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Literature Review: HR: From Criticism To Destruction

HR: From Criticism To Destruction

From the past few decades, department of the human resources management is being criticized for dysfunctional and bureaucratic touch with reality of the business and the requirement of the business. The Harvard Business Review is makes the new step and calls for “Blowing Up HR!” the importance and role of the HR do not push behind. Organization needs these kinds of the dedicated groups in the organization that helps to run the various function of the organization. The purpose of the HR is to run all the activities with great concerns and develops the structure and the culture of the organization. It is important for the success of the firm and the business.

 According to various people, the HR is not working properly. It is the authority that cannot be challenged and also involves promoting the discrimination in the organizations. The people mostly use their personal interest in the organization in hiring and the selection process. With involvement of the technology, there is great change in the culture and environment of the organizing. Cloud bases solutions are feasible for the organizations and also run the administrative system with efficiency and the effectiveness. In addition, the existence of the HR is mandatory for the survival of the organization. There is need to explore the positive sides and functions of the HR. The most important role is played by the HR in change management. The change is the crucial system that is very complex to implement in the organization.

The global trends in the HR are changing. Still there is no difference in popularity and need of the HR for the development and growth of the organization. In open market competition, the HR department knows the ways and the techniques to utilize the scare resources with maximum output of the organization. In addition, the sustainable competitive advantage can also achieve with help of the HR department in organization. The use of policy in right way is important for survival.

Reference

Lawler, E. E. (2015). HR: From Criticism To Destruction. Retrieved May 2, 2016, from http://www.forbes.com/sites/edwardlawler/2015/08/25/hr-from-criticism-to-destruction/#3847cc6735e5

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Internal and external Challenges of Saudi Arabia

Key internal and external challenges of Saudi Arabia

            The Saudi government is facing both internal and external challenges. Mainly, these challenges belong to two major spheres of the Saudi Kingdom that include:

  • Security
  • Economy
  • Internal Politics

            Currently the Saudi government has substantial security and economy crisis. Moreover, the internal politics of the Saudi Arabia is also posing challenges for the country.  The security of the Saudi Arabia is a major external threat that needed to be eliminated. There are five common internal and external threats in the realm of security, economy and internal politics and these threats include:

  • War in Yemen
  • War in Syria
  • Rivalry with Iran
  • Falling oil prices
  • Disputes in domestics politics

            There is an ongoing war in Yemen and the rebels wanted to occupy Saudi land. Therefore, the armed forces of the Saudi Arabia are in the position of war. A substantial amount of the budget is being used in the war crisis that also poses substantial challenges to the economy. Moreover, Saudi Arabia is also threatened with the Syria regime. This is in the favor of the Saudi Arabia to eliminate the Syrian regime to put an end to the security threats from Syria. The Saudi government has difficulties in relations with Iran. The Iran is striving to achieve nuclear power and it is against the security of the Saudi Arabia (Pant & Behar, 2015).

            Although the Saudi Arabia economy has grown very strongly, the major challenges are the substantial oil prices since 2014 it is an important risk towards the economy. The Saudi Arabian economy depends on the oil revenue. The revenue comes of export of the 80 percent oil sales export. The lower oil prices will have the impact on the fiscal and external balances. The reliance on the oil makes issues for the policy makers. The first is how to deal with the dependency on the oil and initiate the domestic economy.  Therefore, this is an important economic challenge for Susi Arabia.  

            The internal politics of the Saudi Arabia is also troublesome. The appointment of young defense minister Mohammad bin Salman is not liked by the key people in internal political structure of the Saudi Arabia. The current crown prince is 55-year old Mohammed bin Nayef who is favorable for western allies. Moreover, Mohammad bin Salman is likely to expand its own poer base and willing to appoint his key people in key positions. Therefore, political disputes are severe and it could weaken the country internally (Dan, 2015).

Consequences of internal and external challenges of Saudi Arabia

            The major consequences of the internal and external challenge are the weak security situation, economic condition and internal politics. The ongoing war in Yemen, Syria and abrupt relations with Iran has posed significant challenges for Saudi Kingdom. Therefore, the Saudi government is worried about the security situation in the country.  Moreover, the economy is the dependant on the oil prices, which grows with the oil prices growing and decreases with the oil prices decreased.

            The economy is of the type to be known to be diverse from the oil. The oil is the thing, which is there for the economy majority, which needs to be diversifying. The oil prices are to be initiated from the economy and should be dealt in the economical issues (Dan, 2015). These challenges will affect the fiscal and the external balance. The fluctuations to the oil will be diversifying the fiscal policy and will be different issues as if the prices will grow with the economy and decrease with the oil prices.

            The disputes in internal politics of the Saudi Arabia and power struggle have led to the weak political condition in the domestic politics. The weak internal politics also poses threats to the external security of the kingdom. Therefore, the internal political struggle and power sharing must be settled down. The political appointments in the royal families needed to settle down appropriately without any problems (Husein, 2006).

Remedial measures to overcome challenges

            The ongoing war must be put an end. The more will be the scale of the war, the more will be the security threats for the Saudi Arabia. Therefore, disputes with Yemen and Iran must be put to an end.  The role of Pakistan is important and recently the Saudi delegation visited Pakistan to get the support. This is an important step. Such efforts must be carried out in future as well. In addition, the relations with Iran also needed to be settled. The longer will be the dispute with Iran, the more it will be problematic with Saudi Arabia.  The oil will be needed to be leaving the dependency, which needs to be changed over time (Pant & Behar, 2015).

            The Saudi Arabian economy needs to be changing the factor, which 80% part of their economy, which is laid down in the fiscal and external balance, which should be removing the dependency.   The dependency over oil must be reduced. Currently, the 80% of revenues of the Saudi Arabia comes from the oil. Therefore, this is not a god sign for the economy. Other sectors of the economy must need to be promoted in that regard. The fiscal policies dependency should be changed with changing the economy factor, which should evolve the economy. The change are in the economic factor should be diversified and should be leading the economy with the different style of economy the dealing in the verdict to be taken (Husein, 2006).

Responsibility of decision makers

            The decision makers need to be dealing in the scenario of mitigation and resolving the issue, which need to be mitigated. The security council of the Saudi Arabia makes the relations better with the Yemen and Iran and also play its role in the settlement of disputes with Syria. The Oil dependency need to be changed because the economy is to be fluctuate and will result in the form of the fiscal and external balance to be dealt in the form of the exports of the country (Pant & Behar, 2015). Saudi Arabia needs to differentiate the factors, which should come to the economic factors.

            The dependency should be removed and should be dealt in the format that the economy is resolved and worked over the scenario. The scenario is which will deal in the factors to be removed dependency to another level. The decision maker should be thinking of the scenario that the issues of the oil dependency should be put to another place. The dependency should be revealed and other factors will be adjusted to the fiscal and external balance. Moreover, internal political landscape needed to be improved with compromise over the power sharing.

References

Dan. (2015). Saudi Arbia facing many challanges. Retrieved April 30, 2016, from http://tradinggods.net/trading-gods-blog/saudi-arabia-facing-many-challenges/

Husein, A. T. (2006). Construction and projects in Saudi Arabia. Construction and projects in Saudi Arabia , 1-11.

Pant, M., & Behar, A. (2015). Saudi Arabia: Tackling Emerging Economic Challenges to Sustain Growth. Saudi Arabia: Tackling Emerging Economic Challenges to Sustain Growth , 1-94.

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Communication and Media Research “Advertising in social network sites”

Communication and Media Research

“Advertising in social network site”

It is researched that today’s social interaction is becoming the source of advertising for the people; people are getting familiar with the products and services online, the variety of interaction is enable the people to actively participate in buying the product and getting information about the product. It is investigate in the research that how people influenced by the social media and how they attract towards the products to buy. The social influence theory assumed that sharing the interpersonal influence and collective influence can motivates one to buy the product. It is tested from the different sources like Facebook that people strongly influenced towards the products in term of collective influence than the interpersonal influence.

The research is interesting as it tells about the effectiveness of online advertisement, the people on the social websites, comment on the product and services, share their experiences that can influence the online advertisement. The comment on advertising videos influence the public towardsthe product, user attitude towards theonlineadvertisement is effecting on the people mind. Researchers have find out that advertising vehicles are effecting various advertising material, the online media is a source of effectiveness for the companies. Companies and organizations taking advantages of the online sources, the online sources are becoming the reason of profitability and source of effectives for them, the one who do not do online advertisement not get the advantages as others are getting. The media also influenced surrounding media to promote the media content, the question arises that what influence the people on social media, to buy the products, the answer is people get attracted by each other comments and this is the reason the online advertisements are successful.

The company’s focus on making the perfect advertisement by the professional of media content, nowadays the media content is providing effectiveness, the marketing the social media is given stress, the user generated content is also effective, the general public could also make the advertisement that can effect on one’s mind. The general public know much about the mind of then people, sometimes better than the professional so general public could be operative in this way. Online advertisement is a source or vehicle now giving advantages to the public as well as the companies.

Various internet online service are becoming the electronic word of mouth, it is investigated that more people are attracted towards the product by seeing each other’s. The electronic word of mouth is influencing or the motivation for the people or the companies to enhance the profit. It is estimated or considered by the researchers that user generated content is much effective instead of the media professionals, the user generated content is effective as the people have the information about the peer, there are several types to influence the peer or customers, not only single source is effective, the users are fully aware about the sources and they interplay among various sources.

Social influence as collective influence:

It is based on the social identity theory that depends on the market research. The people are more attracted by the social influence or collective influence. I believe that collective influence is better than any other source of promotion because people see themselves as a representative of a particular group, they do not see them self as an unique individual so the model is effective, the group can perform better rather than individual or the performance could be effective when one is in a group. Social networking services, are more effective or efficient through the collective influence rather than the individual influence, as one have the own preferences and taste, so it might be difficult for the companies or user generative content to target the one, the people or customers when see that people are appreciating the product through the electronic word of mouth, their mind is positivity attracts by increasing the social influence, the source when become well-known to the user or the customer the long-term membership is established.

Behavioral intention can also evoke or changed the recipient’s attitudes the products, the participant can engage themselves in the product and services when they are a part of group. The user generated content, might also engaged the advertise product, the behavior is not always same there are changes in theattitudes and the behavior with the change in the time, that should be or need to be noticed by the advertiser. To keep engage the people with the product and services is not possible for the long-term or time, there are need of innovations if the people or customers needed to be engaged. The study about the behavioral change may have been difficult, but not impossible, one have to stay up-to-date with the time and there is a need of proper researcher of the market and current behaviors of the individuals or groups.

Some attitudes are difficult to study, not all researches give you the accurate results, and however, the attitudes of a group is matter than the attitude of the individual. It is difficult to study about the every product and the customer response and attitude for the product. The assessment can be helpful for the user generated content, to know about the priorities of the customers. The lack of influence, like if the advertisement are not designed according to what people demand or desired off, then there could be chance of failure of the product, researches are not accurate all the time, assumptions and expectation could be helpful in future for the design of the advertisement. Fitting the collective connection, is better than the interpersonal connection, to influenced the people by the by the sources are not sufficient all the time, there are need of identification of the connections or attitudes of the people depending on the behavioral intentions. The behavioral interactions or the connections can affect or influence one directly, the positive factor could be take place.

It is concluded by the study or the research that degree of identification is necessary for the selection of the source for advertising. Social identification about the sources, could be beneficial for the present and future intervening factors. Based on the research or results that have been conducted on the social groups it is known that group influence is the successful application rather than the others, the study suggest the approach of social identification with the collective influence. However, the online users can also be targeted by the individual or interpersonal influence.

Both the approaches collective influence and interpersonal are beneficial for the online advertisements or providing the service so the people, there are needed to understand that how to target or approach the people. The user generated contact approach need to view the rational and collective self, if there is the adoption of the interpersonal approach then the traits and attributes with the previous activation processes needed to be researched, he interpersonal and collective approaches could be given the meaning by the social identity approach.

On the practical level the media advertising professionals can control their publishing content, the online content must be effective and must be interesting, before it is publish, with the behaviors and interest of the people the content need to be focused and then published. The user generated content is more effective as compared to the professional, byadding comment to the content the users can make it more attractive for the people or customers. The user generated content, is not limited to the Facebook, it is researched that user generated content is also extends to the other social media also along with the advertisements.

The industries have assessed the need of the hour, social media is now providing the opportunities to create the advertisements, and then place it on different websites, the research have shown that the user generated content, are focused on the interpersonal and collective approaches, by understanding the social information. It is assumed that social information could be affective for the social influences, the stronger the social information is the more effective services could be given to the people. Face-to-face communication or electronic word-of-mouth are the best ways to attract the people especially, it can create the social influence.

The people are influenced more by the websites, like YouTube video can influence the YouTube users, there is just proper need of assessment by the users generated content, the advertisements need to be clearly and closely monitor, the conversation on the online adds should also be monitor to know about the people and their psychological behaviors. The brand online advertisements, in an appropriate way can draw the attention of the consumers to get in touch with the advertisements or the websites is important to get in touch with the customer, the content is needed to share in the favorable way; or that seems favorable to the consumers. Professionally created content can effect or influence the consumers’ minds, to generate best content for the mass audience is the need of the hour. (Knoll & Schramm, 2015)

Reference

Knoll, J., & Schramm, H. (2015). Advertising in social network sites –Investigating the social influence of usergenerated content on online advertising effects. DE GRUYTER MOUTON, 40(3), 341-360.

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Conflicts between Parents & Children in Arab Society

Contents

Introduction. 4

Emotional Security Theory by Patrick T. Davies and Cummings EM… 4

Hypothesis. 5

The Affects of Parental conflict on the Children Behavior 5

Understanding of Family System.. 6

Theoretical Perspective of Family as a System.. 8

Functionalism.. 8

Symbolic Interaction. 9

Conflict theory. 10

Supporting content 10

Social functions of the Family. 11

The changing Arab Family. 14

Factors causing the changes in Arab Family. 15

Conflicts between Parents & Children. 17

Conflict resolution. 20

Solution to Conflict between societies. 22

Symbolic interaction theories supporting conflict resolution. 24

Aligning with sociological focus. 24

Conclusion. 25

References. 27

Conflicts between Parents & Children in Arab Society

In context of

Emotional Security Theory by Patrick T. Davies and Cummings EM

Introduction

            The conflicts between the parents and the children in Arab community are recognized through applying the analytical framework of the psychological cognitive theory of emotions proposed by the Patrick T. Davies and the Cummings EM. The psychological behavior in terms of the emotions, feelings, attitudes and the generation gap as per the life cycle or growth stage of the children is interlinked with the family system, core cultural, religious values. The lack of space as per the security theory of emotions in the psychological behavior of the children is analyzed as the marriages or social context setting is impacted by the changes in behaviors that leads towards the conflict between the parents and their children in the Arab community. The system of the family as per the functionalities and the theory of conflicts deeply review in this paper as the changes in the mindset or behaviors such as space must be provided in the decision making of personal as well as professional life (Robert Sedgwick, 2001).

Emotional Security Theory by Patrick T. Davies and Cummings EM

            The theory of the emotional security by Patrick T. Davies is the empirical study of the psychological or the emotional behaviors in terms of the physiological patterns in the development of the adulthood with respect to age is analyzed. The gap is studied as a psychological tool with cognitive behavior pattern in the Arab society while identifying the core reasons behind the relationship flaws of the children and their parents. Using the approaches of the constructive conceptual behavior models and the destructive application of the materials as per the psychological adjustment in the changing behavior of the children is analyzed (Davies & Cummings, 2009).

Hypothesis

            The generation gap is associated with the relationship with the child-parent relationship in Arab community that leads towards the psychological, emotional changes in behaviors in terms of social limitations in the social interaction context on the children relying on traditional socio-cultural behavior patterns. The controlling or the authoritative style from the parents at the pro-social contextual and the role of the emotional security threat that implies to the minds of the children in terms social, psychological or physiological stage of the growth is an important reason.  

The Affects of Parental conflict on the Children Behavior

            There is a huge impact on the minds of the children especially in the dimension of the pre-social adoptions of the lifestyle of the children in their growing stage or adolescence. The marriages as per the conflict caused among the parents or the couples, disputes regarding the decision-making of the mutual need fulfillment, sexual desires, the asset management household policies are include in the list of the behavior pattern of the emotional attitudes or feelings that have the very negative impacts on the minds of children especially in the Arab community.

            The children are the creature of the God who wants an advantage in terms of the social, cultural context of the physiological decision-makings while learning a lot from the external environment and the sanctions put on the lifestyle of the cultural patterns is the most important issue that must be addressed. The common issues of quarrel among the parental or the couple in the Arab community are mostly related to the social right of spending the life, the practical limitations for the women while doing the job or the employment concerns. The personal issues including the marriages within the family, the decision of birth of child along with family planning inefficiencies are analyzed. The children when found that the situation in which they do not have the ideal scenario to learn from the role models such as the parents, they found the mental stress and the physiological changes in terms of the emotional risks aroused in them. The strategy that the children in terms of the generation gap for the social interactions having the circles with the friends, or the other closed community (Bensi, Giusberti, Raffaella Nori, & Gambetti, 2010).

            They profound the changing in terms of the material sources of getting them out of the trouble. The parents usually do not notice or ignore the situation most of the times while arguing or treating the women in the bad way that leads towards the divorce is the common example that is illustrated in this paper at many occasions. The divorce is the major cause of the psychological changing impact as the emotional attitudes or the feelings of the children in the Arab community are related as per the core findings of the emotional security.  

Understanding of Family System

            There is no as such concept of the independent living style or pattern in terms of the economic trend of lifestyle, the social beliefs, or the way of interaction as a life spending cognitive approach and the living together as a family of a single unit. The family system in the Arab background is include of the pure joint system of the family spending, living pattern or approach, relying on each other on the social, financial state or the elements of the well-being. The Arab cannot imagine living a life an independent state of mindset. They proclaim that the joint venture or the style of the family is beneficial for them in sought of the socio-economic independence while relying on others, as the social prevention of the complexity social framework of reference as the dwellings in the cultural aspects are highlighted according to the compound system of the family rather than living independently (saudiarabia.angloinfo.com, 2011).

            The big question arises that the physiological and the psychological subconscious state of the young people in the Arab community is Patrick T. Davies as per the theory of the emotional theory for the security of the feelings in the adulthood as they are in the growing stage is most important to interpret. Since this allows the system of the social gathering as the factor of alienation for lacking the core skills or abilities to do all the private work or tasks in a way that all the closed circle of the family. That would be monitoring as the risk of the element of the psychological sought of the interpersonal manner is examined using the analytical framework.

            The qualitative aspects of the emotional attitudes in the behaviors of the human lifestyle especially in the young age, while marinating the challenging behaviors for the child when one perceives the immense level of the difficulty while representing the feelings to the other person in the society. Te theory that linked with the stress of the stress of the emotional feelings as per the rate of the intrapersonal reference and the interpersonal cognition factors that would impact the relationship of the child with the parents especially in the dimensions of the core Arabian society or the community. The distinctive psychological perspective is that the generation gap is highly illustrated in the core dimensions of the psychological depending on the theory of the security in terms of the setting that develop the cultural frame of precise informing about the limitations. This prevails that the children in the Arab society could highly monitor as the foundation of the psychological rights of the threats of social security (Workman, 2014).

Theoretical Perspective of Family as a System

            The theoretical prospects of the family systems in the Arab community are highlighted as per the joint system as the impact on the lives of the psychopathology through the developmental concerns in the threats of the security treated as the social dimensions. The framework used to study the dimensions of the system of the family in the community of the Arab region is described in a way that the innovative process of the ideal family system is imposed as the proposed solution under such circumstances.

Functionalism

            The values that discover the psychological cognitive frame of reference in the social context of the psychological pattern to perceive the system is analyzed. The Patrick Davies highly emphasize on the point that it is very crucial for the parents to represent an ideal psychological scenario in the external model of reference that children would follow. The constructive functional approach works best in the way when the adoptions would occur as the primary psychological need with the perspective of both the parent-child that the generation gap would be removed from the threat or the factor risk as the social security in the minds of the children in the Arab community in an explicit way.

            The greatest suggestion that the functional approach of the system of the family in the concurrence rate of the psychological preference of the children social as per the context of the system of the family is the  primary goal. The discord between the strong or the sound relationship of the parent with the children is treated as the emotional stage of values that would fifer at many times in the pre-growth life cycle or stage of the growth, the behavioral cognitive factor that would use the core values of the Arab socio-economic dimensions. The processes of the physiological growth in the minds of the children that would consider highly interactive in terms of the conscious settings would occur in this psychopath matrix (Crossman, 2012).

Symbolic Interaction

            The most important phase in the lifecycle of the parent-children relationship as per the context of the child-parent is that at least the symbolic relationship as per the social interaction that treats as the social interpersonal as the adjustment of the emotional key elements for the concerns of the family adopting the core sound interaction as relationship is maintained. The revolutionary origins that characterizing the conflict resolution theories with the behaviors in the schools, home to the outside environment with community, awareness of the global progressive state of the art in technology with the healthy directions with the parents as per the trajectory that reaches to the highest level of the sequel. The core factor that would rate symbolic interaction with parents as per the psychological challenges  for the broader aspect of the social security that would rate as the behavioral proportions in the dilemma attitude that study the guidelines for social behaviors of the Arab children.

            The latest strategy as per the psychological regard of the emotional feelings as the threat reducing roots is the development of the objectives that any cost ethological such as following both the use core beliefs of the socio-cultural boundaries that are imposed by the parents. The translation that regards the functioning of the children and the liberty to express oneself as the cognate restructuring of the psychological abilities in the academic or practical compliances is analyzed. This would definitely produce the threat to the cognitive psychological security for the anxiety as well as creating tension in the life of the children.

Conflict theory

            Strife speculations are viewpoints in human science and social brain science that underline the social, political, or material disparity of a social gathering, that investigate the wide socio-political framework, or that generally take away from support functionalism and ideological conservatism. Struggle hypotheses attract consideration regarding power differential, for example, class strife, and by and large differentiation verifiably overwhelming belief systems. It is consequently a full-scale level examination of society. While a considerable lot of these points of view hold parallels, strife hypothesis does not allude to a brought together school of thought, and ought not to be mistaken for, for incidence, peace, and struggle examine, or some other particular hypothesis of the social class. Karl Marx is the father of the social clash hypothesis, which is a segment of the four ideal models of human science. Certain contention hypothesis set out to highlight the ideological viewpoints inborn in customary thought.

Supporting content

It can be seen that there are many problems in the Arab families. Mostly it can be seen that the parent- children conflict arises due to the conflict on different things that needs to be understood fully. The main point in this paper is that there are conflicts that prevail in between parents and children’s; hence, we can say that the theory, which is in the support with the content, is the conflict theory.

The reason behind that is that the conflict theory itself explains the difference that consists between the two persons that could be any one. However relating to our topic, we can say that the conflict theory relates in between the children’s and the parents as well. There could be many conflicts that arose in between them some of them could be due to the class conflict which arises the mostly. The social conflict also is a part, which is actually seen in between the children’s and the parents in the Arab world. By looking at the above discussion, we can say that the conflict theory supports our content fully.

Social functions of the Family

            Generally, the Bedouin lived by raising camels, sheep, and goats and took after their crowds looking for touching ranges. Just 5 percent of Bedouin still live as peaceful migrants; the rest of settled in towns and towns Starting in the last third of the twentieth century, peaceful itinerant turned out to be progressively uncommon due to country states with shut outskirts and the quick urbanization of the area’s populaces. Subsequently, the Bedouin have turned out to be progressively stationary.

            The Bedouin family, as other Arab families, is moored in a culture-bound financial and political system. The biggest unit in the Bedouin system is the Qabilah, or country, comprising of a few tribes (ashira, plural ashir) each with its own particular land and pioneer. A matrilineal family relationship structure of a few eras includes a wide system of blood relations plunged through the male line. Previously, the hamula gave its individuals, who lived and meandered together and shared land and work, with monetary security and insurance. The tribe is a union of more distant families, or hamula (plural hamail). The hamula constitutes the momentous family. With the loss of the Bedouin’s predictable employments, the hamula is less ready to satisfy these capacities. Regardless it serves, in any case, as significant wellspring of personality and psychosocial backing and economic good. The atomic family, hamula, and tribe are steadfastly bound by broad common duties and commitments. The atomic group of guardians and kids is the littlest family.

            This interpersonal organization is supported and kept up by a profoundly imbued arrangement of qualities and desires that oversee the conduct and the connections of the individuals. People are relied upon to show unreliability and obligation to the group, to place its great over their own, and to take after the guidelines and charges of those above them in the chain of importance. The key qualities are agreeableness, connection camaraderie, and order. The Bedouin nervous tension participation, adjustment, settlement, and family attachment is analyzed.

Arab Family System

            The way of life of the Arab world is profoundly commanded by center Muslim esteem frameworks, for example, respect, duty, feeling, confront sparing and a few other definitive practices. It is attention to be the coupling power and is considered critical in all the social and financial exercises. The three examples of society in the Arab culture integrate the Bedouin tribes and individuals living in the provincial and urban ranges. The family is thought to be the essential unit of social union in the conventional and old Arab society. Solidarity and unity is an essential part of the Arab culture as every one of the individuals coordinate concordantly to secure its vocation and enhance to enhance its notoriety in the group. The realization or disappointment of an individual part turns into that of the family overall.

            The sentiment congruity and harmony is exceedingly up and coming amongst the families. This is because of the way that family association gives high level of security. The idea of monetary commonality in the families in the Arab culture is under genuine risk by different schools of musings and other social foundations in the innovative world. Bedouins demonstrate awesome respect and high level of dependability toward their families. The family unit emotionally supportive network is thought to be amazingly occupant and it is esteemed as the individual’s definitive asylum.

            This prompts the making of turmoil as it obliterates the distinction of individuals living in the group. This perspective gives security on one hand furthermore prompts strife for the people then again. There might be the times when the people feel that they have distinctive thoughts, which are not in friendship with that of gathering.

            The father is the key figure in the family framework and he appreciates incredible self-sufficiency over the whole family. The state of mind of father may get unbending grim, stern, and to a great degree definitive, though the mother is wonderfully adoring and merciful. Bedouins take a gander at life personalized. They are worried about individuals and sentiments and place accentuation on human variables when they settle on choices towards individuals. This is to a great degree inimitable in the way of life of Arab world in overwhelmingly all the Arab nations.

The changing Arab Family

The Arab family might be depicted as the essential unit of generation and the focal point of Arab social association and financial exercises. The Arab Family as a Central Socioeconomic Unit The customary Arab family constitutes a monetary and social unit since all individuals collaborate to guarantee its maintenance and enhance its remaining in the group. Endeavors, for example, shops, industrial facilities, organizations, and fields are regularly claimed and worked for the advantage of all. It developed into a patriarchal, pyramidal various level (especially as for sex and age), and amplified foundation. Give us a chance to take a gander at each of these qualities thusly. As of not long ago, when the state started to give administrations to its natives, the family attempted such varied undertakings and duties as instruction, socialization, preparing, protection, welfare, job, and religious childhood.

The family is at the focal point of social association in each of the three Arab examples of living (Bedouin, provincial, and urban) and especially among tribes, laborers, and the urban poor. It additionally gives security and backing in times of individual and societal push. The achievement or disappointment of an personality part turns into that of the family all in all. Each individual from the family might be considered in charge of the demonstrations of each other part. The family constitute the prevailing social establishment through which people and gatherings acquire their religious, class, and social affiliations. The sexual trouble making of a young lady, for instance, reflects upon herself as fit as upon her dad, her sibling, and her family in general.

In this way the “wrongdoing of respect,” which now and again still happens in firmly weave groups, is an endeavor to reestablish the family’s respect and place in the group by executing a sister or little girl who has been eminent in sexual unfortunate behavior. Guardians, and especially the mother, deny themselves for their youngsters. The wellspring of the mother’s satisfaction is the joy and flourishing of her youngsters. One’s dedication to the family may include widespread abstinence.  In a just right world, both kids and guardians are completely dedicated to the family itself. The very idea of family in Arabic ( ‘aila or usra ) reflects such shared odd jobs and connections of association and correspondence.

The foundation of the word ‘aila furthermore of usra signifies “to bolster.” While the father’s part is characterized as that of supplier ( janna ) and the mother’s part as that of homemaker ( banna ), kids change from being ‘iyal (wards) to sanadi (supporters) once their folks achieve seniority. This symbolizes the dropping of one’s individual character and appropriation rather than the personality or part of parenthood or parenthood. This clarifies why guardians in a few sections of the Arab world may allude to a tyke as sanadi (my backing). Another outflow of the dedication and restraint of guardians is the convention in the eastern Arab universe of getting to be known as “Abu,” father of, or “Umm,” mother of, one’s eldest child. A tape sent by a young fellow from a Syrian town to his dad and mom, who were on a two-month visit to their higher-ranking two children contemplate in the United States, reveals extensive insight into the inward progression of Arab employee families.

Factors causing the changes in Arab Family

There are the diverse systems used by these procedures have added to the ascent of another circumstance whereby the old and the new exist one next to the other. It has altered the structure, capacity and part of marriage. In will of the fact that we cannot say that patriarchal family in Gulf society has vanished as far as preceded with male power and control over family issues, This new circumstance has escalated existing social issues and made new ones. It has brought on changes in the structures and elements of social establishments, most remarkably the 12 family. we can in any case watch a few markers that mean constriction and withdraw in patriarchal family structures.

Emphasize that adjustments in Gulf family structure and capacities were not exclusively brought about by the strengths and procedures of globalization.  Some of these weights are section of Gulf ladies into the work market; ladies’ support in numerous exercises and regions that were not passable before; the changing spouse wife relationship; change in the relationship of guardians with their youngsters. the way youth identify with society; Nevertheless, these strengths and procedures have expanded and strengthened these weights, overall. the expanding financial, instructive and social weight of bringing up kids; the debilitating of customary techniques and method for socialization. Globalized correspondences play an imperative and compelling part in today’s socialization of kids and youth.

The mother or grandma is no more the principle operator of bringing up kids or of managing them. Issues relating to socialization no more appear as qualities and background got from grown-ups (senior people) or starting grown-ups’ supply of experience. These sources are a portion of the section doors to social stereotyping made by globalization. Propels in method for communication, which are an item and instrument of globalization, to be had ascend to new factors and standards are dictated by the new culture of globalization. Such values and information are gotten from books, TV, telephone system and the Internet.

Despite the fact that we don’t have exact and clear information on, for instance, the marriage cases that occur through web visiting, we do realize that numerous relational unions in the Gulf area occurred as an aftereffect of bracket together over settled or cell phone lines. In addition, despite the fact that we have no precise experimental information on the element of cell phones in the ascent of marriage rates, some daily paper reports allude to the way that cell phones have encouraged contacts among youth of both gender outside family and societal control. The simplicity by which an individual can claim a cell phone line, men and ladies alike, even among the most conservative gatherings and groups helped people defeat the boundaries of separation and isolation forced by society and the family on the relationship of men and ladies in Gulf social orders.

In addition, travel and touristic trips opened the entryway for sex-tourism to Gulf people who go to some East Asian nations, and to different nations for this reason. The thriving and development of business shopping centers gave the chance to guys and females to meet. A great deal of dating happens in coffeehouses and stores situated in advanced selling shopping centers. Travel and sightseeing additionally offer ascent to instances of blended relational unions or outside relational unions finished up by people and females from the Gulf area

Conflicts between Parents & Children

They have hormones dashing around inside, which abandons them stuck on a passionate indirect. They are finding their identity and experimenting with assorted personalities, which imply they can be unruly and challenge your power. Amid pre-adulthood, young people feel pulled in a hundred unique headings by every one of the progressions that are occurring in and around them. Their body is changing, which can make them undergo cumbersome and humiliated. Being acknowledged by their associates goes up against significantly more noteworthy significance, which implies they may instigate acting or carrying on in an unexpected way.

Regardless they need to satisfy their folks (trust it or not!), which can appear inconsistent with everything else that is continuing for them. Being a parent in a multicultural society like Australia can be exceptionally testing, especially if group values about how kids ought to be raised and how they ought to act are not quite the same as your own. They feel under weight to do well at school or locate the right occupation, which can make them on edge and questionable. They are trying their freedom and figuring out how to settle on choices for themselves, which implies they will require your backing and direction.

Obviously, there are numerous advantages to raising kids in a various group – they can be instructed to be glad for their legacy and still figure out how to esteem and value the distinctions in alternate societies around them. In any case, as your tyke achieves immaturity, and begins investing more energy far from the family, it’s basic for strains to erupt For example, at home youngsters may be relied upon to obey rules without question. However, outside the home, it is not ill bred for youngsters to have their own particular perspectives and to communicate. . Your adolescent may explore different avenues regarding new thoughts and ways to deal with perceive how they ‘fit’. They may begin to scrutinize your social and religious qualities.

It is unavoidable that there will be times when you and your adolescent bolt horns. Some of the time, the explanation behind this comes down to a conflict of societies and qualities. Whatever the reason, it is essential to attempt and work towards determining your disparities. Adhering unbendingly to your thoughts could imply that your tyke moves in the opposite direction of you. Now and then it is because of your youngster is growing up. Then again, young people who have a decent association with no less than one parent are less inclined to get into genuine inconvenience. There are frequently no “privilege” or “wrong” responses to taking care of an issue. Alternatively, maybe, it’s critical to take an ideal opportunity to listen to your youngster and comprehend what they’re stating, regardless of the possibility that you don’t concur with them.

In case you are having, genuine clash hold a family meeting and permit everybody to talk straightforwardly and sincerely. search for an assortment of conceivable arrangements ask a regarded relative or group part to take a seat and chat with the family look for help and counsel from somebody in your group who you trust create fellowships with different guardians in your group – the backing of a ‘more distant family’ can be essential. Different guardians may have the same battles.

Guardians who have solid associations with their youngsters are frequently in a decent position to manage issues that surface. Here are some approaches to fabricate trust and regard with your adolescent.

  • Be positive and empowering – see the great things they do.
  • Respect your kid’s security.
  • Get to know them and the things they are keen on.
  • Be accessible for them.
  • Do not be hesitant to say sorry on the off chance that you have committed an error.
  • Learn to joke and mess around with each other.
  • Show them that you give it a second thought

They truly do need to realize that you adore them and will be there for them! Not adapting in spite of the fact that it is ordinary for young people to have times when they are grouchy, bad tempered and defiant; furthermore, recollect no issue is excessively shocking or humiliating, making it impossible to discuss it. This does not imply that guardians ought to endure unsatisfactory conduct, particularly on the off chance that it grows into physical savagery. You may achieve a phase when you require outside offer assistance. Numerous individuals and associations can offer secret help and backing.

Conflict resolution

Distinctive dialects pass on various renditions of reality. To handle what individuals think about, for instance, the expression “compromise,” we should first discover what they mean by the comparable idea in their own dialect. In the event that compromise suggests in their dialect the substitution of disdain by affection, then diverse direct will be fitting than if it essentially implies reestablishing the routine of everyday life. Obviously, what the heroes really do in a given circumstance relies on upon conditions; what they will expect of compromise will be educated by the neighborhood learning that illuminates their comprehension of the term. however, we would expect clear examples of conduct to rise in total. By looking into the semantic fields and meanings of ideas like “clash” and “determination” in different dialects, we can reveal insight into likenesses and contrasts (Arévalo-Flechas, 2014).

At a down to earth level, this can recognize potential pitfalls and openings, in actuality, struggle determination crosswise over societies. Most of the writing takes a gander at the subject nonexclusively, which implies that regular basic elements of contention determination that cut crosswise over societies are underscored. As a rule, the presumption of all inclusiveness is certain. P.H. Gulliver unequivocally thoroughly analyzes the transaction of debate in various societies to uncover the hidden and invariant rationale of the procedure. Huge advance has been made in late decades in the investigation of contention determination, and a voluminous group of work has been delivered that would be difficult to compress briefly.  His purpose of flight is “the speculation that there are normal examples and regularities of communication between the gatherings in arrangement, regardless of the specific setting or the issues in debate.”

            This approach appears to be supported in the main occasion in light of the fact that the significant classes of contention determination in English-transaction, settling, intervention, and mediation have all the earmarks of being widespread and share family similitude’s. Gulliver’s speculation on the suspicion of all inclusiveness has paid off liberally at both the hypothetical and connected levels. Additionally, at the establishment of a teaching it is proper to build up a common calculated structure, regardless of the fact that this implies briefly putting aside abnormalities. It has conveyed us to the point where there is a set up train and generous accord at any rate in a great part of the English-talking world (Australia, Britain, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States)- about the utility of integrative dealing and elective (or fitting) question determination (ADR) methods (Edmonds, 2015).

            Morals aside, there is developing acknowledgment that contradictions are occasionally took care of viably by a distraction with relative pick up to others’ detriment, thoughtless uncompromising nature, or savagery. Where fundamental, the aptitudes of prepared outsiders are drawn upon. No one is considered to have a syndication of truth and equity, and results are looked for that neither leave triumphalism champions nor upset failures. The critical thinking way to deal with struggle determination keeps up those genuine needs instead of strategic positions ought to be tended to, and innovativeness and practicality connected to the settlement of contrasts. As Jeffrey Rubin aptly put it: “As opposed to view transaction as a pull of war in which each of two sides endeavors to surrender as meager of its goals as could be expected under the circumstances, the common increases approach sees arrangement as a bewilder to be understood.”

            It is a declaration to the accomplishment of Gulliver’s theory that we can now certainly relax the presumption of comprehensiveness and concentrate on more socially particular components of contention determination. As social orders become progressively multicultural and globalization prompts a blossoming of contacts crosswise over social orders, contrasts turn out to be more remarkable. Incidentally, the more the worldwide framework looks like a worldwide group, the more open door there is for scraped spot. Contact advances understanding, as well as conflict. There is a justifiable reason explanation behind this change in accentuation from purposes of similarity to varieties crosswise over societies. For whatever length of time that the onus is on struggle determination inside sensibly homogenous social orders, or inside groups commanded by a hegemonic culture, there is no squeezing need to examine assortment (Hergenhahn, 2013).

Solution to Conflict between societies

            The expression “sulha” gets from the Arabic word Sulh. The dynamic idea of peace is Salaam; however, the exacting demonstration of ceasing strife and subsiding into peace is Sulh. The word can likewise signify “compromise,” “collaboration” or “pardoning.”

            The standards of sulha are “installed in tribal culture and in intelligence and experience went down from era to era.” Much of the writing on the procedure is set with regards to physical ambush conferred by an individual from one family or tribe against an individual from another, and the least demanding approach to comprehend the wide standards of sulha is to set the clarification in that theoretical connection: An assault by one relative against an individual from an alternate family. Sulha emerged to react to the need to reestablish arrange between families, tribes or towns so that fights and quarrels don’t debilitate the steadiness of the bigger community.

            This statute, nevertheless, may subject the group to savagery in its middle for a long time, as retribution sustains dependable quarrels. Keeping in mind the end goal to counteract such brokenness, the custom of sulha is summoned. By custom, a family has the privilege, as well as the commitment to exact retribution an assault on one of its individuals. “To retaliate for the murder of a nearby brother is decent; to neglect to do as such is shameful.”

            Instantly upon the assault having happened, the group of the aggressor approaches one or even more exceedingly regarded, persuasive individuals, soliciting that they intercede for benefit from the gathering. Certain expressions of supplication are generally utilized, begging the jaha to accept the accountability. Among them may be “We are in your home and you should help us .Our child has perpetrated a wrongdoing and our family is in your grasp.” These interveners are alluded to overall as the jaha. There is no supporting of the certainties or of the family’s obligation. The deed is admitted and the jaha is requested that follow up on that premise. The assailant’s family should actually ask the jaha to go up against the matter; generally, when they do visit the oppressed family it will not have the capacity to convey the power required.

Symbolic interaction theories supporting conflict resolution

            The interactions in the symbolic direction that would support the relationship in the mutual consent or agreement between the parents along with their children in a way that the exposure would decrease in the form of risk as social or emotional challenging behavior of the children in the community of Arab regions is monitored. The wide array of the impairments is accomplished from the depression level as the cognitive psychological significant challenges in the inter-parental interaction that would highlight the physiological inter-parental factors of well being socially, financially, hospitality and health. The significant level of problems that exist between the family as the development stage of the child is raise while organizing the core dimensional issues for the settings that would treat as the extra-familial guidelines in the exposure of the families regularities that are deliberately forced onto the behaviors of the young people in the Arab families (Hergenhahn, 2013).

Aligning with sociological focus

Looking at the theory by Patrick T. Davis the emotional security theory we come to know that children’s are main point of focus in this. We can see that the children’s mainly are looking for the higher goals in their lives and we can see that they want to be safe and want to secure their family in this regard. However, it can be seen that marital conflicts have been classified in to two categories, which are constructive and destructive in nature. We can see that marital conflicts actually threaten in the different way as that is not one of the best things that can be seen.

 However, it can be seen that the parents actually maintain their children’s security in this case so that they feel comfortable with that. The parents are always in the need to maintain the harmony of the family so that children will not get disturbed and the flow could be maintained as well. Therefore, these symbolic interaction theries actually supports the conflicts. We can see that the conflict theory does align with this as we come to know this is the main point on which the different theories evolve.    

Conclusion

            In the end, it is concluded that the main reason behind the conflict of the relationship between the parents with their children in the Arab community is the psychological cognitive emotions, feelings, non-flexibility in the family system in this culture as according to the social security theory proposed from the Patrick and Cummins. The most important theory that plays the role in this manner is the conflict theory which defines the complexities in the interaction with the peers, adaptations to the behaviors with reference to the external environment in a way that the balance and the sustainable relationship for parent-child is highly maintain. With the effort that encourages the psychological trajectories for the inter-parental as the translation of the discord could achieve through certain issues are necessary in this regard. The family system in the Arab community demands the children must possess the cultural beliefs, core norms that bind them towards the cultural limitations in the development of lifecycle. The relationship is analyzed using the psychological patterns of the conflict challenges as they raise because of the material social approach of the adjustments in the behaviors while the investigation is analytically composed of the positive outcomes and the negative outcomes of the applying the social-emotional security theory in the context of the Arab community. The meanderings are found in the cross mixing or amalgamation of the various western cultures comprised of the technological advancements or the social liberty of the children and the other side where the restrictions are made on the children according to the social interactions or technological use of the resources or tools (Arévalo-Flechas, 2014).

References

Arévalo-Flechas, L. C. (2014). Latino Alzheimer’s caregivers: what is important to them? Journal of Managerial Psychology , 29 (6), 661-684.

Bensi, L., Giusberti, F., Raffaella Nori, R., & Gambetti, E. (2010). Individual differences and reasoning: A study on personality traits. British Journal of Psychology , 101 (3), 545-562.

Crossman, A. (2012). Charles Horton Cooley. Retrieved april 20, 2015, from http://sociology.about.com/od/Profiles/p/Charles-Horton-Cooley.htm

Davies, P. T., & Cummings, E. M. (2009). Constructive and destructive marital conflict, emotional security and children’s prosocial behavior. J Child Psychol Psychiatry , 50 (3), 270–279.

Davis, D. (2003). Auguste Comte: Theories & Contributions to Sociology. Retrieved april 20, 2015, from http://study.com/academy/lesson/auguste-comte-theories-contributions-to-sociology.html

Edmonds, L. (2015, january 6). The Seasons of Life. Retrieved May 6, 2015, from https://www.psychologytoday.com/articles/201501/the-seasons-life?collection=167224

Hergenhahn, B. R. (2013). An Introduction to the History of Psychology. Cengage Learning.

Robert Sedgwick. (2001, november 1). Education in Saudi Arabia. Retrieved october 12, 2015, from http://wenr.wes.org/2001/11/wenr-nov-dec-2001-education-in-saudi-arabia/

saudiarabia.angloinfo.com. (2011). The School System in Saudi Arabia. Retrieved october 12, 2015, from http://saudiarabia.angloinfo.com/family/schooling-education/the-school-system/

SmileySammy. (2011, may 7). Positive and Negative Deviance. Retrieved april 20, 2015, from http://haassociology32444.blogspot.com/2011/05/positive-and-negative-deviance.html

Workman, L. (2014). Evolutionary Psychology. Cambridge University Press.

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Sociology

Conflicts between Parents & Children in Arab Society

In context of

Emotional Security Theory by Patrick T. Davies and Cummings EM

Outline:

  1. Introduction
  2. Emotional Security Theory by Patrick T. Davies and Cummings EM
    1. Hypothesis
    1. Conclusion
  3. The Affects of Parental conflict on the Children Behavior
  4. Understanding of Family System
  5. Theoretical Perspective of Family as a System
    1. Functionalism
    1. Symbolic Interaction
    1. Conflict theory
    1. Supporting Content
  6. Social functions of the Family
  7. Arab Family System
  8. The changing Arab Family
    1. Factors causing the changes in Arab Family
  9. Conflicts between Parents & Children
  10. Conflict resolution
  11. Solution to Conflict between societies
    1. Symbolic interaction theories supporting conflict resolution
    1. Aligning with sociological focus
  12. Conclusion
  13. References

Arévalo-Flechas, L. C. (2014). Latino Alzheimer’s caregivers: what is important to them? Journal of Managerial Psychology , 29 (6), 661-684.

Bensi, L., Giusberti, F., Raffaella Nori, R., & Gambetti, E. (2010). Individual differences and reasoning: A study on personality traits. British Journal of Psychology , 101 (3), 545-562.

Crossman, A. (2012). Charles Horton Cooley. Retrieved april 20, 2015, from http://sociology.about.com/od/Profiles/p/Charles-Horton-Cooley.htm

Davies, P. T., & Cummings, E. M. (2009). Constructive and destructive marital conflict, emotional security and children’s prosocial behavior. J Child Psychol Psychiatry , 50 (3), 270–279.

Davis, D. (2003). Auguste Comte: Theories & Contributions to Sociology. Retrieved april 20, 2015, from http://study.com/academy/lesson/auguste-comte-theories-contributions-to-sociology.html

Edmonds, L. (2015, january 6). The Seasons of Life. Retrieved May 6, 2015, from https://www.psychologytoday.com/articles/201501/the-seasons-life?collection=167224

Hergenhahn, B. R. (2013). An Introduction to the History of Psychology. Cengage Learning.

Robert Sedgwick. (2001, november 1). Education in Saudi Arabia. Retrieved october 12, 2015, from http://wenr.wes.org/2001/11/wenr-nov-dec-2001-education-in-saudi-arabia/

saudiarabia.angloinfo.com. (2011). The School System in Saudi Arabia. Retrieved october 12, 2015, from http://saudiarabia.angloinfo.com/family/schooling-education/the-school-system/

SmileySammy. (2011, may 7). Positive and Negative Deviance. Retrieved april 20, 2015, from http://haassociology32444.blogspot.com/2011/05/positive-and-negative-deviance.html

Workman, L. (2014). Evolutionary Psychology. Cambridge University Press.

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Regulations for Sustainable development On Mitigating Global Climate Change

Regulations for Sustainable development on Mitigating Global Climate Change

Climate Change:

The Climate changes and the effects that it causes is an aspect of the environmental science, which has long been studied in the field of environmental studies. There is evidence of a number of historical and scientific theories, which shows the evidence for this phenomenon. These theories profoundly show the link between the human advancement and the changes in the climate. Scientifically, it is known that Earth I not constant or static. It is constantly undergoing changes in terms of its environment. The change in the environment and subsequently the climate are expected and has been seen in ages. 

Scientists’ beliefs regarding these changes are varying. Some believe that the environment has seen these changes through time in varying transformations. Other than the climatic changes caused by the moon rotation around the earth and the earth rotation around the sun, the cyclic climatic changes are the ones which are going to highlight in this paper. Various theories regarding the extent of the climatic changes and their effect on the inhabitants of the planet has been assessed through various methods by scientists. Studies have highlighted the cause and the effect of these climatic changes in order to better mitigate them (McClanahan & Cinner, 2011).

Effects of Climate Change:

In this century, the interest in this area has increased with the limelight being given to the various environmental issues. The depletion of the ozone layer and the global warming are the top concerns in this regard. The evident increase in the natural disasters has gained the attention and the governments are now sorting ways for recovering from its effects and getting prepared for the upcoming climatic challenges. Climate change is now a concern for every country on every continent. It is affecting the national economies and disrupting the lives of people by costing people, societies and countries dearly today and is expected to affect more in future. The significant impact of the climate is experienced by the people around the globe in the shape of changing weather patterns; more extreme weather events, rising sea levels, and increase in the number of natural disasters. The human activities causing the constant emission of greenhouse gasses are the main drivers of these climatic changes. They are at this moment at their highest levels in the history. Without any action, the temperature of the planet is expected to rise by 3 degree Celsius this century affecting mostly the poor and most vulnerable people (United Nations, 2015).

Mitigating the Affects of Climate Change:

The countries have now ways and solutions, which are easily available for countries to leapfrog towards mitigating the effects of climatic changes. This has given rise to the concept of having increased international cooperation, legislation, and sustainable development. Only by integrating the efforts of sustainable development into international and domestic laws climatic changes affect can be mitigated. Despite the recent setbacks in the international negotiations like that occurred in Copenhagen, the legislation for the sustainable development is imperative to more in more effective manner. For mitigating the effects of climatic change there is a need of paradigm shift towards low carbon development strategy, which is crucial to the sustainable development (Halvorssen, 2011).

Sustainable Development:

The concept of the sustainable development was first adopted by the World commission on Environment and development. The world agrees that the sustainable development involves the integration of the approach towards economic, environmental and social processes. The social, political and the cultural factors are now only getting the required attention towards them. The literature on the sustainable development emphasizes increasingly on its two-way relationship with the climate change mitigation. The climatic changes are not only affected by the climate-specific strategies but by the use of the development choices mix and its trajectories as well. Therefore, by changing the development pathways, which are climatic change specific, can make a significant contribution in this regard (Sathaye, et al., 2007).

The 2015 Global Climate Legislation Study at a Glance

The study conducted by the Grantham Institute covers the climate-change mitigation laws and policies and its adaptation, which were passed prior to January 1, 2015. The study covers 33 developed and 66 developing countries. The study reveals that from the end of the year 1997, the number of the laws pertaining to the climatic changes has doubled over every five years. In 1997, there were only 54 laws related to the climatic changes mitigation, which has increased to 804 by the end of the year 2014 (Nachmany, et al., 2015).

  • The study reveals the following key findings of the legislation on the sustainable development and mitigating of the climatic changes:
  • About 58 countries have framework legislations for addressing the mitigation of the climatic change and its adaptation, whereas 17 countries do not have any framework legislation (Nachmany, et al., 2015).
  • 45 countries (with the European Union as one block) have economy-wide targets for the reduction of the emissions up to the year 2020. Together these 45 countries account for the 75% of the global emissions (Nachmany, et al., 2015).
  • In 51 countries, the adaptation plans have not gone into the implementation stage and have been limited to the reporting requirements of UNFCCC. Most of these countries are the ones, which are the most vulnerable countries to the climatic change (Nachmany, et al., 2015).

Progress in the Year 2014:

In the year 2014, 46 new policies and laws were issued by 34 of the 99 covered countries in this study. Of these, 17 are developed countries while the other 17 are developing countries. The 21 laws passed were of legislative nature (passed by the parliament), while the other 25 were of executive nature (enacted by the governments). However, not all the laws are equal in scope and importance. The eight most important laws, which were issued in the year of 2014, are:

  • Climate Change Mitigation Act (Bulgaria):
  • National Climate Change Adaptation Plan (Chile):
  • Climate Change Act (Denmark)
  • National Plan for Tackling Climate Change (China)
  • Framework for Climate and Energy Policies (European Union)
  • Action Programme on Climate Protection (Germany)
  • Framework Law for Disaster Management (Mozambique)
  • National Adaptation Strategy (Slovakia)

(Nachmany, et al., 2015)

Conclusion:

Ultimately, the aim of the climate change legislation is to guide the governments on public policy. However, any legislation is fruitless without its implementation. The countries, which are making legislations only for fulfilling the requirement of reporting of UNFCCC, cannot be considered as being contributing to the climatic change mitigation process. Nearly 60 percent of the countries have framework or policies for addressing the adaptation of the mitigation. However, 17% have none (Nachmany, et al., 2015). Saudi Arabia and Canada are the only countries out of the top 20 emitters who do not have any framework policy for either mitigation or adaptation (Nachmany, et al., 2015).

References:

Halvorssen, A. M. (2011). INTERNATIONAL LAW AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT- TOOLS FOR ADDRESSING CLIMATE CHANGE. Denver. J. Int’l L. & Pol’y , 397.

McClanahan, T. R., & Cinner, J. (2011). Adapting to a Changing Environment: Confronting the Consequences of Climate Change. Oxford University Press, USA.

Nachmany, M., Fankhauser, S., Davidová, J., Kingsmill, N., Landesman, T., Roppongi, H., et al. (2015). The 2015 Global Climate Legislation Study. Retrieved October 10, 2016, from Lse.ac.uk: http://www.lse.ac.uk/GranthamInstitute/

Sathaye, J., Najam, A., Cocklin, C., Heller, T., Lecocq, F., Llanes-Regueiro, J., et al. (2007). Sustainable Development and Mitigation. Climate Change 2007: Mitigation of Climate Change , 691-743.

United Nations. (2015, February 24). Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts. Retrieved October 10, 2016, from United Nations: http://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/climate-change-2/

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the “Snoopy” cartoon

  1. Reference the “Snoopy” cartoon above.
    1. State the null and alternative hypothesis that Charlie Brown should make re: the above Situation. Hint: Cast this in terms of a “research hypothesis”, and specifically, reference frame 4, 5 and 9.

Null Hypothesis: Involuntary Muscle Spasm at the same moment of kicking the ball could not occur.

Alternate Hypothesis: Involuntary Muscle Spasm at the same moment of kicking the ball could occur.

The hypothesis was derived by the reference frames 4,5 and 9 these frames in the cartoon state the key element that is under research and null hypothesis is obviously a denial of the fact that is under investigation.

  • Differentiate between Type I and Type II errors.

The Type I error is the wrong rejection of a null hypothesis. In this case if the snoopy cartoon depicts that involuntary muscle spasm could occur, when it cannot, is a type I error.

Type II error is reverse of Type I error. If Snoopy accepts that the muscle spasm cannot occur, when it can, is a type II error. In short type II error is a research process where a null hypothesis has to be rejected but, is not.

  • What type of error, of any, did Charlie Brown make? Explain your answer.

Charlie Brown made a type II error, as heaccepted the null hypothesis of the nonoccurrence of the involuntary muscle spasm at moment of the kick so he tried to kick the ball.

  • Explain in common English what you mean when you say 99% confidence interval

Confidence Interval is the trust of data in accordance with the prospects of research being conducted. 99% confidence interval indicates that the data is to be tested if it is 99% aligned with the research and its flow.

  • Since it is possible to test statistical hypothesis with any size sample, explain why a researcher would prefer larger sample size?

A larger sample size denotes that it is easier to apply the research to the overall area of analysis.

  • Usesimple plain English to define and distinguish between the following:
    • P-Value and Alpha-Value:

The data is tested via p value value is for the variables, in short, and Alpha Value is for the questionnaire or the tool used for measuring it.

  • Standard deviation and standard error of the mean:

Standard deviation tells the ability of the sample to change and standard error shows that if the calculation of means is correct.

  • You are confronted with a set of data on the blood cell count change of patients treated with new drug. You wish to statistically evaluate whether the drug has caused a significant change in cell count. What all you must do before actually doing the evaluation? (list proper sequence the specific steps you must take before conducting the statistical test to evaluate the hypothesis). (NOTE: you might want to mention the use of alpha, beta, and P-values).

Step1: A method should be devised for this evaluation. Including development of hypothesis and test mechanism.

Step2: Test study should be conducted in order to verify the tools (Alpha Value)

Step3: A proper study with a representative sample should be conducted.

Step4: Results should be regressed in such a way that New Drug usage is the independent variable and blood cell count is the dependent variable.

Step5: Significance should be tested and alpha and beta should be analyzed. Significance is the basis of acceptance or rejection of null hypothesis. Alpha denotes the blood count independent of drug and beta denotes the relationship between drug usage and blood count. If beta is positive, this indicates that with drug usage blood count increases and if it is negative, this indicates that the drug usage reduces the blood cells in a human body.

  • A nutrition researcher believed that the mean protein intake of students on campus was at least 65 grams/day. One hundred randomly chosen individuals kept 21-day diet record, and their average daily protein intake (in grams) was recorded. The mean intake was 61.9 (+or-) 15.9 grams/day.       
    • Formulate an appropriate null and alternative hypothesis relative to the information presented. Explain you rational for your response

H0: The Mean nutrition intake of the sample is not the same as that of the campus

H1: The Mean nutrition intake of the sample and the population is the same.

The rationale behind this hypothesis is that if the null hypothesis is rejected it can be concluded that the sample represents the population and if it is not there that null hypothesis would be rejected

  • A Mean of five picocuries/liter or below is considered a safe level of radioactivity in drinking water. Ten Samples of drinking water were collected from a reservoir near a nuclear power plant in order to monitor radioactivity levels. The following measurements were recorded (in picocuries/liter):

5.2, 4.7, 6.1, 4.1, 5.5, 4.5, 5.1, 6.0, 5.3, 4.9. The mean of this sample is 5.14± 0.629 picocuries/liter.

  1. Compute a 95% confidence interval for the population mean. Express your results as upper limit and lower limit ± CI. Show all your work.
Data  
5.2  
4.7  
6.1  
4.1  
5.5  
4.5  
5.1  
6  
5.3  
4.9  
Mean 5.14
SD 0.629285
 
Upper Limit 5.769285
Lower Limit 4.510715

Confidence of interval

Mean = 5.14

SD     = 0.63

Standard error = 0.63/ √ 10

                        = 0.63/3.16

                        = 0.1994

Margin of error = S.D* 2

                          = 0.63*2

                          = 1.26

Confidence interval = 5.14+1.26, 5.14-1.26

                                 = 6.4 to 3.88

  • On the basis of these results, can it be concluded that the levels of radioactivity in the drinking supply are unsafe? State clearly your assumption(s) as well as the appropriate null and alternative hypotheses.

The above results show that the sample’s upper and lower limit lie outside the accepted water levels for the region. Therefore, hypotheses are as follows

H0: The Drinking water in the lake is not safe for drinking.

H1: The Drinking water in the lake is safe for drinking.

In this case null hypothesis is accepted due to the above given facts.
Sampling was not random as all the trees were selected from the selected geographic area. This can also be seen that the potential trees are the whole lot of them.

  • Identify whether the following variables are numerical or categorical. If numerical, state whether the variable is discrete or continuous. If categorical, state whether the variable is nominal or ordinal.
  Numerical Scale Categorical State
  Discrete Continuous Nominal Ordinal
Number of Sexual Partners in a year by college students        
Petal Area of Rose Flowers        
Key on the musical scale        
Heart beats per minute of Tour de France Cyclists        
Stage of Fruit ripeness (under ripe, ripe, over ripe)        
Angle of flower orientation relative to position of sun        
Letter grade on high school report card        
Tree Species        
Year of Birth        
  • The Average age of pinon Juniper trees in the coastal region of California was investigated by placing a 10-hectare plot randomly on a distribution map of the tree in California using a computer. Researchers then record the location of the random plot, found it in the field, and flagged it using compass and measuring tape. They then proceeded to measure the age of every pinon juniper tree within the 10-hectare plot. The average age within the plot was used to estimate the average age of the whole California Population
    • What is the population of interest in this study?

The population of interest in this study is the California Population of Pinon Juniper trees.

  • Were the trees sampled randomly from this population? Why or Why not?

No this was not completely random sampling though this did select a 10 hectare plot randomly by the trees in that region do not necessarily depict the whole lot of population, in fact this does not proclaim to be the ultimate random sample.

  1. Can environmental factors influence the incidence of Schizophrenia? A recent project measured incidence of the disease among children born in a region of eastern China. 192 of 13,748 babies born in the midst of a severe famine in the region in 1960 later developed schizophrenia. This compared with 483 schizophrenics out of 59088 births in 1956, before the famine, and 695 out of 83,536 births in 1965, after the famine (St Claire et al. (2005)).
    1. What two variables are compared in this example?

The variables compared in this example are births during famine and development of schizophrenia.

  • Are the variables numerical or categorical? If numerical, are they continuous or discrete; if categorical are they nominal or ordinal?

The variable of births during famine, is discrete variable in the numerical category and the variable of development of schizophrenia is nominal in the categorical variable.

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Trine Saudi Community’s awareness of dangerous intravenous drug use

Project: Trine Saudi Community’s awareness of dangerous intravenous drug use

Primary Research Question

How much do Trine University’s students know about dangerous intravenous drugs and their associated hazards?

The purpose of this research is to identify the level of awareness among the students of Trine University in Saudi Arabia about intravenous drugs. There are numerous disadvantages that are associated with dangerous intravenous drugs. For instance, there are chances of infection, scarring of the veins, and increased chance of overdose, social stigma, increased addiction chances and damage to the arteries. There are dangers of disease spread as well, diseases like HIV/AIDS and Hepatitis. We need to ask that whether these students know about such issues and their effects.

Secondary sub-questions

How do they get the information about the intravenous drugs and their associated hazards?

The university has a special health and wellness center with a purpose to provide all the information about the intravenous drugs and their associated drugs. The institute is available for access to the students so that they can contact the department in case of emergency or any issue. Trine University has a special policy designed for the use of drugs and alcohol. The university disapproves the use of any illegal form of drug or abuse of legal drugs by the students. The institute also supports the legal federal laws relating to the drug abuse as well. Some of the consequences that will be faced by the students for such activities will include a fine of $200 and the student will also have to undergo the abuse evaluation test procedures as well. The student will also perform 50 to 80 hours of university service without any exceptions. Appropriate law enforcement officials may also be notified in case of serious offense. The student will also be given with final notice and if s/he is already on final notice then the case will be preceded by the dean.

What factors influence their knowledge level regarding the intravenous drugs and their associated hazards?

The university has separate programs that are designed to work for the health and awareness of the students for the purpose of the overall well-being of the students and to empower them. However, these programs have to be updated on regular basis to provide the latest information on these issues to the students as quickly as possible and at all times. Appropriate counseling is also provided to such students. They are also provided with opportunities to get themselves indulge in healthy activities such as exercise or yoga. The student counseling programs develop awareness among the students and enable them to refrain from such habits. The students have easy access to these programs through the website and on campus as well.

References

Trine University. (2016, September 30). Health and Wellness. Retrieved from Trine University: http://www.trine.edu/campus-life/health-and-wellness/index.aspx

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“Snoopy”

  1. Reference the “Snoopy” cartoon above.
    1. State the null and alternative hypothesis that Charlie Brown should make re: the above Situation. Hint: Cast this in terms of a “research hypothesis”, and specifically, reference frame 4, 5 and 9.

Null Hypothesis: Involuntary Muscle Spasm at the same moment of kicking the ball could not occur.

Alternate Hypothesis: Involuntary Muscle Spasm at the same moment of kicking the ball could occur.

  • Differentiate between Type I and Type II errors.

The Type I error is the wrong rejection of a null hypothesis. In this case if the snoopy cartoon depicts that involuntary muscle spasm could occur, when it cannot, is a type I error.

Type II error is reverse of Type I error. If Snoopy accepts that the muscle spasm cannot occur, when it can, is a type II error. In short type II error is a research process where a null hypothesis has to be rejected but, is not.

  • What type of error, of any, did Charlie Brown make? Explain your answer.

Charlie Brown made a type II error, as he accepted the null hypothesis of the nonoccurrence of the involuntary muscle spasm at moment of the kick so he tried to kick the ball.

  • Explain in common English what you mean when you say 99% confidence interval

Confidence Interval is the trust of data in accordance with the prospects of research being conducted. 99% confidence interval indicates that the data is to be tested if it is 99% aligned with the research and its flow.

  • Since it is possible to test statistical hypothesis with any size sample, explain why a researcher would prefer larger sample size?

A larger sample size is preferred due to its generalization concept. This means that if a sample portrays particular results. This implies that the sample can represent the population and the findings acquired from the sample can be applied to the population.

  • Use simple plain English to define and distinguish between the following:
    • P-Value and Alpha-Value:

P-Value is the significance of the data and the Alpha-Value is the significance of the construct used to obtain the data. This can be further elaborated that the tool used to acquire data is verified by alpha value and the data is tested via p value.

  • Standard deviation and standard error of the mean:

Standard Deviation is the measure of variability from the actual mean and the standard error of mean is the probability of mean to be non-representative of central tendency of the overall data.

  • You are confronted with a set of data on the blood cell count change of patients treated with new drug. You wish to statistically evaluate whether the drug has caused a significant change in cell count. What all you must do before actually doing the evaluation? (list proper sequence the specific steps you must take before conducting the statistical test to evaluate the hypothesis). (NOTE: you might want to mention the use of alpha, beta, and P-values).

Step1: A method should be devised for this evaluation. Including development of hypothesis and test mechanism.

Step2: Test study should be conducted in order to verify the tools (Alpha Value)

Step3: A proper study with a representative sample should be conducted.

Step4: Results should be regressed in such a way that New Drug usage is the independent variable and blood cell count is the dependent variable.

Step5: Significance should be tested and alpha and beta should be analyzed. Significance is the basis of acceptance or rejection of null hypothesis. Alpha denotes the blood count independent of drug and beta denotes the relationship between drug usage and blood count. If beta is positive, this indicates that with drug usage blood count increases and if it is negative, this indicates that the drug usage reduces the blood cells in a human body.

  • A nutrition researcher believed that the mean protein intake of students on campus was at least 65 grams/day. One hundred randomly chosen individuals kept 21-day diet record, and their average daily protein intake (in grams) was recorded. The mean intake was 61.9 (+or-) 15.9 grams/day.       
    • Formulate an appropriate null and alternative hypothesis relative to the information presented. Explain you rational for your response

H0: The Mean nutrition intake of the sample is not the same as that of the campus

H1: The Mean nutrition intake of the sample and the population is the same.

  • A Mean of five picocuries/liter or below is considered a safe level of radioactivity in drinking water. Ten Samples of drinking water were collected from a reservoir near a nuclear power plant in order to monitor radioactivity levels. The following measurements were recorded (in picocuries/liter):

5.2, 4.7, 6.1, 4.1, 5.5, 4.5, 5.1, 6.0, 5.3, 4.9. The mean of this sample is 5.14 ± 0.629 picocuries/liter. 

  1. Compute a 95% confidence interval for the population mean. Express your results as upper limit and lower limit ± CI. Show all your work.
Data
5.2
4.7
6.1
4.1
5.5
4.5
5.1
6
5.3
4.9
Mean 5.14
SD 0.629285
Upper Limit 5.769285
Lower Limit 4.510715
  • On the basis of these results, can it be concluded that the levels of radioactivity in the drinking supply are unsafe? State clearly your assumption(s) as well as the appropriate null and alternative hypotheses.

The above results show that the sample’s upper and lower limit lie outside the accepted water levels for the region. Therefore, hypotheses are as follows

H0: The Drinking water in the lake is not safe for drinking.

H1: The Drinking water in the lake is safe for drinking.

In this case null hypothesis is accepted due to the above given facts.

  • Identify whether the following variables are numerical or categorical. If numerical, state whether the variable is discrete or continuous. If categorical, state whether the variable is nominal or ordinal.
  Numerical Scale Categorical State
  Discrete Continuous Nominal Ordinal
Number of Sexual Partners in a year by college students        
Petal Area of Rose Flowers        
Key on the musical scale        
Heart beats per minute of Tour de France Cyclists        
Stage of Fruit ripeness (under ripe, ripe, over ripe)        
Angle of flower orientation relative to position of sun        
Letter grade on high school report card        
Tree Species        
Year of Birth        
  • The Average age of pinon Juniper trees in the coastal region of California was investigated by placing a 10-hectare plot randomly on a distribution map of the tree in California using a computer. Researchers then record the location of the random plot, found it in the field, and flagged it using compass and measuring tape. They then proceeded to measure the age of every pinon juniper tree within the 10-hectare plot. The average age within the plot was used to estimate the average age of the whole California Population
    • What is the population of interest in this study?

The population of interest in this study is the California Population of Pinon Juniper trees.

  • Were the trees sampled randomly from this population? Why or Why not?

No this was not completely random sampling though this did select a 10 hectare plot randomly by the trees in that region do not necessarily depict the whole lot of population, in fact this does not proclaim to be the ultimate random sample.

  1. Can environmental factors influence the incidence of Schizophrenia? A recent project measured incidence of the disease among children born in a region of eastern China. 192 of 13,748 babies born in the midst of a severe famine in the region in 1960 later developed schizophrenia. This compared with 483 schizophrenics out of 59088 births in 1956, before the famine, and 695 out of 83,536 births in 1965, after the famine (St Claire et al. (2005)).
    1. What two variables are compared in this example?

The variables compared in this example are births during famine and development of schizophrenia.

  • Are the variables numerical or categorical? If numerical, are they continuous or discrete; if categorical are they nominal or ordinal?

The variable of births during famine, is discrete variable in the numerical category and the variable of development of schizophrenia is nominal in the categorical variable.

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Biomedical Research Programs

Contents

Summary. 3

Introduction. 4

Current best practice Not-for-Profit (NFP) Medical Research Program Evaluation. 4

Cross-border strategies optimizing Programmatic Investments. 5

NFP take a collective-impact approach and acting as a backbone organization. 5

Case studies and examples from different countries. 6

NFPs Programmatic impact 7

Highly successful new drugs/tests/interventions role of charity’s Programmatic investments. 8

Recommendation. 8

Conclusion. 9

References. 10

 

 

Summary

It is the fact that not for profit organizations have the great importance in medical research.  It is the paper, which includes the different aspects related to the particular section of the studies as well. On the other hand, the best thing is the discussion about the not for profit medical research program. It is also discussed that what type of current practices is in the field for this particular purpose. It is the fact that not for profit organizations wants to make things reliable and trust for the companies and organizations as well. 

            On the other hand, the cross-border impact and strategies are discussed in the next phase of the paper along with collective impact approach for analyzing the performance of the organizations and institutes as well. It is also the reason of an increase in programmatic investments and one can understand that programmatic investment has the great importance in the field for not for profit organizations as well. In addition, there are few examples are expressed of the organizations that went through under the investigation and they have admired the policies and programs as well.  One can see that these examples are from the world well-known institutions which are included in the not for profit organizations.

            Furthermore, NFPs Programmatic impact is discussed to make sure that these types of organizations leave the strong impact on the other organizations and entities. It is the fact that every organization wants to build good fame on the people from worldwide.  It can increase the loyalty and trust level too. In the end, there is a discussion on the highly investigative approaches, which are used to increase the output of the companies and institutions as well. Therefore, the entire paper is quite comprehensive included the recommendations and conclusion at the end.

Introduction

 The strategies for the cross-border include the optimizing the investments for the programmatic programs or campaigns are accountable in the investment as per optimizing the emergency are critically analyzed. The collective approach for the impact of the backbone for the organization is highlighted; the high relevant NFPs for the biomedical research programs are then discussed. The operational processes or procedures for the NFP categories are then explicitly examined regarding the evidence-based theories (Oliverio, Pasewark, & White, 2013). The tests for the drugs are considered most critically in the investments regarding the pragmatic practice in the clinical examinations in this regard are analyzed. 

Current best practice Not-for-Profit (NFP) Medical Research Program Evaluation

The best way evaluates the research program to measure the success of the program through different parameters only then the NFP medical can be evaluated. They should focus on the international investment to achieve the goal of securing the accounts. The best practice is to make it clear that the NFP investment cash flow is clear through all the accounts both globally and locally. Therefore, to keep the cash flow in the system the medical research program has to show some significant research in the field so that the organization and the government don’t stop funding. The progress report should be presented to keep track of the work so that the research should not be affected. The collaboration in the whole process of the biomedical regarding the rigorous research has been the issue of traction especially in the recent decades in which the number or organizations have managed multi-level forms of the consortia for the dynamic category of information or knowledge sharing in the most drastic way. The resources are lasso sued in this manner for addressing the core issues or challenges regarding the translational research process into the most promising one using the dynamic sought of extreme intelligent efficiencies (Kania, 2011).

Cross-border strategies optimizing Programmatic Investments

The cross-border strategies developed by these organization is the proper international account to keep track of the record. The security of the account and the campaign to get the investment. To handle and optimize the investment of the program, the accounts are linked with each other so that in the case of emergency all the office of the organization has access to the account (Treves, Seatzu, & Trevisanut, 2013). The strategy was implemented by using the different approaches and with the help of the experts the organization can secure their funding and investment in the program.

The outcomes which are recognized as the accelerating for the patients along with the profit generation of more than $680 million for the dangerous diseases such as prostate cancer, the health conditions of the mental instability, men’ diseases program initiates in terms of the dynamic biomedical programs as well as features using the strategy which is globally recognized or identified. The issues of the diseases of the men’s health are treated as the mutual impact in generating the level of funds that would analyze the doubts of the stakeholders while accomplishing the goals or objectives. The foundation such as the ‘movement’ is considered as the core organization regarding the agenda in which the issues or diseases of the men’s health are addressed in the most efficient manner (Camarena, 2016).

NFP take a collective-impact approach and acting as a backbone organization

Yes, they do take the collective impact approach to establishing the strong medical impact on the other organizations and patients. As the organization is nonprofit so people should take things seriously, this impact acts as a backbone for the company, and they can survive through this act, which was taken by the managers of the company suddenly.  It is the fact that nonprofit organizations make a great impact on the public. On the other hand, the nonprofit organization has the aim to serve the public in many communities. Most of the time, people create organizations for specific purposes but they change their attitudes after the changing in time.  It is the very dangerous thing for businesses whether it is profitable or non-profit (Hopkins, 2009).

 It is very imperative to understand that every organization needs to be consistent in all of the segments during the business.  The inconsistency will damage the things ultimately.  The trust element would vanish in such cases. Therefore, it is the fact that trust and loyalty are required at its high level for the betterment of nonprofit organizations as well.  In the end, yes, it is quite important and works as a backbone for any organization.  One can understand that all the financial and non-financial sectors take too much care about the wealth and nonprofit organization has a wealth of trust and loyalty to serve people in the community (Risser, 2014).

Case studies and examples from different countries

Some of the highly relevant case studies are listed below, and their transparency is guaranteed which means they have clear the transparency test of the several companies.

  • Ford Foundation

(Assets $12,513,600,000)

  • J. Paul Getty Trust

 (Assets $11,982,900,000)

  • The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation

(Assets $10,501,400,000)

  • The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation

(Assets $9,020,100,000)

  • W. K. Kellogg Foundation

(Assets $8,621,180,000)

These above-mentioned industries are the biggest in the particular sector. It is described that ford Foundation is highly tested and investigated in the process designed by the great authorities.  It is the fact that ford foundation works for the betterment of the human welfare and it is very necessary for them to understand the challenges.  It is a universal truth that all of the nonprofit organizations have only the one way of earning and that is fundraising.  One can understand that fundraising and tasks of fundraising could be achieved if the people have believed on you. On the other hand, if there is no trust of the people, the foundation cannot grow in the field of serving the humanity (Buzza, 2016). 

NFPs Programmatic impact

The other NFP’s also try to reach the same impact, but it is difficult for the new organization to reach that level so try other ways, which are also evidence-based and very true. It is the fact that they have realized the importance of testing and investigation in every department today. Therefore, the other companies have been applying different methods of programmatic impact. It is the fact that each medical research company understands that things would not move forward until people do not feel the programmatic impact.  A programmatic impact used to describe for entire impacts in the general life (Eccleston, 2011).  It can be social, economic, or any other impact.

The other companies of this arena have observed the universal fact that a programmatic message should be conveyed to the public.  It will increase the trust level of the people, and such fundraising entities will be successful ultimately.  On the other hand, the things would not move forward if the people would not trust the companies.  It is the fact that people realize that these industries or companies are working for their betterment. All the medical researchers need to organize the factors of the investigation.

Highly successful new drugs/tests/interventions role of charity’s Programmatic investments

One of the highly successful drugs is for the disease Cystic Fibrosis that is the effort of endless research and hour of dedication as finally the cure of dangerous lung disease is available. Now Cystic Fibrosis Foundation plans to reinvest the money into new research efforts. As these new funds give us a tremendous opportunity to supercharge our efforts to develop lifesaving new therapies and pursue opportunities to find a permanent cure, he said in a statement announcing the deal (Camarena, 2016).

It is the fact that some of the not-for-profit organizations (NFPs) make available remuneration to their communities in the outward appearance of programmatic savings and investments as well.  The examples are guarantees loans and impartiality interests. On the other hand, the investors of NFP have the mission to increase the value and productivity of the firm ultimately. These programs are real assets for investors and these companies. 

 Also, the Royal Pharmacy had bought this drug from the CFF to manufacture it on the large scale this is done to serve the humanity.  It is to keep it straight the Royal Pharma has hired the team of experts and necessary machinery to start the operation of this drug and bring it to the market to deliver it to the deserving people.

Recommendation

It is the fact that biomedical research is quite necessary and imperative for the community and as well for the organizations, which are not for profit organizations. In my perspective, I would like to recommend the flexible approaches for the not for profit organizations to run the system. These types of organizations should facilitate the parameters of biomedical research in order to attain the global and local appreciation. One can understand that not for profit organization require a certain level of appreciation from a stakeholder in order to get success in upcoming tenure. Therefore, the not for profit organizations should provide facilitation for all investigation and biomedical research programs for mutual benefits.

Conclusion

In the end, it is concluded that for the best practice about the not-for-profit programs in the biomedical research, the parameters as per the accomplishments of the programs should be integrated with the investments as per the clear form of cash flow using both globally or locally recognized dimension. The cross-border strategies include the optimizing organizations for put maximum level for investments such as the relevant case examples of the Ford having more than $12 billion. The NFPs are reaching the same sought of an impact as the issues in the new organizations for evidenced-based especially for the highly successful programmatic sought of investments.

References

Buzza, M. (2016). Accelerating Men’s Health via Global Collaboration. Retrieved October 5, 2016, from ssir.org: https://ssir.org/articles/entry/accelerating_mens_health_via_global_collaboration

Camarena, J. (2016). CALIFORNIA FOUNDATION DATA—NOW AVAILABLE AT-A-GLANCE. Retrieved October 5, 2016, from blog.glasspockets.org: http://blog.glasspockets.org/2016/09/camarena-ca-stats-27092016.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+transparencytalk+%28Transparency+Talk%29

Eccleston, C. H. (2011). Environmental Impact Assessment: A Guide to Best Professional Practices. CRC Press.

Hopkins, B. R. (2009). Starting and Managing a Nonprofit Organization: A Legal Guide. John Wiley & Sons.

Kania, J. (2011). Collective Impact. Retrieved October 5, 2016, from ssir.org: https://ssir.org/articles/entry/collective_impact

Oliverio, M. E., Pasewark, W. R., & White, B. R. (2013). The Office: Procedures and Technology. Cengage Learning.

Risser, D. (2014). Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Sells Drug Royalties for $3B. Retrieved October 5, 2016, from bloomberg.com: http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2014-11-19/royalty-pharma-pays-3-3-billion-for-cystic-fibrosis-royalties

Treves, T., Seatzu, F., & Trevisanut, S. (2013). Foreign Investment, International Law and Common Concerns. Routledge.

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Internal and External Auditing Relationship Effect on Financial Reporting in KSA

Internal and External Auditing Relationship Effect on Financial Reporting in KSA

Working Title:

The working title for our research thesis is “Internal and External Auditing Relationship Effect on Financial Reporting in KSA”. In this research, we are proposing to conduct detailed research regarding the relations of both, external and internal functions. We are conducting this research in the context of the workings in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

General Overview of Area:

Our research thesis is “Internal and External Auditing Relationship Effect on Financial Reporting in KSA”. In this project, we are proposing to conduct detailed research, which is relative to internal and external accounting functions on the different companies. We are conducting this research in the context of the workings in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The function of internal audit is different from that of external audit. While these both functions need to work together and within the assurance framework, the need to have coordination is a requirement. Both functions should be considered as distinct, and separate, to get to its value and expertise. In the planning, this is necessary for auditors to contain the effective assessment.  Whenever they think that specific work in the field of the internal audit work is relevant to their external audit. Moreover, there is a need to integrate the internal audit to the external auditors to depict the accuracy.  However, there are some common problems in their relationship, which are quite important and can affect the financial reporting. For instance, this has been seen that the auditor lacks the control on the environment due to the insufficient involvement. Moreover, the lack of coordination often results in the duplication of efforts from both functions. Specifically, In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the Internal Audit function is evident of being considered as a formality and not as a requirement of internal control. These all factors and effects of these factors on the financial reporting and internal control system will be thoroughly analyzed in this research paper.

Literature:

In this paper, we are going to analyze the relationship of the internal auditor with the external auditor and its effect on the financial reporting in the context of Saudi Arabia. The research before the examining of the relationship between these two functions is conducted, and various articles published in the past on topics related to this area are analyzed. In this context, the literature of the Saudi Arabia is very limited. Therefore, we have to dig deep and even use the data, which were published even before last ten years to get an idea about the previous researches being conducted in this area. There is not much research being done in this area in the context of Saudi Arabian companies. Therefore, we would more have to rely on our research methods and data for the analysis and conclusion of this research. Other than this, the literature that was available online in this specific area realized research on these categories. This is necessary to analysis the both, external and internal audit, as these audits interact with each other. This is a fact that external auditors in Saudi Arabia rely on the internal auditors, which is a big thing to consider. According to the United States research, the quality, competence and focus are the three main pillars to contain the successful audit. In addition, the evaluation process is vital to derive the pertinent outcomes (Suwaidan & Qasim, 2010).

As mentioned, the research revolves around the internal and external audit. Therefore, the decisions of internal auditors are aslo to be analyzed to see the impact on the external audit. Then, there is also evidence of research in the field of the reasons, which enables the coordination of the internal and external auditor. Moreover, another aspect of this relationship is the external audit fees, which are affected by the activities of the internal audit (Suwaidan & Qasim, 2010). In this research paper, the empirical investigation is being conducted by the researchers to investigate the perceptions of the number of factors and their importance given by an external auditor, which can increase their reliance on the internal auditors.  The relationship between the audit fees of both the internal and the external auditor is being analyzed in detail in this paper.

Furthermore, the research related to the impact of the internal functions along with the different financial statements of the company. The research report published in 2011 is the recent work, which shows cases the effect of the quality of different equipments or tools regarding the different financial statements. This is relative to the Saudi Arabian Exchange. The research is being conducted on the companies that are listed in the Saudi Arabia Exchange except for the banks. This research paper has conducted a thorough survey, and through interviews, it has concluded the lack of integration between internal audit and financial reporting can create immense hurdles for the Saudi companies. In recommendations, the researcher has recommended on increasing the initiatives to improve the quality of the internal audit function in Saudi companies. The study illustrates multiple insights regarding the financial reporting and audit along with many barriers.Saudi companies (Al-Shetwi, Ramadili, Chowdury, & Sori, 2011).

Other than this, the internal auditing practices in the Saudi Arabia are thoroughly researched in the context of the multicultural environment that most Saudi companies usually possess. The study focuses on the fact that there is a common perception that various cultures effect the management and interpersonal behavior affecting the performance in a job. The study finds out that the affect of the various cultures present in a company on the interpersonal behavior and management within the context of the job is very little or of no importance. However, the study depicted that there may be numbers other factors other than he cultural variations which may affect the internal audit function. The study also displayed the high standards and professionalism shown in the field of the internal audit within the context of Saudi Arabia (Woodworth & Said, 1996).

These all research journals, their literature used, their research methods employed, and their ultimate findings have been assessed. Moreover, these will be used in our research for analyzing the financial reports, and strategic considerations of both, internal and external audit.  

Key Research Questions:

  1. What is the perception of the internal audit function of the External Auditors in the Saudi Arabia
  2. What is the extent of the integration regarding the external and internal auditors in Saudi Arabian companies?
  3. What are the factors, which affect the decisions of auditors, which compel them to rely to rely on internal auditors?

These research questions are the key questions, which would once answer, deduce the relationship of financial reporting and effective audit considerations in Saudi Arabia.

Methodology:

For researching the results of the three main research questions mentioned above, the methodology, which would be used, is the use of questionnaire and interview questions. The data collection would be done through these methods. The interview research method, as well as the questionnaire research method, will be utilized to get the primary data for the research. Questionnaires would be sending to the internal audit departments of the companies in the Saudi Arabia. For collecting data from the external auditor, the questionnaires would be sent to the external auditors employed by the companies in the Saudi Arabia. Other than this, there would also be efforts employed to conduct some interviews with the internal and external auditors as well through online mediums.

For addressing the first research question, the questionnaire would ask about the perception of the external auditors regarding the objectivity, performance, competence, expertise, and scope of the internal auditing in their company. Their responses will direct towards the result of the first research question.

For finding the results of the second research question, the questionnaire would be designed to ask about the level of corporation among the external and internal auditor. This would be recognized by looking at the number of regular meetings, and access to the working papers of internal auditor for the external auditors by the internal auditors.

 For getting the answer to the third research question, the factors would be mentioned in the questionnaire and the external auditors would be asked to rate the level. This is all about to derive the factors, which create the impact on different audit works. Moreover, another questionnaire would be designed for the internal auditors who would answer to their perception of the factors, which defines the affect of the decision of reliance of the external auditors on their works.

Other than this, for all the three mentioned research questions, interview with the external and internal auditors will also be conducted to get first had knowledge about their relationship and its factors.

Research Planning:

For this research paper, the time required would be quite extensive. As there is, need to design and sent the questionnaires to the respective external and internal auditors in the Saudi companies, firstly we have to find contacts and inform them about the research that we want to conduct in which they can assist us. Depending on their pace of corporation, our questionnaires would be sent to them, for timely answers and data collection. Time for scheduling interviews with the auditors would also be required. Other than this, after once the data would be collected, the analysis of the data and its findings would take not much time.

Bibliography:

Al-Shetwi, M., Ramadili, S. M., Chowdury, T. H., & Sori, Z. M. (2011). Impact of internal audit function (IAF) on financial reporting quality (FRQ): Evidence from Saudi Arabia. African Journal of Business Management , 5 (27), 11189-11198.

Suwaidan, M. S., & Qasim, A. (2010). External auditors’ reliance on internal auditors and its impact on audit fees: An empirical investigation. Managerial Auditing Journal , 25 (6), 509-525.

Woodworth, B. M., & Said, K. E. (1996). Internal auditing in a multicultural environment: the Saudi Arabia experience. Managerial Auditing Journal , 20-27.

Categories
research paper help

Ways to warm up the car in winter(Car regulating thermostat)

In the winter, people usually find ways to remove the ice from the car and to normalize the temperature of the car. However, there are many ways that people can use to remove the ice from the car that is de-icing of the car as well as they can normalize the temperature of the car with the help of heating system or heat from the engine system of the car.  In winters, people usually prefer to start the engine and let the engine in idle mode so the temperature of the car can reach the desired temperature. In this way, there is need of device that warm up the car without turning the engine on. When the engine is cold, the gasoline in the engine does not evaporate, in fact, the cold engine creates the desired ratio of the air and vapors of fuel that for the purpose of combustion. Potentially it could also cool down the car in the summer without turning the engine on and warm up the engine of car without starting engine as well.

In Google patents, car regulating thermostat engines has been recognized that warm as well as ready to without having to warm up the car.  The car regulating thermostat that freezing the cold work morning as well as scorching hot in the afternoons. Basically such thermostat found in the modern homes but also available for the automobiles to setting motor of engine without running engine of car. No pollution and no gas consumption have been recognized by utilization of car regulating thermostat released into atmosphere (Garner, 2003). To maintain the temperature level in the car, the technique of constant through- a flow of fresh air can be used. In this way, the temperature in the car can be maintained as shown in the figure. Moreover, two ways to heat the cabin of the car is shown in the last two figures, the 1st one shows that heating system with the help of hot water valve. Air through the matrix gets heated and by a regulator, a temperature of the air can be maintained.

https://patentimages.storage.googleapis.com/US20040217179A1/US20040217179A1-20041104-D00001.png
https://patentimages.storage.googleapis.com/US20040217179A1/US20040217179A1-20041104-D00000.png

Source: https://www.google.com/patents/US20040217179

  1. Topic: Micro-Driller(Micro-Sonic Density Imaging While Drilling Systems)

Micro driller is used in almost every field that is mechanical, electrical and geological etc. expert use the micro drill to find out desired information for example; with the help of a micro drill, the hole is constructed that helps the wire to go further down in the snow.

In Google patents, micro sonic density is the device used for drilling for many purposes. It has drilled collar with one stabilized blade that set distal face for stabilizing blade to detect the S ad P waves. The circuit processing measurement gives slowness and velocity of the acoustic waves. This type of tool has fluid cell for the measurement of acoustical properties for the borehole fluid. This type of device has features of the rock drill by 10 m. It is also used to determine the strength of rock and drill in required way.

https://patentimages.storage.googleapis.com/US20130125641A1/US20130125641A1-20130523-D00001.png
https://patentimages.storage.googleapis.com/US20130125641A1/US20130125641A1-20130523-D00002.png

Source: https://www.google.com/patents/US20130125641

The development of micro driller helps in every field of construction and extraction of petroleum as well. In addition, motion tracking unit fitted inside the devices to give the measurement of required drill in the rock with gives parameters. Inside the device, logging method is that rotating logging while drilling tool along with the borehole. The calculation of formation of density values adequately determined (Chemali & Oraby, 2013).

            Micro drill has many advantages and uses. In the field of mining’s the micro drill help the researchers to find out the presence of the ore on the ground and to obtained the residue from the ground . The drill can be used in different direction and level by clipping the drill to the wall. By desired level and direction of the drill, the expert can use it in a direction to find out ore-rich tailing.

            Micro drill provides many advantages for example; with the help of a micro drill, a tiny hole is constructed that cannot affect the whole ground that means there is no danger of collapsing of ground. It requires small space to inject micro drill into the ground. However, there are some problems associated with the micro drill, as it requires a lot of time to drill deep into the ground and to obtain the ore rich tailing (Tailings.info, 2016). Another advantage of the microdrill is a determination of the contamination in the liner (Sauter, 2010).

  • Topic: Correcting twisted seat belt(Seat belt buckles receptacle presenter assembly)

            While driving, wearing a seatbelt is important as it lowers the injury level in accidents. Seat belt plays important role in saving the life of people on having an accident. It is important for the people to have a seat belt in the car in a proper manner. Moreover, it is important to check the working of the seat belt while driving because without a seat belt, the death ratio due to accidents increases and can cause major injuries to the people. People usually face some issues with the seat belt in their daily routine (Kent, 2014).

In the Google patent, the seat belt buckles receptacle presenter assembly is name of product that have capability of broadened part of the buckle to remove the twist. It is recognized as vehicle occupant in visually and convenient accessible location. The receptacle of seat belt is pivotal mounted for the horizontal track of the storage positioning location. Seat belt buckle connected with the moveable arm that extends the ends. In this way, predetermined storage angle identified for the demonstrations of the corrected twisted seat belt. This seat belt is real invention that gets Google patents in required manner.

https://patentimages.storage.googleapis.com/US20020043872A1/US20020043872A1-20020418-D00000.png
https://patentimages.storage.googleapis.com/US20020043872A1/US20020043872A1-20020418-D00001.png

Source: https://www.google.com/patents/US20020043872

One of the major issues is the twisting of the seat belts twisting of seat belt create difficulties for a person in wearing a seat belt. Most of the time the male belt part of the seat belt get stuck or twisted because the twisted belt fails to spread the force of an accident across the body of a passenger and fails to protect the body of a passenger. Therefore, it is important to find out ways to remove the twist from the seat belt (Mto.gov.on.ca, 2016).  One important way to remove the twist from the seat belt is by widening the area of a male seat buckle. The broadened part of the buckle will help the passenger to remove the twist from the belt. Moreover, another way to remove the twist from the male seat belt buckle is by having adjustable round moving rod that can freely move the twisted belt one side round to another side in round direction to remove the twist as shown in the figure (Osborne, 2011). 

Reference

Bennett, J. (2016 , Jan 22). Warming Up Your Car in the Cold Just Harms the Engine. Retrieved Spet 26, 2016, from popularmechanics.com: http://www.popularmechanics.com/cars/a19086/warming-up-your-car-in-the-cold-just-harms-engine/

Chemali, R. E., & Oraby, M. E. (2013). Micro-Sonic Density Imaging While Drilling Systems and Methods. Retrieved October 5, 2016, from https://www.google.com/patents/US20130125641

Circuitmedic.com. (2016, April 17). Micro Drill System. Retrieved Sept 26, 2016, from Circuitmedic.com: http://www.circuitmedic.com/products/110-4105.shtml

Garner, M. (2003). Car regulating thermostat. Retrieved October 5, 2016, from https://www.google.com/patents/US20040217179?dq=warm+up+the+car+without+turning+the+engine+on&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiGsJS6jsPPAhUKbxQKHX4JAUgQ6AEIGTAA

Howacarworks.com. (2016, April 28). How car heating and ventilation systems work. Retrieved Sept 26, 2016, from howacarworks.com: http://www.howacarworks.com/basics/how-car-heating-and-ventilation-systems-work

Kent, D. (2014, April). An Important Safety Check: Are Your Seat Belts Safe? Retrieved Sept 26, 2016, from toyourhealth.com: http://www.toyourhealth.com/mpacms/tyh/article.php?id=1961

Mto.gov.on.ca. (2016, April 30). Make sure everyone wears a seatbelt. Retrieved Sept 26, 2016, from mto.gov.on.ca: http://www.mto.gov.on.ca/english/safety/safe-driving-practices.shtml

Osborne, H. (2011, September 24 ). Car seats: the easily fixed mistakes that could cost a child’s life. Retrieved Sept 26, 2016, from theguardian.com: https://www.theguardian.com/money/2011/sep/24/car-seats-mistakes

Sauter, D. (2010). Landscape Construction. Cengage Learning.

Tailings.info. (2016, August 3). Backfill of Tailings to Underground Workings. Retrieved Sept 26, 2016, from tailings.info: http://www.tailings.info/storage/backfill.htm

Townsend, J., El-Sayed, M., Campbell, J., & DeLorean, P. (2002). Seat belt buckle receptacle presenter assembly. Retrieved October 5, 2016, from https://www.google.com/patents/US20020043872

Categories
research paper for sale research paper help term paper writing service write my book report write my thesis

what is the enthalpy for the following reaction? overall: c2h4 + h2o→c2h5oh

What is the enthalpy for the following reaction? C2H4 H2O—
17,023 results
Chem
What is the enthalpy for the following reaction? C2H4+H2O—>C2H5OH

asked by Kay on November 4, 2010
Chem
What is the enthalpy for the following reaction? overall: C2H4+H2O—>C2H5OH is -1411kJ correct??

asked by Angel on November 4, 2010
chemistry
If you need to multiply the following reaction by 2 to be an intermediate reaction in a Hess’s law problem, what would be the final value for the enthalpy of reaction you use for this intermediate reaction? C2H4 + 3 O2 2 CO2 + 2 H2O, H = -1410 kJ

asked by Anonymous on November 24, 2014
chemistry
For the reaction shown below complete the following calculations. H2(g) + C2H4(g) –> C2H6(g) (a) Estimate the enthalpy of reaction using the bond energy values in Table 9.4. (b) Calculate the enthalpy of reaction, using standard enthalpies of formation.

asked by hannah on October 27, 2008
Chemistry
Calculate the enthalpy change for: C2H4(g) + H2 –> C2H6(g) delta Hrxn: H2(g) + 1/2O2 –> H2O (l) C2H4(g) + 3O2 –> 2H20(l) + 2CO2(g) C2H6(g) + 7/2O2(g) –> 3H20(l) + 2CO2(g) I know I have to flip the third reaction but I don’t know what to do next

asked by Jessica on October 29, 2014

chemistry

  1. Calculate the enthalpy change of combustion for ethene gas (C2H4) given the following enthalpy changes of formation: ΔHºf(C2H4)(g) = +52 kJ mol^-1 ΔHºf(CO2)(g) = -394 kJ mol^-1 ΔHºf(H2O)(g) = -286 kJ mol^-1

asked by John on July 19, 2014
Chemistry
Calculate the work involved if a reaction with an enthalpy change of -2418 kJ is carried out in a vessel with a mobile, frictionless piston. Other details: the reaction is H2(g) + 1/2Oxygen2(g) yields H2O(g) with enthalpy change of -241.8 kJ/mol. The

asked by Mark on November 22, 2008
chemistry
Calculate the ΔH of reaction for: C2H4(g) + H2O(l) = C2H5OH(l) if the ΔH of formation for C2H4(g), H2O(l) and C2H5OH are +52, -286 and -278 kJ/mol, respectively? Enter a numerical value below and be sure to include a minus sign if needed. The error

asked by danny 16 on January 31, 2015
Chemistry
I know I posted this question before, but can you clarify it?? MY QUESTION IS AFTER YOU SWITCHED THE DELTA H1 THE CHANGE IN THE ENTHALPY IS NEGATIVE…. BUT THAT DOES NOT MAKE SENSE BECAUSE THE CHANGE IN ENTHALPY OF THE ORIGINAL DELTA H1 IS

asked by Anonymous on November 14, 2013
CHEMISTRY
I know I posted this question before, but can you clarify it?? MY QUESTION IS AFTER YOU SWITCHED THE DELTA H1 THE CHANGE IN THE ENTHALPY IS NEGATIVE…. BUT THAT DOES NOT MAKE SENSE BECAUSE THE CHANGE IN ENTHALPY OF THE ORIGINAL DELTA H1 IS

asked by Anonymous on November 14, 2013
chemistry

  1. Calculate the standard enthalpy change for the reaction: C2H4(g) + H2(g) → C2H6(g) given that the enthalpy of combustion for the reactants and products are: ΔHºc(C2H4)(g) = -1411 kJ mol^-1 ΔHºc(C2H6)(g) = -1560 kJ mol^-1 ΔHºc(H2)(g) = -286 kJ

asked by John on July 19, 2014
Chemistry
Calculate enthalpy of reaction C2H4 + H2 gives C2H6.enthalpy of combustion of ethene, H2,and ethane are -1410,-286,-15.60kj/mol respectively

asked by Shaika on November 7, 2016
Chemistry
Ethanol (C2H5OH) is synthesized for industrial use by the following reaction, carried out at very high pressure. C2H4(g) + H2O(g) → C2H5OH(l) What is the maximum amount, in kg, of ethanol that can be produced when 1.65 kg of ethylene (C2H4) and 0.0610 kg

asked by Brittney on October 6, 2013
Chemistry
Ethanol (C2H5OH) is synthesized for industrial use by the following reaction, carried out at very high pressure. C2H4(g) + H2O(g) C2H5OH(l) What is the maximum amount of ethanol (in grams) that can be produced when 1.0 kg of ethylene (C2H4) and 0.014 kg of

asked by Jack on November 1, 2011
chemistry
What is the maximum amount of ethanol (in grams) that can be produced when 1.0 kg of ethylene (C2H4) and 0.014 kg of steam are placed into the reaction vessel? Ethanol (C2H5OH) is synthesized for industrial use by the following reaction, carried out at

asked by Amanda on November 1, 2011

NEED HELP WITH CHEM HW
Ethanol (C2H5OH) is synthesized for industrial use by the following reaction, carried out at very high pressure. C2H4(g) + H2O(g) C2H5OH(l) What is the maximum amount of ethanol (in grams) that can be produced when 2.2 kg of ethylene (C2H4) and 0.014 kg of

asked by Anonymous on October 1, 2011
Chemistry 2!
consider the following reaction, equilibrium concentrations, and equilibrium constant at a particular temperature. Determine the equilibrium concentration of H2O(g) C2H4(g) + H2O(g) C2H5OH(g) kc= 7.0* 10^3 [C2H4]= 0.010M [C2H5OH]= 1.99M

asked by anonymous. on December 10, 2014
Chemistry
Consider the following reaction, equilibrium concentrations, and equilibrium constant at a particular temperature. Determine the equilibrium concentration of H2O(g). C2H4(g) + H2O(g) C2H5OH(g) Kc = 9.0 × 103 [C2H4]eq = 0.015 M [C2H5OH]eq = 1.69 M

asked by Jane on December 2, 2014
Chemistry
CONTINUE>>>>>>>>>>> The enthalpy changes for two different hydrogenation reactions of C2H2 are: C2H2+H2—->C2H4 Delta H 1 (there is a degree sign….standard enthalpy of formation??) *WAIT A SECOND, IF I USE THE HEAT OF FORMATION VALUES TO CALCULATE

asked by Anonymous on November 14, 2013
Chemistry
Calculate the standard entropy, ΔS°rxn, of the following reaction at 25.0 °C using the data in this table. The standard enthalpy of the reaction, ΔH°rxn, is –44.2 kJ·mol–1. C2H4(G)+H20 —> C5H5OH ΔS°rxn= __ JK^-1mol^-1 Then, calculate

asked by Patrick Panasko on November 30, 2014
CHEMISTRY
Please explain. The enthalpy changes for two different hydrogenation reactions of C2H2 are: C2H2+H2—->C2H4 Delta H 1 C2H2+2H2—->C2H6 Delta H 2 Which expression represents the enthalpy change for the reaction below? C2H4+H2—->C2H6 Delta H = ? A. Delta

asked by Anonymous on November 11, 2013
Chemistry
Please explain. The enthalpy changes for two different hydrogenation reactions of C2H2 are: C2H2+H2—->C2H4 Delta H 1 C2H2+2H2—->C2H6 Delta H 2 Which expression represents the enthalpy change for the reaction below? C2H4+H2—->C2H6 Delta H = ? A. Delta

asked by Anonymous on November 11, 2013
Science
The enthalpy change for the reaction 2 H2 + O2 > 2 H20 is -571.6 kJ. Determine the enthalpy change for the decomposition of 24.0g H2O. My Process -571.6 is the enthalpy of 2 mols of H2O. So the enthalpy of 1 mol of H2O will be -285.8. Since it’s

asked by Mike on July 9, 2015
Chemistry
Calculate the work involved if a reaction with an enthalpy change of -2418 kJ is carried out in a vessel with a mobile, frictionless piston. Other details: the reaction is H2(g) + 1/2Oxygen2(g) yields H2O(g) with enthalpy change of -241.8 kJ/mol. The

asked by Mark on November 23, 2008
Chemistry
Ethylene glycol, HOCH2CH2OH, is used as antifreeze. It is produced from ethylene oxide, C2H4O, by the following reaction. C2H4O(g) + H2O(l) → HOCH2CH2OH(l) Use Hess’s law to obtain the enthalpy change for this reaction from the following enthalpy

asked by Mariam on December 13, 2009

chemistry
Ethylene glycol, HOCH2CH2OH, is used as antifreeze. It is produced from ethylene oxide, C2H4O, by the following reaction. C2H4O(g) + H2O(l) → HOCH2CH2OH(l) Use Hess’s law to obtain the enthalpy change for this reaction from the following enthalpy

asked by caroline on October 29, 2010
chemistry-Thermochemistry (grade 12)
calculate enthalpy of H for the reaction N2H4(l) + 2H2O(l) -> N2(g) + 4H2)(l) Given the reactions N2H4(l) + O2(g) -> N2(g) + 2H2O(l) Enthalpy of H = -6.22.2 kJ H2(g) + (1/2)O2(g) -> H2O(l) enthalpy of H = -285.8 kJ/mol H2(g) + O2(g) -> H2O2(l) enthalpy of

asked by Rose Bud on February 16, 2012
chemistry-Thermochemistry (grade 12)
calculate enthalpy of H for the reaction N2H4(l) + 2H2O(l) -> N2(g) + 4H2)(l) Given the reactions N2H4(l) + O2(g) -> N2(g) + 2H2O(l) Enthalpy of H = -6.22.2 kJ H2(g) + (1/2)O2(g) -> H2O(l) enthalpy of H = -285.8 kJ/mol H2(g) + O2(g) -> H2O2(l) enthalpy of

asked by Rose Bud on February 16, 2012
Chemistry!
Calculate the work involved if a reaction with an enthalpy change of -2418 kJ is carried out in a vessel with a mobile, frictionless piston. Other details: the reaction is H2(g) + 1/2Oxygen2(g) yields H2O(g) with enthalpy change of -241.8 kJ/mol. The

asked by Elizabeth on November 23, 2008
Chemistry due soon
What is enthalpy? A. Enthalpy is the kinetic energy of a system. B. Enthalpy is the heat involved in a reaction. C. Enthalpy is the temperature of a reaction. D. Enthalpy is the mass involved in a reaction. I think the answer is a or b

asked by Morgan on November 6, 2014
chemistry
Given the following equations: 2 H2O2 (aq) → 2 H2O (l) + O2 (g) and C2H4 (g) + 3 O2 (g) → 2 CO2 (g) + 2 H2O (l) The first reaction is the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen gas. The oxygen gas generated in the first reaction is

asked by april on July 1, 2018
CHEMISTRY
calculate the delta h for the reaction 2C+2H–> C2H4 C+O2–> Co2 delta h= -393.5 C2H4+ 3O2–> 2CO2+ 2H2O delta h= 1410.9 H2+ 1/2 O2–> H2O delta h= -285.8 2CO+ O2–> 2CO2 delta h= -566.0 do you flip the first two equations and times the first and third one

asked by Anonymous on June 6, 2010
chemistry
A scientist measures the standard enthalpy change for the following reaction to be -53.4 kJ : Ca(OH)2(aq) + 2 HCl(aq) CaCl2(s) + 2 H2O(l) Based on this value and the standard enthalpies of formation for the other substances, the standard enthalpy of

asked by Austin on March 18, 2012
chemistry
A scientist measures the standard enthalpy change for the following reaction to be -53.4 kJ : Ca(OH)2(aq) + 2 HCl(aq) CaCl2(s) + 2 H2O(l) Based on this value and the standard enthalpies of formation for the other substances, the standard enthalpy of

asked by Austin on March 18, 2012
chemistry
Calculate enthalpy change of reaction for the combustion of gaseous ethanol. C2H5OH + 3O2 >> CO2 + 3H2O. Using standard molar enthalpies of formation. C2H5OH -235.3 ( it’s negative sign) CO2 -393.5 H2O -241.8 (1) Calculate the enthalpy change of reaction

asked by Alex on April 20, 2010

Chemistry
C2H4(g) + H2O(l) → C2H5O(l) what is the rendition percentage if 4.50g of C2H4 produce 4.7g of ethyl alcohol?

asked by Alex on September 11, 2012
Chemistry
Calculate the enthalpy change for the reaction 2C (s) + H2 (g) yield C2H2 (g) given the following reactions and their respective enthalpy changes: C2H2(g) + 5/2 O2(g) yield 2CO2(g) + H2O (l) = -1299.6kJ C(s) + O2(g) yield CO2 (g) -393.5 H2(g) + 1/2 O2(g)

asked by Lucy on December 29, 2007
Chemistry
Calculate the enthalpy change for the reaction 2C + H2 yield C2H2 given the following reactions and their respective enthalpy changes: C2H2 + 5/2 O2 yield 2CO + H2O -1299.6 C + O yield CO2 -393.5 H2 + 1/2 O2 yield H2O -285.9 I don’t even know how to start

asked by Lucy on December 24, 2007
chemistry
Calculate the enthalpy of reaction for the combustion of ethene. Express the enthalpy of reaction calculated in question above as a molar enthalpy of reaction per mole of carbon dioxide.

asked by shyanne on January 8, 2013
chemistry
c2h4(g) + 3O2(g) -> 2 CO2 (g) + 2 H2O (g) What volume of oxygen will react with 18 ml of ehtylene, c2h4, assuming that the gases are present at the same temperature and pressure?

asked by Monica on April 19, 2010
Chemistry
The standard enthalpy of formation of H2O (l) is -285.8 kJ/mol. Calculate ∆E° for the following reaction. H2O (l) → H2 (g) + 1/2 O2 (g)

asked by Mahnoor on November 15, 2014
Chemistry
The standard enthalpy of formation of H2O (l) is -285.8 kJ/mol. Calculate DEO for the following reaction. H2O (l) → H2 (g) + 1/2 O2 (g)

asked by Mahnoor on November 15, 2014
CHemistry
Given the following information calculate the heat of formation of C2H4. C2H4 + 3 O2 ¡æ 2 CO2 + 2 H2O ¥ÄH¡Æ = -414 kJ/mol C + O2 ¡æ CO2 ¥ÄH¡Æ = -393.5 kJ/mol H2 + ¨ö O2 ¡æ H2O ¥ÄH¡Æ = -241.8 kJ/mol

asked by sam on April 26, 2015
Chemistry
Reposted: Use Hess’s law to calculate the enthalpy change for the reaction: 3C(s) + 3H2(g) yield C3H6(g) Given the following thermochemical equations: 2C3H6(g) + 9O2(g) yield 6CO2(g) + 6H2O(l) enthalpy change= -4116.0 kJ/mol C(s) + O2(g) yield CO2(g)

asked by Hailee on March 17, 2012
Chemisty
I need a recap of how to do the question below. I just need the basic guidelines: The enthalpy change for the reaction 2H2(g)+O2 > 2H2O is -571.6kJ. Determine the enthalpy change for the decomposition of 24.0g H2O.

asked by Todd on June 26, 2015

chemistry
Consider the reaction, C2H4(g) + H2(g) ® C2H6(g), where DH = – 137 kJ. How many kilojoules are released when 55.3 g of C2H4 reacts?

asked by Cooper on October 21, 2011
Chemistry
Find the enthalpy for : 4Fe + 3O2 = 2Fe2O3 I got the following informations: Fe + 3H2O = Fe(OH)3 + 3/2H2 – Enthalpy is 160.9 kj H2 + 1/2O2 = H2O – Enthalpy is -285.8 kj Fe2O3 + 3H2O = 2Fe(OH)3 – Enthalpy is 288.6 I try using Hess Law but cannot solve it.

asked by Shadow on May 13, 2013
Chemistry
Which of the following is the best definition of Hess’ Law? A. Heat is always released by the decomposition of 1 mole of a compound into its constitute elements. B. The enthalpy of a process is the difference between the enthalpy of the products and the

asked by Anonymous on February 20, 2008
please check my answer
Consider the following equations. N2H4(l) + O2(g) N2(g) + 2 H2O(l) ÄH = -622.2 kJ H2(g) + 1/2 O2(g) H2O(l) ÄH = -258.5 kJ H2(g) + O2(g) H2O2(l) ÄH = -187.8 kJ Use this information to calculate the enthalpy change for the reaction shown below. N2H4(l) +

asked by hannah on November 6, 2012
chem- i reallyneed help
Consider the following equations. N2H4(l) + O2(g) N2(g) + 2 H2O(l) ÄH = -622.2 kJ H2(g) + 1/2 O2(g) H2O(l) ÄH = -258.5 kJ H2(g) + O2(g) H2O2(l) ÄH = -187.8 kJ Use this information to calculate the enthalpy change for the reaction shown below. N2H4(l) +

asked by hannah on November 6, 2012
chemistry- stoichiometry problems
C2H4+3 O2->2 co2+2 H2O If you start wit 45 grams of C2H4 how many grams of carbon dioxide will be produced?

asked by anon on April 22, 2009
Chemistry
Which of the following is the best definition of Hess’ Law? A. Heat evolved in a given process can be expressed as the sum of the heats of several processes that, when added, yield the process of interest. B. The enthalpy of a process is the difference

asked by Jared on May 7, 2007
Hess’ law
Which of the following is the best definition of Hess’ Law? A. Heat is always released by the decomposition of 1 mole of a compound into its constitute elements. B. Since enthalpy is a state function, it will be different if a reaction takes place in one

asked by christine on February 9, 2007
college chem
Calculate the molar enthalpy of reaction standard enthalpy of formation below. H20 = -285.8 kj/mole H+ = 0.0 kj/mole OH- = -229.9 kj/mol H+(aq) + OH-(aq)→H2O(l) For this, don’t you do the summation of products x stoichemtry + the sum of reactants x

asked by sam on November 20, 2014
Enthalypy Reaction
What is the standard enthalpy of reaction for the following chemical reaction? CO2(g) + 2KOH(s) –> H2O(g) + K2CO3 (s) Express your answers numerically in kJ.

asked by Sarah on September 23, 2008

Chemistry
Please write the chemical equation and calculate the reaction enthalpy (or energy) for the total chlorination (addition of chlorine gas to all double bonds) of cyclopentadiene (if you do not know what cyclopentadiene is, assume C2H4).

asked by Eddie on December 6, 2010
chemistry
Please write the chemical equation and calculate the reaction enthalpy (or energy) for the total bromination (addition of bromine gas to all double bonds) of 2,3-dimethylbutadiene (if you do not know what 2,3-dimethylbutadiene is, assume C2H4).

asked by Eddie on December 7, 2010
Chemistry-Thermochemistry (grade 12)
Thermochemistry determine the final temperature if 45.67 kJ of heat energy is removed from 18.5 g of H2O (g) at 122 degrees Celsius useful information sp. heat H2O (s) = 2.03 J/g(degree C) sp heat H2O (l) = 4.18 J/g(degree C) Sp heat H2O (g) = 2.01

asked by Rose Bud on February 15, 2012
Chemistry
Which of the following is the best definition of Hess’ Law? A. Since enthalpy is a state function, it will be different if a reaction takes place in one step or a series of steps. B. Heat is always released by the decomposition of 1 mole of a compound into

asked by Anonymous on February 24, 2008
Chemistry
Consider the reaction of Lithium with water: 2 Li(s) + 2H2O(l) —-> 2 LiOH(aq) + H2(g) The delta H of the reaction is -160 KJ The enthalpy of fusion of H2O is 6.0 kJ/mol The specific heat capacity of H2O(l) is 4.18 J/gC When 10 grams of Li(s) is dropped

asked by Vinit on October 27, 2015
Chemistry
With a platinum catalyst, ammonia will burn in oxygen to give nitric oxide, NO. 4 NH3(g) + 5 O2(g) 4 NO(g) + 6 H2O(g) ÄH = -906 kJ What is the enthalpy change for the following reaction? NO(g) + 3/2 H2O(g) NH3(g) + 5/4 O2(g)

asked by Glenna on October 18, 2008
Chemistry
What is the standard enthalpy of reaction for the following reaction: H2 + 1/2 O2 –> H2O(g)

asked by Lauren on March 11, 2011
Chemistry
Calculate the enthalpy of the reaction 2B2H6 + 6O2=2B2O3 +6H2O given the following pertinent information: A. B2O3(s) + 2H2) )g) = 3O2 (g) + B2H6 (g), delta H= +2035kJ B. 2B (s) + 3H2 (g) =B2H6 (g), delta H= +36 kJ C. H2 (g) + 1/2)2 (g) =H2O (l), delta

asked by B on April 22, 2012
Chemistry
The enthalpy of formation for a substance corresponds to the enthalpy change for a reaction. Write the specific chemical reaction defining the enthalpy of formation of butane: Just checking to make sure this is correct: 4C + 5H2 —> C4H10

asked by AJ on March 26, 2017
chemistry
A scientist measures the standard enthalpy change for the following reaction to be -2923.0 kJ : 2C2H6(g) + 7 O2(g) 4CO2(g) + 6 H2O(g) Based on this value and the standard enthalpies of formation for the other substances, the standard enthalpy of formation

asked by Anonymous on October 24, 2012

Chemistry
A calorimeter contains 30.0 mL of water at 15.0 C. When 1.50 g of X (a substance with a molar mas of 46.0g/ mol is added, it dissolves via the reaction X (s) + H2O (l) —-> X (aq) and the temperature of the solution increases to 26.5 C. Calculate the

asked by Student on March 11, 2016
chemistry
The reaction SO2 + H2O =H2SO4 Is the last step in the commercial production of sulfuric acid . the enthalpy change for this reaction is -227 KJ . In designing a sulfuric acid plant is it necessary to provide for heating or cooling of the reaction mixture ?

asked by mathew on November 12, 2014
Chemistry
Table sugar consists mostly of sucrose, C12H22O11. The standard enthalpy of combustion for sucrose is the standard state delta H for the reaction: C12H22O11 + 12 O 2 —> 12 CO2 + 11 H2O Calculate this standard state delta H. Give answer in units of kJ to

asked by Eli on December 3, 2016
chemistry
Consider the reaction, C2H4 (g) + H2 (g)- C2H6 (g) where -137kJ of heat is released. How many kilojoules are released when 55.3g of C2H4 reacts?

asked by Sandy on July 10, 2011
Chemistry
Estimate the enthalpy change for the following reaction OH(g)+CH4(g)==>CH3(g)+H2O(g)

asked by West on April 19, 2011
College Chemistry
Estimate the enthalpy change for the following reaction OH(g)+CH4(g)==>CH3(g)+H2O(g)

asked by West on April 21, 2011
chemistry
Calculate the standard enthalpy change for the following reaction at 25 °C. H2O+C(graphite)(s) –> H2(g) +CO(g)

asked by anon on October 28, 2016
chemistry
estimate the enthalpy change for the following reaction: OF2 + H2O = O2 + 2HF

asked by small on November 27, 2016
Chemistry
how many C2H4 molecules are contained in 45.8 mg C2H4 when the molar mass of C2H4 is 28.05g/mol

asked by Thomissa on September 5, 2011
chemistry please help!
Calculate the enthalpy of the reaction of boron trioxide with steam: B2O3(s) + 3H2O(g) → 3O2(g) + B2H6(g) Given: H2O(l) H2(g) + 1⁄2 O2(g) 2B(s) + 3H2(g) 2B(s) + 3/2 O2(g) → B2O3(s) → H2O(g) → H2O(l) → B2H6(g) 44 kJ/mol -286 kJ/mol 36 kJ/mol

asked by Lay on October 19, 2015

college chemistry
The chemical reaction representing production of water gas is as follows: C(s)+H2O(l)=CO(g)+H2(g) calculate the enthalpy change in the production of 200L(at 500mmHg and 65degree celcius) of hydrogen by this reaction.

asked by bennett on November 3, 2008
chemistry URGENT (2)
Label each of the following reactions as exothermic or endothermic (“exo” or “endo”), and according to whether work is done on or by the system (“on” or “by”)? Note that no “en-on” cases appear here, as these are always thermodynamically unfavourable.

asked by Anonymous on November 16, 2008
chemistry
Label each of the following reactions as exothermic or endothermic (“exo” or “endo”), and according to whether work is done on or by the system (“on” or “by”)? Note that no “en-on” cases appear here, as these are always thermodynamically unfavourable.

asked by Anonymous on November 16, 2008
Chemistry
The equation for the complete combustion of ethene (C2H4) is C2H4(g) + 3 O2(g) ==> 2CO2(g) + 2H2O(g) If 2.70 mol C2H4 is reacted with 6.30 mole O2, identify the limiting reagent. show all work.

asked by Danny on March 27, 2010
Chemistry
The reaction between 0.045 g of calcium with an excess of water was carried out in an ice calorimeter as used in this lab. The volume of water in the calorimeter decreased by 0.18 mL during the reaction a) Write the equation for the reaction which occurs.

asked by Sean on June 3, 2009
chemistry
When NH3 is treated with oxygen gas, the products obtained are N2(g) and H2O(l). If standard enthalpies of formation at 298 K for NH3(g) and H2O(l) are –46.00 kJ/mol and –286.0 kJ/mol respectively, calculate the enthalpy change of the reaction.

asked by Shana on January 27, 2015
chem
When NH3 is treated with oxygen gas, the products obtained are N2(g) and H2O(l). If standard enthalpies of formation at 298 K for NH3(g) and H2O(l) are –46.00 kJ/mol and –286.0 kJ/mol respectively, calculate the enthalpy change of the reaction.

asked by shana on January 27, 2015
Chemistry
Question 9 Unsaved What is the rate law for the following reaction, if the order of the reaction is m, an unknown? H2O2(aq) → H2O(l) + ½O2(g) a. k [H2O2]m b.k [H2O]m [O2]1/2 c.k [H2O] m /[H2O][O2 d.k[H2O] m [O2]m Thanks in advance. The k and m are meant

asked by Ramon on March 23, 2018
Chemistry
‘At 600.0 K, the equilibrium constant based on pressure is Kp = 1.83 x 10^2. Gaseous C2H4 and H2O are placed in a 1.2 L closed flask at 600.0 K. At equilibrium, the flask contains 0.0062 mol of C2H4 and 0.041 mol of H2O. Determine the equilibrium

asked by SaraF275 on January 30, 2018
Chemistry practice
Using the form of energy diagram,make a concept map of the two different methods of calculation of reaction enthalpy(via the bond enthalpy and via the enthalpy of formation)

asked by Gift on July 31, 2011

Chemistry
When a chemist burns ammonia according to the reaction below she finds that the reaction releases heat. (It is exothermic.) 4NH3(g) + 3O2(g) 2N2(g) + 6H2O(g) The enthalpy of the reaction DH = -1267 kJ. What is the enthalpy change (in kJ) when 7 grams of

asked by Devin on January 12, 2015
Chemisty
Calculate the standard enthalpy change for the following reaction at 25 °C. MgCl2(s)+H2O(l)–>MgO(s)+2HCl

asked by Orton on April 1, 2013
Chemistry
Calculate the standard enthalpy change for the following reaction at 25 °C. MgCl2(s) + H2o(l) —> MgO(s) + 2HCl(g)

asked by Matt on June 19, 2013
Chemistry
In the dehydrogenation of ethane two reactions take place: C2H6 => C2H4 + H2 C2H6 + H2 => 2CH4 The mass distribution of the product is: 27% C2H6; 33% C2H4; 13% H2; 27% CH4. 1. What was the conversion of C2H6 to CH4? 2. What was the yield of C2H4 expressed

asked by Hoang on November 24, 2016
Chemistry
O3 + NO –> O2 + NO2 (all in gas state) Calculate the change in enthalpy for the reaction at room temp. using the following data ^Hf: O3 = 143 NO = 90 NO2 = 33 So, I have 143+90–> X + 33. I don’t know what the enthalpy of O2 is. I assume you simply

asked by Anonymous on February 18, 2008
Chemistry
Calculate the enthalpy of formation if 78.5 g of carbon dioxide in the following reaction: C(s) + H2O(g) –> CO2(g) Use the following equations: a) H2O(l) –> H2(g) + (1/2)O2(g): Δ°f = +285.8 kJ/mol b) C2H6(g) –> 2C(s) + 3H2(g): Δ°f = +84.7 kJ/mol c)

asked by anon on March 23, 2017
Chemistry
Using standard enthalpies information, calculate the standard enthalpy change for this reaction. a)(thermite reaction) 2Al(s) + Fe2O3(s) = Al2O3(s) + 2Fe(s) b)Mg(OH)2(s) = MgO(s) + H2O(I) c)N2O4(g) + 4H2(g) = N2(g) + 4H2O(g) d)SiCl4(I) + 2H2O(I) = SiO2(s)

asked by Dan on July 3, 2014
Chemistry
Using standard enthalpies information, calculate the standard enthalpy change for this reaction: a) (thermite reaction) 2Al(s) + Fe2O3(s) = Al2O3(s) + 2Fe(s) b) Mg(OH)2(s) = MgO(s) + H2O(I) c) N2O4(g) + 4H2(g) = N2(g) + 4H2O(g) d) SiCl4(I) + 2H2O(I) =

asked by Brett on July 3, 2014
chemistry
Calculate the molar enthalpy change for this reaction: HCl(aq 1.00M) + NaOH -> NaCl(aq,.500M)+ H2O Initial temp: 22.15 degrees Celsius Extrapolated temp: 25.87 degrees Celsius DT: 3.72 degrees Celsius Notes: Calculate the enthalpy change for this reaction.

asked by Failure on November 10, 2015
chemistry
The reaction between 0.045 g of calcium with an excess of water was carried out in an ice calorimeter as used in this lab. The volume of water in the calorimeter decreased by 0.18 mL during the reaction a) Write the equation for the reaction which occurs.

asked by Anonymous on November 10, 2008

chem
Are bond energies (single and multiple bonds) applicable only to gas phase?? For instance, I can use the bond energy data to calculate for enthalpy of reaction for the formation of water: 2 H2(g) + O2(g) -> H2O(g) But I can’t directly use it to calculate

asked by Namie on September 19, 2012
chemistry
Are bond energies (single and multiple bonds) applicable only to gas phase?? For instance, I can use the bond energy data to calculate for enthalpy of reaction for the formation of water: 2 H2(g) + O2(g) -> H2O(g) But I can’t directly use it to calculate

asked by Namie on September 19, 2012
Chemistry
Calculate the enthalpy change, ΔrH, for the following reaction, 4 NH3 (g) + 5 O2(g) → 4 NO (g) + 6 H2O (g) given the thermochemical equations below. N2 (g) + O2 (g) → 2 NO (g) ΔrH° = +181 kJ N2 (g) + 3 H2 (g) → 2 NH3 (g) ΔrH° = 91.8 kJ 2 H2

asked by Hannah on October 2, 2011
physics 30
Given the reaction 3 NO2(g) + H2O(l) ¨ 2 HNO3(l) + NO(g) ƒ¢rH = -72.0 kJ, calculate the molar enthalpy of reaction, rH for: 1) NO2(g) 2) H20 (l) 3) HNO3 (l) 4) NO (g) Express you answer in Kj/mol

asked by ?????halp on February 10, 2015
Chemistry
The homework question is : Calculate the Delta H for the following reaction: C6H6 + O2 -> C + H2O(l) State whether the reaction is exothermic or endothermic. I’m not sure where to go with this but so far I balanced out the formula to this C6H6 + (3/2)O2 ->

asked by Alexa on December 1, 2014

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a 150n bird feeder is supported by three cables

Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University Department of Physical Sciences

Home Work # 4 & 5 PS 103 � Technical Physics�I

Due Date: Oct 3, 2014 (Friday)

Name:

Date: September 23, 2014 (Tuesday)

Semester: Fall-2014

Section:

Total point: 20

Important:

• Home work is due in the beginning of the class on the date mentioned above.

• Please note that providing answers without showing any working will not qualify as correct. So to get full points show EACH AND EVERY STEP.

• Please answer all questions neat and clean in as much detail as you can.

• All the conventions followed in the homework are same as that of lectures.

Question# 1:- You throw a ball vertically upward from the roof of a tall building. The ball leaves your hand at a point even with the roof railing with an upward speed of 15.0 m/s; the ball is then in free fall. On its way back down, it just misses the railing. Find

a) the ball’s position and velocity 1.00 s, 2.00 s, 3.00 s, and 4.00 s after leaving your hand;

b) the ball’s velocity when it is 5.00 m above the railing;

c) the maximum height reached;

d) the ball’s acceleration when it is at its maximum height.

e) At what time after being released has the ball fallen 5.00 m below the roof railing? and what will it’s speed be at that time?

f) At what time after being released has the ball fallen 2.00 m below the roof railing? and what will it’s speed be at that time?

Question# 2:- The boat in Figure 1 is heading due north as it crosses a wide river with a velocity of 10.0 km/h relative to the water. The river has a uniform velocity of 5.00 km/h due east. Determine the magnitude and direction of the boat’s velocity with respect to an observer on the riverbank.

Figure 1: Problem-2

1

Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Question# 3:- A batter hits a baseball so that it leaves the bat at speed v0 = 37.0 m/s at an angle ↵0 = 53.1�.

a) Find the position of the ball and its velocity (magnitude and direction) at t = 2.00 s.

b) Find the time when the ball reaches the high- est point of its flight, and its height h at this time.

c) Find the horizontal range R that is, the hor- izontal distance from the starting point to where the ball hits the ground. Figure 2: Problem-3

Question# 4:- Two tanks are engaged in a training exercise on level ground. The first tank fires a paint-filled training round with a muzzle speed of 250 m/s at 10.0� above the horizontal while advancing toward the second tank with a speed of 15.0 m/s relative to the ground. The second tank is retreating at 35.0 m/s relative to the ground, but is hit by the shell. You can ignore air resistance and assume the shell hits at the same height above ground from which it was fired. Find the distance between the tanks

a) when the round was first fired and

b) at the time of impact.

Question# 5:- Workmen are trying to free an SUV stuck in the mud. To extricate the vehicle, they use three horizontal ropes, producing the force vectors shown Figure 3.

a) Find the x� and y�components of each of the three pulls.

b) Use the components to find the magnitude and direction of the resultant of the three pulls. Figure 3: Problem-5

Question# 6:- Two horses are pulling a barge with mass 2.00⇥103 kg along a canal, as shown in Figure 4. The cable connected to the first horse makes an angle of ✓1 = 30.0� with respect to the direction of the canal, while the cable connected to the second horse makes an angle of ✓1 = 30.0�. Find the initial acceleration of the barge, starting at rest, if each horse exerts a force of magnitude 6.00 ⇥ 102 N on the barge. Ignore forces of resistance on the barge.

Figure 4: Problem-6

Question# 7:- Two dogs pull horizontally on ropes attached to a post; the angle between the ropes is 60.0�. If dog A exerts a force of 270 N and dog B exerts a force of 300 N, find the magnitude of the resultant force and the angle it makes with dog A’s rope.

2

Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Question# 8:- A 68.5-kg skater moving initially at 2.40 m/s on rough horizontal ice comes to rest uniformly in 3.52 s due to friction from the ice. What force does friction exert on the skater?

Question# 9:- You walk into an elevator, step onto a scale, and push the “up” button. You also recall that your normal weight is 625 N. Start answering each of the following questions by drawing a freebody diagram.

a) If the elevator has an acceleration of magnitude 2.50 m/s2, what does the scale read?

b) If you start holding a 3.85-kg package by a light vertical string, what will be the tension in this string once the elevator begins accelerating?

Question# 10:- A box rests on a frozen pond, which serves as a frictionless horizontal surface. If a fisherman applies a horizontal force with magnitude 48.0 N to the box and produces an acceleration of magnitude 3.00 m/s2, what is the mass of the box?

Question# 11:- Boxes A and B are in contact on a hor- izontal, frictionless surface, as shown in Figure 5. Box A has mass 20.0 kg and box B has mass 5.0 kg. A horizontal force of 100 N is exerted on box A. What is the magnitude of the force that box A exerts on box B? Figure 5: Problem-11

Question# 12:- Two objects of mass m1 and m2, with m2 > m1, are connected by a light, inextensible cord and hung over a frictionless pulley, as in Ac- tive Figure 6. Both cord and pulley have negligible mass. Find the magnitude of the acceleration of the system and the tension

Figure 6: Problem-12

Question# 13:- A 150-N bird feeder is supported by three cables as shown in Figure 7. Find the tension in each cable.

Figure 7: Problem-13

Question# 14:- An object with mass m1 = 5.00 kg rests on a frictionless horizontal table and is con- nected to a cable that passes over a pulley and is then fastened to a hanging object with mass m2 = 10.0 kg, as shown in Figure 8. Find

a) the acceleration of each object and

b) the tension in the cable. Figure 8: Problem-14

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bulletized

Purpose

This project will give students the opportunity to present the benefits of a Risk Management Plan to a board of directors of a fictitious company. 

Learning Objectives and Outcomes

The objective of the project is for students to understand the benefits of risk management planning, then aggregate and summarize those benefits and be able to present them in a business setting. 

The following tools and resources that will be needed to complete this project:

  • Course textbook
  • Internet access for research
  • Microsoft Powerpoint

Deliverables

As discussed in this course, risk management is an important process for all organizations. The project activities will produce:

1. Powerpoint presentation of bulletized benefits of Risk Management assessment.

2. Slide notes that would serve as talking points for the presentation.

Submission Requirements

All project submissions should follow this format:

  • Presentation      slides are to be created in Microsoft Powerpoint. Presentations should      include:
  • A Title Slide that includes your name, date, the course ID       (ISOL533), and “Fall 2017 IIG”
  • 6-10 slides of content that meet the requirements listed below
  • Slide      Notes should be included with each slide as talking points. Slide notes      can be either added to the note tab of each slide in Powerpoint OR you can      create the slide notes in a separate Word document. For each slide, the      slide notes should be between 250-400 WORDS PER SLIDE.
  • Bibliography      Page(s) that lists references for your research citations in APA      format. Books, journals, news articles, websites that are valid      sources, and other digital media are acceptable.
  • Suggestions      for good presentation work:
  • Content from WIKIPEDIA and other second sources is NOT acceptable.       If you must use Wikipedia content, drill down into the references for       that Wiki page and find the original sources
  • Make sure your slides are neat and orderly. Do not clutter the       slide with excessive text. The lengthy text (250-400 words) should be in       the slide notes, not on the slide. Use business fonts such as Arial,       Helvetica, or Times Roman. Do NOT use entertainment fonts such as MS       Comic Sans or Papyrus.
  • Use normal bullets or numbers. Do not distract from the content with       unusual graphics or artwork. If you are including charts or graphs, be       sure they a simple and easily readable.
  • Keep to standard Microsoft business color themes in PowerPoint if       you wish to dress up the presentation with some color. Theme usage and       font colors should be professional and not distracting or tacky. 
  • Do not litter the presentation with a lot of excessive slide       animation. A fade in or slide in for slide transitions is ok. If       used, animation should be subtle and tasteful. Slide animation adds no       value to the content (and will not earn you a better grade). No spinning       text please! 

Scenario

The following scenario sets the stage for your class project. All of the businesses mentioned are fictitious and do not exist (the homes, however, are actually for sale).

You are a risk management consultant working for FRMC, Inc., a firm that provides risk management advice, guidance, and financial audit services to new companies establishing themselves in the financial business sector. A small group of investment and mortgage experts from NYC have incorporated themselves into a new mortgage lending company called East End Loan, Inc. Their primary market focus is the small, sleepy, ocean-front village of Amagansett, NY just east of Southampton on Long Island’s wealthy and trendy south shore.

Following an economic recovery from the financial crash of 2008 and a resurgence of home construction and repair after Superstorm Sandy, the Long Island east-end real estate market has been on the rise. East End Loan, Inc has enjoyed dramatic growth and now has 450 employees. They maintain an extensive IT infrastructure which stores all of their financial lending information as well as critical residential deed, section, block, and lot information in their real estate portfolio which includes many of These Homes.

Now that the company is growing, the CEO and CFO from East End Loan have invited your company to visit them and discuss aspects of Risk Management that they have not implemented yet. Your job is to create a PowerPoint presentation that highlights the best practices of Risk Management.

ASSIGNMENT

Create a PowerPoint presentation of 6-10 slides. When dealing with C-suite executives, you typically have 30 minutes or less to pitch a proposal presentation – about 6-10 slides maximum. Do NOT exceed 10 slides of content. Extra slides will not earn you a better grade and the extra length makes it harder for me to review. The title slide and bibliography information are in addition to the primary slides. Build your 6-10 slides of Risk Management information first, then add on the title slide and the bibliography text.

Your presentation should include:

· Introduce risk management basics to the executives at a high level. How would you describe risk management to a group of people in terms that are simple to understand? (Use Chapter 1 and Lab 1 for ideas). Bulletize the basics on the slide, then expand upon the information in the slide notes.

· Highlight common threats and vulnerabilities in IT systems. This is the “hook” or selling part of the presentation. When you mention corporate threats and vulnerabilities (the “bad stuff”) to executives, you will have their full, undivided attention. Research on the Internet 2 or 3 examples of corporate IT failures or compromises because of poor risk management. Examples can include theft of passwords, system failure from natural disasters, data theft from hacking, and other business disruptions highlighted reported by the news media. Examples do NOT have to be in real estate, but should be within the last 5 years. Again, bulletize the threats/vulnerabilities on the slide, then expand upon in the slide notes. Don’t forget to cite your sources on the bibliography page. 

· Touch upon some of the COBIT P09 risk management controls (refer to Lab 2 for help). Then outline to the executives what a formal Risk Management Plan might look like. You can refer to Lab 3 for help and research example Risk Management Plans or plan templates on the Internet. Don’t forget to cite your sources on the bibliography page. If you actually won this job for work, you would be providing a formal Risk Management Plan as the final delivery. So, the executives will want to see a summary outline of what the Plan would contain.

· Explain risk assessment in general. Executives typically do not concern themselves with working details so skip over quantitative risk analysis. However, at a minimum you must touch upon:

o Qualitative risk analysis

o Threat/vulnerability pairing

o Procedural, technical, and physical controls

o Best practices for risk assessments.

Much of this information can be found in Chapter 6 of the text. 

· The last of the 6-10 slides should sell your company and the services it provides. NOTE: it is important to not get caught up in the homes for sale – that is not part of the presentation. You are selling risk management consulting services. Stay on track with that task.

Rubric for grading:

Weights awarded: 

100% of points listed on items below – well developed content, well written

85% – meets requirements

70% – bare minimum, weakly written, or partially complete

0% – item below is missing

· Student described risk management basics (6 points)

· Student highlighted common threats and vulnerabilities in IT systems (8 points) 

· Student included 2 or 3 examples of corporate IT failures or compromises because of poor risk management (8 points) 

· Student examples were within the last 5 years (3 points)

· Student included information on COBIT P09 risk management controls (8 points)

· Student explained the basics of the risk assessment process (8 points)

· Student included qualitative risk analysis information (8 points)

· Student included Threat/vulnerability pairing information (8 points)

· Student included Procedural, technical, and physical controls information (8 points)

· Student included Best practices for risk assessments information (10 points)

· Student provided a closing slide of company services (2 points)

· Student included adequate slide notes of 250-400 words per slide (15 points)

· Student included a proper APA formatted bibliography of references (8 points)

TOTAL = 100 points. 

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branding provides a way for a firm to differentiate its product offerings from those of its _____.

Gregory G. Dess University of Texas at Dallas

G. T. Lumpkin Syracuse University

Alan B. Eisner Pace University

Gerry McNamara Michigan State University

SEVENTH EDITION

strategic management

text and cases

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STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT: TEXT AND CASES, SEVENTH EDITION Published by McGraw-Hill Education, 2 Penn Plaza, New York, NY 10121. Copyright © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Previous editions © 2012, 2010, and 2008. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education, including, but not limited to, in any network or other electronic storage or transmission, or broadcast for distance learning.

Some ancillaries, including electronic and print components, may not be available to customers outside the United States.

This book is printed on acid-free paper.

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ISBN 978-0-07-786252-7 MHID 0-07-786252-X

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Dess, Gregory G. Strategic management : text and cases / Gregory G. Dess, G.T. Lumpkin, Alan B. Eisner, Gerry McNamara.—Seventh edition. pages cm Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-07-786252-7 (alk. paper)—ISBN 0-07-786252-X (alk. paper) 1. Strategic planning. I. Lumpkin, G. T. II. Eisner, Alan B. III. Title. HD30.28.D4743 2014 658.4’012—dc23 2013029306

The Internet addresses listed in the text were accurate at the time of publication. The inclusion of a website does not indicate an endorsement by the authors or McGraw-Hill Education, and McGraw-Hill Education does not guarantee the accuracy of the information presented at these sites.

www.mhhe.com

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To my family, Margie and Taylor; my parents, Bill and Mary Dess; and Walter Descovich

–Greg

To my lovely wife, Vicki, and my students and colleagues

–Tom

To my family, Helaine, Rachel, and Jacob

–Alan

To my wonderful wife, Gaelen; my children, Megan and AJ; and my parents, Gene and Jane

–Gerry

DEDICATION

dedication

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Gregory G. Dess is the Andrew R. Cecil Endowed Chair in Management at the University of Texas at Dallas. His primary research interests are in strategic management, organization–environment relationships, and knowledge management. He has published numerous articles on these subjects in both academic and practitioner- oriented journals. He also serves on the editorial boards of a wide range of practitioner-oriented and academic journals. In August 2000, he was inducted into the Academy of Management Journal ’s Hall of Fame as one of its charter members. Professor Dess has conducted executive programs in the United States, Europe, Africa, Hong Kong, and Australia. During 1994 he was a Fulbright Scholar in Oporto, Portugal. In 2009, he received an honorary doctorate from the University of Bern (Switzerland). He received his PhD in Business Administration from the University of Washington (Seattle) and a BIE degree from Georgia Tech.

G. T. (Tom) Lumpkin is the Chris J. Witting Chair and Professor of Entrepreneurship at Syracuse University in New York. Prior to joining the faculty at Syracuse, Tom was the Kent Hance Regents Endowed Chair and Professor of Entrepreneurship at Texas Tech University. His research interests include entrepreneurial orientation, opportunity recognition, strategy-making processes, social entrepreneurship, and innovative forms of organizing work. He has published numerous research articles in journals such as Strategic Management Journal, Academy of Management Journal, Academy of Management Review, Journal of Business Venturing, and Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice. He is a member of the editorial review boards of Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, and the Journal of Business Venturing. He received his PhD in management from the University of Texas at Arlington and MBA from the University of Southern California.

ABOUT THE AUTHORS

about the authors

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Alan B. Eisner is Professor of Management and Department Chair, Management and Management Science Department, at the Lubin School of Business, Pace University. He received his PhD in management from the Stern School of Business, New York University. His primary research interests are in strategic management, technology management, organizational learning, and managerial decision making. He has published research articles and cases in journals such as Advances in Strategic Management, International Journal of Electronic Commerce, International Journal of Technology Management, American Business Review, Journal of Behavioral and Applied Management, and Journal of the International Academy for Case Studies. He is the former Associate Editor of the Case Association’s peer reviewed journal, The CASE Journal.

Gerry McNamara is a Professor of Management at Michigan State University. He received his PhD from the Carlson School of Management at the University of Minnesota. His research focuses on strategic decision making, organizational risk taking, and mergers and acquisitions. His research has been published in numerous journals, including the Academy of Management Journal, Strategic Management Journal, Organization Science, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Journal of Management, and Journal of International Business Studies. His research on mergers and acquisitions has been abstracted in the New York Times, Bloomberg Businessweek, The Economist, and Financial Week. He is currently an Associate Editor for the Academy of Management Journal.

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PREFACE

preface

Welcome to the Seventh Edition of Strategic Management: Text and Cases! We are all very pleased with the positive market response to our previous edition. Below is some of the encouraging feedback we have received from our reviewers:

The text is thorough and all-inclusive. I don’t need to refer to another book as a back-up. It addresses all aspects of strategic management from the initial inspiration of a vision to the nuts and bolts of putting the plan to work. It is well structured; it is clear how each chapter not only builds on the previous ones, but also how analysis, formulation, and implementation are interrelated.

Lois Shelton, California State University, Northridge

I use Strategic Management in a capstone course required of all business majors, and students appreciate the book because it synergizes all their business education into a meaningful and understandable whole. My students enjoy the book’s readability and tight organization, as well as the contemporary examples, case studies, discussion questions and exercises.

William Sannwald, San Diego State University

It is very easy for students to read because it presents strategy concepts in a simple but comprehensive manner. It covers important developments in the strategic management field that are usually ignored by other textbooks (e.g., concepts like social networks and social capital, the balanced scorecard, and new forms of organizational structure).

Moses Acquaah, University of North Carolina at Greensboro

Content is current and easy for students to grasp; good graphs and charts to illustrate important points in the chapter. Book is well organized around the AFI framework.

Lise Anne D. Slatten, University of Louisiana at Lafayette

It is the best written textbook for the undergraduate course that I have come across. Application materials tie concepts to real-world practice.

Justin L. Davis, University of West Florida

The Dess text takes a practical/easy approach to explain very difficult subject matter. It integrates a number of real-life scenarios to aid the student in their comprehension of key concepts. The standout of the text is the Reflecting on Career Implications. These end-of-chapter questions aid the student in applying their learning to their workplace in a manner that promotes career success.

Amy Patrick, Wilmington University

The Dess book overcomes many of the limitations of the last book I used in many ways: (a) presents content in a very interesting and engrossing manner without compromising the depth and comprehensiveness, (b) inclusion of timely and interesting illustrative examples, (c) includes an excellent array of long, medium, and short cases that can be used to balance depth and variety, and (d) EOC exercises do an excellent job of complementing the chapter content.

Sucheta Nadkami, Drexel University

We are always striving to improve our work, and we are most appreciative of the extensive and constructive feedback that many strategy professionals have graciously given us. As always,

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we have worked hard to incorporate their ideas into the Seventh Edition—and we acknowledge them by name later in the Preface.

We believe we have made valuable improvements throughout our many revised editions of Strategic Management. At the same time, we strive to be consistent and “true” to our original overriding objective: a book that satisfies three R’s: relevant, rigorous, and readable. That is, our tagline (paraphrasing the well-known Secret deodorant commercial) is: “Strong enough for the professor; made for the student.” And we are pleased that we have received feedback (such as the comments on the previous page) that is consistent with what we are trying to accomplish.

To continue to earn the support of strategy instructors (and students!) we try to use an engaging writing style that minimizes unnecessary jargon and covers all of the traditional bases. We also integrate some central themes throughout the book—such as globalization, technology, ethics, environmental sustainability, and entrepreneurship—that are vital in understanding strategic management in today’s global economy. We draw on short examples from business practice to bring concepts to life by providing 85 Strategy Spotlights (more detailed examples in sidebars).

Unlike other strategy texts, we provide three separate chapters that address timely topics about which business students should have a solid understanding. These are the role of intellectual assets in value creation (Chapter 4), entrepreneurial strategy and competitive dynamics (Chapter 8), and fostering entrepreneurship in established organizations (Chapter 12). We also provide an excellent set of cases to help students analyze, integrate, and apply strategic management concepts.

In developing Strategic Management: Text and Cases, we certainly didn’t forget the instructors. As we all know, you have a most challenging (but rewarding) job. We did our best to help you. We provide a variety of supplementary materials that should help you in class preparation and delivery. For example, our chapter notes do not simply summarize the material in the text. Rather (and consistent with the concept of strategy!), we ask ourselves: “How can we add value?” Thus, for each chapter, we provide numerous questions to pose to help guide class discussion, at least 12 boxed examples to supplement chapter material, and three detailed “teaching tips” to further engage students. Also, the author team completed the chapter notes—along with the entire test bank—ourselves. That is, unlike many of our rivals, we didn’t simply farm the work out to others. Instead, we felt that such efforts help to enhance quality and consistency—as well as demonstrate our personal commitment to provide a top-quality total package to strategy instructors. With the seventh edition, we also benefited from valued input by our strategy colleagues to further improve our work.

Let’s now address some of the key substantive changes in the Seventh Edition. Then we will cover some of the major features that we have had in previous editions.

What’s New? Highlights of the Seventh Edition We have endeavored to add new material to the chapters that reflects both the feedback that we have received from our reviewers as well as the challenges that face today’s managers. Thus, we all invested an extensive amount of time carefully reviewing a wide variety of books, academic and practitioner journals, and the business press.

We also worked hard to develop more concise and tightly written chapters. Based on feedback from some of the reviewers, we have tightened our writing style, tried to eliminate redundant examples, and focused more directly on what we feel is the most important content in each chapter for our audience. The overall result is that we were able to update our material, add valuable new content, and—at the same time—shorten the length of the chapters.

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PREFACE

Here are some of the major changes and improvements in the Seventh Edition:

• All of the 12 opening “Learning from Mistakes” vignettes that lead off each chapter are totally new. Unique to this text, they are all examples of what can go wrong, and they serve as an excellent vehicle for clarifying and reinforcing strategy concepts. After all, what can be learned if one simply admires perfection!

• Well over half of our “Strategy Spotlights” (sidebar examples) are brand new, and many of the others have been thoroughly updated. Although we have reduced the number of Spotlights from the previous edition to conserve space, we still have a total of 85—by far the most in the strategy market. We focus on bringing the most important strategy concepts to life in a concise and highly readable manner. And we work hard to eliminate unnecessary detail that detracts from the main point we are trying to make. Also, consistent with our previous edition, many of the Spotlights focus on three “hot” issues that are critical in leading today’s organizations: ethics, environmental sustainability, and crowdsourcing.

• We have added a new feature—Issue for Debate—at the end of each chapter. We have pretested these situations and find that students become very engaged (and often animated!) in discussing an issue that has viable alternative points of view. It is an exciting way to drive home key strategy concepts. For example, in Chapter 1, Seventh Generation is faced with a situation that confronts their values, and they must decide whether or not to provide their products to some of their largest customers. In Chapter 3, some interesting tradeoffs arose when The World Triathlon Corporation expanded their exclusive branding of Ironman to products that didn’t reflect the “spirit” of the brand. And, in Chapter 6, Delta Airlines’ diversification into the oil business via their acquisition of an oil refinery poses an issue for some interesting alternative points of view.

• Throughout the chapters, we provide many excerpts from interviews with top executives from Adam Bryant’s The Corner Office. Such viewpoints provide valuable perspectives from leading executives and help to drive home the value and purpose of key strategy concepts. For example, we include the perspectives of Tim Brown (CEO of IDEO) on employee empowerment, John Stumpf (CEO of Wells Fargo) on strategy implementation, and Gordon Bethune (former CEO of Continental Airlines) on the importance of incentive systems.

• We have completely rewritten the “Reflecting on Career Implications . . .” feature that we introduced in the Sixth Edition of Strategic Management. Based on reviewer feedback, we directed our attention to providing insights that are closely aligned with and directed to three distinct issues faced by our readers: prepare them for a job interview (e.g., industry analysis), help them with current employers or their career in general, or help them find potential employers and decide where to work. We feel this feature is significantly improved and should be of more value to students’ professional development.

Key content changes for the chapters include:

• Chapter 1 makes a strong business case for environmental sustainability and draws on Porter’s concept of “shared value” that was initially introduced in the Sixth Edition. Such issues advance the notion that firms should go far beyond a narrow focus on shareholder returns. Further, shared value promotes practices that enhance the competitiveness of the company while simultaneously advancing the social and economic conditions in which it operates.

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• Chapter 2 makes the distinction between “hard trends” and “soft trends” that was articulated by Dan Burrus in his recent book Flash Foresight. This distinction is important in determing the importance of current trends and their evolution over time. Soft trends are something that might happen and a probability with which it might happen can be assigned. In contrast, hard trends are based on measurable facts, events, or objects—they are something that will happen. We provide the example of how the identification of hard trends (in technology) led the renowned Mayo Clinic to develop a CD to help customers to access useful medical information. This initiative provided the Mayo Clinic with significant financial and nonfinancial benefits!

• Chapter 4 addresses two issues that are important to not only developing human capital in organizations but also for students entering—or enhancing their success in—an organization: mentorship versus sponsorship and the “trap” of ineffective networks. Knowing the distinction between mentors and sponsors has valuable implications for one’s career. Mentors may provide coaching and advice, and prepare one for the next position. Sponsors, on the other hand, are typically somebody in a senior position who can advocate and facilitate career moves. We also draw on research that suggests three types of “network traps” that professionals should work hard to avoid: the wrong structure, the wrong relationship, and the wrong behavior.

• Chapter 6 discusses when actions taken to change the scope of businesses in which a corporation competes lead to positive outcomes for the firm. We highlight the characteristics of both acquisitions and divestitures that lead to positive outcomes. With acquisitions, we focus on how the characteristics of the acquiring firm as well as the acquisition itself lead to positive reactions by the stock market to the announcement of the deal. With divestitures, we draw on the work by the Boston Consulting Group to highlight seven principles for effective divestitures.

• Chapter 7 looks into the hidden costs of offshoring. In recent years, many firms have moved parts of their operations to lower wage countries. In many cases, they have found that the expected cost savings were illusory. We discuss seven reasons why firms would not achieve the anticipated savings through offshoring and provide examples of firms that have benefited by bringing their operations back home.

• Chapter 8 includes an examination of crowdfunding, a rapidly growing means to finance entrepreneurial ventures. Crowdfunding involves drawing relatively small amounts of funding from a wide net of investors to provide potentially large pools of capital for entrepreneurial ventures. We discuss both the tremendous potential as well as the pitfalls of crowdfunding for entrepreneurs. Knowing that some of our students may want to be investors in these ventures, we also discuss issues that crowdfunding investors should consider when looking into these investment opportunities.

• Chapter 9 addresses how firms can build effective boards of directors. We identify how firms need to go beyond standard categories, such as insider versus outsider board members, to develop favorable board dynamics. We also discuss how the structure of boards has changed over the past 25 years.

• Chapter 10 examines the costs and benefits of nurturing strong relationships to ensure cooperation and achieve high levels of performance. Over the past 30 years, many scholars have argued that relational systems, where decisions regarding how to facilitate control and coordination are driven by relationships rather than bureaucratic systems and contracts, are superior to more traditional control systems. We examine this issue and discuss how relational systems have both advantages and disadvantages. We conclude with a brief discussion of when managers may want to rely more on relationship systems and when they may want to rely more on formal structure and reward systems.

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• Chapter 11 introduces the concept of “competency companions,” an important idea for managers to consider in developing their leadership ability. The idea is that leaders can benefit most by identifying and developing complementary strengths instead of continually working on already great qualities that they may possess. For example, a leader who has a strong competence in developing innovative ideas can extend that competency by developing strong communication skills.

• Chapter 13 updates our Appendix: Sources of Company and Industry Information. Here, we owe a big debt to Ruthie Brock and Carol Byrne, library professionals at the University of Texas at Arlington. These ladies have graciously provided us with comprehensive and updated information that is organized in a range of issues. These include competitive intelligence, annual report collections, company rankings, business websites, and strategic and competitive analysis. Such information is invaluable in analyzing companies and industries.

• Alan Eisner, our case editor, has worked hard to further enhance our excellent case package.

• Approximately half of our cases are author-written (much more than the competition).

• We have updated our users’ favorite cases, creating fresh stories about familiar companies to minimize instructor preparation time and “maximize freshness” of the content.

• We have added 6 exciting new cases to the lineup, including Boston Beer, Campbell Soup, Kickstarter, and Zynga.

• We have also extensively updated 23 familiar cases, including Apple, eBay, Ford, Johnson & Johnson, and many others.

• A major focus on fresh and current cases on familiar firms. • Many videos on the Online Learning Center (OLC) or Connect to match the cases.

What Remains the Same: Key Features of Earlier Editions Let’s now briefly address some of the exciting features that remain from the earlier editions.

• Traditional organizing framework with three other chapters on timely topics. Crisply written chapters cover all of the strategy bases and address contemporary topics. First, the chapters are divided logically into the traditional sequence: strategy analysis, strategy formulation, and strategy implementation. Second, we include three chapters on such timely topics as intellectual capital/knowledge management, entrepreneurial strategy and competitive dynamics, and fostering corporate entrepreneurship and new ventures.

• “Learning from Mistakes” chapter-opening cases. To enhance student interest, we begin each chapter with a case that depicts an organization that has suffered a dramatic performance drop, or outright failure, by failing to adhere to sound strategic management concepts and principles. We believe that this feature serves to underpin the value of the concepts in the course and that it is a preferred teaching approach to merely providing examples of outstanding companies that always seem to get it right! After all, isn’t it better (and more challenging) to diagnose problems than admire perfection? As Dartmouth’s Sydney Finkelstein, author of Why Smart Executives Fail, notes: “We live

PREFACE

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in a world where success is revered, and failure is quickly pushed to the side. However, some of the greatest opportunities to learn—both for individuals and organizations— come from studying what goes wrong.”* We’ll see how, for example, Borders went from enjoying enormous success as an innovative firm—with revenues of nearly $4 billion in 2005—to bankruptcy six years later. We will also explore why Daimler’s “ultra-urban” Smart car—despite its initial acclaim—has cost the firm $5.3 billion in cumulative losses over the years. And we’ll explore why Cisco’s eagerness to enter the digital video market via its acquisition of Pure Digital Technologies didn’t pan out.

• Consistent chapter format and features to reinforce learning. We have included several features in each chapter to add value and create an enhanced learning experience. First, each chapter begins with an overview and a set of bullets pointing to key learning objectives. Second, as previously noted, the opening case describes a situation in which a company’s performance eroded because of a lack of proper application of strategy concepts. Third, at the end of each chapter there are four different types of questions/exercises that should help students assess their understanding and application of material:

1. Summary review questions. 2. Experiential exercises. 3. Application questions and exercises. 4. Ethics questions

Given the centrality of online systems to business today, each chapter contains at least one exercise that allows students to explore the use of the Web in implementing a firm’s strategy.

• “Reflecting on Career Implications” for each chapter. This feature—at the end of each chapter—will help instructors drive home the immediate relevance/value of strategy concepts. It focuses on how an understanding of key concepts helps business students early in their careers.

• Key Terms. Approximately a dozen key terms for each chapter are identified in the margins of the pages. This addition was made in response to reviewer feedback and improves students’ understanding of core strategy concepts.

• Clear articulation and illustration of key concepts. Key strategy concepts are introduced in a clear and concise manner and are followed by timely and interesting examples from business practice. Such concepts include value-chain analysis, the resource-based view of the firm, Porter’s five-forces model, competitive advantage, boundaryless organizational designs, digital strategies, corporate governance, ethics, and entrepreneurship.

• Extensive use of sidebars. We include 85 sidebars (or about seven per chapter) called “Strategy Spotlights.” The Strategy Spotlights not only illustrate key points but also increase the readability and excitement of new strategy concepts.

• Integrative themes. The text provides a solid grounding in ethics, globalization, environmental sustainability, and technology. These topics are central themes throughout the book and form the basis for many of the Strategy Spotlights.

• Implications of concepts for small businesses. Many of the key concepts are applied to start-up firms and smaller businesses, which is particularly important since many students have professional plans to work in such firms.

*Personal communication, June 20, 2005.

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PREFACE

• Not just a textbook but an entire package. Strategic Management features the best chapter teaching notes available today. Rather than merely summarizing the key points in each chapter, we focus on value-added material to enhance the teaching (and learning) experience. Each chapter includes dozens of questions to spur discussion, teaching tips, in-class group exercises, and about a dozen detailed examples from business practice to provide further illustrations of key concepts.

• Excellent Case Studies. We have selected an excellent collection of current and classic cases for this edition, carefully including a wide variety of cases matched to key strategic concepts and organized to create maximum flexibility. We have a balance of short, concise, and longer, comprehensive cases while maintaining currency and name recognition of our cases with many new and updated classroom-tested cases. We also have updated many of the favorites from the Sixth Edition, such as Apple, eBay, Ford, Johnson & Johnson, and many others.

Student Support Materials Online Learning Center (OLC) The following resources are available to students via the publisher’s OLC at www.mhhe.com/ dess7e :

• Chapter quizzes students can take to gauge their understanding of material covered in each chapter.

• A selection of PowerPoint slides for each chapter. • Links to strategy simulations the Business Strategy Game & GLO-BUS. Both provide

a powerful and constructive way of connecting students to the subject matter of the course with a competition among classmates on campus and around the world.

Instructor Support Materials Instructor’s Manual (IM) Prepared by the textbook authors, along with valued input from our strategy colleagues, the accompanying IM contains summary/objectives, lecture/discussion outlines, discussion questions, extra examples not included in the text, teaching tips, reflecting on career implications, experiential exercises, and more.

Test Bank Revised by Christine Pence of the University of California–Riverside, the test bank contains more than 1,000 true/false, multiple-choice, and essay questions. It has now been tagged with learning objectives as well as Bloom’s Taxonomy and AACSB criteria.

• Assurance of Learning Ready. Assurance of Learning is an important element of many accreditation standards. Dess 7e is designed specifically to support your Assurance of Learning initiatives. Each chapter in the book begins with a list of numbered learning objectives that appear throughout the chapter, as well as in the end-of-chapter questions and exercises. Every test bank question is also linked to one of these objectives, in addition to level of difficulty, topic area, Bloom’s Taxonomy level, and AACSB skill area. EZ Test, McGraw-Hill’s easy-to-use test bank software, can search the test bank by these and other categories, providing an engine for targeted Assurance of Learning analysis and assessment.

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• AACSB Statement. The McGraw-Hill Companies is a proud corporate member of AACSB International. Understanding the importance and value of AACSB accreditation, Dess 7e has sought to recognize the curricula guidelines detailed in the AACSB standards for business accreditation by connecting selected questions in Dess 7e and the test bank to the general knowledge and skill guidelines found in the AACSB standards. The statements contained in Dess 7e are provided only as a guide for the users of this text. The AACSB leaves content coverage and assessment within the purview of individual schools, the mission of the school, and the faculty. While Dess 7e and the teaching package make no claim of any specific AACSB qualification or evaluation, we have labeled selected questions within Dess 7e according to the six general knowledge and skills areas.

• Computerized Test Bank Online. A comprehensive bank of test questions is provided within a computerized test bank powered by McGraw-Hill’s flexible electronic testing program, EZ Test Online ( www.eztestonline.com ). EZ Test Online allows you to create paper and online tests or quizzes in this easy-to-use program! Imagine being able to create and access your test or quiz anywhere, at any time without installing the testing software. Now, with EZ Test Online, instructors can select questions from multiple McGraw-Hill test banks or author their own, and then either print the test for paper distribution or give it online.

• Test Creation. • Author/edit questions online using the 14 different question type templates. • Create printed tests or deliver online to get instant scoring and feedback. • Create questions pools to offer multiple versions online – great for practice. • Export your tests for use in WebCT, Blackboard, PageOut, and Apple’s iQuiz. • Compatible with EZ Test Desktop tests you’ve already created. • Sharing tests with colleagues, adjuncts, TAs is easy.

• Online Test Management. • Set availability dates and time limits for your quiz or test. • Control how your test will be presented. • Assign points by question or question type with drop-down menu. • Provide immediate feedback to students or delay until all finish the test. • Create practice tests online to enable student mastery. • Your roster can be uploaded to enable student self-registration.

• Online Scoring and Reporting. • Automated scoring for most of EZ Test ’s numerous question types. • Allows manual scoring for essay and other open response questions. • Manual rescoring and feedback is also available. • EZ Test ’s grade book is designed to easily export to your grade book. • View basic statistical reports.

• Support and Help. • User’s guide and built-in page-specific help. • Flash tutorials for getting started on the support site. • Support website: www.mhhe.com/eztest. • Product specialist available at 1-800-331-5094. • Online Training: http://auth.mhhe.com/mpss/workshops/.

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PowerPoint Presentation Prepared by Pauline Assenza of Western Connecticut State University and consists of more than 400 slides incorporating an outline for the chapters tied to learning objectives. Also included are instructor notes, multiple-choice questions that can be used as Classroom Performance System (CPS) questions, and additional examples outside of the text to promote class discussion. Case Study PowerPoint slides are available to facilitate case study coverage.

McGraw-Hill Connect™ Management Less Managing. More Teaching. Greater Learning. McGraw-Hill Connect Management is an online assignment and assessment solution that connects students with the tools and resources thev’ll need to achieve success.

• McGraw-Hill Connect Management Features. Connect Management offers a number of powerful tools and features to make managing assignments easier, so faculty can spend more time teaching. With Connect Management, students can engage with their coursework anytime and anywhere, making the learning process more accessible and efficient. Connect Management offers you the features described below.

• There are chapter quizzes for the 12 chapters, consisting of 15–25 multiple- choice questions, testing students’ overall comprehension of concepts presented in the chapter.

• There are 2 specially crafted interactives for each of the 12 chapters that drill students in the use and application of the concepts and tools of strategic analysis.

• Connect also includes special case exercises for approximately one-third of the 35 cases in this edition that require students to develop answers to a select number of the assignment questions.

• Additionally, there will be financial analysis exercises related to the case exercises. • The majority of the Connect exercises are automatically graded, thereby

simplifying the task of evaluating each class member’s performance and monitoring the learning outcomes.

• Student Progress Tracking. Connect Management keeps instructors informed about how each student, section, and class is performing, allowing for more productive use of lecture and office hours. The progress-tracking function enables you to

• View scored work immediately and track individual or group performance with assignment and grade reports.

• Access an instant view of student or class performance relative to learning objectives.

• Collect data and generate reports required by many accreditation organizations, such as AACSB.

• Smart Grading. When it comes to studying, time is precious. Connect Management helps students learn more efficiently by providing feedback and practice material when they need it, where they need it. When it comes to teaching, your time also is precious. The grading function enables you to

• Have assignments scored automatically, giving students immediate feedback on their work and side-by-side comparisons with correct answers.

• Access and review each response, manually change grades, or leave comments for students to review.

• Reinforce classroom concepts with practice tests and instant quizzes.

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• Simple Assignment Management. With Connect Management, creating assignments is easier than ever, so you can spend more time teaching and less time managing. The assignment management function enables you to

• Create and deliver assignments easily with selectable test bank items. • Streamline lesson planning, student progress reporting, and assignment grading to

make classroom management more efficient than ever. • Go paperless with online submission and grading of student assignments.

• Instructor Library. The Connect Management Instructor Library is your repository for additional resources to improve student engagement in and out of class. You can select and use any asset that enhances your lecture. The Connect Management Instructor Library includes

• Instructor Manual • Case Teaching Notes • PowerPoint ® files • Test Bank

Videos A set of videos related to both chapters and selected cases can be found on the Online Learning Center (OLC) or Connect to support your classroom or student lab, or for home viewing. These thought-provoking video clips are available upon adoption of this text.

Online Learning Center (OLC) The instructor section of www.mhhe.com/dess7e also includes the Instructor’s Manual, PowerPoint Presentations, Case Grid, and Case Study Teaching Notes as well as additional resources.

The Business Strategy Game and GLO-BUS Online Simulations Both allow teams of students to manage companies in a head-to-head contest for global market leadership. These simulations give students the immediate opportunity to experiment with various strategy options and to gain proficiency in applying the concepts and tools they have been reading about in the chapters. To find out more or to register, please visit www.mhhe.com/ thompsonsims.

e-book Options e-books are an innovative way for students to save money and to “go-green,” McGraw-Hill’s e-books are typically 40% of bookstore price. Students have the choice between an online and a downloadable CourseSmart e-book.

Through CourseSmart, students have the flexibility to access an exact replica of their textbook from any computer that has internet service without plug-ins or special software via the version, or create a library of books on their harddrive via the downloadable version. Access to the CourseSmart e-books is one year.

Features: CourseSmart e-books allow students to highlight, take notes, organize notes, and share the notes with other CourseSmart users. Students can also search terms across all e-books in their purchased CourseSmart library. CourseSmart e-books can be printed (5 pages at a time).

More info and purchase: Please visit www.coursesmart.com for more information and to purchase access to our e-books. CourseSmart allows students to try one chapter of the e-book, free of charge, before purchase.

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Additional Resources Create Craft your teaching resources to match the way you teach! With McGraw-Hill Create, www.mcgrawhillcreate.com, you can easily rearrange chapters, combine material from other content sources, and quickly upload content you have written, like your course syllabus or teaching notes. Find the content you need in Create by searching through thousands of leading McGraw-Hill textbooks. Arrange your book to fit your teaching style. Create even allows you to personalize your book’s appearance by selecting the cover and adding your name, school, and course information. Order a Create book and you’ll receive a complimentary print review copy in three to five business days or a complimentary electronic review copy (eComp) via email in about one hour. Go to www.mcgrawhillcreate.com today and register. Experience how McGraw-Hill Create empowers you to teach your students your way.

McGraw-Hill Higher Education and Blackboard McGraw-Hill Higher Education and Blackboard have teamed up. What does this mean for you?

1. Your life, simplified. Now you and your students can access McGraw-Hill’s Connect and Create right from within your Blackboard course—all with one single sign-on. Say goodbye to the days of logging in to multiple applications.

2. Deep integration of content and tools. Not only do you get single sign-on with Connect and Create, you also get deep integration of McGraw-Hill content and content engines right in Blackboard. Whether you’re choosing a book for your course or building Connect assignments, all the tools you need are right where you want them—inside of Blackboard.

3. Seamless gradebooks. Are you tired of keeping multiple gradebooks and manually synchronizing grades into Blackboard? We thought so. When a student completes an integrated Connect assignment, the grade for that assignment automatically (and instantly) feeds your Blackboard grade center.

4. A solution for everyone. Whether your institution is already using Blackboard or you just want to try Blackboard on your own, we have a solution for you. McGraw-Hill and Blackboard can now offer you easy access to industry-leading technology and content, whether your campus hosts it or we do. Be sure to ask your local McGraw-Hill representative for details.

McGraw-Hill Customer Care Contact Information At McGraw-Hill, we understand that getting the most from new technology can be challenging. That’s why our services don’t stop after you purchase our products. You can e-mail our product specialists 24 hours a day to get product training online. Or you can search our knowledge bank of Frequently Asked Questions on our support website. For customer support, call 800-331-5094, email hmsupport@mcgraw-hill.com, or visit www.mhhe.com/support. One of our technical support analysts will be able to assist you in a timely fashion.

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Acknowledgments Strategic Management represents far more than just the joint efforts of the four co-authors. Rather, it is the product of the collaborative input of many people. Some of these individuals are academic colleagues, others are the outstanding team of professionals at McGraw-Hill/Irwin, and still others are those who are closest to us—our families. It is time to express our sincere gratitude.

First, we’d like to acknowledge the dedicated instructors who have graciously provided their insights since the inception of the text. Their input has been very helpful in both pointing out errors in the manuscript and suggesting areas that needed further development as additional top- ics. We sincerely believe that the incorporation of their ideas has been critical to improving the fi nal product. These professionals and their affi liations are:

The Reviewer Hall of Fame

Moses Acquaah, University of North Carolina–Greensboro

Todd Alessandri, Northeastern University

Larry Alexander, Virginia Polytechnic Institute

Brent B. Allred, College of William & Mary

Allen C. Amason, University of Georgia

Kathy Anders, Arizona State University

Lise Anne D. Slatten, University of Louisiana at Lafayette

Peter H. Antoniou, California State University, San Marcos

Dave Arnott, Dallas Baptist University Marne L. Arthaud-Day, Kansas State University

Jay Azriel, York University of Pennsylvania Jeffrey J. Bailey, University of Idaho

Dennis R. Balch, University of North Alabama

Bruce Barringer, University of Central Florida

Barbara R. Bartkus, Old Dominion University

Barry Bayon, Bryant University Brent D. Beal, Louisiana State University

Joyce Beggs, University of North Carolina–Charlotte

Michael Behnam, Suffolk University

Kristen Bell DeTienne, Brigham Young University

Eldon Bernstein, Lynn University David Blair, University of Nebraska at Omaha

Daniela Blettner, Tilburg University

Dusty Bodie, Boise State University

William Bogner, Georgia State University

Scott Browne, Chapman University

Jon Bryan, Bridgewater State College

Charles M. Byles, Virginia Commonwealth University

Mikelle A. Calhoun, Valparaiso University

Thomas J. Callahan, University of Michigan, Dearborn

Samuel D. Cappel, Southeastern Louisiana State University

Gary Carini, Baylor University

Shawn M. Carraher, University of Texas, Dallas

Tim Carroll, University of South Carolina

Don Caruth, Amberton University

Maureen Casile, Bowling Green State University

Gary J. Castrogiovanni, Florida Atlantic University

Radha Chaganti, Rider University

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PREFACE

Erick PC Chang, Arkansas State University

Theresa Cho, Rutgers University

Bruce Clemens, Western New England College

Betty S. Coffey, Appalachian State University

Wade Coggins, Webster University, Fort Smith Metro Campus

Susan Cohen, University of Pittsburgh

George S. Cole, Shippensburg University

Joseph Coombs, Texas A & M University

Christine Cope Pence, University of California, Riverside

James J. Cordeiro, SUNY Brockport

Stephen E. Courter, University of Texas at Austin

Jeffrey Covin, Indiana University

Keith Credo, Auburn University

Deepak Datta, University of Texas at Arlington

James Davis, Utah State University

Justin L. Davis, University of West Florida

David Dawley, West Virginia University

Helen Deresky, State University of New York, Plattsburgh

Rocki-Lee DeWitt, University of Vermont

Jay Dial, Ohio State University

Michael E. Dobbs, Arkansas State University

Jonathan Doh, Villanova University

Tom Douglas, Clemson University

Meredith Downes, Illinois State University

Jon Down, Oregon State University

Alan E. Ellstrand, University of Arkansas

Dean S. Elmuti, Eastern Illinois University

Clare Engle, Concordia University

Mehmet Erdem Genc, Baruch College, CUNY

Tracy Ethridge, Tri-County Technical College

William A. Evans, Troy State University, Dothan

Frances H. Fabian, University of Memphis

Angelo Fanelli, Warrington College of Business

Michael Fathi, Georgia Southwestern University

Carolyn J. Fausnaugh, Florida Institute of Technology

Tamela D. Ferguson, University of Louisiana at Lafayette

David Flanagan, Western Michigan University

Dave Foster, Montana State University

Isaac Fox, University of Minnesota

Deborah Francis, Brevard College

Steven A. Frankforter, Winthrop University

Vance Fried, Oklahoma State University

Karen Froelich, North Dakota State University

Naomi A. Gardberg, CNNY Baruch College

J. Michael Geringer, California Polytechnic State University

Diana L. Gilbertson, California State University, Fresno

Matt Gilley, St. Mary’s University

Debbie Gilliard, Metropolitan State College–Denver

Yezdi H. Godiwalla, University of Wisconsin–Whitewater

Sanjay Goel, University of Minnesota, Duluth

Sandy Gough, Boise State University

Allen Harmon, University of Minnesota, Duluth

Niran Harrison, University of Oregon

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Paula Harveston, Berry College

Ahmad Hassan, Morehead State University

Donald Hatfield, Virginia Polytechnic Institute

Kim Hester, Arkansas State University

Scott Hicks, Liberty University

John Hironaka, California State University, Sacramento

Alan Hoffman, Bentley College

Gordon Holbein, University of Kentucky

Stephen V. Horner, Pittsburg State University

Jill Hough, University of Tulsa

John Humphreys, Eastern New Mexico University

James G. Ibe, Morris College

Jay J. Janney, University of Dayton

Lawrence Jauch, University of Louisiana–Monroe

Dana M. Johnson, Michigan Technical University

Homer Johnson, Loyola University, Chicago

James Katzenstein, California State University, Dominguez Hills

Joseph Kavanaugh, Sam Houston State University

Franz Kellermanns, University of Tennessee

Craig Kelley, California State University, Sacramento

Donna Kelley, Babson College

Dave Ketchen, Auburn University

John A. Kilpatrick, Idaho State University

Helaine J. Korn, Baruch College,CUNY

Stan Kowalczyk, San Francisco State University

Daniel Kraska, North Central State College

Donald E. Kreps, Kutztown University

Jim Kroeger, Cleveland State University

Subdoh P. Kulkarni, Howard University

Ron Lambert, Faulkner University

Theresa Lant, New York University

Ted Legatski, Texas Christian University

David J. Lemak, Washington State University–Tri-Cities

Cynthia Lengnick-Hall, University of Texas at San Antonio

Donald L. Lester, Arkansas State University

Wanda Lester, North Carolina A&T State University

Benyamin Lichtenstein, University of Massachusetts at Boston

Jun Lin, SUNY at New Paltz

Zhiang (John) Lin, University of Texas at Dallas

Dan Lockhart, University of Kentucky

John Logan, University of South Carolina

Franz T. Lohrke, Samford University

Kevin Lowe, University of North Carolina, Greensboro

Leyland M. Lucas, Morgan State University

Doug Lyon, Fort Lewis College

Rickey Madden, Ph.D., Presbyterian College

James Maddox, Friends University

Ravi Madhavan, University of Pittsburgh

Paul Mallette, Colorado State University

Santo D. Marabella, Moravian College

Catherine Maritan, Syracuse University

Daniel Marrone, Farmingdale State College, SUNY

Sarah Marsh, Northern Illinois University

John R. Massaua, University of Southern Maine

Hao Ma, Bryant College

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Larry McDaniel, Alabama A&M University

Jean McGuire, Louisiana State University

Abagail McWilliams, University of Illinois, Chicago

Ofer Meilich, California State University–San Marcos

John E. Merchant, California State University, Sacramento

John M. Mezias, University of Miami

Michael Michalisin, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale

Doug Moesel, University of Missouri–Columbia

Fatma Mohamed, Morehead State University

Mike Montalbano, Bentley University

Debra Moody, University of North Carolina, Charlotte

Gregory A. Moore, Middle Tennessee State University

James R. Morgan, Dominican University and UC Berkeley Extension

Sara A. Morris, Old Dominion University

Carolyn Mu, Baylor University

Stephen Mueller, Northern Kentucky University

John Mullane, Middle Tennessee State University

Chandran Mylvaganam, Northwood University

Sucheta Nadkarni, Drexel University

Anil Nair, Old Dominion University V.K. Narayanan, Drexel University

Maria L. Nathan, Lynchburg College

Louise Nemanich, Arizona State University

Charles Newman, University of Maryland, University College

Stephanie Newport, Austin Peay State University

Gerry Nkombo Muuka, Murray State University Bill Norton, University of Louisville

Yusuf A. Nur, SUNY Brockport

Jeffrey R. Nystrom, University of Colorado

William Ross O’Brien, Dallas Baptist University

d.t. ogilvie, Rutgers University

Floyd Ormsbee, Clarkson University

Karen L. Page, University of Wyoming

Jacquelyn W. Palmer, University of Cincinnati

Julie Palmer, University of Missouri, Columbia

Gerald Parker, Saint Louis University

Daewoo Park, Xavier University

Ralph Parrish, University of Central Oklahoma

Amy Patrick, Wilmington University

Douglas K. Peterson, Indiana State University

Edward Petkus, Mary Baldwin College

Michael C. Pickett, National University

Peter Ping Li, California State University, Stanislaus

Michael W. Pitts, Virginia Commonwealth University

Laura Poppo, Virginia Tech

Steve Porth, Saint Joseph’s University

Jodi A. Potter, Robert Morris University

Scott A. Quatro, Grand Canyon University

Nandini Rajagopalan, University of Southern California

Annette L. Ranft, Florida State University

Abdul Rasheed, University of Texas at Arlington

Devaki Rau, Northern Illinois University

George Redmond, Franklin University

Kira Reed, Syracuse University

PREFACE

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Clint Relyea, Arkansas State University

Barbara Ribbens, Western Illinois University

Maurice Rice, University of Washington

Violina P. Rindova, University of Texas, Austin

Ron Rivas, Canisius College

David Robinson, Indiana State University– Terre Haute

Kenneth Robinson, Kennesaw State University

Simon Rodan, San Jose State University

Patrick R. Rogers, North Carolina A&T State University

John K. Ross III, Texas State University, San Marcos

Robert Rottman, Kentucky State University

Matthew R. Rutherford, Gonzaga University

Carol M. Sanchez, Grand Valley State University

William W. Sannwald, San Diego State University

Yolanda Sarason, Colorado State University

Marguerite Schneider, New Jersey Institute of Technology

Roger R. Schnorbus, University of Richmond

Terry Sebora, University of Nebraska–Lincoln

John Seeger, Bentley College

Jamal Shamsie, Michigan State University

Mark Shanley, University of Illinois at Chicago

Lois Shelton, California State University, Northridge

Herbert Sherman, Long Island University

Weilei Shi, Baruch College–CUNY

Chris Shook, Auburn University

Jeremy Short, University of Oklahoma

Mark Simon, Oakland University, Michigan

Rob Singh, Morgan State University

Bruce Skaggs, University of Massachusetts

Wayne Smeltz, Rider University

Anne Smith, University of Tennessee

Andrew Spicer, University of South Carolina

James D. Spina, University of Maryland

John Stanbury, George Mason University & Inter-University Institute of Macau, SAR China

Timothy Stearns, California State University, Fresno

Elton Stephen, Austin State University

Charles E. Stevens, University of Wyoming

Alice Stewart, Ohio State University

Ram Subramanian, Grand Valley State University

Roy Suddaby, University of Iowa

Michael Sullivan, UC Berkeley Extension

Marta Szabo White, Georgia State University

Stephen Takach, University of Texas at San Antonio

Justin Tan, York University, Canada

Qingju Tao, Lehigh University

Linda Teagarden, Virginia Tech

Bing-Sheng Teng, George Washington University

Alan Theriault, University of California–Riverside

Tracy Thompson, University of Washington, Tacoma

Karen Torres, Angelo State University

Robert Trumble, Virginia Commonwealth University

Francis D. (Doug) Tuggle, Chapman University

K.J. Tullis, University of Central Oklahoma

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Craig A. Turner, Ph.D., East Tennessee State University

Beverly Tyler, North Carolina State University

Rajaram Veliyath, Kennesaw State University

S. Stephen Vitucci, Tarleton State University– Central Texas

Jay A. Vora, St. Cloud State University

Bruce Walters, Louisiana Tech University

Jorge Walter, Portland State University

Edward Ward, St. Cloud State University N. Wasilewski, Pepperdine University Andrew Watson, Northeastern University

Larry Watts, Stephen F. Austin University

Paula S. Weber, St. Cloud State University

Kenneth E. A. Wendeln, Indiana University Robert R. Wharton, Western Kentucky University Laura Whitcomb, California State University– Los Angeles

Scott Williams, Wright State University

Diana Wong, Bowling Green State University

Beth Woodard, Belmont University

John E. Wroblewski, State University of New York–Fredonia

Anne York, University of Nebraska, Omaha

Michael Zhang, Sacred Heart University

Monica Zimmerman, Temple University

Second, the authors would like to thank several faculty colleagues who were particularly helpful in the review, critique, and development of the book and supplementary materials. Greg’s colleagues at the University of Texas at Dallas also have been helpful and supportive. These individuals include Mike Peng, Joe Picken, Kumar Nair, John Lin, Larry Chasteen, Seung-Hyun Lee, Tev Dalgic, and Jane Salk. His administrative assistant, Mary Vice, has been extremely helpful. Three doctoral students, Brian Pinkham, Steve Saverwald and Ciprian Stan, have provided many useful inputs and ideas, along with a research associate, Kimberly Flicker. He also appreciates the support of his dean and associate dean, Hasan Pirkul and Varghese Jacob, respectively. Tom would like to thank Gerry Hills, Abagail McWilliams, Rod Shrader, Mike Miller, James Gillespie, Ron Mitchell, Kim Boal, Keith Brigham, Jeremy Short, Tyge Payne, Bill Wan, Andy Yu, Abby Wang, Johan Wiklund, Mike Haynie, Alex McKelvie, Denis Gregoire, Alejandro Amezcua, Maria Minniti, Cathy Maritan, Ravi Dharwadkar, and Pam Brandes. Spe- cial thanks also to Jeff Stambaugh for his valuable contributions. Tom also extends a special thanks to Benyamin Lichtenstein for his support and encouragement. Both Greg and Tom wish to thank a special colleague, Abdul Rasheed at the University of Texas at Arlington, who cer- tainly has been a valued source of friendship and ideas for us for many years. He provided many valuable contributions to all editions. Alan thanks his colleagues at Pace University and the Case Association for their support in developing these fi ne case selections. Special thanks go to Jamal Shamsie at Michigan State University for his support in developing the case selections for this edition. Gerry thanks all of his colleagues at Michigan State University for their help and support over the years. He also thanks his mentor, Phil Bromiley, as well as the students and former students he has had the pleasure of working with, including Becky Luce, Cindy Devers, Federico Aime, Mike Mannor, Bernadine Dykes, Mathias Arrfelt, Kalin Kolev, Seungho Choi, Rob Davison, Dustin Sleesman, Danny Gamache, Adam Steinbach, and Daniel Chaffi n.

Third, we would like to thank the team at McGraw-Hill for their outstanding support throughout the entire process. As we work on the book through the various editions, we always appreciate their hard work and recognize how so many people “add value” to our fi nal package! This began with John Biernat, formerly publisher, who signed us to our original contract. He

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was always available to us and provided a great deal of support and valued input throughout sev- eral editions. Presently, in editorial, Paul Ducham, managing director, executive brand manager Mike Ablassmeir, and senior development editor Laura Griffi n, kept things on track, responded quickly to our seemingly endless needs and requests, and offered insights and encouragement. We appreciate their expertise—as well as their patience! Once the manuscript was completed and revised, content project manager Harvey Yep expertly guided it through the print produc- tion process. Pam Verros provided excellent design, photo selection, and artwork guidance. Susan Lombardi, content project manager, did a superb job adding value to our supplementary materials and digital content. We also appreciate marketing manager Elizabeth Trepkowski and marketing specialist Liz Steiner for their energetic, competent, and thorough marketing efforts. Last, but certainly not least, we thank MHE’s 70-plus outstanding book reps—who serve on the “front lines”—as well as many in-house sales professionals based in Dubuque, Iowa. Clearly, they deserve a lot of credit (even though not mentioned by name) for our success.

Fourth, we acknowledge the valuable contributions of many of our strategy colleagues for their excellent contributions to our supplementary and digital materials. Such content really adds a lot of value to our entire package! We are grateful to Pauline Assenza, Western Connecticut State University, for her superb work on case teaching notes as well as chapter and case PowerPoints. We thank Doug Sanford, Towson University, for his expertise in developing several pedagogical features, including the teaching notes for the “Learning from Mistakes . . .” and carefully reviewing our Instructor Manual’s chapters. Justin Davis, University of West Florida, along with Noushi Rahman, Pace University, deserve our thanks for their hard work in developing excellent digital materials for Connect. And fi nally, we thank Christine Pence, University of California–Riverside, for her important contributions in revising our test bank and Todd Moss, Oregon State University, for his hard work in putting together an excellent set of videos online, along with the video grid that links videos to chapter material.

Finally, we would like to thank our families. For Greg this includes his parents, William and Mary Dess, who have always been there for him. His wife, Margie, and daughter, Taylor, have been a constant source of love and companionship. He would like to acknowledge his late uncle, Walter Descovich. Uncle Walt was truly a member of Tom Brokaw’s Greatest Genera- tion. He served in the U.S. Navy during World War II—where he learned electronics —and later became a superintendent at Consolidated Edison in New York City. He, his wife, Eleanor, and his family have been an inspiration to Greg over the years. Tom thanks his wife, Vicki, for her constant love and companionship. Tom also thanks Lee Hetherington and Thelma Lumpkin for their inspiration, as well as his mom, Katy, and his sister, Kitty, for a lifetime of support. Alan thanks his family—his wife, Helaine, and his children, Rachel and Jacob—for their love and support. He also thanks his parents, Gail Eisner and the late Marvin Eisner, for their support and encouragement. Gerry thanks his wife, Gaelen, for her love, support, and friendship and his children, Megan and AJ, for their love and the joy they bring to his life. He also thanks his parents, Gene and Jane, for their encouragement and support in all phases of his life.

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Learning from Mistakes In 1997, Daimler AG introduced an “ultra-urban” car at the Frankfurt Motor Show amid much fanfare. 1 Envisioned by Nicholas Hayek (inventor of Swatch Watch) and Mercedes- Benz, it received acclaim for its innovation, advanced engineering, and functionality as well as being simply fun to drive. Over one million were sold worldwide before it entered the U.S. market a decade later. What was this car that was transforming the urban transportation market? It was the Smart fortwo—a pocket-sized two-seater, high- efficiency vehicle made with cutting-edge materials that were as light as they were strong and had an impressively engineered Mercedes-Benz engine that made it fun to drive.

On January 16, 2008, the first Smart fortwo streaked through the streets of Manhattan, New York. The Smart fortwo was an immediate sensation in the United States, with sales of 24,600 units in its first year. With rising gas prices, a buoyant economy, and increasingly ecologically- aware consumers, Daimler had not only found a market, but also it was blazing a trail all across the United States. However, sales quickly dropped—just 20,000 cars were sold over the following three years. So where did Smart take a wrong turn?

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Learning Objectives Learning Objectives numbered LO5.1, LO5.2, LO5.3, etc. with corresponding icons in the margins to indicate where learning objectives are covered in the text.

I h l 2000 P&G f d h i h ld h i

NGOs AS MONITORS OF MNCs Although the number of NGOs worldwide is hard to determine, according to a recent study there are at least 40,000 multinational NGOs. There are also hundreds of thousands based in individual countries, with India leading the pack with one NGO for 400 of its citizens. What are NGOs and what do they do? NGOs such as Greenpeace or World Wildlife Fund include a wide array of groups and organizations—from activist groups “reclaiming the streets” to development organizations delivering aid and providing essential public services. Other NGOs are research-driven policy organiza- tions, looking to engage with decision makers. Still others see them- selves as watchdogs, casting a critical eye over current events.

Some NGOs recently broadened their monitoring or watchdog role of multinational corporations (MNCs) to include not just the MNC itself but also the MNC’s supply chain. As an example, Apple in 2011 received massive media scrutiny from Chinese environ- mental NGOs because the beloved U.S. technology giant ignored pollution violations of some of its Chinese suppliers. Following intense media pressure, Apple quickly arranged talks with the Chi- nese environmental NGOs and eventually increased environmental standards for its suppliers. However, the responsibility of MNCs does not stop with their immediate supplier base. International brands such as Nike and Adidas were targets of international

media attention because they procured finished goods from Chinese textile companies with questionable environmental prac- tices. These cases highlight that MNCs face substantial challenges in what is commonly assumed to be an arm’s length market transaction.

Although many MNCs are quick to react to environmental con- cerns raised by NGOs, a more proactive management of environ- mental issues in their supply chain may prevent public scrutiny and other embarrassments. Apparel company Levi Strauss takes a proactive approach that encourages self-monitoring by their suppliers. For each false or misleading environmental record, Levi Strauss issues the supplier a “zero tolerance” warning and will terminate the relationship after three such warnings. However, if the supplier voluntarily reports environmental issues, Levi Strauss does not issue a warning, but instead works with the supplier to correct the problems. This proactive approach encourages self- monitoring and decreases the risk of becoming the target of NGO attention and media pressure.

Sources: Esty, D. C. & Winston, A. S. 2009. Green to Gold. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley: 69–70; Barboza, D. 2011. Apple cited as adding to pollution in China. The New York Times, September 1: np; Plambeck, E., Lee, H.L., and Yatsko, P. 2011. Improving environmental performance in your Chinese supply chain. MIT Sloan Management Review, 53(2): 43–51; and Shukla, A. 2010. First official estimate: An NGO for every 400 people in India. www.indianexpress.com , July 7: np.

STRATEGY SPOTLIGHT 1.3 ETHICS

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Learning from Mistakes Learning from Mistakes are examples of where things went wrong. Failures are not only interesting but also sometimes easier to learn from. And students realize strategy is not just about “right or wrong” answers, but requires critical thinking.

Strategy Spotlight These boxes weave themes of ethics, globalization, and technology into every chapter of the text, providing students with a thorough grounding necessary for understanding strategic management. Select boxes incorporate crowdsourcing, environmental sustainability, and ethical themes.

guided

tour

Business-Level Strategy: Creating and Sustaining Competitive Advantages

After reading this chapter, you should have a good understanding of the following learning objectives:

LO5.1 The central role of competitive advantage in the study of strategic management, and the three generic strategies: overall cost leadership, differentiation, and focus.

LO5.2 How the successful attainment of generic strategies can improve a firm’s relative power vis-à-vis the five forces that determine an industry’s average profitability.

LO5.3 The pitfalls managers must avoid in striving to attain generic strategies.

LO5.4 How firms can effectively combine the generic strategies of overall cost leadership and differentiation.

LO5.5 What factors determine the sustainability of a firm’s competitive advantage.

LO5.6 How Internet-enabled business models are being used to improve strategic positioning.

LO5.7 The importance of considering the industry life cycle to determine a firm’s business-level strategy and its relative emphasis on functional area strategies and value-creating activities.

LO5.8 The need for turnaround strategies that enable a firm to reposition its competitive position in an industry.

Learning from Mistak Some of the most widely known brands and snack foods arena have been owned Corporation. 1 Since the 1930s, Hostess Br founded as Interstate Bakeries) produce popular baked goods, including Wonder B Ring Dings, Yodels, Zingers, and many o Even with its iconic brands and sales in o year, Hostess Brands found itself in a perilou went into bankruptcy in 2012. Unable to f solution to remain viable, in November closed down all of its bakeries and was for and sell off its brands to other bakeries. W of their brands and their longstanding ma was a surprise to many seeing the firm f wrong?

The viability of a fi rm’s business-level strat by both the internal operations of a fi rm an and preferences of the market. Firms that s the appropriate resources and cost structure needs of the environment. Hostess had long themselves in the baked goods business simple yet fl avorful baked snack goods that in kids’ lunchboxes for generations. Their stro the environment was undone by a combinati

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GUIDED TOUR

countries, with India leading the pack with one NGO for 400 of it iti Wh t NGO d h t d th d ? NGO h Although many MNCs are quick to react to environmental c

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and everyone else “fends for themselves” in their independent, isolated functional areas. Instead, people throughout the organization must strive toward overall goals.

The need for such a perspective is accelerating in today’s increasingly complex, inter- connected ever-changing global economy As noted by Peter Senge of MIT the days

THE BUSINESS CASE FOR SUSTAINABILITY The corporate sustainability, or “green,” movement describes a business philosophy that goes beyond legal compliance with envi- ronmental regulations. Historically, companies engaged in social issues by handing out checks to charities or victims of natural disasters. While these forms of “green marketing” are here to stay, the new corporate sustainability movement wants not only to do good but also to save big bucks.

Companies across the world embrace the concept of sus- tainability as a powerful source of innovation and improving operational effectiveness. Companies that translate sustainable business practices into improved operational performance focus on the opportunity cost represented by waste instead of the short- term cost of implementing sustainable business practices. One industry in which sustainability creates competitive advantage is retailing. Take Walmart for example. Walmart is far ahead of its major competitors Target and Sears in terms of reducing waste and the weight of its packaging. In 2009, Walmart’s Japanese Seiyu chain converted the packaging for its private-label fresh-cut

fruit and salads from oil-based to corn-based plastic. This opera- tional improvement reduced packaging weight by 25 percent and lowered freight and warehouse costs by 13 percent, saving Walmart more than $195,000 a year.

International Paper (IP), a global paper and packaging com- pany, is another company that benefits from sustainable business practices. IP recognized that its future profitability depends on a steady supply of trees, and it has planted more than 4 billion tree seedlings since the 1950s. The company also cut dependence on fossil fuel by 21 percent from 2005 to 2010—partially achieved by burning limbs and other biomass debris from tree processing. These sustainability decisions paid off and saved IP $221 million annually. IP also formalized specific sustainability goals, such as reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 20 percent by 2020, high- lighting the company’s commitment to sustainability.

Sources: Stanford, D. 2011. Why sustainability is winning over CEOs. Bloomberg BusinessWeek, March 31: np; Gupta, N.J. & Benson, C. 2011. Sustainability and competitive advantage: An empirical study of value creation. Competitive Forum, 9(1): 121–136; International Paper. 2012. International Paper announces 12 voluntary sustainability goals to be achieved by 2020. www.internationalpaper.com , May 16: np.

STRATEGY SPOTLIGHT 1.4 ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY

des6252X_ch01_001-033.indd 21 21/06/13 7:26 PM

and everyone else “fends for themselves” in their independent, isolated functional areas. Instead, people throughout the organization must strive toward overall goals.

The need for such a perspective is accelerating in today’s increasingly complex, inter- connected ever-changing global economy As noted by Peter Senge of MIT the days

issues by handing out checks to charities or victims of natural disasters. While these forms of “green marketing” are here to stay, the new corporate sustainability movement wants not only to do good but also to save big bucks.

Companies across the world embrace the concept of sus- tainability as a powerful source of innovation and improving operational effectiveness. Companies that translate sustainable business practices into improved operational performance focus on the opportunity cost represented by waste instead of the short- term cost of implementing sustainable business practices. One industry in which sustainability creates competitive advantage is retailing. Take Walmart for example. Walmart is far ahead of its major competitors Target and Sears in terms of reducing waste and the weight of its packaging. In 2009, Walmart’s Japanese Seiyu chain converted the packaging for its private-label fresh-cut

International Paper (IP), a global paper and packaging pany, is another company that benefits from sustainable bus practices. IP recognized that its future profitability depends steady supply of trees, and it has planted more than 4 billion seedlings since the 1950s. The company also cut dependen fossil fuel by 21 percent from 2005 to 2010—partially ach by burning limbs and other biomass debris from tree proces These sustainability decisions paid off and saved IP $221 m annually. IP also formalized specific sustainability goals, su reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 20 percent by 2020, lighting the company’s commitment to sustainability.

Sources: Stanford, D. 2011. Why sustainability is winning over CEOs. Bloombe BusinessWeek, March 31: np; Gupta, N.J. & Benson, C. 2011. Sustainability and competitive advantage: An empirical study of value creation. Competitive Forum 9(1): 121–136; International Paper. 2012. International Paper announces 12 volu sustainability goals to be achieved by 2020. www.internationalpaper.com , May m

HOW GOLDCORP USED CROWDSOURCING TO STRIKE GOLD! About 15 years ago, Toronto-based gold mining company Gold- corp was in big trouble. Besieged by strikes, lingering debts, and an exceedingly high cost of production, the firm had terminated mining operations. Conditions in the marketplace were quite poor, and the gold market was contracting. Most analysts assumed that the company’s 50-year-old mine in Red Lake, Ontario, was nearly dead. Without solid evidence of substantial new gold deposits, Goldcorp was likely to fold.

Clearly, CEO Robert McEwen needed a miracle. He was frus- trated with his in-house geologists’ reliability in estimating the value and location of gold on his property. He did something that was unprecedented in the industry: He published his geological data on the Web for all to see and challenged the world to do the prospecting. The “Goldcorp Challenge” posted a total of $575,000 in prize money to be awarded to the participants who submitted the best methods and estimates.

His reasoning: If he could attract the attention of world-class talent to the problem of finding more gold in Red Lake, just as Linux managed to attract world-class programmers to the cause of better software, he could tap into thousands of minds that he wouldn’t otherwise have access to. He could also speed up explo-

50 countries downloaded the company’s data and started their exploration. Says McEwen:

“We had math, advanced physics, intelligent systems, computer graphics, and organic solutions to inorganic problems. There were capabilities I had never seen before in the industry. When I saw the computer graphics, I almost fell out of my chair.”

The panel of five judges was astonished by the creativity of the submissions. The top winner, which won $105,000, was a collabo- ration by two groups in Australia: Fractal Graphics, of West Perth, and Taylor Wall & Associates, in Queensland. Together they had developed a powerful 3-D graphical depiction of the mine. One of the team members humorously stated, “I’ve never been to a mine. I’d never even been to Canada.” Overall, the contestants identified 110 targets on the Red Lake property, more than 80 percent of which yielded substantial quantities of gold. In fact, since the chal- lenge was initiated, an astounding 8 million ounces of gold have been found—worth well over $3 billion (given gold’s fluctuating market value). Most would agree that this is a pretty solid return on a half million dollar investment!

In 2012, Goldcorp had annual revenues of over $5 billion and a market value of $36 billion! Not bad for a once failing firm . . .

STRATEGY SPOTLIGHT 2.5 CROWDSOURCING

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Reflecting on Career Implications . . . Creating the Environmentally Aware Organization:

Advancing your career requires constant scanning, monitoring, and intelligence gathering to find out not only future job opportunities but also to understand how employers’ expectations are changing. Consider using websites such as LinkedIn to find opportunities. Merely posting your resume on a site such as LinkedIn may not be enough. Instead, consider in what ways you can use such sites for scanning, monitoring, and intelligence gathering.

SWOT Analysis: As an analytical method, SWOT analysis is applicable for individuals as it is for firms. It is important for you to periodically evaluate your strengths and weaknesses as well as potential opportunities and threats to your career. Such analysis should be followed by efforts to address your weaknesses by improving your skills and capabilities.

General Environment: The general environment consists of several segments, such as the demographic, sociocultural, political/legal, technological, economic, and global environments. It would be useful to evaluate how each of these segments can affect your career opportunities. Identify two or three specific trends (e.g., rapid technological change, aging of the population, increase in minimum wages) and their impact on your choice of careers. These also provide possibilities for you to add value for your organization.

Five-Forces Analysis: Before you go for a job interview, consider the five forces affecting the industry within which the firm competes. This will help you to appear knowledgeable about the industry and increase your odds of landing the job. It also can help you to decide if you want to work for that organization. If the “forces” are unfavorable, the long-term profit potential of the industry may be unattractive, leading to fewer resources available and—all other things being equal— fewer career opportunities.

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Reflecting on Career Implications This new section before the summary of every chapter consists of examples on how understanding of key concepts helps business students early in their careers.

Cases Updated case lineup provides 6 new cases. The remaining have been revised to “maximize freshness” and minimize instructor preparation time. New cases for this edition include well-known companies such as Boston Beer, Campbell Soup, KickStarter, and Zynga.

Key Terms Key Terms defined in the margins have been added to improve students’ understanding of core strategy concepts.

competitive advantage A firm’s resources and capabilities that enable it to overcome the competitive forces in its industry(ies).

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CASE 19 :: ZYNGA C123

CASES

Zynga, located in San Francisco, California, has become a dominant player in the online gaming field, almost entirely through the use of social media platforms. The com- pany name was established by the CEO, Mark Pincus, to pay tribute to his late beloved pet bulldog named Zinga. Although this seems whimsical, Zynga was actually quite a powerful company. To exemplify Zynga’s prominence, Facebook, which in 2012 had revenues exceeding $3.7 bil- lion, was reported to have earned roughly 12 percent of that revenue from the operations of Zynga’s virtual mer- chandise sales. 1

No other direct competitor is close to this revenue lead. Zynga’s collection of games continues to increase, with more and more success stories emerging. Being a rela- tively new company to the market, their quick success is astonishing, something that not many others have been able to mimic. However, Zynga’s impressive financials may be at risk because of what may be considered ques- tionable decision making. Many of Zynga’s competitors, and even some partners, are displeased with their actions and have begun to show it in the form of litigation. Agin- court, a plaintiff of a recent lawsuit brought against Zynga, was quoted as saying, “Zynga’s remarkable growth has not been driven by its own ingenuity. Rather it has been widely reported that Zynga’s business model is to copy creative ideas and game designs from other game developers and then use its market power to bulldoze the games’ origina- tors.” 2 If these lawsuits and other ethical issues continue to arise for Zynga as often as they have been, Zynga’s power- ful bulldog may start looking more like a poodle.

The Product With a newfound abundance of software developers, the ability to create and distribute these games is increasing by the day, and the demand to play them is equally high. How- ever, while many people find these games fun, and better yet therapeutic, others can’t understand the hype. The best way to illuminate the sudden infatuation is to observe it as a relaxation method. In the movies, often you see large executive offices with putting greens, dart boards, or even a bar full of alcoholic beverages. These all mean to serve the same purpose: to relieve stress during a hard day’s work. We’ve all been there and all look for a way to cope. How- ever, few of us have the opportunity to use such things as

putting greens to unwind at the workplace. And even if we did, how long could we really afford to partake in such an activity before being pulled back to our desks? This is one of the many purposes that these virtual games fulfill. No need to leave your desk. No need to make others around you aware of your relaxation periods. Better yet, no need to separate the task of relaxation from sitting at your com- puter while you work. The ability to log onto these games from the very same screen and “relax” here and there as the day goes by makes it all the more enticing. This, of course, is just one of many uses for the games. Others play it after work or at the end of a long day. With the takeover of smartphones, people of all ages can play these games on the go throughout the day. Sitting on the bus, in the waiting room of a doctor’s office, or at the DMV, it has never been easier to interact through gameplay that is readily available with the click of a button.

Market Size Compared to other game developers with games present on the Facebook platform, Zynga is a dominant force. It ranks first in market share at about 39 percent and first in revenue generation at over $500 million. It has 38 percent of the daily Facebook game players, and about 240 million monthly users, roughly 18 percent of all Facebook’s users as of 2012 (see Exhibits 1 and 2 ). Zynga’s nearest competitor, EA Play- fish, recorded just an estimated $90 million in revenue, or 6.5 percent of the market (as of 2010). 3 Zynga has gained almost all of its following through Facebook and its users, and this has led to a substantial portion of Zynga’s profits.

Zynga’s virtual games give the opportunity for con- stant build-up and improvements, offering the user virtual goods and services to increase their gaming experience. These items can be purchased using a credit card and are often needed to accomplish fast progressions in the games. These goods are advertised throughout the games and entice you by offering price cuts for larger purchases. On top of its lucrative business model selling virtual goods and advertisements, Zynga also recently raised approxi- mately $1 billion in capital, during its initial public offer- ing when it began trading on NASDAQ in December 2011 (see Exhibits 3 and 4 ).

Zynga’s virtual games can be played both remotely and through social media platforms, most commonly Facebook. As of February 2012, Zynga’s games had over 240 million monthly users on Facebook. 4 Five of Zynga’s games, FarmVille, CityVille, Empire and Allies, Cas- tleVille, and Texas HoldEm Poker, continue to be some of

CASE 19 ZYNGA *

*This case was developed by graduate student Eric S. Engelson and Professor Alan B. Eisner, Pace University. Material has been drawn from published sources to be used for class discussion. Copyright © 2013 Alan B. Eisner.

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CASE 20 :: THE BOSTON BEER COMPANY C128

CASE 20 THE BOSTON BEER COMPANY * The Boston Beer Company, known for its Samuel Adams brand, is the largest craft brewery in the United States, holding a 1 percent stake in the overall beer market. 1 It faces growing competitive threats from other breweries, both large and small. In the past several years, the beer industry as a whole has been on a decline, while sales of wines and spirits have increased. The Boston Beer Com- pany competes within the premium beer industry, which includes craft beer and premium imported beers like Heineken and Corona. Although the beer industry has been on a decline, the premium beer industry has seen a small amount of growth, and the craft beer industry has seen a surge in popularity. Because of this success of the craft breweries in particular the major breweries have taken notice and many new craft breweries have sprung up.

Anheuser-Busch Inbev and MillerCoors, LLC, account for over 80 percent of the beer market in the United States. 2 They have caught on to the current trend in the beer industry toward higher quality beers and have started releasing their own higher quality beers. For example, Anheuser-Busch Inbev has released Bud Light Wheat and Bud Light Platinum in an effort to provide quality beers to their loyal customers. MillerCoors makes Blue Moon beer, which is the most popular craft beer in the United States. Anheuser-Busch Inbev released ShockTop to combat the popularity of Blue Moon. These companies have also begun to purchase smaller craft breweries, whose products have been rising in popularity. Anheuser-Busch Inbev pur- chased Goose Island Brewing Company in March 2011. MillerCoors has started a group within the company titled Tenth and Blake Beer Company for the purpose of creating and purchasing craft breweries. According to MillerCoors CEO Tom Lang, the plan is to grow Tenth and Blake Beer Company by 60 percent within the next three years. 3 The two major companies plan to use their massive marketing budgets to tell people about their craft beers.

According to the Brewers Association, 1,940 craft breweries and 1,989 total breweries operated in the United States for some or all of 2011. While craft brewer- ies account for over 97 percent of all the breweries in the United States, they only produce approximately 25 percent of all beer sold. 4 However, with the rise in popularity of premium beers, the craft breweries will continue to grab

more of the market. As the country’s largest craft brew- ery, the Boston Beer Company had revenue of over $500 million in 2011 and sold over 2 million barrels of beer. Other large craft breweries include New Belgium Brewing Company and Sierra Nevada Brewing Company, which sold over 580,000 and 720,000 barrels of beer in 2011, respectively. 5 In addition, some smaller breweries have been merging to take advantage of economies of scale and enhance their competitive position.

According to the Boston Beer Company, there are approximately 770 craft breweries that ship their prod- uct domestically, up from 420 in 2006. There are also an expected 800 craft breweries in the planning stage, expect- ing to be operational within the next 2–3 years. Boston Beer Company assumes that 300 of those 800 will be shipping breweries (i.e., breweries that sell their prod- uct beyond their local market). Thus, within the next few years, Samuel Adams beer may be competing with over 1,000 other craft breweries around the country.

The Boston Beer Company competes not only with domestic craft breweries but also with premium beer imports, such as Heineken and Corona, which sell beer in a similar price range. Like Anheuser-Busch Inbev and MillerCoors, Heineken and Corona have large financial resources and can influence the market. It is projected that premium imported beers will grow by 6 percent over the next five years.

The Brewers Association defines a craft brewery as brewing less than six million barrels per year and being less than 25 percent owned or controlled by another economic interest. Maintaining status as a craft brewery can be impor- tant for image and, therefore, sales. Thus, MillerCoors purchased less than a 25 percent stake in Terrapin Beer, still allowing it to maintain its craft brewery status. The size of the Boston Beer Company, however, is an issue. With con- tinued growth, the brewery could potentially increase its volume output to more than 6 million barrels per year, thus losing its craft brewery status. Furthermore, with the size of the company and their ability to market nationwide, the company runs the risk of alienating itself from other craft breweries who believe Samuel Adams no longer fits the profile. Many craft breweries already believe the company, which has been public since 1995, is more concerned with making money than with providing quality beer and edu- cating the public on craft beers.

Size does have advantages, of course, with more money for marketing and, especially in the beer business, with distribution. A heavy complaint for all craft breweries is

CASES

*This case was developed by graduate students Peter J. Courtney and Eric S. Engelson and Professor Alan B. Eisner, Pace University. Material has been drawn from published sources to be used for class discussion. Copyright © 2013 Alan B. Eisner.

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EXHIBIT 1.3 The Strategic Management Process

Chapter 1 Introduction

and Analyzing Goals and Objectives

Chapter 4 Assessing Intellectual

Capital

Chapter 2 Analyzing

the External Environment

Chapter 3 Analyzing

the Internal Environment

Chapter 13 Case

Analysis

Case Analysis

Strategic Formulation Strategic Implementation

Strategic Analysis

Chapter 5 Formulating

Business-Level Strategies

Chapter 8 Entrepreneurial

Strategy and Competitive Dynamics

Chapter 6 Formulating Corporate-

Level Strategies

Chapter 7 Formulating International Strategies

Chapter 9 Strategic

Control and Corporate

Governance

Chapter 12 Fostering Corporate

Entrepreneur- ship

Chapter 10 Creating Effective

Organizational Designs

Chapter 11 Strategic Lead- Iership Excel- lence, Ethics and Change

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Exhibits Both new and improved exhibits in every chapter provide visual presentations of the most complex concepts covered to support student comprehension.

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CASE 28 :: PROCTER & GAMBLE C196

There was a visible sign of relief in the voice of Bob McDonald, the embattled CEO of Procter & Gamble, when he announced the firm’s quarterly numbers on Janu- ary 25, 2013. Sales had actually risen by 3 percent, beat- ing analysts’ expectations. This was a rare moment of achievement for McDonald, who has struggled to show results for P&G since he took over in 2009. Back then, he had boldly announced that the company’s sales would rise from $75 billion in 2009 to over $100 billion by 2013. Instead, the firm had only managed to raise sales to about $84 billion, while its net income had dropped by as much as 20 percent.

Since its founding 175 years ago, P&G had risen to the status of an American icon with well-known consumer prod- ucts such as Pampers, Tide, Downy, and Crest. In fact, the firm has long been admired for its superior products, its mar- keting brilliance, and the intense loyalty of its employees, who have respectfully come to be known as Proctoids. With 25 brands that each generate more than $1 billion in sales, P&G has become the largest consumer products company in the world.

It was therefore clear to McDonald that he was taking on the mantle of one of the biggest companies in the world, one that had shown consistent growth for most of its exis- tence. Beyond this, he was succeeding Alan G. Lafley, who had resurrected P&G after its last major downturn. Lafley had electrified a then-demoralized organization by shak- ing things up. He shepherded products such as Swiffer and Febreze to megahit status and acquired Gillette to provide P&G with a major presence in the men’s market for the first time. Finally, by relaunching Olay and acquiring Clai- rol, Lafley had pushed the firm into higher-margin beauty products (see Exhibit 1 ).

Under McDonald, however, P&G’s growth has stalled, as it has been losing market share in two-thirds of its markets. Recession-battered consumers have abandoned the firm’s premium-priced products for cheaper alterna- tives even as the company’s efforts to build market share in the developing world have been stymied by newly nimble rivals such as Unilever and Colgate-Palmolive. New products that have targeted lower-income consumers have not generated sufficient sales to make up for the loss of sales to the struggling middle-class segment (see

CASE 28 PROCTER & GAMBLE *

CASES

*Case developed by Professor Jamal Shamsie, Michigan State University, with the assistance of Professor Alan B. Eisner, Pace University. Material has been drawn from published sources to be used for purposes of class discussion. Copyright © 2013 Jamal Shamsie and Alan B. Eisner.

Key Products Billion Dollar Brands

Fabric care & home care

Air care Batteries Dish care Fabric care Pet care

Ace Ariel Dawn Downy Duracell Febreze Gain Tide Iams

Beauty Cosmetics Deodorants Hair Care Personal Cleansing Fragrances Skin Care

Head & Shoulders Olay Pantene Wella SK-II

Baby care & family care

Baby wipes Bath & facial tissue Diapers Paper towels

Bounty Charmin Pampers

Health care Feminine care Oral care Rapid diagnostics Personal health care

Always Crest Oral B Vicks

Grooming Blades and Razors Face and Shave Products Hair care appliances

Braun Fusion Gillette Mach 3

EXHIBIT 1 Business Segments

Source: P&G.

Exhibits 2 to 4). More significantly, the firm’s vaunted innovation machine has stalled, with no major product success over the last five years.

P&G’s woes have eroded morale among employees, with many managers taking early retirement or bolting to competitors. Says Ed Artzt, who was CEO from 1990 to 1995, “The most unfortunate aspect of this whole thing is the brain drain. The loss of good people is almost irrepa- rable when you depend on promotion from within to con- tinue building the company.” 1 Critics claim that the current turmoil may have serious implications for the long-term prospects for the firm. Ali Dibadj, a senior analyst at San Bernstein expanded on this view: “The next six months may be the most crucial in P&G’s 175-year history.” 2

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Key Products Billion Dollar Brands

ome Air care Batteries Dish care Fabric care Pet care

Ace Ariel Dawn Downy Duracell Febreze Gain Tide Iams

Cosmetics Deodorants Hair Care Personal Cleansing Fragrances Skin Care

Head & Shoulders Olay Pantene Wella SK-II

mily Baby wipes Bath & facial tissue Diapers Paper towels

Bounty Charmin Pampers

Feminine care Oral care Rapid diagnostics Personal health care

Always Crest Oral B Vicks

Blades and Razors Face and Shave Products Hair care appliances

Braun Fusion Gillette Mach 3

Business Segments

4). More significantly, the firm’s vaunted achine has stalled, with no major product he last five years. es have eroded morale among employees,

anagers taking early retirement or bolting to Says Ed Artzt, who was CEO from 1990 to ost unfortunate aspect of this whole thing is n. The loss of good people is almost irrepa- u depend on promotion from within to con- the company.” 1 Critics claim that the current

have serious implications for the long-term the firm. Ali Dibadj, a senior analyst at San anded on this view: “The next six months

ost crucial in P&G’s 175-year history.” 2

CASE 33 :: UNITED WAY WORLDWIDE C246

CASE 33 UNITED WAY WORLDWIDE * In 2012, while charitable donations in the United States grew by 1.7 percent on a year-over-year basis, United Way once again failed to maintain upward sloping revenues compared to the year prior. In 2012 revenue totaled $3.9 billion, as compared with $4.2 billion in 2011. In 2010 America’s wealthiest individuals gave less to charity than they had since 2000; and in 2009, some of the biggest U.S. charities saw donations fall by 11 percent, the worst decline in 20 years. 1 This continued trend—reduction in giving, increase in need—had prompted United Way to change strategy. On July 1, 2009, United Way of America (UWA) changed its name to United Way Worldwide (UWW) and merged with United Way International (UWI). UWW also initiated a 10-year program, “Live United,” focused less on distribution of funds and more on advancing the common good by addressing underlying causes of problems in the core areas of education, financial stability, and health. Yet with positive financial results still seemingly inexistent, would donors finally become reenergized and create real change in the communities United Way served, or have universal struggles weakened the ability and eagerness to donate of even those most able to do so?

UWW provided support for over 1,800 local United Way members or affiliates operating in 46 countries. These local organizations relied on their respective parents for resources such as leadership education, public policy advocacy, mar- keting support, and standards for ethical governance and financial reporting. United Ways worldwide were part of a federation of nonprofits formed by caring people to serve the needs of their communities. According to UWW’s website, “We advance the common good by focusing on improving education, helping people achieve financial stability, and promoting healthy lives, and by mobiliz- ing millions of people to give, advocate, and volunteer to improve the conditions in which they live.” United Way raised and distributed funds to the most effective local ser- vice providers; built alliances and coordinated volunteer support among charities, businesses, and other entities; and acted as best-practice models of management and financial accountability—but this last item had become a source of problems. With three high-profile ethical scandals since

1995 at both the national and local level, the United Way brand had to combat an erosion of trust, at the same time that it was dealing with an increasingly competitive and changing environment for charitable contributors.

Even after over 120 years of solid financial performance and steady growth, since the year 2000 United Way had seemingly reached a plateau of fund-raising in the United States. Certainly, there were options for growth from interna- tional members and from the energy and direction of nation- wide objectives stated by United Way of America (education about and implementation of the national 2-1-1 phone net- work; the early childhood educational initiatives Success by 6 and Born Learning; encouragement of nationwide volun- tarism through the Lend a Hand public service announce- ments funded by a donation from the NFL; and the Assets for Family Success economic self-sufficiency program for working families). Yet charitable donations still had not topped the inflation-adjusted peak-year campaign of 1989. 2

In addition, in 2011 veteran fund-raisers on all fronts were citing challenges, such as competition for donations, difficulty recruiting and keeping qualified fund-raisers, difficulty raising money for general operating costs, and a growing focus on large gifts from very wealthy individuals, which, when publicized, could reduce the motivation for smaller donors to contribute. (Small donors might think, “If someone like Bill Gates is providing funds, why do they need my dollars?”) 3 From the donors’ perspective, the opportunities for both individuals and businesses to engage in charitable giving had expanded, with over 40 percent of new nonprofits appearing since 2000. 4 Many of these, especially those supporting disaster relief in the wake of 9/11, Hurricane Katrina, and Hurricane Sandy, had a single-issue focus that had the potential for creating a close bond with the donor. This meant that some individ- uals might have bypassed organizations such as the United Way, believing that the United Way had support targets that were too broad, preferring, instead, to specify exactly where donations should go. (Such a donor might think, “If I’m giving, I want to make sure my money is going where I want it to go, to the cause I want to support.”)

Even prior to 9/11, American donors had expressed concern about their ability to access information regarding how their donations were going to be used, what percentage of the charity’s spending went toward actual current pro- grams, how their privacy was going to be protected when giving via the Internet, and whether the charity met volun- tary standards of conduct. 5 It didn’t help that many non- profits, including United Way of America, suffered widely

CASES

*By Professor Alan B. Eisner of Pace University, Associate Professor Pauline Assenza, Western Connecticut State University, and graduate student Luz Barrera of Pace University. This case is based upon public documents and was developed for class discussion rather than to illustrate either effective or ineffective handling of the situation. This research was supported in part by the Wilson Center for Social Entrepreneurship, Pace University. Copyright © 2013 & Alan B. Eisner.

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Go to library tab in Connect to access Case Financials.

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Online Learning Center (OLC) The website www.mhhe.com/dess7e follows the text chapter-by-chapter. OLC content is ancillary and supplementary germane to the textbook. As students read the book, they can go online to take self-grading quizzes, review material, or work through interactive exercises. It includes chapter quizzes, student PowerPoint slides, and links to strategy simulations The Business Strategy Game and GLO-BUS.

The instructor section also includes the Instructor’s Manual, PowerPoint Presentations, Case Study Teaching Notes, Case Grid, and Video Guide as well as all student resources.

support materials

GUIDED TOUR

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Preface vi

part 1 Strategic Analysis 1 Strategic Management: Creating Competitive

Advantages 2

2 Analyzing the External Environment of the Firm 34

3 Assessing the Internal Environment of the Firm 70

4 Recognizing a Firm’s Intellectual Assets: Moving beyond a Firm’s Tangible Resources 104

part 2 Strategic Formulation 5 Business-Level Strategy: Creating and Sustaining

Competitive Advantages 140

6 Corporate-Level Strategy: Creating Value through Diversification 178

7 International Strategy: Creating Value in Global Markets 210

8 Entrepreneurial Strategy and Competitive Dynamics 246

part 3 Strategic Implementation 9 Strategic Control and Corporate Governance 276

10 Creating Effective Organizational Designs 310

11 Strategic Leadership: Creating a Learning Organization and an Ethical Organization 344

12 Managing Innovation and Fostering Corporate Entrepreneurship 376

part 4 Case Analysis 13 Analyzing Strategic Management Cases 412

Cases C-1

Indexes I-1

brief contents

BRIEF CONTENTS

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Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi

PART 1 Strategic Analysis CHAPTER 1 Strategic Management: Creating Competitive Advantages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

What Is Strategic Management? . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Defining Strategic Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 The Four Key Attributes of Strategic Management . . . . . . .8

The Strategic Management Process . . . . . . . . . . 9 Intended versus Realized Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Strategy Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Strategy Formulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Strategy Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13

The Role of Corporate Governance and Stakeholder Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Alternative Perspectives of Stakeholder

Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Social Responsibility and Environmental

Sustainability: Moving beyond the Immediate Stakeholders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17

The Strategic Management Perspective: An Imperative throughout the Organization . . . . . 20 Ensuring Coherence in Strategic Direction . . . . 22 Organizational Vision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 Mission Statements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 Strategic Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29

CHAPTER 2 Analyzing the External Environment of the Firm: Creating Competitive Advantages . . . . 34

Creating the Environmentally Aware Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 The Role of Scanning, Monitoring, Competitive

Intelligence, and Forecasting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36 SWOT Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41

The General Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 The Demographic Segment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42 The Sociocultural Segment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42 The Political/Legal Segment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44 The Technological Segment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45 The Economic Segment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45 The Global Segment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46 Relationships among Elements of the General

Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46

The Competitive Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Porter’s Five-Forces Model of Industry

Competition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49 How the Internet and Digital Technologies

Are Affecting the Five Competitive Forces . . . . . . . . . .55 Using Industry Analysis: A Few Caveats . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59 Strategic Groups within Industries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .65

CHAPTER 3 Assessing the Internal Environment of the Firm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70

Value-Chain Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Primary Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .74 Support Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76 Interrelationships among Value-Chain Activities

within and across Organizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79 The “Prosumer” Concept: Integrating Customers

into the Value Chain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .80 Applying the Value Chain to Service

Organizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .81

Resource-Based View of the Firm . . . . . . . . . . . 82 Types of Firm Resources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83

contents

CONTENTS

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Firm Resources and Sustainable Competitive Advantages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85

The Generation and Distribution of a Firm’s Profits: Extending the Resource-Based View of the Firm . . . . .90

Evaluating Firm Performance: Two Approaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 Financial Ratio Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92 Integrating Financial Analysis and Stakeholder

Perspectives: The Balanced Scorecard . . . . . . . . . . . . .94 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .98

CHAPTER 4 Recognizing a Firm’s Intellectual Assets: Moving beyond a Firm’s Tangible Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104

The Central Role of Knowledge in Today’s Economy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 Human Capital: The Foundation of Intellectual Capital . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Attracting Human Capital . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .110 Developing Human Capital . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .112 Retaining Human Capital . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .116 Enhancing Human Capital: The Role of Diversity

in the Workforce . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .117

The Vital Role of Social Capital . . . . . . . . . . . 118 How Social Capital Helps Attract and Retain Talent . . . .120 Social Networks: Implications for Knowledge

Management and Career Success . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .120 The Potential Downside of Social Capital . . . . . . . . . . . .125

Using Technology to Leverage Human Capital and Knowledge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 Using Networks to Share Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .126 Electronic Teams: Using Technology to Enhance

Collaboration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .127 Codifying Knowledge for Competitive Advantage . . . . . .128

Protecting the Intellectual Assets of the Organization: Intellectual Property and Dynamic Capabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 Intellectual Property Rights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .131 Dynamic Capabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .131 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .133

PART 2 Strategic Formulation CHAPTER 5 Business-Level Strategy: Creating and Sustaining Competitive Advantages . . . . . . . . . 140

Types of Competitive Advantage and Sustainability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 Overall Cost Leadership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .143 Differentiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .147 Focus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .152 Combination Strategies: Integrating Overall

Low Cost and Differentiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .154

Can Competitive Strategies Be Sustained? Integrating and Applying Strategic Management Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 Atlas Door: A Case Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .158 Are Atlas Door’s Competitive Advantages

Sustainable? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .159

How the Internet and Digital Technologies Affect the Competitive Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 Overall Cost Leadership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .160 Differentiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .161 Focus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .161 Are Combination Strategies the Key to E-Business

Success? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .162

Industry Life-Cycle Stages: Strategic Implications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 Strategies in the Introduction Stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .164 Strategies in the Growth Stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .165 Strategies in the Maturity Stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .165 Strategies in the Decline Stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .166 Turnaround Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .169 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .172

CHAPTER 6 Corporate-Level Strategy: Creating Value through Diversification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178

Making Diversification Work: An Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181

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Related Diversification: Economies of Scope and Revenue Enhancement . . . . . . . 182 Leveraging Core Competencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .182 Sharing Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .184

Enhancing Revenue and Differentiation . . . . . 185 Related Diversification: Market Power . . . . . . 185 Pooled Negotiating Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .185 Vertical Integration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .186

Unrelated Diversification: Financial Synergies and Parenting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189 Corporate Parenting and Restructuring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .189 Portfolio Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .190 Caveat: Is Risk Reduction a Viable Goal

of Diversification? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .192

The Means to Achieve Diversification . . . . . . 193 Mergers and Acquisitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .193 Strategic Alliances and Joint Ventures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .199 Internal Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .200

How Managerial Motives Can Erode Value Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 Growth for Growth’s Sake . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .201 Egotism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .201 Antitakeover Tactics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .202 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .204

CHAPTER 7 International Strategy: Creating Value in Global Markets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210

The Global Economy: A Brief Overview . . . . . 212 Factors Affecting a Nation’s Competitiveness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214 Factor Endowments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .214 Demand Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .214 Related and Supporting Industries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .215 Firm Strategy, Structure, and Rivalry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .215 Concluding Comment on Factors Affecting

a Nation’s Competitiveness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .215

International Expansion: A Company’s Motivations and Risks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217 Motivations for International Expansion . . . . . . . . . . . . .217

Potential Risks of International Expansion . . . . . . . . . . . .220 Global Dispersion of Value Chains: Outsourcing

and Offshoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .223

Achieving Competitive Advantage in Global Markets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225 Two Opposing Pressures: Reducing Costs

and Adapting to Local Markets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .225 International Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .228 Global Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .228 Multidomestic Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .230 Transnational Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .232 Global or Regional? A Second Look at Globalization . . . . .233

Entry Modes of International Expansion . . . . . 234 Exporting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .235 Licensing and Franchising . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .236 Strategic Alliances and Joint Ventures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .237 Wholly Owned Subsidiaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .238 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .241

CHAPTER 8 Entrepreneurial Strategy and Competitive Dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246

Recognizing Entrepreneurial Opportunities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248 Entrepreneurial Opportunities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .248 Entrepreneurial Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .251 Entrepreneurial Leadership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .255

Entrepreneurial Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256 Entry Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .257 Generic Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .260 Combination Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .262

Competitive Dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262 New Competitive Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .263 Threat Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .264 Motivation and Capability to Respond . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .266 Types of Competitive Actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .267 Likelihood of Competitive Reaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .269 Choosing Not to React: Forbearance and

Co-opetition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .270 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .272

CONTENTS

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PART 3 Strategic Implementation CHAPTER 9 Strategic Control and Corporate Governance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276

Ensuring Informational Control: Responding Effectively to Environmental Change . . . . . . . 278 A Traditional Approach to Strategic Control . . . . . . . . . .278 A Contemporary Approach to Strategic Control. . . . . . . .279

Attaining Behavioral Control: Balancing Culture, Rewards, and Boundaries . . . . . . . . . 281 Building a Strong and Effective Culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . .281 Motivating with Rewards and Incentives . . . . . . . . . . . . .283 Setting Boundaries and Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .284 Behavioral Control in Organizations:

Situational Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .286 Evolving from Boundaries to Rewards and Culture . . . . .287

The Role of Corporate Governance . . . . . . . . 288 The Modern Corporation: The Separation of Owners

(Shareholders) and Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .290 Governance Mechanisms: Aligning the Interests

of Owners and Managers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .291 CEO Duality: Is It Good or Bad? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .297 External Governance Control Mechanisms . . . . . . . . . . .298 Corporate Governance: An International

Perspective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .301 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .305

CHAPTER 10 Creating Effective Organizational Designs . . . . . 310

Traditional Forms of Organizational Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312 Patterns of Growth of Large Corporations:

Strategy-Structure Relationships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .312 Simple Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .314 Functional Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .314 Divisional Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .316 Matrix Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .319 International Operations: Implications for

Organizational Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .321

Global Start-Ups: A Recent Phenomenon . . . . . . . . . . . . .322 How an Organization’s Structure Can Influence

Strategy Formulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .324

Boundaryless Organizational Designs . . . . . . 324 The Barrier-Free Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .324 The Modular Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .328 The Virtual Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .329 Boundaryless Organizations: Making Them Work . . . . . .331

Creating Ambidextrous Organizational Designs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336 Ambidextrous Organizations: Key Design Attributes . . . .336 Why Was the Ambidextrous Organization the

Most Effective Structure? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .337 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .338

CHAPTER 11 Strategic Leadership: Creating a Learning Organization and an Ethical Organization . . . . . 344

Leadership: Three Interdependent Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346 Setting a Direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .347 Designing the Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .348 Nurturing a Culture Committed to Excellence

and Ethical Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .349

Getting Things Done: Overcoming Barriers and Using Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350 Overcoming Barriers to Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .350 The Effective Use of Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .351

Emotional Intelligence: A Key Leadership Trait . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354 Self-Awareness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .354 Self-Regulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .354 Motivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .355 Empathy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .355 Social Skill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .356 Emotional Intelligence: Some Potential

Drawbacks and Cautionary Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .357

Developing Competency Companions and Creating a Learning Organization . . . . . . 358 Inspiring and Motivating People with a Mission

or Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .360

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Empowering Employees at All Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .360 Accumulating and Sharing Internal Knowledge . . . . . . . .361 Gathering and Integrating External Information . . . . . . . .362 Challenging the Status Quo and Enabling

Creativity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .363

Creating an Ethical Organization . . . . . . . . . . 364 Individual Ethics versus Organizational Ethics . . . . . . . .365 Integrity-Based versus Compliance-Based

Approaches to Organizational Ethics . . . . . . . . . . . . .366 Role Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .368 Corporate Credos and Codes of Conduct . . . . . . . . . . . . .368 Reward and Evaluation Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .369 Policies and Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .370 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .372

CHAPTER 12 Managing Innovation and Fostering Corporate Entrepreneurship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376

Managing Innovation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378 Types of Innovation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .378 Challenges of Innovation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .381 Cultivating Innovation Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .382 Defining the Scope of Innovation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .384 Managing the Pace of Innovation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .385 Staffing to Capture Value from Innovation . . . . . . . . . . . .386 Collaborating with Innovation Partners . . . . . . . . . . . . . .386

Corporate Entrepreneurship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387 Focused Approaches to Corporate

Entrepreneurship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .390 Dispersed Approaches to Corporate

Entrepreneurship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .391 Measuring the Success of Corporate

Entrepreneurship Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .393

Real Options Analysis: A Useful Tool . . . . . . . 395 Applications of Real Options Analysis to Strategic

Decisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .395

Potential Pitfalls of Real Options Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . .396

Entrepreneurial Orientation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 398 Autonomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .399 Innovativeness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .400 Proactiveness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .401 Competitive Aggressiveness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .402 Risk Taking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .403 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .406

PART 4 Case Analysis CHAPTER 13 Analyzing Strategic Management Cases . . . . . . 412

Why Analyze Strategic Management Cases? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413 How to Conduct a Case Analysis . . . . . . . . . . 415 Become Familiar with the Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .418 Identify Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .418 Conduct Strategic Analyses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .419 Propose Alternative Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .419 Make Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .421

How to Get the Most from Case Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422 Useful Decision-Making Techniques in Case Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424 Conflict Inducing Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .427

Following the Analysis-Decision-Action Cycle in Case Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .436 Appendix 1 to Chapter 13: Financial Ratio

Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437 Appendix 2 to Chapter 13: Sources of Company and

Industry Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 447

Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-1

CONTENTS

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1 ROBIN HOOD Hypothetical; Classic Robin Hood and his Merrymen are in trouble, as wealthy travelers are avoiding Sherwood Forest. This classic case is an excellent introduction to strategic management using a nonbusiness solution . . . . . . . . C2

2 EDWARD MARSHALL BOEHM, INC. Housewares and Accessories, Porcelain Collectibles; Classic This classic case concerns the future direction of a small, high-quality porcelain art objects company . . . . . . . . C3

3 AMERICAN INTERNATIONAL GROUP AND THE BONUS FIASCO Insurance AIG, one of the largest and most respected insurance companies in the world, found itself in big financial distress in September 2008. Unable to post collateral, AIG approached the government for a bailout . . . . . C4

4 PIXAR Movies Disney CEO Bob Iger worked hard to clinch the deal to acquire Pixar, whose track record has made it one of the world’s most successful animation companies. Iger realized, however, that he must try to protect Pixar’s creative culture while also trying to carry that culture over to some of Disney’s animation efforts . . . . . . . C7

5 THE CASINO INDUSTRY Casino Industry To deal with the slower growth in gaming revenues, casinos have felt the need to spend more and more in order to entice more gamblers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C11

6 APPLE INC.: STILL TAKING A BITE OUT OF THE COMPETITION? Computers, Consumer Electronics Apple was flying high on the success of the iPad mini and iPhone 5. However, CEO Tim Cook had big shoes to fill without founder Steve Jobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C17

7 WEIGHT WATCHERS INTERNATIONAL INC. Weight Loss Weight Watchers was reinventing weight loss for a new generation and hoping profits would jump off the scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C29

8 JAMBA JUICE Smoothies / QSR Jamba Juice Company gradually expanded its product line over the past several years to offer Jamba products that pleased a broader palate, but was the company biting off more than it could chew? After years of same-store sales declines and financial losses, CEO James White had his work cut out for him . . . . . . . C39

9 ANN TAYLOR Retail, Women’s Fashion The founding brand, the Ann Taylor division, struggled to maintain focus and present basic, professional clothing to its iconic customers after being upstaged by its younger sister, Ann Taylor Loft . . . . . . . . . . . . . C47

10 HEINEKEN Beer Heineken can lay claim to a brand that may be the closest thing to a global beer brand. But in the United States, Heineken has lost its leading position among imported beers to Corona, the Mexican beer that is often served with a garnish of lime. Would the move to acquire Asian Pacific Breweries and Tiger Beer brand help it in Asia? . . . . . . C58

11 QVC Retail Nail clippers that catch clippings, bicycle seats built for bigger bottoms, and novelty items shaped like coffins were among the nearly 600 products trying out for a spot on the QVC home shopping channel. However, QVC’s CEO Mike George is concerned about where the opportunities for further growth will come from for the world’s largest television home shopping channel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C63

cases

CASES

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12 WORLD WRESTLING ENTERTAINMENT Entertainment WWE’s potent mix of shaved, pierced, and pumped-up muscled hunks; buxom, scantily clad, and sometimes cosmetically enhanced beauties; and body-bashing clashes of good versus evil had resulted in an empire that claimed over 35 million fans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C68

13 EBAY: EXPANDING INTO CHINA Internet eBay announced that its PayPal business would set up an international ecommerce hub in Chongqing, China, as the company tried to gain the local expertise it desperately needed to compete with China’s top auction site, Taobao. However, little ground was gained and CEO John Donahoe would have to reconcile why one of the fastest-growing companies in history was moving so slowly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C74

14 MICROFINANCE: GOING GLOBAL . . . AND GOING PUBLIC? Banking With the global success of the microfinance concept, the number of private microfinance institutions exploded and initial public offerings for these institutions was on the rise. This transfer of control to public buyers creates a fiduciary duty of the bank’s management to maximize shareholder value. Will this be a good thing for these typically “do good” banks? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C85

15 MCDONALD’S Restaurant McDonald’s turnaround strategy was working, but the firm still faced a rapidly fragmenting market where changes in the tastes of consumers had made once-exotic foods like sushi and burritos everyday options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C88

16 THE MOVIE EXHIBITION INDUSTRY 2013 Movies Movies remain as popular as ever, but opportunities for viewing outside the theater have greatly increased. While motion picture studios increased revenues through product licensing, DVD sales, and international expansion, the exhibitors—movie theaters—have seen their business decline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C94

17 IS DIPPIN’ DOTS FROZEN OUT? Ice Cream Dippin’ Dots Ice Cream is faced with mounting competition for its flagship tiny beads of ice cream that are made and served at super-cold temperatures. Can it survive the chill of the economic downturn? . . . . C106

18 JOHNSON & JOHNSON Pharmaceuticals, Personal Care Products, Medical Devices Executives from health care conglomerate Johnson & Johnson had known about a critical design flaw with an artificial hip but decided to conceal this information from physicians and patients. Johnson & Johnson’s DePuy Orthopaedics unit kept selling the hip replacement. Could more centralized control improve quality? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C116

19 ZYNGA Multimedia and Online Games The company name appears to have been whimsically chosen by the CEO Mark Pincus, to pay tribute to his late beloved pet bulldog. However the online gaming revenues were no joking matter. Zynga’s partner, Facebook, reported that roughly 12 percent of its $3.7 billion in revenue was from the operations of Zynga’s virtual merchandise sales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C123

20 THE BOSTON BEER COMPANY Beer Boston Beer Company was in a tough position as the largest craft brewery in the United States; holding a one percent stake in the overall beer market. Both the smaller craft breweries and the larger breweries such as MillerCoors’ Blue Moon brand beer and Anheuser-Busch Inbev’s ShockTop craft brew, wanted to complete with them. Only time will tell if Boston Beer will continue to brew flavorful beers that people enjoy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C128

21 SOUTHWEST AIRLINES: IS LUV SOARING OR SOUR? Airline Southwest Airlines has emerged as the largest domestic carrier. As Southwest is becoming a different creature, how long can it hold on to its “underdog” image? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C137

CASES

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22 JETBLUE AIRLINES: GETTING OVER THE “BLUES”? Airline This airline start-up success story is facing new challenges as operational problems have surfaced and the founder has left the CEO’s seat . . . . . . . . . . . C146

23 BEIERSDORF AG: EXPANDING NIVEA’S GLOBAL REACH Skin Care Products and Cosmetics German skin care producer Beiersdorf faced opposition to a restructuring plan from employees and work councils. The Nivea brand’s ineffective China entry, strong competitors, and a slow economic recovery were big challenges for this skin care concern . . . . . . . C155

24 LOUIS VUITTON Luxury Consumer Goods Louis Vuitton, the flagship group within Moët Hennessy Louis Vuitton (LVMH), had contributed to the stellar growth of the group in 2010 and 2011. But there were clouds on the horizon. Was the recent growth sustainable? What steps should Louis Vuitton take to address upcoming challenges? . . . . . . . . . C166

25 NINTENDO’S WII U Video Games Nintendo’s Wii was no longer the only video console game with motion-sensing controllers. Are Nintendo’s days of dominance over or will the next innovative console controller, the Wii U, be a home run? . . . C177

26 BACKERS BEWARE: KICKSTARTER IS NOT A STORE Crowd-Source Funding Crowd-funding allowed ventures to draw on relatively small contributions from a relatively large number of individuals using the Internet, without standard financial intermediaries. KickStarter offers a platform for crowdfunding of new ventures, but the field is crowded . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C185

27 SAMSUNG ELECTRONICS Consumer Electronics Samsung’s Galaxy smartphones and tablets have emerged as the most potent challenger to Apple, but there are questions as to whether Samsung has the right combination of hardware and software to really compete . . . . . . . . C191

28 PROCTER & GAMBLE Consumer Products Procter & Gamble was the world’s largest consumer products conglomerate, with billion-dollar brands such as Tide, Crest, Pampers, Gillette, Right Guard, and Duracell. However, sales were down as consumers were coping with the economic downturn by switching to P&G’s lower-priced brands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C196

29 FRESHDIRECT: IS IT REALLY FRESH? Grocery Can FreshDirect, a New York City–based online grocer, maintain high product quality while keeping product prices low, leading to razor-thin margins among abundant competition from both online and traditional groceries? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C201

30 GENERAL MOTORS Automotive GM experienced a sharp decline in its domestic market share, dropping to its lowest level in more than 50 years. Was GM, the largest U.S. automaker, running on empty? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C214

31 IS ONE FORD REALLY WORKING? Automotive Was the One Ford plan really working all around the world or was Ford North America carrying weaknesses elsewhere in the system? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C220

32 CAMPBELL: IS THE SOUP STILL SIMMERING? Processed and Packaged Goods Change was stirring at Campbell Soup with the launch of more than 50 new products, including 32 new soups, yet profit slipped by 5 percent. Will Campbell’s soup simmer to perfection or will the company be in hot water? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C235

33 UNITED WAY WORLDWIDE Nonprofit Brian Gallagher, United Way Worldwide CEO, established new membership standards for United Way affiliates’ operations, rebranded United Way as doing “what matters” in the communities it served, and addressed the long-term needs of communities. Gallagher needed to convince the United Way affiliates to buy into the change effort, but he did not have much leverage over them . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C246

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34 KEURIG: CONVENIENCE, CHOICE, AND COMPETITIVE BRANDS Coffee Green Mountain Coffee Roasters’ Keurig single- cup- brewing coffeemaker business followed a razor and razor-blade business model. With some patents expiring, the competition was perking up in this caffeine charged business, would Keurig’s brew be strong enough? . . . C256

35 YAHOO! Internet Marissa Mayer, Yahoo’s new CEO, was determined to make the company a stronger force on smartphones and

tablets. Would Mayer be able to lure back advertisers, reinvigorate a muddled brand, and improve morale at a company that has been marred by executive churn, constant cost-cutting, and mass layoffs? . . . . . . . C268

Indexes I-1 Company I-1 Name I-13 Subject I-27

CASES

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Chapter 1 Introduction

and Analyzing Goals and Objectives

Chapter 4 Assessing Intellectual

Capital

Chapter 2 Analyzing

the External Environment

Chapter 3 Analyzing

the Internal Environment

Chapter 13 Case

Analysis

Case Analysis

Strategic Formulation Strategic Implementation

Strategic Analysis

Chapter 5 Formulating

Business-Level Strategies

Chapter 8 Entrepreneurial

Strategy and Competitive Dynamics

Chapter 6 Formulating Corporate-

Level Strategies

Chapter 7 Formulating International Strategies

Chapter 9 Strategic

Control and Corporate

Governance

Chapter 12 Fostering Corporate

Entrepreneur- ship

Chapter 10 Creating Effective

Organizational Designs

Chapter 11 Strategic Lead- Iership Excel- lence, Ethics and Change

The Strategic Management Process

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PART 1: STRATEGIC ANALYSIS

Strategic Management Creating Competitive Advantages

chapter 1

After reading this chapter, you should have a good understanding of the following learning objectives:

LO1.1 The definition of strategic management and its four key attributes.

LO1.2 The strategic management process and its three interrelated and principal activities.

LO1.3 The vital role of corporate governance and stakeholder management, as well as how “symbiosis” can be achieved among an organization’s stakeholders.

LO1.4 The importance of social responsibility, including environmental sustainability, and how it can enhance a corporation’s innovation strategy.

LO1.5 The need for greater empowerment throughout the organization.

LO1.6 How an awareness of a hierarchy of strategic goals can help an organization achieve coherence in its strategic direction.

Learning from Mistakes What makes the study of strategic management so interesting? For one, struggling firms can become stars, while high flyers can become earthbound very rapidly. As colorfully noted by Arthur Martinez, Sears’ former chairman: “Today’s peacock is tomorrow’s feather duster.” Consider, for example, the change in membership on the prestigious Fortune 500 list of the largest U.S. firms: 1

• Of the 500 companies that appeared on the first list in 1955, only 62, ranked by revenue, have appeared on the list every year since.

• Some of the most powerful companies on today’s list—businesses like Intel, Apple, and Google— grew from nothing to great on the strength of new technologies, bumping venerable old companies off the list.

• Nearly 2,000 companies have appeared on the list since its inception, and most are long gone from it. Just making the list guarantees nothing about your ability to endure.

• Between 2009 and 2013, admittedly more volatile years than most, over one hundred companies— including Bear Stearns, Chrysler, Circuit City, Merrill Lynch, RadioShack, and Tribune—dropped off the 500.

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PART 1: STRATEGIC ANALYSIS

Maintaining competitive success or even surviving over long periods of time is indeed very difficult for companies of any size. As John Donahue, CEO of eBay, notes, “Almost every company has hot moments. But only great companies achieve strong, sustainable performance over time. While it’s fun to be hot; it’s far more gratifying to create an enduring, sustainable business.” 2 Next, we will look at Borders, a firm which after years of success went into a rapid decline that eventually led to its death.

In 1971, Louis and Tom Borders opened their first store in Ann Arbor, Michigan. 3 The brothers, while students at the University of Michigan, created a then-revolutionary system to track sales and inventory—and for years executives called it the company’s “secret sauce.” With their “Book Inventory System,” Borders could oversee the flow of a huge number of titles broken into thousands of different subject categories across multiple stores. As it grew, Borders provided the knowledge and feel of the independents with its distinctive architecture, comfortable chairs, and reading nooks. In addition, the stores carefully screened and trained employees, paying them relatively well along with a generous set of benefits. It seemed like a winning strategy—and it worked for quite a while. By the 1990s it, along with Barnes and Noble, controlled 40 percent of the retail book market. Borders’ financials were impressive: between 2003 and 2005, sales increased 11 percent to nearly $4 billion and net income jumped 23 percent to $132 million. Unfortunately, 2005 was its last profitable year. By 2009 and 2010, Borders was well into the red, losing a combined $293 million. In February 2011 it filed for bankruptcy protection. Attempts at reorganization failed, it soon began its final liquidation of assets, and its last remaining stores closed their doors on September 18, 2011. What went wrong?

Sticking to what you know best can be dangerous. We’ve all heard the old adage: Focus on your “core competency” and don’t get distracted by trends or flashy ideas. Borders became a multibillion dollar business because of its physical retail presence. However, this approach also led to its demise.

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4 PART 1 :: STRATEGIC ANALYSIS

Borders focused on its retail strategy in the 2000s, expanding aggressively in the United States and internationally—and taking on debt. It strove to improve the in-store experience for shoppers, added cafes, and experimented with new concepts. Such a strategy may have worked a few decades earlier, but while Borders was investing in physical real estate, shoppers were flocking to the Internet. Borders was left with a conflicted strategy: Declining sales forced it to close hundreds of stores (including its entire Waldenbooks chain), while it doubled down on other retail outlets.

Unfortunately, it treated the Internet like a passing trend instead of as a transformational phenomenon. The company outsourced its Web operation to Amazon—which obviously became a fierce rival. It waited until 2008 to develop its own Web strategy. Meanwhile, Amazon became the dominant player in online bookselling and e-books, introducing the Kindle e-reader. Its big brick- and-mortar rival, Barnes & Noble, a laggard itself, later introduced the popular Nook e-reader and invested heavily in its own website. Borders was clearly late to the party—by then it had taken on quite a bit of debt and had little to invest. In essence, it was forced to rely on third-party readers from Sony and Kobo, which made it impossible to distinguish its Web offerings.

During its last eleven years, Borders was led by six different CEOs. None were around long enough to make a lasting change or provide the vision that could maneuver the debt-laden company through a shifting landscape. To the end, it kept a traditional mindset—focusing on rivals with which it was most familiar. As the book industry continued to consolidate, this meant Barnes & Noble. However, discounters like Walmart and Target sell a ton of books—at big discounts—and their prices are usually matched by Amazon. Borders was faced with a dilemma: It could take the losses and match the discounters, or it could justify its higher prices by convincing customers that they’d enjoy a premium experience. Neither worked. As noted by Michael Souers, an analyst at Standard & Poor’s: “They over-expanded and built up some debt on their balance sheet. Instead of leading and being innovative, they were certainly a follower.”

A concluding note: Amazon continues to outdistance its rivals. Its sales have grown from $25  billion to $57 billion over the last three years. During the same period, Amazon’s stock has soared over 100 percent, and its market capitalization stands at an impressive $121 billion as of mid-2013. Jeff Bezos, Amazon’s founder and CEO, can boast a net worth of over $23.6 billion. In contrast, Borders is extinct.

Discussion Questions 1. What lessons can we learn from Borders’ failure? 2. What was their most critical error? Why? 3. What could Best Buy, a firm now facing a powerful challenge from Amazon, learn from Borders?

The recent demise of Borders illustrates how even well-established firms can fail in the marketplace if they do not anticipate and respond proactively to changes in the environment. Today’s leaders face a large number of complex challenges in the global marketplace. In considering how much credit (or blame) they deserve, two perspectives of leadership come immediately to mind: the “romantic” and “external control” perspectives. 4 First, let’s look at the romantic view of leadership. Here, the implicit assumption is that the leader is the key force in determining an organization’s success—or lack thereof. 5 This view dominates the popular press in business magazines such as Fortune, BusinessWeek, and Forbes, wherein the CEO is either lauded for his or her firm’s success or chided for the organization’s demise. 6

romantic view of leadership situations in which the leader is the key force determining the organization’s success— or lack thereof.

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CHAPTER 1 :: STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT 5

Consider, for example, the credit that has been bestowed on leaders such as Jack Welch, Andrew Grove, and Herb Kelleher for the tremendous accomplishments when they led their firms, General Electric, Intel, and Southwest Airlines, respectively.

Similarly, Apple’s success in the last decade has been attributed almost entirely to the late Steve Jobs, its former CEO, who died on October 5, 2011. 7 Apple’s string of hit prod- ucts, such as iMac computers, iPods, iPhones, and iPads, are testament to his genius for developing innovative, user-friendly, and aesthetically pleasing products. In addition to being a perfectionist in product design, Jobs also was a master showman with a cult fol- lowing. During his time as CEO between 1997 and 2011, Apple’s market value soared by over $300 billion!

On the other hand, when things don’t go well, much of the failure of an organization can also, rightfully, be attributed to the leader. 8 Border’s leadership clearly failed to respond effectively to changes taking place in the book retailing industry. In contrast, Apple fully capitalized on emerging technology trends with a variety of products, including sophisti- cated smartphones.

The contrasting fortunes of Hewlett-Packard under two different CEOs also demonstrate the influence leadership has on firm performance. 9 When Carly Fiorina was fired as CEO of the firm, HP enjoyed an immediate increase in its stock price of 7 percent—hardly a strong endorsement of her leadership! Her successor, Mark Hurd, led the firm to five years of out- standing financial results. Interestingly, when he abruptly resigned on August 6, 2010, the firm’s stock dropped 12 percent almost instantly! (To provide some perspective, this repre- sents a decrease in HP’s market value of about $12 billion.) And, since Hurd’s departure, HP’s market capitalization has dropped about 80 percent—as of early 2013!

However, this reflects only part of the picture. Consider another perspective, called the external control view of leadership. Here, rather than making the implicit assumption that the leader is the most important factor in determining organizational outcomes, the focus is on external factors that may positively (or negatively) affect a firm’s success. We don’t have to look far to support this perspective. Developments in the general environ- ment, such as economic downturns, governmental legislation, or an outbreak of major internal conflict or war, can greatly restrict the choices that are available to a firm’s execu- tives. Borders, as well as several other book retailers, found the consumer shift away from brick and mortar bookstores to online book buying (e.g., Amazon) and digital books an overwhelming environmental force against which they had few defenses.

Major unanticipated developments can often have very negative consequences for busi- nesses regardless of how well formulated their strategies are.

Let’s look at a few recent examples: 10

• Hurricane Katrina in 2007 had a disastrous effect on businesses located along the Gulf Coast.

• The financial meltdown of 2008 and the resultant deep recession during the following two years forced once proud corporations like General Motors and Citigroup to ask for government bailouts. Others, such as Merrill Lynch and Washington Mutual, had to be acquired by other firms.

• In the aftermath of BP’s disastrous oil well explosion on April 20, 2010, the fishing and tourism industries in the region suffered significant downturns. BP itself was forced to pay a $20 billion fine to the U.S. government.

• On March 11, 2011, a 9.0 earthquake and tsunami devastated Japan and resulted in the loss of more than 20,000 lives. During the next two trading days, the country’s stock exchange (Nikkei) suffered its biggest loss in 40 years. The disaster hit nearly every industry hard—especially energy companies. For example, Tokyo Electric Power Co., which operates a nuclear power plant that was severly damaged, fell 24.7 percent, and Toshiba Corp., a maker of nuclear power plants, slid 19.5 percent.

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what is the primary reason ipv6 has not completely replaced ipv4?

Best Answers.

LESSON 10 :

1. What is the primary reason IPv6 has not completely replaced IPv4?
a. Administrators are hesitant and reluctant to change.
b. Stopgap technologies such as Network Address Translation (NAT) and Classless
Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) alleviate the lack of registered IPv4 addresses.
c. IPv4 addresses have only been depleted since early 2011.
d. IPv6 has already replaced IPv4 on the Internet.

2. What is the primary difference between a NAT server and a proxy server?
a. There is no difference; they are functionally the same.
b. There is little difference because NAT servers and proxy servers; both act as an intermediary
between networks.
c. Proxy servers offer additional functions such as they can scan, cache, and filter certain
types of data.
d. NAT servers translate at the Network layer of the protocol stack, whereas proxy servers
function at the Application layer.

3. Your company environment includes Windows Server versions 2003, 2008, and 2012.
Desktops range from Windows XP and Vista. To transition to IPv6, what versions have
IPv6 support running by default?
a. Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, and Vista have IPv6 running by
default.
b. All versions have IPv6 running by default, except the Windows 2003 servers.
c. Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP both include support for IPv6, but they do
not install it by default.
d. Only Windows Server 2012 has IPv6 running by default.

4. What Windows Server 2012 services and applications offer IPv6 support?
a. Nearly all server roles provide IPv6 support.
b. Few offer IPv6 support, but they are expected soon.
c. All offer IPv6 support in Windows Server 2012.
d. Remote Access supports IPv6 routing and advertising, and the DHCP Server role can
allocate IPv6 addresses.

5. What is Intra-Site Automatic Tunnel Addressing Protocol (ISATAP)?
a. ISATAP converts IPv4 address for an IPv6 network just as 6to4 offers.
b. ISATAP emulates an IPv6 link for use on an IPv4 network.
c. ISATAP is a method of multicasting for IPv6 networks.
d. ISATAP translates between IPv4 and IPv6 networks without client configuration.

LESSON 11 :

1. One method a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server allocates IP
addresses is called manual allocation. This process involves manually assigning an IP
address to a particular server. What is the key benefit of DHCP manual allocation over
manually configuring the address directly on the server?
a. The DHCP server then contains a centralized list of permanently assigned addresses.
b. The DHCP server might pass on more information than just an IP address.
c. This process prevents accidental duplication of permanently assigned IP addresses.
d. This manually assigned address is officially known as a reservation.

2. Your DHCP servers are burdened with heavy traffic, most related to IP address renewals.
Unfortunately, virtually all the IP addresses in each of your subnets are allocated. Which
of the following options is the best way to lower the renewal traffic?
a. Increase the lease time.
b. Deploy additional DHCP servers on the most burdened subnets.
c. Shorten the lease time.
d. Switch to manual allocation.

3. You are preparing to deploy Windows 8 to a large number of new workstations. Which
of the following options would be best?
a. Install Windows 8 using Pre-boot Execution Environment (PXE) and Windows
Deployment Services (WDS).
b. Delegate the work to a team of local administrators to divide up.
c. Manually install the operating system yourself.
d. Manually configure each workstation’s IP address.

4. To make use of Pre-boot Execution Environment (PXE) and Windows Deployment
Services (WDS), what special configuration do you require on the server and client?
a. The client must have a special PXE-enabled network adapter.
b. Both client and server are capable by default.
c. The client and server both require some preparatory configuration.
d. The DHCP server on the network must have a custom PXEClient option (option 60)
configured with the location of the WDS server on the network.

5. What servers should not be DHCP clients?
a. Web servers, DHCP servers, and domain controllers
b. Workstations
c. End user laptops
d. Computers, which might have IP addresses in the exclusion range


Lesson 12 :

1. What client applications utilize Domain Name System (DNS) to resolve host names into
IP addresses?
a. Client web browsers, or any application that uses HyperText Transfer Protocol
(HTTP) use DNS to resolve host names into IP addresses.
b. All Internet applications working with host names must use DNS to resolve host
names into IP addresses.
c. Any application on a system that has connectivity to the Internet use DNS to resolve
host names into IP addresses.
d. DNS does not resolve host names into IP addresses.

2. What is the primary purpose of name caching?
a. Name caching saves extraordinary amount of time for the user.
b. Name caching greatly reduces traffic on the company network.
c. Name caching validates why you should deploy caching-only servers.
d. Name caching enables the second name resolution request for the same name to
bypass the referral process.

3. What are the dangerous consequences of a poorly chosen Time To Live (TTL)?
a. Specifying a TTL that is too long can greatly increase traffic, especially to the root
name and top-level domain servers.
b. Specifying a TTL that is too long can delay referrals from being propagated.
c. Specifying a TTL that is too short can overburden root name and top-level domain
servers with requests.
d. Specifying a TTL that is too short can cause incorrectly cached information to
remain before changes get recorded.

4. What is the primary benefit of a DNS forwarder?
a. Exchanging iterative queries for recursive queries across the network perimeter
b. Reducing the traffic and making efficient use of available bandwidth across the
network perimeter
c. Making the most of iterative queries to other DNS servers
d. Reducing the burden on the Internet’s root name servers

5. What are some best practices when creating internal DNS namespaces.
a. Avoid an excessive number of domain levels.
b. Keep domain names full and descriptive; avoid concise subdomains.
c. Place less importance on a convention compared to spelling.
d. Never abbreviate.

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which of the following statements is true regarding a virtual organization?

Question 1

  1. Which of the following statements is true regarding Wireshark?
[removed]Wireshark is probably the most widely used packet capture and analysis software in the world.
[removed]The expense of Wireshark makes it cost-prohibitive for most organizations.
[removed]Compared to similar commercial products, Wireshark has the most sophisticated diagnostic tools.
[removed]Wireshark saves frame details in a format that is incompatible and unusable by other software tools.

5 points  

Question 2

  1. The main screen of Wireshark includes several shortcuts. Which shortcut category displays a list of the network interfaces, or machines, that Wireshark has identified, and from which packets can be captured and analyzed?
[removed]Capture Help
[removed]Capture
[removed]Files
[removed]Online

5 points  

Question 3

  1. Which of the following enables Wireshark to capture packets destined to any host on the same subnet or virtual LAN (VLAN)?
[removed]Capture Help
[removed]Host mode
[removed]Subnet mode
[removed]Promiscuous mode

5 points  

Question 4

  1. The top pane of the Wireshark window, referred to as the __________, contains all of the packets that Wireshark has captured, in time order, and provides a summary of the contents of the packet in a format close to English.
[removed]byte summary
[removed]byte data
[removed]frame detail
[removed]frame summary

5 points  

Question 5

  1. The middle pane of the Wireshark window, referred to as the __________, is used to display the packet structure and contents of fields within the packet.
[removed]byte summary
[removed]byte data
[removed]frame detail
[removed]frame summary

5 points  

Question 6

  1. The bottom pane of the Wireshark window, referred to as the __________, displays all of the information in the packet in hexadecimal and in decimalwhen possible.
[removed]byte summary
[removed]byte data
[removed]frame detail
[removed]frame summary

5 points  

Question 7

  1. Wireshark can be used in a variety of ways, however the most common configuration for Wireshark, and the configuration that you ran in the lab, has the software running:
[removed]in a peer-to-peer configuration.
[removed]from a probe or hub.
[removed]on a local area network.
[removed]on a local host.

5 points  

Question 8

  1. In the simplest terms, Wireshark is used to capture all packets:
[removed]from a computer workstation to the Wireshark application window.
[removed]to and from a computer workstation and the Wireshark application window.
[removed]to and from a computer workstation and the server.
[removed]to and from the Wireshark Network Analyzer and the Capture section of the Wireshark application window.

5 points  

Question 9

  1. Which of the following statements is true regarding how Wireshark works?
[removed]Where packets are captured and how they are captured does not have any impact on how the packets are analyzed.
[removed]By running the Wireshark software on the same computer that generates the packets, the capture is specific to that machine.
[removed]Wireshark has no impact on the operation of the machine itself or its applications.
[removed]No timing information is provided when using a network probe or hub device, or the capture port of a LAN switch.

5 points  

Question 10

  1. Which of the following statements is true regarding how Wireshark handles time?
[removed]Clock time may or may not be the same as the system time of the device or devices used to run Wireshark and capture packets.
[removed]The timestamp used by Wireshark is the current local time in the time zone where the machine resides.
[removed]Any discrepancies regarding time are insignificant when capturing packets from high-speed interfaces.
[removed]In order to overcome time zone mismatches, a common best practice is to use the Eastern Time Zone.

5 points  

Question 11

  1. When examining a frame header, a difference between bytes on the wire and bytes captured can indicate that:
[removed]all packets are being captured effectively.
[removed]partial or malformed packets might be captured.
[removed]the interface speed is low and the computer cannot keep up with Wireshark.
[removed]the computer is infected with some form of malware.

5 points  

Question 12

  1. In the lab, the Ethernet II detail of the provided packet capture file indicated that Wireshark had determined that the __________ was Intel Core hardware.
[removed]frame type
[removed]source
[removed]destination
[removed]type of traffic carried in the next layer

5 points  

Question 13

  1. In the lab, the Ethernet II detail of the provided packet capture file indicated that Wireshark had determined that the __________ was Internet Protocol (IP).
[removed]frame type
[removed]source
[removed]destination
[removed]type of traffic carried in the next layer

5 points  

Question 14

  1. In the lab, the Ethernet II detail of the provided packet capture file indicated that Wireshark had determined that the __________ was IPv4 multicast.
[removed]frame type
[removed]source
[removed]destination
[removed]type of traffic carried in the next layer

5 points  

Question 15

  1. The __________ IP address is the IP address of the local IP host (workstation) from which Wireshark captures packets.
[removed]origination
[removed]destination
[removed]host
[removed]source

5 points  

Question 16

  1. Which of the following statements is true regarding filtering packets in Wireshark?
[removed]Filters are not a particularly useful tool in Wireshark.
[removed]Filters allow a complex set of criteria to be applied to the captured packets and only the result is displayed.
[removed]Filter expressions must be built with the Filter Edit dialog window and cannot be typed directly into the Filter field.
[removed]Once packets have been filtered, they are lost and cannot be restored.

5 points  

Question 17

  1. Selecting a TCP flow in the Flow Graph Analysis tool tells Wireshark that you wanted to see all of the elements in a TCP three-way handshake, which are:
[removed]SYN, SYN-ACK, and ACK.
[removed]SYN, ACK-SYN, and PSH.
[removed]ACK, ACK-PSH, and PSH-ACK.
[removed]PSH-ACK, ACK, and PSH-ACK.

5 points  

Question 18

  1. In the center pane of the __________, the direction of each arrow indicates the direction of the TCP traffic, and the length of the arrow indicates between which two addresses the interaction is taking place.
[removed]Wireshark frame header
[removed]Flow Graph Analysis results
[removed]Frame Summary pane
[removed]Ethernet II frame detail

5 points  

Question 19

  1. Within the frame detail pane, what does it mean when the DNS Flags detail specifies that recursion is desired?
[removed]DNS will continue to query higher level DNSs until it is able to resolve the address.
[removed]DNS will continue to query lower level DNSs until it is able to resolve the address.
[removed]DNS will discontinue querying other DNSs in attempts to resolve the address.
[removed]DNS will be guaranteed show the response “No such name.”

5 points  

Question 20

  1. Within the frame detail pane, the DNS Flags detail response to the query for issaseries.org was “No such name,” indicating that the:
[removed]issaseries.org domain never existed.
[removed]issaseries.org domain existed at one time but no longer exists.
[removed]issaseries.org is not known to any of the Domain Name Servers that were searched.
[removed]search was ineffective or unsuccessful.

Question 1

  1. Which of the following statements is true?
[removed]The Wireshark protocol analyzer has limited capabilities and is not considered multi-faceted.
[removed]Wireshark is used to find anomalies in network traffic as well as to troubleshoot application performance issues.
[removed]Both Wireshark and NetWitness Investigator are expensive tools that are cost-prohibitive for most organizations.
[removed]NetWitness Investigator is available at no charge while Wireshark is a commercial product.

5 points  

Question 2

  1. Wireshark capture files, like the DemoCapturepcap file found in this lab, have a __________ extension, which stands for packet capture, next generation.
[removed].packcng
[removed].paccapnextg
[removed].pcnextgen
[removed].pcapng

5 points  

Question 3

  1. The Wireless Toolbar (View > Wireless Toolbar) is used only:
[removed]when using a pre-captured file.
[removed]when capturing live traffic.
[removed]when reviewing wireless traffic.
[removed]in a virtual lab environment.

5 points  

Question 4

  1. In the frame detail pane, which of the following was a field unique to wireless traffic, confirming that it is a wireless packet?
[removed]The Encapsulation type: Per-Packet Information header
[removed]The Arrival time: May 11, 2007 15:30:37 041165000 Pacific Daylight Time
[removed]The Capture Length: 181 bytes
[removed]The Epoch Time: 1178922637.041165000 seconds

5 points  

Question 5

  1. Which of the following tools provides information about the antennae signal strengths, noise ratios, and other antennae information during a captured transmission?
[removed]Windows Explorer
[removed]DemoCapture
[removed]Wireshark
[removed]NetWitness

5 points  

Question 6

  1. Which of the following can be used to map who is able to communicate with whom, the measured strength of signals, and what frequencies are used, as well as be used for jamming certain frequencies and for determining which devices were likely used to set off remote bombs and Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs)?
[removed]MAC+PHY (MAC and Physical Layer)
[removed]IEEE Layer
[removed]Flags fields
[removed]Quality of Service information

5 points  

Question 7

  1. In the IEEE 802.11 Quality of Service information and Flags fields, Wireshark displays information about the __________, which enables the network administrator to determine which Media Access Control (MAC) addresses match each of them.
[removed]antennae and signal strength
[removed]transmitters and receivers of the data
[removed]payload and frame information
[removed]Domain System and Internet Protocol version

5 points  

Question 8

  1. In the lab, Wireshark displayed the transmitter/receiver address in both full hexadecimal (00:14:a5:cd:74:7b) and a kind of shorthand, which was:
[removed]IEEE 802.11.
[removed]GemtekTe_IEEE.
[removed]GemtekTe_00:14:a5.
[removed]GemtekTe_cd:74:7b.

5 points  

Question 9

  1. Matching the __________ to their appropriate transmitter and receiver addresses can provide the needed forensic evidence of which devices are involved in a particular communication.
[removed]MAC addresses
[removed]IP addresses
[removed]brand names
[removed]IEEE numbers

5 points  

Question 10

  1. Which of the following statements is true regarding the fields displayed in Wireshark?
[removed]There are hundreds of fields of data available and there are many different ways to interpret them.
[removed]There are a few dozen fields of data available but there are many different ways to interpret them.
[removed]There are very few fields of data available and most administrators will interpret them in the same or a similar way.
[removed]Although there are very few fields of data available, most administrators will interpret them differently.

5 points  

Question 11

  1. Which of the following is a packet capture add-on that is frequently installed with Wireshark that enables the capture of more wireless information?
[removed]3Com
[removed]QoS
[removed]GemtekTE
[removed]AirPcap

5 points  

Question 12

  1. Regardless of whether the packet is sent through the air or on a wire, the ultimate payload in an investigation is:
[removed]information regarding the transmitters and receivers of the data.
[removed]detail about the Internet Protocol version.
[removed]a Domain Name System query.
[removed]evidence of any suspicious activity.

5 points  

Question 13

  1. In the lab, the DNS query indicated an IP address of __________ for www.polito.it.
[removed]172.30.0.100
[removed]130.192.73.1
[removed]177.390.13.6
[removed]172.30.121.1

5 points  

Question 14

  1. What is the actual Web host name to which www.polito.it is resolved?
[removed]web01.polito.gov
[removed]web01.polito.it
[removed]web01.polito.com
[removed]www.polito.com

5 points  

Question 15

  1. In order to use NetWitness Investigator to analyze the same packets that you analyzed with Wireshark, you first had to save the DemoCapturepcap.pcapng file in the older __________ format.
[removed].libpcap
[removed].tcpdump-libcap
[removed].pcapng
[removed].pcap

5 points  

Question 16

  1. Which of the following statements is true regarding NetWitness Investigator?
[removed]NetWitness Investigator is available for free so it is only used for some initial analysis.
[removed]NetWitness Investigator is often used only by skilled analysts for specific types of analysis.
[removed]Investigators with little training typically can capture needed information using NetWitness Investigator.
[removed]Wireshark provides a more in-depth, security-focused analysis than NetWitness Investigator.

5 points  

Question 17

  1. Which of the following statements is true regarding NetWitness Investigator reports?
[removed]NetWitness reports contain only low-level wireless information, such as command and control.
[removed]NetWitness reports do not provide the kind of sophisticated analysis that is found within Wireshark.
[removed]NetWitness and Wireshark both provide the same information but the two tools differ in how that information is displayed.
[removed]NetWitness is unable to provide information about the geographic location of the transmitter and receiver.

5 points  

Question 18

  1. Which of the following tools displays the MAC address and IP address information and enables them to be correlated for a given capture transmission?
[removed]DemoCapture
[removed]Wireshark
[removed]NetWitness Investigator
[removed]Both Wireshark and NetWitness Investigator

5 points  

Question 19

  1. When you were using NetWitness Investigator in the lab, the Destination City report indicated that the Destination Organization of www.polito.it was recorded as:
[removed]Turin Polytechnic.
[removed]Politecnico de Tourino.
[removed]Republic of Italia.
[removed]Turin, Italy.

5 points  

Question 20

  1. Which of the following statements is true regarding the information in the Destination City report?
[removed]The Top Level Domain (TLD) “.it” belongs to Italy.
[removed]The Top Level Domain (TLD) “.it” is proofthat the Web site is physically located in Italy.
[removed]The Top Level Domain (TLD) was actually registered in the United States.
[removed]It indicates that it will be impossible to determine the actual physical location of the server.
Categories
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identify the hybridization of the c atom in ch2br2.

How would i find the hybridization of the central atom in NO3^- and CH2Br2?
90,770 results
Chemistry
How would i find the hybridization of the central atom in NO3^- and CH2Br2? Also, in general how would I find the hybridization of something, and what is hybridization (I’m very lost)?

asked by Sarah on December 8, 2009
CHEM
What is the hybridization of the central atom in COH2?? Would the correct response, out of the following: a) sp b) sp^2 c) sp^3 d) sp^3d e) sp^3d^2 “e”-> sp^3d^2??

asked by K on November 26, 2007
chemistry
What is the orbital hybridization of the central atom S in SF4? 1) sp 2) sp3d 3) sp2 4) sp3d2 5) sp3

asked by saara on April 9, 2008
chemsitry
The molecular geometry of POCl3 is tetrahedral. What hybridization does this indicate for the central P atom? Why is the answer spy?

asked by Chelsea on December 11, 2013
chem

  1. under what circumstances is the molecular geometry around a single central atom the same as the electron group geometry around the central atom? 2.If all of the electron groups around a single central atom are bonding, and the same outer atom is bonded

asked by natash on April 28, 2008

Chemistry
Hey can you please check my answers? Also, Can you explain interparticle force of attraction? I’m not sure about the difference between IMFOA and IPFOA. Chemical formula: Cl2 Name: Chlorine Bond Type (intermolecular FOA): London VSEPR molecular shape:

asked by Anonymous on December 7, 2015
Chemistry (Check and Help)
Hey can you please check my answers? Also, Can you explain interparticle force of attraction? I’m not sure about the difference between IMFOA and IPFOA. Chemical formula: Cl2 Name: Chlorine Bond Type (intermolecular FOA): London VSEPR molecular shape:

asked by Anonymous on December 6, 2015
chemistry
1.which of the following is the most polar bond? explain n-f c-f h-f o-f 2. in the trigonal bipyramidal geometry, which position – axial or equatorial – do nonbonding electrons prefer? why? 3.under what circumstances is the molecular geometry around a

asked by katherine on April 23, 2010
Chemistry
Hello, What is the hybridization of an H atom on a methane? As far as I understand, the hydrogen has 1 s orbital which bonds only to carbon, so does not have any hybridization. Is this correct? Thank you

asked by Nat on July 15, 2010
chem
what is the appropriate hybridization for the carbon atom in CO2? the explanation I was given is 2 electron groups around the center atom carbon suggest sp hybridization. the 2 unhibridized p orbitals on carbon form the 2 pi bonds. My question is why pi

asked by Natash on November 24, 2008
chemistry
Sulfur forms the following compounds with chlorine. Identify thetype of hybridization for the central sulfur atom in each compound. SCl2,SCl6,SCl4 a. sp b. sp2 c. sp3 d. sp3d e. sp3d2

asked by Mely on November 6, 2010
chemistry
Hello! my question is. Cumulene has chemical formula C4H4 with 7sigma and 3pie bonds. the 2 outer C atoms have a hybridization of “sp2”, the H atoms have a hybridization of “s”, and the 2 C atoms in between have “sp” hybridization. As I figured out, there

asked by Jam09 on January 30, 2009
chemistry
Which of the following has the central atom with the lowest oxidation number? a. CO32- b. NO3- c. ClO2- d. SO42- e. PO43-

asked by Megan on October 31, 2008
chem
Which of the following ions contains lone pair of electrons at the central atom? A) SO4 2- B) NO3 – C) IO3 – (Is there any ways without drawing the diagrams and I could still able to figure out the answer???) Thx very much

asked by ivan on October 2, 2014
Chemistry
Chemical formula: Na Name: Sodium Bond Type (intermolecular FOA): London VSEPR molecular shape: none Central Atom Hybridization: sp Molecular Polarity: nonpolar Interparticle force of attraction (IPFOA): ? State of Matter (at room temperature): solid Can’t

asked by Anonymous on December 8, 2015

CHEM
if you were to draw a Lewis dot structure for HOCl…would it be H:Cl:O: (with double dots above & below the Oxygen & Chlorine) or would it be: H:O:Cl: (same thing for the double dots being above & below the Cl & O? Basically…is Oxygen the central atom

asked by K on November 10, 2007
Chemistry (Help)
I’m having trouble figuring out this one. Can you please help? I haven’t gotten a response to any of my questions. Chemical formula: Na Name: Sodium Bond Type (intramolecular FOA): metallic bond VSEPR molecular shape: none Central Atom Hybridization: none?

asked by Kyle on December 9, 2015
Chemisty Help!!!!!!!!
show how you would obtain (the orbitals used) and the possible types (the orbitals produced) for hybridization of a carbon atom. you must report the shape and the number of orbitals of each type used and produced for each type of hybridization.

asked by Amanda on April 9, 2012
Chemistry (Check)
Are these right? Chemical formula: NaCl Name: Sodium chloride Bond Type (intramolecular FOA): ionic bonding VSEPR molecular shape: none Central Atom Hybridization: sp3 Molecular Polarity: polar Interparticle force of attraction (IPFOA): London,

asked by Kyle on December 9, 2015
Chemistry
Please explain this, I have no idea how to figure this out. What molecule or polyatomic ion has the following features. (a) four bonded atoms, no unshared electrons on the central atom (b) two bonded atoms, no unshared electrons on the central atom (c) two

asked by Lewis on March 7, 2013
Chemistry
Chemical formula: NaCl Name: Sodium chloride Bond Type (intermolecular FOA): London, dipole-dipole, ion-dipole VSEPR molecular shape: none Central Atom Hybridization: sp3 Molecular Polarity: polar Interparticle force of attraction (IPFOA): ? State of

asked by Anonymous on December 8, 2015
chemistry
The hybridization of the lead atom in PbCl4 is…?

asked by Sandy on November 3, 2012
chemistry
what is the hybridization of each atom for hydrocyanic acid?

asked by Mai on March 29, 2014
chemistry
How many bonds can each atom make without hybridization? B,N, and O

asked by Paul on December 5, 2014
Chemistry
Can you please check if these are right? I’m not sure about IPFOA. Chemical formula: H2O Name: Dihydrogen oxide Bond Type (intermolecular FOA): London, dipole-dipole, hydrogen bonding VSEPR molecular shape: bent Central Atom Hybridization: sp3 Molecular

asked by Anonymous on December 8, 2015

chem
Determine the electron and molecular geometries of each of the following molecules. For those with more than one central atom, indicate the geometry about each central atom. (Enter your answers in the order given in the skeletal structure from left to

asked by hannah on January 29, 2011
chemistry
A solution is prepared by mixing 0.0400 mol CH2Cl2 and 0.0800 mol CH2Br2 at 25 degrees C. Assume solution is ideal, calculate the composition of the vapor (in terms of mole fractions) at 25 C. At 25 C, vaporpressure of pure CH2Cl2 and pure CH2Br2 are 133

asked by Sara on March 7, 2010
chem
I really need these answers to balance the net ionic equation or make it into one. Cu(NO3)2 (aq) + NaOH (aq) = CuOH (s) + Na(NO3)2 (aq) Cu(NO3)2 (aq) + NaI (aq) = CuI (s) + Na(NO3)2 (aq) Cu(NO3)2 (aq) + Na3PO4 (aq) = CuPO4 (s) + Na3(NO3)2 (aq) Fe(NO3)3

asked by Suey on February 18, 2012
Chemistry
A solution is prepared by mixing 0.0400 mol CH2Cl2 and 0.0700 mol of CH2Br2 at 25°C. Assuming the solution is ideal, calculate the composition of the vapor (in terms of mole fractions) at 25°C. At 25°C, the vapor pressures of pure CH2Cl2 and pure CH2Br2

asked by Katrina on February 20, 2011
AP Chemistry
A solution is prepared by mixing 0.0200 mol CH2Cl2 and 0.0500 mol CH2Br2 at 25°C. Assuming the solution is ideal, calculate the composition of the vapor (in terms of mole fractions) at 25°C. At 25°C, the vapor pressures of pure CH2Cl2 and pure CH2Br2

asked by Sarah on March 22, 2010
chemistry
A solution is prepared by mixing 0.0433 mol CH2Cl2 and 0.0623 mol CH2Br2 at 25°C. Assuming the solution is ideal, calculate the composition of the vapor (in terms of mole fractions) at 25°C. At 25°C, the vapor pressures of pure CH2Cl2 and pure CH2Br2

asked by bob on May 4, 2010
Chemistry

1) The Lewis structure of PF3 shows that central phosphorus atom has _ nonbonding and _ bonding electron pairs. #2) How many equivalent resonance forms can be drawn for CO3^-2? (carbon is the central atom) #3) The bond angle in NF3 is slightly less

asked by Diana on May 21, 2009
Chemistry
Hey can you please check my answers? Also, Can you explain interparticle force of attraction? I’m not sure about the difference between IMFOA and IPFOA. Chemical formula: Cl2 Name: Chlorine Bond Type (intermolecular FOA): London VSEPR molecular shape:

asked by Anonymous on December 8, 2015
chem
I just need to know the net ionic equation and balance them. I figured the equation. but the net and balance is harder. Co(NO3)2 (aq) + NaOH (aq) = CoOH (s) + Na(NO3)2 (aq) Co(NO3)2 (aq) + Na2CO3 (aq) = CoCO3 (s) + Na2(NO3)2 (aq) Co(NO3)2 (aq) + Na3PO4

asked by Ari on February 18, 2012
Chemistry
Choose the true statements regarding the charge-minimized Lewis structure(s) of the BrO2- ion. (selet all that apply) a. There is only one charge-minimized structure for this ion. b. There are two charge-minimized resonance structures for this ion. c. The

asked by Lindsay on October 5, 2008

chemistry
how would I determine the hybridization of the carbon atom if it has 3 single bonds with hydrogen and no free electrons? Do I draw this out??

asked by ~christina~ on August 31, 2007
Chemistry
Below shows 3 displacement reactions involving metals and solutions of metal nitrates. Cu+2AgNO3->Cu(NO3)2+2Ag Pb+Cu(NO3)2->Pb(NO3)2+Cu Zn+Pb(NO3)2->Zn(NO3)2+Pb Use this information to find the order of reactivity of the 4 metals, with the most reactive

asked by Anonymous on January 17, 2008
chemistry
ratio of lone pair on surrounding atom to central atom in Xeo2F2?

asked by Mukund on May 5, 2011
Chemistry
We’re going over hybridization right now, like sp3 and stuff. But I don’t understand how you got it at all. Can you please tell me the hybridization for these two examples I made up and explain how you got it thanks 1. NH3 2. PF5

asked by beth on October 20, 2009
ms. sue
please help We’re going over hybridization right now, like sp3 and stuff. But I don’t understand how you got it at all. Can you please tell me the hybridization for these two examples I made up and explain how you got it thanks 1. NH3 2. PF5

asked by beth on October 20, 2009
Chemistry
For acids of the same general structure but differing electronegativities of the central atoms, acid strength decreases with increasing electronegativity of the central atom. True or false

asked by Josh G. on November 15, 2012
chemistry
These are short and simple. 🙂 I’ve included my answers, tell me if I am wrong please. CH3 is attached to a carbon on a pentane ring. Is the hybridization of the carbon sp3? NH connects a benzene ring to two benzene rings. Is the hybridization of the

asked by s on March 16, 2011
chemistry
These are short and simple. 🙂 I’ve included my answers, tell me if I am wrong please. CH3 is attached to a carbon on a pentane ring. Is the hybridization of the carbon sp3? NH connects a benzene ring to two benzene rings. Is the hybridization of the

asked by s on March 16, 2011
Chemistry
“Is the following species a dipole?” NH2Cl I have drawn out the lewis dot structure of the molecule and the electronegativy values I have are N- 3.0 Cl- 3.0 H- 2.1 I know that the electronegativity difference between N and Cl is 0 and the bond is non

asked by Alexa on December 6, 2006
chemistry
C4 H10 O or diethyl ether or with a formula of CH3CH2OCH2CH3 its stick structure is H H H H ! ! ! ! .. H-C-C-C-C- O-H ! ! ! ! .. H H H H I used the this ! sign as a sign for bond. pls help me to determine the geometry for each central atom in this

asked by chemdummy on October 5, 2012

Chemistiy
Complete & Balance the Equation: i) Zn + Cu(NO3)2 -> ii) Ag + Mg(NO3)2 -> iii) Al + HNO3 -> iv) Mg + Fe(NO3)2 -> My Answers: i) 2 Zn + Cu(NO3)2 -> Cu + 2 ZnNO3 ii) Ag + Mg(NO3)2 -> No RXN iii) Al + HNO3 -> Al(NO3)3 + NO + 2H2O iv) Mg + Fe(NO3)2 -> Mg(NO3)2

asked by Anonymous on January 15, 2017
Chemistry
Solubility Rules!! Homework problem I desperately need help with Solutions used: 6M HCl, 6M NaOH, 6M NH3, 3M H2SO4 Mixed with: Cr(NO3)3, Fe(NO3)3, Bi(NO3)3, Mg(NO3)2, Pb(NO3)2 please help me and tell me which form precipitates and which

asked by Kelsey on October 30, 2014
chemistry
If the symbol X represents a central atom, Y represents outer atoms, and Z represents lone pairs on the central atom, the structure Y-:X:-Y could be abbreviated as XY2Z2. Classify these structures according to their shape.

asked by Laura on October 19, 2013
Chemistry
If the symbol X represents a central atom, Y represents outer atoms, and Z represents lone pairs on the central atom, the structure Y-:X:-Y could be abbreviated as XY2Z2. Classify these structures according to their shape.

asked by Laura on October 19, 2013
Chemistry
(0.75 moles Al(NO3)3/L Al(NO3)3) x 0.040 L Al(NO3)3 = ??moles Al(NO3)3 I am unsure how to find the factor to convert moles Al(NO3)3 into moles NO3. i think that if i do the first section, you get .03 moles as your answer for moles of Al(NO3)3, but I am not

asked by M on August 23, 2011
chemistry
For CH3CO2H, give the hybridization and approximate bond angles for each atom except hydrogen. Also, draw an orbital bonding picture. Show all lone pairs. Can this be drawn on paint and uploaded to me? Thank you.

asked by kate on September 23, 2009
Chemistry(Please check)
Last question, I just want to make sure I understand the concept of hybridization. For carboxylic acid the hybridization is: CH3= sp3 because there are only single bonds COOH= Sp2 because the oxygen is double bonded to the C Is this correct? Thank you for

asked by Hannah on September 12, 2012
Chemistry…Help!!
I don’t even know how to start this…The valence electron configurations of several atoms are shown below. How many bonds can each atom make without hybridization? 1. Si 3S2 3P2 2. P 3S2 3P3 3. F 2S2 2P5

asked by Stacy on November 6, 2010
Chem—DrBob222
Calculate the oxidation # for each atom in the molecule below. Can you help me with the rest. Thank you!!! H H H H / / / / H — C —C ===C —-N .. / / H H Group # # of E Oxidation # H 1 0 1 x 7 = 7 C 4 7 C 4 C 4 N 5 3 H atom attached to first C atom. 1 H

asked by Layla on September 18, 2014
chemistry
For AsClF42-: a) Name the hybridization of the orbitals of the central atom. s sp sp2 sp3 sp4 sp3d sp3d2 b) Estimate the Cl-As-F bond angle. Slightly less than 90∘ Exactly 90∘ Slightly greater than 90∘ Slightly less than 109.5∘ Exactly 109.5∘

asked by Anonymous on January 11, 2013

chemistry
How many total atoms are in the chemical formula Ai(NO3)3? I thought it was ten because Ai is 1 atom. The No3 is 3 atoms times the 3 is 9 plus the 1 is ten.

asked by lexi on November 19, 2014
Chemistry
The hybridization of nitrogen in FNO3 (or FONO2) I cannot for the life of me draw the spin diagram for the NO single bonds and NO double bonds. Sp2 hybridization?? I think? N is forming 3 sigma bonds and one Pi.

asked by Jen on April 20, 2018
chemistry
Below shows 3 displacement reactions involving metals and solutions of metal nitrates. Cu+2AgNO3->Cu(NO3)2+2Ag Pb+Cu(NO3)2->Pb(NO3)2+Cu Zn+Pb(NO3)2->Zn(NO3)2+Pb Use this information to find the order of reactivity of the 4 metals, with the most reactive. I

asked by Anonymous on January 17, 2008
chem
I just need to know the net ionic equation and balance them. I figured the equation. but the net and balance is harder. Fe(NO3)3 (aq) + Na2CO3 (aq) = FeCO3 (s) + Na2(NO3)3 (aq) Fe(NO3)3 (aq) + NaI (aq) =FeI (s) + Na(NO3)3 (aq) Ba(NO3)3 (aq) + Na3PO4(aq) =

asked by Suey on February 18, 2012
chem
I just need to know the net ionic equation and balance them. I figured the equation. but the net and balance is harder. Co(NO3)2 (aq) + NaOH (aq) = CoOH (s) + Na(NO3)2 (aq) Co(NO3)2 (aq) + Na2CO3 (aq) = CoCO3 (s) + Na2(NO3)2 (aq) Co(NO3)2 (aq) + Na3PO4

asked by Suey on February 18, 2012
chemistry
Which of the following combinations of atomic orbitals can combine to form sigma bonds? s-ss-pp-phybrid orbital – hybrid orbitalhybrid orbital – shybrid orbital – p What is the bond angle (in degrees) resulting from sp hybridization? What is the bond angle

asked by adex on March 12, 2013
science
When an atom is broken down into parts, what happens to its identity? The atom is no longer recognizable. The atom takes on a new average atomic mass. The atom becomes a new type of matter. The atom becomes a new element. Is it the third one?

asked by Dianni on November 7, 2018
Chemistry
how do u complete these questions? 2HCI(aq)+Pb(NO3)2(aq)—> 2HI(aq)+K2SO3(s)—> Pb(NO3)2(aq)+2KCI(aq)—> Ba(NO3)2(aq)+Na2SO4(aq)—> K2CO3(aq)+Ba(NO3)2(aq)—> HCI(aq)+AgNO3(aq)—>

asked by Kim on February 28, 2012
Chemistry
Will Zinc react with Zn(NO3)2, Cu(NO3)2,Pb(NO3)2, Mg(NO3)2, AgNO3, Al(NO3)3, or Fe(NO3)3

asked by Jenn on January 27, 2011
Chemistry Please Help!!!
Airbags contain a mixture of sodium azide, potassium nitrate, and silicon dioxide. A sensor detects a head on collision that cause the sodium azide to be ignited and to decompose forming sodium and nitrogen gas. This gas fills a nylon or polyamide bag such

asked by Annie on July 25, 2014

Chemistry – Hybridization
Can anyone help me with this questioin pleasee? Describe the orientation and relative energy levels of sp2 and sp3 orbitals with respect to unhyberdized orbitals (1s, 2s, 2px, 2py, 2pz orbitals) 1s and 2s are spherical. 2px, 2py, and 2pz are at 90o to each

asked by Eunice on December 5, 2006
Chemistry
A solution contains 23.1 ppm of dissolved Fe(NO3)3 (241.860g/mol), which dissociates completely into Fe3+ and NO3- (62.005g/mol) ions. Find the concentration of NO3- in parts per million

asked by Nick on January 9, 2015
General Chemistry
A student dissolved 4.00 g of Co(NO3)2 in enough water to make 100. mL of stock solution. He took 4.00 mL of the stock solution and then diluted it with water to give 275. mL of a final solution. How many grams of NO3- ion are there in the final solution?

asked by Dave on October 12, 2010
Chemistry (Check and Help)
Determine the type of chemical reaction, find the limiting reagent, determine the amount of product in grams, and the amount in grams of excess reagent. 8.75 g of mercury (II) nitrate solution is mixed with 9.83 g sodium iodide solution (ppt). Hg(NO3)2(aq)

asked by Anonymous on November 2, 2015
Chemistry
Ag(NO3)+ CaClYields to AgCl + (NO3)Ca KI + Pb(NO3) yields to K(NO3)+ IPb What is the precipitate in both??

asked by Emily on November 15, 2012
Chemistry
For AsClF4^2-: a)Name the hybridization of the orbitals of the central atom. i)s ii)sp iii)sp2 iv)sp3 v)sp4 vi)sp3d vii)sp3d2 b)Estimate the Cl-As-F bond angle. i)Slightly less than 90 ii)Exactly 90 iii)Slightly greater than 90 iv)Slightly less than 109.5

asked by Chemgam on January 11, 2013
science
Nitrate concentrations exceeding 44.3 mg NO3-/L are a concern in drinking water due to the infant disease, methemoglobinemia. Nitrate concentrations near three rural wells were reported as 0.01 mg NO3- N/L, 1.3 mg NO3- N/L, and 20.0 mg NO3- N/L. Do any of

asked by cucu on August 24, 2013
Atoms
You discovered a new atom! Wow, everyone at your lab is impressed!! Some are saying you may be nominated for the Nobel Prize in Medicine!!! If this is going to happen, you have to find out as much about the atom as you can, and you don’t have long to do

asked by Gessica on December 4, 2007
CHEMISTRY
Is CF4 an example of a central atom with an expanded octet?

asked by John on May 12, 2012
Chemistry
How many lone pairs are on the central atom in BCl3

asked by Brenda on November 30, 2010

Atoms. Atoms.
YOU DISCOVERED A NEW ATOM! WOW, EVERYONE AT YOUR LAB IS IMPRESSED!! SOME ARE SAYING YOU MAY BE NOMINATED FOR THE NOBEL PRIZE IN MEDICINE!!! IF THIS IS GOING TO HAPPEN, YOU HAVE TO FIND OUT AS MUCH ABOUT THE ATOM AS YOU CAN, AND YOU DON’T HAVE LONG TO DO

asked by Tina on December 3, 2007
Chemistry
Using the following information, identify the strong electrolyte whose general formula is Mx(A)y * zH2O Ignore the effect of interionic attractions in the solution. a. A”-is a common oxyanion. When 30.0 mg of the anhydrous sodium salt containing this

asked by Cynthia on March 29, 2007
Chemistry (Check)
Determine the type of chemical reaction, find the limiting reagent, determine the amount of product in grams, and the amount in grams of excess reagent. Calcium nitrate is decomposed with heat to give calcium nitrite and oxygen gas. Start with 15.99g of

asked by Anonymous on November 2, 2015
chemistry need help
Determine the number of moles of each specified atom or ion in the given samples of the following compounds.( Hint: the formula tells you how many atoms or ions are in each molecule of formula unit.) a. O atom in 3.161×10^21 molecules of CO2 b. C atom in

asked by bre bre on March 10, 2009
chemistry
Determine the number of moles of each specified atom or ion in the given samples of the following compounds.( Hint: the formula tells you how many atoms or ions are in each molecule of formula unit.) a. O atom in 3.161×10^21 molecules of CO2 b. C atom in

asked by bre bre on March 8, 2009
11th grade
In the Bohr model of the hydrogen atom, the speed of the electron is approximately 2.17 x 10^6 m/s. find the central force acting on the electron as it revolves in a circular orbit of radius 5.42 x 10^-11m.

asked by Julia on December 5, 2010
Chemistry
What is the full net ionic equation for each reaction? do they form a precipitate or have a color change? CuSO4+AgNO3 CuSO4+BaCl2 CuSO4+Cu(NO3)2 CuSO4+Pb(NO3)2 CuSO4+KI CuSO4+Na2S2O3 AgNO3+BaCl2 AgNO3+Cu(NO3)2 AgNO3+Pb(NO3)2 AgNO3+KI AgNO3+Na2S2O3

asked by Joe on May 27, 2008
Chemistry
What is the full net ionic equation for each reaction? do they form a precipitate or have a color change? CuSO4+AgNO3 CuSO4+BaCl2 CuSO4+Cu(NO3)2 CuSO4+Pb(NO3)2 CuSO4+KI CuSO4+Na2S2O3 AgNO3+BaCl2 AgNO3+Cu(NO3)2 AgNO3+Pb(NO3)2 AgNO3+KI AgNO3+Na2S2O3

asked by Joe on May 27, 2008
Chemistry

  1. A student uses 6M HCl solution contaminated with Al(NO3)3 to wash the nichrome wire in between recordings of emission spectra for the different known and unknown metal ion solutions. The emission energies for the aluminum are 3.90×10^-19 J/atom,

asked by Sandy on February 16, 2014
Chemistry
What is the electronic geometry of a central atom with 4 electron pairs?

asked by Kevin on December 3, 2012

science-chem question
Hello I have another hybridization question. For example in BeF2 … the electron configuration is 1s2, 2s2, 2p1. It gets hybridized to 1s2, 2s1, 2p2. I know that it will be a sp2 hybridization but I’m not exactly sure why. It’s because the last p orbital

asked by jisun on February 11, 2007
Chem
Determine the number of moles of N atoms in 43.5 g of Mg(NO3)2. Textbook answer: 1.43 mol N My answer: 43.5 g Mg(NO3)x x (1 mol Mg(NO3)2/148.313 g Mg(NO3)2) x (2 mol N/1 mol Mg(NO3)2) = .293 Can tell me where i went wrong?

asked by Bob on March 8, 2009
physics
In the Bohr model of the hydrogen atom, the speed of the electron is approximately 1.97 × 106 m/s. Find the central force acting on the electron as it revolves in a circular orbit of radius 4.72 × 10−11 m. Answer in units of N.

asked by go on May 11, 2011
Physics
In the Bohr model of the hydrogen atom, the speed of the electron is approximately 2.1 × 106 m/s. Find the central force acting on the electron as it revolves in a circular orbit of radius 4.51 × 10−11 m. Answer in units of N

asked by Kate on October 29, 2013
physics
In the Bohr model of the hydrogen atom, the speed of the electron is approximately 1.97 × 106 m/s. Find the central force acting on the electron as it revolves in a circular orbit of radius 4.72 × 10−11 m. Answer in units of N.

asked by go on May 11, 2011
physics
In the Bohr model of the hydrogen atom, the speed of the electron is approximately 1.97 × 106 m/s. Find the central force acting on the electron as it revolves in a circular orbit of radius 4.72 × 10−11 m. Answer in units of N.

asked by go on May 11, 2011
physics
In the Bohr model of the hydrogen atom, the speed of the electron is approximately 1.97 × 106 m/s. Find the central force acting on the electron as it revolves in a circular orbit of radius 4.72 × 10−11 m. Answer in units of N.

asked by go on May 11, 2011
Physics
In the Bohr model of the hydrogen atom, the speed of the electron is approximately 2.45 × 106 m/s. Find the central force acting on the electron as it revolves in a circular orbit of radius 5.18 × 10−11 m. Answer in units of N

asked by Kaylee on June 22, 2014
chemistry, polar or nonpolar
Why is NO3 nonpolar but CIF3 is polar? I looked at the lewis structures, they look similar, but why is one opposite. also, when something is polar or non polar, my teacher said I should see which atom is more electronegativity is higher and draw arrows

asked by Anonymous on January 25, 2009
Physics
The following questions use a central charge of q1=+2×10^-4C 1. What is the field strength at a distance of 5m from the central charge? I got 7.2×10^4 However, I’m not sure which unit to use… is it joules? 2. What is the force acting on another charge

asked by Lucy on April 17, 2009

Chemistry
How many electron domains are around the central atom ina water molecule?

asked by Amelia on November 7, 2017
Chem
How many lone pairs of electrons are on the central atom in the water molecule

asked by Lynn on April 8, 2010
chemistry
how does the number of electron pairs around a central atom determines its shape

asked by Doreen on March 17, 2012
Chemistry
Determine the mass of PbSO4 produced when 10mL of 0.2M CuSO4 reacts with 10mL of 0.2M Pb(NO3)2? Balance the equation CuSO4 + Pb(NO3)2 → PbSO4 + Cu(NO3)2 Find the number of moles for CuSO4 c=n/v n=c × v n=0.2 × 0.01 n=0.002 mol Since it is a 1:1 ratio,

asked by Kendall on August 5, 2015
Chemistry Balancing
K3PO4(aq) + 3Sr(NO3)2 ==> Sr3(PO4)2 + K2(NO3) the reactant was given. I can’t seem to balance this. whenever everything is even either the 3Sr(NO3)2 or K2(NO3) is not balanced. Also, the 3Sr in 3Sr(NO3)2 was already there.

asked by Amy~ on September 8, 2010

Categories
college papers college papers for sale write my book report writing a research paper

what is the strength of the electric field at the position indicated by the dot in

What are the strength and direction of the electric field at the position indicated by the dot in the diagram below, in which d = 4.9 cm, q = 11
22,904 results
Physics
3 There are two charges +Q and –Q/2 that locate at two positions with a separation of d as shown in Fig. 1. We may put +Q at the origin of the x-axis to facilitate the calculation. (a) Find the electric field for +Q and –Q/2 at the position P. (5

asked by David on September 5, 2010
Physics
An electron moving to the right at 3.0% the speed of light enters a uniform electric field parallel to its direction of motion. If the electron is to be brought to rest in the space of 4.5 cm, determine the following. What direction is required for the

asked by Chris on March 1, 2010
Physics
As you travel through space, you find yourself moving into regions of ever-higher voltage. You are traveling . . . A) perpendicularly to the electric field. B) in exactly the same direction as the electric field. C) in a region with no electric field. D)

asked by O on January 21, 2018
Physics
As you travel through space, you find yourself moving into regions of ever-higher voltage. You are traveling . . . A) perpendicularly to the electric field. B) in exactly the same direction as the electric field. C) in a region with no electric field. D)

asked by O on January 21, 2018
Physics
A charge of 1nC is added to a spherical soap bubble with a radius of 3.0cm. What is the electric field strength just outside of the bubble? What is the electric field strength just inside of the bubble? The field experienced by each charge in the skin of

asked by Winter on October 11, 2013

physics

  1. What is the magnitude of the electric field strength E such that an electron, when placed in the field, would experience an electrical force equal to its weight? What electric field strength E is required if the electron is replaced by a proton

asked by lol on March 13, 2011
physics
An electron has an initial velocity of 2.00 ✕ 10 6 m/s in a uniform 6.00 ✕ 10 5 N/C strength electric field. The field accelerates the electron in the direction opposite to its initial velocity. (a) What is the direction of the electric field? (b) How

asked by mathew on March 19, 2015
physics
A proton is acted on by an uniform electric field of magnitude 233 N/C pointing in the positive x direction. The particle is initially at rest. (a) In what direction will the charge move? (b) Determine the work done by the electric field when the particle

asked by mathew on March 29, 2015
PHYSICS URGENT

  1. A point charge of +1.0 µC is moved in the direction of an electric field, and it has a change in electric potential difference energy of 10.0 J. What was the change in electric potential difference? 1 µC = 10-6 C (Points : 1) -1.0 × 10^8 V -1.0 ×

asked by Hannah on May 1, 2014
physics
Three point charges, A=2.00 uC, B=7.00 uC, C=-4.00 uC, are located at the corners of an equilateral triangle. a) Find the magnitude and direction of the electric field position of the 2.00 uC charge. b) How would the eletric field be affected if the charge

asked by Ella on November 7, 2012
physics
A 30.0 cm diameter loop is rotated in a uniform electric field until the position of maximum electric flux is found. The flux in this position is 5.60 multiplied by 105 N·m2/C. What is the magnitude of the electric field? MN/C

asked by suhani on September 13, 2013
physics
A 30.0 cm diameter loop is rotated in a uniform electric field until the position of maximum electric flux is found. The flux in this position is 5.60 multiplied by 105 N·m2/C. What is the magnitude of the electric field? MN/C

asked by gita on September 8, 2013
physics

  1. Suppose that the strength of the electric field about an isolated point charge has a certain value at a distance of 1 m. How will the electric field strength compare at a distance of 2 m from the point charge? I know it’s At twice the distance the field

asked by anonymous on July 14, 2010
Physics
An electric dipole is formed from two charges, ±q, spaced 1.00cm apart. The dipole is at the origin, oriented along the y-axis. The electric field strength at the point (x,y)=(0cm,10cm) is 320N/C . What is the charge q? Give your answer in nC. What is the

asked by Allison on February 21, 2014
Physics
The electric field strength at a particular distance from an electric charge is 2.0 N/C. What is the electric field strength if you are 2 times closer to the same charge?

asked by Anon on January 18, 2018

physics
Any dielectric material other than vacuum has a maximum electric field that can be produced in the dielectric material before it physically or chemically breaks down and begins to conduct. This maximum electric field is called dielectric strength. The

asked by lauren on March 7, 2010
Physics
I don’t know how to approach this question… Any dielectric material other than vacuum has a maximum electric field that can be produced in the dielectric material before it physically or chemically breaks down and begins to conduct. This maximum electric

asked by Sandra on March 4, 2010
Physics
Any dielectric material other than vacuum has a maximum electric field that can be produced in the dielectric material before it physically or chemically breaks down and begins to conduct. This maximum electric field is called dielectric strength. The

asked by Susie on March 6, 2010
Physics
(a) Find the electric field at x = 5.00 cm in Figure 18.52(a), given that q = 1.00X10^-6;C . (b) At what position between 3.00 and 8.00 cm is the total electric field the same as that for –2q alone? (c) Can the electric field be zero anywhere between

asked by Elizabeth on August 8, 2016
physics!
An electric dipole consists of 2.0 g spheres charged to 5.0 nC (positive and negative) at the ends of a 12 cm long massless rod. The dipole rotates on a frictionless pivot at its center. The dipole is held perpendicular to a uniform electric field with

asked by cha on February 8, 2012
college physics
An electric dipole consists of 2.0 g spheres charged to 5.0 nC (positive and negative) at the ends of a 12 cm long massless rod. The dipole rotates on a frictionless pivot at its center. The dipole is held perpendicular to a uniform electric field with

asked by cha on February 8, 2012
College Physics
An electric dipole consists of 2.0 g spheres charged to 5.0 nC (positive and negative) at the ends of a 12 cm long massless rod. The dipole rotates on a frictionless pivot at its center. The dipole is held perpendicular to a uniform electric field with

asked by Collin on February 8, 2012
math/physics
An electron moving through an electric field experiences an acceleration of 6.1 multiplied by 103 m/s2. (a) Find the electric force acting on the electron. (b) What is the strength of the electric field?

asked by jake on January 11, 2010
physics
a positive point charge q sits at the center of a hollow spherical shell. The shell, with radius R and negligible thickness, has net charge -2q. find an expression for the for the electric field strength (a) inside the sphere, rR. in what direction does

asked by jerry on September 16, 2009
physics
An electron moving to the right at 4.0% the speed of light enters a uniform electric field parallel to its direction of motion. If the electron is to be brought to rest in the space of 5.0 cm, determine what the strength of the field is.

asked by Mercedes on July 17, 2012

Physics
When an electron moves 2.5 m in the direction of an electric field, the change in electrical potential energy of the electron is 8×10-17J. What is the strength of the electric field that causes the change in potential energy? 320 N/C 200 N/C 20 N/C 3.2 N/C

asked by Blah on October 19, 2012
Physics II
An electron with an initial speed of 5.0 ✕ 105 m/s enters a region in which there is an electric field directed along its direction of motion. If the electron travels 9.0 cm in the field before being stopped, what are the magnitude and direction of the

asked by Beat on January 24, 2016
physics
An east-west oriented conducting bar 2.0 m long moves north at 20 m/s through a magnetic field of 0.017 T, directed downward. What is the strength and direction of the electric field generated in the bar?

asked by angela on October 24, 2010
11th grade physics
Two point charges q and q’ are placed respectively at two points A and B. Let O be the midpoint of [AB]. Charge q placed at A creates at O an electric field of strength E=9×10^6 V/m. Determine the resultant electric field at O when: a) q’=q b) q’=-q

asked by vicky on March 15, 2016
11th grade physics
Two point charges q and q’ are placed respectively at two points A and B. Let O be the midpoint of [AB]. Charge q placed at A creates at O an electric field of strength E=9×10^6 V/m. Determine the resultant electric field at O when: a) q’=q b)

asked by vicky on March 15, 2016
11th grade physics
Two point charges q and q’ are placed respectively at two points A and B. Let O be the midpoint of [AB]. Charge q placed at A creates at O an electric field of strength E=9×10^6 V/m. Determine the resultant electric field at O when: a) q’=q b) q’=-q

asked by vicky on March 15, 2016
Physics
I know this is so simple but for some reason I am having a brain fart… A 20 C charge experiences a 2 N force in an electric field. What is the strength of the electric field? Please help and laugh later thank you lol

asked by Trevor on May 1, 2015
Physics
An electrostastic force of 20.0 newtons is exerted on a charge of 8.00 x 10^/2 C at point P in an electric field. The magnitude of the electric field strength at P is Given: Fe = 20 B q = 8.00 x 10^/2 C

asked by Priscilla on February 5, 2010
Physics
When an electron moves 2.5 m in the direction of an electric field, the change in electrical potential energy of the electron is 8×10-17J. What is the strength of the electric field that causes the change in potential energy? 320 N/C 200 N/C 20 N/C 3.2 N/C

asked by La La on October 19, 2012
PHYSICS
The electron gun in a television tube uses a uniform electric field to accelerate electrons from rest to 5.0×107 m/s in a distance of 1.2 cm. What is the electric field strength?

asked by Lucas on February 24, 2010

Physics
A uniform electric field exists everywhere in the x, y plane. This electric field has a magnitude of 5600 N/C and is directed in the positive x direction. A point charge -9.6 × 10-9 C is placed at the origin. Find the magnitude of the net electric field

asked by Anonymous on September 27, 2015
physics
A uniform electric field exists everywhere in the x, y plane. This electric field has a magnitude of 5700 N/C and is directed in the positive x direction. A point charge -5.4 × 10-9 C is placed at the origin. Find the magnitude of the net electric field

asked by namabia on November 19, 2014
physics
The electric field strength 6.0 cm from a very long charged wire is 1700 N/C. What is the electric field strength 10.0 cm from the wire?

asked by David D. on September 3, 2010
physics
Background pertinent to this problem is available in Interactive LearningWare 18.3. A uniform electric field exists everywhere in the x, y plane. This electric field has a magnitude of 5700 N/C and is directed in the positive x direction. A point charge

asked by namabia on November 18, 2014
PHYSICS
A proton, initially traveling in the +x-direction with a speed of 5.30×105m/s , enters a uniform electric field directed vertically upward. After traveling in this field for 4.38×10−7s , the proton’s velocity is directed 45 ∘ above the +x-axis.

asked by Mary on January 28, 2014
Physics
A beam of unknown charged particles passes at right angle to the direction of magnetic field of 9.0 10-2 T. If the speed of the particles is 3.0 104 m/s and force experienced by a particle is 8.64 10-16 N, how many electric charges are carried by one

asked by Landon on May 26, 2009
Physics
There is a very large horizontal conducting plate in the plane (consider it infinitely large). Its thickness is . The charge densities on the upper and the lower surfaces are both equal to . The goal of this problem is to find the electric field (magnitude

asked by P on February 24, 2013
Physics – important
An electron is accelerated through a uniform electric field of magnitude 2.5×10^2 N/C with an initial speed of 1.2×10^6 m/s parallel to the electric field. a) Calculate the work done on the electron by the field when the electron has travelled 2.5 cm in

asked by Linn on April 21, 2009
Physics
An electron is accelerated through a uniform electric field of magnitude 2.5×10^2 N/C with an initial speed of 1.2×10^6 m/s parallel to the electric field. a) Calculate the work done on the electron by the field when the electron has travelled 2.5 cm in

asked by Linn on April 21, 2009
physics
please check my answers and help me with the first one. how can you charge an object negatively with only the help of a positively charged object? -This one I am not too sure, when one material is rubbed against another electrons jump readily from one to

asked by Soly on November 6, 2007

physics
A 0.035 kg spherical oil droplet has charge of +1×10-7C. A uniform electric field is acting upwards as shown below. What strength of electric field is required to make the sphere float in the air without moving?

asked by mable on December 12, 2016
physics
There is a very large horizontal conducting plate in the x-y plane (consider it infinitely large). Its thickness is h . The charge densities on the upper and the lower surfaces are both equal to +σ. The goal of this problem is to find the electric field

asked by Anonymous on February 27, 2013
Science- Electric and Magnetic Potential Energy

  1. At which position will the bar magnets most likely experience the least magnetic potential energy between them? D – position 4 2. A positively charged test object is moving toward the positive source charge in an electric field. B – It’s potential

asked by ImLegit on April 19, 2016
physics
An electromagnetic wave has an electric field strength of 145 V/m at a point P in space at time t. (a) What is the electric field energy density at P? (b) A parallel-plate capacitor whose plates have area 0.110 m2 has a uniform electric field between its

asked by Beth on March 8, 2013
Physics
An electron experiences a force of 12 mN in the positive x-direction in an electric field. What is the magnitude and direction of the electric field?

asked by Sam on February 8, 2011
Physics
There is a very large horizontal conducting plate in the x-y plane (consider it infinitely large). Its thickness is h . The charge densities on the upper and the lower surfaces are both equal to +σ. The goal of this problem is to find the electric field

asked by P on February 25, 2013
Physics
A 20 C charge experiences a 2 N force in an electric field. What is the strength of the electric field?

asked by Jennifer on April 27, 2015
Science
before you say “The answers are in your text” I don’t have one this is based on memory and guessing. Welcome to the 2017 school system. 1. Objects with like charges each other while opposite charges ___ each other. 2. The direction

asked by Senpai on December 4, 2017
Math
Question: An electron is released from rest in a uniform electric field and accelerates to the north at a rate of 249 m/s^2 . Part A: What is the magnitude of the electric field? Answer: E=_ N/C Part B: What is the direction of the electric field?

asked by Ashley on March 15, 2017
Physics
The electric field strength @ distance = 1.0 m from a point charge is 4.0 x 10^4 N/C. What is the Electric field strength @ 2.0 m from the same charge?

asked by Anna on February 27, 2013

Physics
I don’t know if my other post went through or not, so I’m reposting it here. The first question I didn’t know the answer to and the second one was worded in a way that I couldn’t understand. 1. With respect to an electric and a magnetic field, how does the

asked by Emily on March 29, 2008
Physics
A proton is released from rest in a uniform electric field. After the proton has traveled a distance of 10.0 cm, its speed is 1.4 x 106 m/s in the positive x direction. Find the magnitude and direction of the electric field.

asked by Chloe on July 17, 2011
phsics multiple choice
1)A coil of length 1cm has N turns and carries an electric current I. It creates at a point M a magnetic field of intensity B. -If a current 3I is sent in the coil the field strength at M becomes: a. 3B b. B/3 c. B -If the number of turns per unit length

asked by angy on May 17, 2016
physics multiple choice
1)A coil of length 1cm has N turns and carries an electric current I. It creates at a point M a magnetic field of intensity B. -If a current 3I is sent in the coil the field strength at M becomes: a. 3B b. B/3 c. B -If the number of turns per unit length

asked by angy on May 17, 2016
electric force/field
Three point charges, A = 2.2 µC, B = 7.5 µC, and C = -3.9 µC, are located at the corners of an equilateral triangle . Find the magnitude and direction of the electric field at the position of the 2.2 µC charge. magnitude = . N/C direction =

asked by physics on January 23, 2012
College Physics
A doubly charged ion is accelerated to an energy of 33.0 keV by the electric field between two parallel conducting plates separated by 1.70 cm. What is the electric field strength between the plates?

asked by Bill on March 24, 2014
PHYSICS
A doubly charged ion is accelerated to an energy of 34.0 keV by the electric field between two parallel conducting plates separated by 2.00 cm. What is the electric field strength between the plates?

asked by Kg on September 30, 2012
Physics
A doubly charged ion is accelerated to an energy of 33.0 keV by the electric field between two parallel conducting plates separated by 1.70 cm. What is the electric field strength between the plates?

asked by Sam on March 23, 2014
Physics
A particle with mass m = 1.20g and charge q = 345ìC is traveling in the x-direction with an initial velocity of v0 = 68.0m/s. The particle passes through a constant electric field in the y-direction with magnitude |E| = 263N/C over a distance of d =

asked by Nick on January 17, 2013
Chemistry
Two fixed charges, -4μC and -5μC, are separated by a certain distance. If the charges are separated by 20cm, what is the magnitude of the electric field halfway between the charges? My textbook says that the formula for electric field is (kq)/r^2. But

asked by Emma on February 9, 2016

Physics
The electric flux through the surface shown in Figure Ex27.10 is 15.0 Nm2/C, and the electric field makes an angle α = 70° with the surface. What is the electric field strength? The surface is a 10cm by 10cm square.

asked by David D. on September 13, 2010
Physics Flux
The electric flux through the surface shown in Figure Ex27.10 is 15.0 Nm2/C, and the electric field makes an angle á = 70° with the surface. What is the electric field strength? The surface is a 10cm by 10cm square.

asked by David on September 13, 2010
College Physics 2
Estimate the magnitude of the electric field strength due to the proton in a hydrogen atom at a distance of 5.29×10^-11 m, the expected position of the electron in the atom.

asked by Mayga on August 29, 2012
Vectors Math
The magnetic force (Vector FM)on a particle in a magnetic field is found by Vector FM = Vector I × Vector B, Vector I is the charge multiplied by the velocity of a charged particle and Vector B the strength of the magnetic field, in Tesla (T). An electron

asked by Amy on February 23, 2015
Physics
1.) a charge of -2×10^-9 C in an electric field between two metal plates 4cm apart is acted upon by a force of 10^-4 N. a.) what is the strength of the field? b.) what is the potential difference between the plates? my question: how will going to solve

asked by konan on February 8, 2009
Vectors
The magnetic force (Vector FM)on a particle in a magnetic field is found by Vector FM = Vector I × Vector B, Vector I is the charge multiplied by the velocity of a charged particle and Vector B the strength of the magnetic field, in Tesla (T). An electron

asked by Amy on February 22, 2015
Vectors Math
The magnetic force (Vector FM)on a particle in a magnetic field is found by Vector FM = Vector I × Vector B, Vector I is the charge multiplied by the velocity of a charged particle and Vector B the strength of the magnetic field, in Tesla (T). An electron

asked by Zaynab on February 22, 2015
College physics
150 pJ of energy is stored in a 1.0 cm times 1.0 cm times 1.0 cm region of uniform electric field. What is the electric field strength?

asked by Emoni on July 14, 2010
physics
explain the relationship between contours of constant potential and the electric field direction. why is the electric field a vector quantity while the electric potential is a scalar?

asked by jake on February 1, 2010
physics
A laser emits 1.42 1018 photons per second in a beam of light that has a diameter of 1.82 mm and a wavelength of 524.0 nm. Determine each of the following for the electromagnetic wave that constitutes the beam. (a) the average electric field strength (b)

asked by Anonymous on April 17, 2014

physics
Which of the following statements about electric field lines due to static charges are true? (Select all that apply.) Electric field lines can never cross each other. Static charges can create closed loop electric field lines that do not begin or end on a

asked by mathew on March 16, 2015
physics
Gold ions (Au+) are accelerate to high speeds using electric fields. These ions are then passed through a region where uniform electric E and magnetic B fields are present. If the ions are traveling to the right, which configuration of E and B will serve

asked by lauren on March 13, 2010
Physics
What are the strength and direction of the electric field at the position indicated by the dot in the diagram below, in which d = 4.9 cm, q = 11 nC, the positive x-axis points to the right, and the positive y-axis points up? Give your answer in each of the

asked by help! on February 28, 2012
physics

  1. Three particles with charges of +11 mC each are placed at the vertices of an equilateral triangle with sides of 15.0 cm. What is the magnitude and direction of the net force on each particle? 2. A proton is released in an uniform electric field and it

asked by Sasha on January 4, 2010
PHYSICS

  1. Why is an electric field considered to be a vector quantity? 2. Draw the electric field around an electric dipole of +1 µC and -1 µC 3. How many electrons have been removed from a positively charged object if it has a charge of 1.5 x 1011 C? 4. A

asked by Hayden on December 21, 2012
physics
I need help confirming my answers: 1) The work done on an electric charge equals a) IR b)q/t c)Vq d) It I think it’s C.(Vq) 2) The direction of an electric field is the direction that a _ test charge will move when placed in the field. a)negative b)

asked by Katie on April 7, 2011
physics help
I need help confirming my answers: 1) The work done on an electric charge equals a) IR b)q/t c)Vq d) It I think it’s C.(Vq) 2) The direction of an electric field is the direction that a _ test charge will move when placed in the field. a)negative b)

asked by Katie on April 10, 2011
Physics
What happens when an electron travels through an electric field? Will its speed remain constant or will it accelerate? The initial velocity is in the same direction as the electric field.

asked by Ichi on January 26, 2019
physics
An electron is released from rest in a uniform electric field and accelerates to the north at a rate of 115 m/s2. What are the magnitude and direction of the electric field.

asked by electric field on March 1, 2010
physics
A proton is placed in uniform electric field”E” what must be the magnitude and direction of electric field when electrostatic force is balanced by weight

asked by Anonymous on February 13, 2016

Physics
A small object of mass 3.00 g and charge -13 µC “floats” in a uniform electric field. What is the magnitude and direction of the electric field?

asked by Nate on October 4, 2010
Physics
A small object of mass 3.50 g and charge -22 µC “floats” in a uniform electric field. What is the magnitude and direction of the electric field?

asked by Jan on February 6, 2010
Physics
A small object of mass 2.60 g and charge -17 µC “floats” in a uniform electric field. What is the magnitude and direction of the electric field?

asked by Phil on February 17, 2013
Physics
A circular surface with a radius of 0.058 m is exposed to a uniform external electric field of magnitude 1.49 104 N/C. The electric flux through the surface is 74 N · m2/C. What is the angle between the direction of the electric field and the normal to

asked by Sarah on September 6, 2013
physics
A circular surface with a radius of 0.053 m is exposed to a uniform external electric field of magnitude 1.48 104 N/C. The electric flux through the surface is 72 N · m2/C. What is the angle between the direction of the electric field and the normal to

asked by amber on September 8, 2009
Physics
A circular surface with a radius of 0.058 m is exposed to a uniform external electric field of magnitude 1.49 104 N/C. The electric flux through the surface is 74 N · m2/C. What is the angle between the direction of the electric field and the normal to

asked by Sarah on September 6, 2013
Physics
A circular surface with a radius of 0.058 m is exposed to a uniform external electric field of magnitude 1.49 104 N/C. The electric flux through the surface is 74 N · m2/C. What is the angle between the direction of the electric field and the normal to

asked by Sarah on September 6, 2013
Physics
A circular surface with a radius of 0.058 m is exposed to a uniform external electric field of magnitude 1.49 104 N/C. The electric flux through the surface is 74 N · m2/C. What is the angle between the direction of the electric field and the normal to

asked by Sarah on September 8, 2013
Physic
An electron is released from rest in a uniform electric field and accelerates to the north at a rate of 115 m/s^2.Determine the magnitude and direction of electric field.

asked by Syam on December 16, 2014
Physics
What would happen when a dipole is placed in uniform electric field making an angle theta with the direction of electric field ?

asked by Sneha on June 8, 2013

Physics
What would happen when a dipole is placed in uniform electric field making an angle theta with the direction of electric field ?

asked by Aman on June 8, 2013
physics
A 0.10 g plastic bead is charged by the addition of 1.0 x 1010 excess electrons. What electric field (strength and direction) will cause the bead to hang suspended in the air?

asked by Jessika on July 21, 2011
Physics
An object with a charge of -4.4 uC and a mass of 1.4×10^−2 kg experiences an upward electric force, due to a uniform electric field, equal in magnitude to its weight. Find the magnitude of the electric field. Find the direction of the electric field. If

asked by Cooper on January 23, 2012
Physics
Gold ions (Au+) are accelerate to high speeds using electric fields. These ions are then passed through a region where uniform electric E and magnetic B fields are present. If the ions are traveling to the right, which configuration of E and B will serve

asked by mm. on March 15, 2010
Physics
Gold ions (Au+) are accelerate to high speeds using electric fields. These ions are then passed through a region where uniform electric E and magnetic B fields are present. If the ions are traveling to the right, which configuration of E and B will serve

asked by Sandra on March 13, 2010

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why did the cow want a divorce

Why did the cow want a divorce? Having trouble with this page (158)
6,271 results
9th grade
Why did the cow want a divorce? Having trouble with this page (158)

asked by Robert McKay on March 24, 2010
ENG1010
Which of the following is an announcement rather than a topic sentence? A) I want to talk about the increase in the divorce rate. B) Many people have trouble getting along with others. C) Almost one out of every two marriages ends in divorce. D) The

asked by Alex on March 6, 2011
Math
Why did the cow want a divorce?

asked by Josefina on May 13, 2008
math
why did the cow want a divorce?

asked by Greener the Better on January 24, 2009
Physic
A force of 7000N is applied to drag a 500 kg cow across a flat level floor to McSlaughter House. The cow has an acceleration of 2.5 m/s2. (a) what’s the weight of the cow? (b) what is the normal force acting on the cow? (c) What is the resultant force that

asked by Elaine on March 3, 2017

Math
A cow is tied on a 50-foot rope to the corner of a 20-ft by 50-ft rectangular building. The cow can graze on any of the grass it can reach. What is the area on which the cow can graze?

asked by Nascire on September 12, 2017
English

  1. A cow can make about 12kg of waste in a day. ( Is a cow a female? Can a cow mean both male and female ones? What about in this sentence?)

asked by rfvv on November 20, 2010
statistics
1.What’s the most appropriate procedure for evaluating the relationship between tenure and divorce? 2.What is the correlation and how can it be interpreted in terms of magnitude, direction and practical importance? 3.How much of whether executives have

asked by tina on August 25, 2013
AED 200
I asked a question about reliable sources yesterday. My problem is I am having trouble putting the ERIC site into APA format on my reference page. The city and state is not listed on the page. Could someone help please.

asked by Anonymous on April 22, 2009
statistic

  1. A sociologist conducted a study of divorce patterns in a Midwestern city. In the study, 200 divorced people were selected at random, and X, the number of years married before divorce, was measured. From this sample, it was found that the sample mean was

asked by Tian on January 30, 2011
AP Lit
What is the significance of Mama remembering having been “hooked in the side by a cow in ’49”? A. Like a cow, Mama has a strong spirit and is always ready for a fight. B. Like a cow is mild mannered, Mama is mild mannered and will always give in to Dee. C.

asked by Phee on February 6, 2018
Math
how did farmer john find his missing cow? How did the cow get over the block of hay?

asked by crystal on August 28, 2013
Social Studies
Do you know something about “Cow Power Program” in Vermont, in the USA? Would you summarize how to make electricity using cow waste? Thank you.

asked by rfvv on November 10, 2009
hum205
How is the culture of India reflected in the idea of the sacred cow? What influence does this have on the arts of India? Other than the sacred cow examples listed in your text, what is a sacred cow in the United States? How does that sacred cow influence

asked by bella on September 20, 2009
hum205
How is the culture of India reflected in the idea of the sacred cow? What influence does this have on the arts of India? Other than the sacred cow examples listed in your text, what is a sacred cow in the United States? How does that sacred cow influence

asked by bella on September 17, 2009

hum205
How is the culture of India reflected in the idea of the sacred cow? What influence does this have on the arts of India? Other than the sacred cow examples listed in your text, what is a sacred cow in the United States? How does that sacred cow influence

asked by bella on September 20, 2009
statistics
If a milk cow in California produced a mean of 1,875 pounds of milk per month, what percentage of production would that cow be in compared to the overall production per milk cow in California from 1990 through 2005?

asked by Bobby on August 19, 2014
math
A cow is attached to a rope in a pasture bordered by two fences ( each 60 feet long) which meet at an angle of 24 degree. If the rope attached to the cow is 15 feet long, over how many square feet can the cow graze? a. 2 pi b. 15 pi c. 30 pi d. 45 pi e.

asked by thomas on April 18, 2014
English
I just hav a sentence. Thank you He had been married for two years when his wife decided to apply for a divorce (filed for divorce)/decided to break up their relationship. How can you express this?

asked by Mike on April 9, 2011
geometetry
A cow is tied to the long side of a barn 10 feet from the corner.The rope being used to tie the cow to the barn is 21 feet long .The barn measures 11 feet wide and 28 feet long, what is the total area of the space in which the cow can graze

asked by natasha on August 7, 2008
physics (projectile motion)
A cow on a trebuchet is catapulted toward a castle wall. The cow is released with an inital velocity of 50 m/s at a 60 degree angle above the horizontal. At its release the cow is 8 m above the ground. The castle wall is 100 m from the trebuchet and the

asked by matt on October 13, 2010
physics (projectile motion)
A cow on a trebuchet is catapulted toward a castle wall. The cow is released with an inital velocity of 50 m/s at a 60 degree angle above the horizontal. At its release the cow is 8 m above the ground. The castle wall is 100 m from the trebuchet and the

asked by matt on October 13, 2010
English
Can someone help me with a citation (MLA style)for citing a web-site? I have read several MLA recommendations but am still having trouble. for example: The National Cancer Institue website, a page under Cancer Topics, a page titled Melanoma. I’m not sure

asked by Susan on October 13, 2008
math
This is a “trial and error” type question. Algebra alone won’t help you. First see what you could do buying 19 cow brains ($95) with $5 left. That could get you ten sheep brains ($1) and two pig brains ($4). The total would be only 31 total. Not enough. So

asked by drwls on March 28, 2007
Statistics
This is a question I have to answer for a University of Phoenix class, If any one could help and explain to me (in a stistics for dummies explanation:)I would appreciate it. Here goes: Six months after a divorce, the former wife, and husband each take a

asked by Lost In the Statistics Sauce on November 30, 2007

English
Can someone please tell me the format of a COVER page in MLA. I’m looking in my 6th edition book and I find title page but not cover page. I beleive the title goes 1/3 page down, then may 10 lines or so your name, then at the bottom the class, teacher, and

asked by Sue on February 25, 2010
(Research question)Family Health: Highschool
Is this a good research question? I have to come up with one and this is what I have. 1. Does divorce cause drug abuse in teenagers? My hypothesis would be Divorce does cause drug abuse in teenagers. 2. Or is this one better. Does divorce factor in the

asked by Anna on April 22, 2010
social problems
Increase in divorce rates over the last century related to :A)rejection of the ideology of the “good”family B) increasing financial independence of woman c)increasing abuse and conflict in families d) change in social norms toward greater acceptance of

asked by vedrana on February 23, 2011
Math
A cow is tethered by a 110-ft rope to the inside corner of an L-shaped building, as shown in the figure. Find the area that the cow can graze. (Let a = 10 ft, b = 60 ft, c = 110 ft, d = 70 ft, and e = 60 ft. Round your answer to the nearest whole number.)

asked by Janet on March 21, 2019
Operating Systems
Given that main memory is composed of only three page frames for public use and that a seven-page program (with Pages a, b, c, d, e, f, g) that requests pages in the following order: a, c, a, b, a, d, a, c, b, d, e, f. Using the FIFO page removal

asked by Selena on September 4, 2014
English
What did Mayu Yamamoto do with/from cow droppings? 1. She invented a way to make vanilla flavor from cow droppings. 2. She invented a way to make vanilla flavor with cow droppings. (Are both answers grammatical? Do we have to use ‘with’ or ‘from’ in both

asked by rfvv on October 26, 2013
SCIENCE
I have a wanted poster to make on: mad cow disease and I need to find a picture of bacterium or virus and “label” the parts. I am having trouble finding a picture that labels parts. Can you help me with this?

asked by marko on December 15, 2011
calculus
A printed page is to have 1 in. margin on all sides. The page should contain 80 sq. in. of type. What dimensions of the page will minimize the area of the page while still meeting the other requirements?

asked by Jo on October 17, 2016
Microeconomics
Baseballs cost $5 and baseball gloves cost $20. Assume you have $100 total to spend on these items. Construct a table similar to the one on page 158. What is the point, based on the Equimarginal Rule, that has equal marginal benefit (or the closest) for

asked by Jennifer on October 8, 2011
Chemistry
H2 + F2–> 2HF deltaH = 518.0 kJ H2 —-> 2H deltaH = 436.8 kJ F2 —> 2F deltaH = 158.2 kJ (a) calculate Delta H for H + F—> HF (b) what is the standard enthalpy change of formation of F2 Help please!!! i think this is easier than i’m making it. for (b)

asked by jessica on April 28, 2011

pre cal
Find the angle between the vectors u and v if u = (-1,4) v = (3,-4) a. 155.93 b. 158.58 c. 158.13 d. 155.24 e. 157.17

asked by anna on July 14, 2016
math
A cow is tied with a rope of length 14 m at the corner of rectangular field measured 20 m by 16 m. Find the area of the field in which the cow can graze. #anyone to help me with proper and systematic step by step solution

asked by kelvin on April 19, 2017
math
A cow is attached to a rope 10 feet long in a pasture bordered by two fence( more than 10 feet long) meeting at an angle of 60 degree. What is the area of the space in which the cow is grazing? a. 20 pi b. 5 pi /3 c. 20 pi /3 d. 50 pi /3 e. 100 pi please

asked by thomas on May 9, 2014
Social studies
How is the culture of India reflected in the idea of the sacred cow? What influence does this have on the arts in India? What is a sacred cow in the United States>

asked by Jim on May 9, 2010
Mathematics
A cow-trough has a triangular cross-section of height 25cm and base 30cm and is 2m long. A cow is drinking steadily, and when the water level is 5cm below the top it is being loward at the rate of 1cm/min. Find the rate if consumption in litres per minute.

asked by Amos on September 16, 2015
physics
why is it that, if the cow is falling,we only notice the motion of the cow, but not the motion of the other object

asked by lisa on May 16, 2012
Physics
A bicycle starts at the origin of a circular track that has a circumference of 126 m and travels at a constant speed a distance s = 38.0 m in a time t = 12s. a)what is the angular displacement (in rad) of the bicycle from its starting position? r=20.1 so

asked by Anderson on April 16, 2007
Math
If the height in centimeters of five students are 176,112,160,158 and 158,find the median and mode height for this group of five students.

asked by Kirandeep on January 16, 2014
English
Which of the following is a true statement about an MLA Works Cited page? A. The Works Cited page requires no special formatting. B. The Works Cited page should immediately follow the conclusion and be on the same page. C. The Works Cited page should

asked by anonymous on November 30, 2016
English
Which of the following is a true statement about an MLA Works Cited page? A. The Works Cited page requires no special formatting. B. The Works Cited page should immediately follow the conclusion and be on the same page. C. The Works Cited page should

asked by brooke on November 30, 2016

Math
Wani bought a cow for sh 42000 after being offered a 16% discount. How much money would have been the discount had she bought the cow for sh 21000?

asked by Kud on May 23, 2018
Math/Algebra
A student opens a mathematics book to two facing pages. The product of the page number is 420. Find the page numbers. The first page is _ The second page is _

asked by Angel Eyes on August 20, 2010
algebra
A student opens a math book to two facing pages.The product of the page numbers is 210.Find the page numbers. The first page is The second page is_____

asked by Rose on March 29, 2010
algebra
A student opens a mathematics book to two facing pages. The product of the page number is 2352. Find the page numbers. The first page is__________ The secnd page is__________

asked by Mary on March 5, 2012
English

  1. With his help, her cow gave birth to a cute baby. 2. Because of his help, her cow gave birth to a cute baby. 3. _ his help, her cow gave birth to a cute baby. [What is the meaning of ‘with’ in sentence 1? Does #1 mean #2? If not, what is suitable

asked by rfvv on November 26, 2018
Operating system
What is the . Let us define “most-recently-used” (MRU) as a page removal algorithm that removes from memory the most recently used page. Perform a page trace analysis using three page frames and the page requests from the previous exercise. Compute the

asked by philo on December 31, 2015
reading

  1. Which one of the following passages best suggests an indirect cause? A. Because the cold front arrived, it snowed. B. Jack slew the giant because he sold the cow for magic beans. C. If you mix pleasure and business, business suffers. D. We’ve learned

asked by Cassie on October 21, 2013
Algebra/Language Arts
I have a 15 page paper due tomorrow. I finished the paper, and edited it and all, that’s not my problem. My cover page is a work of art that I designed and I wanted to put a note on how it relates to my essay. How would I go about doing this? Do I add a

asked by MathMat on March 13, 2014
math
The gardener went to the market to buy 100 animals for a total of IDR 1.000.000. If the price of cow IDR. 50,000 /cow and goat IDR 10,000 /goat , rabbit IDR 5000 /rabbit , how many of each kind of animal which can he buy ? I wrote : Cow = X = 50.000 Goat =

asked by Iman on April 7, 2015
biology
How is a cow protein different than a human protein? How is cow DNA physically different from human DNA? Remember all proteins are made up of amino acids

asked by kelley on October 8, 2016

French
Are these right? This is supposed to be points of info on French culture in Canada. •Until the 1960s: Family lives of French Canadians heavily influenced by the Roman Catholic Church. •Large families •TODAY: •Average couple has only two children

asked by Jules on November 15, 2016
English

  1. What is your animal sign? 2. What is your Oriental animal sign? 3. What is your star sign? 4. My animal sign is Cow. 5. My animal sign is the Cow. 6. My animal sign is the cow. (Which expressions are correct?)

asked by rfvv on June 22, 2010
Math
Hi I’m having some trouble with this question: The selling price of a mathematics textbook is related to the number of pages in the text. A 300 page book sells for $25 and each additional 10 pages increases the price by $1. – What is the linear equation

asked by Emily on November 4, 2015
PHYSICS
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organizational culture is related to the polc function of:

C H A P T E R 8 Organizational Culture

© 2018 Boston Academic Publishing, Inc., d.b.a. FlatWorld. All rights reserved. Created exclusively for Essa AlSaeed <essa.alsaeed@live.mercer.edu>

FIGURE 8.1 3M Corporation has been able to continue their innovative culture by allowing employees to use up to 15% of their workweek to develop new innovations such as their famous Post-it Notes.

© Thinkstock

C H A P T E R L E A R N I N G O B J E C T I V E S

Reading this chapter will help you accomplish the following:

1. Describe what organizational culture is and why it is important for an organization.

2. Understand the dimensions that make up a company’s culture. 3. Understand the creation and maintenance of organizational culture. 4. Understand the factors that create cultural change. 5. Develop personal culture management skills.

Organizations, like individuals, have their own personalities—often referred to as organizational cultures.

Understanding how culture is created, communicated, and changed will help individuals understand the cultures

that best suit their personalities as well as methods to become more effective managers.

212 PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT VERSION 3.0

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FIGURE 8.2 The P-O-L-C Framework

1. UNDERSTANDING ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE

L E A R N I N G O B J E C T I V E S

1. Define organizational culture. 2. Understand why organizational culture is important. 3. Understand the different levels of organizational culture.

1.1 What Is Organizational Culture? Organizational culture refers to a system of shared assumptions, values, and beliefs that indicate appro- priate and inappropriate behavior within a given organization.[1] These values have a strong influence on employee behavior as well as organizational performance.[2] The concept of organizational culture was first made popular in the 1980s when Peters and Waterman’s best-selling book, In Search of Excel- lence, made the argument that company success could be attributed to an organizational culture that was decisive, customer-oriented, empowering, and people-oriented. Since then, organizational culture has become the subject of numerous research studies, books, and articles. Organizational culture is still a relatively new concept in contrast to a topic such as leadership, which has a history spanning several centuries.

Culture is largely invisible to individuals, since many elements of an organization’s culture are a function of intangible social cues rather than explicit written policies. Even though culture affects all employee behaviors, thinking, and behavioral patterns, individuals tend to become more aware of their organization’s culture when they have the opportunity to compare it to other organizations. Culture is related to the organizational facet of the P-O-L-C framework. The organizing function involves creat- ing and implementing organizational design decisions. The culture of the organization is closely linked to organizational design. For instance, a culture that empowers employees to make decisions could prove extremely resistant to a centralized organizational design, hampering the manager’s ability to im- plement such a design. However, a culture that supports the organizational structure can be very powerful.

1.2 Why Does Organizational Culture Matter? An organization’s culture may be one of its strongest assets or its biggest liability. In fact, it has been ar- gued that organizations that have a rare and hard-to-imitate culture enjoy a competitive advantage.[3] In a survey conducted by the management consulting firm Bain & Company, worldwide business lead- ers identified corporate culture to be as important as corporate strategy for business success.[4] This comes as no surprise to leaders of successful businesses, who are quick to attribute their company’s success to their organization’s culture.

Researchers find a relationship between organizational cultures and company performance with respect to success indicators such as revenue, sales volume, market share, and stock prices.[5] At the same time, it is important to have a culture that fits with the demands of the company’s environment. To the extent that shared values are proper for the company in question, company performance may benefit from culture.[6] For example, if a company is in the high-tech industry, having a culture that

CHAPTER 8 ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE 213

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FIGURE 8.3 Organizational Culture Levels

Source: Adapted from Schein, E. H. (1992). Organizational

Culture and Leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

assumptions

Beliefs about human nature and reality that are taken for granted.

values

Shared principles, standards, and goals.

artifacts

The visible and tangible elements of culture.

encourages innovativeness and adaptability will support its performance. However, if a company in the same industry has a culture characterized by stability, a high respect for tradition, and a strong prefer- ence for upholding rules and procedures, the company may suffer because of its culture. In other words, just as having the “right” culture may be a competitive advantage for an organization, having the “wrong” culture may lead to performance difficulties, be responsible for organizational failure, and act as a barrier preventing the company from changing and taking risks.

In addition to having implications for organizational performance, organizational culture is an effective control mechanism dictating employee behavior. Culture is a more powerful way of controlling and managing employee behaviors than organizational rules and regulations. For example, when a company is trying to improve the quality of its customer service, rules may not be helpful, particularly when the problems customers present are unique. Instead, creating a culture of customer service may achieve better results by encouraging employees to think like customers, knowing that the company priorities in this case are clear: Keeping the customer happy is preferable to other concerns, such as saving the cost of a refund. Therefore, the ability to understand and influence organizational culture is an important item for managers to have in their tool kit when they are carrying out the controlling and organizing functions of the P-O-L-C framework.

1.3 Levels of Organizational Culture Organizational culture consists of some aspects that are relatively visible, as well as as- pects that may lie below one’s conscious awareness. Organizational culture can be thought of as consisting of three interrelated levels.[7]

At the deepest level, below our awareness, lie basic assumptions. These assump- tions are taken for granted and reflect beliefs about human nature and reality. At the second level, values exist. Values are shared principles, standards, and goals. Finally, at the surface, we have artifacts, or visible, tangible aspects of organizational culture. For example, in an organization, a basic assumption employees and managers share might be that happy employees benefit their organizations. This might be translated into val- ues such as egalitarianism, high-quality relationships, and having fun. The artifacts reflecting such values might be an executive “open door” policy, an office layout that includes open spaces and gathering areas equipped with pool tables, and frequent com- pany happy hours or picnics.

Understanding the organization’s culture may start from observing its artifacts: its physical environment, employee interactions, company policies, reward systems, and other observable characteristics. When you are interviewing for a position, observing the physical environment, how people dress, where they relax, and how they talk to

others is definitely a good start to understanding the company’s culture. However, simply looking at these tangible aspects is unlikely to give a full picture of the organization, since an important chunk of what makes up culture exists below one’s degree of awareness. The values and, deeper, the assumptions that shape the organization’s culture can be uncovered by observing how employees interact and the choices they make, as well as by inquiring about their beliefs and perceptions regarding what is right and appropriate behavior. Some companies such as online eyeglass maker Warby Parker institute spe- cific culture teams that plan activities and luncheons to ensure culture is maintained and on the fore- front of employee’s minds on a weekly basis.[8]

K E Y T A K E A W A Y

Organizational culture is a system of shared assumptions, values, and beliefs that help individuals understand which behaviors are and are not appropriate within an organization. Cultures can be a source of competitive advantage for organizations. Strong organizational cultures can be an organizing as well as a controlling mechanism for organizations. Finally, organizational culture consists of three levels: assumptions that are be- low the surface, values, and artifacts.

214 PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT VERSION 3.0

© 2018 Boston Academic Publishing, Inc., d.b.a. FlatWorld. All rights reserved. Created exclusively for Essa AlSaeed <essa.alsaeed@live.mercer.edu>

innovative cultures

Cultures that are flexible, adaptable, and experiment with new ideas.

aggressive cultures

Cultures that value competitiveness and outperforming competitors.

outcome-oriented cultures

Cultures that emphasize achievement, results, and action.

D I S C U S S I O N Q U E S T I O N S

1. Why do companies need culture?

2. Give an example of a company culture being a strength as well as a weakness.

3. In what ways does culture serve as a controlling mechanism?

4. If assumptions are below the surface, why do they matter?

5. Share examples of artifacts you have noticed at different organizations.

2. MEASURING ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE

L E A R N I N G O B J E C T I V E S

1. Understand different dimensions of organizational culture. 2. Understand the role of culture strength. 3. Explore subcultures within organizations.

2.1 Dimensions of Culture Which values characterize an organization’s culture? Even though all aspects of culture may not be im- mediately observable, identifying a set of values that might be used to describe an organization’s cul- ture helps us identify, measure, and manage culture more effectively. For this purpose, several re- searchers have proposed various culture typologies. One popular typology is the Organizational Cul- ture Profile (OCP), where culture is represented by seven distinct values.[9]

Innovative Cultures

According to the OCP framework, companies that have innovative cultures are flexible and adapt- able, and experiment with new ideas. These companies are characterized by a flat hierarchy and titles and other status distinctions tend to be downplayed. For example, Apple has been named by Fast Com- pany magazine as one of the most innovative companies in the world.[10] While they do not invent new technology, the innovations they introduced to personal computers, mobile phones, and tablets, with products such as the iPhone and iPad, changed the daily life of consumers and created entire industries working on Apple platforms. This is a culture that values accountability and agility. With a simple or- ganizational chart and clearly defined responsibilities, they are able to achieve clear focus on a small number of products and engage in quick course corrections. In order to maintain agility, the company uses small teams—for example, putting two engineers in charge of writing the code for adapting the Sa- fari browser for iPad.[11]

Aggressive Cultures

Companies with aggressive cultures value competitiveness and outperforming competitors. For ex- ample, Microsoft is often identified as a company with an aggressive culture. The company has faced a number of antitrust lawsuits and disputes with competitors over the years. In aggressive companies, people may use language such as “we will kill our competition.” In the past, Microsoft executives made statements such as “we are going to cut off Netscape’s air supply… Everything they are selling, we are going to give away,” and its aggressive culture is cited as a reason for getting into new legal troubles be- fore old ones are resolved.[12] An overly aggressive and cutthroat culture has been cited by some as leading to the emissions-cheating scandal at Volkswagon.[13]

Outcome-Oriented Cultures

The OCP framework describes outcome-oriented cultures as emphasizing achievement, results, and action as important values. A good example of an outcome-oriented culture may be the electronics re- tailer Best Buy. Having a culture emphasizing sales performance, Best Buy tallies revenues and other relevant figures daily by department. Employees are trained and mentored to sell company products effectively, and they learn how much money their department made every day.[14] In 2005, the com- pany implemented a Results Oriented Work Environment (ROWE) program that allows employees to

CHAPTER 8 ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE 215

© 2018 Boston Academic Publishing, Inc., d.b.a. FlatWorld. All rights reserved. Created exclusively for Essa AlSaeed <essa.alsaeed@live.mercer.edu>

work anywhere and anytime; they are evaluated based on results and fulfillment of clearly outlined ob- jectives.[15] Outcome-oriented cultures hold employees as well as managers accountable for success and use systems that reward employee and group output. In these companies, it is more common to see re- wards tied to performance indicators as opposed to seniority or loyalty. Research indicates that organ- izations that have a performance-oriented culture tend to outperform companies that are lacking such a culture.[16] At the same time, when performance pressures lead to a culture where unethical behaviors become the norm, individuals see their peers as rivals, and short-term results are rewarded, the result- ing unhealthy work environment serves as a liability.[17] Perhaps due to such potential problems, as a pioneer in the ROWE practice, Best Buy abandoned this philosophy in 2013.[18]

216 PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT VERSION 3.0

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FIGURE 8.4 Dimensions of the Organizational Culture Profile

Source: Retrieved October 8, 2012 from (second from top) Vincent van der Heijden, http://www.flickr.com/photos/flo_and_me/3836753819/; (third

from bottom) Cherrysweetdeal, http://www.flickr.com/photos/cherrysweetdeal/4322582205/; all other images © Thinkstock.

CHAPTER 8 ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE 217

© 2018 Boston Academic Publishing, Inc., d.b.a. FlatWorld. All rights reserved. Created exclusively for Essa AlSaeed <essa.alsaeed@live.mercer.edu>

Stable cultures

Cultures that are predictable, rule-oriented, and bureaucratic.

FIGURE 8.5

From their social initiatives to extensive support of their own employees, Starbucks is the epitome of a people- oriented culture.

Source: http://www.flickr.com/

photos/montagecomms/2328936178

People-oriented cultures

Cultures that value fairness, supportiveness, and respecting individual rights.

team-oriented cultures

Cultures that are collaborative and emphasize cooperation among employees.

detail-oriented culture

Cultures that emphasize precision and paying attention to details.

Stable Cultures

Stable cultures are predictable, rule-oriented, and bureaucratic. When the environment is stable and certain, these cultures may help the organization to be effective by providing stable and constant levels of direction and output.[19] These cultures prevent quick action and, as a result, may be a misfit to a changing and dynamic environment. Public sector institutions may be viewed as stable cultures. In the private sector, GM is cited as having a bureaucractic culture, something the automaker has been strug- gling to change while recovering from its bankruptcy in 2009. The company is characterized by slow decision making, with several meetings and premeetings for key decisions, resulting in slow adoption of new technology and decision-making failures, such as allowing engineers to continue working on a Hummer sports utility vehicle long after they realized the project would fail.[20]

People-Oriented Cultures

People-oriented cultures value fairness, supportiveness, and respect for individual rights. In these organizations, there is a greater emphasis on and expectation of treating people with respect and dig- nity.[21] One study of new employees in accounting companies found that employees, on average, stayed 14 months longer in companies with people-oriented cultures.[22] Starbucks is an example of a people-oriented culture. The company pays employees above minimum wage, offers health care and tuition reimbursement benefits to its part-time as well as full-time employees, and has creative perks such as weekly free coffee for all associates and the opportunity to earn a degree online. As a result of these policies, the company benefits from a turnover rate much lower than the industry average.[23]

Team-Oriented Cultures

Companies with a team-oriented culture are collaborative and emphasize cooperation among em- ployees. For example, Southwest Airlines facilitates a team-oriented culture by cross-training its em- ployees so that they are capable of helping one another when needed. The company also emphasizes training intact work teams.[24] In Southwest’s selection process, applicants who are not viewed as team players are not hired as employees.[25] In team-oriented organizations, members tend to have more positive relationships with their coworkers and particularly with their managers.[26]

FIGURE 8.6

The growth in the number of passengers flying with Southwest Airlines from 1973 to 2012 shows Southwest as one of the most-flown U.S. airlines. While price has played a role in this, their emphasis on service has been a key piece of their culture and competitive advantage and has helped Southwest remain profitable for more than 39 consecutive years.

Source: Adapted from http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/69/Southwest-airlines-passengers.jpg

Detail-Oriented Cultures

Organizations with a detail-oriented culture are characterized in the OCP framework as emphasiz- ing precision and attention to details. Such a culture gives a competitive advantage to companies in the hospitality industry by helping them differentiate themselves from others. For example, Four Seasons and Ritz Carlton are among hotels who keep records of all customer requests such as which newspaper the guest prefers or what type of pillow the customer uses. This information is put into a computer

218 PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT VERSION 3.0

© 2018 Boston Academic Publishing, Inc., d.b.a. FlatWorld. All rights reserved. Created exclusively for Essa AlSaeed <essa.alsaeed@live.mercer.edu>

strong culture

A culture that is shared by organizational members.

FIGURE 8.7

Walt Disney created a strong culture at his company that has evolved since its founding in 1923.

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/

Image:Walt_disney_portrait.jpg

system and used to provide better service to returning customers. Any requests hotel employees re- ceive, as well as overhear, might be entered into the database to serve customers better.

2.2 Strength of Culture A strong culture is one that is shared by organizational members[27] —that is, a culture in which most employees in the organization show consensus regarding the values of the company. The stronger a company’s culture, the more likely it is to affect the way employees think and behave. For example, cul- tural values emphasizing customer service will lead to higher-quality customer service if there is wide- spread agreement among employees on the importance of customer-service-related values.[28]

It is important to realize that a strong culture may act as an asset or a liability for the organization, depending on the types of values that are shared. For example, imagine a company with a culture that is strongly outcome-oriented. If this value system matches the organizational environment, the com- pany may perform well and outperform its competitors. This is an asset as long as members are behav- ing ethically. However, a strong outcome-oriented culture coupled with unethical behaviors and an ob- session with quantitative performance indicators may be detrimental to an organization’s effectiveness. Movies such as Wall Street, Glengarry Glen Ross, Boiler Room, and The Wolf of Wall Street illustrate the dangers associated with strong organizational cultures, where the need to “always be closing” a deal overshadows ethical concerns of other stakeholders. Enron is an extreme example of this dysfunctional type of strong culture.

One limitation of a strong culture is the difficulty of changing established organizational behaviors. In an organization where certain values are widely shared, if the organization decides to adopt a differ- ent set of values, unlearning the old values and learning the new ones will be a challenge because em- ployees will need to adopt new ways of thinking, behaving, and responding to critical events. For ex- ample, Home Depot had a decentralized, autonomous culture where many business decisions were made using “gut feelings” while ignoring the available data. When Robert Nardelli became CEO of the company in 2000, he decided to change its culture starting with centralizing many of the decisions that were previously left to individual stores. This initiative met with substantial resistance, and many high- level employees left during Nardelli’s first year. Despite getting financial results such as doubling the sales of the company, many of the changes he made were criticized. He left the company in January 2007.[29]

A strong culture may also be a liability during a merger. During mergers and acquisitions, com- panies inevitably experience a clash of cultures, as well as a clash of structures and operating systems. Culture clash becomes more problematic if both parties have unique and strong cultures. For example, during the 2010 merger of United Airlines and Continental, one of the key issues was the integration of corporate cultures. United Airlines had consumer satisfaction ratings below industry average, whereas Continental had above-average ratings and a quality focus. United employees had contentious relations with management and unionization rates exceeding 80%, while Continental employees enjoyed more positive relations with management and were 40% unionized. The creation of a unique, unified com- pany culture is key to the success of such a merger.[30]

Music Rap-Up: Where Do I Belong

Twinprov perform a rap discussing different organizational cultures.

Youtube

View the video online at: http://www.youtube.com/embed/4YK23j6VnQU?rel=0

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subcultures

A set of values unique to a limited cross section of the organization.

counterculture

Shared values and beliefs that are in direct opposition to the values of the broader organizational culture.

2.3 Do Organizations Have a Single Culture? The examples and profiles discussed as part of the Organizational Culture Profile may suggest that a company has a single culture that is shared throughout the organization. In reality there might be mul- tiple cultures within the organization. For example, people working on the sales floor may experience a different culture from that experienced by people working in the warehouse. Cultures that emerge within different departments, branches, or geographic locations are called subcultures. Subcultures may arise from the personal characteristics of employees and managers, as well as the different condi- tions under which work is performed. In addition to understanding the broader organization’s values, managers will need to make an effort to understand subculture values to see their effect on workforce behavior and attitudes.

Sometimes, a subculture may take the form of a counterculture. Defined as shared values and be- liefs that are in direct opposition to the values of the broader organizational culture,[31] countercultures are often shaped around a charismatic leader. For example, within a largely bureaucratic organization, an enclave of innovativeness and risk taking may emerge within a single department. A counterculture may be tolerated by the organization as long as it is bringing in results and contributing positively to the effectiveness of the organization. However, its existence may be perceived as a threat to the broader organizational culture. In some cases, this may lead to actions that would take away the autonomy of the managers and eliminate the counterculture.

K E Y T A K E A W A Y

Culture can be understood in terms of seven different culture dimensions, depending on what is most em- phasized within the organization. For example, innovative cultures are flexible, adaptable, and experiment with new ideas, while stable cultures are predictable, rule-oriented, and bureaucratic. Strong cultures can be an asset or liability for an organization but can be challenging to change. Multiple cultures may coexist in a single organization in the form of subcultures and countercultures.

D I S C U S S I O N Q U E S T I O N S

1. Think about an organization you are familiar with. On the basis of the dimensions of OCP, how would you characterize its culture?

2. Out of the culture dimensions described, which dimension do you think would lead to higher levels of employee satisfaction and retention? Which one would be related to company performance?

3. What are pros and cons of an outcome-oriented culture?

4. When bureaucracies were first invented, they were considered quite innovative. Do you think that different cultures are more or less effective at different points in time and in different industries? Why or why not?

5. Can you imagine an effective use of subcultures within an organization?

3. CREATING AND MAINTAINING ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE

L E A R N I N G O B J E C T I V E S

1. Understand how cultures are created. 2. Learn how to maintain a culture. 3. Recognize organizational culture signs.

3.1 How Are Cultures Created? Where do cultures originate? Understanding this question is important in understanding how they can be changed. An organization’s culture is shaped as the organization faces and deals with external and

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internal challenges. When the organization’s way of doing business provides a successful adaptation to environmental challenges and ensures success, those values are retained. These values and ways of do- ing business are taught to new members as the way to do business.[32]

The factors that are most important in the creation of an organization’s culture include founders’ values, preferences, and industry demands.

FIGURE 8.8 Model Describing How Cultures Are Created and Maintained

Founder Values

A company’s culture, particularly during its early years, is inevitably tied to the personality, back- ground, and values of its founder or founders, as well as their vision for the future of the organization. When entrepreneurs establish their own businesses, the way they want to do business determines the organization’s rules, the structure set up in the company, and the people they hire to work with them. For example, some of the existing corporate values of the ice cream company Ben & Jerry’s can easily be traced to the personalities of its founders, Ben Cohen and Jerry Greenfield. In 1978, the two high school friends opened up their first ice-cream shop in a renovated gas station in Burlington, Vermont. Their strong social convictions led them to buy only from the local farmers and devote a certain per- centage of their profits to charities. The core values they instilled in their business can still be observed in the current company’s devotion to social activism and sustainability, continuous contributions to charities, use of environmentally friendly materials, and dedication to creating jobs in low-income areas. Their culture even extends to general charity to the local community with their annual “Free Cone Day” from numerous participating outlets and franchisees.[33] Even though Unilever acquired the company in 2000, the social activism component remains unchanged, and Unilever has expressed its commitment to traditional Ben & Jerry’s values.[34]

Founder values become part of the corporate culture to the degree to which they help the company be successful. For example, the social activism of Ben & Jerry’s was instilled in the company because the founders strongly believed in these issues. However, these values probably would not endure three dec- ades later if they had not helped the company fuel its early success. In the case of Ben & Jerry’s, these values helped distinguish their brand from larger corporate brands and attracted a loyal customer base. Thus, by providing a competitive advantage, these values were retained as part of the corporate culture and were taught to new members as the right way to do business.

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FIGURE 8.9

Ben & Jerry’s managed to preserve the most unique aspects of its organizational culture despite being acquired by Unilever. The success of a merger often depends on successful harmonizing of the cultures of two distinct organizations.

Source:

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/

Image:BenJerry-UnitedSquare.jpg

Industry Demands

While founders undoubtedly exert a powerful influence over corporate cultures, the industry charac- teristics also play a role. Companies within the same industry can sometimes have widely differing cul- tures. At the same time, the industry characteristics and demands often act as a powerful force to create similarities among organizational cultures. For example, despite some differences, many companies in the insurance and banking industries are stable and rule-oriented, many companies in the high-tech in- dustry have innovative cultures, and those in the nonprofit sector may be people-oriented. If the in- dustry is one with a large number of regulatory requirements—for example, aviation, banking, health care, and high-reliability (such as nuclear power) industries—then we might expect the presence of a large number of rules and regulations, a bureaucratic company structure, and a stable culture. The in- dustry influence over culture is also important to acknowledge because this shows that it may not be possible to imitate the culture of a company in a different industry, even though it may seem admirable to outsiders.

3.2 How Are Cultures Maintained? As a company matures, its cultural values are refined and strengthened. The early values of a com- pany’s culture exert influence over its future values. Organizational culture determines what types of people are hired by an organization and what types of people are left out. Moreover, once new employ- ees are hired, the company assimilates new employees and teaches them the way things are done in the organization. We call these processes attraction-selection-attrition and onboarding processes. We will also examine the role of leaders and reward systems in shaping and maintaining an organization’s culture.

Attraction-Selection-Attrition

Organizational culture is maintained through a process known as attraction-selection-attrition (ASA). First, applicants are attracted to organizations they perceive they will fit in as successful employees. Someone who has a competitive nature may feel comfortable in and may prefer to work in a company where interpersonal competition is the norm. Others may prefer to work in a team-oriented workplace. Research shows that employees with different personality traits find different cultures attractive. For example, out of the Big Five personality traits, employees who demonstrate neurotic personalities were less likely to be attracted to innovative cultures, whereas those who had openness to experience were more likely to be attracted to innovative cultures.[35]

Of course, this process is imperfect, and value similarity is only one reason a candidate might be attracted to a company. There may be other, more powerful attractions such as good benefits. The second component of the ASA framework prevents applicants who may not be a strong fit with the or- ganization from getting in: selection. Just as candidates are looking for places where they will fit in, companies are also looking for people who will fit into their current corporate culture. Many compan- ies are hiring people for fit with their culture, as opposed to fit with a certain job. For example, Southw- est Airlines prides itself for hiring employees based on personality and attitude rather than specific job- related skills, which they learn after they are hired. Companies use different techniques to weed out candidates who do not fit with corporate values. For example, Google relies on multiple interviews with future peers. By introducing the candidate to several future coworkers and learning what these cowork- ers think of the candidate, it becomes easier to assess the level of fit.

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onboarding

The process through which new employees learn the attitudes, knowledge, skills, and behaviors required to function effectively within an organization.

FIGURE 8.10 The ASA Framework

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:OU_Great_Reading_Room.jpg

Even after a company selects individuals for person-organization fit, there may be new employees who do not fit in long-term. Some candidates may be skillful in impressing recruiters and signal high levels of culture fit even though they do not necessarily share the company’s values. In such cases, the organ- ization is likely to gradually eliminate candidates who do not fit in through attrition. Attrition refers to the natural process where candidates with poor organizational fit will leave the company. Research in- dicates that person-organization misfit is one of the key reasons for employee turnover.[36]

Because of the ASA process, the company attracts, selects, and retains people who share its core values, whereas those people who are different in core values will be excluded from the organization either during the hiring process or later on through naturally occurring turnover. Thus, organizational culture will act as a self-defending organism where intrusive elements are kept out. Supporting the ex- istence of such self-protective mechanisms, research shows that organizations demonstrate a certain level of homogeneity regarding personalities and values of organizational members.[37]

New Employee Onboarding

Another way in which an organization’s values, norms, and behavioral patterns are transmitted to em- ployees is through onboarding (also referred to as the organizational socialization process).[38] On- boarding refers to the process through which new employees learn the attitudes, knowledge, skills, and behaviors required to function effectively within an organization. If an organization can successfully socialize new employees into becoming organizational insiders, new employees will feel accepted by their peers and confident regarding their ability to perform; they will also understand and share the as- sumptions, norms, and values that are part of the organization’s culture. This understanding and con- fidence in turn translate into more effective new employees who perform better and have higher job

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formal orientation program

A program used to indoctrinate new employees to the company culture, as well as introducing them to their new jobs and colleagues.

mentor

A trusted person who provides an employee with advice and support regarding career-related matters.

satisfaction, stronger organizational commitment, and longer tenure within the company.[39] Organiza- tions engage in different activities to facilitate onboarding, such as implementing orientation programs or matching new employees with mentors.

What Can Employees Do during Onboarding? New employees who are proactive, seek feedback, and build strong relationships tend to be more suc- cessful than those who do not.[40] For example, feedback seeking helps new employees. Especially on a first job, a new employee can make mistakes or gaffes and may find it hard to understand and interpret the ambiguous reactions of coworkers. By actively seeking feedback, new employees may find out sooner rather than later any behaviors that need to be changed and gain a better understanding of whether their behavior fits with the company culture and expectations.

Relationship building or networking (a facet of the organizing function) is another important be- havior new employees may demonstrate. Particularly when a company does not have a systematic ap- proach to onboarding, it becomes more important for new employees to facilitate their own onboard- ing by actively building relationships. According to one estimate, 35% of managers who start a new job fail and either voluntarily leave or are fired within 18 months. Of these, over 60% report being unable to form effective relationships with colleagues as the primary reason for this failure.[41]

What Can Organizations Do during Onboarding? Many organizations, including Microsoft, UPS, and Bank of America, take a more structured and sys- tematic approach to new employee onboarding, while others follow a “sink or swim” approach where new employees struggle to figure out what is expected of them and what the norms are in their organization.

A formal orientation program indoctrinates new employees to the company culture, and intro- duces them to their new jobs and colleagues. An orientation program has a role in making new em- ployees feel welcome in addition to imparting information that may help them be successful in their new jobs. Many large organizations have formal orientation programs consisting of lectures, video- tapes, and written material, while some may follow more informal approaches. According to one es- timate, most orientations last anywhere from one to five days, and some companies are currently switching to a computer-based orientation. Ritz Carlton Hotel Company uses a very systematic ap- proach to employee orientation and views orientation as the key to retention. In the two-day classroom orientation, employees spend time with management, dine in the hotel’s finest restaurant, and witness the attention to customer service detail firsthand. During these two days, they are introduced to the company’s intensive service standards, team orientation, and its own language. Later, on their 21st day, they are tested on the company’s service standards and are certified.[42] Research shows that formal ori- entation programs are helpful in teaching employees about the goals and history of the company, as well as communicating the power structure. Moreover, these programs may also help with a new em- ployee’s integration to the team. However, these benefits may not be realized to the same extent in computer-based orientations. In fact, compared to those taking part in a regular, face-to-face orienta- tion, those undergoing a computer-based orientation were shown to have lower understanding of their job and the company, indicating that different formats of orientations may not substitute for each oth- er.[43]

What Can Organizational Insiders Do during Onboarding? One of the most important ways in which organizations can help new employees adjust to a company and a new job is through organizational insiders—namely, supervisors, coworkers, and mentors. Lead- ers have a key influence over onboarding and the information and support they provide determine how quickly employees learn about the company politics and culture, while coworker influence determines the degree to which employees adjust to their teams. Mentors can be crucial to helping new employees adjust by teaching them the ropes of their jobs and how the company really operates. A mentor is a trusted person who provides an employee with advice and support regarding career-related matters. Although a mentor can be any employee or manager who has insights that are valuable to the new em- ployee, mentors tend to be relatively more experienced than their protégés. Mentoring can occur nat- urally between two interested individuals or organizations can facilitate this process by having formal mentoring programs. These programs may successfully bring together mentors and protégés who would not come together otherwise.

Research indicates that the existence of these programs does not guarantee their success, and there are certain program characteristics that may make these programs more effective. For example, when mentors and protégés feel that they had input in the mentor-protégé matching process, they tend to be more satisfied with the arrangement. Moreover, when mentors receive training beforehand, the out- comes of the program tend to be more positive.[44] Because mentors may help new employees interpret and understand the company’s culture, organizations may benefit from selecting mentors who

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FIGURE 8.11

One of the most famous mentor-protégé relationships in history is that of Socrates and his equally famous student, Plato.

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/

File:Socrates_and_Plato.jpg

personify the company’s values. Thus, organizations may need to design these programs carefully to in- crease their chance of success.

Leadership

Leaders are instrumental in creating and changing an organization’s culture. There is a direct correspondence between the leader’s style and an organization’s culture. For ex- ample, when leaders motivate employees through inspiration, corporate culture tends to be more supportive and people-oriented. When leaders motivate by making rewards contingent on performance, the corporate culture tended to be more performance-ori- ented and competitive.[45] In these and many other ways, what leaders do directly in- fluences the cultures of their organizations. This is a key point for managers to consider as they carry out their leading P-O-L-C function.

Part of the leader’s influence over culture is through role modeling. Many studies have suggested that leader behavior, the consistency between organizational policy and leader actions, and leader role modeling determine the degree to which the organiza- tion’s culture emphasizes ethics.[46] The leader’s own behaviors will signal to individu- als what is acceptable behavior and what is unacceptable. In an organization in which high-level managers make the effort to involve others in decision making and seek opinions of others, a team-oriented culture is more likely to evolve. By acting as role models, leaders send signals to the organization about the norms and values that are ex- pected to guide the actions of its members.

Leaders also shape culture by their reactions to the actions of others around them. For example, do they praise a job well done or do they praise a favored employee re- gardless of what was accomplished? How do they react when someone admits to mak- ing an honest mistake? What are their priorities? In meetings, what types of questions do they ask? Do they want to know what caused accidents so that they can be preven- ted, or do they seem more concerned about how much money was lost because of an accident? Do they seem outraged when an employee is disrespectful to a coworker, or does their reaction depend on whether they like the harasser? Through the behaviors they encourage and actions they tolerate, leaders shape and maintain an organization’s culture.

Reward Systems

Finally, the company culture is shaped by the type of reward systems used in the organization and the kinds of behaviors and outcomes it chooses to reward and punish. One relevant element of the reward system is whether the organization rewards behaviors or results. Some companies have reward systems that emphasize intangible elements of performance as well as more easily observable metrics. In these companies, supervisors and peers may evaluate an employee’s performance by assessing the person’s behaviors as well as the results. In such companies, we may expect a culture that is relatively people- or team-oriented, and employees act as part of a family.[47] However, in companies in which goal achieve- ment is the sole criterion for reward, there is a focus on measuring only the results without much re- gard to the process. In these companies, we might observe outcome-oriented and competitive cultures. Whether the organization rewards performance or seniority would also make a difference in culture. When promotions are based on seniority, it would be difficult to establish a culture of outcome orienta- tion. Finally, the types of behaviors that are rewarded or ignored set the tone for the culture. Which be- haviors are rewarded, which ones are punished, and which are ignored will determine how a com- pany’s culture evolves. A reward system is one tool managers can wield when undertaking the con- trolling function.

3.3 Signs of Organizational Culture How do individuals learn about a company’s culture? One way of finding out about a company’s cul- ture is by observing employees or interviewing them. At the same time, culture manifests itself in some visible aspects of the organization’s environment. In this section, we discuss five ways in which culture shows itself to observers and employees.

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FIGURE 8.12 Visual Elements of Culture

Source: (From top to bottom) © Thinkstock; http://www.flickr.com/photos/revjim5000/2349161623/; http://www.flickr.com/photos/ell-r-brown/

4374203580/; http://www.flickr.com/photos/lilivanili/6990868344/; http://www.flickr.com/photos/37796451@N00/4857349094/.

Mission Statement

A mission statement that is taken seriously and widely communicated may provide insights into an or- ganization’s corporate culture. For example, the Mayo Clinic’s mission statement is, “To inspire hope and contribute to health and well-being by providing the best care to every patient through integrated clinical practice, education, and research.” This statement ties to their primary value, “The needs of the patient come first.” This value evolved from the founders, who are quoted as saying, “The best interest of the patient is the only interest to be considered.” The Mayo Clinic has a corporate culture that puts patients first. For example, no incentives are given to physicians based on the number of patients they see. Because doctors are salaried, they have no interest in retaining a patient for themselves, and they refer the patient to other doctors when needed.[48]

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FIGURE 8.13

Rituals are important at Mary Kay Cosmetics, where pink Cadillacs are given to top performers at large annual events.

Source: Retrieved October 8, 2012

from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/

Image:MK_Cadillacs.jpg

Rituals

Repetitive activities within an organization that have symbolic meaning.

Rituals

Rituals refer to repetitive activities within an organization that have symbolic meaning.[49] Usually rituals have their roots in the history of a company’s culture. They create camaraderie and a sense of belonging among employees. They also serve to teach employees corporate values and create identifica- tion with the organization. For example, at the cosmetics firm Mary Kay Inc., employees attend cere- monies recognizing their top salespeople with an award of a new car—traditionally a pink Cadillac. These ceremonies are conducted in large auditoriums where participants wear elaborate evening gowns and sing company songs that create emotions and excitement. During this ritual, employees feel a con- nection to the company culture and its values such as self-determination, willpower, and enthusi- asm.[50] Another example of rituals is the Saturday-morning meetings of Walmart. This ritual was first created by the company founder Sam Walton, who used these meetings to discuss which products and practices were doing well and which required adjustment. He was able to use this information to make changes in Walmart stores before the start of the week, which gave him a competitive advantage over rival stores that made their adjustments based on weekly sales figures during the middle of the follow- ing week. Today, hundreds of Walmart associates attend the Saturday-morning meetings in the Bentonville, Arkansas, headquarters. The meetings traditionally start and end with the Walmart cheer; the agenda includes a discussion of weekly sales figures and merchandising tactics. As a ritual, the meetings help maintain a small-company atmosphere, ensure employee involvement and accountabil- ity, communicate a performance orientation, and demonstrate taking quick action.[51]

Rules and Policies

Another way in which an observer may find out about a company’s culture is to examine its rules and policies. Companies create rules to determine acceptable and unacceptable behavior and, thus, the rules that exist in a company will signal the type of values it has. Policies about issues such as decision mak- ing, human resources, and employee privacy reveal what the company values and emphasizes. For ex- ample, a company that has a policy such as “all pricing decisions of merchandise will be made at cor- porate headquarters” is likely to have a centralized culture that is hierarchical, as opposed to decentral- ized and empowering. Swiss Bank UBS once issued a 43-page dress code that advised employees on how long their skirts should be, how to “enhance personality” using makeup, and what not to eat to have fresh breath, which could be taken as signs of its customer-oriented, detail-oriented, and rule-ori- ented corporate culture.[52] The presence or absence of policies on sensitive issues such as English-only rules, bullying and unfair treatment of others, workplace surveillance, open-door policies, sexual har- assment, workplace romances, and corporate social responsibility all provide pieces of the puzzle that make up a company’s culture. This highlights how interrelated the P-O-L-C functions are in practice. Through rules and policies, the controlling function affects the organization’s culture, a facet of organizing.

Physical Layout

A company’s building, layout of employee offices, common areas, and other workspaces communicate important messages about a company’s culture. For example, visitors walking into the Nike campus in Beaverton, Oregon, can witness firsthand some of the distinguishing characteristics of the company’s culture. The campus is set on 74 acres and boasts an artificial lake, walking trails, soccer fields, and cutting-edge fitness centers. The campus functions as a symbol of Nike’s values such as energy, physical fitness, an emphasis on quality, and a competitive orientation. In addition, at fitness centers on the Nike headquarters, only those using Nike shoes and apparel are allowed in. This sends a strong signal that loyalty is expected. The company’s devotion to athletes and their winning spirit are manifested in campus buildings named after famous athletes, photos of athletes hanging on the walls, and their statues dotting the campus.[53]

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FIGURE 8.14

Google promotes a creative and fun atmosphere by enhancing their buildings with a vast array of visual stimuli, such as this dinosaur sculpture of “Stan” and his pink friends who reside at the Googleplex.

Source:

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/

File:Don%27t_be_evil_-_Googleplex

_-_IMG_2445.JPG

The layout of the office space is also a strong indicator of a company’s culture. A company that has an open layout where high-level managers interact with employees may have a culture of team orienta- tion and egalitarianism, whereas a company where most high-level managers have their own floor may indicate a higher level of hierarchy. Microsoft employees tend to have offices with walls and a door be- cause the culture emphasizes solitude, concentration, and privacy. In contrast, Intel is famous for its standard cubicles, which reflect its egalitarian culture. The same value can also be observed in its avoid- ance of private and reserved parking spots.[54] The degree to which playfulness, humor, and fun are part of a company’s culture may be indicated in the office environment. For example, entertainment website The Chive boasts headquarters in Austin, Texas, that includes an indoor slide, hot tub, and second-story bar.[55]

Stories and Language

Perhaps the most colorful and effective way in which organizations communicate their culture to new employees and organizational members is through the skillful use of stories. A story can highlight a critical event an organization faced and the organization’s response to it, or a heroic effort of a single employee illustrating the company’s values. The stories usually engage employees emotionally and gen- erate employee identification with the company or the heroes of the tale. A compelling story may be a key mechanism through which managers motivate employees by giving their behavior direction and by energizing them toward a certain goal.[56] Moreover, stories shared with new employees communicate the company’s history, its values and priorities, and create a bond between the new employee and the organization. For example, Arthur Fry, a scientist at 3M, was using slips of paper to mark the pages of hymns in his church choir, but they kept falling off. He remembered a superweak adhesive that had been invented in 3M’s labs, and he coated the markers with this adhesive. Thus, Post-it Notes were born. However, marketing surveys showed that interest in such a product was weak and the distribut- ors were not convinced that it had a market. Instead of giving up, Fry distributed samples of the small yellow sticky notes to secretaries throughout his company. Once they tried them, people loved them and asked for more. Word spread and this led to the ultimate success of the product. This story effect- ively describes the core values of a 3M employee: being innovative by finding unexpected uses for ob- jects, persevering, and being proactive in the face of negative feedback.[57]

Language is another way to identify an organization’s culture. Companies often have their own ac- ronyms and buzzwords that are clear to them and help set apart organizational insiders from outsiders. Such code is known as jargon. Jargon is the language of specialized terms used by a group or profes- sion. Every profession, trade, and organization has its own specialized terms.

K E Y T A K E A W A Y

Organizational cultures are created by a variety of factors, including founders’ values and preferences, industry demands, and early values, goals, and assumptions. Culture is maintained through attraction-selection-attri- tion, new employee onboarding, leadership, and organizational reward systems. Signs of a company’s culture include the organization’s mission statement, stories, physical layout, rules and policies, and rituals.

D I S C U S S I O N Q U E S T I O N S

1. Do you think it is a good idea for companies to emphasize person-organization fit when hiring new employees? What advantages and disadvantages do you see when hiring people who fit with company values?

2. What is the influence of company founders on company culture? Can you think of an example based on your personal knowledge?

3. What are the methods companies use to aid with employee onboarding? What is the importance of onboarding for organizations?

4. What type of a company do you feel you would fit in best? What type of a culture would be a misfit for you? In your past work experience, were there any moments when you felt that you did not fit in? Why?

5. What is the role of physical layout as an indicator of company culture? What type of a physical layout would you expect from a company that is people-oriented? Team-oriented? Stable?

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4. CREATING CULTURE CHANGE

L E A R N I N G O B J E C T I V E

1. Understand the process of culture change.

4.1 How Do Cultures Change? Culture is a product of its founder’s values, its history, and collective experiences. Hence culture is part of a company’s DNA and is resistant to change efforts. Many organizations realize that their current culture constitutes a barrier against organizational productivity and performance. Particularly when there is a mismatch between an organization’s values and the demands of its environment, changing the culture becomes the key to the company turnaround.

Achieving culture change is challenging, and there are many companies that ultimately fail in this mission. Research surrounding companies that successfully changed their culture indicates that the fol- lowing six steps increase the chances of success.[58]

FIGURE 8.15 Process of Culture Change

Creating a Sense of Urgency

For the change effort to be successful, it is important to communicate the need for change to employ- ees. One way of doing this is to create a sense of urgency on the part of employees, explaining to them why changing the fundamental way in which business is done is so important. In successful culture change efforts, leaders communicate with employees and present a case for culture change as the essen- tial element that will lead the company to eventual success. As an example, consider the situation at IBM in 1993 when Lou Gerstner was brought in as CEO and chairman. After decades of dominating the market for mainframe computers, IBM was rapidly losing market share to competitors, and its

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efforts to sell personal computers—the original PC—were seriously undercut by cheaper “clones.” In the public’s estimation, the name IBM had become associated with obsolescence. Gerstner recalls that the crisis IBM was facing became his ally in changing the organization’s culture. Instead of spreading optimism about the company’s future, he used the crisis at every opportunity to get buy-in from em- ployees.[59] While IBM sold its personal computer business in 2005, the company continues to be known for exceptional innovation and leadership.

Changing Leaders and Other Key Players

A leader’s vision is an important factor that influences how things get done in an organization. Thus, culture change often follows changes at the highest levels of the organization. Moreover, to implement the change effort quickly and efficiently, a company may find it helpful to remove managers and other powerful employees who are acting as a barrier to change.[60] Because of political reasons, self-interest, or habits, managers may create powerful resistance to change efforts. In such cases, replacing these pos- itions with employees and managers giving visible support to the change effort may increase the likeli- hood that the change effort succeeds.

Role Modeling

Role modeling is the process by which employees modify their own beliefs and behaviors to reflect those of the leader.[61] CEOs must model the behaviors that are expected of employees to change the culture because these behaviors will trickle down to lower-level employees. One negative example of this type of role modeling is the scandal involving Hewlett-Packard board members. In 2006, when board members were suspected of leaking confidential company information to the press, the com- pany’s top-level executives hired a team of security experts to find the source of the leak. The investig- ators sought the phone records of board members, looking for links to journalists. For this purpose, they posed as board members and called phone companies to obtain itemized home phone records of board members and journalists. When the investigators’ methods came to light, HP’s chairman and four other top executives faced criminal and civil charges. When such behavior is modeled at top levels, it is likely to have an adverse effect on the company culture.[62]

Training

Well-crafted training programs may be instrumental in bringing about culture change by teaching em- ployees the new norms and behavioral styles. For example, when auto repairer Midas felt the need to change its culture to be more committed to customers, they developed a program to train employees to be more familiar with customer emotions and connect better with them. Customer reports have been overwhelmingly positive in stores that underwent this training.[63]

Changing the Reward System

The criteria with which employees are rewarded and punished have a powerful role in determining the cultural values of an organization. Switching from a commission-based incentive structure to a straight salary system may be instrumental in bringing about customer focus among sales employees. Moreover, by rewarding and promoting employees who embrace the company’s new values and pro- moting these employees, organizations can make sure that changes in culture have a lasting effect. If the company wants to develop a team-oriented culture where employees collaborate with one another, then using individual-based incentives may backfire. Instead, distributing bonuses to intact teams might be more successful in bringing about culture change.

Creating New Symbols and Stories

Finally, the success of the culture change effort may be increased by developing new rituals, symbols, and stories. Prior to its merger with United Airlines, Continental Airlines was a company that success- fully changed its culture to be less bureaucratic and more team-oriented in the 1990s. One of the first things management did to show employees that they really meant to abolish many of the company’s detailed procedures and create a culture of empowerment was to burn the heavy 800-page company policy manual in their parking lot. The new manual was only 80 pages. This action symbolized the up- coming changes in the culture and served as a powerful story that circulated among employees. Anoth- er early action was redecorating waiting areas and repainting all their planes, again symbolizing the new order of things.[64] By replacing the old symbols and stories, the new symbols and stories will help enable the culture change and ensure that the new values are communicated.

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K E Y T A K E A W A Y

Organizations need to change their culture to respond to changing conditions in the environment, to remain competitive, and to avoid complacency or stagnation. Culture change often begins by the creation of a sense of urgency. Next, a change of leaders and other key players may enact change and serve as effective role mod- els of new behavior. Training can also be targeted toward fostering these new behaviors. Reward systems are changed within the organization. Finally, the organization creates new stories and symbols. Successful culture change requires managers that are proficient at all of the P-O-L-C functions. Creating and communicating a vision is part of planning; leadership and role modeling are part of leading; designing effective reward systems is part of controlling; all of which combine to influence culture, a facet of organizing.

D I S C U S S I O N Q U E S T I O N S

1. Can new employees change a company’s culture? If so, how?

2. Are there any conditions under which change is not possible? If so, what would such conditions be?

3. Have you ever observed a change process at an organization you were involved with? If so, what actions worked well and what actions failed?

4. What recommendations would you have for someone considering a major change of culture within their own organization?

5. DEVELOPING YOUR PERSONAL SKILLS: LEARNING TO FIT IN

L E A R N I N G O B J E C T I V E S

1. Understand what individuals can proactively do to understand a new organizational environment.

2. Learn effective guidelines for proactive onboarding.

5.1 Before You Join How do you find out about a company’s culture before you join? Several tips will allow you to more ac- curately gauge the culture of a company you are interviewing with.

First, do your research. Talking to friends and family members who are familiar with the company, doing an online search for news articles about the company, browsing the company’s Web site, and reading its mission statement would be a good start.

Second, observe the physical environment. Do people work in cubicles or in offices? What is the dress code? What is the building structure? Do employees look happy, tired, or stressed? The answers to these questions are all pieces of the puzzle.

Third, read between the lines. For example, the absence of a lengthy employee handbook or de- tailed procedures might mean that the company is more flexible and less bureaucratic.

Fourth, reflect on how you are treated. The recruitment process is your first connection to the com- pany. Were you treated with respect? Do they maintain contact with you or are you being ignored for long stretches at a time?

Fifth, ask questions. What happened to the previous incumbent of this job? What does it take to be successful in this firm? What would their ideal candidate for the job look like? The answers to these questions will reveal a lot about the way they do business.

Finally, listen to your gut. Your feelings about the place in general, and your future manager and coworkers in particular, are important signs that you should not ignore.[65]

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FIGURE 8.16 Managing Workplace Impressions

© Thinkstock

232 PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT VERSION 3.0

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K E Y T A K E A W A Y

There are a number of ways to learn about an organization’s culture before you formally accept a job. Take the time to consider whether the culture you are observing truly seems like the right fit for you. Once you join a new organization, several strategies exist to maximize onboarding success.

D I S C U S S I O N Q U E S T I O N S

1. What clues does your college or school give about its culture?

2. What are four things you could do today to learn more about an organization you are interested in?

3. Imagine that your good friend is starting a new job next week. What recommendations would you give your friend to help him or her do a great job onboarding into the organization?

6. CASE IN POINT: GOOGLE CREATES UNIQUE CULTURE

FIGURE 8.17

Source: Used with permission from Google, Inc.

Google is one of the best-known and most admired companies around the world, so much so that “googling” is the term many use to refer to searching information on the Web. Started out as a student project by two Stanford University graduates—Larry Page and Sergey Brin—in 1996, Google became the most frequently used Web search engine on the Internet with 5.9 billion searches per day in 2013, as well as other innovative applications such as Gmail, Google Earth, Google Maps, Google Chrome, and YouTube. Google grew from 10 employees working in a garage in Palo Alto to over 52,000 employees operating around the world by 2014. What is the formula behind this success? Google strives to operate based on solid principles that may be traced back to its founders. Their mission statement summarizes their commitment to end-user needs: “To or- ganize the world’s information and to make it universally accessible and useful.” While other companies were focused on marketing their sites and increasing advertising revenues, Google stripped the search page of all distractions and presented users with a blank page consisting only of a company logo and a search box.

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Google resisted pop-up advertising because the company felt that it was annoying to end-users. They insisted that all their advertisements would be clearly marked as “sponsored links.” This emphasis on improving user experience and always putting it before making more money in the short term seems to have been critical to their success.

Keeping their employees happy is also a value they take to heart. Google created a unique work environment that attracts, motivates, and retains the best players in the field. Google was ranked as the number 1 “Best Place to Work For” by Fortune magazine in 2014, and held this position several times in its history. This is not surprising if one looks closer to how Google treats employees. On their Mountain View, California, campus called the “Googleplex,” employees are treated to free gourmet food options in the company’s 25 cafes, with one employee noting that they are never more than 150 feet away from a stocked pantry. In fact, many em- ployees complain that once they started working for Google, they tend to gain 10 to 15 pounds! Employees have access to gyms, a bowling alley, video games, on-site childcare, sleep pods, massages, and doctors. Google provides four months of parental leave with 75% of full pay and offers $500 for take-out meals for fam- ilies with a newborn. These perks create a place where employees feel that they are treated well and their needs are met. Moreover, they contribute to the feeling that they are working at a unique and cool place that is different from everywhere else they may have worked.

In addition, Google encourages employee risk taking and innovation. In fact, one of the key reasons Google is an attractive employer is that individuals have the opportunity to work on potentially industry changing and life-altering projects that are interesting and meaningful. How is the risk-taking orientation maintained? When a vice president in charge of the company’s advertising system made a mistake costing the company millions of dollars and apologized for the mistake, she was commended by Larry Page, who congratulated her for mak- ing the mistake and noting that he would rather run a company where they are moving quickly and doing too much, as opposed to being too cautious and doing too little. This attitude toward acting fast and accepting the cost of resulting mistakes as a natural consequence of working on the cutting edge may explain why the company is performing much ahead of competitors such as Microsoft and Yahoo! One of the current chal- lenges for Google is to expand to new fields outside of their Web search engine business. To promote new ideas, Google encourages all engineers to spend 20% of their time working on their own ideas.

Google’s culture is reflected in their decision making as well. Decisions at Google are made in teams. It is com- mon for several small teams to attack each problem and for employees to try to influence each other using ra- tional persuasion and data. Gut feeling has little impact on how decisions are made. In some meetings, people reportedly are not allowed to say “I think …” but instead must say “the data suggest ….” To facilitate teamwork, employees work in open office environments where private offices are assigned only to a select few.

How do they maintain these unique values? In a company emphasizing hiring the smartest people, it is very likely that they will attract big egos that may be difficult to work with. Google realizes that its strength comes from its “small company” values that emphasize risk taking, agility, and cooperation. Therefore, they take their hiring process very seriously. Hiring is extremely competitive and getting to work at Google is not unlike ap- plying to a college. As they get bigger, they relaxed their admission standards a little bit, but this means in- stead of conducting twelve screening interviews with the same job candidate, they may now conduct four or five. Candidates may be asked to write essays about how they will perform their future jobs. Recently, they tar- geted potential new employees using billboards featuring brainteasers directing potential candidates to a website where they were subjected to more brainteasers. Each candidate may be interviewed by as many as eight people on several occasions. Through this scrutiny, they are trying to select “Googley” employees who will share the company’s values, perform at high levels, and be liked by others within the company.

Will this culture survive in the long run? It may be too early to tell, given that the company was only founded in 1998. The founders emphasized that their initial public offering (IPO) would not change their culture and they would not introduce more rules or change the way things are done in Google to please Wall Street, and so far, they seem to be right. But can a public corporation really act like a start-up? Can a global giant facing scrutiny on issues including privacy, copyright, and censorship maintain its culture rooted in its days in a Palo Alto garage? Larry Page is quoted as saying, “We have a mantra: don’t be evil, which is to do the best things we know how for our users, for our customers, for everyone. So I think if we were known for that, it would be a wonderful thing.”

Case written by Berrin Erdogan and Talya Bauer to accompany Bauer, T. & Erdogan, B. (2015). Organizational Be- havior (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: Flat World Knowledge. Partially based on information from Elgin, B., Hof, R. D., & Greene, J. (2005, August 8). Revenge of the nerds—again. BusinessWeek. Retrieved July 29, 2014, from ht- tp://www.businessweek.com/technology/content/jul2005/tc20050728_5127_tc024.htm; Hardy, Q. (2005, November 14). Google thinks small. Forbes, 176(10); Lashinky, A. (2006, October 2). Chaos by design. Fortune, 154(7); Mangalindan, M. (2004, March 29). The grownup at Google: How Eric Schmidt imposed better manage- ment tactics but didn’t stifle search giant. Wall Street Journal, p. B1; Lohr, S. (2005, December 5). At Google, cube culture has new rules. New York Times. Retrieved July 29, 2014, from http://www.nytimes.com/2005/12/

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05/technology/05google.html; Schoeneman, D. (2006, December 31). Can Google come out to play? New York Times. Retrieved July 20, 2013 from http://www.nytimes.com/2006/12/31/fashion/31google.html; Tkaczyk, C., Keating, C., Konrad, A.,, Vandermey, A. & Kapelke, C. (2/6/2012). The 100 best companies to work for. Fortune, 165(2); Warner, M. (2004, June). What your company can learn from Google. Business 2.0, 5(5).

C A S E D I S C U S S I O N Q U E S T I O N S

1. Culture is an essential element of organizing in the P-O-L-C framework. Do you think Google has a strong culture? What would it take to make changes in that culture for better or for worse?

2. Do you think Google’s unique culture will help or hurt Google in the long run?

3. What factors are responsible for the specific culture that exists at Google?

4. What type of decision-making approach has Google taken? Do you think this will remain the same over time? Why or why not?

5. Do you see any challenges Google may face in the future because of its emphasis on having a risk-taking culture?

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238 PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT VERSION 3.0

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  • Chapter 8: Organizational Culture
    • Understanding Organizational Culture
      • What Is Organizational Culture?
      • Why Does Organizational Culture Matter?
      • Levels of Organizational Culture
    • Measuring Organizational Culture
      • Dimensions of Culture
        • Innovative Cultures
        • Aggressive Cultures
        • Outcome-Oriented Cultures
        • Stable Cultures
        • People-Oriented Cultures
        • Team-Oriented Cultures
        • Detail-Oriented Cultures
      • Strength of Culture
      • Do Organizations Have a Single Culture?
    • Creating and Maintaining Organizational Culture
      • How Are Cultures Created?
        • Founder Values
        • Industry Demands
      • How Are Cultures Maintained?
        • Attraction-Selection-Attrition
        • New Employee Onboarding
          • What Can Employees Do during Onboarding?
          • What Can Organizations Do during Onboarding?
          • What Can Organizational Insiders Do during Onboarding?
        • Leadership
        • Reward Systems
      • Signs of Organizational Culture
        • Mission Statement
        • Rituals
        • Rules and Policies
        • Physical Layout
        • Stories and Language
    • Creating Culture Change
      • How Do Cultures Change?
        • Creating a Sense of Urgency
        • Changing Leaders and Other Key Players
        • Role Modeling
        • Training
        • Changing the Reward System
        • Creating New Symbols and Stories
    • Developing Your Personal Skills: Learning to Fit In
      • Before You Join
    • Case in Point: Google Creates Unique Culture
    • Endnotes
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tú eres menos (less) simpático que federico.

Verbs

Complete the chart with the correct verb forms.

infinitive     follow (1) ________________        

I    (2) ____________    I died

you      followed (3) _______________      

we   follow (4) __________________      

they    (5) ______________    died

To complete

Fill in the blanks with the correct preterite forms of the verbs in parentheses

1.Diego and Javier _____________________  (get) a map.

2.This morning you____________________   (say goodbye) to the students.

3.You ______________________   (feeling) bad yesterday.

4. Last week I did not _______________________   (sleep) well.

5.Impay ___________________________   (prefer) eat at home.

Prayers

Write sentences using the information provided. Use the preterite and make any necessary changes.

Edgar / prefer / roasted chicken

Edgar preferred roast chicken.

1. Alvaro and I / serve / the hors d’oeuvres

2. Who / repeat / instructions?

3.ayer / me / say goodbye / to / my nephews

4. you / fall asleep / at ten

Dinner

Fill in the blanks with the preterite form of the appropriate verbs from the list. Four verbs will not be used.

open  get  choose to  read

look  ask to  prefer to  try

repeat  feeling  server  dress

Last night Jorge, Iván and I went out to dinner at Mi Tierra, a Guatemalan restaurant. We (1) ___________   this place because Jorge (2) ________________   a review (review) on the Internet that said (said) that the food is authentic and very tasty. It is not an elegant restaurant; then we (3) ______________   of bluejeans. Truly, in My Earth my friends and I (4) __________   like (like) at home. The waiter who gave us (5) __________   was very friendly. To start, Jorge and Iván (6) ____________   tamales, but I (7) ____________   wait for the main course: beef with rice and beans. We ate so much (so much) that no (8) ___________   anything for dessert (dessert). It was a delicious dinner!

Try it!

Write the direct or indirect object pronoun that is missing in each sentence.

Model The salad? The waiter served it to us.

Direct object

1. The salmon? The owner me______________   recommends.

2. The food? I’m going to prepare you _______________.

3. The drinks? We are asking for __________________.

4. The sodas? You_______________   can I bring now.

5. The rice dishes? They are going to serve us _______________________ after

Model Can you bring me your plate? No, I can not bring it to you. 

6. Do you want to show her the letter? Yes, I’m going to show ____________ the now.

7. Did you serve the meat? No, I did not _________________.

8. Are you going to read the menu? No, no_________________   I’m going to read it.

9. Do you recommend the lobster? Yes, _________________ I recommend it.

10. When are you going to prepare dinner for us? ___________________ I will prepare it in one hour

Reply

Imagine that you work as a waiter in a restaurant. Respond to the commands of these clients using pronouns. Follow the model.

Model Mrs. Gomez: A salad, please.

Yes ma’am. Right away I bring it to you. 

1.Sres. Lopez: The butter, please.

2.Srta. Rivas: The shrimp, please.

3.Sra. Lugones: The roasted chicken, please.

4. Your companions: Coffee, please.

5. Your Spanish teacher: French fries, please.

6.Dra. González: The pork chop, please.

7. Your father: The mushrooms, please.

8.Dr. Torres: The account (check), please.

Change

Change the following phrases by substituting (by replacing) the nouns for the corresponding pronouns. Make any (any) necessary change.

Model I wrote a letter to my father.

I wrote it to him. 

1. I sent (sent) postcards to my friends.

2.Celia bought fruit for you.

3.Ángel recommended the roasted chicken.

4. The waiter served you a coffee.

5. Who sold us the butter?

6. Who brings you lunch today?

7. I ask the waitress for a flan.

8. Carlos’s mom prepares hamburgers.

9.The saleswoman sells hats to clients.

10.This year I bought a car.

Use the direct and indirect pronouns to write the following sentences again without changing the meaning. Follow the models.

Model You are going to show me this afternoon.

You’re going to show me this afternoon.

Women must buy them.

Women should buy them .

1. Children have to wash them.

2. You can not eat it.

3. We are drinking them.

4. Marta and you should not do them.

5. I’m going to ask for you this afternoon.

Try it!

Write the equivalent of the words in English.

Model Ernesto watches more television than (than) Alberto. 

1.You are _________________ (less) nice than Federico.

2.The waitress serves_______________________   (as much) meat as fish.

3. I receive __________________________   (more) tips than you.

4.No studio_____________________   (as much as) you.

5. Do you know how to play tennis so well__________________   (as) your sister?

6. Can you drink ________________________ (as many) sodas like me?

7. My friends seem like ____________________   (as) like you.

8. I am ___________________   (less) skinny than my brother.

To complete

Write the word that completes each comparison.

1.Martin is so tall_____________   Luis.

2.Luis is less tall_____________  Vicente.

3.Vicente is higher __________________ both (both).

4. Mirta is less athletic ___________________   Blanca.

5. Petra is so athletic ____________________   Mirta.

6. Professor Palafox is older_________________   Professor Porter.

7. But Professor Porter has___________________   classes like him.

8.No, Professor Palafox has more classes___________________   her.

9. Ricardo is lower _________________   Alma.

10.Soledad has less____________________   twenty years

Review

Complete the following grammatical summary

Build comparative sentences from the given elements. Follow the model.

Alice model / be / + / responsible / her big sister

Alicia is more responsible than her older sister. 

1. this year / I have / = / classes / last year

2. my father / traveling / – / your father

3. Margarita / not to speak French / = / well / you

4.in my class / have / + / boys / girls

5.Andrés / ser / = / sympathetic / his brother

Complete the following irregular comparative sentences according to the adjectives in parentheses. Follow the model.

Model Julieta is older (+ large) than her classmates. 

6. Your friend plays tennis   (+ badly) than me.

7. Carolina has   (+ good) grades (grades) that Rodrigo.

8. My art teacher is   (+ old) than my grandfather.

9.Gabriel is   (+ young) than his girlfriend.

10. The number of students in this course is   (+ small) than in the last course.

Try it!

Write the equivalent of the words in English.

Model Marisa is the most intelligent (the most intelligent) of all. 

1.Ricardo and Tomás are________________   (the least boring) of the party.

2. Miguel and Antonio are ________________   (the worst) students in the class.

3. My biology teacher is ___________________   (the oldest) of the university.

4. She is_________________________   (the youngest) of the group.

The more…

Answer the questions affirmatively. Use the words in parentheses.

Model The room is very dirty, is not it? (home)

Yes, it is the dirtiest of the residence. 

1. The Velasco store is great, is not it? (Mall)

2. Your mother’s chair is very comfortable, is not it? (home)

3. Angela and Julia are very nervous about the exam, right? (class)

4. Jorge is very young, right? (my friends)

Superlatives

Complete the sentences with the superlative of the words in parentheses.

Model Bill Gates is the richest man in the world. 

1. We are three brothers: I have two older brothers and I am _____________   (young).

2. If you train every day you can be the________________   (good) player on your team.

3. The Vatican has a population of only seven hundred and seventy people and is the _______________ (small) independent state of the world.

4. As Pablo never practices is the _____________________   (bad) musician in the orchestra.

5. The hair of Verdezuela (Rapunzel) was ___________________   (long).

6. Mary’s great grandfather is one hundred and two years old and is the __________________   (old) of his family.

Review

Complete the following grammatical summary.

Construct correct and logical sentences using the superlatives of the given adjectives. Follow the model.

Eduardo Model / be the person / responsible / your whole family

Eduardo is the most responsible person in his entire family. 

1. this / being the school / small / the country

2.the paella / be the dish / typical (traditional) / Spain

3.Pencho / be the student / bad / the class

4. Anita / ser / grande / of her sisters

5.The Winery / be the restaurant / good / of the city

Complete the following sentences with the irregular superlatives of the adjectives in parentheses. Follow the model.

Estefanía model is the largest (large) of her class group.   

6. Paul is ______________- (young) of his cousins.

7. Adriana is ___________________ (small) of her premiums.

8. These are________________   (good) vacations of my life (life).

9. Monday is ________________   (bad) day of the week.

10. Enrique is__________________   (old) from his group of friends.

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all of the following are evidence supporting the theory of plate tectonics except for

Take Test: Quiz – Week 2

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Question 1

1. Of the two main sources of Energy that drive the Rock Cycle: 

1) Earth’s Internal Heat 

2) Solar Energy

Match these primary sources of energy to the rock types listed below, meaning that this energy source is responsible for the formation of this rock type.

Sedimentary Rocks are primarily formed by __________

Igneous Rocks are primarily formed by ____________

Question 2

1. Match the Plate Boundary Type with the given locations/features on Earth

Divergent boundary
Transform boundary

1.

Convergent boundary

Continental riftA.East African RiftB.Himalaya Mountains along the Indian PlateC.San Andreas fault in CAD.Mid-Atlantic Ridge

Question 3

1. Wegener’s Continental drift hypothesis paved the way towards our understanding of how the Earth’s surface is moving and changing!  Which of the follow is NOT evidence that Wegener and his supporters gathered to substantiate (“prove”) the continental drift hypothesis?

Fossils match across the seas
Mountain ranges and rock types match on different continents
Ancient climates match, as seen in glacial desposts across several continents
The continents appear to fit together like a jigsaw puzzle
The mechanism for the movement of the continents was proven, explaining exactly how the plates drifted

1 points  

Question 4

1. Identify the rock in the image ( CLICK on “Rock_1.jpg to download the image ). Is it sedimentary, igneous or metamorphic?  Can you give a more specific name for this rock  

Question 5

1.        Plate movements can affect which of the following earth systems/processes?

A.Volcanoes
B.Earthquakes
C.Mountains
D.Migrating Continents and Oceans
E.All of the above

1 points  

Question 6

1. Identify the rock in the image ( CLICK on “Rock_2.jpg to download the image ).  Is it sedimentary, igneous or metamorphic?  Can you give a more specific name for this rock?

Question 7

1. Think About It:  If other planets in our Solar System are not displaying signs of Plate Tectonic motions, what can be inferred about the state of the interior of these planets? (What does this tell us about the state of the interior of other planets in our Solar System)

Question 8

1. When a rock is heated, when pressure increases, or when hot water alters its chemistry, both its minerals and its textures change in a process called _____________.

chemical lithification
metamorphism
abrasion
bedding

Question 9

1. When a sedimentary rock is created it forever remains a sedimentary rock, never changing.

True

False

Question 10

1.          Which of the following statements apply to the asthenosphere, but not the lithosphere?

A.             Zone in the upper mantle that deforms by plastic flowage
B.            Cool, ridge layer of crust and upper mantle that forms the tectonic plates
C.           Deforms mainly by brittle fracturing and faulting
D.                Hard surface which floats on top of molten material

Question 11

1. All of the following are current evidence supporting the theory of plate tectonics except for _________.

changes in the Moon’s orbit due to shifting plates
hot spots
ocean floor drilling
paleomagnetism

Question 12

1. Rocks that contain crystals that are roughly equal in size and can be identified with the unaided eye are said to exhibit a _______ texture.

porphyritic
fine-grained
coarse-grained
glassy

1 points  

Question 13

1.        Subduction zones are associated with a _________ plate boundary.

A.Transform
B.All plate boundaries
C.Divergent
D.Convergent

1 points  

Question 14

1. Use the Plate Tectonic Boundary Map on pages 202-203 in your textbook to answer the following questions:

Describe the tectonic motion taking place between then African Plate and the Eurasian plate.  What major geological feature exists there and why?

Divergent Boundary.  Alps Mountain range, formed from plates pusing together and compressing, building up the mountain range.
Convergent Boundary.  Alps Mountain range, formed from plates pusing together and compressing, building up the mountain range.
Divergent Boundary.  Alps Mountain range, formed from plates pulling apart and decompressing, building up the mountain range.
Transform Boundary.  Alps Mountain range, formed from plates sliding past one another therfore building up the mountain range.

1 points  

Question 15

1. There are two main types of igneous rocks.  Blank 1 igneous rocks are formed from magma that cooled very quickly and are fine-grained.  These can also be called Blank 2 igneous rocks.  The second type of igneous rock is Blank 3 igneous rocks which are coarse-grained because the magma from which they formed cooled slowly.  These can also be called Blank 4 igneous rocks.

2 points  

Question 16

1. Shells and other hard parts of animals such as calms, oysters and corals are comprised of carbonate minerals that eventually become limestone.  This is an example of how changes in the _____________perturb the _______________.

A.Biosphere; Atmosphere
B.Hydrosphere; Biosphere
C.Atmosphere; Hydrosphere
D.Biosphere; Hydrosphere
E.Biosphere; Geosphere
F.Hydrosphere; Geosphere

1 points  

Question 17

1. The Lithosphere is being consumed at Term 1

, and being produced at Term 2

1. , which happens at the same rate, allowing for the Earth to reamain the same relative size.  

1 points  

Question 18

1. Alfred Wegener’s concept of a single supercontinent that broke apart to form the modern continents is called the theory of ______________…..which was later re-named once scientific data confirmed what was causing the plates to move.

Continential drift
Seafloor spreading
Asthenosphere drift
Pangea

1 points  

Question 19

1. Most common igneous rocks are named in pairs, each member having the same Blank 1 but different Blank 2.  An Example is Granite and Rhyolite.

1 points  

Question 20

1. Sedimentary Rocks are broadly divided into four categories.  For the definitions given, match the correct type of sedimentary rock.

2.
Sedimentary rock derived from plant and animal remains.  And example is Coal, which is formed from partially decayed plants called peat.
Halite is a good example of this type of sedimentary rock.  Halite is an evaporate because the salt precipitates from the seawater
Derived from the weathering of pre-existing rocks.  Sandstone is an example of this type of sedimentary rock

1.

2.

Derived from biological clasts.   Limestone is a good example.A.Bioclastic sedimentary rocksB.Detrial or Clastic sedimentary rocksC.Chemical sedimentary rocksD.Organic sedimentary rocks

2 points  

Question 21

1. Probably the single most characteristic feature of sedimentary rocks is layering.

True

False

1 points  

Question 22

1. Which of the following energy sources is thought to drive the lateral motions of Earth’s lithospheric plates?

export of heat from deep in the mantle to the top of the asthenosphere
swirling movements of the molten iron particles in the outer core
gravitational attractive forces of the Sun and Moon
electrical and magnetic fields localized in the inner core

1 points  

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which of the following are characteristic of alphanumeric outlines?

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 1

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 5

Annotated Bibliography

Heba Elwahsh

Annotated Bibliography

Centre of Excellence Defense Against Terrorism. (2008). Organizational and Psychological Aspects of Terrorism. Amsterdam, Netherlands: IOS Press.

When it comes to the need to understand the psychological and nature of a terrorist, this books provides an in-depth understanding of what leads to terrorism and its causes. The source identifies the fact that terrorism is not a new phenomenon and it has been present as long as organized societies have been present. Nonetheless, the book tries to identify the environments that can be regarded as breeding grounds for terrorism. Furthermore, it identifies that terrorism is not singular but is diverse with various causes and types all promoted by either social, economic or political factor. Some factors such as globalization, rapid modernization, poverty, rapid deprivation, democracy, political representation, human rights and freedoms amongst other have been identified as the main triggers of terrorism. Overall, the authors of this source have not fully explored all the causes of terrorism but have covered significant psychological reasons and characteristics that can be attributed to various types of terrorism. It further states that terrorism is an action that has yet to be fully understood as the factors that result in it are too diverse.

Chaliand, G., & Blin, A. (2007). The History of Terrorism: From Antiquity to Al Qaeda. Oakland, California: University of California Press.

In this book, the authors identifies the fact that throughout history power has been acquired more often via terror which can be defined as the incitement of fear into the public. Most if not all authoritarian societies have been instituted by fear, resulting in the term “totalitarian regime” in the contemporary era. The authors furthermore identify the notion that the submission to such brutality and force has been humankind’s singular path towards achieving security and freedom. The book is not only based on the historical facts but also brings to light the nature of terrorism today and how little has changed. Even with the emergence of modern groups such as Al Qaeda and other Islamic factions, they operate on the same basis with the desire for power through the infliction of fear.

Guiora, A. N. (2011). Homeland Security: What Is It and Where Are We Going?Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press.

This book analyses how the Homeland Security Agency has enacted several laws and policies to curb terrorism, ten years after the ill-fated 9/11 terror attack. It analyses if the country has become safer or it has merely moderated the public to a false sense of security. Nonetheless, the source provides the various perspectives available to a broad array of individuals present in the agency this is through interviews. Moreover, it analyzes the manner in which the agency prioritizes the limited resources allocated to it by the federal government. Furthermore, the other identifies to the readers the manner in which the agency lacks consensus when it comes to the definition of the agency and its function. Finally, it provides solutions to a wide number of dilemmas that the agency experiences ranging from internal to external forms of terror, the sharing of intelligence, immigration and business continuity amongst others. Overall, the text in the resource has been written in a manner that can be appropriate for both policymakers, the general public as well as academicians.

Sjoberg, L., & Gentry, C. E. (2011). Women, Gender, and Terrorism. Athens, Georgia: University of Georgia Press.

The authors of this book have identified that in the past decade or so, the number of women involved in terrorist activity has increased. The Book Women, Gender, and Terrorism try to explain the relationship that women have with terrorism. However, unlike most books concentrate on gender alone, this book ensures that it views the notion from almost all terror-affiliated perspectives. These include race, gender, politics, and dynamics of the various cultures in the modern society. From the authors, they identify the statistic that it has been a rare occurrence to hear or witness women participating in terror activities. However, with the welcoming of the new millennium, the number of women in terror activities has been on the increase. The first chapter identifies of how women in various locations that have been involved in various terror activities. Also provided is an overview of the relationship that has been formed between women and terror groups as well as historical evidence of their participation.

References

Centre of Excellence Defense Against Terrorism. (2008). Organizational and Psychological Aspects of Terrorism. Amsterdam, Netherlands: IOS Press.

Chaliand, G., & Blin, A. (2007). The History of Terrorism: From Antiquity to Al Qaeda. Oakland, California: University of California Press.

Guiora, A. N. (2011). Homeland Security: What Is It and Where Are We Going?Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press.

Sjoberg, L., & Gentry, C. E. (2011). Women, Gender, and Terrorism. Athens, Georgia: University of Georgia Press.