockholder of record and you properly sign, date and return your proxy card, but do not indicate your voting preference, we will count your proxy as a vote “FOR” the election of the seven nominees for

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director named in “Proposal 1—Election of Directors,” “FOR” ratification of KPMG as our independent registered public accounting firm for 2017, “FOR” advisory approval of the resolution to approve executive compensation and “AGAINST” the approval of the stockholder proposal regarding annual sustainability reporting, if properly presented at the annual meeting.

If my shares are held in “street name” by my broker, dealer, commercial bank, trust company or other nominee, will such broker or other nominee vote my shares for me?

You should instruct your broker or other nominee on how to vote your shares using the instructions provided by such broker or other nominee. Absent specific voting instructions, brokers or other nominees who hold shares of our common stock in “street name” for customers are prevented by the rules set forth in the Listed Company Manual (the “NYSE Rules”) of the New York Stock Exchange (the “NYSE”) from exercising voting discretion in respect of non-routine or contested matters. We expect that when the NYSE evaluates the proposals to be voted on at the annual meeting to determine whether each proposal is a routine or non-routine matter, only “Proposal 2—Ratification of the Appointment of KPMG LLP as Our Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm for 2017” will be evaluated as routine. Shares not voted by a broker or other nominee because such broker or other nominee does not have instructions or cannot exercise discretionary voting power with respect to one or more proposals are referred to as “broker non-votes.” It is important that you instruct your broker or other nominee on how to vote your shares of our common stock held in “street name” in accordance with the voting instructions provided by such broker or other nominee.

Can I change my vote after I have mailed my proxy card?

Yes. Whether you attend the annual meeting or not, you may revoke a proxy at any time before your proxy is voted at the annual meeting. You may do so by properly delivering a later-dated proxy either by mail, the internet or telephone or by attending the annual meeting in person and voting. Please note, however, your attendance at the annual meeting will not automatically revoke any prior proxy unless you vote again at the annual meeting or specifically request in writing that your prior proxy be revoked. You also may revoke your proxy by delivering a notice of revocation to our company (Attention: Secretary, XPO Logistics, Inc., Five American Lane, Greenwich, Connecticut 06831) prior to the vote at the annual meeting. If you hold your shares through a broker, dealer, commercial bank, trust company or other nominee, you should follow the instructions of such broker or other nominee regarding revocation of proxies.

How will the persons named as proxies vote?

If you complete and submit a proxy, the persons named as proxies will follow your instructions. If you submit a proxy but do not provide instructions, or if your instructions are unclear, the persons named as proxies will vote as recommended by our Board of Directors or, if no recommendation is given, by using their own discretion.

Where can I find the results of the voting?

We intend to announce preliminary voting results at the annual meeting and will publish final results through a Current Report on Form 8-K to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) within four (4) business days after the annual meeting. The Current Report on Form 8-K will be available on the internet at our website, www.xpo.com.

Who will pay for the cost of soliciting proxies?

We will pay for the cost of soliciting proxies. We have engaged Innisfree M&A Incorporated to assist us in soliciting proxies in connection with the annual meeting, and have agreed to pay them approximately $12,500 plus their expenses for providing such services. Our directors, officers and other employees, without additional

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compensation, may solicit proxies personally, in writing, by telephone, by email or otherwise. As is customary, we will reimburse brokerage firms, fiduciaries, voting trustees, and other nominees for forwarding our proxy materials to each beneficial owner of common stock or Series A Preferred Stock held of record by them.

What is “householding” and how does it affect me?

In accordance with notices to many stockholders who hold their shares through a bank, broker or other holder of record (a “street-name stockholder”) and share a single address, only one copy of our proxy statement and 2016 annual report to stockholders is being delivered to that address unless contrary instructions from any stockholder at that address were received. This practice, known as “householding,” is intended to reduce our printing and postage costs. However, any such street-name stockholder residing at the same address who wishes to receive a separate copy of this proxy statement and annual report may request a copy by contacting the bank, broker or other holder of record, or by sending a written request to: Investor Relations, XPO Logistics, Inc., Five American Lane, Greenwich, Connecticut 06831 or by contacting Investor Relations by telephone at (855) 976-6951. The voting instruction form sent to a street-name stockholder should provide information on how to request: (1) householding of future company materials, or (2) separate materials if only one set of documents is being sent to a household. A stockholder who would like to make one of these requests should contact us as indicated above.

Can I obtain an electronic copy of proxy materials?

Yes, this proxy statement, annual report and the proxy card are available on the internet at www.edocumentview.com/XPO.

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BOARD OF DIRECTORS AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

Directors

Our Board of Directors currently consists of seven (7) members, as set forth in the table below. The current term of each of our directors will expire at the 2017 annual meeting of stockholders. Our Board of Directors has nominated all current directors to stand for re-election at the annual meeting, as set forth in Proposal 1 on page 57 of this proxy statement.

Name Occupation

Bradley S. Jacobs Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, XPO Logistics, Inc.

Gena L. Ashe Executive Vice President, Chief Legal Officer and Corporate Secretary (retired), BrightView Landscapes, LLC

Louis DeJoy Chief Executive Officer, Supply Chain (retired), XPO Logistics, Inc.

Michael G. Jesselson Lead Independent Director, XPO Logistics, Inc.; President and Chief Executive Officer, Jesselson Capital Corporation

Adrian P. Kingshott Chief Executive Officer, AdSon LLC

Jason D. Papastavrou Founder and Chief Investment Officer, ARIS Capital Management, LLC

Oren G. Shaffer Vice Chairman and Chief Financial Officer (retired), Qwest Communications International, Inc.

Under the terms of an Investment Agreement, dated June 13, 2011 (the “Investment Agreement”), by and among Jacobs Private Equity, LLC (“JPE”), the other investors party thereto (collectively with JPE, the “Investors”), and our company, our company must take all necessary steps to nominate, and must use its reasonable best efforts to cause our Board of Directors to unanimously recommend that our stockholders vote in favor of, all nominees for election to our Board of Directors designated by Bradley S. Jacobs, as the managing member of JPE, subject to our Board of Directors’ fiduciary duties. JPE also has the right to designate certain percentages of the nominees for our Board of Directors so long as JPE owns securities (including preferred stock convertible into, or warrants exercisable for, securities) representing specified percentages of the total voting power of our capital stock on a fully-diluted basis. JPE does not currently exceed the indicated voting power thresholds under the Investment Agreement. The foregoing rights of JPE under the Investment Agreement are in addition to, and not in limitation of, JPE’s voting rights as a holder of capital stock of our company. JPE is controlled by Bradley S. Jacobs, our Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer. The Investment Agreement and the terms contemplated therein were approved by our stockholders at a special meeting on September 1, 2011.

None of the foregoing will prevent our Board of Directors from acting in accordance with its fiduciary duties or applicable law or stock exchange requirements or from acting in good faith in accordance with our governing documents, while giving due consideration to the intent of the Investment Agreement.

Our Board of Directors consists of a highly experienced group of business leaders, many of whom have served as executive officers or on boards and board committees of major companies and have an extensive understanding of the principles of corporate governance. Our Board as a whole has broad expertise in business administration, corporate finance, capital markets, compliance and risk assessment, corporate governance, corporate responsibility, mergers and acquisitions and integration, talent management, investment banking, legal and operational matters, as well as in the customer service, transportation and logistics sectors, and public company board experience. In addition, our directors have a strong owner orientation—approximately 16.3% of the voting power of our capital stock on a fully-diluted basis is held by our directors or by entities or persons related to our directors (as of the Record Date).

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We have set forth below information regarding each of our director nominees, including the experience, qualifications, attributes or skills that led our Board of Directors to conclude that such person should serve as a director.

Bradley S. Jacobs Mr. Jacobs has served as our Chief Executive Officer and Chairman of our Board of Directors since September 2, 2011. Mr. Jacobs is also the managing director of JPE, which is our second largest stockholder. He has led two public companies: United Rentals, Inc. (NYSE: URI), which he founded in 1997, and United Waste Systems, Inc., which he founded in 1989. Mr. Jacobs served as chairman and chief executive officer of United Rentals for that company’s first six years, and as its executive chairman for an additional four years. He served eight years as chairman and chief executive officer of United Waste Systems. Previously, Mr. Jacobs founded Hamilton Resources (UK) Ltd. and served as its chairman and chief operating officer. This followed the co-founding of his first venture, Amerex Oil Associates, Inc., where he was chief executive officer.

Director since 2011 Age: 60 Board Committees: None Other Public Company Boards: None

Mr. Jacobs brings to the Board:

• In-depth knowledge of the company’s business resulting from his years of service with the company in various capacities;

• Leadership experience as the company’s Chief Executive Officer and Chairman, and his successful track record of leading companies that execute strategies similar to ours; and

• Extensive past experience as the chairman of the board of directors of several public companies.

Gena L. Ashe Ms. Ashe joined our Board of Directors on March 21, 2016. Ms. Ashe has more than 20 years of broad-based legal experience across a variety of industries, most recently serving as executive vice president, chief legal officer and corporate secretary of BrightView Landscapes, LLC (formerly The Brickman Group, Ltd. LLC), the largest national commercial landscape, lawncare maintenance/construction and snow management company in the United States. In that role, which she held from February 2013 until March 2016, she was responsible for leading all aspects of BrightView’s legal, risk management, safety, compliance and corporate governance functions. Prior to joining BrightView, from September 2010 until October 2012, Ms. Ashe was senior vice president of legal affairs of Catalina Marketing Corporation, a global digital media enterprise for some of the world’s most well- known brands, and prior to that she held senior legal roles with the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS), Darden Restaurants, Inc. (parent company of Olive Garden, Red Lobster, Capital Grille, LongHorn Steakhouse, Bahama Breeze, and Eddie V’s restaurants), Lucent Technologies, Inc. and AT&T. Earlier, she was an electrical engineer with IBM Corporation before joining IBM’s legal team. Ms. Ashe holds a bachelor’s degree in mathematics, with a minor in physics, from Spelman College; a master’s degree in electrical engineering from Georgia Institute of Technology; and a doctor of law degree from Georgetown University, where she currently serves as a Georgetown University Law Advisory Board Member. She is a graduate of the executive development program of the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania, and holds a certificate in international management from Oxford University in England.

Director since 2016 Age: 55 Board Committees:

• Chair of Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee

Other Public Company Boards: None

Ms. Ashe brings to the Board:

• More than two decades of valuable legal experience with public and private companies, which enables her to provide guidance to the Board and company management on legal matters, compliance and risk assessment and corporate governance best practices; and

• An in-depth understanding of the dynamics of three of our most important customer verticals: e-commerce, technology and food and beverage.

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Louis DeJoy Mr. DeJoy has served as a director of the company since December 3, 2015. He was most recently chief executive officer of the XPO Logistics supply chain business in the Americas (retired as of December 7, 2015). Previously, he led New Breed Logistics as its chairman and chief executive officer from 1983 until XPO Logistics acquired New Breed in 2014. During that time, he grew the company from a small, regional operation to a leading U.S. provider of highly engineered, technology-driven contract logistics solutions. Mr. DeJoy is a member of the boards of trustees of Elon University and the PGA Wyndham Championship, and serves on the board of directors for The Fund for American Studies in Washington, DC. He is a past member of the board of trustees of Moses Cone Health System in North Carolina, and was an appointee to the President’s Commission on White House Fellowships. He holds a business degree from Stetson University.

Director since 2015 Age: 59 Board Committees:

• Member of Acquisition Committee Other Public Company Boards: None

Mr. DeJoy brings to the Board:

• Significant expertise in supply chain operations that allows him to provide valuable guidance to our Board on strategic and operational matters with respect to our logistics business unit.

Michael G. Jesselson Mr. Jesselson has served as a director of the company since September 2, 2011, and as lead independent director since March 20, 2016. Mr. Jesselson has served as president and chief executive officer of Jesselson Capital Corporation since 1994. He is a longstanding director of American Eagle Outfitters, Inc. and serves as that company’s lead independent director. Additionally, he is a director of C-III Capital Partners LLC and other private companies, as well as numerous philanthropic organizations. Mr. Jesselson was recently elected chairman of Bar Ilan University in Israel.

Director since 2011, Lead Independent Director since 2016

Age: 65 Board Committees:

• Member of Compensation Committee

• Member of Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee

Other Public Company Boards: American Eagle Outfitters, Inc. (since 1997)

Mr. Jesselson brings to the Board:

• Significant experience with public company corporate governance issues through service with American Eagle Outfitters on its board since 1997, and as its lead independent director since 2012; and

• Investment expertise.

Adrian P. Kingshott Mr. Kingshott has served as a director of the company since September 2, 2011. He is the chief executive officer of AdSon LLC and managing director of Spotlight Advisors, LLC. He has been a senior advisor to Headwaters Merchant Bank since 2013. Previously, for Goldman Sachs, he was co-head of that firm’s Leveraged Finance business and held other positions over a 17-year tenure. More recently, Mr. Kingshott was a managing director and portfolio manager at Amaranth Advisors, LLC. He is an adjunct professor of Global Capital Markets at Fairfield University’s Dolan School of Business, and an adjunct professor of Global Capital Markets and Investments at Fordham University’s Gabelli School of Business. He holds a master of business administration degree from Harvard Business School and a master of jurisprudence degree from Oxford University. Mr. Kingshott is a member of the board of directors of Centre Lane Investment Corp.

Director since 2011 Age: 57 Board Committees:

• Chairman of Compensation Committee

• Member of Audit Committee

• Member of Acquisition Committee Other Public Company Boards: None

Mr. Kingshott brings to the Board:

• More than 25 years of experience in the investment banking and investment management industries; and

• Expertise with respect to corporate governance, acquisition transactions, debt and equity financing and corporate financial management issues.

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Jason D. Papastavrou, Ph.D. Dr. Papastavrou has served as a director of the company since September 2, 2011. Dr. Papastavrou is the founder and chief investment officer of ARIS Capital Management, LLC. Previously, Dr. Papastavrou was the founder and managing director of the Fund of Hedge Funds Strategies Group of Banc of America Capital Management (BACAP), president of BACAP Alternative Advisors, and a senior portfolio manager with Deutsche Asset Management. He was a tenured professor at Purdue University School of Industrial Engineering, and holds a doctorate in electrical engineering and computer science from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Dr. Papastavrou serves on the board of directors of United Rentals, Inc.

Director since 2011 Age: 54 Board Committees:

• Chairman of Acquisition Committee

• Member of Audit Committee

• Member of Compensation Committee

• Member of Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee

Other Public Company Boards: United Rentals, Inc. (since 2005)

Dr. Papastavrou brings to the Board:

• Financial expertise from his qualifications as an “audit committee financial expert” under SEC regulations; and

• Extensive experience with finance and risk-related matters from holding senior positions at investment management firms.

Oren G. Shaffer Mr. Shaffer has served as a director of the company since September 2, 2011. From 2002 to 2007, Mr. Shaffer was vice chairman and chief financial officer of Qwest Communications International, Inc. (now CenturyLink, Inc.). Previously, Mr. Shaffer was president and chief operating officer of Sorrento Networks, Inc., executive vice president and chief financial officer of Ameritech Corporation, and held senior executive positions with The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, where he also served on the board of directors. Mr. Shaffer is a director on the board of Terex Corporation and Konecranes Plc. He holds a master’s degree in management from the Sloan School of Management, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and a degree in finance and business administration from the University of California, Berkeley.

Director since 2011 Age: 74 Board Committees:

• Chairman of Audit Committee Other Public Company Boards: Terex Corporation (since 2007)

Mr. Shaffer brings to the Board:

• Senior financial, operational and strategic experience with various large companies;

• Corporate governance expertise from serving as director of various public companies; and

• Financial expertise from his qualifications as an “audit committee financial expert” under SEC regulations.

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Summary of Director Qualifications and Experience

Bradley S. Jacobs

Gena L. Ashe

Louis DeJoy

Michael G. Jesselson

Adrian P. Kingshott

Jason D. Papastavrou,

Ph.D. Oren G. Shaffer

BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION experience brings valuable organizational techniques and leadership qualities.

Š Š Š Š Š Š Š

BUSINESS OPERATIONS experience provides a practical understanding of developing, implementing and assessing our operating plan and business strategy.

Š Š Š Š Š Š Š

CORPORATE GOVERNANCE experience bolsters Board and management accountability, transparency and a focus on stockholder interests.

Š Š Š Š Š Š Š

CUSTOMER SERVICE INDUSTRY experience brings important perspective to our Board given the importance of customer service to our business model.

Š Š Š Š

ENVIRONMENTAL, SUSTAINABILITY, CORPORATE RESPONSIBILITY experience allows our Board’s oversight to guide our long-term value creation for stockholders in a way that is responsible and sustainable.

Š Š Š Š

FINANCE/CAPITAL ALLOCATION experience is crucial to our Board’s evaluation of our financial statements and capital structure.

Š Š Š Š Š

FINANCIAL EXPERTISE/LITERACY assists our directors in understanding and overseeing our financial reporting and internal controls.

Š Š Š Š Š Š Š

HUMAN CAPITAL MANAGEMENT experience allows our Board to further our company’s goals for making XPO an attractive employment environment and aligning human resource objectives with our strategic and operational priorities.

Š Š Š Š

INTERNATIONAL experience is important given the global nature of our business strategy and operations.

Š Š Š Š Š Š Š

INVESTMENTS experience assists our Board in evaluating our financial statements and investment strategy.

Š Š Š Š Š Š

MARKETING/SALES experience helps our Board assist our business strategy and developing new products and operations.

Š Š Š

MERGERS & ACQUISITIONS and INTEGRATION experience helps our company identify the right targets for M&A activity that achieve our strategic objectives, and realize synergies and optimal growth.

Š Š Š Š Š Š Š

LOGISTICS INDUSTRY experience is important in understanding and reviewing our business and strategy.

Š Š Š

RISK MANAGEMENT experience is critical to our Board’s role in overseeing the risks facing our company.

Š Š Š Š Š Š Š

TALENT MANAGEMENT experience helps XPO attract, motivate and retain top candidates for our management and leadership.

Š Š Š Š Š Š Š

TECHNOLOGY/SYSTEMS experience is relevant as our company is continually seeking to enhance our customer experience and internal operations.

Š Š Š

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Role of the Board and Board Leadership Structure

Our business and affairs are managed under the direction of our Board of Directors, which is our company’s ultimate decision-making body, except with respect to those matters reserved to our stockholders. Our Board’s primary responsibility is to seek to maximize long-term stockholder value. Our Board establishes our overall corporate policies, selects and evaluates our senior management team, which is charged with the conduct of our business, monitors the performance of our company and management, and provides advice and counsel to management. In fulfilling the Board’s responsibilities, our directors have full access to our management, internal and external auditors and outside advisors.

Furthermore, our Board of Directors is committed to independent Board oversight. Our current Board leadership structure includes an executive Chairman and a lead director who is an independent director. The positions of Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer are both currently held by Mr. Jacobs. Our Board believes that this combination of roles is currently appropriate because the structure enables decisive leadership and ensures clear accountability in the context of strong Board practices and a Board culture that facilitates independent oversight. Our Board believes the dual roles function well for our company based on our current strategy, governance and ownership structure.

In 2016, our Board of Directors approved amendments to our company’s Corporate Governance Guidelines (the “Guidelines”) to provide that the independent directors may appoint a lead independent director who presides over executive sessions of the independent directors, and who shall serve a term of at least one year. On March 20, 2016, the independent directors appointed Mr. Jesselson to serve as lead independent director. The position of lead independent director has been structured to serve as an effective balance to the dual roles served by Mr. Jacobs. The lead independent director is selected from the independent directors of the Board of Directors. The lead independent director presides at all meetings of the Board of Directors at which the Chairman is not present and presides at all executive sessions of the independent directors. The Guidelines require that the independent directors meet at least once a year without members of management present, and the lead independent director is empowered to call additional meetings of the independent directors as necessary. In practice, our independent directors have met much more frequently in executive session. The lead independent director also serves as a liaison between the Chairman and the independent directors. Together with the Chairman, the lead independent director develops and approves Board meeting agendas, meeting schedules, and meeting materials to be distributed to our Board of Directors in order to assure sufficient time for informed discussions of issues. The lead independent director is also available to meet with significant stockholders as appropriate and required.

Further information regarding the position of lead independent director is set forth in the Guidelines. The Guidelines are available on the company’s corporate website at www.xpo.com under the Investors tab.

Our Board of Directors held ten meetings during 2016. In 2016, each person serving as a director attended at least 75% of the meetings of our Board of Directors and any Board committee on which he or she served. Our Board of Directors also acted five times during 2016 via unanimous written consent.

Our directors are expected to attend the annual meeting. Any director who is unable to attend the annual meeting is expected to notify the Chairman of the Board in advance of the annual meeting. Each person who was then serving as a director attended the 2016 annual meeting of stockholders.

Board Risk Oversight

Our Board of Directors provides overall risk oversight with a focus on the most significant risks facing our company. The management of the risks that we face in the conduct of our business is primarily the responsibility of our senior management team. Our senior management team periodically reviews with our Board of Directors any significant risks facing our company. Our business, strategy, operations, policies, controls and prospects are regularly discussed by our Board of Directors and management team, including discussions as to current and

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potential risks and approaches for assessing, monitoring, mitigating and controlling risk exposure. Our Board of Directors has delegated responsibility for the oversight of specific risks to the committees of the Board as follows:

• Audit Committee. The Audit Committee oversees the policies that govern the process by which our exposure to risk is assessed and managed by management. In that role, the Audit Committee discusses with our management major financial risk exposures and the steps that management has taken to monitor and control these exposures. The Audit Committee also is responsible for reviewing risks arising from related party transactions involving our company and for overseeing our company-wide Code of Business Ethics.

• Compensation Committee. The Compensation Committee monitors the risks associated with our compensation philosophy and programs.

• Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee. The Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee oversees risks related to our governance structure and processes.

• Acquisition Committee. The Acquisition Committee oversees risks related to the execution of our acquisition strategy.

Our Board of Directors and Compensation Committee, in consultation with our independent compensation consultant Semler Brossy Consulting Group, LLC (“Semler Brossy”), have assessed the risks that could arise from our employee compensation policies and do not believe that such policies are reasonably likely to have a materially adverse effect on our company.

Committees of the Board and Committee Membership

Our Board of Directors has established four separately designated standing committees to assist our Board of Directors in discharging its responsibilities: the Audit Committee, the Compensation Committee, the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee, and the Acquisition Committee. Our Board of Directors may eliminate or create additional committees as it deems appropriate. The charters for our Board committees are in compliance with applicable SEC rules and the NYSE Listed Company Manual. These charters are available at www.xpo.com. You may obtain a printed copy of any of these charters by sending a request to: Investor Relations, XPO Logistics, Inc., Five American Lane, Greenwich, Connecticut 06831.

The Audit Committee, the Compensation Committee, and the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee are composed entirely of independent directors within all applicable standards (as further discussed below). Our Board of Directors’ general policy is to review and approve committee assignments annually. The Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee is responsible, after consultation with our Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer and consideration of appropriate member qualifications, to recommend to our Board of Directors for approval all committee assignments, including designations of the chairs. Each committee is authorized to retain its own outside counsel and other advisors as it desires.

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The following table sets forth the current membership of each of our Board committees as of the Record Date. Mr. Jacobs does not serve on any Board committees.

Name Audit Committee Compensation

Committee Nominating and Corporate

Governance Committee Acquisition Committee

Gena L. Ashe C Louis DeJoy ✓ Michael G. Jesselson ✓ ✓ Adrian P. Kingshott ✓ C ✓ Jason D. Papastavrou* ✓ ✓ ✓ C Oren G. Shaffer* C

C = Committee Chair ✓ = Committee Member * = Audit Committee Financial Expert

A brief summary of the committees’ responsibilities follows:

Audit Committee. The Audit Committee assists our Board of Directors in fulfilling its responsibilities in a number of areas, including, without limitation, oversight of: (i) our accounting and financial reporting processes, including our systems of internal controls and disclosure controls, (ii) the integrity of our financial statements, (iii) our compliance with legal and regulatory requirements, (iv) the qualifications and independence of our outside auditors, (v) the performance of our outside auditors and internal audit function, and (vi) related party transactions. Each member of the Audit Committee satisfies all applicable independence standards, has not participated in the preparation of our financial statements at any time during the past three years, and is able to read and understand fundamental financial statements. From January 1, 2016, to March 20, 2016, the Audit Committee was comprised of the following three directors: Dr. Papastavrou (Chair), Mr. Jesselson and Mr. Kingshott. On March 20, 2016, Mr. Shaffer replaced Mr. Jesselson and was appointed the Chair of the Committee. The Audit Committee met five times during 2016 and acted once via unanimous written consent. Our Board of Directors has determined that Mr. Shaffer and Dr. Papastavrou each qualify as an “audit committee financial expert” as defined under Item 407(d)(5) of Regulation S-K under the Exchange Act.

Compensation Committee. The primary responsibilities of the Compensation Committee are, among other things: (i) to oversee the administration of our compensation programs, (ii) to review the compensation of our executive management and annual bonus compensation, (iii) to review company contributions to qualified and non-qualified plans, and (iv) to prepare any report on executive compensation required by SEC rules and regulations. From January 1, 2016, to March 20, 2016, the Compensation Committee was comprised of the following three directors: Mr. G. Chris Andersen (Chair), Dr. Papastavrou and Mr. Shaffer. On March 20, 2016, Mr. Kingshott replaced Mr. Shaffer and was appointed the Chair of the Committee. On May 11, 2016, Mr. Jesselson replaced Mr. Andersen. The Compensation Committee met seven times during 2016 and acted eight times via unanimous written consent.

Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee. The primary responsibilities of the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee are, among other things: (i) to identify individuals qualified to become Board members and recommend that our Board of Directors select such individuals to be presented for stockholder consideration at the annual meeting or to be appointed by the Board of Directors to fill a vacancy, (ii) to make recommendations to our Board of Directors concerning committee appointments, (iii) to develop, recommend to our Board of Directors and annually review the Guidelines and oversee corporate governance matters, and (iv) to oversee an annual evaluation of our Board of Directors and committees. From January 1, 2016, to March 20, 2016, the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee was comprised of the following three directors: Mr. Jesselson (Chair), Mr. Kingshott and Mr. Martell. On March 20, 2016, Ms. Ashe replaced Mr. Kingshott and was appointed the Chair of the Committee, and Dr. Papastavrou replaced Mr. Martell. The Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee met once during 2016.

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Acquisition Committee. The Acquisition Committee is responsible for reviewing and approving acquisition, divestiture and related transactions proposed by our management in which the total consideration to be paid or received by us, for any particular transaction, does not exceed the limits that may be established by our Board of Directors from time to time. From January 1, 2016, to March 20, 2016, the Acquisition Committee was comprised of the following three directors: Mr. Kingshott (Chair), Mr. Jesselson and Dr. Papastavrou. On March 20, 2016, Dr. Papastavrou was appointed the Chair of the Committee and Mr. DeJoy replaced Mr. Jesselson. The Acquisition Committee did not meet during 2016.

Director Compensation

The following table sets forth information concerning the compensation of each person who served as a non-employee director of our company during 2016.

2016 Director Compensation Table(1)

Name

Fees Earned or Paid in Cash ($)

Stock Awards(2) ($)

Option Awards(2) ($) Total ($)

G. Chris Andersen(3) $20,743 $172,081 — $192,824

Gena L. Ashe(4) $44,863 $140,716 — $185,579

Louis DeJoy(5) $50,000 $172,081 — $222,081

Michael G. Jesselson(6) $63,411 $172,081 — $235,492

Adrian P. Kingshott(7) $61,401 $172,081 — $233,482

James J. Martell(8) $17,995 $172,081 — $190,076

Jason D. Papastavrou(9) $58,599 $172,081 — $230,680

Oren G. Shaffer(9) $59,753 $172,081 — $231,834

(1) Compensation information for Mr. Jacobs, who is a named executive officer of our company, is disclosed in this proxy statement under the heading “Executive Compensation—Compensation Tables.” Mr. Jacobs did not receive additional compensation for his service as a director.

(2) The amounts reflected in this column represent the grant date fair value of the awards made in 2016, as computed in accordance with Financial Accounting Standards Board Accounting Standards Codification 718 “Compensation—Stock Compensation” (“ASC 718”). For further discussion of the assumptions used in the calculation of the grant date fair value, please see “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements—Note 12. Stock-Based Compensation” of our company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2016. The values reported in this column represent 6,501 restricted stock units (“RSUs”) granted to each of Messrs. Andersen, DeJoy, Jesselson, Kingshott, Martell and Shaffer and Dr. Papastavrou on January 4, 2016, for service as a director in 2016, which vested on January 4, 2017. Each current director serving on January 3, 2017, also received a grant of 3,970 RSUs on such date for service as a director in 2017, which grants are not reflected in the table above.

(3) Mr. Andersen retired from the Board on May 11, 2016. As of December 31, 2016, Mr. Andersen held 24,000 stock options and 6,501 RSUs. On May 11, 2016, the company entered into a consulting agreement with Mr. Andersen for a one year term. Pursuant to the consulting agreement, Mr. Andersen will receive (i) cash compensation of $1, (ii) vested stock options exercisable into 24,000 shares will continue to be exercisable during the one year term of the consulting agreement and until the earlier of the tenth anniversary of the grant date and one year after the expiration of the one year term of the consulting agreement, and (ii) 6,501 restricted stock units will vest on January 4, 2017 if services are continued under the consulting agreement.

(4) Ms. Ashe joined the Board on March 20, 2016.

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(5) As of December 31, 2016, Mr. DeJoy held 6,501 RSUs. Mr. DeJoy beneficially owns a total of 1,125,448 shares of our common stock as disclosed in this proxy statement under the heading “Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management.”

(6) As of December 31, 2016, Mr. Jesselson held 24,000 stock options and 6,501 RSUs. Mr. Jesselson beneficially owns a total of 341,723 shares of our common stock as disclosed in this proxy statement under the heading “Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management.”

(7) As of December 31, 2016, Mr. Kingshott held 24,000 stock options and 10,758 RSUs. Mr. Kingshott beneficially owns a total of 127,972 shares of our common stock as disclosed in this proxy statement under the heading “Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management.”

(8) Mr. Martell retired from the Board on May 11, 2016. As of December 31, 2016, Mr. Martell held 49,000 stock options and 6,501 RSUs. On May 11, 2016, the company entered into a consulting agreement with Mr. Martell for a two year term. Pursuant to the consulting agreement, Mr. Martell will receive (i) $6,250 per month, (ii) vested stock options exercisable into 25,000 shares of common stock will continue to be exercisable during the two year term of the consulting agreement and until the earlier of the tenth anniversary of the grant date and thirty days after the expiration of the two year term of the consulting agreement, (iii) vested stock options exercisable into 24,000 shares of common stock will continue to be exercisable during the two year term and until the earlier of the tenth anniversary of the grant date and one year after the expiration of the two year term of the consulting agreement, and (iv) 6,501 restricted stock units will vest on January 4, 2017 if services are continued under the consulting agreement.

(9) As of December 31, 2016, Dr. Papastavrou and Mr. Shaffer each held 24,000 stock options and 15,758 RSUs. Dr. Papastavrou beneficially owns a total of 236,847 shares of our common stock and Mr. Shaffer beneficially owns a total of 60,758 shares of our common stock as disclosed in this proxy statement under the heading “Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management.”

The compensation of our directors is subject to the approval of our Board of Directors, which is based, in part, on the review and recommendation of the Compensation Committee. Directors who are employees of our company do not receive additional compensation for service as members of either our Board of Directors or its committees. In December 2015, in consultation with Semler Brossy and upon the recommendation of our Compensation Committee, our Board of Directors reviewed our outside director compensation program and decided that no changes were necessary for 2016.

During 2016, our non-employee directors received an annual cash retainer of $50,000, payable quarterly in arrears, and an annual RSU grant with a target grant date value of $175,000. The RSUs were granted on the first business day of the calendar year and vested on the first anniversary of the grant date. The number of RSUs granted to each outside director was determined by dividing $175,000 by the average of the closing prices of the company’s common stock on the ten trading days immediately preceding the grant date. Unvested stock options and RSUs will be forfeited upon termination of service for any reason. Also, during 2016, under our outside director compensation program, the chairpersons of our Audit Committee, Compensation Committee, Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee and Acquisition Committee each received an additional annual cash retainer of $12,500, $12,500, $7,500 and $7,500, respectively, payable quarterly in arrears. No other fees were paid to our directors for their attendance at or participation in meetings of our Board or its committees. We also reimbursed our directors for expenses incurred in the performance of their duties, including reimbursement for air travel and hotel expenses.

In 2016, our Board adopted stock ownership guidelines and stock retention requirements that apply to our non-employee directors and executive officers. Non-employee directors are subject to a stock ownership guideline of six (6) times the annual cash retainer. To determine compliance with these guidelines, generally, common shares held directly or indirectly, and unvested restricted stock units subject solely to time-based vesting, count towards meeting the stock ownership guidelines. Stock options, whether vested or unvested, and equity-based awards subject to performance-based vesting conditions, are not counted towards meeting the stock ownership guidelines. Until the guidelines are met, 70% of the net shares (after tax withholding) received upon vesting of equity-based awards are required to be retained by the director. As of the Record Date, each of our

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non-employee directors other than Ms. Ashe, who joined the Board in March 2016, was in compliance with our stock ownership guidelines.

On March 14, 2017, the Board of Directors, acting upon the recommendation of the Compensation Committee and in consultation with its independent compensation consultant, Semler Brossy, approved and adopted a revised non-employee director annual compensation program that will apply in calendar year 2017 and subsequent years. Effective January 1, 2017, our non-employee directors will receive an annual cash retainer of $75,000, payable quarterly in arrears and time-based restricted stock units (“Time-Based RSUs”) worth $175,000. The annual grant of such Time-Based RSUs will be made on the first business day of each year (the “RSU Grant Date”) and the number of such units will be determined by dividing $175,000 by the average of the closing prices of the company’s common stock on the ten trading days immediately preceding the RSU Grant Date. The lead independent director will also receive a $25,000 annual cash retainer, payable quarterly in arrears. Under the revised non-employee director annual compensation program, the chairpersons of our Audit Committee, Compensation Committee, Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee and Acquisition Committee will each receive an additional cash retainer of $25,000, $15,000, $15,000 and $15,000, respectively, payable quarterly in arrears.

Under the revised non-employee director annual compensation program, Mr. Jesselson received a one-time cash retainer for his service as lead independent director in 2016 in an amount equal to the pro rata portion of an annualized retainer of $15,000, calculated from the date of his appointment on March 20, 2016. Ms. Ashe also received a one-time grant of Time-Based RSUs for her service as a director in 2016 in an amount equal to the pro rata portion of an annual grant of $175,000, calculated from the date of her appointment on March 20, 2016 and determined by dividing the pro rata portion of $175,000 by the average of the closing prices of the company’s common stock on the ten trading days immediately preceding the One-Time Grant Date. The vesting date of Ms. Ashe’s one-time grant will be January 1, 2018.

Compensation Committee Interlocks and Insider Participation

None of the members of our Compensation Committee has been an officer or employee of our company. During our last completed fiscal year, none of our executive officers served as a member of the compensation committee of any entity that has one or more executive officers serving on our Compensation Committee.

Corporate Governance Guidelines and Codes of Ethics

Our Board of Directors is committed to sound corporate governance principles and practices. Our Board adopted the Guidelines on January 16, 2012, and most recently adopted amendments to the Guidelines in March 2016, to, among other matters (i) provide for a robust lead independent director position as described further in “Role of the Board and Board Leadership Structure” on page 15, and (ii) reflect the Board’s commitment, when searching for new directors, to actively seek out highly qualified women and individuals from minority groups to include in the pool from which Board nominees are chosen. Our Board continues to seek out highly qualified board candidates who bring relevant expertise and reflect the company’s growing scale and diversity.

The Guidelines serve as a framework within which our Board of Directors conducts its operations. Among other things, the Guidelines include criteria for determining the qualifications and independence of the members of our Board, requirements for the standing committees of our Board, responsibilities for members of our Board, and the annual evaluation of the effectiveness of our Board and its committees. The Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee is responsible for reviewing the Guidelines annually, or more frequently as appropriate, and recommending to our Board appropriate changes in light of applicable laws and regulations, the governance standards identified by leading governance authorities, and our company’s evolving needs.

We have a Code of Business Ethics that applies to our directors and executive officers. This code is designed to deter wrongdoing, to promote the honest and ethical conduct of all employees and to promote

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compliance with applicable governmental laws, rules and regulations, as well as to provide clear channels for reporting concerns. The Code of Business Ethics constitutes a “code of ethics” as defined in Item 406(b) of Regulation S-K. We intend to satisfy the disclosure requirements under applicable SEC rules relating to amendments to the Code of Business Ethics or waivers from any provision thereof applicable to our principal executive officer, our principal financial officer and principal accounting officer by posting such information on our website pursuant to SEC rules.

The Guidelines and our Code of Business Ethics are available on our website at www.xpo.com. In addition, you may obtain a printed copy of these documents, without charge, by sending a request to: Investor Relations, XPO Logistics, Inc., Five American Lane, Greenwich, Connecticut 06831.

Exclusive Forum Bylaw Amendment

In March 2017, our Board of Directors approved an amendment of our bylaws in order to provide that certain types of stockholder litigation be litigated exclusively in the Chancery of Court of the State of Delaware, which is our state of incorporation. In adopting the amendment and determining that doing so is in the best interests of our company and our stockholders, our Board considered various factors, including, among others: prevailing market practice and perspectives on such provisions; the importance to our company and our stockholders of reducing litigation costs and preventing corporate resources from being unnecessarily diverted to address duplicative, costly and wasteful multi-forum litigation; the value of facilitating consistency and predictability in litigation outcomes for the benefit of our company and our stockholders; that our company is incorporated under the laws of the state of Delaware; that adopting such an exclusive forum provision covering specified claims does not materially change the substantive legal claims available to stockholders; Section 115 of the Delaware General Corporation Law and case law developments upholding the authority of the board of directors to adopt such a provision and confirming its validity and enforceability; and case law developments outside of Delaware enforcing such provisions.

Director Independence

Under the Guidelines, our Board of Directors is responsible for making independence determinations annually with the assistance of the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee. Such independence determinations are made by reference to the independence standard under the Guidelines and the definition of “independent director” under Section 303A.02 of the NYSE Listed Company Manual. Our Board of Directors has affirmatively determined that each person who served as a director during any part of 2016, except Mr. Jacobs, our Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer, and Mr. DeJoy, satisfies the independence standards under the Guidelines and the NYSE Listed Company Manual.

In addition to the independence standards provided in the Guidelines, our Board of Directors has determined that each director who serves on our Audit Committee satisfies standards established by the SEC providing that, in order to qualify as “independent” for the purposes of membership on that committee, members of audit committees may not (1) accept directly or indirectly any consulting, advisory or other compensatory fee from our company other than their director compensation, or (2) be an affiliated person of our company or any of its subsidiaries. Our Board of Directors has also determined that each member of the Compensation Committee satisfies the NYSE standards for independence of Compensation Committee members, which became effective on July 1, 2013. Additionally, our Board of Directors has determined that each member of the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee satisfies the NYSE standards for independence. In making the independence determinations for each director, our Board of Directors and the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee analyzed certain relationships of the directors that were not required to be disclosed pursuant to Item 404(a) of Regulation S-K. For Ms. Ashe, those relationships included ordinary course commercial transactions between our company and an entity for which Ms. Ashe was an executive prior to becoming a director of the Company. For Mr. Jesselson, those relationships included ordinary course commercial transactions between our company and an entity for which Mr. Jesselson is the president. For Dr. Papastavrou,

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those relationships included ordinary course commercial transactions between our company and an entity for which Dr. Papastavrou is a director. For Mr. Shaffer, those relationships included ordinary course commercial transactions between our company and an entity for which Mr. Shaffer is a director.

Director Selection Process

The Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee is responsible for recommending to our Board of Directors all nominees for election to the Board, including nominees for re-election to the Board, in each case after consultation with the Chairman of the Board and in accordance with our company’s contractual obligations. Pursuant to the Investment Agreement, JPE has had and may in the future have the contractual right based on its securities ownership, as described above under “Directors,” to designate for nomination by our Board of Directors a certain percentage of the members of our Board of Directors. Subject to the foregoing, in considering new nominees for election to our Board, the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee considers, among other things, breadth of experience, financial expertise, wisdom, integrity, an ability to make independent analytical inquiries, an understanding of our company’s business environment, knowledge and experience in such areas as technology and marketing, and other disciplines relevant to our company’s businesses, the nominee’s ownership interest in our company, and a willingness and ability to devote adequate time to Board duties, all in the context of the needs of the Board at that point in time and with the objective of ensuring diversity in the background, experience, and viewpoints of Board members. When searching for new directors, our Board endeavors to actively seek out highly qualified women and individuals from minority groups to include in the pool from which Board nominees are chosen. Our Board aims to create a team of directors with diverse experiences and backgrounds to provide our company with thoughtful and engaged board oversight.

Subject to the contractual rights granted to JPE pursuant to the Investment Agreement, the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee may identify potential nominees for election to our Board of Directors from a variety of sources, including recommendations from current directors or management, recommendations from our stockholders or any other source the committee deems appropriate.

Our Board of Directors will consider nominees submitted by our stockholders subject to the same factors that are brought to bear when it considers nominees referred by other sources. Our stockholders can nominate candidates for election as directors by following the procedures set forth in our bylaws, which are summarized below. We did not receive any director nominees from our stockholders for the 2017 annual meeting.

Our bylaws require that a stockholder who wishes to nominate an individual for election as a director at our annual meeting must give us advance written notice. The notice must be delivered to or mailed and received by the Secretary of our company not less than 90 days, and not more than 180 days, prior to the earlier of the date of the annual meeting and the first anniversary of the preceding year’s annual meeting. As more specifically provided in our bylaws, any nomination must include: (i) the nominator’s name and address and the number of shares of each class of our capital stock that the nominator owns, (ii) the name and address of any person with whom the nominator is acting in concert and the number of shares of each class of our capital stock that any such person owns, (iii) the information with respect to each such proposed director nominee that would be required to be provided in a proxy statement prepared in accordance with applicable SEC rules, and (iv) the consent of the proposed candidate to serve as a member of our Board.

Any stockholder who wishes to nominate a potential director candidate must follow the specific requirements set forth in our bylaws, a copy of which may be obtained by sending a request to: Secretary, XPO Logistics, Inc., Five American Lane, Greenwich, Connecticut 06831.

Human Capital Management

Our talent management efforts go beyond the director and management level. Our business model relies on our strong customer service culture, which is deeply interconnected with the talent and satisfaction levels of all

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our employees. As we strive to grow our business, we are focused on maintaining XPO’s great work environment. Our efforts in human capital management focus on enhancing the robust training of our work force, improving management capabilities and seeking to harmonize best practices across our global operations. We tailor the development and management of each operating location to the specific type of operation and labor force. We also conduct regular surveys multiple times each year, including local assessments of the work force at each site.

Our recent appointment of Meghan Henson to the position of Chief Human Resources Officer reflects the emphasis on human capital management embedded in the culture of XPO. Ms. Henson leads the company’s global human resources organization and brings a renewed focus for the company on human capital management. Our management team and Board of Directors work together in a transparent manner, allowing for open communication, including with respect to human capital-related matters. Our directors have access to all information about our human capital management operations and plans, and our Chief Human Resources Officer is invited to attend and speak at the meetings of our Board of Directors when appropriate, updating the Board on issues related to talent and methods used to evaluate the working atmosphere at XPO. Our directors also have opportunities to attend and participate in employee town halls, which our CEO runs throughout the year at varying operating sites, as well as executive leadership meetings with our mid- and senior-level operating executives. We aim to integrate our human resources functions with our operational objectives.

Stockholder Communication with the Board

Stockholders and parties interested in communicating with our Board of Directors, any Board committee, any individual director, including our lead independent director, or any group of directors (such as our independent directors) should send written correspondence to: Board of Directors c/o Secretary, XPO Logistics, Inc., Five American Lane, Greenwich, Connecticut 06831. Please note that we will not forward communications that are spam, junk mail and mass mailings, resumes and other forms of job inquiries, surveys, business solicitations or advertisements.

Stockholder Proposals for Next Year’s Annual Meeting

Stockholder proposals intended to be presented at our 2018 annual meeting of stockholders must be received by our Secretary not later than December 18, 2017, to be considered for inclusion in our proxy materials, pursuant to Rule 14a-8 under the Exchange Act.

As more specifically provided in our bylaws, no business may be brought before an annual meeting of our stockholders unless it is specified in the notice of the annual meeting or is otherwise brought before the annual meeting by or at the direction of our Board of Directors or by a stockholder entitled to vote who has delivered proper notice to us not less than 90 days, and not more than 180 days, prior to the earlier of the date of the annual meeting and the first anniversary of the preceding year’s annual meeting. Accordingly, assuming that our 2018 annual meeting of stockholders is held on or after May 10, 2018, any stockholder proposal to be considered at the 2018 annual meeting, including nominations of persons for election to our Board of Directors, must be properly submitted to us not earlier than November 11, 2017, nor later than February 9, 2018.

Detailed information for submitting stockholder proposals or nominations of director candidates will be provided upon written request to: Secretary, XPO Logistics, Inc., Five American Lane, Greenwich, Connecticut 06831.

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CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS AND RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS

Under its written charter, the Audit Committee of our Board of Directors is responsible for reviewing and approving or ratifying any transaction between our company and a related person (as defined in Item 404 of Regulation S-K) that is required to be disclosed under the rules and regulations of the SEC. Our management is responsible for bringing any such transaction to the attention of the Audit Committee. In approving or rejecting any such transaction, the Audit Committee considers the relevant facts and circumstances, including the material terms of the transaction, risks, benefits, costs, availability of other comparable services or products and, if applicable, the impact on a director’s independence.

Since January 1, 2016, we have not been a participant in any transaction or series of similar transactions in which the amount exceeded or will exceed $120,000 and in which any current director, executive officer, holder of more than five percent of our capital stock, or any member of the immediate family of the foregoing, had or will have a material interest, except for the transactions described below or as previously disclosed in this proxy statement.

During the year ended December 31, 2016, the company provided certain air charter schedule recovery services to Ameriflight, LLC (“Ameriflight”), a regional air cargo carrier. James J. Martell, a member of our Board of Directors until May 11, 2016, owns and serves as the executive chairman of Ameriflight. The company provides its services to Ameriflight on a transactional basis without a written contract. The company received payments from Ameriflight or its affiliates in an amount of approximately $974,000 for the year ended December 31, 2016. Pursuant to the company’s policies and procedures described above, the Audit Committee reviewed and ratified the transactions between XPO Air Charter and Ameriflight, concluding that the transactions were in the best interests of the company and our stockholders and did not impair Mr. Martell’s independence as a director.

During the year ended December 31, 2016, the company leased office space from two entities partially owned and controlled by Louis DeJoy, a member of our Board of Directors. In September 2014, in conjunction with the company’s acquisition of New Breed Holding Company, XPO Logistics, through certain of our subsidiaries, entered into four commercial lease agreements covering a total of approximately 142,991 square feet of office space located in High Point, N.C., with the entities affiliated with Mr. DeJoy. The non-cancellable lease agreements expire at various dates in 2019. Each lease agreement provides the company, as tenant, with two five-year option periods to extend the lease term. The company made rent payments associated with these lease agreements in an aggregate amount of $2.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2016. In addition, the company paid operating expenses in connection with these leased properties of $0.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2016.

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SECURITY OWNERSHIP OF CERTAIN BENEFICIAL OWNERS AND MANAGEMENT

The following table sets forth information concerning the beneficial ownership of our voting securities as of the Record Date by: (i) each person who is known by us, based solely on a review of public filings, to be the beneficial owner of more than 5% of any class of our outstanding voting securities, (ii) each director, (iii) each named executive officer, and (iv) all executive officers and directors as a group. None of the foregoing persons beneficially owned any shares of equity securities of our subsidiaries as of the Record Date.

Under applicable SEC rules, a person is deemed to be the “beneficial owner” of a voting security if such person has (or shares) either investment power or voting power over such security or has (or shares) the right to acquire such security within 60 days by any of a number of means, including upon the exercise of options or warrants or the conversion of convertible securities. A beneficial owner’s percentage ownership is determined by assuming that options, warrants and convertible securities that are held by the beneficial owner, but not those held by any other person, and which are exercisable or convertible within 60 days, have been exercised or converted.

Unless otherwise indicated, we believe that all persons named in the table below have sole voting and investment power with respect to all voting securities shown as being owned by them. Unless otherwise indicated, the address of each beneficial owner in the table below is care of XPO Logistics, Inc., Five American Lane, Greenwich, Connecticut 06831.

Name of Beneficial Owner

Shares of Common

Stock Beneficially

Owned

Percentage of Common Stock Outstanding(1)

Shares of Series A Preferred

Stock Beneficially

Owned(2)

Percentage of Series A Preferred

Stock Outstanding

Beneficial Ownership of 5% or more Orbis Investment Management Limited(3)

Orbis House, 25 Front Street Hamilton Bermuda HM11 20,815,297 18.7% — —

Jacobs Private Equity, LLC 19,285,714(4) 14.7% 67,500 94.4% Coral Blue Investment Pte. Ltd(5)

168 Robinson Road #37-01, Capital Tower, Singapore 068912 8,153,946 7.3% — —

The Vanguard Group(6) 100 Vanguard Blvd. Malvern, PA 19355 7,825,426 7.0% — —

Spruce House Investment Management LLC(7) 435 Hudson Street, 8th Floor New York, NY 10014 7,797,055 7.0% — —

BlackRock, Inc.(8) 55 East 52nd Street New York, NY 10055 5,902,754 5.3% — —

Directors: Gena L. Ashe — — — — Louis DeJoy 1,125,448(9) 1.0% — — Michael G. Jesselson 341,723(10) * 725(11) 1.0% Adrian P. Kingshott 127,972(12) * 300 * Jason D. Papastavrou 236,847(13) * 650(14) * Oren G. Shaffer 60,758(15) * — —

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Name of Beneficial Owner

Shares of Common

Stock Beneficially

Owned

Percentage of Common Stock Outstanding(1)

Shares of Series A Preferred

Stock Beneficially

Owned(2)

Percentage of Series A Preferred

Stock Outstanding

Named Executive Officers: Bradley S. Jacobs+ 19,662,175(16) 15.0% 67,500 94.4% Troy A. Cooper 128,085(17) * — — John J. Hardig 130,749(18) * — — Gordon E. Devens 179,979(19) * — — Scott B. Malat 127,981(20) * — — Current Executive Officers and Directors as a

Group (12 People) 22,320,801(21) 16.9% 69,175 96.7%

* Less than 1% + Director and Executive Officer (1) For purposes of this column, the number of shares of the class outstanding reflects the sum of: (i)

111,551,028 shares of our common stock that were outstanding as of the Record Date, (ii) the number of shares of our common stock into which the outstanding shares of our preferred stock held by the relevant person, if any, were convertible on the Record Date, (iii) the number of shares of our common stock, if any, which the relevant person could acquire on exercise of options or warrants within 60 days of the Record Date, and (iv) the number of restricted stock units (“RSUs”), if any, held by the relevant person that are or will become vested within 60 days of the Record Date.

(2) Each share of our Series A Preferred Stock that was outstanding on the Record Date has an initial liquidation preference of $1,000 per share and is convertible into approximately 143 shares of our common stock at an effective conversion price of $7.00 per share of our common stock. Our Series A Preferred Stock votes together as a single class with our common stock on an as-converted basis, except with respect to certain matters that impact the rights of holders of our Series A Preferred Stock, in which case our Series A Preferred Stock votes separately as a single class.

(3) Based on Amendment No. 3 to the Schedule 13G filed on February 14, 2017 by Orbis Investment Management Limited (“OIML”), Orbis Investment Management (U.S.), LLC (“OIMUS”) and Orbis Asset Management Limited (“OAML”), which reported that, as of December 31, 2016, OIML beneficially owned 20,368,113 shares, OIMUS beneficially owned 361,524 shares, and OAML beneficially owned 85,660 shares. The group has sole voting and sole dispositive power over such shares.

(4) Consists of 9,642,857 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of 9,642,857 warrants at an exercise price of $7.00 per share of common stock, and 9,642,857 shares of our common stock issuable upon conversion of 67,500 shares of our Series A Preferred Stock. Mr. Jacobs has indirect beneficial ownership of the shares of our common stock and our Series A Preferred Stock beneficially owned by JPE as a result of being its Managing Member. In addition, Mr. Jacobs beneficially owns 126,461 shares of our common stock held directly following the vesting of equity incentive awards and 250,000 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of options that are or will become exercisable within 60 days of the Record Date. See footnote 16 below.

(5) Based on Amendment No. 3 to Schedule 13G filed on February 13, 2017 by Coral Blue Investment Pte. Ltd. and GIC Private Limited, which reported that, as of December 31, 2016, Coral Blue Investment Pte. Ltd. beneficially owned 8,153,946 shares of common stock and shares voting and dispositive power over such shares of common stock with GIC Private Limited.

(6) Based on Amendment No. 1 to the Schedule 13G filed on February 10, 2017 by The Vanguard Group, which reported that, as of December 31, 2016, The Vanguard Group beneficially owned 7,825,426 shares with sole voting power over 111,942 shares, shared voting power over 10,838 shares, sole dispositive power over 7,708,046 shares and shared dispositive power over 117,380 shares.

(7) Based on Amendment No. 2 to the Schedule 13G filed on February 14, 2017, filed by Spruce House Investment Management LLC, Spruce House Capital LLC, The Spruce House Partnership LP, Zachary

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Sternberg, and Benjamin Stein, which reported that, as of December 31, 2016, Spruce House Investment Management LLC beneficially owned 7,750,000 shares, Spruce House Capital LLC beneficially owned 7,750,000 shares, The Spruce House Partnership LP beneficially owned 7,750,000 shares, Zachary Sternberg beneficially owned 7,795,000 shares and Benjamin Stein beneficially owned 7,797,055 shares. Spruce House Investment Management LLC, Spruce House Capital LLC, The Spruce House Partnership LP, Zachary Sternberg and Benjamin Stein have shared voting and dispositive power over 7,750,000 shares of common stock. Zachary Sternberg has sole voting and dispositive power over 45,000 shares. Benjamin Stein has sole voting and dispositive power over 47,055 shares.

(8) Based on the Schedule 13G filed on January 30, 2017 by BlackRock, Inc., which reported that, as of December 31, 2016, BlackRock, Inc. beneficially owned 5,902,754 shares, with sole voting power over 5,686,450 shares and sole dispositive power over 5,902,754 shares.

(9) Includes: (i) 192,086 shares of our common stock beneficially owned by The Louis DeJoy Family Partnership, LLC, of which Mr. DeJoy is the managing member, and (ii) 484,340 shares of our common stock owned by the Louis DeJoy and Aldona Z. Wos Family Foundation, of which Mr. DeJoy is the president.

(10) Includes: (i) 12,000 shares of our common stock beneficially owned by the SJJ Irrevocable Trust, of which Mr. Jesselson is a trustee, (ii) 12,000 shares of our common stock beneficially owned by the RAJ Irrevocable Trust, of which Mr. Jesselson is a trustee, (iii) 12,000 shares of our common stock beneficially owned by the JJJ Irrevocable Trust, of which Mr. Jesselson is a trustee, (iv) 10,000 shares of our common stock beneficially owned by the Michael G. Jesselson and Linda Jesselson 6/30/93 Trust, of which Mr. Jesselson is a trustee, (v) 10,000 shares of our common stock owned by Mr. Jesselson’s spouse, (vi) 103,572 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of 103,572 warrants at an exercise price of $7.00 per share of our common stock, which warrants are beneficially owned by the Michael G. Jesselson 12/18/80 Trust and the Michael G. Jesselson 4/8/71 Trust, of which trusts Mr. Jesselson is the beneficiary, (vii) 21,322 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of 21,322 warrants at an exercise price of $7.00 per share of our common stock, which warrants are beneficially owned by the Michael G. Jesselson and Linda Jesselson, Trustees UID 6/30/93 FBO Maya Ariel Ruth Jesselson, of which Mr. Jesselson is the beneficiary, (viii) 103,570 shares of our common stock issuable upon conversion of 725 shares of our Series A Preferred Stock, which shares of our Series A Preferred Stock are beneficially owned by the Michael G. Jesselson 12/18/80 Trust and the Michael G. Jesselson 4/8/71 Trust, of which trusts Mr. Jesselson is the beneficiary, and (ix) 24,000 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of options that are or will become exercisable within 60 days of the Record Date.

(11) See clause (viii) of footnote (10). (12) Includes: (i) 42,857 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of 42,857 warrants at an

exercise price of $7.00 per share of our common stock, (ii) 42,857 shares of our common stock issuable upon conversion of 300 shares of our Series A Preferred Stock, (iii) 24,000 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of options that are or will become exercisable on within 60 days of the Record Date, and (iv) 10,758 RSUs that are or will become vested within 60 days of the Record Date.

(13) Includes: (i) 1,375 shares of our common stock beneficially owned by the Brett A. Athans Declaration of Trust, of which Dr. Papastavrou is the trustee, (ii) 92,857 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of 92,857 warrants at an exercise price of $7.00 per share of our common stock, which warrants are beneficially owned by Springer Wealth Management LLC, of which Dr. Papastavrou is the owner of 100% of the equity securities, (iii) 92,857 shares of our common stock issuable upon conversion of 650 shares of our Series A Preferred Stock, which shares of Series A Preferred Stock are beneficially owned by Springer Wealth Management LLC, of which Dr. Papastavrou is the owner of 100% of the equity securities, (iv) 24,000 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of options that are or will become exercisable within 60 days of the Record Date, and (v) 15,758 RSUs that are or will become vested within 60 days of the Record Date.

(14) See clause (iii) of footnote (13). (15) Includes: (i) 8,500 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of 8,500 warrants at an exercise

price of $7.00 per share of common stock, (ii) 24,000 shares of our common stock issuable upon the

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exercise of options that are or will become exercisable within 60 days of the Record Date, and (iii) 15,758 RSUs that are or will become vested within 60 days of the Record Date.

(16) Mr. Jacobs has indirect beneficial ownership of the shares of our common stock and our Series A Preferred Stock beneficially owned by JPE as a result of being its Managing Member. See footnote (4). Also includes 126,461 shares of our common stock held directly by Mr. Jacobs following the vesting of equity incentive awards and 250,000 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of options that are or will become exercisable within 60 days of the Record Date.

(17) Includes: (i) 10,000 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of 10,000 warrants at an exercise price of $7.00 per share of common stock, and (ii) 25,000 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of options that are or will become exercisable within 60 days of the Record Date.

(18) Includes 50,000 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of options that are or will become exercisable within 60 days of the Record Date.

(19) Mr. Devens resigned as Chief Legal Officer of the Company effective February 15, 2017. Includes: (i) 20,000 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of 20,000 warrants at an exercise price of $7.00 per share of common stock, and (ii) 125,000 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of options that are or will become exercisable within 60 days of the Record Date.

(20) Includes: (i) 12,750 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of 12,750 warrants at an exercise price of $7.00 per share of common stock, and (ii) 48,000 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of options that are or will become exercisable within 60 days of the Record Date.

(21) Includes: (i) 9,954,715 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of 9,954,715 warrants at an exercise price of $7.00 per share of our common stock, (ii) 9,882,142 shares of our common stock issuable upon conversion of 69,175 shares of our preferred stock, (iii) 729,000 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of options that are or will become exercisable within 60 days of the Record Date, and (iv) 42,274 RSUs that are or will become vested within 60 days of the Record Date.

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EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION

Compensation Discussion and Analysis

This Compensation Discussion and Analysis describes XPO Logistics’ executive compensation program for 2016. The Compensation Committee of our Board (referred to as the “Committee” in this section) oversees our executive compensation program and practices. In this section, we explain how and why the Committee made its 2016 compensation decisions for the following named executive officers, or NEOs, including Mr. Gordon E. Devens, our former Chief Legal Officer, who resigned from the company effective February 15, 2017:

NEO Title

Bradley S. Jacobs Chairman and Chief Executive Officer

Troy A. Cooper Chief Operating Officer

John J. Hardig Chief Financial Officer

Gordon E. Devens Former Chief Legal Officer

Scott B. Malat Chief Strategy Officer

Executive Summary

2016 Highlights

Throughout 2016, our NEOs executed our strategy for high growth and high returns, successfully leading the integration of our two largest acquisitions and establishing XPO Logistics as one of the ten largest logistics companies in the world. During this period, our operations became a highly integrated network of people, technology and physical assets, and we helped more than 50,000 customers manage their goods more efficiently throughout their supply chains. As of December 31, 2016, our network encompassed over 87,000 employees and approximately 1,425 locations in 34 countries, primarily in North America and Europe.

For the full year 2016, our company reported net income attributable to common shareholders of $63.1 million, compared with a net loss of $245.9 million for 2015, and achieved an absolute total shareholder return (“TSR”) of 58%, well above the TSRs of the S&P 500 (12%) and the S&P Transportation Select Industry Index (27%) and created approximately $2.14 billion of shareholder value in 2016 (based on the price per share of our common stock as of December 31, 2015 of $27.25 and December 31, 2016 of $43.16).

A Springboard for Value Creation

Based on the significant progress made by our NEOs in 2016, we are in a strong position to continue to execute our strategy in 2017 and beyond. Our focus remains on further enhancing customer service while realizing the numerous profit improvement opportunities embedded in our business. In 2017, we will get the full 12-month benefit of numerous efficiencies we implemented throughout 2016 in procurement, real estate, back office operations and workplace technologies. We have more savings to realize in each of these areas, along with cross-dock and warehouse automation, labor productivity and the global adoption of best practices. In addition, we are marketing our services with a high caliber sales organization that draws on our total supply chain offering to help customers operate more productively.

We have met or exceeded every financial target that our company has issued from 2012 through 2016. Our full year targets forecast adjusted EBITDA of at least $1.350 billion in 2017 and $1.575 billion in 2018. Our 2017-2018 cumulative free cash flow target is approximately $900 million, including at least $350 million of free cash flow in 2017.

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Our Compensation Philosophy

Our executive compensation philosophy is to align the interests of our executive team with the interests of our stockholders and to ensure that the total compensation paid to our executive officers is reasonable and competitive.

Key Objectives of Our Executive Compensation Program

Align executive compensation with

long-term stockholder value

Strongly correlate pay and performance

Attract, retain and motivate

high-performing executive talent

We use varied compensation elements to align the financial interests and objectives of our NEOs with those of our stockholders and to sustain our unified focus on the execution of our strategy, which we believe will create long-term stockholder value.

Our executive compensation program is designed to strongly correlate the compensation received by our NEOs with their performance and the performance of XPO Logistics.

We operate in a highly competitive market for executive talent; as such, we believe it is essential to attract, retain and motivate a high- performing executive team with market competitive pay opportunities that deliver the majority of pay in at-risk elements.

How We Meet These Objectives

Our executive compensation program is heavily weighted towards variable compensation, including long- term incentives, such as cash settled performance-based restricted stock units (“PRSU”) and annual cash incentives.

Substantially all of the annual long-term awards granted to our NEOs are subject to meaningful share price and/or earnings-related performance goals with service-based vesting periods.

Our NEOs are subject to significant stock ownership and retention requirements.

Our NEOs are subject to lock-up restrictions that generally prohibit the sale of any shares of our common stock (on an after-tax basis) delivered pursuant to equity awards granted by our company – in 2016, these lock-up restrictions were extended for an additional two years until September 2, 2018.

Our NEOs are subject to clawback restrictions with respect to equity and cash incentive compensation.

Our NEOs are subject to comprehensive non-competition and other restrictive covenants.

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Executive Compensation Structure

Our executive compensation program consists of three primary elements: annual base salary, annual cash incentive bonuses and long-term incentive awards. Each of these elements is described in more detail below:

Element Objective Mechanics

Base Salary Provide a competitive fixed component of compensation that enables XPO Logistics to attract and retain top talent.

Reviewed against the executive’s experience and responsibilities, and for competitiveness against XPO Logistics’ peer group.

Annual Incentives

Offer a variable annual cash compensation opportunity based upon both financial and strategic objectives.

Based on individual and company performance; a portion may be subject to repayment in certain termination scenarios.

Long-term Incentives

Align the interests of our executives with those of our stockholders through the use of long-term incentive awards that reward executives for increases in our stock price over time. These awards are also meant to focus executives on financial metrics that are complementary to the financial metrics for our annual cash incentive program.

The NEOs were granted cash-settled performance-based restricted stock units (“PRSUs”) in 2016 with performance goals based on annual adjusted cash flow per share for the four-year period from 2016 to 2019. PRSUs will vest annually if the following adjusted cash flow per share goals are achieved: $2.93 in 2016, $3.96 in 2017, $5.38 in 2018, and $6.39 in 2019.

Other Governance- related Policies

To meet the key objectives of our executive compensation programs and to mitigate overall compensation risk, we have adopted a clawback policy, equity lock-up restrictions, and equity ownership guidelines.

See pages 39—40 for additional information.

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Because the Committee feels strongly that executive compensation should be tightly linked to both company and individual performance, the executive compensation for our NEOs is heavily weighted towards equity-based and variable cash incentive awards. At target, 90% of our CEO’s 2016 total direct compensation (“TDC”) is incentive-based, and 80% is based on the achievement of long-term performance goals. For our other NEOs, on average, 75% of their 2016 target total direct compensation is incentive-based and 50% is based on achievement of long-term performance goals. The Committee believes that this mix is appropriate to drive execution of our long-term strategy and to further align the interests of our NEOs with those of our stockholders. Details of each component of compensation are outlined further in the 2016 Executive Compensation Outcomes section below.

Other NEOs 2016 Target TDC Mix

(LTI Reflects Annualized Cash PRSU Value)

CEO 2016 Target TDC Mix

(LTI Reflects Annualized Cash PRSU Value)

Base Salary 10%

Annual Incentive

10%

LTI 80%

Base Salary 25%

Annual Incentive

25%

LTI 50%

Compensation Governance Framework

To meet the key objectives of our executive compensation program and to mitigate risk from our compensation practices and principles, the company has adopted a compensation governance framework that includes the components described below, each of which the Committee believes reinforces the company’s executive compensation philosophy and objectives.

• Clawback policy: Our NEOs and other executive officers are required to repay overpayments of annual and long-term cash incentive compensation awards in the event of fraud or in the event of a financial restatement occurring within one year following the award payment. Additionally, in order to enhance the long-term retentive value of the 2016 annual cash incentive awards, the Committee made a significant portion of certain executives’ 2016 cash incentive awards subject to repayment if a NEO’s employment with our company terminates for any reason within two years immediately following the payment date, as discussed more fully below.

• Lock-up restrictions: Our NEOs are subject to lock-up restrictions that generally prohibit the sale of any shares of our common stock (on an after-tax basis) delivered pursuant to equity awards granted by our company—in 2016, in connection with the renewal of our NEOs’ employment agreements, these lock-up restrictions were extended for an additional two years until September 2, 2018.

• Stock ownership guidelines and stock retention requirements: In 2016, our Board established stock ownership guidelines for our NEOs and other executive officers to further align the interests of our executives with those of our stockholders. See Page 40 for more detail.

• No stock option repricing: Our company’s equity incentive plan does not permit either stock option repricing without stockholder approval or stock option grants with an exercise price below fair market value.

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• No tax gross-ups: Our company does not provide tax gross-ups on any benefits or perquisites, including severance payments and other benefits received in connection with, or following, a change in control.

• Independent compensation consultant: The Committee retains an independent compensation consultant who performs services only for the Committee, as discussed more fully below.

• No hedging or pledging of company stock: Under our insider trading policy, our company’s directors and executive officers, including the NEOs, are prohibited from pledging or holding company securities in a margin account without pre-clearance. In addition, such persons are prohibited from engaging in hedging transactions without pre-clearance, such as prepaid variable forwards, equity swaps, collars and exchange funds or any other transactions that are designed to or have the effect of hedging or offsetting any decrease in the market value of equity securities.

2016 Executive Compensation Outcomes

Highlights of 2016 executive compensation include:

• Annual Base Salary: To recognize continued strong company performance and align with market levels for companies of similar size, the Committee increased NEO base salaries. These base salaries had been at comparatively low levels relative to market levels and had not been increased for the preceding three years. This increase in NEO base salaries is fixed for the term of the NEOs’ employment agreements.

• Annual Cash Incentive Bonuses: Our company’s strong financial performance and the Committee’s assessment of both company and individual performance during a transformative year for the company led to above-target annual cash bonus payouts for the NEOs.

• Long-term Incentive Program: NEOs earned the first of four tranches of the PRSU awards because our company’s actual 2016 adjusted cash flow per share exceeded the goal of $2.93.

Annual Base Salary

The Committee increased annual base salaries for each of our NEOs during 2016 as part of renewing their employment agreements. These increases were made to recognize continued strong company performance and increases in executive’s roles and responsibilities as well as to better align these base salaries with market levels for companies of similar size. Base salaries provide our NEOs with fixed cash compensation for service during the year, with consideration given to the scope of each NEO’s responsibilities, experience and other qualifications essential to his role.

Accordingly, annual base salary rates as of December 31, 2016, were as follows:

NEOs 2016 Annual Base Salary

Bradley S. Jacobs $625,000

Troy A. Cooper $537,500

John J. Hardig $515,000

Gordon E. Devens $500,000

Scott B. Malat $500,000

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Annual Cash Incentive Bonuses

The following table sets forth the target awards established by the Committee under the 2016 annual cash incentive awards, expressed as a percentage of salary and as a dollar amount for each NEO:

NEO Target Award % of Salary

Target Award in Dollars

Bradley S. Jacobs 100% $625,000

Troy A. Cooper 100% $537,500

John J. Hardig 100% $515,000

Gordon E. Devens 100% $500,000

Scott B. Malat 100% $500,000

In March 2016, for each NEO, the Committee established a target annual cash incentive award for 2016 under the terms of our Amended and Restated 2011 Omnibus Incentive Compensation Plan (the “2011 Plan”). Pursuant to the terms of the awards, the Committee set a performance goal based on the previously forecasted adjusted EBITDA for 2016 at that time. In October 2016, the company completed the sale of its truckload business. This transaction strengthened the company’s balance sheet and improved our long-term growth profile by deleveraging the company, reducing our annual capital expenditure requirements and increasing the return on our capital. However, as a result of the sale of the truckload business in the fourth quarter of 2016, the company reduced its forecast adjusted EBITDA for 2016 to reflect this divestment and the previously determined performance goal set under the 2011 Plan was not achieved. The Committee exercised its discretion in light of the beneficial impact of the truckload divestment as well as the company’s strong overall performance to grant new cash incentive awards under the 2011 Plan in respect of 2016, the amount of which was determined as described below.

Under the terms of the awards, the Committee is responsible for determining the bonus award payable to a participant based on the achievement of individual or organizational goals, as determined by the Committee in its sole discretion. The Committee, in consultation with our CEO (except with respect to his own performance assessment), conducted a performance assessment of each NEO. The CEO’s performance assessment recommendations were based on an overall subjective assessment of each officer’s performance and contribution to our company’s achievement of its strategic objectives. The Committee conducted a separate assessment of Mr. Jacobs’ performance without his involvement.

The Committee considers company performance as well as each NEO’s individual performance contributions. For 2016, the Committee determined that our company accomplished and exceeded its key financial and strategic objectives for the year, as outlined above in the “Executive Summary” section of this Compensation Discussion and Analysis section. Under the leadership and guidance of our NEOs, in 2016 we continued to integrate two significant acquisitions from 2015 and continued to optimize our existing operations.

Each of the NEOs was determined to have contributed significantly to the company’s achievements during 2016. In determining 2016 cash incentive award payouts for the NEOs, the Committee’s goal was to recognize and reward each NEO’s performance, while also awarding cash bonus amounts that had the effect of relatively balancing total cash compensation across the group of NEOs, with consideration to each NEO’s job responsibilities and position. Accordingly, differences in the award payouts to the NEOs, as compared to the target awards, do not reflect a determination by the Committee of the relative performance of any single NEO.

As a result of the above-described performance assessments, and taking into account the indicated total cash compensation payable to each NEO, the Committee approved the cash incentive award payouts below to our NEOs for 2016 other than Mr. Devens, who resigned from the company, effective February 15, 2017, prior to the award of the 2016 cash incentive bonus. Mr. Devens’ 2016 bonus of $500,000 was approved by the Committee

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as one of the terms of Mr. Devens’ separation agreement. In order to enhance the long-term retentive value of the 2016 annual cash incentive awards, the Committee made a significant portion of the 2016 cash bonuses paid to Messrs. Jacobs, Cooper and Hardig ($750,000, $537,500 and $400,000, respectively) subject to repayment if any of them leaves our company for any reason within two years immediately following the payment date other than following a Change of Control (as defined in the 2016 Plan).

NEO 2016 Annual Bonus

Payout

Bradley S. Jacobs $1,375,000

Troy A. Cooper $1,075,000

John J. Hardig $ 915,000

Scott B. Malat $ 500,000

Long-Term Incentive Program

The Committee designed our 2016 long-term equity incentive awards to align the interests of our executives with those of our stockholders through the use of long-term incentive awards that reward executives for increases in our stock price over time. These awards are also meant to focus executives on financial metrics that are complementary to the performance metric of adjusted EBITDA that is applicable to our annual cash incentive program.

For 2016, the Committee determined that it would be advisable to make PRSU awards to our leadership team to maximize retention and incentivize a unified focus on execution of our long-term strategy. The target grant date value of the PRSU awards granted by the Committee to each of our NEOs are as follows:

NEO 2016-2019 Total Target Award

in Dollars Annualized Target Award

in Dollars

Bradley S. Jacobs $20,000,000 $5,000,000

Troy A. Cooper $ 4,500,000 $1,125,000

John J. Hardig $ 4,000,000 $1,000,000

Gordon E. Devens $ 4,000,000 $1,000,000

Scott B. Malat $ 4,000,000 $1,000,000

35

Key Features of the PRSU Program

• As shown above, a significant amount of the pay opportunity for our NEOs is awarded in long-term PRSU incentives that are tied to high growth financial targets.

• The PRSUs granted in February 2016 will vest 25% annually over four years only if the pre-determined performance goals for each year are achieved.

• There is zero payout if the established financial targets are not attained (i.e., no minimum achievement threshold upon which any portion of the award would be earned).

• There is no upside leverage if the target is exceeded in any given year; the maximum achievement is the target itself (100%).

• Payouts are tied directly to stock price performance, in direct alignment with stockholder interests. If our stock price increases from grant date to vesting date, the award will pay out at a higher amount than the original grant. Conversely, if the stock price declines in that same period, the original grant will decline in value at the same rate as the stock price.

• Awards are subject to clawback both during the vesting period and after payout based on the circumstances as specified by the terms of the awards.

The PRSU payout is dependent on specified adjusted cash flow per share for 2016 and the company’s stock price at the time the award is settled. The exhibit below provides an illustration of XPO Logistics’ total shareholder return during the most recent one, three and five calendar years as compared to the S&P 500 and S&P Transportation Index, which demonstrates the strong relative performance of the company’s stock price in these periods.

250%

0%

50% 58%

27% 12%

64%

249%

36%

148%

29%

97%100%

150%

200%

1- year TSR 3- year TSR 5- year TSR

XPO

S&P Transportation Index

S&P 500

Note: TSR calculations reflect the relevant trading price of our common stock and that of the relevant index as of the last trading day of the relevant calendar year in 2016, 2015, 2014, 2013, 2012 and 2011 as reported by Bloomberg Finance L.P.

Based on the equity award agreements, 25% of each PRSU award will vest annually if the following adjusted cash flow per share goals are achieved: $2.93 in 2016, $3.96 in 2017, $5.38 in 2018, and $6.39 in 2019.

36

“Adjusted cash flow per share” for purposes of these PRSU awards means (i) adjusted EBITDA (determined in accordance with the company’s monthly operating reports and for external reporting purposes and adjusted for the impact of stock and phantom stock compensation) less any capital expenditures and interest divided by (ii) diluted shares outstanding. The adjusted cash flow per share metric was selected consistent with the company’s philosophy to encourage appropriate business risk without incentivizing behaviors that may have a material adverse effect on the company. The targeted annual award values were determined with reference to each NEO’s contributions to our company to date, his anticipated contribution to the achievement of our strategic objectives in the future, and prior equity-based awards granted to the NEO. No particular weighting was assigned to any of these considerations. In granting the PRSUs, the Committee also determined that the structure of the award, with achievement of the final adjusted cash flow per share performance goal not possible until after the end of 2019, provided an important retentive element and increased long-term focus for our NEOs.

The first tranche of the award was earned based on the achievement of the 2016 adjusted cash flow per share performance target, as approved by the Committee on February 16, 2017. Based on XPO Logistics’ share price on the vesting date, Messers. Jacobs, Cooper, Hardig, Devens, and Malat received cash payments specified by the terms of the awards.

Result of Stockholder Advisory Vote

We conducted our annual advisory vote on executive compensation at our 2016 Annual Meeting on May 11, 2016. While this vote was not binding on our company, our Board or the Committee, we believe that it is important for our stockholders to have an opportunity to vote on this proposal on an annual basis as a means to express their views on our executive compensation philosophy, our executive compensation program and policies, and our decisions regarding executive compensation, all as disclosed in our proxy statement.

At our 2016 Annual Meeting, approximately 95% of the votes cast on the advisory vote on executive compensation were in favor of our NEO compensation program as disclosed in our 2016 proxy statement. The Committee reviewed and considered the final results of the advisory vote as it completed its annual review of the executive compensation program.

The company communicates directly and frequently with its stockholders about business strategy. In the course of such stockholder engagement, we often discuss our executive compensation and the further alignment of our executive team’s interests with the interests of our stockholders.

Process for Determining Executive Compensation

The Committee believes that its emphasis on variable annual cash incentives and long-term equity-based awards allows it to retain significant flexibility and discretion from year to year in order to strongly motivate our NEOs. Specifically, the total compensation package for each of our NEOs reflects assessments of individual responsibilities, contributions to corporate performance and overall company success in reaching strategic goals. The general framework for our compensation packages includes fixed base salaries and variable incentive compensation consisting of annual cash incentives and equity grants that emphasize pay for performance and, in the case of equity-based grants, achievement of long-term performance goals. The Committee has tended to heavily weight our NEOs’ compensation towards variable incentive compensation rather than base salary.

Role of the Compensation Committee

The Committee is responsible for approving our compensation philosophy and overseeing our executive compensation program in a manner consistent with such compensation philosophy. The Committee is tasked with setting annual and long-term performance goals for our NEOs, evaluating and approving award grants under incentive compensation and equity-based plans, and reviewing and approving all other compensation and benefits for our NEOs on an ongoing basis. The Committee acts independently but works closely with our full

37

Board and executive management in making many of its decisions. To assist it in discharging its responsibilities, the Committee has retained the services of Semler Brossy, as discussed further below.

Role of Management

Executive management provides input to the Committee as it establishes, reviews and evaluates executive compensation packages and policies, including with respect to the design of our executive compensation program. In particular, our CEO, Mr. Jacobs, provides recommendations as to proposed compensation actions with respect to our executive team, but not with respect to his own compensation. The Committee carefully and independently reviews the recommendations of management, without members of management present, and consults with independent advisors before making its final determinations. We believe this process ensures that our executive compensation program effectively aligns with our compensation philosophy and our stockholders’ interests.

Role of Independent Compensation Consultant

The Committee directly retained Semler Brossy as its independent advisor. During 2016, Semler Brossy supported the Committee in: reviewing the reasonableness of the 2016 compensation packages and long-term incentive grants for the NEOs and our other senior officers; reviewing this Compensation Discussion and Analysis and the related tables and narratives; structuring the 2016 performance-based equity-based awards to executives; evaluating our non-employee director compensation program; assessing the risks associated with the company’s overall compensation policies and practices; monitoring trends and evolving market practices in executive compensation; and providing general advice and support to the Committee and Committee Chair. Semler Brossy does not provide any other services to the Committee or the company.

As part of the annual performance evaluation of its independent compensation consultant, the Committee considered Semler Brossy’s independence in light of applicable SEC rules and NYSE listing standards. After taking into account: (i) Semler Brossy’s absence of relationships with management and the members of the Committee, (ii) Semler Brossy’s internal policies, and (iii) other information provided to the Committee by Semler Brossy, the Committee determined that Semler Brossy’s work did not raise any conflicts of interest that would prevent it from serving as an independent compensation consultant to the Committee.

Comparative Analysis

The Committee, with input from its independent compensation consultant, reviews and approves the peer group used in evaluating executive compensation to ensure that the peer group continues to reflect certain characteristics comparable to the company. These peer group characteristics include being in the transportation and logistics industries and having annual revenue of at least $1 billion. The peers comprising the 2016 peer group represent most of our publicly traded competitors and, in the Committee’s view, were reasonable given the revenue scale of XPO Logistics in 2016, following our company’s June 2015 acquisition of Norbert Dentressangle SA and October 2015 acquisition of Con-way Inc.

38

While we monitor the structure of our peers’ pay programs, the Committee does not target a specific percentile positioning against the peer group. Also, the Committee does not target a specific mix between cash and equity or short-term and long-term compensation relative to the mix used by peer group companies. The peer group for 2016 consisted of the following logistics and distribution or trucking companies:

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ashford university grading scale

Program Assessment Exam from Peregrine Academic Services

Question Response

Why am I taking this assessment exam?

Each business program requires each student to take an assessment exam at the end of the program. The purpose of this exam is to allow Ashford University the ability to assess the quality of its academic programs, so that Ashford University can improve its programs and provide the best possible educational experience for all students.

How should I prepare for the assessment exam?

The comprehensive exam includes topics covered throughout your degree program, which are aligned to the business topics required for accreditation. Your preparation for this exam comes from the academic coursework you have already completed.

Does this assessment exam affect my final grade?

Yes. You are awarded a grade based on exam completion. Please refer to your course syllabus for the points and grading scale. The exam is graded on a curve relative to the national norms.

What do I need to access the assessment exam?

You will need a computer with Internet access. No other plug-ins are required.

What is the cost of the assessment exam?

The exam cost is $36.48 and must be purchased from Ed Map.

I am having problems purchasing the exam from Ed Map. Who do I contact?

Please contact Ed Map to address any problems you are having with the purchase of the exam. Their contact information can be found here: http://www.edmap.com/ContactUs.aspx All financial transactions are between you and Ed Map, not Peregrine Academic Services. The Ed Map system will not allow you to purchase the same exam twice. Therefore, you must work with Ed Map regarding any exchanges or refunds.

I have purchased the wrong exam. Who do I contact?

If you purchased the wrong exam and need to exchange the registration for the correct exam, you must work this out with Ed Map. Once you have purchased the correct exam, then you need to contact Peregrine Academic Services at Support@PeregrineAcademics.com to tell us which is the correct exam and which one to delete.

What if I have purchased the exam, but I used a different e-mail address to purchase the exam other than the one I have on file in my Student Profile with Ashford University?

First, please try to access the exam through your course website. When you receive the error message you can follow the instructions on screen to change your email address. If that does not resolve the issue, please contact PAS technical support at: www.PeregrineAcademics.com/Support E-mail: Support@PeregrineAcademics.com

How do I access the assessment exam site?

To access the exam, please click on the exam link within the course assignment area through your Ashford course website. The hyperlink directs your Web browser to the appropriate exam site and auto-fills the registration information. It will also send your results back to the GradeBook automatically upon completion of the exam.

I am getting an error message when trying to access my exam?

When you receive the error message you can follow the instructions on screen to address your issue. If that does not resolve the issue, please contact PAS technical support at: www.PeregrineAcademics.com/Support E-mail: Support@PeregrineAcademics.com

Program Assessment Exam from Peregrine Academic Services

Question Response

How much time do I have to take the assessment exam?

You have 48 hours to complete the exam once the exam has been started. The 48 hour clock starts as soon as you begin the exam, not from when you purchased the exam.

The assessment exam did not start.

Double check your pop-up blocker and/or personal firewall settings. The exam opens in a new window. Turn the pop-up blocker off. Add this site to your “safe sites” list within your personal firewall settings. Another option will be to select the link provided to launch the assessment exam in another window.

Am I allowed to take breaks during the testing?

Yes, two 15-minute breaks are allowed for the entire exam, which is not based on the number of log-in attempts.

What if I need to stop during the exam?

You are allowed to stop during an exam and restart at a later time. However, you only have 3 log-in attempts within the 48 hours. Also, when you re-start an exam, you will resume on the next question in the exam, not the one you left. If you exceed these limits, Peregrine Academic Services will only re-set the exam based on approval from your course instructor. These restrictions are necessary to preserve the academic integrity of the exam process.

How many questions are on the assessment exam?

There are 50-120 multiple choice and True/False questions, depending upon the course you are taking.

How long will I need to take the exam?

Typically, the exam should take about 50-190 minutes.

How much time is allowed to answer each question?

You are allowed 5 minutes to answer each question. You will see the time remaining on the screen for each question during the exam.

Can I “back track” during the exam?

No, you will not be able to go back to a question if you decide to skip it. You need to do your best to answer each question within the allotted time. Otherwise, it will be graded as 0 points.

Is the grade weighting the same for an unanswered question versus a question answered incorrectly?

Yes.

What if 48 hours elapse or I attempt a 4th log in?

After 48 hours or more than 3 log-in attempts, the exam site is inaccessible and a grade will be generated, assigning 0 points to unanswered questions.

My grade didn’t post. Who do I contact?

First, please wait at least 1 hour. The grade posting will be re-attempted automatically every 30 minutes. If the grade is not automatically posted at the end of the day, then we will generate a report to send to Ashford of all failed grade postings. We send this report every Tuesday and then an Ashford official manually posts the grades. We understand that the courses end on Monday; however, Ashford is aware of this potential issue and you will not be penalized for taking the exam on time and then have the grade posted after the course ends.

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with Microsoft®

Office 2010 V O L U M E 1

PEARSON T O W N S E N D FERRETT HAIN VARGAS

with M ic roso f t

Office 2010 V O L U M E

T O W N S E N D I FERRETT I H A I N I VARGAS

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Townsend, Kris. Skills for success with Office 2010 / by Kris Townsend.

p. cm. ISBN 978-0-13-703257-0 (alk. paper) 1. Microsoft Office. 2. Business—Computer programs. I, Title.

HF5548.4.M525T692 201 I 005.5—dc22 2010016531

Editor in Chief: Michael Payne AVP/Executive Acquisitions Editor: Stephanie Wall Product Development Manager: Eileen Bien Calabro Editorial Project Manager: Virginia Gitariglia Development Editor: Nancy Lamm Editorial Assistant: Nicole Sam AVP/Director of Online Programs, Media: Richard Keaveny AVP/Dircctor of Product Development, Media: Lisa Strife Editor—Digital Learning & Assessment: Paul Gentile Product Development Manager, Media: Calhi Projitko Media Project Manager, Editorial: Alana Coles Media Project Manager, Production: John Cassar Director of Marketing: Kate Valentine Senior Marketing Manager: Tori Olscn Alves Marketing Coordinator SI/<<I« Osterlitz

Marketing Assistant: Darshika Vyas Senior Managing Editor: Cynthia /.onneveld Associate Managing Editor: Camille Trentacoste Production Project Manager: Camille Trentacoste Senior Operations Supervisor: Natacha Moore Senior Art Director: Jonathan Boylan Art Director: Anthony Gemmellaro Text and Cover Designer: Anthony Gemmellaro Manager, Rights and Permissions: Ilessa Albader Supplements Development Editor: Vonda Keator Full-Service Project Management: MPS Content Services, a Macmiilan Company Composition: MPS Content Services, a Macmiilan Company Printer/Binder: Quad/Graphics Taunton Cover Printer: Lchigli/Phocnix Typeface: Minion 10.5/12.5

Credits and acknowledgments borrowed from other sources and reproduced, with permission, in this textbook appear on appropriate page within text. Microsoft’ and Windows* are registered trademarks of the Microsoft Corporation in the U.S.A. and other countries. Screen shots and icons reprinted with permission from the Microsoft Corporation. This book is not sponsored or endorsed by or affiliated with the Microsoft Corporation. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall. All lights reserved. Manufactured in the United States of America. This publication is protected by Copyright, and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. To obtain permission(s) to use material from this work, please submit a written request to Pearson Education, Inc., Permissions Department, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, 07458 Many of the designations by manufacturers and seller to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this book, and the publisher was aware of a trademark claim, the designations have been printed in initial caps or all caps.

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P E A R S O N www.pearsonhighered.com

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1 S B N – I 0 : 0 – 1 3 – 7 0 3 2 5 7 – 9

I S B N – 1 3 : 9 7 8 – 0 – 1 3 – 7 0 3 2 5 7 – 0http://www.pearsonhighered.com

Contents in Brief

Common Features Chapter 1 Common Features ot Office 2010 2

More Skills 26

Word Chapter 1 Create Documents with Word 2010 30

More Skills 54 Chapter 2 Format and Organize Text 64

More Skills 88 Chapter 3 Work with Graphics, Tabs, and Tables 98

More Skills 122 Chapter 4 Apply Special Text, Paragraph and

Document Formats 132 More Skills 156

Excel Chapter 1 Create Workbooks with Excel 2010 166

More Skills 190

Chapter 2 Create Charts 200 More Skills 224

Chapter 3 Manage Multiple Worksheets 234 More Skills 258

Chapter 4 Use Excel Functions and Tables 268 More Skills 292

Access Chapter 1 Work with Databases and

Create Tables 302 More Skills 326

Chapter 2 M a n a g e Datasheets and Create Queries 336 More Skills 360

Chapter 3 Create Forms 370 More Skills 394

Chapter 4 Create Reports 404 More Skills 428

PowerPoint Chapter 1 Getting Started with PowerPoint 2010 438

More Skills 462 Chapter 2 Format a Presentation 472

More Skills 496 Chapter 3 Enhance Presentations with Graphics 506

More Skills 530 Chapter 4 Present Data Using Tables, Charts,

and Animation 540 More Skills 564

Integrated Projects Chapter 1 Integrating Word, Excel, A c c e s s ,

and PowerPoint 574 More Skills 598

Chapter 2 More Integrated Projects for Word, Excel, A c c e s s , and PowerPoint 610 More Skills 634

Glossary 646

Index 654

Contents in Brief iii

Table of Contents

C o m m o n Fea tu res C h a p t e r 1 C o m m o n F e a t u r e s of Office 2 0 1 0 2

Skill 1 Start Word and Navigate the Word Window 6 Skill 2 Start Excel and PowerPoint and Work with

Multiple Windows 8 Skill 3 Save Files in New Folders 10 Skill 4 Print and Save Documents 12 Skill 5 Open Student Data Files and Save Copies

Using Save As 14 Skill 6 Type and Edit Text 16 Skill 7 Cut, Copy, and Paste Text 18 Skill 8 Format Text and Paragraphs 20 Skill 9 Use the Ribbon 22

Skill 10 Use Shortcut Menus and Dialog Boxes 24

More Skills More Skills 11 Capture Screens with the Snipping

Tool 26 More Skills 12 Use Microsoft Office Help 26 More Skills 13 Organize Files 26 More Skills 14 Save Documents to Windows Live 26

W o r d C h a p t e r 1 C r e a t e D o c u m e n t s with Word 2 0 1 0 3 0

Skill 1 Create New Documents and Enter Text 34 Skill 2 Edit Text and Use Keyboard Shortcuts 36 Skill 3 Select Text 38 Skill 4 Insert Text from Other Documents 40 Skill 5 Change Fonts, Font Sizes, and Font Styles 42 Skill 6 Insert and Work with Graphics 44 Skill 7 Check Spelling and Grammar 46 Skill 8 Use the Thesaurus and Set Proofing Options 48 Skill 9 Create Document Footers 50

Skill 10 Work with the Print Page and Save Documents in Other Formats 52

More Skills More Skills 11 Split and Arrange Windows 54 More Skills 12 Insert Symbols 54 More Skills 13 Use Collect and Paste to Create a

Document 54 More Skills 14 Insert Screen Shots into Documents 54

C h a p t e r 2 Format a n d O r g a n i z e Text 6 4 Skill 1 Set Document Margins 68 Skill 2 Align Text and Set Indents 70 Skill 3 Modify Line and Paragraph Spacing 72 Skill 4 Format Text Using Format Painter 74 Skill 5 Find and Replace Text 76 Skill 6 Create Bulleted and Numbered Lists 78 Skill 7 Insert and Format Headers and Footers 80 Skill 8 Insert and Modify Footnotes 82 Skill 9 Add Citations 84

Skill 10 Create Bibliographies 86

More Skills More Skills 11 Record AutoCorrect Entries 88 More Skills 12 Use AutoFormat to Create

Numbered Lists 88 More Skills 13 Format and Customize Lists 88 More Skills 14 Manage Document Properties 88

C h a p t e r 3 Work with G r a p h i c s , Tabs , a n d T a b l e s 9 8

Skill 1 Insert Pictures from Files 102 Skill 2 Resize and Move Pictures 104 Skill 3 Format Pictures Using Styles and

Artistic Effects 106 Skill 4 Set Tab Stops 108 Skill 5 Enter Text with Tab Stops 110 Skill 6 Apply Table Styles 112 Skill 7 Create Tables 114 Skill 8 Add Rows and Columns to Tables H6 Skill 9 Format Text in Table Cells 118

Skill 10 Format Tables 120

iv Table of Contents

More Skills More Skills 11 Insert Text Boxes 122 More Skills 12 Format with WordArt 122 More Skills 13 Create Tables from Existing Lists 122 More Skills 14 Insert Drop Caps 122

C h a p t e r 4 A p p l y S p e c i a l T e x t , P a r a g r a p h , a n d D o c u m e n t F o r m a t s 1 3 2

Skill 1 Create Multiple-Column Text 136 Skill 2 Insert a Column Break 138 Skill 3 Apply and Format Text Effects 140 Skill 4 Use and Create Quick Styles 142 Skill 5 Add Borders and Shading to Paragraphs

and Pages 144 Skill 6 Insert and Format Clip Art Graphics 146 Skill 7 Insert SmartArt Graphics 148 Skill 8 Format SmartArt Graphics 150 Skill 9 Create Labels Using Mail Merge 152

Skill 10 Preview and Print Mail Merge Documents 154

More Skil ls More Skills 11 More Skills 12 More Skills 13 More Skills 14

Create Resumes from Templates 156 Create Outlines 156 Prepare Documents for Distribution 156 Preview and Save Documents as Web Pages 156

Exce l C h a p t e r 1 C r e a t e W o r k b o o k s w i t h

Exce l 2 0 1 0 Skill 1 Create and Save New Workbooks Skill 2 Enter Worksheet Data and Merge and

Center Titles Skill 3 Construct Addition and

Subtraction Formulas Skill 4 Construct Multiplication and

Division Formulas Skill 5 Adjust Column Widths and Apply Cell Styles Skill 6 Use the SUM Function Skill 7 Copy Formulas and Functions

Using the Fill Handle

1 6 6 170

Skill 8 Format, Edit, and Check the Spelling of Data 184 Skill 9 Create Footers and Change Page Settings 186

Skill 10 Display and Print Formulas and Scale Worksheets for Printing

More Skil ls More Skills 11

More Skills 12 More Skills 13 More Skills 14

Create New Workbooks from Templates Use Range Names in Formulas Change Themes Manage Document Properties

C h a p t e r 2 Skill 1 Skill 2

Skill 3 Skill 4 Skill 5 Skill 6 Skill 7

Skill 8

Skill 9 Skill 10

C r e a t e C h a r t s Open Existing Workbooks and Align Text Construct and Copy Formulas Containing Absolute Cell References Format Numbers Create Column Charts Format Column Charts Create Pie Charts and Chart Sheets Apply 3-D Effects and Rotate Pie Chart Slices Explode and Color Pie Slices, and Insert Text Boxes Update Charts and Insert WordArt Prepare Chart Sheets for Printing

More Ski l ls More Skills 11 More Skills 12 More Skills 13

Insert and Edit Comments Change Chart Types Copy Excel Data to Word Documents

More Skills 14 Fill Series Data into Worksheet Cells

188

190 190 190 190

2 0 0 204

206 208 210 212 214

216

218 220 222

224 224

224

224

172 C h a p t e r 3 M a n a g e M u l t i p l e W o r k s h e e t s 2 3 4

172 Skill 1 Work with Sheet Tabs 238

174 Skill 2 Enter and Format Dates 240 174 Skill 3 Clear Cell Contents and Formats 242

176 Skill 4 Move, Copy, Paste, and Paste Options 244

178 Skill 5 Work with Grouped Worksheets 246

180 Skill 6 Use Multiple Math Operators in a Formula 248 Skill 7 Format Grouped Worksheets 250

182 Skill 8 Insert and Move Worksheets 252

Table of Contents v

Skill 9 Construct Formulas That Refer to Cells in Other Worksheets 254

Skill 10 Create Clustered Bar Charts 256

More Skills More Skills 11 Create Organization Charts 258 More Skills 12 Create Line Charts 258 More Skills 13 Set and Clear Print Areas 258 More Skills 14 Insert Hyperlinks 258

C h a p t e r 4 U s e Exce l F u n c t i o n s a n d T a b l e s 2 6 8 Skill 1 Use the SUM and AVERAGE Functions 272 Skill 2 Use the MIN and MAX Functions 274 Skill 3 Move Ranges with Functions,

Add Borders, and Rotate Text 276 Skill 4 Use the IF Function 278 Skill 5 Apply Conditional Formatting with

Custom Formats, Data Bars, and Sparklines 280 Skill 6 Use Find and Replace and Insert

the NOW Function 282 Skill 7 Freeze and Unfreeze Panes 284 Skill 8 Create and Sort Excel Tables 286 Skill 9 Use the Search Filter in Excel Tables 288

Skill 10 Convert Tables to Ranges, Hide Rows and Columns, and Format Large Worksheets 290

More Skills More Skills 11 Apply Conditional Color Scales

with Top and Bottom Rules 292 More Skills 12 Use the Payment (PMT) Function 292 More Skills 13 Create PivotTable Reports 292 More Skills 14 Use Goal Seek 292

A c c e s s C h a p t e r 1 Work with D a t a b a s e s

a n d C r e a t e T a b l e s 3 0 2 Skill 1 Open and Organize Existing Databases 306 Skill 2 Enter and Edit Table Data 308 Skill 3 Create Forms and Enter Data 310 Skill 4 Filter Data in Queries 312 Skill 5 Create, Preview, and Print Reports 314 Skill 6 Create Databases and Tables 316

vi Table of Contents

Skill 7 Change Data Types and Other Field Properties 318

Skill 8 Create Tables in Design View 320 Skill 9 Relate Tables 322

Skill 10 Enter Data in Related Tables 324

More Skills More Skills 11 Compact and Repair Databases 326 More Skills 12 Import Data from Excel 326 More Skills 13 Work with the Attachment Data

Type 326 More Skills 14 Work with the Hyperlink

and Yes/No Data Types 326

C h a p t e r 2 M a n a g e D a t a s h e e t s a n d C r e a t e Q u e r i e s 3 3 6

Skill 1 Find and Replace Data 340 Skill 2 Filter and Sort Datasheets 342 Skill 3 Use the Simple Query Wizard 344 Skill 4 Format Datasheets 346 Skill 5 Add Date and Time Criteria 348 Skill 6 Create Queries in Design View 350 Skill 7 Add Calculated Fields to Queries 352 Skill 8 Work with Logical Criteria 354 Skill 9 Add Wildcards to Query Criteria 356

Skill 10 Group and Total Queries 358

More Skills More Skills 11 Export Queries to Other Fie Formats 360 More Skills 12 Find Duplicate Records 360 More Skills 13 Find Unmatched Records 360 More Skills 14 Create Crosstab Queries 360

C h a p t e r 3 C r e a t e Forms 3 7 0 Skill 1 Use the Form Wizard 374 Skill 2 Format Forms in Layout View 376 Skill 3 Use Forms to Modify Data 378 Skill 4 Use the Blank Form Tool 380 Skill 5 Customize Form Layouts 382 Skill 6 Add Input Masks 384 Skill 7 Apply Conditional Formatting 386 Skill 8 Create One-to-Many Forms 388 Skill 9 Enter Data Using One-to-Many Forms 390

Skill 10 Create Forms from Queries 392

More Skills More Skills 11 Validate Fields 394 More Skills 12 Add Combo Boxes to Forms 394 More Skills 13 Create Multiple Item Forms 394 More Skills 14 Create Macros 394

C h a p t e r 4 C r e a t e R e p o r t s 4 0 4 Skill 1 Create Reports and Apply Themes 408 Skill 2 Modify Report Layouts 410 Skill 3 Prepare Reports for Printing 412 Skill 4 Use the Blank Report Tool 414 Skill 5 Group and Sort Reports 416 Skill 6 Format and Filter Reports 418 Skill 7 Create Label Reports 420 Skill 8 Use the Report Wizard 422 Skill 9 Modify Layouts in Design View 424

Skill 10 Add Totals and Labels to Reports 426

More Skills More Skills 11 Export Reports to Word 428 More Skills 12 Export Reports to HTML Documents 428 More Skills 13 Create Parameter Queries 428 More Skills 14 Create Reports for Parameter Queries 428

PowerPo in t C h a p t e r 1 G e t t i n g S t a r t e d w i t h

P o w e r P o i n t 2 0 1 0 4 3 8 Skill 1 Open, View, and Save Presentations 442 Skill 2 Edit and Replace Text in Normal View 444 Skill 3 Format Slide Text 446 Skill 4 Check Spelling and Use the Thesaurus 448 Skill 5 Insert Slides and Modify Slide Layouts 450 Skill 6 Insert and Format Pictures 452 Skill 7 Organize Slides Using Slide Sorter View 454 Skill 8 Apply Slide Transitions and View Slide Shows 456 Skill 9 Insert Headers and Footers

and Print Presentation Handouts 458 Skill 10 Add Notes Pages and Print Notes 460

More Skil ls More Skills 11 Type Text in the Outline Tab 462 More Skills 12 Use Keyboard Shortcuts 462

More Skills 13 Move and Delete Slides in Normal View 462

More Skills 14 Design Presentations for Audience and Location 462

C h a p t e r 2 F o r m a t a P r e s e n t a t i o n 4 7 2 Skill 1 Create New Presentations 476 Skill 2 Change Presentation Themes 478 Skill 3 Apply Font and Color Themes 480 Skill 4 Format Slide Backgrounds with Styles 482 Skill 5 Format Slide Backgrounds with Pictures

and Textures 484 Skill 6 Format Text with WordArt 486 Skill 7 Change Character Spacing and Font Color 488 Skill 8 Modify Bulleted and Numbered Lists 490 Skill 9 Move and Copy Text and Objects 492

Skill 10 Use Format Painter and Clear All Formatting Commands 494

More Skil ls More Skills 11 Edit Slide Master 496 More Skills 12 Save and Apply Presentation

Template 496 More Skills 13 Create Slides from Microsoft Word

Outline 496 More Skills 14 Design Presentations with Contrast 496

C h a p t e r 3 E n h a n c e P r e s e n t a t i o n s w i t h G r a p h i c s 5 0 6

Skill 1 Insert Slides from Other Presentations 510 Skill 2 Insert, Size, and Move Clip Art 512 Skill 3 Modify Picture Shapes, Borders, and Effects 514 Skill 4 Insert, Size, and Move Shapes 516 Ski l l5 Add Text to Shapes and Insert Text Boxes 518 Skill 6 Apply Gradient Fills and Group

and Align Graphics 520 Skill 7 Convert Text to SmartArt Graphics

and Add Shapes 522 Skill 8 Modify SmartArt Layouts, Colors, and Styles 524 Skill 9 Insert Video Files 526

Skill 10 Apply Video Styles and Adjust Videos 528

More Skil ls More Skills 11 Compress Pictures 530

Table of Contents vii

More Skills 12 Save Groups as Picture Files 530 More Skills 13 Change Object Order 530 More Skills 14 Design Presentations Using

Appropriate Graphics 530

C h a p t e r 4 P r e s e n t D a t a U s i n g T a b l e s , C h a r t s , a n d A n i m a t i o n 5 4 0

Skill 1 Insert Tables 544 Skill 2 Modify Table Layouts 546 Skill 3 Apply Table Styles 548 Skill 4 Insert Column Charts 550 Skill 5 Edit and Format Charts 552 Skill 6 Insert Pie Charts 554 Skill 7 Apply Animation Entrance

and Emphasis Effects 556 Skill 8 Modify Animation Timing

and Use Animation Painter 558 Skill 9 Remove Animation and Modify Duration 560

Skill 10 Navigate Slide Shows 562

More Ski l ls More Skills 11 Prepare Presentations to be Viewed

Using Office PowerPoint Viewer 564 More Skills 12 Insert Hyperlinks in a Presentation 564 More Skills 13 Create Photo Albums 564 More Skills 14 Design Presentations with

Appropriate Animation 564

I n t e g r a t e d Pro jec ts C h a p t e r 1 I n t e g r a t i n g W o r d , E x c e l , A c c e s s ,

a n d P o w e r P o i n t 5 7 4 Skill 1 Move Text between Word Documents 578 Skill 2 Apply Heading Styles in Word 580 Skill 3 Create a PowerPoint Presentation

from a Word Document 582 Skill 4 Insert and Modify a Shape in PowerPoint 584 Skill 5 Import a Word Table into

an Excel Workbook 586 Skill 6 Insert a Shape from PowerPoint into Word

and Excel 588 Skill 7 Create and Work with an Excel Table 590

viii Table of Contents

Skill 8 Link Data between Office Applications Using O L E

Skill 9 Create Envelopes Using Data from Access Skill 10 Create Name Tags Using Data in Excel

More Ski l ls More Skills 11 Insert Subtotals in Excel and

Link Data to a Word Document More Skills 12 Insert Slides from Another

Presentation More Skills 13 Move and Copy Excel Worksheets

and Consolidate Data More Skills 14 Compare Shared Excel Workbooks

C h a p t e r 2

Skill 1 Skill 2 Skill 3 Skill 4

Skill 5

Skill 6 Skill 7

Skill 8 Skill 9

M o r e I n t e g r a t e d P r o j e c t s f o r W o r d , E x c e l , A c c e s s , a n d P o w e r P o i n t Create an Access Append Query Export Data from Access into Excel Create an Excel PivotTable Report Create External References between Excel Workbooks Insert a SmartArt Organization Chart into PowerPoint Insert an Excel PivotTable into PowerPoint Insert a PowerPoint Outline in Word and Create a Cover Page and Table of Contents Link and Embed Data from Excel into Word Export Data from Access to an R T F File and Insert the File into Word Insert Objects from PowerPoint into Word Skill 10

kills More Skills 11 Create an Excel PivotChart

and Link the PivotChart to Word More Skills 12 Create a Hyperlink between

PowerPoint, Word, and Excel Files More Skills 13 Insert a Total Row in an Excel Table

and Link the Table to PowerPoint More Skills 14 Compare Word Documents

Glossary

592 594 596

598

598

598 598

6 1 0 614 616 618

620

622 624

626 628

630 632

634

634

634 634

646

Index 654

About the Authors Kris Townsend is an Information Systems instructor at Spokane Falls Community College in Spokane, Washington. Kris earned a bachelor’s degree in both Education and Business, and a master’s degree in Education. He has also worked as a public school teacher and as a systems analyst. Kris enjoys working with wood, snowboarding, and camping. He commutes to work by bike and enjoys long road rides in the Palouse country south of Spokane.

1

Robert L. Ferrett recently retired as the Director of the Center for Instructional Computing at Eastern Michigan University, where he provided computer training and support to faculty. He has authored or co-authored more than 70 books on Access, PowerPoint, Excel, Publisher, WordPerfect, Windows, and Word. He has been designing, developing, and delivering computer workshops for more than two decades.

Catherine Hain is an instructor at Central New Mexico Community College in Albuquerque, New Mexico. She teaches computer applications classes in the Business and Information Technology School, both in the classroom and through the distance learning office. Catherine holds a bachelor’s degree in Management and Marketing and a master’s degree in Business Administration.

f t Alicia Vargas is an Associate Professor of Business Information Technology at Pasadena City College in California. She holds a bachelor’s and a master’s degree in Business Education from California State University, Los Angeles and has authored numerous textbooks and training materials on Microsoft Word, Microsoft Excel, and Microsoft PowerPoint.

A Special Thank You Pearson Prentice Hall gratefully acknowledges the contribution made by Shelley Gaskin to the first edition publication of this series—Skills for Success with Office 2007. The series has truly benefited from her dedication toward developing a textbook that aims to help students and instructors.We thank her for her continued support of this series.

About the Authors ix

Contributors We’d like to thank the following people for their work on Skills for Success:

Instructor Resource Authors Erich Adickes Parkland College Sharon Behrens Northeast Wisconsin Technical College Julie Boyles Portland Community College Barbara Edington St. Francis College Ranida Harris Indiana University Southeast Beth Hendrick Lake Sumter Community College Susan Holland Southeast Community College—Nebraska Andrea Leinbach Harrisburg Area Community College Yvonne Leonard Coastal Carolina Community College

Technical Editors Lisa Bucki Kelly Carling Hilda W i r t h Federico Jacksonville University Tom Lightner Missouri State University Elizabeth Lockley Joyce Nielsen

Reviewers Darrell Abbey Cascadia Community College Bridget I . Archer Oakton Community College Laura Aagard Sierra College John Alcorcha MTI College Barry Andrews Miami Dade College Natalie Andrews Miami Dade College Wilma Andrews Virginia Commonwealth University School

of Business Bridget Archer Oakton Community College Tahir Aziz J. Sargeant Reynolds Greg Balinger Miami Dade College Terry Bass University of Massachusetts, Lowell Lisa Beach Santa Rosa Junior College Rocky Belcher Sinclair Community College Nannette Biby Miami Dade College David Billings Guilford Technical Community College Brenda K. Br i t t Fayetteville Technical Community College Alisa Brown Pulaski Technical College Eric Cameron Passaic Community College

x Contributors

Trina Maurer Anthony Nowakowski Ernest Gines Stacey Gee Hollins John Purcell Ann Rowlette Amanda Shelton Steve St. John Joyce Thompson Karen Wisniewski

Georgia Virtual Technical College Buffalo State College Tarrant County College—Southeast St. Louis Community College—Meramec Castleton State College Liberty University J. Sargeant Reynolds Tulsa Community College Lehigh Carbon Community College County College of Morris

Janet Pickard Linda Pogue Steve Rubin Eric Sabbah Jan Snyder Mara Zebest

Chattanooga State Tech Community College Northwest Arkansas Community College California State University—Monterey Bay

Gene Carbonaro Trey Cherry Kim Childs Pualine Chohonis Lennie Coper Tara Cipriano Paulette Comet

Gail W . Cope Susana Contreras de Finch Chris Corbin Janis Cox Tomi Crawford Martin Cronlund Jennifer Day Ralph DeArazoza Carol Decker Loorna DeDuluc Caroline Delcourt

Long Beach City College Edgecombe Community College Bethany University Miami Dade College Miami Dade College Gateway Technical College Community College of Baltimore

Coun ty—Ca to nsville Sinclair Community College College of Southern Nevada Miami Dade College Tri-County Technical College Miami Dade College Anne Arundel Community College Sinclair Community College Miami Dade College Montgomery College Miami Dade College Black Hawk College

Contributors continued

Michael Discello Kevin Duggan Barbara Edington Donna Ehrhart Hilda Wirth Federico Tushnelda Fernandez Arlene Flerchinger Hedy Fossenkemper Kent Foster Penny Foster-Shiver Arlene Franklin George Gabb Barbara Garrell Deb Geoghan Jessica Gilmore Victor Giol Melinda Glander Linda Glassburn Deb Gross Rachelle Hall Marie Hartlein Diane Hartman Betsy Headrick Patrick Healy

Lindsay Henning Kermelle Hensley Diana Hill Rachel Hinton Mary Carole Hollingsworth Stacey Gee Hollins Bill Holmes Steve Holtz Margaret M. Hvatum Joan Ivey Dr. Dianna D. Johnson Kay Johnston Warren T. Jones, Sr. Sally Kaskocsak Renuka Kumar Kathy McKee Hazel Kates Gerald Kearns

Pittsburgh Technical Institute Midlands Technical Community College St. Francis College Genesee Community College Jacksonville University Miami Dade College Chattanooga State Tech Community College Paradise Valley Community College Withrop University Anne Arundel Community College Bucks County Community College Miami Dade College Delaware County Community College Bucks County Community College Highline Community College Miami Dade College Northmetro Technical College Cuyahoga Community College, West Ohio State University Glendale Community College Montgomery County Community College Utah Valley State College Chattanooga State Northern Virginia Community

College—Woodbridge Yavapai College Columbus Technical College Chesapeake College Broome Community College GA Perimeter St. Louis Community College—Meramec Chandler-Gilbert Community College University of Minnesota Duluth St. Louis Community College Lanier Technical College North Metro Technical College Columbia Basin College University of Alabama at Birmingham Sinclair Community College Community College of Baltimore County North Metro Technical College Miami Dade College Forsyth Technical Community College

Charles Kellermann

John Kidd Chris Kinnard Kelli Kleindorfer Kurt Kominek Dianne Kotokoff Cynthia Krebs Jean Lacoste Gene Laugh rey David LeBron Kaiyang Liang Linda Lindaman Felix Lopez Nicki Maines Cindy Manning Patri Mays Norma McKenzie Lee McKinley Sandy McCormack Eric Meyer Kathryn Miller

Gloria A. Morgan Kathy Morris Linda Moulton Ryan Murphy Stephanie Murre Wolf Jackie Myers Dell Najera

Scott Nason Paula Neal Bethanne Newman Eloise Newsome

Karen Nunan Ellen Orr Carol Ottaway Denise Passero Americus Pavese James Gordon Patterson Cindra Phillips

Northern Virginia Community College—Woodbridge

Tarrant County Community College Miami Dade College American Institute of Business NE State Tech Community College Lanier Technical College Utah Valley University Virginia Tech Northern Oklahoma College Miami Dade College Miami Dade College Black Hawk College Miami Dade College Mesa Community College Big Sandy Community and Technical College Paradise Valley Community College El Paso Community College GA Perimeter Monroe Community College Miami Dade College Big Sandy Community and Technical College,

Pike Ville Campus Monroe Community College University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa Montgomery County Community College Sinclair Community College Moraine Park Technical College Sinclair Community College El Paso Community College, Valle Verde

Campus Rowan Cabarrus Community College Sinclair Community College Paradise Valley Community College Northern Virginia Community

College—Woodbridge Northeast State Technical Community College Seminole Community College Chemeketa Community College Fulton-Montgomery Community College Community College of Baltimore County Paradise Valley Community College Clark State CC

Contributors

Contributors continued

Janet Pickard Chattanooga State Tech Community College Diane Stark Phoenix College Floyd Pittman Miami Dade College Neil Stenlund Northern Virginia Community College Melissa Prinzing Sierra College Linda Stoudemayer Lamar Institute of Technology Pat Rahmlow Montgomery County Community College Pamela Stovall Forsyth Technical Community College Mary Rasley Lehigh Carbon Community College Linda Switzer Highline Community College Scott Rosen Santa Rosa Junior College Margaret Taylor College of Southern Nevada Ann Rowlette Liberty University Martha Taylor Sinclair Community College Kamaljeet Sanghera George Mason University Michael M. Taylor Seattle Central Community College June Scott County College of Morris Roseann Thomas Fayetteville Tech Community College Janet Sebesy Cuyahoga Community College Ingrid Thompson-Sellers GA Perimeter Jennifer Sedelmeyer Broome Community College Daniel Thomson Keiser University Kelly SellAnne Arundel Community College Astrid Hoy Todd Guilford Technical Community College Teresa Sept College of Southern Idaho Barb Tollinger Sinclair Community College Pat Serrano Scottsdale Community College Cathy Urbanski Chandler Gilbert Community College Amanda Shelton J. Sargeant Reynolds Sue Van Boven Paradise Valley Community College Gary Sibbits St. Louis Community College—Meramec Philip Vavalides Guildford Technical Community College Janet Siert Ellsworth Community College Pete Vetere Montgomery County Community College— Robert Sindt Johnson County Community College West Campus Karen Smith Technical College of the Lowcountry Asteria Villegas Monroe College Robert Smolenski Delaware County Community College Michael Walton Miami Dade College Robert Sindt Johnson County Community College Teri Weston Harford Community College Gary R. Smith Paradise Valley Community College Julie Wheeler Sinclair Community College Patricia Snyder Midlands Technical College Debbie Wood Western Piedmont Community College Pamela Sorensen Santa Rosa Junior College Thomas Yip Passaic Community College Eric Stadnik Santa Rosa Junior College Lindy Young Sierra Community College Mark Stanchfield Rochester Community and Technical College Matt Zullo Wake Technical Community College

xii Contributors

I n s t r u c t o r s – Y o u a s k e d for it s o h e r e it is!

A M i c r o s o f t ® O f f i c e t e x t b o o k t h a t r e c o g n i z e s h o w s t u d e n t s l e a r n t o d a y –

Skills for Success with Microsoft

1 Office 2010 Volume 1

10 X 8.5 F o r m a t – Easy for students to read and type at the same time by simply propping the book up on the desk in front of their monitor

Clear ly Out l ined Sk i l l s – Each skill is presented in a single two-page spread so that students can easily follow along

Numbered S t e p s and Bul le ted Tex t – Students don’t read long paragraphs or text, but they will read information presented concisely

Easy-to-Find S t u d e n t Da ta Fi les – Visual key shows students how to locate and interact with their data files

S t a r t H e r e – Students know exactly where to start and what their starting file will look like

C H A P T E R

G e t t i n g S t a r t e d w i t h W i n d o w s 7 » YOU BK WINDOW 7 ro «CRK M I »F-JF IOM?«L« LOF RUINR-V.*™ PFLNJMN MO»»T*N>WN

MDAU mi mm • J- : >O-L

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Your ilartlng » c r e « n will look Ilk* this: S K I L L !

chapter, you will be

S k i l l s L is t – A visual snapshot of what skills they will complete in the chapter

O u t c o m e – Shows students up front what their completed project will look like

You will tdvo your filoi a t :

T J H N M I M H7_S«II| ‘ ‘

S e q u e n t i a l P a g i n a t i o n – Saves you and your students time in locating topics and assignments I

VISUAL WALK-THROUGH XIII

Skills for Success l ock – Tells how much time students

need to complete the chapter

Introduct ion

• KM US TUNTNW *IR*I fie, 01 FGWRN INTO 4 «IR J .: -I—. IT…. I AIULT :;I N..I..: .:

• MIMIJ-»TT*IIHDR»«U««IJI;UIF.:M*NJFOU« |*:R-P<TKF* T > ffirt IN NUJX ITXFFL R»»I« IN RI«J

t Written for T o d a y ‘ s S t u d e n t s – skills are taught with numbered steps and bulleted text so students are less likely to skip valuable information T w o – P a g e S p r e a d s – Each skill is

presented on a two-page spread to help students keep up their momentum

* TITTR.TI bim irii mug], TU L>«

_ J

D a t a Files Are a S n a p – Students can now find their files easier than ever before with this visual map

C o l o r e d Text – Clearly shows what a student types

Hands-On – Students start actually working on their skills from Step 1

D o n e ! – Students always know when they’ve completed a skill

XIV VISUAL WALK-THROUGH

Skills for S u c c e s s

UorsSkJh © U M l d t o m i o C k g c n n f M

End-o f -Chapte r M a t e r i a l – Several levels of assessment so you can assign the material that best fits your students’ needs

M o r e S k i l l s – Additional skills included online

K e y T e r m s O n l i n e H e l p Sk i l ls

Midi .. – .! -.. I – :T.

O n l i n e P r o j e c t – Students practice using Microsoft Help online to help prepare them for using the applications on their own

H > u » i « i i HI

•.m • m •

Visual Walk-Through xv

Skills for S u c c e s s

Al l V i d e o s

a n d I n s t r u c t o r m a t e r i a l s

a v a i l a b l e o n t h e I R C D

Instructor Mater ia ls

I n s t r u c t o r ‘ s M a n u a l – Teaching tips and additional resources for each chapter

A s s i g n m e n t S h e e t s – Lists all the assignments for the chapter, you just add in the course information, due dates and points. Providing these to students ensures they will know what is due and when

S c r i p t e d L e c t u r e s – Classroom lectures prepared for you

A n n o t a t e d S o l u t i o n F i l e s – Coupled with the scoring rubrics, these create a grading and scoring system that makes grading so much easier for you

P o w e r P o i n t L e c t u r e s – PowerPoint presentations for each chapter

P r e p a r e d E x a m s – Exams for each chapter and for each application

S c o r i n g R u b r i c s – Can be used either by students to check their work or by you as a quick check-off for the items that need to be corrected

S y l l a b u s T e m p l a t e s – for 8-week, 12-week, and 16-week courses

T e s t B a n k – Includes a variety of test questions for each chapter

C o m p a n i o n W e b S i t e – Online content such as the More Skills Projects, Online Study Guide, Glossary, and Student Data Files are all at www.pearsonhighered.com/skills

xvi Visual Walk-Throughhttp://www.pearsonhighered.com/skills

with M ic roso f t

Office 2010 V O L U M E 1

C H A P T E R J Common Features of Office 2010 • The programs in Microsoft Office 2010—Word, Excel, PowerPoint, and Access—share common

tools that you use in a consistent, easy-to-learn manner.

• Common tasks include opening and saving files, entering and formatting text, and printing your work.

Your starting screen will look like this: SKILLS SKILLS 1 – 1 0 TRAINING Umt Insert Pjgt 1

C M M mailt – 1 1 – * 41 IT

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A t t h e e n d o f t h i s chapter , y o u w i l l be a b l e t o :

Skill 1 Start Word and Navigate the Word Window Skill 2 Start Excel and PowerPoint and Work with

Multiple Windows Skill 3 Save Files in New Folders Skill 4 Print and Save Documents Skill 5 Open Student Data Files and Save Copies

Using Save As Skill 6 Type and Edit Text Skill 7 Cut, Copy, and Paste Text Skill 8 Format Text and Paragraphs Skill 9 Use the Ribbon Skill 10 Use Shortcut Menus and Dialog Boxes

MORE SKILLS

More Skills 11 Capture Screens with the Snipping Tool More Skills 12 Use Microsoft Office Help More Skills 13 Organize Files More Skills 14 Save Documents to Windows Live

2 C O M M O N FEATURES OF OFFICE 2 0 1 0 | C O M M O N FEATURES C H A P T E R 1

Outcome Using the skills listed to the left will enable you to create documents similar to this:

Visit Aspen Falls! A s p e n F a l l s o v e r l o o k s t h e P a c i f i c O c e a n

a n d is s u r r o u n d e d b y m a n y v i n e y a r d s a n d

w i n e r i e s . O c e a n r e c r e a t i o n is a c c e s s e d

p r i m a r i l y a t D u r a n g o C o u n t y P a r k . T h e

A s p e n L a k e R e c r e a t i o n A r e a p r o v i d e s y e a r

r o u n d f r e s h w a t e r r e c r e a t i o n a n d is t h e

c i t y ‘ s l a r g e s t p a r k .

Local Attractions • W i n e C o u n t r y

o W i n e Tas t ing Tou rs

o Winer ies

• W o r d s w o r t h Fel lowship Museum of A r t

• Du rango C o u n t y M u s e u m of H is to ry

• Conven t ion Center

• A r t Galleries

• Gl ider T o u r s

Aspen Fallc Annual Events • Annua l Starving Artists Sidewalk Sale

• A n n u a l W i n e Festival

• C inco de Mayo

• Vintage Car S h o w

• Her i tage D a y Parade

• Harvest Days

• A m a t e u r Bike Races

• Farmer ‘s Market

• Aspen Lake Nature Cruises

• Aspen Falls T r ia th lon

• Tas te of Aspen Falls

• W i n t e r Blues Festival

Contact Y o u r N a m e for more informat ion.

Common Features of Office 2010

You will save your files as: Lastname_Firstname_cfO 1 _Visit 1 Lastname_Firstname_cfO l_Visit2 Lastname_Firstname_cf01_Visit3

Common Features Chapter 1 | Common Features of Office 2010 3

In t h i s c h a p t e r , y o u w i l l c r e a t e d o c u m e n t s f o r t h e A s p e n F a l l s C i t y

H a l l , w h i c h p r o v i d e s e s s e n t i a l s e r v i c e s f o r t h e c i t i z e n s a n d v i s i t o r s o f

A s p e n F a l l s , C a l i f o r n i a .

C o m m o n Features of Of f ice 2 0 1 0 • Microsoft Office is the most common software used to create and share

personal and business documents.

• Microsoft Office is a suite o f several programs—Word, PowerPoint, Excel, Access, and others—that each have a special purpose.

• Because of the consistent design and layout o f Microsoft Office, when you learn to use one Microsoft Office program, you can use most o f those skil ls when working wi th the other Microsoft Office programs.

• T h e files you create w i t h Microsoft Office need to be named and saved in locations where they can be easily found when you need them.

C o m m o n F e a t u r e s o f O f f i c e 2 0 1 0 | C o m m o n F e a t u r e s C h a p t e r 1

Time to complete all 10 skills – 50 to 90 minutes

Find your student data files here:

Student data files needed for this chapter:

« cf01_Visit

• cf01_Visit_Events

cfOl Visit River

C O M M O N FEATURES C H A P T E R 1 | C O M M O N FEATURES OF OFFICE 2 0 1 0 5

• The Word 2010 program can be launched by clicking the Start button, and then locating and clicking the Microsoft Word 2010 command.

• When you start Word, a new blank document displays in which you can type text.

1. In the lower left corner of the desktop, click the Start button © .

2 . In the lower left corner of the Start menu, click the All Programs command, and then compare your screen with Figure 1 . –

The Microsoft Office folder is located in the All Programs folder. If you have several programs installed on your computer, you may need to scroll to see the Microsoft Office folder.

3 . Click the Microsoft Office folder, and then compare your screen with Figure 2. –

Below the Microsoft Office folder, commands that open various Office 2010 programs display.

4 . From the Start menu, under the Microsoft Office folder, click Microsoft Word 2010, and then wait a few moments for the Microsoft Word window to display.

5 . If necessary, in the upper right corner of the Microsoft Word window, click the Maximize button B| .

• C o n t i n u e t o t h e n e x t p a g e t o c o m p l e t e t h e s

6 Common Features of Office 2010 | Common Features Chapter 1

OotxMvtntx

Ptttuin All Programs folder list

(your list will be different)

Microsoft Office folder

Start button Figure 1

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Office 2 0 1 0 programs (your

list may be different)

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Maintenance

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SKILL 1: Start Word and Navigate the Word Window

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Group names Paragraph mark and insertion point

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Figure 3 Heading 1 thumbnail

Styles group Show/Hide button selected Insertion point and paragraph mark

Heading 1 formatting applied Home tab is active

7 .

8 .

9 .

On the Ribbon’s Home tab, in the Paragraph group, click the Show/Hide button H until it displays in gold indicating that it is active. Compare your screen with Figure 3 .

Above the blank Word document, the Quick Access Toolbar and Ribbon display. At the top of the Ribbon, a row of tab names display. Each Ribbon tab has buttons that you click to perform actions. The buttons are organized into groups that display their names along the bottom of the Ribbon.

In the document, the insertion point— a vertical line that indicates where text will be inserted when you start typing—flashes near the top left corner.

The Show/Hide button is a toggle button— a button used to turn a feature both on and off. The paragraph mark (f) indicates the end of a paragraph and will not print.

In the document, type your first and last names. As you type, notice that the insertion point and paragraph mark move to the right.

On the Home tab, in the Styles group, point to—but do not click—the Heading 1 thumbnail to show the Live Preview—a feature that displays the result of a formatting change if you select it.

Click the Heading 1 thumbnail to apply the formatting change as shown in Figure 4. If the Word Navigation Pane displays on the left side of the Word window, click its Close [*] button.

You have completed Skill 1 of 10

Figure 4 6 J 6 P M

C Z 3 / 2 3 1 2

Common Features Chapter 1 | Common Features of Office 2010 7

• When you open more than one Office program, each program displays in its own window.

• When you want to work with a program in a different window, you need to make it the active window.

1 . Click the Start button © , and then compare your screen with F i g u r e 1.

Your computer may be configured in such a way that you can open Office programs without opening the All Programs folder. The Office 2010 program commands may display as shortcuts in the Start menu’s pinned programs area or the recently used programs area. Your computer’s taskbar or desktop may also display icons that start each program.

2 . From the Start menu, locate and then click Microsoft Excel 2010. Depending on your computer, you may need to double-click—not single click—to launch Excel. Compare your screen with F i g u r e 2 . If necessary, click the Maximize – button mm\<

A new blank worksheet displays in a new window. The first cell—the box formed by the intersection of a row and column—is active as indicated by the thick, black border surrounding the cell. When you type in Excel, the text is entered into the active cell.

The Quick Access Toolbar displays above the spreadsheet. The Excel Ribbon has its own tabs and groups that you use to work with an Excel spreadsheet. Many of these tabs, groups, and buttons are similar to those found in Word.

On the taskbar, two buttons display—one for Word and one for Excel.

• C o n t i n u e t o t h e n e x t p a g e t o c o m p l e t e t h e s k i l l

8 C o m m o n F e a t u r e s o f O f f i c e 2 0 1 0 | C o m m o n F e a t u r e s C h a p t e r 1

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s p r e a d s h e e t

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3 . From the Start menu <PJ, locate and then click Microsoft PowerPoint 2010.

— Compare your screen with F i g u r e 3 . If necessary, Maximize N = M the Presentation 1 – Microsoft PowerPoint window.

A new, blank presentation opens in a new window. The PowerPoint window contains a slide in which you can type text. PowerPoint slides are designed to be displayed as you talk in front of a group of people.

4. In the upper right corner of the PowerPoint window, click the Close button fcgaj.

5. On the taskbar, click the Word button to make it the active window. With the insertion point flashing to the right of your name, press [Enter], and then type Skills for Success Common Features Chapter

6 . In the upper right corner of the Document 1 – Microsoft Word window, click the Minimize button

The Word window no longer displays, but its button is still available on the taskbar.

7 . With the Excel window active, in the first cell—cell A l — t y p e your first name. Press [Tab], and then type your last name.

Press (Enter), type =TODAY() and then press (Enter) to calculate the current date and to display it in the cell.

In the Excel window, click the Restore Down button |jSU and then compare your screen with F i g u r e 4.

The window remains open, but it no longer fills the entire screen. The Maximize button replaced the Restore Down button.

Y o u h a v e c o m p l e t e d S k i l l 2 o f 1 0

8 .

9 .

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• SKILL 3: Sav<

• A new document or spreadsheet is stored in the computer ‘s temporary memory (RAM) until you save it to your hard drive or USB flash drive.

1 . If you are saving your work on a USB flash drive, insert the USB flash drive into the computer now. If the Windows Explorer button [3 flashes on the taskbar, right-click the button, and then on the Jump List, click Close window.

2 . On the taskbar, click the Word button to make it the active window. On the Quick Access Toolbar, click the Save button [y].

For new documents, the first time you click the Save button, the Save As dialog box opens so that you can name the file.

3 . If you are to save your work on a USB drive, in the Navigation pane scroll down to display the list of drives, and then click your USB flash drive as shown in F i g u r e 1 . If you are saving your work to another location, in the Navigation pane, locate and then click that folder or drive.

4. On the Save As dialog box toolbar, click the New folder button, and then immedi­ ately type Common Features Chapter 1

5 . Press [En te r ] to accept the folder name, and then press [En te r ] again to open the new folder as shown in F i g u r e 2 .

The new folder is created and then opened in the Save As dialog box file list.

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6. In the Save As dialog box, click in the File name box one time to highlight all of the existing text.

7. With the text in the File name box still highlighted, type Lastname_Firstname_ cfOl_Visitl

– 8 . Compare your screen with F i g u r e 3 , and then click Save.

After the document is saved, the name of the file displays on the title bar at the top of the window.

9 . On the taskbar, click the Windows Explorer button \^\. In the folder window Navigation pane, open [ft] the drive on which you are saving your work, and then click the Common Features Chapter 1 folder. Verify that Lastname_Firstname_ cpl_Visitl displays in file list.

1 0 . On the taskbar, click the Excel button to make it the active window. On the Excel Quick Access Toolbar, click the Save button § ] .

1 1 . In the Save As dialog box Navigation pane, open 0 the drive where you are saving your work, and then click the Common Features Chapter 1 folder to display its file list.

The Word file may not display because the Save As box typically displays only files created by the program you are using. Here, only Excel files will typically display.

1 2 . Click in the File name box, replace the existing value with Lastname_Firstname_ cf01_Visit2 and then click the Save button.

1 3 . On the taskbar, click the Windows Explorer button, and then compare your screen with F i g u r e 4.

Y o u h a v e c o m p l e t e d S k i l l 3 o f 1 0

F i g u r e 4

C o m m o n F e a t u r e s C h a p t e r 1 | C o m m o n F e a t u r e s o f O f f i c e 2 0 1 0 1 1

• SKILL 4: Print an.

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1 . O n t h e t a s k b a r , c l i c k t h e Excel b u t t o n , a n d t h e n c l i c k t h e Maximize |Uey b u t t o n .

2 . O n t h e R i b b o n , c l i c k t h e View tab, a n d t h e n i n t h e Workbook Views group, c l i c k t h e Page Layout b u t t o n . C o m p a r e y o u r s c r e e n w i t h F i g u r e 1 .

The worksheet displays the cells, the margins, and the edges of the paper as they will be positioned when you print. The cell references—the numbers on the left side and the letters across the top of a spreadsheet that address each cell—will not print.

O n t h e R i b b o n , c l i c k t h e Page Layout tab. I n t h e Page Setup group, c l i c k t h e Margins b u t t o n , a n d t h e n i n t h e Margins g a l l e r y , c l i c k Wide.

C l i c k t h e File tab, a n d t h e n o n t h e l e f t s i d e o f t h e B a c k s t a g e , c l i c k Print. C o m p a r e y o u r s c r e e n w i t h F i g u r e 2.

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The Print tab has commands that affect your print job and a preview of the printed page. Here, the cell references and grid- lines—lines between the cells in a table or spreadsheet—do not display because they will not be printed.

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6. Check with your Course Assignment Sheet or Course Syllabus, or consult with your instructor to determine whether you are to print your work for this chapter. If you are to print your work, at the top left corner of the Print Settings section, click the Print button. If you printed the spreadsheet, retrieve the printout from the printer.

7. On the File tab, click Save.

Because you have already named the file, the Save As dialog box does not display.

O n the File tab, click Exit to close the spreadsheet and exit Excel.

In the Word document, verify that the insertion point is in the second line of text. If not, on the taskbar, click the Word button to make it the active window.

10. On the Home tab, in the Styles group, click the Heading 2 thumbnail. Compare your screen with Figure 3.

11. On the File tab, click Print to display the Print tab. If you are printing your work for this chapter, click the Print button, and then retrieve your printout from the printer.

12. On the File tab, click Exit, and then com- pare your screen with Figure 4.

When you close a window with changes that have not yet been saved, a message will remind you to save your work.

13. Read the displayed message, and then click Save.

• You hove completed Skill 4 of 10

Figure 4 C o m m o n F e a t u r e s C h a p t e r 1 | C o m m o n F e a t u r e s o f O f f i c e 2010 1 3

• This book often instructs you to open a student data file so that you do not need to start the project with a blank document.

• The student data files are located on the student CD that came with this book. Your instructor may have provided an alternate location.

• You use Save As to create a copy of the stu­ dent data file onto your own storage device.

1 . If necessary, insert the student CD that came with this text. If the AutoPlay dialog box displays, click Close U a 4 .

2 . Using the skills practiced earlier, start Microsoft Word 2010.

3 . In the Documentl – Microsoft Word window, click the File tab, and then click Open.

4 . In the Open dialog box Navigation pane, scroll down and then, if necessary, open \V\ Computer. In the list of drives, click the CD/DVD drive to display the contents of the student CD. If your instructor has provided a different location, navigate to that location instead of using the student CD.

5. In the file list, double-click the 01_ student_data_files folder, double-click the 01_common_features folder, and then double-click the chapter_01 folder. Compare your screen with F i g u r e 1 . –

6. In the file list, click cf01_Visit, and then click the Open button. Compare your screen with F i g u r e 2 .

If you opened the file from the student CD, the title bar indicates that the document is in read-only mode—a mode where you cannot save your changes.

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7. If the document opens in Protected View, click the Enable Editing button.

Protected View is a view applied to documents downloaded from the Internet that allows you to decide if the content is safe before working with the document.

8 . Click the File tab, and then click Save As.

Because this file has already been saved with a name in a specific location, you need to use Save As to create a copy with a new name and location.

9. In the Save As dialog box Navigation pane, navigate to the C o m m o n Features Chapter 1 folder that you created previ­ ously—open 0 the drive on which you are saving your work, and then click the C o m m o n Features Chapter 1 folder.

1 0 . In the File n a m e box, replace the existing value with Lastname_Firstname_cf01_ Visit3 Be sure to use your own first and last names.

1 1 . Compare your screen with F i g u r e 3, and then click the Save button.

1 2 . On the title bar, notice the new file name displays and [Read-Only] no longer displays.

1 3 . On the taskbar, click the Windows Explorer button. Verify that the three files you have saved in this chapter display as shown in F i g u r e 4.

1 4 . In the Windows Explorer window, navigate to the s tudent CD, and then display the chapter_01 file list.

1 5 . Notice that the original student data file—cf01_Visit—is still located in the chapter_01 folder, and then Close the Windows Explorer window.

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F i g u r e 4

C o m m o n F e a t u r e s C h a p t e r 1 | C o m m o n F e a t u r e s o f O f f i c e 2 0 1 0 1 5

• To edit is to insert text, delete text, or replace text in an Office document, spreadsheet, or presentation.

• To edit text, you need to position the insertion point at the desired location or select the text you want to replace.

1 . With the W o r d document as the active window, in the first line, click to the left of the word Aspen. Press (Bksp) 12 times to delete the words the City of. Be sure there is one space between each word as shown in F i g u r e 1 .

The Backspace key deletes one letter at a time moving from right to left.

2 . In the second line of the document, click to the left of the words The City of Aspen Falls. Press [ D e l e t e ] 12 times to delete the phrase The City of.

The Delete key deletes one letter at a time moving from left to right.

3 . In the line Area Attractions, double-click the word Area to select it. Type l o c a l and then compare your screen with F i g u r e 2 . —

When a word is selected, it is replaced by whatever you type next.

• Continue to the next page to complete the skill ̂

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SKILL 6: Type and Edit Text

4. Place the pointer approximately 1 inch to the left of the line Convention Center. When the [21 pointer displays as shown in

— F i g u r e 3, click one time.

Placing the pointer in the Selection bar and then clicking is a way to select an entire line with a single click. After selecting text, the Mini toolbar—a toolbar with common formatting buttons—may display briefly as you move the mouse.

5. With the entire line still selected, press [Delete) to delete the line.

6. On the Quick Access Toolbar, click the Undo button @ one time. Notice the Convention Center line displays again.

When you perform an incorrect action, clicking the Undo button often returns your document to its previous state.

7. At the end of the last line—Glider Tours— click between the last word and the para­ graph formatting mark (If). Press [Enter] to insert a new line.

8 . With the insertion point in the new line, type Contact Your Name for more information. Be sure to use your first and last names in place of Your and Name.

M Compare your screen with F i g u r e 4. 9. On the Quick Access Toolbar, click

Save Q .

When a document has already been saved with the desired name, click the Save button—the Save As dialog box is not needed.

M I N I T O O L B A R ( T H I S

M A Y N O T D I S P L A Y

O N Y O U R S C R E E N )

P O I N T E R I N

S E L E C T I O N B A R

F I G U R E 3

• Y o u h a v e c o m p l e t e d S k i l l 6 o f 1 0

N E W L I N E I N S E R T E D

F I G U R E 4

C o m m o n F e a t u r e s C h a p t e r 1 | C O M M O N F E A T U R E S O F O F F I C E 2 0 1 0 1 7

»• The copy command places a copy of the selected text or object in the Clipboard— a temporary storage area that holds text or an object that has been cut or copied.

• You can move text by moving it to and from the Clipboard or by dragging the text.

1 . Click the File tab, and then click Open. In the Open dialog box, if necessary, navigate to the student files and display the contents of the chapter_01 folder. Click cft)l_Visit_Events, and then click Open.

2. On the right side of the Ribbon’s Home tab, in the Editing group, click the Select button, and then click Select All. Compare your screen with F i g u r e 1.

3 . With all of the document text selected, on the left side of the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click the Copy button 0.

4 . In the upper right corner of the Word window, click Close l U o j . You do not need to save changes—you will not turn in this student data file.

5. In Lastname_Firstname_cf01_Visit3, click to place the insertion point to the left of the line that starts Contact Your Name.

6. On the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, point to—but do not click—the Paste button. Compare your screen with F i g u r e 2 .

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The Paste button has two parts—the upper half is the Paste button, and the lower half is the Paste button arrow. When you click the Paste button arrow, a list of paste options display.

Continue to the next page to complete the skill ^

18 C o m m o n F e a t u r e s o f O f f i c e 2 0 1 0 | C o m m o n F e a t u r e s C h a p t e r 1

I n s e r t i o n p o i n t

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F i g u r e 2 : * b E I V

SKILL 7: Cut, Copy, and Paste Text

C U M

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8 .

9 .

7. Click the upper half of the Paste but ton to paste the selected text. Compare your

— screen with F i g u r e 3.

When you paste, you insert a copy of the text or object stored in the Clipboard and the Paste Options button displays near the pasted text.

Press [Esc] to hide the Paste Options button.

Scroll up to display the line Winter Blues Festival. Place the \T\ pointer to the left of the W, and then drag down and to the right to select two lines—Winter Blues Festival and Taste of Aspen Falls.

To drag is to move the mouse while holding down the left mouse button and then to release it at the appropriate time.

1 0 . On the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click the Cut button 0.

The ait command removes the selected text or object and stores it in the Clipboard.

1 1 . Click to place the insertion point to the left of Contact Your Name, and then in the Clipboard group, click the Paste button to insert the text.

1 2 . Drag to select the text Taste of Aspen Falls, including the paragraph mark.

1 3 . With the [§] pointer, drag the selected text to the left of Winter Blues Festival. When the [¥] pointer displays to the left of Winter as shown in F i g u r e 4, release the mouse button.

1 4 . On the Quick Access Toolbar, click Save m.

• You have completed Skill 7 of 10

F i g u r e 4

C o m m o n F e a t u r e s C h a p t e r 1 | C o m m o n F e a t u r e s o f O f f i c e 2 0 1 0 1 9

• To format is to change the appearance of the text—for example, changing the text color to red.

> Before formatting text, you first need to select the text that will be formatted.

»• Once text is selected, you can apply formatting using the Ribbon or the Mini toolbar.

1 . Scroll to the top of the document, and then click anywhere in the first line, Visit Aspen Falls.

2. O n the Home tab, in the Styles group, click the Heading 1 thumbnail .

When no text is selected, the Heading 1 style is applied to the entire paragraph.

3 . Click in the paragraph, Local Attractions, and then in the Styles group, click the Heading 2 thumbnail . Click in the paragraph, Aspen Falls Annual Events, and then apply the Heading 2 style. Compare your screen with Figure 1.

4 . Drag to select the text Visit Aspen Falls! Immediately point to—but do not click— the Mini toolbar to display it as shown in Figure 2. If necessary, right-click the — selected text to display the Mini toolbar.

C o n t i n u e t o t h e n e x t p a g e t o c o m p l e t e t h e s k i l l >

Heading 1 applied

Heading 2 applied

Figure 1

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Figure 2

2 0 C o m m o n F e a t u r e s o f O f f i c e 2 0 1 0 | C o m m o n F e a t u r e s C h a p t e r 1

SKILL 8: F< and Paragraphs

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I n d e n t e d b u l l e t s

F i g u r e 4

5. On the Mini toolbar, click the Font Size arrow I” •[, and then from the list, click 28 to increase the size of the selected text.

6. Place the pointer approximately 1 inch to the left of the line Wine Country. When the SQ pointer displays, drag straight down. When all the lines between and including Wine Country and Glider Tours are selected, release the left mouse button.

7. On the Ribbon, in the Paragraph group, click the Bullets button IB-I and then compare your screen with F i g u r e 3.

8 . Click to the left of Annual Starving Artists Sidewalk Sale. Scroll down to display the bottom of the page. Press and hold [ S h i f t ] while clicking to the right of Winter Blues Festival to select all of the text between and including Annual Starving Artists Sidewalk Sale and Winter Blues Festival.

9. In the Paragraph group, click the Bullets button |B’L

1 0 . Scroll to the top of the document. Use either technique just practiced to select Wine Tasting Tours and Wineries.

1 1 . In the Paragraph group, click the Increase Indent button [*] one time. Compare your screen with F i g u r e 4.

1 2 . On the Quick Access Toolbar, click Save [H].

• Y o u h o v e c o m p l e t e d S k i l l 8 o f 1 0

C o m m o n F e a t u r e s C h a p t e r 1 | C o m m o n F e a t u r e s o f O f f i c e 2 0 1 0 2 1http://Visit-Aspen-Falls.ilhttp://An-Geaer.il*http://vvmar.eshttp://ao-cv.eehttp://e-aAnnuaiWini-Ftitlva.lt

• SKILL 9: Use the Ribbon

• Each Ribbon tab contains commands organized into groups. Some tabs display only when a certain type of object is selected—a graphic, for example.

1. Press and hold [ C t r l ] , and then press [Homel to place the insertion point at the begin­ ning of the document.

2 . On the Ribbon, to the right of the Home tab, click the Insert tab. In the Illustrations group, click the Picture button.

3. In the Insert Picture dialog box, navigate as needed to display the contents of the student files in the chapter_01 folder. Click cf01_Visit_River, and then click the Insert button. Compare your screen with F i g u r e 1.

When a picture is selected, the Format tab displays below Picture Tools. On the Format tab, in the Picture Styles group, a gallery— a visual display of choices from which you can choose—displays thumbnails. The entire gallery can be seen by clicking the More button to the right and below the first row of thumbnails.

4. On the Format tab, in the Picture Styles group, click the More button 0 to display the Picture Styles gallery. In the gallery, point to the fourth thumbnail in the first row—Drop Shadow Rectangle—to display the ScreenTip as shown in F i g u r e 2 .

Picture Tools Format tab

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• L o c a J ‘ A t t r a c t i o i i s ^

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ScreenTip

A ScreenTip is informational text that displays when you point to commands or thumbnails on the Ribbon.

5. Click the Drop Shadow Rectangle thumbnail to apply the picture style.

• Continue to the next page to complete the skill •

22 Common Features of Office 2010 | Common Features Chapter l

Live Preview of Drop Shadow

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• a g t l t ‘ l WalHi: 3/117

F I G U R E 3

K E Y T I P S F O R

H O M E T A B

K E Y T I P F O R I T A L I C

B U T T O N

F I G U R E 4

6. On the Format tab, in the Arrange group, click the Wrap Text button, and then from the list of choices, click Square.

7. Point to the picture, and then with the \%\ pointer, drag the picture to the right side of the page as shown in F I G U R E 3.

8. Click a blank area of the page, and then notice the Picture Tools Format tab no longer displays.

9. On the Page Layout tab, in the Themes group, click the Themes button.

1 0 . In the Themes gallery, point to—but do not click—each of the thumbnails to dis­ play the Live Preview of each theme. When you are done, click the Civic thumbnail .

1 1 . On the View tab, in the Zoom group, click the One Page button to display the entire page on the screen. If necessary, adjust the position of the picture.

1 2 . On the View tab, in the Zoom group, click the 100% button.

1 3 . Select the text Visit Aspen Falls! without selecting the paragraph mark. Press [W] to display KeyTips—keys that you can press to access each Ribbon tab and most com­ mands on each tab. Release [Ait], and then press (TT) one time to display the Home tab. Compare your screen with F I G U R E 4 .

With KeyTips displayed on the Home tab, pressing [T] is the same as clicking the Italic button 0. In this manner, you select Ribbon commands without using the mouse.

1 4 . Press (T) to apply the Italic format to the selected text.

1 5 . Save (5] the document.

• You have completed Skill 9 of 10

C O M M O N F E A T U R E S C H A P T E R 1 | C O M M O N F E A T U R E S O F O F F I C E 2 0 1 0 2 3http://Ho.milhttp://VisitAspenFalls.1Ifile://-/-ineyatC3

• Commands can be accessed in dialog boxes—boxes where you can select multiple settings.

• You can also access commands by right-clicking objects in a document.

1. In the paragraph that starts Aspen Falls overlooks the Pacific Ocean, triple-click— click three times fairly quickly without moving the mouse—to highlight the entire paragraph.

2. O n the Home tab, in the lower right cor­ ner of the Font group, point to the Font Dialog Box Launcher [|] as shown in F i g u r e 1.

The [1] buttons at the lower right corner of most groups open a dialog box with choices that may not be available on the Ribbon.

3 . Click the Font Dialog Box Launcher [s] to open the Font dialog box.

4. In the Font dialog box, click the Advanced tab. Click the Spacing arrow, and then click Expanded.

5. To the right of the Spacing box, click the By spin box up arrow three times to display 1.3 pt. Compare your screen with F i g u r e 2, and then click OK to close the dialog box and apply the changes.

• Continue to the next page to complete the skill

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If your instructor asks you to print your work, click the File tab, click Print, and then click the Print button.

Click Save [5], click the File tab, and then click Exit.

Done! You have completed Skill 10 of 10, and your document is complete!

C O M M O N F E A T U R E S C H A P T E R 1 | C O M M O N F E A T U R E S O F O F F I C E 2010 2 5

T h e fo l lowing M o r e Skills a re located at www.pearsonhighered.com/skills

M o r e S k i l l s Q C a p t u r e S c r e e n s w i t h t h e S n i p p i n g T o o l

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CAN B E P R I N T E D OR S U B M I T T E D ELECTRONICALLY.

I N M O R E SKILLS 1 1 , Y O U WILL U S E THE S N I P P I N G TOOL TO CREATE A

PICTURE O F YOUR SCREEN A N D THEN C O P Y THE PICTURE I N T O A W O R D

D O C U M E N T .

T O B E G I N , O P E N Y O U R W E B BROWSER, NAVIGATE TO

W W W . P E A R S O N H I G H E R E D . C O M / S K I L L S , LOCATE THE N A M E O F YOUR

TEXTBOOK, A N D THEN FOLLOW THE INSTRUCTIONS O N THE W E B S I T E .

M o r e S k i l l s ^ U s e M i c r o s o f t O f f i c e H e l p

M I C R O S O F T O F F I C E 2 0 1 0 H A S A H E L P S Y S T E M I N W H I C H Y O U CAN

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I N M O R E SKILLS 1 2 , Y O U WILL U S E THE O F F I C E 2 0 1 0 H E L P S Y S T E M

TO V I E W A N ARTICLE O N H O W TO C U S T O M I Z E THE H E L P W I N D O W .

T O B E G I N , O P E N Y O U R W E B BROWSER, NAVIGATE TO

W W W . P E A R S O N H I G H E R E D . C O M / S K I L L S , LOCATE THE N A M E O F YOUR

TEXTBOOK, A N D THEN FOLLOW THE INSTRUCTIONS O N THE W E B S I T E .

M o r e S k i l l s ^ O r g a n i z e F i l e s

O V E R T I M E , Y O U M A Y CREATE H U N D R E D S O F FILES U S I N G MICROSOFT

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WELL-ORGANIZED. Y O U C A N ORGANIZE Y O U R C O M P U T E R FILES B Y CAREFULLY

N A M I N G T H E M A N D B Y PLACING T H E M INTO FOLDERS.

I N M O R E SKILLS 1 3 , Y O U WILL CREATE, DELETE, A N D R E N A M E FOLDERS.

Y O U WILL T H E N C O P Y , DELETE, A N D M O V E FILES INTO THE FOLDERS THAT Y O U

CREATED.

T O B E G I N , O P E N Y O U R W E B BROWSER, NAVIGATE TO

W W W . P E A R S O N H I G H E R E D . C O M / S K I L L S , LOCATE THE N A M E O F Y O U R

TEXTBOOK, A N D THEN FOLLOW THE INSTRUCTIONS O N THE W E B S I T E .

M o r e S k i l l s S a v e D o c u m e n t s t o W i n d o w s L i v e

I F Y O U R C O M P U T E R IS C O N N E C T E D TO THE INTERNET, Y O U C A N SAVE

YOUR O F F I C E D O C U M E N T S TO A DRIVE AVAILABLE TO Y O U FREE O F CHARGE

THROUGH W I N D O W S L I V E . Y O U C A N THEN O P E N THE FILES F R O M OTHER

LOCATIONS S U C H AS H O M E , SCHOOL, OR W O R K .

I N M O R E SKILLS 1 4 , Y O U WILL SAVE A M E M O TO W I N D O W S L I V E .

T O B E G I N , O P E N Y O U R W E B BROWSER, NAVIGATE TO

W W W . P E A R S O N H I G H E R E D . C O M / S K I L L S , LOCATE THE N A M E O F YOUR

TEXTBOOK, A N D T H E N FOLLOW THE INSTRUCTIONS O N THE W E B S I T E .

Categories
research paper for sale research paper help write my paper for me

your friend wants to open a clothing shop. a necessary capital resource is a

(03.05 MC)<object:standard:ss.912.e.1.7>

Quantity of JacketsPrice (in whole dollars)Total RevenueMarginal RevenueTotal CostMarginal CostProfit (or loss)
020
1202018
2193833
3185443
4176855
5168068
6159083
71498101
813104120

Based on this chart, what is the marginal cost, in dollars, to produce four jackets?

Question 2 (Multiple Choice Worth 5 points)

(03.06 MC)<object:standard:ss.912.e.2.5>

Which investment produces a $5 hourly profit for a candy shop earning $1 profit per pound of candy?

Question 3 (Multiple Choice Worth 5 points)

(03.05 MC)<object:standard:ss.912.e.1.7>

Quantity of JacketsPrice (in whole dollars)Total RevenueMarginal RevenueTotal CostMarginal CostProfit (or loss)
020
1202018
2193833
3185443
4176855
5168068
6159083
71498101
813104120

Based on this chart, what is the marginal revenue, in dollars, at quantity five jackets?

Question 4 (Multiple Choice Worth 5 points)

(03.03 MC)<object:standard:ss.912.e.1.5>

Root and Vine is a gardening collective and local delivery service started by two friends. Their clientele has grown, and they want to expand. The owners like the idea of protecting their personal property, but they want to maintain control of the business. Which type of organization might best suit their growth?

Question 5 (Multiple Choice Worth 5 points)

(03.02 MC)<object:standard:ss.912.e.1.1>

Meg and her mother are opening a cupcake shop. They buy an oven, a walk-in cooler, and a decorating table. In terms of factors of production, what are these items?

Question 6 (Multiple Choice Worth 5 points)

(03.04 MC)<object:standard:ss.912.e.1.6>

Why do purely competitive markets tend to benefit consumers over producers?

Question 7 (Multiple Choice Worth 5 points)

(03.06 MC)<object:standard:ss.912.e.2.5>

Adalet runs a newsstand in a busy office complex. Which option would best help her business to grow?

Question 8 (Multiple Choice Worth 5 points)

(03.06 MC)<object:standard:ss.912.e.2.5>

Which investment produces a $40 daily profit for a game shop earning $2 profit from every game sold?

Question 9 (Multiple Choice Worth 5 points)

(03.03 MC)<object:standard:ss.912.e.1.5>

Your friend hopes to expand her business to multiple locations. It would be best for her to create a

Question 10 (Multiple Choice Worth 5 points)

Graph shows gallons of strawberry ice cream along the horizontal axis and gallons of chocolate ice cream along the vertical axis. Five points are plotted on the graph. Point A shows four strawberry and eight chocolate. Point B shows 15 chocolate and two strawberry. Point C shows four chocolate and twelve strawberry. Point D shows twelve chocolate and eight strawberry. Point X shows twelve chocolate and twelve strawberry.

(03.06 MC)<object:standard:ss.912.e.1.2>



Use this image to answer the following question. The ice cream shop needs 5 pounds of strawberries for every gallon of strawberry ice cream. The shop chose to produce 4 gallons of chocolate ice cream. How many pounds of strawberries should the shop purchase?

Question 11 (Multiple Choice Worth 5 points)

(03.06 MC)<object:standard:ss.912. e.1.9=””>

Sam works as a transcriptionist for $30,000 per year, and Janet works as a jet propulsion specialist for $73,000 per year. Which of the following statements couldbest explain the disparity in their incomes?

Question 12 (Multiple Choice Worth 5 points)

(03.06 MC)<object:standard:ss.912.e.1.9>

Stacy owns a hair salon and haircuts are $10. She charges hairdressers $20 per hour to rent a chair and serve clients. What is the minimum number of haircuts a hairdresser should give per hour to earn money at Stacy’s salon?

Question 13 (Multiple Choice Worth 5 points)

A production possibilities curve. x-axis is labeled Mystery Novels. Y-axis is labeled Sci-Fi Novels. Curve extends from 0, 11 to 11, 0. Point Q plotted at 5, 11. Point R plotted at 6, 10. Point T plotted at 9, 8. Point V plotted at 10, 5.

(03.06 HC)<object:standard:ss.912.e.1.2>



Mad Hatter Publishing specializes in genre fiction for young adults. A movie company decides to make an adaptation of one of its popular science-fiction novels. Currently, production at Mad Hatter is at point T. To which point or points is production likely to shift?

Question 14 (Multiple Choice Worth 5 points)

Graph shows gallons of strawberry ice cream along the horizontal axis and gallons of chocolate ice cream along the vertical axis. Five points are plotted on the graph. Point A shows four strawberry and eight chocolate. Point B shows 15 chocolate and two strawberry. Point C shows four chocolate and twelve strawberry. Point D shows twelve chocolate and eight strawberry. Point X shows twelve chocolate and twelve strawberry.

(03.06 MC)<object:standard:ss.912.e.1.2>



Use this image to answer the following question. The ice cream shop

Question 15 (Multiple Choice Worth 5 points)

(03.04 LC)<object:standard:ss.912.e.1.6>

An oligopoly is a market for a good or service that

Question 16 (Multiple Choice Worth 5 points)

(03.04 LC)<object:standard:ss.912.e.1.8>

The most common form of nonprice competition is

Question 17 (Multiple Choice Worth 5 points)

(03.04 MC)<object:standard:ss.912.e.1.8>

“Buy our cell phone with built-in calendar and reminder features! This way you will never forget an appointment while on the go.” This advertisement targets your

Question 18 (Multiple Choice Worth 5 points)

(03.01 LC)<object:standard:ss.912.e.2.3>

An entrepreneur is best defined as a person who

Question 19 (Multiple Choice Worth 5 points)

(03.02 MC)<object:standard:ss.912.e.1.1>

Your friend wants to open a clothing shop. A necessary capital resource is a

Question 20 (Multiple Choice Worth 5 points)

(03.05 HC)<object:standard:ss.912.e.1.7>

Quantity of JacketsPrice (in whole dollars)Total RevenueMarginal RevenueTotal CostMarginal CostProfit (or loss)
022000900
120020020017080
218036016020030
316048012029090
415060012034050
514070010040060
613581090500100
7130910100620120

The owner of ProPhone has charted the company’s marginal revenue and marginal cost for its latest line of smartphones, the Blazer. Use the chart to calculate the company’s profit. How many phones will ProPhone need to sell to maximize profit?

Categories
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william f baxter addresses environmental ethics by noting

Help your students think outside the classroom impact of environmental ethics issues Updated several times a day, Cengage Learning’s Global Environmental Ethics Watch is an ideal one-stop site for classroom discussion and research projects.

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JOSEPH R. DESJARDINS College of Saint Benedict/St. John’s University

Environmental Ethics

An Introduction to Environmental Philosophy

F I FTH ED IT ION

Australia • Brazil • Japan • Korea • Mexico • Singapore • Spain • United Kingdom • United States

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Environmental Ethics: An Introduction to Environmental Philosophy, Fifth Edition

Joseph R. DesJardins

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One summer morning, while driving through the countryside, my four-year-old son asked, “Daddy, what are trees good for?” Sensing a precious moment of parenthood,

I began gently to explain that as living things they don’t need to be good for anything, but that trees do provide homes to many other living things, that they make and

clean the air that we breathe, that they can be majestic and beautiful. “But daddy,” he said, “I’m a scientist and I know more than you because you forgot the most

important thing. Trees are good for climbing.” I hope that I have not missed too many other such obvious truths in writing

this book, which I dedicate to Michael and Matthew.

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Contents

PREFACE x i

I Basic Concepts 1

1 Science, Politics, and Ethics 3

Discussion: Global Climate Change 3

Discussion Topics 6

1.1 Introduction: Why Philosophy? 6

1.2 Science and Ethics 8

1.3 Philosophy, Politics, and Ethical Relativism 15

1.4 Environmental Ethics: An Overview 16

1.5 Summary 18

Notes 19

Discussion Questions 19

Global Environmental Ethics Watch 20

2 Ethical Theories and the Environment 21

Discussion: Why Protect Endangered Species? 21

Discussion Topics 22

2.1 Introduction 23

2.2 Philosophial Ethics: Getting Comfortable with the Topic 24

2.3 The Natural Law Tradition—Teleology and Virtues 27

2.4 Contemporary Perspectives on Teleology 30

2.5 The Utilitarian Tradition 33

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some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

2.6 Contemporary Perspectives on Utilitarianism 36

2.7 Deontology: An Ethics of Duty and Rights 37

2.8 Contemporary Perspectives on Deontological Ethics 38

2.9 Environmental Ethics and Religious Principles 40

The Good of God’s Creation 41

Finding the Divine in Nature 41

The Ultimate Respect for and Value of Life 42

Social Justice Ministries 42

Stewardship 43

2.10 Summary and Conclusions 43

Notes 44

Discussion Questions 44

Global Environmental Ethics Watch 45

II Environmental Ethics as Applied Ethics 47

3 Ethics and Economics: Managing Public Lands 49

Discussion: BP’s Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill 49

Discussion Topics 50

3.1 Introduction 51

3.2 Conservation or Preservation? 51

3.3 Managing the National Forests 54

3.4 Pollution and Economics 59

3.5 Ethical Issues in Economic Analysis 62

3.6 Cost-Benefit Analysis 64

3.7 Ethical Analysis and Environmental Economics 66

3.8 Summary and Conclusions 71

Notes 71

Discussion Questions 73

Global Environmental Ethics Watch 73

4 Sustainability and Responsibilities to the Future 74

Discussion: Sustainability: Fad or Future? 74

Discussion Topics 76

4.1 Introduction 77

4.2 Do We Have Responsibilities to Future Generations? 78

4.3 What do We Owe Future Generations? 81

4.4 Consumption and Sustainable Development 88

4.5 Summary and Conclusions 92

vi CONTENTS

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Notes 92

Discussion Questions 94

Global Environmental Ethics Watch 94

5 Responsibilities to the Natural World: From Anthropocentric to Nonanthropocentric Ethics 95

Discussion: Industrial Farming: Mass Producing Animals as Food 95

Discussion Topics 97

5.1 Introduction 97

5.2 Moral Standing in the Western Tradition 98

5.3 Early Environmental Ethics 101

5.4 Moral Standing 105

5.5 Do Trees Have Standing? 108

5.6 Peter Singer and the Animal Liberation Movement 110

5.7 Tom Regan and Animal Rights 112

5.8 Ethical Implications of Animal Welfare 114

5.9 Critical Challenges 115

5.10 Summary and Conclusions 119

Notes 119

Discussion Questions 121

Global Environmental Ethics Watch 122

III Theories of Environmental Ethics 123

6 Biocentric Ethics and the Inherent Value of Life 125

Discussion: Synthetic Biology and the Value of Life 125

Discussion Topics 127

6.1 Introduction 127

6.2 Instrumental Value and Intrinsic Value 129

6.3 Biocentric Ethics and the Reverence for Life 132

6.4 Ethics and Character 135

6.5 Taylor’s Biocentric Ethics 136

6.6 Practical Implications 140

6.7 Challenges and Developments 143

6.8 Summary and Conclusions 145

Notes 146

Discussion Questions 147

Global Environmental Ethics Watch 148

CONTENTS vii

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7 Wilderness, Ecology, and Ethics 149

Discussion: Wilderness Management: Fighting Fires in Yellowstone 149

Discussion Topics 151

7.1 Introduction 151

7.2 The Wilderness Ideal 153

7.3 The Wilderness “Myth”: The Contemporary Debate 157

7.4 From Ecology to Philosophy 163

7.5 From Ecology to Ethics 169

7.6 Varieties of Holism 171

7.7 Summary and Conclusions 173

Notes 173

Discussion Questions 175

Global Environmental Ethics Watch 176

8 The Land Ethic 177

Discussion: Hunting, Ethics, and the Environment 177

Discussion Topics 178

8.1 Introduction 179

8.2 The Land Ethic 180

8.3 Leopold’s Holism 183

8.4 Criticisms of the Land Ethic: Facts and Values 185

8.5 Criticisms of the Land Ethic: Holistic Ethics 189

8.6 Callicott’s Revisions 195

8.7 Summary and Conclusions 199

Notes 200

Discussion Questions 201

Global Environmental Ethics Watch 202

9 Radical Environmental Philosophy: Deep Ecology and Ecofeminism 203

Discussion: Environmental Activism or Ecoterrorism? 203

Discussion Topics 205

9.1 Introduction 205

9.2 Deep Ecology 207

9.3 The Deep Ecology Platform 208

9.4 Metaphysical Ecology 209

9.5 From Metaphysics to Ethics 212

9.6 Self-Realization And Biocentric Equality 216

viii CONTENTS

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9.7 Criticisms of Deep Ecology 218

9.8 Ecofeminism: Making Connections 221

9.9 Ecofeminism: Recent Developments 224

9.10 Summary and Conclusions 227

Notes 228

Discussion Questions 231

Global Environmental Ethics Watch 231

10 Environmental Justice and Social Ecology 232

Discussion: Environmental Refugees 232

Discussion Topics 233

10.1 Introduction 233

10.2 Property Rights and Libertarian Justice 234

10.3 Justice as Fairness 238

10.4 Environmental Justice and Environmental Racism 240

10.5 Murray Bookchin’s Social Ecology 243

10.6 Critical Reflections 246

10.7 Summary and Conclusions 248

Notes 249

Discussion Questions 251

Global Environmental Ethics Watch 252

11 Pluralism, Pragmatism, and Sustainability 253

Discussion: Carbon Mitigation and Stabilization Wedges 253

Discussion Topics 254

11.1 Introduction: Agreement and Disagreement in Environmental Ethics 255

11.2 Moral Pluralism and Moral Monism 256

11.3 Environmental Pragmatism 259

11.4 Conclusion: Sustainability Revisited 263

Notes 265

Global Environmental Ethics Watch 265

GLOSSARY 267

INDEX 271

CONTENTS ix

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Preface

One winter evening some years ago, I reread Aldo Leopold’s A Sand CountyAlmanac. This occurred a few months after I had moved to rural Minnesota from suburban Philadelphia. I came upon Leopold’s entry for February:

There are two spiritual dangers in not owning a farm. One is the danger of supposing that breakfast comes from the grocery, and the other that heat comes from the furnace. To avoid the first danger, one should plant a garden, preferably where there is no grocer to confuse the issue. To avoid the second, he should lay a split of good oak on the andirons, preferably where there is no furnace.

This passage struck me in a way that it never could have had I still been living in a metropolitan area. The fact that it was 27 degrees below zero outside, and I was sitting in front of a roaring oak fire might have had something to do with this. I recognized that there are more than just two spiritual dangers in not owning a farm; one other concerns divorcing your life from your work. That evening, I realized that teaching courses on environmental and ecological issues would mean more to me now, personally and professionally, than it could have in the city. This book grows out of a commitment to integrate more fully my life with my work.

The primary aim of this book is simple: to provide a clear, systematic, and comprehensive introduction to the philosophical issues underlying environmen- tal and ecological controversies. At the beginning of the twenty-first century, it is fair to say that human beings face environmental challenges unprecedented in the history of this planet. Largely through human activity, the very climate of the Earth is changing, and life on Earth faces the greatest mass extinctions since the end of the dinosaur age sixty-five million years ago. The natural resources that sustain life on this planet—air, water, and soil—are being polluted or depleted at alarming rates. Human population growth is increasing exponentially. When the first edition of this book was begun in 1990, the world population was 5.5 billion people.

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By 2012 it will have grown to 7 billion, a 27 percent increase in just over twenty years. The prospects for continued degradation and depletion of natural resources multiply with this population growth. Toxic wastes that will plague future genera- tions continue to accumulate worldwide. The world’s wilderness areas—its forests, wetlands, mountains, and grasslands—are being developed, paved, drained, burned, and overgrazed out of existence.

The tendency in our culture is to treat such issues as simply scientific, techno- logical, or political problems. But they are much more than that. These environ- mental and ecological controversies raise fundamental questions about what we as human beings value, about the kind of beings we are, the kinds of lives we should live, our place in nature, and the kind of world in which we might flourish. In short, environmental problems raise fundamental questions of ethics and philosophy. This book seeks to provide a systematic introduction to these philosophical issues.

OVERVIEW

A significant amount of philosophically interesting and important research on environmental and ecological issues has been conducted during the past few dec- ades. The structure of this book reflects the way the fields of environmental ethics and environmental philosophy have developed during that period.

Two initial chapters introduce the relevance of philosophy for environmental concerns and some traditional ethical theories and principles. Chapters 3 and 4 sur- vey topics that essentially fit an “applied ethics” model. Traditional philosophical theories and methodologies are applied to environmental issues with the aim of clarification and evaluation. The applied ethics model, it seems to me, accounts for much of the early work in environmental ethics.

Philosophers soon recognized that traditional theories and principles were inadequate to deal with new environmental challenges. In response, philosophers began to extend traditional concepts and principles, so that they might become environmentally relevant. Chapter 5 examines attempts to extend moral standing to such things as individual animals, future generations, trees, and other natural objects. Within much of this thinking, traditional theories and principles remain essentially intact, but their scope and range are extended to cover topics not previously explored by philosophers.

Many philosophers working in this field have come to believe that ethical extensionism is an inadequate philosophical response to environmental issues and controversies. To many of these thinkers, traditional ethical theories and principles are part of a worldview that has been responsible for much environmental and ecological destruction. What is needed, in their eyes, is a more radical philosophi- cal approach that includes rethinking metaphysical, epistemological, and political, as well as ethical, concepts. At this point, the field once identified as environmental ethics is better conceived of as environmental philosophy. The final seven chapters examine more comprehensive environmental and ecological philosophies. These views include biocentrism (the view that all living things deserve moral standing),

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ecocentrism (the view that shifts away from traditional environmental concerns to a more holistic and ecological focus), deep ecology, social ecology, and ecofeminism.

THE FIFTH EDITION

One strong temptation in writing a new edition is to create a much longer book. Keeping pace with new developments, including all the latest cases and environ- mental controversies, and embracing new ideas would all lead one to include more and more material. But one important lesson we learn from ecology is to recognize that not every change is an improvement and not all growth is devel- opment. My primary goal for this book remains what it was in the first edition, now nearly twenty years ago: to provide a clear and concise introduction to the philosophical issues underlying environmental controversies. This book has proved popular for use in courses taught outside of philosophy, which I take as some measure of success in achieving this goal.

This new edition attempts to respond to suggestions and advice from faculty and students who have been using this book. I owe a great debt to all the generous people who have contributed recommendations for this edition. The primary goal of this new edition is to keep apace of recent developments in the field, without sacrificing the original goal of writing a concise introductory text. I continue to seek a balance between philosophical depth and practical relevance. Admittedly, students do not always appreciate the details of philosophical debates and would rather we “get to the point.” But if there is any lesson to be drawn from the present political climate of rancorous partisan disagreement, it is that the world needs more, not less, careful and considered judgment.

Changes to this edition include new or significantly revised and updated dis- cussion cases at the start of most chapters. New material includes cases on global climate change, BP’s Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill, Synthetic Biology, Animals and Food, Sustainability, Hunting, Environmental Refugees, and Carbon Mitigation. I hope this new material will keep the book fresh for students and faculty alike. But the same basic format remains. Previous editions developed what has proven to be a coherent structure for presenting and teaching the content of environmental ethics and, for the most part, I have kept that structure as is.

But I have also done some minor restructuring of this edition to achieve greater clarity and coherence. I have combined the previous Chapter 9 (Deep Ecology) and Chapter 11 (Ecofeminsim) into a single chapter. I agree with reviewers who believe that neither field has developed much in the past decade, and that the material was no longer as cutting-edge as it had been. But both deep ecology and ecofeminism present intriguing and philosophically interesting perspectives that deserve attention, and each has had a significant impact on contemporary environmentalism. I have combined them into a single chapter because each is an example of a type of envi- ronmentalism—what I call radical environmentalism—which rejects reform in favour of more dramatic, radical social change.

PREFACE xiii

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Careful readers will notice several other minor changes. The section on eth- ical relativism has been moved from the chapter on ethical theory (Chapter 2) into Chapter 1, so that it can be included in a new section on “Philosophy, Politics, and Ethical Relativism.” Chapter 1 also discusses the present partisan political climate in that same context, and backs away from a previous concern with an over-reliance on science in setting environmental policy. If only that were now the case that I thought it was two decades ago.

Finally, what previously was an epilogue has become a more extended discussion of pluralism, pragmatism, and sustainability. When I first added the epi- logue, issues of pluralism and pragmatism were just emerging as a serious topic among environmental philosophers. I have tried to extend this discussion to include some final reflections on sustainability. It seems to me that while theorists continue to debate the relative merits of various environmental philosophies, the issue that motivates us all—environmental destruction—marches on. The philosophical debates concerning pluralism and pragmatism, in my opinion, share with the issue of sustainable development an urgent need that something be done in the mean- time. Those who address these three topics seek a reasoned way to proceed even when a unified consensus on more theoretical issues remains elusive.

TO STUDENTS AND TEACHERS

Writing a book like this carries two intellectual dangers. One is the danger of supposing that students are as motivated by and interested in abstract philosophical issues as their teachers. The other is that in pointing to the immense practical relevance of environmental ethics, I ignore or understate the importance of care- ful and rigorous conceptual analysis. I have tried to address these dangers in a number of ways.

Each chapter begins with a description of a contemporary environmental controversy that can be used as an entry into the philosophical discussion that follows. These discussion cases describe issues that are at the forefront of the con- temporary environmental scene, and they implicitly raise fundamental ethical and philosophical questions. My hope is that after some directed reflection and discussion, students will see the need to address philosophical questions in devel- oping their own environmental and ecological positions. Each chapter also ends with a series of discussion questions that can be used either as the basis for a chapter review or as the basis for further study.

To avoid the second danger, I have tried to follow the philosophical debates far enough to provide an accurate example of how philosophers reason and how reasoning can make progress. There can be no substitute for a careful study and reading of the many primary sources that I have used in this book. But the nature of this book requires that these debates not be so comprehensive that readers get lost in, or bored by, the detail.

I have not always been successful in my own teaching at balancing a relevant introduction to the issues with an in-depth analysis. Without a clear context to

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motivate the need to know, students often get lost in philosophical analysis. On the other hand, without depth, students can become convinced too easily that they now know all the answers. Class time spent providing context, of course, takes away from time spent developing analysis; time spent following through on the debates prevents the forest from being seen for all the trees.

I wrote this book to address that tension. I suspect that for many teachers, the book provides a context and introduction, allowing them to use class time for fuller development of selected issues. They might do this in a number of ways: by reading classic or contemporary primary sources; by studying more empirical resources such as the Worldwatch publications; by keeping current on environ- mental controversies on the Web; by using some of the many excellent videos on environmental topics that are now available; and by addressing the claims of more activist groups ranging from the Sierra Club to Earth First!. However individual instructors choose to develop their courses, I hope that this book can provide a context to ensure that students remain as connected to the important philosophical issues as they so often are to the practical environmental ones.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I owe my greatest debts to those thinkers who are doing the original research in this field. I have tried to acknowledge their work at every turn, but if I have missed someone, I hope this general acknowledgment will suffice.

Through the years many reviewers have provided thorough, insightful, and tremendously helpful advice. Some have been willing to help on more than one occasion, and I must especially acknowledge Claudia Card of the University of Wisconsin, Arthur Millman of the University of Massachusetts in Boston, and Ellen Klein of the University of North Florida. Although their advice improved this book immeasurably, the usual disclaimers of responsibility apply. I have espe- cially benefited from advice offered by Holmes Rolston and Ernie Diedrich. My thanks also to previous edition reviewers Mary Brentwood, California State University, Sacramento; Douglas Browning, University of Texas, Austin; Larry D. Harwood, Viterbo University; Ned Hettinger, College of Charleston; Donald Hubin, Ohio State University; Dale Jamieson, University of Colorado; Kathie Jenni, University of Redlands; Sheldon Krimsky, Tufts University; Donald C. Lee, University of New Mexico; Eugene G. Maurakis, University of Richmond; Jon McGregor, Arizona State University; Greg Peterson, South Dakota State University; Wade Robinson, Rochester Institute of Technology; Arthur Skidmore, Kansas University; William O. Stephens, Creighton University; Charles Taliaferro, Saint Olaf College; Eugene Troxell, San Diego State University; and Charles Verharen, Howard University. And thanks to the new edition reviewers Benita Beamon, University of Washington; Joseph Chartkoff, Michigan State University; Johnna Fisher, University of British Columbia; Andre Goddu, Stonehill College; Gail Grabowsky, Chaminade University; Benjamin Hale, University of Colorado; Susan Mooney, Stonehill College; Paul Ott, Loyola University, Chicago; Kyle

PREFACE xv

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Powys, Michigan State University; Patrick Walsh, University of Manitoba; Wei-Ming Wu, Butte College; and Jason Wyckoff, Marquette University.

My students at the College of St. Benedict and St. John’s University worked through early versions of this text. We were all students in those classes, and their comments helped substantively and pedagogically. The College of St. Benedict provided financial support for research during the writing of this book. Everyone associated with Wadsworth Publishing has once again provided generous, skillful, and intelligent support.

Global Environmental Ethics Watch

Updated several times a day, the Global Environmental Ethics Watch is a focused portal into GREENR—our Global Reference on the Environment, Energy, and Natural Resources—an ideal one-stop site for classroom discussion and research projects. This resource center keeps courses up-to-date with the most current news on environmental ethics. Users get access to information from trusted aca- demic journals, news outlets, and magazines, as well as statistics, an interactive world map, videos, primary sources, case studies, podcasts, and much more. Please contact your Cengage Learning Representative for information on how to get your students access to the Global Environmental Ethics Watch.

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P A R T I

Basic Concepts

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1

Science, Politics, and Ethics

DISCUSSION: Global Climate Change

Scientists have long known that carbon dioxide is one of several atmospheric gases, along with water vapor, ozone, methane, and nitrous oxide which are responsible for maintaining stability in the Earth’s temperature. These so-called “greenhouse gases” function much as the glass in a greenhouse, which admits warming sunlight while preventing the warmer air from radiating back outside. This greenhouse effect is the reigning scientific explanation for how the atmo- sphere regulates the Earth’s temperature.

For over a century it has been under- stood that human activities, primarily those associated with burning fossil fuels in automobiles and industry, have been adding significant amounts of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is a major by-product of burning fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and gasoline, and as human use of such fuels has increased, so too has the amount of carbon dioxide increased. By the 1980s,

some observers were claiming that increases in greenhouse gases could lead, and likely was leading, to an increase in global temperatures, or “global warming.” Many people predicted that an increase in global temperatures would cause considerable environmental dam- age and human suffering and, as a result, recommended policy changes to minimize the use of fossil fuels and otherwise limit the discharge of greenhouse gases.

The natural process associated with global warming is straightforward. Sunlight strikes the Earth’s surface and is radiated back as heat into the atmo- sphere. The Earth’s atmosphere is com- posed primarily of nitrogen (78 percent) and oxygen (21 percent). But many of the remaining trace elements, especially carbon dioxide, water vapor, methane, and ozone, have molecular structures that absorb the radiated heat and reflect it back into the atmosphere and back onto the Earth. The initial global warming

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hypothesis claimed that because green- house gases trap heat in the atmosphere, an increase in the amount of greenhouse gases will result in an increase in the heat reflected back, thus increasing global temperature. In turn, an increase in global temperature could lead to such conse- quences as a rise in ocean levels due to melting of snow and ice in the Earth’s polar regions, climatic shifts, worldwide droughts and famine, shifts in oceanic currents, and massive extinctions of plant and animal life as a result of ecosystem disruptions.

Given such dire predictions, many environmentalists have advocated for significant policy and lifestyle changes, particularly involving reduction in CO2 emissions. Many recommended that countries should reduce their reliance on fossil fuels and support international treaties mandating CO2 reductions. Gov- ernments should create incentive pro- grams to reduce the use of carbon-based fuels, including taxes and carbon-trading credits. Governments should also provide incentives and subsidies for alternative energy sources. Institutions such as busi- nesses and universities should pledge to become “carbon-neutral.” Virtually every aspect of modern industrial economies would be affected by policies aimed at reducing carbon emissions.

Critics have challenged each step in this line of reasoning. While some early critics challenged the very idea of a greenhouse effect or the reality of increasing global temperatures, more recent critics have focused on the role of human activities in increasing the green- house effect and affecting climate change. While any cold spell or blizzard will be cited by some as evidence against global warming, scientific data has increasingly persuaded most observers that average overall global temperatures are increasing, even if not everyone agrees on the significance of the increase. Skeptics tend now to suggest that fluc- tuations in CO2 and other greenhouse gas levels are within normal limits when viewed over the long range. They suggest that the Earth’s climate has always fluc- tuated, and there is nothing to show that any changes presently occurring are not

within this normal range or that they are caused by humans. Many critics also dispute the catastrophic predictions based on the alleged fact of global warming. For example, increased temperatures could result in greater cloud cover due to increased evaporation, thereby reducing the overall amount of sunlight that reaches the Earth’s surface, thus reducing temperatures. Increasing temperatures could simply shift global climate making previously inhospitable areas more tem- perate and livable. The bottom line is that no one knows for certain what slightly increased global temperatures will bring about. Whatever changes occur will occur slowly, thereby giving the ever-adaptable human species plenty of time to adapt.

Further, critics reject many of the pro- posed policy changes that are offered by defenders of global warming. Less devel- oped countries argue that the costs of any reduction in worldwide CO2 levels will fall disproportionately on the poor. Having achieved high standards of living through fossil-fuel based economies, the rich now want to limit economic development of poorer countries in the name of reducing their carbon footprint. Furthermore, the economic changes required by a massive shift away from fossil fuels are likely to create as many new problems as would be avoided and, frankly, there really is no viable alternative to coal, natural gas, and oil to power the Earth’s economies.

As these debates developed, there has been a shift away from the language of “global warming” in favor of the lan- guage of “global climate change.” The rationale is that global warming refers to the average mean surface temperature, while global climate change refers to a broad range of climatic changes that would result from an increase in the average global temperature. Predictions made decades ago that increasing atmo- spheric carbon dioxide would lead to an increase in global temperatures have been proven true. But the consequences of those increased average temperatures are still evolving. An increase in greenhouse gases and an increase in overall average surface temperature does not necessarily result in warmer temperatures every- where and at all times. The complex

4 PART I BASIC CONCEPTS

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relationships between air temperature, rainfall, ocean temperature, ocean cur- rents, and ocean levels could result in weather patterns that include lower tem- peratures in some places and fiercer win- ter storms. Defenders of this language change claim that greater clarity and pre- cision can be brought to these debates by speaking of global climate change rather than global warming.

Critics see this as a rhetorical ploy to shift attention away from lack of evidence for warming and allow environmentalists to claim that any change in the weather or climate is evidence for the result of increased CO2 emissions. If every weather event can be claimed as evidence of global climate change, then this alleged problem can never be tested and this suggests that it is not a scientifically validated empirical claim after all. In addition, while “global climate change” rhetorically suggests major and catastrophic changes, the fact is that the global climate is constantly changing and always has. Global climate change is the norm, not the problem it is made out to be.

At first glance, it might appear that debates about global warming are pri- marily scientific debates. The greenhouse effect would seem to involve questions about such phenomena as solar radiation and the structure of certain molecules in such science disciplines as atmospheric science, physics, and chemistry. Science would also seem to be the proper domain for determining the degree to which human activity is causing an increase in CO2 and other greenhouse gases. By measuring and comparing such things as the amount of CO2 at various levels of the polar ice cap or the growth rate found in the rings of old or fossilized trees, scien- tists can determine the degree of correla- tion between the amount of atmospheric CO2 and global temperatures in earlier periods of Earth’s history. Using such cor- relations, science predicts future tem- peratures based on anticipated CO2 levels. Over shorter terms, science can also trace trends in global temperatures, relative size of glaciers, ocean levels and tem- peratures, and habitat change, especially in northern climates.

In other words, resolving debates about global warming would seem to be

a matter of determining the facts, and facts, as we usually understand things, are the proper domain of science. If we simply do more and better science, gather more data, establish greater patterns of correlation and causality, and confirm more predictions, we will arrive at stron- ger conclusions and reach consensus on policy options. Many also conclude that if there is a scientific consensus on the facts of global warming and climate change, the practical conclusions for what we ought to do about it logically follow.

But despite increasing scientific study, disputes remain, and they remain because debates about global warming are not simply about the science and facts. Espe- cially within the United States, global warming has emerged as something of a political litmus test, as partisan as debates over big government, taxes, and abortion. One’s view on global warming seems to be determined as much by one’s political beliefs as by the facts. A 2008 Gallup poll reported that the gap between Democrats and Republicans has steadily increased during the past decade on such statements as “the effects of global warming have already begun,” “global warming is due more to human activities than natural causes,” and “global warming is occurring.” In each case, Republicans are much less convinced by the science of global warming than Democrats. The Congressional elections of 2010 produced Republican leaders who made skepticism about global warming a central political tenet. Within a month of becoming the new chairman of the House Energy and Commerce Committee, Congressman Fred Upton denied that climate change is human caused. Republican Congressman John Shimkus, who sits on both the House Energy and Commerce Committee and the Subcommittee on Energy and Environ- ment, expressed his skepticism about cli- mate change in terms of his belief in God’s promise to Noah that the Earth would not be destroyed by a flood for a second time.1

The prospect of global warming and global climate change raise fundamental questions concerning what we ought to do, both individually and as a society, about what we value, and about how we ought to live our lives. That is, they raise

CHAPTER 1 SCIENCE, POLITICS, AND ETHICS 5

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fundamental questions not only for sci- ence but for ethics as well. Knowledge of the facts alone does not determine what should be done. Political debates about global warming also raise important questions on what we should believe, and the degree to which we should rely on science when making policy decisions. In other words, the prospect of global warming, like so many other environmen- tal issues, requires us to ask fundamental philosophical questions: What should we believe andwhy?What shouldwe do, both as individuals and as a society?What dowe value? What should we do when beliefs and values conflict? How should we live our lives?

DISCUSSION TOPICS: 1. Individuals seldom have the ability to

evaluate by themselves the validity of a scientific claim and often have to trust the judgments of experts. Consider how often you must trust the judg- ments of doctors and engineers for example. What evidence would per- suade you to trust those scientists who claim that global warming or global climate change is a factual event?What evidence would cause you to doubt those scientists? Where do you get your own information about global

warming? Is this a reliable source? Are the advocates on both sides of these debates equally worthy of trust? How would you distinguish between scien- tific “experts” who are persuaded by global warming and those who are skeptical?

2. Hundreds of college and university presidents have signed the “Presidents’ Climate Commitment,” which pledges their schools to achieve “climate neutrality as soon as possible.” (http:// www.presidentsclimatecommitment. org/) Has your school’s president signed this commitment? Why or why not? What steps, if any, has your school taken to reduce greenhouse gas emissions? Do you support this commitment by your school?

3. Do you think that more developed countries such as the United States, Canada, England, and Germany have a greater responsibility for reducing greenhouse gas emissions than devel- oping countries such as China, India, and Brazil? What arguments can be offered for each side of this debate?

4. Would you support a tax on carbon emissions, and therefore higher prices for electricity and gasoline, as a means to reduce greenhouse gases? Why, or why not?

1 .1 I NTRODUCT ION : WHY PH ILOSOPHY?

In the early decades of the twenty-first century it is fair to say that human beings face environmental challenges unprecedented in the history of this planet. Largely through human activity, life on Earth faces the greatest number of mass extinctions since the end of the dinosaur age 65 million years ago. Some esti- mates suggest that more than 100 species are becoming extinct every day and that this rate could double or triple within the next few decades.2 The natural resources that sustain life on our planet—the climate, air, water, and soil—are being changed, polluted, or depleted at alarming rates. Human population growth is increasing exponentially. World population reached 7 billion people in 2011, just 12 years after reaching 6 billion. Although it took all of human history until 1804 for world population to first reach 1 billion people, the most recent increase of 1 billion took just 12 years. The rate of population increase is slowing somewhat. It is estimated that it may take 15 years to add the next

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1 billion people. Unfortunately, however, disease, famine, poverty, and war are among the factors contributing to this decline in the rate of growth. The pros- pects for continued degradation and depletion of natural resources multiply with population growth. Not only are there more people using more resources, but the lifestyles of that growing population place increasing demands on the bio- sphere. Toxic wastes that will plague future generations continue to accumulate worldwide. Some forms of nuclear waste will remain deadly for tens of thousands of years. The world’s wilderness areas—its forests, wetlands, topsoils, mountains, and grasslands—are being developed, paved, drained, burned, and overgrazed out of existence. Destruction of large areas of the ozone layer and a significant increase in greenhouse gases that could result in global warming demonstrate that human activity threatens to disrupt the very atmosphere and climate of the planet Earth.

Complicating matters is the fact that many environmental topics, from global warming to land use, from energy policy to food production, have become embroiled in bitter partisan politics, especially within the United States. The days in which a Republican President (Richard Nixon) and a Democratic Congress could be unified in passing sweeping environmental legislation such as the Clean Water Act, the Clean Air Act, and the Endangered Species Act within a three-year period, are a distant memory.

Faced with such a potentially catastrophic environmental future, we are challenged with momentous decisions. But how do we even begin making the right decisions, especially in such a political climate as the present? We should also acknowledge that many of our present environmental challenges are the result of decisions made, not by thoughtless or dishonorable people, but in good faith by previous generations. In fact, many of those decisions had very beneficial consequences to both prior and present generations in the form of adequate food, affordable energy, and increased life expectancy. But these deci- sions have had devastating consequences as well. How can we be sure that the decisions about energy policy, population, and food production that we likewise make in good faith will not have equally ambiguous consequences? Before making such momentous decisions, it seems only reasonable that we should step back to reflect on the decision-making process itself.

In many ways, philosophical ethics is just this process of stepping back to reflect on our decision making. Philosophical ethics involves a self-conscious stepping back from our own lives to reflect on what type of life we should live, how we should act, and what kind of people we should be. This textbook will introduce environmental ethics by working across two levels of thought: the practical level of deciding what we should do and how we should live, and the more abstract and academic level of stepping back to think about how we decide what to do and what to value. As used in this book, philosophical ethics involves elements of practical normative ethics—deciding what one ought or ought not do—and critical thinking—evaluating the reasoning used to justify and defend such practical decisions.

Philosophical ethics in the West is exemplified by Socrates’s questioning of Athenian society and an individual’s role within it. When speaking with a self-proclaimed authority on what the gods expect of humans, Socrates set the

CHAPTER 1 SCIENCE, POLITICS, AND ETHICS 7

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standard of philosophical reasoning 2,500 years ago by refusing to accept a con- clusion based solely on the words of an authority. When the religious authority Euthyphro claimed that he knew many things about the gods’ desires of which most people were ignorant, Socrates responded with what is perhaps the most crucial philosophical call: “Let us examine what we are saying” so that we might all come to learn for ourselves what is true.

This textbook invites you on a similar Socratic journey with respect to envi- ronmental topics. Let us examine what is being said so that we might think for ourselves and better understand what is true and what we ought to do. This text introduces the many ways in which ethics and philosophy can contribute to the creation of a sane and judicious environmental policy. Environmental challenges such as global warming raise fundamental scientific and political questions, but they raise important philosophical questions as well. Ethics is the branch of phi- losophy that addresses questions on fundamental values, and these will be the primary focus of this book. However, as we shall see, engaging in a full analysis of environmental issues will require that we also address a wide range of ques- tions from other branches of philosophy. Topics such as the allocation and distribution of environmental benefits and dangers raise important questions of social justice and political philosophy. Issues of moral standing for future generations, animals, and other nonhuman forms of life and the nature of such abstract entities as species and ecosystems raise important questions in epis- temology and metaphysics.

A basic assumption of this book is that environmental policy ought to be decided in the political arena and not by experts in scientific laboratories, corpo- rate boardrooms, or government bureaucracies. But to say this is not to say that all political opinions are equal. In an era when name-calling, shouting matches, and demonization of those with whom one disagrees passes for political debate, the need for critical thinking—careful, logical examination of controversial issues—has never been greater. Philosophical ethics will ask you to put aside what you hear from political pundits and commentators on Fox News or the Daily Show, sus- pend your assumptions and what you think you already know, and think carefully in as unbiased and balanced way as you can.

Thus an implicit goal of this textbook is to empower citizens to become full and thoughtful participants in these critical public policy debates. Familiarity with the ethical and philosophical issues involved in such debates is an important first step in this direction. Every position staked out in an environmental controversy will involve philosophical assumptions. Your challenge is to separate the good arguments from the bad, the rational conclusions from the unproven. Join with Socrates to examine what we are saying so that we might come to know what is true.

1 .2 SC IENCE AND ETH ICS

Environmentalists have long had an ambiguous relationship with science and technology. On one hand, science provides exactly the type of unbiased and rational source of information that citizens need for informed and rational policy

8 PART I BASIC CONCEPTS

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making. Trusting science seems a reasonable strategy. Technology offers hope for addressing most, if not all, environmental challenges. On the other hand, science and technology have also played a major role in bringing about some of the worst environmental problems that we face. Blind trust of science and technol- ogy can appear as unreasonable as blind trust of political pundits. Surely science and technology must be a major partner in addressing environmental chal- lenges, but it is important that we not abdicate decision-making responsibility to science alone and that we think carefully about the proper role of science and technology.

One of the pivotal events of the modern environmental movement was the publication of Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring in 1962. This book focused inter- national attention on the deadly effects of DDT and other chemical pesticides. The continued indiscriminate use of these “elixirs of death” would, according to Carson, lead to a time when death and poisoning would silence the “voices of spring.” This book profoundly influenced the public’s attitude toward chemical pollution and environmental protection. For the first time, widespread public doubt was raised about the safety and desirability of technological solutions to environmental problems.

Although chemical agents have been used to control pests and fertilize crops since the beginning of agriculture, the decades immediately after World War II witnessed tremendous development in the discovery, production, and use of synthetic chemical pesticides and fertilizers. Increasing population growth and a corresponding increase in demand on agriculture, along with a decrease in the number of farmers, led to intense pressures to increase agricultural productivity. One large part of this effort involved the use of chemicals to limit crop loss from pests and to enhance the growth of crops. Before the publication of Silent Spring, the only question generally asked about chemical pesticides and fertilizers, by both scientists and the public, concerned their effectiveness: Do they eliminate undesirable pests without harming humans or their crops? Do they increase yield? After Carson’s work, the long-term consequences to both humans and the natural world, as well as the political and ethical implications of chemically enhanced agriculture, came to the forefront.

Even seemingly innocuous issues such as fertilizer and pesticide use can raise philosophical questions. For example, do we have any ethical responsibility to preserve the various life forms around us? Is there anything wrong with defining some living organisms as pests and working to eradicate them? Philosophical assumptions are involved wherever we stand in this debate. Should pesticides be proved safe before they are used, or should the burden of proof rest with those who predict danger? Answering this question also involves issues in ethics and political philosophy.

Relying on science or technology (or on economics or the law) without also considering the ethical and philosophical issues involved can raise as many problems as it solves. Leaving environmental decisions to the “experts” in science and tech- nology does not mean that these decisions will be objective and value-neutral. It means only that the values and philosophical assumptions that do decide the issue will be those that these experts hold.

CHAPTER 1 SCIENCE, POLITICS, AND ETHICS 9

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Whereas this book relies on philosophical ethics for guidance, many people look instead to science and technology for answers. If only we could develop safe, inexpensive, and effective chemical pesticides. If only we could engineer a carbon sequestration process to contain the carbon dioxide produced by burning fossil fuels. If only we could engineer more efficient solar panels or harness the energy potential of geothermal, wind, or tidal power. If only we could develop hydrogen fuel cell technology as an alternative to the internal combustion engine. If only we could master cold fusion.

For many people in our culture, and especially for many in policy-making positions, science and technology offer the only hope for solving environmental problems. Because environmental problems often involve highly technical mat- ters, it is only reasonable to turn to experts in these technical areas for answers. Who better than meteorologists to tell us about the effects of global climate change? Who better than chemists to tell us about the safety and effectiveness of pesticides? Because science offers objective and factual answers in an area in which emotions run high and controversies abound, many believe that science is the obvious place to turn for help with environmental concerns. The only alternative to looking to science seems to be a pessimistic surrender to the type of controversy and disagreement so typical of talk television.

As Rachel Carson’s writing suggests, we take risks when we treat environmen- tal problems merely as technical problems awaiting solution from some specialized discipline. This is partly because the dimensions of environmental issues are seldom limited to the specific boundaries of any one particular discipline. Pesticide pollu- tion, for example, involves agriculture, various branches of biology and chemistry, medicine, economics, politics, and law. Global climate change involves an equally diverse group of disciplines. But it is impossible to find an environmental issue that does not raise basic questions of value. Approaching any serious environ- mental issue with the hope of finding a technical quick fix guarantees only a narrow and parochial understanding of what is at stake. Carson’s Silent Spring testifies to the dangers inherent in this approach. As seen in these examples, tech- nological or scientific “solutions” have often inflicted as many new problems as they have solved.

Turning to science for help in understanding how the world works is a hallmark of a reasonable and educated citizen. But turning to science and tech- nology for solutions to problems that are fundamentally ethical and political may not be. For example, in response to increasing levels of CO2 and global warming, some have proposed technological and geo-engineering solutions on a massive scale. Manipulating the biophysical processes of both the atmosphere and the ocean have been proposed means to lessen the effects of increasing atmospheric CO2. Skepticism about such grand experiments seems, as someone like Rachel Carson might advise, to be the mark of a reasonable and educated citizen.

But the danger in over-reliance on science and technology extends well beyond this technological complexity. Science is not as value-neutral as many assume. Our culture has a profound belief in science as the ultimate authority on questions of knowledge and truth. Although it is important not to overstate

10 PART I BASIC CONCEPTS

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this point (science, of course, does have tremendous potential for helping us to understand and solve environmental problems), science is not always the purely objective and value-neutral resource that so many assume it to be.

For example, economics plays a dominant role in many environmental con- troversies. It is fair to say that economics is the primary tool relied on in making most major public policy decisions concerning the environment. The rationale for this reliance is that the social science of economics provides an objective methodology for analyzing social costs and benefits. Chapter 3 in this book, however, offers an in-depth analysis of the role of economics in environmental policy and demonstrates that the supposedly value-neutral science of economics is heavily value-laden. That chapter will show how such economic concepts as utility, happiness, costs, benefits, and self-interest involve controversial assumptions in philosophy and ethics.

This is not the place for a full discussion of the issue of scientific objectivity, but several points should give us pause when we are tempted to turn solely to science and technology for solutions to environmental problems. In some ways, science is nothing more than a detailed, careful, verified, and documented approach to knowledge. Science demands that its practitioners minimize assump- tions, seek to eliminate bias, verify results, and limit conclusions to what the evidence supports. In this sense, the scientific method has a real “ethic” that aims to ensure arrival at an impartial, accurate, and rational result. To the degree that scientific practice measures up to this ethic, we can have confidence in the rationality of its results. This unbiased approach to knowledge also provides a vital alternative to the vitriolic rhetoric so common in contemporary political debates.

Nevertheless, this method may have hidden assumptions that can influence scientific practice. For example, Chapter 9 considers the claim that modern science is dominated by models imported from physics. In that view, we best understand something (a physical object, for example) when we reduce that object to its simplest elements (such as atoms and electrons) and investigate the forces that work on those elements (for example, gravity and electromagnetism). According to critics, however, that reductionist approach is inappropriate for other fields. Social sciences such as economics, sociology, and political science may well distort reality if they reduce “society” to a mere collection of individuals mechanically driven by the forces of self-interest.3 What is more relevant to our concerns is that some biologists believe that the physics model is particularly misleading in the study of ecosystems. The reductionist tendency can ignore or distort the com- plex relations that exist within an ecosystem. Reductionism literally fails to see the forests for the trees.

Likewise, a commitment to mechanistic explanations can distort our under- standing of ecological relationships. For example, debates that concern our understanding of animal behavior are sometimes framed in mechanistic terms. Either animal behavior is caused by environmental conditioning, or it is con- trolled by genetic programming. Either way, the explanation can be stated as invariable, deterministic, mechanistic “laws of nature.” Again, for many biolo- gists this represents a distorted and oversimplified account of animal behavior.

CHAPTER 1 SCIENCE, POLITICS, AND ETHICS 11

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Even the simplest organism is capable of changing its environment as much as it and its progeny are changed by the environment.

Biological and environmental changes seem to occur as much through ran- dom chance as according to deterministic laws.4 Accordingly, a policy of wildlife management based on a mechanistic model of animal behavior would have differ- ent consequences and recommendations from a policy that assumes that change rather than constancy is the norm. Thus, despite the commitment of science to the values of impartiality and objectivity, the practice of science is not always the unbiased procedure it is taken to be.

Science is also sometimes understood not as a method or procedure but as a body of information or facts. Surely facts are objective, and if science discovers the facts, scientific knowledge must be objective, or so the myth of scientific objectivity would have us believe. How comfortable should we be when we rely solely on scientific information to meet environmental challenges? Even when the facts are established through a careful, methodical, and verified procedure, we need to recognize that the facts seldom tell the whole story. Reliance on well-established scientific information can be risky if that informa- tion fails to give us a complete explanation. Perhaps the greatest obstacle to getting the whole story is not science’s inability to get answers but science’s limits in asking questions. Before relying on scientific answers to solve environ- mental problems, we need to know what questions the scientists are asking, and the questions they ask are often determined by factors that lie outside the realm of science.

For example, political leaders in my hometown have recently been faced with a proposal to build a four-lane road through a major wetland and rare and environmentally sensitive oak woodland. Before debating the specifics of this proposal, the local city council requested that the city engineer conduct a study and provide a recommendation. The city engineer returned with a recommen- dation that the road should be built because the facts demonstrated that a road was needed. Thus the public received a recommendation for what we should do based on the facts determined by a scientific study. What “facts” led to this con- clusion? The city engineer produced a report full of graphs and numbers reflect- ing projections about population growth, housing density, traffic counts, and construction costs. The engineer admitted that environmental and neighborhood concerns were not included because they could not be measured in a scientific and objective manner.

Recognize what happens in such a situation. Society is faced with a decision that raises several concerns. Some of those concerns can be measured and quan- tified scientifically while others cannot. Given this, policy makers have two options. They can ignore the concerns that cannot be measured scientifically and decide solely on the basis of “scientific fact,” or they can reject science as the appropriate basis for decision making. In this all too common situation, public officials nearly always defer to the judgment of science.

Amory Lovins, an internationally recognized energy scientist, makes a similar point when he reminds us that the “answers you get depend on the questions you ask.”5 Lovins uses an example from energy policy to develop this point.

12 PART I BASIC CONCEPTS

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If we define our energy problem as a supply problem, we can easily conclude that we are running out of energy and need new energy sources. Science can docu- ment the facts of resource depletion; calculate the known reserves of coal, oil, and uranium; compare the technological advantages of various energy sources; and predict the costs and efficiencies of coal, oil, nuclear-powered generating plants, and so forth. We might thus imagine collecting a significant amount of relevant scientific data on the various alternatives of energy production. We can also imagine that, given these facts, one alternative (for example, nuclear reactors) might emerge as the most reasonable option. This decision, we can well imagine, is based on the objective, neutral facts of science.6

But if we define our energy problem as a question of demand, we come up with different answers. We begin to ask questions about energy use, matching energy sources with energy use, energy efficiencies, appropriate technologies, and the like. A scientist who asks these questions is more likely to focus on such issues as home heating, insulation, efficiency of electric motors, lighting, appliances, fuel-efficient cars, mass transportation, hydrogen fuel cells and solar power. Clearly, the information emerging from efforts to answer these ques- tions, which is every bit as factual and objective as the information coming from supply questions, will suggest different energy policies. These facts might well prove that heating homes with electricity is quite unreasonable, even if the source of that electricity is safe and efficient compared to alterna- tive sources.

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Rae Yang, Spider Eaters: A Memoir (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2013). 

 Due date: Wednesday, April 18, 2018 (must be submitted by 11:59 pm on 4/17) 

 Instructions:    This essay is based on Rae Yang’s memoir about coming of age during the Maoist years in China and living through the Cultural Revolution. Born in 1950 in the PRC, Yang later came to the United States for graduate study and pursued a college teaching career. This memoir is an account of her experiences and those of her family during some of China’s most turbulent years. Further instructions and guidelines regarding the essay can be found on the next page. 

 Prompt: Based on the evidence gathered from Spider Eaters, what were the purposes and methods of the Cultural Revolution? How did it turn out in reality? What impact did it have on the lives of the participants? Some additional questions to consider and possibly incorporate into your essay include: How did the Cultural Revolution affect family dynamics, and how does Spider Eaters show this? What does Yang’s individual experience of the Cultural Revolution tell us about large-scale events and perhaps mass hysteria? 

The reading material is available at  https://books.google.com/books?id=qOSg5Jj2H3IC&pg=PA1&hl=zh-CN&source=gbs_toc_r&cad=4#v=onepage&q&f=false

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apu redshelf

End of Program Assessment Manual for

Graduate Studies

Graduate Students

American Public University System Charles Town, West Virginia, January 2018 Edition

i

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Contents

Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 1

EOP Assessment Alternatives …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 1

Grades ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 2

Important Notes ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 2

Chapter I: Master of Arts Comprehensive Final Examination …………………………………………………… 4

Beginning the Comprehensive Exam …………………………………………………………………………………… 4

Comprehensive Exam Course …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 4

Taking the Exam ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 5

Notes: ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 6

Proctoring ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 7

Chapter II: Master’s Capstone: Thesis Option ……………………………………………………………………….. 9

Beginning the Thesis Project ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 9

Thesis Proposal …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 10

Preparing the Thesis ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 11

Notes: ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 11

Approval of Thesis ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 12

Submission of Final Thesis ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 12

Unsuccessful Capstone Attempts ……………………………………………………………………………………… 13

Second Readers ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 13

Chapter III: Master’s Capstone: Creative/Applied Project ……………………………………………………… 14

Beginning the Creative/Applied Project ……………………………………………………………………………… 14

Creative/Applied Project Proposal …………………………………………………………………………………. 14

ii

Completing the Creative/Applied Project ……………………………………………………………………………. 15

Notes: ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 15

Approval of Creative/Applied Project ……………………………………………………………………………… 16

Submission of Creative/Applied Project Report ……………………………………………………………….. 16

Unsuccessful Capstone Attempts ……………………………………………………………………………………… 17

Second Readers ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 17

Chapter IV: Master’s Capstone: Practicum and Critical Reflection Paper ………………………………… 19

Beginning the Practicum and Critical Reflection Paper ………………………………………………………… 19

Practicum Proposal ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 19

Completing the Practicum………………………………………………………………………………………………… 20

Notes: ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 20

Approval of the Practicum and Critical Reflection Paper …………………………………………………… 21

Submission of Critical Reflection Paper ………………………………………………………………………….. 22

Unsuccessful Capstone Attempts ……………………………………………………………………………………… 22

Second Readers ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 23

Chapter V: Master’s Capstone: Portfolio and Critical Reflection Paper Option …………………………. 24

Beginning the Portfolio Option ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 24

Portfolio and Critical Reflection Paper ……………………………………………………………………………. 24

Completing the Capstone ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 25

Notes: ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 25

Approval of the Portfolio and Critical Reflection Paper ……………………………………………………… 26

Submission of Critical Reflection Paper ………………………………………………………………………….. 26

Unsuccessful Capstone Attempts ……………………………………………………………………………………… 27

Second Readers ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 28

Chapter VI: The Responsible Conduct of Research ………………………………………………………………. 29

Academic Dishonesty ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 29

iii

For Comprehensive Exam Assessments …………………………………………………………………………. 29

For Capstone and Portfolio Assessments………………………………………………………………………… 29

Institutional Review Board ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 30

Failure to Secure IRB approval ………………………………………………………………………………………. 30

Chapter VII: University Declarations and APUS Library Registration ……………………………………….. 31

1. Declarations……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 31

2. Textual Components ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 32

Academic Style Manual Conformity ………………………………………………………………………………… 32

3. Images and Tables………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 33

Image Insert/Formats ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 33

4. Video or Audio …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 34

5. URLs/Web Addresses ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 34

6. Submission to the APUS Library ……………………………………………………………………………………. 34

7. Passed with Distinction (a.k.a. PWD) ……………………………………………………………………………… 35

Chapter VIII: Scholarly Research/Copyright Conduct ……………………………………………………………. 36

1. Copyright ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 36

Copyrighting Your Research ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 36

Fair Use Exemptions and Citation Responsibility ……………………………………………………………… 37

Copyright Permission ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 37

2. University Research Policies …………………………………………………………………………………………. 38

3. Institutional Review Board ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 38

Appendices …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 40

Appendix 1: Master’s Theses ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 40

Appendix 2: Master’s Creative/Applied Projects …………………………………………………………………. 42

Appendix 3: Master’s Practicum and Critical Reflection Papers…………………………………………….. 44

Appendix 4: Title Page (Required format for all capstone projects.) ………………………………………. 46

iv

Appendix 5: Sample of Copyright Page (Required format for all capstone projects.) ………………… 47

Appendix 6: Sample of Dedication Page (Optional) ……………………………………………………………… 48

Appendix 7: Sample of Acknowledgments Page (Optional) …………………………………………………… 49

Appendix 8: Sample of Abstract of the Thesis (Required format for all capstone projects.) ………. 50

Appendix 9: Sample of a Table of Contents ………………………………………………………………………… 51

Appendix 10: Sample of List of Tables ………………………………………………………………………………. 53

Appendix 11: Sample of List of Figures ……………………………………………………………………………… 54

Appendix 12: Sample of Permission to Quote or Reproduce Copyrighted Material Letter …………. 55

Appendix 13: Sample of Practicum Organizational Consent Form …………………………………………. 56

Appendix 14: Critical Reflection Method Suggested for Completion of Practicum Paper ………….. 57

Appendix 15: Sample of IRB Approval Letter ………………………………………………………………………. 58

Appendix 16: Portfolio and Critical Reflection Paper ……………………………………………………………. 59

1

Introduction

This manual establishes the guidelines for completion of all master’s-level end of program (EOP) graduation requirements. The intended audience for this manual is all members of the American Public University System (APUS) academic community, including students and faculty. While it is intended to be a comprehensive overview of the general EOP requirements for APUS, students and faculty must follow any additional specific guidelines within their schools. Information regarding school-specific guidelines should be available from your supervisory professor or your program’s director.

APUS, including American Military University (AMU) and American Public University (APU), offers several options for assessing master’s program learning outcomes. These end of program assessments are designed to ensure APUS students have successfully met their program objectives, and each is designed to serve a different purpose.

EOP Assessment Alternatives

EOP assessment alternatives vary by degree program and include the following:

• Comprehensive Exam

• Capstone, which includes the following variations (availability varies by degree program):

o Research thesis

o Creative/applied project

o Practicum with critical reflection/integration paper

o Portfolio option with critical reflection paper

The Programs offer the comprehensive exam to provide a formal assessment of the program content; this type of assessment is best suited for students who finish their formal academic training with the completion of the Master of Arts/Master of Science program.

In programs offering the capstone thesis option, this type of research study best suits students who anticipate seeking further professional training, such as a doctorate or a Ph.D.

Many programs in the humanities, social sciences, and STEM fields offer the creative/applied project as a way to integrate theory with professional practice and demonstrate mastery in the field. Some professional disciplines, such as business, may consider the practicum as the best option to integrate experiential learning into the curriculum. Finally, various programs will find the portfolio option appropriate as a way of

2

showcasing learning for future employers and synthesizing skills learned in the degree program.

Note: Master’s students in some fields with specialty accreditations may have a different set of requirements regarding end of program assessment. Students should adhere to the requirements outlined in their programs.

Students are advised to work with their academic advisors to ensure that they take the correct courses during their degree and to enroll in the correct program version for their assessment preference, if available. Please be advised that some programs have only one EOP assessment option.

Grades Students must receive a B- (80%) or better on their comprehensive exam or their capstone paper/project in order to graduate. Any capstone project/paper awarded a Passed with distinction must be reviewed and approved by the Program Director, Dean, and the Office of Graduate Studies before being included in the APUS ePress Repository.

Important Notes

• The EOP assessment is meant to be a culminating experience, and as such, each student should expect to demonstrate not only that they possess a thorough knowledge of their discipline’s literature, but also that they have achieved all of the program’s learning outcomes. The EOP is a unique exercise. A student’s GPA in earlier coursework does not determine how well they will perform in their end of program assessment. Success depends on the student entering the experience fully prepared and dedicated to completing the EOP in the allotted timeframe.

• All students are expected to adhere to the conventions of standard English grammar and/or formal academic writing. Students who are struggling with their ability to communicate clearly in writing are strongly encouraged to complete COLL501 or the ClearPath Graduate Writing modules early in their graduate studies. See also the graduate resources in the APUS Library at Writing@APUS.

• After being checked with a plagiarism detection tool and graded by the faculty supervising the project and upon being approved by the program directors and school dean, all capstone projects must be submitted to the APUS Library for archiving by the program director. The capstone and critical reflection papers submitted must be a “clean” version of the paper. All spelling, grammar, citations, etc. must be correct and appropriate. Instructor feedback comments should not appear in the final version submitted to the library.

3

• Capstones that receive a grade of Passed with distinction may be eligible for inclusion in the APUS ePress Repository. For more on the APUS ePress Repository, see https://apus.libguides.com/APUS_ePress/about.

• Critical reflection papers, while eligible for the grade of Passed with distinction, may not be eligible to be placed in the APUS ePress Repository due to the personalized information that may be contained within the papers.

APUS takes academic dishonesty very seriously. Any evidence of plagiarism will result in the student’s work being rejected, and the student will fail the EOP assessment. Engaging in academic dishonesty and/or plagiarism will directly threaten the ability of the student to graduate from APUS.https://apus.libguides.com/APUS_ePress/abouthttps://apus.libguides.com/APUS_ePress/theses

4

Chapter I: Master of Arts Comprehensive Final Examination

Note: Please check your academic plan to see if this option is available in your program.

The master’s comprehensive examination provides an opportunity for students to

• demonstrate they have mastered the research skills and substantive content expected in their field of study;

• demonstrate they have familiarity with major schools of thought and principal published works in the field; and

• culminate their master’s degree experience as they complete their master’s program and either continue or begin work in their chosen profession.

Beginning the Comprehensive Exam The examination is tailored specifically to each graduate program and must be the last course master’s degree students take from APUS. Thus, it can only be taken after the student has completed all of their course work. It cannot be taken concurrently with course work. Students must successfully complete this requirement before the award of a degree. Students must apply for graduation and have a minimum GPA of 3.0 in order to be able to register for the course.

Comprehensive Exam Course The separate comprehensive examination course (eight or sixteen weeks depending upon the program) prepares graduate students for the comprehensive examination in their area of study. The purpose of the course is to provide a review of key concepts, theories and knowledge, and skill sets. Some classes provide weekly assignments and discussions, while others provide pointers regarding which materials to review and how to prepare for the exam.

As part of the course, students may be asked to consult texts, journal articles, print and media reports, and documentaries used in their classes. Collaboration with other students enrolled in the course is also an essential component. Comprehensive exam courses require students to submit answers to practice exam questions in order to become familiar with the types of questions that may be asked during the exam. Regardless of which approach the course takes, students are expected to participate fully in all course activities and must meet all assigned deadlines.

Students who do not complete required course activities leading up to the exam will not be allowed to take the exam. Students who fail the comprehensive exam and who have submitted all course practice questions may be eligible to re-register for a second attempt at passing the comprehensive exam. Any new registration requires the student re-enroll in and

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pay for a new course. Those who do not submit all practice questions may be denied a second attempt at the exam or may be required to take the capstone course if available.

Taking the Exam Instructors will provide students with the exam protocols at the beginning of the course. These protocols will provide guidance for the exam (e.g., if the exam requires a proctor, whether it will be open or closed book, etc.). If a proctor is required, the proctor must be approved as indicated in the course. The exam must take place during the last week of the course. However, to ensure confirmation of the test date and coordination of the password (if one is required), the exam should be scheduled no later than the seventh week of an eight-week course or the fifteenth week of a sixteen-week course.

Exams cannot be taken prior to the final week of the course. Faculty may not arrange with the student to grade the exam prior to the official course end date. Students will not have their degree conferred prior to the official end of their last course, including any extensions given. The final grade will not be awarded until after the course ends.

The instructor will grade the exam using the exam grading rubric (found under the Resources tab in the course classroom). Students must complete the entire exam in order to receive a Pass or Passed with distinction. Students should review the rubric prior to taking the exam. Students will answer a minimum of four essay questions that will be graded as follows:

1. Passed with distinction: This grade is rare and is only given to a student who passes three questions with distinction and the fourth with at least a Pass. With distinction (PWD) means the answers clearly demonstrate deep synthesis and analysis of the issue beyond what is typically expected of graduate students and are written using accepted academic writing conventions. The numeric indicator for this classification may differ by schools, but a Passed with distinction should mean the answer is the equivalent of an A+ or 96 percent or above.

2. Pass: This grade is assigned for essays that meet the requirements for a graduate- level essay. The answers must demonstrate effective analysis of the issue and must be written using accepted academic writing conventions. Students who pass three questions with at least a Pass will pass the examination. One Fail grade on the four examination questions is allowed. A minimum of 80 percent is required to pass the exam.

3. Fail: This grade is assigned for essays that do not meet the requirements for a graduate-level essay. This occurs when the answers fail to demonstrate a clear understanding of the issues and/or have not been written using accepted academic

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writing conventions. Students who fail two or more questions will fail the examination.

Notes:

• Self-plagiarism. The student must be careful not to self-plagiarize in their exam. Self-plagiarism is “the presentation of one’s own previously published work as new scholarship.”1 Thus, using material from previous courses in your exam answers equals self-plagiarism. Evidence of academic dishonesty found in a comprehensive exam or capstone paper will result in a grade of an F for the exam/course.

• A student who fails the examination the first time cannot receive a grade of Passed with distinction on the second examination. The highest grade possible is a Pass. The second examination is to be graded by a faculty member different from the first round of testing and will include different exam questions.

• Each new attempt at a comprehensive exam or capstone requires the student register and pay for the new course. o If a student fails the comprehensive exam on the first attempt, and no

plagiarism is reported nor any evidence found that the student failed to adhere to standard English academic writing protocols, the student will have the option of registering again for a second attempt at the comprehensive exam, or may opt to take the capstone course, if available, in lieu of their second attempt at the comprehensive exam.

o If a student fails the comprehensive exam on the first attempt and is allowed to retake the exam, rather than being required to take the capstone course, the exam questions will be different, the instructor will be different, and the student must pay for a second comprehensive exam course. The student is expected to fully participate in all course activities in the new course.

o If the student fails the comprehensive exam on their first attempt because they have not adhered to the conventions of standard English grammar and/or formal academic writing, they may be required by the Dean of Graduate Studies and the dean of the student’s school to complete COLL501 or the Graduate Writing Modules in ClearPath, prior to being allowed to register again for the comprehensive exam course, or may opt to take the capstone course if available, in lieu of a second attempt at the comprehensive

1 Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. 2010. 6th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, pg. 16. Section 1.10 Plagiarism and Self-Plagiarism elaborates on the matter.

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exam. However, the student may still be required to complete COLL501 or the ClearPath Graduate Writing module prior to being allowed to take the capstone course. See also the graduate resources in the APUS Library at Writing@APUS.

o If the student fails the exam because of plagiarism, the student may be allowed to re-take the exam at a designated exam site with a proctor. All related expenses must be paid by the student.

o If a student has twice failed the comprehensive exam, they may be permitted, under special circumstances, to enroll in the capstone project course for their discipline, if available. Students who have failed the comprehensive exam twice may appeal for this option by submitting a written appeal (which should include the student’s plan for completing the project and that addresses all comments from the previous two instructors) to the Dean of Graduate Studies at academicappeals@apus.edu. In order for the appeal to be considered, the student must be prepared to enroll in the capstone course within 180 days of the appeal approval. A student will not be given the opportunity to take a comprehensive exam a third time.

o The student has the right to appeal issues related to the comprehensive examination in line with the standard APUS appeals process. To appeal issues with regard to the comprehensive examination, contact academicappeals@apus.edu.

Proctoring Comprehensive exams may be proctored pursuant to school and program requirements. The comprehensive exam course may provide information on a proctoring service required by that program. Otherwise, faculty members will provide the following link to the APUS Web form during the first week of class: http://www.apus.edu/proctor/select-proctor.

APUS is not responsible for finding proctors for individual students. It is the student’s responsibility to do this and to complete the Web form process. If a student indicates on the Web form that they cannot find a proctor, proctor monitoring staff will contact the student to discuss possible options.

• Once the Web form is completed, the proctor monitor will be able to reach out to assist with proctor identification and the rest of the process.

• Note: Proctor monitors have no way to contact a student who has not completed the Web form.mailto:academicappeals@apus.edumailto:academicappeals@apus.eduhttp://www.apus.edu/proctor/select-proctor

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The following are the requirements for proctors:

Your proctor will have overall responsibility for the security of the test administration. Your proctor must hold either a minimum of a bachelor’s degree OR one of the following professional positions:

• administrator or faculty member of any accredited institution of higher education; • school teacher, counselor, local or regional librarian, or administrator; • human resources manager, training manager, supervisor, or manager of higher rank; • for military personnel: DANTES test control officer, educational services officer, base

librarian, or officer; or • member of the clergy.

Note: Family members are not eligible to proctor your exam. Family members are defined as:

• spouse and their parents; • sons and daughters and their spouses; • parents and their spouses; • brothers and sisters and their spouses; • grandparents and grandchildren and their spouses; or • domestic partner and their parents.

Students with questions about the process should direct them to the assigned faculty member. If the faculty member is unable to assist, students may also contact proctor@apus.edu.mailto:proctor@apus.edu

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Chapter II: Master’s Capstone: Thesis Option

Note: Please check your academic plan to see if this option is available in your program.

The master’s thesis provides an opportunity for students to • Contextualize the thesis/research question by claiming its significance or centrality to

the discipline. • Provide a persuasive rationale for pursuing the thesis by demonstrating a research

need or gap. • Articulate how the paper will address the key question or issue and why the approach

is novel. • Synthesize relevant, appropriate scholarly literature to establish a theoretical

framework or central methodology. • Create an argument that builds logically upon the thesis/hypothesis with research-

based, discipline-appropriate supporting facts, evidence, and/or data. • Explain the chosen methodology or theory and demonstrate mastery in implementing

this method/theory to produce original research. • Analyze data (whether textual, statistical, qualitative, or other) and demonstrate

maturity and sophistication in interpreting, analyzing, and synthesizing information to advance the argument.

• Provide a conclusion that summarizes findings, discusses limitations, and addresses unanswered questions/future research directions.

Beginning the Thesis Project The master’s capstone thesis option, must have a substantial research component, present an original argument, use proper academic writing conventions, including carefully documented primary and/or secondary sources, and should be at least fifty pages in length. This page count does NOT include the front and back matter (e.g., table of contents, lists of figures, illustrations and tables, acknowledgment and dedication pages, abstract, end notes pages, bibliography, appendices, etc.).

Students electing this option will have three fewer graduate elective credits than those students enrolled in a comprehensive exam program. Students enrolling in a capstone option program will already have this difference reflected in their online academic plan. This option is desirable for those students who wish to focus on specific subject matter or who would like to continue their education at a higher level. Students enroll in the course available in the given session and work with the professor on defining a thesis. Programs often encourage or require students to gain approval for their thesis topic prior to the capstone thesis course in order to begin preliminary research for the thesis. Students are encouraged to reach out to program faculty or their program director to discuss thesis topics throughout the program.

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During thesis proposal process, the supervising professor may determine that the proposal requires a human subject review by the APUS Institutional Review Board (IRB). If IRB review is needed, the student will be advised by the professor to complete this process during the initial weeks of the class. The IRB process can take up to one month to complete. Note: All theses involving human subjects must receive IRB approval. More information about the APUS IRB can be found at http://www.apus.edu/community-scholars/institutional-review- board/.

The course is tailored specifically to each graduate program and must be the last course master’s degree students take from APUS. The capstone course may be taken only after the completion of all coursework. That is, no concurrent coursework is permitted. Students must successfully complete this requirement before the award of a degree. Students must also apply for graduation and have a minimum GPA of 3.0 in order to be able to register for the course. A passing grade for this course requires a B- (80%) or better on the thesis itself and in the thesis course overall.

Thesis Proposal A formal thesis proposal is required and shall be prepared in accordance with the standards of the academic discipline. The formal proposal must provide a clear and lucid description of a question or problem and a proposed method for answering it. Capstone thesis faculty must approve the proposal before students move on to the next stage of the process.

The proposal should explain the question or problem to be investigated and convince the thesis professor that the question or problem merits investigation. It should show that the student has read the relevant and recent literature on the subject, and it should contain citations for academically appropriate resources consulted during the preliminary stages of research. In general, the thesis proposal should include background information related to the research topic, purpose of the research, methodology, and analytic procedures to be used.

Proposal drafting is considered a learning process and helps students avoid oversights and possible mistakes. The length of the formal proposal varies by discipline and is often 5-10 pages in length (title page not included). For an overview of the required components a thesis should contain, see Appendix 1. For further guidance on the format of the proposal, see the requirements within the classroom.

Students are expected to work with their professors and must follow all guidance provided in the course, including submitting all required components of the research process. Students should not expect to submit a final product at the end of the course without having completed each stage of the research process as outlined. Professors are not required to accept theses that have not undergone this review process.http://www.apus.edu/community-scholars/institutional-review-board/http://www.apus.edu/community-scholars/institutional-review-board/

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Preparing the Thesis Thesis preparation entails a partnership between the student and professor. The student and professor shall coordinate the process for the student to submit and receive feedback on drafts of thesis sections. The student is also encouraged to ask other APUS faculty and professionals and leaders in their field of study to volunteer as thesis readers and provide feedback on drafts of thesis sections where these faculty members and professionals may have special expertise. For example, a student’s graduate research methods instructor may be asked for feedback on the thesis research design.

Notes:

• Self-plagiarism. The student must be careful not to self-plagiarize in their thesis. Self- plagiarism is “the presentation of one’s own previously published work as new scholarship.”2 Evidence of academic dishonesty found in a comprehensive exam or capstone paper will result in a grade of an F for the exam/course.

• Thesis formatting shall be in strict accordance with the End of Program Assessment Manual for Graduate Studies (EOP Manual) to ensure uniformity across the university.

• The citation approach and manuscript formatting is established by the program or school’s officially designated style manual; however, the following are required to follow the formats shown in Appendixes 4-8.

o Title page (required; Appendix 4) 3 o University publication license /Copyright Page (required; Appendix 5) o Dedication page (optional; Appendix 6) o Acknowledgements page (optional; Appendix 7) o Abstract of the thesis (required; Appendix 8)

• The Table of Contents, List of Tables, and List of Figures should be formatted

according to the program’s or school’s designated style manual with the following exceptions (see Appendixes 9-11 for examples).

o Dot leaders (periods between words and pages) are required. o Pages should be left justified. o Double space between entries. o Note: Hyperlinking to sections within the thesis can add ease to navigation.

2 Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. 2010. 6th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, pg. 16. Section 1.10 Plagiarism and Self-Plagiarism elaborates on the matter.

3 Papers using APA formatting should not include the running head on the title page.

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• Style manuals are located in the APUS Library in the Writing@APUS website. • The thesis must also follow appropriate APUS Library declarations (see

Chapter VII). • Appropriate stylistic formatting and documentation are the student’s responsibility.

Student papers that do not follow the prescribed style rules will not be accepted and may delay course grading as well as degree conferral.

Approval of Thesis Once a final thesis manuscript is approved by the thesis professor, it will be graded based on the standards in the program’s grading rubric on a categorical scale of A+ through F. A grade of an A+ (or 96 percent and above) is the equivalent of the comprehensive exam designation of Passed with distinction (PWD). Thus, an A+ is only given to those papers that demonstrate excellence in originality, research, argument, and expression. Any thesis that receives this grade must be of such high quality that it is potentially publishable in a discipline-appropriate scholarly academic journal. Any capstone project/paper awarded a Passed with distinction must be reviewed and approved by the professor, second reader (if applicable), program director, school dean, and the Office of Graduate Studies before being included in the APUS ePress Repository.

Submission of Final Thesis The last step in the thesis project is to submit the final manuscript to the APUS Library. This is done by the program director and NOT the student.

All thesis capstone papers are retained by the APUS Library. The program director must submit the student’s paper within one month of the course completion date. The student is responsible for ensuring that all spelling, grammar, citations, etc. are correct and appropriate. Instructor feedback comments should not appear in the final version submitted to the library. The student’s paper will be checked using plagiarism detection software before submission. See also the graduate writing resources in the APUS Library at Writing@APUS.

Exceptional works, those that received a grade of an A+, will be considered for publication in the APUS ePress Repository as examples of capstone projects that meet the highest level of distinction.

In order to have your paper considered for inclusion, the paper must:

• have received a grade of A+ (i.e., equivalent of a Passed with distinction); • have been recommended and approved by the professor, the program director, the

school dean, and the Office of Graduate Studies; andhttp://apus.libanswers.com/writing/faq/126691https://apus.libguides.com/APUS_ePress/theseshttp://apus.libanswers.com/writing/faq/126691https://apus.libguides.com/APUS_ePress/theses

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• include the Institutional Review Board (IRB) authorization documentation, if appropriate.

Unsuccessful Capstone Attempts Students who have not successfully completed their capstone project during the period allowed for the capstone course may be allowed one extension opportunity to complete the requirement. This will only be allowed if the student has made significant progress on the thesis. Students who are permitted this opportunity will temporarily be issued an incomplete for the course and be allowed a 30-day extension to meet the requirements as outlined by the advisor. In order for students to be permitted any additional extensions on their original capstone course the faculty member must forward all second extension requests in the capstone course to academicappeals@apus.edu. The extension request will be reviewed by a committee of two that includes the dean of the student’s school and the Dean of Graduate Studies. In the event the student fails to meet the extension deadlines, the original capstone course grade will either remain as a failing grade or as a withdrawal, depending upon the documentation a student is able to submit. If a student has failed the capstone, and it is determined to be caused by the student’s inability to use proper academic writing conventions, the student may be required to complete COLL501 or the ClearPath Graduate Writing modules prior to enrolling in a final attempt at the capstone course. See also the graduate resources in the APUS Library at Writing@APUS. Note: Each new attempt at a comprehensive exam or capstone requires the student register and pay for the new course. The student has the right to appeal issues related to the capstone process in line with the standard APUS appeals process by contacting academicappeals@apus.edu.

Second Readers Some programs require second readers for the thesis. The second reader will be chosen by the program director or school dean. The task of the second reader is to review the thesis using the program-approved rubric. The second reader will independently grade the work. Once the second reader has received the thesis, they have one week to review and respond to the thesis advisor. If the second reader’s evaluation does not concur with that of the thesis advisor, the paper will go to the appropriate program director or school dean to issue a decision about the final grade.mailto:academicappeals@apus.eduhttp://apus.libanswers.com/writing/faq/126691mailto:academicappeals@apus.edu

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Chapter III: Master’s Capstone: Creative/Applied Project

Note: Please check your academic plan to see if this option is available in your program.

The master’s creative/applied project provides an opportunity for students to • Create a discrete project, paper, exhibit, performance or other appropriate task

reflecting integration of knowledge acquired in academic and professional activities. • Identify an appropriate problem, issue, or question within the practice or application

of the discipline. • Analyze current tools available to solve the problem or improve professional practice,

comparing and contrasting to identify benefits and issues. • Justify the tool or process selected to address the problem, with support from the

academic and professional literature. • Contextualize and apply the chosen tool or process within professional practice. • Analyze the effectiveness and efficiency of the chosen tool or technique, and discuss

other possible ways the problem could have been solved. • Evaluate how this method of solving the problem will benefit others.

Beginning the Creative/Applied Project The course is tailored specifically to each graduate program and must be the last course master’s degree students take from APUS. The capstone course may be taken only after the completion of all coursework. That is, no concurrent coursework is permitted. Students must successfully complete this requirement before the award of a degree. Students must apply for graduation and have a minimum GPA of 3.0 in order to be able to register for the course.

Creative/Applied Project Proposal A formal creative/applied project proposal is required and shall be prepared in accordance with the standards of the academic discipline. The formal proposal must provide a clear and lucid description of a creative/applied project and must include a discussion of how that project is situated within the discipline. The proposal should explain the goal and intent of the project and convince the professor that the project fits within the discipline, can be completed in the allotted time, and comports with discipline standards. Please see the specific guidelines provided in your capstone course.

Proposal drafting is considered a learning process and helps the student avoid oversights and possible mistakes. It should show that the student has read the relevant and recent literature on the subject, and it should contain a list of materials consulted during the preliminary stages of research.

In general, the creative/applied project proposal should include background information related to the project topic, the purpose of the project, and investigatory procedures to be used. The formal proposal varies by the discipline and is often 5-10 pages (title page not

15

included). For further guidance on the format of the proposal see requirements within the classroom. An overview of the required components of master’s creative/applied project can be found in Appendix 2. Professors are not required to accept work that has not undergone this review process.

Completing the Creative/Applied Project Creative/applied project preparation entails a partnership between the student and the professor who is responsible for directing the intellectual content and activities of the project. The student and professor shall coordinate the process for the student to submit and receive feedback on project activities. The student also is encouraged to ask other APUS faculty and professionals and leaders in their field of study to volunteer to observe and provide feedback on project activities where these faculty members and professionals may have special expertise.

Notes:

• Self-plagiarism. The student must be careful not to self-plagiarize in their project. Self-plagiarism is “the presentation of one’s own previously published work as new scholarship.”4 Evidence of academic dishonesty found in a comprehensive exam or capstone paper will result in a grade of an F for the exam/course.

• Creative/applied project length and depth shall be in accordance with disciplinary standards and should demonstrate high-level synthesis and evaluation of program content.

• Formatting shall be in strict accordance with the End of Program Assessment Manual for Graduate Studies (EOP Manual) to ensure uniformity across the university.

• The citation approach and manuscript formatting is established by the program or school’s officially designated style manual; however, the following are required to follow the formats shown in Appendixes 4-8.

o Title page (required; Appendix 4) 5 o University publication license /Copyright Page (required; Appendix 5) o Dedication page (optional; Appendix 6) o Acknowledgements page (optional; Appendix 7) o Abstract of the capstone (required; Appendix 8)

4 Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. 2010. 6th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, pg. 16. Section 1.10 Plagiarism and Self-Plagiarism elaborates on the matter.

5 Papers using APA formatting should not include the running head on the title page.

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• The Table of Contents, List of Tables, and List of Figures should be formatted according to the program’s or school’s designated style manual with the following exceptions (see Appendixes 9-11 for examples).

o Dot leaders (periods between words and pages) are required. o Pages should be left justified. o Double space between entries. o Note: Hyperlinking to sections within the project can add ease to navigation.

• Style manuals are located in the APUS Library in the Writing@APUS website. • The project must also follow appropriate APUS Library declarations (see Chapter VII). • Appropriate stylistic formatting and documentation are the student’s responsibility.

Student papers that do not follow the prescribed style rules will not be accepted.

Approval of Creative/Applied Project Once a final project manuscript is approved by the capstone professor, the creative/applied project will be graded based on the standards in the creative/applied project rubric on a categorical scale of grades A+ through F. A grade of an A+ (or 96 percent) is the equivalent of the comprehensive exam designation of Passed with distinction (PWD). Thus, an A+ is only given to those works that demonstrate excellence in originality, research, argument, and/or expression. The creative/applied project that receives this grade must be of such high quality that it is potentially publishable in a discipline-appropriate academic or professional journal. All PWD papers must be reviewed and approved by the professor, second reader (if applicable), program director, school dean, and the Office of Graduate Studies. A passing grade for this course requires a B (80%) or better on the capstone project itself as well as in the capstone course.

Submission of Creative/Applied Project Report The last step in the project is to submit the final manuscript to the APUS Library. This is done by the program director and NOT the student.

All capstone papers are retained by the APUS Library. The program director must submit the student’s paper within one month of the course completion date. The student is responsible for ensuring that all spelling, grammar, citations, etc. are correct and appropriate. Instructor feedback comments should not appear in the final version submitted to the APUS Library. The student’s paper will be checked using a plagiarism detection tool before submission. See also the graduate writing resources in the APUS Library at Writing@APUS.

Exceptional works, those that received a grade of an A+, will be considered for publication in the APUS ePress Repository as examples of capstone projects that meet the highest level of distinction.http://apus.libanswers.com/writing/faq/126691http://apus.libanswers.com/writing/faq/126691https://apus.libguides.com/APUS_ePress/theses

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In order to have your project considered for inclusion, the project must: • have received a grade of A+ (i.e., equivalent of a Passed with distinction); • have been recommended and approved by the instructor, the program director, the

school dean, and the Office of Graduate Studies; and • include the Institutional Review Board (IRB) authorization documentation, if

appropriate.

Unsuccessful Capstone Attempts Students who have not successfully completed their capstone project during the period allowed for the capstone course may be allowed one extension opportunity to complete the requirement. However, students must have made significant progress on their capstone paper in order for the extension to be granted. Students who are permitted this opportunity will temporarily be issued an incomplete for the course and be allowed a 30-day extension to meet the requirements as outlined by the advisor. In order for students to be permitted any additional extensions on their original capstone course the faculty member must forward all second extension requests in the capstone course to academicappeals@apus.edu. The extension request will be reviewed by a committee of two that includes the dean of the student’s school and the Dean of Graduate Studies. In the event the students fails to meet the extension deadlines, the original capstone course grade will either remain as a failing grade, or as a withdrawal, depending upon the documentation a student is able to submit. If a student has failed the capstone, and it is determined to be caused by the student’s inability to use proper academic writing conventions, the student may be required to complete COLL501 or the ClearPath Graduate Writing modules prior to enrolling in a final attempt at the capstone course. See also the graduate writing resources in the APUS Library at Writing@APUS. Note: Each new attempt at a comprehensive exam or capstone requires the student register and pay for the new course. The student has the right to appeal issues related to the comprehensive examination in line with the standard APUS appeals process by contacting academicappeals@apus.edu.

Second Readers Some programs require second readers for the capstone. The second reader will be chosen by the program director or school dean. The task of the second reader is to review the capstone using the program-approved rubric. The second reader will independently grademailto:academicappeals@apus.eduhttp://apus.libanswers.com/writing/faq/126691mailto:academicappeals@apus.edu

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the work. Once the second reader has received the capstone, they have one week to review and respond to the capstone advisor. If the second reader’s evaluation does not concur with the capstone advisor, the paper will go to the appropriate program director or school dean to issue a decision about the final grade.

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Chapter IV: Master’s Capstone: Practicum and Critical Reflection Paper Note: Please check your academic plan to see if this option is available in your program.

The master’s practicum and critical reflection paper provide an opportunity for students to

• obtain professional experience in a focused area or discipline; • critically reflect on work experience in light of theory learned in class; • demonstrate mastery of the skills required of professionals in their discipline; and • culminate their master’s degree experience as they complete their master’s program

and either continue or begin working in their chosen profession.

Beginning the Practicum and Critical Reflection Paper The course is tailored specifically to each graduate program and must be the last course master’s degree students take from APUS. The capstone course may be taken only after the completion of all coursework. That is, no concurrent coursework is permitted. Students must successfully complete this requirement before the award of a degree. Students must apply for graduation and have a minimum GPA of 3.0 in order to be able to register for the course.

Practicum Proposal A formal practicum proposal is required and shall be prepared in accordance with the standards of the academic discipline. The formal proposal must provide a clear and lucid description of the practicum including the location or organization in which the practicum will be completed, a description of the 160 hours of work required to complete the practicum, the schedule and objectives for the work to be completed, and the name and title of the supervising staff member at the organization. In addition, the students will need to describe how completing this practicum is consistent with their course of study and articulate the objectives they hope to achieve through the completion of this practicum.

The proposal should explain the objectives to be learned and convince the practicum professor that the proposed practicum merits application and integration of learning for the student and specified degree. It should show that the student has read the relevant and recent literature related to the practicum selection, and it should contain a list of materials consulted during the preliminary stages as part of the rationale for doing the practicum in the identified organization.

In general, the practicum proposal should include background information related to the learning objectives, identification, selection, and background of the organization and work to be completed, purpose of the practicum, and critical reflection process procedures to be used during it. The formal proposal varies by discipline and is often 5-10 pages (title page not included). Proposal drafting is considered a learning process and helps the students

20

avoid oversights and possible mistakes. For further guidance on the format of the proposal see requirements within the classroom. An overview of the required components of a master’s practicum paper can be found in Appendix 3.

Completing the Practicum Practicum preparation entails a partnership between the student, an outside organization, and a supervising professor who is responsible for directing the intellectual content and activities of the practicum. One hundred sixty on-site hours are required for successful completion of the practicum. The practicum may not be completed in the student’s current reporting structure at work, and it is preferred that it be completed at an organization other than the student’s current place of employment.

Selecting an appropriate mentor in the workplace who will support the learning of the student in this process is critical to the successful completion of the practicum. The professor will provide guidelines for selecting a mentor and the mentor’s role in the practicum.

Students are required to keep a log or journal during the practicum and to write a critical reflection paper on this experience. The integration paper is generally between 25 and 30 pages and follows a method similar to David Kolb’s experiential learning style as the basis and method for writing the paper. Please see the specific guidelines in your practicum course. Completion of the reflection paper and formatting shall be directed by the professor. The student and professor shall coordinate the process for the student to submit and receive feedback on practicum activities and the critical reflection paper. The student also is required to obtain the mentor (see above) who will provide feedback on practicum activities. Outside faculty and other professionals’ opinions and feedback also may be sought, especially where faculty members and professionals have special expertise. Before consulting outside sources, be sure to consult your course instructor.

Notes:

• Self-plagiarism. The student must be careful not to self-plagiarize in their paper. Self- plagiarism is “the presentation of one’s own previously published work as new scholarship.”6 Evidence of academic dishonesty found in a comprehensive exam or capstone paper will result in a grade of an F for the exam/course.

6 Pub