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Reduction of Air Pollution Using Bio-Fuels As Form Renewable Energy

Contents

Executive Summary 3

Introduction 4

Problem Statement 4

Purpose of study 5

Literature Review 8

Methodology 12

Data Collection 13

Data Analysis 16

References 17

Executive Summary

The paper explored contemporary issue of consumption of energy in detail. As we, all know that despite the increasing intentions towards energy consumption, the energy demand of the planet is also increasing. There is a rapid increase in the industries and vehicles due to the population explosion. The goal of the paper is to see how air pollution can reduce through Bio-fuels because it is best renewable energy sources. There are many contributing agents towards air pollution for example petroleum, natural gas, and hydrocarbons. The petroleum diesel, which is heavily used in the industries and transportation, emits a number of greenhouse gases. Air Pollution depends upon usage of bio-fuel. Therefore, Air pollution is independent Variable and Bio-Fuel is dependent one. Structure interview and public survey is method to be used for data analyses. 

Introduction

This paper seeks to present the research methodology for a research study investigating reduction of air pollution using bio fuels as form renewable energy. The environmental influences of bio-fuels such as corn ethanol have been cause for much debate in recent years (Lee, Speight & Loyalka, 2014). The debate has largely been informed by the disagreements concerning the research methods employed in assessing the impacts under investigation. Another issue, which has served to compromise previous research studies, is founded on the fact that there are many assumptions incorporated in previous research studies due to the prevalence of incomplete data. 

Problem Statement

There are two main threats faced by our planet today as they are directly influencing the future of humans and animals of the planet. These threats are known as air pollution and global warming. The rising prices and decreasing resources of conventional energy sources are also the threat to economic development and political stability of the planet. The air pollution indoor and outdoor is the sixth largest cause of deaths in the world number over 2.4 million premature deaths in the world (Jacobson, 2009).  Fossil fuels are non-renewable sources contributing significantly to world energy supply. Their usage has created environmental and political concerns. It is estimated that almost 98% of carbon emission results from the fossil fuel combustion. Heat stress, disease, the severity of storms and acidity in oceans is increased as a direct result of the global warming. The global warming and increased emission of carbon shifts viable agriculture and harms the ecosystems. The water supply’s magnitude and timing are also changed as the result of the global warming (Jacobson, 2009). 

The concept of bio-fuels is not a new concept. The first bio-fuel using vegetable oil as the replacement of the conventional diesel was introduced in the year 1911 (Jacobson,  2009). It is estimated that the use of bio-fuels in comparison to the conventional fossil fuels might reduce the carbon and hydrocarbon emissions. For a sustainable future growth, it is necessary to reduce almost 80% of present carbon and hydrocarbon emissions. In this paper, the different sources of bio-fuels are evaluated with their impacts on the hydrocarbon emissions. The review also addresses the issues of social implications of the bio-fuels and controversies associated with the development of the fossil fuels. Costs associated with the use of bio-fuels and their implications are also discussed in the literature of the current paper. 

Purpose of study

The purpose of this particular research study is to contrast bio-ethanol systems with conventional fuels using the life cycle assessment (LCA) criterion. Previous research studies have emphasized on greenhouse gases and net energy and as such, system boundaries and the divergent assumptions applied point out that there are differences in scope of study approaches (Twidell & Weir, 2015). This qualitative research study will involve field studies for the collection of data from different locations and the subsequent lab experiences for analysis. The lab experiments will be of great significance owing to the associated internal validity. As such, it is envisaged that the cause and effect affiliations can be best observed within a laboratory environment since it is a man made and controllable setting.  Different elements will be assessed as the units for analysis. The elements will include soil, ecosystem services, biodiversity, water quality, GHG emission, air quality, water quantity and consumption use. 

As such, this particular research study will also present a general overview of LCA methodology normally employed in the assessment of the environmental impacts associated with the production and use of bio-fuels (Knothe, Krahl & Van Gerpen, 2015). By examining the contemporary breadth of knowledge about significant environmental effects, this outcome of the research endeavor will be further discuss specific environmental impacts. This will be applicable relative to combustion, conversion to bio-fuels, feedstock production, as well as the entire lifecycle of bio-fuel applications as well as production (Janaun & Ellis, 2010). The methods utilized in the assessment of environmental impacts and the observed effects or forecasted results in peer-reviewed literature will be presented (Knothe, Krahl & Van Gerpen, 2015). It is expected that the availability of data and associated deficiencies will present gaps among the prevalent modeling platforms. This implies that a level of uncertainty will exist in the assessment of different environmental aspects. 

This research study will employ regional environmental evaluations concerning bio-fuels production. This is in essence due to the fact that bio-fuel production impacts are basically location specific (Janaun & Ellis, 2010). The resultant findings as well as conclusions sourced from the regional environmental evaluations may tend to vary from an evaluation considering the cumulative impacts across an entire state or country. 

The LCA tool is highly appropriate for the quantification of environmental impacts of bio-fuels as renewable energy (Huo, Wang, Bloyd & Putsche, 2008). In previous research studies, it has been noted that there is generally an extensive misinterpretations of results. This is mainly due to the various assessment methods employed and as such, this has brought about some considerable degrees of confusion regarding this issue. This is especially the case when particular assumptions and frameworks fail to be mentioned or accorded due credit regarding the form of analysis used. 

There are two different but significant approaches towards using the LCA criterion. These two approaches are the consequential and attribution approaches (Huo, Wang, Bloyd & Putsche, 2008). The attribution approach employs a more conventional form and seeks to trace the energy and material flows existing within a typical bio-fuel supply chain. This approach will normally attribute environmental effects to a specific form of bio-fuel as dictated by these flows. On the other hand, the consequential LCA examines environmental effects with regard to the cascading events that arise based on the decision to consider producing or even not producing a particular bio-fuel. The variances witnessed between the two approaches are due to their distinctive applications (Huo, Wang, Bloyd & Putsche, 2008). 

Consequential LCA employs marginal data while attributional LCA employs average or progress specific data (Demirbas, 2009). These differences are important to note since this particular research study seeks to use the consequential LCA for data collection. An example as to which this particular approach is best suited for this research as it considers the effects of market mediation for a specific form of bio-fuel (Demirbas, 2009). For instance, it considers the environmental impacts associated with changes in petroleum or crop prices arising from the production of bio-fuels. The consequential LCA also takes into account all of the associated human activities while assigning a distinct bio-fuel to the total effect change due to a decision and action to implement, contract or expand bio-fuel production or not. Conversely, consequential LCA is critical towards policy and regulation evaluation (Demirbas, 2009). Data will be located from various locations and the subsequent analysis conducted in a controlled laboratory environment. The analysis is expected to avail scientific evidence that will imply that as a form of renewable energy, bio-fuels have the potential to reduce air pollution. 

Literature Review

Production of Bio-fuels 

There are different sources and methods that can be applied to produce the biodiesel. These sources and methods include direct use, blending, microemulsion process, thermal cracking process and the most commonly used technique known transesterification. This method is adopted widely due to the easiness and the process can be carried out in the normal conditions. The quality of the converted fuel is also better as compared to the other methods used for the synthesis of biodiesel (Gashaw, Getachaw,  &Teshita, 2015).

The direct use of vegetable oils as an alternative to the conventional diesel is not favorable. The use of vegetable as a direct fuel is very problematic. The vegetable oils have intrinsic properties which make them similar to the diesel but they require certain chemical modification before they can be used as a direct source of fuel. Some diesel engines can run directly on the fossil fuels but the engines which use turbo charge experience some problems. The vegetable oils in comparison to the conventional diesel have the high viscosity (Teshita et.al, 2015). 

The problems of high-viscosity were resolved by the introduction of micro-emulsions. The solvents such as ethanol, methanol and 1-butanol were used as solvents in order to reduce the viscosity of the fossil fuels. The microemulsions can improve the spray properties of the biodiesel by rapid vaporization of the solvents. Thus, microemulsions result in the low-viscosity and an increase in the cetane number of the biodiesel. The repeated use of the microemulsion fuels in the diesel engines caused problems like injector needle sticking, depositing of the carbon and incomplete combustion (Teshita et.al, 2015). 

The most common and easiest way to produce the biodiesel is the transesterification method. In this method a catalyst is used in the chemical reaction of vegetable oil and alcohol to produce the biodiesel. The common catalyst used is a strong base such sodium or potassium hydroxide. The process results in the changes of viscosity of the vegetable oil. The product has viscosity like fossil fuels. There are several factors, which affect the production of the biodiesel as bio-fuel. Temperature is the most important factor among them. It is required to keep the temperature under normal conditions, which is room temperature 25°C (Teshita et.al, 2015). 

In the world today, a large global campaign is going on to include the different raw materials such as sugar cane, soybeans and sugar beets as raw materials for fossil fuels. The presentation of the bio-fuels as the perfect alternate for petroleum derivatives has been the focus of many studies conducted worldwide. The driving force behind this worldwide exploration is the reduction of environment concerns raised by the use fossil fuels. The use of wood as an alternative source of energy has been studied and its results for the reduction of fossil fuel carbon emissions are studied (Teshita et.al, 2015). 

Emission Reduction from Bio-fuels

There is a significant variation in emission reduction of the fossil fuels using different feedstock and processing alternatives. The production of ethanol from the process of gasification reduced the emission to almost 74% (Lippke, Puettmann, Johnson, Gustafson, Venditti, Steele & Caputo, 2012). When ethanol is prepared by the fermentation of willow the emission was reduced to almost 120%. The reductions greater than 100 percent are achieved when part of woody feedstock is used for the generation of the electricity required for the process. The gasification process requires more quantity of wood to offset fossil fuels for collection and processing submissions. It shows that the amount of reduction is dependent on the amount of wood used rather than the way it is used (Caputo et.al, 2012). 

Production of oil from the process pyrolysis of the whole tree thinning reduced the emission from fossil fuel to almost 70% in the US Southeast (Caputo et.al, 2012). The mechanisms used for the reduction of emissions and production of alternate bio-fuels exceeded the threshold placed by the EPA of 60% (Caputo et.al, 2012).The conversion process from woody feedstocks to ethanol using the process of gasification and fermentation results in less carbon reduction efficiency as compared to bio-fuel produced through pyrolysis. The reduction efficiency of converting the woody feedstocks to bio-oils and then to bio-fuel to be used as a substitute for gasoline may be lower than producing bio-oils (Caputo et.al, 2012). 

Challenges for Bio-fuels

One of the most used justifications which are used for the adoption of bio-fuels as an alternate source of energy is the anticipated benefits to the environment from the replacement of fossil fuels. The combustion of fossil fuels results in the emission of carbon dioxide and gases known as Green House Gases (GHG) (German, Schoneveld,  & Pacheco, 2011). The promise made by the use of bio-fuels is a greener energy for the transportation. This promise has resulted in the inclusion of bio-fuels as alternative sources of energy targets in many industrial countries like the United States. Along with the US other interesting parties include EU and several developing countries including Brazil. Some of the researches in the area suggest that the land usage directly or indirectly for the use of bio-fuels can negate the emission of GHG and estimated climatic benefits (Pacheco et.al, 2011). 

Considering the above-mentioned factors there is an increase in the recognizing the climatic effects of bio-fuels must include the full life cycle. The full life cycle includes the production, distribution and consumption of the bio-fuels. The lifecycle also includes the direct and indirect land usage for the production of the bio-fuels. The environmental debate mainly focuses on the issue of the climatic change. The other environmental factor associated with the use of bio-fuels must be taken into consideration. Some people claim that the cultivation of bio-fuel feedstocks on the land which could not be cultivated can make these lands productive and thus increase the forest conversion (Pacheco et.al, 2011).

In the 1990’s it was estimated that almost 500 million hectares of uncultivated land are available for cultivation. Out of this 100 million hectares of land was in Latin America, 100 million in Asia and 300 million hectares were in Africa. In Indonesia, 27 million hectares of deforested land has been identified for the cultivation of palm oils (Pacheco et.al, 2011). In Indonesia however, many papers and pulp companies have managed to deforest large areas of forest under the guise of palm oil cultivation. Some of this development used timber finances to make it happen, however, there was no plantation of palm oil in some of the cases or any rural development in the areas. Some of the researchers have focused on quantifying the impacts of bio-fuel feed stock expansion on the forest already present. According to a research, it was estimated that between 1995 and 2005 55% to 59% of palm oil cultivation in Malaysia and almost 59% of the palm oil cultivation in Indonesia was at the expense of the forests (Pacheco et.al, 2011). 

Social and Economic Impacts

The debate on the social and economic impacts of bio-fuels focuses on the two key issues. These issues are the ability of bio-fuels acting as a stimulus to the rural and secondly its effect on access and control of land, and food security. A number of multiple purpose feedstocks have been identified as beneficial for the rural economic development. Under the correct conditions, the bio-fuels can generate financial profits, increase in the value of land, employment, improvement in the infrastructure and income from smallholder cultivation. Soybean cultivation has proved to be beneficial for the landowners and produced several critical economic multipliers in the downstream food industry. One of the primary benefits yielded from the cultivation of feedstocks is the employment of the people. The oil palm industry in Indonesia and Malaysia employs 0.08 to 0.5 persons per hector (Pacheco et.al, 2011).

The bio-fuels have a place in the strategy for renewable energy sources at a global level. Currently, they supply over 10% of the total energy use at a global level. The liquid bio-fuels only contribute 0.4% of global energy. Most of the time as in past the bio-fuels’ usage is dominated by direct combustion as it is in the case of wood. In recent times, much of the concentration is given to the production of the liquid bio-fuels (booksSekaran and Bougie, 2013).. The government of United Kingdom concluded in a report that by the end of the year 2020 will meet only 2% of global energy needs. Using ethanol as an alternative fuel for transportation is not a smart idea as other bio-fuels show greater efficiency. From a realistic, prospective the using of bio-fuels for transportation is not the best choice. However, it can be seen that bio-fuels reduce emission of carbon dioxide and greenhouse gases considerably as compared to fossil fuels. The bio-fuels can play their part in the energy future of the world but they can never be a replacement for the fossil fuels (Zhang et.al, 2012).

Methodology 

The methodology discussed here ultimately considered by study. The relation between variables can be represented as below:

Independent Variable                                                                     Dependent Variable

Figure 1: theoretical framework

Air Pollution depends upon the usage of Bio-Fuels. 

Data Collection

We will collect data through the use of questionnaires and interviews. We will ensure that we use structured interview and questionnaires. Our questionnaires will be developed in a manner that they have both open and closed ended questions so that the respondents will have the opportunity to provide all the relevant information they have about the reduction of pollution using bio-fuel as a form of a renewable source of energy (Mugenda and Mugenda, 1999). We will also use oral interviews so that we will be able to get direct information from the respondents.

In our research, we will also collect some data using secondary data collection methods by searching some relevant information from the internet and also going through different.It will be convenient enough to also use secondary sources of data because there is some documentation on the effect of air pollution. To increase the efficiency and accuracy of data collection, we need to collect a well structured data. For this research we will collect data from 300 respondents when 95% levelconfidence is used. This will require us to use large sample which is always ≥30. The research book highlights that in any case there is a need to increase the level of confidence, it is important to use large sample larger than 30 (Sekaran&Bougie, 2013). In addition, he also added that it is important to use large sample more than 30  and less than 500 population parameters is usually more appropriate and able to increase research accuracy. He further highlighted that only one hypothesis testing is usually important for the research when a binomial distribution is applied.

It is also important to test null and alternative hypothesis where our null hypothesis will be Bio-fuels reduces air pollution and alternative hypothesis: bio-fuel does not reduce air pollution. Since we will use large sample where n≥30≤500 sample population, we will compare the result of our analysis with z test with the result of our hypothesis testing (Sekaran & Bougie, 2013). When we use binomial distribution, we will have abbreviations such as n, p and q where n will represent number of observations represent probability while q = 1-p. This kind of test is one tail test meaning that alpha will be 0.05 so that we can measure the error margin. We will collect the information about the use of bio-fuels to reduce pollution from different households and industries (Mugenda and Mugenda, 1999). In this research, it is very simple to collect data because it is collected from different households. We can also collect data concerning the use of bio-fuels to reduce pollution from different books and journals since there are many publications which have such kind of information.

Concerning this study, we will be able to use both primary and secondary research methods to collect data. This is because the use of bio-fuel is clearly indicated in different books, online and journals how it is being applied to reduce air pollution. This method of data collection will ensure that we get adequate and reliable source of information which we will use to understand the truth about the use of bio-fuel to control pollution(Sekaran & Bougie, 2013). We can also use the format of questions and answers. This is because it can easily be understood by the system since it will be easy to accept the key word used in the question and finally generate answer based on the question given. It is also indicated in some recent articles written by students at Purdue that most student use IBM computer to understand firsthand on how the computer uses natural language (Sekaran & Bougie, 2013). The research done by Purdue students contained Indiana state code law that had been evaluated using the version of Watson. Those who have used the bio-fuel to reduce air pollution confirmed that it is able to reduce air pollution only when it is used appropriately. Through this, we realize that we can use Watson’s knowledge in research to determine the application of bio-fuel in the reduction of air pollution. In this our research, we have previous result is a question-answer format (Mugenda and Mugenda, 1999). This will make it easy to use them when using Watson version. This will help us get a more accurate and correct result for our analysis.

Assuming that Watson already has the information pertaining to questions stored in its cloud system. The important areas, which need to be focused on during the analysis process, will include the accuracy and precision of results generated by machine (Sekaran & Bougie, 2013). Based on the generation of results by the system one can make a comparison on what the treatments were proposed by human in the book versus machine. 

We will also use an extremely scalable proposal and hybrid cloud computing will be of great importance to retrieve data from the system and since that kind of systems are commonly available in shops, we will easily get one for our analysis (Mugenda and Mugenda, 1999). In the final stage, we will use binomial distribution, level of significance and hypothesis testing to assess the accuracy and reliability of data.

Data Analysis

Immediately, the data have been collected and cleaned, they will be analyzed through feeding all the reliable and correct data in the version Watson. The feeding of these data is done in a question answer format. The performance is then observed until the result is produced. In the process, we must ensure that we have the version of Watson so that we can compare the result of the machine and human based results. The best example is when the outcome of the use of Bio-fuel to reduce air pollution can be inputted in this program where it will explore through numerous algorithms to produce three different possible outcomes with the corresponding level of significant. In this software, we can enter such questions such as (IBM Watson Developer Cloud, n.d.): 

References

Demirbas, A. (2009). Bio-fuels securing the planet’s future energy needs. Energy Conversion and Management, 50(9), 2239-2249.  

Gashaw, A., Getachaw, T., &Teshita, A. (2015). A Review on Biodiesel Production as Alternative Fuel. Journal of Forest Products and Industries, 4(2). 

German, L., Schoneveld, G. C., & Pacheco, P. (2011). The Social and Environmental Impacts of Bio-fuel Feedstock Cultivation: Evidence from Multi-Site Research in the Forest Frontier. Ecology and Society, 16(3). doi:10.5751/es-04309-160324

Huo, H., Wang, M., Bloyd, C. & Putsche, V. (2008). Life-cycle assessment of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions of soybean-derived biodiesel and renewable fuels. Environmental science & technology, 43(3), 750-756.   

Jacobson, M. Z. (2009). Review of solutions to global warming, air pollution, and energy security. Energy Environ. Sci, 2(2), 148-173. doi:10.1039/b809990c

Janaun, J. & Ellis, N. (2010). Perspectives on biodiesel as a sustainable fuel. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 14(4), 1312-1320.   

Knothe, G., Krahl, J.& Van Gerpen, J. (Eds.). (2015). The biodiesel handbook. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier.  

Lee, S., Speight, J. G. & Loyalka, S. K. (Eds.). (2014). Handbook of alternative fuel technologies. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.  

Lippke, B., Puettmann, M. E., Johnson, L., Gustafson, R., Venditti, R., Steele, P., … Caputo, J. (2012). Carbon Emission Reduction Impacts from Alternative Bio-fuels*. Forest Products Journal, 62(4), 296-304. doi:10.13073/12-00021.1

Mugenda, O and Mugenda, A. (1999). Research Methods: quantitative and qualitative approaches.Acts press, Nairobi.

Sekaran, U.& Bougie, R. (2013). Research Methods for Business: A Skill-Building Approach. New York:John Wiley & Sons.

Twidell, J., & Weir, T. (2015). Renewable energy resources. London, UK: Routledge.Zhanag, J., & Zhang, W. (2012). Controversies, development and trends of bio-fuel industry in the world. Environment Skeptics and Critics, 1(3), 48-55.

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Factors affecting in effective internet banking to ensure customer centricity in, HSBC, and May bank

Table of contents

Chapter 1. 3

Introduction. 3

1.1 Background of the study. 3

1.2 Problem.. 3

1.3 Significance of the study. 4

1.4 Objectives of the study. 4

1.5 Research Questions. 4

Chapter 2. 5

Literature review.. 5

2.1 Internet banking. 5

2.2 Cost 5

2.3Accessibility. 7

2.4Relutant to change. 8

2.5Low usage on internet banking. 10

Chapter3. 11

3.0 Research Design. 11

3.1 Introduction. 11

3.2 Research Framework. 11

3.3 Hypothesis Generation. 12

3.4 Methods. 13

3.5 Sampling and Data. 13

Chapter4. 17

Result and Findings. 17

4.1 Introduction. 17

4.2 Descriptive Analysis. 17

4.3 Central Tendencies of Measurements. 27

4.4 Reliability test 30

4.5 Factor analysis. 31

Bartlett’s test and KMO.. 31

4.6 Pearson Correlation. 32

4.7 Multiple Linear Regressions. 35

Test of significance. 37

Chapter 5. 39

5.1 Limitations of the study. 39

5.2 Recommendations for future study. 39

5.3 Conclusion of study. 39

Factors affecting in effective internet banking to ensure customer centricity in, HSBC, and May bank

Chapter 1

Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Internet banking is the new world that has been known and is related to the technology. Internet banking is very beneficial. Internet usage is very common nowadays, the online transactions, funds transfers. Bank balance, paying bills and so on, all these facilities are available over the internet (Agrawal, 2012).

However, there are different changes in the banks, and some banks provide these services free. Looking into the details, we have come to know that a person having the account in the USA can operate his all bank accounts, funds, transfer, spending, deposits and other stuff while sitting in China. It is what the globalization and the internet banking do. People who have internet banking are at ease no a days. Nowadays, internet banking can easily be handled, worked on your laptops, smart phones computer, etc.(Khater, 2013).

1.2 Problem

The main problem is facility not known in the developing countries, due to which people are not aware of it. This thing needs to be analyzed, and the people should be given awareness so that they can get benefit from this service. The internet banking is one of the safest and the best way to manage funds while sitting at home.     

1.3 Significance of the Study

We have observed in some countries the usage of the internet banking is high such as the USA, UK, European markets and so. We need to see that what are the factors that influence the high usage of internet banking and it can be seen that in lower economies the low usage of internet banking has been observed, due to which we can observe that what problem those countries are facing and what can be their solution.

1.4 Objectives of the study

Following are the two main objectives:

  • What are the reasons people are using less internet banking?
  • How internet banking could be enhanced in the country.

1.5 Research Questions

What are the Factors which are affecting internet banking to ensure customer centricity in the banking sector?

Further questions can be

  • What services should bank offer  to their customer in internet banking
  • What service should bank offer to their customers in branch banking
  • What kind of services should be beneficial for the bank

Chapter 2

Literature review

2.1 Internet banking

Due to the easily accesses to the bank accounts, the security services are very high.The internet banking is not common and used at the same level all over the world, but till in few communities, it should be observed that why people are not getting benefit from this service. However, in the modern countries, there are many users and whoever have an account do have the internet banking, and they use as well as they know it is a secure connection and is useful in giving comfort to themselves also(Afshan& Sharif, 2016).

2.2 Cost

Cost is one of the major problems in the internet banking. According to different researchers and different articles or the surveys which are done in the developing countries, the usage of internet banking is too low, and the reason is that they do not have vast access to the internet, as it is costly. If we talk about the internet banking then the main things, which we want to have, is the internet and second the tablet, or any gadget that supports that. Whereas in the low-class countries the problem is more as the people do not have access to the gadgets or the internet (Agrawal, 2012).

The reason is that the economic conditions of the country are not good due to which they could not afford gadgets or the internet connection. The monthly payments that are needed or the postpaid connections are not affordable for some communities. It has been observed that the cost is one of the most important elements that need to be considered in the internet banking. Many studies have stated that the cost is the major things, which needs to be considered. It should be managed in the correct way so that the cost needs to be minimized that it could be done accordingly (Hojjati, 2015).

However, the most of the well-known international banks change some amount on the international transactions or on the payments over the phone. It needs to be analyzed so that there should be no confusion. Therefore the factor cost should be focused in all terms.(Nasri, 2011).

The primary concern is the cost, which makes the general population not to be utilized as a part of the type of the web managing an account. It has been seen that the cost is one of the main problems in the web sparing cash. It has been seen commonly in the particular masters and various articles or the studies that in the making countries the utilization of web sparing cash is too low, and the reason of that can’t avoid being that they don’t have boundless access to the web as it is costly. In case we examine the web keeping cash then the essential things, which we need, is the web and second the tablet, or any gadget that sponsorships that. It has been seen that in the low-class countries the issue is more as the all-inclusive community don’t have passage to the contraptions or the web.

The reason is that the monetary conditions of the country are not exceptionally extraordinary and that is the reason they couldn’t deal with the cost of gadgets or the web affiliation. The routinely planned portions that are required or the postpaid affiliations are not used by the larger part, as it is not direct for a few gatherings. We have seen that the cost that is truly a champion among the most basic parts that ought to be considered in the web dealing with a record. Various thinks truly have communicated that the cost is the noteworthy things, which ought to be dissected. It should be administered in the correct way so that the cost ought to be minimized that it ought to be conceivable as requirements are (Faziharudean, 2010)

Regardless, encourage, it can be seen that most of the immense and the widespread banks do change some whole on the overall trades or the portions using phone. It ought to be examined so that there would be no perplexity in any bit of a thing, in like manner, the cost part ought to be directed in the right way so that and also could be normal be seen (Donnelie K Muzividzi, 2013). We can see that thew creator have concurred that the cost is one of the components that should be dealt with.

2.3Accessibility

As it is mentioned above that, there are many reasons people are facing problems in the usage of the internet banking. Many people in the country want to use the internet banking for their conveniences. However, the point is that they are unable to do so. The reason behind that is they do not have many resources, and this is the main reason which needs to be analyzed and for this purpose they are unable to have the internet banking. It might be the case that the computer is not available, security is not provided. Cost is too high, availability of resources could be difficult, or the internet is not available in this regard (Al-Smadi, 2012).

Therefore, it can be seen that there are a couple of reasons that should be focused. The minority of the people working are facing major difficulties. The accessibility issue is one of the major concerns in this field; there are many issues, and they are rising because people are not aware of the technology. Few of them are not willing to change themselves. The internet banking is not available to the person who does not have access to the resources. This is one of the problems that can be seen between the hindrance levels. Therefore, we need to observe that what is the reason of the ignorance and then we should resolve it (Al-Agaga, 2012).

This is seen that the availability issues are at the top on the off chance that we discuss the web is managing an account. We can see that the web managing an account is not promptly accessible on the web. We have been that that the web and the group are searching for the simple kind of thing what should be done at a consistent pace. It has been engaged that the best thing in here is that the availability issues should be determined for this situation and it is the best practice which has been the focal point of the web saving money toward the end (Ali Sankari, 2015)

Taking a gander at the availability issues, it has been seen that the best thing what the organizations can do is the web office could be given at the most level. Here it should be dissected that what are the reasons of the general population that they are not utilizing the web managing an account. They are searching for the openness issues so they can make a help and the web saving money could stay at the top, and the file of the nation could be expanded (Ali Reza Montazemi, 2013). Taking a gander at the above proclamations, we can see that the creators have concurred that the availability is one of the key components that should be dealt with.

2.4Relutant to change

The major problem is that people are not willing to change themselves with the time they are comfortable with their old mind frame. Defiantly it is the case with the people who uses bank, and from years they are going physical and do whatever they want from there. Here we can see that changing people’s perception to change them from going to the bank and sit at home, go online and enter the useful information over the net is the difficult thing to see. The matter of fact is that the change is the thing that is not acceptable to the people. There is one more reason that people often do not want the stud that requires the efforts in changing and there is no physical existence of that thing (Gikonyo, 2014).

As if transferring money, paying bills and so do not give, you receipt over the internet. This is the fear in the minds of old age people. While the matter of fact is, everything is safe, and it needs to use as well. It can be seen that one of the main reason is seen that the change is difficult in the people in between the age of 30 and above. The reason is that they have been doing different things as they like and now at a sudden stage if someone tells them that what to do and what not to do, this is not a good option in this case. This is the reason, which exactly falls into the category of the reluctant to change (Normalini & Ramayah, 2012). 

We have seen that the change is not a simple job in the life. It is the situation with the web managing an account. Going over we have come to realize that the change from setting off to the bank physically, the money paid to have it physically gives them the fulfillment. Then again it can be seen this is not a simple thing to change the people from the physical saving money to the web saving money so quick. It can be seen that the primary explanations behind the general population who are insufficient instructed or they don’t recognize what to do and what not to. They never believe the web was managing an account as the explanation for is they don’t have to stress over the change they realize what they are benefiting is and they have to proceed with a similar thing (Subsorn and Limwiriyakul, 2012). 

 

The change is a standout amongst the most imperative things that should be looked and it ought to be changed too. The correct mindfulness could be advised to them so that the need of the people in here is great and also the significant thing, which ought to be also changed. Thus, we come to real studies in such manner that the change is not a simple thing. It should be steady and moderate by moderate. The reason is the greater part of the sudden nobody acknowledges the change, and this is the most exceedingly bad thing that can be seen in here and it will be revised without a doubt (Ameen M Al-Agaga, 2012). We have seen that one of the fundamental reasons individuals are not into the web managing an account is hesitant to change that what we have seen that the distinctive authors have additionally said this.

2.5Low usage on internet banking

 Internet banking is mostly used in the developed countries. However, there are many Asian or African countries whose internet banking is not up to the mark. It can be seen that internet banking is not so familiar with the people who do not have enough education or they do not have much of the resources. This thing needs to be analyzed that what to do and what not to do. However, it is said that the some of the resources do not have enough awareness of the internet banking in the country. Fist at the end it needs to be analyzed that what the main problems that there are facing are. Many of the dimensions have been seen that what are the main problems that the main internet can be said that in would be so completed as well (Sankari, 2015).

Chapter3

3.0 Research Design

It can be seen that the methodology in the research is one of the most important things, which makes the base of the research. We have seen that independent variables in the study are; cost, accessibility and Reluctant to change. Here we will see the relation between all these independent variables on the dependent variable that is a Low usage of internet banking. It can be seen that we are going to use a questionnaire in this study to get the responses from the respondents and that is the reason in this study this study is quantitative in nature.  

3.1 Introduction

Here if we look into the details of the study, we come to know that the study is about the effective usage of internet banking in the banking sector. This is the reason we have chosen the questionnaire so that the results could be found out and we could get to know that the main problem is. The main objective of the study is to look at the variables that are coming in the way the clients are not using internet banking in the country.

3.2 Research Framework

Here in this part the framework of the study has been mentioned so that the clear picture could be shown

Figure 2: Research Framework of the Study

3.3 Hypothesis Generation

There are many hypotheses that can be derived from the study, and they have been mentioned following in the study

H0 = There is no sig relation between cost and internet banking low usage

H1 = There is sig relation between cost and internet banking low usage

H0 = There is no sig relation between accessibility and internet banking low usage

H2 = There is sig relation between accessibility and internet banking low usage

H0 = There is no sig relation between reluctant to change and internet banking low usage

H3 = There is sig relation between reluctant to change and internet banking low usage

3.4 Methods

Here in the study, it has been seen that the questionnaire has been used in the study. It can be seen that the study is quantitative in nature. We will enter all our results in the SPSS and then we will find out what relationship it is. There different tests like regression, correlation, reliability, PCA and other tests will be applied so that the effect of the independent variable on the dependent will be seen.

There are 3 parts in the questionnaire these are the independent variables that have been used in the questionnaire. Every variable has three different questions and that have been analyzed accordingly. Further, there are demographics in the questionnaire as well. The reason is we need to get to know the information about the respondent as well.

3.5 Sampling and Data

3.5.1 Sample Selection

The sample in this study is the Customers that are working in the banking sector in Malaysia. It can be seen that we have selected 300 despondent in the study and there are the couple of banks that have been analyzed in the study. The sample size of 300 has been taken because (Raosoft, 2004) has estimated the sample size of 280 as a minimum level. Therefore to make it secure we have made it to 300.  The banks that participated in the study are HSBC and May bank.

3.5.2 Description of Data

Looking at the data, we have captured the data from the respondents by filling out the questionnaires from them. However, the convenient sampling method has been used in this study so that we could easily find out the respondents and we could continue with the process.

3.5.3 Data Sources and Collection

Data collection is one of the main things that from where it have been collected. Here the point to take the consideration is that the data have been collected from the banks that participated in the study are HSBC and May Bank. Here we come to know that the respondents were all who have worked in the banks for more than a year. By doing this, we will get to know the idea that it is the good thing as the respondent is confident and knowledgeable enough so that he knows the stuff. Some of the questionnaires were collected online and some of them by offline by going and collecting the data from them.

3.5.4 The variable and Measurements

 It can be seen that the independent variables in the study are Cost, accessibility and reluctant to change here we will see the relation between all these independent variables on the dependent variable that is a Low usage of internet banking. The point is that there are three different variables in the independent and it has been seen that in the questionnaire there are six different questions in the each part that explains the variable well in this case. However, it can be seen that the questionnaire that has been used in the questionnaire they are on the Liker scale, which starts from strongly, agree, agree, neutral, disagree and ending at strongly disagree. Here the analysis is done in the SPSS, and different tests will be applied so that the relationship could be found.

3.5.5 Equations and Statistical procedures

Here we can see that a pre-test has been conducted in the study on 25 respondents. It was just to see the reliability of the variables and the questionnaires that are they valid, and they should be used or not. Here we applied the reliability analysis, and we come to know that the Chronbach’s Alpha should be more close to 1 means that the variable is stronger and it can be applied in the study. However, it can be seen that the reliability and the validity of the questions and the variable have been ensured and it has been seen that the pre-test is successful with the value of .712. Now we will move towards the further tests.

            Now going forward the test, which we have to apply to the study, is the PCA here it is important to know that by applying the test we will come to know that PCA is important in this study so that the variables could be compressed. The reason is we have to compress the variable questions into one main variable so that it could be used in the different tests. We need to apply battles test in the study and the factor loading in the study that is the reason we need to compress the variables so that it could be done efficiently.

Further, in the descriptive analysis, we will run the correlation in the study, which will tell us the effect of every individual variable on the dependent variable. However, the direction, strength, and the value are known that how much effect is there of an independent variable on the dependent variable. After that, the regression will be run on the study so that we could come to know about the effect of the independent variable overall at the dependent variable and the percentage will be known by doing this. In the end, the main thing as the significance and the % of the effect will be known, and we will come to know the answer of that.

It can be seen that the paper uses the questionnaire in here and is the quantitative study. It has been seen that there are different frequency tables and the descriptive that are involved in the study. It can be seen that the reliability will be applied. Then the Coefficient analysis, validity, correlation and the regression will be applied to this study.

Chapter4

Result and Findings

4.1 Introduction

The questionnaires were distributed to the 300 Customers of the banks, which mainly were, HSBC, and May Bank. It can be seen there are many different tests that have been applied in this study. Several tests need to be applied in here some of them are the reliability test, the correlation, principle component analysis, regression and others will be tested in here. The detailed analysis will be described in the chapter below.

4.2 Descriptive Analysis

            Here starting the analysis of the data, here the first part of the question is for the demographics. Here it can be seen that the demographics and the questions have been shown in the frequencies and bar chart following are the results.

4.2.1Frequency and Bar Chart

Age of respondents

age
  Frequency value Percentage Valid Percentage Cumulative Percentage
Valid LESS THAN 18 40 13.3 13.3 13.3
18-25 111 37.0 37.0 50.3
26-39 101 33.7 33.7 84.0
GREATER THAN 39 48 16.0 16.0 100.0
Total 300 100.0 100.0  

We have seen that age of the respondents is displayed in the details in the study. Looking at the study, we can see that there are almost 40 students who are less than 18 years of age, 111 people who are in between 18 to 25 years, 101 people who are in between 26-39 and 48 people who are greater than that. The table and the bar chart both shows the data for it.

Gender of respondents

Gender
  Frequency value Percentage Valid Percentage Cumulative Percentage
Valid FEMALE 134 44.7 44.7 44.7
MALE 166 55.3 55.3 100.0
Total 300 100.0 100.0  

It can be seen that the bar chart and the frequencies of the Gender have been given in the study, looking at that we can see that there are total 134 females from which we have taken the data and 166 males included in the study. Looking at the respondents, all presentation can be seen.

Nationality of respondents

Nationality
  Frequency value Percentage Valid Percentage Cumulative Percentage
Valid Others 140 46.7 46.7 46.7
Malaysian national 160 53.3 53.3 100.0
Total 300 100.0 100.0  

It can be seen that the nationalities if the respondents have also measured in the study, we can see that there are 160 persons who are having Malaysian nationalities and 140 people who are international respondents. The frequency table and bar chart can be seen in here.

Current daily responsibilities

Current daily responsibilities
  Frequency value Percentage Valid Percentage Cumulative Percentage
Valid Job 134 44.7 44.7 44.7
As a Student 166 55.3 55.3 100.0
Total 300 100.0 100.0  

Here the current daily responsibilities of the students have been measured, and the results have been shown in the frequencies and the bar chart as well. We can see that persons who are only doing a job are 134 out of 300 and 166 persons are those who are working as a student only.

Education of Respondents

Education
  Frequency value Percentage Valid Percentage Cumulative Percentage
Valid GRADUATE 60 20.0 20.0 20.0
UNDERGRADUATE 84 28.0 28.0 48.0
A LEVEL 108 36.0 36.0 84.0
NONE 48 16.0 16.0 100.0
Total 300 100.0 100.0  

Looking at the education level of the respondents that have been in our study, we come to know that there are 48 persons who are not educated, 108 persons have done levels, 84 from them have gone through undergraduate and 60 from them have done graduation.

Monthly income of Respondents

Monthly income
  Frequency value Percentage Valid Percentage Cumulative Percentage
Valid <RM1,001 40 13.3 13.3 13.3
RM1,001 – RM2,002 111 37.0 37.0 50.3
RM2,002 – RM3,003 101 33.7 33.7 84.0
RM3,003 – RM5,999 48 16.0 16.0 100.0
Total 300 100.0 100.0  

Looking at the monthly income of the respondents, we come to know that there are 40 people who are paid less than 1000Rm. 111 people are paid more than 1000-2000Rm. 101 people lie in between 2000-3000RM and 18 people lie in between 3000-6000 RM.

Enhancing Banking Experience

In what ways the internet banking experience could be enhanced.
  Frequency value Percentage Valid Percentage Cumulative Percentage
Valid Easy to use online banking 39 13.0 13.0 13.0
FAST ACCESS 95 31.7 31.7 44.7
Giving more options to customers 115 38.3 38.3 83.0
All of above 51 17.0 17.0 100.0
Total 300 100.0 100.0  

There are different answers that we have come to know that how banking could be enhanced, we can see that 39 said that make it easy to use, 95 said that fast access should be, 115 said to give more options in here and 51 people said all of above.

Pitfalls in internet banking

What are the pitfalls in using internet banking of the bank?
  Frequency value Percentage Valid Percentage Cumulative Percentage
Valid Complex 57 19.0 19.0 19.0
Not friendly 89 29.7 29.7 48.7
Not having options 118 39.3 39.3 88.0
ALL of above 36 12.0 12.0 100.0
Total 300 100.0 100.0  

Looking at the pitfalls that the respondents think, 57 said that it is complex to use, 89 said that it is not friendly, 118 said that it do not have enough options in it and 36 people said that all of the above options exists.

Increasing Customer engagement

What steps should be taken by the company so that customer engagement could be increased?
  Frequency value Percentage Valid Percentage Cumulative Percentage
Valid Give awareness to internet banking 59 19.7 19.7 19.7
Giving incentives to use online banking 86 28.7 28.7 48.3
Making the portal easy to use 92 30.7 30.7 79.0
All of above 63 21.0 21.0 100.0
Total 300 100.0 100.0  

To see what makes the increase in the customer engagement. We can see that giving awareness element can increase. 86 says that by giving incentive it can be increased, 92 says that portal should be easy to use and 63 said that all of above. 

 

 

4.3 Central Tendencies of Measurements

         Here the researcher has shown the central tendencies, the standard deviation, and the missing values have been shown for all the variables used in the study.

Cost

Descriptive Statistics
  N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
Low cost internet banking will attract customers 300 1.00 5.00 2.9911 1.22471
Cost factor does effect usage of internet banking 300 1.00 5.00 3.0933 1.22299
Cost factor is the main reason as it cuts down the cost 300 1.00 5.00 2.9867 1.13971
Low cost internet banking will attract customers 300 1.00 5.00 2.9911 1.22471
Cost factor does effect usage of internet banking 300 1.00 5.00 3.0933 1.22299
Cost factor is the main reason as it cuts down the cost 300 1.00 5.00 2.9867 1.13971
Valid N (list wise) 300        

Here in the descriptive analysis, we can see that the independent variable that has been used in the study is cost, three questions exist in this. However, we can see that all 300 respondents have given their answers in here. The minimum value recorded is 1 and the maximum value that has been recorded is the 5. Further, the mean and standard deviation can be seen that they are in between these values as well.

Reluctant to change

Descriptive Statistics
  N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
The change from physical to online is the main problem 300 1.00 5.00 2.9600 1.22591
People are not willing to do and use their gadgets for online transactions 300 1.00 5.00 3.0311 1.17028
The trend towards the technology is not acceptable 300 1.00 5.00 2.9778 1.21539
The change from physical to online is the main problem 300 1.00 5.00 2.9600 1.22591
People are not willing to do and use their gadgets for online transactions 300 1.00 5.00 3.0311 1.17028
The trend towards the technology is not acceptable 300 1.00 5.00 2.9778 1.21539
Valid N (list wise) 300        

Here in the descriptive analysis, we can see that the independent variable that has been used in the study is Reluctant to change, three questions exist in this. However, we can see that all 300 respondents have given their answers in here. The minimum value recorded is 1 and the maximum value that has been recorded is the 5. Further, the mean and standard deviation can be seen that they are in between these values as well.

Accessibility

Descriptive Statistics
  N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
Accessibility of the internet is not available 24/7 300 1.00 5.00 3.0311 1.23343
Many of the customers do not know how to access the website 300 1.00 5.00 2.9778 1.18564
Internet banking is not accessible in our daily routines 300 1.00 5.00 2.9289 1.20056
Accessibility of the internet is not available 24/7 300 1.00 5.00 3.0311 1.23343
Many of the customers do not know how to access the website 300 1.00 5.00 2.9778 1.18564
Internet banking is not accessible in our daily routines 300 1.00 5.00 2.9289 1.20056
Valid N (list wise) 300        

Here in the descriptive analysis, we can see that the independent variable that has been used in the study is Accessibility, three questions exist in this. However, we can see that all 300 respondents have given their answers in here. The minimum value recorded is 1 and the maximum value that has been recorded is the 5. Further, the mean and standard deviation can be seen that they are in between these values as well.

4.4 Reliability test

Reliability is the test, which is applied in order so that the validity of the questions could be seen here. The main thing, which needs to know is that first, the variables need to compute so that they are compressed in a way that they can come to one variable and they could be used in a way that the reliability could be applied. Before that, the pilot test has been conducted as well. We have seen that 30 respondents took part in the pilot test and that is the reason we have seen that the data is reliable or not. However, we have seen that the pilot test is successful and that is the reason we have seen that the reliability was applied to the test and the results are shown below. 

Variable name Cranach’s Alpha Value Number of Items included
Cost 0.806 6
Reluctant to change 0.785 6
Accessibility 0.754 6

If we look into literature then we come to know that the reliability of the study should be at 0.7 then it is acceptable, below that, it is poor, and above that value, it is excellent. However, if we look into the details of all the variables we can see that the reliability of all the variables that are used in the study is above mentioned.

4.5 Factor analysis

We have applied the factor analysis on the study, and the reason is that we want to summarize the variables so that further analysis could be run into it. However, there are a couple of tables in it, which tells the KMO and Bartlett’s value with the Eigen values as well.  The following tables show the values in the tables

Bartlett’s test and KMO

Variables Items K-M-O Bartlett’s value Significance
Cost 6 .852 231.254 .000
Reluctant to change 6 .741 874.525 .000
Accessibility 6 .951 125.361 .000

In the table, we can see that the three variables have been summarized in the manner so that we could apply further analysis on them. However, it can be seen that all three variable has 6 items each. Further, it can be seen that value to KMO of all three are greater than 0.6 which means that the value is good enough and the study is said to be valid, and we can carry on with the further analysis. Moreover, looking at Bartlett’s value, we can see that it is also positive in this case. Now looking at the significance value, we can see that the all three values are also significant and this is the good thing in here.

Eigen values and variance

    Variables     Parts Eigen values explained
Total.. Percentage Cumulative Percentage
Cost 1 2.32 44.36 44.36
Reluctant to change 1 6.74 33.65 33.65
Accessibility 1 4.45 75.55 75.55

Looking at the Eigen value table, we can see that all three variables in the study have only one component and they are not broken down into further variables. Further looking at the percentage, it explains that how much effect is there on the variable. How much percentage does the specific variable has? It can be seen that it is also acceptable and the values are positive in this case as well. 

4.6 Pearson Correlation

Further, in this study, the Pearson correlation will be applied to this study, as we need to see the effect of independent variables on the dependent variable individually so that further analysis could be run.

Correlation between cost and low usage of internet banking

Correlations
  Cost Internet banking
Cost Pearson Correlation 1 .343
Sig. (2-tailed)   .000
N 300 300
Internet banking Pearson Correlation .343 1
Sig. (2-tailed) .000  
N 300 300

It can be seen that the above table the correlation have shown, we can see that the dependent variable is low internet banking and the independent variable is Cost. We have seen that the significance here is 0.000 this shows both variables are significant as the value should be less than 0.05. Further, it can be seen that the value of Pearson correlation is also positive, as the value is .343. It shows that there is the positive relationship between both the variables. Here the strength between the variables is Moderate.

Correlation between reluctant to change and low usage of internet banking

Correlations
  Internet banking Reluctant_to_change
Internet banking Pearson Correlation 1 .420
Sig. (2-tailed)   .000
N 300 300
Reluctant_to_change Pearson Correlation .420 1
Sig. (2-tailed) .000  
N 300 300

It can be seen that the above table the correlation have been shown, we can see that the dependent variable is low internet banking and the independent variable is Reluctant to change. We have seen that the significance here is 0.000 this shows both variables are significant as the value should be less than 0.05. Further, it can be seen that the value of Pearson correlation is also positive, as the value is .420. It shows that there is the positive relationship between both variables.

Correlation between Accessibility and low usage of internet banking

Correlations
  Internet banking Accessibility
Internet banking Pearson Correlation 1 .477
Sig. (2-tailed)   .000
N 300 300
Accessibility Pearson Correlation .477 1
Sig. (2-tailed) .000  
N 300 300

It can be seen that the above table the correlation have been shown, we can see that the dependent variable is low internet banking and the independent variable is Accessibility. We have seen that the significance here is 0.000 this shows both variables are significant as the value should be less than 0.05. Further, it can be seen that the value of Pearson correlation is also positive, as the value is .477. It shows that there is the moderate positive relationship between both the variables.

4.7 Multiple Linear Regressions

Now in the study the regression will be run, the reason behind this is that the effect of independent variable on the dependent variable needs to be seen. Here we will check the entire hypothesis also that what the effect of the variables is.

Model Summary
Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate
1 .180a .432 .643 .62228
a. Predictors: (Constant), Accessibility, Cost, Reluctant_to_change

Here explaining about the model summary table, we can see that the value of R is .180, which means it is 18%. However, the value of R-square can be seen that it is .432 and the adjusted R2 shows that the value is .643, which means that there is 64% effect of independent variables on the dependent variable. However looking at the standard error it is .622

ANOVAs
Model Sum of Squares do Mean Square F Sig.
1 Regression 1.106 3 .369 151.079 .000b
Residual 75.454 221 .341    
Total 76.560 224      
a. Dependent Variable: Internet banking
b. Predictors: (Constant), Accessibility, Cost, Reluctant_to_change

Here in the ANOVAs table, we can see that the effect of the dependent variable on the dependent variable is also significant as the value is 0.000 which shows that it is less than 0.05 this shows the value is significant. Further looking at the F we can see that it is also positive and shows that the model is the good fit as well.

Coefficients

Coefficients
Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig.
B Std. Error Beta
1 (Constant) 2.253 .304   7.400 .000
Cost 4.009 .059 .010 5.152 .000
Reluctant_to_change .106 .059 .120 1.792 .000
Accessibility .007 .058 .101 2.112 .000
a. Dependent Variable: Internet banking

Here now looking at the coefficients table we can see that the effect of the dependent variable on the dependent variable is also significant as the value is 0.000 which shows that it is less than 0.05 this shows the value is significant. All the independent variable shows the significant values. The standard errors of all the values are also less than 1 in this case. However, it can be seen that the t values and the beta are also good enough and positive.

Here we can see that all the variables have the positive impact on the dependent variable, as the values of the beta are positive in all.  However, we can see that the standard error is also minimum on the table and the significance values are less than 0.05, which states that the data is significant in this case. 

Looking at the hypothesis and the independent aspect of the relation, we can see that with all the independent variables, there is a positive relationship in the variables.

Test of significance

Hypothesis 1

Accepted H1, as p<0.05

We can see that the P value in the hypothesis is less than 0.05, which means that it is significant. This means that there is a positive and significant effect of independent variable on the dependent variable.

Hypothesis 2

Accepted H1, as p<0.05

We can see that the P value in the hypothesis is less than 0.05, which means that it is significant. This means that there is a positive and significant effect of independent variable on the dependent variable.

Hypothesis 3

Accepted H1, as p<0.05

We can see that the P value in the hypothesis is less than 0.05, which means that it is significant. This means that there is a positive and significant effect of independent variable on the dependent variable.

We can see that the P value in the hypothesis is less than 0.05, which means that it is significant. This means that there is a positive and significant effect of independent variable on the dependent variable.

Looking at the above hypothesis, we can see that all the hypothesis have been accepted in the study as we can see that the significance the value is greater than 0.05 in all cases. This shows that there is a strong effect of independent variable on the dependent variables in the study. Here we can see that the analysis that we have got from SPSS have been discussed in this chapter. Further, it can be seen that there is multiple analysis that has been done in here and it can be seen that frequencies and the bar charts have been shown.

The descriptive analysis has been shown. After that, the reliability of the questions has been seen so that we can say they are reliable or not. After that, the Pearson correlation has been shown, as the effect needs to seem. At the end, regression is shown as it tells the overall effect of independent variable on the dependent variable hence we have seen that there is 64% effect of all the independent variables on the dependent variable.

Chapter 5

5.1 Limitations of the study

There are couples of limitations that are in the study which are

  • The sample size is limited
  • Tests applied are limited
  • There could be more variables which have effect on this
  • More detailed work can be done if there would be enough time

5.2 Recommendations for future study

There are couples of recommendations in the study

  • The study could be useful for the bank owners
  • The findings need to be applied for more usage of internet banking
  • The people need to be more concerned about the internet banking
  • The results need to be more focused and implemented as well

5.3 Conclusion of study

Looking at the conclusion, we need to see that there is a positive effect of the independent variables on the dependent variable of the study. We can see there is 64% effect, which means the usage of internet banking could be increased by increasing the variables that have been used.

References

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Ali Sankari. (2015). FACTORS AFFECTING THE ADOPTION OF INTERNET BANKING IN LEBANON. International Journal of Management , 75-86.

Ali Reza Montazemi. (2013). Factors Affecting Internet Banking Pre-Usage Expectation Formation. Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences , 1-18.

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Faziharudean, T. Y. (2010). Factors Affecting Customer Loyalty of Using Internet Banking in Malaysia. Journal of Electronic Banking Systems , 1-21.

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Green Economy in South Africa

Green Economy in South Africa

Introduction

            The green economy is a great matter or subject especially in the country like South Africa for the sustainable economic growth while removing environmental threats or risks along with dealing efficiently with scarce ecological resources. The agriculture is the dominant sector where green economy policies according to national actions programs are implemented. The use of fresh water, bio-fuels are used while increasing labor force are employed but South Africa still needs to work on subsistence at the small level. Here we are trying to find the current situation of South Africa with the Consideration to a green economy. Alternative energy emission resources, infrastructure transitions and transportation method must need to adapt to a green economy.

Green Economy

            The paper on the exploration of the connection between the green economy and informal economy by Musango & Smith (2015) defines green economy as “the study of economics in which the risks present in the natural environment are meant to reduce.” The scarce resources of the ecology would be managed, and the development of the economy is maintained through sustainable tactics while not disturbing any major element of the environment. The green economy in context to the developing country like South Africa refers to the development of the economy in a sustainable approach while reducing the level of poverty especially highlighting the role of informal economy for its progressive planning. The informal channels include the informal markets, sector, employment, workers, and informal links integrating to the principles of livelihood. The challenges are addressed in the process, active participation of people to play an important part in the total inclusive dimension of the green or ecological economy in South Africa (Musango & Smit, 2015).

Acey & Culhane (2013), explains the “units of economic action plans that are taken into practice are not taken into accounts as formal economic project arrangements. Thus activities are not the part of the law and remain beyond the regulations of formal arranging patterns of the informal economy.” The innovation plan for the informal economy, integration with international economic sources, a framework for the strategic planning, resource development, developing skills of local citizens and responsibilities towards change in the climate are included and considered (Acey & Culhane, 2013).

Bio prospecting is considered as an important element in the implementation of the green economy in South Africa as well as trade regarding the biological applications is done in this category (Olsen, 2012). The action plan regarding the industrial research planning is implemented in which the footprint of the environmental actions, the consumption of the energy level in the manufacturing process is kept at a very low range (Buehn & Schneider, 2012).

Looking at Davies & Thurlow (2010) the benefits regarding the health concerns for the sustainable development of the corporation enterprises are being implemented under the green economy in South Africa. The recycling process including the efficient management of picking the waste is recognized. The water recycling is contributing in a maximum way to the green economy especially as per the informal economy regarding the active participation from the SME (Davies & Thurlow, 2010).

Dreher & Schneider (2010) explains the actions in the field of farming are also being implemented on a very low scale to deal effectively by using the principles of green economy with the climatic change issues. The farmers must provide adequate education in this regard such as strategies for farming, water usage, harvesting as per the best practices in the agricultural sector, rotations of the diverse crops especially in the food crops through adopting national policies or plan for the green economy (Dreher & Schneider, 2010).

According to Musango (2014), the transitioning of the South African economy towards green economy explains, “The ecological development in the economy is highly correlated with the political policies, which is presented under the frameworks of the global body such as UNEP”. The fair, as well as efficient means of resources, must apply to the green economy to attain the beneficial results. This means that equity regarding the regional dimensions of the ecological economy must be the foremost preference, in which the transition of the economy would be based on the high level of environment protected economic policies (Musango, 2014).

            These transition in the environment based economy policies include infrastructure or development programs running with no or very low proportion of carbon; the resources must also integrate efficiently with the green economy. The green economy must be inclusive while taking together with a consensus of each party in a community for better management of corporate social responsibility (Du & Neves, 2012). As explained by Musango (2014) “There is a great role of natural capital as well as of services in the ecological or green economy to raise the economic growth in the country, especially in South Africa.” The accounting costs must be determined through using the principles of the biodiversity conceptual applications and the bank of the natural resources as per the capital (Musango, 2014).

            Three major elements are comprised of the green economy, which is social, economy and the environment. Through these three factors, the green economy becomes sustainable, viable for the green technology, and equitable for the buildings, transport, and water or other natural or no natural resources (Horn, 2011).

African People and Green Economy

            According to Mohamed & Maitho (2014), the dominant sector where the green economy is practically implemented is in the agricultural sector. “The freshwater conservation is mostly the most important initiative as per the environment sustainability.” The Green Fund is used to support the transition of the South African economy to the green economy. These funds are used to provide support for the initiatives towards a green economy, and for the promotion of this transition. Protection of the climatic change in the ecological economy in the farming sector is efficiently implemented while managing the cost. The social development and the economic improvements in the agricultural sector in South Africa have been achieved under the green economy. Because of the diminishing reserves of the fossil fuels, the demand for the consumption of energy has been lowered (Mohamed & Maitho, 2014)

            According to Ligthelm (2006), Agriculture is the major contributor to the GDP of the economy as per the employment force, therefore, “the sustainable growth is an essential matter for the livelihood while reducing poverty, and contributing to the sustainable environment for the climate change is done in South Africa.” The industrial sector green economy principles as per the growth or sustainable development of the ecological economy are embraced through national plans or policies for environment stable economy. Subsidies are granted for the use of alternatives to energy fuels that heavily cause emissions in the environment, such as some biotechnology applications are instructed in the form of bio-fuel, the solar energy programs have also been started efficiently by the South African economy (Ligthelm, 2006).

            Nortje (2015) Explains the transportation, as well as the infrastructure, is also being targeted for implementing the green economy policies in South Africa. The use of electric cars, batteries deployed in vehicles, modifying the transportation sources for public and emergence of the awareness for walking or using bicycles are some major steps that are being used explicitly. The buildings are constructed by using low carbon materials and less emission energy resources for the infrastructure in the South Africa (Nortje, 2015).

Steps Required to Implement Green Economy

            Olsen (2012), the green economy is used in South Africa in both informal as well as formal national economic policies. The paper highlights the practical implications of the opportunities in the South African economy regarding diversification in the ecological economy in the energy mix applications creating a high probability for additional jobs, CO2eq management, through green economy along with the removal of the dangerous emissions. All these initiatives of the ecological economy in South Africa are implemented to give the environment a sustainable look (Olsen, 2012).

Impact of Green Economy

            As per the published paper of Nortje (2015), states that in South Africa, the green economy has a very positive impact on the sustainable growth of the economy through the protection of the environment, protection of social, economic concerns and the maintenance of the ecosystem through the natural means of resources. The best practices initiatives, the flexible ecological programs and relevant information or knowledge in the sector of the green economy is a major impact. The efficiency in the resources, the environment protection policies of using low carbon and the growth path using the approach of the pre-employment in South Africa while transition must occur in the overall economy approach of informal as well as formal sectors are major steps taken in this regard (Nortje, 2015).

            For becoming the nation that is independent, prospering through the sustainable economic growth accomplishment, using the fundamental dimension of the management of the scarcity of the ecological resources, for a country like South Africa, the green economy can make a gate through (Nortje, 2015). The dynamic behavior models are the most important tool for a transition to the power-based economy to ecologically based economy. Moreover, it has a great deal of impact regarding the reduction of threats to the environment. The transition towards the green economy would influence in a great way to finance resources of the South Africa, the initiative of programs for the employment would create jobs, and contribute to the sustainable development as well as the growth of the economy (Samers, 2005).

According to the paper published on the indicators of sustainable business practices in South Africa by Santos, Svensson, & Padin (2013), shows the relative reduction in consumption of energy and water items from the benchmark, and increased work in the field of sustainable business practices (Santos, Svensson, & Padin, 2013). Similarly, the paper on corporate social responsibility in South Africa by Skinner (2008), focuses on the emerging practices in this context and their impact on the South African economy (Skinner & Mersham, 2008).

Conclusion

            In the end, it is concluded that green economy must be a part of the economic policies and programs in South Africa for the sustainable growth of the environment-protected economy. We have seen that how the economies are going towards the green economy. The policies and the regulations need to be focused on the green economy for the betterment. The agricultural sector must focus on the biotechnology use to update the sector, the national policies for the green economy is an essential requirement for the South Africa. The last thing is that the ecosystem must be maintained using the natural means of resources as much as possible.

References

Acey, C., & Culhane, T. (2013). Green jobs, livelihoods and the post-carbon economy in African cities. Local Environ. Int. J. Justice Sustain. , 18 (9), 1046–1065.

Buehn, A., & Schneider, F. (2012). . Shadow economies around the world: novel insights, accepted knowledge, and new estimates. Int. Tax Public Financ. , 19, 139–171.

Davies, R., & Thurlow, J. (2010). Formal–informal economy linkages and unemployment in South Africa. South. Afr. J. Econ , 78 (4), 437–458.

Dreher, A., & Schneider, F. (2010.). Corruption and the shadow economy: an empirical analysis. Public Choice , 144, 215–238.

Du, A., & Neves, D. (2012). Money and sociality in South Africa’s informal economy. Africa , 82 (1), 131.

Horn, A. (2011). Who’s out there? A profile of informal traders in four South African city central business districts. Town Reg. Plann. , 59, 1-6.

Ligthelm, A. (2006). . Size estimate of the informal sector in South Africa. S. Afr. Bus. Rev. , 10 (2), 32-52.

Mohamed, N., & Maitho, E. (2014). The Green Fund of South Africa: Origins, establishment and first lessons. Development Southern Africa , 31 (5), 658–674.

Musango. (2014). Green economy transitioning of the South African power sector: A system dynamics analysis approach. Development Southern Africa, , 31 (5), 744–758.

Musango, J. K., & Smit, S. (2015). Exploring the connections between green economy and informal economy in South Africa. Towards an inclusive green economy for South Africa , 111 (12), 10.

Nortje, K. (2015). Imperatives for an agricultural green economy in South Africa. Agricultural green economy in South Africa , 111 (1), 8.

Olsen, L. .. (2012). What policies for a green economy that works for social progress? Int J. Lab. Res. , 4 (2), 135–149.

Samers, M. (2005.). The myopia of “diverse economies”, or a critique of the “informal economy”. Antipode , 37 (5), 875–886.

Santos, M. A., Svensson, G., & Padin, C. (2013). Indicators of sustainable business practices: Woolworths in South Africa. Supply Chain Management: An International Journal , 18 (1), 104-108.

Skinner, C., & Mersham, G. (2008). Corporate social responsibility in South Africa: emerging trends. Society and Business Review , 3 (3), 239-255.

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tax department applies taxes according to ratio of sales price

Question # 1

The US sales tax department applies taxes according to ratio of sales price. The old home has decided the right thing to start the meal as senior citizens are not always able to go and buy the food or some other eatable stuff for them, this should be provided for them at the home as they would preferably like it. Also it would enhance their comfort at that place. Considering the problem of deciding whether the price of meal should be included in monthly rent or keep separate is quite crucial to decide. Both things have their own impact and would effect in a different way. Firstly discussed aspect is that if meal price is included in the monthly rent. The core point is that home prepared meal would be definitely appreciated by seniors as they would be conscious regarding food quality bought from outside. Therefore they would try maximum to eat at home. Their choices would also be considered sometime. So if the food is charged monthly in the rent price, there would no objection such as why do they pay the monthly food price if they do not eat at home sometimes. Therefore the taxes would be added according as one time monthly charges and it would be fix. Maybe someone may have perception regarding paying such tax onetime, but would be overall beneficial to include whole price on monthly premises. Secondly if the price is charged as per food item on the monthly bill, it would have a different impact. Paying monthly rent along with taxes and then adding a long list of food item would affect differently and people would not appreciate it much although it would provide them a detailed view of payment they have to pay along with the tax amount. So one-time payment would be better.

Question # 2

The construction supplies were brought in DC and were out-of-state. As per the rules by taxes department, there would be no direct or sales tax on interstate commerce whereas per the taxes on hotel business, there would be taxes applied by the state. Hotel business would have to pay the taxes on commercial level. There is a variation behavior in some rules regarding payment of taxes. The out-of-state vendors apply taxes in varying patterns. Some of the state vendors do not apply any tax. Some other vendors may apply the use tax which may affect interstate commerce. Some others collect the taxes accordingly to the state where actually the vendors are located. This all has a varying behavior and it can be sometimes difficult to decide the right pathway. If we consider the first tax, it would be better as there would be no interstate trading tax and would have to pay only the business tax that may be applied by the US tax department on hotel business. The second scenario us regarding when the taxes would be applied according to DC state taxes ratio. This path would be more costly. Another option is when the vendors charge the tax price according to their own state irrespective of the target customer state. That would be more awkward scenario because in case of use tax, even indirect relation is enough for application of tax rate. Finally the business should try to work on the rule that there would be no interstate commerce tax. The four prong test which is also referred as Complete Auto test can help in deciding what to do regarding out of state income tax, also involving the workers from out of the state. As per the profit after one year, the income tax would be applied according to the state taxes which are in DC.

Question # 3

As per being non-profit organization, it runs on the principle that the organization would have to utilize all the collected profit on for further improvement within the organization. The major factor here is this that the federal income taxes department wants this building to pay taxes for the building as a property tax. The property is always related to owner and it does not matter whether it is being used for business, as a residential place or a nonprofit organization. The building would always be considered as a property of owner. In this scenario, the situation is that property of owner is being used as a non-profit organization. The Maryland federal property tax department is at its right to collect its property tax as the term non-profit can be referred only in premises of the financial tax and would be only highlighted when the income tax department would like to collect any tax. As per non-profit organization, even the organization never uses its profit and again utilize it for betterment of organization therefore there is no income tax in such case. But for the property tax, there is no relation that how the property is being used, even if it is being used as a non-profit organization, it would be still named as a property of the owner. Therefore, it would be required to pay property tax for this business. In this situation, the circumstance is that property of proprietor is being utilized as a non-benefit association. regardless of the possibility that it is being utilized as a non-benefit association, it would be still named as a property of the proprietor. The main consideration here is this that the government wage charges division needs this working to pay charges for the working as a property assess.

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Summary of the Guest Speaker

Summary of the Guest Speaker

The guest speaker come to the university and talk about the benefits of the business and the banking sector, one can flourish in the banking sector. However, the guest speaker has taken interview from the different students, in the interview, the guest speaker has asked that why the students have joined the business and finance field. Students like the banking field and want to be successful, in the field, however, the guest speaker also tells then that how benefits can be there in this field.

There is the guidance about the succession planning that how the banks help the community and the individual and how the benefits can be obtained if you have a bank in your community. The guest speaker had told about the bank regulation, while working in the banking sector there is need to follow all the rules and the regulation, the given guidance should be important for everyone. If one follows the rules and regulation in the banking sector then one can grow faster and can give the higher incentives. 

The concepts about the banking and finance were given, that it is the responsibility to grow and protect the organization, and however, there is the need to take the decisions, which are beneficial for the organization, there is scope for the individual growth. If one work in the competitive environment and of helps the organization by giving the different decisions, then one can improve the job profile. The banking sector is the most diverse sector, as there are varieties of jobs, there is wide range, which a person can select as a career path. However, banking sector can develop one personality.

He said that working in a bank, is a good thing, it is sector, where one can strive because society and community can be benefited in a way commercial banks give benefits and help to flourish the career of the banker. The benefits and advantages are there, the tactics of doing a job in a bank were also given by the speaker that how one can get effectiveness from the company and how benefits can be obtained, through working hard.

Greta jobs help you grow, as said by the guest speaker, according to him, when the business is started, it takes time to grow, about 10 to 15 years are required for a business, so that the people get to know about it. However, in a bank, if one knows the how to work effectively and there is job security, as well as the job satisfaction in this field. Bank job can be considered as a job for the lifetime, if one is working good, in the field then there are chances to get promoted soon.

The succession planning, for the career growth, is very useful information for the students, because the student can get to know about that how beneficial it is to work for the community. The guidance is also given that what facilities the bank will give, and what training will be provided by the bank. In my point of view, the speaker has given us the perfect information that how banking field can be beneficial for one, and how the personality and career could be shaped in right way.

Great jobs can bring the change in the people if there is the bank in the community; community and the people can be helped, there are the future opportunities and small town branch can help to grow, in his/her career. However, telecom sector is very beneficial if the one has training that what to do in the relevant field.

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Organizational Analysis

Emory

Mission statement 1

Emory Healthcare is an integrated academic healthcare system committed to providing the best care for our patients, educating health professionals and leaders for the future, pursuing discovery research in all of its forms, including basic, clinical, and population-based research, and serving our community. As the clinical enterprise of the Robert W. Woodruff Health Sciences Center (WHSC) of Emory University (EU), EHC is dedicated to the unifying core purpose, core values, and strategic direction of the WHSC.

http://www.emoryhealthcare.org/about-us/mission-vision.html

Interpretation

It is the fact that healthcare organizations are increasing the sizes and volume to facilitate the patients those are suffering from any disease. On the other hand, it is the fact that it is the world of competition and health care industry is facing competition around the globe.  The mission statement of this hospital is quite good and comprehensive as well.  One can see that mission statement is started with the focus and those are patients and their diseases as well. On the other hand, it is observed that the institution is focusing on the education of professionals in this industry.  It is very imperative to understand the reality that world is requiring leaders and it goes with medical industry as well. For this purpose, the mission statement is declaring that the institute is making and preparing leaders those can research for the betterment of the society and community in the future.   Therefore, we can see that mission statement is quite clear to serve the humanity with the help of core department and institutions of health sciences.  In the end, one could desire the hospital and health care organization would serve humanity with ethical and professional approach according to the mission statement and objective. It is very necessary to understand that this world is the world of competition. Therefore, every community needs to participate in that particular competition in order to maximize the output from these health care institutions as well.  It would make institutes healthier in performances and public in health issues as well.

Children healthcare of Atlanta

Mission statement 2

To make kids better today and healthier tomorrow

Our mission is the reason WHY we exist. It articulates what we want to mean to our patients and to the community today and in the future.

Our mission addresses not only how we treat sick kids but also that we are dedicated to prevention and research that will lead to new treatments and cures.

https://www.choa.org/~/media/files/Childrens/medical-professionals/clinical-orientation-module.pdf?la=en

Interpretation

Taking care of health has become very important in modern world. People are not focusing on the health and due to this; many issues are recorded in health care organizations. In addition, kids and children are the future of the world and any country. Therefore, the healthcare of kids is mandatory and necessary. The organization of children’s healthcare of Atlanta is very passionate to provide the best healthcare facilities to the children in order to give them better today and perfect tomorrow.  The organization has a great and inspiring statement of mission that our reason to exist is our mission and that is to concern and focus to the patients and to make the community healthier today and in future as well.  In addition, the institution is not working for kid’s treatment only, but also focusing in the field of research and advanced treatment. Once can understand that research and advance way of treatment is quite important in modern world.  It is the real way to move forward in the world of competition and we can expect that this institution named “Children’s healthcare of Atlanta” will be the top one in all of the institutes taking care of Kids health.  According to the researchers, the healthcare of kids and policies in this regard need to be overviewed because in most of the countries it is not efficiently practical. It is very important to make and implement the new policies regarding the health care of kids in developing countries. It will create the healthy community in future.

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Leadership

Leadership

It is a fact that this world has a strong need of good leaders that can lead many groups of people.  In the modern world, people are looking forward to great leadership (Marquardt, 2012). In the same way, the leadership skills and lectures become necessary to provide the world reasonable and result-oriented leaders.  The leadership is to control the command and decisions of the task or group or team as well.  Before I present myself as a leader or I describe the strengths and weaknesses of me, I would like to express the real qualities of a good and modern leader.

Qualities of a Leader

It is very imperative to understand that not everyone is a leader and not every manager is a leader. To become a leader, one must have a bundle of qualities because you are heading someone and you are taking care of missions and visions too. A Great leader must have these qualities to lead anyone in the world:

  • He or she must be a confident personality  
  • He or she has a clear focus on the goal
  • The passion for moving forward and for completing given tasks
  • Integrity is the main quality of a great leader.   
  • Patience is the superior quality of a leader
  • He or she should be a positive player
  • An open-minded personality could become a leader (Bethel, 2012).

In my perspective, these are the qualities one should adopt to become a prime leader of the institution, organization, and society.  I would express my strengths and weaknesses in this cases and I would estimate that whether I could become a leader or not in light of my studies so far.

Strengths and Weaknesses

It is the fact that no one is perfect on the earth and everybody needs development in personality and other relevant issues as well.  In the same way, I would like to express that I have some strengths and weaknesses to in my personality and those are quite linked to the leadership theory.  It is the fact that to express the strength of own personality is very easy.  I would like to tell that I am very confident in my tasks and I am very confident personality.  As you know, I am performing masters in the United States of America, it is a great experience and it was a difficult task.

It was difficult to decide that whether to continue the study in my hometown or abroad.  I am from Saudi Arabia and it was not easy for me to leave home. As I mentioned that, I am very confident personality and I had confidence in myself.  Therefore, I decided to leave and to move forward and I am here. Another trait I must want to say that I am open mind in my approach and I want to run and walk on my way.  It is a modern world and In fact the world of technology; therefore, it is quite important to understand others and their thoughts. In the United States of America, I had some little conflicts with my roommates those are Americans and we have a different culture. In addition, I must say that I adopted open mind strategy against them and make things easier for all of us.  I met with them and discussed the issues and we resolved issues after hearing and understanding each other as well. Now, I would like to describe my weaknesses as a leader or in personality: remember, it is very difficult to express own weakness. In my opinion, I lack in passion in most of the cases in my life.  In need to develop the trait of passion, because the passion is a great skill that leader must need to adopt.  In my early college life, I was not interested in some of the subjects and I think those were the symptoms of lack of passion for moving forward in life. Nowadays, I am trying to become passionate to move forward in life to achieve my ultimate goals.  

Opinion of others

It is very imperative to understand the importance of opinions from others, because, these are the feedbacks that could help one to become more perfect. I have met many great personalities in my life: most of them are my Teachers and friends. In the United States of America, I met great people in university and especially the roommates. For personal inspection and investigation, I asked my roommates about my strengths and weaknesses in order to understand that is I a good leader or not. One of my mates told me about my strength, he described that you are very focused now on your aims and missions in the United States of America. He further said, you are very concern to your study and never behaving like others. It was a strong complement for me and I observed that yes he is right, now I am very passionate and focus on my job here in the United States of America.        

On the other hand, the same mate was available for replying me about my other questions. I asked him about my weakness as a leader. It was an interesting phase for me because he was surprised because of the question and I was waiting for the reply curiously.  He said that you are the focus and passionate and I hope that you will be a successful leader but you need to improve the innovative skills of you. Furthermore, he said that you are quite well speaker and motivator but you need to be generous in sharing ideas too. These were the two weaknesses explained by the roommate to me and I am quite passionate to overcome weaknesses by the time.

In addition, it will make me more strong and prominent leader in my future. Now, I would like to describe the best ways and solutions to the issues and best positions for me to lead others.  

Best Situations

Sometimes, it is quite difficult to become a leader because you are lacking basic skills like innovation and decisiveness. On the other hand, it equally makes you best leader at times; you are having almost all of the skills that a leader require. In my perspective, I have realized that I lack the skills like innovation and another trait of generosity as well. I think I can overcome these issues with hard work and taking classes regarding leadership day by day.  On the other hand, I feel that I could lead others in various situations in my life according to my analysis until now.   

In my perspective, I can lead my team in class for particular subject or task. The reason is that I am very focus and passionate and want to achieve goals as well. On the other hand, I feel that I can lead our football team as well. I am from Saudi Arabia and the game of football is quite popular there, therefore, I consider myself as a good player and team player as well (Topendsports.com, 2016). The football game is a game of passion and complete focus and I have the both traits. Therefore, I feel and believe that I can lead my team as well and never let my team or management down through my captaincy, leadership skills and football skills.

References

Bethel, S. M. (2012). Making a Difference: Twelve Qualities That Make You a Leader. AudioInk.

Marquardt, M. J. (2012). Global Leaders for the Twenty-First Century. SUNY Press.

Topendsports.com. (2016). Sport in Saudi Arabia. Retrieved October 09, 2016, from Topend Sports: http://www.topendsports.com/world/countries/saudi-arabia.htm

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a 150n bird feeder is supported by three cables

Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University Department of Physical Sciences

Home Work # 4 & 5 PS 103 � Technical Physics�I

Due Date: Oct 3, 2014 (Friday)

Name:

Date: September 23, 2014 (Tuesday)

Semester: Fall-2014

Section:

Total point: 20

Important:

• Home work is due in the beginning of the class on the date mentioned above.

• Please note that providing answers without showing any working will not qualify as correct. So to get full points show EACH AND EVERY STEP.

• Please answer all questions neat and clean in as much detail as you can.

• All the conventions followed in the homework are same as that of lectures.

Question# 1:- You throw a ball vertically upward from the roof of a tall building. The ball leaves your hand at a point even with the roof railing with an upward speed of 15.0 m/s; the ball is then in free fall. On its way back down, it just misses the railing. Find

a) the ball’s position and velocity 1.00 s, 2.00 s, 3.00 s, and 4.00 s after leaving your hand;

b) the ball’s velocity when it is 5.00 m above the railing;

c) the maximum height reached;

d) the ball’s acceleration when it is at its maximum height.

e) At what time after being released has the ball fallen 5.00 m below the roof railing? and what will it’s speed be at that time?

f) At what time after being released has the ball fallen 2.00 m below the roof railing? and what will it’s speed be at that time?

Question# 2:- The boat in Figure 1 is heading due north as it crosses a wide river with a velocity of 10.0 km/h relative to the water. The river has a uniform velocity of 5.00 km/h due east. Determine the magnitude and direction of the boat’s velocity with respect to an observer on the riverbank.

Figure 1: Problem-2

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Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Question# 3:- A batter hits a baseball so that it leaves the bat at speed v0 = 37.0 m/s at an angle ↵0 = 53.1�.

a) Find the position of the ball and its velocity (magnitude and direction) at t = 2.00 s.

b) Find the time when the ball reaches the high- est point of its flight, and its height h at this time.

c) Find the horizontal range R that is, the hor- izontal distance from the starting point to where the ball hits the ground. Figure 2: Problem-3

Question# 4:- Two tanks are engaged in a training exercise on level ground. The first tank fires a paint-filled training round with a muzzle speed of 250 m/s at 10.0� above the horizontal while advancing toward the second tank with a speed of 15.0 m/s relative to the ground. The second tank is retreating at 35.0 m/s relative to the ground, but is hit by the shell. You can ignore air resistance and assume the shell hits at the same height above ground from which it was fired. Find the distance between the tanks

a) when the round was first fired and

b) at the time of impact.

Question# 5:- Workmen are trying to free an SUV stuck in the mud. To extricate the vehicle, they use three horizontal ropes, producing the force vectors shown Figure 3.

a) Find the x� and y�components of each of the three pulls.

b) Use the components to find the magnitude and direction of the resultant of the three pulls. Figure 3: Problem-5

Question# 6:- Two horses are pulling a barge with mass 2.00⇥103 kg along a canal, as shown in Figure 4. The cable connected to the first horse makes an angle of ✓1 = 30.0� with respect to the direction of the canal, while the cable connected to the second horse makes an angle of ✓1 = 30.0�. Find the initial acceleration of the barge, starting at rest, if each horse exerts a force of magnitude 6.00 ⇥ 102 N on the barge. Ignore forces of resistance on the barge.

Figure 4: Problem-6

Question# 7:- Two dogs pull horizontally on ropes attached to a post; the angle between the ropes is 60.0�. If dog A exerts a force of 270 N and dog B exerts a force of 300 N, find the magnitude of the resultant force and the angle it makes with dog A’s rope.

2

Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Question# 8:- A 68.5-kg skater moving initially at 2.40 m/s on rough horizontal ice comes to rest uniformly in 3.52 s due to friction from the ice. What force does friction exert on the skater?

Question# 9:- You walk into an elevator, step onto a scale, and push the “up” button. You also recall that your normal weight is 625 N. Start answering each of the following questions by drawing a freebody diagram.

a) If the elevator has an acceleration of magnitude 2.50 m/s2, what does the scale read?

b) If you start holding a 3.85-kg package by a light vertical string, what will be the tension in this string once the elevator begins accelerating?

Question# 10:- A box rests on a frozen pond, which serves as a frictionless horizontal surface. If a fisherman applies a horizontal force with magnitude 48.0 N to the box and produces an acceleration of magnitude 3.00 m/s2, what is the mass of the box?

Question# 11:- Boxes A and B are in contact on a hor- izontal, frictionless surface, as shown in Figure 5. Box A has mass 20.0 kg and box B has mass 5.0 kg. A horizontal force of 100 N is exerted on box A. What is the magnitude of the force that box A exerts on box B? Figure 5: Problem-11

Question# 12:- Two objects of mass m1 and m2, with m2 > m1, are connected by a light, inextensible cord and hung over a frictionless pulley, as in Ac- tive Figure 6. Both cord and pulley have negligible mass. Find the magnitude of the acceleration of the system and the tension

Figure 6: Problem-12

Question# 13:- A 150-N bird feeder is supported by three cables as shown in Figure 7. Find the tension in each cable.

Figure 7: Problem-13

Question# 14:- An object with mass m1 = 5.00 kg rests on a frictionless horizontal table and is con- nected to a cable that passes over a pulley and is then fastened to a hanging object with mass m2 = 10.0 kg, as shown in Figure 8. Find

a) the acceleration of each object and

b) the tension in the cable. Figure 8: Problem-14

Categories
research paper for sale research paper help write my paper for me

branding provides a way for a firm to differentiate its product offerings from those of its _____.

Gregory G. Dess University of Texas at Dallas

G. T. Lumpkin Syracuse University

Alan B. Eisner Pace University

Gerry McNamara Michigan State University

SEVENTH EDITION

strategic management

text and cases

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STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT: TEXT AND CASES, SEVENTH EDITION Published by McGraw-Hill Education, 2 Penn Plaza, New York, NY 10121. Copyright © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Previous editions © 2012, 2010, and 2008. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education, including, but not limited to, in any network or other electronic storage or transmission, or broadcast for distance learning.

Some ancillaries, including electronic and print components, may not be available to customers outside the United States.

This book is printed on acid-free paper.

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ISBN 978-0-07-786252-7 MHID 0-07-786252-X

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All credits appearing on page or at the end of the book are considered to be an extension of the copyright page.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Dess, Gregory G. Strategic management : text and cases / Gregory G. Dess, G.T. Lumpkin, Alan B. Eisner, Gerry McNamara.—Seventh edition. pages cm Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-07-786252-7 (alk. paper)—ISBN 0-07-786252-X (alk. paper) 1. Strategic planning. I. Lumpkin, G. T. II. Eisner, Alan B. III. Title. HD30.28.D4743 2014 658.4’012—dc23 2013029306

The Internet addresses listed in the text were accurate at the time of publication. The inclusion of a website does not indicate an endorsement by the authors or McGraw-Hill Education, and McGraw-Hill Education does not guarantee the accuracy of the information presented at these sites.

www.mhhe.com

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To my family, Margie and Taylor; my parents, Bill and Mary Dess; and Walter Descovich

–Greg

To my lovely wife, Vicki, and my students and colleagues

–Tom

To my family, Helaine, Rachel, and Jacob

–Alan

To my wonderful wife, Gaelen; my children, Megan and AJ; and my parents, Gene and Jane

–Gerry

DEDICATION

dedication

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Gregory G. Dess is the Andrew R. Cecil Endowed Chair in Management at the University of Texas at Dallas. His primary research interests are in strategic management, organization–environment relationships, and knowledge management. He has published numerous articles on these subjects in both academic and practitioner- oriented journals. He also serves on the editorial boards of a wide range of practitioner-oriented and academic journals. In August 2000, he was inducted into the Academy of Management Journal ’s Hall of Fame as one of its charter members. Professor Dess has conducted executive programs in the United States, Europe, Africa, Hong Kong, and Australia. During 1994 he was a Fulbright Scholar in Oporto, Portugal. In 2009, he received an honorary doctorate from the University of Bern (Switzerland). He received his PhD in Business Administration from the University of Washington (Seattle) and a BIE degree from Georgia Tech.

G. T. (Tom) Lumpkin is the Chris J. Witting Chair and Professor of Entrepreneurship at Syracuse University in New York. Prior to joining the faculty at Syracuse, Tom was the Kent Hance Regents Endowed Chair and Professor of Entrepreneurship at Texas Tech University. His research interests include entrepreneurial orientation, opportunity recognition, strategy-making processes, social entrepreneurship, and innovative forms of organizing work. He has published numerous research articles in journals such as Strategic Management Journal, Academy of Management Journal, Academy of Management Review, Journal of Business Venturing, and Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice. He is a member of the editorial review boards of Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, and the Journal of Business Venturing. He received his PhD in management from the University of Texas at Arlington and MBA from the University of Southern California.

ABOUT THE AUTHORS

about the authors

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Alan B. Eisner is Professor of Management and Department Chair, Management and Management Science Department, at the Lubin School of Business, Pace University. He received his PhD in management from the Stern School of Business, New York University. His primary research interests are in strategic management, technology management, organizational learning, and managerial decision making. He has published research articles and cases in journals such as Advances in Strategic Management, International Journal of Electronic Commerce, International Journal of Technology Management, American Business Review, Journal of Behavioral and Applied Management, and Journal of the International Academy for Case Studies. He is the former Associate Editor of the Case Association’s peer reviewed journal, The CASE Journal.

Gerry McNamara is a Professor of Management at Michigan State University. He received his PhD from the Carlson School of Management at the University of Minnesota. His research focuses on strategic decision making, organizational risk taking, and mergers and acquisitions. His research has been published in numerous journals, including the Academy of Management Journal, Strategic Management Journal, Organization Science, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Journal of Management, and Journal of International Business Studies. His research on mergers and acquisitions has been abstracted in the New York Times, Bloomberg Businessweek, The Economist, and Financial Week. He is currently an Associate Editor for the Academy of Management Journal.

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PREFACE

preface

Welcome to the Seventh Edition of Strategic Management: Text and Cases! We are all very pleased with the positive market response to our previous edition. Below is some of the encouraging feedback we have received from our reviewers:

The text is thorough and all-inclusive. I don’t need to refer to another book as a back-up. It addresses all aspects of strategic management from the initial inspiration of a vision to the nuts and bolts of putting the plan to work. It is well structured; it is clear how each chapter not only builds on the previous ones, but also how analysis, formulation, and implementation are interrelated.

Lois Shelton, California State University, Northridge

I use Strategic Management in a capstone course required of all business majors, and students appreciate the book because it synergizes all their business education into a meaningful and understandable whole. My students enjoy the book’s readability and tight organization, as well as the contemporary examples, case studies, discussion questions and exercises.

William Sannwald, San Diego State University

It is very easy for students to read because it presents strategy concepts in a simple but comprehensive manner. It covers important developments in the strategic management field that are usually ignored by other textbooks (e.g., concepts like social networks and social capital, the balanced scorecard, and new forms of organizational structure).

Moses Acquaah, University of North Carolina at Greensboro

Content is current and easy for students to grasp; good graphs and charts to illustrate important points in the chapter. Book is well organized around the AFI framework.

Lise Anne D. Slatten, University of Louisiana at Lafayette

It is the best written textbook for the undergraduate course that I have come across. Application materials tie concepts to real-world practice.

Justin L. Davis, University of West Florida

The Dess text takes a practical/easy approach to explain very difficult subject matter. It integrates a number of real-life scenarios to aid the student in their comprehension of key concepts. The standout of the text is the Reflecting on Career Implications. These end-of-chapter questions aid the student in applying their learning to their workplace in a manner that promotes career success.

Amy Patrick, Wilmington University

The Dess book overcomes many of the limitations of the last book I used in many ways: (a) presents content in a very interesting and engrossing manner without compromising the depth and comprehensiveness, (b) inclusion of timely and interesting illustrative examples, (c) includes an excellent array of long, medium, and short cases that can be used to balance depth and variety, and (d) EOC exercises do an excellent job of complementing the chapter content.

Sucheta Nadkami, Drexel University

We are always striving to improve our work, and we are most appreciative of the extensive and constructive feedback that many strategy professionals have graciously given us. As always,

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we have worked hard to incorporate their ideas into the Seventh Edition—and we acknowledge them by name later in the Preface.

We believe we have made valuable improvements throughout our many revised editions of Strategic Management. At the same time, we strive to be consistent and “true” to our original overriding objective: a book that satisfies three R’s: relevant, rigorous, and readable. That is, our tagline (paraphrasing the well-known Secret deodorant commercial) is: “Strong enough for the professor; made for the student.” And we are pleased that we have received feedback (such as the comments on the previous page) that is consistent with what we are trying to accomplish.

To continue to earn the support of strategy instructors (and students!) we try to use an engaging writing style that minimizes unnecessary jargon and covers all of the traditional bases. We also integrate some central themes throughout the book—such as globalization, technology, ethics, environmental sustainability, and entrepreneurship—that are vital in understanding strategic management in today’s global economy. We draw on short examples from business practice to bring concepts to life by providing 85 Strategy Spotlights (more detailed examples in sidebars).

Unlike other strategy texts, we provide three separate chapters that address timely topics about which business students should have a solid understanding. These are the role of intellectual assets in value creation (Chapter 4), entrepreneurial strategy and competitive dynamics (Chapter 8), and fostering entrepreneurship in established organizations (Chapter 12). We also provide an excellent set of cases to help students analyze, integrate, and apply strategic management concepts.

In developing Strategic Management: Text and Cases, we certainly didn’t forget the instructors. As we all know, you have a most challenging (but rewarding) job. We did our best to help you. We provide a variety of supplementary materials that should help you in class preparation and delivery. For example, our chapter notes do not simply summarize the material in the text. Rather (and consistent with the concept of strategy!), we ask ourselves: “How can we add value?” Thus, for each chapter, we provide numerous questions to pose to help guide class discussion, at least 12 boxed examples to supplement chapter material, and three detailed “teaching tips” to further engage students. Also, the author team completed the chapter notes—along with the entire test bank—ourselves. That is, unlike many of our rivals, we didn’t simply farm the work out to others. Instead, we felt that such efforts help to enhance quality and consistency—as well as demonstrate our personal commitment to provide a top-quality total package to strategy instructors. With the seventh edition, we also benefited from valued input by our strategy colleagues to further improve our work.

Let’s now address some of the key substantive changes in the Seventh Edition. Then we will cover some of the major features that we have had in previous editions.

What’s New? Highlights of the Seventh Edition We have endeavored to add new material to the chapters that reflects both the feedback that we have received from our reviewers as well as the challenges that face today’s managers. Thus, we all invested an extensive amount of time carefully reviewing a wide variety of books, academic and practitioner journals, and the business press.

We also worked hard to develop more concise and tightly written chapters. Based on feedback from some of the reviewers, we have tightened our writing style, tried to eliminate redundant examples, and focused more directly on what we feel is the most important content in each chapter for our audience. The overall result is that we were able to update our material, add valuable new content, and—at the same time—shorten the length of the chapters.

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PREFACE

Here are some of the major changes and improvements in the Seventh Edition:

• All of the 12 opening “Learning from Mistakes” vignettes that lead off each chapter are totally new. Unique to this text, they are all examples of what can go wrong, and they serve as an excellent vehicle for clarifying and reinforcing strategy concepts. After all, what can be learned if one simply admires perfection!

• Well over half of our “Strategy Spotlights” (sidebar examples) are brand new, and many of the others have been thoroughly updated. Although we have reduced the number of Spotlights from the previous edition to conserve space, we still have a total of 85—by far the most in the strategy market. We focus on bringing the most important strategy concepts to life in a concise and highly readable manner. And we work hard to eliminate unnecessary detail that detracts from the main point we are trying to make. Also, consistent with our previous edition, many of the Spotlights focus on three “hot” issues that are critical in leading today’s organizations: ethics, environmental sustainability, and crowdsourcing.

• We have added a new feature—Issue for Debate—at the end of each chapter. We have pretested these situations and find that students become very engaged (and often animated!) in discussing an issue that has viable alternative points of view. It is an exciting way to drive home key strategy concepts. For example, in Chapter 1, Seventh Generation is faced with a situation that confronts their values, and they must decide whether or not to provide their products to some of their largest customers. In Chapter 3, some interesting tradeoffs arose when The World Triathlon Corporation expanded their exclusive branding of Ironman to products that didn’t reflect the “spirit” of the brand. And, in Chapter 6, Delta Airlines’ diversification into the oil business via their acquisition of an oil refinery poses an issue for some interesting alternative points of view.

• Throughout the chapters, we provide many excerpts from interviews with top executives from Adam Bryant’s The Corner Office. Such viewpoints provide valuable perspectives from leading executives and help to drive home the value and purpose of key strategy concepts. For example, we include the perspectives of Tim Brown (CEO of IDEO) on employee empowerment, John Stumpf (CEO of Wells Fargo) on strategy implementation, and Gordon Bethune (former CEO of Continental Airlines) on the importance of incentive systems.

• We have completely rewritten the “Reflecting on Career Implications . . .” feature that we introduced in the Sixth Edition of Strategic Management. Based on reviewer feedback, we directed our attention to providing insights that are closely aligned with and directed to three distinct issues faced by our readers: prepare them for a job interview (e.g., industry analysis), help them with current employers or their career in general, or help them find potential employers and decide where to work. We feel this feature is significantly improved and should be of more value to students’ professional development.

Key content changes for the chapters include:

• Chapter 1 makes a strong business case for environmental sustainability and draws on Porter’s concept of “shared value” that was initially introduced in the Sixth Edition. Such issues advance the notion that firms should go far beyond a narrow focus on shareholder returns. Further, shared value promotes practices that enhance the competitiveness of the company while simultaneously advancing the social and economic conditions in which it operates.

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• Chapter 2 makes the distinction between “hard trends” and “soft trends” that was articulated by Dan Burrus in his recent book Flash Foresight. This distinction is important in determing the importance of current trends and their evolution over time. Soft trends are something that might happen and a probability with which it might happen can be assigned. In contrast, hard trends are based on measurable facts, events, or objects—they are something that will happen. We provide the example of how the identification of hard trends (in technology) led the renowned Mayo Clinic to develop a CD to help customers to access useful medical information. This initiative provided the Mayo Clinic with significant financial and nonfinancial benefits!

• Chapter 4 addresses two issues that are important to not only developing human capital in organizations but also for students entering—or enhancing their success in—an organization: mentorship versus sponsorship and the “trap” of ineffective networks. Knowing the distinction between mentors and sponsors has valuable implications for one’s career. Mentors may provide coaching and advice, and prepare one for the next position. Sponsors, on the other hand, are typically somebody in a senior position who can advocate and facilitate career moves. We also draw on research that suggests three types of “network traps” that professionals should work hard to avoid: the wrong structure, the wrong relationship, and the wrong behavior.

• Chapter 6 discusses when actions taken to change the scope of businesses in which a corporation competes lead to positive outcomes for the firm. We highlight the characteristics of both acquisitions and divestitures that lead to positive outcomes. With acquisitions, we focus on how the characteristics of the acquiring firm as well as the acquisition itself lead to positive reactions by the stock market to the announcement of the deal. With divestitures, we draw on the work by the Boston Consulting Group to highlight seven principles for effective divestitures.

• Chapter 7 looks into the hidden costs of offshoring. In recent years, many firms have moved parts of their operations to lower wage countries. In many cases, they have found that the expected cost savings were illusory. We discuss seven reasons why firms would not achieve the anticipated savings through offshoring and provide examples of firms that have benefited by bringing their operations back home.

• Chapter 8 includes an examination of crowdfunding, a rapidly growing means to finance entrepreneurial ventures. Crowdfunding involves drawing relatively small amounts of funding from a wide net of investors to provide potentially large pools of capital for entrepreneurial ventures. We discuss both the tremendous potential as well as the pitfalls of crowdfunding for entrepreneurs. Knowing that some of our students may want to be investors in these ventures, we also discuss issues that crowdfunding investors should consider when looking into these investment opportunities.

• Chapter 9 addresses how firms can build effective boards of directors. We identify how firms need to go beyond standard categories, such as insider versus outsider board members, to develop favorable board dynamics. We also discuss how the structure of boards has changed over the past 25 years.

• Chapter 10 examines the costs and benefits of nurturing strong relationships to ensure cooperation and achieve high levels of performance. Over the past 30 years, many scholars have argued that relational systems, where decisions regarding how to facilitate control and coordination are driven by relationships rather than bureaucratic systems and contracts, are superior to more traditional control systems. We examine this issue and discuss how relational systems have both advantages and disadvantages. We conclude with a brief discussion of when managers may want to rely more on relationship systems and when they may want to rely more on formal structure and reward systems.

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• Chapter 11 introduces the concept of “competency companions,” an important idea for managers to consider in developing their leadership ability. The idea is that leaders can benefit most by identifying and developing complementary strengths instead of continually working on already great qualities that they may possess. For example, a leader who has a strong competence in developing innovative ideas can extend that competency by developing strong communication skills.

• Chapter 13 updates our Appendix: Sources of Company and Industry Information. Here, we owe a big debt to Ruthie Brock and Carol Byrne, library professionals at the University of Texas at Arlington. These ladies have graciously provided us with comprehensive and updated information that is organized in a range of issues. These include competitive intelligence, annual report collections, company rankings, business websites, and strategic and competitive analysis. Such information is invaluable in analyzing companies and industries.

• Alan Eisner, our case editor, has worked hard to further enhance our excellent case package.

• Approximately half of our cases are author-written (much more than the competition).

• We have updated our users’ favorite cases, creating fresh stories about familiar companies to minimize instructor preparation time and “maximize freshness” of the content.

• We have added 6 exciting new cases to the lineup, including Boston Beer, Campbell Soup, Kickstarter, and Zynga.

• We have also extensively updated 23 familiar cases, including Apple, eBay, Ford, Johnson & Johnson, and many others.

• A major focus on fresh and current cases on familiar firms. • Many videos on the Online Learning Center (OLC) or Connect to match the cases.

What Remains the Same: Key Features of Earlier Editions Let’s now briefly address some of the exciting features that remain from the earlier editions.

• Traditional organizing framework with three other chapters on timely topics. Crisply written chapters cover all of the strategy bases and address contemporary topics. First, the chapters are divided logically into the traditional sequence: strategy analysis, strategy formulation, and strategy implementation. Second, we include three chapters on such timely topics as intellectual capital/knowledge management, entrepreneurial strategy and competitive dynamics, and fostering corporate entrepreneurship and new ventures.

• “Learning from Mistakes” chapter-opening cases. To enhance student interest, we begin each chapter with a case that depicts an organization that has suffered a dramatic performance drop, or outright failure, by failing to adhere to sound strategic management concepts and principles. We believe that this feature serves to underpin the value of the concepts in the course and that it is a preferred teaching approach to merely providing examples of outstanding companies that always seem to get it right! After all, isn’t it better (and more challenging) to diagnose problems than admire perfection? As Dartmouth’s Sydney Finkelstein, author of Why Smart Executives Fail, notes: “We live

PREFACE

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in a world where success is revered, and failure is quickly pushed to the side. However, some of the greatest opportunities to learn—both for individuals and organizations— come from studying what goes wrong.”* We’ll see how, for example, Borders went from enjoying enormous success as an innovative firm—with revenues of nearly $4 billion in 2005—to bankruptcy six years later. We will also explore why Daimler’s “ultra-urban” Smart car—despite its initial acclaim—has cost the firm $5.3 billion in cumulative losses over the years. And we’ll explore why Cisco’s eagerness to enter the digital video market via its acquisition of Pure Digital Technologies didn’t pan out.

• Consistent chapter format and features to reinforce learning. We have included several features in each chapter to add value and create an enhanced learning experience. First, each chapter begins with an overview and a set of bullets pointing to key learning objectives. Second, as previously noted, the opening case describes a situation in which a company’s performance eroded because of a lack of proper application of strategy concepts. Third, at the end of each chapter there are four different types of questions/exercises that should help students assess their understanding and application of material:

1. Summary review questions. 2. Experiential exercises. 3. Application questions and exercises. 4. Ethics questions

Given the centrality of online systems to business today, each chapter contains at least one exercise that allows students to explore the use of the Web in implementing a firm’s strategy.

• “Reflecting on Career Implications” for each chapter. This feature—at the end of each chapter—will help instructors drive home the immediate relevance/value of strategy concepts. It focuses on how an understanding of key concepts helps business students early in their careers.

• Key Terms. Approximately a dozen key terms for each chapter are identified in the margins of the pages. This addition was made in response to reviewer feedback and improves students’ understanding of core strategy concepts.

• Clear articulation and illustration of key concepts. Key strategy concepts are introduced in a clear and concise manner and are followed by timely and interesting examples from business practice. Such concepts include value-chain analysis, the resource-based view of the firm, Porter’s five-forces model, competitive advantage, boundaryless organizational designs, digital strategies, corporate governance, ethics, and entrepreneurship.

• Extensive use of sidebars. We include 85 sidebars (or about seven per chapter) called “Strategy Spotlights.” The Strategy Spotlights not only illustrate key points but also increase the readability and excitement of new strategy concepts.

• Integrative themes. The text provides a solid grounding in ethics, globalization, environmental sustainability, and technology. These topics are central themes throughout the book and form the basis for many of the Strategy Spotlights.

• Implications of concepts for small businesses. Many of the key concepts are applied to start-up firms and smaller businesses, which is particularly important since many students have professional plans to work in such firms.

*Personal communication, June 20, 2005.

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PREFACE

• Not just a textbook but an entire package. Strategic Management features the best chapter teaching notes available today. Rather than merely summarizing the key points in each chapter, we focus on value-added material to enhance the teaching (and learning) experience. Each chapter includes dozens of questions to spur discussion, teaching tips, in-class group exercises, and about a dozen detailed examples from business practice to provide further illustrations of key concepts.

• Excellent Case Studies. We have selected an excellent collection of current and classic cases for this edition, carefully including a wide variety of cases matched to key strategic concepts and organized to create maximum flexibility. We have a balance of short, concise, and longer, comprehensive cases while maintaining currency and name recognition of our cases with many new and updated classroom-tested cases. We also have updated many of the favorites from the Sixth Edition, such as Apple, eBay, Ford, Johnson & Johnson, and many others.

Student Support Materials Online Learning Center (OLC) The following resources are available to students via the publisher’s OLC at www.mhhe.com/ dess7e :

• Chapter quizzes students can take to gauge their understanding of material covered in each chapter.

• A selection of PowerPoint slides for each chapter. • Links to strategy simulations the Business Strategy Game & GLO-BUS. Both provide

a powerful and constructive way of connecting students to the subject matter of the course with a competition among classmates on campus and around the world.

Instructor Support Materials Instructor’s Manual (IM) Prepared by the textbook authors, along with valued input from our strategy colleagues, the accompanying IM contains summary/objectives, lecture/discussion outlines, discussion questions, extra examples not included in the text, teaching tips, reflecting on career implications, experiential exercises, and more.

Test Bank Revised by Christine Pence of the University of California–Riverside, the test bank contains more than 1,000 true/false, multiple-choice, and essay questions. It has now been tagged with learning objectives as well as Bloom’s Taxonomy and AACSB criteria.

• Assurance of Learning Ready. Assurance of Learning is an important element of many accreditation standards. Dess 7e is designed specifically to support your Assurance of Learning initiatives. Each chapter in the book begins with a list of numbered learning objectives that appear throughout the chapter, as well as in the end-of-chapter questions and exercises. Every test bank question is also linked to one of these objectives, in addition to level of difficulty, topic area, Bloom’s Taxonomy level, and AACSB skill area. EZ Test, McGraw-Hill’s easy-to-use test bank software, can search the test bank by these and other categories, providing an engine for targeted Assurance of Learning analysis and assessment.

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• AACSB Statement. The McGraw-Hill Companies is a proud corporate member of AACSB International. Understanding the importance and value of AACSB accreditation, Dess 7e has sought to recognize the curricula guidelines detailed in the AACSB standards for business accreditation by connecting selected questions in Dess 7e and the test bank to the general knowledge and skill guidelines found in the AACSB standards. The statements contained in Dess 7e are provided only as a guide for the users of this text. The AACSB leaves content coverage and assessment within the purview of individual schools, the mission of the school, and the faculty. While Dess 7e and the teaching package make no claim of any specific AACSB qualification or evaluation, we have labeled selected questions within Dess 7e according to the six general knowledge and skills areas.

• Computerized Test Bank Online. A comprehensive bank of test questions is provided within a computerized test bank powered by McGraw-Hill’s flexible electronic testing program, EZ Test Online ( www.eztestonline.com ). EZ Test Online allows you to create paper and online tests or quizzes in this easy-to-use program! Imagine being able to create and access your test or quiz anywhere, at any time without installing the testing software. Now, with EZ Test Online, instructors can select questions from multiple McGraw-Hill test banks or author their own, and then either print the test for paper distribution or give it online.

• Test Creation. • Author/edit questions online using the 14 different question type templates. • Create printed tests or deliver online to get instant scoring and feedback. • Create questions pools to offer multiple versions online – great for practice. • Export your tests for use in WebCT, Blackboard, PageOut, and Apple’s iQuiz. • Compatible with EZ Test Desktop tests you’ve already created. • Sharing tests with colleagues, adjuncts, TAs is easy.

• Online Test Management. • Set availability dates and time limits for your quiz or test. • Control how your test will be presented. • Assign points by question or question type with drop-down menu. • Provide immediate feedback to students or delay until all finish the test. • Create practice tests online to enable student mastery. • Your roster can be uploaded to enable student self-registration.

• Online Scoring and Reporting. • Automated scoring for most of EZ Test ’s numerous question types. • Allows manual scoring for essay and other open response questions. • Manual rescoring and feedback is also available. • EZ Test ’s grade book is designed to easily export to your grade book. • View basic statistical reports.

• Support and Help. • User’s guide and built-in page-specific help. • Flash tutorials for getting started on the support site. • Support website: www.mhhe.com/eztest. • Product specialist available at 1-800-331-5094. • Online Training: http://auth.mhhe.com/mpss/workshops/.

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PowerPoint Presentation Prepared by Pauline Assenza of Western Connecticut State University and consists of more than 400 slides incorporating an outline for the chapters tied to learning objectives. Also included are instructor notes, multiple-choice questions that can be used as Classroom Performance System (CPS) questions, and additional examples outside of the text to promote class discussion. Case Study PowerPoint slides are available to facilitate case study coverage.

McGraw-Hill Connect™ Management Less Managing. More Teaching. Greater Learning. McGraw-Hill Connect Management is an online assignment and assessment solution that connects students with the tools and resources thev’ll need to achieve success.

• McGraw-Hill Connect Management Features. Connect Management offers a number of powerful tools and features to make managing assignments easier, so faculty can spend more time teaching. With Connect Management, students can engage with their coursework anytime and anywhere, making the learning process more accessible and efficient. Connect Management offers you the features described below.

• There are chapter quizzes for the 12 chapters, consisting of 15–25 multiple- choice questions, testing students’ overall comprehension of concepts presented in the chapter.

• There are 2 specially crafted interactives for each of the 12 chapters that drill students in the use and application of the concepts and tools of strategic analysis.

• Connect also includes special case exercises for approximately one-third of the 35 cases in this edition that require students to develop answers to a select number of the assignment questions.

• Additionally, there will be financial analysis exercises related to the case exercises. • The majority of the Connect exercises are automatically graded, thereby

simplifying the task of evaluating each class member’s performance and monitoring the learning outcomes.

• Student Progress Tracking. Connect Management keeps instructors informed about how each student, section, and class is performing, allowing for more productive use of lecture and office hours. The progress-tracking function enables you to

• View scored work immediately and track individual or group performance with assignment and grade reports.

• Access an instant view of student or class performance relative to learning objectives.

• Collect data and generate reports required by many accreditation organizations, such as AACSB.

• Smart Grading. When it comes to studying, time is precious. Connect Management helps students learn more efficiently by providing feedback and practice material when they need it, where they need it. When it comes to teaching, your time also is precious. The grading function enables you to

• Have assignments scored automatically, giving students immediate feedback on their work and side-by-side comparisons with correct answers.

• Access and review each response, manually change grades, or leave comments for students to review.

• Reinforce classroom concepts with practice tests and instant quizzes.

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• Simple Assignment Management. With Connect Management, creating assignments is easier than ever, so you can spend more time teaching and less time managing. The assignment management function enables you to

• Create and deliver assignments easily with selectable test bank items. • Streamline lesson planning, student progress reporting, and assignment grading to

make classroom management more efficient than ever. • Go paperless with online submission and grading of student assignments.

• Instructor Library. The Connect Management Instructor Library is your repository for additional resources to improve student engagement in and out of class. You can select and use any asset that enhances your lecture. The Connect Management Instructor Library includes

• Instructor Manual • Case Teaching Notes • PowerPoint ® files • Test Bank

Videos A set of videos related to both chapters and selected cases can be found on the Online Learning Center (OLC) or Connect to support your classroom or student lab, or for home viewing. These thought-provoking video clips are available upon adoption of this text.

Online Learning Center (OLC) The instructor section of www.mhhe.com/dess7e also includes the Instructor’s Manual, PowerPoint Presentations, Case Grid, and Case Study Teaching Notes as well as additional resources.

The Business Strategy Game and GLO-BUS Online Simulations Both allow teams of students to manage companies in a head-to-head contest for global market leadership. These simulations give students the immediate opportunity to experiment with various strategy options and to gain proficiency in applying the concepts and tools they have been reading about in the chapters. To find out more or to register, please visit www.mhhe.com/ thompsonsims.

e-book Options e-books are an innovative way for students to save money and to “go-green,” McGraw-Hill’s e-books are typically 40% of bookstore price. Students have the choice between an online and a downloadable CourseSmart e-book.

Through CourseSmart, students have the flexibility to access an exact replica of their textbook from any computer that has internet service without plug-ins or special software via the version, or create a library of books on their harddrive via the downloadable version. Access to the CourseSmart e-books is one year.

Features: CourseSmart e-books allow students to highlight, take notes, organize notes, and share the notes with other CourseSmart users. Students can also search terms across all e-books in their purchased CourseSmart library. CourseSmart e-books can be printed (5 pages at a time).

More info and purchase: Please visit www.coursesmart.com for more information and to purchase access to our e-books. CourseSmart allows students to try one chapter of the e-book, free of charge, before purchase.

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Additional Resources Create Craft your teaching resources to match the way you teach! With McGraw-Hill Create, www.mcgrawhillcreate.com, you can easily rearrange chapters, combine material from other content sources, and quickly upload content you have written, like your course syllabus or teaching notes. Find the content you need in Create by searching through thousands of leading McGraw-Hill textbooks. Arrange your book to fit your teaching style. Create even allows you to personalize your book’s appearance by selecting the cover and adding your name, school, and course information. Order a Create book and you’ll receive a complimentary print review copy in three to five business days or a complimentary electronic review copy (eComp) via email in about one hour. Go to www.mcgrawhillcreate.com today and register. Experience how McGraw-Hill Create empowers you to teach your students your way.

McGraw-Hill Higher Education and Blackboard McGraw-Hill Higher Education and Blackboard have teamed up. What does this mean for you?

1. Your life, simplified. Now you and your students can access McGraw-Hill’s Connect and Create right from within your Blackboard course—all with one single sign-on. Say goodbye to the days of logging in to multiple applications.

2. Deep integration of content and tools. Not only do you get single sign-on with Connect and Create, you also get deep integration of McGraw-Hill content and content engines right in Blackboard. Whether you’re choosing a book for your course or building Connect assignments, all the tools you need are right where you want them—inside of Blackboard.

3. Seamless gradebooks. Are you tired of keeping multiple gradebooks and manually synchronizing grades into Blackboard? We thought so. When a student completes an integrated Connect assignment, the grade for that assignment automatically (and instantly) feeds your Blackboard grade center.

4. A solution for everyone. Whether your institution is already using Blackboard or you just want to try Blackboard on your own, we have a solution for you. McGraw-Hill and Blackboard can now offer you easy access to industry-leading technology and content, whether your campus hosts it or we do. Be sure to ask your local McGraw-Hill representative for details.

McGraw-Hill Customer Care Contact Information At McGraw-Hill, we understand that getting the most from new technology can be challenging. That’s why our services don’t stop after you purchase our products. You can e-mail our product specialists 24 hours a day to get product training online. Or you can search our knowledge bank of Frequently Asked Questions on our support website. For customer support, call 800-331-5094, email hmsupport@mcgraw-hill.com, or visit www.mhhe.com/support. One of our technical support analysts will be able to assist you in a timely fashion.

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Acknowledgments Strategic Management represents far more than just the joint efforts of the four co-authors. Rather, it is the product of the collaborative input of many people. Some of these individuals are academic colleagues, others are the outstanding team of professionals at McGraw-Hill/Irwin, and still others are those who are closest to us—our families. It is time to express our sincere gratitude.

First, we’d like to acknowledge the dedicated instructors who have graciously provided their insights since the inception of the text. Their input has been very helpful in both pointing out errors in the manuscript and suggesting areas that needed further development as additional top- ics. We sincerely believe that the incorporation of their ideas has been critical to improving the fi nal product. These professionals and their affi liations are:

The Reviewer Hall of Fame

Moses Acquaah, University of North Carolina–Greensboro

Todd Alessandri, Northeastern University

Larry Alexander, Virginia Polytechnic Institute

Brent B. Allred, College of William & Mary

Allen C. Amason, University of Georgia

Kathy Anders, Arizona State University

Lise Anne D. Slatten, University of Louisiana at Lafayette

Peter H. Antoniou, California State University, San Marcos

Dave Arnott, Dallas Baptist University Marne L. Arthaud-Day, Kansas State University

Jay Azriel, York University of Pennsylvania Jeffrey J. Bailey, University of Idaho

Dennis R. Balch, University of North Alabama

Bruce Barringer, University of Central Florida

Barbara R. Bartkus, Old Dominion University

Barry Bayon, Bryant University Brent D. Beal, Louisiana State University

Joyce Beggs, University of North Carolina–Charlotte

Michael Behnam, Suffolk University

Kristen Bell DeTienne, Brigham Young University

Eldon Bernstein, Lynn University David Blair, University of Nebraska at Omaha

Daniela Blettner, Tilburg University

Dusty Bodie, Boise State University

William Bogner, Georgia State University

Scott Browne, Chapman University

Jon Bryan, Bridgewater State College

Charles M. Byles, Virginia Commonwealth University

Mikelle A. Calhoun, Valparaiso University

Thomas J. Callahan, University of Michigan, Dearborn

Samuel D. Cappel, Southeastern Louisiana State University

Gary Carini, Baylor University

Shawn M. Carraher, University of Texas, Dallas

Tim Carroll, University of South Carolina

Don Caruth, Amberton University

Maureen Casile, Bowling Green State University

Gary J. Castrogiovanni, Florida Atlantic University

Radha Chaganti, Rider University

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PREFACE

Erick PC Chang, Arkansas State University

Theresa Cho, Rutgers University

Bruce Clemens, Western New England College

Betty S. Coffey, Appalachian State University

Wade Coggins, Webster University, Fort Smith Metro Campus

Susan Cohen, University of Pittsburgh

George S. Cole, Shippensburg University

Joseph Coombs, Texas A & M University

Christine Cope Pence, University of California, Riverside

James J. Cordeiro, SUNY Brockport

Stephen E. Courter, University of Texas at Austin

Jeffrey Covin, Indiana University

Keith Credo, Auburn University

Deepak Datta, University of Texas at Arlington

James Davis, Utah State University

Justin L. Davis, University of West Florida

David Dawley, West Virginia University

Helen Deresky, State University of New York, Plattsburgh

Rocki-Lee DeWitt, University of Vermont

Jay Dial, Ohio State University

Michael E. Dobbs, Arkansas State University

Jonathan Doh, Villanova University

Tom Douglas, Clemson University

Meredith Downes, Illinois State University

Jon Down, Oregon State University

Alan E. Ellstrand, University of Arkansas

Dean S. Elmuti, Eastern Illinois University

Clare Engle, Concordia University

Mehmet Erdem Genc, Baruch College, CUNY

Tracy Ethridge, Tri-County Technical College

William A. Evans, Troy State University, Dothan

Frances H. Fabian, University of Memphis

Angelo Fanelli, Warrington College of Business

Michael Fathi, Georgia Southwestern University

Carolyn J. Fausnaugh, Florida Institute of Technology

Tamela D. Ferguson, University of Louisiana at Lafayette

David Flanagan, Western Michigan University

Dave Foster, Montana State University

Isaac Fox, University of Minnesota

Deborah Francis, Brevard College

Steven A. Frankforter, Winthrop University

Vance Fried, Oklahoma State University

Karen Froelich, North Dakota State University

Naomi A. Gardberg, CNNY Baruch College

J. Michael Geringer, California Polytechnic State University

Diana L. Gilbertson, California State University, Fresno

Matt Gilley, St. Mary’s University

Debbie Gilliard, Metropolitan State College–Denver

Yezdi H. Godiwalla, University of Wisconsin–Whitewater

Sanjay Goel, University of Minnesota, Duluth

Sandy Gough, Boise State University

Allen Harmon, University of Minnesota, Duluth

Niran Harrison, University of Oregon

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Paula Harveston, Berry College

Ahmad Hassan, Morehead State University

Donald Hatfield, Virginia Polytechnic Institute

Kim Hester, Arkansas State University

Scott Hicks, Liberty University

John Hironaka, California State University, Sacramento

Alan Hoffman, Bentley College

Gordon Holbein, University of Kentucky

Stephen V. Horner, Pittsburg State University

Jill Hough, University of Tulsa

John Humphreys, Eastern New Mexico University

James G. Ibe, Morris College

Jay J. Janney, University of Dayton

Lawrence Jauch, University of Louisiana–Monroe

Dana M. Johnson, Michigan Technical University

Homer Johnson, Loyola University, Chicago

James Katzenstein, California State University, Dominguez Hills

Joseph Kavanaugh, Sam Houston State University

Franz Kellermanns, University of Tennessee

Craig Kelley, California State University, Sacramento

Donna Kelley, Babson College

Dave Ketchen, Auburn University

John A. Kilpatrick, Idaho State University

Helaine J. Korn, Baruch College,CUNY

Stan Kowalczyk, San Francisco State University

Daniel Kraska, North Central State College

Donald E. Kreps, Kutztown University

Jim Kroeger, Cleveland State University

Subdoh P. Kulkarni, Howard University

Ron Lambert, Faulkner University

Theresa Lant, New York University

Ted Legatski, Texas Christian University

David J. Lemak, Washington State University–Tri-Cities

Cynthia Lengnick-Hall, University of Texas at San Antonio

Donald L. Lester, Arkansas State University

Wanda Lester, North Carolina A&T State University

Benyamin Lichtenstein, University of Massachusetts at Boston

Jun Lin, SUNY at New Paltz

Zhiang (John) Lin, University of Texas at Dallas

Dan Lockhart, University of Kentucky

John Logan, University of South Carolina

Franz T. Lohrke, Samford University

Kevin Lowe, University of North Carolina, Greensboro

Leyland M. Lucas, Morgan State University

Doug Lyon, Fort Lewis College

Rickey Madden, Ph.D., Presbyterian College

James Maddox, Friends University

Ravi Madhavan, University of Pittsburgh

Paul Mallette, Colorado State University

Santo D. Marabella, Moravian College

Catherine Maritan, Syracuse University

Daniel Marrone, Farmingdale State College, SUNY

Sarah Marsh, Northern Illinois University

John R. Massaua, University of Southern Maine

Hao Ma, Bryant College

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Larry McDaniel, Alabama A&M University

Jean McGuire, Louisiana State University

Abagail McWilliams, University of Illinois, Chicago

Ofer Meilich, California State University–San Marcos

John E. Merchant, California State University, Sacramento

John M. Mezias, University of Miami

Michael Michalisin, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale

Doug Moesel, University of Missouri–Columbia

Fatma Mohamed, Morehead State University

Mike Montalbano, Bentley University

Debra Moody, University of North Carolina, Charlotte

Gregory A. Moore, Middle Tennessee State University

James R. Morgan, Dominican University and UC Berkeley Extension

Sara A. Morris, Old Dominion University

Carolyn Mu, Baylor University

Stephen Mueller, Northern Kentucky University

John Mullane, Middle Tennessee State University

Chandran Mylvaganam, Northwood University

Sucheta Nadkarni, Drexel University

Anil Nair, Old Dominion University V.K. Narayanan, Drexel University

Maria L. Nathan, Lynchburg College

Louise Nemanich, Arizona State University

Charles Newman, University of Maryland, University College

Stephanie Newport, Austin Peay State University

Gerry Nkombo Muuka, Murray State University Bill Norton, University of Louisville

Yusuf A. Nur, SUNY Brockport

Jeffrey R. Nystrom, University of Colorado

William Ross O’Brien, Dallas Baptist University

d.t. ogilvie, Rutgers University

Floyd Ormsbee, Clarkson University

Karen L. Page, University of Wyoming

Jacquelyn W. Palmer, University of Cincinnati

Julie Palmer, University of Missouri, Columbia

Gerald Parker, Saint Louis University

Daewoo Park, Xavier University

Ralph Parrish, University of Central Oklahoma

Amy Patrick, Wilmington University

Douglas K. Peterson, Indiana State University

Edward Petkus, Mary Baldwin College

Michael C. Pickett, National University

Peter Ping Li, California State University, Stanislaus

Michael W. Pitts, Virginia Commonwealth University

Laura Poppo, Virginia Tech

Steve Porth, Saint Joseph’s University

Jodi A. Potter, Robert Morris University

Scott A. Quatro, Grand Canyon University

Nandini Rajagopalan, University of Southern California

Annette L. Ranft, Florida State University

Abdul Rasheed, University of Texas at Arlington

Devaki Rau, Northern Illinois University

George Redmond, Franklin University

Kira Reed, Syracuse University

PREFACE

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Clint Relyea, Arkansas State University

Barbara Ribbens, Western Illinois University

Maurice Rice, University of Washington

Violina P. Rindova, University of Texas, Austin

Ron Rivas, Canisius College

David Robinson, Indiana State University– Terre Haute

Kenneth Robinson, Kennesaw State University

Simon Rodan, San Jose State University

Patrick R. Rogers, North Carolina A&T State University

John K. Ross III, Texas State University, San Marcos

Robert Rottman, Kentucky State University

Matthew R. Rutherford, Gonzaga University

Carol M. Sanchez, Grand Valley State University

William W. Sannwald, San Diego State University

Yolanda Sarason, Colorado State University

Marguerite Schneider, New Jersey Institute of Technology

Roger R. Schnorbus, University of Richmond

Terry Sebora, University of Nebraska–Lincoln

John Seeger, Bentley College

Jamal Shamsie, Michigan State University

Mark Shanley, University of Illinois at Chicago

Lois Shelton, California State University, Northridge

Herbert Sherman, Long Island University

Weilei Shi, Baruch College–CUNY

Chris Shook, Auburn University

Jeremy Short, University of Oklahoma

Mark Simon, Oakland University, Michigan

Rob Singh, Morgan State University

Bruce Skaggs, University of Massachusetts

Wayne Smeltz, Rider University

Anne Smith, University of Tennessee

Andrew Spicer, University of South Carolina

James D. Spina, University of Maryland

John Stanbury, George Mason University & Inter-University Institute of Macau, SAR China

Timothy Stearns, California State University, Fresno

Elton Stephen, Austin State University

Charles E. Stevens, University of Wyoming

Alice Stewart, Ohio State University

Ram Subramanian, Grand Valley State University

Roy Suddaby, University of Iowa

Michael Sullivan, UC Berkeley Extension

Marta Szabo White, Georgia State University

Stephen Takach, University of Texas at San Antonio

Justin Tan, York University, Canada

Qingju Tao, Lehigh University

Linda Teagarden, Virginia Tech

Bing-Sheng Teng, George Washington University

Alan Theriault, University of California–Riverside

Tracy Thompson, University of Washington, Tacoma

Karen Torres, Angelo State University

Robert Trumble, Virginia Commonwealth University

Francis D. (Doug) Tuggle, Chapman University

K.J. Tullis, University of Central Oklahoma

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Craig A. Turner, Ph.D., East Tennessee State University

Beverly Tyler, North Carolina State University

Rajaram Veliyath, Kennesaw State University

S. Stephen Vitucci, Tarleton State University– Central Texas

Jay A. Vora, St. Cloud State University

Bruce Walters, Louisiana Tech University

Jorge Walter, Portland State University

Edward Ward, St. Cloud State University N. Wasilewski, Pepperdine University Andrew Watson, Northeastern University

Larry Watts, Stephen F. Austin University

Paula S. Weber, St. Cloud State University

Kenneth E. A. Wendeln, Indiana University Robert R. Wharton, Western Kentucky University Laura Whitcomb, California State University– Los Angeles

Scott Williams, Wright State University

Diana Wong, Bowling Green State University

Beth Woodard, Belmont University

John E. Wroblewski, State University of New York–Fredonia

Anne York, University of Nebraska, Omaha

Michael Zhang, Sacred Heart University

Monica Zimmerman, Temple University

Second, the authors would like to thank several faculty colleagues who were particularly helpful in the review, critique, and development of the book and supplementary materials. Greg’s colleagues at the University of Texas at Dallas also have been helpful and supportive. These individuals include Mike Peng, Joe Picken, Kumar Nair, John Lin, Larry Chasteen, Seung-Hyun Lee, Tev Dalgic, and Jane Salk. His administrative assistant, Mary Vice, has been extremely helpful. Three doctoral students, Brian Pinkham, Steve Saverwald and Ciprian Stan, have provided many useful inputs and ideas, along with a research associate, Kimberly Flicker. He also appreciates the support of his dean and associate dean, Hasan Pirkul and Varghese Jacob, respectively. Tom would like to thank Gerry Hills, Abagail McWilliams, Rod Shrader, Mike Miller, James Gillespie, Ron Mitchell, Kim Boal, Keith Brigham, Jeremy Short, Tyge Payne, Bill Wan, Andy Yu, Abby Wang, Johan Wiklund, Mike Haynie, Alex McKelvie, Denis Gregoire, Alejandro Amezcua, Maria Minniti, Cathy Maritan, Ravi Dharwadkar, and Pam Brandes. Spe- cial thanks also to Jeff Stambaugh for his valuable contributions. Tom also extends a special thanks to Benyamin Lichtenstein for his support and encouragement. Both Greg and Tom wish to thank a special colleague, Abdul Rasheed at the University of Texas at Arlington, who cer- tainly has been a valued source of friendship and ideas for us for many years. He provided many valuable contributions to all editions. Alan thanks his colleagues at Pace University and the Case Association for their support in developing these fi ne case selections. Special thanks go to Jamal Shamsie at Michigan State University for his support in developing the case selections for this edition. Gerry thanks all of his colleagues at Michigan State University for their help and support over the years. He also thanks his mentor, Phil Bromiley, as well as the students and former students he has had the pleasure of working with, including Becky Luce, Cindy Devers, Federico Aime, Mike Mannor, Bernadine Dykes, Mathias Arrfelt, Kalin Kolev, Seungho Choi, Rob Davison, Dustin Sleesman, Danny Gamache, Adam Steinbach, and Daniel Chaffi n.

Third, we would like to thank the team at McGraw-Hill for their outstanding support throughout the entire process. As we work on the book through the various editions, we always appreciate their hard work and recognize how so many people “add value” to our fi nal package! This began with John Biernat, formerly publisher, who signed us to our original contract. He

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was always available to us and provided a great deal of support and valued input throughout sev- eral editions. Presently, in editorial, Paul Ducham, managing director, executive brand manager Mike Ablassmeir, and senior development editor Laura Griffi n, kept things on track, responded quickly to our seemingly endless needs and requests, and offered insights and encouragement. We appreciate their expertise—as well as their patience! Once the manuscript was completed and revised, content project manager Harvey Yep expertly guided it through the print produc- tion process. Pam Verros provided excellent design, photo selection, and artwork guidance. Susan Lombardi, content project manager, did a superb job adding value to our supplementary materials and digital content. We also appreciate marketing manager Elizabeth Trepkowski and marketing specialist Liz Steiner for their energetic, competent, and thorough marketing efforts. Last, but certainly not least, we thank MHE’s 70-plus outstanding book reps—who serve on the “front lines”—as well as many in-house sales professionals based in Dubuque, Iowa. Clearly, they deserve a lot of credit (even though not mentioned by name) for our success.

Fourth, we acknowledge the valuable contributions of many of our strategy colleagues for their excellent contributions to our supplementary and digital materials. Such content really adds a lot of value to our entire package! We are grateful to Pauline Assenza, Western Connecticut State University, for her superb work on case teaching notes as well as chapter and case PowerPoints. We thank Doug Sanford, Towson University, for his expertise in developing several pedagogical features, including the teaching notes for the “Learning from Mistakes . . .” and carefully reviewing our Instructor Manual’s chapters. Justin Davis, University of West Florida, along with Noushi Rahman, Pace University, deserve our thanks for their hard work in developing excellent digital materials for Connect. And fi nally, we thank Christine Pence, University of California–Riverside, for her important contributions in revising our test bank and Todd Moss, Oregon State University, for his hard work in putting together an excellent set of videos online, along with the video grid that links videos to chapter material.

Finally, we would like to thank our families. For Greg this includes his parents, William and Mary Dess, who have always been there for him. His wife, Margie, and daughter, Taylor, have been a constant source of love and companionship. He would like to acknowledge his late uncle, Walter Descovich. Uncle Walt was truly a member of Tom Brokaw’s Greatest Genera- tion. He served in the U.S. Navy during World War II—where he learned electronics —and later became a superintendent at Consolidated Edison in New York City. He, his wife, Eleanor, and his family have been an inspiration to Greg over the years. Tom thanks his wife, Vicki, for her constant love and companionship. Tom also thanks Lee Hetherington and Thelma Lumpkin for their inspiration, as well as his mom, Katy, and his sister, Kitty, for a lifetime of support. Alan thanks his family—his wife, Helaine, and his children, Rachel and Jacob—for their love and support. He also thanks his parents, Gail Eisner and the late Marvin Eisner, for their support and encouragement. Gerry thanks his wife, Gaelen, for her love, support, and friendship and his children, Megan and AJ, for their love and the joy they bring to his life. He also thanks his parents, Gene and Jane, for their encouragement and support in all phases of his life.

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Learning from Mistakes In 1997, Daimler AG introduced an “ultra-urban” car at the Frankfurt Motor Show amid much fanfare. 1 Envisioned by Nicholas Hayek (inventor of Swatch Watch) and Mercedes- Benz, it received acclaim for its innovation, advanced engineering, and functionality as well as being simply fun to drive. Over one million were sold worldwide before it entered the U.S. market a decade later. What was this car that was transforming the urban transportation market? It was the Smart fortwo—a pocket-sized two-seater, high- efficiency vehicle made with cutting-edge materials that were as light as they were strong and had an impressively engineered Mercedes-Benz engine that made it fun to drive.

On January 16, 2008, the first Smart fortwo streaked through the streets of Manhattan, New York. The Smart fortwo was an immediate sensation in the United States, with sales of 24,600 units in its first year. With rising gas prices, a buoyant economy, and increasingly ecologically- aware consumers, Daimler had not only found a market, but also it was blazing a trail all across the United States. However, sales quickly dropped—just 20,000 cars were sold over the following three years. So where did Smart take a wrong turn?

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Learning Objectives Learning Objectives numbered LO5.1, LO5.2, LO5.3, etc. with corresponding icons in the margins to indicate where learning objectives are covered in the text.

I h l 2000 P&G f d h i h ld h i

NGOs AS MONITORS OF MNCs Although the number of NGOs worldwide is hard to determine, according to a recent study there are at least 40,000 multinational NGOs. There are also hundreds of thousands based in individual countries, with India leading the pack with one NGO for 400 of its citizens. What are NGOs and what do they do? NGOs such as Greenpeace or World Wildlife Fund include a wide array of groups and organizations—from activist groups “reclaiming the streets” to development organizations delivering aid and providing essential public services. Other NGOs are research-driven policy organiza- tions, looking to engage with decision makers. Still others see them- selves as watchdogs, casting a critical eye over current events.

Some NGOs recently broadened their monitoring or watchdog role of multinational corporations (MNCs) to include not just the MNC itself but also the MNC’s supply chain. As an example, Apple in 2011 received massive media scrutiny from Chinese environ- mental NGOs because the beloved U.S. technology giant ignored pollution violations of some of its Chinese suppliers. Following intense media pressure, Apple quickly arranged talks with the Chi- nese environmental NGOs and eventually increased environmental standards for its suppliers. However, the responsibility of MNCs does not stop with their immediate supplier base. International brands such as Nike and Adidas were targets of international

media attention because they procured finished goods from Chinese textile companies with questionable environmental prac- tices. These cases highlight that MNCs face substantial challenges in what is commonly assumed to be an arm’s length market transaction.

Although many MNCs are quick to react to environmental con- cerns raised by NGOs, a more proactive management of environ- mental issues in their supply chain may prevent public scrutiny and other embarrassments. Apparel company Levi Strauss takes a proactive approach that encourages self-monitoring by their suppliers. For each false or misleading environmental record, Levi Strauss issues the supplier a “zero tolerance” warning and will terminate the relationship after three such warnings. However, if the supplier voluntarily reports environmental issues, Levi Strauss does not issue a warning, but instead works with the supplier to correct the problems. This proactive approach encourages self- monitoring and decreases the risk of becoming the target of NGO attention and media pressure.

Sources: Esty, D. C. & Winston, A. S. 2009. Green to Gold. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley: 69–70; Barboza, D. 2011. Apple cited as adding to pollution in China. The New York Times, September 1: np; Plambeck, E., Lee, H.L., and Yatsko, P. 2011. Improving environmental performance in your Chinese supply chain. MIT Sloan Management Review, 53(2): 43–51; and Shukla, A. 2010. First official estimate: An NGO for every 400 people in India. www.indianexpress.com , July 7: np.

STRATEGY SPOTLIGHT 1.3 ETHICS

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Learning from Mistakes Learning from Mistakes are examples of where things went wrong. Failures are not only interesting but also sometimes easier to learn from. And students realize strategy is not just about “right or wrong” answers, but requires critical thinking.

Strategy Spotlight These boxes weave themes of ethics, globalization, and technology into every chapter of the text, providing students with a thorough grounding necessary for understanding strategic management. Select boxes incorporate crowdsourcing, environmental sustainability, and ethical themes.

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Business-Level Strategy: Creating and Sustaining Competitive Advantages

After reading this chapter, you should have a good understanding of the following learning objectives:

LO5.1 The central role of competitive advantage in the study of strategic management, and the three generic strategies: overall cost leadership, differentiation, and focus.

LO5.2 How the successful attainment of generic strategies can improve a firm’s relative power vis-à-vis the five forces that determine an industry’s average profitability.

LO5.3 The pitfalls managers must avoid in striving to attain generic strategies.

LO5.4 How firms can effectively combine the generic strategies of overall cost leadership and differentiation.

LO5.5 What factors determine the sustainability of a firm’s competitive advantage.

LO5.6 How Internet-enabled business models are being used to improve strategic positioning.

LO5.7 The importance of considering the industry life cycle to determine a firm’s business-level strategy and its relative emphasis on functional area strategies and value-creating activities.

LO5.8 The need for turnaround strategies that enable a firm to reposition its competitive position in an industry.

Learning from Mistak Some of the most widely known brands and snack foods arena have been owned Corporation. 1 Since the 1930s, Hostess Br founded as Interstate Bakeries) produce popular baked goods, including Wonder B Ring Dings, Yodels, Zingers, and many o Even with its iconic brands and sales in o year, Hostess Brands found itself in a perilou went into bankruptcy in 2012. Unable to f solution to remain viable, in November closed down all of its bakeries and was for and sell off its brands to other bakeries. W of their brands and their longstanding ma was a surprise to many seeing the firm f wrong?

The viability of a fi rm’s business-level strat by both the internal operations of a fi rm an and preferences of the market. Firms that s the appropriate resources and cost structure needs of the environment. Hostess had long themselves in the baked goods business simple yet fl avorful baked snack goods that in kids’ lunchboxes for generations. Their stro the environment was undone by a combinati

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GUIDED TOUR

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and everyone else “fends for themselves” in their independent, isolated functional areas. Instead, people throughout the organization must strive toward overall goals.

The need for such a perspective is accelerating in today’s increasingly complex, inter- connected ever-changing global economy As noted by Peter Senge of MIT the days

THE BUSINESS CASE FOR SUSTAINABILITY The corporate sustainability, or “green,” movement describes a business philosophy that goes beyond legal compliance with envi- ronmental regulations. Historically, companies engaged in social issues by handing out checks to charities or victims of natural disasters. While these forms of “green marketing” are here to stay, the new corporate sustainability movement wants not only to do good but also to save big bucks.

Companies across the world embrace the concept of sus- tainability as a powerful source of innovation and improving operational effectiveness. Companies that translate sustainable business practices into improved operational performance focus on the opportunity cost represented by waste instead of the short- term cost of implementing sustainable business practices. One industry in which sustainability creates competitive advantage is retailing. Take Walmart for example. Walmart is far ahead of its major competitors Target and Sears in terms of reducing waste and the weight of its packaging. In 2009, Walmart’s Japanese Seiyu chain converted the packaging for its private-label fresh-cut

fruit and salads from oil-based to corn-based plastic. This opera- tional improvement reduced packaging weight by 25 percent and lowered freight and warehouse costs by 13 percent, saving Walmart more than $195,000 a year.

International Paper (IP), a global paper and packaging com- pany, is another company that benefits from sustainable business practices. IP recognized that its future profitability depends on a steady supply of trees, and it has planted more than 4 billion tree seedlings since the 1950s. The company also cut dependence on fossil fuel by 21 percent from 2005 to 2010—partially achieved by burning limbs and other biomass debris from tree processing. These sustainability decisions paid off and saved IP $221 million annually. IP also formalized specific sustainability goals, such as reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 20 percent by 2020, high- lighting the company’s commitment to sustainability.

Sources: Stanford, D. 2011. Why sustainability is winning over CEOs. Bloomberg BusinessWeek, March 31: np; Gupta, N.J. & Benson, C. 2011. Sustainability and competitive advantage: An empirical study of value creation. Competitive Forum, 9(1): 121–136; International Paper. 2012. International Paper announces 12 voluntary sustainability goals to be achieved by 2020. www.internationalpaper.com , May 16: np.

STRATEGY SPOTLIGHT 1.4 ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY

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and everyone else “fends for themselves” in their independent, isolated functional areas. Instead, people throughout the organization must strive toward overall goals.

The need for such a perspective is accelerating in today’s increasingly complex, inter- connected ever-changing global economy As noted by Peter Senge of MIT the days

issues by handing out checks to charities or victims of natural disasters. While these forms of “green marketing” are here to stay, the new corporate sustainability movement wants not only to do good but also to save big bucks.

Companies across the world embrace the concept of sus- tainability as a powerful source of innovation and improving operational effectiveness. Companies that translate sustainable business practices into improved operational performance focus on the opportunity cost represented by waste instead of the short- term cost of implementing sustainable business practices. One industry in which sustainability creates competitive advantage is retailing. Take Walmart for example. Walmart is far ahead of its major competitors Target and Sears in terms of reducing waste and the weight of its packaging. In 2009, Walmart’s Japanese Seiyu chain converted the packaging for its private-label fresh-cut

International Paper (IP), a global paper and packaging pany, is another company that benefits from sustainable bus practices. IP recognized that its future profitability depends steady supply of trees, and it has planted more than 4 billion seedlings since the 1950s. The company also cut dependen fossil fuel by 21 percent from 2005 to 2010—partially ach by burning limbs and other biomass debris from tree proces These sustainability decisions paid off and saved IP $221 m annually. IP also formalized specific sustainability goals, su reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 20 percent by 2020, lighting the company’s commitment to sustainability.

Sources: Stanford, D. 2011. Why sustainability is winning over CEOs. Bloombe BusinessWeek, March 31: np; Gupta, N.J. & Benson, C. 2011. Sustainability and competitive advantage: An empirical study of value creation. Competitive Forum 9(1): 121–136; International Paper. 2012. International Paper announces 12 volu sustainability goals to be achieved by 2020. www.internationalpaper.com , May m

HOW GOLDCORP USED CROWDSOURCING TO STRIKE GOLD! About 15 years ago, Toronto-based gold mining company Gold- corp was in big trouble. Besieged by strikes, lingering debts, and an exceedingly high cost of production, the firm had terminated mining operations. Conditions in the marketplace were quite poor, and the gold market was contracting. Most analysts assumed that the company’s 50-year-old mine in Red Lake, Ontario, was nearly dead. Without solid evidence of substantial new gold deposits, Goldcorp was likely to fold.

Clearly, CEO Robert McEwen needed a miracle. He was frus- trated with his in-house geologists’ reliability in estimating the value and location of gold on his property. He did something that was unprecedented in the industry: He published his geological data on the Web for all to see and challenged the world to do the prospecting. The “Goldcorp Challenge” posted a total of $575,000 in prize money to be awarded to the participants who submitted the best methods and estimates.

His reasoning: If he could attract the attention of world-class talent to the problem of finding more gold in Red Lake, just as Linux managed to attract world-class programmers to the cause of better software, he could tap into thousands of minds that he wouldn’t otherwise have access to. He could also speed up explo-

50 countries downloaded the company’s data and started their exploration. Says McEwen:

“We had math, advanced physics, intelligent systems, computer graphics, and organic solutions to inorganic problems. There were capabilities I had never seen before in the industry. When I saw the computer graphics, I almost fell out of my chair.”

The panel of five judges was astonished by the creativity of the submissions. The top winner, which won $105,000, was a collabo- ration by two groups in Australia: Fractal Graphics, of West Perth, and Taylor Wall & Associates, in Queensland. Together they had developed a powerful 3-D graphical depiction of the mine. One of the team members humorously stated, “I’ve never been to a mine. I’d never even been to Canada.” Overall, the contestants identified 110 targets on the Red Lake property, more than 80 percent of which yielded substantial quantities of gold. In fact, since the chal- lenge was initiated, an astounding 8 million ounces of gold have been found—worth well over $3 billion (given gold’s fluctuating market value). Most would agree that this is a pretty solid return on a half million dollar investment!

In 2012, Goldcorp had annual revenues of over $5 billion and a market value of $36 billion! Not bad for a once failing firm . . .

STRATEGY SPOTLIGHT 2.5 CROWDSOURCING

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Reflecting on Career Implications . . . Creating the Environmentally Aware Organization:

Advancing your career requires constant scanning, monitoring, and intelligence gathering to find out not only future job opportunities but also to understand how employers’ expectations are changing. Consider using websites such as LinkedIn to find opportunities. Merely posting your resume on a site such as LinkedIn may not be enough. Instead, consider in what ways you can use such sites for scanning, monitoring, and intelligence gathering.

SWOT Analysis: As an analytical method, SWOT analysis is applicable for individuals as it is for firms. It is important for you to periodically evaluate your strengths and weaknesses as well as potential opportunities and threats to your career. Such analysis should be followed by efforts to address your weaknesses by improving your skills and capabilities.

General Environment: The general environment consists of several segments, such as the demographic, sociocultural, political/legal, technological, economic, and global environments. It would be useful to evaluate how each of these segments can affect your career opportunities. Identify two or three specific trends (e.g., rapid technological change, aging of the population, increase in minimum wages) and their impact on your choice of careers. These also provide possibilities for you to add value for your organization.

Five-Forces Analysis: Before you go for a job interview, consider the five forces affecting the industry within which the firm competes. This will help you to appear knowledgeable about the industry and increase your odds of landing the job. It also can help you to decide if you want to work for that organization. If the “forces” are unfavorable, the long-term profit potential of the industry may be unattractive, leading to fewer resources available and—all other things being equal— fewer career opportunities.

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Reflecting on Career Implications This new section before the summary of every chapter consists of examples on how understanding of key concepts helps business students early in their careers.

Cases Updated case lineup provides 6 new cases. The remaining have been revised to “maximize freshness” and minimize instructor preparation time. New cases for this edition include well-known companies such as Boston Beer, Campbell Soup, KickStarter, and Zynga.

Key Terms Key Terms defined in the margins have been added to improve students’ understanding of core strategy concepts.

competitive advantage A firm’s resources and capabilities that enable it to overcome the competitive forces in its industry(ies).

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CASE 19 :: ZYNGA C123

CASES

Zynga, located in San Francisco, California, has become a dominant player in the online gaming field, almost entirely through the use of social media platforms. The com- pany name was established by the CEO, Mark Pincus, to pay tribute to his late beloved pet bulldog named Zinga. Although this seems whimsical, Zynga was actually quite a powerful company. To exemplify Zynga’s prominence, Facebook, which in 2012 had revenues exceeding $3.7 bil- lion, was reported to have earned roughly 12 percent of that revenue from the operations of Zynga’s virtual mer- chandise sales. 1

No other direct competitor is close to this revenue lead. Zynga’s collection of games continues to increase, with more and more success stories emerging. Being a rela- tively new company to the market, their quick success is astonishing, something that not many others have been able to mimic. However, Zynga’s impressive financials may be at risk because of what may be considered ques- tionable decision making. Many of Zynga’s competitors, and even some partners, are displeased with their actions and have begun to show it in the form of litigation. Agin- court, a plaintiff of a recent lawsuit brought against Zynga, was quoted as saying, “Zynga’s remarkable growth has not been driven by its own ingenuity. Rather it has been widely reported that Zynga’s business model is to copy creative ideas and game designs from other game developers and then use its market power to bulldoze the games’ origina- tors.” 2 If these lawsuits and other ethical issues continue to arise for Zynga as often as they have been, Zynga’s power- ful bulldog may start looking more like a poodle.

The Product With a newfound abundance of software developers, the ability to create and distribute these games is increasing by the day, and the demand to play them is equally high. How- ever, while many people find these games fun, and better yet therapeutic, others can’t understand the hype. The best way to illuminate the sudden infatuation is to observe it as a relaxation method. In the movies, often you see large executive offices with putting greens, dart boards, or even a bar full of alcoholic beverages. These all mean to serve the same purpose: to relieve stress during a hard day’s work. We’ve all been there and all look for a way to cope. How- ever, few of us have the opportunity to use such things as

putting greens to unwind at the workplace. And even if we did, how long could we really afford to partake in such an activity before being pulled back to our desks? This is one of the many purposes that these virtual games fulfill. No need to leave your desk. No need to make others around you aware of your relaxation periods. Better yet, no need to separate the task of relaxation from sitting at your com- puter while you work. The ability to log onto these games from the very same screen and “relax” here and there as the day goes by makes it all the more enticing. This, of course, is just one of many uses for the games. Others play it after work or at the end of a long day. With the takeover of smartphones, people of all ages can play these games on the go throughout the day. Sitting on the bus, in the waiting room of a doctor’s office, or at the DMV, it has never been easier to interact through gameplay that is readily available with the click of a button.

Market Size Compared to other game developers with games present on the Facebook platform, Zynga is a dominant force. It ranks first in market share at about 39 percent and first in revenue generation at over $500 million. It has 38 percent of the daily Facebook game players, and about 240 million monthly users, roughly 18 percent of all Facebook’s users as of 2012 (see Exhibits 1 and 2 ). Zynga’s nearest competitor, EA Play- fish, recorded just an estimated $90 million in revenue, or 6.5 percent of the market (as of 2010). 3 Zynga has gained almost all of its following through Facebook and its users, and this has led to a substantial portion of Zynga’s profits.

Zynga’s virtual games give the opportunity for con- stant build-up and improvements, offering the user virtual goods and services to increase their gaming experience. These items can be purchased using a credit card and are often needed to accomplish fast progressions in the games. These goods are advertised throughout the games and entice you by offering price cuts for larger purchases. On top of its lucrative business model selling virtual goods and advertisements, Zynga also recently raised approxi- mately $1 billion in capital, during its initial public offer- ing when it began trading on NASDAQ in December 2011 (see Exhibits 3 and 4 ).

Zynga’s virtual games can be played both remotely and through social media platforms, most commonly Facebook. As of February 2012, Zynga’s games had over 240 million monthly users on Facebook. 4 Five of Zynga’s games, FarmVille, CityVille, Empire and Allies, Cas- tleVille, and Texas HoldEm Poker, continue to be some of

CASE 19 ZYNGA *

*This case was developed by graduate student Eric S. Engelson and Professor Alan B. Eisner, Pace University. Material has been drawn from published sources to be used for class discussion. Copyright © 2013 Alan B. Eisner.

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CASE 20 :: THE BOSTON BEER COMPANY C128

CASE 20 THE BOSTON BEER COMPANY * The Boston Beer Company, known for its Samuel Adams brand, is the largest craft brewery in the United States, holding a 1 percent stake in the overall beer market. 1 It faces growing competitive threats from other breweries, both large and small. In the past several years, the beer industry as a whole has been on a decline, while sales of wines and spirits have increased. The Boston Beer Com- pany competes within the premium beer industry, which includes craft beer and premium imported beers like Heineken and Corona. Although the beer industry has been on a decline, the premium beer industry has seen a small amount of growth, and the craft beer industry has seen a surge in popularity. Because of this success of the craft breweries in particular the major breweries have taken notice and many new craft breweries have sprung up.

Anheuser-Busch Inbev and MillerCoors, LLC, account for over 80 percent of the beer market in the United States. 2 They have caught on to the current trend in the beer industry toward higher quality beers and have started releasing their own higher quality beers. For example, Anheuser-Busch Inbev has released Bud Light Wheat and Bud Light Platinum in an effort to provide quality beers to their loyal customers. MillerCoors makes Blue Moon beer, which is the most popular craft beer in the United States. Anheuser-Busch Inbev released ShockTop to combat the popularity of Blue Moon. These companies have also begun to purchase smaller craft breweries, whose products have been rising in popularity. Anheuser-Busch Inbev pur- chased Goose Island Brewing Company in March 2011. MillerCoors has started a group within the company titled Tenth and Blake Beer Company for the purpose of creating and purchasing craft breweries. According to MillerCoors CEO Tom Lang, the plan is to grow Tenth and Blake Beer Company by 60 percent within the next three years. 3 The two major companies plan to use their massive marketing budgets to tell people about their craft beers.

According to the Brewers Association, 1,940 craft breweries and 1,989 total breweries operated in the United States for some or all of 2011. While craft brewer- ies account for over 97 percent of all the breweries in the United States, they only produce approximately 25 percent of all beer sold. 4 However, with the rise in popularity of premium beers, the craft breweries will continue to grab

more of the market. As the country’s largest craft brew- ery, the Boston Beer Company had revenue of over $500 million in 2011 and sold over 2 million barrels of beer. Other large craft breweries include New Belgium Brewing Company and Sierra Nevada Brewing Company, which sold over 580,000 and 720,000 barrels of beer in 2011, respectively. 5 In addition, some smaller breweries have been merging to take advantage of economies of scale and enhance their competitive position.

According to the Boston Beer Company, there are approximately 770 craft breweries that ship their prod- uct domestically, up from 420 in 2006. There are also an expected 800 craft breweries in the planning stage, expect- ing to be operational within the next 2–3 years. Boston Beer Company assumes that 300 of those 800 will be shipping breweries (i.e., breweries that sell their prod- uct beyond their local market). Thus, within the next few years, Samuel Adams beer may be competing with over 1,000 other craft breweries around the country.

The Boston Beer Company competes not only with domestic craft breweries but also with premium beer imports, such as Heineken and Corona, which sell beer in a similar price range. Like Anheuser-Busch Inbev and MillerCoors, Heineken and Corona have large financial resources and can influence the market. It is projected that premium imported beers will grow by 6 percent over the next five years.

The Brewers Association defines a craft brewery as brewing less than six million barrels per year and being less than 25 percent owned or controlled by another economic interest. Maintaining status as a craft brewery can be impor- tant for image and, therefore, sales. Thus, MillerCoors purchased less than a 25 percent stake in Terrapin Beer, still allowing it to maintain its craft brewery status. The size of the Boston Beer Company, however, is an issue. With con- tinued growth, the brewery could potentially increase its volume output to more than 6 million barrels per year, thus losing its craft brewery status. Furthermore, with the size of the company and their ability to market nationwide, the company runs the risk of alienating itself from other craft breweries who believe Samuel Adams no longer fits the profile. Many craft breweries already believe the company, which has been public since 1995, is more concerned with making money than with providing quality beer and edu- cating the public on craft beers.

Size does have advantages, of course, with more money for marketing and, especially in the beer business, with distribution. A heavy complaint for all craft breweries is

CASES

*This case was developed by graduate students Peter J. Courtney and Eric S. Engelson and Professor Alan B. Eisner, Pace University. Material has been drawn from published sources to be used for class discussion. Copyright © 2013 Alan B. Eisner.

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EXHIBIT 1.3 The Strategic Management Process

Chapter 1 Introduction

and Analyzing Goals and Objectives

Chapter 4 Assessing Intellectual

Capital

Chapter 2 Analyzing

the External Environment

Chapter 3 Analyzing

the Internal Environment

Chapter 13 Case

Analysis

Case Analysis

Strategic Formulation Strategic Implementation

Strategic Analysis

Chapter 5 Formulating

Business-Level Strategies

Chapter 8 Entrepreneurial

Strategy and Competitive Dynamics

Chapter 6 Formulating Corporate-

Level Strategies

Chapter 7 Formulating International Strategies

Chapter 9 Strategic

Control and Corporate

Governance

Chapter 12 Fostering Corporate

Entrepreneur- ship

Chapter 10 Creating Effective

Organizational Designs

Chapter 11 Strategic Lead- Iership Excel- lence, Ethics and Change

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Exhibits Both new and improved exhibits in every chapter provide visual presentations of the most complex concepts covered to support student comprehension.

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CASE 28 :: PROCTER & GAMBLE C196

There was a visible sign of relief in the voice of Bob McDonald, the embattled CEO of Procter & Gamble, when he announced the firm’s quarterly numbers on Janu- ary 25, 2013. Sales had actually risen by 3 percent, beat- ing analysts’ expectations. This was a rare moment of achievement for McDonald, who has struggled to show results for P&G since he took over in 2009. Back then, he had boldly announced that the company’s sales would rise from $75 billion in 2009 to over $100 billion by 2013. Instead, the firm had only managed to raise sales to about $84 billion, while its net income had dropped by as much as 20 percent.

Since its founding 175 years ago, P&G had risen to the status of an American icon with well-known consumer prod- ucts such as Pampers, Tide, Downy, and Crest. In fact, the firm has long been admired for its superior products, its mar- keting brilliance, and the intense loyalty of its employees, who have respectfully come to be known as Proctoids. With 25 brands that each generate more than $1 billion in sales, P&G has become the largest consumer products company in the world.

It was therefore clear to McDonald that he was taking on the mantle of one of the biggest companies in the world, one that had shown consistent growth for most of its exis- tence. Beyond this, he was succeeding Alan G. Lafley, who had resurrected P&G after its last major downturn. Lafley had electrified a then-demoralized organization by shak- ing things up. He shepherded products such as Swiffer and Febreze to megahit status and acquired Gillette to provide P&G with a major presence in the men’s market for the first time. Finally, by relaunching Olay and acquiring Clai- rol, Lafley had pushed the firm into higher-margin beauty products (see Exhibit 1 ).

Under McDonald, however, P&G’s growth has stalled, as it has been losing market share in two-thirds of its markets. Recession-battered consumers have abandoned the firm’s premium-priced products for cheaper alterna- tives even as the company’s efforts to build market share in the developing world have been stymied by newly nimble rivals such as Unilever and Colgate-Palmolive. New products that have targeted lower-income consumers have not generated sufficient sales to make up for the loss of sales to the struggling middle-class segment (see

CASE 28 PROCTER & GAMBLE *

CASES

*Case developed by Professor Jamal Shamsie, Michigan State University, with the assistance of Professor Alan B. Eisner, Pace University. Material has been drawn from published sources to be used for purposes of class discussion. Copyright © 2013 Jamal Shamsie and Alan B. Eisner.

Key Products Billion Dollar Brands

Fabric care & home care

Air care Batteries Dish care Fabric care Pet care

Ace Ariel Dawn Downy Duracell Febreze Gain Tide Iams

Beauty Cosmetics Deodorants Hair Care Personal Cleansing Fragrances Skin Care

Head & Shoulders Olay Pantene Wella SK-II

Baby care & family care

Baby wipes Bath & facial tissue Diapers Paper towels

Bounty Charmin Pampers

Health care Feminine care Oral care Rapid diagnostics Personal health care

Always Crest Oral B Vicks

Grooming Blades and Razors Face and Shave Products Hair care appliances

Braun Fusion Gillette Mach 3

EXHIBIT 1 Business Segments

Source: P&G.

Exhibits 2 to 4). More significantly, the firm’s vaunted innovation machine has stalled, with no major product success over the last five years.

P&G’s woes have eroded morale among employees, with many managers taking early retirement or bolting to competitors. Says Ed Artzt, who was CEO from 1990 to 1995, “The most unfortunate aspect of this whole thing is the brain drain. The loss of good people is almost irrepa- rable when you depend on promotion from within to con- tinue building the company.” 1 Critics claim that the current turmoil may have serious implications for the long-term prospects for the firm. Ali Dibadj, a senior analyst at San Bernstein expanded on this view: “The next six months may be the most crucial in P&G’s 175-year history.” 2

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Key Products Billion Dollar Brands

ome Air care Batteries Dish care Fabric care Pet care

Ace Ariel Dawn Downy Duracell Febreze Gain Tide Iams

Cosmetics Deodorants Hair Care Personal Cleansing Fragrances Skin Care

Head & Shoulders Olay Pantene Wella SK-II

mily Baby wipes Bath & facial tissue Diapers Paper towels

Bounty Charmin Pampers

Feminine care Oral care Rapid diagnostics Personal health care

Always Crest Oral B Vicks

Blades and Razors Face and Shave Products Hair care appliances

Braun Fusion Gillette Mach 3

Business Segments

4). More significantly, the firm’s vaunted achine has stalled, with no major product he last five years. es have eroded morale among employees,

anagers taking early retirement or bolting to Says Ed Artzt, who was CEO from 1990 to ost unfortunate aspect of this whole thing is n. The loss of good people is almost irrepa- u depend on promotion from within to con- the company.” 1 Critics claim that the current

have serious implications for the long-term the firm. Ali Dibadj, a senior analyst at San anded on this view: “The next six months

ost crucial in P&G’s 175-year history.” 2

CASE 33 :: UNITED WAY WORLDWIDE C246

CASE 33 UNITED WAY WORLDWIDE * In 2012, while charitable donations in the United States grew by 1.7 percent on a year-over-year basis, United Way once again failed to maintain upward sloping revenues compared to the year prior. In 2012 revenue totaled $3.9 billion, as compared with $4.2 billion in 2011. In 2010 America’s wealthiest individuals gave less to charity than they had since 2000; and in 2009, some of the biggest U.S. charities saw donations fall by 11 percent, the worst decline in 20 years. 1 This continued trend—reduction in giving, increase in need—had prompted United Way to change strategy. On July 1, 2009, United Way of America (UWA) changed its name to United Way Worldwide (UWW) and merged with United Way International (UWI). UWW also initiated a 10-year program, “Live United,” focused less on distribution of funds and more on advancing the common good by addressing underlying causes of problems in the core areas of education, financial stability, and health. Yet with positive financial results still seemingly inexistent, would donors finally become reenergized and create real change in the communities United Way served, or have universal struggles weakened the ability and eagerness to donate of even those most able to do so?

UWW provided support for over 1,800 local United Way members or affiliates operating in 46 countries. These local organizations relied on their respective parents for resources such as leadership education, public policy advocacy, mar- keting support, and standards for ethical governance and financial reporting. United Ways worldwide were part of a federation of nonprofits formed by caring people to serve the needs of their communities. According to UWW’s website, “We advance the common good by focusing on improving education, helping people achieve financial stability, and promoting healthy lives, and by mobiliz- ing millions of people to give, advocate, and volunteer to improve the conditions in which they live.” United Way raised and distributed funds to the most effective local ser- vice providers; built alliances and coordinated volunteer support among charities, businesses, and other entities; and acted as best-practice models of management and financial accountability—but this last item had become a source of problems. With three high-profile ethical scandals since

1995 at both the national and local level, the United Way brand had to combat an erosion of trust, at the same time that it was dealing with an increasingly competitive and changing environment for charitable contributors.

Even after over 120 years of solid financial performance and steady growth, since the year 2000 United Way had seemingly reached a plateau of fund-raising in the United States. Certainly, there were options for growth from interna- tional members and from the energy and direction of nation- wide objectives stated by United Way of America (education about and implementation of the national 2-1-1 phone net- work; the early childhood educational initiatives Success by 6 and Born Learning; encouragement of nationwide volun- tarism through the Lend a Hand public service announce- ments funded by a donation from the NFL; and the Assets for Family Success economic self-sufficiency program for working families). Yet charitable donations still had not topped the inflation-adjusted peak-year campaign of 1989. 2

In addition, in 2011 veteran fund-raisers on all fronts were citing challenges, such as competition for donations, difficulty recruiting and keeping qualified fund-raisers, difficulty raising money for general operating costs, and a growing focus on large gifts from very wealthy individuals, which, when publicized, could reduce the motivation for smaller donors to contribute. (Small donors might think, “If someone like Bill Gates is providing funds, why do they need my dollars?”) 3 From the donors’ perspective, the opportunities for both individuals and businesses to engage in charitable giving had expanded, with over 40 percent of new nonprofits appearing since 2000. 4 Many of these, especially those supporting disaster relief in the wake of 9/11, Hurricane Katrina, and Hurricane Sandy, had a single-issue focus that had the potential for creating a close bond with the donor. This meant that some individ- uals might have bypassed organizations such as the United Way, believing that the United Way had support targets that were too broad, preferring, instead, to specify exactly where donations should go. (Such a donor might think, “If I’m giving, I want to make sure my money is going where I want it to go, to the cause I want to support.”)

Even prior to 9/11, American donors had expressed concern about their ability to access information regarding how their donations were going to be used, what percentage of the charity’s spending went toward actual current pro- grams, how their privacy was going to be protected when giving via the Internet, and whether the charity met volun- tary standards of conduct. 5 It didn’t help that many non- profits, including United Way of America, suffered widely

CASES

*By Professor Alan B. Eisner of Pace University, Associate Professor Pauline Assenza, Western Connecticut State University, and graduate student Luz Barrera of Pace University. This case is based upon public documents and was developed for class discussion rather than to illustrate either effective or ineffective handling of the situation. This research was supported in part by the Wilson Center for Social Entrepreneurship, Pace University. Copyright © 2013 & Alan B. Eisner.

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Go to library tab in Connect to access Case Financials.

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Online Learning Center (OLC) The website www.mhhe.com/dess7e follows the text chapter-by-chapter. OLC content is ancillary and supplementary germane to the textbook. As students read the book, they can go online to take self-grading quizzes, review material, or work through interactive exercises. It includes chapter quizzes, student PowerPoint slides, and links to strategy simulations The Business Strategy Game and GLO-BUS.

The instructor section also includes the Instructor’s Manual, PowerPoint Presentations, Case Study Teaching Notes, Case Grid, and Video Guide as well as all student resources.

support materials

GUIDED TOUR

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Preface vi

part 1 Strategic Analysis 1 Strategic Management: Creating Competitive

Advantages 2

2 Analyzing the External Environment of the Firm 34

3 Assessing the Internal Environment of the Firm 70

4 Recognizing a Firm’s Intellectual Assets: Moving beyond a Firm’s Tangible Resources 104

part 2 Strategic Formulation 5 Business-Level Strategy: Creating and Sustaining

Competitive Advantages 140

6 Corporate-Level Strategy: Creating Value through Diversification 178

7 International Strategy: Creating Value in Global Markets 210

8 Entrepreneurial Strategy and Competitive Dynamics 246

part 3 Strategic Implementation 9 Strategic Control and Corporate Governance 276

10 Creating Effective Organizational Designs 310

11 Strategic Leadership: Creating a Learning Organization and an Ethical Organization 344

12 Managing Innovation and Fostering Corporate Entrepreneurship 376

part 4 Case Analysis 13 Analyzing Strategic Management Cases 412

Cases C-1

Indexes I-1

brief contents

BRIEF CONTENTS

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Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi

PART 1 Strategic Analysis CHAPTER 1 Strategic Management: Creating Competitive Advantages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

What Is Strategic Management? . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Defining Strategic Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 The Four Key Attributes of Strategic Management . . . . . . .8

The Strategic Management Process . . . . . . . . . . 9 Intended versus Realized Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Strategy Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Strategy Formulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Strategy Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13

The Role of Corporate Governance and Stakeholder Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Alternative Perspectives of Stakeholder

Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Social Responsibility and Environmental

Sustainability: Moving beyond the Immediate Stakeholders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17

The Strategic Management Perspective: An Imperative throughout the Organization . . . . . 20 Ensuring Coherence in Strategic Direction . . . . 22 Organizational Vision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 Mission Statements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 Strategic Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29

CHAPTER 2 Analyzing the External Environment of the Firm: Creating Competitive Advantages . . . . 34

Creating the Environmentally Aware Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 The Role of Scanning, Monitoring, Competitive

Intelligence, and Forecasting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36 SWOT Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41

The General Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 The Demographic Segment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42 The Sociocultural Segment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42 The Political/Legal Segment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44 The Technological Segment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45 The Economic Segment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45 The Global Segment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46 Relationships among Elements of the General

Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46

The Competitive Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Porter’s Five-Forces Model of Industry

Competition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49 How the Internet and Digital Technologies

Are Affecting the Five Competitive Forces . . . . . . . . . .55 Using Industry Analysis: A Few Caveats . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59 Strategic Groups within Industries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .65

CHAPTER 3 Assessing the Internal Environment of the Firm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70

Value-Chain Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Primary Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .74 Support Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76 Interrelationships among Value-Chain Activities

within and across Organizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79 The “Prosumer” Concept: Integrating Customers

into the Value Chain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .80 Applying the Value Chain to Service

Organizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .81

Resource-Based View of the Firm . . . . . . . . . . . 82 Types of Firm Resources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83

contents

CONTENTS

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Firm Resources and Sustainable Competitive Advantages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85

The Generation and Distribution of a Firm’s Profits: Extending the Resource-Based View of the Firm . . . . .90

Evaluating Firm Performance: Two Approaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 Financial Ratio Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92 Integrating Financial Analysis and Stakeholder

Perspectives: The Balanced Scorecard . . . . . . . . . . . . .94 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .98

CHAPTER 4 Recognizing a Firm’s Intellectual Assets: Moving beyond a Firm’s Tangible Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104

The Central Role of Knowledge in Today’s Economy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 Human Capital: The Foundation of Intellectual Capital . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Attracting Human Capital . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .110 Developing Human Capital . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .112 Retaining Human Capital . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .116 Enhancing Human Capital: The Role of Diversity

in the Workforce . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .117

The Vital Role of Social Capital . . . . . . . . . . . 118 How Social Capital Helps Attract and Retain Talent . . . .120 Social Networks: Implications for Knowledge

Management and Career Success . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .120 The Potential Downside of Social Capital . . . . . . . . . . . .125

Using Technology to Leverage Human Capital and Knowledge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 Using Networks to Share Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .126 Electronic Teams: Using Technology to Enhance

Collaboration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .127 Codifying Knowledge for Competitive Advantage . . . . . .128

Protecting the Intellectual Assets of the Organization: Intellectual Property and Dynamic Capabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 Intellectual Property Rights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .131 Dynamic Capabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .131 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .133

PART 2 Strategic Formulation CHAPTER 5 Business-Level Strategy: Creating and Sustaining Competitive Advantages . . . . . . . . . 140

Types of Competitive Advantage and Sustainability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 Overall Cost Leadership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .143 Differentiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .147 Focus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .152 Combination Strategies: Integrating Overall

Low Cost and Differentiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .154

Can Competitive Strategies Be Sustained? Integrating and Applying Strategic Management Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 Atlas Door: A Case Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .158 Are Atlas Door’s Competitive Advantages

Sustainable? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .159

How the Internet and Digital Technologies Affect the Competitive Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 Overall Cost Leadership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .160 Differentiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .161 Focus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .161 Are Combination Strategies the Key to E-Business

Success? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .162

Industry Life-Cycle Stages: Strategic Implications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 Strategies in the Introduction Stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .164 Strategies in the Growth Stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .165 Strategies in the Maturity Stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .165 Strategies in the Decline Stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .166 Turnaround Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .169 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .172

CHAPTER 6 Corporate-Level Strategy: Creating Value through Diversification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178

Making Diversification Work: An Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181

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Related Diversification: Economies of Scope and Revenue Enhancement . . . . . . . 182 Leveraging Core Competencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .182 Sharing Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .184

Enhancing Revenue and Differentiation . . . . . 185 Related Diversification: Market Power . . . . . . 185 Pooled Negotiating Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .185 Vertical Integration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .186

Unrelated Diversification: Financial Synergies and Parenting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189 Corporate Parenting and Restructuring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .189 Portfolio Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .190 Caveat: Is Risk Reduction a Viable Goal

of Diversification? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .192

The Means to Achieve Diversification . . . . . . 193 Mergers and Acquisitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .193 Strategic Alliances and Joint Ventures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .199 Internal Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .200

How Managerial Motives Can Erode Value Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 Growth for Growth’s Sake . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .201 Egotism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .201 Antitakeover Tactics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .202 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .204

CHAPTER 7 International Strategy: Creating Value in Global Markets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210

The Global Economy: A Brief Overview . . . . . 212 Factors Affecting a Nation’s Competitiveness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214 Factor Endowments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .214 Demand Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .214 Related and Supporting Industries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .215 Firm Strategy, Structure, and Rivalry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .215 Concluding Comment on Factors Affecting

a Nation’s Competitiveness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .215

International Expansion: A Company’s Motivations and Risks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217 Motivations for International Expansion . . . . . . . . . . . . .217

Potential Risks of International Expansion . . . . . . . . . . . .220 Global Dispersion of Value Chains: Outsourcing

and Offshoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .223

Achieving Competitive Advantage in Global Markets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225 Two Opposing Pressures: Reducing Costs

and Adapting to Local Markets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .225 International Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .228 Global Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .228 Multidomestic Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .230 Transnational Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .232 Global or Regional? A Second Look at Globalization . . . . .233

Entry Modes of International Expansion . . . . . 234 Exporting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .235 Licensing and Franchising . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .236 Strategic Alliances and Joint Ventures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .237 Wholly Owned Subsidiaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .238 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .241

CHAPTER 8 Entrepreneurial Strategy and Competitive Dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246

Recognizing Entrepreneurial Opportunities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248 Entrepreneurial Opportunities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .248 Entrepreneurial Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .251 Entrepreneurial Leadership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .255

Entrepreneurial Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256 Entry Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .257 Generic Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .260 Combination Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .262

Competitive Dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262 New Competitive Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .263 Threat Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .264 Motivation and Capability to Respond . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .266 Types of Competitive Actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .267 Likelihood of Competitive Reaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .269 Choosing Not to React: Forbearance and

Co-opetition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .270 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .272

CONTENTS

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PART 3 Strategic Implementation CHAPTER 9 Strategic Control and Corporate Governance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276

Ensuring Informational Control: Responding Effectively to Environmental Change . . . . . . . 278 A Traditional Approach to Strategic Control . . . . . . . . . .278 A Contemporary Approach to Strategic Control. . . . . . . .279

Attaining Behavioral Control: Balancing Culture, Rewards, and Boundaries . . . . . . . . . 281 Building a Strong and Effective Culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . .281 Motivating with Rewards and Incentives . . . . . . . . . . . . .283 Setting Boundaries and Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .284 Behavioral Control in Organizations:

Situational Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .286 Evolving from Boundaries to Rewards and Culture . . . . .287

The Role of Corporate Governance . . . . . . . . 288 The Modern Corporation: The Separation of Owners

(Shareholders) and Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .290 Governance Mechanisms: Aligning the Interests

of Owners and Managers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .291 CEO Duality: Is It Good or Bad? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .297 External Governance Control Mechanisms . . . . . . . . . . .298 Corporate Governance: An International

Perspective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .301 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .305

CHAPTER 10 Creating Effective Organizational Designs . . . . . 310

Traditional Forms of Organizational Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312 Patterns of Growth of Large Corporations:

Strategy-Structure Relationships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .312 Simple Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .314 Functional Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .314 Divisional Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .316 Matrix Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .319 International Operations: Implications for

Organizational Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .321

Global Start-Ups: A Recent Phenomenon . . . . . . . . . . . . .322 How an Organization’s Structure Can Influence

Strategy Formulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .324

Boundaryless Organizational Designs . . . . . . 324 The Barrier-Free Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .324 The Modular Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .328 The Virtual Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .329 Boundaryless Organizations: Making Them Work . . . . . .331

Creating Ambidextrous Organizational Designs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336 Ambidextrous Organizations: Key Design Attributes . . . .336 Why Was the Ambidextrous Organization the

Most Effective Structure? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .337 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .338

CHAPTER 11 Strategic Leadership: Creating a Learning Organization and an Ethical Organization . . . . . 344

Leadership: Three Interdependent Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346 Setting a Direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .347 Designing the Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .348 Nurturing a Culture Committed to Excellence

and Ethical Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .349

Getting Things Done: Overcoming Barriers and Using Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350 Overcoming Barriers to Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .350 The Effective Use of Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .351

Emotional Intelligence: A Key Leadership Trait . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354 Self-Awareness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .354 Self-Regulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .354 Motivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .355 Empathy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .355 Social Skill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .356 Emotional Intelligence: Some Potential

Drawbacks and Cautionary Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .357

Developing Competency Companions and Creating a Learning Organization . . . . . . 358 Inspiring and Motivating People with a Mission

or Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .360

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Empowering Employees at All Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .360 Accumulating and Sharing Internal Knowledge . . . . . . . .361 Gathering and Integrating External Information . . . . . . . .362 Challenging the Status Quo and Enabling

Creativity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .363

Creating an Ethical Organization . . . . . . . . . . 364 Individual Ethics versus Organizational Ethics . . . . . . . .365 Integrity-Based versus Compliance-Based

Approaches to Organizational Ethics . . . . . . . . . . . . .366 Role Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .368 Corporate Credos and Codes of Conduct . . . . . . . . . . . . .368 Reward and Evaluation Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .369 Policies and Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .370 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .372

CHAPTER 12 Managing Innovation and Fostering Corporate Entrepreneurship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376

Managing Innovation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378 Types of Innovation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .378 Challenges of Innovation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .381 Cultivating Innovation Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .382 Defining the Scope of Innovation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .384 Managing the Pace of Innovation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .385 Staffing to Capture Value from Innovation . . . . . . . . . . . .386 Collaborating with Innovation Partners . . . . . . . . . . . . . .386

Corporate Entrepreneurship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387 Focused Approaches to Corporate

Entrepreneurship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .390 Dispersed Approaches to Corporate

Entrepreneurship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .391 Measuring the Success of Corporate

Entrepreneurship Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .393

Real Options Analysis: A Useful Tool . . . . . . . 395 Applications of Real Options Analysis to Strategic

Decisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .395

Potential Pitfalls of Real Options Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . .396

Entrepreneurial Orientation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 398 Autonomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .399 Innovativeness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .400 Proactiveness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .401 Competitive Aggressiveness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .402 Risk Taking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .403 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .406

PART 4 Case Analysis CHAPTER 13 Analyzing Strategic Management Cases . . . . . . 412

Why Analyze Strategic Management Cases? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413 How to Conduct a Case Analysis . . . . . . . . . . 415 Become Familiar with the Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .418 Identify Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .418 Conduct Strategic Analyses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .419 Propose Alternative Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .419 Make Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .421

How to Get the Most from Case Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422 Useful Decision-Making Techniques in Case Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424 Conflict Inducing Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .427

Following the Analysis-Decision-Action Cycle in Case Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .436 Appendix 1 to Chapter 13: Financial Ratio

Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437 Appendix 2 to Chapter 13: Sources of Company and

Industry Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 447

Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-1

CONTENTS

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1 ROBIN HOOD Hypothetical; Classic Robin Hood and his Merrymen are in trouble, as wealthy travelers are avoiding Sherwood Forest. This classic case is an excellent introduction to strategic management using a nonbusiness solution . . . . . . . . C2

2 EDWARD MARSHALL BOEHM, INC. Housewares and Accessories, Porcelain Collectibles; Classic This classic case concerns the future direction of a small, high-quality porcelain art objects company . . . . . . . . C3

3 AMERICAN INTERNATIONAL GROUP AND THE BONUS FIASCO Insurance AIG, one of the largest and most respected insurance companies in the world, found itself in big financial distress in September 2008. Unable to post collateral, AIG approached the government for a bailout . . . . . C4

4 PIXAR Movies Disney CEO Bob Iger worked hard to clinch the deal to acquire Pixar, whose track record has made it one of the world’s most successful animation companies. Iger realized, however, that he must try to protect Pixar’s creative culture while also trying to carry that culture over to some of Disney’s animation efforts . . . . . . . C7

5 THE CASINO INDUSTRY Casino Industry To deal with the slower growth in gaming revenues, casinos have felt the need to spend more and more in order to entice more gamblers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C11

6 APPLE INC.: STILL TAKING A BITE OUT OF THE COMPETITION? Computers, Consumer Electronics Apple was flying high on the success of the iPad mini and iPhone 5. However, CEO Tim Cook had big shoes to fill without founder Steve Jobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C17

7 WEIGHT WATCHERS INTERNATIONAL INC. Weight Loss Weight Watchers was reinventing weight loss for a new generation and hoping profits would jump off the scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C29

8 JAMBA JUICE Smoothies / QSR Jamba Juice Company gradually expanded its product line over the past several years to offer Jamba products that pleased a broader palate, but was the company biting off more than it could chew? After years of same-store sales declines and financial losses, CEO James White had his work cut out for him . . . . . . . C39

9 ANN TAYLOR Retail, Women’s Fashion The founding brand, the Ann Taylor division, struggled to maintain focus and present basic, professional clothing to its iconic customers after being upstaged by its younger sister, Ann Taylor Loft . . . . . . . . . . . . . C47

10 HEINEKEN Beer Heineken can lay claim to a brand that may be the closest thing to a global beer brand. But in the United States, Heineken has lost its leading position among imported beers to Corona, the Mexican beer that is often served with a garnish of lime. Would the move to acquire Asian Pacific Breweries and Tiger Beer brand help it in Asia? . . . . . . C58

11 QVC Retail Nail clippers that catch clippings, bicycle seats built for bigger bottoms, and novelty items shaped like coffins were among the nearly 600 products trying out for a spot on the QVC home shopping channel. However, QVC’s CEO Mike George is concerned about where the opportunities for further growth will come from for the world’s largest television home shopping channel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C63

cases

CASES

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12 WORLD WRESTLING ENTERTAINMENT Entertainment WWE’s potent mix of shaved, pierced, and pumped-up muscled hunks; buxom, scantily clad, and sometimes cosmetically enhanced beauties; and body-bashing clashes of good versus evil had resulted in an empire that claimed over 35 million fans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C68

13 EBAY: EXPANDING INTO CHINA Internet eBay announced that its PayPal business would set up an international ecommerce hub in Chongqing, China, as the company tried to gain the local expertise it desperately needed to compete with China’s top auction site, Taobao. However, little ground was gained and CEO John Donahoe would have to reconcile why one of the fastest-growing companies in history was moving so slowly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C74

14 MICROFINANCE: GOING GLOBAL . . . AND GOING PUBLIC? Banking With the global success of the microfinance concept, the number of private microfinance institutions exploded and initial public offerings for these institutions was on the rise. This transfer of control to public buyers creates a fiduciary duty of the bank’s management to maximize shareholder value. Will this be a good thing for these typically “do good” banks? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C85

15 MCDONALD’S Restaurant McDonald’s turnaround strategy was working, but the firm still faced a rapidly fragmenting market where changes in the tastes of consumers had made once-exotic foods like sushi and burritos everyday options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C88

16 THE MOVIE EXHIBITION INDUSTRY 2013 Movies Movies remain as popular as ever, but opportunities for viewing outside the theater have greatly increased. While motion picture studios increased revenues through product licensing, DVD sales, and international expansion, the exhibitors—movie theaters—have seen their business decline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C94

17 IS DIPPIN’ DOTS FROZEN OUT? Ice Cream Dippin’ Dots Ice Cream is faced with mounting competition for its flagship tiny beads of ice cream that are made and served at super-cold temperatures. Can it survive the chill of the economic downturn? . . . . C106

18 JOHNSON & JOHNSON Pharmaceuticals, Personal Care Products, Medical Devices Executives from health care conglomerate Johnson & Johnson had known about a critical design flaw with an artificial hip but decided to conceal this information from physicians and patients. Johnson & Johnson’s DePuy Orthopaedics unit kept selling the hip replacement. Could more centralized control improve quality? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C116

19 ZYNGA Multimedia and Online Games The company name appears to have been whimsically chosen by the CEO Mark Pincus, to pay tribute to his late beloved pet bulldog. However the online gaming revenues were no joking matter. Zynga’s partner, Facebook, reported that roughly 12 percent of its $3.7 billion in revenue was from the operations of Zynga’s virtual merchandise sales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C123

20 THE BOSTON BEER COMPANY Beer Boston Beer Company was in a tough position as the largest craft brewery in the United States; holding a one percent stake in the overall beer market. Both the smaller craft breweries and the larger breweries such as MillerCoors’ Blue Moon brand beer and Anheuser-Busch Inbev’s ShockTop craft brew, wanted to complete with them. Only time will tell if Boston Beer will continue to brew flavorful beers that people enjoy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C128

21 SOUTHWEST AIRLINES: IS LUV SOARING OR SOUR? Airline Southwest Airlines has emerged as the largest domestic carrier. As Southwest is becoming a different creature, how long can it hold on to its “underdog” image? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C137

CASES

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22 JETBLUE AIRLINES: GETTING OVER THE “BLUES”? Airline This airline start-up success story is facing new challenges as operational problems have surfaced and the founder has left the CEO’s seat . . . . . . . . . . . C146

23 BEIERSDORF AG: EXPANDING NIVEA’S GLOBAL REACH Skin Care Products and Cosmetics German skin care producer Beiersdorf faced opposition to a restructuring plan from employees and work councils. The Nivea brand’s ineffective China entry, strong competitors, and a slow economic recovery were big challenges for this skin care concern . . . . . . . C155

24 LOUIS VUITTON Luxury Consumer Goods Louis Vuitton, the flagship group within Moët Hennessy Louis Vuitton (LVMH), had contributed to the stellar growth of the group in 2010 and 2011. But there were clouds on the horizon. Was the recent growth sustainable? What steps should Louis Vuitton take to address upcoming challenges? . . . . . . . . . C166

25 NINTENDO’S WII U Video Games Nintendo’s Wii was no longer the only video console game with motion-sensing controllers. Are Nintendo’s days of dominance over or will the next innovative console controller, the Wii U, be a home run? . . . C177

26 BACKERS BEWARE: KICKSTARTER IS NOT A STORE Crowd-Source Funding Crowd-funding allowed ventures to draw on relatively small contributions from a relatively large number of individuals using the Internet, without standard financial intermediaries. KickStarter offers a platform for crowdfunding of new ventures, but the field is crowded . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C185

27 SAMSUNG ELECTRONICS Consumer Electronics Samsung’s Galaxy smartphones and tablets have emerged as the most potent challenger to Apple, but there are questions as to whether Samsung has the right combination of hardware and software to really compete . . . . . . . . C191

28 PROCTER & GAMBLE Consumer Products Procter & Gamble was the world’s largest consumer products conglomerate, with billion-dollar brands such as Tide, Crest, Pampers, Gillette, Right Guard, and Duracell. However, sales were down as consumers were coping with the economic downturn by switching to P&G’s lower-priced brands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C196

29 FRESHDIRECT: IS IT REALLY FRESH? Grocery Can FreshDirect, a New York City–based online grocer, maintain high product quality while keeping product prices low, leading to razor-thin margins among abundant competition from both online and traditional groceries? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C201

30 GENERAL MOTORS Automotive GM experienced a sharp decline in its domestic market share, dropping to its lowest level in more than 50 years. Was GM, the largest U.S. automaker, running on empty? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C214

31 IS ONE FORD REALLY WORKING? Automotive Was the One Ford plan really working all around the world or was Ford North America carrying weaknesses elsewhere in the system? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C220

32 CAMPBELL: IS THE SOUP STILL SIMMERING? Processed and Packaged Goods Change was stirring at Campbell Soup with the launch of more than 50 new products, including 32 new soups, yet profit slipped by 5 percent. Will Campbell’s soup simmer to perfection or will the company be in hot water? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C235

33 UNITED WAY WORLDWIDE Nonprofit Brian Gallagher, United Way Worldwide CEO, established new membership standards for United Way affiliates’ operations, rebranded United Way as doing “what matters” in the communities it served, and addressed the long-term needs of communities. Gallagher needed to convince the United Way affiliates to buy into the change effort, but he did not have much leverage over them . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C246

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34 KEURIG: CONVENIENCE, CHOICE, AND COMPETITIVE BRANDS Coffee Green Mountain Coffee Roasters’ Keurig single- cup- brewing coffeemaker business followed a razor and razor-blade business model. With some patents expiring, the competition was perking up in this caffeine charged business, would Keurig’s brew be strong enough? . . . C256

35 YAHOO! Internet Marissa Mayer, Yahoo’s new CEO, was determined to make the company a stronger force on smartphones and

tablets. Would Mayer be able to lure back advertisers, reinvigorate a muddled brand, and improve morale at a company that has been marred by executive churn, constant cost-cutting, and mass layoffs? . . . . . . . C268

Indexes I-1 Company I-1 Name I-13 Subject I-27

CASES

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Chapter 1 Introduction

and Analyzing Goals and Objectives

Chapter 4 Assessing Intellectual

Capital

Chapter 2 Analyzing

the External Environment

Chapter 3 Analyzing

the Internal Environment

Chapter 13 Case

Analysis

Case Analysis

Strategic Formulation Strategic Implementation

Strategic Analysis

Chapter 5 Formulating

Business-Level Strategies

Chapter 8 Entrepreneurial

Strategy and Competitive Dynamics

Chapter 6 Formulating Corporate-

Level Strategies

Chapter 7 Formulating International Strategies

Chapter 9 Strategic

Control and Corporate

Governance

Chapter 12 Fostering Corporate

Entrepreneur- ship

Chapter 10 Creating Effective

Organizational Designs

Chapter 11 Strategic Lead- Iership Excel- lence, Ethics and Change

The Strategic Management Process

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PART 1: STRATEGIC ANALYSIS

Strategic Management Creating Competitive Advantages

chapter 1

After reading this chapter, you should have a good understanding of the following learning objectives:

LO1.1 The definition of strategic management and its four key attributes.

LO1.2 The strategic management process and its three interrelated and principal activities.

LO1.3 The vital role of corporate governance and stakeholder management, as well as how “symbiosis” can be achieved among an organization’s stakeholders.

LO1.4 The importance of social responsibility, including environmental sustainability, and how it can enhance a corporation’s innovation strategy.

LO1.5 The need for greater empowerment throughout the organization.

LO1.6 How an awareness of a hierarchy of strategic goals can help an organization achieve coherence in its strategic direction.

Learning from Mistakes What makes the study of strategic management so interesting? For one, struggling firms can become stars, while high flyers can become earthbound very rapidly. As colorfully noted by Arthur Martinez, Sears’ former chairman: “Today’s peacock is tomorrow’s feather duster.” Consider, for example, the change in membership on the prestigious Fortune 500 list of the largest U.S. firms: 1

• Of the 500 companies that appeared on the first list in 1955, only 62, ranked by revenue, have appeared on the list every year since.

• Some of the most powerful companies on today’s list—businesses like Intel, Apple, and Google— grew from nothing to great on the strength of new technologies, bumping venerable old companies off the list.

• Nearly 2,000 companies have appeared on the list since its inception, and most are long gone from it. Just making the list guarantees nothing about your ability to endure.

• Between 2009 and 2013, admittedly more volatile years than most, over one hundred companies— including Bear Stearns, Chrysler, Circuit City, Merrill Lynch, RadioShack, and Tribune—dropped off the 500.

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PART 1: STRATEGIC ANALYSIS

Maintaining competitive success or even surviving over long periods of time is indeed very difficult for companies of any size. As John Donahue, CEO of eBay, notes, “Almost every company has hot moments. But only great companies achieve strong, sustainable performance over time. While it’s fun to be hot; it’s far more gratifying to create an enduring, sustainable business.” 2 Next, we will look at Borders, a firm which after years of success went into a rapid decline that eventually led to its death.

In 1971, Louis and Tom Borders opened their first store in Ann Arbor, Michigan. 3 The brothers, while students at the University of Michigan, created a then-revolutionary system to track sales and inventory—and for years executives called it the company’s “secret sauce.” With their “Book Inventory System,” Borders could oversee the flow of a huge number of titles broken into thousands of different subject categories across multiple stores. As it grew, Borders provided the knowledge and feel of the independents with its distinctive architecture, comfortable chairs, and reading nooks. In addition, the stores carefully screened and trained employees, paying them relatively well along with a generous set of benefits. It seemed like a winning strategy—and it worked for quite a while. By the 1990s it, along with Barnes and Noble, controlled 40 percent of the retail book market. Borders’ financials were impressive: between 2003 and 2005, sales increased 11 percent to nearly $4 billion and net income jumped 23 percent to $132 million. Unfortunately, 2005 was its last profitable year. By 2009 and 2010, Borders was well into the red, losing a combined $293 million. In February 2011 it filed for bankruptcy protection. Attempts at reorganization failed, it soon began its final liquidation of assets, and its last remaining stores closed their doors on September 18, 2011. What went wrong?

Sticking to what you know best can be dangerous. We’ve all heard the old adage: Focus on your “core competency” and don’t get distracted by trends or flashy ideas. Borders became a multibillion dollar business because of its physical retail presence. However, this approach also led to its demise.

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4 PART 1 :: STRATEGIC ANALYSIS

Borders focused on its retail strategy in the 2000s, expanding aggressively in the United States and internationally—and taking on debt. It strove to improve the in-store experience for shoppers, added cafes, and experimented with new concepts. Such a strategy may have worked a few decades earlier, but while Borders was investing in physical real estate, shoppers were flocking to the Internet. Borders was left with a conflicted strategy: Declining sales forced it to close hundreds of stores (including its entire Waldenbooks chain), while it doubled down on other retail outlets.

Unfortunately, it treated the Internet like a passing trend instead of as a transformational phenomenon. The company outsourced its Web operation to Amazon—which obviously became a fierce rival. It waited until 2008 to develop its own Web strategy. Meanwhile, Amazon became the dominant player in online bookselling and e-books, introducing the Kindle e-reader. Its big brick- and-mortar rival, Barnes & Noble, a laggard itself, later introduced the popular Nook e-reader and invested heavily in its own website. Borders was clearly late to the party—by then it had taken on quite a bit of debt and had little to invest. In essence, it was forced to rely on third-party readers from Sony and Kobo, which made it impossible to distinguish its Web offerings.

During its last eleven years, Borders was led by six different CEOs. None were around long enough to make a lasting change or provide the vision that could maneuver the debt-laden company through a shifting landscape. To the end, it kept a traditional mindset—focusing on rivals with which it was most familiar. As the book industry continued to consolidate, this meant Barnes & Noble. However, discounters like Walmart and Target sell a ton of books—at big discounts—and their prices are usually matched by Amazon. Borders was faced with a dilemma: It could take the losses and match the discounters, or it could justify its higher prices by convincing customers that they’d enjoy a premium experience. Neither worked. As noted by Michael Souers, an analyst at Standard & Poor’s: “They over-expanded and built up some debt on their balance sheet. Instead of leading and being innovative, they were certainly a follower.”

A concluding note: Amazon continues to outdistance its rivals. Its sales have grown from $25  billion to $57 billion over the last three years. During the same period, Amazon’s stock has soared over 100 percent, and its market capitalization stands at an impressive $121 billion as of mid-2013. Jeff Bezos, Amazon’s founder and CEO, can boast a net worth of over $23.6 billion. In contrast, Borders is extinct.

Discussion Questions 1. What lessons can we learn from Borders’ failure? 2. What was their most critical error? Why? 3. What could Best Buy, a firm now facing a powerful challenge from Amazon, learn from Borders?

The recent demise of Borders illustrates how even well-established firms can fail in the marketplace if they do not anticipate and respond proactively to changes in the environment. Today’s leaders face a large number of complex challenges in the global marketplace. In considering how much credit (or blame) they deserve, two perspectives of leadership come immediately to mind: the “romantic” and “external control” perspectives. 4 First, let’s look at the romantic view of leadership. Here, the implicit assumption is that the leader is the key force in determining an organization’s success—or lack thereof. 5 This view dominates the popular press in business magazines such as Fortune, BusinessWeek, and Forbes, wherein the CEO is either lauded for his or her firm’s success or chided for the organization’s demise. 6

romantic view of leadership situations in which the leader is the key force determining the organization’s success— or lack thereof.

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CHAPTER 1 :: STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT 5

Consider, for example, the credit that has been bestowed on leaders such as Jack Welch, Andrew Grove, and Herb Kelleher for the tremendous accomplishments when they led their firms, General Electric, Intel, and Southwest Airlines, respectively.

Similarly, Apple’s success in the last decade has been attributed almost entirely to the late Steve Jobs, its former CEO, who died on October 5, 2011. 7 Apple’s string of hit prod- ucts, such as iMac computers, iPods, iPhones, and iPads, are testament to his genius for developing innovative, user-friendly, and aesthetically pleasing products. In addition to being a perfectionist in product design, Jobs also was a master showman with a cult fol- lowing. During his time as CEO between 1997 and 2011, Apple’s market value soared by over $300 billion!

On the other hand, when things don’t go well, much of the failure of an organization can also, rightfully, be attributed to the leader. 8 Border’s leadership clearly failed to respond effectively to changes taking place in the book retailing industry. In contrast, Apple fully capitalized on emerging technology trends with a variety of products, including sophisti- cated smartphones.

The contrasting fortunes of Hewlett-Packard under two different CEOs also demonstrate the influence leadership has on firm performance. 9 When Carly Fiorina was fired as CEO of the firm, HP enjoyed an immediate increase in its stock price of 7 percent—hardly a strong endorsement of her leadership! Her successor, Mark Hurd, led the firm to five years of out- standing financial results. Interestingly, when he abruptly resigned on August 6, 2010, the firm’s stock dropped 12 percent almost instantly! (To provide some perspective, this repre- sents a decrease in HP’s market value of about $12 billion.) And, since Hurd’s departure, HP’s market capitalization has dropped about 80 percent—as of early 2013!

However, this reflects only part of the picture. Consider another perspective, called the external control view of leadership. Here, rather than making the implicit assumption that the leader is the most important factor in determining organizational outcomes, the focus is on external factors that may positively (or negatively) affect a firm’s success. We don’t have to look far to support this perspective. Developments in the general environ- ment, such as economic downturns, governmental legislation, or an outbreak of major internal conflict or war, can greatly restrict the choices that are available to a firm’s execu- tives. Borders, as well as several other book retailers, found the consumer shift away from brick and mortar bookstores to online book buying (e.g., Amazon) and digital books an overwhelming environmental force against which they had few defenses.

Major unanticipated developments can often have very negative consequences for busi- nesses regardless of how well formulated their strategies are.

Let’s look at a few recent examples: 10

• Hurricane Katrina in 2007 had a disastrous effect on businesses located along the Gulf Coast.

• The financial meltdown of 2008 and the resultant deep recession during the following two years forced once proud corporations like General Motors and Citigroup to ask for government bailouts. Others, such as Merrill Lynch and Washington Mutual, had to be acquired by other firms.

• In the aftermath of BP’s disastrous oil well explosion on April 20, 2010, the fishing and tourism industries in the region suffered significant downturns. BP itself was forced to pay a $20 billion fine to the U.S. government.

• On March 11, 2011, a 9.0 earthquake and tsunami devastated Japan and resulted in the loss of more than 20,000 lives. During the next two trading days, the country’s stock exchange (Nikkei) suffered its biggest loss in 40 years. The disaster hit nearly every industry hard—especially energy companies. For example, Tokyo Electric Power Co., which operates a nuclear power plant that was severly damaged, fell 24.7 percent, and Toshiba Corp., a maker of nuclear power plants, slid 19.5 percent.

Categories
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A purrmitt

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at one point in a pipeline the water’s speed is 3.00m/s and the gauge pressure is 5.00×104pa.

At one point in a pipeline, the water’s speed is 3.00 and the gauge pressure is 4.00×104 . Find the gauge pressure at a second point in the line 11.0 lower than the first if the pipe diameter at the second point is twice that at the first.
I’ve been trying to use Bernoulli’s equasion to find the gauge pressure, but it’s not working for me.

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P + (1/2) (rho) V^2 + (rho) g H = constant

(rho is the density of water, in the appropriate units)

The change in H (height) and V will tell you the change in gauge pressure. It will be higher where the velocity is less and the elevation lower.

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Sorry about the lack of units…but your input helped me to solve it. I wasn’t figuring the velocity correctly for the lower portion of the tube! Thanks so much!!

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organizational culture is related to the polc function of:

C H A P T E R 8 Organizational Culture

© 2018 Boston Academic Publishing, Inc., d.b.a. FlatWorld. All rights reserved. Created exclusively for Essa AlSaeed <essa.alsaeed@live.mercer.edu>

FIGURE 8.1 3M Corporation has been able to continue their innovative culture by allowing employees to use up to 15% of their workweek to develop new innovations such as their famous Post-it Notes.

© Thinkstock

C H A P T E R L E A R N I N G O B J E C T I V E S

Reading this chapter will help you accomplish the following:

1. Describe what organizational culture is and why it is important for an organization.

2. Understand the dimensions that make up a company’s culture. 3. Understand the creation and maintenance of organizational culture. 4. Understand the factors that create cultural change. 5. Develop personal culture management skills.

Organizations, like individuals, have their own personalities—often referred to as organizational cultures.

Understanding how culture is created, communicated, and changed will help individuals understand the cultures

that best suit their personalities as well as methods to become more effective managers.

212 PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT VERSION 3.0

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FIGURE 8.2 The P-O-L-C Framework

1. UNDERSTANDING ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE

L E A R N I N G O B J E C T I V E S

1. Define organizational culture. 2. Understand why organizational culture is important. 3. Understand the different levels of organizational culture.

1.1 What Is Organizational Culture? Organizational culture refers to a system of shared assumptions, values, and beliefs that indicate appro- priate and inappropriate behavior within a given organization.[1] These values have a strong influence on employee behavior as well as organizational performance.[2] The concept of organizational culture was first made popular in the 1980s when Peters and Waterman’s best-selling book, In Search of Excel- lence, made the argument that company success could be attributed to an organizational culture that was decisive, customer-oriented, empowering, and people-oriented. Since then, organizational culture has become the subject of numerous research studies, books, and articles. Organizational culture is still a relatively new concept in contrast to a topic such as leadership, which has a history spanning several centuries.

Culture is largely invisible to individuals, since many elements of an organization’s culture are a function of intangible social cues rather than explicit written policies. Even though culture affects all employee behaviors, thinking, and behavioral patterns, individuals tend to become more aware of their organization’s culture when they have the opportunity to compare it to other organizations. Culture is related to the organizational facet of the P-O-L-C framework. The organizing function involves creat- ing and implementing organizational design decisions. The culture of the organization is closely linked to organizational design. For instance, a culture that empowers employees to make decisions could prove extremely resistant to a centralized organizational design, hampering the manager’s ability to im- plement such a design. However, a culture that supports the organizational structure can be very powerful.

1.2 Why Does Organizational Culture Matter? An organization’s culture may be one of its strongest assets or its biggest liability. In fact, it has been ar- gued that organizations that have a rare and hard-to-imitate culture enjoy a competitive advantage.[3] In a survey conducted by the management consulting firm Bain & Company, worldwide business lead- ers identified corporate culture to be as important as corporate strategy for business success.[4] This comes as no surprise to leaders of successful businesses, who are quick to attribute their company’s success to their organization’s culture.

Researchers find a relationship between organizational cultures and company performance with respect to success indicators such as revenue, sales volume, market share, and stock prices.[5] At the same time, it is important to have a culture that fits with the demands of the company’s environment. To the extent that shared values are proper for the company in question, company performance may benefit from culture.[6] For example, if a company is in the high-tech industry, having a culture that

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FIGURE 8.3 Organizational Culture Levels

Source: Adapted from Schein, E. H. (1992). Organizational

Culture and Leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

assumptions

Beliefs about human nature and reality that are taken for granted.

values

Shared principles, standards, and goals.

artifacts

The visible and tangible elements of culture.

encourages innovativeness and adaptability will support its performance. However, if a company in the same industry has a culture characterized by stability, a high respect for tradition, and a strong prefer- ence for upholding rules and procedures, the company may suffer because of its culture. In other words, just as having the “right” culture may be a competitive advantage for an organization, having the “wrong” culture may lead to performance difficulties, be responsible for organizational failure, and act as a barrier preventing the company from changing and taking risks.

In addition to having implications for organizational performance, organizational culture is an effective control mechanism dictating employee behavior. Culture is a more powerful way of controlling and managing employee behaviors than organizational rules and regulations. For example, when a company is trying to improve the quality of its customer service, rules may not be helpful, particularly when the problems customers present are unique. Instead, creating a culture of customer service may achieve better results by encouraging employees to think like customers, knowing that the company priorities in this case are clear: Keeping the customer happy is preferable to other concerns, such as saving the cost of a refund. Therefore, the ability to understand and influence organizational culture is an important item for managers to have in their tool kit when they are carrying out the controlling and organizing functions of the P-O-L-C framework.

1.3 Levels of Organizational Culture Organizational culture consists of some aspects that are relatively visible, as well as as- pects that may lie below one’s conscious awareness. Organizational culture can be thought of as consisting of three interrelated levels.[7]

At the deepest level, below our awareness, lie basic assumptions. These assump- tions are taken for granted and reflect beliefs about human nature and reality. At the second level, values exist. Values are shared principles, standards, and goals. Finally, at the surface, we have artifacts, or visible, tangible aspects of organizational culture. For example, in an organization, a basic assumption employees and managers share might be that happy employees benefit their organizations. This might be translated into val- ues such as egalitarianism, high-quality relationships, and having fun. The artifacts reflecting such values might be an executive “open door” policy, an office layout that includes open spaces and gathering areas equipped with pool tables, and frequent com- pany happy hours or picnics.

Understanding the organization’s culture may start from observing its artifacts: its physical environment, employee interactions, company policies, reward systems, and other observable characteristics. When you are interviewing for a position, observing the physical environment, how people dress, where they relax, and how they talk to

others is definitely a good start to understanding the company’s culture. However, simply looking at these tangible aspects is unlikely to give a full picture of the organization, since an important chunk of what makes up culture exists below one’s degree of awareness. The values and, deeper, the assumptions that shape the organization’s culture can be uncovered by observing how employees interact and the choices they make, as well as by inquiring about their beliefs and perceptions regarding what is right and appropriate behavior. Some companies such as online eyeglass maker Warby Parker institute spe- cific culture teams that plan activities and luncheons to ensure culture is maintained and on the fore- front of employee’s minds on a weekly basis.[8]

K E Y T A K E A W A Y

Organizational culture is a system of shared assumptions, values, and beliefs that help individuals understand which behaviors are and are not appropriate within an organization. Cultures can be a source of competitive advantage for organizations. Strong organizational cultures can be an organizing as well as a controlling mechanism for organizations. Finally, organizational culture consists of three levels: assumptions that are be- low the surface, values, and artifacts.

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innovative cultures

Cultures that are flexible, adaptable, and experiment with new ideas.

aggressive cultures

Cultures that value competitiveness and outperforming competitors.

outcome-oriented cultures

Cultures that emphasize achievement, results, and action.

D I S C U S S I O N Q U E S T I O N S

1. Why do companies need culture?

2. Give an example of a company culture being a strength as well as a weakness.

3. In what ways does culture serve as a controlling mechanism?

4. If assumptions are below the surface, why do they matter?

5. Share examples of artifacts you have noticed at different organizations.

2. MEASURING ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE

L E A R N I N G O B J E C T I V E S

1. Understand different dimensions of organizational culture. 2. Understand the role of culture strength. 3. Explore subcultures within organizations.

2.1 Dimensions of Culture Which values characterize an organization’s culture? Even though all aspects of culture may not be im- mediately observable, identifying a set of values that might be used to describe an organization’s cul- ture helps us identify, measure, and manage culture more effectively. For this purpose, several re- searchers have proposed various culture typologies. One popular typology is the Organizational Cul- ture Profile (OCP), where culture is represented by seven distinct values.[9]

Innovative Cultures

According to the OCP framework, companies that have innovative cultures are flexible and adapt- able, and experiment with new ideas. These companies are characterized by a flat hierarchy and titles and other status distinctions tend to be downplayed. For example, Apple has been named by Fast Com- pany magazine as one of the most innovative companies in the world.[10] While they do not invent new technology, the innovations they introduced to personal computers, mobile phones, and tablets, with products such as the iPhone and iPad, changed the daily life of consumers and created entire industries working on Apple platforms. This is a culture that values accountability and agility. With a simple or- ganizational chart and clearly defined responsibilities, they are able to achieve clear focus on a small number of products and engage in quick course corrections. In order to maintain agility, the company uses small teams—for example, putting two engineers in charge of writing the code for adapting the Sa- fari browser for iPad.[11]

Aggressive Cultures

Companies with aggressive cultures value competitiveness and outperforming competitors. For ex- ample, Microsoft is often identified as a company with an aggressive culture. The company has faced a number of antitrust lawsuits and disputes with competitors over the years. In aggressive companies, people may use language such as “we will kill our competition.” In the past, Microsoft executives made statements such as “we are going to cut off Netscape’s air supply… Everything they are selling, we are going to give away,” and its aggressive culture is cited as a reason for getting into new legal troubles be- fore old ones are resolved.[12] An overly aggressive and cutthroat culture has been cited by some as leading to the emissions-cheating scandal at Volkswagon.[13]

Outcome-Oriented Cultures

The OCP framework describes outcome-oriented cultures as emphasizing achievement, results, and action as important values. A good example of an outcome-oriented culture may be the electronics re- tailer Best Buy. Having a culture emphasizing sales performance, Best Buy tallies revenues and other relevant figures daily by department. Employees are trained and mentored to sell company products effectively, and they learn how much money their department made every day.[14] In 2005, the com- pany implemented a Results Oriented Work Environment (ROWE) program that allows employees to

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work anywhere and anytime; they are evaluated based on results and fulfillment of clearly outlined ob- jectives.[15] Outcome-oriented cultures hold employees as well as managers accountable for success and use systems that reward employee and group output. In these companies, it is more common to see re- wards tied to performance indicators as opposed to seniority or loyalty. Research indicates that organ- izations that have a performance-oriented culture tend to outperform companies that are lacking such a culture.[16] At the same time, when performance pressures lead to a culture where unethical behaviors become the norm, individuals see their peers as rivals, and short-term results are rewarded, the result- ing unhealthy work environment serves as a liability.[17] Perhaps due to such potential problems, as a pioneer in the ROWE practice, Best Buy abandoned this philosophy in 2013.[18]

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FIGURE 8.4 Dimensions of the Organizational Culture Profile

Source: Retrieved October 8, 2012 from (second from top) Vincent van der Heijden, http://www.flickr.com/photos/flo_and_me/3836753819/; (third

from bottom) Cherrysweetdeal, http://www.flickr.com/photos/cherrysweetdeal/4322582205/; all other images © Thinkstock.

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Stable cultures

Cultures that are predictable, rule-oriented, and bureaucratic.

FIGURE 8.5

From their social initiatives to extensive support of their own employees, Starbucks is the epitome of a people- oriented culture.

Source: http://www.flickr.com/

photos/montagecomms/2328936178

People-oriented cultures

Cultures that value fairness, supportiveness, and respecting individual rights.

team-oriented cultures

Cultures that are collaborative and emphasize cooperation among employees.

detail-oriented culture

Cultures that emphasize precision and paying attention to details.

Stable Cultures

Stable cultures are predictable, rule-oriented, and bureaucratic. When the environment is stable and certain, these cultures may help the organization to be effective by providing stable and constant levels of direction and output.[19] These cultures prevent quick action and, as a result, may be a misfit to a changing and dynamic environment. Public sector institutions may be viewed as stable cultures. In the private sector, GM is cited as having a bureaucractic culture, something the automaker has been strug- gling to change while recovering from its bankruptcy in 2009. The company is characterized by slow decision making, with several meetings and premeetings for key decisions, resulting in slow adoption of new technology and decision-making failures, such as allowing engineers to continue working on a Hummer sports utility vehicle long after they realized the project would fail.[20]

People-Oriented Cultures

People-oriented cultures value fairness, supportiveness, and respect for individual rights. In these organizations, there is a greater emphasis on and expectation of treating people with respect and dig- nity.[21] One study of new employees in accounting companies found that employees, on average, stayed 14 months longer in companies with people-oriented cultures.[22] Starbucks is an example of a people-oriented culture. The company pays employees above minimum wage, offers health care and tuition reimbursement benefits to its part-time as well as full-time employees, and has creative perks such as weekly free coffee for all associates and the opportunity to earn a degree online. As a result of these policies, the company benefits from a turnover rate much lower than the industry average.[23]

Team-Oriented Cultures

Companies with a team-oriented culture are collaborative and emphasize cooperation among em- ployees. For example, Southwest Airlines facilitates a team-oriented culture by cross-training its em- ployees so that they are capable of helping one another when needed. The company also emphasizes training intact work teams.[24] In Southwest’s selection process, applicants who are not viewed as team players are not hired as employees.[25] In team-oriented organizations, members tend to have more positive relationships with their coworkers and particularly with their managers.[26]

FIGURE 8.6

The growth in the number of passengers flying with Southwest Airlines from 1973 to 2012 shows Southwest as one of the most-flown U.S. airlines. While price has played a role in this, their emphasis on service has been a key piece of their culture and competitive advantage and has helped Southwest remain profitable for more than 39 consecutive years.

Source: Adapted from http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/69/Southwest-airlines-passengers.jpg

Detail-Oriented Cultures

Organizations with a detail-oriented culture are characterized in the OCP framework as emphasiz- ing precision and attention to details. Such a culture gives a competitive advantage to companies in the hospitality industry by helping them differentiate themselves from others. For example, Four Seasons and Ritz Carlton are among hotels who keep records of all customer requests such as which newspaper the guest prefers or what type of pillow the customer uses. This information is put into a computer

218 PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT VERSION 3.0

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strong culture

A culture that is shared by organizational members.

FIGURE 8.7

Walt Disney created a strong culture at his company that has evolved since its founding in 1923.

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/

Image:Walt_disney_portrait.jpg

system and used to provide better service to returning customers. Any requests hotel employees re- ceive, as well as overhear, might be entered into the database to serve customers better.

2.2 Strength of Culture A strong culture is one that is shared by organizational members[27] —that is, a culture in which most employees in the organization show consensus regarding the values of the company. The stronger a company’s culture, the more likely it is to affect the way employees think and behave. For example, cul- tural values emphasizing customer service will lead to higher-quality customer service if there is wide- spread agreement among employees on the importance of customer-service-related values.[28]

It is important to realize that a strong culture may act as an asset or a liability for the organization, depending on the types of values that are shared. For example, imagine a company with a culture that is strongly outcome-oriented. If this value system matches the organizational environment, the com- pany may perform well and outperform its competitors. This is an asset as long as members are behav- ing ethically. However, a strong outcome-oriented culture coupled with unethical behaviors and an ob- session with quantitative performance indicators may be detrimental to an organization’s effectiveness. Movies such as Wall Street, Glengarry Glen Ross, Boiler Room, and The Wolf of Wall Street illustrate the dangers associated with strong organizational cultures, where the need to “always be closing” a deal overshadows ethical concerns of other stakeholders. Enron is an extreme example of this dysfunctional type of strong culture.

One limitation of a strong culture is the difficulty of changing established organizational behaviors. In an organization where certain values are widely shared, if the organization decides to adopt a differ- ent set of values, unlearning the old values and learning the new ones will be a challenge because em- ployees will need to adopt new ways of thinking, behaving, and responding to critical events. For ex- ample, Home Depot had a decentralized, autonomous culture where many business decisions were made using “gut feelings” while ignoring the available data. When Robert Nardelli became CEO of the company in 2000, he decided to change its culture starting with centralizing many of the decisions that were previously left to individual stores. This initiative met with substantial resistance, and many high- level employees left during Nardelli’s first year. Despite getting financial results such as doubling the sales of the company, many of the changes he made were criticized. He left the company in January 2007.[29]

A strong culture may also be a liability during a merger. During mergers and acquisitions, com- panies inevitably experience a clash of cultures, as well as a clash of structures and operating systems. Culture clash becomes more problematic if both parties have unique and strong cultures. For example, during the 2010 merger of United Airlines and Continental, one of the key issues was the integration of corporate cultures. United Airlines had consumer satisfaction ratings below industry average, whereas Continental had above-average ratings and a quality focus. United employees had contentious relations with management and unionization rates exceeding 80%, while Continental employees enjoyed more positive relations with management and were 40% unionized. The creation of a unique, unified com- pany culture is key to the success of such a merger.[30]

Music Rap-Up: Where Do I Belong

Twinprov perform a rap discussing different organizational cultures.

Youtube

View the video online at: http://www.youtube.com/embed/4YK23j6VnQU?rel=0

CHAPTER 8 ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE 219

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subcultures

A set of values unique to a limited cross section of the organization.

counterculture

Shared values and beliefs that are in direct opposition to the values of the broader organizational culture.

2.3 Do Organizations Have a Single Culture? The examples and profiles discussed as part of the Organizational Culture Profile may suggest that a company has a single culture that is shared throughout the organization. In reality there might be mul- tiple cultures within the organization. For example, people working on the sales floor may experience a different culture from that experienced by people working in the warehouse. Cultures that emerge within different departments, branches, or geographic locations are called subcultures. Subcultures may arise from the personal characteristics of employees and managers, as well as the different condi- tions under which work is performed. In addition to understanding the broader organization’s values, managers will need to make an effort to understand subculture values to see their effect on workforce behavior and attitudes.

Sometimes, a subculture may take the form of a counterculture. Defined as shared values and be- liefs that are in direct opposition to the values of the broader organizational culture,[31] countercultures are often shaped around a charismatic leader. For example, within a largely bureaucratic organization, an enclave of innovativeness and risk taking may emerge within a single department. A counterculture may be tolerated by the organization as long as it is bringing in results and contributing positively to the effectiveness of the organization. However, its existence may be perceived as a threat to the broader organizational culture. In some cases, this may lead to actions that would take away the autonomy of the managers and eliminate the counterculture.

K E Y T A K E A W A Y

Culture can be understood in terms of seven different culture dimensions, depending on what is most em- phasized within the organization. For example, innovative cultures are flexible, adaptable, and experiment with new ideas, while stable cultures are predictable, rule-oriented, and bureaucratic. Strong cultures can be an asset or liability for an organization but can be challenging to change. Multiple cultures may coexist in a single organization in the form of subcultures and countercultures.

D I S C U S S I O N Q U E S T I O N S

1. Think about an organization you are familiar with. On the basis of the dimensions of OCP, how would you characterize its culture?

2. Out of the culture dimensions described, which dimension do you think would lead to higher levels of employee satisfaction and retention? Which one would be related to company performance?

3. What are pros and cons of an outcome-oriented culture?

4. When bureaucracies were first invented, they were considered quite innovative. Do you think that different cultures are more or less effective at different points in time and in different industries? Why or why not?

5. Can you imagine an effective use of subcultures within an organization?

3. CREATING AND MAINTAINING ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE

L E A R N I N G O B J E C T I V E S

1. Understand how cultures are created. 2. Learn how to maintain a culture. 3. Recognize organizational culture signs.

3.1 How Are Cultures Created? Where do cultures originate? Understanding this question is important in understanding how they can be changed. An organization’s culture is shaped as the organization faces and deals with external and

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internal challenges. When the organization’s way of doing business provides a successful adaptation to environmental challenges and ensures success, those values are retained. These values and ways of do- ing business are taught to new members as the way to do business.[32]

The factors that are most important in the creation of an organization’s culture include founders’ values, preferences, and industry demands.

FIGURE 8.8 Model Describing How Cultures Are Created and Maintained

Founder Values

A company’s culture, particularly during its early years, is inevitably tied to the personality, back- ground, and values of its founder or founders, as well as their vision for the future of the organization. When entrepreneurs establish their own businesses, the way they want to do business determines the organization’s rules, the structure set up in the company, and the people they hire to work with them. For example, some of the existing corporate values of the ice cream company Ben & Jerry’s can easily be traced to the personalities of its founders, Ben Cohen and Jerry Greenfield. In 1978, the two high school friends opened up their first ice-cream shop in a renovated gas station in Burlington, Vermont. Their strong social convictions led them to buy only from the local farmers and devote a certain per- centage of their profits to charities. The core values they instilled in their business can still be observed in the current company’s devotion to social activism and sustainability, continuous contributions to charities, use of environmentally friendly materials, and dedication to creating jobs in low-income areas. Their culture even extends to general charity to the local community with their annual “Free Cone Day” from numerous participating outlets and franchisees.[33] Even though Unilever acquired the company in 2000, the social activism component remains unchanged, and Unilever has expressed its commitment to traditional Ben & Jerry’s values.[34]

Founder values become part of the corporate culture to the degree to which they help the company be successful. For example, the social activism of Ben & Jerry’s was instilled in the company because the founders strongly believed in these issues. However, these values probably would not endure three dec- ades later if they had not helped the company fuel its early success. In the case of Ben & Jerry’s, these values helped distinguish their brand from larger corporate brands and attracted a loyal customer base. Thus, by providing a competitive advantage, these values were retained as part of the corporate culture and were taught to new members as the right way to do business.

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FIGURE 8.9

Ben & Jerry’s managed to preserve the most unique aspects of its organizational culture despite being acquired by Unilever. The success of a merger often depends on successful harmonizing of the cultures of two distinct organizations.

Source:

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/

Image:BenJerry-UnitedSquare.jpg

Industry Demands

While founders undoubtedly exert a powerful influence over corporate cultures, the industry charac- teristics also play a role. Companies within the same industry can sometimes have widely differing cul- tures. At the same time, the industry characteristics and demands often act as a powerful force to create similarities among organizational cultures. For example, despite some differences, many companies in the insurance and banking industries are stable and rule-oriented, many companies in the high-tech in- dustry have innovative cultures, and those in the nonprofit sector may be people-oriented. If the in- dustry is one with a large number of regulatory requirements—for example, aviation, banking, health care, and high-reliability (such as nuclear power) industries—then we might expect the presence of a large number of rules and regulations, a bureaucratic company structure, and a stable culture. The in- dustry influence over culture is also important to acknowledge because this shows that it may not be possible to imitate the culture of a company in a different industry, even though it may seem admirable to outsiders.

3.2 How Are Cultures Maintained? As a company matures, its cultural values are refined and strengthened. The early values of a com- pany’s culture exert influence over its future values. Organizational culture determines what types of people are hired by an organization and what types of people are left out. Moreover, once new employ- ees are hired, the company assimilates new employees and teaches them the way things are done in the organization. We call these processes attraction-selection-attrition and onboarding processes. We will also examine the role of leaders and reward systems in shaping and maintaining an organization’s culture.

Attraction-Selection-Attrition

Organizational culture is maintained through a process known as attraction-selection-attrition (ASA). First, applicants are attracted to organizations they perceive they will fit in as successful employees. Someone who has a competitive nature may feel comfortable in and may prefer to work in a company where interpersonal competition is the norm. Others may prefer to work in a team-oriented workplace. Research shows that employees with different personality traits find different cultures attractive. For example, out of the Big Five personality traits, employees who demonstrate neurotic personalities were less likely to be attracted to innovative cultures, whereas those who had openness to experience were more likely to be attracted to innovative cultures.[35]

Of course, this process is imperfect, and value similarity is only one reason a candidate might be attracted to a company. There may be other, more powerful attractions such as good benefits. The second component of the ASA framework prevents applicants who may not be a strong fit with the or- ganization from getting in: selection. Just as candidates are looking for places where they will fit in, companies are also looking for people who will fit into their current corporate culture. Many compan- ies are hiring people for fit with their culture, as opposed to fit with a certain job. For example, Southw- est Airlines prides itself for hiring employees based on personality and attitude rather than specific job- related skills, which they learn after they are hired. Companies use different techniques to weed out candidates who do not fit with corporate values. For example, Google relies on multiple interviews with future peers. By introducing the candidate to several future coworkers and learning what these cowork- ers think of the candidate, it becomes easier to assess the level of fit.

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onboarding

The process through which new employees learn the attitudes, knowledge, skills, and behaviors required to function effectively within an organization.

FIGURE 8.10 The ASA Framework

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:OU_Great_Reading_Room.jpg

Even after a company selects individuals for person-organization fit, there may be new employees who do not fit in long-term. Some candidates may be skillful in impressing recruiters and signal high levels of culture fit even though they do not necessarily share the company’s values. In such cases, the organ- ization is likely to gradually eliminate candidates who do not fit in through attrition. Attrition refers to the natural process where candidates with poor organizational fit will leave the company. Research in- dicates that person-organization misfit is one of the key reasons for employee turnover.[36]

Because of the ASA process, the company attracts, selects, and retains people who share its core values, whereas those people who are different in core values will be excluded from the organization either during the hiring process or later on through naturally occurring turnover. Thus, organizational culture will act as a self-defending organism where intrusive elements are kept out. Supporting the ex- istence of such self-protective mechanisms, research shows that organizations demonstrate a certain level of homogeneity regarding personalities and values of organizational members.[37]

New Employee Onboarding

Another way in which an organization’s values, norms, and behavioral patterns are transmitted to em- ployees is through onboarding (also referred to as the organizational socialization process).[38] On- boarding refers to the process through which new employees learn the attitudes, knowledge, skills, and behaviors required to function effectively within an organization. If an organization can successfully socialize new employees into becoming organizational insiders, new employees will feel accepted by their peers and confident regarding their ability to perform; they will also understand and share the as- sumptions, norms, and values that are part of the organization’s culture. This understanding and con- fidence in turn translate into more effective new employees who perform better and have higher job

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formal orientation program

A program used to indoctrinate new employees to the company culture, as well as introducing them to their new jobs and colleagues.

mentor

A trusted person who provides an employee with advice and support regarding career-related matters.

satisfaction, stronger organizational commitment, and longer tenure within the company.[39] Organiza- tions engage in different activities to facilitate onboarding, such as implementing orientation programs or matching new employees with mentors.

What Can Employees Do during Onboarding? New employees who are proactive, seek feedback, and build strong relationships tend to be more suc- cessful than those who do not.[40] For example, feedback seeking helps new employees. Especially on a first job, a new employee can make mistakes or gaffes and may find it hard to understand and interpret the ambiguous reactions of coworkers. By actively seeking feedback, new employees may find out sooner rather than later any behaviors that need to be changed and gain a better understanding of whether their behavior fits with the company culture and expectations.

Relationship building or networking (a facet of the organizing function) is another important be- havior new employees may demonstrate. Particularly when a company does not have a systematic ap- proach to onboarding, it becomes more important for new employees to facilitate their own onboard- ing by actively building relationships. According to one estimate, 35% of managers who start a new job fail and either voluntarily leave or are fired within 18 months. Of these, over 60% report being unable to form effective relationships with colleagues as the primary reason for this failure.[41]

What Can Organizations Do during Onboarding? Many organizations, including Microsoft, UPS, and Bank of America, take a more structured and sys- tematic approach to new employee onboarding, while others follow a “sink or swim” approach where new employees struggle to figure out what is expected of them and what the norms are in their organization.

A formal orientation program indoctrinates new employees to the company culture, and intro- duces them to their new jobs and colleagues. An orientation program has a role in making new em- ployees feel welcome in addition to imparting information that may help them be successful in their new jobs. Many large organizations have formal orientation programs consisting of lectures, video- tapes, and written material, while some may follow more informal approaches. According to one es- timate, most orientations last anywhere from one to five days, and some companies are currently switching to a computer-based orientation. Ritz Carlton Hotel Company uses a very systematic ap- proach to employee orientation and views orientation as the key to retention. In the two-day classroom orientation, employees spend time with management, dine in the hotel’s finest restaurant, and witness the attention to customer service detail firsthand. During these two days, they are introduced to the company’s intensive service standards, team orientation, and its own language. Later, on their 21st day, they are tested on the company’s service standards and are certified.[42] Research shows that formal ori- entation programs are helpful in teaching employees about the goals and history of the company, as well as communicating the power structure. Moreover, these programs may also help with a new em- ployee’s integration to the team. However, these benefits may not be realized to the same extent in computer-based orientations. In fact, compared to those taking part in a regular, face-to-face orienta- tion, those undergoing a computer-based orientation were shown to have lower understanding of their job and the company, indicating that different formats of orientations may not substitute for each oth- er.[43]

What Can Organizational Insiders Do during Onboarding? One of the most important ways in which organizations can help new employees adjust to a company and a new job is through organizational insiders—namely, supervisors, coworkers, and mentors. Lead- ers have a key influence over onboarding and the information and support they provide determine how quickly employees learn about the company politics and culture, while coworker influence determines the degree to which employees adjust to their teams. Mentors can be crucial to helping new employees adjust by teaching them the ropes of their jobs and how the company really operates. A mentor is a trusted person who provides an employee with advice and support regarding career-related matters. Although a mentor can be any employee or manager who has insights that are valuable to the new em- ployee, mentors tend to be relatively more experienced than their protégés. Mentoring can occur nat- urally between two interested individuals or organizations can facilitate this process by having formal mentoring programs. These programs may successfully bring together mentors and protégés who would not come together otherwise.

Research indicates that the existence of these programs does not guarantee their success, and there are certain program characteristics that may make these programs more effective. For example, when mentors and protégés feel that they had input in the mentor-protégé matching process, they tend to be more satisfied with the arrangement. Moreover, when mentors receive training beforehand, the out- comes of the program tend to be more positive.[44] Because mentors may help new employees interpret and understand the company’s culture, organizations may benefit from selecting mentors who

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FIGURE 8.11

One of the most famous mentor-protégé relationships in history is that of Socrates and his equally famous student, Plato.

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/

File:Socrates_and_Plato.jpg

personify the company’s values. Thus, organizations may need to design these programs carefully to in- crease their chance of success.

Leadership

Leaders are instrumental in creating and changing an organization’s culture. There is a direct correspondence between the leader’s style and an organization’s culture. For ex- ample, when leaders motivate employees through inspiration, corporate culture tends to be more supportive and people-oriented. When leaders motivate by making rewards contingent on performance, the corporate culture tended to be more performance-ori- ented and competitive.[45] In these and many other ways, what leaders do directly in- fluences the cultures of their organizations. This is a key point for managers to consider as they carry out their leading P-O-L-C function.

Part of the leader’s influence over culture is through role modeling. Many studies have suggested that leader behavior, the consistency between organizational policy and leader actions, and leader role modeling determine the degree to which the organiza- tion’s culture emphasizes ethics.[46] The leader’s own behaviors will signal to individu- als what is acceptable behavior and what is unacceptable. In an organization in which high-level managers make the effort to involve others in decision making and seek opinions of others, a team-oriented culture is more likely to evolve. By acting as role models, leaders send signals to the organization about the norms and values that are ex- pected to guide the actions of its members.

Leaders also shape culture by their reactions to the actions of others around them. For example, do they praise a job well done or do they praise a favored employee re- gardless of what was accomplished? How do they react when someone admits to mak- ing an honest mistake? What are their priorities? In meetings, what types of questions do they ask? Do they want to know what caused accidents so that they can be preven- ted, or do they seem more concerned about how much money was lost because of an accident? Do they seem outraged when an employee is disrespectful to a coworker, or does their reaction depend on whether they like the harasser? Through the behaviors they encourage and actions they tolerate, leaders shape and maintain an organization’s culture.

Reward Systems

Finally, the company culture is shaped by the type of reward systems used in the organization and the kinds of behaviors and outcomes it chooses to reward and punish. One relevant element of the reward system is whether the organization rewards behaviors or results. Some companies have reward systems that emphasize intangible elements of performance as well as more easily observable metrics. In these companies, supervisors and peers may evaluate an employee’s performance by assessing the person’s behaviors as well as the results. In such companies, we may expect a culture that is relatively people- or team-oriented, and employees act as part of a family.[47] However, in companies in which goal achieve- ment is the sole criterion for reward, there is a focus on measuring only the results without much re- gard to the process. In these companies, we might observe outcome-oriented and competitive cultures. Whether the organization rewards performance or seniority would also make a difference in culture. When promotions are based on seniority, it would be difficult to establish a culture of outcome orienta- tion. Finally, the types of behaviors that are rewarded or ignored set the tone for the culture. Which be- haviors are rewarded, which ones are punished, and which are ignored will determine how a com- pany’s culture evolves. A reward system is one tool managers can wield when undertaking the con- trolling function.

3.3 Signs of Organizational Culture How do individuals learn about a company’s culture? One way of finding out about a company’s cul- ture is by observing employees or interviewing them. At the same time, culture manifests itself in some visible aspects of the organization’s environment. In this section, we discuss five ways in which culture shows itself to observers and employees.

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FIGURE 8.12 Visual Elements of Culture

Source: (From top to bottom) © Thinkstock; http://www.flickr.com/photos/revjim5000/2349161623/; http://www.flickr.com/photos/ell-r-brown/

4374203580/; http://www.flickr.com/photos/lilivanili/6990868344/; http://www.flickr.com/photos/37796451@N00/4857349094/.

Mission Statement

A mission statement that is taken seriously and widely communicated may provide insights into an or- ganization’s corporate culture. For example, the Mayo Clinic’s mission statement is, “To inspire hope and contribute to health and well-being by providing the best care to every patient through integrated clinical practice, education, and research.” This statement ties to their primary value, “The needs of the patient come first.” This value evolved from the founders, who are quoted as saying, “The best interest of the patient is the only interest to be considered.” The Mayo Clinic has a corporate culture that puts patients first. For example, no incentives are given to physicians based on the number of patients they see. Because doctors are salaried, they have no interest in retaining a patient for themselves, and they refer the patient to other doctors when needed.[48]

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FIGURE 8.13

Rituals are important at Mary Kay Cosmetics, where pink Cadillacs are given to top performers at large annual events.

Source: Retrieved October 8, 2012

from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/

Image:MK_Cadillacs.jpg

Rituals

Repetitive activities within an organization that have symbolic meaning.

Rituals

Rituals refer to repetitive activities within an organization that have symbolic meaning.[49] Usually rituals have their roots in the history of a company’s culture. They create camaraderie and a sense of belonging among employees. They also serve to teach employees corporate values and create identifica- tion with the organization. For example, at the cosmetics firm Mary Kay Inc., employees attend cere- monies recognizing their top salespeople with an award of a new car—traditionally a pink Cadillac. These ceremonies are conducted in large auditoriums where participants wear elaborate evening gowns and sing company songs that create emotions and excitement. During this ritual, employees feel a con- nection to the company culture and its values such as self-determination, willpower, and enthusi- asm.[50] Another example of rituals is the Saturday-morning meetings of Walmart. This ritual was first created by the company founder Sam Walton, who used these meetings to discuss which products and practices were doing well and which required adjustment. He was able to use this information to make changes in Walmart stores before the start of the week, which gave him a competitive advantage over rival stores that made their adjustments based on weekly sales figures during the middle of the follow- ing week. Today, hundreds of Walmart associates attend the Saturday-morning meetings in the Bentonville, Arkansas, headquarters. The meetings traditionally start and end with the Walmart cheer; the agenda includes a discussion of weekly sales figures and merchandising tactics. As a ritual, the meetings help maintain a small-company atmosphere, ensure employee involvement and accountabil- ity, communicate a performance orientation, and demonstrate taking quick action.[51]

Rules and Policies

Another way in which an observer may find out about a company’s culture is to examine its rules and policies. Companies create rules to determine acceptable and unacceptable behavior and, thus, the rules that exist in a company will signal the type of values it has. Policies about issues such as decision mak- ing, human resources, and employee privacy reveal what the company values and emphasizes. For ex- ample, a company that has a policy such as “all pricing decisions of merchandise will be made at cor- porate headquarters” is likely to have a centralized culture that is hierarchical, as opposed to decentral- ized and empowering. Swiss Bank UBS once issued a 43-page dress code that advised employees on how long their skirts should be, how to “enhance personality” using makeup, and what not to eat to have fresh breath, which could be taken as signs of its customer-oriented, detail-oriented, and rule-ori- ented corporate culture.[52] The presence or absence of policies on sensitive issues such as English-only rules, bullying and unfair treatment of others, workplace surveillance, open-door policies, sexual har- assment, workplace romances, and corporate social responsibility all provide pieces of the puzzle that make up a company’s culture. This highlights how interrelated the P-O-L-C functions are in practice. Through rules and policies, the controlling function affects the organization’s culture, a facet of organizing.

Physical Layout

A company’s building, layout of employee offices, common areas, and other workspaces communicate important messages about a company’s culture. For example, visitors walking into the Nike campus in Beaverton, Oregon, can witness firsthand some of the distinguishing characteristics of the company’s culture. The campus is set on 74 acres and boasts an artificial lake, walking trails, soccer fields, and cutting-edge fitness centers. The campus functions as a symbol of Nike’s values such as energy, physical fitness, an emphasis on quality, and a competitive orientation. In addition, at fitness centers on the Nike headquarters, only those using Nike shoes and apparel are allowed in. This sends a strong signal that loyalty is expected. The company’s devotion to athletes and their winning spirit are manifested in campus buildings named after famous athletes, photos of athletes hanging on the walls, and their statues dotting the campus.[53]

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FIGURE 8.14

Google promotes a creative and fun atmosphere by enhancing their buildings with a vast array of visual stimuli, such as this dinosaur sculpture of “Stan” and his pink friends who reside at the Googleplex.

Source:

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/

File:Don%27t_be_evil_-_Googleplex

_-_IMG_2445.JPG

The layout of the office space is also a strong indicator of a company’s culture. A company that has an open layout where high-level managers interact with employees may have a culture of team orienta- tion and egalitarianism, whereas a company where most high-level managers have their own floor may indicate a higher level of hierarchy. Microsoft employees tend to have offices with walls and a door be- cause the culture emphasizes solitude, concentration, and privacy. In contrast, Intel is famous for its standard cubicles, which reflect its egalitarian culture. The same value can also be observed in its avoid- ance of private and reserved parking spots.[54] The degree to which playfulness, humor, and fun are part of a company’s culture may be indicated in the office environment. For example, entertainment website The Chive boasts headquarters in Austin, Texas, that includes an indoor slide, hot tub, and second-story bar.[55]

Stories and Language

Perhaps the most colorful and effective way in which organizations communicate their culture to new employees and organizational members is through the skillful use of stories. A story can highlight a critical event an organization faced and the organization’s response to it, or a heroic effort of a single employee illustrating the company’s values. The stories usually engage employees emotionally and gen- erate employee identification with the company or the heroes of the tale. A compelling story may be a key mechanism through which managers motivate employees by giving their behavior direction and by energizing them toward a certain goal.[56] Moreover, stories shared with new employees communicate the company’s history, its values and priorities, and create a bond between the new employee and the organization. For example, Arthur Fry, a scientist at 3M, was using slips of paper to mark the pages of hymns in his church choir, but they kept falling off. He remembered a superweak adhesive that had been invented in 3M’s labs, and he coated the markers with this adhesive. Thus, Post-it Notes were born. However, marketing surveys showed that interest in such a product was weak and the distribut- ors were not convinced that it had a market. Instead of giving up, Fry distributed samples of the small yellow sticky notes to secretaries throughout his company. Once they tried them, people loved them and asked for more. Word spread and this led to the ultimate success of the product. This story effect- ively describes the core values of a 3M employee: being innovative by finding unexpected uses for ob- jects, persevering, and being proactive in the face of negative feedback.[57]

Language is another way to identify an organization’s culture. Companies often have their own ac- ronyms and buzzwords that are clear to them and help set apart organizational insiders from outsiders. Such code is known as jargon. Jargon is the language of specialized terms used by a group or profes- sion. Every profession, trade, and organization has its own specialized terms.

K E Y T A K E A W A Y

Organizational cultures are created by a variety of factors, including founders’ values and preferences, industry demands, and early values, goals, and assumptions. Culture is maintained through attraction-selection-attri- tion, new employee onboarding, leadership, and organizational reward systems. Signs of a company’s culture include the organization’s mission statement, stories, physical layout, rules and policies, and rituals.

D I S C U S S I O N Q U E S T I O N S

1. Do you think it is a good idea for companies to emphasize person-organization fit when hiring new employees? What advantages and disadvantages do you see when hiring people who fit with company values?

2. What is the influence of company founders on company culture? Can you think of an example based on your personal knowledge?

3. What are the methods companies use to aid with employee onboarding? What is the importance of onboarding for organizations?

4. What type of a company do you feel you would fit in best? What type of a culture would be a misfit for you? In your past work experience, were there any moments when you felt that you did not fit in? Why?

5. What is the role of physical layout as an indicator of company culture? What type of a physical layout would you expect from a company that is people-oriented? Team-oriented? Stable?

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4. CREATING CULTURE CHANGE

L E A R N I N G O B J E C T I V E

1. Understand the process of culture change.

4.1 How Do Cultures Change? Culture is a product of its founder’s values, its history, and collective experiences. Hence culture is part of a company’s DNA and is resistant to change efforts. Many organizations realize that their current culture constitutes a barrier against organizational productivity and performance. Particularly when there is a mismatch between an organization’s values and the demands of its environment, changing the culture becomes the key to the company turnaround.

Achieving culture change is challenging, and there are many companies that ultimately fail in this mission. Research surrounding companies that successfully changed their culture indicates that the fol- lowing six steps increase the chances of success.[58]

FIGURE 8.15 Process of Culture Change

Creating a Sense of Urgency

For the change effort to be successful, it is important to communicate the need for change to employ- ees. One way of doing this is to create a sense of urgency on the part of employees, explaining to them why changing the fundamental way in which business is done is so important. In successful culture change efforts, leaders communicate with employees and present a case for culture change as the essen- tial element that will lead the company to eventual success. As an example, consider the situation at IBM in 1993 when Lou Gerstner was brought in as CEO and chairman. After decades of dominating the market for mainframe computers, IBM was rapidly losing market share to competitors, and its

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efforts to sell personal computers—the original PC—were seriously undercut by cheaper “clones.” In the public’s estimation, the name IBM had become associated with obsolescence. Gerstner recalls that the crisis IBM was facing became his ally in changing the organization’s culture. Instead of spreading optimism about the company’s future, he used the crisis at every opportunity to get buy-in from em- ployees.[59] While IBM sold its personal computer business in 2005, the company continues to be known for exceptional innovation and leadership.

Changing Leaders and Other Key Players

A leader’s vision is an important factor that influences how things get done in an organization. Thus, culture change often follows changes at the highest levels of the organization. Moreover, to implement the change effort quickly and efficiently, a company may find it helpful to remove managers and other powerful employees who are acting as a barrier to change.[60] Because of political reasons, self-interest, or habits, managers may create powerful resistance to change efforts. In such cases, replacing these pos- itions with employees and managers giving visible support to the change effort may increase the likeli- hood that the change effort succeeds.

Role Modeling

Role modeling is the process by which employees modify their own beliefs and behaviors to reflect those of the leader.[61] CEOs must model the behaviors that are expected of employees to change the culture because these behaviors will trickle down to lower-level employees. One negative example of this type of role modeling is the scandal involving Hewlett-Packard board members. In 2006, when board members were suspected of leaking confidential company information to the press, the com- pany’s top-level executives hired a team of security experts to find the source of the leak. The investig- ators sought the phone records of board members, looking for links to journalists. For this purpose, they posed as board members and called phone companies to obtain itemized home phone records of board members and journalists. When the investigators’ methods came to light, HP’s chairman and four other top executives faced criminal and civil charges. When such behavior is modeled at top levels, it is likely to have an adverse effect on the company culture.[62]

Training

Well-crafted training programs may be instrumental in bringing about culture change by teaching em- ployees the new norms and behavioral styles. For example, when auto repairer Midas felt the need to change its culture to be more committed to customers, they developed a program to train employees to be more familiar with customer emotions and connect better with them. Customer reports have been overwhelmingly positive in stores that underwent this training.[63]

Changing the Reward System

The criteria with which employees are rewarded and punished have a powerful role in determining the cultural values of an organization. Switching from a commission-based incentive structure to a straight salary system may be instrumental in bringing about customer focus among sales employees. Moreover, by rewarding and promoting employees who embrace the company’s new values and pro- moting these employees, organizations can make sure that changes in culture have a lasting effect. If the company wants to develop a team-oriented culture where employees collaborate with one another, then using individual-based incentives may backfire. Instead, distributing bonuses to intact teams might be more successful in bringing about culture change.

Creating New Symbols and Stories

Finally, the success of the culture change effort may be increased by developing new rituals, symbols, and stories. Prior to its merger with United Airlines, Continental Airlines was a company that success- fully changed its culture to be less bureaucratic and more team-oriented in the 1990s. One of the first things management did to show employees that they really meant to abolish many of the company’s detailed procedures and create a culture of empowerment was to burn the heavy 800-page company policy manual in their parking lot. The new manual was only 80 pages. This action symbolized the up- coming changes in the culture and served as a powerful story that circulated among employees. Anoth- er early action was redecorating waiting areas and repainting all their planes, again symbolizing the new order of things.[64] By replacing the old symbols and stories, the new symbols and stories will help enable the culture change and ensure that the new values are communicated.

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K E Y T A K E A W A Y

Organizations need to change their culture to respond to changing conditions in the environment, to remain competitive, and to avoid complacency or stagnation. Culture change often begins by the creation of a sense of urgency. Next, a change of leaders and other key players may enact change and serve as effective role mod- els of new behavior. Training can also be targeted toward fostering these new behaviors. Reward systems are changed within the organization. Finally, the organization creates new stories and symbols. Successful culture change requires managers that are proficient at all of the P-O-L-C functions. Creating and communicating a vision is part of planning; leadership and role modeling are part of leading; designing effective reward systems is part of controlling; all of which combine to influence culture, a facet of organizing.

D I S C U S S I O N Q U E S T I O N S

1. Can new employees change a company’s culture? If so, how?

2. Are there any conditions under which change is not possible? If so, what would such conditions be?

3. Have you ever observed a change process at an organization you were involved with? If so, what actions worked well and what actions failed?

4. What recommendations would you have for someone considering a major change of culture within their own organization?

5. DEVELOPING YOUR PERSONAL SKILLS: LEARNING TO FIT IN

L E A R N I N G O B J E C T I V E S

1. Understand what individuals can proactively do to understand a new organizational environment.

2. Learn effective guidelines for proactive onboarding.

5.1 Before You Join How do you find out about a company’s culture before you join? Several tips will allow you to more ac- curately gauge the culture of a company you are interviewing with.

First, do your research. Talking to friends and family members who are familiar with the company, doing an online search for news articles about the company, browsing the company’s Web site, and reading its mission statement would be a good start.

Second, observe the physical environment. Do people work in cubicles or in offices? What is the dress code? What is the building structure? Do employees look happy, tired, or stressed? The answers to these questions are all pieces of the puzzle.

Third, read between the lines. For example, the absence of a lengthy employee handbook or de- tailed procedures might mean that the company is more flexible and less bureaucratic.

Fourth, reflect on how you are treated. The recruitment process is your first connection to the com- pany. Were you treated with respect? Do they maintain contact with you or are you being ignored for long stretches at a time?

Fifth, ask questions. What happened to the previous incumbent of this job? What does it take to be successful in this firm? What would their ideal candidate for the job look like? The answers to these questions will reveal a lot about the way they do business.

Finally, listen to your gut. Your feelings about the place in general, and your future manager and coworkers in particular, are important signs that you should not ignore.[65]

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FIGURE 8.16 Managing Workplace Impressions

© Thinkstock

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K E Y T A K E A W A Y

There are a number of ways to learn about an organization’s culture before you formally accept a job. Take the time to consider whether the culture you are observing truly seems like the right fit for you. Once you join a new organization, several strategies exist to maximize onboarding success.

D I S C U S S I O N Q U E S T I O N S

1. What clues does your college or school give about its culture?

2. What are four things you could do today to learn more about an organization you are interested in?

3. Imagine that your good friend is starting a new job next week. What recommendations would you give your friend to help him or her do a great job onboarding into the organization?

6. CASE IN POINT: GOOGLE CREATES UNIQUE CULTURE

FIGURE 8.17

Source: Used with permission from Google, Inc.

Google is one of the best-known and most admired companies around the world, so much so that “googling” is the term many use to refer to searching information on the Web. Started out as a student project by two Stanford University graduates—Larry Page and Sergey Brin—in 1996, Google became the most frequently used Web search engine on the Internet with 5.9 billion searches per day in 2013, as well as other innovative applications such as Gmail, Google Earth, Google Maps, Google Chrome, and YouTube. Google grew from 10 employees working in a garage in Palo Alto to over 52,000 employees operating around the world by 2014. What is the formula behind this success? Google strives to operate based on solid principles that may be traced back to its founders. Their mission statement summarizes their commitment to end-user needs: “To or- ganize the world’s information and to make it universally accessible and useful.” While other companies were focused on marketing their sites and increasing advertising revenues, Google stripped the search page of all distractions and presented users with a blank page consisting only of a company logo and a search box.

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Google resisted pop-up advertising because the company felt that it was annoying to end-users. They insisted that all their advertisements would be clearly marked as “sponsored links.” This emphasis on improving user experience and always putting it before making more money in the short term seems to have been critical to their success.

Keeping their employees happy is also a value they take to heart. Google created a unique work environment that attracts, motivates, and retains the best players in the field. Google was ranked as the number 1 “Best Place to Work For” by Fortune magazine in 2014, and held this position several times in its history. This is not surprising if one looks closer to how Google treats employees. On their Mountain View, California, campus called the “Googleplex,” employees are treated to free gourmet food options in the company’s 25 cafes, with one employee noting that they are never more than 150 feet away from a stocked pantry. In fact, many em- ployees complain that once they started working for Google, they tend to gain 10 to 15 pounds! Employees have access to gyms, a bowling alley, video games, on-site childcare, sleep pods, massages, and doctors. Google provides four months of parental leave with 75% of full pay and offers $500 for take-out meals for fam- ilies with a newborn. These perks create a place where employees feel that they are treated well and their needs are met. Moreover, they contribute to the feeling that they are working at a unique and cool place that is different from everywhere else they may have worked.

In addition, Google encourages employee risk taking and innovation. In fact, one of the key reasons Google is an attractive employer is that individuals have the opportunity to work on potentially industry changing and life-altering projects that are interesting and meaningful. How is the risk-taking orientation maintained? When a vice president in charge of the company’s advertising system made a mistake costing the company millions of dollars and apologized for the mistake, she was commended by Larry Page, who congratulated her for mak- ing the mistake and noting that he would rather run a company where they are moving quickly and doing too much, as opposed to being too cautious and doing too little. This attitude toward acting fast and accepting the cost of resulting mistakes as a natural consequence of working on the cutting edge may explain why the company is performing much ahead of competitors such as Microsoft and Yahoo! One of the current chal- lenges for Google is to expand to new fields outside of their Web search engine business. To promote new ideas, Google encourages all engineers to spend 20% of their time working on their own ideas.

Google’s culture is reflected in their decision making as well. Decisions at Google are made in teams. It is com- mon for several small teams to attack each problem and for employees to try to influence each other using ra- tional persuasion and data. Gut feeling has little impact on how decisions are made. In some meetings, people reportedly are not allowed to say “I think …” but instead must say “the data suggest ….” To facilitate teamwork, employees work in open office environments where private offices are assigned only to a select few.

How do they maintain these unique values? In a company emphasizing hiring the smartest people, it is very likely that they will attract big egos that may be difficult to work with. Google realizes that its strength comes from its “small company” values that emphasize risk taking, agility, and cooperation. Therefore, they take their hiring process very seriously. Hiring is extremely competitive and getting to work at Google is not unlike ap- plying to a college. As they get bigger, they relaxed their admission standards a little bit, but this means in- stead of conducting twelve screening interviews with the same job candidate, they may now conduct four or five. Candidates may be asked to write essays about how they will perform their future jobs. Recently, they tar- geted potential new employees using billboards featuring brainteasers directing potential candidates to a website where they were subjected to more brainteasers. Each candidate may be interviewed by as many as eight people on several occasions. Through this scrutiny, they are trying to select “Googley” employees who will share the company’s values, perform at high levels, and be liked by others within the company.

Will this culture survive in the long run? It may be too early to tell, given that the company was only founded in 1998. The founders emphasized that their initial public offering (IPO) would not change their culture and they would not introduce more rules or change the way things are done in Google to please Wall Street, and so far, they seem to be right. But can a public corporation really act like a start-up? Can a global giant facing scrutiny on issues including privacy, copyright, and censorship maintain its culture rooted in its days in a Palo Alto garage? Larry Page is quoted as saying, “We have a mantra: don’t be evil, which is to do the best things we know how for our users, for our customers, for everyone. So I think if we were known for that, it would be a wonderful thing.”

Case written by Berrin Erdogan and Talya Bauer to accompany Bauer, T. & Erdogan, B. (2015). Organizational Be- havior (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: Flat World Knowledge. Partially based on information from Elgin, B., Hof, R. D., & Greene, J. (2005, August 8). Revenge of the nerds—again. BusinessWeek. Retrieved July 29, 2014, from ht- tp://www.businessweek.com/technology/content/jul2005/tc20050728_5127_tc024.htm; Hardy, Q. (2005, November 14). Google thinks small. Forbes, 176(10); Lashinky, A. (2006, October 2). Chaos by design. Fortune, 154(7); Mangalindan, M. (2004, March 29). The grownup at Google: How Eric Schmidt imposed better manage- ment tactics but didn’t stifle search giant. Wall Street Journal, p. B1; Lohr, S. (2005, December 5). At Google, cube culture has new rules. New York Times. Retrieved July 29, 2014, from http://www.nytimes.com/2005/12/

234 PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT VERSION 3.0

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05/technology/05google.html; Schoeneman, D. (2006, December 31). Can Google come out to play? New York Times. Retrieved July 20, 2013 from http://www.nytimes.com/2006/12/31/fashion/31google.html; Tkaczyk, C., Keating, C., Konrad, A.,, Vandermey, A. & Kapelke, C. (2/6/2012). The 100 best companies to work for. Fortune, 165(2); Warner, M. (2004, June). What your company can learn from Google. Business 2.0, 5(5).

C A S E D I S C U S S I O N Q U E S T I O N S

1. Culture is an essential element of organizing in the P-O-L-C framework. Do you think Google has a strong culture? What would it take to make changes in that culture for better or for worse?

2. Do you think Google’s unique culture will help or hurt Google in the long run?

3. What factors are responsible for the specific culture that exists at Google?

4. What type of decision-making approach has Google taken? Do you think this will remain the same over time? Why or why not?

5. Do you see any challenges Google may face in the future because of its emphasis on having a risk-taking culture?

CHAPTER 8 ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE 235

© 2018 Boston Academic Publishing, Inc., d.b.a. FlatWorld. All rights reserved. Created exclusively for Essa AlSaeed <essa.alsaeed@live.mercer.edu>

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Adapted from ideas in Daniel, L., & Brandon, C. (2006). Finding the right job fit. HR Magazine, 51, 62–67; Sacks, D. (2005). Cracking your next company’s culture. Fast Company, 99, 85–87.

CHAPTER 8 ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE 237

© 2018 Boston Academic Publishing, Inc., d.b.a. FlatWorld. All rights reserved. Created exclusively for Essa AlSaeed <essa.alsaeed@live.mercer.edu>

238 PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT VERSION 3.0

© 2018 Boston Academic Publishing, Inc., d.b.a. FlatWorld. All rights reserved. Created exclusively for Essa AlSaeed <essa.alsaeed@live.mercer.edu>

  • Chapter 8: Organizational Culture
    • Understanding Organizational Culture
      • What Is Organizational Culture?
      • Why Does Organizational Culture Matter?
      • Levels of Organizational Culture
    • Measuring Organizational Culture
      • Dimensions of Culture
        • Innovative Cultures
        • Aggressive Cultures
        • Outcome-Oriented Cultures
        • Stable Cultures
        • People-Oriented Cultures
        • Team-Oriented Cultures
        • Detail-Oriented Cultures
      • Strength of Culture
      • Do Organizations Have a Single Culture?
    • Creating and Maintaining Organizational Culture
      • How Are Cultures Created?
        • Founder Values
        • Industry Demands
      • How Are Cultures Maintained?
        • Attraction-Selection-Attrition
        • New Employee Onboarding
          • What Can Employees Do during Onboarding?
          • What Can Organizations Do during Onboarding?
          • What Can Organizational Insiders Do during Onboarding?
        • Leadership
        • Reward Systems
      • Signs of Organizational Culture
        • Mission Statement
        • Rituals
        • Rules and Policies
        • Physical Layout
        • Stories and Language
    • Creating Culture Change
      • How Do Cultures Change?
        • Creating a Sense of Urgency
        • Changing Leaders and Other Key Players
        • Role Modeling
        • Training
        • Changing the Reward System
        • Creating New Symbols and Stories
    • Developing Your Personal Skills: Learning to Fit In
      • Before You Join
    • Case in Point: Google Creates Unique Culture
    • Endnotes
Categories
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Experiencing Jazz

Experiencing Jazz, Second Edition, is an integrated textbook with online resources for jazz appreciation and history courses. Through readings, illustrations, timelines, listening guides, and a streaming audio library, it immerses the reader in a journey through the history of jazz, while placing the music within a larger cultural and historical context. Designed to introduce the novice to jazz, Experiencing Jazz describes the elements of music, and the characteristics and roles of different instruments. Prominent artists and styles from the roots of jazz to present day are relayed in a story-telling prose. This new edition features expanded coverage of women in jazz, the rise of jazz as a world music, the influence of Afro-Cuban and Latin jazz, and streaming audio.

Features: • Important musical trends are placed within a broad cultural, social, political, and economic

context • Music fundamentals are treated as integral to the understanding of jazz, and concepts are

explained easily with graphic representations and audio examples • Comprehensive treatment chronicles the roots of jazz in African music to present day • Commonly overlooked styles, such as orchestral jazz, Cubop, and third-stream jazz are

included • Expanded and up-to-date coverage of women in jazz.

The media-rich companion website presents a comprehensive streaming audio library of key jazz recordings by leading artists integrated with interactive listening guides. Illustrated musical concepts with web-based tutorials and audio interviews of prominent musicians acquaint new listeners to the sounds, styles, and figures of jazz.

Richard J. Lawn recently retired as Dean of the College of Performing Arts at the University of the Arts in Philadelphia. You can see and hear him as saxophonist, composer, and bandleader for Power of Ten, playing in local clubs and on recordings.

Experiencing Jazz Second Edition

Richard J. Lawn Professor Emeritus, College of Performing Arts at the University of the Arts

Second edition published 2013 by Routledge 711 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10017

Simultaneously published in the UK by Routledge 2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RN

Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business

© 2013 Taylor & Francis

The right of Richard J. Lawn to be identified as author of this work has been asserted by him in accordance with sections 77 and 78 of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers.

Trademark notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe.

First edition published 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies

Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Lawn, Richard, author.

Experiencing jazz/Richard J. Lawn.—Second edition. pages cm Includes bibliographical references, discography, and videography. 1. Jazz—History and criticism. 2. Jazz—Analysis, appreciation. I. Title. ML3506.L39 2013 781.65—dc23 2012024753

ISBN: 978-0-415-65935-2 (pbk and online access card) ISBN: 978-0-415-69960-0 (pbk) ISBN: 978-0-415-83735-4 (online access card) ISBN: 978-0-203-37981-3 (ebk and online access card) ISBN: 978-0-203-37985-1 (ebk)

Typeset in Bembo, Helvetica Neue and Kabel by Florence Production Ltd, Stoodleigh, Devon, UK

Please visit the companion website at www.routledge.com/cw/Lawnwww.routledge.com/cw/Lawn

I am deeply indebted to my wife, Susan Lawn, for “putting her life on hold,” not once but twice, while helping immeasurably to make this book become a reality. In addition, thanks to the many students who served as its inspiration.

Contents

List of Photos xiv List of Examples xix List of Figures xxii Preface xxiii Acknowledgments xxviii

PART I UNDERSTANDING JAZZ 1

1 The Nature of Jazz 3

Experiencing Music . . . Experiencing Jazz 4 That Four-Letter Word 4 Defining Jazz 6 Chapter Summary 8 Study Questions 9

2 The Elements of Jazz 13

Rhythm 14 Meter and Tempo 15 Rhythmic Devices Important to Jazz 16 Swing as an Aspect of Jazz Rhythm 18

Melody 18 Harmony 20 Texture 21 Form 22 Improvisation 23

Something Borrowed—The European Tradition 23 Something New, Something Blue—The Jazz Tradition 24 Blues 24 Improvisation in Jazz 26

Chapter Summary 29 Key Terms 30 Study Questions 31

3 Listening to Jazz 33

Performance Practice 33 The Instruments of Jazz 34 The Drum Set and Swing 34 Orchestration and Instrumentation 36 Instrumental Techniques and Special Effects 37

Understanding the Whole Performance 39 Describing the Performance 41

Video Blues 42 Chapter Summary 43 Key Terms 43 Study Questions 44

4 The Roots of Jazz 45

Jazz in Perspective 45 The Significance of African Music to Jazz 46 African Musical Aesthetic 46 Elements of African Music 47 African Music as a Means of Communication 49

The Afro-Latin and Caribbean Tinge 49 Background 50 Early Fusions 52

Early American Vocal Music 54 The Innovators: Getting the Blues 56

Robert Johnson (1911–1938) 57 Bessie Smith (1894–1937) 59 W.C. Handy—“Father of the Blues” (1873–1958) 61

Ragtime 62 Brass and Military Bands 67 Milestones: Chronicle of Historic Events 68 Chapter Summary 70 Key Terms 70 Study Questions 71

PART II CLASSIC JAZZ 1917–1945 73

5 Jazz Takes Root 75

Jazz in Perspective 75 The Reception of Early Jazz 78 New Orleans—The Birthplace of Jazz 80

Dixieland Jazz Band Instrumentation 81 The Innovators: Early Jazz 83

Original Dixieland Jazz Band 83 Kid Ory (1890–1973) 86 Joe “King” Oliver (1885–1938) 86 Lilian Hardin 86

viii CONTENTS

Jelly Roll Morton (1890–1941) 89 Louis Armstrong (1901–1971) 91 Sidney Bechet (1897–1959) 94

Milestones: Chronicle of Historic Events 95 Chapter Summary 97 Key Terms 97 Study Questions 98

6 The Jazz Age: From Chicago to New York 99

Jazz in Perspective 99 South Side of Chicago 100 On the Other Side of Town 102 The Chicago Sound 103 The Innovators: A Few of the Many 104

New Orleans Rhythm Kings (NORK) 104 Bix Beiderbecke (1903–1931) 105 Frankie “Tram” Trumbauer (1901–1956) 106 Paul Whiteman (1890–1967) and Symphonic Jazz 108

Boogie-Woogie, Eight to the Bar 110 The Decline of the Chicago Era 111 Chicago Jazz in Retrospect 113 New York and the Harlem Renaissance 114

James P. Johnson (1891–1955) 115 Marketing Jazz 118 Milestones: Chronicle of Historic Events 120 Chapter Summary 121 Key Terms 122 Study Questions 122

7 The Swing Era: Jazz at Its Peak 125

Jazz in Perspective: The Depths of the Depression 126 The Country Recovers 127 The Anatomy of the Swing Era Jazz Band 127

Instrumentation 128 Repertoire and Arrangement 131

The Innovators: Swing on the East Coast 132 Fletcher Henderson (1897–1952) 133 Coleman Hawkins—“The Father of Jazz Tenor Saxophone” (1904–1969) 135 Duke Ellington (1899–1974): Music Was His Mistress 137 Benny Goodman—The “King of Swing” (1909–1986) 147

Popular White Swing Bands 151 Artie Shaw (Arthur Arshawsky) (1910–2005) 151

The Vocalists’ Rise to Fame 153 Ongoing Latin Influences 155 Chapter Summary 155 Key Terms 156 Study Questions 157

CONTENTS ix

8 Swinging Across the Country: The Bands, Singers, and Pianists 159

Jazz in Perspective 160 The Innovators: A Unique Kaycee Style 161

Benny Moten 161 William “Count” Basie (1904–1984) 162 Lester Young (1909–1959) 164

Territory Bands 167 Mary Lou Williams (1910–1981) 168

The Innovators: A Few of the Swing Era Singers and Pianists 170 Billie Holiday (1915–1959): “Lady Day” 170 Ella Fitzgerald (1918–1996): The “First Lady of Song” 172 Art Tatum (1909–1956) 174

Traditional Jazz Revival 177 Swing Era Success 177 Milestones: Chronicle of Historic Events 181 Chapter Summary 184 Key Terms 185 Study Questions 185

PART III MODERN JAZZ 187

9 The Bebop Revolution 189

Jazz in Perspective 189 The Lifestyle and Musical Characteristics 192 The Birth of Bebop: The First Recordings 194

Characteristics of the Style 196 Bebop Performance Practice and Instrumental Roles Redefined 197

The Innovators: Bop Stylists 199 John Birks “Dizzy” Gillespie (1917–1993) 199 Charlie Parker (1920–1955) 201 Bud Powell (1924–1966) 203 Dexter Gordon (1923–1990) 205 J.J. Johnson (1924–2001) 206

The Innovators: Bebop Rhythm-Section Players 207 Thelonious Sphere Monk (1917–1982) 207 Oscar Pettiford (1922–1960) 209 Kenny Clarke (1914–1985) 209 Max Roach (1924–2007) 210 Sarah Vaughan: “The Divine One” (1924–1990) 211

Modern Jazz Embraces the Afro-Cuban Spirit 213 Dizzy Gillespie and the Birth of Cubop 213

The Decline of Bebop 217 Milestones: Chronicle of Historic Events 217 Chapter Summary 219 Key Terms 220

x CONTENTS

Appendix 220 Study Questions 223

10 The 1950s and Early 1960s: Cool, Intellectual, and Abstract Jazz 225

Jazz in Perspective 225 Characteristics of Cool Jazz 228 The Innovators: The Cool Sound on the East and West Coasts 231

Miles Davis and Gil Evans: The Birth of the Cool 231 Modern Jazz Quartet 233 Gerry Mulligan (1927–1996) and Chet Baker (1929–1988) 233 Dave Brubeck (1920–2012) 235 Bill Evans (1929–1980) 238

The Brazilian Bossa Nova 241 Stan Getz (1927–1991) 243

Third-Stream Jazz 245 Lennie Tristano (1919–1978) 247

Who Was Popular 248 Milestones: Chronicle of Historic Events 249 Chapter Summary 250 Key Terms 251 Study Questions 252

PART IV POSTMODERN JAZZ 253

11 Tradition Meets the Avant-Garde: Moderns and Early Postmoderns Coexist 255

Jazz in Perspective 256 The Innovators: The Characteristics and Artists of Mainstream Hard Bop 256

Art Blakey (1919–1990) Carries the Message 258 Other Hard-Bop Messengers 260

More About Funky, Soul Jazz and the 1950s and 1960s 264 Organ Trios and the Guitar 265

Wes Montgomery (1923–1968) 265 Jimmy Smith (1925–2005) 266

Everlasting Big Bands 268 Defining Postmodernism 270

Ornette Coleman (1930–) and His Disciples 271 The Innovators: Postmodern Jazz Comes of Age 276

Charles Mingus (1922–1979)—The Underdog 276 The End of Modern Jazz Heralded by the Beginning of the Postmoderns 278 Milestones: Chronicle of Historic Events 280 Chapter Summary 282 Key Terms 283 Study Questions 283

CONTENTS xi

12 Miles and Miles of Miles: Miles Davis and His Sidemen Redefine Postmodern Jazz 285

Jazz in Perspective 286 The Music 287 The Early Miles 287 The First Great Quintet 289 Modal Jazz 290

Miles and Gil 294 The Second Great Quintet 296 The Electronic Jazz–Rock Fusion Period 300 Davis Sidemen Become Major Forces 305

John Coltrane (1926–1967) 306 Wayne Shorter (1933–) 312 Herbie Hancock (1940–) 313

Milestones: Chronicle of Historic Events 314 Chapter Summary 317 Key Terms 318 Study Questions 318

13 The Electric 1970s and 1980s 321

Jazz in Perspective 321 The Music 322 Jazz and Rock: The Two-Way Connection 323 The Innovators: Living Electric in the Shadow of Miles Davis 325

Weather Report 325 Herbie Hancock and the Head Hunters 329 John McLaughlin (1942–) and the Mahavishnu Orchestra 331 Chick Corea (1941–) 333

Soul and Pop Instrumental Jazz 336 David Sanborn (1945–) 336 The Brecker Brothers 336 Grover Washington, Jr. (1943–1999) 337 Chuck Mangione (1940–) 337

The Signs of the Times: New Technologies and Changing Business Models 338 Milestones: Chronicle of Historic Events 339 Chapter Summary 340 Key Terms 341 Study Questions 342

14 The Unplugged, Eclectic 1970s and 1980s 343

Long Live Acoustic Jazz 343 The ECM Sound 344 The Innovators: The Rebirth of Acoustic Jazz 345

Keith Jarrett (1945–) 345 Return of Expatriates Unleashes a Rebirth of Acoustic Jazz 349

xii CONTENTS

Wynton Marsalis (1961–) and the Young Lions 350 The Freedom Fighters Take Risks 352

Cecil Taylor (1929–) 354 Old Bottles, New Wines—Long Live Big Bands 356 The Changing Jazz Landscape as the Millennium Comes to a Close 357 Milestones: Chronicle of Historic Events 358 Chapter Summary 360 Key Terms 361 Study Questions 361

15 Jazz for a New Century 363

Jazz in Perspective 364 Trends in Contemporary Jazz 365 Established Artists Offer Seasoned Jazz 367

John Scofield (1951–) and Joe Lovano (1952) 367 Michael Brecker (1949–2007) and Pat Metheny (1954–) 367

Popular Music Influences 371 Tim Hagans (1954–) 372

Vocal Renaissance 374 Esperanza Spalding (1984–) 375

Contemporary Women Emerging as Innovators 377 Maria Schneider (1960–) 378

Jazz as a Global Music 382 Afro-Cuban and Latin Jazz 382 Danilo Pérez (1965–) 382

Jazz as an International Language 384 Rudresh Mahanthappa and Vijay Iyer 387

The New Innovators: 21st-Century Emerging Artists 389 Jason Moran (1975–) 390

Closing Thoughts 391 Milestones: Chronicle of Historic Events 392 Chapter Summary 396 Key Terms 397 Study Questions 397

Appendix I: Glossary of Terms 399 Appendix II: Suggested Jazz DVDs and Videos 411

Biographical 409 Historical Documentaries 410 Performance/Instructional 410 Important Feature Films 411

Appendix III: Chapter Notes and Additional Sources 415

Index 429

CONTENTS xiii

Photos

August Wilson Theatre (formerly Virginia Theatre)/Neil Simon Theatre 52nd Street, Manhattan, New York City. May 2007 xxiv

American bandleader James Reese Europe (1881–1919) poses (center, with baton) with members of his Clef Club Band, New York, 1914 3

Original Dixieland Jass Band promotional photo 5

Jazz singer Joe Williams 7

The World Saxophone Quartet performing in 1992 9

“Mother of the Blues” Ma Rainey on sheet-music cover 13

Old-style mechanical metronome 15

Gertrude “Ma” Rainey (1886–1939) and her Georgia Jazz Band, Chicago, 1923 25

American jazz musician Louis Armstrong (1901–1971) smiles as he poses on stage with a band for the WMSB radio station in New Orleans, Louisiana, 1920s 26

Jazz musicians performing in a nightclub 33

The typical jazz drum set 35

April 16, 1912: The front-page New York Times newspaper headline announces the sinking of The Titanic ocean liner 45

Map tracing Christopher Columbus’s voyages, which resemble slave-trade routes 51

Slaves returning from the cotton fields in South Carolina, c.1860 54

Fisk Jubilee Singers 55

Bessie Smith, “Empress of the Blues” 59

Promotional photo, c.1930, of W.C. Handy, “Father of the Blues” 61

1899 sheet-music cover of Scott Joplin’s “Maple Leaf Rag” 65

Portrait of American ragtime composer and pianist Scott Joplin (1868–1917), c.1910 66

Player piano roll of Scott Joplin’s “Maple Leaf Rag,” patented September 13, 1904 67

An American suffragette wears a sign proclaiming “Women! Use your vote,” c.1920 75

Portrait of the Buddy Bolden Band, New Orleans, Louisiana, c.1900 81

The Original Dixieland Jass Band 84

Pianist, composer, arranger, singer, and bandleader Lilian Hardin Armstrong 86

King Oliver’s Creole Jazz Band in the early 1920s 87

Composer and pianist Jelly Roll Morton at the piano 89

Louis Armstrong and his Hot Five 92

Sidney Bechet plays clarinet for a Blue Note Records session, June 8, 1939 94

Henry Ford and his son Edsel in front of their new model in New York in 1927–1933 99

Marathon dance competitions were part of the growing phenomenon of youth culture in the 1920s, Chicago 101

Bix Beiderbecke and the Wolverines in the Gennett Recording Studios, in 1924, in New York 103

Cornetist Bix Beiderbecke (1903–1931) poses for a portrait, c.1925 105

Frankie Trumbauer and unidentified guitarist 107

Paul Whiteman and his orchestra 109

A crowd of depositors outside the American Union Bank in New York, having failed to withdraw their savings before the bank collapsed 112

Exterior of the Renaissance Casino ballroom in Harlem, New York, late 1920s 114

James P. Johnson poses for a studio portrait in 1921 115

Corner of Lennox Avenue and 147th Street in Harlem showing the exterior of the M&S Douglas Theatre and a sign for the Cotton Club a few doors down, 1927 125

Jazz pianist Teddy Wilson playing with a quartet during the set break of Benny Goodman’s band, because racially mixed bands were not the rule in New York City at the “Madhattan Room” in the Hotel Pennsylvania 131

Bandleader, pianist, composer/arranger Fletcher Henderson 133

Coleman Hawkins, “the father of jazz tenor saxophone” 135

Duke Ellington and his band performing at the legendary Cotton Club 139

Dancers performing onstage at the Cotton Club 141

Composer Duke Ellington, singer Ivie Anderson, and drummer Sonny Greer pose for a portrait with the orchestra in 1943, in Los Angeles, California 143

Bandleader and clarinetist Benny Goodman (center) performs for a large crowd at Manhattan Beach, New York, August 11, 1938 148

The Benny Goodman Sextet 149

Guitarist Charlie Christian on stage with the Benny Goodman Orchestra, in New York, c.1940 150

Big-Band Leader Artie Shaw performs in 1945, Los Angeles, California 151

December 8, 1941: The front page of the New York World Telegram announces Japanese air attack at Pearl Harbor, commencing the U.S. entry into World War II 159

The Count Basie Orchestra performs on stage in Chicago in 1940 162

Count Basie with his “All American Rhythm Section” 163

PHOTOS xv

Tenor saxophonist Lester Young performs while holding his instrument in his classic sideways style 165

Pianist, composer, arranger Mary Lou Williams 168

Billie Holiday singing at a Decca recording session, c.1946 170

Ella Fitzgerald, the “First Lady of Song,” 1940 172

Art Tatum Trio 175

Special edition of Jazzmen, produced by the Armed Services and designed to fit in soldiers’ knapsacks 177

The ruins of a cinema stand stark against the rubble after the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima August 8, 1945, brought World War II to a close 189

The Onyx jazz club in New York, advertising singer Maxine Sullivan 193

The club named after Charlie Parker, located at 1678 Broadway, New York 195

Dizzy Gillespie, with characteristic puffed cheeks and upturned trumpet 200

Jay McShann Orchestra in New York, 1942 201

Charlie Parker, with Miles Davis, trumpet; Tommy Potter, bass 202

Pianist Earl “Bud” Powell 203

Tenor saxophonist Dexter Gordon in Los Angeles, 1947 205

Thelonious Monk at Minton’s Playhouse 207

Drummer Max Roach 210

Vocalist Sarah Vaughan 211

Latin jazz singer and bandleader Machito (Frank Raul Grillo) holding maracas, while leading his band 214

Saxophonist James Moody, Cuban conga player Chano Pozo, and trumpeter Dizzy Gillespie performing in 1948 215

Race riots and picketers in Birmingham, Alabama 225

Miles Davis recording in 1959 231

The Dave Brubeck Quartet, with Brubeck at the piano, Paul Desmond on saxophone, Eugene Wright on bass, and Joe Morello on drums, in 1959 236

Pianist Bill Evans 238

Stan Getz in a live performance 244

Pianist Lennie Tristano 247

American civil rights leader Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. (1929–1968) speaks at a rally held at the Robert Taylor Houses in Chicago, Illinois, 1960s 255

Art Blakey and the Jazz Messengers play at the Birdhouse, a Chicago jazz club, 1961 258

Clifford Brown at a recording session 262

Tenor saxophonist Sonny Rollins performs at the Berkshire Music Barn Jazz Festival in Lenox, MA, 1956 262

Guitarist Wes Montgomery, c.1960 266

Jimmy Smith sitting at the Hammond B3 organ 266

Contemporary bandleader Stan Kenton rehearses his jazz band in London, in preparation for a performance at the Royal Albert Hall 268

xvi PHOTOS

Saxophonist Ornette Coleman with trumpeter Don Cherry at the 5 Spot, New York City 272

Jazz bassist and composer Charles Mingus 276

Apollo 11, the first manned lunar-landing mission, was launched on July 16, 1969, and Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin became the first and second men to walk on the moon 285

Miles Davis’s nonet in a recording studio for the sessions released as Birth of the Cool 288

John Coltrane, Cannonball Adderley, Miles Davis, and Bill Evans perform in the studio, New York, May 26, 1958 292

Trumpeter Miles Davis and producer/arranger Gil Evans record the album Quiet Nights in 1962 295

Miles Davis with Herbie Hancock, Ron Carter, and Wayne Shorter at the 1967 Newport Jazz Festival 297

Miles Davis performing in Copenhagen, 1973, wearing hip clothes of the day 304

John Coltrane performing on soprano saxophone with his quartet in West Germany, 1959 307

Demonstrators march up Avenue of Americas on their way to Central Park in New York as part of a rally against the Vietnam War, April 5, 1969 321

The rock band Blood, Sweat and Tears performs on stage at the Longhorn Jazz Festival, Dallas, Texas 324

Weather Report performs on stage at the Playboy Jazz Festival at the Hollywood Bowl, Los Angeles, June 1981 328

Herbie Hancock using a portable synthesizer keyboard 330

Guitarist John McLaughlin and violinist Jean-Luc Ponty from the Mahavishnu Orchestra perform in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, in 1974 332

Return To Forever performs in May 1977 335

Popular Philadelphia soulful saxophonist Grover Washington, Jr. 337

Chuck Mangione playing his signature flugelhorn 338

A demonstration outside the Whitehouse in support of the impeachment of President Nixon (1913–1994) following the watergate revelations 343

Jazz pianist Keith Jarrett, c.1975 346

Dexter Gordon and quartet performing in the UK 349

Trumpeter/composer Wynton Marsalis in 1982 351

Pianist Cecil Taylor performs at Ronnie Scott’s in London 354

Jazz pianist and composer Toshiko Akiyoshi conducts her orchestra, c.1977 357

U.S. President Bill Clinton plays a saxophone along with musician Everett Harp at the Arkansas inaugural ball 20 January 1993 363

Michael Brecker performing with the Brecker Brothers at the New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival 369

Contemporary guitarist Pat Metheny 369

Popular smooth-jazz artist Chris Botti 371

PHOTOS xvii

Trumpeter/composer Tim Hagans at the 2008 IAJE Conference in Toronto, Canada 372

Diana Krall performing in 2004 at the Mountain Winery, in Saratoga, California 374

Esperanza Spalding performs at the 4th Annual Roots Picnic at the Festival Pier, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, June 4, 2011 375

Maria Schneider conducts the Maria Schneider Orchestra on stage during the Festival Internacional de Jazz de Barcelona at Palau De La Musica, in Barcelona, Spain, 2011 379

Pianist Danilo Pérez 383

Jason Moran performs at Thelonious Monk Town Hall 50th Anniversary Celebration, 2009 390

xviii PHOTOS

Examples

2.1 Graphic representation of “Happy Birthday” 14 2.2 Illustration of a simple syncopation in measure 1 that results from handclaps on

off beats that create a tension between major beats represented by the foot tapping a steady pulse. By the second beat of the second measure, the handclaps are lined up precisely with the foot tapping on beats 2, 3, and 4, hence no syncopation and no tension 17

2.3 Using similar graphics, the following example illustrates a simple polyrhythm. In this case, the foot taps indicate a 3/4 meter and fundamental rhythm. The hand-clapping introduces a new rhythm in opposition to the foot tapping. If the foot tapping suddenly stops, the continuing handclaps give the illusion of 2/4 meter. The combined result when both are executed simultaneously is a polyrhythm 17

2.4 Two-octave C scale. Raised half-steps in between each scale note (black keys) are labeled above as sharps 19

2.5 Chord symbols in a typical progression that jazz musicians must learn to interpret 20

2.6 Visualization of monophonic texture. The light, horizontal, wavy line represents the melodic shape of a solo singer. There are no other layers present in this single-dimensional texture 21

2.7 Visualization of homophonic texture. The wavy, horizontal line represents the melodic shape of a solo singer. The vertical bars represent chords, with darker shades indicating major chords, and lighter shades representing minor chords 21

2.8 Visualization of polyphony. The light, horizontal, wavy lines represent the melodic shape of a solo singer and a second melodic voice complementing the primary vocal melody below it. The vertical bars represent chords, with darker shades indicating major chords, and lighter shades representing minor chords. Black dots represent a rising and falling bass line in counterpoint with the melody line. The entire texture, with multiple layers of activity, is described as polyphonic 21

2.9 Lowered third, fifth and seventh (E flat, G flat, B flat) are called “blue notes” and are indicated in the following keyboard example 24

2.10 Typical jazz chord progression illustrated by symbols 27 3.1 Swing ride cymbal pattern 36 3.2 Visual notations of special effects associated with jazz 38

4.1 The first line shows your foot tapping down and up, indicating 2 beats per measure. The second line adds handclaps that help to divide each beat in half, showing 1&2& 1&2&, corresponding to line 1. The third line adds handclaps to divide each measure of line 1 into triplets, or three pulses for every 2 foot taps. The last line shows handclaps dividing each beat in line 1 into groups of three, faster triplets than those line 3 47

4.2 African fundamental or ground pattern. Although many readers would likely not understand music notation, laymen can execute the following graphic representation of the pattern. The feet establish the pulse or basic beat, while the handclaps outline the specific ground rhythm pattern 48

4.3 The habanera rhythm is represented below in 4/4 meter for convenience, although it is usually found in 2/4 meter. Try to coordinate your hands and feet in a steady tempo. The handclap emphasizes the habanera rhythm, while the feet establish a basic tempo 52

4.4 Notice the close resemblance between this Charleston rhythm and the habanera at the middle of the measure 52

4.5 The clavé rhythm: The following illustrations are graphic representations of the 3–2 and 2–3 clavé patterns. The vertical line serves to delineate measures. You should try executing these rhythms with your hands and feet 53

4.6 Classic 12-bar blues. Each block represents 1 measure 57 4.7 Final rhythm from Stephen Foster’s “Camptown Races” 64 7.1 A graphic representation of 1 measure in 4/4 meter showing alternation

between a full quarter note of full value on beats 1 and 3, followed by even eighth-note divisions of beats 2 and 4. This rhythm pattern does not swing 129

7.2 A graphic representation of 1 measure in 4/4 meter showing the uneven division of beats 2 and 4, causing a feeling of anticipation of the following beats (3 and 1). This was the typical pattern played by the drummer on the cymbals, expressed below by the syllables. This rhythm helps to create the basis of the “swing” feel. Horn soloists and pianists would likely also swing in this uneven fashion 130

7.3 Contrast between arpeggiated and linear styles 136 9.1 Graphic representation of the jazz conga drum variation. Tap your left foot

in a steady tempo following the graphic while clapping the conga drum pattern 213

10.1 Eighth-note triplets 238 10.2 Quarter-note triplets 239 10.3 Samba rhythmic ostinato patterns; the foot image represents downward taps 242 10.4 Hand clapping syncopated bossa nova rhythm—syncopated tensions occur

when hand claps fall between the foot taps. There are numerous variations to the ostinato bossa nova rhythm patterns 243

11.1 Modern and postmodern jazz coexist 279 12.1 Piano with whole and chromatic half-steps indicated over two octaves,

C to C 290 12.2 By using different visual shades to represent sound, it is possible to differentiate

between modal and functional harmony as shown in the following illustrations. (A) Visual conceptualization of a modal texture. There is a sameness about this visual texture, much like there is in a modal section of music, where all notes, whether used vertically as a chord or horizontally to form melodic lines, stem from the same essential set of pitches (color, in this example).

xx EXAMPLES

(B) Visual conceptualization of functional harmony: Each horizontal bar represents a changing chord in a progression. Some chords are related, whereas others serve a quite different role. The black represents the strong chords that supply more variety than the above example 291

15.1 Piano keyboard based on Western music system with half-steps. Imagine 12 more keys (notes) added between C and C on this traditional Western keyboard 388

EXAMPLES xxi

Figures

1.1 Jazz styles timeline 10 7.1 Typical big-band seating arrangement 128 7.2 Memorable Swing Era hits and associated bands 153 7.3 Important artists to emerge from Woody Herman and Stan Kenton bands 154 7.4 Popular vocalists and associated bands 154 8.1 Cost of living index, c.1940 167 8.2 Well-known territory bands and their locales 167 9.1 Comparison of swing and bebop styles 198

10.1 Comparison of bebop and cool styles 230 11.1 Jazz Messengers Sidemen 259 11.2 Horace Silver Sidemen 259 11.3 A study in contrasts: A comparison in the characteristics of free jazz and

more traditionally grounded, modern mainstream jazz styles 275 12.1 Miles Davis’s innovations 305 12.2 John Coltrane’s innovations 311 14.1 Distinguishing characteristics of Keith Jarrett’s music 347 15.1 Late 20th- and early 21st-century trends and artists in jazz 366 15.2 21st-century women in jazz 380 15.3 21st-century emerging innovators 389

Preface

I do not agree that the layman’s opinion is less of a valid judgment of music than that of a professional musician. In fact, I would often rely more on the judgment of a sensitive layman than that of a professional … —Jazz Pianist Bill Evans, from The Universal Mind of Bill Evans

Jazz is about America. It is American as apple pie and baseball, but surprisingly few people fully understand it or appreciate its wonder and appeal. Jazz represents the spirit and cultural fabric of America and has served as the basis of most popular music styles. Perhaps this is why our lives are invaded daily with jazz music – on television, in commercials selling everything from cars to banks and clothing, in films, in elevators and doctors’ offices, in restaurants and shopping malls and countless other pubic places. It is music that evokes basic human emotions and can be soothing, chilling, sensual, raucous, uplifting, thought provoking, transformational, spiritual, meditative, annoying, or even jarring. Sometimes it strikes controversy among listeners. Anyone is capable of enjoying these fundamental feelings, but the experience is enhanced beyond expectation when one knows more about how the music is produced, its roots, developments and place in American history.

Pictured on the front cover is Swing Street, 52nd Street in New York City in 1948. It was the place to hear jazz in the mid-20th Century. Miles Davis, Charlie Parker, Billie Holiday Dizzy Gillespie, and performers from the earlier “Swing Era” could be heard in clubs like the Onyx and Three Deuces that lined the street between 5th and 7th Avenue as shown in the cover photo. Jazz in the 1930s and ’40s was America’s popular music. It was embedded in American culture and was the soundtrack for American life. The jazz musician helped to tell our country’s story at nightclubs, dance halls, and on records and radio. Their music was accessible, daring and represented freedom to the outside world.

This same street shown in the 2007 photo overleaf by comparison looks quite different though still the home for aspects of the entertainment business. Jazz was associated with entertainment in its early years and considered forbidden fruit by some. Over time Jazz has gained a respect and stature shared by art music, studied and analyzed much like Western classical music. Jazz is now found in most university curricula, cultivated in high school and middle schools jazz bands, and no longer associated with underbelly of society. Jazz has become and international language recognized as an American tradition. We invite you to explore and experience this unique national treasure, listen to landmark recordings and hear the stories of the artists who changed American culture.

Experiencing Jazz, Second Edition, places the music in an historical, cultural, and social context of American society. By placing Jazz within the context of social history, students better understand

its relevance. It also helps them to relate the music to their own interest areas, and to understand why, to some extent, the music may have developed as it did. In this way, Experiencing Jazz, Second Edition, goes beyond many textbooks.

COVERAGE

Experiencing Jazz provides clear explanations of each jazz style and how it contrasts or is similar to other styles. Each style is presented in association with its primary innovators. The material is presented in a logical chronological sequence, but art is never that clean and easy to categorize or sort out. The reader will find the occasional paradox within a single chapter created by the juxtaposition of one style against a polar opposite. This approach was chosen rather than compartmentalizing styles and artists and confining their discussions to nice, cleanly sectionalized chapters. The multiplicity of styles is precisely what was encountered at the time, particularly from about 1950 on, leaving audiences, critics and the musicians to make sense of it all. To frame the socio-cultural backdrop and keep its importance at the fore, each chapter begins with a section described as “Jazz in Perspective” and closes with a “Chronicle of Historic Events,” serving as a reminder of the larger American fabric in which the music discussed throughout the chapter is an important thread.

xxiv PREFACE

August Wilson Theatre (formerly Virginia Theatre)/Neil Simon Theatre 52nd Street, Manhattan, New York City. May 2007

Experiencing Jazz—the textbook and website with streamed music—provide the reader with an understanding of how jazz works, how and why it evolved, who its primary innovators were, how to listen to it, and how in some cases jazz has been informed by certain aspects of American society including the evolution of new technologies that parallel the growth of jazz. The book and website familiarize the student with the basic building blocks of music as they relate to a discussion of jazz. Without an elementary understanding of music construction and jazz performance practices, it is difficult to fully appreciate a jazz performance. It is for this reason that such topics are discussed in Chapters 2 and 3 rather than at the end of the book as appendices. Experiencing Jazz is designed to create educated listeners, not just to present facts, dates, figures, lists of tunes and performers.

Each style chapter includes a retrospective glimpse at the reception of jazz in America by providing the reader with some insight into how the music was perceived by critics, historians and fans.

CHAPTER ORGANIZATION

Fifteen chapters in all, the text is designed exclusively for the non-musician, carefully defining basic musical concepts as they relate to an understanding of a jazz performance. Such concepts are reinforced throughout the book.

• All key terms are shown in bold with immediate definitions. A comprehensive glossary of terms is included as an appendix.

• Explanations of fundamental musical concepts are often accompanied by graphic illustrations, making such concepts easier to understand by the non-musician.

• Each historic chapter begins with a section “Jazz in Perspective” that provides a context and historic backdrop for the music being discussed.

• Each historic chapter ends with a “Chronicle of Historic Events,” once again reminding the reader of how jazz styles are woven into the fabric of American culture at the time.

• Specific references are made to the website where activities are provided to support the chapter.

• Each jazz style is carefully examined through discussion and comparison to performance characteristics of earlier jazz styles. Helpful quick reference comparative and descriptive tables are also provided to summarize salient characteristics.

• Chapters focus on the primary innovators including the bands and soloists and what made their work innovative.

• Listening guides are provided in each chapter to serve as road maps through each featured audio track. These guides focus on important points using laymen terms or terms that have been well defined and used throughout the text.

• Discussions of how jazz was received and marketed are also included. • Chapter summaries and helpful study guides including a list of key performers, bands, terms

and places along with review questions are found at the end of each chapter. Supplementary listening lists are also included at the close of each chapter.

NEW TO THIS EDITION

Since jazz is in a constant state of change it stands to reason that this second edition of Experiencing Jazz has been significantly revised:

PREFACE xxv

• A final chapter addresses jazz at the close of the 20th century and the first decade of this new millennium.

• New sections about the internationalization of jazz as a global language and women in jazz have been added to the final chapter along with discussions and new recordings showing contemporary trends.

• Since a book about jazz should emphasize the music, a comprehensive collection of audio tracks—to accompany any text—is provided.

• Improved discussions of fundamental musical concepts as they relate to jazz performance are provided to cater to the needs of a non-musician in grasping basic musical concepts as they relate to a better understanding of jazz.

• Discussions of Afro-Cuban and Latin jazz trends are now integrated chronologically throughout the book.

• The narrative has been streamlined, reducing the page count. • New links to historic recordings only recently made available by the Library of Congress. • A new, greatly enhanced website providing streamed audio tracks, video, and additional

supplementary materials including more listening guides for landmark recordings not provided in the companion audio collection.

MUSIC TRACKS

Experiencing Jazz offers a web streamed, comprehensive audio collection featuring landmark recordings by leading performers that illustrate the various styles discussed throughout the text. A complete list of tracks is included inside the covers. This collection is quite comprehensive, providing expanded coverage of women in jazz, Afro-Cuban and Latin jazz styles, and often overlooked styles or artists such as African music, rural blues, ragtime, organ trios, early symphonic jazz, vocalists and third-stream jazz. Some texts appear to be biased against certain styles, but Experiencing Jazz does not take sides and presents what listeners need to know in order to formulate their own aesthetic.

Listening guides that track each recording as it is streamed from the companion website clarify the listening experience. The website also includes additional listening guides for supplementary tunes easily found in most library collections or online suppliers. These guides are designed specifically for the non-musician and draw on skills acquired through readings about the elements of jazz and jazz performance practice presented in the first three chapters. Nothing has been assumed of the reader in terms of prerequisite knowledge. It is not enough to merely read about jazz, it must be keenly listened to and Experiencing Jazz provides all the necessary guidance to engage with the recordings and live performances.

A collection of audio recordings, combined with numerous video and audio tutorials found on the website reinforce the principles and performance practices associated with jazz. Emphasis is placed on artists who made and are making significant contributions to jazz rather than confusing the reader with lengthy lists of performers who, while their contributions to the evolution of jazz should be noted, are not considered in retrospect as major trendsetters or innovators. Special attention has been paid through the text design to emphasize one or two artists in each chapter who exemplify a particular style or trend. The decision to feature one artist over another was difficult but based logically on the artists innovative impact, longevity, and their overall impact and contributions to further developing the music. A case could certainly be made to highlight others.

xxvi PREFACE

LISTENING GUIDES

These are provided to most of the historically significant recordings streamed and from the companion website. The website also includes additional listening guides for supplementary study of tunes easily found in most library collections or online suppliers. These guides are designed specifically for the non-musician and draw on skills acquired through readings about the elements of jazz and jazz performance practice presented in the first three chapters. Nothing has been assumed of the reader in terms of prerequisite knowledge. It is not enough to merely read about jazz it must be keenly listened to and Experiencing Jazz provides all the necessary guidance to fully appreciate the recordings and live performance.

Not every significant recording or artist can be represented in any collection, no matter how extensive. The selection of recordings to include confronted the author with difficult choices as it does most teachers. In some cases recording companies were unwilling to license some landmark recordings, however, excellent alternatives were found and listening guides for others not included are found on the website.

ONLINE RESOURCES FOR STUDENTS AND TEACHERS

www.routledge.com/cw/lawn

Since this book embraces and recognizes the needs of non-musicians, web-based materials were developed to enhance student’s understanding and appreciation of jazz by providing a more informed listening experience through audio, video and interactive tutorials. The companion website carefully parallels Chapters 1–3 in the text, providing audio and visual examples that bring to life the basic elements of music, jazz performance practices, improvisation styles, the instruments associated with jazz, and the concepts that help to define it. Chapters 4–15 provide suggestions for supplemental material found on the website such as interviews with innovative artists, YouTube links, and so on. A wealth of support material is included here that closely follows readings in the text. The website should therefore be considered as a closely integrated companion to the book. While it would be useful to have ready access to the website as each chapter is studied, it is not imperative or mandatory. All web-based activities are highlighted with icons throughout the text to direct students and teachers to additional information that can be found on the site.

This website provides a wide range of support for the students and teachers including:

• Interactive materials that clearly explain fundamentals of melody, rhythm, harmony, form, blues, and performance practice in jazz including improvisation

• Instructional videos to provide a keen awareness of form, the instruments associated with jazz including Latin percussion and their roles in an ensemble, solo jazz piano styles, and jazz drum-set performance techniques associated with jazz styles.

• An audio introduction to each instrument associated with jazz that also acquaints the user with special effects, performance techniques and brass mutes associated with the jazz style. There is an instrument identification quiz provided as well.

• Additional listening guides for recordings not provided in the streamed audio collection. • Photos and documents that relate to each stylistic era. • Numerous audio excerpts from interviews with noted musicians including Miles Davis, Gil

Evans, Chick Corea, Keith Jarrett, Charles Mingus, Herbie Hancock, Pat Metheny, Charlie Parker, Dexter Gordon, Bud Powell, Stan Kenton, Stan Getz, John Coltrane, Billie Holiday,

PREFACE xxviiwww.routledge.com/cw/lawn

Louis Armstrong, Gerry Mulligan, Dizzy Gillespie, and others bring authenticity to the text and the total experience.

• A condensed history of disc recording and discussion of the relationship of this medium to jazz.

• A glossary of terms that is linked to the any music specific terms used on the website.

Jazz has become a universal music that has gone global, recognized worldwide and identified with the United States, but no longer “owned” by Americans. It is a unique American nationalist style representing the most significant cultural contribution that the US has made to the global arts landscape. Jazz has become synonymous with modern American thought and is a metaphor for democracy and freedom of expression. It should be studied, experienced and treasured!

Richard J. Lawn Summer 2012

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I offer my sincere thanks and appreciation to the following individuals for their significant contributions and assistance during various stages in the development of this text and companion materials.

Special thanks to: Dan Morgenstern, Tad Hershorn, and the staff of the Rutgers Institute of Jazz Studies; UT-Austin College of Fine Arts Information Technology staff Jim Kerkhoff, Frank Simon, Andy Murphy, and Tyson Breaux; Paul Young, Glenda Smith, Todd Hastings, and Paul White who, as students at The University of Texas, helped in the development of a CD-ROM as a prototype of the new website; David Aaberg for his tenacious editorial suggestions and concise chapter summaries; Ben Irom and Mark “Kaz” Kazanoff, who helped to create some of the listening guides; David Fudell and the staff of the Center for Instructional Technologies at The University of Texas; The Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center at UT-Austin; Jack Cooper for his composition Video Blues; Austin, Texas musicians Greg Wilson, Randy Zimmerman, Pat Murray, Mike Koenning, Craig Biondi, Paul Haar, John Fremgen, Steve Snyder, Chris Maresh, Eric Middleton, Russell Scanlon, and John Kreger for their recorded contributions; Charlie Richard, Steve Hawk, and the Hawk–Richard Jazz Orchestra, whose Sea Breeze Jazz CD (SB-2093) The Hawk Is Out provided a source for brief audio examples; Paul DeCastro, Jeff Benedict, and members of Rhumbumba for their self-titled Sea Breeze Jazz CD (SB-3067) that provided Afro-Cuban examples; members of the Third Coast Jazz Orchestra, whose Sea Breeze Jazz CD (SB-2116) Unknown Soldiers provided a source for additional audio clips; Marc Dicciani and Marlon Simon from the University of the Arts School of Music for their Afro-Cuban demonstrations; Sara MacDonald from the UArts Library; Wesley Hall for his assistance in gaining permissions for the website; Denny Tek for her perseverant photo research; and Constance Ditzel and the staff at Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, for believing in the lasting value of this project.

xxviii PREFACE

P A R T

Understanding Jazz

1

C H A P T E R 1

The Nature of Jazz Jazz isn’t a noun. It’s a verb. It’s a process, a way of being, a way of thinking.1

—Pat Metheny

American bandleader James Reese Europe (1881–1919) poses (center, with baton) with members of his Clef Club Band, New York, 1914

EXPERIENCING MUSIC . . . EXPERIENCING JAZZ

Music is the most elusive, abstract, and in some ways most intangible of all art forms. It cannot be touched, felt, or seen. It does, however, evoke any number of emotional responses, which is why it has become such an important part of the human experience. The only way to truly understand music, like any art form, is to experience it. No art form can be genuinely appreciated without an intimate experience with it. By working with clay, one gains a new perspective on what the sculptor faces when creating a work of art. By closely examining jazz performance practice, one gains a new view and appreciation of the music-making process.

Jazz is a performance art—a spontaneous art designed for the moment. Although it can be described in words, analyzed, and placed in a historic continuum, it cannot be fully understood and appreciated without the music being experienced first hand. Yet words alone cannot do justice to the listening experience, and it is important to understand that it is the music that points to the words we use to describe it. Jazz is a work in progress, an ongoing experiment and music in constant evolution. To quote jazz guitarist Larry Coryell, “jazz is a workshop.” One of the enduring qualities of jazz, and a defining characteristic, has been its ability to change, chameleon- like in nature, while absorbing every style it encounters, resulting in a new by-product.

Like any of the other art forms, music can be divided into numerous subcategories that, over time, have been described in great detail and consequently named. Words such as swing, bebop, cool, fusion, and smooth jazz have been coined in an effort to describe and compartmentalize jazz styles. It is the naming of these styles that often tends to confuse the listener, as there are often only subtle differences between them. The naming of various styles is the result of historians and critics attempting to better explain and describe the music. To some extent, these stylistic names are also the result of commercial marketing strategies. The term “jazz,” used to describe this uniquely American music, is no less confusing than the terms “classical” or “pop” music. Each of these general headings can imply numerous substyles. What is unique about jazz compared with classical music, among other things, is the rate at which jazz styles have evolved. In a mere 100 years, this American music has been transformed to include countless innovations in performance practice. These stylistic changes are so significant that the jazz of today bears only subtle similarities to the earliest forms from 100 years ago, and yet buried beneath the surface are common threads binding all of the uniquely different styles together to form a rich tapestry. The fun lies in finding these common characteristics. The essence of jazz is its ability to absorb, trans – form, and change. Like any art form, it is periodically renewed by various influences. Throughout its development, jazz has been viewed variously as folk music, entertainment, and art music. All three views often existed simultaneously, a fact still true today. It is a music that crosses all social, economic, racial, and geographic boundaries. Centuries from now, only the unique American innovations will be recognized and remembered. These will be sports such as baseball, inventions such as the personal computer, and, no doubt, jazz. Its influence has endured, and it is a unique, original American art form that has been designated a national treasure by the U.S. government.

THAT FOUR-LETTER WORD

It wasn’t that long ago we used to hear the word “jazz” frequently in common speech. It first appeared in American vocabulary in the early 1900s. Phrases such as “jazz up your wardrobe,” “put some jazz in your savings account,” “own the jazziest car on the road,” and “quit jazzin’ me!” came into being and were commonly heard. In the hit stage and film musical, Chicago, the most popular and most performed song is “All That Jazz.” The storyline takes place in the “gangsta” days of Al Capone in the 1920s, when jazz was in the early stages of becoming America’s popular music.

4 UNDERSTANDING JAZZ

Existing as a slang term before it was used to describe music, its origins have puzzled historians for many years. Theories about the origins of the word jazz are largely unsubstantiated. Some have associated the word with the red-light district of New Orleans. Garvin Bushell, a circus band musician from New Orleans, offers the following observation:

They said that the French had brought the perfume industry with them to New Orleans, and the oil of jasmine was a popular ingredient locally. To add it to perfume was called “jassing it up.” The strong scent was popular in the red light district, where a working girl might approach a perspective customer and say, “Is jazz on your mind tonight, young fellow?”2

As late as 1947, Berry’s American Dictionary of Slang cited the word under copulate. The term jazz was supposedly related to the act itself—“he’s jazzin’ her”3 (a line from the musical Chicago). The New York Times used the term in its February 2, 1917 issue, in an advertisement taken by Reisenweber’s club to promote “The First Eastern Appearance of the Famous Original Dixieland Jazz Band.”4 According to Nick LaRocca, the group’s cornetist, “jass” was changed to “jazz” to discourage people from defacing signs by erasing the letter “j.” The associations of the word jazz to vulgarity, sex, and the bordello, coupled with the many styles that the word could describe, probably explains why some jazz musicians rarely, if ever, use the word in discussing their own music.5

Others attribute the word’s origins to linguistic variations. One writer points out the word’s relationship to the French word jaser, which means “to chat,” “to chatter,” “to prattle,” or “talk

THE NATURE OF JAZZ 5

Original Dixieland Jass Band promotional photo

a lot and say nothing.” Prior to the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, the French owned the Mississippi Delta area, often referred to as the birthplace of jazz.

Creoles, a racial mix resulting from unions between French, African-Americans and sometimes Spanish, spoke a hybrid form of French. Some theorists suggest that the word “jazz” in Creole meant to speed things up. Another theory to consider is the claim that the term jazz is derived from West African languages, a natural conclusion because the Gold (west) Coast of Africa served as the point of origin for many slaves. Early jazz artists’ names such as Charles and James morphed from their formal spellings to nicknames such as Chaz and Jas or Jazz.6 A 1919 article in the Music Trade Review refers to the wild, barbaric music played by trumpeter Jasbo Brown after he’d had a few drinks. Patrons who enjoyed his musically gregarious behavior shouted, “More Jasbo,” which eventually distorted to just “more jazz.”7 Jazz historian Robert Goffin attributed the word to a black musician named Jess who played in a “jerky, halting style.” As early as 1904, James Reese Europe, a black society bandleader, believed the word was a distortion of the name of a New Orleans band known as Razz’s Band. Other historians speculate that the term “jazz” stemmed from a vaudeville expression meaning to excite, stir things up, or make things go faster.8

As jazz developed into a more sophisticated, acceptable art form, efforts were even made to rename the music and discard “jazz,” owing to its undesirable connotations. In 1949, Down Beat magazine sponsored a contest to find a new name for jazz. The publisher announced prizes and a distinguished panel of judges (including the well-known, contem porary big-band leader Stan Kenton and author S.I. Hayakawa). After months of deliberation, the winner was announced— CREWCUT. The winner collected her $1,000 first prize from the magazine and defended her entry as “simply the exact opposite of the slang name for ‘classical’ music—‘Longhair’.” Other winning selections were Amerimusic, Jarb, Syncope, Improphony, and Ragtibop. The results were announced in the magazine, but this surprising statement was added: “The judges were unanimous in the opinion, shared by the editors of Down Beat, that none of the hundreds of words submitted is adequate as a substitute for Jazz.”9

Whatever the true story is about the derivation of this uniquely American word, the music and the word quickly gained recognition worldwide. One can fully experience jazz only by exploring how it is unique, how it can be described and identified, and how to evaluate and appreciate its forms and variety.

Before reading the following section, visit the website to listen to the collage recording that traces approximately 80 years of recorded jazz. Make note of how different each excerpt is from the others, and make a list of the similar and distinctly different features. Repeat this exercise once you have read the following section.

DEFINING JAZZ

Jazz is a direct result of West African influences on European-derived music styles and popular American music. Since its beginnings at the turn of the 19th to 20th centuries, it has shown an ability to absorb aspects of other music styles and transform them into something entirely new and different. Jazz is, therefore, both a noun and a verb, as it is a way of interpreting music. In true West African tradition, jazz is shaped by the performers’ individual musical gestures and spontaneous variations. It is a music in which the performers assume the most prominent role and bear the greatest responsibility. It features certain instruments and special effects that are synonymous with the style. Many of these instrumental affectations may have been an effort to emulate the flexibility and expressiveness of the human voice. These instrumental effects alter and color the sound in unusual ways and exerted an impact on 20th century “classical” music. Although jazz is closely associated with certain instruments, any instrument can be used to imply

6 UNDERSTANDING JAZZ

the style. A wide range of instrumentalists and/or singers can present jazz, from solo performers to large orchestras. Self-proclaimed inventor of jazz Jelly Roll Morton advocated that almost any kind of music could sound like jazz, as jazz is a way of playing and interpreting music in an individualistic and spontaneous way.

Emerging in the first decades of the 1900s as an unpolished folk music, jazz reflected diverse influences. Among them are the blues, marching bands, polkas, field hollers and work songs, religious music, ragtime, and, of course, West African, Latin, and Afro-Cuban music, with an emphasis on individualistic expression through improvisation. Spontaneity, rhythmic complexity, and a close association with dance are other characteristics shared by African music and jazz. Jazz has been a chameleon even since the beginning, absorbing and reflecting the musical influences present in America at the turn of the century.

Although jazz is a distinctive style, recognizable worldwide, it has been difficult to define and has confounded many critics and historians. The difficulty of defining jazz is exacerbated because it remains in a constant state of change, influenced by popular culture, advancements in technology, and the musicians’ own desire for change and self-improvement. Therefore, like the music itself, there is no absolute set of criteria for defining it. Nonetheless, different combinations of certain traits can always be found in jazz music. Jazz is a rhythmically vibrant and complex music that often includes a rhythm section (piano, bass, and drums). It is this rhythm section that eventually inspires other popular American music styles such as R & B, blues, and various rock styles. The rhythms of jazz are richly complex, creating an element of tension. Rhythm is not the sole source of this tension, for it is also found in the sometimes-dissonant harmonies and complex improvisations associated with jazz.

Some definitions of jazz assert that swing, a certain rhythmic phenomenon, and improvisation are two absolute criteria for authentic jazz. Although these can be important features, they are not entirely unique to jazz, nor are they required for the music to be considered jazz. Much contemporary jazz post-1970 does not swing in the same way jazz was played in the 1940s. Music in a jazz style may not contain much improvisation, but can still be identified as jazz. On the other hand, some non-jazz may contain jazz characteristics. For example, does jazz saxophonist Phil Woods’s improvised solo on Billy Joel’s pop hit “Just the Way You Are” make it jazz? It is not uncommon to hear improvisation in many pop and rock performances.

THE NATURE OF JAZZ 7

Jazz singer Joe Williams

8 UNDERSTANDING JAZZ

Jazz has become a truly eclectic music, embracing musical styles from around the world and transforming them into a uniquely American form of artistic expression that frequently requires the performer to improvise. The blues, in itself an individualistic and spontaneous form of expression, remains an important component of jazz and a significant contribution by black Americans. Black performers have been the primary developers of jazz and blues, although some white performers and composers contributed significantly to advancing the music and to developing it as a viable commercial product. At the dawn of the 21st century, jazz can easily be considered one of the most significant musical accomplishments of the previous century and one that shows promise for continued advancement.

In conclusion, the following elements and features characterize all jazz styles:

1. Jazz evolved in the US at the dawn of the 20th century by absorbing characteristics from African music, blues, ragtime, marching bands, polkas, field hollers and work songs, religious music, Afro-Cuban and Latin music, and American folk music.

2. Jazz is an ever-changing style of music with multiple substyles and is significantly influenced by an evolving popular culture.

3. African-American performers have been the principal innovators throughout the history of jazz.

4. Jazz is a way of performing that places emphasis on interpretation, improvisation, and individualistic expression, in the African tradition.

5. It is usually the performer who is most important to a jazz performance, not the composer. 6. Although jazz began as a folk music and became an important form of music associated with

entertainment, it gradually matured to become art music, to be taken as seriously as classical music.

7. Until rock ’n’ roll attracted younger Americans’ attention, jazz had been the soundtrack for American life.

8. Rhythmic complexity, inspired by a rhythm section of piano, bass and drums, and sometimes guitar, is a predominant feature of jazz, including the special swing feel attributed to some styles.

9. Some instruments, such as the saxophone, guitar, drum set, and mutes used to color the sound of brass instruments, originated with jazz.

10. Jazz is the most unique and indigenous American art form.

The subsection “Characterizing Jazz,” found in the corresponding chapter of the companion website, provides an excellent supplement to this section and includes excerpts of interviews with many prominent performers. These artists offer their own insights into what makes this music so special. Note: All terms in bold are defined in the glossary included in Appendix I of this book and on the website.

CHAPTER SUMMARY

Jazz is a music that developed in America at the dawn of the 20th century. Many styles of music and music-making that influenced the beginnings of jazz reflect the melting pot that is America. This mix includes elements from both European and African music. A product of these diverse influences, jazz is a music containing a great variety of substyles, from early ragtime and blues-influenced jazz to free jazz and rock-influenced fusion.

Succinctly defining the word “jazz,” considering its many substyles and the fact that jazz is constantly changing, is challenging. Origins of the word itself are also murky, with no single

explanation substantiated. A change in approach to improvisation is one of the most important factors in the development of the various styles of jazz, and yet examples of jazz containing little or no improvisation exist. At one time, jazz was played exclusively in a swing feel. Approaches to playing swing evolved with each new style of jazz, and, because jazz continues to evolve and adapt, embracing music styles from around the world, jazz is no longer played exclusively in a swing feel. Certain instruments and performance techniques have become associated with jazz, which can be played or sung by any number of performers. Individuality, spontaneity, and the importance of the performer instead of the composer have always been at the core of jazz.

What can be unequivocally stated about jazz is that it was pioneered primarily by black Americans, is often improvised, is rhythmically driven, and combines European, African, American, and, sometimes, Afro-Latin elements. Further, jazz continually evolves as it is influenced by technology, current events, different cultures, and music from throughout the world.

STUDY QUESTIONS

1. What are some of the theories regarding the origins and derivation of the word “jazz”?

2. Name some of the identifying or salient characteristics of jazz, regardless of substyle.

3. Jazz was the result of what primary non-European or American influence?

4. What other styles of music, European or American, were factors in the formation of early jazz styles?

5. Is the composer or performer more important to the jazz style?

THE NATURE OF JAZZ 9

The World Saxophone Quartet performing in 1992

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6. Music from what continents or regions influenced the formation of jazz?

7. Can any piece of music that was not conceived as jazz be played in a jazz style? Explain your answer.

8. An aspect of rhythmic interpretation that is unique to jazz is called ________.

9. Define the term “Creole”.

10. What style, born in America, is undoubtedly the most important African-American contribution to jazz?

11. What are the instruments or instrument groupings that are unique to jazz?

THE NATURE OF JAZZ 11

C H A P T E R 2

The Elements of Jazz Jazz did not exist until the 20th century. It has elements that were not present either in Europe or in Africa before this century. And at any of its stages it represents . . . a relationship among rhythm, harmony, and melody that did not exist before.1

—Martin Williams

“Mother of the Blues” Ma Rainey on sheet- music cover

Ha ppy Birth day To You Ha ppy Birth day To You

Ha ppy Birth day Dear Su san……………….. Ha ppy Birth

day To You………………..

EXAMPLE 2.1 Graphic representation of “Happy Birthday”

Jazz can be examined and discussed in the same ways that apply to any style of music. All music is discussed in terms of rhythm, melody, harmony, form, and texture.

RHYTHM

Rhythm is accomplished through varying lengths of notes, combined with space, all in relationship to a steady pulse. Some notes in a melody last longer than others, and some move more quickly. So, duration is an expression of rhythm and time. Without rhythm, music has no sense of motion, and melodies would be monotonous and boring. It is the rhythm of music that propels it forward and ensures that it is not static. Without using complex musical notation, consider the graphic symbols in Example 2.1 that illustrates the familiar tune “Happy Birthday.” Some notes are lower or higher in pitch (vertical scale), some are louder than others (indicated by darker images), and some are shorter or longer in duration (horizontal scale), indicating rhythm. Silence, or rests, seems to separate some of these notes. Sing the familiar tune to yourself as you move through the graphic from left to right.

Jazz, since its uncomplicated beginnings as a folk music, has evolved to become a complex and sophisticated music. Despite the many influences and changes that jazz has experienced over a century of development, and its uniqueness when compared with other music styles, jazz shares ingredients common to all forms of music.

14 UNDERSTANDING JAZZ

Although brief discussions of musical terms important to your understanding of jazz are provided throughout this chapter, you should refer to the website in order to more fully understand these concepts. The section entitled the “Elements of Jazz” provides audio demonstrations and more in-depth explanations of these terms and concepts.

THE ELEMENTS OF JAZZ 15

Meter and Tempo

Meter defines the number of primary beats, or pulses, in each measure of music, and is the organization of rhythms. Measure (or bar) is a unit that serves as a container, holding a specific number of beats as defined by the meter. A waltz emphasizes a triple meter (1–2–3), where each measure has three beats, and a march features a duple meter (1–2), with two beats per measure.

Poetry has rhythm and meter. Sonnets, rhymes, and limericks all project rhythm and meter. Think of measures as inch marks on a ruler. In 4/4 meter, each beat would be represented by 1⁄4-inch marks, as there are four quarters to each inch. The 1⁄4-inch subdivision can be further divided into smaller increments, as is the case with music note values. To continue this analogy, how fast or slowly we move across a tape measure or yardstick, progressing from one inch to the next, is a measure of the tempo. Tempo, another concept important to the understanding of how music works, is an expression of pace or speed at which the music moves. It could also be compared to the pace of someone walking or running. Some songs seem to have no regular tempo, moving slowly and described as rubato.

It is safe to say that jazz performers and composers were content for decades to deal largely with music in duple meter—primarily 2/4 and 4/4 meters. For example, most ragtime piano music was written in 2/4 meter, and nearly all the instrumental jazz literature that followed well into the 1940s was in common time or 4/4 meter. Jazz musicians were most concerned during the first three decades of the formative years with honing skills as improvisers. Attention was focused on developing performance technique. It was not until the 1950s that jazz artists began to venture outside the safe confines of duple meters. Jazz waltzes were not popular until the 1950s and 1960s.

Old-style mechanical metronome

16 UNDERSTANDING JAZZ

Listen to all or a portion of the following tracks, which serve as excellent examples of different meters. “Take Five,” for example, is in 5/4 meter. Compare “Take Five” with “Every Tub,” “Summertime,” “Pent Up House” written in the more common 4/4 meter, or “La Fiesta,” played in a fast 3/4 time. Also think about their differing tempos.

Symphony orchestras and bands have conductors to control the pace of the music—jazz ensembles have rhythm sections. There is flexibility in terms of tempo associated with a “classical” music ensemble performance. In larger ensembles such as symphony orchestras, the conductor controls the tempo. In smaller ensembles, the performers control the tempo and must work carefully together to adjust the tempo or risk a poor, disorganized performance. The rate of the steady pulse, or tempo, in a jazz or pop/rock group is consistent and generally maintained throughout the piece by the rhythm section, which is comprised of piano, bass, drums, and often guitar. Within this group of instruments, there is likely to exist a hierarchy of time-keeping responsibilities that may be somewhat dependent on the particular style of jazz. The other musicians in the ensemble must then strive to rhythmically coexist within this tempo. At times, performers in a jazz band may seem to rush or drag behind the rhythm section’s steady pulse, but it is frequently by choice, not by error. The dragging sensation is described as laying back and is often associated with the sound of a particular band and helps to define its style.

The subject of rhythm as it relates to jazz is a thorny one that has provoked debate for many years. Attempts to define the special rhythmic qualities of jazz have sometimes ended in poetic metaphors and metaphysical phrases in attempts to make feelings and individual interpretations tangible. The very existence of a group of instruments described as the “rhythm section” points to the importance of this basic musical element to the jazz style. What other music ensemble, other than in related popular music styles that share similar roots with jazz (rock, R & B, pop), includes a group of instruments known as the “rhythm section”? The emphasis on steady rhythm is a distinguishing feature of this music, and, aside from the spontaneously improvised aspect of jazz, its unique rhythmic features are among the most important characteristics establishing jazz as a truly original style.

Listen to all or a portion of the following tracks from the online audio anthology, which serve as excellent examples of different tempos. Wynton Marsalis’ “Delfeayo’s Dilemma” presents the illusion of several different tempos. “Intuition” seems to have no set tempo, while “Poem for Brass” takes some time before a steady tempo is established. Compare these tracks with the slow, but steady, tempo of “Moon Dreams.”

Rhythmic Devices Important to Jazz

The rhythmic terms syncopation and swing are synonymous with jazz. Syncopation occurs when a rhythm appears on a weak, normally un-emphasized portion of a beat (when your foot moves up), interacting with a regularly occurring rhythm or major beat emphasis (when your foot pats down). The rhythm that is normally un-emphasized becomes accented and creates a syncopation or tension.

A polyrhythm results when two or more different rhythms are played simultaneously, layered one on top of the other. One fundamental rhythm usually serves as the foundation, and other layers are added. The examples that follow clarify these two important concepts.

Much has been said about the predominance of syncopation in jazz, its importance in contributing to the unique nature of jazz rhythms, and the relationship to African music. To quote Gunther Schuller, from his book Early Jazz:

By transforming his natural gift for against-the-beat accentuation into syncopation, the Negro was able to accomplish three things: he reconfirmed the supremacy of rhythm in the hierarchy of musical elements; he found a way of retaining the “democratization” of rhythmic impulses [meaning that any portion of a beat could have equal emphasis]; and by combining these two features with his need to conceive all rhythms as rhythmicized melodies, he maintained a basic, internally self-propelling momentum in his music.2

Schuller is also defining to some degree what swing is. It is this form of propulsion or forward momentum that we feel when something “swings.”

Listen to the following track, which offers excellent examples of complex rhythms happening simultaneously and syncopations. The opening section of Keith Jarrett’s “The Windup” (0:00–0:39) juxtaposes a regular rhythm played by one hand with improvised, syncopated rhythms that work against the regular rhythm and are played by the other hand. Listen to the “Bamaaya,” the African music track in the online audio anthology, to hear complex polyrhythms played by the drummers.

THE ELEMENTS OF JAZZ 17

1 & 2 & 3 & 4 & 1 & 2 & 3 & 4 &

EXAMPLE 2.2 Illustration of a simple syncopation in measure 1 that results from handclaps on off beats that create a tension between major beats represented by the foot tapping a steady pulse. By the second beat of the second measure, the handclaps are lined up precisely with the foot tapping on beats 2, 3, and 4, hence no syncopation and no tension

1 & 2 & 3 & 1 & 2 & 3 &

EXAMPLE 2.3 Using similar graphics, the following example illustrates a simple polyrhythm. In this case, the foot taps indicate a 3/4 meter and fundamental rhythm. The hand-clapping introduces a new rhythm in opposition to the foot tapping. If the foot tapping suddenly stops, the continuing handclaps give the illusion of 2/4 meter. The combined result when both are executed simultaneously is a polyrhythm

18 UNDERSTANDING JAZZ

Audio clips illustrating all of these terms used to describe various aspects of rhythm can be found in the corresponding chapter of the website. Here you can explore the subsection about rhythm.

Swing as an Aspect of Jazz Rhythm

Have you ever tried to explain how a food tastes to someone? It is almost impossible to truly appreciate the flavor of a particular food without actually tasting it. That same analogy is true for describing “swing.” It is certainly one of the most difficult characteristics to define when discussing jazz rhythm. Musicians and analysts alike have struggled to respond to the frequently posed question—what is swing? Big-band leader Count Basie, when asked to define swing, said things such as, “pat your foot” or “tap your toe.”3 Jazz pioneer Louis Armstrong is reputed to have said, “If you have to ask, you’ll never know.”4 Big-band Swing Era trumpeter Jonah Jones may have come closest when he implied that it was a feeling.5 Duke Ellington defined swing as, “the un-mechanical but hard driving and fluid rhythm over which soloists improvise.”6 None of these responses, however, provides a precise, more scientific explanation of the rhythmic phenomenon that began to be described in the 1920s as “swing.”

André Hodeir, author of the important 1956 publication Jazz: Its Evolution and Essence, said that: “jazz consists essentially of an inseparable but extremely variable mixture of relaxation and tension,”7 and that the “feelings of tension and relaxation coexist at the same moment.”8 In other words, some performers are playing things on the beat, while others are simultaneously playing syncopated accents on other portions of the beat. The combined result is a forward momentum we describe as swing, and there can be many subtle variations of swing—as many variations as there are players. Swing can be compared to skipping. When we skip, we divide our even pace unevenly, which is a characteristic of swinging in jazz. We make an otherwise even-paced walk uneven; we make it skip, even though we may get from point A to point B in the same amount of time as it would have taken had we walked with an even pace (tempo).

A sound byte is worth 1,000 words in helping to define swing. Listen to The Count Basie Band play “Every Tub.” This great band set the standard for swing, and the Basie rhythm section illustrates this concept at 0:32–0:55. You may be intrigued enough to listen to the entire track.

MELODY

Melody is the result of an organization of notes that move by varying distances—by step and leap—either ascending or descending, to form a musical statement. Melody is thought of as moving in a linear, horizontal fashion. A complete musical idea or statement is often termed a phrase. The term phrase can refer to a melodic, harmonic, or rhythmic statement. Short melodic phrases are strung together to create entire tunes.

The Count Basie recording of “Every Tub” on the companion website provides an excellent example of a musical phrase. Listen to 2:02–2:17 in this track to hear the repetitive melodic phrase played by the saxophones, with brass accompaniment.

Melody is by far the easiest ingredient to understand. Melodies can stand alone, be coupled with other melodies, or be sung/played with accompaniment. Melody is the aspect of most musical styles usually remembered more easily than harmony or even rhythm. A melody is often easy to recognize and remember because it may consist of only a few notes. Most listeners identify a lyric with a melody and hear them as one ingredient. Lyrics even help to clarify the overall form or architecture of a piece. Instrumental jazz is perhaps less easily grasped because it lacks a lyric

THE ELEMENTS OF JAZZ 19

to help listeners keep track of the various twists and turns of the melody. Remove the lyrics of a tune, and many listeners lose their way. The memorable melody of a show or pop tune that serves as the basis for an instrumental jazz treatment can become altered beyond easy recognition, as instrumentalists are not bound by lyrics. These show and pop tunes from the 1930s and 1940s were used in jazz improvisations. As jazz matured, performers discarded popular dance and show tunes from their repertoire, and the new, original jazz melodies became less easily recognized and more difficult to follow and remember.

A piano keyboard is grouped into repeating sets of 12 different white and black notes, with each group of 12 defining an octave. A melody can begin on any of the 12 different notes. Singers often practice a song in different keys, dictating they begin on a different note, until they find the one that they feel most suits the mood of the tune and best accommodates their own voice range. Have you ever tried unsuccessfully to sing the “Star Spangled Banner” or a church hymn, struggling to make the highest or lowest note? You struggled because the tune was in the wrong key for you, forcing you to start on the wrong first note. This musical key falls into one of two categories that define a tonality, usually major or minor. The major or minor tonality helps to describe the aural character of a piece of music, a melody or a single harmony. Harmony and melody work together to establish a tonality. Atonal describes a piece that lacks any specific tonality and is therefore neither major nor minor. Only some very contemporary, avant-garde jazz music lacks tonality. A song may have more than one tonality, depending upon its complexity. Tonality could be compared to a painting where many colors may be used, but one seems dominant.

Most of the music presented in the online audio anthology is considered tonal and is in either a major or minor key. Duke Ellington’s “Ko-Ko,” for example, is in a minor key. Bill Evans’s version of “Witchcraft” is an example of major key or tonality. The Ornette Coleman track “Mind and Time,” however, is a good example of atonal improvisation, as Coleman pays no real regard to key, harmony, or prescribed melody. Begin your listening either at the beginning to listen first to the composed tune or at the start of his solo at 0:23.

Go to the website section entitled “Performance Practice” found under “Listening to Jazz.” Good audio examples of homophony and polyphony can also be found as the first two excerpts on the second page of the subsection labeled, “Dissecting a Jazz Performance.”

C# D# F# G# A# C# (black keys)

D# F#

C D E F G A B C

G#A# etc.

D E F G A B C etc.

EXAMPLE 2.4 Two-octave C scale. Raised half-steps in between each scale note (black keys) are labeled above as sharps

20 UNDERSTANDING JAZZ

EXAMPLE 2.5 Chord symbols in a typical progression that jazz musicians must learn to interpret

HARMONY

Harmony is a collection of two or more notes played together and, in contrast to melody, is viewed as a vertical event, as notes are stacked one on top of another and sounded simultaneously. Chords are similarly defined. The most basic of chords is the three-note triad. Harmony is typically used to accompany a melody. A succession of chords is called a chord progression, or just progression. The harmonic rhythm defines the pace at which chords move from one to another in a progression. Most jazz tunes feature a progression of chords that creates tension followed by resolution. This practice, known as functional harmony, is based on the notion that there are certain tendencies that lead one chord logically to another. This practice serves as the basis for a high percentage of jazz tunes and American popular music. We may feel unsettled when a chord progression does not follow this principle and seems to be unresolved.

The sense of key, or center of tonal gravity, is established by the tendencies of functional harmony and helps jazz players to create logical improvisations—melodies that relate back to this center of gravity. Jazz tunes often feature only one or two key centers, depending on how many uniquely different sections there are to the tune. It is essential that jazz improvisers are thoroughly conversant in functional harmony, as it is these principles that guide the soloist to create new melodies. The best soloists can identify the chords in a progression by hearing them, without the aid of printed music.

The harmonic language of jazz is largely borrowed from light classical, popular dance, religious, and various forms of entertainment music. Aside from the blues, the earliest forms of jazz were based on marches, cakewalks, quadrilles, and polkas—all dance forms popular in the 19th century.

For a more detailed explanation of melody and keys, along with musical examples, use the website and explore the section on melody found in the corresponding chapter “Elements of Jazz.”

Use the website to gain more insight into how harmony is constructed and functions. The section about “Harmony” is found in the corresponding chapter and includes many examples that can be played, helping you to understand these concepts.

Eventually, jazz adopted a more sophisticated harmonic vocabulary, including other altered tones that were not uncommon in 20th century “classical” music by composers such as Stravinsky, Debussy, and Bartók. Chords become richer and denser as more tones are added, often creating tension.

On the website, listen to the lush, slow moving but changing harmonies (chord progression) used to support the melody of “Moon Dreams” from Miles Davis’s Birth of the Cool recording. Listen to the entire track or just the opening section at 0:00–0:25.

TEXTURE

Music can be perceived as a mosaic or fabric where melodies and harmonies interact and intertwine, serving as the tiles or fibers in the completed work. The ways in which each musical tile or fiber interacts with one another—melody with harmony, or several melodies with one another— contribute to what is described as the music’s texture. Texture can be dense or sparse, busy or static—transparent or dark and rich. These textures are further described as monophonic, homophonic, or polyphonic. Monophonic describes a single melodic line unaccompanied by harmony—for example, you singing by yourself in the shower. Music is homophonic when a melody line is supported by chord accompaniment. Homophonic textures are therefore denser than monophonic ones, because they have two layers—melody and chord accompaniment. Polyphonic music features two or more intertwined melodic lines. The different melodic lines are

THE ELEMENTS OF JAZZ 21

EXAMPLE 2.6 Visualization of monophonic texture. The light, horizontal, wavy line represents the melodic shape of a solo singer. There are no other layers present in this single-dimensional texture

EXAMPLE 2.7 Visualization of homophonic texture. The wavy, horizontal line represents the melodic shape of a solo singer. The vertical bars represent chords, with darker shades indicating major chords, and lighter shades representing minor chords

EXAMPLE 2.8 Visualization of polyphony. The light, horizontal, wavy lines represent the melodic shape of a solo singer and a second melodic voice complementing the primary vocal melody below it. The vertical bars represent chords, with darker shades indicating major chords, and lighter shades representing minor chords. Black dots represent a rising and falling bass line in counterpoint with the melody line. The entire texture, with multiple layers of activity, is described as polyphonic

22 UNDERSTANDING JAZZ

said to be moving in counterpoint (literally, note against note) to one another. If you sang “Row, Row, Row Your Boat” as a round with staggered entrances, your friend beginning after you started, the resulting texture would be called polyphonic. The addition of chords, adding another layer to the texture, could also accompany the overlapping melodies in this round. Textures with a greater number of elements become increasingly challenging for the listener.

Excellent examples of these textural concepts can be heard on the companion website. For example, “Line For Lyons” offers an excellent example of polyphony or counterpoint at 0:00–0:45. Keith Jarrett’s unaccompanied solo in “The Windup,” beginning at 1:55–2:30, serves to further describe a monophonic texture, and “Take Five,” beginning at 0:22, provides a good illustration of a homophony. More dense textures can be heard in J.J. Johnson’s “Poem For Brass” excerpt.

Using Example 2.1, “Happy Birthday,” you can see and hear illustrations of many concepts discussed to this point. For example, the melody continues to ascend in the first three phrases. The melody begins to descend in the third phrase. The melody, which constantly changes direction, is constructed of close steps and wider leaps. Where is the climax reached, at least in terms of the highest note? How many phrases comprise this familiar tune? If you sang it by your self, unaccompanied, the texture would be described as monophonic. If you were accompanied by piano chords, the texture would be described as homophonic. If, after singing it once, you began again on a different starting pitch, you would be changing the key. If another person improvised another melodic line with you, they would be adding counterpoint, creating polyphony.

FORM

Form in music describes its overall architecture—how many different melodies are there? Do they repeat, and if so how many times? Are sections repeated exactly or with variation? Form gives music structure similar to the organization we find in other art forms, in nature, everyday life and in architecture (suspension bridge, building, etc.). It is an important musical ingredient to comprehend in order to understand what you hear. Although form, on the surface, may seem to be the easiest element to understand, without the benefit of lyrics and a singer it may be difficult for the untrained listener to discern.

Most jazz compositions have more than one clearly defined section. A letter—A, B, C, etc. —defines each large section in the overall form. Each of these sections usually features a distinctly different melody and accompanying chord progression. For example, ragtime pieces are often based on the following formal scheme: AABBACCDD. This form is derived from the rondo form, a European “classical” model also evident in the march and the polka. The rondo describes a form where one section (A) reoccurs and is juxtaposed with contrasting sections (B, C, D). The consecutive letters in such a scheme (AA or BB) indicate that there is a repeat of that particular theme before the move on to a new one. Often, a piece that follows this model changes key at the C section.

Listen to the recording of Scott Joplin’s “Maple Leaf Rag” on the companion website. It is close to resembling a rondo form, with multiple themes and changing keys. Can you determine when each new theme is introduced?

Many American popular songs that served as springboards for jazz improvisations followed the song form model, usually represented by ABA or AABA. One statement of the form is often called a chorus. The return to A to end the form gives one a sense of symmetry and finality. Each section (A and B) is typically 8 measures in length. Jazz musicians often refer to the B section as the bridge or channel. The blues is the simplest of all forms, as it is usually only 12 measures long, lacking a B or C theme.

Once again, “Take Five” on the companion website offers a good example of the classic song form—ABA. Each section of the form is divided up into two, 4-measure phrases. Following a brief introduction by the rhythm section, the A section begins at 0:22, with the second phrase occurring at 0:30 through repeat of the first. The first phrase of the B section begins at 0:38, with the second phrase following at 0:45. The A section returns at 0:52, and the second phrase occurs at 1:00. The improvised solo begins at 1:08.

The Billie Holiday rendition of “Body and Soul” and Stan Getz’s recording of “Só Danço Samba,” also included on the website, provide additional examples of AABA song-form structure that is easy to follow because of the lyric content. Can you identify the bridge in these two vocal pieces?

“James and Wes” is a good illustration of a 12-bar instrumental blues based on a repetitive melody and simple form.

THE ELEMENTS OF JAZZ 23

IMPROVISATION

Extemporaneous playing; spontaneous composition; creating music on the spur of the moment. These are simple phrases to describe the act of improvising. People now think of jazz at the mere mention of the term improvisation, although there are often improvised solos in pop tunes, and improvisation is often a component of Indian and other world music. Descriptions of jazz from almost any era agree that improvisation is a salient feature. Jazz historian Ostransky stated that, in jazz, “reading music is considered a lesser accomplishment than improvising it.”9 Discussing the importance of improvisation to jazz, noted jazz scholar James Lincoln Collier wrote that, “it is always the soloist that is written about, always the solo that is analyzed.”10 Earlier writings about jazz portrayed improvisation as a mysterious or divine process, adding to the music’s mystique. Recently, more thoughtful discussions have helped understanding of the true process behind this unique form of creativity. As improvisation is an important feature of jazz, the intelligent listener needs to learn about its nature in order to develop skills for identifying and appreciating it.

Something Borrowed—The European Tradition

An early tradition of improvised music is found in medieval chants and in music from the Renaissance (c.1450–1600) and Baroque (c.1600–1750) periods. Composers were expected to deviate from the original melodies, as did Baroque composer Georg Philipp Telemann when he composed the Methodical Sonatas. He provided the basic melody on one line and, on another line, suggestions for improvisations not terribly different than those used by modern jazz soloist Charlie Parker.11 In 1765, violinist and composer Karel von Dittersdorf wrote that: “A new custom developed . . . To show their improvisational creativity they [the soloists] start fantasias in which they play a simple subject which they then very artfully vary several times according to the best rules of composition.”12 Baroque composers J.S. Bach and G.F. Handel also included passages where improvisation was invited, and this practice continued until the beginning of the Romantic period (c.1820–1900). Although a fine improviser, Ludwig van Beethoven, an extraordinary composer from this period, began a new trend away from this improvisation. The increasing complexity of the music, the growth of music publishing businesses, and the increasing number

The section about form found in the corresponding chapter on the website provides a thorough explanation of form in music, with examples drawn from the jazz repertoire.

24 UNDERSTANDING JAZZ

C D E F G A B C

EXAMPLE 2.9 Lowered third, fifth and seventh (E flat, G flat, B flat) are called “blue notes” and are shaded in the following keyboard example

of amateur musicians caused “classical” composers such as Beethoven to seek more control over their compositions. Franz Liszt, another composer and improviser, summed up this new trend by saying, “the most absolute respect for the masterpieces of the great masters has replaced the need for novelty and individuality.”13 More attention was paid to interpretation of the musical composition as written, and, by the late 1800s, the role of improvisation was diminishing in European music. However, at the same time, in the United States new styles of music were emerging that once again placed a high value on spontaneity and individuality.

Something New, Something Blue—The Jazz Tradition

The roots of American jazz can be compared to any folk tradition—impromptu, spontaneous, and simplistic. These characteristics, as well as rhythm, lyric, and melody, were of utmost importance in early vocal styles. Perhaps the closest thing to true improvisation in the late 1800s and early 1900s in America could be found in African-American vocal styles such as work songs and field hollers improvised by slaves and chain-gang workers, and especially in the blues. This vocal style featured blue notes, slightly altered tones where a special inflection was given to the third and seventh scale tones by lowering the pitch slightly. Instrumentalists later imitated this blues vocal style.

Blues

A distinguishing aspect of many jazz melodies, improvised and composed, is the blues. Blues melodies are based on alterations of a traditional scale. Some believe that the altered thirds, fifths, and sevenths of the blues scale can be attributed to certain African singing practices. A scale is a logical progression of ascending and descending notes, arranged in half- and whole-step intervals. The piano keyboard shown in Example 2.9 makes it easy to see these two basic intervals, which serve as building blocks for all scales. Note names are labeled. The distance from C to D is a whole-step interval, and the black key in between represents a half-step interval. Scales are comprised of eight consecutive notes, following a particular key signature, and are named in accordance with the starting note. On this keyboard, the C scale would be played as C–D–E–F–G–A–B–C. The third, fifth and seventh notes of this traditional scale are altered to form the blues scale, as shown in the example. The purple- shaded notes indicate the lowered third (E flat), lowered fifth (G flat), and lowered seventh (B flat) and are referred to as blue notes. There are gradations of blue notes, as singers and instrumentalists are capable of being less precise than a pianist when lowering these pitches.

The blues scale is almost an amalgamation of pitches from the major and minor tonalities. Leroy Ostransky, author of Understanding Jazz, felt that, “early jazz players probably saw little distinction between major and minor modes [scales] and used major and minor thirds interchangeably.”14 Whatever the origins, these slightly flatted pitches (third, fifth, and seventh scale degrees) became known as blue notes and are responsible for much of the special melodic and harmonic character in jazz that distinguishes it from other forms of music. Blue notes often

THE ELEMENTS OF JAZZ 25

help to communicate a melancholy feeling. Blues songs are sometimes associated with a depressed, downtrodden, or melancholy mood. The use of blue notes does not always, however, achieve this feeling, nor are these alterations always used to create this “blue” mood. They are merely one way to make a melodic line more personalized and expressive.

Some historians believe that the blues may have evolved as a result of African slaves attempting to reconcile their predominant five-note pentatonic scale with the Western eight-note scale and harmony they found in the US.

Gertrude “Ma” Rainey (1886–1939) and her Georgia Jazz Band, Chicago, 1923

The most unique aspect of jazz harmony for many years was introduced through the application of blue notes to chords. Those altered tones that we identify with a blues melody were eventually incorporated into the harmonies to form more colorful and dissonant chords, beyond the simple three-note triad.

The similarity between blues and pentatonic scales is illustrated by an audio example found on the website in the corresponding chapter.

Go to the corresponding section of the website (Chapter 2) and you will find audio examples further helping you to hear what the blues sounds like. The online audio anthology includes examples of blues from two different periods of jazz history—“St. Louis Blues” and “Jimmy and Wes.”

26 UNDERSTANDING JAZZ

Improvisation in Jazz

As a whole, the earliest jazz instrumentalists were not known for their ability to improvise new solos each time they performed. Typically, these early musicians performed a piece nearly the same way each time, once their approach to a particular song had been refined. Their playing was largely a theme and variation style in which a melody was merely embel lished and ornamented in new ways. Thematic variation is the simplest form of improvisation and is probably what Alphonse Picou (1878–1961), a New Orleans clarinetist, referred to when he described this early form of jazz as a “style of playing without notes.”15

The study of the development of early instrumental jazz is difficult because, during this era, the music could be preserved only in a written format, or passed on aurally. No audible artifact remained for study, as recording technology had not yet been invented. As each jazz performance is an interpretation of a composition, the printed page could not totally capture the live performance and its unwritten subtleties. However, after the turn of the 20th century, jazz became perhaps the first music to be greatly influenced by the advent of sound recording, for it directly paralleled the growth of jazz. (See the brief history of recording included on the website.) Recordings provided lasting aural artifacts that faithfully reproduced the live performance other musicians could now be influenced by and could imitate. Recordings were also responsible for the very rapid changes in jazz, compared with the slower pace in previous musical history, where one style was popular for decades before a significant change occurred. Recordings, though, became both an asset and a disadvantage. On one hand, they quickly spread the music and were models for younger musicians trying to learn through imitation. On the other hand, musicians with a popular record now found that the public often wanted to hear live performances exactly

Photo of a jazz band in a radio studio, broadcasting, circa mid to late 1920s

as they remembered the record ing. The pressures of popularity, customer satisfaction, and marketing could then discourage improvisation.

As jazz matured, largely through the work of Louis Armstrong in the mid 1920s, the concept and importance of improvisation solidified. There are many levels of improvisation at work within the hierarchy of a jazz ensemble. For example, drummers and bassists probably improvise the greatest percentage of the time, though often what they play is not new to them. They rely on familiar patterns that they have played many times. There is no precise duplication, however, and what they improvise often depends on the style of the tune, the tempo, and, of course, with whom they are playing. The amount of improvisational content in a particular performance is dependent, to a great extent, on the size of the ensemble and the intent of the music. Larger ensembles usually mean a lesser amount of improvisation, whereas small ensembles, such as trios and quartets, rely a great deal more on improvisation. Jazz aimed at a dance audience usually features less improvisation, because the music assumes a more subservient role.

Improvisation inspires a musical dialogue between the soloist and rhythm section, each complementing the other, while suggesting new ideas for elaboration as the improvisation evolves. Many performers have described the jazz solo as a story with a beginning, middle, and end. To tell a good story, there are characters; in musical situations, memorable melodic phrases serve the role of characters and are often repeated with some variation to provide continuity to an improvisation. The performer’s duty is to take the listener on a journey. The more listeners are led to predict musical outcomes in this journey, the more engaged they are in the performance. But, if they can predict too much, they become bored and unchallenged. Listeners can easily tune out when a high percentage of what they hear is unpredictable or previously unexperienced.

Jazz soloists are faced with creating spontaneous, new melodies; however, they must adhere to certain guidelines. With each new style of jazz came new and often more chal lenging principles to which the soloist must adhere in order to gain the respect of peers and audiences while advancing the art form to a new level. Jazz players have learned about music theory and have developed the ability to hear harmonies. Each improvised solo, usually referred to as a chorus, should build as the musical story unfolds. The notes chosen must relate to the same progression of chords used to accompany the original melody. The only thing written out in the music for the soloist (and rhythm-section players) is a series of symbols that represent these chord structures. This form of abbreviated chord notation is shown in Example 2.10. It is the result of years of dedicated practice and inspiration that enables a jazz soloist, given only this simple, cryptic chart of information, to construct a moving, engaging, and coherent improvised solo.

To ensure that their improvisations are consonant with these harmonies, soloists use certain tools, such as scales and modes that relate to harmonies (chords), to help them negotiate a pro – gression of chords in order to construct new, melodic improvisations. Soloists also use the notes of the chords themselves in order to improvise new melodies. It is a difficult process, as choices must be made on the fly. To allow the creative side of the brain time to recover from being spontaneous and consider what to play next, soloists often rely on “licks,” or pre-learned patterns and phrases. These phrases, used throughout an improvised solo, often refer to the tradition, as they may be quotes of melodies played by another soloist years earlier. Even the great improviser

THE ELEMENTS OF JAZZ 27

EXAMPLE 2.10 Typical jazz chord progression illustrated by symbols

Charlie Parker, in a bebop improvisation, quoted a Louis Armstrong solo recorded many years earlier. These quotes and memorized phrases can be strung together in many different ways to create new material. Phrases borrowed from the tradition could be compared to the many ways that we can express an idea in words. For example, take a phrase such as “The new-fallen snow is beautiful.” This simple idea could be expressed and embellished in many different ways. One could have said, “The new snow that fell last night is beautiful,” or “New snow like we got last night is really beautiful.” These multiple means of expression are exactly what jazz players employ when they use a pre-learned phrase and put it to use in an improvised solo. In using a pre-learned phrase, the soloist creates the illusion of pure spontaneity for the listener. Although the sequences of pre-learned ideas are assembled and reassembled in new ways from performance to performance, many of the memorized ideas can be repeated. Ostransky wrote about this phenomenon in his book The Anatomy of Jazz. He said, “They [jazz improvisers] do not compose on the spur of the moment; their significant improvisations are the result of long practice and experience.”16

Through years of listening, borrowing, assimilating, analyzing, and imitating, soloists amass a collection of jazz phrases that suit their individual style and can be recalled at any time in the course of a solo. In other words, soloists play what they enjoy playing. Therefore, not everything played during a jazz solo is spontaneously created. These solos, more frequently than not, are based on a series of recreations—bits and pieces of pre-learned material coupled with newly created ideas to form fresh, new improvisations. In the fall of 1958, the then well-known swing band leader/composer Duke Ellington traveled to England for a tour with his orchestra. He expressed his thoughts and feelings about jazz improvisation in an article entitled, “The Future of Jazz” included in the souvenir program. In this article he said:

There are still a few die-hards who believe there is such a thing as unadulterated improvisation without preparation or anticipation. It is my belief that there has never been anybody who has blown even two bars worth listening to who doesn’t have some idea about what he was going to play, before he started. If you just ramble through the scales or play around the chords, that’s nothing more than musical exercise. Improvisation really consists of picking out a device here, and connecting it with a device there; changing the rhythm here, and pausing there; there has to be some thought preceding each phrase, otherwise it is meaningless.17

Other forms of quotes used by jazz soloists include humorous ones, such as “Here Comes the Bride” (from the opera Lohengrin by Richard Wagner), which almost everyone knows, and melodies from other standard tunes that fit the particular chord progression. Quotes of this nature sometimes serve as homage to earlier players and a display of machismo, demonstrating to fellow musicians and informed listeners how much is known about the tradition. The player’s ultimate objective is to have an effective dialogue with the other musicians, while creating exciting new ideas and incorporating appropriate aspects of the tradition. To quote contemporary trumpeter Tom Harrell, “He improves on his heritage, but he also tries to invent music that has never been heard before.”18 Only the greatest soloists, the true virtuosos on their instruments, are capable of spontaneously creating a high percentage of completely new material each time they improvise. The most innovative improvisers in the history of jazz were those who dared to break from tradition and forge new pathways that relied less on what had come before.

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Journal

FOCUS QUESTION: How and why are chemical equations balanced?

TAB 1: Equations Read the questions below. Then complete this Journal by interacting with the online Simulation. Remember: the Journal does NOT check your answers. Review your text entries and make sure you’ve transferred data to the correct table rows.

Chemical equations represent what happens during the course of chemical reactions. Reactants and products, their quantities, and their physical states can be represented, as in the following equation: Zn (s) + 2 HCl (aq)0020 2192→ ZnCl2 (aq) + H2 (g). In words, solid zinc reacts with aqueous hydrochloric acid (hydrogen chloride) to yield aqueous zinc chloride and hydrogen gas. The “2” in front of HCl is called a coefficient. Coefficients indicate the simplest, whole-number ratios between the substances in the reaction. Their purpose is to ensure that the equation is balanced and that matter is conserved. In a balanced equation, the number of atoms of an element on the reactant side of the equation equals the number of atoms of that same element on the product side.

In this section, you will learn how to count the number of atoms within a substance and to recognize balanced and unbalanced chemical equations.

In the Simulation (to the right) select a reaction from the pull-down menu. Drag the molecules to the two- pan balance to count the numbers of reactant and product atoms and to determine if the equation is balanced.

1.1 Data Collection For each chemical reaction:

• Pay attention to the Data panel as you drag each molecule to the balance. Observe how the atom counts change. • Use the Transfer Data button ( ) to transfer the atom count from the Data panel to the table. • Then, use the pull-down menus to indicate if each substance is balanced.

Reaction 1: CO + 2 H20020 2192→ CH3OH elements: C O H

# of reactant atoms: 1 1 4

# of product atoms: 1 1 4

balanced? yes yes yes

Reaction 2: Fe2O3 + 3 Mg0020 2192→ MgO + 2 Fe elements: Fe O Mg

# of reactant atoms: 2 3 3

# of product atoms: 2 1 1

balanced? yes no no

Reaction 3: 2 NH3 + O20020 2192→ 2 NO + 3 H2O elements: N H O

# of reactant atoms: 2 6 2

# of product atoms: 2 6 5

balanced? yes yes no

Science 1194 SAS® Curriculum Pathways®

Chemical Equations: Journal

NAME: ray CLASS: chem90 DATE: 10/27/2013

Copyright © 2013, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA, All Rights Reserved Page 1 of 6

Reaction 4: (NH4)2PtCl60020 2192→ 2 NH4Cl + Pt + 2 Cl2 elements: N H Pt Cl

# of reactant atoms: 2 8 1 6

# of product atoms: 2 8 1 6

balanced? yes yes yes yes

Reaction 5: 2 C2H6 + 7 O20020 2192→ 4 CO2 + 6 H2O elements: C H O

# of reactant atoms: 4 12 14

# of product atoms: 4 12 14

balanced? yes yes yes

1.2 Name and state the law requiring chemical equations to be balanced (discussed in the Welcome video).

It is the law of conservation of mass. It states that the mass is neither created nor destroyed. Thus, the mass in the reactacnt should be the same in the product.

1.3 For Reaction 2, putting a coefficient of 3 in front of MgO produces a balanced equation. Explain why the equation cannot be balanced by changing MgO to Mg3O3.

Putting in front 3 MgO is technically not allowed. Besides the law of definite composition states that chemical compounds are composed of fixed ratio of elements by mass. Thus there’s only MgO and not Mg3O3

1.4 Can Reaction 3 be balanced by putting a coefficient of 5/2 in front of O2? Why or why not?

It can be balanced but it is not customary to leave coeficients as fractions. We need to multiply coefficients in both sides by two as per the law of multiple proportion which states that masses of one element which combine with a fixed mass of second element are in a ratio of whole numbers.

1.5 In Reaction 4, 2 NH4Cl molecules are formed. In total, how many atoms of each element do these two molecules contain? Explain your reasoning.

N = 2 H = 8 Cl = 2 .In doing so, we only need to multiply each coefficient with the subscript to obtain the number of atoms in each element. So for N its 2×1 = 2. for H its 2×4=8 and for Cl its 2×1=2 .

1.6 In Reaction 5, the atom count for oxygen is 14. Explain how the product side of the equation represents 14 oxygen atoms.

In 4O2 the number of Oxygen atoms is 4×2 = 8 In 6H2O the number of oxygen atoms is 6×1 = 6 So 6+8 there are now 14 oxygen atoms in total

TAB 2: Balancing In this section, you will develop your equation-balancing skills. The process of balancing a chemical equation could involve trial and error, but having a procedure to follow makes the task simpler. To view a step-by-step process, click the “how-to” button.

In the Simulation (to the right) select a reaction from the pull-down menu. Balance the equation by dragging substances to the reactant and product areas. The Simulation displays a Congratulations message when the equation is correct. Pay close attention to the Data panel as you work.

Science 1194 SAS® Curriculum Pathways®

Copyright © 2013, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA, All Rights Reserved Page 2 of 6

2.1 Data Collection After balancing an equation, use the Transfer Data button ( ) to transfer both the equation and atom count from the Data panel to the table.

Reaction 1: 1 FeCl3 + 3 KOH0020 2192→ 3 KCl + 1 Fe(OH)3 elements: Fe Cl K O H

# of reactant atoms: 1 3 3 3 3

# of product atoms: 1 3 3 3 3

Reaction 2: 2 Na3PO4 + 3 Cu(NO3)20020 2192→ 1 Cu3(PO4)2 + 6 NaNO3 elements: Na P O Cu N

# of reactant atoms: 6 2 26 3 6

# of product atoms: 6 2 26 3 6

Reaction 3: 2 Y(OH)3 + 3 H2SO40020 2192→ 1 Y2(SO4)3 + 6 H2O elements: Y O H S

# of reactant atoms: 2 18 12 3

# of product atoms: 2 18 12 3

Reaction 4: 4 PH3 + 8 O20020 2192→ 1 P4O10 + 6 H2O elements: P H O

# of reactant atoms: 4 12 16

# of product atoms: 4 12 16

Reaction 5: 2 CH3OH + 3 O20020 2192→ 2 CO2 + 4 H2O elements: C H O

# of reactant atoms: 2 8 8

# of product atoms: 2 8 8

Reaction 6: 1 C6H5CH3 + 9 O20020 2192→ 7 CO2 + 4 H2O elements: C H O

# of reactant atoms: 7 8 18

# of product atoms: 7 8 18

TAB 3: Practice In this section, you will continue to develop skills in generating balanced chemical equations.

In the Simulation (to the right) select a reaction from the pull-down menu. Balance the equation by dragging substances to the reactant and product areas. The Simulation displays a Congratulations message when the equation is correct.

Science 1194 SAS® Curriculum Pathways®

Copyright © 2013, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA, All Rights Reserved Page 3 of 6

3.1 Data Collection • Enter the atom counts in the table as you work to balance an equation. • Use the Transfer Data button ( ) to transfer the balanced equation from the Data panel to the table. • Make sure your final atom counts are based on the balanced equation.

Reaction 1: 2 Na + 2 H2O0020 2192→ 2 NaOH + 1 H2 elements: Na H O

# of reactant atoms: 2 4 2

# of product atoms: 2 4 2

Reaction 2: 1 Fe2O3 + 3 CO0020 2192→ 2 Fe + 3 CO2 elements: Fe O C

# of reactant atoms: 2 6 3

# of product atoms: 2 6 3

Reaction 3: 2 Fe(OH)3 + 3 H2S0020 2192→ 1 Fe2S3 + 6 H2O elements: Fe O H S

# of reactant atoms: 2 6 12 3

# of product atoms: 2 6 12 3

Reaction 4: 1 P4S3 + 8 O20020 2192→ 1 P4O10 + 3 SO2 elements: P S O

# of reactant atoms: 4 3 16

# of product atoms: 4 3 16

Reaction 5: 4 KO2 + 2 CO20020 2192→ 2 K2CO3 + 3 O2 elements: K O C

# of reactant atoms: 4 12 2

# of product atoms: 4 12 2

Reaction 6: 1 Mg3N2 + 8 HCl0020 2192→ 3 MgCl2 + 2 NH4Cl elements: Mg N H Cl

# of reactant atoms: 3 2 8 8

# of product atoms: 3 2 8 8

Reaction 7: 1 P4O10 + 12 HClO40020 2192→ 4 H3PO4 + 6 Cl2O7 elements: P O H Cl

# of reactant atoms: 4 58 12 12

# of product atoms: 4 58 12 12

Science 1194 SAS® Curriculum Pathways®

Copyright © 2013, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA, All Rights Reserved Page 4 of 6

Analysis

TAB 4: Analysis Refer to the Journal, as needed, to answer the following questions.

Balancing Equations A.1 Using what you learned in the first three tabs, balance the following equations.

• Complete each table by entering the appropriate coefficients and atom counts. • Coefficients of “1” do not need to be entered.

Reaction 1: 4 FeS2 + 11 O20020 2192→ 2 Fe2O3 + 8 SO2 elements: Fe S O

# of reactant atoms: 4 8 22

# of product atoms: 4 8 22

Reaction 2: 2 C7H6O2 + 15 O20020 2192→ 14 CO2 + 6 H2O elements: C H O

# of reactant atoms: 14 12 34

# of product atoms: 14 12 34

Reaction 3: 4 C3H5NO + 19 O20020 2192→ 12 CO2 + 4 NO2 + 10 H2O elements: C H N O

# of reactant atoms: 12 20 4 42

# of product atoms: 12 20 4 42

Reaction 4: C6H12O6 + 4 KClO30020 2192→ 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + 4 KCl elements: C H O K Cl

# of reactant atoms: 6 12 18 4 4

# of product atoms: 6 12 18 4 4

Conclusion A.2 Focus Question — How and why are chemical equations balanced? In answering this question, discuss:

• the reason equations must be balanced • what you can change to balance an equation • the process of equation-balancing

Finally, to demonstrate your understanding, balance the following equation (from the end of the Welcome video): Cu(NO3)2 + Na3PO40020 2192→ NaNO3 + Cu3(PO4)2. NOTE: you cannot type subscripts in the text box below. Cu(NO3)2, for example, would be entered as Cu(NO3)2.

Science 1194 SAS® Curriculum Pathways®

Chemical Equations: Analysis

NAME: ray CLASS: chem90 DATE: 10/27/2013

Copyright © 2013, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA, All Rights Reserved Page 5 of 6

Answer to Focus Question: Equations should be balanced in accordance with the law of conservation of mass which states that the mass is neither created nor destroyed which means we have to balance equation such that the mass in the reactant is the same as the product. In balancing equation it is the coefficients that we can change. To balance equation, we need to find the right coefficients in the reactants and products that will yield the same number of atoms of each elements in each side. Answer to balancing equation: 3 Cu(NO3)2 + 2Na3PO4 -> 6NaNO3 + Cu3(PO4)2

Science 1194 SAS® Curriculum Pathways®

Copyright © 2013, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA, All Rights Reserved Page 6 of 6

  • Journal
    • TAB 1: Equations
    • TAB 2: Balancing
    • TAB 3: Practice
  • Analysis
    • TAB 4: Analysis
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cis 500

CIS 500 WEEK 1 DISCUSSION

Shadow IT for Business Operations (20 points)

Organizations do not always provide information systems that allow their staff to perform their responsibilities efficiently and effectively. Read the article, “Lifting the Veil Off Shadow IT.” Then, respond to the following:

o Take a position favoring or opposing shadow IT.

o If you are in favor, give one reason that shadow IT should be allowed. If you are not in favor, provide one way that the organization can reduce the risks of shadow IT.

o What is the best way an IT department can meet users’ technology needs without additional cost or risk to the organization? Justify your answer by responding to another student’s post that differs from your answer. Explain why your idea is preferable.

o Do not repeat suggestions from the article or that have been posted by another student.

NOTE: MORE THAN ONE ANSWER POSTED AS A BONUS CHOOSE ANY YOU LIKE

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genogram example with key

Constructing a Genogram

Constructing a Genogram Program Transcript

TRACEY PHILLIPS: Hi, I’m Dr. Tracey Phillips. Genograms are like family trees in many ways. They use symbols and lines to represent relationships between parents and children across generations. Typically, however, a family tree only represents basic biological information such as siblings, parent-child relationships, marriages, et cetera. A genogram provides a more sophisticated level of information that may be of use to medical or mental health professionals working with an individual or a family.

Genograms use a broader array of symbols and family trees to represent family relationships– for example, cohabitation, divorce, or even a love affair; emotional relationships– for example, estranged, abuse, in love, manipulative; diseases or health risks– for example, substance abuse, cancer, diabetes, and even social relationships outside of traditional family spheres such as neighbor, mentor, spiritual leader, or co-worker.

Genograms are very useful to human service professionals, because they provide a visual representation of the relationships, emotional bonds, and patterns that exist in an individual or family’s past or present. They can be very useful not only to help the professional identify the patterns, but are a great tool to help explain patterns to clients.

For this assignment you will gain experience by completing a genogram and constructing one of you and a non-family member, To give you an idea of what a genogram looks like, here is an example. Somewhere in your genogram you will first have to have a key. The key is there for the reader to be able to understand the relationships that exist within the family members.

In this example, you will see that males are indicated by a square and females are indicated by a circle. If the male is alive, then the square is yellow. If the female is alive, the square is pink. If the male or female are deceased, you will notice that the square and circle are blue.

Also, on the key you will have the nature of the relationship. If the relationship is intact, there will be a solid line. If the relationship is broken, then there will be a dotted line or a broken line, as you can see on this example at the bottom. Inside each circle or square you will be able to see, according to the key, the nature of that person’s status.

For example, if the person is alive and well, you will see an A&W as indicated by the key. If the person has or had cancer, it will say, CANC. You can go down the key to see each individual status. So let’s go through the example. The client, as you will notice, is in the middle. The client is a 37-year-old female. She is alive and well as indicated by A&W.

© 2016 Laureate Education, Inc. 1

Constructing a Genogram

If you go to the left, you will see that the client had a spouse– a 40-year-old male– as indicated by the yellow square. The reason you know the client and the spouse are divorced is the broken relationship or the broken line between them. He also was an alcoholic. As you can see under it says, ALC.

They have two children– a 12-year-old female and an 8-year-old male who are both alive and well. To the right of the client you’ll notice that she has two siblings– a 32-year-old male and a 30-year-old female who are both alive and well. As you move up in your genogram, you’ll go back three generations.

In this example, you see the mother and the father of the client. The mother is a 60-year-old female who suffers from mitral valve prolapse. The father is a 66- year-old male who suffers from hypertension. You can also go further up into the grandparents.

And you can see that three of the client’s grandparents are deceased– one a 68- year-old male who died of cancer, an 80-year-old female who died of hypertension, and a 70-year-old male who died of cardiovascular disease. The client has a 77-year-old living grandmother who currently suffers from hypertension and breast cancer.

As you complete your genogram, you will go back three generations. And you will indicate the relationship status within family members as well as whether or not they are alive or deceased and their current physical or emotional state. You’ll create your own key to let the reader know what the status of each family member is.

© 2016 Laureate Education, Inc. 2

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which of the following are boolean operators

  1. Which of the following are Boolean operators? and, or, not *** to, for, from a, an, the is, are, not 2. How are Boolean search strategies and other search filters useful? They organize results
    129 results
    psy202
    which of the following do experts recommend regarding the search for information on the internet avoid boolean operators since new technology has made them obsolete stick to one search engine like google so that bookmarks are better organized bookmark any

asked by kim on September 17, 2013
Help?

  1. Which of the following are Boolean operators? and, or, not *** to, for, from a, an, the is, are, not 2. How are Boolean search strategies and other search filters useful? They organize results alphabetically. *** They narrow the search results. They

asked by Anonymous on May 9, 2014
electronics and circuits
How many distinct boolean-valued functions are there of n boolean-valued signals? Write an expression in terms of n.

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vba excel
Our teacher wanted us to set up a command button that gives 3 input boxes on city, state, and zip code. Next we are suppose to use a Boolean type and set a true or false setting depending on the zip code that’s suppose to be 5 digits. Next we are to insert

asked by Angel on October 18, 2011
logic
Since the boolean interpretatrion doesn’t acknowledge any relationship between categorical propositions but contradiction…if the two statements are related in some other way acknowledged on the square of opposition, such as through the relationship of

asked by anonymous on January 11, 2009

Boolean Algebra
Simplify: (x * y) + (~x * z) + (y * z) I’m using ~ to represent NOT, * to represent AND, + to represent OR I did: (x * y) + (~x * z) + (y * z) = (x * y) + z(~x * y) But I can’t get any further from here A boolean algebra calculator online says the

asked by Anonymous on September 18, 2018
Arithmetic Operations
Find a set of 4 distinct positive integers a,b,c,d such that the smallest positive integer that can not be represented by such expressions involving a,b,c,d (instead of 1,2,3,4) is greater than 22.You can use digits exactly once. You are allowed to reuse

asked by Parashar on November 3, 2006
physics
Design some simple digital circuits based on Boolean expressions. Draw circuits that implement the following Boolean expressions using some combination of AND, OR, NOT, NAND, and NOR gates. – NOT X OR NOT Y OR Z – X OR Y OR NOT Z – NOT X AND Y OR NOT Y AND

asked by Sandhya on June 10, 2009
computer science
IHow do you refractor this: public class Employee { private boolean isPartTime; private int seniority; private int monthsDisabled; public Employee(boolean isPartTime, int seniority, int monthsDisabled) { this.isPartTime = isPartTime; this.seniority =

asked by Su on April 23, 2014
Math (Programming)
To whoever helped me ealier (or anybody period), need some more help on where to go Here’s the question once again: I need to write a code in java based on an alrgorithm, the alrgorithm and it’s problem are below: The Sieve of Eratosthenes is “a

asked by Mr. Anonymous on March 11, 2019
INT 1111
QUESTION 1 When using the OR logical operator to connect 2 conditions to create a complex Boolean expression, neither the first condition nor the second condition has to be true for the complex Boolean expression to be true. True False QUESTION 2 String

asked by Tom on June 18, 2016
computer science
QUESTION 1 When using the OR logical operator to connect 2 conditions to create a complex Boolean expression, neither the first condition nor the second condition has to be true for the complex Boolean expression to be true. True False QUESTION 2 String

asked by Tom on June 18, 2016
com 150
What is boolean?

asked by Derek Swann on September 7, 2011
Educational Technology
Which of the following are Boolean operaters? A.) and, or, not B.) to, for, from C.) a, and, the D.) is, are not

asked by Kelsey on March 21, 2015
physics
A+(NOT A)B=? {BOOLEAN ALGEBRA)

asked by vera on February 24, 2011

ggs
simply the following Boolean expression A-BC+AB-C-+A-BC+A-BC+AB-C

asked by sadiya umar on December 16, 2015
computer
Simplify Boolean algebra f(X,Y,Z)=(X’Y+XZ)(X+Y’)

asked by Ardi on September 29, 2011
English
How do I relate literary operators to meaningless words?

asked by rach16 on July 12, 2016
Excel
What are the symbols I would use in Excel for each of the following Comparison Operators? “At Least” –> “More Than” –> “X Or Higher” –> “X Or Less” –> “Not More Than” –> “At Most” –>

asked by Jacob on February 13, 2013
logical approach towards math
Use only 4’4’s and only 4’4′ along with any mathematical operators to make a total of 2348.

asked by mathmania on October 26, 2011
mathssss
Use only four 4’s along with any mathematical operators to make a total of 2348.

asked by kindy help me.. on October 24, 2011
math..
Use only four 4’s along with any mathematical operators to make a total of 2348.

asked by .. on October 24, 2011
E.C.E
The Boolean search connector OR is used for which of the following purposes?

asked by Trina on March 15, 2012
gss
simply the following Boolean expression A’BC+AB’C’+A’BC+ABC+AB’C

asked by sadiya umar on December 16, 2015
Math
Hi, Please help me solve the ffg. set of simultaneous equations using D-operators: dy/dx+2x-3y=1 dy/dx-3x+2y=e^-t

asked by Ash on February 27, 2013

Travel and Tourism
What is the most successful marketing strategy for Travel Agents and Tour Operators?

asked by Taylor on May 29, 2016
Physics
prove the following rules if true or false using Boolean algebra (a)A+AB = A+B (b)(A+B)(A+C) = A+BC

asked by NONEE on October 5, 2015
Technolgy
Which boolean operator omits information for search parameters? AND OR WITHOUT NOT***

asked by Shalee ^~^ on September 29, 2015
University physics
prove the following rules if True or False using Boolean algebra (a)A+AB = A+B (b)(A+B)(A+C) = A+BC

asked by Megameno on October 6, 2015
Literacy
Which Boolean operator limits your search so that each term input must be in the same document

asked by Martha on January 21, 2012
English
The Red Cross’ shelters needed ham operators. Is the apostrophe correct in the sentence above?

asked by kelley on April 13, 2016
statistics
An office has 8 secretaries and 5 computer operators. If one employee is picked at random, find the probability that it will be a secretary.

asked by Kate on September 15, 2011
Math
“How many different equivalent expressions for a particular number can be found?” Various constraints can be (and need to be) applied, such as the use of integers only, the number of expressions listed, a restricted choice of digits, or operations etc.

asked by Henry on January 9, 2009
CAIS
Could Somebody please help me to understand truth tables, boolean expression, and von neumann architecture? Just an explanation to help me grasp it easier.

asked by Ti on November 15, 2007
Math/ Computer Sci
Could Somebody please help me to understand truth tables, boolean expression, and von neumann architecture? Just an explanation to help me grasp it easier.

asked by Ti on November 15, 2007

college
I need help with this one question with two parts… Describe the traditional role of a travel agents and tour operators compared to thier current operation?

asked by Evey on October 2, 2009
Travel and Tourism
I need help with this one question with two parts… Describe the traditional role of a travel agents and tour operators compared to thier current operation?

asked by Evey on October 3, 2009
Technolgy
A _ is a way for students to keep track of information during research Credible Website Search log** Boolean operator online database

asked by Shalee ^~^ on September 29, 2015
Ed. Tech
A blank is a way for students to keep track of information during research. A. Credible website B. Search log C. Boolean operator D. Online database Is the answer D?

asked by Gwen on September 17, 2014
chemistry
Identify which of the following function are Eigen functions of the operators d/dx and give the corresponding Eigen value (1). ¥= e^ikx (2). ¥= coskx (3). kx

asked by Aweda on November 5, 2016
boolean algebra – PLEASE HELP!!
simplify the following equation using boolean laws and rules: x=~(A(+)B) + ~(AB)+~((A(+)B)AC)+(~A)C (+) means plus in the circle ~ means not

asked by Anonymous on February 13, 2019
boolean algebra – PLEASE HELP!!
simplify the following equation using boolean laws and rules: x=~(A(+)B) + ~(AB)+~((A(+)B)AC)+(~A)C (+) means plus in the circle ~ means not

asked by Hi😱 on February 12, 2019
digital electronics
Let f(a,b,c,d,e) be a Boolean function. Check which expression corresponds to the minterm 19 (m19) of the function. a.b.c.d.e a¯.b.c¯.d¯.e a.b¯.c¯.d.e a.b¯.c¯.d.e¯

asked by nithya on January 6, 2017
Boolean algebra
Simplify this function using Boolean algebra laws? I am stuck on this part of my homework (x2’x1’x0′) + (x2’x1x0) + (x2x1x0′) I know you have to use distributive laws to do this. Any help is appreciated. Thank you.

asked by John on October 23, 2012
META!!!
what are advantages and disadvantages of using meta search services? http://www.sou.edu/library/searchtools/ 1. Go through the different articles in the section entitled HOW TO SEARCH THE INTERNET. 2. Then try out some of the search engines in the

asked by jen on November 30, 2006

AVIATION SECURITY
who is responsible for hiring and training checkpoint security supervisors? 1. federal government 2. airport operators 3. airline carriers 4. airport security managers I think it’s B

asked by Melina on December 18, 2014
Precedence rules for the algebra community
Precedence of operators In simple algebra, there is a set of precedence (priority) of operations that should be respected in order that everyone evaluates mathematical expressions in the same way. Although these rules have been taught in elementary school

asked by MathMate on September 2, 2014
mah
Let A = {a, b} and list the four elements of the power set P (A). We consider the operations + to be ∪, · to be ∩, and complement to be set complement. Consider 1 to be A and 0 to be ∅. a. Explain why the description above defines a Boolean algebra.

asked by excel on April 8, 2015
mah
Let A = {a, b} and list the four elements of the power set P (A). We consider the operations + to be ∪, · to be ∩, and complement to be set complement. Consider 1 to be A and 0 to be ∅. a. Explain why the description above defines a Boolean algebra.

asked by excel on April 7, 2015
Digital Electronics
Hi everyone. Im not sure how to draw PLA and PAL Circuit for the following Boolean expression “F=A+~B+D”. can someone please provide me with drawing below if possible is not then kindly email me on “mattkazma@gmail. com”. please let me leave me response if

asked by Mat on June 22, 2018
Information literacy lesson 2
What is Expanded Academic ASAP? A. An open-access search engine on the web B. A Boolean search engine C. A periodical database D. A metasearch engine

asked by Bern on July 6, 2015
info interacy
The Boolean search connector OR is used for which of the following purposes? A. To restrict a search by excluding results that include a particular term B. To narrow a search by adding another concept C. To search several different databases simultaneously

asked by tasha on January 15, 2012
VBA Microsoft Excel
I have been on this problem for about 3 hours and I cannot solve it. My professor wanted us to make a command button with 3 input boxes ( I was able to do this part), but I’m suppose to design a boolean and select case that makes sure that a 5 digit number

asked by Angel on October 9, 2011
math
Let A = {a, b} and list the four elements of the power set P (A). We consider the operations + to be ∪, · to be ∩, and complement to be set complement. Consider 1 to be A and 0 to be ∅. a). Explain why the description above defines a Boolean

asked by excel on April 8, 2015
Physics
A wave traveling in the +x direction has an amplitude of 0.45 m, a speed of 6.1 m/s, and a frequency of 16 Hz. Write the equation of the wave in the form given by either Equation 16.3 or 16.4. (Answer in terms of t and x. Assume standard units.) You have

asked by Mary on April 27, 2007

digital electronics
Hi everyone. Im not sure how to draw PLA and PAL Circuit for the following simplified Boolean expression “F=A+~B+D” its a 4 input circuit. can someone please provide me with drawing below if possible is not then kindly email me on “mattkazma@gmail com”.

asked by Mat on June 22, 2018
macroeconomics
If the operators of the golf course revised their revenue estimates so that each cart is expected to earn $100 less, how many carts would they buy at an interest rate of 8 percent? How many would they buy if the interest rate is 3 percent?

asked by Amber on December 10, 2009
Help!
How are Boolean search strategies and other search filters useful? A.They organize results alphabetically. B.They narrow the search results. C.They increase the number of search results. D.They find creative sources. Please help me!

asked by Kalie on April 30, 2014
Educational Technology and Online Learning
How are boolean search strategies and other search filters useful? a. They organize results alphabetically b. They narrow the search results c. They increase the number of search results * d. They find creative sources

asked by Lilly on April 9, 2014
English
Identify the italicized part of the sentence. All of the operators are efficient. subject predicate direct object indirect object predicate noun predicate adjective the italicized word is efficient.

asked by Mclovin on September 30, 2014
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What is a Boolean Operator? (1 Point) A) A credible website described as having current information about a topic. B) A tool used to organize a search log when conducting online research.*** C) Search parameters set to identify specific information during

asked by BA on November 2, 2017
Algebra
In the old days there were elevator operators to transport passengers. Don Downs always started his day in the basement. He went up 20 floors to take his boss some coffee. Then he went down 8 floors to take a donut to his friend. He went up 7 floors to

asked by samay on January 26, 2018
Math
At the Statsville County Fair, the probability of winning a prize in the basketball toss game is 0.1. a) Show the probability distribution for the number of prizes won in 8 games (round to 6 decimal places). b) If the game will be played 500 times during

asked by Lily on May 7, 2013
Boolean expression Help asap PLEASE
A control system is needed to alert an attendant for the following situation. Which of the following is the Boolean equation expressing the electronics you would need? Either the tank is filled and the pump is on, or the tank is empty. (Use A = tank

asked by Adam on June 19, 2013
Language Arts
What is a boolean operator? A. A credible website described as having current information about topic. B. A tool used to organize a search log when conducting online search. C. Search parameters set to identify specific information during internet searches

asked by Gwen on September 17, 2014

Computer Science
Q1: Write (militaryTime t AMPM), where t is an integer from 1 to 12 (inclusive) and AMPM is either 0 to represent morning or 1 to represent afternoon/evening. The function will convert the hours of the day from standard to military time. (militaryTime 5 0)

asked by Ronaldo on February 13, 2011
Comp. Tech
Is Lycos an example of a search engine, Boolean operator, directory, or metasearch engine? Isn’t Lycos a search engine? Yes, Lycos is a search engine. If you need help with other names and terms, be sure to visit this site:

asked by Eric on June 11, 2007
Quantum mechanics, eigenfunctions!
Determine if the function sin(x)*e^(ax) where a=constant is an eigenfunction of the operators d/dx and d^2/(dx)^2 Okay. My understanding is that you use the operator and perform its “thing” on the function. In this case, you will have to find the 1st

asked by Steven on October 8, 2009
Physics
On an unwanted weather situation, rescue operators fly a helicopter that is aimed to travel 100 knots due southwest. However, two winds coming from different directions move it sideways. One wind is making it move sideways 20 knots northward while the

asked by Shin on July 16, 2017
algabre
the speed of the current in a river is 6 mph a ferry operator who works that part of the river is looking to buy a new boat for his business everyday his route takes him 22.5 miles against the current and back to his deck and he needs this trip in a total

asked by lee on January 24, 2013
data management gr.12
There is a new water park in your neighbourhood. A rider is not allowed to get on the slide at the top until the previous rider has comletely exited at the bottom. It is known that the mean ride time for this type of slide is 24.5 s and the standard

asked by Jenna on December 19, 2016
algebra
the speed of the current in a river is 6 mph a ferry operator who works that part of the river is looking to buy a new boat for his business everyday his route takes him 22.5 miles against the current and back to his deck and he needs this trip in a total

asked by stan loona on March 12, 2019
algebra
please explain the step for this I have no idea. the speed of the current in a river is 6 mph a ferry operator who works that part of the river is looking to buy a new boat for his business everyday his route takes him 22.5 miles against the current and

asked by lee on January 29, 2013
algebra
please explain the step for this I have no idea. the speed of the current in a river is 6 mph a ferry operator who works that part of the river is looking to buy a new boat for his business everyday his route takes him 22.5 miles against the current and

asked by lee on January 29, 2013
educational and tecnology
A Boolean search can help you narrow down your topic by doing what A( finding the most popular topic for you to research B( allowing you to restrict your search to look only for specific terms or groups of terms C(avoid searching for him popular topics D(

asked by jjiiddss on March 22, 2016

Programming
I need to write a code in java based on an alrgorithm, the alrgorithm and it’s problem are below: The Sieve of Eratosthenes is “a simple, ancient algorithm for finding all prime numbers up to any given limit,” which you can read about at: (Wikipedia:

asked by Mr. Anonymous on March 10, 2019
Check My History Please

  1. When the Texas Railroad Commission enforced new restrictions in 1931, those that benefited most were individual wildcatters. small oil operators. large oil companies. Texas state officials.* 2. The geographic area hardest hit by drought in the 1930s is

asked by SmartyPants on March 22, 2015
science
Sky-High Internet Services Situation: Sky-High Internet Services is a leading Internet service provider in a metropolitan area. The new customer billing system has caused an increase in complaints. Tammy Jones, the office manager, asked you to investigate

asked by Pete Watson on February 2, 2013
HUMAN ORGANIZATON BEHAVIOR…. PLEASE HELP
can u help to have an idea to get the correct answer.for the question below. What model of organizational behavior would be most appropriate in each of the following situations? (Assume that you must use the kinds of employees and supervisors currently

asked by jessie on October 16, 2011
computer science
If all the hub and authority scores are initialized to 1, what is the hub/authority score of a node after one iteration? In the preceding discussion we encountered two recommended “hard constants” – the increment on te being ten times the last fetch

asked by Alex on December 10, 2010
Senior Paper
hey gurl IP address is your Internet Protocol address. Its kinda of like your street address but for your computer like how you put a return address on letters your IP address is recorded when visiting websites and posting things so the website operators

asked by Haley on July 6, 2007
HUMAN ORGANIZATON BEHAVIOR..MS. SUE PLEASE HELP
can u help to have an idea to get the correct answer.for the question below. AUTOCRATIC,CUSTODIAL, SUPPORTIVE AND COLLEGIAL MODEL. What model of organizational behavior would be most appropriate in each of the following situations? (Assume that you must

asked by jessie on October 16, 2011
Computer Science
Write a class “Program1” that has the method “allLess” (below) that receives two arrays of integers and returns true if each element in the first array is less than the element at the same index in the second array. For example, given the arrays

asked by Valerie on September 3, 2013
business
A music producing firm holds the copyright over several songs which have just been recorded by a popular singer. Based on market research conducted by a consulting agency, the producer expects to sell 50,000 CDs for $20 each. The accountant of the firm is

asked by Zunish on March 17, 2012
accounting II

  1. Definitions of manufacturing concepts Interstate Manufacturing produces brass fasteners and incurred the following costs for the year just ended: Materials and supplies used Brass $75,000 Repair parts 16,000 Machine lubricants 9,000 Wages and salaries

asked by eric on April 28, 2014

accounting
i need help working through this! i am stuck. 3. Definitions of manufacturing concepts Interstate Manufacturing produces brass fasteners and incurred the following costs for the year just ended: Materials and supplies used Brass $75,000 Repair parts 16,000

asked by eric on April 28, 2014
Math
There are 8 people on one side of a river. They have a raft to help them get to the other side. There is a father and his two sons, a mother and her two daughters, a policeman and a thief. Everyone must cross the river, but you must follow the rules: *

asked by Bo on September 29, 2007
C++
Using C++ (if, char or Boolean) Write a program that asks the user for a two digit number and then prints the English word for that number. Sample run: Enter a two-digit number: 45 You entered the number forty-five. PLAN: Read the number entered as an

asked by Sundayy on February 22, 2011
physics
when a power station converts chemical or nuclear energy to electrical energy it converts about 50% of the energy to low grade heat suggest how people could use this energy before the power station operators allow it to enter the environment. why is this

asked by Emma on May 8, 2007
English
Writing sentences and paragraphs. Is this correct? Paragraph 2 Dear Elizabeth, I am anxious when I found out that you move back to town, and looking for job. My SBU manager, is currently hiring for a production manager. She is SBU manager for ACS. I think

asked by Sis on January 13, 2012
English
Writing sentences and paragraphs. Is this correct? Paragraph 2 Dear Elizabeth, I am anxious when I found out that you move back to town, and looking for job. My SBU manager, is currently hiring for a production manager. She is SBU manager for ACS. I think

asked by Sis on January 12, 2012
microsoft excell 2007
entering the formula=SUM(C5:C18)is cell C19 will resolve in which of the following? (a)cells C5 and C18 will be added together (b)cells C5 and C18,and C19 will be added together (c)the total of cells C5 to C19 will appear in cell C19 (d0the total of cells

asked by susue on April 11, 2012
programing

  1. Elements – sequence-series outputting Write a program that prints the following elements: 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19, (hereto referred to as elements) etc., up till a user-entered value. The program should not print more than 10 numbers per

asked by tefo sello on October 3, 2014
System Analyst and Design
Sky-High Internet Services Situation: Sky-High Internet Services is a leading Internet service provider in a metropolitan area. The new customer billing system has caused an increase in complaints. Tammy Jones, the office manager, asked you to investigate

asked by Pete Watson on February 2, 2013
Programming
Hello, I seem to be having some difficulties with an assignement of mine, and pretty much need a fill in the blank for a program I have written for it. Heres the assignment: In this lab, you will demonstrate your understanding of two-dimensional arrays by

asked by Tim on October 13, 2009

business solutions
formulate a solution that takes into account audience characteristics… requirements, and expectations? the scenerio I have tell 25 classmate that our trip has been canceled for mexico because the bus company filed bankruptcy and they will not be getting

asked by todd on July 20, 2006
Economics
What is the common element in each column? Column A: The number of minimum wage jobs has increased. By 2025 blue collar work could be totally obsolete. The number of ATM’s is increasing faster than the rate of bank tellers. “We’re sorry all our

asked by Ann on February 22, 2011
Economics
What is the common element in each column? Column A: The number of minimum wage jobs has increased. By 2025 blue collar work could be totally obsolete. The number of ATM’s is increasing faster than the rate of bank tellers. “We’re sorry all our

asked by Ann on February 22, 2011
Economics
What is the common element in each column? Column A: The number of minimum wage jobs has increased. By 2025 blue collar work could be totally obsolete. The number of ATM’s is increasing faster than the rate of bank tellers. “We’re sorry all our

asked by Ann on February 22, 2011
Intro to Computer Programming – Pseudocode
This assignment (below) jumped way ahead of my abilities compared to the last assignment. I think I need a parallel array or a 2D array, an accumulator or loop counter, a verification of input, and Boolean something. But I’m not sure how to write it. We’re

asked by Lauren on November 3, 2008

Categories
college papers essay help need someone to write my essay write my paper for me

middle school math with pizzazz book e answer key

What are the answers to the middle school math with pizzazz book e page 29?
36,223 results
math
What are the answers to the middle school math with pizzazz book e page 29?

asked by kylie on December 4, 2013
algebra
middle school math with pizzazz book e topic 1-f: similar figures page e-12 need help with the answers

asked by guest on January 5, 2011
math
on my worksheet “books never written” AND i have to do multiplication by 2 digit factor and i need help solving the names of the authors please don’t tell me This makes no sense to me. also, you need a middle school worksheet that says MIDDLE SCHOOL MATH

asked by Lulu on October 28, 2009
Algebra
I need help with my math pizzazz worksheet page 167 1.3x-5y=13 X-2y=5 2.7x-2y=-1 3x-4y=19 3.2x+3y=7 3x+4y=10

asked by J on December 8, 2014
Math
I’m trying to figure out a Math pizzazz worksheet. I can’t get the answer to question #3 on page E-38-E

asked by Expresso 55 on December 1, 2013

Math
Can someone give me the answers to pizzazz e-8 page

asked by Mikey on September 11, 2013
math
Page 114 of pizzazz math has got me clueless. None of the problems make since and my homewrok is due tomorrow. Please help me!!!!

asked by LeAnn on January 20, 2011
math gr.6
Does anyone has questions (page 22) from pearson math makes sense grade 6 book? Please, help. I forgot my book at school and I only need questions? Thank, you.

asked by Anonymous on November 2, 2010
Forgot my book, need science help!!
Please help me I have a whole section to do over the weekend and I forgot my book! Please help!! You’ll need to post a question in order for a science teacher to know what kind of help you need. Biology? Chemistry? What? And what is/are the question(s)?

asked by Linz on August 20, 2005
English
I’m worried about my math. 1. Why don’t you buy a math self- teaching book and solve math problems a lot. 2. Why don’t you buy a math self-study book and solve math problems a lot. 3. Why don’t you go to a math academy and study math more? 4. Why don’t ask

asked by rfvv on March 4, 2016
algebra
A student opens a math book to two facing pages.The product of the page numbers is 210.Find the page numbers. The first page is The second page is_____

asked by Rose on March 29, 2010
Algebra (6th grade)
I need help on the algebra with pizzazz worksheet page 8 Objective 1-h. Need the answers to letters O-R or just the puns answer straight out please! ^_^

asked by emporerpenguin on January 27, 2015
English
What is different in middle school compared with elementary school? In middle school, we wear a school uniform, we have different teachers for for each subject, and we don’t stay with our homeroom teacher all day. ————————- Are the question

asked by rfvv on March 11, 2016
Journal
You see I have this notebook and like I want to use it for to write down journal entries about my middle school and high school life. But I’m writing this to god telling him about my day and list of things to prey to him. Like first I type it then print it

asked by Laruen on November 29, 2011
Mathematics
Raymond took a survey of classmates to determine the favorite subject of the students in his middle school the results of his survey are shown in the table english=9 math=17 science 13 social studies=11 There are 300 students in Raymond’s middle school

asked by Loomin The vroomin on September 10, 2017

Sign Language
Hi I would like for my answers to be checked for these two questions (Note: I’m not sure if the 2nd one is correct): 1. Several school-related words are based on which sign? a. book b. learn c. school d. study My Answer: book 2. How do you change a

asked by Jazmine on February 23, 2016
English

  1. Middle school is the same. 2. Elementary school is the same. 3. Middle school is not the same as elementary school. 4. Middle school is different from elementary school. —————— In each sentence, Is ‘same’ an adjective or a pronoun? #3 is the

asked by rfvv on March 11, 2017
To Michael
Here’s the question you posted in response to another student. “Ms.Sue do you mind if i ask were you a math teacher or are you just a genius at math and why do you do this help online do you get any benefit for doing this?” I taught a couple of sections of

asked by Ms. Sue on November 4, 2011
1 Credit for HS
How to earn one credit for high school? Last year when the whole 6th grade visit our middle school (we have 2 middle schools in our district, my friends and other people are going to that middle school but since I’m not going to that middle school the

asked by Laruen on December 9, 2011
Algebra
A student opens a math book to 2 facing pages. The product of the page numbers is 930. Find the page numbers.

asked by SuziQ on March 17, 2008
english
hi! nedd some help.i am writing a book report and have question.how does my cover page has to look like?in which corner do i have to writr ma name, date etc. thanks:) The cover page format is usually demonstrated by your teacher. Your cover page should

asked by bil12 on January 7, 2007
algebra
A middle school student is doing a math project in which she has to make a graph of the different ways students get to school. To collect her data, she stands under the bus canopy and asks 100 students how they normally get to school. Is her data valid?

asked by Lebron on September 14, 2015
algebra
I need help with my algebra with pizzazz page 22

asked by anounomus on January 5, 2016
Language Arts
I left my McMillian text book for language arts in school today and I have homework on page 2 and 3. I’m in the 6th grade does anyone have that book. I really really need those questions. I don’t know if this gives page numbers that correspond with your

asked by Tatyana on September 11, 2006
math
forgot my math book at school, i need the questions saxon math grage 6 lesson 14

asked by kolbi on September 13, 2010

math
how to do pre algebra pizzazz page e 28

asked by drew on April 15, 2013
Algebra 2
What’s the answer to Algebra With Pizzazz B-50, Page 60???

asked by Terrell on January 7, 2009
math
08.03)Esther wants to know if the number of words on a page in her language arts book is generally more than the number of words on a page in her social studies book. She takes a random sample of 25 pages in each book and then calculates the mean, median,

asked by Troy on September 5, 2015
algebra
what is the answer to pre algebra with pizzazz page 106

asked by Anonymous on May 6, 2012
English Expression
Welcome to Namsan Middle School in Seoul. There are 500 students and 20 teachers in the school. There are many classrooms, a music room and an art room. There is a library, too. 1) Where is Namsan Middle School? It is in Seoul. 2) How many students are

asked by John on April 18, 2008
algebra
What is the answer to algebra with pizzazz page 168??? Numbers for each letter.

asked by Kam on May 8, 2017
Math
What is the answer to page 31 of pre-algebra with pizzazz (what do hair dressers do?) ?

asked by Hanna on September 14, 2014
Math page 167 algebra did you hear about…
Hi I need help with this one problem. It’s on page 167 algebra with pizzazz. It has to use the addition method. 3x-5y=7 5x-2y=-1

asked by J on February 5, 2013
Math
what page in the 8th grade texas math book is the let,if,then problems.

asked by Dude really on May 5, 2010
math
does any one have a fifth grade math book My son forgot his and we need the problems 8-20 even only on page 47 thanks

asked by maye on September 19, 2007

math
help me in extended book of math I GCSE on page 57 exercise 7 in grade 10.

asked by sabra on February 1, 2016
math
what is the answer to the math pizzazz E-30? What is the title?

asked by luke on December 9, 2013
English
Can someone please tell me the format of a COVER page in MLA. I’m looking in my 6th edition book and I find title page but not cover page. I beleive the title goes 1/3 page down, then may 10 lines or so your name, then at the bottom the class, teacher, and

asked by Sue on February 25, 2010
physic
The thickness of a book is 3.2cm, measured between the insides of it cover. The highest page in the book is 1,096. What order of magnitude estimate does that give the thickness of a page of the book?

asked by Mary on October 25, 2015
English

  1. What school do you go to? 2. What school do you attend? 3. Where do you go for middle school? – I go to London Middle School. [Which questions are correct and commonly used?]

asked by rfvv on March 10, 2018
English
1A: How’s your middle school, Jimin? 2B: It’s good. Everyone is friendly. 3A: Is it different from elementary school? 4B: Yes, we have a big library. The school lunch is great, too.

asked by rfvv on March 30, 2018
Psychology/ Ms Sue
Please check my answers 1. During puberty, boys testosterone production increases up to 5 times the level in childhood? True 2. Babies of teenagers have a higher risk of birth complications? True 3. Most STIs are fatal if not treated properly? False 4.

asked by Lisa on October 20, 2013
8th grade
Math Algebra With Pizzazz (in music, What Does “Allegro” Mean?

asked by riley159 on February 1, 2010
Math
am having difficulties trying to find out the missing dimensions of a cutout piece. Can someone please tell me how to figure out the dimensions. They’ve given me the dimensions for the whole solid, but just not the cut out piece. Your help will be

asked by Sara on February 10, 2010
Shurley English Grade 4
I’m suppose to write sentences from Grade 4 Shurley English book. I was suppose to bring book home and use page 25 – I forgot the book – anyone know what is on page 25? Thanks

asked by Brayden on October 2, 2013

math
on page 50 of algebra woth pizzazz Andy is twice as old as kate. in 6 years, their ages will total 60. How old is each now?

asked by Daniela on October 1, 2017
Algebra
What do you call someone who pays back a loan Quickly? Algebra with pizzazz page 164

asked by Sasuke on November 28, 2016
math
what is the answer to whaat kind of shoes does a frog wear? on page 165 on algebra with pizzazz

asked by ashlee on October 20, 2008
Math
Stephen made a 90 page book in six days if you continues reading at that rate how long will it take him to read a 300 page book

asked by Anna on January 14, 2019
English

  1. Which genre Shrek is? 2. Which genre is Shrek? (Which one is correct?) 3. That is a girls’ middle school. 4. That is girls’ middle school. (Which one is correct?) 5. Introduce your favorite book, and write what’s the story about. 6. Introduce your

asked by rfvv on November 30, 2009
Math
Gershona is babysitting her brothers. To keep them occupied, she lets them put stickers into sticker books. Joshua puts 110 stickers on 22 pages. Mike puts 100 stickers on 25 pages. Select all statements that are true about these ratios. a) Mike’s sticker

asked by The Devil Cat on March 7, 2018
Math/Algebra
I need help on a Middle School Math With Pizzaz worksheet. It is titled, Vive la France!

asked by Mateus on May 4, 2017
reading
I agree reading the book will help, I forgot the book at school. I need the answers to my question to help me complete the homework.

asked by Kimmy on November 11, 2008
Math/Algebra
A student opens a mathematics book to two facing pages. The product of the page number is 420. Find the page numbers. The first page is _ The second page is _

asked by Angel Eyes on August 20, 2010
algebra
A student opens a mathematics book to two facing pages. The product of the page number is 2352. Find the page numbers. The first page is__________ The secnd page is__________

asked by Mary on March 5, 2012

Math
Pages in a book are numbered in typical fashion, starting with !. The folio for page 10 will contain the tenth and eleventh digits necessary to paginate the book. On what page will the 2009th digit occur?

asked by Mark on September 11, 2012
Math
Pages in a book are numbered in typical fashion, starting with 1. The folio for page 10 will contain the tenth and eleventh digits necessary to paginate the book. On what page will the 2009th digit occur?

asked by Mark on September 6, 2012
Math
Pages in a book are numbered in typical fashion, starting with !. The folio for page 10 will contain the tenth and eleventh digits necessary to paginate the book. On what page will the 2009th digit occur? Can you help

asked by Mark on September 11, 2012
math
what is the worlds most musical fish in pizzazz book c

asked by ariel on September 10, 2013
maths
1) If I number the pages os a 36 page book, how many digits do I write? My answers is 63, not sure if this is the correct answer? 2) How many pages does a book have if in numbering them I use: a) 129 digits? A= 69 pages? b) 203 digits? A= 104 pages? Could

asked by Brendon on October 20, 2009
English

  1. Jenny’s friends’re not angry. 2. Your friends’re generous. (Are the contractions grammatical?) 3. Middle school is not the same as elementary school. 4. Middle school is not the same as elementary school is the same. (Does #3 mean #4? Is #4 the full

asked by rfvv on March 3, 2017
algebra 2
what is the answer to algebra with pizzazz page 100; what should you say if you see a tall, wrought-iron tower in paris, france? there are 24 blanks

asked by tiffany on April 12, 2011
computer class (please look!!!)
use google book search to find the first line of page 3 in the book ‘curious george goes to a chocolate factory’ [sorry to make you do this hw but my internet is not fast enought to load this page] thx ^^!

asked by jake on October 2, 2007
math 6th grade
I left my math book at school, grabbed my geo. 🙁 We were supposed to take notes in a math textbook about Variables and Algebraic expressions. Can I have a good website with definitions and examples? Thanks. (and next time i’ll remember my textbook)

asked by Isabel on September 15, 2009
Math
I lost my paper for the Math Riddle Pizazz page 167 about solving systems of equations and I no longer have the problems. (It is the “did you hear about the farmer who gave birdseed to his cows…” page) What are the math problems for it?

asked by Caroline on February 28, 2011

math, Please Helppp!!!!!!!! Lost paper!
I lost my paper for the Math Riddle Pizazz page 167 about solving systems of equations and I no longer have the problems. (It is the “did you hear about the farmer who fed his cows birdseed..” page) What are the math problems for it?!?

asked by Caroline on March 1, 2011
Math
Pages in a book are numbered in typical fashion, starting with 1. The folio for page 10 will contain the tenth and eleventh digits necessary to paginate the book. On what page will the 2009th digit occur? Please Help!!! I have no idea where to begin

asked by Beth on September 4, 2012
Math
Pages in a book are numbered in typical fashion, starting with 1. The folio for page 10 will contain the tenth and eleventh digits necessary to paginate the book. On what page will the 2009th digit occur? Please Help!!! I have no idea where to begin

asked by Beth on September 4, 2012
English
Thank you for your help. One more question, I have. 1. I go to a middle school. [Does ‘I’ mean that he is a middle school student or not?’] 2. I go to middle school. [Here, the subject “I” is a middle school student.] 3. I go to the middle school. [Does

asked by rfvv on March 11, 2019
Geometry
A page of a school year book is 8 1 2 inches by 11 inches. The left and right margin are 3 and 2 1 2 inches, respectively. The space between two pictures is 1 4 inch. To fit 3 pictures across the page, how wide should each picture be? Answer in units of

asked by Chitra on November 27, 2009
7th grade Math
I have two questions for math. How do I add/subtract an integer Please give me full notes, or webpage please. Also, my teacher said 10-20E (Problems in book we have to do) Is that evens? because the odd answers are in the back of the text book Thanks,

asked by Dean on September 14, 2009
math
for every 20 math books a school buys, they they get 7 aditional books for free. The school needs 297 math books. What is the total number of math books the school must buy in order to receive 297 math books in all?

asked by ali on February 8, 2012
Math
Hello. Can someone help me? I’m not very sure about some of these 🙁 Stephen read a 90-page book in 6 days. If he continues reading at that rate, how long will ittake him to read a 300-page book? Answer: 20 days. I found this by doing 90/6=15, and then

asked by I have 2 different names. Which would I put? on February 16, 2018
Reading/ Writting
Why should Anne Frank be taught in middle school instead of high school? I have that middle school would be better because they can relate to Anne due to age.

asked by Danika on June 27, 2014
English expression
I am a first grader at New York Middle School. I am a first year at New York Middle School. I am in the first grade at New York Middle School. I am in the first grade at New York Middle School. I am a student in Class 1-2 at New York Middle School. I am a

asked by John on April 3, 2008

algebra
A book has N consecutive pages torn out. Suppose A is the last numbered page before the torn out section and B is the forst numbered page following the torn out section. Fins the formula for N in terms of A and B * Each paper in the book has 2 sides. Each

asked by Joe on October 7, 2010
10th grade geo
answers to objective 3-c algebra with pizzazz

asked by amanda on November 15, 2010
Math
A book has n consecutive pages torn out (each paper in a book has two sides – each side is one page). Suppose A is the last numbered page before the torn out section and B is the first numbered page following the torn-out section. Find a formula for n in

asked by Anna on September 22, 2008
English

  1. Middle school is the same. 2. Elementary school is the same. 3. Middle school is not the same as elementary school. 4. Middle school is different from elementary school. —————— In each sentence, Is ‘same’ an adjective or a pronoun? #3 is the

asked by rfvv on March 11, 2016
Just for “Ms.Sue”
Hey, “Ms.Sue”. Ms.Sue you have been very helpful. But I keep getting stuck. 5th grade math is a challenge especially after my teachers stroked and we were out of school for almost all of September and no one in my house understands this new math either. I

asked by Candy Corn  on October 4, 2011
to divide Monomials
Please help me with my paper algebra with Pizzazz! Page 76, objective 3-a. Name of paper is Why are babies like hinges?

asked by Jon on April 16, 2009
4th grade Math
Math has a 150 page book. he has read 1/3 of it. How many pages has he read so far? Is 50 the correct answer?

asked by Hayley on December 15, 2008
Math
The school band is comprised of middle school students and high school students, but it always has the same maximum capacity. Last year the ratio of the number of middle school students to the number of high school students was 1:8. However, this year the

asked by Ashleigh on September 3, 2014
Math
The school band is compromised of middle school students and high school students, but it always has the same maximum capacity. Last year the ratio of the number of middle school students to the number of high school students was 1;8. However, this year

asked by Anonymous on September 27, 2016
Math
A student opened her math book and computed the sum of the numbers on two pages. Then, she turned to the next page and computed the sum of the numbers on those two facing pages. Finally, she computed the product of the two sums, and her calculator

asked by Jde on February 26, 2012

Math
The school band is comprised of middle school students to the number of high school students was 1:8. However, this year the ratio of middle school students to high school students changed to 2:7. If there is 18 middle school students in the band , how

asked by Breanne on November 10, 2016
English

  1. A _ citation is generally used when merely citing facts or have already identified the source author. A. block B. substitute C. parenthetical D. title According to MLA citation style rules, when citing a book by more than one author, the authors’

asked by Taj on February 10, 2018
English

  1. I’m in the third year of middle school. 2. I’m in the third year in middle school. (Which preposition do we have to use?) 3. My school is a boys-only school. 4. My school is a boys’ school. 5. My school is girls-only school. 6. My school is a girls’

asked by rfvv on March 8, 2011
Math (7th grade)
I have a math question that I do not really understand how to answer is there someone who can walk me through it? In Pinecrest middle school there are 58 6th graders 76 7th graders, and 38 8th graders. The counsel is made up of 35 students who are chosen

asked by Shawna on December 17, 2013
English

  1. I go to a middle school. 2. I go to middle school. 3. I go to the middle school. [What are the differences among them? Which one is commonly used?]

asked by rfvv on March 6, 2019
Homework
I am going to a school for gifted kids on September and I am very excited! However, they gave me like 5 packets of hard homework that are very time consuming. On top of that, I have to read countless books, write book reports about them, and then choose 1

asked by candy on August 4, 2010
Math — Calculus
Some years from now you are working for a book publisher. Your boss asks you to give him a formula that will tell him the length and width of a book page that contains A square inches of printed text, a left margin of L inches, a right margin of R inches,

asked by Adam on March 21, 2017
social studies
I need help with my homework and its a whole page of questions from the book my culture my nation page 3 could you give me the answers to the whole page. Thanks heaps, Traci Kirk No one here has your textbook. Please post specific questions. Please note

asked by Traci on February 18, 2007
calculus
Each page of a book will contain 30 in squared of print, and each page must have 2 inch margins at top and bottom and 1 inch margin at each side. What is the minimum possible area of such a page.

asked by Barbara on November 1, 2011
Math
Melanie is going to read a 219 page book. She reads at a rate of 20 pages per day. BAsed on this info which of the following statements is a reasonable conclusion A.she will have read less than 1/2 of the book after 5 days B.She will have read more than 13

asked by Jerald on April 18, 2013

Math
Ms Boyd leads tha national math club at the middle school where she teaches. At the first club meetting of the school year ,60% of the students in attendance were boys.If there was one fewer girl then boy in attendance, how maby students attended the first

asked by Rana on September 12, 2014
Math
A bookworm finds itself on page 1 of volume 1 and begins eating straight through to the last page of volume 5.If each book is 6 centimeters thick,including the front and back covers,which are half a centimeter each what is the distance the bookworm

asked by Chasity on December 18, 2006
Sociology
What is writing analysis???? Because I saw this in my Program of Studies book for middle school and high school students. Sociology This one-semester sociology course introduce students to the field by engaging them in discussion and written analysis of

asked by Laruen on September 16, 2012
statistics
Lilly collects data on a sample of 40 high school students to evaluate whether the proportion of female high school students who take advanced math courses in high school varies depending upon whether they have been raised primarily by their father or by

asked by Anonymous on September 22, 2012
Math
The page numbers in a book use 810 Digits. If the book starts with page #1 how many pages are in the book. I think it’s a trick question, because digits is underlined. Is the answer 810? What does it mean by uses 810 Digits?

asked by Tyler on February 26, 2008

Categories
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two methods of estimating uncollectible receivables are​ ________.

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Basic Statistics

MTH107.920 Fall 2017

Class location: Online via Blackboard and WebAssign Instructor: Amy Frankel Communication:

 BEST OPTION: Send/receive Waubonsee email via http://mywcc.waubonsee.edu to afrankel@waubonsee.edu or send via Blackboard Send E-mail tool (choose “all instructor users”). Note that emails from non-Waubonsee email addresses will be labeled as junk-mail in my email client. So using your WCC email is definitely the best way to go. I will try to answer within 24 hours.

 Phone: (630)466-7900, ext. 2554

 To subscribe to text message or personal email updates/reminders: send @wccstats to 81010 (Note you can now chat using the Remind App or Webpage! Video tutorial). Or go to https://www.remind.com/join/wccstats.

Office Location: Bodie 229, Sugar Grove campus Office Hours: M – Th 11:30am-12:30pm, W 5pm-6pm, or by appointment. For in-person appointment requests use: https://amy.youcanbook.me/. For web conferences please send via email a few dates and times that you would be available to meet. Students do not need to make an appointment to meet with me during office hours. Web site: http://www.waubonsee.edu/faculty/afrankel Required course materials:

 WebAssign access code which provides you with the e-book of Introductory Statistics, 1st ed. by Illowsky and Dean, OpenStax College 2013. Students MUST purchase a WebAssign Course Key. Students may start with temporary access for 14 days, but then a code must be purchased BEFORE the end of the temporary access period. See this handout for more details.

WebAssign Course Key: waubonsee 5082 1614  The textbook is also available in the following formats:

o Hard cover book from the bookstore o On the web o Downloadable pdf (high resolution) or (low resolution) o Offline HTML copy (zip file) o Bookshare o Download to iBooks o Print Copy from Amazon

 A calculator: TI-83, TI-83+, TI-84, TI-84+, TI-84+ CE are recommended since all calculator instructions will be for these models of calculator.

Course Description: A course designed to assist the student in the understanding and use of numerical data. Topics covered include descriptive methods, probability, distributions, statistical inference, confidence intervals, tests of hypotheses, and correlation and regression.http://mywcc.waubonsee.edu/mailto:afrankel@waubonsee.eduhttps://youtu.be/ow7LCRr7R5Qhttps://www.remind.com/join/wccstatshttps://amy.youcanbook.me/http://www.waubonsee.edu/faculty/afrankelhttps://www.dropbox.com/s/j83s7kaws448cw8/WA_Student_Quick_Start.pdf?dl=0https://cnx.org/contents/30189442-6998-4686-ac05-ed152b91b9dehttps://d3bxy9euw4e147.cloudfront.net/oscms-prodcms/media/documents/Statistics-OP.pdfhttps://d3bxy9euw4e147.cloudfront.net/oscms-prodcms/media/documents/Statistics-LR.pdfhttp://cnx.org/exports/30189442-6998-4686-ac05-ed152b91b9de%4018.11.zip/introductory-statistics-18.11.ziphttps://www.bookshare.org/browse/book/751376https://itunes.apple.com/us/book/introductory-statistics/id898910154?mt=13https://www.amazon.com/Introductory-Statistics-OpenStax-College/dp/1938168208/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1503023782&sr=8-1&keywords=illowsky

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Course Objectives:

1. Students will define and identify the properties of basic statistical descriptors related to the gathering of data: population, sample, parameter, statistic, sampling, bias, observational study, experiment, variables, qualitative, quantitative, continuous variable, discrete variable, levels of measurement, error, frequency, relative frequency.

2. Students will organize univariate and bivariate data and then graph the data using the following visual representations: stem-and-leaf plot, histogram, bar graph, dotplot, pareto chart, time-series graph, scatterplot, pie chart, line chart.

3. Students will explain the definitions, properties, and functions of the following descriptive statistics, calculate their values from small data sets, and interpret the results: means, medians, variances, standard deviations, quartiles, percentiles; For large data sets, students will employ the use of technology to calculate descriptive statistics.

4. Students will determine probabilities of events through the application of the standard ideas in elementary probability: addition rule, multiplication rule, counting techniques, independence of events, conditional probability.

5. Students will identify the properties of normal distribution and find, by using technology, probabilities, associated with random variables with these distributions.

6. Students will calculate the mean and standard deviation of the binomial probability distribution.

7. Students will apply the 68-95-99.5 Rule to identify statistically significant events.

8. Students will explain the Central Limit Theorem as it applies to sample means and proportions and apply it to identify statistically significant events.

9. With the aid of technology, students will compute confidence intervals of population means and proportions based on sample data using both the normal distribution and the t-distribution

10. Students will calculate the sample size necessary to obtain a confidence interval of desired width.

11. Students will conduct hypothesis testing on population means and proportions using confidence intervals, critical values, the P-value method, and two-way tables, and hypothesis testing on variances using one-way ANOVA.

12. Students will define and differentiate between correlation and causality.

13. Students will utilize technology to identify the line of best fit and correlation coefficient based on a set of data, and then explain whether the fit is statistically significant.

Page 3 of 10

Course Outcomes: At the end of this course, the student will be able to… 1. Organize data. 2. Conduct a statistical study using hypothesis testing.

College Learning Outcomes CRITICAL THINKING Students will be able to acquire, analyze, synthesize, and evaluate information for efficacy in order to develop conclusions and implement solutions while actively engaging in learning and questioning beyond the content of any one course, making connections between courses, disciplines, life experiences, and accumulated knowledge. COMMUNICATION Students will be able to read, comprehend, and interpret multimedia (oral, written, and visual texts) situated in various contexts; deliver clear, well-organized speeches, presentations, visuals, or ideas appropriate to various contexts and audiences; and write clear, concise communications appropriate to various contexts and audiences. QUANTITATIVE LITERACY Students will be able to acquire, analyze, use, and represent mathematical and scientific data and information symbolically, visually, numerically, and verbally to recognize and understand problems and trends, to conduct experiments and observations, to develop appropriate solutions and conclusions, and to understand the interrelatedness of quantitative reasoning and other disciplines. Grading Criteria Please keep in mind that your grade is neither a reward nor a punishment, but is a reflection of your performance and level of mastery of the material in the class. This is a challenging class. It is in your best interest to study and complete your assignments on time. The distribution of points is weighted so that a student must earn at least a 60% average on the tests in order to earn a C or higher in the course. Homework: Homework will be completed in WebAssign. Each homework will have a deadline of Noon Central on Monday and corresponds to the lesson for that week. (see individual due dates in the course schedule and weekly checklist below) Students may work each problem up to 5 times. After the first submission, assistive tools like hints, practice another version, and tutorials will be made available for attempts 2-5. Student’s last answer is counted toward grade. Students may request a 1 day extension via WebAssign, but a 10% deduction will automatically be taken for each extension requested, with the Saturday after the deadline as the final deadline for all extensions. Each homework is weighted at a maximum of 1 point. To calculate your score take the percent score and divide by 100. IN ADDITION: students must score at least an 80% on homework in order to unlock the quiz for that lesson. There are 13 homework assignments, so there is a maximum of 13 points from homework.

Page 4 of 10

Quizzes: Quizzes will be completed in WebAssign. Each Quiz will have a deadline of Noon Central on Monday. (see individual due dates in the course schedule and weekly checklist below). Students must score at least an 80% on the homework in order to gain access to the quiz for that lesson. Students may work each quiz problem 2 times with the last submitted answer counting toward the grade. No assistive tools are available during quizzes, but will be available after the quiz is completed and the deadline has passed. Students may request an extension via WebAssign, but a 10% deduction will automatically be taken for each extension requested. Each quiz is weighted at a maximum of 2 points. To calculate your score take the percent score and divide by 50. Proctored Tests: Details about each test can be found in Blackboard under Course Lessons & Info. There will be 2 proctored tests that you must take in person at one of the Waubonsee Assessment Centers or at another testing center an accredited institution (you will need to make arrangements with Waubonsee’s Assessment Center if you need to take the tests at another location – more information will be sent out during Week 1). Assessment Center hours and contact info can be found here on their web page. Proctored tests are worth 100 points each for a total of 200 points from tests (% score = pts earned). Deadlines for tests can be found in the Course Schedule below and on the Student Checklist attached at the end of the syllabus. Tests may be taken any day the Assessment Center is open as long as they are taken by the deadline (so you can take the test early if needed). If you miss the deadline for one of these tests, you may take the test, but with a 10% penalty for each day past the deadline. If you miss the deadline for a test you must contact the professor as soon as possible in order to make arrangements to take the missed test. You will not be allowed to take the test past the deadline until you have made arrangements with the professor. Project: Details about the project can be found in Blackboard after the third week of the class. There is one project that will be completed in 3 parts during the semester. Deadlines for submissions are in the Course Schedule below and on the Student Checklist attached at the end of the syllabus. If a student fails to submit any part of the project during the semester by its deadline, the student’s project grade will be reduced by 10% per week on that part that is submitted late (days 1-7 late are a 10% reduction, days 8-14 are a 20% reduction, and so on). The project is worth 13 points total; Part 1 is 3 points, Part 2 is 4 points, Part 3 is 6 points. Extra Credit: In WebAssign, I will make available a few extra credit assignments throughout the course. Extra credit must be submitted by the indicated deadline – no extensions, no exceptions.

Grading scale and point distribution: There will be a total of 250 points assigned throughout the semester. Grades will be assigned as follows: A: 90% – 100%, 225-250 points B: 80% – 89%, 200-224 points C: 70% – 79%, 175-199 points D: 60% – 69%, 150-174 points F: 0% – 59%, 0-149 points DOES NOT COUNT TOWARD GRADE: In Blackboard, there are discussion forums available as a place to ask for help on HOMEWORK problems. Below are the guidelines for posting a request for help, and for posting an answer. Do not post questions about the quizzes. There is a nice feature in WebAssign called “Ask Your Teacher” that students should use for Quizzes.http://www.waubonsee.edu/learning/success/assessment/

Page 5 of 10

Class Discussion Guideline Criteria Description of High Level of

Performance

Description of Low Level of

Performance

Post asking for help on a

Homework problem

Subject of post contains the

problem number from the HW.

Post contains the full problem

(either transcribed or a screen

grab) and an attempt at a solution.

Contains few or no spelling and

grammar mistakes.

Post is disrespectful or threatening

or demeaning (may result in being

reported to the Student Conduct

Board). Post does not include the

full question, and/or does not

include an attempt at a solution,

and/or contains several spelling

and grammar mistakes.

Reply to a student’s question Reply is thorough and uses correct

terminology, interprets concepts

accurately, adds to the

conversation, contains no or very

few spelling and grammar mistakes,

and is respectful.

Post is disrespectful or threatening

or demeaning (may result in being

reported to the Student Conduct

Board). Post uses terminology

incorrectly, and/or inaccurately

applies concepts, and/or contains

several spelling and grammar

mistakes. Does not add to the

conversation or is just repeating

what others have posted.

Course Policies Attendance policy: Even though we are not meeting in a physical classroom, it is expected that you “attend” class weekly by checking your WCC email messages and/or the Announcements board in Blackboard a few times during the week. There will be times when I will need to make an announcement or communicate something important to the class, and I will use Waubonsee email, and Announcements in Blackboard to do so. Online courses provide a level of flexibility. However flexibility does not translate as easier. IMPORTANT: You should expect to spend between 6 and 9 hours each week on this course which is typical for a 3 credit online course. In a face-to-face course you would spend 3 hours in class for lecture and expect to spend 3-6 hours outside of class reviewing, reading and completing assignments. For an online class the textbook and my posted lessons & videos are your classroom/lecture. So you can expect to spend about 3 hours on reading the book and lessons and watching videos and then an additional 3-6 on reviewing and completing assignments. I know many of you have a full plate (full course load or an overload, jobs, families, etc.). That is why I am telling you up front what sort of time commitment you can expect. I will not lower expectations or the level of accountability, or integrity of the course. If you have a serious life event that occurs during the semester (hospitalization, death of an immediate family member), PLEASE let me know as soon as possible, do not wait until the end of the semester or until you fall seriously behind. Late work/make-up policy: It is expected that you will submit assignments on time, however if for some reason you are not able to submit something by the deadline here are the policies for each assignment:

Page 6 of 10

 Homework: Must be completed by deadline, then a 10% reduction per extension up through the Saturday after the deadline.

 Quizzes: Must be completed by deadline, then a 10% reduction per extension up through the Saturday after the deadline.

 Proctored Tests: 10% will be deducted for each day past the deadline. Must contact Professor.

 Project: Per part 10% penalty per week, starting at day 1 past the deadline.

 Extra credit: No late work accepted – no extensions – no exceptions.

Withdrawals: I will not withdraw students from this course, with the following exceptions: It is college policy that if you have not attended class as of the 10th day of the semester (with respect to this online course this means that you have not completed any assignments in WebAssign, and have not posted in the Discussion Board for week O by the 10th day), or if you have not been making sufficient progress in the course as of the midterm (completed fewer than 4 graded assignments in WebAssign), I am required to drop you from this course and you will receive a W grade (considered a withdrawal on your transcript). Otherwise STUDENTS ARE REPSONSIBLE FOR WITHDRAWING THEMSELVES via the Student tab on mywcc.waubonsee.edu or by contacting the Office of Registration and Records. I WILL NOT WITHDRAW STUDENTS AFTER November 27th. You may withdraw yourself at any time during the semester until November 27, 2017. The last day to drop this course is November 27, 2017. Please refer to Waubonsee’s Academic Calendar for other important dates.

Access and Accommodation Statement: I wish to fully include persons with disabilities in the course. Please inform me or the Access Center for Disability Resources know if you need any special accommodations in the curriculum, instruction, or assessments of this course to enable you to fully participate. I will try to maintain the confidentiality of the information you share with me. You can contact the Access center at (630)466-7900, ext. 2564. Academic Integrity Statement: Waubonsee Community College believes that all members of the community (students, faculty, staff, and administrators) have a responsibility to participate in learning with honesty, respect, and integrity. We must commit to engage in learning both in and out of the classroom, value each member in our learning community, demonstrate original thought, and help foster ethical, open, safe learning environments for all. For more information, please see the Academic Integrity Resources section in the Waubonsee Student Handbook. Cheating/Plagiarism Policy: Waubonsee firmly upholds sound principles of academic integrity and responsibility. Plagiarism and cheating are serious infractions of academic integrity, and, as such, are considered breaches of the Code of Student Conduct. If a student has violated this policy, I will report the infraction to the Dean for Students and the student may fail the assignment or the course, depending on the severity or the number of infractions. Any student found cheating or plagiarizing on any assignment (discussion, homework, project, test, quiz) will be given a grade of F/0 for that homework/test/discussion board post and reported to the Student Conduct board for further disciplinary action. The instructor reserves the right to adjust this course syllabus as needed. Revisions to course policies will be communicated via Blackboard course announcement and college email.https://www.waubonsee.edu/admission/dates/academic-calendar/https://www.waubonsee.edu/learning/academic-support/access/

Page 7 of 10

Weekly Course Schedule

Week Course Schedule

Week O: 8/21 – 8/28

Lesson O: Introductions and acclimating, Homework O and Discussion Board Introduction due NOON Monday 8/28.

Week #1: 8/28 – 9/4

Lesson 1: Homework 1, Quiz 1 due NOON Monday 9/4 (remember that you must score at least 80% on the HW to access the Quiz).

Week #2: 9/4 – 9/11

Lesson 2: Homework 2, Quiz 2 due NOON Monday 9/11 (remember that you must score at least 80% on the HW to access the Quiz).

Week #3: 9/11 – 9/18

Lesson 3: Homework 3, Quiz 3 due NOON Monday 9/18 (remember that you must score at least 80% on the HW to access the Quiz).

Week #4: 9/18 – 9/25

Lesson 4: Homework 4, Quiz 4 due NOON Monday 9/25 (remember that you must score at least 80% on the HW to access the Quiz).

Week #5: 9/25 – 10/2

Lesson 5: Homework 5, Quiz 5 due NOON Monday 10/2 (remember that you must score at least 80% on the HW to access the Quiz).

Week #6: 10/2 – 10/9

Extra Credit Review Quiz 1 due by Noon on Monday, 10/9. Proctored Test 1 must be taken by closing time of the Assessment Center on MONDAY 10/9. Part 1 of project due by Noon Monday 10/9

Week #7: 10/9 – 10/16

Lesson 6: Homework 6, Quiz 6 due NOON Monday 10/16 (remember that you must score at least 80% on the HW to access the Quiz).

Week #8: 10/16 – 10/23

Lesson 7: Homework 7, Quiz 7 due NOON Monday 10/23 (remember that you must score at least 80% on the HW to access the Quiz) .

Week #9: 10/23 – 10/30

Lesson 8: Homework 8, Quiz 8 and due NOON Monday 10/30 (remember that you must score at least 80% on the HW to access the Quiz),

Week #10: 10/30 – 11/6

Lesson 9: Homework 9, Quiz 9 due NOON Monday 11/6 (remember that you must score at least 80% on the HW to access the Quiz). Part 2 of Project due by Noon on Monday 11/6.

Week #11: 11/6 – 11/13

Lesson 10: Homework 10, Quiz 10 due NOON Monday 11/13 (remember that you must score at least 80% on the HW to access the Quiz).

Week #12: 11/13 – 11/20

Lesson 11: Homework 11, Quiz 11 due NOON Monday 11/20 (remember that you must score at least 80% on the HW to access the Quiz).

11/20 – 11/26 Thanksgiving Break

Week #13: 11/27 – 12/4

Lesson 12: Homework 12, Quiz 12 due NOON Monday 12/4 (remember that you must score at least 80% on the HW to access the Quiz).

Week #14, 15: 12/4 – 12/15

Extra Credit Review Quiz 2 due by Noon on Wednesday, 12/13. Proctored Test 2 must be taken by the time the Assessment Center closes on Wednesday 12/13. Part 3 of the Project due by Noon Friday 12/15.

Page 8 of 10

Resource Links and Locations The following are useful resources that are available to students at Waubonsee Community College: Access Center for Disability Resources – Student Center 201 Career Services Center – Student Center 209 Learning Assessment and Testing Services – Student Center 230, Aurora Downtown 275, Plano 129, Aurora Fox Valley 229 Counseling, Advising and Transfer Center – Student Center 262, Aurora Downtown 110, Plano 135, Aurora Fox Valley 231 Emergency Preparedness and Safety Guide – Posted in classrooms Financial Aid – Student Center 234, Aurora Downtown 241, Plano 126, Aurora Fox Valley 231 Student Handbook (includes Student Code of Conduct) – Also available in Admissions, Student Life and Counseling offices. Todd Library – Collins Hall 2nd floor, Aurora Downtown South Side 1st floor, Plano 122, Aurora Fox Valley 225 Registration and Records/Bursar – Student Center 2nd floor windows, Aurora Downtown 110, Plano 126,

Aurora Fox Valley 231

TRIO/Student Support Services – Manager – Student Center 262, Tutoring – Collins Hall 136

(Help for students who are first generation, limited income, or students with learning/physical disabilities)

Tutoring Centers – Collins Hall 144, Aurora Downtown 215, Plano library, Aurora Fox Valley library, Online 24/7 on MyWCC Student Portlet under Student Success, Tutoring and Support

Waubonsee Community College Campus Information:

Sugar Grove Campus Route 47 at Waubonsee Drive Sugar Grove, IL 60554-9454 (630) 466-7900

Aurora Downtown Campus 18 South River Street Aurora, IL 60506-4178 (630) 801-7900

Aurora Fox Valley Campus 2060 Ogden Avenue Aurora, IL 60504-7222 (630) 585-7900

Plano Campus 100 Waubonsee Drive Plano, IL 60545-2276 (630) 552-7900

www.waubonsee.eduhttps://www.waubonsee.edu/learning/academic-support/access/index.phphttps://www.waubonsee.edu/learning/academic-support/access/index.phphttp://www.waubonsee.edu/experience/services/career/http://www.waubonsee.edu/learning/success/assessment/https://www.waubonsee.edu/experience/services/counseling/http://www.waubonsee.edu/downloads/pdf/safety/Emergency_Preparedness_and_Safety_Guide.pdfhttp://www.waubonsee.edu/admission/financial-aid/http://www.waubonsee.edu/downloads/studentHandbook.pdfhttps://library.waubonsee.edu/https://www.waubonsee.edu/experience/services/records/https://www.waubonsee.edu/ssshttps://www.waubonsee.edu/learning/academic-support/tutoring/index.php../AppData/X00000142/AppData/Local/AppData/Local/AppData/Local/AppData/Local/AppData/Local/Downloads/www.waubonsee.edu

Page 9 of 10

Basic Statistics Weekly Checklist All deadlines are Noon Central on Monday, unless otherwise noted

below

Done? Score

Orientation Week, Week O, 8/21-8/28

Print out and Read Syllabus

Read Lesson O in Blackboard

Register with WebAssign

Self-Introduction Post in Discussion Board in Blackboard

Homework O – Orientation in WebAssign ____%/100 = ____pts

Week 1, 8/28 – 9/4

Read Text

Read Lesson 1 in Blackboard

Homework 1 in WebAssign ____%/100 = ____pts

Discussion in Blackboard for HW 1-if help is needed

Quiz 1 in WebAssign ____%/50 = ____pts

Week 2, 9/4 – 9/11

Read Text

Read Lesson 2 in Blackboard

Homework 2 in WebAssign ____%/100 = ____pts

Discussion in Blackboard for HW 2-if help is needed

Quiz 2 in WebAssign ____%/50 = ____pts

Week 3, 9/11 – 9/18

Read Text

Read Lesson 3 in Blackboard

Homework 3 in WebAssign ____%/100 = ____pts

Discussion in Blackboard for HW 3-if help is needed

Quiz 3 in WebAssign ____%/50 = ____pts

Week 4, 9/18 – 9/25

Read Text

Read Lesson 4 in Blackboard

Homework 4 in WebAssign ____%/100 = ____pts

Discussion in Blackboard for HW 4-if help is needed

Quiz 4 in WebAssign ____%/50 = ____pts

Week 5, 9/25 – 10/2

Read Text

Read Lesson 5 in Blackboard

Homework 5 in WebAssign ____%/100 = ____pts

Discussion in Blackboard for HW 5-if help is needed

Quiz 5 in WebAssign ____%/50 = ____pts

Week 6, 10/2 – 10/9

Extra Credit Test 1 Review Quiz ____pts/(5)

Proctored Test 1 due by close of Assessment Center on Monday 10/9

MONDAY10/12 10/12

NHAT THE DEADLINE IS SATURDAY NOT MONDAY

____% = ____pts

===______pts Part 1 of Project ____pts out of 3

Week 7, 10/9 – 10/16

Read Text

Read Lesson 6 in Blackboard

Homework 6 in WebAssign ____%/100 = ____pts

Discussion in Blackboard for HW 6-if help is needed

Page 10 of 10

Quiz 6 in WebAssign ____%/50 = ____pts

Week 8, 10/16 – 10/23

Read Text

Read Lesson 7 in Blackboard

Homework 7 in WebAssign ____%/100 = ____pts

Discussion in Blackboard for HW 7-if help is needed

Quiz 7 in Blackboard ____%/50 = ____pts

Week 9, 10/23 – 10/30

Read Text

Read Lesson 8 in Blackboard

Homework 8 in WebAssign ____%/100 = ____pts

Discussion in Blackboard for HW 8-if help is needed

Quiz 8 in WebAssign ____%/50 = ____pts

Week 10, 10/30 – 11/6

Read Text

Read Lesson 9 in Blackboard

Homework 9 in WebAssign ____%/100 = ____pts

Discussion in Blackboard for HW 9-if help is needed

Quiz 9 in WebAssign ____%/50 = ____pts

Part 2 of Project ____pts out of 4

Week 11, 11/6 – 11/13

Read Text

Read Lesson 10 in Blackboard

Homework 10 in WebAssign ____%/100 = ____pts

Discussion in Blackboard for HW 10

Quiz 10 in WebAssign ____%/100 = ____pts

Week 12, 11/13 – 11/20

Read Text

Read Lesson 11 in Blackboard

Homework 11 in WebAssign ____%/100 = ____pts

Discussion in Blackboard for HW 11-if help is needed

Quiz 11 in WebAssign ____%/50 = ____pts

Thanksgiving Break 11/20-11/26

Week 13, 11/27 – 12/4

Read Text

Read Lesson 12 in Blackboard

Homework 12 in WebAssign ____%/100 = ____pts

Discussion in Blackboard for HW 12-if help is needed

Quiz 12 in WebAssign ____%/50 = ____pts

Week 14 & 15, 12/4 – 12/16

Extra Credit Test 2 Review Quiz by NOON WEDNESDAY 12/13 ____pts/(5)

Proctored Test 2 by close of Assessment Center, WEDNESDAY 12/13

5/13

____% = ____pts

Part 3 of Project, NOON FRIDAY 12/15 ____pts out of 6

TOTAL POINTS EARNED (Add up all POINTS earned) ______/250 = _____ grade

NOTE: At any point during the semester you can determine your current grade by adding up the points you’ve earned

and dividing by the total points available to that point, and then multiply by 100.

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XPO Logistics, Inc. (NYSE: XPO) is a top ten global logistics provider of cutting-edge supply chain solutions to the most successful companies in the world. The company operates as a highly integrated network of people, technology and physical assets in 34 countries, with over 87,000 employees and 1,425 locations. XPO uses its network to help more than 50,000 customers manage their goods more effiff ciently throughout their supply chains. The company has two reportrr ing segments: transportrr ation and logistics, and within these segments, its business is well diversified by geographies, vertrr icals and types of servrr ice. XPO’s corporate headquartrr ers is in Greenwich, Conn., USA, and its European headquartrr ers is in LyLL on, France. www.xpo.comp

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To Our Stockholders

In 2016, XPO Logistics delivered high growth and high returns as one of the largest transportation and logistics companies in the world. We generated record results for full-year net income, cash flow from operations, adjusted EBITDA1 and free cash flow1, while continuing to invest in growth.

There were two main drivers behind our performance. Our healthy diversification across regions, verticals and services kept us resilient in a mixed global environment. At the same time, we realized numerous company- specific profit improvements that were unrelated to macro conditions.

One of the most notable tailwinds was the ongoing growth of e-commerce. XPO has been well positioned in e-commerce since 2013, when we entered the U.S. home delivery space as a last mile market leader. We specialize in last mile logistics for appliances, large electronics and other heavy goods—categories that are increasingly purchased online. We then expanded our role in the e-commerce supply chain by establishing XPO as the second largest contract logistics provider worldwide, with the largest outsourced e-fulfillment platform in Europe.

2016 was also a period of significant integration, following two major acquisitions a year earlier. Those integrations are now largely complete. This has precipitated the transfer of knowledge across business units and geographies in areas such as customer service, sales, safety, warehouse operations, cross-dock operations, maintenance, training and human resources. Many of the best practices we’re adopting will be further enhanced by our technological development.

Our cloud-based technology and the cross-fertilization of best practices are two critical differentiators for our company. They leverage our scale, enhance our agility and unite us more strongly as an organization. In 2016, we elevated service to customers by sharing data globally with our senior salespeople, brought our brokerage software and last mile expertise to Europe, and instilled best-in-class practices across regions.

Also in 2016, we introduced proprietary pricing systems for our less-than-truckload operations and deployed 14,000 new handheld devices to improve dockworker and driver efficiency. In last mile, we rolled out software that gives us new capabilities for complex installations while maintaining our leading consumer satisfaction scores. Our proprietary Freight Optimizer and Rail Optimizer platforms are the industry’s most advanced technology for truck brokerage and intermodal operations.

In logistics, our warehouses are becoming high-tech hubs with a combination of automated systems and robotics. Our technology creates labor efficiencies, improves inventory accuracy, and helps customers speed their products to market. For example, we use robots to automate the returns process for millions of telecommunication products a year. Robots wipe the items clean while our systems run through automated processes for warranty management, refurbishment, repair and resale. We can also customize products on the fly very close to fulfillment.

All of our initiatives boil down to one simple concept: results matter. Our goal is to help customers operate more efficiently and take out costs, while creating superior value for our investors. The clarity of this vision is a major reason why our employees are so highly engaged, and why our customers entrust us with over 150,000 shipments and five billion inventory units a day. In 2016, our more than 87,000 employees did an outstanding job of showing the world what we can achieve together as a global team. Our people are heroes to our customers. They inspire me every day with their drive and their pride in XPO.

1 Adjusted EBITDA and free cash flow are non-GAAP measures. Reconciliations to GAAP measures are provided in the attached financial tables on the last page of this annual report.

For our investors, our strategic execution has significantly increased XPO’s stock price since present management took over in late 2011, far outpacing the Dow Jones Industrial Average, the Dow Jones Transportation Average, the S&P 500, and other relevant benchmarks. Our company is now even better positioned to create future shareholder appreciation, with a strong global brand and value proposition.

Financial Highlights

For the full year 2016, XPO reported revenue of $14.6 billion, net income attributable to common shareholders of $63 million, adjusted EBITDA of $1.25 billion, cash flow from operations of $625 million, and free cash flow of $211 million.

The strongest organic growth came from our last mile unit in North America and our global contract logistics operations, both of which benefitted from e-commerce. In our North American less-than-truckload unit, higher yield and lower SG&A drove a 440 basis point improvement in operating margin versus 20152, as we transformed the operations during integration.

Our focus remains on further enhancing customer service while realizing the many profit improvement opportunities embedded in our business. This year, we’ll get the full 12-month benefit of the numerous efficiencies we implemented throughout 2016 in procurement, real estate, back office operations and workplace technologies. We have more savings to realize in each of these areas, along with cross-dock and warehouse automation, labor productivity and the global adoption of best practices.

In August 2016, we completed an opportunistic refinancing of $2.6 billion of debt. In October, we divested our asset-based truckload operation in North America, using the proceeds to pay down $550 million of debt. In March 2017, we refinanced our $1.5 billion existing term loan agreement at more favorable terms. We estimate that these actions together reduced our cash interest expense by more than $75 million annually.

Our leverage is comfortably within our long-term target of three to four times net debt over adjusted EBITDA. Approximately 89% of our debt matures in 2021 or later, and all of our debt is covenant-light. We expect that free cash flow in 2017 will provide additional opportunities to reduce debt, should we choose to do so.

Outlook

Our 2016 performance is a springboard for robust returns. Going forward, we expect a 17% year-over-year increase in adjusted EBITDA in 2017, and another 17% in 2018, with cash generation growing at a significantly faster pace than EBITDA each year. Our financial targets are:

• For 2017, full-year adjusted EBITDA of at least $1.350 billion.

• For 2018, full-year adjusted EBITDA of at least $1.575 billion.

• For 2017—2018, cumulative free cash flow of approximately $900 million, including at least $350 million of free cash flow generated in 2017.

Last year, we became a Fortune 500 company for the first time and were named the fastest-growing company on the list. Forbes ranked us #17 among innovative growth companies and #263 among America’s best employers. We appreciate these accolades as recognition that our growth strategy is working: we’re leveraging our network of people, technology and assets to simultaneously create value for all our stakeholders.

Here’s what I find most exciting about XPO: As large as we are, we hold just a 1.5% share of a $1 trillion addressable market. We’re standing on the threshold of this massive opportunity with internal initiatives underway around the world to serve our customers even better, continuously improve our performance, lower our procurement costs, expand our global sales efforts, and compensate and motivate our people.

Our service range is managed by industry veterans in each line of business, led by an executive team and board whose interests align with our investors. We have a high-caliber sales organization cooperating on a $3.25 billion

2 Year-over-year comparison is based on 2015 acquisition pro forma for the full year.

pipeline of active bids. Our cutting-edge technology differentiates our brand, and our value proposition resonates with customers, particularly large companies that operate in fast-growing sectors. Over 60% of Fortune 100 companies use our services, an indication of how quickly we’ve earned trust in a few short years.

Along the way, we’ve met or exceeded every financial target we issued. Now we’re on track to accelerate EBITDA and free cash flow in 2017, and again in 2018, while helping our customers achieve greater success— once again delivering the results that matter.

April 17, 2017

Bradley S. Jacobs Chairman and Chief Executive Officer

XPO LOGISTICS, INC.

Five American Lane Greenwich, Connecticut 06831

NOTICE OF ANNUAL MEETING OF STOCKHOLDERS To Be Held on May 10, 2017

To the Stockholders of XPO Logistics, Inc.:

Notice is hereby given that the annual meeting of stockholders of XPO Logistics, Inc. will be held on Wednesday, May 10, 2017 at 10:00 a.m. Eastern Daylight Time at Five Greenwich Office Park, Greenwich, Connecticut 06831, for the following purposes as more fully described in the proxy statement:

• To elect seven (7) members of our Board of Directors for a term to expire at the 2018 annual meeting of stockholders or until their successors are duly elected and qualified;

• To ratify the appointment of KPMG LLP as our independent registered public accounting firm for fiscal year 2017;

• To conduct an advisory vote to approve the executive compensation of our named executive officers as disclosed in this proxy statement;

• To consider and act upon a stockholder proposal, if properly presented at the annual meeting; and

• To consider and transact such other business as may properly come before the annual meeting or any adjournments or postponements thereof.

Only stockholders of record of our common stock, par value $0.001 per share, and our Series A Convertible Perpetual Preferred Stock, par value $0.001 per share, as of the close of business on March 24, 2017, the “Record Date,” are entitled to receive notice of, and to vote at, the annual meeting or any adjournment or postponement of the annual meeting.

Please note that if you plan to attend the annual meeting in person, you will need to register in advance and receive an admission ticket in order to be admitted. Please follow the instructions on pages 4 – 9 of the proxy statement.

Your vote is important. Whether or not you plan to attend the annual meeting in person, it is important that your shares be represented. We ask that you vote your shares as soon as possible.

By Order of the Board of Directors,

Bradley S. Jacobs Chairman and Chief Executive Officer

Greenwich, Connecticut April 17, 2017

Important Notice Regarding the Availability of Proxy Materials for the Annual Meeting of Stockholders to Be Held on May 10, 2017

This Proxy Statement and our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the Year Ended December 31, 2016 are available at www.edocumentview.com/XPO.

Table of Contents

PROXY STATEMENT SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS ABOUT OUR ANNUAL MEETING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 BOARD OF DIRECTORS AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

Directors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Summary of Director Qualifications and Experience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Role of the Board and Board Leadership Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Board Risk Oversight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Committees of the Board and Committee Membership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Director Compensation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Compensation Committee Interlocks and Insider Participation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Corporate Governance Guidelines and Codes of Ethics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Exclusive Forum Bylaw Amendment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Director Independence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Director Selection Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Human Capital Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Stockholder Communication with the Board . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Stockholder Proposals for Next Year’s Annual Meeting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS AND RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 SECURITY OWNERSHIP OF CERTAIN BENEFICIAL OWNERS AND MANAGEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

Compensation Discussion and Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Compensation Committee Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Compensation Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Employment Agreements with Named Executive Officers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

EQUITY COMPENSATION PLAN INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 SECTION 16(a) BENEFICIAL OWNERSHIP REPORTING COMPLIANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 AUDIT-RELATED MATTERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54

Report of the Audit Committee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Policy Regarding Pre-Approval of Services Provided by the Outside Auditors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Services Provided by the Outside Auditors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

PROPOSALS TO BE PRESENTED AT THE ANNUAL MEETING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 PROPOSAL 1: ELECTION OF DIRECTORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 PROPOSAL 2: RATIFICATION OF THE APPOINTMENT OF KPMG LLP AS OUR

INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM FOR 2017 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 PROPOSAL 3: ADVISORY VOTE TO APPROVE EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 PROPOSAL 4: STOCKHOLDER PROPOSAL REGARDING AN ANNUAL SUSTAINABILITY

REPORT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 OTHER MATTERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 AVAILABILITY OF ANNUAL REPORT AND PROXY STATEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64

Important Notice Regarding the Availability of Proxy Materials for the Annual Meeting of Stockholders to Be Held on May 10, 2017

This Proxy Statement and our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the Year Ended December 31, 2016 are available at www.edocumentview.com/XPO.

PROXY STATEMENT SUMMARY

This proxy statement sets forth information relating to the solicitation of proxies by the Board of Directors of XPO Logistics, Inc. in connection with our company’s 2017 annual meeting of stockholders. This summary highlights information contained elsewhere in this proxy statement. This summary does not contain all of the information that you should consider, and you should read the entire proxy statement carefully before voting.

2017 Annual Meeting of Stockholders

Date and Time: May 10, 2017 at 10:00 a.m. Eastern Daylight Time

Place: Five Greenwich Office Park, Greenwich, Connecticut 06831

Record Date: You can vote if you were a stockholder of record of our company as of the close of business on March 24, 2017.

Admission: You will need an admission ticket to enter the annual meeting. You may request an admission ticket by providing the name under which you hold shares of record or, if your shares are held in the name of a bank, broker or other holder of record, the evidence of your beneficial ownership of the shares, the number of admission tickets you are requesting and your contact information.

You can submit your request by sending an e-mail to annualmeeting@xpo.com OR by calling us toll-free at (855) 976-6951.

Voting Matters and Board Recommendations

The Board is not aware of any matter that will be presented for a vote at the 2017 annual meeting of stockholders other than those shown below.

Board Vote Recommendation

Page Reference (for more detail)

Proposal 1: Election of Directors To elect seven (7) members of our Board of Directors for a term to expire at the 2018 annual meeting of stockholders or until their successors are duly elected and qualified

FOR each Director Nominee

10-23, 57

Proposal 2: Ratification of Appointment of Independent Public Accounting Firm FOR 54-56, 58 To ratify the appointment of KPMG LLP as our independent registered public accounting firm for fiscal year 2017

Proposal 3: Advisory Vote to Approve Executive Compensation FOR 29-51, 59 To conduct an advisory vote to approve the executive compensation of our named executive officers (the “NEOs”) as disclosed in this proxy statement

Proposal 4: Stockholder Proposal Regarding an Annual Sustainability Report AGAINST 60-63 To issue an annual sustainability report regarding environmental, social and governance related issues affecting the company

How to Cast Your Vote (page 7 and proxy card)

If you are a registered stockholder (i.e., you hold your shares in your own name), you can vote by proxy in three convenient ways:

• By telephone: Call toll-free 1-800-652-VOTE (8683) and follow the instructions.

• By internet: Go to www.envisionreports.com/XPO and follow the instructions.

• By mail: Complete, sign, date and return your proxy card in the provided envelope.

1

Telephone and internet voting facilities for stockholders of record will be available 24 hours a day and will close at 1:00 a.m. Eastern Daylight Time on May 10, 2017.

If you are the beneficial owner of shares, please follow the voting instructions provided by your broker, trustee or other nominee.

Board of Director Nominees (pages 10-23, 57)

The following table provides summary information about each director nominee. Each director is elected annually by a majority of the votes cast. The average age of our director nominees is 61 years and the average tenure is 4.4 years.

Committee Memberships

Name Age Director

Since Occupation Independent AC CC NCGC AcqC

Bradley S. Jacobs 60 2011 Chairman and CEO, XPO Logistics, Inc.

Gena L. Ashe 55 2016 Executive Vice President, Chief Legal Officer and Corporate Secretary (retired), BrightView Landscapes, LLC

Y C

Louis DeJoy 59 2015 Chief Executive Officer, Supply Chain (retired), XPO Logistics, Inc.

Michael G. Jesselson 65 2011 Lead Independent Director, XPO Logistics, Inc. President and Chief Executive Officer, Jesselson Capital Corporation

Y ✓ ✓

Adrian P. Kingshott 57 2011 Chief Executive Officer, AdSon LLC

Y ✓ C ✓

Jason D. Papastavrou* 54 2011 Founder and Chief Investment Officer, ARIS Capital Management, LLC

Y ✓ ✓ ✓ C

Oren G. Shaffer* 74 2011 Vice Chairman and Chief Financial Officer (retired), Qwest Communications International, Inc.

Y C

C = Committee Chair ✓ = Committee Member * = Audit Committee Financial Expert

AC = Audit Committee CC = Compensation Committee NCGC = Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee

AcqC = Acquisition Committee

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Governance and Compensation Highlights

Board Independence Five of our seven current directors are independent; the Audit Committee, Compensation Committee and Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee consist entirely of independent directors.

Board Leadership In 2016, our Board added a robust lead independent director position to its leadership structure to complement the roles of our independent committees and independent committee chairs in providing effective Board oversight. These independent structures work in conjunction with the dual roles served by our Chairman and Chief Executive Officer. The Board believes that the Board and company’s leadership structure functions well for our company and is in the best interests of our stockholders based on the current strategy and ownership structure.

Board Refreshment Our Board is committed to practices that create an effective mix of useful expertise and fresh perspectives, including the thoughtful refreshment of the Board when appropriate. In 2015, the Board initiated a process to seek out highly qualified director candidates who bring relevant experience to the Board and reflect our company’s growing scale and diversity. This resulted in the addition of two new directors, one in 2015 and one in 2016. We regularly review our Board practices and composition.

Committee Chair Rotations As part of its annual review of Board committee composition and committee chair assignments, in March 2016, the Board reconstituted the committees and rotated committee chairs in order to enhance the effective functioning of the committees and bring fresh perspectives to committee processes.

Annual Director Elections All directors are elected annually for one-year terms until their successors are elected and qualified.

Majority Voting for Director Elections

Our bylaws provide for a majority voting standard in uncontested elections, and further require that a director who fails to receive a majority vote must tender his or her resignation to the Board.

Board Evaluations Our Board evaluates committee and director performance and practices regularly.

Risk Oversight and Financial Reporting

Our Board seeks to provide robust oversight of current and potential risks facing our company and its business and demonstrate strong financial reporting practices.

Clawback Policy Our Named Executive Officers (“NEOs”) and other policy-making executive officers are subject to clawback provisions with respect to annual and long-term cash incentive compensation.

Lock-up Restrictions Our NEOs are subject to lock-up restrictions that generally prohibit the sale of any equity awarded by our company until September 2, 2018.

Stock Ownership Guidelines In 2016, our Board established stock ownership guidelines for our NEOs and other executive officers to further align their interests with those of our stockholders.

No Hedging or Pledging of Company Securities

Under our insider trading policy, our company’s directors and executive officers, including the NEOs, are prohibited from pledging and hedging transactions involving our company’s securities.

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PROXY STATEMENT

This proxy statement sets forth information relating to the solicitation of proxies by the Board of Directors (our “Board of Directors” or our “Board”) of XPO Logistics, Inc. (“XPO Logistics” or our “company”) in connection with our company’s 2017 annual meeting of stockholders or any adjournment or postponement of the annual meeting. This proxy statement is being furnished by our Board of Directors for use at the annual meeting of stockholders to be held on May 10, 2017 at 10:00 a.m. Eastern Daylight Time at Five Greenwich Office Park, Greenwich, Connecticut 06831.

This proxy statement and form of proxy are first being mailed on or about April 17, 2017, to our stockholders of record as of the close of business on March 24, 2017 (the “Record Date”).

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS ABOUT OUR ANNUAL MEETING

The following questions and answers address some questions you may have regarding the annual meeting. These questions and answers may not include all the information that may be important to you as a stockholder of our company. Please refer to the more detailed information contained elsewhere in this proxy statement.

What items of business will be voted on at the annual meeting?

We expect that the business put forth for a vote at the annual meeting will be as follows:

• To elect seven (7) members of our Board of Directors for a term to expire at the 2018 annual meeting of stockholders or until their successors are duly elected and qualified (Proposal 1);

• To ratify the appointment of KPMG LLP (“KPMG”) as our independent registered public accounting firm for 2017 (Proposal 2);

• To conduct an advisory vote to approve the executive compensation of our named executive officers as disclosed in this proxy statement (Proposal 3);

• To consider and act upon a stockholder proposal, if properly presented at the annual meeting (Proposal 4); and

• To consider and transact such other business as may properly come before the annual meeting or any adjournments or postponements thereof.

In addition, senior management of XPO Logistics and representatives of our outside auditor, KPMG, will be available to respond to questions.

Who can attend and vote at the annual meeting?

You are entitled to receive notice of and to attend and vote at the annual meeting, or any adjournment or postponement thereof, if, as of the close of business on March 24, 2017, the Record Date, you were a holder of record of our common stock or Series A Convertible Perpetual Preferred Stock (the “Series A Preferred Stock”).

As of the Record Date, there were issued and outstanding 111,551,028 shares of common stock, each of which is entitled to one vote on each matter to come before the annual meeting. In addition, as of the Record Date, there were issued and outstanding 71,510 shares of Series A Preferred Stock. Each share of Series A Preferred Stock is entitled to vote together with our common stock on each matter to come before the annual meeting as if the share of Series A Preferred Stock were converted into shares of common stock as of the Record Date, meaning that each share of Series A Preferred Stock is entitled to approximately 143 votes on each matter to come before the annual meeting. As a result, a total of 121,766,742 votes are eligible to be cast at the annual meeting based on the number of outstanding shares of our common stock and Series A Preferred Stock, voting together as a single class.

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If you wish to attend the annual meeting and your shares are held in an account at a broker, dealer, commercial bank, trust company or other nominee (i.e., in “street name”), you will need to bring a copy of your voting instruction card or statement reflecting your share ownership as of the Record Date, as well as an admission card as outlined below. Street name holders who wish to vote at the annual meeting will need to obtain a proxy from the broker, dealer, commercial bank, trust company or other nominee that holds their shares.

Do I need a ticket to attend the annual meeting?

Yes, you will need an admission card to enter the annual meeting. You may request tickets by providing the name under which you hold shares of record or, if your shares are held in the name of a bank, broker or other holder of record, the evidence of your beneficial ownership of the shares as of the Record Date, the number of tickets you are requesting and your contact information. You can submit your request in the following ways:

• By sending an e-mail to annualmeeting@xpo.com; or

• By calling us toll-free at (855) 976-6951.

Stockholders also must present a form of personal photo identification in order to be admitted to the annual meeting.

How many shares must be present to conduct business at the annual meeting?

A quorum is necessary to hold a valid meeting of stockholders. For each of the proposals to be presented at the annual meeting, the holders of shares of our common stock or Series A Preferred Stock outstanding on the Record Date representing 60,883,372 votes must be present at the annual meeting, in person or by proxy. If you vote—including by internet, telephone or proxy card—your shares voted will be counted towards the quorum for the annual meeting. Abstentions and broker non-votes are counted as present for the purpose of determining a quorum.

What are my voting choices?

With respect to the election of directors, you may vote “FOR” or “AGAINST” each of the director nominees, or you may “ABSTAIN” from voting for one or more of such nominees. With respect to the other proposals to be considered at the annual meeting, you may vote “FOR” or “AGAINST” or you may “ABSTAIN” from voting on any proposal. If you sign your proxy or voting instruction card without giving specific instructions, your shares will be voted in accordance with the recommendations of our Board of Directors and in the discretion of the proxy holders on any other matters that properly come before the annual meeting.

What vote is required to approve the proposals being considered at the annual meeting?

• Proposal 1: Election of seven (7) directors. The election of each of the seven (7) director nominees named in this proxy statement requires the affirmative vote of a majority of the votes cast (meaning the number of shares voted “for” a nominee must exceed the number of shares voted “against” such nominee) by holders of shares of our common stock (including those that would be issued if all our outstanding Series A Preferred Stock had converted into shares of our common stock as of the Record Date) at the annual meeting at which a quorum is present. If any incumbent director standing for re-election receives a greater number of votes “against” his or her election than votes “for” such election, our bylaws require that such person must promptly tender his or her resignation to our Board of Directors. You may not accumulate your votes for the election of directors.

Brokers may not use discretionary authority to vote shares on the election of directors if they have not received specific instructions from their clients. If you are a beneficial owner of shares, for your vote to be counted in the election of directors, you will need to communicate your voting decisions to your

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bank, broker or other nominee before the date of the annual meeting in accordance with their specific instructions. Abstentions and broker non-votes are not considered votes cast for purposes of tabulation of such vote, and will have no effect on the election of director nominees.

• Proposal 2: Ratification of the appointment of KPMG LLP as our independent registered public accounting firm for 2017. Ratification of the appointment of KPMG as our independent registered public accounting firm for the year ending December 31, 2017, requires the affirmative vote of a majority of the votes cast (meaning the number of shares voted “for” such proposal must exceed the number of shares voted “against” such proposal) by holders of shares of our common stock (including those that would be issued if all our outstanding Series A Preferred Stock had converted into shares of our common stock as of the Record Date) at the annual meeting at which a quorum is present. Abstentions are not considered votes cast for purposes of tabulation of the foregoing vote, and will have no effect on the ratification of KPMG. We do not expect any broker non-votes as brokers have discretionary authority to vote on this proposal.

• Proposal 3: Advisory vote to approve executive compensation. Advisory approval of the resolution on executive compensation of our named executive officers as disclosed in this proxy statement requires the affirmative vote of a majority of the votes cast (meaning the number of shares voted “for” such proposal must exceed the number of shares voted “against” such proposal) by holders of shares of our common stock (including those that would be issued if all our outstanding Series A Preferred Stock had converted into shares of our common stock as of the Record Date) at the annual meeting at which a quorum is present. This resolution, commonly referred to as a “say-on-pay” resolution, is non-binding on our Board of Directors. Although non-binding, our Board of Directors and the Compensation Committee will review and consider the voting results when making future decisions regarding our executive compensation program.

Brokers may not use discretionary authority to vote shares on the advisory vote to approve executive compensation if they have not received specific instructions from their clients. If you are a beneficial owner of shares, for your vote to be counted in the advisory vote to approve executive compensation, you will need to communicate your voting decisions to your bank, broker or other nominee before the date of the annual meeting in accordance with their specific instructions. Abstentions and broker non-votes are not considered votes cast for purposes of tabulation of such vote, and will have no effect on the advisory vote to approve executive compensation.

• Proposal 4: Stockholder proposal regarding an annual sustainability report. Approval of the issuance of an annual sustainability report regarding environmental, social and governance related issues affecting the company requires the affirmative vote of a majority of the votes cast (meaning the number of shares voted “for” such proposal must exceed the number of shares voted “against” such proposal) by holders of shares of our common stock (including those that would be issued if all our outstanding Series A Preferred Stock had converted into shares of our common stock as of the Record Date) at the annual meeting at which a quorum is present.

Brokers may not use discretionary authority to vote shares on the stockholder proposal if they have not received specific instructions from their clients. If you are a beneficial owner of shares, for your vote to be counted in favor of the stockholder proposal regarding annual sustainability reporting, you will need to communicate your voting decisions to your bank, broker or other nominee before the date of the annual meeting in accordance with their specific instructions. Abstentions and broker non-votes are not considered votes cast for purposes of tabulation of such vote, and will have no effect on the vote on this stockholder proposal.

In general, other business properly brought before the annual meeting requires the affirmative vote of a majority of the votes cast (meaning the number of shares voted “for” such proposal must exceed the number of shares voted “against” such proposal) by holders of shares of our common stock (including those that would be issued if all our outstanding Series A Preferred Stock had converted into shares of our common stock as of the Record Date) at the annual meeting at which a quorum is present.

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How does the Board of Directors recommend that I vote?

Our Board of Directors, after careful consideration, recommends that our stockholders vote “FOR” the election of each director nominee named in this proxy statement, “FOR” ratification of KPMG as our independent registered public accounting firm for 2017, “FOR” advisory approval of the resolution to approve executive compensation, and “AGAINST” the approval of the stockholder proposal regarding annual sustainability reporting, if such proposal is properly brought at the meeting.

What do I need to do now?

We urge you to read this proxy statement carefully. Then just mail your completed, dated and signed proxy card in the enclosed return envelope as soon as possible so that your shares can be voted at the annual meeting of stockholders. Holders of record may also vote by telephone or the internet by following the instructions on the proxy card.

How do I cast my vote?

Registered Stockholders. If you are a registered stockholder (i.e., you hold your shares in your own name through our transfer agent, Computershare Trust Company, N.A., and not through a broker, bank or other nominee that holds shares for your account in “street name”), you may vote by proxy via the internet, by telephone, or by mail by following the instructions provided on the proxy card. Proxies submitted via telephone or internet must be received by 1:00 a.m. Eastern Daylight Time on May 10, 2017. Please see the proxy card provided to you for instructions on how to submit your proxy by telephone or the internet. Stockholders of record who attend the annual meeting may vote in person by obtaining a ballot from the inspector of elections.

Beneficial Owners. If you are a beneficial owner of shares (i.e., your shares are held in the name of a brokerage firm, bank or a trustee), you may vote by proxy by following the instructions provided in the voting instruction form or other materials provided to you by the brokerage firm, bank or other nominee that holds your shares. To vote in person at the annual meeting, you must obtain a legal proxy from the brokerage firm, bank or other nominee that holds your shares.

What is the deadline to vote?

If you hold shares as the stockholder of record, your vote by proxy must be received before the polls close at the annual meeting. As indicated on the proxy card provided to you, proxies submitted via telephone or internet must be received by 1:00 a.m. Eastern Daylight Time on May 10, 2017.

If you are the beneficial owner of shares, please follow the voting instructions provided by your broker, trustee or other nominee.

What happens if I do not respond or if I respond and fail to indicate my voting preference or if I abstain from voting?

If you fail to sign, date and return your proxy card or fail to vote by telephone or internet as provided on your proxy card, your shares will not be counted towards establishing a quorum for the annual meeting, which requires holders representing a majority of the outstanding shares of our common stock (including those that would be issued if all of our outstanding Series A Preferred Stock had converted into shares of our common stock as of the Record Date) to be present in person or by proxy. Failure to vote, assuming the presence of a quorum, will have no effect on the tabulation of the vote on the proposals.

If you are a stockholder of record and you properly sign, date and return your proxy card, but do not indicate your voting preference, we will count your proxy as a vote “FOR” the election of the seven nominees for

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director named in “Proposal 1—Election of Directors,” “FOR” ratification of KPMG as our independent registered public accounting firm for 2017, “FOR” advisory approval of the resolution to approve executive compensation and “AGAINST” the approval of the stockholder proposal regarding annual sustainability reporting, if properly presented at the annual meeting.

If my shares are held in “street name” by my broker, dealer, commercial bank, trust company or other nominee, will such broker or other nominee vote my shares for me?

You should instruct your broker or other nominee on how to vote your shares using the instructions provided by such broker or other nominee. Absent specific voting instructions, brokers or other nominees who hold shares of our common stock in “street name” for customers are prevented by the rules set forth in the Listed Company Manual (the “NYSE Rules”) of the New York Stock Exchange (the “NYSE”) from exercising voting discretion in respect of non-routine or contested matters. We expect that when the NYSE evaluates the proposals to be voted on at the annual meeting to determine whether each proposal is a routine or non-routine matter, only “Proposal 2—Ratification of the Appointment of KPMG LLP as Our Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm for 2017” will be evaluated as routine. Shares not voted by a broker or other nominee because such broker or other nominee does not have instructions or cannot exercise discretionary voting power with respect to one or more proposals are referred to as “broker non-votes.” It is important that you instruct your broker or other nominee on how to vote your shares of our common stock held in “street name” in accordance with the voting instructions provided by such broker or other nominee.

Can I change my vote after I have mailed my proxy card?

Yes. Whether you attend the annual meeting or not, you may revoke a proxy at any time before your proxy is voted at the annual meeting. You may do so by properly delivering a later-dated proxy either by mail, the internet or telephone or by attending the annual meeting in person and voting. Please note, however, your attendance at the annual meeting will not automatically revoke any prior proxy unless you vote again at the annual meeting or specifically request in writing that your prior proxy be revoked. You also may revoke your proxy by delivering a notice of revocation to our company (Attention: Secretary, XPO Logistics, Inc., Five American Lane, Greenwich, Connecticut 06831) prior to the vote at the annual meeting. If you hold your shares through a broker, dealer, commercial bank, trust company or other nominee, you should follow the instructions of such broker or other nominee regarding revocation of proxies.

How will the persons named as proxies vote?

If you complete and submit a proxy, the persons named as proxies will follow your instructions. If you submit a proxy but do not provide instructions, or if your instructions are unclear, the persons named as proxies will vote as recommended by our Board of Directors or, if no recommendation is given, by using their own discretion.

Where can I find the results of the voting?

We intend to announce preliminary voting results at the annual meeting and will publish final results through a Current Report on Form 8-K to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) within four (4) business days after the annual meeting. The Current Report on Form 8-K will be available on the internet at our website, www.xpo.com.

Who will pay for the cost of soliciting proxies?

We will pay for the cost of soliciting proxies. We have engaged Innisfree M&A Incorporated to assist us in soliciting proxies in connection with the annual meeting, and have agreed to pay them approximately $12,500 plus their expenses for providing such services. Our directors, officers and other employees, without additional

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compensation, may solicit proxies personally, in writing, by telephone, by email or otherwise. As is customary, we will reimburse brokerage firms, fiduciaries, voting trustees, and other nominees for forwarding our proxy materials to each beneficial owner of common stock or Series A Preferred Stock held of record by them.

What is “householding” and how does it affect me?

In accordance with notices to many stockholders who hold their shares through a bank, broker or other holder of record (a “street-name stockholder”) and share a single address, only one copy of our proxy statement and 2016 annual report to stockholders is being delivered to that address unless contrary instructions from any stockholder at that address were received. This practice, known as “householding,” is intended to reduce our printing and postage costs. However, any such street-name stockholder residing at the same address who wishes to receive a separate copy of this proxy statement and annual report may request a copy by contacting the bank, broker or other holder of record, or by sending a written request to: Investor Relations, XPO Logistics, Inc., Five American Lane, Greenwich, Connecticut 06831 or by contacting Investor Relations by telephone at (855) 976-6951. The voting instruction form sent to a street-name stockholder should provide information on how to request: (1) householding of future company materials, or (2) separate materials if only one set of documents is being sent to a household. A stockholder who would like to make one of these requests should contact us as indicated above.

Can I obtain an electronic copy of proxy materials?

Yes, this proxy statement, annual report and the proxy card are available on the internet at www.edocumentview.com/XPO.

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BOARD OF DIRECTORS AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

Directors

Our Board of Directors currently consists of seven (7) members, as set forth in the table below. The current term of each of our directors will expire at the 2017 annual meeting of stockholders. Our Board of Directors has nominated all current directors to stand for re-election at the annual meeting, as set forth in Proposal 1 on page 57 of this proxy statement.

Name Occupation

Bradley S. Jacobs Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, XPO Logistics, Inc.

Gena L. Ashe Executive Vice President, Chief Legal Officer and Corporate Secretary (retired), BrightView Landscapes, LLC

Louis DeJoy Chief Executive Officer, Supply Chain (retired), XPO Logistics, Inc.

Michael G. Jesselson Lead Independent Director, XPO Logistics, Inc.; President and Chief Executive Officer, Jesselson Capital Corporation

Adrian P. Kingshott Chief Executive Officer, AdSon LLC

Jason D. Papastavrou Founder and Chief Investment Officer, ARIS Capital Management, LLC

Oren G. Shaffer Vice Chairman and Chief Financial Officer (retired), Qwest Communications International, Inc.

Under the terms of an Investment Agreement, dated June 13, 2011 (the “Investment Agreement”), by and among Jacobs Private Equity, LLC (“JPE”), the other investors party thereto (collectively with JPE, the “Investors”), and our company, our company must take all necessary steps to nominate, and must use its reasonable best efforts to cause our Board of Directors to unanimously recommend that our stockholders vote in favor of, all nominees for election to our Board of Directors designated by Bradley S. Jacobs, as the managing member of JPE, subject to our Board of Directors’ fiduciary duties. JPE also has the right to designate certain percentages of the nominees for our Board of Directors so long as JPE owns securities (including preferred stock convertible into, or warrants exercisable for, securities) representing specified percentages of the total voting power of our capital stock on a fully-diluted basis. JPE does not currently exceed the indicated voting power thresholds under the Investment Agreement. The foregoing rights of JPE under the Investment Agreement are in addition to, and not in limitation of, JPE’s voting rights as a holder of capital stock of our company. JPE is controlled by Bradley S. Jacobs, our Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer. The Investment Agreement and the terms contemplated therein were approved by our stockholders at a special meeting on September 1, 2011.

None of the foregoing will prevent our Board of Directors from acting in accordance with its fiduciary duties or applicable law or stock exchange requirements or from acting in good faith in accordance with our governing documents, while giving due consideration to the intent of the Investment Agreement.

Our Board of Directors consists of a highly experienced group of business leaders, many of whom have served as executive officers or on boards and board committees of major companies and have an extensive understanding of the principles of corporate governance. Our Board as a whole has broad expertise in business administration, corporate finance, capital markets, compliance and risk assessment, corporate governance, corporate responsibility, mergers and acquisitions and integration, talent management, investment banking, legal and operational matters, as well as in the customer service, transportation and logistics sectors, and public company board experience. In addition, our directors have a strong owner orientation—approximately 16.3% of the voting power of our capital stock on a fully-diluted basis is held by our directors or by entities or persons related to our directors (as of the Record Date).

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We have set forth below information regarding each of our director nominees, including the experience, qualifications, attributes or skills that led our Board of Directors to conclude that such person should serve as a director.

Bradley S. Jacobs Mr. Jacobs has served as our Chief Executive Officer and Chairman of our Board of Directors since September 2, 2011. Mr. Jacobs is also the managing director of JPE, which is our second largest stockholder. He has led two public companies: United Rentals, Inc. (NYSE: URI), which he founded in 1997, and United Waste Systems, Inc., which he founded in 1989. Mr. Jacobs served as chairman and chief executive officer of United Rentals for that company’s first six years, and as its executive chairman for an additional four years. He served eight years as chairman and chief executive officer of United Waste Systems. Previously, Mr. Jacobs founded Hamilton Resources (UK) Ltd. and served as its chairman and chief operating officer. This followed the co-founding of his first venture, Amerex Oil Associates, Inc., where he was chief executive officer.

Director since 2011 Age: 60 Board Committees: None Other Public Company Boards: None

Mr. Jacobs brings to the Board:

• In-depth knowledge of the company’s business resulting from his years of service with the company in various capacities;

• Leadership experience as the company’s Chief Executive Officer and Chairman, and his successful track record of leading companies that execute strategies similar to ours; and

• Extensive past experience as the chairman of the board of directors of several public companies.

Gena L. Ashe Ms. Ashe joined our Board of Directors on March 21, 2016. Ms. Ashe has more than 20 years of broad-based legal experience across a variety of industries, most recently serving as executive vice president, chief legal officer and corporate secretary of BrightView Landscapes, LLC (formerly The Brickman Group, Ltd. LLC), the largest national commercial landscape, lawncare maintenance/construction and snow management company in the United States. In that role, which she held from February 2013 until March 2016, she was responsible for leading all aspects of BrightView’s legal, risk management, safety, compliance and corporate governance functions. Prior to joining BrightView, from September 2010 until October 2012, Ms. Ashe was senior vice president of legal affairs of Catalina Marketing Corporation, a global digital media enterprise for some of the world’s most well- known brands, and prior to that she held senior legal roles with the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS), Darden Restaurants, Inc. (parent company of Olive Garden, Red Lobster, Capital Grille, LongHorn Steakhouse, Bahama Breeze, and Eddie V’s restaurants), Lucent Technologies, Inc. and AT&T. Earlier, she was an electrical engineer with IBM Corporation before joining IBM’s legal team. Ms. Ashe holds a bachelor’s degree in mathematics, with a minor in physics, from Spelman College; a master’s degree in electrical engineering from Georgia Institute of Technology; and a doctor of law degree from Georgetown University, where she currently serves as a Georgetown University Law Advisory Board Member. She is a graduate of the executive development program of the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania, and holds a certificate in international management from Oxford University in England.

Director since 2016 Age: 55 Board Committees:

• Chair of Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee

Other Public Company Boards: None

Ms. Ashe brings to the Board:

• More than two decades of valuable legal experience with public and private companies, which enables her to provide guidance to the Board and company management on legal matters, compliance and risk assessment and corporate governance best practices; and

• An in-depth understanding of the dynamics of three of our most important customer verticals: e-commerce, technology and food and beverage.

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Louis DeJoy Mr. DeJoy has served as a director of the company since December 3, 2015. He was most recently chief executive officer of the XPO Logistics supply chain business in the Americas (retired as of December 7, 2015). Previously, he led New Breed Logistics as its chairman and chief executive officer from 1983 until XPO Logistics acquired New Breed in 2014. During that time, he grew the company from a small, regional operation to a leading U.S. provider of highly engineered, technology-driven contract logistics solutions. Mr. DeJoy is a member of the boards of trustees of Elon University and the PGA Wyndham Championship, and serves on the board of directors for The Fund for American Studies in Washington, DC. He is a past member of the board of trustees of Moses Cone Health System in North Carolina, and was an appointee to the President’s Commission on White House Fellowships. He holds a business degree from Stetson University.

Director since 2015 Age: 59 Board Committees:

• Member of Acquisition Committee Other Public Company Boards: None

Mr. DeJoy brings to the Board:

• Significant expertise in supply chain operations that allows him to provide valuable guidance to our Board on strategic and operational matters with respect to our logistics business unit.

Michael G. Jesselson Mr. Jesselson has served as a director of the company since September 2, 2011, and as lead independent director since March 20, 2016. Mr. Jesselson has served as president and chief executive officer of Jesselson Capital Corporation since 1994. He is a longstanding director of American Eagle Outfitters, Inc. and serves as that company’s lead independent director. Additionally, he is a director of C-III Capital Partners LLC and other private companies, as well as numerous philanthropic organizations. Mr. Jesselson was recently elected chairman of Bar Ilan University in Israel.

Director since 2011, Lead Independent Director since 2016

Age: 65 Board Committees:

• Member of Compensation Committee

• Member of Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee

Other Public Company Boards: American Eagle Outfitters, Inc. (since 1997)

Mr. Jesselson brings to the Board:

• Significant experience with public company corporate governance issues through service with American Eagle Outfitters on its board since 1997, and as its lead independent director since 2012; and

• Investment expertise.

Adrian P. Kingshott Mr. Kingshott has served as a director of the company since September 2, 2011. He is the chief executive officer of AdSon LLC and managing director of Spotlight Advisors, LLC. He has been a senior advisor to Headwaters Merchant Bank since 2013. Previously, for Goldman Sachs, he was co-head of that firm’s Leveraged Finance business and held other positions over a 17-year tenure. More recently, Mr. Kingshott was a managing director and portfolio manager at Amaranth Advisors, LLC. He is an adjunct professor of Global Capital Markets at Fairfield University’s Dolan School of Business, and an adjunct professor of Global Capital Markets and Investments at Fordham University’s Gabelli School of Business. He holds a master of business administration degree from Harvard Business School and a master of jurisprudence degree from Oxford University. Mr. Kingshott is a member of the board of directors of Centre Lane Investment Corp.

Director since 2011 Age: 57 Board Committees:

• Chairman of Compensation Committee

• Member of Audit Committee

• Member of Acquisition Committee Other Public Company Boards: None

Mr. Kingshott brings to the Board:

• More than 25 years of experience in the investment banking and investment management industries; and

• Expertise with respect to corporate governance, acquisition transactions, debt and equity financing and corporate financial management issues.

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Jason D. Papastavrou, Ph.D. Dr. Papastavrou has served as a director of the company since September 2, 2011. Dr. Papastavrou is the founder and chief investment officer of ARIS Capital Management, LLC. Previously, Dr. Papastavrou was the founder and managing director of the Fund of Hedge Funds Strategies Group of Banc of America Capital Management (BACAP), president of BACAP Alternative Advisors, and a senior portfolio manager with Deutsche Asset Management. He was a tenured professor at Purdue University School of Industrial Engineering, and holds a doctorate in electrical engineering and computer science from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Dr. Papastavrou serves on the board of directors of United Rentals, Inc.

Director since 2011 Age: 54 Board Committees:

• Chairman of Acquisition Committee

• Member of Audit Committee

• Member of Compensation Committee

• Member of Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee

Other Public Company Boards: United Rentals, Inc. (since 2005)

Dr. Papastavrou brings to the Board:

• Financial expertise from his qualifications as an “audit committee financial expert” under SEC regulations; and

• Extensive experience with finance and risk-related matters from holding senior positions at investment management firms.

Oren G. Shaffer Mr. Shaffer has served as a director of the company since September 2, 2011. From 2002 to 2007, Mr. Shaffer was vice chairman and chief financial officer of Qwest Communications International, Inc. (now CenturyLink, Inc.). Previously, Mr. Shaffer was president and chief operating officer of Sorrento Networks, Inc., executive vice president and chief financial officer of Ameritech Corporation, and held senior executive positions with The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, where he also served on the board of directors. Mr. Shaffer is a director on the board of Terex Corporation and Konecranes Plc. He holds a master’s degree in management from the Sloan School of Management, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and a degree in finance and business administration from the University of California, Berkeley.

Director since 2011 Age: 74 Board Committees:

• Chairman of Audit Committee Other Public Company Boards: Terex Corporation (since 2007)

Mr. Shaffer brings to the Board:

• Senior financial, operational and strategic experience with various large companies;

• Corporate governance expertise from serving as director of various public companies; and

• Financial expertise from his qualifications as an “audit committee financial expert” under SEC regulations.

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Summary of Director Qualifications and Experience

Bradley S. Jacobs

Gena L. Ashe

Louis DeJoy

Michael G. Jesselson

Adrian P. Kingshott

Jason D. Papastavrou,

Ph.D. Oren G. Shaffer

BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION experience brings valuable organizational techniques and leadership qualities.

Š Š Š Š Š Š Š

BUSINESS OPERATIONS experience provides a practical understanding of developing, implementing and assessing our operating plan and business strategy.

Š Š Š Š Š Š Š

CORPORATE GOVERNANCE experience bolsters Board and management accountability, transparency and a focus on stockholder interests.

Š Š Š Š Š Š Š

CUSTOMER SERVICE INDUSTRY experience brings important perspective to our Board given the importance of customer service to our business model.

Š Š Š Š

ENVIRONMENTAL, SUSTAINABILITY, CORPORATE RESPONSIBILITY experience allows our Board’s oversight to guide our long-term value creation for stockholders in a way that is responsible and sustainable.

Š Š Š Š

FINANCE/CAPITAL ALLOCATION experience is crucial to our Board’s evaluation of our financial statements and capital structure.

Š Š Š Š Š

FINANCIAL EXPERTISE/LITERACY assists our directors in understanding and overseeing our financial reporting and internal controls.

Š Š Š Š Š Š Š

HUMAN CAPITAL MANAGEMENT experience allows our Board to further our company’s goals for making XPO an attractive employment environment and aligning human resource objectives with our strategic and operational priorities.

Š Š Š Š

INTERNATIONAL experience is important given the global nature of our business strategy and operations.

Š Š Š Š Š Š Š

INVESTMENTS experience assists our Board in evaluating our financial statements and investment strategy.

Š Š Š Š Š Š

MARKETING/SALES experience helps our Board assist our business strategy and developing new products and operations.

Š Š Š

MERGERS & ACQUISITIONS and INTEGRATION experience helps our company identify the right targets for M&A activity that achieve our strategic objectives, and realize synergies and optimal growth.

Š Š Š Š Š Š Š

LOGISTICS INDUSTRY experience is important in understanding and reviewing our business and strategy.

Š Š Š

RISK MANAGEMENT experience is critical to our Board’s role in overseeing the risks facing our company.

Š Š Š Š Š Š Š

TALENT MANAGEMENT experience helps XPO attract, motivate and retain top candidates for our management and leadership.

Š Š Š Š Š Š Š

TECHNOLOGY/SYSTEMS experience is relevant as our company is continually seeking to enhance our customer experience and internal operations.

Š Š Š

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Role of the Board and Board Leadership Structure

Our business and affairs are managed under the direction of our Board of Directors, which is our company’s ultimate decision-making body, except with respect to those matters reserved to our stockholders. Our Board’s primary responsibility is to seek to maximize long-term stockholder value. Our Board establishes our overall corporate policies, selects and evaluates our senior management team, which is charged with the conduct of our business, monitors the performance of our company and management, and provides advice and counsel to management. In fulfilling the Board’s responsibilities, our directors have full access to our management, internal and external auditors and outside advisors.

Furthermore, our Board of Directors is committed to independent Board oversight. Our current Board leadership structure includes an executive Chairman and a lead director who is an independent director. The positions of Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer are both currently held by Mr. Jacobs. Our Board believes that this combination of roles is currently appropriate because the structure enables decisive leadership and ensures clear accountability in the context of strong Board practices and a Board culture that facilitates independent oversight. Our Board believes the dual roles function well for our company based on our current strategy, governance and ownership structure.

In 2016, our Board of Directors approved amendments to our company’s Corporate Governance Guidelines (the “Guidelines”) to provide that the independent directors may appoint a lead independent director who presides over executive sessions of the independent directors, and who shall serve a term of at least one year. On March 20, 2016, the independent directors appointed Mr. Jesselson to serve as lead independent director. The position of lead independent director has been structured to serve as an effective balance to the dual roles served by Mr. Jacobs. The lead independent director is selected from the independent directors of the Board of Directors. The lead independent director presides at all meetings of the Board of Directors at which the Chairman is not present and presides at all executive sessions of the independent directors. The Guidelines require that the independent directors meet at least once a year without members of management present, and the lead independent director is empowered to call additional meetings of the independent directors as necessary. In practice, our independent directors have met much more frequently in executive session. The lead independent director also serves as a liaison between the Chairman and the independent directors. Together with the Chairman, the lead independent director develops and approves Board meeting agendas, meeting schedules, and meeting materials to be distributed to our Board of Directors in order to assure sufficient time for informed discussions of issues. The lead independent director is also available to meet with significant stockholders as appropriate and required.

Further information regarding the position of lead independent director is set forth in the Guidelines. The Guidelines are available on the company’s corporate website at www.xpo.com under the Investors tab.

Our Board of Directors held ten meetings during 2016. In 2016, each person serving as a director attended at least 75% of the meetings of our Board of Directors and any Board committee on which he or she served. Our Board of Directors also acted five times during 2016 via unanimous written consent.

Our directors are expected to attend the annual meeting. Any director who is unable to attend the annual meeting is expected to notify the Chairman of the Board in advance of the annual meeting. Each person who was then serving as a director attended the 2016 annual meeting of stockholders.

Board Risk Oversight

Our Board of Directors provides overall risk oversight with a focus on the most significant risks facing our company. The management of the risks that we face in the conduct of our business is primarily the responsibility of our senior management team. Our senior management team periodically reviews with our Board of Directors any significant risks facing our company. Our business, strategy, operations, policies, controls and prospects are regularly discussed by our Board of Directors and management team, including discussions as to current and

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potential risks and approaches for assessing, monitoring, mitigating and controlling risk exposure. Our Board of Directors has delegated responsibility for the oversight of specific risks to the committees of the Board as follows:

• Audit Committee. The Audit Committee oversees the policies that govern the process by which our exposure to risk is assessed and managed by management. In that role, the Audit Committee discusses with our management major financial risk exposures and the steps that management has taken to monitor and control these exposures. The Audit Committee also is responsible for reviewing risks arising from related party transactions involving our company and for overseeing our company-wide Code of Business Ethics.

• Compensation Committee. The Compensation Committee monitors the risks associated with our compensation philosophy and programs.

• Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee. The Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee oversees risks related to our governance structure and processes.

• Acquisition Committee. The Acquisition Committee oversees risks related to the execution of our acquisition strategy.

Our Board of Directors and Compensation Committee, in consultation with our independent compensation consultant Semler Brossy Consulting Group, LLC (“Semler Brossy”), have assessed the risks that could arise from our employee compensation policies and do not believe that such policies are reasonably likely to have a materially adverse effect on our company.

Committees of the Board and Committee Membership

Our Board of Directors has established four separately designated standing committees to assist our Board of Directors in discharging its responsibilities: the Audit Committee, the Compensation Committee, the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee, and the Acquisition Committee. Our Board of Directors may eliminate or create additional committees as it deems appropriate. The charters for our Board committees are in compliance with applicable SEC rules and the NYSE Listed Company Manual. These charters are available at www.xpo.com. You may obtain a printed copy of any of these charters by sending a request to: Investor Relations, XPO Logistics, Inc., Five American Lane, Greenwich, Connecticut 06831.

The Audit Committee, the Compensation Committee, and the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee are composed entirely of independent directors within all applicable standards (as further discussed below). Our Board of Directors’ general policy is to review and approve committee assignments annually. The Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee is responsible, after consultation with our Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer and consideration of appropriate member qualifications, to recommend to our Board of Directors for approval all committee assignments, including designations of the chairs. Each committee is authorized to retain its own outside counsel and other advisors as it desires.

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The following table sets forth the current membership of each of our Board committees as of the Record Date. Mr. Jacobs does not serve on any Board committees.

Name Audit Committee Compensation

Committee Nominating and Corporate

Governance Committee Acquisition Committee

Gena L. Ashe C Louis DeJoy ✓ Michael G. Jesselson ✓ ✓ Adrian P. Kingshott ✓ C ✓ Jason D. Papastavrou* ✓ ✓ ✓ C Oren G. Shaffer* C

C = Committee Chair ✓ = Committee Member * = Audit Committee Financial Expert

A brief summary of the committees’ responsibilities follows:

Audit Committee. The Audit Committee assists our Board of Directors in fulfilling its responsibilities in a number of areas, including, without limitation, oversight of: (i) our accounting and financial reporting processes, including our systems of internal controls and disclosure controls, (ii) the integrity of our financial statements, (iii) our compliance with legal and regulatory requirements, (iv) the qualifications and independence of our outside auditors, (v) the performance of our outside auditors and internal audit function, and (vi) related party transactions. Each member of the Audit Committee satisfies all applicable independence standards, has not participated in the preparation of our financial statements at any time during the past three years, and is able to read and understand fundamental financial statements. From January 1, 2016, to March 20, 2016, the Audit Committee was comprised of the following three directors: Dr. Papastavrou (Chair), Mr. Jesselson and Mr. Kingshott. On March 20, 2016, Mr. Shaffer replaced Mr. Jesselson and was appointed the Chair of the Committee. The Audit Committee met five times during 2016 and acted once via unanimous written consent. Our Board of Directors has determined that Mr. Shaffer and Dr. Papastavrou each qualify as an “audit committee financial expert” as defined under Item 407(d)(5) of Regulation S-K under the Exchange Act.

Compensation Committee. The primary responsibilities of the Compensation Committee are, among other things: (i) to oversee the administration of our compensation programs, (ii) to review the compensation of our executive management and annual bonus compensation, (iii) to review company contributions to qualified and non-qualified plans, and (iv) to prepare any report on executive compensation required by SEC rules and regulations. From January 1, 2016, to March 20, 2016, the Compensation Committee was comprised of the following three directors: Mr. G. Chris Andersen (Chair), Dr. Papastavrou and Mr. Shaffer. On March 20, 2016, Mr. Kingshott replaced Mr. Shaffer and was appointed the Chair of the Committee. On May 11, 2016, Mr. Jesselson replaced Mr. Andersen. The Compensation Committee met seven times during 2016 and acted eight times via unanimous written consent.

Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee. The primary responsibilities of the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee are, among other things: (i) to identify individuals qualified to become Board members and recommend that our Board of Directors select such individuals to be presented for stockholder consideration at the annual meeting or to be appointed by the Board of Directors to fill a vacancy, (ii) to make recommendations to our Board of Directors concerning committee appointments, (iii) to develop, recommend to our Board of Directors and annually review the Guidelines and oversee corporate governance matters, and (iv) to oversee an annual evaluation of our Board of Directors and committees. From January 1, 2016, to March 20, 2016, the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee was comprised of the following three directors: Mr. Jesselson (Chair), Mr. Kingshott and Mr. Martell. On March 20, 2016, Ms. Ashe replaced Mr. Kingshott and was appointed the Chair of the Committee, and Dr. Papastavrou replaced Mr. Martell. The Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee met once during 2016.

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Acquisition Committee. The Acquisition Committee is responsible for reviewing and approving acquisition, divestiture and related transactions proposed by our management in which the total consideration to be paid or received by us, for any particular transaction, does not exceed the limits that may be established by our Board of Directors from time to time. From January 1, 2016, to March 20, 2016, the Acquisition Committee was comprised of the following three directors: Mr. Kingshott (Chair), Mr. Jesselson and Dr. Papastavrou. On March 20, 2016, Dr. Papastavrou was appointed the Chair of the Committee and Mr. DeJoy replaced Mr. Jesselson. The Acquisition Committee did not meet during 2016.

Director Compensation

The following table sets forth information concerning the compensation of each person who served as a non-employee director of our company during 2016.

2016 Director Compensation Table(1)

Name

Fees Earned or Paid in Cash ($)

Stock Awards(2) ($)

Option Awards(2) ($) Total ($)

G. Chris Andersen(3) $20,743 $172,081 — $192,824

Gena L. Ashe(4) $44,863 $140,716 — $185,579

Louis DeJoy(5) $50,000 $172,081 — $222,081

Michael G. Jesselson(6) $63,411 $172,081 — $235,492

Adrian P. Kingshott(7) $61,401 $172,081 — $233,482

James J. Martell(8) $17,995 $172,081 — $190,076

Jason D. Papastavrou(9) $58,599 $172,081 — $230,680

Oren G. Shaffer(9) $59,753 $172,081 — $231,834

(1) Compensation information for Mr. Jacobs, who is a named executive officer of our company, is disclosed in this proxy statement under the heading “Executive Compensation—Compensation Tables.” Mr. Jacobs did not receive additional compensation for his service as a director.

(2) The amounts reflected in this column represent the grant date fair value of the awards made in 2016, as computed in accordance with Financial Accounting Standards Board Accounting Standards Codification 718 “Compensation—Stock Compensation” (“ASC 718”). For further discussion of the assumptions used in the calculation of the grant date fair value, please see “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements—Note 12. Stock-Based Compensation” of our company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2016. The values reported in this column represent 6,501 restricted stock units (“RSUs”) granted to each of Messrs. Andersen, DeJoy, Jesselson, Kingshott, Martell and Shaffer and Dr. Papastavrou on January 4, 2016, for service as a director in 2016, which vested on January 4, 2017. Each current director serving on January 3, 2017, also received a grant of 3,970 RSUs on such date for service as a director in 2017, which grants are not reflected in the table above.

(3) Mr. Andersen retired from the Board on May 11, 2016. As of December 31, 2016, Mr. Andersen held 24,000 stock options and 6,501 RSUs. On May 11, 2016, the company entered into a consulting agreement with Mr. Andersen for a one year term. Pursuant to the consulting agreement, Mr. Andersen will receive (i) cash compensation of $1, (ii) vested stock options exercisable into 24,000 shares will continue to be exercisable during the one year term of the consulting agreement and until the earlier of the tenth anniversary of the grant date and one year after the expiration of the one year term of the consulting agreement, and (ii) 6,501 restricted stock units will vest on January 4, 2017 if services are continued under the consulting agreement.

(4) Ms. Ashe joined the Board on March 20, 2016.

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(5) As of December 31, 2016, Mr. DeJoy held 6,501 RSUs. Mr. DeJoy beneficially owns a total of 1,125,448 shares of our common stock as disclosed in this proxy statement under the heading “Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management.”

(6) As of December 31, 2016, Mr. Jesselson held 24,000 stock options and 6,501 RSUs. Mr. Jesselson beneficially owns a total of 341,723 shares of our common stock as disclosed in this proxy statement under the heading “Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management.”

(7) As of December 31, 2016, Mr. Kingshott held 24,000 stock options and 10,758 RSUs. Mr. Kingshott beneficially owns a total of 127,972 shares of our common stock as disclosed in this proxy statement under the heading “Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management.”

(8) Mr. Martell retired from the Board on May 11, 2016. As of December 31, 2016, Mr. Martell held 49,000 stock options and 6,501 RSUs. On May 11, 2016, the company entered into a consulting agreement with Mr. Martell for a two year term. Pursuant to the consulting agreement, Mr. Martell will receive (i) $6,250 per month, (ii) vested stock options exercisable into 25,000 shares of common stock will continue to be exercisable during the two year term of the consulting agreement and until the earlier of the tenth anniversary of the grant date and thirty days after the expiration of the two year term of the consulting agreement, (iii) vested stock options exercisable into 24,000 shares of common stock will continue to be exercisable during the two year term and until the earlier of the tenth anniversary of the grant date and one year after the expiration of the two year term of the consulting agreement, and (iv) 6,501 restricted stock units will vest on January 4, 2017 if services are continued under the consulting agreement.

(9) As of December 31, 2016, Dr. Papastavrou and Mr. Shaffer each held 24,000 stock options and 15,758 RSUs. Dr. Papastavrou beneficially owns a total of 236,847 shares of our common stock and Mr. Shaffer beneficially owns a total of 60,758 shares of our common stock as disclosed in this proxy statement under the heading “Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management.”

The compensation of our directors is subject to the approval of our Board of Directors, which is based, in part, on the review and recommendation of the Compensation Committee. Directors who are employees of our company do not receive additional compensation for service as members of either our Board of Directors or its committees. In December 2015, in consultation with Semler Brossy and upon the recommendation of our Compensation Committee, our Board of Directors reviewed our outside director compensation program and decided that no changes were necessary for 2016.

During 2016, our non-employee directors received an annual cash retainer of $50,000, payable quarterly in arrears, and an annual RSU grant with a target grant date value of $175,000. The RSUs were granted on the first business day of the calendar year and vested on the first anniversary of the grant date. The number of RSUs granted to each outside director was determined by dividing $175,000 by the average of the closing prices of the company’s common stock on the ten trading days immediately preceding the grant date. Unvested stock options and RSUs will be forfeited upon termination of service for any reason. Also, during 2016, under our outside director compensation program, the chairpersons of our Audit Committee, Compensation Committee, Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee and Acquisition Committee each received an additional annual cash retainer of $12,500, $12,500, $7,500 and $7,500, respectively, payable quarterly in arrears. No other fees were paid to our directors for their attendance at or participation in meetings of our Board or its committees. We also reimbursed our directors for expenses incurred in the performance of their duties, including reimbursement for air travel and hotel expenses.

In 2016, our Board adopted stock ownership guidelines and stock retention requirements that apply to our non-employee directors and executive officers. Non-employee directors are subject to a stock ownership guideline of six (6) times the annual cash retainer. To determine compliance with these guidelines, generally, common shares held directly or indirectly, and unvested restricted stock units subject solely to time-based vesting, count towards meeting the stock ownership guidelines. Stock options, whether vested or unvested, and equity-based awards subject to performance-based vesting conditions, are not counted towards meeting the stock ownership guidelines. Until the guidelines are met, 70% of the net shares (after tax withholding) received upon vesting of equity-based awards are required to be retained by the director. As of the Record Date, each of our

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non-employee directors other than Ms. Ashe, who joined the Board in March 2016, was in compliance with our stock ownership guidelines.

On March 14, 2017, the Board of Directors, acting upon the recommendation of the Compensation Committee and in consultation with its independent compensation consultant, Semler Brossy, approved and adopted a revised non-employee director annual compensation program that will apply in calendar year 2017 and subsequent years. Effective January 1, 2017, our non-employee directors will receive an annual cash retainer of $75,000, payable quarterly in arrears and time-based restricted stock units (“Time-Based RSUs”) worth $175,000. The annual grant of such Time-Based RSUs will be made on the first business day of each year (the “RSU Grant Date”) and the number of such units will be determined by dividing $175,000 by the average of the closing prices of the company’s common stock on the ten trading days immediately preceding the RSU Grant Date. The lead independent director will also receive a $25,000 annual cash retainer, payable quarterly in arrears. Under the revised non-employee director annual compensation program, the chairpersons of our Audit Committee, Compensation Committee, Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee and Acquisition Committee will each receive an additional cash retainer of $25,000, $15,000, $15,000 and $15,000, respectively, payable quarterly in arrears.

Under the revised non-employee director annual compensation program, Mr. Jesselson received a one-time cash retainer for his service as lead independent director in 2016 in an amount equal to the pro rata portion of an annualized retainer of $15,000, calculated from the date of his appointment on March 20, 2016. Ms. Ashe also received a one-time grant of Time-Based RSUs for her service as a director in 2016 in an amount equal to the pro rata portion of an annual grant of $175,000, calculated from the date of her appointment on March 20, 2016 and determined by dividing the pro rata portion of $175,000 by the average of the closing prices of the company’s common stock on the ten trading days immediately preceding the One-Time Grant Date. The vesting date of Ms. Ashe’s one-time grant will be January 1, 2018.

Compensation Committee Interlocks and Insider Participation

None of the members of our Compensation Committee has been an officer or employee of our company. During our last completed fiscal year, none of our executive officers served as a member of the compensation committee of any entity that has one or more executive officers serving on our Compensation Committee.

Corporate Governance Guidelines and Codes of Ethics

Our Board of Directors is committed to sound corporate governance principles and practices. Our Board adopted the Guidelines on January 16, 2012, and most recently adopted amendments to the Guidelines in March 2016, to, among other matters (i) provide for a robust lead independent director position as described further in “Role of the Board and Board Leadership Structure” on page 15, and (ii) reflect the Board’s commitment, when searching for new directors, to actively seek out highly qualified women and individuals from minority groups to include in the pool from which Board nominees are chosen. Our Board continues to seek out highly qualified board candidates who bring relevant expertise and reflect the company’s growing scale and diversity.

The Guidelines serve as a framework within which our Board of Directors conducts its operations. Among other things, the Guidelines include criteria for determining the qualifications and independence of the members of our Board, requirements for the standing committees of our Board, responsibilities for members of our Board, and the annual evaluation of the effectiveness of our Board and its committees. The Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee is responsible for reviewing the Guidelines annually, or more frequently as appropriate, and recommending to our Board appropriate changes in light of applicable laws and regulations, the governance standards identified by leading governance authorities, and our company’s evolving needs.

We have a Code of Business Ethics that applies to our directors and executive officers. This code is designed to deter wrongdoing, to promote the honest and ethical conduct of all employees and to promote

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compliance with applicable governmental laws, rules and regulations, as well as to provide clear channels for reporting concerns. The Code of Business Ethics constitutes a “code of ethics” as defined in Item 406(b) of Regulation S-K. We intend to satisfy the disclosure requirements under applicable SEC rules relating to amendments to the Code of Business Ethics or waivers from any provision thereof applicable to our principal executive officer, our principal financial officer and principal accounting officer by posting such information on our website pursuant to SEC rules.

The Guidelines and our Code of Business Ethics are available on our website at www.xpo.com. In addition, you may obtain a printed copy of these documents, without charge, by sending a request to: Investor Relations, XPO Logistics, Inc., Five American Lane, Greenwich, Connecticut 06831.

Exclusive Forum Bylaw Amendment

In March 2017, our Board of Directors approved an amendment of our bylaws in order to provide that certain types of stockholder litigation be litigated exclusively in the Chancery of Court of the State of Delaware, which is our state of incorporation. In adopting the amendment and determining that doing so is in the best interests of our company and our stockholders, our Board considered various factors, including, among others: prevailing market practice and perspectives on such provisions; the importance to our company and our stockholders of reducing litigation costs and preventing corporate resources from being unnecessarily diverted to address duplicative, costly and wasteful multi-forum litigation; the value of facilitating consistency and predictability in litigation outcomes for the benefit of our company and our stockholders; that our company is incorporated under the laws of the state of Delaware; that adopting such an exclusive forum provision covering specified claims does not materially change the substantive legal claims available to stockholders; Section 115 of the Delaware General Corporation Law and case law developments upholding the authority of the board of directors to adopt such a provision and confirming its validity and enforceability; and case law developments outside of Delaware enforcing such provisions.

Director Independence

Under the Guidelines, our Board of Directors is responsible for making independence determinations annually with the assistance of the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee. Such independence determinations are made by reference to the independence standard under the Guidelines and the definition of “independent director” under Section 303A.02 of the NYSE Listed Company Manual. Our Board of Directors has affirmatively determined that each person who served as a director during any part of 2016, except Mr. Jacobs, our Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer, and Mr. DeJoy, satisfies the independence standards under the Guidelines and the NYSE Listed Company Manual.

In addition to the independence standards provided in the Guidelines, our Board of Directors has determined that each director who serves on our Audit Committee satisfies standards established by the SEC providing that, in order to qualify as “independent” for the purposes of membership on that committee, members of audit committees may not (1) accept directly or indirectly any consulting, advisory or other compensatory fee from our company other than their director compensation, or (2) be an affiliated person of our company or any of its subsidiaries. Our Board of Directors has also determined that each member of the Compensation Committee satisfies the NYSE standards for independence of Compensation Committee members, which became effective on July 1, 2013. Additionally, our Board of Directors has determined that each member of the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee satisfies the NYSE standards for independence. In making the independence determinations for each director, our Board of Directors and the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee analyzed certain relationships of the directors that were not required to be disclosed pursuant to Item 404(a) of Regulation S-K. For Ms. Ashe, those relationships included ordinary course commercial transactions between our company and an entity for which Ms. Ashe was an executive prior to becoming a director of the Company. For Mr. Jesselson, those relationships included ordinary course commercial transactions between our company and an entity for which Mr. Jesselson is the president. For Dr. Papastavrou,

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those relationships included ordinary course commercial transactions between our company and an entity for which Dr. Papastavrou is a director. For Mr. Shaffer, those relationships included ordinary course commercial transactions between our company and an entity for which Mr. Shaffer is a director.

Director Selection Process

The Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee is responsible for recommending to our Board of Directors all nominees for election to the Board, including nominees for re-election to the Board, in each case after consultation with the Chairman of the Board and in accordance with our company’s contractual obligations. Pursuant to the Investment Agreement, JPE has had and may in the future have the contractual right based on its securities ownership, as described above under “Directors,” to designate for nomination by our Board of Directors a certain percentage of the members of our Board of Directors. Subject to the foregoing, in considering new nominees for election to our Board, the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee considers, among other things, breadth of experience, financial expertise, wisdom, integrity, an ability to make independent analytical inquiries, an understanding of our company’s business environment, knowledge and experience in such areas as technology and marketing, and other disciplines relevant to our company’s businesses, the nominee’s ownership interest in our company, and a willingness and ability to devote adequate time to Board duties, all in the context of the needs of the Board at that point in time and with the objective of ensuring diversity in the background, experience, and viewpoints of Board members. When searching for new directors, our Board endeavors to actively seek out highly qualified women and individuals from minority groups to include in the pool from which Board nominees are chosen. Our Board aims to create a team of directors with diverse experiences and backgrounds to provide our company with thoughtful and engaged board oversight.

Subject to the contractual rights granted to JPE pursuant to the Investment Agreement, the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee may identify potential nominees for election to our Board of Directors from a variety of sources, including recommendations from current directors or management, recommendations from our stockholders or any other source the committee deems appropriate.

Our Board of Directors will consider nominees submitted by our stockholders subject to the same factors that are brought to bear when it considers nominees referred by other sources. Our stockholders can nominate candidates for election as directors by following the procedures set forth in our bylaws, which are summarized below. We did not receive any director nominees from our stockholders for the 2017 annual meeting.

Our bylaws require that a stockholder who wishes to nominate an individual for election as a director at our annual meeting must give us advance written notice. The notice must be delivered to or mailed and received by the Secretary of our company not less than 90 days, and not more than 180 days, prior to the earlier of the date of the annual meeting and the first anniversary of the preceding year’s annual meeting. As more specifically provided in our bylaws, any nomination must include: (i) the nominator’s name and address and the number of shares of each class of our capital stock that the nominator owns, (ii) the name and address of any person with whom the nominator is acting in concert and the number of shares of each class of our capital stock that any such person owns, (iii) the information with respect to each such proposed director nominee that would be required to be provided in a proxy statement prepared in accordance with applicable SEC rules, and (iv) the consent of the proposed candidate to serve as a member of our Board.

Any stockholder who wishes to nominate a potential director candidate must follow the specific requirements set forth in our bylaws, a copy of which may be obtained by sending a request to: Secretary, XPO Logistics, Inc., Five American Lane, Greenwich, Connecticut 06831.

Human Capital Management

Our talent management efforts go beyond the director and management level. Our business model relies on our strong customer service culture, which is deeply interconnected with the talent and satisfaction levels of all

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our employees. As we strive to grow our business, we are focused on maintaining XPO’s great work environment. Our efforts in human capital management focus on enhancing the robust training of our work force, improving management capabilities and seeking to harmonize best practices across our global operations. We tailor the development and management of each operating location to the specific type of operation and labor force. We also conduct regular surveys multiple times each year, including local assessments of the work force at each site.

Our recent appointment of Meghan Henson to the position of Chief Human Resources Officer reflects the emphasis on human capital management embedded in the culture of XPO. Ms. Henson leads the company’s global human resources organization and brings a renewed focus for the company on human capital management. Our management team and Board of Directors work together in a transparent manner, allowing for open communication, including with respect to human capital-related matters. Our directors have access to all information about our human capital management operations and plans, and our Chief Human Resources Officer is invited to attend and speak at the meetings of our Board of Directors when appropriate, updating the Board on issues related to talent and methods used to evaluate the working atmosphere at XPO. Our directors also have opportunities to attend and participate in employee town halls, which our CEO runs throughout the year at varying operating sites, as well as executive leadership meetings with our mid- and senior-level operating executives. We aim to integrate our human resources functions with our operational objectives.

Stockholder Communication with the Board

Stockholders and parties interested in communicating with our Board of Directors, any Board committee, any individual director, including our lead independent director, or any group of directors (such as our independent directors) should send written correspondence to: Board of Directors c/o Secretary, XPO Logistics, Inc., Five American Lane, Greenwich, Connecticut 06831. Please note that we will not forward communications that are spam, junk mail and mass mailings, resumes and other forms of job inquiries, surveys, business solicitations or advertisements.

Stockholder Proposals for Next Year’s Annual Meeting

Stockholder proposals intended to be presented at our 2018 annual meeting of stockholders must be received by our Secretary not later than December 18, 2017, to be considered for inclusion in our proxy materials, pursuant to Rule 14a-8 under the Exchange Act.

As more specifically provided in our bylaws, no business may be brought before an annual meeting of our stockholders unless it is specified in the notice of the annual meeting or is otherwise brought before the annual meeting by or at the direction of our Board of Directors or by a stockholder entitled to vote who has delivered proper notice to us not less than 90 days, and not more than 180 days, prior to the earlier of the date of the annual meeting and the first anniversary of the preceding year’s annual meeting. Accordingly, assuming that our 2018 annual meeting of stockholders is held on or after May 10, 2018, any stockholder proposal to be considered at the 2018 annual meeting, including nominations of persons for election to our Board of Directors, must be properly submitted to us not earlier than November 11, 2017, nor later than February 9, 2018.

Detailed information for submitting stockholder proposals or nominations of director candidates will be provided upon written request to: Secretary, XPO Logistics, Inc., Five American Lane, Greenwich, Connecticut 06831.

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CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS AND RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS

Under its written charter, the Audit Committee of our Board of Directors is responsible for reviewing and approving or ratifying any transaction between our company and a related person (as defined in Item 404 of Regulation S-K) that is required to be disclosed under the rules and regulations of the SEC. Our management is responsible for bringing any such transaction to the attention of the Audit Committee. In approving or rejecting any such transaction, the Audit Committee considers the relevant facts and circumstances, including the material terms of the transaction, risks, benefits, costs, availability of other comparable services or products and, if applicable, the impact on a director’s independence.

Since January 1, 2016, we have not been a participant in any transaction or series of similar transactions in which the amount exceeded or will exceed $120,000 and in which any current director, executive officer, holder of more than five percent of our capital stock, or any member of the immediate family of the foregoing, had or will have a material interest, except for the transactions described below or as previously disclosed in this proxy statement.

During the year ended December 31, 2016, the company provided certain air charter schedule recovery services to Ameriflight, LLC (“Ameriflight”), a regional air cargo carrier. James J. Martell, a member of our Board of Directors until May 11, 2016, owns and serves as the executive chairman of Ameriflight. The company provides its services to Ameriflight on a transactional basis without a written contract. The company received payments from Ameriflight or its affiliates in an amount of approximately $974,000 for the year ended December 31, 2016. Pursuant to the company’s policies and procedures described above, the Audit Committee reviewed and ratified the transactions between XPO Air Charter and Ameriflight, concluding that the transactions were in the best interests of the company and our stockholders and did not impair Mr. Martell’s independence as a director.

During the year ended December 31, 2016, the company leased office space from two entities partially owned and controlled by Louis DeJoy, a member of our Board of Directors. In September 2014, in conjunction with the company’s acquisition of New Breed Holding Company, XPO Logistics, through certain of our subsidiaries, entered into four commercial lease agreements covering a total of approximately 142,991 square feet of office space located in High Point, N.C., with the entities affiliated with Mr. DeJoy. The non-cancellable lease agreements expire at various dates in 2019. Each lease agreement provides the company, as tenant, with two five-year option periods to extend the lease term. The company made rent payments associated with these lease agreements in an aggregate amount of $2.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2016. In addition, the company paid operating expenses in connection with these leased properties of $0.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2016.

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SECURITY OWNERSHIP OF CERTAIN BENEFICIAL OWNERS AND MANAGEMENT

The following table sets forth information concerning the beneficial ownership of our voting securities as of the Record Date by: (i) each person who is known by us, based solely on a review of public filings, to be the beneficial owner of more than 5% of any class of our outstanding voting securities, (ii) each director, (iii) each named executive officer, and (iv) all executive officers and directors as a group. None of the foregoing persons beneficially owned any shares of equity securities of our subsidiaries as of the Record Date.

Under applicable SEC rules, a person is deemed to be the “beneficial owner” of a voting security if such person has (or shares) either investment power or voting power over such security or has (or shares) the right to acquire such security within 60 days by any of a number of means, including upon the exercise of options or warrants or the conversion of convertible securities. A beneficial owner’s percentage ownership is determined by assuming that options, warrants and convertible securities that are held by the beneficial owner, but not those held by any other person, and which are exercisable or convertible within 60 days, have been exercised or converted.

Unless otherwise indicated, we believe that all persons named in the table below have sole voting and investment power with respect to all voting securities shown as being owned by them. Unless otherwise indicated, the address of each beneficial owner in the table below is care of XPO Logistics, Inc., Five American Lane, Greenwich, Connecticut 06831.

Name of Beneficial Owner

Shares of Common

Stock Beneficially

Owned

Percentage of Common Stock Outstanding(1)

Shares of Series A Preferred

Stock Beneficially

Owned(2)

Percentage of Series A Preferred

Stock Outstanding

Beneficial Ownership of 5% or more Orbis Investment Management Limited(3)

Orbis House, 25 Front Street Hamilton Bermuda HM11 20,815,297 18.7% — —

Jacobs Private Equity, LLC 19,285,714(4) 14.7% 67,500 94.4% Coral Blue Investment Pte. Ltd(5)

168 Robinson Road #37-01, Capital Tower, Singapore 068912 8,153,946 7.3% — —

The Vanguard Group(6) 100 Vanguard Blvd. Malvern, PA 19355 7,825,426 7.0% — —

Spruce House Investment Management LLC(7) 435 Hudson Street, 8th Floor New York, NY 10014 7,797,055 7.0% — —

BlackRock, Inc.(8) 55 East 52nd Street New York, NY 10055 5,902,754 5.3% — —

Directors: Gena L. Ashe — — — — Louis DeJoy 1,125,448(9) 1.0% — — Michael G. Jesselson 341,723(10) * 725(11) 1.0% Adrian P. Kingshott 127,972(12) * 300 * Jason D. Papastavrou 236,847(13) * 650(14) * Oren G. Shaffer 60,758(15) * — —

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Name of Beneficial Owner

Shares of Common

Stock Beneficially

Owned

Percentage of Common Stock Outstanding(1)

Shares of Series A Preferred

Stock Beneficially

Owned(2)

Percentage of Series A Preferred

Stock Outstanding

Named Executive Officers: Bradley S. Jacobs+ 19,662,175(16) 15.0% 67,500 94.4% Troy A. Cooper 128,085(17) * — — John J. Hardig 130,749(18) * — — Gordon E. Devens 179,979(19) * — — Scott B. Malat 127,981(20) * — — Current Executive Officers and Directors as a

Group (12 People) 22,320,801(21) 16.9% 69,175 96.7%

* Less than 1% + Director and Executive Officer (1) For purposes of this column, the number of shares of the class outstanding reflects the sum of: (i)

111,551,028 shares of our common stock that were outstanding as of the Record Date, (ii) the number of shares of our common stock into which the outstanding shares of our preferred stock held by the relevant person, if any, were convertible on the Record Date, (iii) the number of shares of our common stock, if any, which the relevant person could acquire on exercise of options or warrants within 60 days of the Record Date, and (iv) the number of restricted stock units (“RSUs”), if any, held by the relevant person that are or will become vested within 60 days of the Record Date.

(2) Each share of our Series A Preferred Stock that was outstanding on the Record Date has an initial liquidation preference of $1,000 per share and is convertible into approximately 143 shares of our common stock at an effective conversion price of $7.00 per share of our common stock. Our Series A Preferred Stock votes together as a single class with our common stock on an as-converted basis, except with respect to certain matters that impact the rights of holders of our Series A Preferred Stock, in which case our Series A Preferred Stock votes separately as a single class.

(3) Based on Amendment No. 3 to the Schedule 13G filed on February 14, 2017 by Orbis Investment Management Limited (“OIML”), Orbis Investment Management (U.S.), LLC (“OIMUS”) and Orbis Asset Management Limited (“OAML”), which reported that, as of December 31, 2016, OIML beneficially owned 20,368,113 shares, OIMUS beneficially owned 361,524 shares, and OAML beneficially owned 85,660 shares. The group has sole voting and sole dispositive power over such shares.

(4) Consists of 9,642,857 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of 9,642,857 warrants at an exercise price of $7.00 per share of common stock, and 9,642,857 shares of our common stock issuable upon conversion of 67,500 shares of our Series A Preferred Stock. Mr. Jacobs has indirect beneficial ownership of the shares of our common stock and our Series A Preferred Stock beneficially owned by JPE as a result of being its Managing Member. In addition, Mr. Jacobs beneficially owns 126,461 shares of our common stock held directly following the vesting of equity incentive awards and 250,000 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of options that are or will become exercisable within 60 days of the Record Date. See footnote 16 below.

(5) Based on Amendment No. 3 to Schedule 13G filed on February 13, 2017 by Coral Blue Investment Pte. Ltd. and GIC Private Limited, which reported that, as of December 31, 2016, Coral Blue Investment Pte. Ltd. beneficially owned 8,153,946 shares of common stock and shares voting and dispositive power over such shares of common stock with GIC Private Limited.

(6) Based on Amendment No. 1 to the Schedule 13G filed on February 10, 2017 by The Vanguard Group, which reported that, as of December 31, 2016, The Vanguard Group beneficially owned 7,825,426 shares with sole voting power over 111,942 shares, shared voting power over 10,838 shares, sole dispositive power over 7,708,046 shares and shared dispositive power over 117,380 shares.

(7) Based on Amendment No. 2 to the Schedule 13G filed on February 14, 2017, filed by Spruce House Investment Management LLC, Spruce House Capital LLC, The Spruce House Partnership LP, Zachary

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Sternberg, and Benjamin Stein, which reported that, as of December 31, 2016, Spruce House Investment Management LLC beneficially owned 7,750,000 shares, Spruce House Capital LLC beneficially owned 7,750,000 shares, The Spruce House Partnership LP beneficially owned 7,750,000 shares, Zachary Sternberg beneficially owned 7,795,000 shares and Benjamin Stein beneficially owned 7,797,055 shares. Spruce House Investment Management LLC, Spruce House Capital LLC, The Spruce House Partnership LP, Zachary Sternberg and Benjamin Stein have shared voting and dispositive power over 7,750,000 shares of common stock. Zachary Sternberg has sole voting and dispositive power over 45,000 shares. Benjamin Stein has sole voting and dispositive power over 47,055 shares.

(8) Based on the Schedule 13G filed on January 30, 2017 by BlackRock, Inc., which reported that, as of December 31, 2016, BlackRock, Inc. beneficially owned 5,902,754 shares, with sole voting power over 5,686,450 shares and sole dispositive power over 5,902,754 shares.

(9) Includes: (i) 192,086 shares of our common stock beneficially owned by The Louis DeJoy Family Partnership, LLC, of which Mr. DeJoy is the managing member, and (ii) 484,340 shares of our common stock owned by the Louis DeJoy and Aldona Z. Wos Family Foundation, of which Mr. DeJoy is the president.

(10) Includes: (i) 12,000 shares of our common stock beneficially owned by the SJJ Irrevocable Trust, of which Mr. Jesselson is a trustee, (ii) 12,000 shares of our common stock beneficially owned by the RAJ Irrevocable Trust, of which Mr. Jesselson is a trustee, (iii) 12,000 shares of our common stock beneficially owned by the JJJ Irrevocable Trust, of which Mr. Jesselson is a trustee, (iv) 10,000 shares of our common stock beneficially owned by the Michael G. Jesselson and Linda Jesselson 6/30/93 Trust, of which Mr. Jesselson is a trustee, (v) 10,000 shares of our common stock owned by Mr. Jesselson’s spouse, (vi) 103,572 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of 103,572 warrants at an exercise price of $7.00 per share of our common stock, which warrants are beneficially owned by the Michael G. Jesselson 12/18/80 Trust and the Michael G. Jesselson 4/8/71 Trust, of which trusts Mr. Jesselson is the beneficiary, (vii) 21,322 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of 21,322 warrants at an exercise price of $7.00 per share of our common stock, which warrants are beneficially owned by the Michael G. Jesselson and Linda Jesselson, Trustees UID 6/30/93 FBO Maya Ariel Ruth Jesselson, of which Mr. Jesselson is the beneficiary, (viii) 103,570 shares of our common stock issuable upon conversion of 725 shares of our Series A Preferred Stock, which shares of our Series A Preferred Stock are beneficially owned by the Michael G. Jesselson 12/18/80 Trust and the Michael G. Jesselson 4/8/71 Trust, of which trusts Mr. Jesselson is the beneficiary, and (ix) 24,000 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of options that are or will become exercisable within 60 days of the Record Date.

(11) See clause (viii) of footnote (10). (12) Includes: (i) 42,857 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of 42,857 warrants at an

exercise price of $7.00 per share of our common stock, (ii) 42,857 shares of our common stock issuable upon conversion of 300 shares of our Series A Preferred Stock, (iii) 24,000 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of options that are or will become exercisable on within 60 days of the Record Date, and (iv) 10,758 RSUs that are or will become vested within 60 days of the Record Date.

(13) Includes: (i) 1,375 shares of our common stock beneficially owned by the Brett A. Athans Declaration of Trust, of which Dr. Papastavrou is the trustee, (ii) 92,857 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of 92,857 warrants at an exercise price of $7.00 per share of our common stock, which warrants are beneficially owned by Springer Wealth Management LLC, of which Dr. Papastavrou is the owner of 100% of the equity securities, (iii) 92,857 shares of our common stock issuable upon conversion of 650 shares of our Series A Preferred Stock, which shares of Series A Preferred Stock are beneficially owned by Springer Wealth Management LLC, of which Dr. Papastavrou is the owner of 100% of the equity securities, (iv) 24,000 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of options that are or will become exercisable within 60 days of the Record Date, and (v) 15,758 RSUs that are or will become vested within 60 days of the Record Date.

(14) See clause (iii) of footnote (13). (15) Includes: (i) 8,500 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of 8,500 warrants at an exercise

price of $7.00 per share of common stock, (ii) 24,000 shares of our common stock issuable upon the

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exercise of options that are or will become exercisable within 60 days of the Record Date, and (iii) 15,758 RSUs that are or will become vested within 60 days of the Record Date.

(16) Mr. Jacobs has indirect beneficial ownership of the shares of our common stock and our Series A Preferred Stock beneficially owned by JPE as a result of being its Managing Member. See footnote (4). Also includes 126,461 shares of our common stock held directly by Mr. Jacobs following the vesting of equity incentive awards and 250,000 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of options that are or will become exercisable within 60 days of the Record Date.

(17) Includes: (i) 10,000 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of 10,000 warrants at an exercise price of $7.00 per share of common stock, and (ii) 25,000 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of options that are or will become exercisable within 60 days of the Record Date.

(18) Includes 50,000 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of options that are or will become exercisable within 60 days of the Record Date.

(19) Mr. Devens resigned as Chief Legal Officer of the Company effective February 15, 2017. Includes: (i) 20,000 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of 20,000 warrants at an exercise price of $7.00 per share of common stock, and (ii) 125,000 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of options that are or will become exercisable within 60 days of the Record Date.

(20) Includes: (i) 12,750 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of 12,750 warrants at an exercise price of $7.00 per share of common stock, and (ii) 48,000 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of options that are or will become exercisable within 60 days of the Record Date.

(21) Includes: (i) 9,954,715 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of 9,954,715 warrants at an exercise price of $7.00 per share of our common stock, (ii) 9,882,142 shares of our common stock issuable upon conversion of 69,175 shares of our preferred stock, (iii) 729,000 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of options that are or will become exercisable within 60 days of the Record Date, and (iv) 42,274 RSUs that are or will become vested within 60 days of the Record Date.

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EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION

Compensation Discussion and Analysis

This Compensation Discussion and Analysis describes XPO Logistics’ executive compensation program for 2016. The Compensation Committee of our Board (referred to as the “Committee” in this section) oversees our executive compensation program and practices. In this section, we explain how and why the Committee made its 2016 compensation decisions for the following named executive officers, or NEOs, including Mr. Gordon E. Devens, our former Chief Legal Officer, who resigned from the company effective February 15, 2017:

NEO Title

Bradley S. Jacobs Chairman and Chief Executive Officer

Troy A. Cooper Chief Operating Officer

John J. Hardig Chief Financial Officer

Gordon E. Devens Former Chief Legal Officer

Scott B. Malat Chief Strategy Officer

Executive Summary

2016 Highlights

Throughout 2016, our NEOs executed our strategy for high growth and high returns, successfully leading the integration of our two largest acquisitions and establishing XPO Logistics as one of the ten largest logistics companies in the world. During this period, our operations became a highly integrated network of people, technology and physical assets, and we helped more than 50,000 customers manage their goods more efficiently throughout their supply chains. As of December 31, 2016, our network encompassed over 87,000 employees and approximately 1,425 locations in 34 countries, primarily in North America and Europe.

For the full year 2016, our company reported net income attributable to common shareholders of $63.1 million, compared with a net loss of $245.9 million for 2015, and achieved an absolute total shareholder return (“TSR”) of 58%, well above the TSRs of the S&P 500 (12%) and the S&P Transportation Select Industry Index (27%) and created approximately $2.14 billion of shareholder value in 2016 (based on the price per share of our common stock as of December 31, 2015 of $27.25 and December 31, 2016 of $43.16).

A Springboard for Value Creation

Based on the significant progress made by our NEOs in 2016, we are in a strong position to continue to execute our strategy in 2017 and beyond. Our focus remains on further enhancing customer service while realizing the numerous profit improvement opportunities embedded in our business. In 2017, we will get the full 12-month benefit of numerous efficiencies we implemented throughout 2016 in procurement, real estate, back office operations and workplace technologies. We have more savings to realize in each of these areas, along with cross-dock and warehouse automation, labor productivity and the global adoption of best practices. In addition, we are marketing our services with a high caliber sales organization that draws on our total supply chain offering to help customers operate more productively.

We have met or exceeded every financial target that our company has issued from 2012 through 2016. Our full year targets forecast adjusted EBITDA of at least $1.350 billion in 2017 and $1.575 billion in 2018. Our 2017-2018 cumulative free cash flow target is approximately $900 million, including at least $350 million of free cash flow in 2017.

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Our Compensation Philosophy

Our executive compensation philosophy is to align the interests of our executive team with the interests of our stockholders and to ensure that the total compensation paid to our executive officers is reasonable and competitive.

Key Objectives of Our Executive Compensation Program

Align executive compensation with

long-term stockholder value

Strongly correlate pay and performance

Attract, retain and motivate

high-performing executive talent

We use varied compensation elements to align the financial interests and objectives of our NEOs with those of our stockholders and to sustain our unified focus on the execution of our strategy, which we believe will create long-term stockholder value.

Our executive compensation program is designed to strongly correlate the compensation received by our NEOs with their performance and the performance of XPO Logistics.

We operate in a highly competitive market for executive talent; as such, we believe it is essential to attract, retain and motivate a high- performing executive team with market competitive pay opportunities that deliver the majority of pay in at-risk elements.

How We Meet These Objectives

Our executive compensation program is heavily weighted towards variable compensation, including long- term incentives, such as cash settled performance-based restricted stock units (“PRSU”) and annual cash incentives.

Substantially all of the annual long-term awards granted to our NEOs are subject to meaningful share price and/or earnings-related performance goals with service-based vesting periods.

Our NEOs are subject to significant stock ownership and retention requirements.

Our NEOs are subject to lock-up restrictions that generally prohibit the sale of any shares of our common stock (on an after-tax basis) delivered pursuant to equity awards granted by our company – in 2016, these lock-up restrictions were extended for an additional two years until September 2, 2018.

Our NEOs are subject to clawback restrictions with respect to equity and cash incentive compensation.

Our NEOs are subject to comprehensive non-competition and other restrictive covenants.

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Executive Compensation Structure

Our executive compensation program consists of three primary elements: annual base salary, annual cash incentive bonuses and long-term incentive awards. Each of these elements is described in more detail below:

Element Objective Mechanics

Base Salary Provide a competitive fixed component of compensation that enables XPO Logistics to attract and retain top talent.

Reviewed against the executive’s experience and responsibilities, and for competitiveness against XPO Logistics’ peer group.

Annual Incentives

Offer a variable annual cash compensation opportunity based upon both financial and strategic objectives.

Based on individual and company performance; a portion may be subject to repayment in certain termination scenarios.

Long-term Incentives

Align the interests of our executives with those of our stockholders through the use of long-term incentive awards that reward executives for increases in our stock price over time. These awards are also meant to focus executives on financial metrics that are complementary to the financial metrics for our annual cash incentive program.

The NEOs were granted cash-settled performance-based restricted stock units (“PRSUs”) in 2016 with performance goals based on annual adjusted cash flow per share for the four-year period from 2016 to 2019. PRSUs will vest annually if the following adjusted cash flow per share goals are achieved: $2.93 in 2016, $3.96 in 2017, $5.38 in 2018, and $6.39 in 2019.

Other Governance- related Policies

To meet the key objectives of our executive compensation programs and to mitigate overall compensation risk, we have adopted a clawback policy, equity lock-up restrictions, and equity ownership guidelines.

See pages 39—40 for additional information.

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Because the Committee feels strongly that executive compensation should be tightly linked to both company and individual performance, the executive compensation for our NEOs is heavily weighted towards equity-based and variable cash incentive awards. At target, 90% of our CEO’s 2016 total direct compensation (“TDC”) is incentive-based, and 80% is based on the achievement of long-term performance goals. For our other NEOs, on average, 75% of their 2016 target total direct compensation is incentive-based and 50% is based on achievement of long-term performance goals. The Committee believes that this mix is appropriate to drive execution of our long-term strategy and to further align the interests of our NEOs with those of our stockholders. Details of each component of compensation are outlined further in the 2016 Executive Compensation Outcomes section below.

Other NEOs 2016 Target TDC Mix

(LTI Reflects Annualized Cash PRSU Value)

CEO 2016 Target TDC Mix

(LTI Reflects Annualized Cash PRSU Value)

Base Salary 10%

Annual Incentive

10%

LTI 80%

Base Salary 25%

Annual Incentive

25%

LTI 50%

Compensation Governance Framework

To meet the key objectives of our executive compensation program and to mitigate risk from our compensation practices and principles, the company has adopted a compensation governance framework that includes the components described below, each of which the Committee believes reinforces the company’s executive compensation philosophy and objectives.

• Clawback policy: Our NEOs and other executive officers are required to repay overpayments of annual and long-term cash incentive compensation awards in the event of fraud or in the event of a financial restatement occurring within one year following the award payment. Additionally, in order to enhance the long-term retentive value of the 2016 annual cash incentive awards, the Committee made a significant portion of certain executives’ 2016 cash incentive awards subject to repayment if a NEO’s employment with our company terminates for any reason within two years immediately following the payment date, as discussed more fully below.

• Lock-up restrictions: Our NEOs are subject to lock-up restrictions that generally prohibit the sale of any shares of our common stock (on an after-tax basis) delivered pursuant to equity awards granted by our company—in 2016, in connection with the renewal of our NEOs’ employment agreements, these lock-up restrictions were extended for an additional two years until September 2, 2018.

• Stock ownership guidelines and stock retention requirements: In 2016, our Board established stock ownership guidelines for our NEOs and other executive officers to further align the interests of our executives with those of our stockholders. See Page 40 for more detail.

• No stock option repricing: Our company’s equity incentive plan does not permit either stock option repricing without stockholder approval or stock option grants with an exercise price below fair market value.

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• No tax gross-ups: Our company does not provide tax gross-ups on any benefits or perquisites, including severance payments and other benefits received in connection with, or following, a change in control.

• Independent compensation consultant: The Committee retains an independent compensation consultant who performs services only for the Committee, as discussed more fully below.

• No hedging or pledging of company stock: Under our insider trading policy, our company’s directors and executive officers, including the NEOs, are prohibited from pledging or holding company securities in a margin account without pre-clearance. In addition, such persons are prohibited from engaging in hedging transactions without pre-clearance, such as prepaid variable forwards, equity swaps, collars and exchange funds or any other transactions that are designed to or have the effect of hedging or offsetting any decrease in the market value of equity securities.

2016 Executive Compensation Outcomes

Highlights of 2016 executive compensation include:

• Annual Base Salary: To recognize continued strong company performance and align with market levels for companies of similar size, the Committee increased NEO base salaries. These base salaries had been at comparatively low levels relative to market levels and had not been increased for the preceding three years. This increase in NEO base salaries is fixed for the term of the NEOs’ employment agreements.

• Annual Cash Incentive Bonuses: Our company’s strong financial performance and the Committee’s assessment of both company and individual performance during a transformative year for the company led to above-target annual cash bonus payouts for the NEOs.

• Long-term Incentive Program: NEOs earned the first of four tranches of the PRSU awards because our company’s actual 2016 adjusted cash flow per share exceeded the goal of $2.93.

Annual Base Salary

The Committee increased annual base salaries for each of our NEOs during 2016 as part of renewing their employment agreements. These increases were made to recognize continued strong company performance and increases in executive’s roles and responsibilities as well as to better align these base salaries with market levels for companies of similar size. Base salaries provide our NEOs with fixed cash compensation for service during the year, with consideration given to the scope of each NEO’s responsibilities, experience and other qualifications essential to his role.

Accordingly, annual base salary rates as of December 31, 2016, were as follows:

NEOs 2016 Annual Base Salary

Bradley S. Jacobs $625,000

Troy A. Cooper $537,500

John J. Hardig $515,000

Gordon E. Devens $500,000

Scott B. Malat $500,000

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Annual Cash Incentive Bonuses

The following table sets forth the target awards established by the Committee under the 2016 annual cash incentive awards, expressed as a percentage of salary and as a dollar amount for each NEO:

NEO Target Award % of Salary

Target Award in Dollars

Bradley S. Jacobs 100% $625,000

Troy A. Cooper 100% $537,500

John J. Hardig 100% $515,000

Gordon E. Devens 100% $500,000

Scott B. Malat 100% $500,000

In March 2016, for each NEO, the Committee established a target annual cash incentive award for 2016 under the terms of our Amended and Restated 2011 Omnibus Incentive Compensation Plan (the “2011 Plan”). Pursuant to the terms of the awards, the Committee set a performance goal based on the previously forecasted adjusted EBITDA for 2016 at that time. In October 2016, the company completed the sale of its truckload business. This transaction strengthened the company’s balance sheet and improved our long-term growth profile by deleveraging the company, reducing our annual capital expenditure requirements and increasing the return on our capital. However, as a result of the sale of the truckload business in the fourth quarter of 2016, the company reduced its forecast adjusted EBITDA for 2016 to reflect this divestment and the previously determined performance goal set under the 2011 Plan was not achieved. The Committee exercised its discretion in light of the beneficial impact of the truckload divestment as well as the company’s strong overall performance to grant new cash incentive awards under the 2011 Plan in respect of 2016, the amount of which was determined as described below.

Under the terms of the awards, the Committee is responsible for determining the bonus award payable to a participant based on the achievement of individual or organizational goals, as determined by the Committee in its sole discretion. The Committee, in consultation with our CEO (except with respect to his own performance assessment), conducted a performance assessment of each NEO. The CEO’s performance assessment recommendations were based on an overall subjective assessment of each officer’s performance and contribution to our company’s achievement of its strategic objectives. The Committee conducted a separate assessment of Mr. Jacobs’ performance without his involvement.

The Committee considers company performance as well as each NEO’s individual performance contributions. For 2016, the Committee determined that our company accomplished and exceeded its key financial and strategic objectives for the year, as outlined above in the “Executive Summary” section of this Compensation Discussion and Analysis section. Under the leadership and guidance of our NEOs, in 2016 we continued to integrate two significant acquisitions from 2015 and continued to optimize our existing operations.

Each of the NEOs was determined to have contributed significantly to the company’s achievements during 2016. In determining 2016 cash incentive award payouts for the NEOs, the Committee’s goal was to recognize and reward each NEO’s performance, while also awarding cash bonus amounts that had the effect of relatively balancing total cash compensation across the group of NEOs, with consideration to each NEO’s job responsibilities and position. Accordingly, differences in the award payouts to the NEOs, as compared to the target awards, do not reflect a determination by the Committee of the relative performance of any single NEO.

As a result of the above-described performance assessments, and taking into account the indicated total cash compensation payable to each NEO, the Committee approved the cash incentive award payouts below to our NEOs for 2016 other than Mr. Devens, who resigned from the company, effective February 15, 2017, prior to the award of the 2016 cash incentive bonus. Mr. Devens’ 2016 bonus of $500,000 was approved by the Committee

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as one of the terms of Mr. Devens’ separation agreement. In order to enhance the long-term retentive value of the 2016 annual cash incentive awards, the Committee made a significant portion of the 2016 cash bonuses paid to Messrs. Jacobs, Cooper and Hardig ($750,000, $537,500 and $400,000, respectively) subject to repayment if any of them leaves our company for any reason within two years immediately following the payment date other than following a Change of Control (as defined in the 2016 Plan).

NEO 2016 Annual Bonus

Payout

Bradley S. Jacobs $1,375,000

Troy A. Cooper $1,075,000

John J. Hardig $ 915,000

Scott B. Malat $ 500,000

Long-Term Incentive Program

The Committee designed our 2016 long-term equity incentive awards to align the interests of our executives with those of our stockholders through the use of long-term incentive awards that reward executives for increases in our stock price over time. These awards are also meant to focus executives on financial metrics that are complementary to the performance metric of adjusted EBITDA that is applicable to our annual cash incentive program.

For 2016, the Committee determined that it would be advisable to make PRSU awards to our leadership team to maximize retention and incentivize a unified focus on execution of our long-term strategy. The target grant date value of the PRSU awards granted by the Committee to each of our NEOs are as follows:

NEO 2016-2019 Total Target Award

in Dollars Annualized Target Award

in Dollars

Bradley S. Jacobs $20,000,000 $5,000,000

Troy A. Cooper $ 4,500,000 $1,125,000

John J. Hardig $ 4,000,000 $1,000,000

Gordon E. Devens $ 4,000,000 $1,000,000

Scott B. Malat $ 4,000,000 $1,000,000

35

Key Features of the PRSU Program

• As shown above, a significant amount of the pay opportunity for our NEOs is awarded in long-term PRSU incentives that are tied to high growth financial targets.

• The PRSUs granted in February 2016 will vest 25% annually over four years only if the pre-determined performance goals for each year are achieved.

• There is zero payout if the established financial targets are not attained (i.e., no minimum achievement threshold upon which any portion of the award would be earned).

• There is no upside leverage if the target is exceeded in any given year; the maximum achievement is the target itself (100%).

• Payouts are tied directly to stock price performance, in direct alignment with stockholder interests. If our stock price increases from grant date to vesting date, the award will pay out at a higher amount than the original grant. Conversely, if the stock price declines in that same period, the original grant will decline in value at the same rate as the stock price.

• Awards are subject to clawback both during the vesting period and after payout based on the circumstances as specified by the terms of the awards.

The PRSU payout is dependent on specified adjusted cash flow per share for 2016 and the company’s stock price at the time the award is settled. The exhibit below provides an illustration of XPO Logistics’ total shareholder return during the most recent one, three and five calendar years as compared to the S&P 500 and S&P Transportation Index, which demonstrates the strong relative performance of the company’s stock price in these periods.

250%

0%

50% 58%

27% 12%

64%

249%

36%

148%

29%

97%100%

150%

200%

1- year TSR 3- year TSR 5- year TSR

XPO

S&P Transportation Index

S&P 500

Note: TSR calculations reflect the relevant trading price of our common stock and that of the relevant index as of the last trading day of the relevant calendar year in 2016, 2015, 2014, 2013, 2012 and 2011 as reported by Bloomberg Finance L.P.

Based on the equity award agreements, 25% of each PRSU award will vest annually if the following adjusted cash flow per share goals are achieved: $2.93 in 2016, $3.96 in 2017, $5.38 in 2018, and $6.39 in 2019.

36

“Adjusted cash flow per share” for purposes of these PRSU awards means (i) adjusted EBITDA (determined in accordance with the company’s monthly operating reports and for external reporting purposes and adjusted for the impact of stock and phantom stock compensation) less any capital expenditures and interest divided by (ii) diluted shares outstanding. The adjusted cash flow per share metric was selected consistent with the company’s philosophy to encourage appropriate business risk without incentivizing behaviors that may have a material adverse effect on the company. The targeted annual award values were determined with reference to each NEO’s contributions to our company to date, his anticipated contribution to the achievement of our strategic objectives in the future, and prior equity-based awards granted to the NEO. No particular weighting was assigned to any of these considerations. In granting the PRSUs, the Committee also determined that the structure of the award, with achievement of the final adjusted cash flow per share performance goal not possible until after the end of 2019, provided an important retentive element and increased long-term focus for our NEOs.

The first tranche of the award was earned based on the achievement of the 2016 adjusted cash flow per share performance target, as approved by the Committee on February 16, 2017. Based on XPO Logistics’ share price on the vesting date, Messers. Jacobs, Cooper, Hardig, Devens, and Malat received cash payments specified by the terms of the awards.

Result of Stockholder Advisory Vote

We conducted our annual advisory vote on executive compensation at our 2016 Annual Meeting on May 11, 2016. While this vote was not binding on our company, our Board or the Committee, we believe that it is important for our stockholders to have an opportunity to vote on this proposal on an annual basis as a means to express their views on our executive compensation philosophy, our executive compensation program and policies, and our decisions regarding executive compensation, all as disclosed in our proxy statement.

At our 2016 Annual Meeting, approximately 95% of the votes cast on the advisory vote on executive compensation were in favor of our NEO compensation program as disclosed in our 2016 proxy statement. The Committee reviewed and considered the final results of the advisory vote as it completed its annual review of the executive compensation program.

The company communicates directly and frequently with its stockholders about business strategy. In the course of such stockholder engagement, we often discuss our executive compensation and the further alignment of our executive team’s interests with the interests of our stockholders.

Process for Determining Executive Compensation

The Committee believes that its emphasis on variable annual cash incentives and long-term equity-based awards allows it to retain significant flexibility and discretion from year to year in order to strongly motivate our NEOs. Specifically, the total compensation package for each of our NEOs reflects assessments of individual responsibilities, contributions to corporate performance and overall company success in reaching strategic goals. The general framework for our compensation packages includes fixed base salaries and variable incentive compensation consisting of annual cash incentives and equity grants that emphasize pay for performance and, in the case of equity-based grants, achievement of long-term performance goals. The Committee has tended to heavily weight our NEOs’ compensation towards variable incentive compensation rather than base salary.

Role of the Compensation Committee

The Committee is responsible for approving our compensation philosophy and overseeing our executive compensation program in a manner consistent with such compensation philosophy. The Committee is tasked with setting annual and long-term performance goals for our NEOs, evaluating and approving award grants under incentive compensation and equity-based plans, and reviewing and approving all other compensation and benefits for our NEOs on an ongoing basis. The Committee acts independently but works closely with our full

37

Board and executive management in making many of its decisions. To assist it in discharging its responsibilities, the Committee has retained the services of Semler Brossy, as discussed further below.

Role of Management

Executive management provides input to the Committee as it establishes, reviews and evaluates executive compensation packages and policies, including with respect to the design of our executive compensation program. In particular, our CEO, Mr. Jacobs, provides recommendations as to proposed compensation actions with respect to our executive team, but not with respect to his own compensation. The Committee carefully and independently reviews the recommendations of management, without members of management present, and consults with independent advisors before making its final determinations. We believe this process ensures that our executive compensation program effectively aligns with our compensation philosophy and our stockholders’ interests.

Role of Independent Compensation Consultant

The Committee directly retained Semler Brossy as its independent advisor. During 2016, Semler Brossy supported the Committee in: reviewing the reasonableness of the 2016 compensation packages and long-term incentive grants for the NEOs and our other senior officers; reviewing this Compensation Discussion and Analysis and the related tables and narratives; structuring the 2016 performance-based equity-based awards to executives; evaluating our non-employee director compensation program; assessing the risks associated with the company’s overall compensation policies and practices; monitoring trends and evolving market practices in executive compensation; and providing general advice and support to the Committee and Committee Chair. Semler Brossy does not provide any other services to the Committee or the company.

As part of the annual performance evaluation of its independent compensation consultant, the Committee considered Semler Brossy’s independence in light of applicable SEC rules and NYSE listing standards. After taking into account: (i) Semler Brossy’s absence of relationships with management and the members of the Committee, (ii) Semler Brossy’s internal policies, and (iii) other information provided to the Committee by Semler Brossy, the Committee determined that Semler Brossy’s work did not raise any conflicts of interest that would prevent it from serving as an independent compensation consultant to the Committee.

Comparative Analysis

The Committee, with input from its independent compensation consultant, reviews and approves the peer group used in evaluating executive compensation to ensure that the peer group continues to reflect certain characteristics comparable to the company. These peer group characteristics include being in the transportation and logistics industries and having annual revenue of at least $1 billion. The peers comprising the 2016 peer group represent most of our publicly traded competitors and, in the Committee’s view, were reasonable given the revenue scale of XPO Logistics in 2016, following our company’s June 2015 acquisition of Norbert Dentressangle SA and October 2015 acquisition of Con-way Inc.

38

While we monitor the structure of our peers’ pay programs, the Committee does not target a specific percentile positioning against the peer group. Also, the Committee does not target a specific mix between cash and equity or short-term and long-term compensation relative to the mix used by peer group companies. The peer group for 2016 consisted of the following logistics and distribution or trucking companies:

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ashford university grading scale

Program Assessment Exam from Peregrine Academic Services

Question Response

Why am I taking this assessment exam?

Each business program requires each student to take an assessment exam at the end of the program. The purpose of this exam is to allow Ashford University the ability to assess the quality of its academic programs, so that Ashford University can improve its programs and provide the best possible educational experience for all students.

How should I prepare for the assessment exam?

The comprehensive exam includes topics covered throughout your degree program, which are aligned to the business topics required for accreditation. Your preparation for this exam comes from the academic coursework you have already completed.

Does this assessment exam affect my final grade?

Yes. You are awarded a grade based on exam completion. Please refer to your course syllabus for the points and grading scale. The exam is graded on a curve relative to the national norms.

What do I need to access the assessment exam?

You will need a computer with Internet access. No other plug-ins are required.

What is the cost of the assessment exam?

The exam cost is $36.48 and must be purchased from Ed Map.

I am having problems purchasing the exam from Ed Map. Who do I contact?

Please contact Ed Map to address any problems you are having with the purchase of the exam. Their contact information can be found here: http://www.edmap.com/ContactUs.aspx All financial transactions are between you and Ed Map, not Peregrine Academic Services. The Ed Map system will not allow you to purchase the same exam twice. Therefore, you must work with Ed Map regarding any exchanges or refunds.

I have purchased the wrong exam. Who do I contact?

If you purchased the wrong exam and need to exchange the registration for the correct exam, you must work this out with Ed Map. Once you have purchased the correct exam, then you need to contact Peregrine Academic Services at Support@PeregrineAcademics.com to tell us which is the correct exam and which one to delete.

What if I have purchased the exam, but I used a different e-mail address to purchase the exam other than the one I have on file in my Student Profile with Ashford University?

First, please try to access the exam through your course website. When you receive the error message you can follow the instructions on screen to change your email address. If that does not resolve the issue, please contact PAS technical support at: www.PeregrineAcademics.com/Support E-mail: Support@PeregrineAcademics.com

How do I access the assessment exam site?

To access the exam, please click on the exam link within the course assignment area through your Ashford course website. The hyperlink directs your Web browser to the appropriate exam site and auto-fills the registration information. It will also send your results back to the GradeBook automatically upon completion of the exam.

I am getting an error message when trying to access my exam?

When you receive the error message you can follow the instructions on screen to address your issue. If that does not resolve the issue, please contact PAS technical support at: www.PeregrineAcademics.com/Support E-mail: Support@PeregrineAcademics.com

Program Assessment Exam from Peregrine Academic Services

Question Response

How much time do I have to take the assessment exam?

You have 48 hours to complete the exam once the exam has been started. The 48 hour clock starts as soon as you begin the exam, not from when you purchased the exam.

The assessment exam did not start.

Double check your pop-up blocker and/or personal firewall settings. The exam opens in a new window. Turn the pop-up blocker off. Add this site to your “safe sites” list within your personal firewall settings. Another option will be to select the link provided to launch the assessment exam in another window.

Am I allowed to take breaks during the testing?

Yes, two 15-minute breaks are allowed for the entire exam, which is not based on the number of log-in attempts.

What if I need to stop during the exam?

You are allowed to stop during an exam and restart at a later time. However, you only have 3 log-in attempts within the 48 hours. Also, when you re-start an exam, you will resume on the next question in the exam, not the one you left. If you exceed these limits, Peregrine Academic Services will only re-set the exam based on approval from your course instructor. These restrictions are necessary to preserve the academic integrity of the exam process.

How many questions are on the assessment exam?

There are 50-120 multiple choice and True/False questions, depending upon the course you are taking.

How long will I need to take the exam?

Typically, the exam should take about 50-190 minutes.

How much time is allowed to answer each question?

You are allowed 5 minutes to answer each question. You will see the time remaining on the screen for each question during the exam.

Can I “back track” during the exam?

No, you will not be able to go back to a question if you decide to skip it. You need to do your best to answer each question within the allotted time. Otherwise, it will be graded as 0 points.

Is the grade weighting the same for an unanswered question versus a question answered incorrectly?

Yes.

What if 48 hours elapse or I attempt a 4th log in?

After 48 hours or more than 3 log-in attempts, the exam site is inaccessible and a grade will be generated, assigning 0 points to unanswered questions.

My grade didn’t post. Who do I contact?

First, please wait at least 1 hour. The grade posting will be re-attempted automatically every 30 minutes. If the grade is not automatically posted at the end of the day, then we will generate a report to send to Ashford of all failed grade postings. We send this report every Tuesday and then an Ashford official manually posts the grades. We understand that the courses end on Monday; however, Ashford is aware of this potential issue and you will not be penalized for taking the exam on time and then have the grade posted after the course ends.

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the ethics of living jim crow summary

When you begin to think about the essays you will write in this course, it will not be enough to summarize the work. You will need to think critically about the writing and this reading strategy will help you move beyond a summary. Each response should be a minimum of 250 words.

Each response writing should provide the following—

1)   An Honest Response to the Writing—Write a few sentences about how the work made you feel (ex. “Angry because… “Or “joyful because…” or “confused because…” There is no right or wrong answer here. These few sentences should be honest and capture your initial response to the piece of writing.

2)   A Summary of What You Read—Summarize what happened in the writing. Who were the characters? What happens in the story or poem? What is the story about?

3)   An Analysis or Close Reading—This is the part of the response writing that really begins our critical thinking. Does something appear symbolic?  Are there any metaphors and similes that expand meaning? Does there appear to be a common theme? What details seem relevant? You will not find every literary device in every reading. In this section of the response writing, you should begin to decide what seems to have meaning or purpose? Be sure to pay attention to the form, the title, the content and the rhythm.

4)  An Interpretation—This is the part of the response writing that will allow you to pull the “clues” together and offer a statement on what you think the story is really about? You will combine your summary and analysis to provide an argument about the text.

5)   Drawing Conclusions—This part of the response writing will require that you incorporating the above process and integrating some direct quotes from the actual work of study to support your findings and interpretations. 

Required reading:


  Richard Wright “The Ethics of Living Jim Crow”

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to delete wordart text outline, click ____ in the text outline gallery.

with Microsoft®

Office 2010 V O L U M E 1

PEARSON T O W N S E N D FERRETT HAIN VARGAS

with M ic roso f t

Office 2010 V O L U M E

T O W N S E N D I FERRETT I H A I N I VARGAS

Prentice Hall Boston Columbus Indianapolis New York San Francisco Upper Saddle River

Amsterdam Cape Town Dubai London Madrid Milan Munich Paris Montreal Toronto Delhi Mexico City Sao Paulo Sydney Hong Kong Seoul Singapore Taipei Tokyo

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Townsend, Kris. Skills for success with Office 2010 / by Kris Townsend.

p. cm. ISBN 978-0-13-703257-0 (alk. paper) 1. Microsoft Office. 2. Business—Computer programs. I, Title.

HF5548.4.M525T692 201 I 005.5—dc22 2010016531

Editor in Chief: Michael Payne AVP/Executive Acquisitions Editor: Stephanie Wall Product Development Manager: Eileen Bien Calabro Editorial Project Manager: Virginia Gitariglia Development Editor: Nancy Lamm Editorial Assistant: Nicole Sam AVP/Director of Online Programs, Media: Richard Keaveny AVP/Dircctor of Product Development, Media: Lisa Strife Editor—Digital Learning & Assessment: Paul Gentile Product Development Manager, Media: Calhi Projitko Media Project Manager, Editorial: Alana Coles Media Project Manager, Production: John Cassar Director of Marketing: Kate Valentine Senior Marketing Manager: Tori Olscn Alves Marketing Coordinator SI/<<I« Osterlitz

Marketing Assistant: Darshika Vyas Senior Managing Editor: Cynthia /.onneveld Associate Managing Editor: Camille Trentacoste Production Project Manager: Camille Trentacoste Senior Operations Supervisor: Natacha Moore Senior Art Director: Jonathan Boylan Art Director: Anthony Gemmellaro Text and Cover Designer: Anthony Gemmellaro Manager, Rights and Permissions: Ilessa Albader Supplements Development Editor: Vonda Keator Full-Service Project Management: MPS Content Services, a Macmiilan Company Composition: MPS Content Services, a Macmiilan Company Printer/Binder: Quad/Graphics Taunton Cover Printer: Lchigli/Phocnix Typeface: Minion 10.5/12.5

Credits and acknowledgments borrowed from other sources and reproduced, with permission, in this textbook appear on appropriate page within text. Microsoft’ and Windows* are registered trademarks of the Microsoft Corporation in the U.S.A. and other countries. Screen shots and icons reprinted with permission from the Microsoft Corporation. This book is not sponsored or endorsed by or affiliated with the Microsoft Corporation. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall. All lights reserved. Manufactured in the United States of America. This publication is protected by Copyright, and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. To obtain permission(s) to use material from this work, please submit a written request to Pearson Education, Inc., Permissions Department, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, 07458 Many of the designations by manufacturers and seller to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this book, and the publisher was aware of a trademark claim, the designations have been printed in initial caps or all caps.

Prentice Hall is an imprint of

P E A R S O N www.pearsonhighered.com

1 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2

1 S B N – I 0 : 0 – 1 3 – 7 0 3 2 5 7 – 9

I S B N – 1 3 : 9 7 8 – 0 – 1 3 – 7 0 3 2 5 7 – 0http://www.pearsonhighered.com

Contents in Brief

Common Features Chapter 1 Common Features ot Office 2010 2

More Skills 26

Word Chapter 1 Create Documents with Word 2010 30

More Skills 54 Chapter 2 Format and Organize Text 64

More Skills 88 Chapter 3 Work with Graphics, Tabs, and Tables 98

More Skills 122 Chapter 4 Apply Special Text, Paragraph and

Document Formats 132 More Skills 156

Excel Chapter 1 Create Workbooks with Excel 2010 166

More Skills 190

Chapter 2 Create Charts 200 More Skills 224

Chapter 3 Manage Multiple Worksheets 234 More Skills 258

Chapter 4 Use Excel Functions and Tables 268 More Skills 292

Access Chapter 1 Work with Databases and

Create Tables 302 More Skills 326

Chapter 2 M a n a g e Datasheets and Create Queries 336 More Skills 360

Chapter 3 Create Forms 370 More Skills 394

Chapter 4 Create Reports 404 More Skills 428

PowerPoint Chapter 1 Getting Started with PowerPoint 2010 438

More Skills 462 Chapter 2 Format a Presentation 472

More Skills 496 Chapter 3 Enhance Presentations with Graphics 506

More Skills 530 Chapter 4 Present Data Using Tables, Charts,

and Animation 540 More Skills 564

Integrated Projects Chapter 1 Integrating Word, Excel, A c c e s s ,

and PowerPoint 574 More Skills 598

Chapter 2 More Integrated Projects for Word, Excel, A c c e s s , and PowerPoint 610 More Skills 634

Glossary 646

Index 654

Contents in Brief iii

Table of Contents

C o m m o n Fea tu res C h a p t e r 1 C o m m o n F e a t u r e s of Office 2 0 1 0 2

Skill 1 Start Word and Navigate the Word Window 6 Skill 2 Start Excel and PowerPoint and Work with

Multiple Windows 8 Skill 3 Save Files in New Folders 10 Skill 4 Print and Save Documents 12 Skill 5 Open Student Data Files and Save Copies

Using Save As 14 Skill 6 Type and Edit Text 16 Skill 7 Cut, Copy, and Paste Text 18 Skill 8 Format Text and Paragraphs 20 Skill 9 Use the Ribbon 22

Skill 10 Use Shortcut Menus and Dialog Boxes 24

More Skills More Skills 11 Capture Screens with the Snipping

Tool 26 More Skills 12 Use Microsoft Office Help 26 More Skills 13 Organize Files 26 More Skills 14 Save Documents to Windows Live 26

W o r d C h a p t e r 1 C r e a t e D o c u m e n t s with Word 2 0 1 0 3 0

Skill 1 Create New Documents and Enter Text 34 Skill 2 Edit Text and Use Keyboard Shortcuts 36 Skill 3 Select Text 38 Skill 4 Insert Text from Other Documents 40 Skill 5 Change Fonts, Font Sizes, and Font Styles 42 Skill 6 Insert and Work with Graphics 44 Skill 7 Check Spelling and Grammar 46 Skill 8 Use the Thesaurus and Set Proofing Options 48 Skill 9 Create Document Footers 50

Skill 10 Work with the Print Page and Save Documents in Other Formats 52

More Skills More Skills 11 Split and Arrange Windows 54 More Skills 12 Insert Symbols 54 More Skills 13 Use Collect and Paste to Create a

Document 54 More Skills 14 Insert Screen Shots into Documents 54

C h a p t e r 2 Format a n d O r g a n i z e Text 6 4 Skill 1 Set Document Margins 68 Skill 2 Align Text and Set Indents 70 Skill 3 Modify Line and Paragraph Spacing 72 Skill 4 Format Text Using Format Painter 74 Skill 5 Find and Replace Text 76 Skill 6 Create Bulleted and Numbered Lists 78 Skill 7 Insert and Format Headers and Footers 80 Skill 8 Insert and Modify Footnotes 82 Skill 9 Add Citations 84

Skill 10 Create Bibliographies 86

More Skills More Skills 11 Record AutoCorrect Entries 88 More Skills 12 Use AutoFormat to Create

Numbered Lists 88 More Skills 13 Format and Customize Lists 88 More Skills 14 Manage Document Properties 88

C h a p t e r 3 Work with G r a p h i c s , Tabs , a n d T a b l e s 9 8

Skill 1 Insert Pictures from Files 102 Skill 2 Resize and Move Pictures 104 Skill 3 Format Pictures Using Styles and

Artistic Effects 106 Skill 4 Set Tab Stops 108 Skill 5 Enter Text with Tab Stops 110 Skill 6 Apply Table Styles 112 Skill 7 Create Tables 114 Skill 8 Add Rows and Columns to Tables H6 Skill 9 Format Text in Table Cells 118

Skill 10 Format Tables 120

iv Table of Contents

More Skills More Skills 11 Insert Text Boxes 122 More Skills 12 Format with WordArt 122 More Skills 13 Create Tables from Existing Lists 122 More Skills 14 Insert Drop Caps 122

C h a p t e r 4 A p p l y S p e c i a l T e x t , P a r a g r a p h , a n d D o c u m e n t F o r m a t s 1 3 2

Skill 1 Create Multiple-Column Text 136 Skill 2 Insert a Column Break 138 Skill 3 Apply and Format Text Effects 140 Skill 4 Use and Create Quick Styles 142 Skill 5 Add Borders and Shading to Paragraphs

and Pages 144 Skill 6 Insert and Format Clip Art Graphics 146 Skill 7 Insert SmartArt Graphics 148 Skill 8 Format SmartArt Graphics 150 Skill 9 Create Labels Using Mail Merge 152

Skill 10 Preview and Print Mail Merge Documents 154

More Skil ls More Skills 11 More Skills 12 More Skills 13 More Skills 14

Create Resumes from Templates 156 Create Outlines 156 Prepare Documents for Distribution 156 Preview and Save Documents as Web Pages 156

Exce l C h a p t e r 1 C r e a t e W o r k b o o k s w i t h

Exce l 2 0 1 0 Skill 1 Create and Save New Workbooks Skill 2 Enter Worksheet Data and Merge and

Center Titles Skill 3 Construct Addition and

Subtraction Formulas Skill 4 Construct Multiplication and

Division Formulas Skill 5 Adjust Column Widths and Apply Cell Styles Skill 6 Use the SUM Function Skill 7 Copy Formulas and Functions

Using the Fill Handle

1 6 6 170

Skill 8 Format, Edit, and Check the Spelling of Data 184 Skill 9 Create Footers and Change Page Settings 186

Skill 10 Display and Print Formulas and Scale Worksheets for Printing

More Skil ls More Skills 11

More Skills 12 More Skills 13 More Skills 14

Create New Workbooks from Templates Use Range Names in Formulas Change Themes Manage Document Properties

C h a p t e r 2 Skill 1 Skill 2

Skill 3 Skill 4 Skill 5 Skill 6 Skill 7

Skill 8

Skill 9 Skill 10

C r e a t e C h a r t s Open Existing Workbooks and Align Text Construct and Copy Formulas Containing Absolute Cell References Format Numbers Create Column Charts Format Column Charts Create Pie Charts and Chart Sheets Apply 3-D Effects and Rotate Pie Chart Slices Explode and Color Pie Slices, and Insert Text Boxes Update Charts and Insert WordArt Prepare Chart Sheets for Printing

More Ski l ls More Skills 11 More Skills 12 More Skills 13

Insert and Edit Comments Change Chart Types Copy Excel Data to Word Documents

More Skills 14 Fill Series Data into Worksheet Cells

188

190 190 190 190

2 0 0 204

206 208 210 212 214

216

218 220 222

224 224

224

224

172 C h a p t e r 3 M a n a g e M u l t i p l e W o r k s h e e t s 2 3 4

172 Skill 1 Work with Sheet Tabs 238

174 Skill 2 Enter and Format Dates 240 174 Skill 3 Clear Cell Contents and Formats 242

176 Skill 4 Move, Copy, Paste, and Paste Options 244

178 Skill 5 Work with Grouped Worksheets 246

180 Skill 6 Use Multiple Math Operators in a Formula 248 Skill 7 Format Grouped Worksheets 250

182 Skill 8 Insert and Move Worksheets 252

Table of Contents v

Skill 9 Construct Formulas That Refer to Cells in Other Worksheets 254

Skill 10 Create Clustered Bar Charts 256

More Skills More Skills 11 Create Organization Charts 258 More Skills 12 Create Line Charts 258 More Skills 13 Set and Clear Print Areas 258 More Skills 14 Insert Hyperlinks 258

C h a p t e r 4 U s e Exce l F u n c t i o n s a n d T a b l e s 2 6 8 Skill 1 Use the SUM and AVERAGE Functions 272 Skill 2 Use the MIN and MAX Functions 274 Skill 3 Move Ranges with Functions,

Add Borders, and Rotate Text 276 Skill 4 Use the IF Function 278 Skill 5 Apply Conditional Formatting with

Custom Formats, Data Bars, and Sparklines 280 Skill 6 Use Find and Replace and Insert

the NOW Function 282 Skill 7 Freeze and Unfreeze Panes 284 Skill 8 Create and Sort Excel Tables 286 Skill 9 Use the Search Filter in Excel Tables 288

Skill 10 Convert Tables to Ranges, Hide Rows and Columns, and Format Large Worksheets 290

More Skills More Skills 11 Apply Conditional Color Scales

with Top and Bottom Rules 292 More Skills 12 Use the Payment (PMT) Function 292 More Skills 13 Create PivotTable Reports 292 More Skills 14 Use Goal Seek 292

A c c e s s C h a p t e r 1 Work with D a t a b a s e s

a n d C r e a t e T a b l e s 3 0 2 Skill 1 Open and Organize Existing Databases 306 Skill 2 Enter and Edit Table Data 308 Skill 3 Create Forms and Enter Data 310 Skill 4 Filter Data in Queries 312 Skill 5 Create, Preview, and Print Reports 314 Skill 6 Create Databases and Tables 316

vi Table of Contents

Skill 7 Change Data Types and Other Field Properties 318

Skill 8 Create Tables in Design View 320 Skill 9 Relate Tables 322

Skill 10 Enter Data in Related Tables 324

More Skills More Skills 11 Compact and Repair Databases 326 More Skills 12 Import Data from Excel 326 More Skills 13 Work with the Attachment Data

Type 326 More Skills 14 Work with the Hyperlink

and Yes/No Data Types 326

C h a p t e r 2 M a n a g e D a t a s h e e t s a n d C r e a t e Q u e r i e s 3 3 6

Skill 1 Find and Replace Data 340 Skill 2 Filter and Sort Datasheets 342 Skill 3 Use the Simple Query Wizard 344 Skill 4 Format Datasheets 346 Skill 5 Add Date and Time Criteria 348 Skill 6 Create Queries in Design View 350 Skill 7 Add Calculated Fields to Queries 352 Skill 8 Work with Logical Criteria 354 Skill 9 Add Wildcards to Query Criteria 356

Skill 10 Group and Total Queries 358

More Skills More Skills 11 Export Queries to Other Fie Formats 360 More Skills 12 Find Duplicate Records 360 More Skills 13 Find Unmatched Records 360 More Skills 14 Create Crosstab Queries 360

C h a p t e r 3 C r e a t e Forms 3 7 0 Skill 1 Use the Form Wizard 374 Skill 2 Format Forms in Layout View 376 Skill 3 Use Forms to Modify Data 378 Skill 4 Use the Blank Form Tool 380 Skill 5 Customize Form Layouts 382 Skill 6 Add Input Masks 384 Skill 7 Apply Conditional Formatting 386 Skill 8 Create One-to-Many Forms 388 Skill 9 Enter Data Using One-to-Many Forms 390

Skill 10 Create Forms from Queries 392

More Skills More Skills 11 Validate Fields 394 More Skills 12 Add Combo Boxes to Forms 394 More Skills 13 Create Multiple Item Forms 394 More Skills 14 Create Macros 394

C h a p t e r 4 C r e a t e R e p o r t s 4 0 4 Skill 1 Create Reports and Apply Themes 408 Skill 2 Modify Report Layouts 410 Skill 3 Prepare Reports for Printing 412 Skill 4 Use the Blank Report Tool 414 Skill 5 Group and Sort Reports 416 Skill 6 Format and Filter Reports 418 Skill 7 Create Label Reports 420 Skill 8 Use the Report Wizard 422 Skill 9 Modify Layouts in Design View 424

Skill 10 Add Totals and Labels to Reports 426

More Skills More Skills 11 Export Reports to Word 428 More Skills 12 Export Reports to HTML Documents 428 More Skills 13 Create Parameter Queries 428 More Skills 14 Create Reports for Parameter Queries 428

PowerPo in t C h a p t e r 1 G e t t i n g S t a r t e d w i t h

P o w e r P o i n t 2 0 1 0 4 3 8 Skill 1 Open, View, and Save Presentations 442 Skill 2 Edit and Replace Text in Normal View 444 Skill 3 Format Slide Text 446 Skill 4 Check Spelling and Use the Thesaurus 448 Skill 5 Insert Slides and Modify Slide Layouts 450 Skill 6 Insert and Format Pictures 452 Skill 7 Organize Slides Using Slide Sorter View 454 Skill 8 Apply Slide Transitions and View Slide Shows 456 Skill 9 Insert Headers and Footers

and Print Presentation Handouts 458 Skill 10 Add Notes Pages and Print Notes 460

More Skil ls More Skills 11 Type Text in the Outline Tab 462 More Skills 12 Use Keyboard Shortcuts 462

More Skills 13 Move and Delete Slides in Normal View 462

More Skills 14 Design Presentations for Audience and Location 462

C h a p t e r 2 F o r m a t a P r e s e n t a t i o n 4 7 2 Skill 1 Create New Presentations 476 Skill 2 Change Presentation Themes 478 Skill 3 Apply Font and Color Themes 480 Skill 4 Format Slide Backgrounds with Styles 482 Skill 5 Format Slide Backgrounds with Pictures

and Textures 484 Skill 6 Format Text with WordArt 486 Skill 7 Change Character Spacing and Font Color 488 Skill 8 Modify Bulleted and Numbered Lists 490 Skill 9 Move and Copy Text and Objects 492

Skill 10 Use Format Painter and Clear All Formatting Commands 494

More Skil ls More Skills 11 Edit Slide Master 496 More Skills 12 Save and Apply Presentation

Template 496 More Skills 13 Create Slides from Microsoft Word

Outline 496 More Skills 14 Design Presentations with Contrast 496

C h a p t e r 3 E n h a n c e P r e s e n t a t i o n s w i t h G r a p h i c s 5 0 6

Skill 1 Insert Slides from Other Presentations 510 Skill 2 Insert, Size, and Move Clip Art 512 Skill 3 Modify Picture Shapes, Borders, and Effects 514 Skill 4 Insert, Size, and Move Shapes 516 Ski l l5 Add Text to Shapes and Insert Text Boxes 518 Skill 6 Apply Gradient Fills and Group

and Align Graphics 520 Skill 7 Convert Text to SmartArt Graphics

and Add Shapes 522 Skill 8 Modify SmartArt Layouts, Colors, and Styles 524 Skill 9 Insert Video Files 526

Skill 10 Apply Video Styles and Adjust Videos 528

More Skil ls More Skills 11 Compress Pictures 530

Table of Contents vii

More Skills 12 Save Groups as Picture Files 530 More Skills 13 Change Object Order 530 More Skills 14 Design Presentations Using

Appropriate Graphics 530

C h a p t e r 4 P r e s e n t D a t a U s i n g T a b l e s , C h a r t s , a n d A n i m a t i o n 5 4 0

Skill 1 Insert Tables 544 Skill 2 Modify Table Layouts 546 Skill 3 Apply Table Styles 548 Skill 4 Insert Column Charts 550 Skill 5 Edit and Format Charts 552 Skill 6 Insert Pie Charts 554 Skill 7 Apply Animation Entrance

and Emphasis Effects 556 Skill 8 Modify Animation Timing

and Use Animation Painter 558 Skill 9 Remove Animation and Modify Duration 560

Skill 10 Navigate Slide Shows 562

More Ski l ls More Skills 11 Prepare Presentations to be Viewed

Using Office PowerPoint Viewer 564 More Skills 12 Insert Hyperlinks in a Presentation 564 More Skills 13 Create Photo Albums 564 More Skills 14 Design Presentations with

Appropriate Animation 564

I n t e g r a t e d Pro jec ts C h a p t e r 1 I n t e g r a t i n g W o r d , E x c e l , A c c e s s ,

a n d P o w e r P o i n t 5 7 4 Skill 1 Move Text between Word Documents 578 Skill 2 Apply Heading Styles in Word 580 Skill 3 Create a PowerPoint Presentation

from a Word Document 582 Skill 4 Insert and Modify a Shape in PowerPoint 584 Skill 5 Import a Word Table into

an Excel Workbook 586 Skill 6 Insert a Shape from PowerPoint into Word

and Excel 588 Skill 7 Create and Work with an Excel Table 590

viii Table of Contents

Skill 8 Link Data between Office Applications Using O L E

Skill 9 Create Envelopes Using Data from Access Skill 10 Create Name Tags Using Data in Excel

More Ski l ls More Skills 11 Insert Subtotals in Excel and

Link Data to a Word Document More Skills 12 Insert Slides from Another

Presentation More Skills 13 Move and Copy Excel Worksheets

and Consolidate Data More Skills 14 Compare Shared Excel Workbooks

C h a p t e r 2

Skill 1 Skill 2 Skill 3 Skill 4

Skill 5

Skill 6 Skill 7

Skill 8 Skill 9

M o r e I n t e g r a t e d P r o j e c t s f o r W o r d , E x c e l , A c c e s s , a n d P o w e r P o i n t Create an Access Append Query Export Data from Access into Excel Create an Excel PivotTable Report Create External References between Excel Workbooks Insert a SmartArt Organization Chart into PowerPoint Insert an Excel PivotTable into PowerPoint Insert a PowerPoint Outline in Word and Create a Cover Page and Table of Contents Link and Embed Data from Excel into Word Export Data from Access to an R T F File and Insert the File into Word Insert Objects from PowerPoint into Word Skill 10

kills More Skills 11 Create an Excel PivotChart

and Link the PivotChart to Word More Skills 12 Create a Hyperlink between

PowerPoint, Word, and Excel Files More Skills 13 Insert a Total Row in an Excel Table

and Link the Table to PowerPoint More Skills 14 Compare Word Documents

Glossary

592 594 596

598

598

598 598

6 1 0 614 616 618

620

622 624

626 628

630 632

634

634

634 634

646

Index 654

About the Authors Kris Townsend is an Information Systems instructor at Spokane Falls Community College in Spokane, Washington. Kris earned a bachelor’s degree in both Education and Business, and a master’s degree in Education. He has also worked as a public school teacher and as a systems analyst. Kris enjoys working with wood, snowboarding, and camping. He commutes to work by bike and enjoys long road rides in the Palouse country south of Spokane.

1

Robert L. Ferrett recently retired as the Director of the Center for Instructional Computing at Eastern Michigan University, where he provided computer training and support to faculty. He has authored or co-authored more than 70 books on Access, PowerPoint, Excel, Publisher, WordPerfect, Windows, and Word. He has been designing, developing, and delivering computer workshops for more than two decades.

Catherine Hain is an instructor at Central New Mexico Community College in Albuquerque, New Mexico. She teaches computer applications classes in the Business and Information Technology School, both in the classroom and through the distance learning office. Catherine holds a bachelor’s degree in Management and Marketing and a master’s degree in Business Administration.

f t Alicia Vargas is an Associate Professor of Business Information Technology at Pasadena City College in California. She holds a bachelor’s and a master’s degree in Business Education from California State University, Los Angeles and has authored numerous textbooks and training materials on Microsoft Word, Microsoft Excel, and Microsoft PowerPoint.

A Special Thank You Pearson Prentice Hall gratefully acknowledges the contribution made by Shelley Gaskin to the first edition publication of this series—Skills for Success with Office 2007. The series has truly benefited from her dedication toward developing a textbook that aims to help students and instructors.We thank her for her continued support of this series.

About the Authors ix

Contributors We’d like to thank the following people for their work on Skills for Success:

Instructor Resource Authors Erich Adickes Parkland College Sharon Behrens Northeast Wisconsin Technical College Julie Boyles Portland Community College Barbara Edington St. Francis College Ranida Harris Indiana University Southeast Beth Hendrick Lake Sumter Community College Susan Holland Southeast Community College—Nebraska Andrea Leinbach Harrisburg Area Community College Yvonne Leonard Coastal Carolina Community College

Technical Editors Lisa Bucki Kelly Carling Hilda W i r t h Federico Jacksonville University Tom Lightner Missouri State University Elizabeth Lockley Joyce Nielsen

Reviewers Darrell Abbey Cascadia Community College Bridget I . Archer Oakton Community College Laura Aagard Sierra College John Alcorcha MTI College Barry Andrews Miami Dade College Natalie Andrews Miami Dade College Wilma Andrews Virginia Commonwealth University School

of Business Bridget Archer Oakton Community College Tahir Aziz J. Sargeant Reynolds Greg Balinger Miami Dade College Terry Bass University of Massachusetts, Lowell Lisa Beach Santa Rosa Junior College Rocky Belcher Sinclair Community College Nannette Biby Miami Dade College David Billings Guilford Technical Community College Brenda K. Br i t t Fayetteville Technical Community College Alisa Brown Pulaski Technical College Eric Cameron Passaic Community College

x Contributors

Trina Maurer Anthony Nowakowski Ernest Gines Stacey Gee Hollins John Purcell Ann Rowlette Amanda Shelton Steve St. John Joyce Thompson Karen Wisniewski

Georgia Virtual Technical College Buffalo State College Tarrant County College—Southeast St. Louis Community College—Meramec Castleton State College Liberty University J. Sargeant Reynolds Tulsa Community College Lehigh Carbon Community College County College of Morris

Janet Pickard Linda Pogue Steve Rubin Eric Sabbah Jan Snyder Mara Zebest

Chattanooga State Tech Community College Northwest Arkansas Community College California State University—Monterey Bay

Gene Carbonaro Trey Cherry Kim Childs Pualine Chohonis Lennie Coper Tara Cipriano Paulette Comet

Gail W . Cope Susana Contreras de Finch Chris Corbin Janis Cox Tomi Crawford Martin Cronlund Jennifer Day Ralph DeArazoza Carol Decker Loorna DeDuluc Caroline Delcourt

Long Beach City College Edgecombe Community College Bethany University Miami Dade College Miami Dade College Gateway Technical College Community College of Baltimore

Coun ty—Ca to nsville Sinclair Community College College of Southern Nevada Miami Dade College Tri-County Technical College Miami Dade College Anne Arundel Community College Sinclair Community College Miami Dade College Montgomery College Miami Dade College Black Hawk College

Contributors continued

Michael Discello Kevin Duggan Barbara Edington Donna Ehrhart Hilda Wirth Federico Tushnelda Fernandez Arlene Flerchinger Hedy Fossenkemper Kent Foster Penny Foster-Shiver Arlene Franklin George Gabb Barbara Garrell Deb Geoghan Jessica Gilmore Victor Giol Melinda Glander Linda Glassburn Deb Gross Rachelle Hall Marie Hartlein Diane Hartman Betsy Headrick Patrick Healy

Lindsay Henning Kermelle Hensley Diana Hill Rachel Hinton Mary Carole Hollingsworth Stacey Gee Hollins Bill Holmes Steve Holtz Margaret M. Hvatum Joan Ivey Dr. Dianna D. Johnson Kay Johnston Warren T. Jones, Sr. Sally Kaskocsak Renuka Kumar Kathy McKee Hazel Kates Gerald Kearns

Pittsburgh Technical Institute Midlands Technical Community College St. Francis College Genesee Community College Jacksonville University Miami Dade College Chattanooga State Tech Community College Paradise Valley Community College Withrop University Anne Arundel Community College Bucks County Community College Miami Dade College Delaware County Community College Bucks County Community College Highline Community College Miami Dade College Northmetro Technical College Cuyahoga Community College, West Ohio State University Glendale Community College Montgomery County Community College Utah Valley State College Chattanooga State Northern Virginia Community

College—Woodbridge Yavapai College Columbus Technical College Chesapeake College Broome Community College GA Perimeter St. Louis Community College—Meramec Chandler-Gilbert Community College University of Minnesota Duluth St. Louis Community College Lanier Technical College North Metro Technical College Columbia Basin College University of Alabama at Birmingham Sinclair Community College Community College of Baltimore County North Metro Technical College Miami Dade College Forsyth Technical Community College

Charles Kellermann

John Kidd Chris Kinnard Kelli Kleindorfer Kurt Kominek Dianne Kotokoff Cynthia Krebs Jean Lacoste Gene Laugh rey David LeBron Kaiyang Liang Linda Lindaman Felix Lopez Nicki Maines Cindy Manning Patri Mays Norma McKenzie Lee McKinley Sandy McCormack Eric Meyer Kathryn Miller

Gloria A. Morgan Kathy Morris Linda Moulton Ryan Murphy Stephanie Murre Wolf Jackie Myers Dell Najera

Scott Nason Paula Neal Bethanne Newman Eloise Newsome

Karen Nunan Ellen Orr Carol Ottaway Denise Passero Americus Pavese James Gordon Patterson Cindra Phillips

Northern Virginia Community College—Woodbridge

Tarrant County Community College Miami Dade College American Institute of Business NE State Tech Community College Lanier Technical College Utah Valley University Virginia Tech Northern Oklahoma College Miami Dade College Miami Dade College Black Hawk College Miami Dade College Mesa Community College Big Sandy Community and Technical College Paradise Valley Community College El Paso Community College GA Perimeter Monroe Community College Miami Dade College Big Sandy Community and Technical College,

Pike Ville Campus Monroe Community College University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa Montgomery County Community College Sinclair Community College Moraine Park Technical College Sinclair Community College El Paso Community College, Valle Verde

Campus Rowan Cabarrus Community College Sinclair Community College Paradise Valley Community College Northern Virginia Community

College—Woodbridge Northeast State Technical Community College Seminole Community College Chemeketa Community College Fulton-Montgomery Community College Community College of Baltimore County Paradise Valley Community College Clark State CC

Contributors

Contributors continued

Janet Pickard Chattanooga State Tech Community College Diane Stark Phoenix College Floyd Pittman Miami Dade College Neil Stenlund Northern Virginia Community College Melissa Prinzing Sierra College Linda Stoudemayer Lamar Institute of Technology Pat Rahmlow Montgomery County Community College Pamela Stovall Forsyth Technical Community College Mary Rasley Lehigh Carbon Community College Linda Switzer Highline Community College Scott Rosen Santa Rosa Junior College Margaret Taylor College of Southern Nevada Ann Rowlette Liberty University Martha Taylor Sinclair Community College Kamaljeet Sanghera George Mason University Michael M. Taylor Seattle Central Community College June Scott County College of Morris Roseann Thomas Fayetteville Tech Community College Janet Sebesy Cuyahoga Community College Ingrid Thompson-Sellers GA Perimeter Jennifer Sedelmeyer Broome Community College Daniel Thomson Keiser University Kelly SellAnne Arundel Community College Astrid Hoy Todd Guilford Technical Community College Teresa Sept College of Southern Idaho Barb Tollinger Sinclair Community College Pat Serrano Scottsdale Community College Cathy Urbanski Chandler Gilbert Community College Amanda Shelton J. Sargeant Reynolds Sue Van Boven Paradise Valley Community College Gary Sibbits St. Louis Community College—Meramec Philip Vavalides Guildford Technical Community College Janet Siert Ellsworth Community College Pete Vetere Montgomery County Community College— Robert Sindt Johnson County Community College West Campus Karen Smith Technical College of the Lowcountry Asteria Villegas Monroe College Robert Smolenski Delaware County Community College Michael Walton Miami Dade College Robert Sindt Johnson County Community College Teri Weston Harford Community College Gary R. Smith Paradise Valley Community College Julie Wheeler Sinclair Community College Patricia Snyder Midlands Technical College Debbie Wood Western Piedmont Community College Pamela Sorensen Santa Rosa Junior College Thomas Yip Passaic Community College Eric Stadnik Santa Rosa Junior College Lindy Young Sierra Community College Mark Stanchfield Rochester Community and Technical College Matt Zullo Wake Technical Community College

xii Contributors

I n s t r u c t o r s – Y o u a s k e d for it s o h e r e it is!

A M i c r o s o f t ® O f f i c e t e x t b o o k t h a t r e c o g n i z e s h o w s t u d e n t s l e a r n t o d a y –

Skills for Success with Microsoft

1 Office 2010 Volume 1

10 X 8.5 F o r m a t – Easy for students to read and type at the same time by simply propping the book up on the desk in front of their monitor

Clear ly Out l ined Sk i l l s – Each skill is presented in a single two-page spread so that students can easily follow along

Numbered S t e p s and Bul le ted Tex t – Students don’t read long paragraphs or text, but they will read information presented concisely

Easy-to-Find S t u d e n t Da ta Fi les – Visual key shows students how to locate and interact with their data files

S t a r t H e r e – Students know exactly where to start and what their starting file will look like

C H A P T E R

G e t t i n g S t a r t e d w i t h W i n d o w s 7 » YOU BK WINDOW 7 ro «CRK M I »F-JF IOM?«L« LOF RUINR-V.*™ PFLNJMN MO»»T*N>WN

MDAU mi mm • J- : >O-L

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Your ilartlng » c r e « n will look Ilk* this: S K I L L !

chapter, you will be

S k i l l s L is t – A visual snapshot of what skills they will complete in the chapter

O u t c o m e – Shows students up front what their completed project will look like

You will tdvo your filoi a t :

T J H N M I M H7_S«II| ‘ ‘

S e q u e n t i a l P a g i n a t i o n – Saves you and your students time in locating topics and assignments I

VISUAL WALK-THROUGH XIII

Skills for Success l ock – Tells how much time students

need to complete the chapter

Introduct ion

• KM US TUNTNW *IR*I fie, 01 FGWRN INTO 4 «IR J .: -I—. IT…. I AIULT :;I N..I..: .:

• MIMIJ-»TT*IIHDR»«U««IJI;UIF.:M*NJFOU« |*:R-P<TKF* T > ffirt IN NUJX ITXFFL R»»I« IN RI«J

t Written for T o d a y ‘ s S t u d e n t s – skills are taught with numbered steps and bulleted text so students are less likely to skip valuable information T w o – P a g e S p r e a d s – Each skill is

presented on a two-page spread to help students keep up their momentum

* TITTR.TI bim irii mug], TU L>«

_ J

D a t a Files Are a S n a p – Students can now find their files easier than ever before with this visual map

C o l o r e d Text – Clearly shows what a student types

Hands-On – Students start actually working on their skills from Step 1

D o n e ! – Students always know when they’ve completed a skill

XIV VISUAL WALK-THROUGH

Skills for S u c c e s s

UorsSkJh © U M l d t o m i o C k g c n n f M

End-o f -Chapte r M a t e r i a l – Several levels of assessment so you can assign the material that best fits your students’ needs

M o r e S k i l l s – Additional skills included online

K e y T e r m s O n l i n e H e l p Sk i l ls

Midi .. – .! -.. I – :T.

O n l i n e P r o j e c t – Students practice using Microsoft Help online to help prepare them for using the applications on their own

H > u » i « i i HI

•.m • m •

Visual Walk-Through xv

Skills for S u c c e s s

Al l V i d e o s

a n d I n s t r u c t o r m a t e r i a l s

a v a i l a b l e o n t h e I R C D

Instructor Mater ia ls

I n s t r u c t o r ‘ s M a n u a l – Teaching tips and additional resources for each chapter

A s s i g n m e n t S h e e t s – Lists all the assignments for the chapter, you just add in the course information, due dates and points. Providing these to students ensures they will know what is due and when

S c r i p t e d L e c t u r e s – Classroom lectures prepared for you

A n n o t a t e d S o l u t i o n F i l e s – Coupled with the scoring rubrics, these create a grading and scoring system that makes grading so much easier for you

P o w e r P o i n t L e c t u r e s – PowerPoint presentations for each chapter

P r e p a r e d E x a m s – Exams for each chapter and for each application

S c o r i n g R u b r i c s – Can be used either by students to check their work or by you as a quick check-off for the items that need to be corrected

S y l l a b u s T e m p l a t e s – for 8-week, 12-week, and 16-week courses

T e s t B a n k – Includes a variety of test questions for each chapter

C o m p a n i o n W e b S i t e – Online content such as the More Skills Projects, Online Study Guide, Glossary, and Student Data Files are all at www.pearsonhighered.com/skills

xvi Visual Walk-Throughhttp://www.pearsonhighered.com/skills

with M ic roso f t

Office 2010 V O L U M E 1

C H A P T E R J Common Features of Office 2010 • The programs in Microsoft Office 2010—Word, Excel, PowerPoint, and Access—share common

tools that you use in a consistent, easy-to-learn manner.

• Common tasks include opening and saving files, entering and formatting text, and printing your work.

Your starting screen will look like this: SKILLS SKILLS 1 – 1 0 TRAINING Umt Insert Pjgt 1

C M M mailt – 1 1 – * 41 IT

«3f»or>

AaBtccJK AaBbCcIK A A B B G .-YABBCC

‘ Items’ “Mo:ca; . rtfacmgl H*jding2 ChtDQt

Past 1 ol I Wmdi 0

A t t h e e n d o f t h i s chapter , y o u w i l l be a b l e t o :

Skill 1 Start Word and Navigate the Word Window Skill 2 Start Excel and PowerPoint and Work with

Multiple Windows Skill 3 Save Files in New Folders Skill 4 Print and Save Documents Skill 5 Open Student Data Files and Save Copies

Using Save As Skill 6 Type and Edit Text Skill 7 Cut, Copy, and Paste Text Skill 8 Format Text and Paragraphs Skill 9 Use the Ribbon Skill 10 Use Shortcut Menus and Dialog Boxes

MORE SKILLS

More Skills 11 Capture Screens with the Snipping Tool More Skills 12 Use Microsoft Office Help More Skills 13 Organize Files More Skills 14 Save Documents to Windows Live

2 C O M M O N FEATURES OF OFFICE 2 0 1 0 | C O M M O N FEATURES C H A P T E R 1

Outcome Using the skills listed to the left will enable you to create documents similar to this:

Visit Aspen Falls! A s p e n F a l l s o v e r l o o k s t h e P a c i f i c O c e a n

a n d is s u r r o u n d e d b y m a n y v i n e y a r d s a n d

w i n e r i e s . O c e a n r e c r e a t i o n is a c c e s s e d

p r i m a r i l y a t D u r a n g o C o u n t y P a r k . T h e

A s p e n L a k e R e c r e a t i o n A r e a p r o v i d e s y e a r

r o u n d f r e s h w a t e r r e c r e a t i o n a n d is t h e

c i t y ‘ s l a r g e s t p a r k .

Local Attractions • W i n e C o u n t r y

o W i n e Tas t ing Tou rs

o Winer ies

• W o r d s w o r t h Fel lowship Museum of A r t

• Du rango C o u n t y M u s e u m of H is to ry

• Conven t ion Center

• A r t Galleries

• Gl ider T o u r s

Aspen Fallc Annual Events • Annua l Starving Artists Sidewalk Sale

• A n n u a l W i n e Festival

• C inco de Mayo

• Vintage Car S h o w

• Her i tage D a y Parade

• Harvest Days

• A m a t e u r Bike Races

• Farmer ‘s Market

• Aspen Lake Nature Cruises

• Aspen Falls T r ia th lon

• Tas te of Aspen Falls

• W i n t e r Blues Festival

Contact Y o u r N a m e for more informat ion.

Common Features of Office 2010

You will save your files as: Lastname_Firstname_cfO 1 _Visit 1 Lastname_Firstname_cfO l_Visit2 Lastname_Firstname_cf01_Visit3

Common Features Chapter 1 | Common Features of Office 2010 3

In t h i s c h a p t e r , y o u w i l l c r e a t e d o c u m e n t s f o r t h e A s p e n F a l l s C i t y

H a l l , w h i c h p r o v i d e s e s s e n t i a l s e r v i c e s f o r t h e c i t i z e n s a n d v i s i t o r s o f

A s p e n F a l l s , C a l i f o r n i a .

C o m m o n Features of Of f ice 2 0 1 0 • Microsoft Office is the most common software used to create and share

personal and business documents.

• Microsoft Office is a suite o f several programs—Word, PowerPoint, Excel, Access, and others—that each have a special purpose.

• Because of the consistent design and layout o f Microsoft Office, when you learn to use one Microsoft Office program, you can use most o f those skil ls when working wi th the other Microsoft Office programs.

• T h e files you create w i t h Microsoft Office need to be named and saved in locations where they can be easily found when you need them.

C o m m o n F e a t u r e s o f O f f i c e 2 0 1 0 | C o m m o n F e a t u r e s C h a p t e r 1

Time to complete all 10 skills – 50 to 90 minutes

Find your student data files here:

Student data files needed for this chapter:

« cf01_Visit

• cf01_Visit_Events

cfOl Visit River

C O M M O N FEATURES C H A P T E R 1 | C O M M O N FEATURES OF OFFICE 2 0 1 0 5

• The Word 2010 program can be launched by clicking the Start button, and then locating and clicking the Microsoft Word 2010 command.

• When you start Word, a new blank document displays in which you can type text.

1. In the lower left corner of the desktop, click the Start button © .

2 . In the lower left corner of the Start menu, click the All Programs command, and then compare your screen with Figure 1 . –

The Microsoft Office folder is located in the All Programs folder. If you have several programs installed on your computer, you may need to scroll to see the Microsoft Office folder.

3 . Click the Microsoft Office folder, and then compare your screen with Figure 2. –

Below the Microsoft Office folder, commands that open various Office 2010 programs display.

4 . From the Start menu, under the Microsoft Office folder, click Microsoft Word 2010, and then wait a few moments for the Microsoft Word window to display.

5 . If necessary, in the upper right corner of the Microsoft Word window, click the Maximize button B| .

• C o n t i n u e t o t h e n e x t p a g e t o c o m p l e t e t h e s

6 Common Features of Office 2010 | Common Features Chapter 1

OotxMvtntx

Ptttuin All Programs folder list

(your list will be different)

Microsoft Office folder

Start button Figure 1

Adobe Acrobat 70 Professional Q Adcbe Designer 7.0 C Dtftuft Program; 9. DesHoe Gadget Gallery tr Internet Eiplorer Cj Window; Anytime Upgrade | | Window! DVD 1 M B . i Window, Fu ind Son

Window, Media Center Q Window! Media Pla/cr ‘ : Window! Update — XPSVI | Accn

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MOMSR Cflic SharePoi Startup

Microsoft Office folder

Office 2 0 1 0 programs (your

list may be different)

«•# Window! f a> and Sun • » Window, Media Center B Window! Media Player

Window! Update •4 XPS Viewer

l l l l l l l l l l Game!

Maintenance

Microsoft Office Aj Microsoft Access 2 0 1 0

• M.crcscfl tjcel 2 0 1 0 J3 • ‘ . – WoPath Dowgne. 2 0 1 0 X i r.l;rcsofl Inf cPaal FtCti M 0

N Microsoft OneNcle 2 0 1 0 0 MKicMfl Outlook 2 0 1 0

i_ Mjcroioft PowerPoint 2 3 1 0 _tj Microsoft Publnher 2 0 1 0 1 Microsoft SharePomt Workspace 21 4 lAcrcsoft Wort 2 0 1 0

Mcrosft Olf.ce 2 0 1 0 Tool!

M lhttp://Olf.ce

SKILL 1: Start Word and Navigate the Word Window

^ — — — i i !ni(rt fsgcUrrcut RefcuoM! M*!ingl P*.,f.> \

– CWtmlBon,. • u • A” A ‘ A.- ;=•!=•••> 51 “I V • A • c

AaBbCcOc AaBbCcCX AaBbCi A a B b C c r tioimil ‘ I no Sp»cl… Htadlng I Hf a&ng ? Cnarige

Ribbon tab E –

6 .

St)M» • -< * « ‘ « « •

J –

names h Home tab

– *

fewer! F>g*l»>©ul Rfffmnol ru . i – 3 : vuw f

C . r . » m ( H , . » , – » – A” A – A.- * • E – 1= ‘ * * )l U A a B b C c O < A»BbCcD( AaBbC. A . l B I . C l . ^A. t mi a • * • x. x ‘

•normal I Mo Saxi-. Mraamg 1 ; Hsasing: – Chlnga

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Group names Paragraph mark and insertion point

Quick Access Toolbar

New blank Word document

Figure 3 Heading 1 thumbnail

Styles group Show/Hide button selected Insertion point and paragraph mark

Heading 1 formatting applied Home tab is active

7 .

8 .

9 .

On the Ribbon’s Home tab, in the Paragraph group, click the Show/Hide button H until it displays in gold indicating that it is active. Compare your screen with Figure 3 .

Above the blank Word document, the Quick Access Toolbar and Ribbon display. At the top of the Ribbon, a row of tab names display. Each Ribbon tab has buttons that you click to perform actions. The buttons are organized into groups that display their names along the bottom of the Ribbon.

In the document, the insertion point— a vertical line that indicates where text will be inserted when you start typing—flashes near the top left corner.

The Show/Hide button is a toggle button— a button used to turn a feature both on and off. The paragraph mark (f) indicates the end of a paragraph and will not print.

In the document, type your first and last names. As you type, notice that the insertion point and paragraph mark move to the right.

On the Home tab, in the Styles group, point to—but do not click—the Heading 1 thumbnail to show the Live Preview—a feature that displays the result of a formatting change if you select it.

Click the Heading 1 thumbnail to apply the formatting change as shown in Figure 4. If the Word Navigation Pane displays on the left side of the Word window, click its Close [*] button.

You have completed Skill 1 of 10

Figure 4 6 J 6 P M

C Z 3 / 2 3 1 2

Common Features Chapter 1 | Common Features of Office 2010 7

• When you open more than one Office program, each program displays in its own window.

• When you want to work with a program in a different window, you need to make it the active window.

1 . Click the Start button © , and then compare your screen with F i g u r e 1.

Your computer may be configured in such a way that you can open Office programs without opening the All Programs folder. The Office 2010 program commands may display as shortcuts in the Start menu’s pinned programs area or the recently used programs area. Your computer’s taskbar or desktop may also display icons that start each program.

2 . From the Start menu, locate and then click Microsoft Excel 2010. Depending on your computer, you may need to double-click—not single click—to launch Excel. Compare your screen with F i g u r e 2 . If necessary, click the Maximize – button mm\<

A new blank worksheet displays in a new window. The first cell—the box formed by the intersection of a row and column—is active as indicated by the thick, black border surrounding the cell. When you type in Excel, the text is entered into the active cell.

The Quick Access Toolbar displays above the spreadsheet. The Excel Ribbon has its own tabs and groups that you use to work with an Excel spreadsheet. Many of these tabs, groups, and buttons are similar to those found in Word.

On the taskbar, two buttons display—one for Word and one for Excel.

• C o n t i n u e t o t h e n e x t p a g e t o c o m p l e t e t h e s k i l l

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3 . From the Start menu <PJ, locate and then click Microsoft PowerPoint 2010.

— Compare your screen with F i g u r e 3 . If necessary, Maximize N = M the Presentation 1 – Microsoft PowerPoint window.

A new, blank presentation opens in a new window. The PowerPoint window contains a slide in which you can type text. PowerPoint slides are designed to be displayed as you talk in front of a group of people.

4. In the upper right corner of the PowerPoint window, click the Close button fcgaj.

5. On the taskbar, click the Word button to make it the active window. With the insertion point flashing to the right of your name, press [Enter], and then type Skills for Success Common Features Chapter

6 . In the upper right corner of the Document 1 – Microsoft Word window, click the Minimize button

The Word window no longer displays, but its button is still available on the taskbar.

7 . With the Excel window active, in the first cell—cell A l — t y p e your first name. Press [Tab], and then type your last name.

Press (Enter), type =TODAY() and then press (Enter) to calculate the current date and to display it in the cell.

In the Excel window, click the Restore Down button |jSU and then compare your screen with F i g u r e 4.

The window remains open, but it no longer fills the entire screen. The Maximize button replaced the Restore Down button.

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8 .

9 .

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• SKILL 3: Sav<

• A new document or spreadsheet is stored in the computer ‘s temporary memory (RAM) until you save it to your hard drive or USB flash drive.

1 . If you are saving your work on a USB flash drive, insert the USB flash drive into the computer now. If the Windows Explorer button [3 flashes on the taskbar, right-click the button, and then on the Jump List, click Close window.

2 . On the taskbar, click the Word button to make it the active window. On the Quick Access Toolbar, click the Save button [y].

For new documents, the first time you click the Save button, the Save As dialog box opens so that you can name the file.

3 . If you are to save your work on a USB drive, in the Navigation pane scroll down to display the list of drives, and then click your USB flash drive as shown in F i g u r e 1 . If you are saving your work to another location, in the Navigation pane, locate and then click that folder or drive.

4. On the Save As dialog box toolbar, click the New folder button, and then immedi­ ately type Common Features Chapter 1

5 . Press [En te r ] to accept the folder name, and then press [En te r ] again to open the new folder as shown in F i g u r e 2 .

The new folder is created and then opened in the Save As dialog box file list.

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6. In the Save As dialog box, click in the File name box one time to highlight all of the existing text.

7. With the text in the File name box still highlighted, type Lastname_Firstname_ cfOl_Visitl

– 8 . Compare your screen with F i g u r e 3 , and then click Save.

After the document is saved, the name of the file displays on the title bar at the top of the window.

9 . On the taskbar, click the Windows Explorer button \^\. In the folder window Navigation pane, open [ft] the drive on which you are saving your work, and then click the Common Features Chapter 1 folder. Verify that Lastname_Firstname_ cpl_Visitl displays in file list.

1 0 . On the taskbar, click the Excel button to make it the active window. On the Excel Quick Access Toolbar, click the Save button § ] .

1 1 . In the Save As dialog box Navigation pane, open 0 the drive where you are saving your work, and then click the Common Features Chapter 1 folder to display its file list.

The Word file may not display because the Save As box typically displays only files created by the program you are using. Here, only Excel files will typically display.

1 2 . Click in the File name box, replace the existing value with Lastname_Firstname_ cf01_Visit2 and then click the Save button.

1 3 . On the taskbar, click the Windows Explorer button, and then compare your screen with F i g u r e 4.

Y o u h a v e c o m p l e t e d S k i l l 3 o f 1 0

F i g u r e 4

C o m m o n F e a t u r e s C h a p t e r 1 | C o m m o n F e a t u r e s o f O f f i c e 2 0 1 0 1 1

• SKILL 4: Print an.

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1 . O n t h e t a s k b a r , c l i c k t h e Excel b u t t o n , a n d t h e n c l i c k t h e Maximize |Uey b u t t o n .

2 . O n t h e R i b b o n , c l i c k t h e View tab, a n d t h e n i n t h e Workbook Views group, c l i c k t h e Page Layout b u t t o n . C o m p a r e y o u r s c r e e n w i t h F i g u r e 1 .

The worksheet displays the cells, the margins, and the edges of the paper as they will be positioned when you print. The cell references—the numbers on the left side and the letters across the top of a spreadsheet that address each cell—will not print.

O n t h e R i b b o n , c l i c k t h e Page Layout tab. I n t h e Page Setup group, c l i c k t h e Margins b u t t o n , a n d t h e n i n t h e Margins g a l l e r y , c l i c k Wide.

C l i c k t h e File tab, a n d t h e n o n t h e l e f t s i d e o f t h e B a c k s t a g e , c l i c k Print. C o m p a r e y o u r s c r e e n w i t h F i g u r e 2.

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The Print tab has commands that affect your print job and a preview of the printed page. Here, the cell references and grid- lines—lines between the cells in a table or spreadsheet—do not display because they will not be printed.

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6. Check with your Course Assignment Sheet or Course Syllabus, or consult with your instructor to determine whether you are to print your work for this chapter. If you are to print your work, at the top left corner of the Print Settings section, click the Print button. If you printed the spreadsheet, retrieve the printout from the printer.

7. On the File tab, click Save.

Because you have already named the file, the Save As dialog box does not display.

O n the File tab, click Exit to close the spreadsheet and exit Excel.

In the Word document, verify that the insertion point is in the second line of text. If not, on the taskbar, click the Word button to make it the active window.

10. On the Home tab, in the Styles group, click the Heading 2 thumbnail. Compare your screen with Figure 3.

11. On the File tab, click Print to display the Print tab. If you are printing your work for this chapter, click the Print button, and then retrieve your printout from the printer.

12. On the File tab, click Exit, and then com- pare your screen with Figure 4.

When you close a window with changes that have not yet been saved, a message will remind you to save your work.

13. Read the displayed message, and then click Save.

• You hove completed Skill 4 of 10

Figure 4 C o m m o n F e a t u r e s C h a p t e r 1 | C o m m o n F e a t u r e s o f O f f i c e 2010 1 3

• This book often instructs you to open a student data file so that you do not need to start the project with a blank document.

• The student data files are located on the student CD that came with this book. Your instructor may have provided an alternate location.

• You use Save As to create a copy of the stu­ dent data file onto your own storage device.

1 . If necessary, insert the student CD that came with this text. If the AutoPlay dialog box displays, click Close U a 4 .

2 . Using the skills practiced earlier, start Microsoft Word 2010.

3 . In the Documentl – Microsoft Word window, click the File tab, and then click Open.

4 . In the Open dialog box Navigation pane, scroll down and then, if necessary, open \V\ Computer. In the list of drives, click the CD/DVD drive to display the contents of the student CD. If your instructor has provided a different location, navigate to that location instead of using the student CD.

5. In the file list, double-click the 01_ student_data_files folder, double-click the 01_common_features folder, and then double-click the chapter_01 folder. Compare your screen with F i g u r e 1 . –

6. In the file list, click cf01_Visit, and then click the Open button. Compare your screen with F i g u r e 2 .

If you opened the file from the student CD, the title bar indicates that the document is in read-only mode—a mode where you cannot save your changes.

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7. If the document opens in Protected View, click the Enable Editing button.

Protected View is a view applied to documents downloaded from the Internet that allows you to decide if the content is safe before working with the document.

8 . Click the File tab, and then click Save As.

Because this file has already been saved with a name in a specific location, you need to use Save As to create a copy with a new name and location.

9. In the Save As dialog box Navigation pane, navigate to the C o m m o n Features Chapter 1 folder that you created previ­ ously—open 0 the drive on which you are saving your work, and then click the C o m m o n Features Chapter 1 folder.

1 0 . In the File n a m e box, replace the existing value with Lastname_Firstname_cf01_ Visit3 Be sure to use your own first and last names.

1 1 . Compare your screen with F i g u r e 3, and then click the Save button.

1 2 . On the title bar, notice the new file name displays and [Read-Only] no longer displays.

1 3 . On the taskbar, click the Windows Explorer button. Verify that the three files you have saved in this chapter display as shown in F i g u r e 4.

1 4 . In the Windows Explorer window, navigate to the s tudent CD, and then display the chapter_01 file list.

1 5 . Notice that the original student data file—cf01_Visit—is still located in the chapter_01 folder, and then Close the Windows Explorer window.

Y o u h o v e c o m p l e t e d S k i l l 5 o f 1 0

F i g u r e 4

C o m m o n F e a t u r e s C h a p t e r 1 | C o m m o n F e a t u r e s o f O f f i c e 2 0 1 0 1 5

• To edit is to insert text, delete text, or replace text in an Office document, spreadsheet, or presentation.

• To edit text, you need to position the insertion point at the desired location or select the text you want to replace.

1 . With the W o r d document as the active window, in the first line, click to the left of the word Aspen. Press (Bksp) 12 times to delete the words the City of. Be sure there is one space between each word as shown in F i g u r e 1 .

The Backspace key deletes one letter at a time moving from right to left.

2 . In the second line of the document, click to the left of the words The City of Aspen Falls. Press [ D e l e t e ] 12 times to delete the phrase The City of.

The Delete key deletes one letter at a time moving from left to right.

3 . In the line Area Attractions, double-click the word Area to select it. Type l o c a l and then compare your screen with F i g u r e 2 . —

When a word is selected, it is replaced by whatever you type next.

• Continue to the next page to complete the skill ̂

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Fast l o l l – ::;<a: il . > F i g u r e 2 16 C o m m o n F e a t u r e s o f O f f i c e 2 0 1 0 | Common Features Chapter 1

E E T T I

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SKILL 6: Type and Edit Text

4. Place the pointer approximately 1 inch to the left of the line Convention Center. When the [21 pointer displays as shown in

— F i g u r e 3, click one time.

Placing the pointer in the Selection bar and then clicking is a way to select an entire line with a single click. After selecting text, the Mini toolbar—a toolbar with common formatting buttons—may display briefly as you move the mouse.

5. With the entire line still selected, press [Delete) to delete the line.

6. On the Quick Access Toolbar, click the Undo button @ one time. Notice the Convention Center line displays again.

When you perform an incorrect action, clicking the Undo button often returns your document to its previous state.

7. At the end of the last line—Glider Tours— click between the last word and the para­ graph formatting mark (If). Press [Enter] to insert a new line.

8 . With the insertion point in the new line, type Contact Your Name for more information. Be sure to use your first and last names in place of Your and Name.

M Compare your screen with F i g u r e 4. 9. On the Quick Access Toolbar, click

Save Q .

When a document has already been saved with the desired name, click the Save button—the Save As dialog box is not needed.

M I N I T O O L B A R ( T H I S

M A Y N O T D I S P L A Y

O N Y O U R S C R E E N )

P O I N T E R I N

S E L E C T I O N B A R

F I G U R E 3

• Y o u h a v e c o m p l e t e d S k i l l 6 o f 1 0

N E W L I N E I N S E R T E D

F I G U R E 4

C o m m o n F e a t u r e s C h a p t e r 1 | C O M M O N F E A T U R E S O F O F F I C E 2 0 1 0 1 7

»• The copy command places a copy of the selected text or object in the Clipboard— a temporary storage area that holds text or an object that has been cut or copied.

• You can move text by moving it to and from the Clipboard or by dragging the text.

1 . Click the File tab, and then click Open. In the Open dialog box, if necessary, navigate to the student files and display the contents of the chapter_01 folder. Click cft)l_Visit_Events, and then click Open.

2. On the right side of the Ribbon’s Home tab, in the Editing group, click the Select button, and then click Select All. Compare your screen with F i g u r e 1.

3 . With all of the document text selected, on the left side of the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click the Copy button 0.

4 . In the upper right corner of the Word window, click Close l U o j . You do not need to save changes—you will not turn in this student data file.

5. In Lastname_Firstname_cf01_Visit3, click to place the insertion point to the left of the line that starts Contact Your Name.

6. On the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, point to—but do not click—the Paste button. Compare your screen with F i g u r e 2 .

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The Paste button has two parts—the upper half is the Paste button, and the lower half is the Paste button arrow. When you click the Paste button arrow, a list of paste options display.

Continue to the next page to complete the skill ^

18 C o m m o n F e a t u r e s o f O f f i c e 2 0 1 0 | C o m m o n F e a t u r e s C h a p t e r 1

I n s e r t i o n p o i n t

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SKILL 7: Cut, Copy, and Paste Text

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7. Click the upper half of the Paste but ton to paste the selected text. Compare your

— screen with F i g u r e 3.

When you paste, you insert a copy of the text or object stored in the Clipboard and the Paste Options button displays near the pasted text.

Press [Esc] to hide the Paste Options button.

Scroll up to display the line Winter Blues Festival. Place the \T\ pointer to the left of the W, and then drag down and to the right to select two lines—Winter Blues Festival and Taste of Aspen Falls.

To drag is to move the mouse while holding down the left mouse button and then to release it at the appropriate time.

1 0 . On the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click the Cut button 0.

The ait command removes the selected text or object and stores it in the Clipboard.

1 1 . Click to place the insertion point to the left of Contact Your Name, and then in the Clipboard group, click the Paste button to insert the text.

1 2 . Drag to select the text Taste of Aspen Falls, including the paragraph mark.

1 3 . With the [§] pointer, drag the selected text to the left of Winter Blues Festival. When the [¥] pointer displays to the left of Winter as shown in F i g u r e 4, release the mouse button.

1 4 . On the Quick Access Toolbar, click Save m.

• You have completed Skill 7 of 10

F i g u r e 4

C o m m o n F e a t u r e s C h a p t e r 1 | C o m m o n F e a t u r e s o f O f f i c e 2 0 1 0 1 9

• To format is to change the appearance of the text—for example, changing the text color to red.

> Before formatting text, you first need to select the text that will be formatted.

»• Once text is selected, you can apply formatting using the Ribbon or the Mini toolbar.

1 . Scroll to the top of the document, and then click anywhere in the first line, Visit Aspen Falls.

2. O n the Home tab, in the Styles group, click the Heading 1 thumbnail .

When no text is selected, the Heading 1 style is applied to the entire paragraph.

3 . Click in the paragraph, Local Attractions, and then in the Styles group, click the Heading 2 thumbnail . Click in the paragraph, Aspen Falls Annual Events, and then apply the Heading 2 style. Compare your screen with Figure 1.

4 . Drag to select the text Visit Aspen Falls! Immediately point to—but do not click— the Mini toolbar to display it as shown in Figure 2. If necessary, right-click the — selected text to display the Mini toolbar.

C o n t i n u e t o t h e n e x t p a g e t o c o m p l e t e t h e s k i l l >

Heading 1 applied

Heading 2 applied

Figure 1

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Figure 2

2 0 C o m m o n F e a t u r e s o f O f f i c e 2 0 1 0 | C o m m o n F e a t u r e s C h a p t e r 1

SKILL 8: F< and Paragraphs

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I n d e n t e d b u l l e t s

F i g u r e 4

5. On the Mini toolbar, click the Font Size arrow I” •[, and then from the list, click 28 to increase the size of the selected text.

6. Place the pointer approximately 1 inch to the left of the line Wine Country. When the SQ pointer displays, drag straight down. When all the lines between and including Wine Country and Glider Tours are selected, release the left mouse button.

7. On the Ribbon, in the Paragraph group, click the Bullets button IB-I and then compare your screen with F i g u r e 3.

8 . Click to the left of Annual Starving Artists Sidewalk Sale. Scroll down to display the bottom of the page. Press and hold [ S h i f t ] while clicking to the right of Winter Blues Festival to select all of the text between and including Annual Starving Artists Sidewalk Sale and Winter Blues Festival.

9. In the Paragraph group, click the Bullets button |B’L

1 0 . Scroll to the top of the document. Use either technique just practiced to select Wine Tasting Tours and Wineries.

1 1 . In the Paragraph group, click the Increase Indent button [*] one time. Compare your screen with F i g u r e 4.

1 2 . On the Quick Access Toolbar, click Save [H].

• Y o u h o v e c o m p l e t e d S k i l l 8 o f 1 0

C o m m o n F e a t u r e s C h a p t e r 1 | C o m m o n F e a t u r e s o f O f f i c e 2 0 1 0 2 1http://Visit-Aspen-Falls.ilhttp://An-Geaer.il*http://vvmar.eshttp://ao-cv.eehttp://e-aAnnuaiWini-Ftitlva.lt

• SKILL 9: Use the Ribbon

• Each Ribbon tab contains commands organized into groups. Some tabs display only when a certain type of object is selected—a graphic, for example.

1. Press and hold [ C t r l ] , and then press [Homel to place the insertion point at the begin­ ning of the document.

2 . On the Ribbon, to the right of the Home tab, click the Insert tab. In the Illustrations group, click the Picture button.

3. In the Insert Picture dialog box, navigate as needed to display the contents of the student files in the chapter_01 folder. Click cf01_Visit_River, and then click the Insert button. Compare your screen with F i g u r e 1.

When a picture is selected, the Format tab displays below Picture Tools. On the Format tab, in the Picture Styles group, a gallery— a visual display of choices from which you can choose—displays thumbnails. The entire gallery can be seen by clicking the More button to the right and below the first row of thumbnails.

4. On the Format tab, in the Picture Styles group, click the More button 0 to display the Picture Styles gallery. In the gallery, point to the fourth thumbnail in the first row—Drop Shadow Rectangle—to display the ScreenTip as shown in F i g u r e 2 .

Picture Tools Format tab

Picture Styles gallery

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Picture selected

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ScreenTip

A ScreenTip is informational text that displays when you point to commands or thumbnails on the Ribbon.

5. Click the Drop Shadow Rectangle thumbnail to apply the picture style.

• Continue to the next page to complete the skill •

22 Common Features of Office 2010 | Common Features Chapter l

Live Preview of Drop Shadow

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F I G U R E 3

K E Y T I P S F O R

H O M E T A B

K E Y T I P F O R I T A L I C

B U T T O N

F I G U R E 4

6. On the Format tab, in the Arrange group, click the Wrap Text button, and then from the list of choices, click Square.

7. Point to the picture, and then with the \%\ pointer, drag the picture to the right side of the page as shown in F I G U R E 3.

8. Click a blank area of the page, and then notice the Picture Tools Format tab no longer displays.

9. On the Page Layout tab, in the Themes group, click the Themes button.

1 0 . In the Themes gallery, point to—but do not click—each of the thumbnails to dis­ play the Live Preview of each theme. When you are done, click the Civic thumbnail .

1 1 . On the View tab, in the Zoom group, click the One Page button to display the entire page on the screen. If necessary, adjust the position of the picture.

1 2 . On the View tab, in the Zoom group, click the 100% button.

1 3 . Select the text Visit Aspen Falls! without selecting the paragraph mark. Press [W] to display KeyTips—keys that you can press to access each Ribbon tab and most com­ mands on each tab. Release [Ait], and then press (TT) one time to display the Home tab. Compare your screen with F I G U R E 4 .

With KeyTips displayed on the Home tab, pressing [T] is the same as clicking the Italic button 0. In this manner, you select Ribbon commands without using the mouse.

1 4 . Press (T) to apply the Italic format to the selected text.

1 5 . Save (5] the document.

• You have completed Skill 9 of 10

C O M M O N F E A T U R E S C H A P T E R 1 | C O M M O N F E A T U R E S O F O F F I C E 2 0 1 0 2 3http://Ho.milhttp://VisitAspenFalls.1Ifile://-/-ineyatC3

• Commands can be accessed in dialog boxes—boxes where you can select multiple settings.

• You can also access commands by right-clicking objects in a document.

1. In the paragraph that starts Aspen Falls overlooks the Pacific Ocean, triple-click— click three times fairly quickly without moving the mouse—to highlight the entire paragraph.

2. O n the Home tab, in the lower right cor­ ner of the Font group, point to the Font Dialog Box Launcher [|] as shown in F i g u r e 1.

The [1] buttons at the lower right corner of most groups open a dialog box with choices that may not be available on the Ribbon.

3 . Click the Font Dialog Box Launcher [s] to open the Font dialog box.

4. In the Font dialog box, click the Advanced tab. Click the Spacing arrow, and then click Expanded.

5. To the right of the Spacing box, click the By spin box up arrow three times to display 1.3 pt. Compare your screen with F i g u r e 2, and then click OK to close the dialog box and apply the changes.

• Continue to the next page to complete the skill

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Spacing before value changed

Spacing after value typed

Figure 4

6. With the paragraph still selected, right-click—click the paragraph with the right mouse but ton—and then

— compare your screen with Figure 3. When you right-click selected text, the Mini toolbar and a shortcut menu display. A shortcut menu displays a list of commands related to the type of object that you right-click.

From the displayed shortcut menu, click the Paragraph command. Alternately, on the Home tab, click the Paragraph Dialog Box Launcher.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

In the Paragraph dialog box, under Spacing, click the Before spin up arrow three times to display 18 pt.

In the After box, highlight the existing value, and then type 15 Compare your screen with Figure 4, and then click OK.

If your instructor asks you to print your work, click the File tab, click Print, and then click the Print button.

Click Save [5], click the File tab, and then click Exit.

Done! You have completed Skill 10 of 10, and your document is complete!

C O M M O N F E A T U R E S C H A P T E R 1 | C O M M O N F E A T U R E S O F O F F I C E 2010 2 5

T h e fo l lowing M o r e Skills a re located at www.pearsonhighered.com/skills

M o r e S k i l l s Q C a p t u r e S c r e e n s w i t h t h e S n i p p i n g T o o l

S O M E O F THE W O R K THAT Y O U D O IN THIS B O O K C A N N O T B E G R A D E D

W I T H O U T S H O W I N G Y O U R C O M P U T E R SCREENS TO THE GRADER. Y O U C A N

U S E THE S N I P P I N G TOOL TO CREATE PICTURES O F YOUR SCREENS. S N I P FILES

CAN B E P R I N T E D OR S U B M I T T E D ELECTRONICALLY.

I N M O R E SKILLS 1 1 , Y O U WILL U S E THE S N I P P I N G TOOL TO CREATE A

PICTURE O F YOUR SCREEN A N D THEN C O P Y THE PICTURE I N T O A W O R D

D O C U M E N T .

T O B E G I N , O P E N Y O U R W E B BROWSER, NAVIGATE TO

W W W . P E A R S O N H I G H E R E D . C O M / S K I L L S , LOCATE THE N A M E O F YOUR

TEXTBOOK, A N D THEN FOLLOW THE INSTRUCTIONS O N THE W E B S I T E .

M o r e S k i l l s ^ U s e M i c r o s o f t O f f i c e H e l p

M I C R O S O F T O F F I C E 2 0 1 0 H A S A H E L P S Y S T E M I N W H I C H Y O U CAN

SEARCH FOR ARTICLES THAT S H O W Y O U H O W TO A C C O M P L I S H TASKS.

I N M O R E SKILLS 1 2 , Y O U WILL U S E THE O F F I C E 2 0 1 0 H E L P S Y S T E M

TO V I E W A N ARTICLE O N H O W TO C U S T O M I Z E THE H E L P W I N D O W .

T O B E G I N , O P E N Y O U R W E B BROWSER, NAVIGATE TO

W W W . P E A R S O N H I G H E R E D . C O M / S K I L L S , LOCATE THE N A M E O F YOUR

TEXTBOOK, A N D THEN FOLLOW THE INSTRUCTIONS O N THE W E B S I T E .

M o r e S k i l l s ^ O r g a n i z e F i l e s

O V E R T I M E , Y O U M A Y CREATE H U N D R E D S O F FILES U S I N G MICROSOFT

OFFICE. T O FIND Y O U R FILES W H E N Y O U N E E D T H E M , T H E Y N E E D TO B E

WELL-ORGANIZED. Y O U C A N ORGANIZE Y O U R C O M P U T E R FILES B Y CAREFULLY

N A M I N G T H E M A N D B Y PLACING T H E M INTO FOLDERS.

I N M O R E SKILLS 1 3 , Y O U WILL CREATE, DELETE, A N D R E N A M E FOLDERS.

Y O U WILL T H E N C O P Y , DELETE, A N D M O V E FILES INTO THE FOLDERS THAT Y O U

CREATED.

T O B E G I N , O P E N Y O U R W E B BROWSER, NAVIGATE TO

W W W . P E A R S O N H I G H E R E D . C O M / S K I L L S , LOCATE THE N A M E O F Y O U R

TEXTBOOK, A N D THEN FOLLOW THE INSTRUCTIONS O N THE W E B S I T E .

M o r e S k i l l s S a v e D o c u m e n t s t o W i n d o w s L i v e

I F Y O U R C O M P U T E R IS C O N N E C T E D TO THE INTERNET, Y O U C A N SAVE

YOUR O F F I C E D O C U M E N T S TO A DRIVE AVAILABLE TO Y O U FREE O F CHARGE

THROUGH W I N D O W S L I V E . Y O U C A N THEN O P E N THE FILES F R O M OTHER

LOCATIONS S U C H AS H O M E , SCHOOL, OR W O R K .

I N M O R E SKILLS 1 4 , Y O U WILL SAVE A M E M O TO W I N D O W S L I V E .

T O B E G I N , O P E N Y O U R W E B BROWSER, NAVIGATE TO

W W W . P E A R S O N H I G H E R E D . C O M / S K I L L S , LOCATE THE N A M E O F YOUR

TEXTBOOK, A N D T H E N FOLLOW THE INSTRUCTIONS O N THE W E B S I T E .

Categories
research paper for sale research paper help write my paper for me

your friend wants to open a clothing shop. a necessary capital resource is a

(03.05 MC)<object:standard:ss.912.e.1.7>

Quantity of JacketsPrice (in whole dollars)Total RevenueMarginal RevenueTotal CostMarginal CostProfit (or loss)
020
1202018
2193833
3185443
4176855
5168068
6159083
71498101
813104120

Based on this chart, what is the marginal cost, in dollars, to produce four jackets?

Question 2 (Multiple Choice Worth 5 points)

(03.06 MC)<object:standard:ss.912.e.2.5>

Which investment produces a $5 hourly profit for a candy shop earning $1 profit per pound of candy?

Question 3 (Multiple Choice Worth 5 points)

(03.05 MC)<object:standard:ss.912.e.1.7>

Quantity of JacketsPrice (in whole dollars)Total RevenueMarginal RevenueTotal CostMarginal CostProfit (or loss)
020
1202018
2193833
3185443
4176855
5168068
6159083
71498101
813104120

Based on this chart, what is the marginal revenue, in dollars, at quantity five jackets?

Question 4 (Multiple Choice Worth 5 points)

(03.03 MC)<object:standard:ss.912.e.1.5>

Root and Vine is a gardening collective and local delivery service started by two friends. Their clientele has grown, and they want to expand. The owners like the idea of protecting their personal property, but they want to maintain control of the business. Which type of organization might best suit their growth?

Question 5 (Multiple Choice Worth 5 points)

(03.02 MC)<object:standard:ss.912.e.1.1>

Meg and her mother are opening a cupcake shop. They buy an oven, a walk-in cooler, and a decorating table. In terms of factors of production, what are these items?

Question 6 (Multiple Choice Worth 5 points)

(03.04 MC)<object:standard:ss.912.e.1.6>

Why do purely competitive markets tend to benefit consumers over producers?

Question 7 (Multiple Choice Worth 5 points)

(03.06 MC)<object:standard:ss.912.e.2.5>

Adalet runs a newsstand in a busy office complex. Which option would best help her business to grow?

Question 8 (Multiple Choice Worth 5 points)

(03.06 MC)<object:standard:ss.912.e.2.5>

Which investment produces a $40 daily profit for a game shop earning $2 profit from every game sold?

Question 9 (Multiple Choice Worth 5 points)

(03.03 MC)<object:standard:ss.912.e.1.5>

Your friend hopes to expand her business to multiple locations. It would be best for her to create a

Question 10 (Multiple Choice Worth 5 points)

Graph shows gallons of strawberry ice cream along the horizontal axis and gallons of chocolate ice cream along the vertical axis. Five points are plotted on the graph. Point A shows four strawberry and eight chocolate. Point B shows 15 chocolate and two strawberry. Point C shows four chocolate and twelve strawberry. Point D shows twelve chocolate and eight strawberry. Point X shows twelve chocolate and twelve strawberry.

(03.06 MC)<object:standard:ss.912.e.1.2>



Use this image to answer the following question. The ice cream shop needs 5 pounds of strawberries for every gallon of strawberry ice cream. The shop chose to produce 4 gallons of chocolate ice cream. How many pounds of strawberries should the shop purchase?

Question 11 (Multiple Choice Worth 5 points)

(03.06 MC)<object:standard:ss.912. e.1.9=””>

Sam works as a transcriptionist for $30,000 per year, and Janet works as a jet propulsion specialist for $73,000 per year. Which of the following statements couldbest explain the disparity in their incomes?

Question 12 (Multiple Choice Worth 5 points)

(03.06 MC)<object:standard:ss.912.e.1.9>

Stacy owns a hair salon and haircuts are $10. She charges hairdressers $20 per hour to rent a chair and serve clients. What is the minimum number of haircuts a hairdresser should give per hour to earn money at Stacy’s salon?

Question 13 (Multiple Choice Worth 5 points)

A production possibilities curve. x-axis is labeled Mystery Novels. Y-axis is labeled Sci-Fi Novels. Curve extends from 0, 11 to 11, 0. Point Q plotted at 5, 11. Point R plotted at 6, 10. Point T plotted at 9, 8. Point V plotted at 10, 5.

(03.06 HC)<object:standard:ss.912.e.1.2>



Mad Hatter Publishing specializes in genre fiction for young adults. A movie company decides to make an adaptation of one of its popular science-fiction novels. Currently, production at Mad Hatter is at point T. To which point or points is production likely to shift?

Question 14 (Multiple Choice Worth 5 points)

Graph shows gallons of strawberry ice cream along the horizontal axis and gallons of chocolate ice cream along the vertical axis. Five points are plotted on the graph. Point A shows four strawberry and eight chocolate. Point B shows 15 chocolate and two strawberry. Point C shows four chocolate and twelve strawberry. Point D shows twelve chocolate and eight strawberry. Point X shows twelve chocolate and twelve strawberry.

(03.06 MC)<object:standard:ss.912.e.1.2>



Use this image to answer the following question. The ice cream shop

Question 15 (Multiple Choice Worth 5 points)

(03.04 LC)<object:standard:ss.912.e.1.6>

An oligopoly is a market for a good or service that

Question 16 (Multiple Choice Worth 5 points)

(03.04 LC)<object:standard:ss.912.e.1.8>

The most common form of nonprice competition is

Question 17 (Multiple Choice Worth 5 points)

(03.04 MC)<object:standard:ss.912.e.1.8>

“Buy our cell phone with built-in calendar and reminder features! This way you will never forget an appointment while on the go.” This advertisement targets your

Question 18 (Multiple Choice Worth 5 points)

(03.01 LC)<object:standard:ss.912.e.2.3>

An entrepreneur is best defined as a person who

Question 19 (Multiple Choice Worth 5 points)

(03.02 MC)<object:standard:ss.912.e.1.1>

Your friend wants to open a clothing shop. A necessary capital resource is a

Question 20 (Multiple Choice Worth 5 points)

(03.05 HC)<object:standard:ss.912.e.1.7>

Quantity of JacketsPrice (in whole dollars)Total RevenueMarginal RevenueTotal CostMarginal CostProfit (or loss)
022000900
120020020017080
218036016020030
316048012029090
415060012034050
514070010040060
613581090500100
7130910100620120

The owner of ProPhone has charted the company’s marginal revenue and marginal cost for its latest line of smartphones, the Blazer. Use the chart to calculate the company’s profit. How many phones will ProPhone need to sell to maximize profit?

Categories
cheap research papers research paper help write my paper for me

two small spheres spaced 20.0 cm apart have equal charge.

11/30/2018 HW1

https://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?displayMode=studentView&assignmentID=6573925 1/9

HW1 Due: 11:59pm on Friday, September 14, 2018

You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy

Exercise 21.4

You have a pure (24-karat) gold ring with mass 10.8 . Gold has an atomic mass of 197 and an atomic number of 79.

Part A

How many protons are in the ring?

ANSWER:

Part B

What is their total positive charge?

Express your answer with the appropriate units.

ANSWER:

Part C

If the ring carries no net charge, how many electrons are in it?

ANSWER:

Exercise 21.6

Two small spheres spaced 20.0 apart have equal charge.

Part A

How many excess electrons must be present on each sphere if the magnitude of the force of repulsion between them is 3.33 10 ?

ANSWER:

Exercise 21.12

g g/mol

= np

= Q

= ne

cm

× −21 N

= ne

11/30/2018 HW1

https://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?displayMode=studentView&assignmentID=6573925 2/9

A negative charge of -0.510 exerts an upward 0.700- force on an unknown charge that is located 0.500 directly below the first charge.

Part A

What is the value of the unknown charge (magnitude and sign)?

Express your answer with the appropriate units.

ANSWER:

Part B

What is the magnitude of the force that the unknown charge exerts on the -0.510 charge?

Express your answer with the appropriate units.

ANSWER:

Part C

What is the direction of this force?

ANSWER:

Electric Field Conceptual Question

Part A

For the charge distribution provided, indicate the region (A to E) along the horizontal axis where a point exists at which the net electric field is zero.

If no such region exists on the horizontal axis choose the last option (nowhere).

μC N m

= q

μC

= F

upward

downward

11/30/2018 HW1

https://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?displayMode=studentView&assignmentID=6573925 3/9

You did not open hints for this part.

ANSWER:

Part B

For the charge distribution provided, indicate the region (A to E) along the horizontal axis where a point exists at which the net electric field is zero.

If no such region exists on the horizontal axis choose the last option (nowhere).

You did not open hints for this part.

ANSWER:

A

B

C

D

E

nowhere

11/30/2018 HW1

https://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?displayMode=studentView&assignmentID=6573925 4/9

Part C

For the charge distribution provided, indicate the region (A to E) along the horizontal axis where a point exists at which the net electric field is zero.

If no such region exists on the horizontal axis choose the last option (nowhere).

You did not open hints for this part.

ANSWER:

Part D

For the charge distribution provided, indicate the region (A to E) along the horizontal axis where a point exists at which the net electric field is zero.

A

B

C

D

E

nowhere

A

B

C

D

E

nowhere

11/30/2018 HW1

https://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?displayMode=studentView&assignmentID=6573925 5/9

You did not open hints for this part.

ANSWER:

Exercise 21.20

Two point charges are placed on the x-axis as follows: charge = 3.95 is located at 0.204 , and charge = 4.95 is at -0.295 .

Part A

What is the magnitude of the total force exerted by these two charges on a negative point charge = -5.99 that is placed at the origin?

ANSWER:

Part B

What is the direction of the total force exerted by these two charges on a negative point charge = -5.99 that is placed at the origin?

ANSWER:

A

B

C

D

E

Nowhere along the finite x axis

q1 nC x = m q2 nC x = m

q3 nC

= F N

q3 nC

11/30/2018 HW1

https://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?displayMode=studentView&assignmentID=6573925 6/9

Exercise 21.24

A particle has a charge of -5.55 .

Part A

Find the magnitude of the electric field due to this particle at a point 0.350 directly above it.

Express your answer with the appropriate units.

ANSWER:

Part B

Find the direction of this electric field.

ANSWER:

Part C

At what distance from this particle does its electric field have a magnitude of 14.0 ?

Express your answer with the appropriate units.

ANSWER:

Prelecture Concept Question 21.08

Part A

to the + directionx

to the – directionx

perpendicular to the -axisx

the force is zero

nC

m

= E

up, away from the particle

down, toward the particle

N/C

= L

11/30/2018 HW1

https://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?displayMode=studentView&assignmentID=6573925 7/9

The strength of the electric field at a certain distance from a point charge is represented by E. What is the strength of the electric field at twice the distance from the point charge?

ANSWER:

Prelecture Concept Question 21.10

Part A

When a point charge of +q is placed on one corner of a square, an electric field strength of 2 N/C is observed at the center of the square. Suppose three identical charges of +q are placed on the remaining three corners of the square. What is the magnitude of the net electric field at the center of the square?

ANSWER:

Prelecture Concept Question 21.04

Part A

Two charged objects are separated by some distance. The charge on the first object is greater than the charge on the second object. How does the force between the two objects compare?

ANSWER:

At twice the distance, the strength of the field is E/4.

At twice the distance, the strength of the field is E/2.

At twice the distance, the strength of the field is 4E.

At twice the distance, the strength of the field is 2E.

At twice the distance, the strength of the field remains equal to E.

The magnitude of the net electric field at the center of the square is 6 N/C.

The magnitude of the net electric field at the center of the square is 4 N/C.

The magnitude of the net electric field at the center of the square is 0 N/C.

The magnitude of the net electric field at the center of the square is 8 N/C.

The magnitude of the net electric field at the center of the square is 2 N/C.

11/30/2018 HW1

https://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?displayMode=studentView&assignmentID=6573925 8/9

Prelecture Concept Question 21.02

Part A

A positively charged rod is brought close to one end of an uncharged metal rod but does not actually touch it. What type of charge does the end of the metal rod closest to the positively charged rod acquire?

ANSWER:

Problem 21.01

Part A

A piece of plastic has a net charge of +2.00 μC. How many more protons than electrons does this piece of plastic have? (e = 1.60 × 10-19 C)

ANSWER:

The charged objects exert electrostatic forces on each other that are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction.

The first object exerts a large electrostatic force on the second object.

The charged objects exert electrostatic forces on each other that are equal in magnitude and pointing in the same direction.

The second object exerts a large electrostatic force on the first object.

The end of the metal rod closest to the positively charged rod remains neutral.

The end of the metal rod closest to the positively charged rod can acquire either a positive or negative charge, depending on the composition of the metal.

The end of the metal rod closest to the positively charged rod acquires a positive charge.

The end of the metal rod closest to the positively charged rod acquires a negative charge.

1.25 × 1019

2.50 × 1019

2.50 × 1013

1.25 × 1013

11/30/2018 HW1

https://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?displayMode=studentView&assignmentID=6573925 9/9

Problem 21.03

Part A

When two point charges are 2.0 cm apart, each one experiences a 1.0-N electric force due to the other charge. If they are moved to a new separation of 8.0 cm, the electric force on each of them is closest to

ANSWER:

Problem 21.06

Part A

Charge nC is at ( m, ), charge nC is at ( , m), and charge nC is at ( , ). What is the magnitude of the net electrostatic force on the -nC charge due to the other charges? (

N · m2/C2)

ANSWER:

Part B

What is the direction of the net electrostatic force on the -nC charge due to the other charges?

ANSWER:

Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 0.0%.

You received 0 out of a possible total of 13 points.

1.0 N.

4.0 N.

16 N.

0.25 N.

0.063 N.

= 6.0Q1 0.30 0 = −1.0Q2 0 0.10 = 5.0Q3 0 0 5.0

k = 1/4 = 8.99 ×πϵ0 10 9

N

5.0

above -axis ∘ x