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Literature Review: HR: From Criticism To Destruction

HR: From Criticism To Destruction

From the past few decades, department of the human resources management is being criticized for dysfunctional and bureaucratic touch with reality of the business and the requirement of the business. The Harvard Business Review is makes the new step and calls for “Blowing Up HR!” the importance and role of the HR do not push behind. Organization needs these kinds of the dedicated groups in the organization that helps to run the various function of the organization. The purpose of the HR is to run all the activities with great concerns and develops the structure and the culture of the organization. It is important for the success of the firm and the business.

 According to various people, the HR is not working properly. It is the authority that cannot be challenged and also involves promoting the discrimination in the organizations. The people mostly use their personal interest in the organization in hiring and the selection process. With involvement of the technology, there is great change in the culture and environment of the organizing. Cloud bases solutions are feasible for the organizations and also run the administrative system with efficiency and the effectiveness. In addition, the existence of the HR is mandatory for the survival of the organization. There is need to explore the positive sides and functions of the HR. The most important role is played by the HR in change management. The change is the crucial system that is very complex to implement in the organization.

The global trends in the HR are changing. Still there is no difference in popularity and need of the HR for the development and growth of the organization. In open market competition, the HR department knows the ways and the techniques to utilize the scare resources with maximum output of the organization. In addition, the sustainable competitive advantage can also achieve with help of the HR department in organization. The use of policy in right way is important for survival.

Reference

Lawler, E. E. (2015). HR: From Criticism To Destruction. Retrieved May 2, 2016, from http://www.forbes.com/sites/edwardlawler/2015/08/25/hr-from-criticism-to-destruction/#3847cc6735e5

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Communication and Media Research “Advertising in social network sites”

Communication and Media Research

“Advertising in social network site”

It is researched that today’s social interaction is becoming the source of advertising for the people; people are getting familiar with the products and services online, the variety of interaction is enable the people to actively participate in buying the product and getting information about the product. It is investigate in the research that how people influenced by the social media and how they attract towards the products to buy. The social influence theory assumed that sharing the interpersonal influence and collective influence can motivates one to buy the product. It is tested from the different sources like Facebook that people strongly influenced towards the products in term of collective influence than the interpersonal influence.

The research is interesting as it tells about the effectiveness of online advertisement, the people on the social websites, comment on the product and services, share their experiences that can influence the online advertisement. The comment on advertising videos influence the public towardsthe product, user attitude towards theonlineadvertisement is effecting on the people mind. Researchers have find out that advertising vehicles are effecting various advertising material, the online media is a source of effectiveness for the companies. Companies and organizations taking advantages of the online sources, the online sources are becoming the reason of profitability and source of effectives for them, the one who do not do online advertisement not get the advantages as others are getting. The media also influenced surrounding media to promote the media content, the question arises that what influence the people on social media, to buy the products, the answer is people get attracted by each other comments and this is the reason the online advertisements are successful.

The company’s focus on making the perfect advertisement by the professional of media content, nowadays the media content is providing effectiveness, the marketing the social media is given stress, the user generated content is also effective, the general public could also make the advertisement that can effect on one’s mind. The general public know much about the mind of then people, sometimes better than the professional so general public could be operative in this way. Online advertisement is a source or vehicle now giving advantages to the public as well as the companies.

Various internet online service are becoming the electronic word of mouth, it is investigated that more people are attracted towards the product by seeing each other’s. The electronic word of mouth is influencing or the motivation for the people or the companies to enhance the profit. It is estimated or considered by the researchers that user generated content is much effective instead of the media professionals, the user generated content is effective as the people have the information about the peer, there are several types to influence the peer or customers, not only single source is effective, the users are fully aware about the sources and they interplay among various sources.

Social influence as collective influence:

It is based on the social identity theory that depends on the market research. The people are more attracted by the social influence or collective influence. I believe that collective influence is better than any other source of promotion because people see themselves as a representative of a particular group, they do not see them self as an unique individual so the model is effective, the group can perform better rather than individual or the performance could be effective when one is in a group. Social networking services, are more effective or efficient through the collective influence rather than the individual influence, as one have the own preferences and taste, so it might be difficult for the companies or user generative content to target the one, the people or customers when see that people are appreciating the product through the electronic word of mouth, their mind is positivity attracts by increasing the social influence, the source when become well-known to the user or the customer the long-term membership is established.

Behavioral intention can also evoke or changed the recipient’s attitudes the products, the participant can engage themselves in the product and services when they are a part of group. The user generated content, might also engaged the advertise product, the behavior is not always same there are changes in theattitudes and the behavior with the change in the time, that should be or need to be noticed by the advertiser. To keep engage the people with the product and services is not possible for the long-term or time, there are need of innovations if the people or customers needed to be engaged. The study about the behavioral change may have been difficult, but not impossible, one have to stay up-to-date with the time and there is a need of proper researcher of the market and current behaviors of the individuals or groups.

Some attitudes are difficult to study, not all researches give you the accurate results, and however, the attitudes of a group is matter than the attitude of the individual. It is difficult to study about the every product and the customer response and attitude for the product. The assessment can be helpful for the user generated content, to know about the priorities of the customers. The lack of influence, like if the advertisement are not designed according to what people demand or desired off, then there could be chance of failure of the product, researches are not accurate all the time, assumptions and expectation could be helpful in future for the design of the advertisement. Fitting the collective connection, is better than the interpersonal connection, to influenced the people by the by the sources are not sufficient all the time, there are need of identification of the connections or attitudes of the people depending on the behavioral intentions. The behavioral interactions or the connections can affect or influence one directly, the positive factor could be take place.

It is concluded by the study or the research that degree of identification is necessary for the selection of the source for advertising. Social identification about the sources, could be beneficial for the present and future intervening factors. Based on the research or results that have been conducted on the social groups it is known that group influence is the successful application rather than the others, the study suggest the approach of social identification with the collective influence. However, the online users can also be targeted by the individual or interpersonal influence.

Both the approaches collective influence and interpersonal are beneficial for the online advertisements or providing the service so the people, there are needed to understand that how to target or approach the people. The user generated contact approach need to view the rational and collective self, if there is the adoption of the interpersonal approach then the traits and attributes with the previous activation processes needed to be researched, he interpersonal and collective approaches could be given the meaning by the social identity approach.

On the practical level the media advertising professionals can control their publishing content, the online content must be effective and must be interesting, before it is publish, with the behaviors and interest of the people the content need to be focused and then published. The user generated content is more effective as compared to the professional, byadding comment to the content the users can make it more attractive for the people or customers. The user generated content, is not limited to the Facebook, it is researched that user generated content is also extends to the other social media also along with the advertisements.

The industries have assessed the need of the hour, social media is now providing the opportunities to create the advertisements, and then place it on different websites, the research have shown that the user generated content, are focused on the interpersonal and collective approaches, by understanding the social information. It is assumed that social information could be affective for the social influences, the stronger the social information is the more effective services could be given to the people. Face-to-face communication or electronic word-of-mouth are the best ways to attract the people especially, it can create the social influence.

The people are influenced more by the websites, like YouTube video can influence the YouTube users, there is just proper need of assessment by the users generated content, the advertisements need to be clearly and closely monitor, the conversation on the online adds should also be monitor to know about the people and their psychological behaviors. The brand online advertisements, in an appropriate way can draw the attention of the consumers to get in touch with the advertisements or the websites is important to get in touch with the customer, the content is needed to share in the favorable way; or that seems favorable to the consumers. Professionally created content can effect or influence the consumers’ minds, to generate best content for the mass audience is the need of the hour. (Knoll & Schramm, 2015)

Reference

Knoll, J., & Schramm, H. (2015). Advertising in social network sites –Investigating the social influence of usergenerated content on online advertising effects. DE GRUYTER MOUTON, 40(3), 341-360.

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a 150n bird feeder is supported by three cables

Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University Department of Physical Sciences

Home Work # 4 & 5 PS 103 � Technical Physics�I

Due Date: Oct 3, 2014 (Friday)

Name:

Date: September 23, 2014 (Tuesday)

Semester: Fall-2014

Section:

Total point: 20

Important:

• Home work is due in the beginning of the class on the date mentioned above.

• Please note that providing answers without showing any working will not qualify as correct. So to get full points show EACH AND EVERY STEP.

• Please answer all questions neat and clean in as much detail as you can.

• All the conventions followed in the homework are same as that of lectures.

Question# 1:- You throw a ball vertically upward from the roof of a tall building. The ball leaves your hand at a point even with the roof railing with an upward speed of 15.0 m/s; the ball is then in free fall. On its way back down, it just misses the railing. Find

a) the ball’s position and velocity 1.00 s, 2.00 s, 3.00 s, and 4.00 s after leaving your hand;

b) the ball’s velocity when it is 5.00 m above the railing;

c) the maximum height reached;

d) the ball’s acceleration when it is at its maximum height.

e) At what time after being released has the ball fallen 5.00 m below the roof railing? and what will it’s speed be at that time?

f) At what time after being released has the ball fallen 2.00 m below the roof railing? and what will it’s speed be at that time?

Question# 2:- The boat in Figure 1 is heading due north as it crosses a wide river with a velocity of 10.0 km/h relative to the water. The river has a uniform velocity of 5.00 km/h due east. Determine the magnitude and direction of the boat’s velocity with respect to an observer on the riverbank.

Figure 1: Problem-2

1

Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Question# 3:- A batter hits a baseball so that it leaves the bat at speed v0 = 37.0 m/s at an angle ↵0 = 53.1�.

a) Find the position of the ball and its velocity (magnitude and direction) at t = 2.00 s.

b) Find the time when the ball reaches the high- est point of its flight, and its height h at this time.

c) Find the horizontal range R that is, the hor- izontal distance from the starting point to where the ball hits the ground. Figure 2: Problem-3

Question# 4:- Two tanks are engaged in a training exercise on level ground. The first tank fires a paint-filled training round with a muzzle speed of 250 m/s at 10.0� above the horizontal while advancing toward the second tank with a speed of 15.0 m/s relative to the ground. The second tank is retreating at 35.0 m/s relative to the ground, but is hit by the shell. You can ignore air resistance and assume the shell hits at the same height above ground from which it was fired. Find the distance between the tanks

a) when the round was first fired and

b) at the time of impact.

Question# 5:- Workmen are trying to free an SUV stuck in the mud. To extricate the vehicle, they use three horizontal ropes, producing the force vectors shown Figure 3.

a) Find the x� and y�components of each of the three pulls.

b) Use the components to find the magnitude and direction of the resultant of the three pulls. Figure 3: Problem-5

Question# 6:- Two horses are pulling a barge with mass 2.00⇥103 kg along a canal, as shown in Figure 4. The cable connected to the first horse makes an angle of ✓1 = 30.0� with respect to the direction of the canal, while the cable connected to the second horse makes an angle of ✓1 = 30.0�. Find the initial acceleration of the barge, starting at rest, if each horse exerts a force of magnitude 6.00 ⇥ 102 N on the barge. Ignore forces of resistance on the barge.

Figure 4: Problem-6

Question# 7:- Two dogs pull horizontally on ropes attached to a post; the angle between the ropes is 60.0�. If dog A exerts a force of 270 N and dog B exerts a force of 300 N, find the magnitude of the resultant force and the angle it makes with dog A’s rope.

2

Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Question# 8:- A 68.5-kg skater moving initially at 2.40 m/s on rough horizontal ice comes to rest uniformly in 3.52 s due to friction from the ice. What force does friction exert on the skater?

Question# 9:- You walk into an elevator, step onto a scale, and push the “up” button. You also recall that your normal weight is 625 N. Start answering each of the following questions by drawing a freebody diagram.

a) If the elevator has an acceleration of magnitude 2.50 m/s2, what does the scale read?

b) If you start holding a 3.85-kg package by a light vertical string, what will be the tension in this string once the elevator begins accelerating?

Question# 10:- A box rests on a frozen pond, which serves as a frictionless horizontal surface. If a fisherman applies a horizontal force with magnitude 48.0 N to the box and produces an acceleration of magnitude 3.00 m/s2, what is the mass of the box?

Question# 11:- Boxes A and B are in contact on a hor- izontal, frictionless surface, as shown in Figure 5. Box A has mass 20.0 kg and box B has mass 5.0 kg. A horizontal force of 100 N is exerted on box A. What is the magnitude of the force that box A exerts on box B? Figure 5: Problem-11

Question# 12:- Two objects of mass m1 and m2, with m2 > m1, are connected by a light, inextensible cord and hung over a frictionless pulley, as in Ac- tive Figure 6. Both cord and pulley have negligible mass. Find the magnitude of the acceleration of the system and the tension

Figure 6: Problem-12

Question# 13:- A 150-N bird feeder is supported by three cables as shown in Figure 7. Find the tension in each cable.

Figure 7: Problem-13

Question# 14:- An object with mass m1 = 5.00 kg rests on a frictionless horizontal table and is con- nected to a cable that passes over a pulley and is then fastened to a hanging object with mass m2 = 10.0 kg, as shown in Figure 8. Find

a) the acceleration of each object and

b) the tension in the cable. Figure 8: Problem-14

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what is the primary reason ipv6 has not completely replaced ipv4?

Best Answers.

LESSON 10 :

1. What is the primary reason IPv6 has not completely replaced IPv4?
a. Administrators are hesitant and reluctant to change.
b. Stopgap technologies such as Network Address Translation (NAT) and Classless
Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) alleviate the lack of registered IPv4 addresses.
c. IPv4 addresses have only been depleted since early 2011.
d. IPv6 has already replaced IPv4 on the Internet.

2. What is the primary difference between a NAT server and a proxy server?
a. There is no difference; they are functionally the same.
b. There is little difference because NAT servers and proxy servers; both act as an intermediary
between networks.
c. Proxy servers offer additional functions such as they can scan, cache, and filter certain
types of data.
d. NAT servers translate at the Network layer of the protocol stack, whereas proxy servers
function at the Application layer.

3. Your company environment includes Windows Server versions 2003, 2008, and 2012.
Desktops range from Windows XP and Vista. To transition to IPv6, what versions have
IPv6 support running by default?
a. Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, and Vista have IPv6 running by
default.
b. All versions have IPv6 running by default, except the Windows 2003 servers.
c. Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP both include support for IPv6, but they do
not install it by default.
d. Only Windows Server 2012 has IPv6 running by default.

4. What Windows Server 2012 services and applications offer IPv6 support?
a. Nearly all server roles provide IPv6 support.
b. Few offer IPv6 support, but they are expected soon.
c. All offer IPv6 support in Windows Server 2012.
d. Remote Access supports IPv6 routing and advertising, and the DHCP Server role can
allocate IPv6 addresses.

5. What is Intra-Site Automatic Tunnel Addressing Protocol (ISATAP)?
a. ISATAP converts IPv4 address for an IPv6 network just as 6to4 offers.
b. ISATAP emulates an IPv6 link for use on an IPv4 network.
c. ISATAP is a method of multicasting for IPv6 networks.
d. ISATAP translates between IPv4 and IPv6 networks without client configuration.

LESSON 11 :

1. One method a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server allocates IP
addresses is called manual allocation. This process involves manually assigning an IP
address to a particular server. What is the key benefit of DHCP manual allocation over
manually configuring the address directly on the server?
a. The DHCP server then contains a centralized list of permanently assigned addresses.
b. The DHCP server might pass on more information than just an IP address.
c. This process prevents accidental duplication of permanently assigned IP addresses.
d. This manually assigned address is officially known as a reservation.

2. Your DHCP servers are burdened with heavy traffic, most related to IP address renewals.
Unfortunately, virtually all the IP addresses in each of your subnets are allocated. Which
of the following options is the best way to lower the renewal traffic?
a. Increase the lease time.
b. Deploy additional DHCP servers on the most burdened subnets.
c. Shorten the lease time.
d. Switch to manual allocation.

3. You are preparing to deploy Windows 8 to a large number of new workstations. Which
of the following options would be best?
a. Install Windows 8 using Pre-boot Execution Environment (PXE) and Windows
Deployment Services (WDS).
b. Delegate the work to a team of local administrators to divide up.
c. Manually install the operating system yourself.
d. Manually configure each workstation’s IP address.

4. To make use of Pre-boot Execution Environment (PXE) and Windows Deployment
Services (WDS), what special configuration do you require on the server and client?
a. The client must have a special PXE-enabled network adapter.
b. Both client and server are capable by default.
c. The client and server both require some preparatory configuration.
d. The DHCP server on the network must have a custom PXEClient option (option 60)
configured with the location of the WDS server on the network.

5. What servers should not be DHCP clients?
a. Web servers, DHCP servers, and domain controllers
b. Workstations
c. End user laptops
d. Computers, which might have IP addresses in the exclusion range


Lesson 12 :

1. What client applications utilize Domain Name System (DNS) to resolve host names into
IP addresses?
a. Client web browsers, or any application that uses HyperText Transfer Protocol
(HTTP) use DNS to resolve host names into IP addresses.
b. All Internet applications working with host names must use DNS to resolve host
names into IP addresses.
c. Any application on a system that has connectivity to the Internet use DNS to resolve
host names into IP addresses.
d. DNS does not resolve host names into IP addresses.

2. What is the primary purpose of name caching?
a. Name caching saves extraordinary amount of time for the user.
b. Name caching greatly reduces traffic on the company network.
c. Name caching validates why you should deploy caching-only servers.
d. Name caching enables the second name resolution request for the same name to
bypass the referral process.

3. What are the dangerous consequences of a poorly chosen Time To Live (TTL)?
a. Specifying a TTL that is too long can greatly increase traffic, especially to the root
name and top-level domain servers.
b. Specifying a TTL that is too long can delay referrals from being propagated.
c. Specifying a TTL that is too short can overburden root name and top-level domain
servers with requests.
d. Specifying a TTL that is too short can cause incorrectly cached information to
remain before changes get recorded.

4. What is the primary benefit of a DNS forwarder?
a. Exchanging iterative queries for recursive queries across the network perimeter
b. Reducing the traffic and making efficient use of available bandwidth across the
network perimeter
c. Making the most of iterative queries to other DNS servers
d. Reducing the burden on the Internet’s root name servers

5. What are some best practices when creating internal DNS namespaces.
a. Avoid an excessive number of domain levels.
b. Keep domain names full and descriptive; avoid concise subdomains.
c. Place less importance on a convention compared to spelling.
d. Never abbreviate.

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tú eres menos (less) simpático que federico.

Verbs

Complete the chart with the correct verb forms.

infinitive     follow (1) ________________        

I    (2) ____________    I died

you      followed (3) _______________      

we   follow (4) __________________      

they    (5) ______________    died

To complete

Fill in the blanks with the correct preterite forms of the verbs in parentheses

1.Diego and Javier _____________________  (get) a map.

2.This morning you____________________   (say goodbye) to the students.

3.You ______________________   (feeling) bad yesterday.

4. Last week I did not _______________________   (sleep) well.

5.Impay ___________________________   (prefer) eat at home.

Prayers

Write sentences using the information provided. Use the preterite and make any necessary changes.

Edgar / prefer / roasted chicken

Edgar preferred roast chicken.

1. Alvaro and I / serve / the hors d’oeuvres

2. Who / repeat / instructions?

3.ayer / me / say goodbye / to / my nephews

4. you / fall asleep / at ten

Dinner

Fill in the blanks with the preterite form of the appropriate verbs from the list. Four verbs will not be used.

open  get  choose to  read

look  ask to  prefer to  try

repeat  feeling  server  dress

Last night Jorge, Iván and I went out to dinner at Mi Tierra, a Guatemalan restaurant. We (1) ___________   this place because Jorge (2) ________________   a review (review) on the Internet that said (said) that the food is authentic and very tasty. It is not an elegant restaurant; then we (3) ______________   of bluejeans. Truly, in My Earth my friends and I (4) __________   like (like) at home. The waiter who gave us (5) __________   was very friendly. To start, Jorge and Iván (6) ____________   tamales, but I (7) ____________   wait for the main course: beef with rice and beans. We ate so much (so much) that no (8) ___________   anything for dessert (dessert). It was a delicious dinner!

Try it!

Write the direct or indirect object pronoun that is missing in each sentence.

Model The salad? The waiter served it to us.

Direct object

1. The salmon? The owner me______________   recommends.

2. The food? I’m going to prepare you _______________.

3. The drinks? We are asking for __________________.

4. The sodas? You_______________   can I bring now.

5. The rice dishes? They are going to serve us _______________________ after

Model Can you bring me your plate? No, I can not bring it to you. 

6. Do you want to show her the letter? Yes, I’m going to show ____________ the now.

7. Did you serve the meat? No, I did not _________________.

8. Are you going to read the menu? No, no_________________   I’m going to read it.

9. Do you recommend the lobster? Yes, _________________ I recommend it.

10. When are you going to prepare dinner for us? ___________________ I will prepare it in one hour

Reply

Imagine that you work as a waiter in a restaurant. Respond to the commands of these clients using pronouns. Follow the model.

Model Mrs. Gomez: A salad, please.

Yes ma’am. Right away I bring it to you. 

1.Sres. Lopez: The butter, please.

2.Srta. Rivas: The shrimp, please.

3.Sra. Lugones: The roasted chicken, please.

4. Your companions: Coffee, please.

5. Your Spanish teacher: French fries, please.

6.Dra. González: The pork chop, please.

7. Your father: The mushrooms, please.

8.Dr. Torres: The account (check), please.

Change

Change the following phrases by substituting (by replacing) the nouns for the corresponding pronouns. Make any (any) necessary change.

Model I wrote a letter to my father.

I wrote it to him. 

1. I sent (sent) postcards to my friends.

2.Celia bought fruit for you.

3.Ángel recommended the roasted chicken.

4. The waiter served you a coffee.

5. Who sold us the butter?

6. Who brings you lunch today?

7. I ask the waitress for a flan.

8. Carlos’s mom prepares hamburgers.

9.The saleswoman sells hats to clients.

10.This year I bought a car.

Use the direct and indirect pronouns to write the following sentences again without changing the meaning. Follow the models.

Model You are going to show me this afternoon.

You’re going to show me this afternoon.

Women must buy them.

Women should buy them .

1. Children have to wash them.

2. You can not eat it.

3. We are drinking them.

4. Marta and you should not do them.

5. I’m going to ask for you this afternoon.

Try it!

Write the equivalent of the words in English.

Model Ernesto watches more television than (than) Alberto. 

1.You are _________________ (less) nice than Federico.

2.The waitress serves_______________________   (as much) meat as fish.

3. I receive __________________________   (more) tips than you.

4.No studio_____________________   (as much as) you.

5. Do you know how to play tennis so well__________________   (as) your sister?

6. Can you drink ________________________ (as many) sodas like me?

7. My friends seem like ____________________   (as) like you.

8. I am ___________________   (less) skinny than my brother.

To complete

Write the word that completes each comparison.

1.Martin is so tall_____________   Luis.

2.Luis is less tall_____________  Vicente.

3.Vicente is higher __________________ both (both).

4. Mirta is less athletic ___________________   Blanca.

5. Petra is so athletic ____________________   Mirta.

6. Professor Palafox is older_________________   Professor Porter.

7. But Professor Porter has___________________   classes like him.

8.No, Professor Palafox has more classes___________________   her.

9. Ricardo is lower _________________   Alma.

10.Soledad has less____________________   twenty years

Review

Complete the following grammatical summary

Build comparative sentences from the given elements. Follow the model.

Alice model / be / + / responsible / her big sister

Alicia is more responsible than her older sister. 

1. this year / I have / = / classes / last year

2. my father / traveling / – / your father

3. Margarita / not to speak French / = / well / you

4.in my class / have / + / boys / girls

5.Andrés / ser / = / sympathetic / his brother

Complete the following irregular comparative sentences according to the adjectives in parentheses. Follow the model.

Model Julieta is older (+ large) than her classmates. 

6. Your friend plays tennis   (+ badly) than me.

7. Carolina has   (+ good) grades (grades) that Rodrigo.

8. My art teacher is   (+ old) than my grandfather.

9.Gabriel is   (+ young) than his girlfriend.

10. The number of students in this course is   (+ small) than in the last course.

Try it!

Write the equivalent of the words in English.

Model Marisa is the most intelligent (the most intelligent) of all. 

1.Ricardo and Tomás are________________   (the least boring) of the party.

2. Miguel and Antonio are ________________   (the worst) students in the class.

3. My biology teacher is ___________________   (the oldest) of the university.

4. She is_________________________   (the youngest) of the group.

The more…

Answer the questions affirmatively. Use the words in parentheses.

Model The room is very dirty, is not it? (home)

Yes, it is the dirtiest of the residence. 

1. The Velasco store is great, is not it? (Mall)

2. Your mother’s chair is very comfortable, is not it? (home)

3. Angela and Julia are very nervous about the exam, right? (class)

4. Jorge is very young, right? (my friends)

Superlatives

Complete the sentences with the superlative of the words in parentheses.

Model Bill Gates is the richest man in the world. 

1. We are three brothers: I have two older brothers and I am _____________   (young).

2. If you train every day you can be the________________   (good) player on your team.

3. The Vatican has a population of only seven hundred and seventy people and is the _______________ (small) independent state of the world.

4. As Pablo never practices is the _____________________   (bad) musician in the orchestra.

5. The hair of Verdezuela (Rapunzel) was ___________________   (long).

6. Mary’s great grandfather is one hundred and two years old and is the __________________   (old) of his family.

Review

Complete the following grammatical summary.

Construct correct and logical sentences using the superlatives of the given adjectives. Follow the model.

Eduardo Model / be the person / responsible / your whole family

Eduardo is the most responsible person in his entire family. 

1. this / being the school / small / the country

2.the paella / be the dish / typical (traditional) / Spain

3.Pencho / be the student / bad / the class

4. Anita / ser / grande / of her sisters

5.The Winery / be the restaurant / good / of the city

Complete the following sentences with the irregular superlatives of the adjectives in parentheses. Follow the model.

Estefanía model is the largest (large) of her class group.   

6. Paul is ______________- (young) of his cousins.

7. Adriana is ___________________ (small) of her premiums.

8. These are________________   (good) vacations of my life (life).

9. Monday is ________________   (bad) day of the week.

10. Enrique is__________________   (old) from his group of friends.

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all of the following are evidence supporting the theory of plate tectonics except for

Take Test: Quiz – Week 2

Bottom of Form

Question 1

1. Of the two main sources of Energy that drive the Rock Cycle: 

1) Earth’s Internal Heat 

2) Solar Energy

Match these primary sources of energy to the rock types listed below, meaning that this energy source is responsible for the formation of this rock type.

Sedimentary Rocks are primarily formed by __________

Igneous Rocks are primarily formed by ____________

Question 2

1. Match the Plate Boundary Type with the given locations/features on Earth

Divergent boundary
Transform boundary

1.

Convergent boundary

Continental riftA.East African RiftB.Himalaya Mountains along the Indian PlateC.San Andreas fault in CAD.Mid-Atlantic Ridge

Question 3

1. Wegener’s Continental drift hypothesis paved the way towards our understanding of how the Earth’s surface is moving and changing!  Which of the follow is NOT evidence that Wegener and his supporters gathered to substantiate (“prove”) the continental drift hypothesis?

Fossils match across the seas
Mountain ranges and rock types match on different continents
Ancient climates match, as seen in glacial desposts across several continents
The continents appear to fit together like a jigsaw puzzle
The mechanism for the movement of the continents was proven, explaining exactly how the plates drifted

1 points  

Question 4

1. Identify the rock in the image ( CLICK on “Rock_1.jpg to download the image ). Is it sedimentary, igneous or metamorphic?  Can you give a more specific name for this rock  

Question 5

1.        Plate movements can affect which of the following earth systems/processes?

A.Volcanoes
B.Earthquakes
C.Mountains
D.Migrating Continents and Oceans
E.All of the above

1 points  

Question 6

1. Identify the rock in the image ( CLICK on “Rock_2.jpg to download the image ).  Is it sedimentary, igneous or metamorphic?  Can you give a more specific name for this rock?

Question 7

1. Think About It:  If other planets in our Solar System are not displaying signs of Plate Tectonic motions, what can be inferred about the state of the interior of these planets? (What does this tell us about the state of the interior of other planets in our Solar System)

Question 8

1. When a rock is heated, when pressure increases, or when hot water alters its chemistry, both its minerals and its textures change in a process called _____________.

chemical lithification
metamorphism
abrasion
bedding

Question 9

1. When a sedimentary rock is created it forever remains a sedimentary rock, never changing.

True

False

Question 10

1.          Which of the following statements apply to the asthenosphere, but not the lithosphere?

A.             Zone in the upper mantle that deforms by plastic flowage
B.            Cool, ridge layer of crust and upper mantle that forms the tectonic plates
C.           Deforms mainly by brittle fracturing and faulting
D.                Hard surface which floats on top of molten material

Question 11

1. All of the following are current evidence supporting the theory of plate tectonics except for _________.

changes in the Moon’s orbit due to shifting plates
hot spots
ocean floor drilling
paleomagnetism

Question 12

1. Rocks that contain crystals that are roughly equal in size and can be identified with the unaided eye are said to exhibit a _______ texture.

porphyritic
fine-grained
coarse-grained
glassy

1 points  

Question 13

1.        Subduction zones are associated with a _________ plate boundary.

A.Transform
B.All plate boundaries
C.Divergent
D.Convergent

1 points  

Question 14

1. Use the Plate Tectonic Boundary Map on pages 202-203 in your textbook to answer the following questions:

Describe the tectonic motion taking place between then African Plate and the Eurasian plate.  What major geological feature exists there and why?

Divergent Boundary.  Alps Mountain range, formed from plates pusing together and compressing, building up the mountain range.
Convergent Boundary.  Alps Mountain range, formed from plates pusing together and compressing, building up the mountain range.
Divergent Boundary.  Alps Mountain range, formed from plates pulling apart and decompressing, building up the mountain range.
Transform Boundary.  Alps Mountain range, formed from plates sliding past one another therfore building up the mountain range.

1 points  

Question 15

1. There are two main types of igneous rocks.  Blank 1 igneous rocks are formed from magma that cooled very quickly and are fine-grained.  These can also be called Blank 2 igneous rocks.  The second type of igneous rock is Blank 3 igneous rocks which are coarse-grained because the magma from which they formed cooled slowly.  These can also be called Blank 4 igneous rocks.

2 points  

Question 16

1. Shells and other hard parts of animals such as calms, oysters and corals are comprised of carbonate minerals that eventually become limestone.  This is an example of how changes in the _____________perturb the _______________.

A.Biosphere; Atmosphere
B.Hydrosphere; Biosphere
C.Atmosphere; Hydrosphere
D.Biosphere; Hydrosphere
E.Biosphere; Geosphere
F.Hydrosphere; Geosphere

1 points  

Question 17

1. The Lithosphere is being consumed at Term 1

, and being produced at Term 2

1. , which happens at the same rate, allowing for the Earth to reamain the same relative size.  

1 points  

Question 18

1. Alfred Wegener’s concept of a single supercontinent that broke apart to form the modern continents is called the theory of ______________…..which was later re-named once scientific data confirmed what was causing the plates to move.

Continential drift
Seafloor spreading
Asthenosphere drift
Pangea

1 points  

Question 19

1. Most common igneous rocks are named in pairs, each member having the same Blank 1 but different Blank 2.  An Example is Granite and Rhyolite.

1 points  

Question 20

1. Sedimentary Rocks are broadly divided into four categories.  For the definitions given, match the correct type of sedimentary rock.

2.
Sedimentary rock derived from plant and animal remains.  And example is Coal, which is formed from partially decayed plants called peat.
Halite is a good example of this type of sedimentary rock.  Halite is an evaporate because the salt precipitates from the seawater
Derived from the weathering of pre-existing rocks.  Sandstone is an example of this type of sedimentary rock

1.

2.

Derived from biological clasts.   Limestone is a good example.A.Bioclastic sedimentary rocksB.Detrial or Clastic sedimentary rocksC.Chemical sedimentary rocksD.Organic sedimentary rocks

2 points  

Question 21

1. Probably the single most characteristic feature of sedimentary rocks is layering.

True

False

1 points  

Question 22

1. Which of the following energy sources is thought to drive the lateral motions of Earth’s lithospheric plates?

export of heat from deep in the mantle to the top of the asthenosphere
swirling movements of the molten iron particles in the outer core
gravitational attractive forces of the Sun and Moon
electrical and magnetic fields localized in the inner core

1 points  

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Experiencing Jazz

Experiencing Jazz, Second Edition, is an integrated textbook with online resources for jazz appreciation and history courses. Through readings, illustrations, timelines, listening guides, and a streaming audio library, it immerses the reader in a journey through the history of jazz, while placing the music within a larger cultural and historical context. Designed to introduce the novice to jazz, Experiencing Jazz describes the elements of music, and the characteristics and roles of different instruments. Prominent artists and styles from the roots of jazz to present day are relayed in a story-telling prose. This new edition features expanded coverage of women in jazz, the rise of jazz as a world music, the influence of Afro-Cuban and Latin jazz, and streaming audio.

Features: • Important musical trends are placed within a broad cultural, social, political, and economic

context • Music fundamentals are treated as integral to the understanding of jazz, and concepts are

explained easily with graphic representations and audio examples • Comprehensive treatment chronicles the roots of jazz in African music to present day • Commonly overlooked styles, such as orchestral jazz, Cubop, and third-stream jazz are

included • Expanded and up-to-date coverage of women in jazz.

The media-rich companion website presents a comprehensive streaming audio library of key jazz recordings by leading artists integrated with interactive listening guides. Illustrated musical concepts with web-based tutorials and audio interviews of prominent musicians acquaint new listeners to the sounds, styles, and figures of jazz.

Richard J. Lawn recently retired as Dean of the College of Performing Arts at the University of the Arts in Philadelphia. You can see and hear him as saxophonist, composer, and bandleader for Power of Ten, playing in local clubs and on recordings.

Experiencing Jazz Second Edition

Richard J. Lawn Professor Emeritus, College of Performing Arts at the University of the Arts

Second edition published 2013 by Routledge 711 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10017

Simultaneously published in the UK by Routledge 2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RN

Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business

© 2013 Taylor & Francis

The right of Richard J. Lawn to be identified as author of this work has been asserted by him in accordance with sections 77 and 78 of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers.

Trademark notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe.

First edition published 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies

Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Lawn, Richard, author.

Experiencing jazz/Richard J. Lawn.—Second edition. pages cm Includes bibliographical references, discography, and videography. 1. Jazz—History and criticism. 2. Jazz—Analysis, appreciation. I. Title. ML3506.L39 2013 781.65—dc23 2012024753

ISBN: 978-0-415-65935-2 (pbk and online access card) ISBN: 978-0-415-69960-0 (pbk) ISBN: 978-0-415-83735-4 (online access card) ISBN: 978-0-203-37981-3 (ebk and online access card) ISBN: 978-0-203-37985-1 (ebk)

Typeset in Bembo, Helvetica Neue and Kabel by Florence Production Ltd, Stoodleigh, Devon, UK

Please visit the companion website at www.routledge.com/cw/Lawnwww.routledge.com/cw/Lawn

I am deeply indebted to my wife, Susan Lawn, for “putting her life on hold,” not once but twice, while helping immeasurably to make this book become a reality. In addition, thanks to the many students who served as its inspiration.

Contents

List of Photos xiv List of Examples xix List of Figures xxii Preface xxiii Acknowledgments xxviii

PART I UNDERSTANDING JAZZ 1

1 The Nature of Jazz 3

Experiencing Music . . . Experiencing Jazz 4 That Four-Letter Word 4 Defining Jazz 6 Chapter Summary 8 Study Questions 9

2 The Elements of Jazz 13

Rhythm 14 Meter and Tempo 15 Rhythmic Devices Important to Jazz 16 Swing as an Aspect of Jazz Rhythm 18

Melody 18 Harmony 20 Texture 21 Form 22 Improvisation 23

Something Borrowed—The European Tradition 23 Something New, Something Blue—The Jazz Tradition 24 Blues 24 Improvisation in Jazz 26

Chapter Summary 29 Key Terms 30 Study Questions 31

3 Listening to Jazz 33

Performance Practice 33 The Instruments of Jazz 34 The Drum Set and Swing 34 Orchestration and Instrumentation 36 Instrumental Techniques and Special Effects 37

Understanding the Whole Performance 39 Describing the Performance 41

Video Blues 42 Chapter Summary 43 Key Terms 43 Study Questions 44

4 The Roots of Jazz 45

Jazz in Perspective 45 The Significance of African Music to Jazz 46 African Musical Aesthetic 46 Elements of African Music 47 African Music as a Means of Communication 49

The Afro-Latin and Caribbean Tinge 49 Background 50 Early Fusions 52

Early American Vocal Music 54 The Innovators: Getting the Blues 56

Robert Johnson (1911–1938) 57 Bessie Smith (1894–1937) 59 W.C. Handy—“Father of the Blues” (1873–1958) 61

Ragtime 62 Brass and Military Bands 67 Milestones: Chronicle of Historic Events 68 Chapter Summary 70 Key Terms 70 Study Questions 71

PART II CLASSIC JAZZ 1917–1945 73

5 Jazz Takes Root 75

Jazz in Perspective 75 The Reception of Early Jazz 78 New Orleans—The Birthplace of Jazz 80

Dixieland Jazz Band Instrumentation 81 The Innovators: Early Jazz 83

Original Dixieland Jazz Band 83 Kid Ory (1890–1973) 86 Joe “King” Oliver (1885–1938) 86 Lilian Hardin 86

viii CONTENTS

Jelly Roll Morton (1890–1941) 89 Louis Armstrong (1901–1971) 91 Sidney Bechet (1897–1959) 94

Milestones: Chronicle of Historic Events 95 Chapter Summary 97 Key Terms 97 Study Questions 98

6 The Jazz Age: From Chicago to New York 99

Jazz in Perspective 99 South Side of Chicago 100 On the Other Side of Town 102 The Chicago Sound 103 The Innovators: A Few of the Many 104

New Orleans Rhythm Kings (NORK) 104 Bix Beiderbecke (1903–1931) 105 Frankie “Tram” Trumbauer (1901–1956) 106 Paul Whiteman (1890–1967) and Symphonic Jazz 108

Boogie-Woogie, Eight to the Bar 110 The Decline of the Chicago Era 111 Chicago Jazz in Retrospect 113 New York and the Harlem Renaissance 114

James P. Johnson (1891–1955) 115 Marketing Jazz 118 Milestones: Chronicle of Historic Events 120 Chapter Summary 121 Key Terms 122 Study Questions 122

7 The Swing Era: Jazz at Its Peak 125

Jazz in Perspective: The Depths of the Depression 126 The Country Recovers 127 The Anatomy of the Swing Era Jazz Band 127

Instrumentation 128 Repertoire and Arrangement 131

The Innovators: Swing on the East Coast 132 Fletcher Henderson (1897–1952) 133 Coleman Hawkins—“The Father of Jazz Tenor Saxophone” (1904–1969) 135 Duke Ellington (1899–1974): Music Was His Mistress 137 Benny Goodman—The “King of Swing” (1909–1986) 147

Popular White Swing Bands 151 Artie Shaw (Arthur Arshawsky) (1910–2005) 151

The Vocalists’ Rise to Fame 153 Ongoing Latin Influences 155 Chapter Summary 155 Key Terms 156 Study Questions 157

CONTENTS ix

8 Swinging Across the Country: The Bands, Singers, and Pianists 159

Jazz in Perspective 160 The Innovators: A Unique Kaycee Style 161

Benny Moten 161 William “Count” Basie (1904–1984) 162 Lester Young (1909–1959) 164

Territory Bands 167 Mary Lou Williams (1910–1981) 168

The Innovators: A Few of the Swing Era Singers and Pianists 170 Billie Holiday (1915–1959): “Lady Day” 170 Ella Fitzgerald (1918–1996): The “First Lady of Song” 172 Art Tatum (1909–1956) 174

Traditional Jazz Revival 177 Swing Era Success 177 Milestones: Chronicle of Historic Events 181 Chapter Summary 184 Key Terms 185 Study Questions 185

PART III MODERN JAZZ 187

9 The Bebop Revolution 189

Jazz in Perspective 189 The Lifestyle and Musical Characteristics 192 The Birth of Bebop: The First Recordings 194

Characteristics of the Style 196 Bebop Performance Practice and Instrumental Roles Redefined 197

The Innovators: Bop Stylists 199 John Birks “Dizzy” Gillespie (1917–1993) 199 Charlie Parker (1920–1955) 201 Bud Powell (1924–1966) 203 Dexter Gordon (1923–1990) 205 J.J. Johnson (1924–2001) 206

The Innovators: Bebop Rhythm-Section Players 207 Thelonious Sphere Monk (1917–1982) 207 Oscar Pettiford (1922–1960) 209 Kenny Clarke (1914–1985) 209 Max Roach (1924–2007) 210 Sarah Vaughan: “The Divine One” (1924–1990) 211

Modern Jazz Embraces the Afro-Cuban Spirit 213 Dizzy Gillespie and the Birth of Cubop 213

The Decline of Bebop 217 Milestones: Chronicle of Historic Events 217 Chapter Summary 219 Key Terms 220

x CONTENTS

Appendix 220 Study Questions 223

10 The 1950s and Early 1960s: Cool, Intellectual, and Abstract Jazz 225

Jazz in Perspective 225 Characteristics of Cool Jazz 228 The Innovators: The Cool Sound on the East and West Coasts 231

Miles Davis and Gil Evans: The Birth of the Cool 231 Modern Jazz Quartet 233 Gerry Mulligan (1927–1996) and Chet Baker (1929–1988) 233 Dave Brubeck (1920–2012) 235 Bill Evans (1929–1980) 238

The Brazilian Bossa Nova 241 Stan Getz (1927–1991) 243

Third-Stream Jazz 245 Lennie Tristano (1919–1978) 247

Who Was Popular 248 Milestones: Chronicle of Historic Events 249 Chapter Summary 250 Key Terms 251 Study Questions 252

PART IV POSTMODERN JAZZ 253

11 Tradition Meets the Avant-Garde: Moderns and Early Postmoderns Coexist 255

Jazz in Perspective 256 The Innovators: The Characteristics and Artists of Mainstream Hard Bop 256

Art Blakey (1919–1990) Carries the Message 258 Other Hard-Bop Messengers 260

More About Funky, Soul Jazz and the 1950s and 1960s 264 Organ Trios and the Guitar 265

Wes Montgomery (1923–1968) 265 Jimmy Smith (1925–2005) 266

Everlasting Big Bands 268 Defining Postmodernism 270

Ornette Coleman (1930–) and His Disciples 271 The Innovators: Postmodern Jazz Comes of Age 276

Charles Mingus (1922–1979)—The Underdog 276 The End of Modern Jazz Heralded by the Beginning of the Postmoderns 278 Milestones: Chronicle of Historic Events 280 Chapter Summary 282 Key Terms 283 Study Questions 283

CONTENTS xi

12 Miles and Miles of Miles: Miles Davis and His Sidemen Redefine Postmodern Jazz 285

Jazz in Perspective 286 The Music 287 The Early Miles 287 The First Great Quintet 289 Modal Jazz 290

Miles and Gil 294 The Second Great Quintet 296 The Electronic Jazz–Rock Fusion Period 300 Davis Sidemen Become Major Forces 305

John Coltrane (1926–1967) 306 Wayne Shorter (1933–) 312 Herbie Hancock (1940–) 313

Milestones: Chronicle of Historic Events 314 Chapter Summary 317 Key Terms 318 Study Questions 318

13 The Electric 1970s and 1980s 321

Jazz in Perspective 321 The Music 322 Jazz and Rock: The Two-Way Connection 323 The Innovators: Living Electric in the Shadow of Miles Davis 325

Weather Report 325 Herbie Hancock and the Head Hunters 329 John McLaughlin (1942–) and the Mahavishnu Orchestra 331 Chick Corea (1941–) 333

Soul and Pop Instrumental Jazz 336 David Sanborn (1945–) 336 The Brecker Brothers 336 Grover Washington, Jr. (1943–1999) 337 Chuck Mangione (1940–) 337

The Signs of the Times: New Technologies and Changing Business Models 338 Milestones: Chronicle of Historic Events 339 Chapter Summary 340 Key Terms 341 Study Questions 342

14 The Unplugged, Eclectic 1970s and 1980s 343

Long Live Acoustic Jazz 343 The ECM Sound 344 The Innovators: The Rebirth of Acoustic Jazz 345

Keith Jarrett (1945–) 345 Return of Expatriates Unleashes a Rebirth of Acoustic Jazz 349

xii CONTENTS

Wynton Marsalis (1961–) and the Young Lions 350 The Freedom Fighters Take Risks 352

Cecil Taylor (1929–) 354 Old Bottles, New Wines—Long Live Big Bands 356 The Changing Jazz Landscape as the Millennium Comes to a Close 357 Milestones: Chronicle of Historic Events 358 Chapter Summary 360 Key Terms 361 Study Questions 361

15 Jazz for a New Century 363

Jazz in Perspective 364 Trends in Contemporary Jazz 365 Established Artists Offer Seasoned Jazz 367

John Scofield (1951–) and Joe Lovano (1952) 367 Michael Brecker (1949–2007) and Pat Metheny (1954–) 367

Popular Music Influences 371 Tim Hagans (1954–) 372

Vocal Renaissance 374 Esperanza Spalding (1984–) 375

Contemporary Women Emerging as Innovators 377 Maria Schneider (1960–) 378

Jazz as a Global Music 382 Afro-Cuban and Latin Jazz 382 Danilo Pérez (1965–) 382

Jazz as an International Language 384 Rudresh Mahanthappa and Vijay Iyer 387

The New Innovators: 21st-Century Emerging Artists 389 Jason Moran (1975–) 390

Closing Thoughts 391 Milestones: Chronicle of Historic Events 392 Chapter Summary 396 Key Terms 397 Study Questions 397

Appendix I: Glossary of Terms 399 Appendix II: Suggested Jazz DVDs and Videos 411

Biographical 409 Historical Documentaries 410 Performance/Instructional 410 Important Feature Films 411

Appendix III: Chapter Notes and Additional Sources 415

Index 429

CONTENTS xiii

Photos

August Wilson Theatre (formerly Virginia Theatre)/Neil Simon Theatre 52nd Street, Manhattan, New York City. May 2007 xxiv

American bandleader James Reese Europe (1881–1919) poses (center, with baton) with members of his Clef Club Band, New York, 1914 3

Original Dixieland Jass Band promotional photo 5

Jazz singer Joe Williams 7

The World Saxophone Quartet performing in 1992 9

“Mother of the Blues” Ma Rainey on sheet-music cover 13

Old-style mechanical metronome 15

Gertrude “Ma” Rainey (1886–1939) and her Georgia Jazz Band, Chicago, 1923 25

American jazz musician Louis Armstrong (1901–1971) smiles as he poses on stage with a band for the WMSB radio station in New Orleans, Louisiana, 1920s 26

Jazz musicians performing in a nightclub 33

The typical jazz drum set 35

April 16, 1912: The front-page New York Times newspaper headline announces the sinking of The Titanic ocean liner 45

Map tracing Christopher Columbus’s voyages, which resemble slave-trade routes 51

Slaves returning from the cotton fields in South Carolina, c.1860 54

Fisk Jubilee Singers 55

Bessie Smith, “Empress of the Blues” 59

Promotional photo, c.1930, of W.C. Handy, “Father of the Blues” 61

1899 sheet-music cover of Scott Joplin’s “Maple Leaf Rag” 65

Portrait of American ragtime composer and pianist Scott Joplin (1868–1917), c.1910 66

Player piano roll of Scott Joplin’s “Maple Leaf Rag,” patented September 13, 1904 67

An American suffragette wears a sign proclaiming “Women! Use your vote,” c.1920 75

Portrait of the Buddy Bolden Band, New Orleans, Louisiana, c.1900 81

The Original Dixieland Jass Band 84

Pianist, composer, arranger, singer, and bandleader Lilian Hardin Armstrong 86

King Oliver’s Creole Jazz Band in the early 1920s 87

Composer and pianist Jelly Roll Morton at the piano 89

Louis Armstrong and his Hot Five 92

Sidney Bechet plays clarinet for a Blue Note Records session, June 8, 1939 94

Henry Ford and his son Edsel in front of their new model in New York in 1927–1933 99

Marathon dance competitions were part of the growing phenomenon of youth culture in the 1920s, Chicago 101

Bix Beiderbecke and the Wolverines in the Gennett Recording Studios, in 1924, in New York 103

Cornetist Bix Beiderbecke (1903–1931) poses for a portrait, c.1925 105

Frankie Trumbauer and unidentified guitarist 107

Paul Whiteman and his orchestra 109

A crowd of depositors outside the American Union Bank in New York, having failed to withdraw their savings before the bank collapsed 112

Exterior of the Renaissance Casino ballroom in Harlem, New York, late 1920s 114

James P. Johnson poses for a studio portrait in 1921 115

Corner of Lennox Avenue and 147th Street in Harlem showing the exterior of the M&S Douglas Theatre and a sign for the Cotton Club a few doors down, 1927 125

Jazz pianist Teddy Wilson playing with a quartet during the set break of Benny Goodman’s band, because racially mixed bands were not the rule in New York City at the “Madhattan Room” in the Hotel Pennsylvania 131

Bandleader, pianist, composer/arranger Fletcher Henderson 133

Coleman Hawkins, “the father of jazz tenor saxophone” 135

Duke Ellington and his band performing at the legendary Cotton Club 139

Dancers performing onstage at the Cotton Club 141

Composer Duke Ellington, singer Ivie Anderson, and drummer Sonny Greer pose for a portrait with the orchestra in 1943, in Los Angeles, California 143

Bandleader and clarinetist Benny Goodman (center) performs for a large crowd at Manhattan Beach, New York, August 11, 1938 148

The Benny Goodman Sextet 149

Guitarist Charlie Christian on stage with the Benny Goodman Orchestra, in New York, c.1940 150

Big-Band Leader Artie Shaw performs in 1945, Los Angeles, California 151

December 8, 1941: The front page of the New York World Telegram announces Japanese air attack at Pearl Harbor, commencing the U.S. entry into World War II 159

The Count Basie Orchestra performs on stage in Chicago in 1940 162

Count Basie with his “All American Rhythm Section” 163

PHOTOS xv

Tenor saxophonist Lester Young performs while holding his instrument in his classic sideways style 165

Pianist, composer, arranger Mary Lou Williams 168

Billie Holiday singing at a Decca recording session, c.1946 170

Ella Fitzgerald, the “First Lady of Song,” 1940 172

Art Tatum Trio 175

Special edition of Jazzmen, produced by the Armed Services and designed to fit in soldiers’ knapsacks 177

The ruins of a cinema stand stark against the rubble after the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima August 8, 1945, brought World War II to a close 189

The Onyx jazz club in New York, advertising singer Maxine Sullivan 193

The club named after Charlie Parker, located at 1678 Broadway, New York 195

Dizzy Gillespie, with characteristic puffed cheeks and upturned trumpet 200

Jay McShann Orchestra in New York, 1942 201

Charlie Parker, with Miles Davis, trumpet; Tommy Potter, bass 202

Pianist Earl “Bud” Powell 203

Tenor saxophonist Dexter Gordon in Los Angeles, 1947 205

Thelonious Monk at Minton’s Playhouse 207

Drummer Max Roach 210

Vocalist Sarah Vaughan 211

Latin jazz singer and bandleader Machito (Frank Raul Grillo) holding maracas, while leading his band 214

Saxophonist James Moody, Cuban conga player Chano Pozo, and trumpeter Dizzy Gillespie performing in 1948 215

Race riots and picketers in Birmingham, Alabama 225

Miles Davis recording in 1959 231

The Dave Brubeck Quartet, with Brubeck at the piano, Paul Desmond on saxophone, Eugene Wright on bass, and Joe Morello on drums, in 1959 236

Pianist Bill Evans 238

Stan Getz in a live performance 244

Pianist Lennie Tristano 247

American civil rights leader Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. (1929–1968) speaks at a rally held at the Robert Taylor Houses in Chicago, Illinois, 1960s 255

Art Blakey and the Jazz Messengers play at the Birdhouse, a Chicago jazz club, 1961 258

Clifford Brown at a recording session 262

Tenor saxophonist Sonny Rollins performs at the Berkshire Music Barn Jazz Festival in Lenox, MA, 1956 262

Guitarist Wes Montgomery, c.1960 266

Jimmy Smith sitting at the Hammond B3 organ 266

Contemporary bandleader Stan Kenton rehearses his jazz band in London, in preparation for a performance at the Royal Albert Hall 268

xvi PHOTOS

Saxophonist Ornette Coleman with trumpeter Don Cherry at the 5 Spot, New York City 272

Jazz bassist and composer Charles Mingus 276

Apollo 11, the first manned lunar-landing mission, was launched on July 16, 1969, and Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin became the first and second men to walk on the moon 285

Miles Davis’s nonet in a recording studio for the sessions released as Birth of the Cool 288

John Coltrane, Cannonball Adderley, Miles Davis, and Bill Evans perform in the studio, New York, May 26, 1958 292

Trumpeter Miles Davis and producer/arranger Gil Evans record the album Quiet Nights in 1962 295

Miles Davis with Herbie Hancock, Ron Carter, and Wayne Shorter at the 1967 Newport Jazz Festival 297

Miles Davis performing in Copenhagen, 1973, wearing hip clothes of the day 304

John Coltrane performing on soprano saxophone with his quartet in West Germany, 1959 307

Demonstrators march up Avenue of Americas on their way to Central Park in New York as part of a rally against the Vietnam War, April 5, 1969 321

The rock band Blood, Sweat and Tears performs on stage at the Longhorn Jazz Festival, Dallas, Texas 324

Weather Report performs on stage at the Playboy Jazz Festival at the Hollywood Bowl, Los Angeles, June 1981 328

Herbie Hancock using a portable synthesizer keyboard 330

Guitarist John McLaughlin and violinist Jean-Luc Ponty from the Mahavishnu Orchestra perform in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, in 1974 332

Return To Forever performs in May 1977 335

Popular Philadelphia soulful saxophonist Grover Washington, Jr. 337

Chuck Mangione playing his signature flugelhorn 338

A demonstration outside the Whitehouse in support of the impeachment of President Nixon (1913–1994) following the watergate revelations 343

Jazz pianist Keith Jarrett, c.1975 346

Dexter Gordon and quartet performing in the UK 349

Trumpeter/composer Wynton Marsalis in 1982 351

Pianist Cecil Taylor performs at Ronnie Scott’s in London 354

Jazz pianist and composer Toshiko Akiyoshi conducts her orchestra, c.1977 357

U.S. President Bill Clinton plays a saxophone along with musician Everett Harp at the Arkansas inaugural ball 20 January 1993 363

Michael Brecker performing with the Brecker Brothers at the New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival 369

Contemporary guitarist Pat Metheny 369

Popular smooth-jazz artist Chris Botti 371

PHOTOS xvii

Trumpeter/composer Tim Hagans at the 2008 IAJE Conference in Toronto, Canada 372

Diana Krall performing in 2004 at the Mountain Winery, in Saratoga, California 374

Esperanza Spalding performs at the 4th Annual Roots Picnic at the Festival Pier, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, June 4, 2011 375

Maria Schneider conducts the Maria Schneider Orchestra on stage during the Festival Internacional de Jazz de Barcelona at Palau De La Musica, in Barcelona, Spain, 2011 379

Pianist Danilo Pérez 383

Jason Moran performs at Thelonious Monk Town Hall 50th Anniversary Celebration, 2009 390

xviii PHOTOS

Examples

2.1 Graphic representation of “Happy Birthday” 14 2.2 Illustration of a simple syncopation in measure 1 that results from handclaps on

off beats that create a tension between major beats represented by the foot tapping a steady pulse. By the second beat of the second measure, the handclaps are lined up precisely with the foot tapping on beats 2, 3, and 4, hence no syncopation and no tension 17

2.3 Using similar graphics, the following example illustrates a simple polyrhythm. In this case, the foot taps indicate a 3/4 meter and fundamental rhythm. The hand-clapping introduces a new rhythm in opposition to the foot tapping. If the foot tapping suddenly stops, the continuing handclaps give the illusion of 2/4 meter. The combined result when both are executed simultaneously is a polyrhythm 17

2.4 Two-octave C scale. Raised half-steps in between each scale note (black keys) are labeled above as sharps 19

2.5 Chord symbols in a typical progression that jazz musicians must learn to interpret 20

2.6 Visualization of monophonic texture. The light, horizontal, wavy line represents the melodic shape of a solo singer. There are no other layers present in this single-dimensional texture 21

2.7 Visualization of homophonic texture. The wavy, horizontal line represents the melodic shape of a solo singer. The vertical bars represent chords, with darker shades indicating major chords, and lighter shades representing minor chords 21

2.8 Visualization of polyphony. The light, horizontal, wavy lines represent the melodic shape of a solo singer and a second melodic voice complementing the primary vocal melody below it. The vertical bars represent chords, with darker shades indicating major chords, and lighter shades representing minor chords. Black dots represent a rising and falling bass line in counterpoint with the melody line. The entire texture, with multiple layers of activity, is described as polyphonic 21

2.9 Lowered third, fifth and seventh (E flat, G flat, B flat) are called “blue notes” and are indicated in the following keyboard example 24

2.10 Typical jazz chord progression illustrated by symbols 27 3.1 Swing ride cymbal pattern 36 3.2 Visual notations of special effects associated with jazz 38

4.1 The first line shows your foot tapping down and up, indicating 2 beats per measure. The second line adds handclaps that help to divide each beat in half, showing 1&2& 1&2&, corresponding to line 1. The third line adds handclaps to divide each measure of line 1 into triplets, or three pulses for every 2 foot taps. The last line shows handclaps dividing each beat in line 1 into groups of three, faster triplets than those line 3 47

4.2 African fundamental or ground pattern. Although many readers would likely not understand music notation, laymen can execute the following graphic representation of the pattern. The feet establish the pulse or basic beat, while the handclaps outline the specific ground rhythm pattern 48

4.3 The habanera rhythm is represented below in 4/4 meter for convenience, although it is usually found in 2/4 meter. Try to coordinate your hands and feet in a steady tempo. The handclap emphasizes the habanera rhythm, while the feet establish a basic tempo 52

4.4 Notice the close resemblance between this Charleston rhythm and the habanera at the middle of the measure 52

4.5 The clavé rhythm: The following illustrations are graphic representations of the 3–2 and 2–3 clavé patterns. The vertical line serves to delineate measures. You should try executing these rhythms with your hands and feet 53

4.6 Classic 12-bar blues. Each block represents 1 measure 57 4.7 Final rhythm from Stephen Foster’s “Camptown Races” 64 7.1 A graphic representation of 1 measure in 4/4 meter showing alternation

between a full quarter note of full value on beats 1 and 3, followed by even eighth-note divisions of beats 2 and 4. This rhythm pattern does not swing 129

7.2 A graphic representation of 1 measure in 4/4 meter showing the uneven division of beats 2 and 4, causing a feeling of anticipation of the following beats (3 and 1). This was the typical pattern played by the drummer on the cymbals, expressed below by the syllables. This rhythm helps to create the basis of the “swing” feel. Horn soloists and pianists would likely also swing in this uneven fashion 130

7.3 Contrast between arpeggiated and linear styles 136 9.1 Graphic representation of the jazz conga drum variation. Tap your left foot

in a steady tempo following the graphic while clapping the conga drum pattern 213

10.1 Eighth-note triplets 238 10.2 Quarter-note triplets 239 10.3 Samba rhythmic ostinato patterns; the foot image represents downward taps 242 10.4 Hand clapping syncopated bossa nova rhythm—syncopated tensions occur

when hand claps fall between the foot taps. There are numerous variations to the ostinato bossa nova rhythm patterns 243

11.1 Modern and postmodern jazz coexist 279 12.1 Piano with whole and chromatic half-steps indicated over two octaves,

C to C 290 12.2 By using different visual shades to represent sound, it is possible to differentiate

between modal and functional harmony as shown in the following illustrations. (A) Visual conceptualization of a modal texture. There is a sameness about this visual texture, much like there is in a modal section of music, where all notes, whether used vertically as a chord or horizontally to form melodic lines, stem from the same essential set of pitches (color, in this example).

xx EXAMPLES

(B) Visual conceptualization of functional harmony: Each horizontal bar represents a changing chord in a progression. Some chords are related, whereas others serve a quite different role. The black represents the strong chords that supply more variety than the above example 291

15.1 Piano keyboard based on Western music system with half-steps. Imagine 12 more keys (notes) added between C and C on this traditional Western keyboard 388

EXAMPLES xxi

Figures

1.1 Jazz styles timeline 10 7.1 Typical big-band seating arrangement 128 7.2 Memorable Swing Era hits and associated bands 153 7.3 Important artists to emerge from Woody Herman and Stan Kenton bands 154 7.4 Popular vocalists and associated bands 154 8.1 Cost of living index, c.1940 167 8.2 Well-known territory bands and their locales 167 9.1 Comparison of swing and bebop styles 198

10.1 Comparison of bebop and cool styles 230 11.1 Jazz Messengers Sidemen 259 11.2 Horace Silver Sidemen 259 11.3 A study in contrasts: A comparison in the characteristics of free jazz and

more traditionally grounded, modern mainstream jazz styles 275 12.1 Miles Davis’s innovations 305 12.2 John Coltrane’s innovations 311 14.1 Distinguishing characteristics of Keith Jarrett’s music 347 15.1 Late 20th- and early 21st-century trends and artists in jazz 366 15.2 21st-century women in jazz 380 15.3 21st-century emerging innovators 389

Preface

I do not agree that the layman’s opinion is less of a valid judgment of music than that of a professional musician. In fact, I would often rely more on the judgment of a sensitive layman than that of a professional … —Jazz Pianist Bill Evans, from The Universal Mind of Bill Evans

Jazz is about America. It is American as apple pie and baseball, but surprisingly few people fully understand it or appreciate its wonder and appeal. Jazz represents the spirit and cultural fabric of America and has served as the basis of most popular music styles. Perhaps this is why our lives are invaded daily with jazz music – on television, in commercials selling everything from cars to banks and clothing, in films, in elevators and doctors’ offices, in restaurants and shopping malls and countless other pubic places. It is music that evokes basic human emotions and can be soothing, chilling, sensual, raucous, uplifting, thought provoking, transformational, spiritual, meditative, annoying, or even jarring. Sometimes it strikes controversy among listeners. Anyone is capable of enjoying these fundamental feelings, but the experience is enhanced beyond expectation when one knows more about how the music is produced, its roots, developments and place in American history.

Pictured on the front cover is Swing Street, 52nd Street in New York City in 1948. It was the place to hear jazz in the mid-20th Century. Miles Davis, Charlie Parker, Billie Holiday Dizzy Gillespie, and performers from the earlier “Swing Era” could be heard in clubs like the Onyx and Three Deuces that lined the street between 5th and 7th Avenue as shown in the cover photo. Jazz in the 1930s and ’40s was America’s popular music. It was embedded in American culture and was the soundtrack for American life. The jazz musician helped to tell our country’s story at nightclubs, dance halls, and on records and radio. Their music was accessible, daring and represented freedom to the outside world.

This same street shown in the 2007 photo overleaf by comparison looks quite different though still the home for aspects of the entertainment business. Jazz was associated with entertainment in its early years and considered forbidden fruit by some. Over time Jazz has gained a respect and stature shared by art music, studied and analyzed much like Western classical music. Jazz is now found in most university curricula, cultivated in high school and middle schools jazz bands, and no longer associated with underbelly of society. Jazz has become and international language recognized as an American tradition. We invite you to explore and experience this unique national treasure, listen to landmark recordings and hear the stories of the artists who changed American culture.

Experiencing Jazz, Second Edition, places the music in an historical, cultural, and social context of American society. By placing Jazz within the context of social history, students better understand

its relevance. It also helps them to relate the music to their own interest areas, and to understand why, to some extent, the music may have developed as it did. In this way, Experiencing Jazz, Second Edition, goes beyond many textbooks.

COVERAGE

Experiencing Jazz provides clear explanations of each jazz style and how it contrasts or is similar to other styles. Each style is presented in association with its primary innovators. The material is presented in a logical chronological sequence, but art is never that clean and easy to categorize or sort out. The reader will find the occasional paradox within a single chapter created by the juxtaposition of one style against a polar opposite. This approach was chosen rather than compartmentalizing styles and artists and confining their discussions to nice, cleanly sectionalized chapters. The multiplicity of styles is precisely what was encountered at the time, particularly from about 1950 on, leaving audiences, critics and the musicians to make sense of it all. To frame the socio-cultural backdrop and keep its importance at the fore, each chapter begins with a section described as “Jazz in Perspective” and closes with a “Chronicle of Historic Events,” serving as a reminder of the larger American fabric in which the music discussed throughout the chapter is an important thread.

xxiv PREFACE

August Wilson Theatre (formerly Virginia Theatre)/Neil Simon Theatre 52nd Street, Manhattan, New York City. May 2007

Experiencing Jazz—the textbook and website with streamed music—provide the reader with an understanding of how jazz works, how and why it evolved, who its primary innovators were, how to listen to it, and how in some cases jazz has been informed by certain aspects of American society including the evolution of new technologies that parallel the growth of jazz. The book and website familiarize the student with the basic building blocks of music as they relate to a discussion of jazz. Without an elementary understanding of music construction and jazz performance practices, it is difficult to fully appreciate a jazz performance. It is for this reason that such topics are discussed in Chapters 2 and 3 rather than at the end of the book as appendices. Experiencing Jazz is designed to create educated listeners, not just to present facts, dates, figures, lists of tunes and performers.

Each style chapter includes a retrospective glimpse at the reception of jazz in America by providing the reader with some insight into how the music was perceived by critics, historians and fans.

CHAPTER ORGANIZATION

Fifteen chapters in all, the text is designed exclusively for the non-musician, carefully defining basic musical concepts as they relate to an understanding of a jazz performance. Such concepts are reinforced throughout the book.

• All key terms are shown in bold with immediate definitions. A comprehensive glossary of terms is included as an appendix.

• Explanations of fundamental musical concepts are often accompanied by graphic illustrations, making such concepts easier to understand by the non-musician.

• Each historic chapter begins with a section “Jazz in Perspective” that provides a context and historic backdrop for the music being discussed.

• Each historic chapter ends with a “Chronicle of Historic Events,” once again reminding the reader of how jazz styles are woven into the fabric of American culture at the time.

• Specific references are made to the website where activities are provided to support the chapter.

• Each jazz style is carefully examined through discussion and comparison to performance characteristics of earlier jazz styles. Helpful quick reference comparative and descriptive tables are also provided to summarize salient characteristics.

• Chapters focus on the primary innovators including the bands and soloists and what made their work innovative.

• Listening guides are provided in each chapter to serve as road maps through each featured audio track. These guides focus on important points using laymen terms or terms that have been well defined and used throughout the text.

• Discussions of how jazz was received and marketed are also included. • Chapter summaries and helpful study guides including a list of key performers, bands, terms

and places along with review questions are found at the end of each chapter. Supplementary listening lists are also included at the close of each chapter.

NEW TO THIS EDITION

Since jazz is in a constant state of change it stands to reason that this second edition of Experiencing Jazz has been significantly revised:

PREFACE xxv

• A final chapter addresses jazz at the close of the 20th century and the first decade of this new millennium.

• New sections about the internationalization of jazz as a global language and women in jazz have been added to the final chapter along with discussions and new recordings showing contemporary trends.

• Since a book about jazz should emphasize the music, a comprehensive collection of audio tracks—to accompany any text—is provided.

• Improved discussions of fundamental musical concepts as they relate to jazz performance are provided to cater to the needs of a non-musician in grasping basic musical concepts as they relate to a better understanding of jazz.

• Discussions of Afro-Cuban and Latin jazz trends are now integrated chronologically throughout the book.

• The narrative has been streamlined, reducing the page count. • New links to historic recordings only recently made available by the Library of Congress. • A new, greatly enhanced website providing streamed audio tracks, video, and additional

supplementary materials including more listening guides for landmark recordings not provided in the companion audio collection.

MUSIC TRACKS

Experiencing Jazz offers a web streamed, comprehensive audio collection featuring landmark recordings by leading performers that illustrate the various styles discussed throughout the text. A complete list of tracks is included inside the covers. This collection is quite comprehensive, providing expanded coverage of women in jazz, Afro-Cuban and Latin jazz styles, and often overlooked styles or artists such as African music, rural blues, ragtime, organ trios, early symphonic jazz, vocalists and third-stream jazz. Some texts appear to be biased against certain styles, but Experiencing Jazz does not take sides and presents what listeners need to know in order to formulate their own aesthetic.

Listening guides that track each recording as it is streamed from the companion website clarify the listening experience. The website also includes additional listening guides for supplementary tunes easily found in most library collections or online suppliers. These guides are designed specifically for the non-musician and draw on skills acquired through readings about the elements of jazz and jazz performance practice presented in the first three chapters. Nothing has been assumed of the reader in terms of prerequisite knowledge. It is not enough to merely read about jazz, it must be keenly listened to and Experiencing Jazz provides all the necessary guidance to engage with the recordings and live performances.

A collection of audio recordings, combined with numerous video and audio tutorials found on the website reinforce the principles and performance practices associated with jazz. Emphasis is placed on artists who made and are making significant contributions to jazz rather than confusing the reader with lengthy lists of performers who, while their contributions to the evolution of jazz should be noted, are not considered in retrospect as major trendsetters or innovators. Special attention has been paid through the text design to emphasize one or two artists in each chapter who exemplify a particular style or trend. The decision to feature one artist over another was difficult but based logically on the artists innovative impact, longevity, and their overall impact and contributions to further developing the music. A case could certainly be made to highlight others.

xxvi PREFACE

LISTENING GUIDES

These are provided to most of the historically significant recordings streamed and from the companion website. The website also includes additional listening guides for supplementary study of tunes easily found in most library collections or online suppliers. These guides are designed specifically for the non-musician and draw on skills acquired through readings about the elements of jazz and jazz performance practice presented in the first three chapters. Nothing has been assumed of the reader in terms of prerequisite knowledge. It is not enough to merely read about jazz it must be keenly listened to and Experiencing Jazz provides all the necessary guidance to fully appreciate the recordings and live performance.

Not every significant recording or artist can be represented in any collection, no matter how extensive. The selection of recordings to include confronted the author with difficult choices as it does most teachers. In some cases recording companies were unwilling to license some landmark recordings, however, excellent alternatives were found and listening guides for others not included are found on the website.

ONLINE RESOURCES FOR STUDENTS AND TEACHERS

www.routledge.com/cw/lawn

Since this book embraces and recognizes the needs of non-musicians, web-based materials were developed to enhance student’s understanding and appreciation of jazz by providing a more informed listening experience through audio, video and interactive tutorials. The companion website carefully parallels Chapters 1–3 in the text, providing audio and visual examples that bring to life the basic elements of music, jazz performance practices, improvisation styles, the instruments associated with jazz, and the concepts that help to define it. Chapters 4–15 provide suggestions for supplemental material found on the website such as interviews with innovative artists, YouTube links, and so on. A wealth of support material is included here that closely follows readings in the text. The website should therefore be considered as a closely integrated companion to the book. While it would be useful to have ready access to the website as each chapter is studied, it is not imperative or mandatory. All web-based activities are highlighted with icons throughout the text to direct students and teachers to additional information that can be found on the site.

This website provides a wide range of support for the students and teachers including:

• Interactive materials that clearly explain fundamentals of melody, rhythm, harmony, form, blues, and performance practice in jazz including improvisation

• Instructional videos to provide a keen awareness of form, the instruments associated with jazz including Latin percussion and their roles in an ensemble, solo jazz piano styles, and jazz drum-set performance techniques associated with jazz styles.

• An audio introduction to each instrument associated with jazz that also acquaints the user with special effects, performance techniques and brass mutes associated with the jazz style. There is an instrument identification quiz provided as well.

• Additional listening guides for recordings not provided in the streamed audio collection. • Photos and documents that relate to each stylistic era. • Numerous audio excerpts from interviews with noted musicians including Miles Davis, Gil

Evans, Chick Corea, Keith Jarrett, Charles Mingus, Herbie Hancock, Pat Metheny, Charlie Parker, Dexter Gordon, Bud Powell, Stan Kenton, Stan Getz, John Coltrane, Billie Holiday,

PREFACE xxviiwww.routledge.com/cw/lawn

Louis Armstrong, Gerry Mulligan, Dizzy Gillespie, and others bring authenticity to the text and the total experience.

• A condensed history of disc recording and discussion of the relationship of this medium to jazz.

• A glossary of terms that is linked to the any music specific terms used on the website.

Jazz has become a universal music that has gone global, recognized worldwide and identified with the United States, but no longer “owned” by Americans. It is a unique American nationalist style representing the most significant cultural contribution that the US has made to the global arts landscape. Jazz has become synonymous with modern American thought and is a metaphor for democracy and freedom of expression. It should be studied, experienced and treasured!

Richard J. Lawn Summer 2012

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I offer my sincere thanks and appreciation to the following individuals for their significant contributions and assistance during various stages in the development of this text and companion materials.

Special thanks to: Dan Morgenstern, Tad Hershorn, and the staff of the Rutgers Institute of Jazz Studies; UT-Austin College of Fine Arts Information Technology staff Jim Kerkhoff, Frank Simon, Andy Murphy, and Tyson Breaux; Paul Young, Glenda Smith, Todd Hastings, and Paul White who, as students at The University of Texas, helped in the development of a CD-ROM as a prototype of the new website; David Aaberg for his tenacious editorial suggestions and concise chapter summaries; Ben Irom and Mark “Kaz” Kazanoff, who helped to create some of the listening guides; David Fudell and the staff of the Center for Instructional Technologies at The University of Texas; The Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center at UT-Austin; Jack Cooper for his composition Video Blues; Austin, Texas musicians Greg Wilson, Randy Zimmerman, Pat Murray, Mike Koenning, Craig Biondi, Paul Haar, John Fremgen, Steve Snyder, Chris Maresh, Eric Middleton, Russell Scanlon, and John Kreger for their recorded contributions; Charlie Richard, Steve Hawk, and the Hawk–Richard Jazz Orchestra, whose Sea Breeze Jazz CD (SB-2093) The Hawk Is Out provided a source for brief audio examples; Paul DeCastro, Jeff Benedict, and members of Rhumbumba for their self-titled Sea Breeze Jazz CD (SB-3067) that provided Afro-Cuban examples; members of the Third Coast Jazz Orchestra, whose Sea Breeze Jazz CD (SB-2116) Unknown Soldiers provided a source for additional audio clips; Marc Dicciani and Marlon Simon from the University of the Arts School of Music for their Afro-Cuban demonstrations; Sara MacDonald from the UArts Library; Wesley Hall for his assistance in gaining permissions for the website; Denny Tek for her perseverant photo research; and Constance Ditzel and the staff at Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, for believing in the lasting value of this project.

xxviii PREFACE

P A R T

Understanding Jazz

1

C H A P T E R 1

The Nature of Jazz Jazz isn’t a noun. It’s a verb. It’s a process, a way of being, a way of thinking.1

—Pat Metheny

American bandleader James Reese Europe (1881–1919) poses (center, with baton) with members of his Clef Club Band, New York, 1914

EXPERIENCING MUSIC . . . EXPERIENCING JAZZ

Music is the most elusive, abstract, and in some ways most intangible of all art forms. It cannot be touched, felt, or seen. It does, however, evoke any number of emotional responses, which is why it has become such an important part of the human experience. The only way to truly understand music, like any art form, is to experience it. No art form can be genuinely appreciated without an intimate experience with it. By working with clay, one gains a new perspective on what the sculptor faces when creating a work of art. By closely examining jazz performance practice, one gains a new view and appreciation of the music-making process.

Jazz is a performance art—a spontaneous art designed for the moment. Although it can be described in words, analyzed, and placed in a historic continuum, it cannot be fully understood and appreciated without the music being experienced first hand. Yet words alone cannot do justice to the listening experience, and it is important to understand that it is the music that points to the words we use to describe it. Jazz is a work in progress, an ongoing experiment and music in constant evolution. To quote jazz guitarist Larry Coryell, “jazz is a workshop.” One of the enduring qualities of jazz, and a defining characteristic, has been its ability to change, chameleon- like in nature, while absorbing every style it encounters, resulting in a new by-product.

Like any of the other art forms, music can be divided into numerous subcategories that, over time, have been described in great detail and consequently named. Words such as swing, bebop, cool, fusion, and smooth jazz have been coined in an effort to describe and compartmentalize jazz styles. It is the naming of these styles that often tends to confuse the listener, as there are often only subtle differences between them. The naming of various styles is the result of historians and critics attempting to better explain and describe the music. To some extent, these stylistic names are also the result of commercial marketing strategies. The term “jazz,” used to describe this uniquely American music, is no less confusing than the terms “classical” or “pop” music. Each of these general headings can imply numerous substyles. What is unique about jazz compared with classical music, among other things, is the rate at which jazz styles have evolved. In a mere 100 years, this American music has been transformed to include countless innovations in performance practice. These stylistic changes are so significant that the jazz of today bears only subtle similarities to the earliest forms from 100 years ago, and yet buried beneath the surface are common threads binding all of the uniquely different styles together to form a rich tapestry. The fun lies in finding these common characteristics. The essence of jazz is its ability to absorb, trans – form, and change. Like any art form, it is periodically renewed by various influences. Throughout its development, jazz has been viewed variously as folk music, entertainment, and art music. All three views often existed simultaneously, a fact still true today. It is a music that crosses all social, economic, racial, and geographic boundaries. Centuries from now, only the unique American innovations will be recognized and remembered. These will be sports such as baseball, inventions such as the personal computer, and, no doubt, jazz. Its influence has endured, and it is a unique, original American art form that has been designated a national treasure by the U.S. government.

THAT FOUR-LETTER WORD

It wasn’t that long ago we used to hear the word “jazz” frequently in common speech. It first appeared in American vocabulary in the early 1900s. Phrases such as “jazz up your wardrobe,” “put some jazz in your savings account,” “own the jazziest car on the road,” and “quit jazzin’ me!” came into being and were commonly heard. In the hit stage and film musical, Chicago, the most popular and most performed song is “All That Jazz.” The storyline takes place in the “gangsta” days of Al Capone in the 1920s, when jazz was in the early stages of becoming America’s popular music.

4 UNDERSTANDING JAZZ

Existing as a slang term before it was used to describe music, its origins have puzzled historians for many years. Theories about the origins of the word jazz are largely unsubstantiated. Some have associated the word with the red-light district of New Orleans. Garvin Bushell, a circus band musician from New Orleans, offers the following observation:

They said that the French had brought the perfume industry with them to New Orleans, and the oil of jasmine was a popular ingredient locally. To add it to perfume was called “jassing it up.” The strong scent was popular in the red light district, where a working girl might approach a perspective customer and say, “Is jazz on your mind tonight, young fellow?”2

As late as 1947, Berry’s American Dictionary of Slang cited the word under copulate. The term jazz was supposedly related to the act itself—“he’s jazzin’ her”3 (a line from the musical Chicago). The New York Times used the term in its February 2, 1917 issue, in an advertisement taken by Reisenweber’s club to promote “The First Eastern Appearance of the Famous Original Dixieland Jazz Band.”4 According to Nick LaRocca, the group’s cornetist, “jass” was changed to “jazz” to discourage people from defacing signs by erasing the letter “j.” The associations of the word jazz to vulgarity, sex, and the bordello, coupled with the many styles that the word could describe, probably explains why some jazz musicians rarely, if ever, use the word in discussing their own music.5

Others attribute the word’s origins to linguistic variations. One writer points out the word’s relationship to the French word jaser, which means “to chat,” “to chatter,” “to prattle,” or “talk

THE NATURE OF JAZZ 5

Original Dixieland Jass Band promotional photo

a lot and say nothing.” Prior to the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, the French owned the Mississippi Delta area, often referred to as the birthplace of jazz.

Creoles, a racial mix resulting from unions between French, African-Americans and sometimes Spanish, spoke a hybrid form of French. Some theorists suggest that the word “jazz” in Creole meant to speed things up. Another theory to consider is the claim that the term jazz is derived from West African languages, a natural conclusion because the Gold (west) Coast of Africa served as the point of origin for many slaves. Early jazz artists’ names such as Charles and James morphed from their formal spellings to nicknames such as Chaz and Jas or Jazz.6 A 1919 article in the Music Trade Review refers to the wild, barbaric music played by trumpeter Jasbo Brown after he’d had a few drinks. Patrons who enjoyed his musically gregarious behavior shouted, “More Jasbo,” which eventually distorted to just “more jazz.”7 Jazz historian Robert Goffin attributed the word to a black musician named Jess who played in a “jerky, halting style.” As early as 1904, James Reese Europe, a black society bandleader, believed the word was a distortion of the name of a New Orleans band known as Razz’s Band. Other historians speculate that the term “jazz” stemmed from a vaudeville expression meaning to excite, stir things up, or make things go faster.8

As jazz developed into a more sophisticated, acceptable art form, efforts were even made to rename the music and discard “jazz,” owing to its undesirable connotations. In 1949, Down Beat magazine sponsored a contest to find a new name for jazz. The publisher announced prizes and a distinguished panel of judges (including the well-known, contem porary big-band leader Stan Kenton and author S.I. Hayakawa). After months of deliberation, the winner was announced— CREWCUT. The winner collected her $1,000 first prize from the magazine and defended her entry as “simply the exact opposite of the slang name for ‘classical’ music—‘Longhair’.” Other winning selections were Amerimusic, Jarb, Syncope, Improphony, and Ragtibop. The results were announced in the magazine, but this surprising statement was added: “The judges were unanimous in the opinion, shared by the editors of Down Beat, that none of the hundreds of words submitted is adequate as a substitute for Jazz.”9

Whatever the true story is about the derivation of this uniquely American word, the music and the word quickly gained recognition worldwide. One can fully experience jazz only by exploring how it is unique, how it can be described and identified, and how to evaluate and appreciate its forms and variety.

Before reading the following section, visit the website to listen to the collage recording that traces approximately 80 years of recorded jazz. Make note of how different each excerpt is from the others, and make a list of the similar and distinctly different features. Repeat this exercise once you have read the following section.

DEFINING JAZZ

Jazz is a direct result of West African influences on European-derived music styles and popular American music. Since its beginnings at the turn of the 19th to 20th centuries, it has shown an ability to absorb aspects of other music styles and transform them into something entirely new and different. Jazz is, therefore, both a noun and a verb, as it is a way of interpreting music. In true West African tradition, jazz is shaped by the performers’ individual musical gestures and spontaneous variations. It is a music in which the performers assume the most prominent role and bear the greatest responsibility. It features certain instruments and special effects that are synonymous with the style. Many of these instrumental affectations may have been an effort to emulate the flexibility and expressiveness of the human voice. These instrumental effects alter and color the sound in unusual ways and exerted an impact on 20th century “classical” music. Although jazz is closely associated with certain instruments, any instrument can be used to imply

6 UNDERSTANDING JAZZ

the style. A wide range of instrumentalists and/or singers can present jazz, from solo performers to large orchestras. Self-proclaimed inventor of jazz Jelly Roll Morton advocated that almost any kind of music could sound like jazz, as jazz is a way of playing and interpreting music in an individualistic and spontaneous way.

Emerging in the first decades of the 1900s as an unpolished folk music, jazz reflected diverse influences. Among them are the blues, marching bands, polkas, field hollers and work songs, religious music, ragtime, and, of course, West African, Latin, and Afro-Cuban music, with an emphasis on individualistic expression through improvisation. Spontaneity, rhythmic complexity, and a close association with dance are other characteristics shared by African music and jazz. Jazz has been a chameleon even since the beginning, absorbing and reflecting the musical influences present in America at the turn of the century.

Although jazz is a distinctive style, recognizable worldwide, it has been difficult to define and has confounded many critics and historians. The difficulty of defining jazz is exacerbated because it remains in a constant state of change, influenced by popular culture, advancements in technology, and the musicians’ own desire for change and self-improvement. Therefore, like the music itself, there is no absolute set of criteria for defining it. Nonetheless, different combinations of certain traits can always be found in jazz music. Jazz is a rhythmically vibrant and complex music that often includes a rhythm section (piano, bass, and drums). It is this rhythm section that eventually inspires other popular American music styles such as R & B, blues, and various rock styles. The rhythms of jazz are richly complex, creating an element of tension. Rhythm is not the sole source of this tension, for it is also found in the sometimes-dissonant harmonies and complex improvisations associated with jazz.

Some definitions of jazz assert that swing, a certain rhythmic phenomenon, and improvisation are two absolute criteria for authentic jazz. Although these can be important features, they are not entirely unique to jazz, nor are they required for the music to be considered jazz. Much contemporary jazz post-1970 does not swing in the same way jazz was played in the 1940s. Music in a jazz style may not contain much improvisation, but can still be identified as jazz. On the other hand, some non-jazz may contain jazz characteristics. For example, does jazz saxophonist Phil Woods’s improvised solo on Billy Joel’s pop hit “Just the Way You Are” make it jazz? It is not uncommon to hear improvisation in many pop and rock performances.

THE NATURE OF JAZZ 7

Jazz singer Joe Williams

8 UNDERSTANDING JAZZ

Jazz has become a truly eclectic music, embracing musical styles from around the world and transforming them into a uniquely American form of artistic expression that frequently requires the performer to improvise. The blues, in itself an individualistic and spontaneous form of expression, remains an important component of jazz and a significant contribution by black Americans. Black performers have been the primary developers of jazz and blues, although some white performers and composers contributed significantly to advancing the music and to developing it as a viable commercial product. At the dawn of the 21st century, jazz can easily be considered one of the most significant musical accomplishments of the previous century and one that shows promise for continued advancement.

In conclusion, the following elements and features characterize all jazz styles:

1. Jazz evolved in the US at the dawn of the 20th century by absorbing characteristics from African music, blues, ragtime, marching bands, polkas, field hollers and work songs, religious music, Afro-Cuban and Latin music, and American folk music.

2. Jazz is an ever-changing style of music with multiple substyles and is significantly influenced by an evolving popular culture.

3. African-American performers have been the principal innovators throughout the history of jazz.

4. Jazz is a way of performing that places emphasis on interpretation, improvisation, and individualistic expression, in the African tradition.

5. It is usually the performer who is most important to a jazz performance, not the composer. 6. Although jazz began as a folk music and became an important form of music associated with

entertainment, it gradually matured to become art music, to be taken as seriously as classical music.

7. Until rock ’n’ roll attracted younger Americans’ attention, jazz had been the soundtrack for American life.

8. Rhythmic complexity, inspired by a rhythm section of piano, bass and drums, and sometimes guitar, is a predominant feature of jazz, including the special swing feel attributed to some styles.

9. Some instruments, such as the saxophone, guitar, drum set, and mutes used to color the sound of brass instruments, originated with jazz.

10. Jazz is the most unique and indigenous American art form.

The subsection “Characterizing Jazz,” found in the corresponding chapter of the companion website, provides an excellent supplement to this section and includes excerpts of interviews with many prominent performers. These artists offer their own insights into what makes this music so special. Note: All terms in bold are defined in the glossary included in Appendix I of this book and on the website.

CHAPTER SUMMARY

Jazz is a music that developed in America at the dawn of the 20th century. Many styles of music and music-making that influenced the beginnings of jazz reflect the melting pot that is America. This mix includes elements from both European and African music. A product of these diverse influences, jazz is a music containing a great variety of substyles, from early ragtime and blues-influenced jazz to free jazz and rock-influenced fusion.

Succinctly defining the word “jazz,” considering its many substyles and the fact that jazz is constantly changing, is challenging. Origins of the word itself are also murky, with no single

explanation substantiated. A change in approach to improvisation is one of the most important factors in the development of the various styles of jazz, and yet examples of jazz containing little or no improvisation exist. At one time, jazz was played exclusively in a swing feel. Approaches to playing swing evolved with each new style of jazz, and, because jazz continues to evolve and adapt, embracing music styles from around the world, jazz is no longer played exclusively in a swing feel. Certain instruments and performance techniques have become associated with jazz, which can be played or sung by any number of performers. Individuality, spontaneity, and the importance of the performer instead of the composer have always been at the core of jazz.

What can be unequivocally stated about jazz is that it was pioneered primarily by black Americans, is often improvised, is rhythmically driven, and combines European, African, American, and, sometimes, Afro-Latin elements. Further, jazz continually evolves as it is influenced by technology, current events, different cultures, and music from throughout the world.

STUDY QUESTIONS

1. What are some of the theories regarding the origins and derivation of the word “jazz”?

2. Name some of the identifying or salient characteristics of jazz, regardless of substyle.

3. Jazz was the result of what primary non-European or American influence?

4. What other styles of music, European or American, were factors in the formation of early jazz styles?

5. Is the composer or performer more important to the jazz style?

THE NATURE OF JAZZ 9

The World Saxophone Quartet performing in 1992

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6. Music from what continents or regions influenced the formation of jazz?

7. Can any piece of music that was not conceived as jazz be played in a jazz style? Explain your answer.

8. An aspect of rhythmic interpretation that is unique to jazz is called ________.

9. Define the term “Creole”.

10. What style, born in America, is undoubtedly the most important African-American contribution to jazz?

11. What are the instruments or instrument groupings that are unique to jazz?

THE NATURE OF JAZZ 11

C H A P T E R 2

The Elements of Jazz Jazz did not exist until the 20th century. It has elements that were not present either in Europe or in Africa before this century. And at any of its stages it represents . . . a relationship among rhythm, harmony, and melody that did not exist before.1

—Martin Williams

“Mother of the Blues” Ma Rainey on sheet- music cover

Ha ppy Birth day To You Ha ppy Birth day To You

Ha ppy Birth day Dear Su san……………….. Ha ppy Birth

day To You………………..

EXAMPLE 2.1 Graphic representation of “Happy Birthday”

Jazz can be examined and discussed in the same ways that apply to any style of music. All music is discussed in terms of rhythm, melody, harmony, form, and texture.

RHYTHM

Rhythm is accomplished through varying lengths of notes, combined with space, all in relationship to a steady pulse. Some notes in a melody last longer than others, and some move more quickly. So, duration is an expression of rhythm and time. Without rhythm, music has no sense of motion, and melodies would be monotonous and boring. It is the rhythm of music that propels it forward and ensures that it is not static. Without using complex musical notation, consider the graphic symbols in Example 2.1 that illustrates the familiar tune “Happy Birthday.” Some notes are lower or higher in pitch (vertical scale), some are louder than others (indicated by darker images), and some are shorter or longer in duration (horizontal scale), indicating rhythm. Silence, or rests, seems to separate some of these notes. Sing the familiar tune to yourself as you move through the graphic from left to right.

Jazz, since its uncomplicated beginnings as a folk music, has evolved to become a complex and sophisticated music. Despite the many influences and changes that jazz has experienced over a century of development, and its uniqueness when compared with other music styles, jazz shares ingredients common to all forms of music.

14 UNDERSTANDING JAZZ

Although brief discussions of musical terms important to your understanding of jazz are provided throughout this chapter, you should refer to the website in order to more fully understand these concepts. The section entitled the “Elements of Jazz” provides audio demonstrations and more in-depth explanations of these terms and concepts.

THE ELEMENTS OF JAZZ 15

Meter and Tempo

Meter defines the number of primary beats, or pulses, in each measure of music, and is the organization of rhythms. Measure (or bar) is a unit that serves as a container, holding a specific number of beats as defined by the meter. A waltz emphasizes a triple meter (1–2–3), where each measure has three beats, and a march features a duple meter (1–2), with two beats per measure.

Poetry has rhythm and meter. Sonnets, rhymes, and limericks all project rhythm and meter. Think of measures as inch marks on a ruler. In 4/4 meter, each beat would be represented by 1⁄4-inch marks, as there are four quarters to each inch. The 1⁄4-inch subdivision can be further divided into smaller increments, as is the case with music note values. To continue this analogy, how fast or slowly we move across a tape measure or yardstick, progressing from one inch to the next, is a measure of the tempo. Tempo, another concept important to the understanding of how music works, is an expression of pace or speed at which the music moves. It could also be compared to the pace of someone walking or running. Some songs seem to have no regular tempo, moving slowly and described as rubato.

It is safe to say that jazz performers and composers were content for decades to deal largely with music in duple meter—primarily 2/4 and 4/4 meters. For example, most ragtime piano music was written in 2/4 meter, and nearly all the instrumental jazz literature that followed well into the 1940s was in common time or 4/4 meter. Jazz musicians were most concerned during the first three decades of the formative years with honing skills as improvisers. Attention was focused on developing performance technique. It was not until the 1950s that jazz artists began to venture outside the safe confines of duple meters. Jazz waltzes were not popular until the 1950s and 1960s.

Old-style mechanical metronome

16 UNDERSTANDING JAZZ

Listen to all or a portion of the following tracks, which serve as excellent examples of different meters. “Take Five,” for example, is in 5/4 meter. Compare “Take Five” with “Every Tub,” “Summertime,” “Pent Up House” written in the more common 4/4 meter, or “La Fiesta,” played in a fast 3/4 time. Also think about their differing tempos.

Symphony orchestras and bands have conductors to control the pace of the music—jazz ensembles have rhythm sections. There is flexibility in terms of tempo associated with a “classical” music ensemble performance. In larger ensembles such as symphony orchestras, the conductor controls the tempo. In smaller ensembles, the performers control the tempo and must work carefully together to adjust the tempo or risk a poor, disorganized performance. The rate of the steady pulse, or tempo, in a jazz or pop/rock group is consistent and generally maintained throughout the piece by the rhythm section, which is comprised of piano, bass, drums, and often guitar. Within this group of instruments, there is likely to exist a hierarchy of time-keeping responsibilities that may be somewhat dependent on the particular style of jazz. The other musicians in the ensemble must then strive to rhythmically coexist within this tempo. At times, performers in a jazz band may seem to rush or drag behind the rhythm section’s steady pulse, but it is frequently by choice, not by error. The dragging sensation is described as laying back and is often associated with the sound of a particular band and helps to define its style.

The subject of rhythm as it relates to jazz is a thorny one that has provoked debate for many years. Attempts to define the special rhythmic qualities of jazz have sometimes ended in poetic metaphors and metaphysical phrases in attempts to make feelings and individual interpretations tangible. The very existence of a group of instruments described as the “rhythm section” points to the importance of this basic musical element to the jazz style. What other music ensemble, other than in related popular music styles that share similar roots with jazz (rock, R & B, pop), includes a group of instruments known as the “rhythm section”? The emphasis on steady rhythm is a distinguishing feature of this music, and, aside from the spontaneously improvised aspect of jazz, its unique rhythmic features are among the most important characteristics establishing jazz as a truly original style.

Listen to all or a portion of the following tracks from the online audio anthology, which serve as excellent examples of different tempos. Wynton Marsalis’ “Delfeayo’s Dilemma” presents the illusion of several different tempos. “Intuition” seems to have no set tempo, while “Poem for Brass” takes some time before a steady tempo is established. Compare these tracks with the slow, but steady, tempo of “Moon Dreams.”

Rhythmic Devices Important to Jazz

The rhythmic terms syncopation and swing are synonymous with jazz. Syncopation occurs when a rhythm appears on a weak, normally un-emphasized portion of a beat (when your foot moves up), interacting with a regularly occurring rhythm or major beat emphasis (when your foot pats down). The rhythm that is normally un-emphasized becomes accented and creates a syncopation or tension.

A polyrhythm results when two or more different rhythms are played simultaneously, layered one on top of the other. One fundamental rhythm usually serves as the foundation, and other layers are added. The examples that follow clarify these two important concepts.

Much has been said about the predominance of syncopation in jazz, its importance in contributing to the unique nature of jazz rhythms, and the relationship to African music. To quote Gunther Schuller, from his book Early Jazz:

By transforming his natural gift for against-the-beat accentuation into syncopation, the Negro was able to accomplish three things: he reconfirmed the supremacy of rhythm in the hierarchy of musical elements; he found a way of retaining the “democratization” of rhythmic impulses [meaning that any portion of a beat could have equal emphasis]; and by combining these two features with his need to conceive all rhythms as rhythmicized melodies, he maintained a basic, internally self-propelling momentum in his music.2

Schuller is also defining to some degree what swing is. It is this form of propulsion or forward momentum that we feel when something “swings.”

Listen to the following track, which offers excellent examples of complex rhythms happening simultaneously and syncopations. The opening section of Keith Jarrett’s “The Windup” (0:00–0:39) juxtaposes a regular rhythm played by one hand with improvised, syncopated rhythms that work against the regular rhythm and are played by the other hand. Listen to the “Bamaaya,” the African music track in the online audio anthology, to hear complex polyrhythms played by the drummers.

THE ELEMENTS OF JAZZ 17

1 & 2 & 3 & 4 & 1 & 2 & 3 & 4 &

EXAMPLE 2.2 Illustration of a simple syncopation in measure 1 that results from handclaps on off beats that create a tension between major beats represented by the foot tapping a steady pulse. By the second beat of the second measure, the handclaps are lined up precisely with the foot tapping on beats 2, 3, and 4, hence no syncopation and no tension

1 & 2 & 3 & 1 & 2 & 3 &

EXAMPLE 2.3 Using similar graphics, the following example illustrates a simple polyrhythm. In this case, the foot taps indicate a 3/4 meter and fundamental rhythm. The hand-clapping introduces a new rhythm in opposition to the foot tapping. If the foot tapping suddenly stops, the continuing handclaps give the illusion of 2/4 meter. The combined result when both are executed simultaneously is a polyrhythm

18 UNDERSTANDING JAZZ

Audio clips illustrating all of these terms used to describe various aspects of rhythm can be found in the corresponding chapter of the website. Here you can explore the subsection about rhythm.

Swing as an Aspect of Jazz Rhythm

Have you ever tried to explain how a food tastes to someone? It is almost impossible to truly appreciate the flavor of a particular food without actually tasting it. That same analogy is true for describing “swing.” It is certainly one of the most difficult characteristics to define when discussing jazz rhythm. Musicians and analysts alike have struggled to respond to the frequently posed question—what is swing? Big-band leader Count Basie, when asked to define swing, said things such as, “pat your foot” or “tap your toe.”3 Jazz pioneer Louis Armstrong is reputed to have said, “If you have to ask, you’ll never know.”4 Big-band Swing Era trumpeter Jonah Jones may have come closest when he implied that it was a feeling.5 Duke Ellington defined swing as, “the un-mechanical but hard driving and fluid rhythm over which soloists improvise.”6 None of these responses, however, provides a precise, more scientific explanation of the rhythmic phenomenon that began to be described in the 1920s as “swing.”

André Hodeir, author of the important 1956 publication Jazz: Its Evolution and Essence, said that: “jazz consists essentially of an inseparable but extremely variable mixture of relaxation and tension,”7 and that the “feelings of tension and relaxation coexist at the same moment.”8 In other words, some performers are playing things on the beat, while others are simultaneously playing syncopated accents on other portions of the beat. The combined result is a forward momentum we describe as swing, and there can be many subtle variations of swing—as many variations as there are players. Swing can be compared to skipping. When we skip, we divide our even pace unevenly, which is a characteristic of swinging in jazz. We make an otherwise even-paced walk uneven; we make it skip, even though we may get from point A to point B in the same amount of time as it would have taken had we walked with an even pace (tempo).

A sound byte is worth 1,000 words in helping to define swing. Listen to The Count Basie Band play “Every Tub.” This great band set the standard for swing, and the Basie rhythm section illustrates this concept at 0:32–0:55. You may be intrigued enough to listen to the entire track.

MELODY

Melody is the result of an organization of notes that move by varying distances—by step and leap—either ascending or descending, to form a musical statement. Melody is thought of as moving in a linear, horizontal fashion. A complete musical idea or statement is often termed a phrase. The term phrase can refer to a melodic, harmonic, or rhythmic statement. Short melodic phrases are strung together to create entire tunes.

The Count Basie recording of “Every Tub” on the companion website provides an excellent example of a musical phrase. Listen to 2:02–2:17 in this track to hear the repetitive melodic phrase played by the saxophones, with brass accompaniment.

Melody is by far the easiest ingredient to understand. Melodies can stand alone, be coupled with other melodies, or be sung/played with accompaniment. Melody is the aspect of most musical styles usually remembered more easily than harmony or even rhythm. A melody is often easy to recognize and remember because it may consist of only a few notes. Most listeners identify a lyric with a melody and hear them as one ingredient. Lyrics even help to clarify the overall form or architecture of a piece. Instrumental jazz is perhaps less easily grasped because it lacks a lyric

THE ELEMENTS OF JAZZ 19

to help listeners keep track of the various twists and turns of the melody. Remove the lyrics of a tune, and many listeners lose their way. The memorable melody of a show or pop tune that serves as the basis for an instrumental jazz treatment can become altered beyond easy recognition, as instrumentalists are not bound by lyrics. These show and pop tunes from the 1930s and 1940s were used in jazz improvisations. As jazz matured, performers discarded popular dance and show tunes from their repertoire, and the new, original jazz melodies became less easily recognized and more difficult to follow and remember.

A piano keyboard is grouped into repeating sets of 12 different white and black notes, with each group of 12 defining an octave. A melody can begin on any of the 12 different notes. Singers often practice a song in different keys, dictating they begin on a different note, until they find the one that they feel most suits the mood of the tune and best accommodates their own voice range. Have you ever tried unsuccessfully to sing the “Star Spangled Banner” or a church hymn, struggling to make the highest or lowest note? You struggled because the tune was in the wrong key for you, forcing you to start on the wrong first note. This musical key falls into one of two categories that define a tonality, usually major or minor. The major or minor tonality helps to describe the aural character of a piece of music, a melody or a single harmony. Harmony and melody work together to establish a tonality. Atonal describes a piece that lacks any specific tonality and is therefore neither major nor minor. Only some very contemporary, avant-garde jazz music lacks tonality. A song may have more than one tonality, depending upon its complexity. Tonality could be compared to a painting where many colors may be used, but one seems dominant.

Most of the music presented in the online audio anthology is considered tonal and is in either a major or minor key. Duke Ellington’s “Ko-Ko,” for example, is in a minor key. Bill Evans’s version of “Witchcraft” is an example of major key or tonality. The Ornette Coleman track “Mind and Time,” however, is a good example of atonal improvisation, as Coleman pays no real regard to key, harmony, or prescribed melody. Begin your listening either at the beginning to listen first to the composed tune or at the start of his solo at 0:23.

Go to the website section entitled “Performance Practice” found under “Listening to Jazz.” Good audio examples of homophony and polyphony can also be found as the first two excerpts on the second page of the subsection labeled, “Dissecting a Jazz Performance.”

C# D# F# G# A# C# (black keys)

D# F#

C D E F G A B C

G#A# etc.

D E F G A B C etc.

EXAMPLE 2.4 Two-octave C scale. Raised half-steps in between each scale note (black keys) are labeled above as sharps

20 UNDERSTANDING JAZZ

EXAMPLE 2.5 Chord symbols in a typical progression that jazz musicians must learn to interpret

HARMONY

Harmony is a collection of two or more notes played together and, in contrast to melody, is viewed as a vertical event, as notes are stacked one on top of another and sounded simultaneously. Chords are similarly defined. The most basic of chords is the three-note triad. Harmony is typically used to accompany a melody. A succession of chords is called a chord progression, or just progression. The harmonic rhythm defines the pace at which chords move from one to another in a progression. Most jazz tunes feature a progression of chords that creates tension followed by resolution. This practice, known as functional harmony, is based on the notion that there are certain tendencies that lead one chord logically to another. This practice serves as the basis for a high percentage of jazz tunes and American popular music. We may feel unsettled when a chord progression does not follow this principle and seems to be unresolved.

The sense of key, or center of tonal gravity, is established by the tendencies of functional harmony and helps jazz players to create logical improvisations—melodies that relate back to this center of gravity. Jazz tunes often feature only one or two key centers, depending on how many uniquely different sections there are to the tune. It is essential that jazz improvisers are thoroughly conversant in functional harmony, as it is these principles that guide the soloist to create new melodies. The best soloists can identify the chords in a progression by hearing them, without the aid of printed music.

The harmonic language of jazz is largely borrowed from light classical, popular dance, religious, and various forms of entertainment music. Aside from the blues, the earliest forms of jazz were based on marches, cakewalks, quadrilles, and polkas—all dance forms popular in the 19th century.

For a more detailed explanation of melody and keys, along with musical examples, use the website and explore the section on melody found in the corresponding chapter “Elements of Jazz.”

Use the website to gain more insight into how harmony is constructed and functions. The section about “Harmony” is found in the corresponding chapter and includes many examples that can be played, helping you to understand these concepts.

Eventually, jazz adopted a more sophisticated harmonic vocabulary, including other altered tones that were not uncommon in 20th century “classical” music by composers such as Stravinsky, Debussy, and Bartók. Chords become richer and denser as more tones are added, often creating tension.

On the website, listen to the lush, slow moving but changing harmonies (chord progression) used to support the melody of “Moon Dreams” from Miles Davis’s Birth of the Cool recording. Listen to the entire track or just the opening section at 0:00–0:25.

TEXTURE

Music can be perceived as a mosaic or fabric where melodies and harmonies interact and intertwine, serving as the tiles or fibers in the completed work. The ways in which each musical tile or fiber interacts with one another—melody with harmony, or several melodies with one another— contribute to what is described as the music’s texture. Texture can be dense or sparse, busy or static—transparent or dark and rich. These textures are further described as monophonic, homophonic, or polyphonic. Monophonic describes a single melodic line unaccompanied by harmony—for example, you singing by yourself in the shower. Music is homophonic when a melody line is supported by chord accompaniment. Homophonic textures are therefore denser than monophonic ones, because they have two layers—melody and chord accompaniment. Polyphonic music features two or more intertwined melodic lines. The different melodic lines are

THE ELEMENTS OF JAZZ 21

EXAMPLE 2.6 Visualization of monophonic texture. The light, horizontal, wavy line represents the melodic shape of a solo singer. There are no other layers present in this single-dimensional texture

EXAMPLE 2.7 Visualization of homophonic texture. The wavy, horizontal line represents the melodic shape of a solo singer. The vertical bars represent chords, with darker shades indicating major chords, and lighter shades representing minor chords

EXAMPLE 2.8 Visualization of polyphony. The light, horizontal, wavy lines represent the melodic shape of a solo singer and a second melodic voice complementing the primary vocal melody below it. The vertical bars represent chords, with darker shades indicating major chords, and lighter shades representing minor chords. Black dots represent a rising and falling bass line in counterpoint with the melody line. The entire texture, with multiple layers of activity, is described as polyphonic

22 UNDERSTANDING JAZZ

said to be moving in counterpoint (literally, note against note) to one another. If you sang “Row, Row, Row Your Boat” as a round with staggered entrances, your friend beginning after you started, the resulting texture would be called polyphonic. The addition of chords, adding another layer to the texture, could also accompany the overlapping melodies in this round. Textures with a greater number of elements become increasingly challenging for the listener.

Excellent examples of these textural concepts can be heard on the companion website. For example, “Line For Lyons” offers an excellent example of polyphony or counterpoint at 0:00–0:45. Keith Jarrett’s unaccompanied solo in “The Windup,” beginning at 1:55–2:30, serves to further describe a monophonic texture, and “Take Five,” beginning at 0:22, provides a good illustration of a homophony. More dense textures can be heard in J.J. Johnson’s “Poem For Brass” excerpt.

Using Example 2.1, “Happy Birthday,” you can see and hear illustrations of many concepts discussed to this point. For example, the melody continues to ascend in the first three phrases. The melody begins to descend in the third phrase. The melody, which constantly changes direction, is constructed of close steps and wider leaps. Where is the climax reached, at least in terms of the highest note? How many phrases comprise this familiar tune? If you sang it by your self, unaccompanied, the texture would be described as monophonic. If you were accompanied by piano chords, the texture would be described as homophonic. If, after singing it once, you began again on a different starting pitch, you would be changing the key. If another person improvised another melodic line with you, they would be adding counterpoint, creating polyphony.

FORM

Form in music describes its overall architecture—how many different melodies are there? Do they repeat, and if so how many times? Are sections repeated exactly or with variation? Form gives music structure similar to the organization we find in other art forms, in nature, everyday life and in architecture (suspension bridge, building, etc.). It is an important musical ingredient to comprehend in order to understand what you hear. Although form, on the surface, may seem to be the easiest element to understand, without the benefit of lyrics and a singer it may be difficult for the untrained listener to discern.

Most jazz compositions have more than one clearly defined section. A letter—A, B, C, etc. —defines each large section in the overall form. Each of these sections usually features a distinctly different melody and accompanying chord progression. For example, ragtime pieces are often based on the following formal scheme: AABBACCDD. This form is derived from the rondo form, a European “classical” model also evident in the march and the polka. The rondo describes a form where one section (A) reoccurs and is juxtaposed with contrasting sections (B, C, D). The consecutive letters in such a scheme (AA or BB) indicate that there is a repeat of that particular theme before the move on to a new one. Often, a piece that follows this model changes key at the C section.

Listen to the recording of Scott Joplin’s “Maple Leaf Rag” on the companion website. It is close to resembling a rondo form, with multiple themes and changing keys. Can you determine when each new theme is introduced?

Many American popular songs that served as springboards for jazz improvisations followed the song form model, usually represented by ABA or AABA. One statement of the form is often called a chorus. The return to A to end the form gives one a sense of symmetry and finality. Each section (A and B) is typically 8 measures in length. Jazz musicians often refer to the B section as the bridge or channel. The blues is the simplest of all forms, as it is usually only 12 measures long, lacking a B or C theme.

Once again, “Take Five” on the companion website offers a good example of the classic song form—ABA. Each section of the form is divided up into two, 4-measure phrases. Following a brief introduction by the rhythm section, the A section begins at 0:22, with the second phrase occurring at 0:30 through repeat of the first. The first phrase of the B section begins at 0:38, with the second phrase following at 0:45. The A section returns at 0:52, and the second phrase occurs at 1:00. The improvised solo begins at 1:08.

The Billie Holiday rendition of “Body and Soul” and Stan Getz’s recording of “Só Danço Samba,” also included on the website, provide additional examples of AABA song-form structure that is easy to follow because of the lyric content. Can you identify the bridge in these two vocal pieces?

“James and Wes” is a good illustration of a 12-bar instrumental blues based on a repetitive melody and simple form.

THE ELEMENTS OF JAZZ 23

IMPROVISATION

Extemporaneous playing; spontaneous composition; creating music on the spur of the moment. These are simple phrases to describe the act of improvising. People now think of jazz at the mere mention of the term improvisation, although there are often improvised solos in pop tunes, and improvisation is often a component of Indian and other world music. Descriptions of jazz from almost any era agree that improvisation is a salient feature. Jazz historian Ostransky stated that, in jazz, “reading music is considered a lesser accomplishment than improvising it.”9 Discussing the importance of improvisation to jazz, noted jazz scholar James Lincoln Collier wrote that, “it is always the soloist that is written about, always the solo that is analyzed.”10 Earlier writings about jazz portrayed improvisation as a mysterious or divine process, adding to the music’s mystique. Recently, more thoughtful discussions have helped understanding of the true process behind this unique form of creativity. As improvisation is an important feature of jazz, the intelligent listener needs to learn about its nature in order to develop skills for identifying and appreciating it.

Something Borrowed—The European Tradition

An early tradition of improvised music is found in medieval chants and in music from the Renaissance (c.1450–1600) and Baroque (c.1600–1750) periods. Composers were expected to deviate from the original melodies, as did Baroque composer Georg Philipp Telemann when he composed the Methodical Sonatas. He provided the basic melody on one line and, on another line, suggestions for improvisations not terribly different than those used by modern jazz soloist Charlie Parker.11 In 1765, violinist and composer Karel von Dittersdorf wrote that: “A new custom developed . . . To show their improvisational creativity they [the soloists] start fantasias in which they play a simple subject which they then very artfully vary several times according to the best rules of composition.”12 Baroque composers J.S. Bach and G.F. Handel also included passages where improvisation was invited, and this practice continued until the beginning of the Romantic period (c.1820–1900). Although a fine improviser, Ludwig van Beethoven, an extraordinary composer from this period, began a new trend away from this improvisation. The increasing complexity of the music, the growth of music publishing businesses, and the increasing number

The section about form found in the corresponding chapter on the website provides a thorough explanation of form in music, with examples drawn from the jazz repertoire.

24 UNDERSTANDING JAZZ

C D E F G A B C

EXAMPLE 2.9 Lowered third, fifth and seventh (E flat, G flat, B flat) are called “blue notes” and are shaded in the following keyboard example

of amateur musicians caused “classical” composers such as Beethoven to seek more control over their compositions. Franz Liszt, another composer and improviser, summed up this new trend by saying, “the most absolute respect for the masterpieces of the great masters has replaced the need for novelty and individuality.”13 More attention was paid to interpretation of the musical composition as written, and, by the late 1800s, the role of improvisation was diminishing in European music. However, at the same time, in the United States new styles of music were emerging that once again placed a high value on spontaneity and individuality.

Something New, Something Blue—The Jazz Tradition

The roots of American jazz can be compared to any folk tradition—impromptu, spontaneous, and simplistic. These characteristics, as well as rhythm, lyric, and melody, were of utmost importance in early vocal styles. Perhaps the closest thing to true improvisation in the late 1800s and early 1900s in America could be found in African-American vocal styles such as work songs and field hollers improvised by slaves and chain-gang workers, and especially in the blues. This vocal style featured blue notes, slightly altered tones where a special inflection was given to the third and seventh scale tones by lowering the pitch slightly. Instrumentalists later imitated this blues vocal style.

Blues

A distinguishing aspect of many jazz melodies, improvised and composed, is the blues. Blues melodies are based on alterations of a traditional scale. Some believe that the altered thirds, fifths, and sevenths of the blues scale can be attributed to certain African singing practices. A scale is a logical progression of ascending and descending notes, arranged in half- and whole-step intervals. The piano keyboard shown in Example 2.9 makes it easy to see these two basic intervals, which serve as building blocks for all scales. Note names are labeled. The distance from C to D is a whole-step interval, and the black key in between represents a half-step interval. Scales are comprised of eight consecutive notes, following a particular key signature, and are named in accordance with the starting note. On this keyboard, the C scale would be played as C–D–E–F–G–A–B–C. The third, fifth and seventh notes of this traditional scale are altered to form the blues scale, as shown in the example. The purple- shaded notes indicate the lowered third (E flat), lowered fifth (G flat), and lowered seventh (B flat) and are referred to as blue notes. There are gradations of blue notes, as singers and instrumentalists are capable of being less precise than a pianist when lowering these pitches.

The blues scale is almost an amalgamation of pitches from the major and minor tonalities. Leroy Ostransky, author of Understanding Jazz, felt that, “early jazz players probably saw little distinction between major and minor modes [scales] and used major and minor thirds interchangeably.”14 Whatever the origins, these slightly flatted pitches (third, fifth, and seventh scale degrees) became known as blue notes and are responsible for much of the special melodic and harmonic character in jazz that distinguishes it from other forms of music. Blue notes often

THE ELEMENTS OF JAZZ 25

help to communicate a melancholy feeling. Blues songs are sometimes associated with a depressed, downtrodden, or melancholy mood. The use of blue notes does not always, however, achieve this feeling, nor are these alterations always used to create this “blue” mood. They are merely one way to make a melodic line more personalized and expressive.

Some historians believe that the blues may have evolved as a result of African slaves attempting to reconcile their predominant five-note pentatonic scale with the Western eight-note scale and harmony they found in the US.

Gertrude “Ma” Rainey (1886–1939) and her Georgia Jazz Band, Chicago, 1923

The most unique aspect of jazz harmony for many years was introduced through the application of blue notes to chords. Those altered tones that we identify with a blues melody were eventually incorporated into the harmonies to form more colorful and dissonant chords, beyond the simple three-note triad.

The similarity between blues and pentatonic scales is illustrated by an audio example found on the website in the corresponding chapter.

Go to the corresponding section of the website (Chapter 2) and you will find audio examples further helping you to hear what the blues sounds like. The online audio anthology includes examples of blues from two different periods of jazz history—“St. Louis Blues” and “Jimmy and Wes.”

26 UNDERSTANDING JAZZ

Improvisation in Jazz

As a whole, the earliest jazz instrumentalists were not known for their ability to improvise new solos each time they performed. Typically, these early musicians performed a piece nearly the same way each time, once their approach to a particular song had been refined. Their playing was largely a theme and variation style in which a melody was merely embel lished and ornamented in new ways. Thematic variation is the simplest form of improvisation and is probably what Alphonse Picou (1878–1961), a New Orleans clarinetist, referred to when he described this early form of jazz as a “style of playing without notes.”15

The study of the development of early instrumental jazz is difficult because, during this era, the music could be preserved only in a written format, or passed on aurally. No audible artifact remained for study, as recording technology had not yet been invented. As each jazz performance is an interpretation of a composition, the printed page could not totally capture the live performance and its unwritten subtleties. However, after the turn of the 20th century, jazz became perhaps the first music to be greatly influenced by the advent of sound recording, for it directly paralleled the growth of jazz. (See the brief history of recording included on the website.) Recordings provided lasting aural artifacts that faithfully reproduced the live performance other musicians could now be influenced by and could imitate. Recordings were also responsible for the very rapid changes in jazz, compared with the slower pace in previous musical history, where one style was popular for decades before a significant change occurred. Recordings, though, became both an asset and a disadvantage. On one hand, they quickly spread the music and were models for younger musicians trying to learn through imitation. On the other hand, musicians with a popular record now found that the public often wanted to hear live performances exactly

Photo of a jazz band in a radio studio, broadcasting, circa mid to late 1920s

as they remembered the record ing. The pressures of popularity, customer satisfaction, and marketing could then discourage improvisation.

As jazz matured, largely through the work of Louis Armstrong in the mid 1920s, the concept and importance of improvisation solidified. There are many levels of improvisation at work within the hierarchy of a jazz ensemble. For example, drummers and bassists probably improvise the greatest percentage of the time, though often what they play is not new to them. They rely on familiar patterns that they have played many times. There is no precise duplication, however, and what they improvise often depends on the style of the tune, the tempo, and, of course, with whom they are playing. The amount of improvisational content in a particular performance is dependent, to a great extent, on the size of the ensemble and the intent of the music. Larger ensembles usually mean a lesser amount of improvisation, whereas small ensembles, such as trios and quartets, rely a great deal more on improvisation. Jazz aimed at a dance audience usually features less improvisation, because the music assumes a more subservient role.

Improvisation inspires a musical dialogue between the soloist and rhythm section, each complementing the other, while suggesting new ideas for elaboration as the improvisation evolves. Many performers have described the jazz solo as a story with a beginning, middle, and end. To tell a good story, there are characters; in musical situations, memorable melodic phrases serve the role of characters and are often repeated with some variation to provide continuity to an improvisation. The performer’s duty is to take the listener on a journey. The more listeners are led to predict musical outcomes in this journey, the more engaged they are in the performance. But, if they can predict too much, they become bored and unchallenged. Listeners can easily tune out when a high percentage of what they hear is unpredictable or previously unexperienced.

Jazz soloists are faced with creating spontaneous, new melodies; however, they must adhere to certain guidelines. With each new style of jazz came new and often more chal lenging principles to which the soloist must adhere in order to gain the respect of peers and audiences while advancing the art form to a new level. Jazz players have learned about music theory and have developed the ability to hear harmonies. Each improvised solo, usually referred to as a chorus, should build as the musical story unfolds. The notes chosen must relate to the same progression of chords used to accompany the original melody. The only thing written out in the music for the soloist (and rhythm-section players) is a series of symbols that represent these chord structures. This form of abbreviated chord notation is shown in Example 2.10. It is the result of years of dedicated practice and inspiration that enables a jazz soloist, given only this simple, cryptic chart of information, to construct a moving, engaging, and coherent improvised solo.

To ensure that their improvisations are consonant with these harmonies, soloists use certain tools, such as scales and modes that relate to harmonies (chords), to help them negotiate a pro – gression of chords in order to construct new, melodic improvisations. Soloists also use the notes of the chords themselves in order to improvise new melodies. It is a difficult process, as choices must be made on the fly. To allow the creative side of the brain time to recover from being spontaneous and consider what to play next, soloists often rely on “licks,” or pre-learned patterns and phrases. These phrases, used throughout an improvised solo, often refer to the tradition, as they may be quotes of melodies played by another soloist years earlier. Even the great improviser

THE ELEMENTS OF JAZZ 27

EXAMPLE 2.10 Typical jazz chord progression illustrated by symbols

Charlie Parker, in a bebop improvisation, quoted a Louis Armstrong solo recorded many years earlier. These quotes and memorized phrases can be strung together in many different ways to create new material. Phrases borrowed from the tradition could be compared to the many ways that we can express an idea in words. For example, take a phrase such as “The new-fallen snow is beautiful.” This simple idea could be expressed and embellished in many different ways. One could have said, “The new snow that fell last night is beautiful,” or “New snow like we got last night is really beautiful.” These multiple means of expression are exactly what jazz players employ when they use a pre-learned phrase and put it to use in an improvised solo. In using a pre-learned phrase, the soloist creates the illusion of pure spontaneity for the listener. Although the sequences of pre-learned ideas are assembled and reassembled in new ways from performance to performance, many of the memorized ideas can be repeated. Ostransky wrote about this phenomenon in his book The Anatomy of Jazz. He said, “They [jazz improvisers] do not compose on the spur of the moment; their significant improvisations are the result of long practice and experience.”16

Through years of listening, borrowing, assimilating, analyzing, and imitating, soloists amass a collection of jazz phrases that suit their individual style and can be recalled at any time in the course of a solo. In other words, soloists play what they enjoy playing. Therefore, not everything played during a jazz solo is spontaneously created. These solos, more frequently than not, are based on a series of recreations—bits and pieces of pre-learned material coupled with newly created ideas to form fresh, new improvisations. In the fall of 1958, the then well-known swing band leader/composer Duke Ellington traveled to England for a tour with his orchestra. He expressed his thoughts and feelings about jazz improvisation in an article entitled, “The Future of Jazz” included in the souvenir program. In this article he said:

There are still a few die-hards who believe there is such a thing as unadulterated improvisation without preparation or anticipation. It is my belief that there has never been anybody who has blown even two bars worth listening to who doesn’t have some idea about what he was going to play, before he started. If you just ramble through the scales or play around the chords, that’s nothing more than musical exercise. Improvisation really consists of picking out a device here, and connecting it with a device there; changing the rhythm here, and pausing there; there has to be some thought preceding each phrase, otherwise it is meaningless.17

Other forms of quotes used by jazz soloists include humorous ones, such as “Here Comes the Bride” (from the opera Lohengrin by Richard Wagner), which almost everyone knows, and melodies from other standard tunes that fit the particular chord progression. Quotes of this nature sometimes serve as homage to earlier players and a display of machismo, demonstrating to fellow musicians and informed listeners how much is known about the tradition. The player’s ultimate objective is to have an effective dialogue with the other musicians, while creating exciting new ideas and incorporating appropriate aspects of the tradition. To quote contemporary trumpeter Tom Harrell, “He improves on his heritage, but he also tries to invent music that has never been heard before.”18 Only the greatest soloists, the true virtuosos on their instruments, are capable of spontaneously creating a high percentage of completely new material each time they improvise. The most innovative improvisers in the history of jazz were those who dared to break from tradition and forge new pathways that relied less on what had come before.

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nothing puzzles god

Introduction
The country of Nigeria was very unstable after gaining its independence from Great Britain in 1960. From July 1967 to January 1970, there was a great Civil War when Ibo tried to separate and form the Republic of Biafra. The country was finally forced to surrender in 1970, after several years of horrific war. Chinua Achebe’s story, “Civil Peace,” takes place shortly after the war ends.

Initial Post Instructions
Chinua Achebe repeats, “Nothing puzzles God,” several times throughout “Civil Peace.” Considering the author’s background and setting of the story, why is this line so significant? Use specific examples from the text to illustrate your claims.

Do NOT use Sparksnotes, eNotes, Wikipedia, or similar websites, as these are not academic in nature. If you do so, you will earn an automatic F. Your discussion may be submitted to Turnitin, so please use the University library or .org and .edu resources.

Secondary Post Instructions
As you are responding to your peers, consider the main character in the story, Jonathan. Do you agree with your peers’ statements regarding his character? Why or why not? Use specific examples from the text to illustrate your claims.

Writing Requirements 

  • In addition to one initial post, respond to at least two peers.
  • Initial Post Length: minimum of 250 words
  • Secondary Post Length: minimum of 200 words per post
  • Use APA format for in-text citations and list of references.
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universal intellectual standards

Intellectual Standards

For our assignment this week, examine the Universal Intellectual Standards as described in our readings. Select one of these standards, and describe how using that standard has helped you in your:

Work life

School life

Personal life

Your essay should consist of five paragraphs, and should follow the format below:

In your first paragraph, write a detailed description of the standard you have selected and why you selected it.

Then, in a paragraph each, describe how that standard has helped you in your work life, in your school life, and in your personal life. Each paragraph should contain at least one example.

Finally, in your concluding paragraph, discuss the ways you can continue to improve upon this standard moving forward.

Your completed assignment should be written primarily in first person and should be 500-750 words in length. If you use sources in your writing, be sure to identify them. If you use any direct language from a source, be sure to place those words in quotation marks.

Your assignment should adhere to the stated page length requirement for the week and use APA style formatting including a title page and reference section. You should use Times New Roman, 12pt. font, double-spaced lines, and one inch margins. A description of APA style and the APA template can be found in the Writing Center.

Grading Criteria Assignments Maximum Points

Meets or exceeds established assignment criteria 40

Demonstrates an understanding of lesson concepts 20

Clearly present well-reasoned ideas and concepts 30

Mechanics, punctuation, sentence structure, spelling that affects clarity, and citation of sources as needed            10

Total 100 

Copyright Grantham University 2016. All Rights Reserved

Assignment

W4 Reflection Journal “What Is Intelligence?”

Strategies for Decision Making

What Is Intelligence?

This week’s lecture focused on the role of human intelligence. In your own words, what do you think intelligence is? Do you think intelligence is something you are born with or something that you can grow and develop? Why do you feel the way you do about that? How can engaging in good critical thinking impact your intelligence (or can it?)

Your work should be at least 500 words, but mostly draw from your own personal experience. This should be written in first person and give examples from your life. Be sure if you are using information from the readings that you properly cite your readings in this, and in all assignments.

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capsim practice round 1

1 © 2011 Capsim Management Simulations, Inc. All rights reserved.

Capstone® Debrief Rubric Report

Table of Contents

How to Use This Report ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 2

Sample Report …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3

The Company Rubric ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 4 ROS ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 4

EPS (Earnings Per Share) …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 5

Contribution Margin ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 5

Change in Stock Price ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 6

Leverage …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 6

Stock Price ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 7

Bond Rating …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 8

Emergency Loans …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 8

Current Ratio …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 9

Inventory Reserves…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 10

Plant Purchases Funded ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 11

Accounts Receivable ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 12

Accounts Payable …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 13

Asset Turnover ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 14

Sales to Current Assets …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 14

Overall Plant Utilization ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 15

Stock Outs (Company level) …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 15

Bloated Inventories ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 16

Overall Actual vs. Potential Demand ………………………………………………………………………………………… 16

Cost Leadership ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 16

Product Breadth …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 17

Market Share Overall ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 17

Overall Awareness …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 18

Overall Accessibility ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 18

Overall Design ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 19

Asset Base …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 19

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The Product Rubric ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 19 Positioning ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 19

Age ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 20

Reliability ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 20

Price Percentile ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 21

Awareness …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 21

Accessibility …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 22

Customer Survey Score …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 22

Potential Share/Average Share ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 23

Actual Share/Potential Share …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 23

Plant Utilization ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 24

Automation …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 24

Contribution Margin ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 24

Days of Inventory …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 24

Promotion Budget ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 25

Sales Budget ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 25

R&D Utilization ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 25

Overall Product Evaluation ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 25

Summary Rubrics ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 26

How to Use This Report

The Capstone® Debrief Rubric Report offers a comprehensive evaluation of a company and its products.

It is prepared as a rubric, with each item in the report scored on a scale of zero to three: • Excellent – 3 points • Satisfactory – 2 points • Poor – 1 point • Trouble – 0 points

There are seven categories ranging from “Margins & Profitability” to individual products. Each line item is discussed below, beginning with how the item was scored.

To make quick use of the report, scan it for zeros. Find the description below to learn why the company earned a zero. We recommend having a Capstone Courier at your disposal as you interpret the results.

3 © 2011 Capsim Management Simulations, Inc. All rights reserved.

Sample Report

DEBRIEF REPORT 2013 Ferris C42681

COMPANY RUBRIC Points (0..3)

Margins & Profitability Asset Utilization ROS (Profits/Sales) 0 Asset turnover (Sales / Assets) 1 EPS (Earnings Per Share) 0 Sales to Current Assets 1 Contribution Margin 2 Overall plant utilization 2 Change in Stock Price 0 Total (Max 9) 4 Total (Max 12) 2

Ability to raise growth capital Forecasting Leverage 2 Stock outs 2 Stock price 0 Bloated inventories 2 Bond rating 1 Overall Actual vs. Potential Demand 3 Total (Max 9) 3 Total (Max 9) 7

Sound Fiscal Policies Competitive Advantage Emergency loans 3 Cost leadership 0 Leverage 2 Product breadth 3 Current Ratio 3 Market share 2 Inventory reserves 0 Overall Awareness 2 Plant purchases funded 3 Overall Accessibility 2 Accounts Receivable 2 Overall Design 1 Accounts Payable 2 Asset Base 3 Total (Max 21) 15 Total (Max 21) 10

PRODUCT RUBRIC Cake Cedar Cid Coat Cure Ch Cp Cs Overall Primary Segment Trad Low High Pfmn Size 0 Pfmn Size Positioning 1 3 2 2 2 0 1 1 2 Age 3 3 1 3 3 0 2 1 2 Reliability 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Price Percentile 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Awareness 2 2 3 3 3 0 2 2 2 Accessibility 2 2 0 2 2 0 2 2 2 CustomerSurveyScore 1 0 3 3 3 0 3 1 2 PotentialShare/Avg 1 1 3 3 3 0 0 0 1 ActualShare/Potential 3 2 3 3 2 0 2 2 2 PlantUtilization 3 3 3 2 2 0 0 0 2 Automation 0 0 1 2 2 0 2 2 1 ContributionMargin 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Days of Inventory 2 2 2 1 2 0 0 0 1 Promotion Budget 0 0 3 3 3 0 3 3 2 Sales Budget 0 0 3 3 3 0 2 2 2 R&D Utilization 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Total (Max 48) 18 19 27 30 30 0 19 16 21

4 © 2011 Capsim Management Simulations, Inc. All rights reserved.

The Company Rubric

ROS Return on Sales (Profit/Sales) answers the question, “How much of every sales dollar did we keep as profit?”

Excellent ROS > 8% Satisfactory 4% < ROS <=8% Poor 0% < ROS <= 4% Trouble ROS <= 0%

Between 0% and 4%, while the company is at least making a profit, it is not bringing in sufficient new equity to fund growth. The industry is growing at about 15% per year. The industry consumes about 15% more capacity each year, which arrives in the form of plant expansions and new products. Therefore, as the simulation begins, an average company would add about $12 million in new plant each year. If half that or $6 million was funded with bonds, an average company would need about $6 million in new equity. Therefore, if the company does not have the profits, it must either issue $6 million in new stock, or $12 million in bonds, or not grow to keep up with demand. Worse, if it has no profits, its stock price falls, making it difficult to raise equity through stock issues.

This ignores investments in automation, which also require a funding mix of equity and debt.

In the opening round of Capstone® companies have an excess of assets, and that can convert idle assets into productive ones. Therefore, do not worry too much if the company’s profits are low. But after year 3, expect that idle asset cushion to be gone. Profits become critical because those companies with profits can grow, and those without cannot.

What if profits are negative? The company is destroying equity. Its stock price has plummeted, making it more difficult to raise equity. All of the problems described above are now accelerated. In short, trouble.

How can companies improve ROS? Here are a few questions to pose.

1. Can you raise prices? 2. Can you reduce your labor costs? Your material costs? 3. Can you forecast sales better and thereby reduce your inventory carrying expenses? 4. Have you pushed your promotion or sales budgets into diminishing returns? 5. Can you sell idle plant to reduce depreciation? Alternatively, can you convert idle plant into

some other productive asset, like automation or new products? 6. Is your leverage too high, resulting in high interest expenses. (See leverage.)

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EPS (Earnings Per Share) EPS (profits/shares outstanding) answers the question, “What profits did each share earn?” EPS is a driver of stock price, and stock issues are an important source of growth capital.

Excellent EPS > $2 + Round # Satisfactory ($2 + Round #)/3 < EPS <= $2 + Round # Poor $0.00 < EPS < ($2 + Round #)/3 Trouble EPS <= $0.00

In the table, “Round #” refers to the year in the Capstone®. Round 1 is year 1, round 2 is year 2. The market is growing, and so should profits. In Round 5, for example, an excellent EPS would be ($2 + $5) = $7.00 per share, and a satisfactory EPS would be at least 1/3 that or $2.33.

EPS is important for three reasons. First, profits bring new equity into the company. Second, EPS drives stock price, and the company can issue shares to bring in new equity. Third, any new equity can be leveraged with new debt.

An example may help. Suppose the company wants to invest $15 million in new plant and equipment each year for the next three years. If its profits are zero and it issues no stock, the purchases would need to be funded entirely with bonds. But this would drive up interest expense, and worse, eventually the company would reach a ceiling where bond holders would give it no additional debt. The company would stop growing.

In the end, a company’s growth is built upon equity. If it has equity, it can get debt, too.

How can companies improve EPS? Improve sales volume while maintaining margins. EPS is closely linked with the Asset Utilization and Competitive Advantage categories.

Contribution Margin Contribution margin is what is left over after variable costs. Variable costs include the cost of goods (material and labor) and inventory carrying expense.

The biggest expense is the cost of goods. If the contribution margin is 30%, then out of every sales dollar, $0.70 paid for inventory and $0.30 is available for everything else, including profits.

Excellent Contribution Margin > 35% Satisfactory Contribution Margin > 27% Poor Contribution Margin > 22% Trouble Contribution Margin < 22%

Fixed costs are those expenses that will be paid regardless of sales. They include promotion, sales budget, R&D, admin, and interest expenses.

6 © 2011 Capsim Management Simulations, Inc. All rights reserved.

As the contribution margin falls below 30%, it becomes increasingly difficult to cover fixed costs.

How can a company improve its contribution margin? Guard price and attack material and labor expenses.

Change in Stock Price The change in stock price from one year to the next is an indicator for the long term growth potential of the company.

Excellent > $20.00 Satisfactory > $7.00 Poor > – $5.00 Trouble < – $5.00

If the stock price is increasing, the company will enjoy easier access to new equity via profits and stock issues, which in turn can be leveraged with additional bonds, and the combined capital can fund plant improvements and new products.

If the stock price is falling, it becomes increasingly difficult to obtain new investment capital, either equity or debt. Eventually the company’s ability to make improvements comes to a halt.

Leverage In Capstone® Leverage is defined as Assets/Equity. (It is sometimes defined as Debt/Equity, but in either case, Leverage is addressing the question, “How much of the company assets are funded with debt?”) The higher the Assets/Equity ratio, the more debt is in the mix.

Using Assets/Equity, a Leverage of 2.0 means half the assets are financed with debt and half with equity. Read it as, “There are $2 of assets for every $1 of equity.” A leverage of 3 reads as, “There are $3 of assets for every $1 of equity.”

Excellent 1.8 < Leverage < 2.5 Satisfactory 1.6 < Leverage <1.8 , or 2.5 < Leverage < 2.8 Poor 1.4 < Leverage <1.6, or 2.8 < Leverage < 3.2 Trouble Leverage < 1.4, or Leverage > 3.2

It is easy to see why too much Leverage can cause problems. As debt increases, loans become more expensive. The company becomes high risk, and lenders eventually decline to lend the company money.

On the other hand, companies with a competitive advantage usually have a larger asset base than their competitors. For example, a broad product line implies a larger plant. A highly automated facility implies a large investment. Growing the company’s asset base quickly calls for prudent use of debt.

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Here is an example. Suppose Andrews has assets of $100 million, and Baldwin $125 million. Assume that each team is utilizing their assets productively. An observer will bet on Baldwin because its larger asset base translates into more products or more productivity. Now suppose that Andrews is leveraged at 2.0, and Baldwin at 2.5. If so, they both have $50 million in equity. By leveraging its equity, Baldwin gained an advantage.

Too little leverage can also indicate weakness, provided that investment opportunities exist. Think of it this way. When a company retires debt, it is saying to stockholders, “We are out of ideas for investments. The best we can come up with is to save you the interest on debt.” This will not impress stockholders, who are looking for a high return on their equity (ROE). An investor expecting a 20% ROE will be unhappy learning that their money was used to reduce debt at 10%.

ROS * Asset Turnover *Leverage = Price/Sales * Sales/Assets * Assets/ Equity = ROE. If the company can somehow hold its margins and productivity constant, increasing leverage improves ROE.

If leverage is falling, here are some things to suggest to the company.

1. Decide upon a policy towards leverage. For example, “Our leverage will be 2.5.” Adjust your leverage before saving your decisions. (Issue/retire debt, issue/retire stock, pay dividends.)

2. Find investment opportunities. For example, if the market is still growing, and you are already at a high plant utilization, you will need to add some capacity each year. Or perhaps you can add a new product. Fund these investment opportunities with a mix of debt and equity consistent with your policy.

3. In the latter rounds of Capstone® you are likely to become a “cash cow”. You discover that you have excess working capital that cannot be put to good use. In the real world management might get into new businesses, but in Capstone® there are no such alternatives. In this case, make your stockholders happy by buying back stock or paying dividends to maintain the leverage.

Stock Price Stock price is a function of book value, EPS and the number of shares outstanding. Book value sets a floor, although negative earnings can depress stock price below book. Stock price can also be negatively impacted by emergency loans. In the absence of losses and emergency loans, Capstone’s stock price is primarily a function of past and present EPS.

Excellent Stock price > $40 + 5 * Round number Satisfactory Stock price > $25 + 5 * Round number Poor Stock price > $10 + 5 * Round number Trouble Stock price < $10 + 5 * Round number

In the table, “Round Number” refers to the year in the Capstone®. Round 1 is year 1, round 2 is year 2. The market is growing, and so should profits. As time passes and EPS increases, we should expect stock price to increase.

8 © 2011 Capsim Management Simulations, Inc. All rights reserved.

Stock price is important because, ultimately, equity drives the company’s ability to raise capital for growth. Even if it never issues a share, a rising stock price means it is accumulating profits as retained earnings. More equity means that it can raise additional debt, and together its mix of debt and equity fuels the company’s growth.

Also see the discussion for EPS and Leverage.

Bond Rating The bond ratings are, from best to worst, AAA, AA, A, BBB, BB, B, CCC, CC, C, DDD. Bond ratings are driven by leverage. As bond ratings fall, interest rates climb on both short term and long term debt.

As the bond rating decays, bond holders become reluctant to give the company additional debt. This sets a limit on the company’s ability to acquire additional assets, particularly automation, capacity, and new products.

Since leverage is a function of equity, the bond rating is in some sense derived from equity. Companies can improve their bond rating by adding equity, either as a stock issue or as profits. The more equity they have, the more debt they can raise, and the bigger their asset base.

Alternatively, companies can improve their bond rating by reducing debt. However, reducing debt also implies shrinking the asset base. While there are always exceptions to the rule, shrinking the asset base in a growing market would be limiting to growth.

Excellent AAA, AA, A Satisfactory BBB, BB, B Poor CCC, CC, C Trouble DDD

Emergency Loans If a company is out of cash on December 31st, a character in the simulation, Big Al, arrives to give it just enough money to bring its cash balance to zero. The company pays Big Al its short term interest rate plus a 7.5% premium. Stock price also falls – how much depending upon the severity of the loan.

Excellent No emergency loan Satisfactory Emergency loan less than $1 million Poor Emergency loan less than $8 million Trouble Emergency loan greater than $8 million

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The great majority of emergency loans are rooted in three mistakes.

1. The company purchased a plant, but did not fund it adequately. 2. The company forecasted too much demand, and when it did not materialize, its inventory

expansion exceeded reserves. 3. The company neglected to fund your current assets adequately, usually because it brought its

current debt to zero.

You can also direct students to the online Team Member Guide, and the Analyst Report, where emergency loans are also discussed at some length.

While painful, an emergency loan that purchased assets is not destructive so long as the assets are useful. After all, the company could have and should have funded the assets with cheaper debt. It now has an asset at its disposal, even though it overpaid for it.

However, there is another cause of emergency loans – sustained negative profits. The company is, well, a zombie, kept in motion by transfusions from the deep pockets of Big Al. The only advice we can offer here is, intervene before the company joins the walking dead. If profits are negative two years in row, intervene to improve margins and reverse the trend.

Current Ratio Current Ratio is defined as Current Assets/Current Liabilities, which in turn is (Cash + A/R + Inventory) / (A/P + Current Debt). From a banker and vendor’s point of view, it answers the question, “How likely am I to get my money back?”

Excellent 1.8 < Current Ratio <= 2.2 Satisfactory 1.6 < Current Ratio <=1.8, or 2.2 < Current Ratio <= 2.4 Poor 1.3 < Current Ratio <=1.4, or 2.4 < Current Ratio <= 2.7 Trouble Current Ratio < 1.3, or Current Ratio > 2.7

Like any asset, current assets are paid for with a mix of debt and equity. The debt is Accounts Payable and Current Debt, which we can think of as “short term funding”. The balance is “long term funding”, and it is probably equity, but it could be long term debt. More precisely this long term funding is Working Capital, which is defined as Current Assets – Current Liabilities.

What should the Current Ratio be? While that is a policy decision, we suggest starting with the debt/equity mix of the entire company. If the mix is 50/50 overall, why would the company have a different policy for Current Assets? If Current Assets are funded half with Current Liabilities and half with equity, then the Current Ratio is 2.0.

Where does trouble begin? A Current Ratio of 1.0 says that Current Assets are funded entirely with Current Liabilities. Bankers and Vendors are very worried, and are likely to withhold additional funding. They do not begin to relax until the ratio reaches 1.3, which in effect says for every $1.30 of current assets they fund $1.00. By 1.6 they remain watchful but are less concerned, and at 1.8 they are happy to lend money or offer credit.

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However, trouble exists at the high side, too. A Current Ratio of 3.0 says that the company has $3.00 of assets for every $1.00 of debt, and therefore $2.00 of current assets are being funded with long term money. But if long term money is tied up with current assets, it cannot be used to fund long term assets – capacity, automation, and new products.

Consider a stockholder. The stockholder knows that he/she gets no return on current assets. Stockholders make no return on Cash, on Accounts Receivable, or on inventory. In some sense they are necessary evils. Stockholders recognize the necessity of current assets, but if they expect a 20% return on their investment, they would rather the company borrow money from a bank at 10% so their money can be invested in wealth producing assets – capacity, automation, and new products. A stockholder wants to see a low Current Ratio, while vendors want to see a high Current Ratio.

It follows from this reasoning that paying current debt to $0 is a mistake. The question companies must answer is, “How much current debt should be in the mix?”

In the real world, bankers will typically fund up to 75% of Accounts Receivable and 50% of inventory. Using this as a rule of thumb, here is a quick method to arrive at Current Debt before a company saves decisions.

1. Drive the proforma financial statements into a “worst case scenario”. In the worst case, the pessimistic unit sales forecast is put into the Marketing worksheet, and the best case unit sales forecast into the Production schedule. In the worst case, the proforma balance sheet ‘s inventory is at a maximum.

2. Looking at the proforma balance sheet, calculate 50% of the inventory and 75% of the Receivables.

3. On the Finance sheet, enter the result as Current Debt for next year.

Companies will discover that if its policy towards A/R is 30 days, its policy towards inventory is 90 days, and it has $1 of cash, then a policy of A/P at 30 days, and current debt at 75% of A/R and 50% of inventory, will give it a Current Ratio of about 2.0.

Inventory Reserves Inventory expansions are the number one cause of emergency loans. This can be further broken down into two root causes – forecasting, and inadequate inventory reserves.

By inventory reserves we mean, “How much inventory are we willing to accumulate during the year in our worst case?” We express this as “days of inventory.”

Suppose the gross margin is 30%. If so, then the cost of inventory consumes 70% of every sales dollar. If sales are $100 million, over the course of a year the company spends $70 million on inventory. In one day it spends $191 thousand. In 30 days it spends $5.7 million. In 90 days $17.3 million.

We are interested in how many days of inventory the company planned to be able to absorb, because if inventory expanded beyond this, it would see Big Al for an emergency loan.

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Excellent 75 to 105 days of inventory Satisfactory 55 to 75 days, or 105 to 135 days of inventory Poor 30 to 55 days, or 135 to 160 days of inventory Trouble Below 30 days or more than 160 days of inventory

To find inventory reserves we determine cash and inventory positions on January 2nd, after all the dust has settled from borrowing, stock issues, bond issues, debt retirement, etc.

Inventory reserves in days = ((Starting Cash + Starting Inventory)/COG) * 365. For example, if starting cash and inventory totaled 30 million on January 2nd, and annual cost of goods is expected to be $120 million, then days of inventory was $30/$120 * 365 or 91 days.

If the company sells its entire inventory, it converts it all to cash. The more inventory accumulated, the more that cash is crystallized as inventory. Eventually the company runs out of cash and turns to Big Al to pay for the inventory that has accumulated in the warehouse.

Companies can develop an inventory reserves policy by considering their worst case forecast for sales. If the inventory policy is 90 days, they can plan the production schedule so that they will have (1 + 90/365) = 125% of their worst case forecast, including any starting inventory.

Companies cannot predict what competitors will do in detail. Therefore, companies plan for the worst and hope for the best.

Trouble is highly likely to occur when inventory reserves are less than 30 days. The company may get away with it, but that requires both precise forecasting and predictable competitors or, more likely, lots of luck.

Trouble appears in a different form when inventory reserves exceed 160 days. Now the company has idle assets, which should either have been put to work or given back to the stockholders.

Plant Purchases Funded Failure to fully fund plant purchase is the number two cause of emergency loans. The error occurs because companies often count on profits or perhaps inventory reductions that do not materialize.

Excellent Fully funded Satisfactory Funding shortfall is within $4 million Poor Funding shortfall is within $8 million Trouble Funding shortfall is greater than $8 million

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Funding sources include:

1. Depreciation 2. Stock issue 3. Bond issues 4. Excess current assets

Depreciation often confuses students. While we do pay cash for expenses like promotion or inventory, we never actually pay cash for depreciation. And yet governments allow businesses to deduct depreciation as an expense, thereby reducing profits and taxes. Why?

Governments want businesses to continue to pay taxes, and they agree that equipment wears out and must be replaced. The purpose of depreciation is to set aside a guaranteed cash flow that can be used for the purchase of new plant and equipment. Teams can successfully argue that cash from depreciation is a valid source of funding.

Stock and bond issues raise long term funds for any investment in the company.

Excess current assets can be defined as “anything greater than the current assets required to operate in our worst case scenario”. For our purposes, we assume that teams need a minimum of 90 days of inventory, 30 days of accounts receivable, and $1 of cash. Of course, teams might want to have deeper reserves, but in applying the rubric to Plant Purchases, we allow companies to apply anything above this minimum to plant purchases. We use the January 1st balance sheet (same as the December 31st balance sheet from last year’s reports) to discover starting current assets.

If the sum of the company’s funding sources is greater than its plant purchases, the company fully funded the purchase. If the shortfall is less than $4 million, it is plausible that its intention was to reduce the current asset base by $4 million. If the funding shortfall is $8 million, it is conceivable albeit unlikely that the shortfall was planned. Anything more than $8 million is cutting deeply into current assets, and will likely result in an emergency loan.

Accounts Receivable The accounts receivable policy affects both demand and the balance sheet. Companies express the policy in days. A 30 day policy means that accounts receivable will be 30/365 * Sales.

Excellent 45 to 60 days Satisfactory 30 to 45 days, or 60 to 75 days Poor 20 to 30 days, or 75 to 90 days Trouble Less than 20 days or more than 90 days

On the balance sheet, if a company expands A/R policy from 30 days to 60 days, it doubles A/R. In effect it gives a loan to customers, and in the process it incurs the additional expense of carrying that loan. For

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example, if accounts receivable expanded from $10 million to $20 million, and the company funded the expansion with short term debt at 10%, it would incur an additional $1.0 million in interest expense.

On the other hand, demand would increase by about 5% from $120 million to $126 million, while fixed costs would remain the same. Profits would increase by about $0.8 million after paying the additional $1 million in interest expense. And, of course, the additional $6 million in sales came out of competitors.

But there is a risk. It is trivial for competitors to copy A/R policies, and if that happens, the increase in demand is neutralized while everyone absorbs the additional $1.0 million in interest expense. The question then is, “Will competitors realize we have expanded our credit terms? All of them?”

Beyond 60 days, the incremental cost in interest exceeds the incremental gain in demand.

As companies shorten A/R policy, they effectively reduce the loan they have made to customers. Cash goes up, interest expense falls. However, customers want credit terms. If the company demands cash payment, demand falls to 65% of its potential.

These relationships are easily explored with the company’s Marketing worksheet. As they vary the A/R policy, they should watch the computer’s demand forecast.

Accounts Payable Accounts payable policy affects both parts deliveries and the balance sheet. Companies express the policy in days. A 30 day policy means that it pays vendors 30 days after it receives a bill.

Excellent 0 to 15 days Satisfactory 15 to 30 days Poor 30 to 45 days Trouble Over 45 days

On the balance sheet, if companies expand A/P policy from 30 to 60 days, it doubles A/P. In effect it extracts a loan from vendors on which its pay no interest. If payables expand from $10 million to $20 million, that means that it could borrow $10 million less from its banker, and if interest rates are 10%, it saves $1 million in interest expense.

However, vendors want to be paid. If they are not paid, they begin withholding parts deliveries. At 60 days, parts deliveries fall 8%. The company pays for the workforce, but it gets 8% less inventory to sell. In Round 1 this translates to about $2.35 million in wasted labor expense, and potentially missed sales from stockouts.

A policy between 0 and 15 days improves production about 2%. This translates to about 84 thousand units that the company in Round 1 that the company would not have had before. In effect, the labor cost on these units is free, a savings of $700 thousand, plus the contribution margin on these units, another $800 thousand.

These relationships are easily explored with the Production worksheet. As the company varies A/P policy, watch the impact upon total Production After Adjustments.

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Asset Turnover Asset Turnover or Sales/Assets answers the question, “For every dollar of assets, how many sales dollars do we generate?” We would like to generate as many sales dollars as possible.

Excellent ATO > 1.3 Satisfactory 1.0 < ATO <=1.3 Poor 0.8 < ATO <= 1.0 Trouble ATO <= 0.8

In Capstone®, 1.0 to 1.3 (that is, $1.00 to $1.30 of sales for every dollar of assets) is considered satisfactory. Anything over 1.3 is excellent. Between 0.8 and 1.0, chances are the company has idle assets.

Consider its starting Traditional product (Able, Baker, Cake, Daze, Eat, or Fast). In Round 0 it could produce 1.8 million units on first shift, yet demand was only 1.0 million units. Almost half the plant was idle. Its Sales/Assets ratio was depressed, dragging down the entire company’s Asset Turnover.

Below 0.8 the company is in trouble. Either sales are depressed, or the assets are unproductive, or both.

What can companies do to improve Asset Turnover? Fundamentally a company needs to increase demand or reduce the asset base. Many of the other items in the rubric drill down into these issues. Consider these questions:

1. Is the plant utilization on any product below 130%? (See plant utilization.) 2. Can the company make its products more competitive? (See Design, Awareness, Accessibility). 3. Are its current assets appropriate for its sales base? (See Sales to Current Assets).

Excellent Asset Turnover >1.3 Satisfactory 1.0 < Asset Turnover < 1.3 Poor 0.8 < Asset Turnover < 1.0 Trouble Asset Turnover < 0.8

Sales to Current Assets This ratio asks the question, “Given our sales base, do we have adequate current assets to operate the company?” Current assets are comprised of Cash, Accounts Receivable and Inventory. In the worst case scenario, cash has dwindled to $1 as inventory expanded. The accounts receivable policy (for example, 30 day terms) is a direct function of Sales.

Given the A/R policy in days, inventory policy in days, and sales, it is easy to calculate whether a company has adequate Current Assets to operate the company. For example, suppose the company projects worst case sales to be $120 million, sets A/R policy to 30 days, and is willing to carry 90 days of inventory. If its gross margin is 30%, then it will spend 70% * $120 million on inventory during the year,

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or $84 million, and a 90 day inventory policy translates to 90/365*$84 = $21 million. Accounts Receivable will be 30/365*$120 million = $10 million. In the worst case the company will have only $1 in cash. Current Assets = $1 + $10 million + $21 million = $31 Million. Sales/Current Assets = 3.8

Excellent 3.5 < Sales/Current Assets <4.5 Satisfactory 3.0 to 3.5, or 4.5 to 5.0 Poor 2.5 to 3.0, or 5.0 to 5.5 Trouble Sales/Current Assets < 2.5, or > 5.5

Too low a ratio risks a visit from Big Al. Too high a ratio indicates idle current assets which should either be put to work or given back to shareholders as a dividend or stock repurchase.

Overall Plant Utilization Overall Plant Utilization asks the question, “Are we working our plant hard?” It is calculated as Total Production / Total Capacity.

Excellent Plant Utilization > 1.7 Satisfactory Plant Utilization > 1.3 Poor Plant Utilization > 0.9 Trouble Plant Utilization < 0.9

It is easy to demonstrate that second shift is nearly always more profitable than first shift. This often surprises students who look at the 50% second shift wage premium and assume that second shift must be something to avoid. But suppose we only run one shift – by necessity it must pay all of the fixed costs – depreciation, R&D, Promotion, Sales Budget, Admin, and Interest. Anything on second shift only pays for the 50% premium on labor.

It follows that we want to run as much second shift as possible. In a perfect world, we would run two shifts, our best case demand forecast would come true, and we would have only one unit of inventory left at the end of the year. On the other hand, if we max out second shift, there is a good chance we could stock out, and stock outs are very costly. Therefore, 170% plant utilization or more is considered excellent and 130% satisfactory.

Stock Outs (Company level) Stock outs are HUGELY expensive. Consider a typical stock out. Demand is 500 thousand. The company stocks out at 400 thousand. The price is $30, and the unit cost is $21. Consider – the 400 thousand that were sold must have paid for all of the fixed costs – depreciation, R&D, Promotion, Sales Budget, Admin, and Interest. Therefore, the missed units would have only have paid for their cost of goods, contributing $900 thousand towards profit, been taxed at 35%, resulting in a $585 thousand net profit.

At the company level, we are interested in how many of the company’s products stocked out. (At the product level below, we will examine the individual stock out.) Chronic stock outs suggest problems with forecasting.

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Excellent No product stocked out Satisfactory 1 product stocked out Poor 2 products stocked out Trouble 3 or more products stocked out

Bloated Inventories We define a bloated inventory as any product that has more than 4 months of sales sitting in the warehouse.

While it is not uncommon to be taken by surprise by a competitor on a single product (perhaps a new product was introduced), if inventories are bloated across several products, the company is having difficulty forecasting demand.

Excellent No product had a bloated inventory Satisfactory 1 or 2 products with bloated inventories Poor 3 or 4 products with bloated inventories Trouble 5 or more products with bloated inventories

Overall Actual vs. Potential Demand The company worked hard to create the demand, but did it meet it?

Potential Demand tells companies what they deserved to sell based upon customer preferences. Actual demand is what companies actually sold, and it is often affected by stock outs.

If companies are not meeting potential demand, the problem is usually forecasting, and sometimes capacity shortages.

Excellent Met potential demand (or exceeded) Satisfactory Met 98% of potential demand Poor Met 96 % of potential demand Trouble Met less than 96% of potential demand

Cost Leadership Cost leaders attack the cost of goods, both material and labor costs. We can assess overall cost leadership by assess the average unit cost across the company’s product line.

Excellent < $18 – (Round #/4) Satisfactory <$20 – (Round #/4) Poor <$22 – (Round # /4) Trouble >$22 – (Round#/4)

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Over time we expect companies to become more efficient. The simulation advances the clock a year at a time, and a Round is one advance. Using the formula, an excellent average cost of goods in Round 2 is $17.50.

Companies can attack cost of goods by:

1. Reducing MTBF. 2. Placing products well behind the leading edge of the segment. The Material cost can be several

dollars cheaper per unit at the trailing edge versus the leading edge. 3. Automating to reduce labor costs

Product Breadth How many products does the company have in its line-up?

Consider this thought experiment. Suppose that there are four competitors in a segment and they all offer identical products. Each gets a 25% share. Now the “A” competitor adds a fifth identical product. “A’s” share becomes 40%. The gain was not free. “A” doubled its R&D, Promotion, Sales Budget, Admin costs, and it had to buy a new plant for its new product. But it has 40% share.

“B” likes this and adds a sixth identical product to the mix. Its share (and “A’s”) are now 33%. What should “C” and “D” do? If they match, everybody’s costs double. If they do not match, their share falls from 25% to 16%.

Product breadth also impacts accessibility. In Capstone® two products in a segment both contribute towards the Accessibility because two Sales Budgets are contributing instead of 1. You can only reach 100% accessibility if you have two or more products in the segment.

Excellent 7 or 8 products Satisfactory 4, 5 or 6 products Poor 3 products Trouble 1 or 2 products

Market Share Overall Overall market share is an indicator of strength or weakness. Companies began the simulation with a share of 1/#Teams.

Excellent 1.5 times average share Satisfactory 0.9 to 1.5 times average share Poor 0.6 to 0.9 times average share Trouble <0. 6 times average share

There is a synergistic relationship between falling share and expenses. Fixed costs do not vary much relative to sales from year to year. Fixed costs include R&D, Promotion, and Sales Budget. The R&D budget will be about the same whether the product is making $20 million in sales or $40 million in sales.

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But as market share slips, companies feel pressure to reduce these fixed costs. Trimming R&D, Promotion and Sales leads to reduced demand, which leads to lower share, then further trimming – a deadly spiral.

Overall Awareness Economists speak of “perfect information”. In Capstone® 100% awareness means that the product loses none of its attractiveness because some potential customers are not aware of it. Awareness answers two questions, “How many potential customers know about a product before they make a purchase decision? How difficult is it for them to discover a product offer?” If awareness is 75%, then 75% know about the product beforehand, and 25% have to work to discover it.

Attractiveness is expressed in the Customer Survey score. Products are evaluated on a scale of 0 to 100 on the four buying criteria – price, positioning, age, and reliability. A perfect product scores 100. If awareness is 100%, the perfect product keeps all 100 points. But as awareness falls, so does its product score. At 0% awareness, the perfect product is down to 50 points.

Excellent Average awareness > 85% Satisfactory Average awareness > 70% Poor Average awareness > 50% Trouble Average awareness < 50%

Overall awareness looks at the product line average awareness. A low average exposes a chronic problem with awareness.

Overall Accessibility Accessibility addresses the question, “How easy is it for customers to work with the company during and after the sale?” Accessibility translates into sales people, distribution centers, customer service departments, etc. If accessibility is 75%, then 75% of customers find it easy to work with the company, and 25% have problems ranging from getting through to a salesman to taking delivery.

Capstone® requires two products in a segment to reach 100% accessibility. With a single product, companies can reach 75% accessibility. This constraint is relaxed if the Advanced Marketing module is switched on, in which case teams are given direct access to their distribution channel budgets.

Like Awareness, Accessibility affects the Customer Survey score. Products are evaluated on a scale of 0 to 100 on the four buying criteria – price, positioning, age, and reliability. A perfect product scores 100. If accessibility is 100%, the product keeps all 100 points. But as accessibility falls, so does its product score. At 0% accessibility, the perfect product’s score is down to 50 points. At 75% accessibility, an otherwise perfect product would score 87.5.

Excellent Average accessibility > 70% Satisfactory Average accessibility > 60% Poor Average accessibility > 50% Trouble Average accessibility < 50%

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Overall accessibility looks at the product line’s average accessibility. A low average exposes a chronic problem with accessibility.

Overall Design In Capstone® product design includes Positioning, Age, and Reliability. They offer the customer “value”, which is then compared with Price. Overall design averages these three design attributes across the product line.

See the Product Rubric for Positioning, Age, and Reliability criteria. From an overall perspective, we average these rubric scores.

Excellent Average across design attributes > 2.5 Satisfactory Average across design attributes > 1.5 Poor Average across design attributes > 0.5 Trouble Average across design attributes <0.5

A low average exposes a chronic problem with design.

Asset Base Companies with a competitive advantage usually have a larger asset base than their competitors. For example, a broad product line or a highly automated plant implies a large investment in equipment. (See the discussion on Leverage.)

Over time we expect teams to accumulate more assets.

Excellent Assets > $84M + $20M * Round# Satisfactory Assets > $84M + $16M * Round# Poor Assets > $84M + $12M * Round# Trouble Assets < $84M + $12M * Round#

In the table, “Round #” refers to the year in the Capstone®. Round 1 is year 1, round 2 is year 2. The market is growing, and so should our asset base. In Round 5, for example, and excellent asset base would be $84M + $20M * 5 = $184M, and a satisfactory asset base would be at least $164M.

The Product Rubric

Positioning Positioning refers to the product’s placement on the Perceptual Map relative to the Ideal Spot in its primary segment. The closer a product is to the ideal spot, the more points it earns towards its Customer Survey Score.

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The ideal spot is moving constantly across the map, while products only move when an R&D project finishes. Products play “leap frog” with the ideal spot.

Excellent Product within 0.5 of ideal spot Satisfactory Product within 1.0 of ideal spot Poor Product within 1.5 of ideal spot Trouble Product beyond 1.5 of ideal spot

Segment Importance Ideal Positioning Traditional 21% Ideal spot in center of segment. Low End 16% Ideal spot trails the center of the segment. High End 43% Ideal spot leads the center of the segment. Performance 29% Ideal spot leads the center of the segment. Size 43% Ideal spot leads the center of the segment.

Age Age refers the customer’s perceived age of the design. When a product is repositioned in an R&D project, on the day of completion its age is cut in half. It becomes “the new improved” product, which is not as old as the previous model, but not brand new either.

Product’s age throughout the year, becoming a little older each month.

Excellent Product within 0.5 of ideal age Satisfactory Product within 1.0 of ideal age Poor Product within 1.5 of ideal age Trouble Product beyond 1.5 of ideal age

Segment Importance Ideal Age Traditional 47% 2.0 Years Low End 24% 7.0 Years High End 29% 0.0 Years Performance 9% 1.0 Years Size 29% 1.5 Years

Reliability Reliability refers the customer’s expectations for MTBF (Mean Time Before Failure) specification. This does not change over time.

Excellent MTBF within 1000 hours of the top of the range Satisfactory MTBF within 2500 hours of the top of the range Poor MTBF within 4000 hours of the top of the range Trouble MTBF below 4000 hours of the top of the range

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Segment Importance MTBF Range Traditional 9% 14000 – 19000 hours Low End 7% 12000 – 17000 hours High End 19% 20000 – 25000 hours Performance 45% 22000 – 27000 hours Size 19% 16000 – 21000 hours

Price Percentile The Price Percentile is defined as (Price – Low End of Expected Price Range)/(High End – Low End). For example, if the expected price range is $30-$40, a $32 is at the 20th percentile.

The Expected Price Range declines by $0.50 each year. For example, if the expected price range was $20-$30 last year, it will be $19.50 to $29.50 this year.

Excellent Below the 50th percentile Satisfactory Below the 75th percentile Poor Below the 90th percentile Trouble Above the 90th percentile

Segment Importance Expected Price Range Round 0 Traditional 23% $20 – $30 Low End 53% $15 – $25 High End 9% $30 – $40 Performance 19% $25 – $35 Size 9% $25 – $35

To be candid, this particular item in the rubric is difficult to defend. For example, in the High End, it makes little sense to price below the 50th percentile. Further, competitive rivalry is certainly a factor in pricing, yet what is “Excellent” in one situation could be “Poor” in another.

Yet we must say something about pricing. In the end we decided to use the customer’s perspective. A customer would say that any price below the 50th percentile in the range is an excellent price.

Awareness (See also Overall Awareness.) Economists speak of “perfect information”. In Capstone® 100% awareness means that your product loses none of its attractiveness because some potential customers are not aware of the product. Awareness answers two questions, “How many potential customers know about the product before they make a purchase decision? How difficult is it for them to discover the product offer?” If awareness is 75%, then 75% know about your product beforehand, and 25% have to work to discover it.

Attractiveness is expressed in the Customer Survey score. Products are evaluated on a scale of 0 to 100 on the four buying criteria – price, positioning, age, and reliability. A perfect product scores 100. If

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awareness is 100%, a product keeps all 100 points. But as awareness falls, so does the product score. At 0% awareness, the perfect product is down to 50 points.

Excellent Awareness > 90% Satisfactory Awareness > 75% Poor Awareness > 50% Trouble Awareness <= 50%

Accessibility (See also Overall Accessibility.) Accessibility addresses the question, “How easy is it for customers to work with the company during and after the sale?” Accessibility translates into sales people, distribution centers, customer service departments, etc. If accessibility is 75%, then 75% of customers find it easy to work with the company, and 25% have problems ranging from getting through to a salesman to taking delivery.

Capstone® requires two products in a segment to reach 100% accessibility. With a single product, companies can reach 75% accessibility. This constraint is relaxed if the Advanced Marketing module is switched on, in which case teams are given direct access to their distribution channel budgets.

Like Awareness, Accessibility affects the Customer Survey score. Products are evaluated on a scale of 0 to 100 on the four buying criteria – price, positioning, age, and reliability. A perfect product scores 100. If accessibility is 100%, the product keeps all 100 points. But as accessibility falls, so does the product score. At 0% accessibility, the product score is down to 50 points. At 75% accessibility, an otherwise perfect product would score 87.5.

Excellent Accessibility > 75% Satisfactory Accessibility > 60% Poor Accessibility > 50% Trouble Accessibility <= 50%

Customer Survey Score In any month, a product’s demand is driven by its monthly customer survey score. Assuming it does not run out of inventory, a product with a higher score will outsell a product with a lower score.

A customer survey score reflects how well a product meets its segment’s buying criteria. Company promotion, sales and accounts receivable policies also affect the survey score.

Scores are calculated once each month because a product’s age and positioning change a little each month. If during the year a product is revised by Research and Development, the product’s age, positioning and MTBF characteristics can change quite a bit. As a result, it is possible for a product with a very good December customer survey score to have had a much poorer score – and therefore poorer sales – in the months prior to an R&D revision.

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The Rubric exams the December Customer Survey score. Scores are on a scale of 0 to 100, but scores above 60 are rare.

Excellent December Customer Survey Score > 45 Satisfactory December Customer Survey Score > 30 Poor December Customer Survey Score > 15 Trouble December Customer Survey Score <= 15

Potential Share/Average Share This ratio offers insight into how well the product is doing relative to an average product. The potential share is what the product would have sold had there been sufficient inventory in every month.

Average share is 1/Teams. If there are 6 teams, average share would be 16.67%.

For example, if product Able’s potential share was 20%, then the ratio would be 20%/16.67% = 1.2.

Observe that the fewer the products in a segment, the higher the potential. We are not using the number of products to compute an average share, but the number of competitors in the industry. All teams had one product in the segment at the beginning of the simulation. We are also interested in the rivalry in the segment, and where the team has chosen to compete.

For example, if only 3 products are left in the segment, and our product had a 40% share, the ratio would yield 40%/16.67% = 2.4. But if there are now 10 products in the segment, and our share is 12%, the ratio would yield 12%/16.67% = 0.72.

Therefore, we are asking the related questions, “Did you choose a good place to compete?”, and “Were you successful in either driving competitors out or in keeping them from entering?”

Excellent Potential/Average Share > 1.5 Satisfactory Potential/Average Share > 1.0 Poor Potential/Average Share > 0.5 Trouble Potential/Average Share < 0.5

Actual Share/Potential Share This ratio examines the question, “Did the product meet the demand it generated?” It ignores those situations where the product picked up undeserved demand from a competitor’s stock out.

Excellent Actual/Potential share > 0.999 Satisfactory Actual/Potential share > 0.949 Poor Actual/Potential share > 0.899 Trouble Actual/Potential share <=0.899

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Plant Utilization See also Overall Plant Utilization. As discussed some second shift production is desirable.

Excellent Plant Utilization > 150% Satisfactory Plant Utilization > 100% Poor Plant Utilization > 90% Trouble Plant Utilization <=90%

Automation Potential automation levels in a segment are affected by R&D cycle times. On the one hand, a team wants all the automation they can get. On the other, the higher the automation level, the more difficult it becomes to reposition a product in a 12 month time-frame. For example, in the fastest moving High End segment, it is highly desirable to reposition a product every year. At an automation level of 6.5 to 7.0, this becomes difficult. R&D cycle times are further constrained by the number of projects underway – the more projects, the longer each project takes. Therefore, a differentiator with a broad product line cannot automate as highly as a niche differentiator with a narrower product line.

In the table below, automation levels are listed by segment in the order of Traditional, Low End, High End, Performance and Size.

Excellent Automation > (8,9,6,7,7) Satisfactory Automation > (6,7,5,6,6) Poor Automation > (5,6,4,5,5) Trouble Automation < (5,6,4,5,5)

Contribution Margin Contribution margin is defined as: (Price – Unit Cost)/Price.

It is the percentage of the price left over after paying for the inventory. The remainder can then be applied towards fixed costs. As a practical matter it is difficult to make a profit in Capstone® if the contribution margin is less than 30%.

Excellent Contribution Margin > 36% Satisfactory Contribution Margin > 30% Poor Contribution Margin > 25% Trouble Contribution Margin <= 25%

Days of Inventory Days of Inventory addresses the question, “Given our rate of annual sales, how many more days would it take to sell our inventory?”

25 © 2011 Capsim Management Simulations, Inc. All rights reserved.

Excellent 1 <= Days of Inventory <=45 Satisfactory 45 < Days of Inventory <=90 Poor 90 < Days of Inventory <= 120 Trouble 120 < Days of Inventory OR 0 (stocked out)

Promotion Budget The promotion budget is subject to diminishing returns. Beyond $2 million per year little additional gain is seen in awareness, and by $3 million any gain has disappeared. On the other hand, we would like to see a product reach 100% awareness eventually. If it does reach 100%, the company can maintain its awareness for $1.4 million each year.

Excellent $1.4M < Promo Budget <=$2.0M Satisfactory $1.0..$1.4M, or $2.0..$2.5M Poor $0.7..$1.0M, or $2.5..$3.0M Trouble <$0.7M, or >$3.0M

Sales Budget The Sales Budget is subject to diminishing returns. Beyond $3.0M the product contributes no additional gain in accessibility.

Excellent $2.2M < Sales Budget <=$3.0M Satisfactory $1.5M < Sales Budget <=$2.2M Poor $0.7M < Sales Budget <= $1.5M Trouble Sales Budget < $0.7M

R&D Utilization We would like to see the R&D department work as hard as possible. If a project ends before December, we are wasting months of potential R&D time. If a company discovers that they can reposition a product perfectly in less than 12 months, it should add additional automation to both reduce labor costs and improve R&D utilization.

Excellent Project ends in December Satisfactory Project ends in November Poor Project ends in October Trouble Project ends before October

Overall Product Evaluation How did the team do on each element across the product line? We sum the row and divide by the product count. For example, if a team has 4 products and their positioning scores are (3,2,3,2), the formula will yield 10/4 = 2.5 which will round to 3.

26 © 2011 Capsim Management Simulations, Inc. All rights reserved.

Summary Rubrics

Using the Courier Excellent – 3 points Satisfactory –

2 points Poor – 1

point Trouble – 0

point

1 Pg 1. ROS >8% 4%..8% 0%..4% < 0% 2 Pg 1. Turnover >1.3 1.0..1.3 0.8..1.0 < 0.8

3 Pg 1. Leverage 1.8 – 2.5 1.6-1.8, 2.5-2.8

1.4-1.6,2.8 – 3.2 <1.4, >3.2

4 Pg 1. Emergency Loan $0 $0 – $1M $1M .. $8M >$8M 5 Pg 1. Contrib. Margin >35% 27% .. 35% 22% .. 27% <22%

6

Pg 1. Market Share (depends on # teams) >1.5 times

average share

0.9 – 1.5 times average

share

0.6 – 0.9 times

average share

< 0.6 times average share

7 Pg 2. Stock Price (round # =

1..8) >$40 +

5*Round # >$25 +

5*Round # >$10 +

5*Round # <$10 +

5*Round #

8 Pg 2. Stock Price Change

>$20 >$7 >-$5 <-$5

9 Pg 2. EPS (round # = 1..8) >$2 + Round

# >(2 +

round#)/3 $0..(2+Roun

d#)/3 < $0

10 Pg 2. Bond Rating AAA, AA, A BBB, BB, B CCC, CC, C DDD

11

Pg 3. Inventory fluctuation reserves 75..105 days 55..75, or 105..135 days

30..55, or 135..160

days

<30 or >160 days

12

Pg 3. Plant Improvement $12M to $24M investment

$6..12M or $24..30M

investment

$0..$6M or $31..$36M investment

<$0M or >$36M investment

13

Pg. 3. Plant purchases funded. StockIssues+BondIssues+Depre ciation+Excess Working Capital

– Plant Improvement

Fully funded. Funding-Plant Improvement>

0

Funded within $4M.

Funding-Plant Improvement

> -$4M

Funded within $8M.

Funding- Plant

Improvemen t > -$8M

Not funded within $8M

14

Pg 3. Sales to Current Assets (Note. Typically AR policy is 30

days and inventory 90 days. Ratio between

3.5 and 4.5

Ratio is 3.0..3.5 or

4.5..5.0

Ratio 2.5..3.0 or

5.0..5.5

Ratio <2.5 or >5.5

15

Pg 3. Current Ratio (Current Assets over Current Liabilities) Ratio between

1.8 and 2.2 Ratio 1.6..1.8

or 2.2..2.4 1.3..1.6 or

2.4..2.7 <1.3 or >2.7

16 Pg. 3 Total Assets >($84M+20*R

ound#) >($84M+16*R

ound#) >($84M+12*

Round#) <($84M+12*Ro

und#)

17

Pg. 4. Overall Plant Utilization (Total Production/Total Capacity)

>1.7 >1.3 >0.9 <0.9

18

Pg.4 Automation Spread All Product Automation with 2.0 of each other

All Product Automation with 3.0 of each other

>All Product Automation within 4.0 of each other

Automation spread>4

27 © 2011 Capsim Management Simulations, Inc. All rights reserved.

19 Pg 4. Product count >7 products >=4 products <4 products <4 products 20 Pg 4. Stock outs None 1 stockout 2 stockouts 3 or more

21

Pg. 4 Products with Big Inventories. (More than > 4

months of sales.) None <=2 products <=4 products 5+ products

22 A/R credit terms 45-60 days 30-45 or 60-75 days

20-30 or 75- 90 days

<20 days or >90 days

23 A/P credit terms 0-15 days 15-30 days 30-45 days >45 days

24

Pg 10 Overall Actual versus Potential Demand Met Demand

Met 98% of potential demand

Met 96% of potential demand

Met < 96% of potential demand

25 Average Unit Cost <$18-round#/4 <$20-round#/4

<$22- round#/4 >$22-Round#/4

Product Rubric

Excellent – 3 points

Satisfactory – 2 points

Poor – 1 point

Trouble – 0 point

1 Positioning Within 0.5 of Ideal Spot Within 1.0 Within 1.5 Beyond 1.5

2 Age Within 0.5 of

ideal age Within 1.0 Within 1.5 Beyond 1.5

3 Reliability

Within 1000 of top of range Within 2500 Within 4000

Below 4000 from top of

range

4 Price Percentile <50% of the

range <75% of the

range <90% of the

range >90% of the

range 5 Awareness >90% >75% >50% <=50% 6 Accessibility >75% >60% >50% <=50% 7 Customer Survey Score >45 >30 >15 <15

8 Potential Share/Avg

>1.5*average share

>Average share

>0.5 * average

share

<0.5 * average share

9 Actual Share/Potential >0.999 >0.949 >0.899 Unit

Sales<=.899 10 Plant Utilization >=150% >=100% >=90% <90%

11 Automation >=(8,9,6,7,7) >=(6,7,5,6,6) >=(5,6,4,5,5

) <(5,6,4,5,5)

12 Contribution Margin >=36% >=30% >=25% <25%

13 Days of Inventory 1..45 days 45..90 days 90..120

days >120 days or

stock out

14 Promotion Budget $1.4M..2.0M 1.0M..1.4M, 2.0M..2.5M

0.7M..1.0M, 2.5M..3M.. <0.7M or >3.0M

15 Sales Budget $2.2M..3.0M 1.5M..2.2M 0.7M..1.5M <0.7M or >3.0M

16 R&D Utilization Project ends in December

Project ends in November

Project ends in October

Project ends before October

  • How to Use This Report
  • Sample Report
  • The Company Rubric
    • ROS
    • EPS (Earnings Per Share)
    • Contribution Margin
    • Change in Stock Price
    • Leverage
    • Stock Price
    • Bond Rating
    • Emergency Loans
    • Current Ratio
    • Inventory Reserves
    • Plant Purchases Funded
    • Accounts Receivable
    • Accounts Payable
    • Asset Turnover
    • Sales to Current Assets
    • Overall Plant Utilization
    • Stock Outs (Company level)
    • Bloated Inventories
    • Overall Actual vs. Potential Demand
    • Cost Leadership
    • Product Breadth
    • Market Share Overall
    • Overall Awareness
    • Overall Accessibility
    • Overall Design
    • Asset Base
  • The Product Rubric
    • Positioning
    • Age
    • Reliability
    • Price Percentile
    • Awareness
    • Accessibility
    • Customer Survey Score
    • Potential Share/Average Share
    • Actual Share/Potential Share
    • Plant Utilization
    • Automation
    • Contribution Margin
    • Days of Inventory
    • Promotion Budget
    • Sales Budget
    • R&D Utilization
    • Overall Product Evaluation
  • Summary Rubrics
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clc nursing

Pros and cons of mandatory continuing nursing education

Karen DeFilippis, Idalmis Espinosa

Lasharia Graham, Ijeoma Igbokwe

Karan Kortlander, Jessica McGillen

October 01, 2017

objectives

Discuss the pros and cons of continuing education in nursing in the following areas:

Impact on competency.

Impact on knowledge and attitudes.

Relationship to professional certification.

Relationship to ANA Scope and Standards of Practice.

Relationship to ANA Code of Ethics.

Impact on competency

Pros: Cons:

Increased personal knowledge Time

Increased use of EBP treatments Cost

Improved patient outcomes

Increased confidence

Developing and maintaining skills

Professional Networking

“Currently in many states, a nurse is determined to be competent when initially licensed and thereafter unless proven otherwise. Yet many believe this is not enough and are exploring other approaches to assure continuing competence in today’s environment where technology and practice are continually changing, new health care systems are evolving and consumers are pressing for providers who are competent” (Whittaker, Carson, & Smolenski, 2000).

“The ultimate outcomes of continuing nursing education (CNE) activities are to improve the professional practice of nursing and thereby the care that is provided by registered nurses to patients” (American Nurses Credentialing Center’, 2014)

Effective workplace learning, based on current evidence, appears to show potential to prevent errors, support health professional reflection on practice and performance, foster ongoing professional development, and sustain improved individual and organization performance outcomes.

Cost- “Continuing education can be costly. For instance, it is costly to pay employees to attend a nursing lecture or conference and to be away from the patients’ bedside. Additionally, purchasing videos or subscribing to magazines does require an associated payment. Lastly, implementing a change is costly it requires training and often new equipment. Without question, cost is a confounding variable” (Ward, 2013)

Time- This can be time away from work and family. For the employer ‘implementing a change in practice does require time, as does completing continuing education credit hours. This could mean time away from the patient which, in most instances, is frowned upon” (Ward, 2013)

3

Pros of higher education in nursing

Enhance patients’ outcome.

Reduces medication errors.

Update with new trends.

Increased knowledge on technology use.

Treatment evaluation and recovery.

Enhance collaboration and networking.

Widens employment opportunities for nurses (University of Saint Mary,2017).

Higher nursing education prepares nurses to make a difference in delivering safe and effective care to patients, nurses gain the skills needed to safely administer medication while eliminating or reducing medication errors, monitoring and assessing the patient’s response to medications (University of Saint Mary, 2017). Nurses acquire proficiency on the use of new technologies because higher education programs explores the latest technology. Nurses are updated on the new trends in healthcare to keep up with patients’ changing needs. Nurses are able to effectively and proficiently coordinate patients’ care by collaborating and communicating with other health care teams, gain new knowledge through networking; nurses are exposed to seminars where they meet and interact with other healthcare professional.

Nurses are prepared to evaluate patients’ response to treatment and follow up after discharge to improve the quality of patients lives (University of Saint Mary, 2017). Nurses who have higher education certificates have more employment opportunities. Most hospitals requiring nurses to go back to school to get BSN, and preferring to hire nurses who have BSN.

4

Cons and attitudes of not continuing with higher education in nursing

Limited career opportunities and positions.

Poor patient outcome.

Lack of confidence.

Limited Knowledge, competency and skills.

Lack of opportunities for collaboration.

There are several disadvantage of not pursing higher education in nursing, nurses are most times denied of a job or a position due to the level of their education. Nurses who starts as staff nurses are promoted to a higher position with experience, good performance and continuous education (College Grad, 2017). Studies have linked poor patients outcome to lack of nursing skills and knowledge; Thus to enhance patient’s safety and quality care, nurses are required to go for a higher education or study as recommended in Institute of medicine report . Higher education does not only benefit the patients but also boost the confidence of nurses. Lack of confidence decrease self-esteem, every nurses needs to believe in him/herself to work effectively and efficiently while collaborating with other health care team. Lack of education limits learning new skills and opportunity to grow in knowledge and also could hinder opportunities to fellowship or collaborate effectively with other health care professionals.

5

Pros of continuing higher education related to the relationship to professional certification

Increases knowledge and quality of care in nursing practice.

Enhances nurses’ ability to compete in the job market.

Develops a nurses’ confidence and professionalism.

Defines nursing practice and attests to ongoing qualifications (Brunt).

The ANA defines certification as an achievement of exemplary nursing knowledge; therefore, continuing education promotes the above noted benefits. The question of mandatory continuing education for nurses has been brewing since the 1960s (Brunt). The National League for Nursing supports that mandatory continuing education should be required for relicensure. Currently, there are more than 68 various certifications available to nurses, and most of them require continuing education programs.

6

CONS OF CONTINUING HIGHER EDUCATION RELATED TO THE RELATIONSHIP TO PROFESSIONAL CERTIFICATION

Cons include:

Education does not assure competence.

Continuing education is expensive.

Evaluation tools are ineffective and not always accurate (Brunt).

Continuing education does not show evidence of better patient-care outcomes (Eustace, 2001).

Those opposed to mandatory continuing education maintain that as professionals, nurses are personally responsible to identify and acquire appropriate education (Brunt). Some have pointed out that mandatory continuing education does not necessarily address advanced practice nurses, or those in administration, research, and education. Others argue that it may be difficult to obtain continuing education in remote areas, and that most healthcare practitioners already take part in continuing education on their own (Brunt).

7

PROS TO CONTINUING EDUCATION RELATED TO ANA SCOPE AND STANDARDS OF PRACTICE

Improves quality of patient care

Expands knowledge and contribute to career growth

Ensures competency in practice

Providing best evidence based nursing care

The scope of practice is defined by the , “who”, “what”, “where”, “when”, “why”, and “how” of nursing practice. The practice of nursing requires specialized knowledge, skills and independent decision making. Every nurse should be knowledgeable and up to date with the latest evidence based practice in order to provide the best care to their patients. With higher education nurses are able to take on leadership roles. Leadership roles are important to help lead change to transform health care, and for “public, private, and governmental health care decision makers at every level” to “include representation from nursing on boards (Campaign for Action, 2014).

8

CONS TO CONTINUING EDUCATION RELATED TO ANA SCOPE AND STANDARDS OF CARE

Cost of Tuition

Balancing Personal life

Lack of appropriate knowledge on the subject

Lack of a guarantee that the continuing education standards will assist the nurse in the nursing field

The cost of going back to school can be very expensive. There are programs to help pay for some of the cost for tuition, but you still are responsible for a portion of the tuition. Some may not even know about the different programs to help you pay for school. They may be paying out of pocket. And we all know once we graduate, loan repayment will be waiting on us.

Another disadvantage of returning to school is balancing personal life. Some of us work full time jobs and have kids like myself. I also have a part time job as well. It can become very difficult squeezing classes in on top of our already busy schedule. Sometimes I don’t get a chance to do my work until the last minute when its due. I know there were plenty of times I felt like just giving up on classes because I don’t have enough time in a day to get every thing done. Then I start thinking of all the benefits of higher education

9

CODE OF ETHICS provision 5 related to Continuing Education

As outlined by the ANA, provision 5 includes that nurses owe the same duties to self as others, this includes responsibility to preserve integrity and safety, maintain competence, and to continue personal professional growth (Fowler and American Nurse Association, 2010).

PROS

Fair and equal treatment

Safe patient care

Be competent

Be educated to provide the best care

Grow professional and personally

Expand career knowledge and skills

Integrity

Builds confidence

Helps guide better decision making

Creates trust

Extends positive influence

CONS

Personal and professional growth requires a time commitment

Being competent and advancing can include a financial commitment

Growing pains

Feeling out of comfort zone

The Code of Ethics is a public expression of what a nurse commits oneself to when entering the workforce as a nurse. The Code expresses values, duties, and commitments that all nurses will strive for (ANA, 2010). There are many pros and a few cons to nurses agreeing to follow the Code of Ethics. The pros mentioned above can greatly outweigh the cons. As nurses we are here to serve people, we extend ourselves to care for others. In caring for others we must also care for our self in the process. The ANA outlines for professional growth a nurse is responsible for “continued reading, study, observation, and investigation” (2010). All of the above are outlined by the ANA.

10

CODE OF ETHICS PROVISION 7 RELATED TO CONTINING EDUCATION

Fowler and the American Nurses Association defined provision 7 as, a nurses participation in the advancement of the profession through contributions to practice, education, administration, and knowledge development (2010).

PROS

Advancements

In education

In practices of care

In administration

Knowledge

CONS

Having the need to want advancement

Time commitment

Possible financial commitment

Growing pains

Being pushed out of your comfort zone

Nurses are the forefront of advancement for the medical field. We hold many positions from floor nursing, administration and educators within the health care system. For the field of nursing and nurses to continue to grow and advance we all must pledge to participate in advancing the profession with education, and the search of knowledge. Examples of ways that nursing has advanced from the past is nurses now have advanced degrees such as: Master and doctoral level educations and also Nurse Practitioners. The ANA provides specifics on where nurses can advance the profession; be involved in healthcare policy, develop, maintain and implement professional standards in clinical practice, administration and education practices, and apply knowledge development, dissemination and application to practice (2010). As nurses the ANA Code of Ethics provides a pathway to things that will improve nursing practice as a whole.

11

CODE OF ETHICS

CONCLUSION

References

American Nurses Credentialing Center. (2014). The Importance of Evaluating the Impact of Continuing Nursing Education on Outcomes:Professional Nursing Practice and Patient Care. Retrieved from http://www.nurse.credentialing.org/Accreditation/

Fowler, M. D., & American Nurses Association. (2010). Guide to the code of ethics for nurses: Interpretation and application. Silver Spring, MD: American Nurses Association.

Ward, J. (2013, January 23). The Pros and Cons of Getting Nursing CEUs. Retrieved from Nurse Together: http://

www.nursetogether.com/pros-and-cons-getting-nursing-ceus

Whittaker, S., Carson , W., & Smolenski, M. C. (2000, September). Assuring Continued Competence – Policy Questions and Approaches: How Should the Profession Respond? Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. Retrieved from : http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/

Brunt, B. The importance of lifelong learning in managing risks. The Nursing

Risk Management Series(3). Retrieved from http://ana.nursingworld.org/mods/archive/mod311

Eustace, L. (2001). Mandatory continuing education:past, present, and future trends & issues.

The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing 32(3).

References

Nursing: Scope and Standard of Practice. Retrieved from www.nursingworld.org

ANA Leadership – American Nurses Foundation. Retrieved from www.anfonline.org

University of Saint Mary. (2017) Higher Nursing Education and its Impact on Patient Safety. Retrieved on September 21st from http://online.stmary.edu/rn-bsn/resources/higher-nursing-education-impact-on-patient-safety

College Grad (2017) Registered nurses. Retrieved September 24th, from https://collegegrad.com/careers/registered-nurses

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which of the following statements about special sessions of the texas legislature is true?

Question1

Marks: 1

The structural weakening of the office of the governor and the creation of the plural executive in Texas was NOT the result of which of the following?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. The reaction of Texans to Reconstruction
[removed]b. The desire of the founding fathers of Texas to closely copy the structure and operation of the executive branch of the federal government in Washington
[removed]c. The Constitution of 1876
[removed]d. The reaction of Texans to the governorship of E.J. Davis

Question2

Marks: 1

Legislators in Texas are

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. appointed by the governor.
[removed]b. elected in single-member districts in the House of Representatives and in at-large elections in the Texas Senate.
[removed]c. all elected in single-member districts.
[removed]d. subject to term limitation by the Texas Constitution of 1876.
[removed]e. all elected in at-large elections.

Question3

Marks: 1

Although the Governor prepares a budget to submit to the Texas Legislature at the beginning of a session, the members of the Legislature typically ignore the budget proposed by the Governor in favor of a budget drafted by the

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. State Commission on Budgetary Development and Analysis.
[removed]b. Comptroller.
[removed]c. State Treasurer.
[removed]d. Legislative Budget Board.
[removed]e. Congressional Budget Office.

Question4

Marks: 1

The governor of Texas may grant executive clemency.

Answer:

[removed]True[removed]False

Question5

Marks: 1

The vice president of the United States is, according to the U.S. Constitution, the president of the U.S. Senate; however, according to the rules of the U.S. Senate he has little authority over that body. The real head of the U.S. Senate is the Senate Majority Leader. Who is the President of the Texas Senate and the real leader of the Texas Senate?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. the lieutenant governor of Texas is the president of the Texas Senate but the real leader of the Texas Senate is the Senate majority leader of the Texas Senate
[removed]b. the lieutenant governor is the president of the Texas Senate and is, under the rules of the Texas Senate, the real leader of the Texas Senate
[removed]c. the lieutenant governor of Texas is the president of the Texas Senate, however, the real leader of the Texas Senate is the leader of the majority party in the Texas Senate
[removed]d. the vice president of Texas is the president of the Texas Senate, however, the real leader of the Texas Senate is the Senate majority leader
[removed]e. the speaker of the Texas House also acts as the president of the Texas Senate and is its actual leader

Question6

Marks: 1

In what type of committee is the bulk of the work in the legislature done?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. Joint committee
[removed]b. Standing committee
[removed]c. Combined committee
[removed]d. Special committee
[removed]e. Conference committee

Question7

Marks: 1

How long is a special session of the Texas Legislature?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. up to 140 days
[removed]b. no more than two weeks
[removed]c. up to 30 days
[removed]d. as long as required to complete the agenda of the governor.
[removed]e. no more than one year

Question8

Marks: 1

How many members are there on the Texas Railroad Commission?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. three
[removed]b. nine
[removed]c. 12
[removed]d. 15
[removed]e. six

Question9

Marks: 1

The principal responsibility of the Texas Secretary of State is

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. to negotiate treaties for Texas with foreign governments.
[removed]b. to regulate electric and telephone rates in Texas.
[removed]c. to act as the chief election officer for the State of Texas.
[removed]d. to collect taxes for the State of Texas.
[removed]e. to act as the head of the president of the Senate when the Texas legislature is in session.

Question10

Marks: 1

Before an appointment by the governor to an executive branch board or agency becomes effective, the governor’s nominee must first be reviewed and approved by

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. the judicial branch of Texas government, in the form of the Texas Supreme Court, in its oversight function of the executive and legislative branches of government.
[removed]b. a vote of the Texas Senate.
[removed]c. a vote of the full legislature.
[removed]d. a vote of the Texas House.
[removed]e. a joint conference committee made up of Texas Senators and Representatives.

Question11

Marks: 1

Which branch is the central policymaking institution of state government?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. the Texas Supreme Court
[removed]b. the Joint Committee on Public Policy of the Texas House of Representatives
[removed]c. the plural executive
[removed]d. the Central Policy Commission of Texas
[removed]e. the Texas legislature

Question12

Marks: 1

Most of the legislative work of the Texas Legislature is conducted

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. by the governor.
[removed]b. in legislative committees.
[removed]c. on the floor of the Texas House.
[removed]d. during special sessions of the legislature.
[removed]e. in the House of Representatives.

Question13

Marks: 1

The largest area of tax revenue for State of Texas comes from

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. income taxes.
[removed]b. sales taxes.
[removed]c. severance taxes.
[removed]d. ad valorem taxes.
[removed]e. property taxes.

Question14

Marks: 1

There are how many members in the Texas House of Representatives?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. 435
[removed]b. 32
[removed]c. 31
[removed]d. it varies from session to session depending on the state’s population
[removed]e. 150

Question15

Marks: 1

Probably the most contentious issue facing the State Board of Education is its periodic review of

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. textbook adoptions.
[removed]b. state budget requests.
[removed]c. teacher salaries.
[removed]d. state football programs.
[removed]e. University Interscholastic League literary competition rules.

Question16

Marks: 1

The Comptroller of Public Accounts is

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. the chief election officer of the State of Texas.
[removed]b. the chief tax collector for the State of Texas.
[removed]c. responsible for collecting overdue child support payments for Texans.
[removed]d. responsible for administering the Texas Veterans’ Land Board.
[removed]e. issuing corporation charters and monitoring public corporations in the State of Texas.

Question17

Marks: 1

How can the Texas Legislature override a legislative veto by the Governor?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. the Texas Constitution forbids the Legislature to override a gubernatorial veto
[removed]b. by a vote of a conference committee
[removed]c. by a majority vote of the Texas Senate alone in the exercise of its advise and consent power
[removed]d. by a 2/3rds vote of members present from both houses
[removed]e. by a simple majority vote of members present from both houses

Question18

Marks: 1

What type of bill applies only to one unit of local government (example: the Legislature creates a new county-court-at-law for Harris County)?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. general bill
[removed]b. a true bill
[removed]c. a resolution
[removed]d. a special bill
[removed]e. private bill

Question19

Marks: 1

The predominant occupation for members of today’s Texas legislature are

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. pharmacy and real estate.
[removed]b. business and finance.
[removed]c. medicine and insurance.
[removed]d. law and business.
[removed]e. education. 
education and sales.

Question20

Marks: 1

The Lieutenant Governor is elected every four years by

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. the voters of the State of Texas.
[removed]b. the members of the Texas Senate.
[removed]c. the caucus of the majority party at the start of a new legislative session.
[removed]d. a vote of the full legislature.
[removed]e. a single-member district election in Travis County, home county for the Texas Legislature (in Austin).

Question21

Marks: 1

David Dewhurst is the

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. Texas Land Commissioner
[removed]b. Governor of Texas
[removed]c. Comptroller of Public Accounts
[removed]d. Lieutenant Governor of Texas
[removed]e. Texas Secretary of State

Question22

Marks: 1

Rick Perry is currently the

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. Lieutenant Governor of Texas.
[removed]b. Texas Secretary of State.
[removed]c. Comptroller of Public Accounts.
[removed]d. Governor of Texas.
[removed]e. Texas Agricultural Commissioner.

Question23

Marks: 1

Which of the following government entities does NOT rely on or operate primarily from property taxes?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. County government
[removed]b. Independent school districts
[removed]c. State government
[removed]d. Municipal government
[removed]e. Community college districts

Question24

Marks: 1

Which of the following officials enforces the state’s weights and measures laws?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. Texas Secretary of State
[removed]b. Governor of Texas
[removed]c. Texas Land Commissioner
[removed]d. Comptroller of Public Accounts
[removed]e. Texas Agriculture Commissioner

Question25

Marks: 1

What is the purpose served by an interim committee of the Texas Legislature?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. to iron out differences between different versions of legislation passed by the House and the Senate
[removed]b. to meet and study issues in the period between regular legislative sessions
[removed]c. to draft a state budget for consideration be the full legislature
[removed]d. to consider overrides of gubernatorial vetoes
[removed]e. to assign bills to calendars for scheduling on the House floor

Question26

Marks: 1

The governor of Texas is considered to have military powers because he is commander-in-chief of

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. all U.S. military troops which are stationed in Texas at a given time.
[removed]b. the Austin Chapter of the American Legion.
[removed]c. the Texas National Guard.
[removed]d. the Fort Hood military installation in Central Texas.
[removed]e. the Corps of Cadets at Texas A&M University.

Question27

Marks: 1

The impeachment process for a high Texas state official begins with articles of impeachment (the charges, or official allegations) being brought by the

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. Texas Senate.
[removed]b. Texas House of Representatives.
[removed]c. Governor of Texas.
[removed]d. Attorney General of Texas.
[removed]e. Supreme Court of Texas.

Question28

Marks: 1

Police powers are attributed to the Texas governor since he has the authority to appoint members of

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. Criminal Science Institute (CSI) of Texas.
[removed]b. Texas Rangers.
[removed]c. the director of the Texas Bureau of Investigation.
[removed]d. the board of the Department of Public Safety.
[removed]e. state investigatory grand jury.

Question29

Marks: 1

With regard to the creation and adoption of the biennial budget for the State of Texas, the Governor of Texas

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. has tremendous influence over the preparation, creation and adoption of the budget of the state each biennial session.
[removed]b. greatly influences the creation and adoption of the budget for the state through the Government Office of Management and Budget.
[removed]c. influences the creation and adoption of the state’s biennial budget through his selection and appointment of the Texas Secretary of the Treasury.
[removed]d. has sole constitutional power in the state to develop and set the state biennial budget; he then sends the completed budget to the legislature for implementation and distribution based upon his (the governor’s) specific and strict directions
[removed]e. has little official power and influence over the creation and final adoption of the biennial state budget during the regular legislative session.

Question30

Marks: 1

Which of the following is true concerning regular sessions of the Texas Legislature?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. The Legislature meets in regular session starting in January for 160 days every odd-numbered year.
[removed]b. The Legislature meets in regular session every year, holding 140-day sessions in odd-numbered years and 160-day sessions in even-numbered years.
[removed]c. The Legislature meets in regular session starting in January every year, adjourning at the end of the year in early December.
[removed]d. The Legislature meets in regular session for 260 days every other year.
[removed]e. The Legislature meets in regular session starting in January for 140 days every odd-numbered year.

Question31

Marks: 1

Respond to the following statement: “The state income tax in Texas is set at 6.25% of a person’s annual income.”

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. True
[removed]b. False–The income tax is set at 2% of a person’s annual income. When added to the federal income tax requirement, a Texas citizen pays 8.25% of her income in income taxes.
[removed]c. False–there is no state income tax.
[removed]d. False–the state income tax is based on the biennial income of a Texas citizen.

Question32

Marks: 1

The state agency which regulates telephone and electric rates in Texas is called

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. the Legislative Budget Board.
[removed]b. the Public Utility Commission.
[removed]c. the Texas Railroad Commission.
[removed]d. Texas State Board of Insurance.
[removed]e. the Sunset Advisory Board.

Question33

Marks: 1

A committee which has members from both the House and the Senate to serve a unique, particular function is called a

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. joint committee.
[removed]b. combined committee.
[removed]c. conference committee.
[removed]d. special committee.
[removed]e. standing committee.

Question34

Marks: 1

In Texas, the more than ____ agencies have substantial independence from the governor, which means that each agency has more latitude and independence than federal agencies in deciding what was meant by the legislature and in applying the law to unforeseen circumstances.

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. 100
[removed]b. 50
[removed]c. 10
[removed]d. 900
[removed]e. 200

Question35

Marks: 1

Who is the current Commissioner of Agriculture for the State of Texas?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. Earl Butz
[removed]b. Todd Staples
[removed]c. Jim Hightower
[removed]d. Hank Gilbert
[removed]e. Susan Combs

Question36

Marks: 1

Regular formal review and subsequent legislative affirmation to determine that if a state agency or program is to continue is known as

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. senatorial courtesy.
[removed]b. sunset review.
[removed]c. sunshine legislation.
[removed]d. administrative oversight and review.
[removed]e. redistricting.

Question37

Marks: 1

The Attorney General of Texas is LEAST involved in which of the following activities?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. initiating lawsuits against parents delinquent on child support payments
[removed]b. issuing legal opinions interpreting state laws before issues relating to the laws are adjudicated by the courts
[removed]c. defending the state against lawsuits
[removed]d. prosecuting individuals accused of serious crimes
[removed]e. acting as the constitutional lawyer for agencies, boards, and commissions of the state of Texas.

Question38

Marks: 1

In total, how many states in the U.S. (including Texas) have NO personal income tax?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. None; all states, including Texas, tax the personal income of residence of their states
[removed]b. seven
[removed]c. 31
[removed]d. two
[removed]e. 15

Question39

Marks: 1

The Lieutenant Governor is most analogous to what officer in the federal government?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. Vice President
[removed]b. President
[removed]c. Majority Leader of the U.S. Senate
[removed]d. Secretary of State
[removed]e. Speaker of the U.S. House

Question40

Marks: 1

The Texas Legislature cannot pass a state budget which creates a budget deficit. This is required by

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. the Texas Constitution.
[removed]b. a resolution passed by the Texas Legislature in 1980.
[removed]c. the United State Constitution.
[removed]d. the Texas Supreme Court in a constitutional ruling in the early part of the 1950s.
[removed]e. the U.S. Congress.

Question41

Marks: 1

The Governor may use the line-item veto on which of the following bills?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. a bill to increase criminal penalties on drug possession
[removed]b. the governor no longer has the line-item veto power–the Texas line-item veto was declared illegal by a federal court ruling
[removed]c. a bill declaring the Southern Baptist religion the official state religion of Texas
[removed]d. a bill to raise the minimum drinking age
[removed]e. a bill to appropriate money to operate state prisons

Question42

Marks: 1

Which of the following is solely and completely responsible for regulating railroad freight and railroad passenger service in the state of Texas?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. Texas Agriculture Commissioner
[removed]b. No commission or agency or department in Texas government has this power
[removed]c. Texas Railroad Commission
[removed]d. General Land Commission
[removed]e. Texas Secretary of State

Question43

Marks: 1

Which of the following has as its primary responsibly oil and gas regulation in Texas?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. Texas Agriculture Commissioner
[removed]b. Texas Department of Energy
[removed]c. Public Utility Commission
[removed]d. Texas Railroad Commission
[removed]e. Texas Department of Petroleum Development

Question44

Marks: 1

Who calls special legislative sessions in Texas?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. The Governor may call a special session, but only with the approval of the Legislature by a majority vote of both houses
[removed]b. Either the Speaker or Lieutenant Governor may call a special session
[removed]c. Only the Governor may call a special session
[removed]d. The Legislature calls itself into special session by a 2/3rds vote of both houses
[removed]e. The Texas Secretary of State calls special sessions with the approval of the Lieutenant Government and Speaker of the House

Question45

Marks: 1

Which of the following statements is true about the term of office for the governor of Texas?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. The governor is elected by a vote of the Texas Senate every two years at the start of the session of the Texas Legislature in January of odd numbered years
[removed]b. Governors may serve no more than four two-year terms consecutively
[removed]c. The term of office for governor of Texas is four years and the Texas Constitution sets no limit on the number of terms a governor may serve
[removed]d. The governor serves a two-year term of office and there is no limit set by the Texas Constitution as to how many terms he or she may serve
[removed]e. The governor serves an elected four year term but is limited by constitutional amendment to serving no more than ten years (two full elected terms and up to two additional years if first assuming the office due to the death, resignation, or impeachment and conviction of the preceding governor

Question46

Marks: 1

Greg Abbott is the

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. Texas Attorney General.
[removed]b. Speaker of the Texas House of Representatives.
[removed]c. Texas Commissioner of Agriculture.
[removed]d. Comptroller of Public Accounts.
[removed]e. Lieutenant Governor of Texas.

Question47

Marks: 1

Which of the following officials may the Governor normally appoint?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. the Lieutenant Governor
[removed]b. the Texas Attorney General
[removed]c. the Chief Justice of the Texas Supreme Court
[removed]d. the Texas Secretary of State
[removed]e. a member of the Railroad Commission

Question48

Marks: 1

The first Republican to be elected governor in Texas following the Reconstruction administration of Gov. E.J. Davis was

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. Preston Smith.
[removed]b. James Ferguson.
[removed]c. Rick Perry.
[removed]d. Bill Clements.
[removed]e. George W. Bush.

Question49

Marks: 1

This process of redrawing the boundaries of legislative and congressional districts by the state legislature is called

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. district resolution.
[removed]b. district development.
[removed]c. congressional reapportionment.
[removed]d. redistricting.
[removed]e. redlining.

Question50

Marks: 1

The Texas Constitution requires that an estimate be made of state revenues for the upcoming biennial budget period and given to the legislature for its biennial session so that it can prepare a balanced budget? What state official is responsible for the preparation of this estimate and its reporting to the legislature?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. governor
[removed]b. attorney general
[removed]c. chairman of the Legislative Budget Board
[removed]d. treasurer
[removed]e. comptroller

51

Marks: 1

How many members are there on the State Board of Education?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. six
[removed]b. three
[removed]c. 12
[removed]d. nine
[removed]e. 15

Question52

Marks: 1

The governor’s State of the State address is

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. an important aspect of the governor’s “bully pulpit” because it is broadcast live on network television during prime-time to the people of Texas.
[removed]b. an informal tradition initiated by Gov. E. J. Davis during Reconstruction and is an official state holiday.
[removed]c. given by the governor every year at the start of the Texas legislative session in January.
[removed]d. called for by the Texas Constitution and is given before a joint session of the Texas Legislature following the start of the regular session.
[removed]e. is no longer given in person by the governor in the form of a speech delivered before the legislature but instead is a printed message sent to both legislative bodies and posted at the front entrance to each chamber.

Question53

Marks: 1

The only unicameral legislature in the United States is

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. is found in Nebraska.
[removed]b. the U.S. Congress.
[removed]c. is in Texas.
[removed]d. now banned by the U.S. Constitution.
[removed]e. now gone, abandoned when the State of Texas moved to a bicameral organization in the 1970s.

Question54

Marks: 1

Spending bills (i.e., appropriation bills) in Texas must originate

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. in the Legislative Budget Board
[removed]b. in the Texas Senate.
[removed]c. with the governor.
[removed]d. with the Comptroller of Public Accounts.
[removed]e. in the Texas House.

Question55

Marks: 1

How is the Speaker of the Texas House chosen?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. The Speaker is appointed by the Governor and is approved by the Senate in its advice and consent powers
[removed]b. The Secretary of State serves ex officio as Speaker of the Texas House
[removed]c. The Speaker is a state representative elected by the full House to serve as speaker
[removed]d. The Speaker is elected statewide
[removed]e. The Lieutenant Governor acts, as part of his constitutional duties, as Speaker of the Texas House of Representatives.

Question56

Marks: 1

Jerry Patterson is the current

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. Lieutenant Governor of Texas.
[removed]b. Texas Secretary of State.
[removed]c. Texas Land Commissioner.
[removed]d. Comptroller of Public Accounts
[removed]e. Governor of Texas.

Question57

Marks: 1

While the Texas Governor has some appointment powers over the executive branch,

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. he lacks any significant independent removal power over his appointments.
[removed]b. he has complete authority to appoint judges for life terms to all the courts of the state judicial branch at any time at all levels throughout the state of Texas.
[removed]c. he had complete power over the length of service of those appointments, holding the power to independently dismiss any of his appointments at any time without any consultation by or approval from the Texas Legislature.
[removed]d. he has ultimate authority in times of crisis over all the military personnel and bases of the United States quartered in Texas including the power to make field promotions of officers and commanders.
[removed]e. has significant power to make committee assignments for members of the Texas Legislature.

Question58

Marks: 1

A committee created whenever a bill is passed in different versions by the House and Senate is called a

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. joint committee.
[removed]b. combined committee.
[removed]c. conference committee.
[removed]d. special committee.
[removed]e. standing committee

Question59

Marks: 1

Removal powers of the governor over appointees to state boards and commissions are

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. similar to that of an employer in the private sector–he may fire any member of a state board or commission except when that firing is considered racially motivated or retaliatory.
[removed]b. limited to only those members of state boards and commissions from previous administrations.
[removed]c. limited to only those specifically appointed by the governor, with approval of the Senate (two-thirds vote).
[removed]d. unlimited. As chief executive officer of the state, he has the power to appoint and dismiss any member of the state executive branch or its agencies and commissions.
[removed]e. denied to the governor. Once the governor appoints someone to a state board or commission that person cannot be removed from office except by impeachment.

Question60

Marks: 1

Texas’s biggest employers are

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. oil and gas companies.
[removed]b. in the medical field.
[removed]c. farmers and ranchers.
[removed]d. governments.
[removed]e. in the insurance industry.

Question61

Marks: 1

The Texas Secretary of State is

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. Esperanza “Hope” Andrade.
[removed]b. John Steen.
[removed]c. also, by law, the Lieutenant Governor of the State.
[removed]d. Geoffrey Connor.
[removed]e. Roger Williams.

Question62

Marks: 1

Who was the lieutenant governor of Texas to succeed Governor George W. Bush when Bush resigned as governor to become president of the United States?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. Rick Perry
[removed]b. Ted Cruz
[removed]c. Bill Ratliff
[removed]d. David Dewhurst
[removed]e. William “Bill” Hobby

Question63

Marks: 1

The judicial power of the governor consists of his ability

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. appoint judges and justices to state courts when there is a vacancy on a court due to a death, resignation, or removal of the judge or justice.
[removed]b. to reduce prison overcrowding by executive order.
[removed]c. to order the death penalty be imposed following the conviction of a defendant for capital murder.
[removed]d. review and reverse decisions of lower courts when the decisions are appealed directly to his office.
[removed]e. appoint all judges and justices to all the courts on all levels in the State of Texas.

Question64

Marks: 1

The base sales tax rate for the State of Texas is

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. 6.25%.
[removed]b. 8.25%.
[removed]c. tied directly to the federal treasury bills rate.
[removed]d. 7.25%.

Question65

Marks: 1

Who, among the following elected officials, is NOT a member of the Legislative Redistricting Board?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. Attorney General of Texas
[removed]b. Lieutenant Governor of Texas
[removed]c. Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts
[removed]d. Speaker of the Texas House of Representatives
[removed]e. Governor of Texas

Question66

Marks: 1

Regarding the structural powers of the Governor of Texas, how do they compare with the powers of other state governors?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. The official powers of the Governor or Texas are about average in comparison with other governors.
[removed]b. The official powers of the Governor of Texas are among the weakest in the nation.
[removed]c. The official powers of the Governor of Texas are among the strongest in the nation.
[removed]d. They are somewhat above average in comparison with the other governors’ powers.

Question67

Marks: 1

Which of the following in NOT a type of committee in the Texas legislature?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. Joint committee
[removed]b. Special committee
[removed]c. Standing committee
[removed]d. Conference committee
[removed]e. Irregular committee

Question68

Marks: 1

The Veterans’ Land Board provides low interest property loans to Texas veterans. This board is supervised by the

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. Commissioner of the Veterans’ Land Board of Texas.
[removed]b. Commissioner of the Texas General Land Office.
[removed]c. Chairman of the Texas Veterans Administration.
[removed]d. Comptroller of Public Accounts.
[removed]e. Lieutenant Governor.

Question69

Marks: 1

Governors elected after Reconstruction until the late 1970s were all

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. liberal Democrats.
[removed]b. conservative-to-moderate Democrats.
[removed]c. conservative to ultra-conservative Republicans.
[removed]d. former lieutenant governors.
[removed]e. members of the Tea Party of Texas.

Question70

Marks: 1

The only Texas governor to be impeached by the Texas House and convicted of the impeachment charges in the Texas Senate was

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. George W. Bush.
[removed]b. E.J. Davis.
[removed]c. William Clements.
[removed]d. James Ferguson.
[removed]e. Miriam Ferguson.

Question71

Marks: 1

In order to become a Texas State Senator, one must be at least ___ years old to be elected and a resident of Texas for __ years preceding the election.

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. 42/seven
[removed]b. 19/two
[removed]c. 35/six
[removed]d. 26/five
[removed]e. 24/one

Question72

Marks: 1

The U.S. Supreme Court decided a case in its 2013 regarding affirmative action in higher education that modified but did not overturn its prior 2003 decision in Grutter v. Michigan. That case was

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. Marbury v. Madison.
[removed]b. Ruiz v. Texas A&M University-Kingsville.
[removed]c. Brown v. Board of Education.
[removed]d. Fisher v. The University of Texas.
[removed]e. Hopwood v. Texas.

Question73

Marks: 1

There are three members of the Texas Railroad Commission. All three are

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. appointed to their positions by the Governor of Texas (with the approval of the Texas Senate).
[removed]b. required by the Texas Constitution of 1876 to have worked for at least a ten-year period in the railroad industry in Texas.
[removed]c. required by law to serve only one six-year term in office.
[removed]d. elected in single-member district elections from three separate sections of the state by the people of Texas with the approval of the vote of both chambers of the legislature.
[removed]e. elected to their positions by the people of Texas.

Question74

Marks: 1

As a result of the Texas Constitution of 1876, Texas has a

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. bicameral executive system of government.
[removed]b. unitary executive system of government.
[removed]c. cabinet system in operation in the executive branch of government.
[removed]d. nonpartisan unicameral system of government.
[removed]e. plural executive system operating the executive branch of government.

Question75

Marks: 1

How is the Lieutenant Governor of Texas normally chosen?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. The Lieutenant Governor is a member of the House selected by the Texas House to serve as Lieutenant Governor
[removed]b. The Lieutenant Governor is elected every four years by the Texas delegates to the Elector College at their electoral meeting held every four years held prior to voting for the presidential selection.
[removed]c. The Lieutenant Governor is elected statewide directly by the citizens of Texas
[removed]d. The Lieutenant Governor is appointed by the Governor and is approved by the Senate in its advice and consent power
[removed]e. The Lieutenant Governor is a member of the Texas Senate elected by the full Senate to serve as Lieutenant Governor

Question76

Marks: 1

Redistricting–the process of redrawing the boundaries of legislative and congressional districts–generally occurs every ten years in the Texas legislature following the

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. presidential elections.
[removed]b. results of the most recent election of the U.S. House of Representatives and of the Texas House of Representatives.
[removed]c. directives issued by the Senate Committee on Redistricting and the Census.
[removed]d. report from Congress on reapportionment based on the national census.
[removed]e. report of the Interstate Redistricting Commission.

Question77

Marks: 1

Currently, the Texas Legislature is

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. meeting in special session.
[removed]b. meeting in regular session.
[removed]c. meeting as a Committee of the Whole to revise the Texas Constitution of 1876.
[removed]d. not in session.

Question78

Marks: 1

A bill may be formally introduced by

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. any member of the Texas legislature or a member of the Texas delegation to the U.S. Congress.
[removed]b. the Speaker or the Lieutenant Governor only.
[removed]c. any member of the legislature or the governor.
[removed]d. any member of the legislature in the member’s own chamber.
[removed]e. any current or former member of the legislature.

Question79

Marks: 1

Members of the Texas Public Utilities Commission are

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. appointed to their positions by a vote of the Texas Legislature.
[removed]b. are appointed by the Secretary of the Department of Energy and have full authority over the production of and development of all energy resources within the state of Texas.
[removed]c. ex officio officeholder, serving in their PUC positions as a part of their duties as Lieutenant Governor, Speaker of the House, and Comptroller of Public Accounts.
[removed]d. elected to their positions by a direct, statewide vote of the people of Texas.
[removed]e. appointed to their positions by the Governor of Texas (with the approval of the Texas Senate).

Question80

Marks: 1

The chief legal officer of the State of Texas is the

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. Secretary of State.
[removed]b. Comptroller.
[removed]c. Legal Counsel to the Governor of Texas.
[removed]d. Attorney General.
[removed]e. Chief Justice of the Texas Supreme Court.

Question81

Marks: 1

The Texas Legislature is a creation of

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. the Constitutional Convention of 1787.
[removed]b. Article I of the United States Constitution.
[removed]c. the annexation agreement between the United States and the Republic of Texas.
[removed]d. the U.S. Supreme Court decision in Lopez v. Texas.
[removed]e. the Texas Constitution of 1876.

Question82

Marks: 1

Texas has a biennial budget because

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. the Texas Legislature is a bicameral body.
[removed]b. the U.S. Constitution in Article I and II requires it.
[removed]c. the Texas Constitution requires that the state legislature pass a balanced budget.
[removed]d. the governor has a two year term of office.
[removed]e. the Texas Legislature meets once every two years.

Question83

Marks: 1

Which of the following offices was created by the Texas Legislature rather than the Texas Constitution?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. Commissioner of Agriculture.
[removed]b. Lieutenant Governor.
[removed]c. Chief Justice of the Supreme Court.
[removed]d. Secretary of State.
[removed]e. Attorney General.

Question84

Marks: 1

Who among the following was NEVER a governor of Texas?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. George H.W. Bush
[removed]b. Ann Richards
[removed]c. George W. Bush
[removed]d. Miriam Ferguson
[removed]e. E.J. Davis

Question85

Marks: 1

Which of the following statements accurately describes the Texas Legislature?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. The Texas House has 150 members elected for two-year terms while the Texas Senate has 31 members elected for six-year terms
[removed]b. The Texas House has 150 members elected for two-year terms while the Texas Senate has 31 members elected for four-year terms
[removed]c. The Texas House has 435 members elected for 2-year terms and the Texas Senate has 100 members elected for 6-year terms
[removed]d. The Texas Legislature is a unicameral legislative body made up of 100 members.
[removed]e. The Texas House has 31 members elected for four-year terms while the Texas Senate has 150 members elected for two-year terms

Question86

Marks: 1

The next regular session of the Texas Legislature will meet next year starting in January.

Answer:

[removed]True[removed]False

Question87

Marks: 1

If a vacancy occurs during the term of office of the lieutenant governor (such as death, resignation, or succession to the governorship), how is a new lieutenant governor selected?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. the president pro tempore of the Texas Senate takes over the vacated position for the remainder of the term of office
[removed]b. by a called special state-wide election to fill the remaining term of the former lieutenant governor
[removed]c. the governor appoints a new lieutenant governor, with the approval of a vote of the full legislature
[removed]d. the president of the Senate moves into the position of Lieutenant for the remainder of the Lieutenant Governor’s term of office
[removed]e. the Senate elects one of its members to the position of lieutenant governor to serve the balance of the vacant term

Question88

Marks: 1

In the senate, the membership of committees is determined

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. the Committee Assignment Committee.
[removed]b. by seniority.
[removed]c. by appointment by the lieutenant governor.
[removed]d. by the lieutenant governor and a vote of the full Senate.
[removed]e. agreement among the members meeting as a committee of the whole in a conference committee.

Question89

Marks: 1

The impeachment process in Texas ends with the trial and verdict on the articles of impeachment conducted and arrived at by the

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. Texas House of Representatives.
[removed]b. governor’s cabinet and the Governor of Texas.
[removed]c. Supreme Court of Texas with the Chief Justice of Texas sitting as the chief judge over the proceedings.
[removed]d. Texas Senate.
[removed]e. Attorney General of Texas sitting as the head of a court made up of members of the Texas Supreme Court and the Texas Court of Criminal Appeals.

Question90

Marks: 1

The state official in charge of supervising the Permanent University Fund is the

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. Executive Director of the Texas Education Agency.
[removed]b. Chairman of the Higher Education Coordinating Board.
[removed]c. Attorney General.
[removed]d. Land Commissioner.
[removed]e. Comptroller of Public Accounts.

Question91

Marks: 1

Bills rarely reach the floor of the Senate for a vote without the approval of

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. the Lieutenant Governor.
[removed]b. Senate minority leader.
[removed]c. Governor.
[removed]d. Speaker of the House.
[removed]e. Chairman of the House Ways and Means Committee.

Question92

Marks: 1

Texas has had two woman governors in its history–Ann Richards and

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. Sonia Sotomayor.
[removed]b. Kay Bailey Hutchinson.
[removed]c. Carol Keeton Strayhorn.
[removed]d. Miriam Ferguson.
[removed]e. Susan Combs.

Question93

Marks: 1

Child support enforcement and collection for the State of Texas is the responsibility of

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. the Lieutenant Governor of Texas.
[removed]b. the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.
[removed]c. the Attorney General of Texas.
[removed]d. the Comptroller of Public Accounts.
[removed]e. the Governor of Texas.

Question94

Marks: 1

Upon receiving a bill passed by the legislature, the governor has _____ in which to sign a bill, veto it, or allow it to become law without a signature.

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. 10 days
[removed]b. 140 days
[removed]c. until one week after the end of the legislative session
[removed]d. three weeks
[removed]e. three days

Question95

Marks: 1

Joe Straus is the

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. Texas Commissioner of Agriculture.
[removed]b. Texas Attorney General.
[removed]c. Speaker of the Texas House of Representatives.
[removed]d. Comptroller of Public Accounts.
[removed]e. Lieutenant Governor of Texas.

Question96

Marks: 1

The Governor of Texas is empowered by the Texas Constitution of 1876 to appoint

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. the three members of the Texas Railroad Commission to office.
[removed]b. the Lieutenant Governor of Texas to office.
[removed]c. the Texas Agricultural Commissioner to office.
[removed]d. the Texas Secretary of State to office.
[removed]e. the Texas Attorney General to office.

Question97

Marks: 1

Fragmentation of the state executive into so many largely independent agencies was an intentional move by the framers to the Texas Constitution and later legislatures to avoid

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. centralized power.
[removed]b. violating the U.S. Constitution.
[removed]c. a diffusion of power.
[removed]d. confusion.
[removed]e. the spread of socialism.

Question98

Marks: 1

Texas legislative district lines are usually redrawn once every

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. ten years.
[removed]b. year.
[removed]c. five years.
[removed]d. time the Speaker of the House and the Lieutenant Governor decide it is necessary and prudent to do so.
[removed]e. two years.

Question99

Marks: 1

In order to be a member of the Texas House of Representatives, one must be at least ___ years old to be elected and a resident of Texas for _____ years prior to the election.

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. 42/ten
[removed]b. 35/five
[removed]c. 26/five
[removed]d. 21/two
[removed]e. 18/one

Question100

Marks: 1

Susan Combs is currently the

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. Speaker of the Texas House of Representatives
[removed]b. Comptroller of Public Accounts
[removed]c. Lieutenant Governor of Texas
[removed]d. Texas Attorney General
[removed]e. Texas Commissioner of Agriculture
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h2c6h6o6

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In Lab 9, students performed acid-base titrations. Redox reactions can also be used in titrations. An example is the titration of ascorbic acid (H2C6H6O6) in lemon juice using triiodide (I3–). A starch indicator will turn the solution blue-black at the endpoint. The half-reactions involved are shown below.

C6H6O6 + 2 H+ + 2 e– → H2C6H6O6    +0.06 V
I3– + 2 e– → 3 I–    +0.53 V

(a) What is the net redox reaction that occurs? (Use the lowest possible coefficients. Omit states-of-matter from your answer.)

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(b) What is the stoichiometry of H2C6H6O6 to I3–?

3:1 8:3     2:1 1:1 1:2 3:8 1:3

(c) Use the data given below to determine the amount of ascorbic acid in lemon juice. (Note: The recommended daily allowance of ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) is 90 mg.)

Data Table P6: Titration of ascorbic acid in lemon juice with triiodide
concentration of I3–0.0210 M
volume lemon juice83.44 mL
mass lemon juice84.94 g
equivalence volume of I3–14.93 mL
mmol of I3–mmol
mmol of H2C6H6O6mmol
mass of H2C6H6O6mg              

Determine the errors (if any) with each galvanic cell set-up when the anode is on the left. (Select all that apply.)

http://www.webassign.net/ncsugenchem102labv1/11-post-05a.png

There is nothing wrong with this diagram. The electrodes are in the wrong solution. The electrons are traveling the wrong direction down the wire. The salt bridge ions are migrating to the incorrect electrode. The electrons are traveling through the salt bridge. The electrodes and solutions are in the wrong compartment.

http://www.webassign.net/ncsugenchem102labv1/11-post-05d.png

There is nothing wrong with this diagram. The electrodes are in the wrong solution. The electrons are traveling the wrong direction down the wire. The salt bridge ions are migrating to the incorrect electrode. The electrons are traveling through the salt bridge. The electrodes and solutions are in the wrong compartment.

http://www.webassign.net/ncsugenchem102labv1/11-post-05b.png

There is nothing wrong with this diagram. The electrodes are in the wrong solution. The electrons are traveling the wrong direction down the wire. The salt bridge ions are migrating to the incorrect electrode. The electrons are traveling through the salt bridge. The electrodes and solutions are in the wrong compartment.

http://www.webassign.net/ncsugenchem102labv1/11-post-05e.png

There is nothing wrong with this diagram. The electrodes are in the wrong solution. The electrons are traveling the wrong direction down the wire. The salt bridge ions are migrating to the incorrect electrode. The electrons are traveling through the salt bridge. The electrodes and solutions are in the wrong compartment.

http://www.webassign.net/ncsugenchem102labv1/11-post-05c.png

There is nothing wrong with this diagram. The electrodes are in the wrong solution. The electrons are traveling the wrong direction down the wire. The salt bridge ions are migrating to the incorrect electrode. The electrons are traveling through the salt bridge. The electrodes and solutions are in the wrong compartment.

Consider your experimental results from part A of this lab. Suppose your strongest reducing agent were added to your strongest oxidizing agent. (Use the lowest possible coefficients. Omit states-of-matter from your answers.)

(a) Write the half-reaction for your strongest reducing agent.

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Mg  →  Mg2+ + 2e1-

Correct.

(b) Write the half-reaction for your strongest oxidizing agent.

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MnO4- + 8H+ + 5e-  →  Mn2+ +4H2O

Correct.

(c) Note the number of electrons in each half reaction.

In order to balance the number of electrons lost and gained, the oxidation half-reaction must be multiplied by and the reduction half-reaction must be multiplied by

(d) Write the net redox reaction.

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 Assemble a battery, represented by the diagram below with the cathode in compartment A, with Sn2+/Sn and Cu2+/Cu couples in which the voltage reads positive. (Use the . Use the lowest possible coefficients. Omit states-of-matter from your answer.)

http://www.webassign.net/ncsugenchem102labv1/11-post-04.gif

(a) What half-reaction occurs in compartment A?

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Sn  →  Sn2+ +2e-

Your answer contains an ambiguous or incomplete reaction equation. Check all the components on the reactant-side of the equation. Check all the components on the product-side of the equation.

(b) What half-reaction occurs in compartment B?

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Cu2+ +2e-  →  Cu

Your answer contains an ambiguous or incomplete reaction equation. Check all the components on the reactant-side of the equation. Check all the components on the product-side of the equation.

(c) Write the net redox reaction.

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Sn + Cu2+  →  Sn2+ + Cu

Correct.

Mg –> Mg^

MnO_4^- +

Sn –> Sn^+

Cu^2+ +2e^

Sn + Cu^+

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the ethics of living jim crow summary

When you begin to think about the essays you will write in this course, it will not be enough to summarize the work. You will need to think critically about the writing and this reading strategy will help you move beyond a summary. Each response should be a minimum of 250 words.

Each response writing should provide the following—

1)   An Honest Response to the Writing—Write a few sentences about how the work made you feel (ex. “Angry because… “Or “joyful because…” or “confused because…” There is no right or wrong answer here. These few sentences should be honest and capture your initial response to the piece of writing.

2)   A Summary of What You Read—Summarize what happened in the writing. Who were the characters? What happens in the story or poem? What is the story about?

3)   An Analysis or Close Reading—This is the part of the response writing that really begins our critical thinking. Does something appear symbolic?  Are there any metaphors and similes that expand meaning? Does there appear to be a common theme? What details seem relevant? You will not find every literary device in every reading. In this section of the response writing, you should begin to decide what seems to have meaning or purpose? Be sure to pay attention to the form, the title, the content and the rhythm.

4)  An Interpretation—This is the part of the response writing that will allow you to pull the “clues” together and offer a statement on what you think the story is really about? You will combine your summary and analysis to provide an argument about the text.

5)   Drawing Conclusions—This part of the response writing will require that you incorporating the above process and integrating some direct quotes from the actual work of study to support your findings and interpretations. 

Required reading:


  Richard Wright “The Ethics of Living Jim Crow”

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bipolar neurons are commonly ________

Challenge Examination

5

GED 102 The Human Body

Multiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet)

1. What is the major function of the lymphatic system?

a. return leaked fluids back to the cardiovascular system b. produce offspring c. eliminate nitrogen-containing metabolic wastes from the body d. break down food into absorbable units e. secrete hormones to regulate body processes such as growth and reproduction

2. What are two organ systems that are involved in the excretion of wastes from the body?

a. digestive and urinary b. cardiovascular and skeletal c. muscular and skeletal d. endocrine and nervous e. cardiovascular and nervous

3. Which of the following systems is matched most accurately to the life function it provides?

a. integumentary system—movement b. nervous system—excretion c. muscular system—maintaining boundaries d. nervous system—responsiveness e. respiratory system—digestion

4. Which survival need accounts for 60 to 80 percent of body weight?

a. nutrients b. oxygen c. water d. minerals e. vitamins

5. Which of the following is the correct order of elements in a control system?

a. receptor, stimulus, afferent pathway, control center, efferent pathway, effector, response b. receptor, stimulus, efferent pathway, control center, afferent pathway, effector, response c. effector, stimulus, efferent pathway, control center, afferent pathway, receptor, response d. stimulus, receptor, afferent pathway, control center, efferent pathway, effector, response e. stimulus, receptor, efferent pathway, control center, afferent pathway, effector, response

Challenge Examination

6

GED 102 The Human Body

6. Which of the following elements of a control system detects a change?

a. control center b. stimulus c. effector d. receptor e. efferent pathway

7. Positive feedback systems ________.

a. involve blood clotting and the birthing of a baby b. operate in such a way that the initial stimulus is enhanced and increases c. operate in such a way that the initial stimulus is shut off or reduced d. involve blood clotting and the birthing of a baby, and operate in such a way that the initial stimulus is enhanced and increases e. involve blood clotting and the birthing of a baby, and operate in such a way that the initial stimulus is shut off or reduced

8. An atom with 6 protons, 7 neutrons, and 6 electrons shares four pairs of electrons with four other atoms. This atom is now considered to be ________.

a. a cation b. an anion c. a neutral atom d. stable e. an ion

9. An atom has 6 protons, 8 neutrons, and 6 electrons. Its atomic mass is ________.

a. 2 b. 6 c. 8 d. 14 e. 20

10. The atomic number of an atom reveals the number of ________.

a. electrons in the atomic nucleus b. protons in the atomic nucleus c. protons plus neutrons d. protons plus electrons e. neutrons plus electrons

Challenge Examination

7

GED 102 The Human Body

11. Isotopes have different numbers of ________; thus, they also have different ________.

a. protons; atomic numbers b. neutrons; atomic masses c. electrons; atomic numbers d. protons; atomic masses e. neutrons; atomic numbers

12. A molecule of methane, CH4, is known specifically as a(n) ________.

a. compound b. radioisotope c. element d. atom e. anion

13. The subatomic particles that are responsible for the chemical behavior of atoms are the ________.

a. protons b. neutrons c. electrons d. isotopes e. ions

14. Passive processes that move substances across membranes ________.

a. utilize ATP b. employ protein pumps c. transport substances against their concentration gradients d. require no ATP e. include exocytosis and endocytosis

15. Osmosis transports water across membranes using ________.

a. ATP b. solute pumping c. aquaporins d. sodium-potassium pump e. vesicles

Challenge Examination

8

GED 102 The Human Body

16. What assists the movement of substances by facilitated diffusion?

a. ATP b. protein carrier or channel c. lysosomes d. aquaporins e. solute pumps

17. What is required for diffusion to occur?

a. protein carrier or channel b. concentration gradient c. ATP d. solute pump e. ribosomes

18. Two types of endocytosis are ________.

a. cellular secretion and solute pumping b. solute pumping and active transport c. active transport and phagocytosis d. phagocytosis and pinocytosis e. pinocytosis and passive transport

19. A solution that contains fewer solutes than the cell is ________.

a. hypotonic b. hypertonic c. intravenous d. isotonic e. Ringer’s lactate

20. Jan got her microscope slides mixed up in lab as they were unlabeled. The slide with abundant adipose tissue should be labeled as the ________.

a. epidermis b. papillary layer of the dermis c. subcutaneous tissue d. reticular layer of the dermis e. stratum corneum

Challenge Examination

9

GED 102 The Human Body

21. The two main layers of skin are ________.

a. papillary layer and reticular layer b. stratum basale and dermis c. epidermis and dermis d. stratum corneum and dermis e. epidermis and hypodermis

22. A needle pierces through the epidermal layers of the forearm in which of the following order?

1. stratum basale 2. stratum corneum 3. stratum granulosum 4. stratum lucidum 5. stratum spinosum

a. 2, 4, 3, 5, 1 b. 1, 5, 3, 4, 2 c. 2, 3, 5, 1, 4 d. 1, 3, 5, 2, 4 e. 2, 3, 4, 1, 5

23. Which of the following homeostatic imbalances is caused by a herpes simplex infection?

a. athlete’s foot b. cold sores c. impetigo d. contact dermatitis e. cyanosis

24. The “tanning” effect (darkening of the skin) that occurs when a person is exposed to the sun is due to ________.

a. melanin b. keratin c. oil d. Langerhans cells e. sweat

Challenge Examination

10

GED 102 The Human Body

25. The layer of the epidermis in which cells die because of their inability to get nutrients and oxygen is the clear layer called ________.

a. stratum spinosum b. stratum granulosum c. stratum basale d. stratum corneum e. stratum lucidum

26. Which of these bone markings is a projection that serves as a site for muscle or ligament attachment?

a. meatus b. fossa c. foramen d. fissure e. tubercle

27. Which of the following bones is considered part of the axial skeleton?

a. femur b. sternum c. radius d. metatarsals e. scapula

28. The canal that runs through the core of each osteon (Haversian system) contains ________.

a. cartilage and lamellae b. osteoclasts and osteoblasts c. yellow marrow and perforating, or Sharpey’s, fibers d. blood vessels and nerve fibers e. red marrow

29. The small cavities in bone tissue where osteocytes are found are called ________.

a. lacunae b. perforating (Volkmann’s) canals c. central (Haversian) canals d. trabeculae e. lamellae

Challenge Examination

11

GED 102 The Human Body

30. What kind of tissue is the forerunner of long bones in the embryo?

a. elastic connective tissue b. dense fibrous connective tissue c. fibrocartilage d. hyaline cartilage e. loose fibrous connective tissue

31. What type of bone cell is primarily active when bone growth occurs?

a. osteocyte b. erythrocyte c. chondrocyte d. osteoblast e. osteoclast

32. A motor neuron and all of the skeletal muscle fibers it stimulates are termed a ________.

a. myofilament b. synaptic cleft c. motor unit d. neuromuscular junction e. neurotransmitter

33. Why are calcium ions necessary for skeletal muscle contraction?

a. calcium increases the action potential transmitted along the sarcolemma b. calcium releases the inhibition on Z discs c. calcium triggers the binding of myosin to actin d. calcium causes ATP binding to actin e. calcium binds to regulatory proteins on the myosin filaments, changing both their shape and their position on the thick filaments

34. The mechanical force of contraction is generated by ________.

a. shortening of the thick filaments b. shortening of the thin filaments c. a sliding of thin filaments past thick filaments d. the “accordian-like” folding of thin and thick filaments e. the temporary disappearance of thin filaments

Challenge Examination

12

GED 102 The Human Body

35. Acetylcholine is ________.

a. an ion pump on the postsynaptic membrane b. a source of energy for muscle contraction c. a component of thick myofilaments d. an oxygen-binding protein e. a neurotransmitter that stimulates skeletal muscle

36. The gap between the axon terminal of a motor neuron and the sarcolemma of a skeletal muscle cell is called the ________.

a. motor unit b. sarcomere c. neuromuscular junction d. synaptic cleft e. cross bridge

37. Neurotransmitters are released upon stimulation from a nerve impulse by the ________.

a. myofibrils b. sarcoplasmic reticulum c. thick filaments d. axon terminals of the motor neuron e. sarcolemma of the muscle cell

38. Impulse conduction is fastest in neurons that are ________.

a. myelinated b. unmyelinated c. sensory d. motor e. cerebral

39. Bipolar neurons are commonly ________.

a. motor neurons b. called neuroglia c. found in ganglia d. found in the eye and nose e. more abundant in adults than in children

Challenge Examination

13

GED 102 The Human Body

40. During the resting state, a neuron is ________.

a. polarized with more sodium ions outside the cell and more potassium ions inside the cell b. propagating the action potential c. depolarizing and generating an action potential d. restoring the ionic conditions utilizing the sodium-potassium pump e. repolarizing as potassium ions diffuse out of the cell

41. Immediately after an action potential is propagated, which one of the following ions rapidly diffuses out of the cell into the tissue fluid ________.

a. sodium b. chloride c. calcium d. potassium e. magnesium

42. An action potential is caused by an influx of these ions into the cell.

a. potassium b. sodium c. calcium d. magnesium e. both potassium and sodium

43. Nerve impulse transmissions occurring along myelinated neurons are called ________.

a. saltatory conduction b. threshold c. graded potential d. sodium-potassium pump e. all-or-none response

44. Neurons either conduct action potentials along the length of their axons, or they remain at rest. This statement best describes ________.

a. a reflex arc b. the all-or-none response c. repolarization d. saltatory conduction e. graded potential

Challenge Examination

14

GED 102 The Human Body

45. The pigmented portion of the eye that has a rounded opening through which light passes is the ________.

a. iris b. lens c. cornea d. sclera e. retina

46. The three sets of color receptors within the retina are sensitive to wavelengths of visible light that are ________.

a. red, green, and yellow b. red, blue, and yellow c. green, yellow, and purple d. orange, green, and purple e. blue, green, and red

47. Which area of the retina lacks rods and cones and therefore does not detect images?

a. optic disc (blind spot) b. optic nerve c. choroid d. fovea centralis e. ciliary body

48. The aqueous humor of the eye is reabsorbed into venous blood through the ________.

a. inferior lacrimal canal b. nasolacrimal duct c. scleral venous sinus (canal of Schlemm) d. ciliary body e. pupil

49. Which of the following is a sex-linked condition that more often affects males?

a. conjunctivitis b. color blindness c. night blindness d. glaucoma e. cataracts

Challenge Examination

15

GED 102 The Human Body

50. The gel-like substance that reinforces the eyeball and prevents it from collapsing inward is the ________.

a. aqueous humor b. ciliary body c. choroid d. vitreous humor (vitreous body) e. scleral venous sinus (canal of Schlemm)

51. The hormone that stimulates follicle development by female ovaries and sperm development by male testes is ________.

a. luteinizing hormone (LH) b. prolactin c. follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) d. progesterone e. antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

52. Hyposecretion of growth hormone during childhood leads to ________.

a. pituitary dwarfism b. Cushing’s disease c. acromegaly d. myxedema e. gigantism

53. Releasing and inhibiting hormones produced by the hypothalamus influence the activities of the ________.

a. pineal gland b. anterior pituitary gland c. adrenal gland d. posterior pituitary gland e. thyroid gland

54. The two hormones released by the thyroid gland are ________.

a. calcitonin and thyroid hormone b. calcitonin and parathyroid hormone (PTH) c. thyroid hormone and parathyroid hormone (PTH) d. prolactin (PRL) and oxytocin e. oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

Challenge Examination

16

GED 102 The Human Body

55. Which hormone is alternately known as vasopressin due to its effect on blood vessel diameter and blood pressure?

a. oxytocin b. antidiuretic hormone (ADH) c. thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) d. growth hormone (GH) e. luteinizing hormone (LH)

56. Which two hormones play a role in promoting the milk reflex and in maintaining breast milk production in a mother’s breasts?

a. antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and thyroid hormone b. growth hormone and glucagon c. prolactin (PRL) and oxytocin d. parathyroid hormone (PTH) and thyroid hormone e. prolactin (PRL) and antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

57. The two major groups of white blood cells are ________.

a. leukocytes and erythrocytes b. platelets and megakaryocytes c. neutrophils and basophils d. granulocytes and agranulocytes e. granulocytes and leukocytes

58. Which of the following cells are classified as granulocytes?

a. neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils b. lymphocytes and monocytes c. eosinophils and monocytes d. basophils and lymphocytes e. neutrophils, lymphocytes, and eosinophils

59. Which type of granulocyte produces antibodies?

a. eosinophils b. basophils c. neutrophils d. lymphocytes e. monocytes

Challenge Examination

17

GED 102 The Human Body

60. The most numerous of the white blood cells are the ________.

a. lymphocytes b. neutrophils c. eosinophils d. monocytes e. basophils

61. Which type of leukocyte contains heparin, an anticoagulant?

a. neutrophil b. monocyte c. lymphocyte d. basophil e. eosinophil

62. Place these leukocytes in order from the most common to the least common.

1. basophil 2. eosinophil 3. lymphocyte 4. monocyte 5. neutrophil

a. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 b. 3, 4, 5, 1, 2 c. 5, 3, 2, 4, 1 d. 5, 2, 3, 1, 4 e. 5, 3, 4, 2, 1

63. Which valve guards the base of the aorta and opens when the ventricles are contracting?

a. mitral valve b. aortic semilunar valve c. bicuspid valve d. pulmonary semilunar valve e. tricuspid valve

64. Which blood vessels are direct branches of the left coronary artery?

a. circumflex and marginal arteries b. anterior and posterior interventricular arteries c. anterior interventricular and marginal arteries d. anterior interventricular and circumflex arteries e. posterior interventricular and marginal arteries

Challenge Examination

18

GED 102 The Human Body

65. The sinoatrial node is located in the ________.

a. aorta b. right atrium c. left atrium d. right ventricle e. interventricular septum

66. Which one of the following represents the correct path for the transmission of an impulse in the intrinsic conduction system of the heart?

a. atrioventricular (AV) node, sinoatrial (SA) node, atrioventricular (AV) bundle (bundle of His), right and left bundle branches, Purkinje fibers b. atrioventricular (AV) node, atrioventricular (AV) bundle (bundle of His), sinoatrial (SA) node, Purkinje fibers, right and left bundle branches c. sinoatrial (SA) node, atrioventricular (AV) bundle (bundle of His), atrioventricular (AV) node, Purkinje fibers, right and left bundle branches d. sinoatrial (SA) node, atrioventricular (AV) bundle (bundle of His), atrioventricular (AV) node, right and left bundle branches, Purkinje fibers e. sinoatrial (SA) node, atrioventricular (AV) node, atrioventricular (AV) bundle (bundle of His), right and left bundle branches, Purkinje fibers

67. Which vessel carries deoxygenated blood from cardiac circulation to the right atrium of the heart?

a. coronary sulcus b. coronary artery c. coronary sinus d. circumflex artery e. pulmonary vein

68. Which of these events is NOT associated with ventricular systole?

a. atrioventricular valves close b. heart is relaxed c. blood rushes out of the ventricles d. pressure in ventricles rises e. semilunar valves open

69. Where is the thymus located?

a. pharynx b. beneath sternum overlying heart c. armpits, groin, and neck d. small intestine e. left side of abdominopelvic cavity

Challenge Examination

19

GED 102 The Human Body

70. Mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue (MALT) includes the ________.

a. spleen b. thymus c. tonsils only d. tonsils, the appendix, and Peyer’s patches e. tonsils and spleen

71. The body’s first line of defense against the invasion of disease-causing microorganisms is ________.

a. phagocytes b. natural killer cells c. skin and mucous membranes d. inflammatory response e. fever

72. The adaptive (specific) defense system ________.

a. is an innate defense b. issues an attack specific to particular foreign substances c. includes the skin and mucous membranes d. is the body’s first line of defense against invading pathogens e. provides mechanical barriers to the body

73. Which one of the following is NOT one of the nonspecific body defenses?

a. intact skin b. antibody production c. the inflammatory response d. fever e. natural killer cells

74. The process by which neutrophils are squeezed through the capillary walls during the inflammatory process is called ________.

a. agglutination b. chemotaxis c. diapedesis d. coagulation e. antibody production

Challenge Examination

20

GED 102 The Human Body

75. Following the removal of the larynx, a person would be unable to ________.

a. speak b. sneeze c. eat d. hear e. breathe

76. The opening between the vocal cords is called the ________.

a. epiglottis b. glottis c. larynx d. thyroid cartilage e. esophagus

77. The flap of elastic cartilage that protects food from entering the larynx when swallowing is the ________.

a. glottis b. thyroid cartilage c. Adam’s apple d. epiglottis e. trachea

78. Vibration due to exhaled air that results in speech is a function of the ________.

a. complete voice box b. true vocal cords c. false vocal cords d. glottis e. epiglottis

79. The superior portion of each lung is the ________.

a. pleura b. base c. apex d. mediastinum e. fissure

Challenge Examination

21

GED 102 The Human Body

80. The serous membrane covering the surface of the lungs is called the ________.

a. mediastinum b. visceral pleura c. parietal pleura d. main (primary) bronchi e. pleurisy

81. What lymphatic tissue in the submucosa of the small intestine prevents bacteria from entering the blood?

a. Peyer’s patches b. rugae c. appendix d. circular folds (plicae circulares) e. lacteals

82. The small intestine extends from the ________.

a. cardioesophageal sphincter to the pyloric sphincter (valve) b. pyloric sphincter (valve) to the ileocecal valve c. ileocecal valve to the appendix d. appendix to the sigmoid colon e. cardioesophageal sphincter to ileocecal valve

83. What organs release secretions into the duodenum of the small intestine?

a. pancreas and spleen b. appendix and Peyer’s patches c. liver and pancreas d. cecum and appendix e. spleen and liver

84. Enzymes and bile are carried by the pancreatic duct and bile duct into the ________.

a. duodenum b. jejunum c. ileocecal valve d. ileum e. large intestine

Challenge Examination

22

GED 102 The Human Body

85. One of the main functions of the small intestine is ________.

a. absorption of nutrients b. absorption of water c. waste secretion d. vitamin conversion e. mineral secretion

86. Which one of the following is NOT a modification which is designed to increase surface area for absorption within the small intestine?

a. microvilli b. villi c. Peyer’s patches d. circular folds e. plicae circulares

87. Most nephrons are located within the renal ________.

a. pelvis b. calyces c. medulla d. pyramids e. cortex

88. The percentage of filtrate eventually reabsorbed into the bloodstream is closest to ________.

a. 10% b. 25% c. 50% d. 80% e. 99%

89. Of the capillary beds associated with each nephron, the one that is both fed and drained by arterioles is the ________.

a. peritubular capillaries b. pyramidal capillaries c. glomerulus d. Henle capillaries e. Bowman’s capillaries

Challenge Examination

23

GED 102 The Human Body

90. Filtrate typically does NOT contain ________.

a. water b. blood proteins c. glucose d. ions e. amino acids

91. The nonselective, passive process performed by the glomerulus that forms blood plasma with out blood proteins is called ________.

a. micturition b. tubular secretion c. glomerular filtration d. tubular reabsorption e. glomerular reabsorption

92. Thick, clear mucus that cleanses the urethra of acidic urine is produced by the ________.

a. testes b. seminal glands (vesicles) c. prostate d. bulbo-urethral glands e. epididymis

93. Milky-colored fluids secreted from the prostate ________.

a. nourish sperm b. activate sperm c. cleanse the urethra d. neutralize urine e. are endocrine only

94. The spongy tissue of the penis fills with blood during sexual excitement and causes the penis to enlarge and become rigid during ________.

a. erection b. circumcision c. ejaculation d. emission e. parturition

Challenge Examination

24

GED 102 The Human Body

95. Circumcision for males removes the ________.

a. glans penis b. shaft of the penis c. scrotum d. prepuce e. ductus (vas) deferens

96. What effect does follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) have on males?

a. Male testes are not influenced by FSH. b. FSH functions solely in females. c. FSH stimulates sperm production in males. d. FSH causes the testes to enlarge in size. e. FSH stimulates estrogen production in males.

97. The primitive stem cell of spermatogenesis, which is found on the periphery of each seminiferous tubule, is called a ________.

a. spermatogonium b. spermatid c. primary spermatocyte d. secondary spermatocyte e. sperm

98. Which statement regarding meiosis is correct?

a. Meiosis produces four gametes. b. Meiosis consists of one nuclear division only. c. Meiosis produces two daughter cells. d. Meiosis occurs in all cells of the body. e. Meiosis produces cells genetically identical to the parent cell.

99. What results from spermiogenesis?

a. four spermatogonia b. four spermatids c. two sperm d. two spermatids e. four sperm

Challenge Examination

25

GED 102 The Human Body

100. Each spermatid and each ovum have ________.

a. 23 pairs of chromosomes b. 23 chromosomes c. 46 pairs of chromosomes d. 46 chromosomes e. 2n chromosomes

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what value chain segments has kaiser permanente chosen to enter and perform internally?

CHAPTER 6 Strengthening a Company’s Competitive Position: Strategic Moves, Timing, and Scope of Operations

1

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

THIS CHAPTER WILL HELP YOU UNDERSTAND:

Whether and when to pursue offensive or defensive strategic moves to improve a firm’s market position

When being a first mover or a fast follower or a late mover is most advantageous

The strategic benefits and risks of expanding a firm’s horizontal scope through mergers and acquisitions

The advantages and disadvantages of extending the company’s scope of operations via vertical integration

The conditions that favor outsourcing certain value chain activities to outside parties

When and how strategic alliances can substitute for horizontal mergers and acquisitions or vertical integration and how they can facilitate outsourcing

© McGraw-Hill Education.

MAXIMIZING THE POWER OF A STRATEGY

Offensive and defensive competitive actions

Competitive dynamics and the timing of strategic moves

Scope of operations along the industry’s value chain

Making choices that complement a competitive approach and

maximize the power of strategy

Jump to Appendix 1 long image description

© McGraw-Hill Education.

CONSIDERING STRATEGY-ENHANCING MEASURES

Whether and when to go on the offensive strategically

Whether and when to employ defensive strategies

When to undertake strategic moves—first mover, a fast follower, or a late mover

Whether to merge with or acquire another firm

Whether to integrate backward or forward into more stages of the industry’s activity chain

Which value chain activities, if any, should be outsourced

Whether to enter into strategic alliances or partnership arrangements

© McGraw-Hill Education.

LAUNCHING STRATEGIC OFFENSIVES TO IMPROVE A COMPANY’S MARKET POSITION

Strategic offensive principles

Focusing relentlessly on building competitive advantage and then striving to convert it into sustainable advantage

Applying resources where rivals are least able to defend themselves

Employing the element of surprise as opposed to doing what rivals expect and are prepared for

Displaying a capacity for swift, decisive, and overwhelming actions to overpower rivals

© McGraw-Hill Education.

STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLE (1 of 8)

Sometimes a company’s best strategic option is to seize the initiative, go on the attack, and launch a strategic offensive to improve its market position.

© McGraw-Hill Education.

CHOOSING THE BASIS FOR COMPETITIVE ATTACK

Avoid directly challenging a targeted competitor where it is strongest.

Use the firm’s strongest strategic assets to attack a competitor’s weaknesses.

The offensive may not yield immediate results if market rivals are strong competitors.

Be prepared for the threatened competitor’s counter-response.

© McGraw-Hill Education.

STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLE (2 of 8)

The best offensives use a company’s most powerful resources and capabilities to attack rivals in the areas where they are competitively weakest.

© McGraw-Hill Education.

PRINCIPAL OFFENSIVE STRATEGY OPTIONS

Offering an equally good or better product at a lower price

Leapfrogging competitors by being first to market with next-generation products

Pursuing continuous product innovation to draw sales and market share away from less innovative rivals

Pursuing disruptive product innovations to create new markets

Adopting and improving on the good ideas of other companies (rivals or otherwise)

Using hit-and-run or guerrilla marketing tactics to grab market share from complacent or distracted rivals

Launching a preemptive strike to secure an industry’s limited resources or capture a rare opportunity

© McGraw-Hill Education.

CHOOSING WHICH RIVALS TO ATTACK

Market leaders that are in vulnerable competitive positions

Runner-up firms with weaknesses in areas where the challenger is strong

Struggling enterprises on the verge of going under

Small local and regional firms with limited capabilities

Best Targets for Offensive Attacks

Jump to Appendix 2 long image description

© McGraw-Hill Education.

BLUE-OCEAN STRATEGY—A SPECIAL KIND OF OFFENSIVE

The business universe is divided into:

An existing market with boundaries and rules in which rival firms compete for advantage

A “blue ocean” market space, where the industry has not yet taken shape, with no rivals and wide-open long-term growth and profit potential for a firm that can create demand for new types of products

© McGraw-Hill Education.

Core Concept (1 of 8)

A blue-ocean strategy offers growth in revenues and profits by discovering or inventing new industry segments that create altogether new demand.

© McGraw-Hill Education.

Bonobos’s Blue-Ocean Strategy in the U.S. Men’s Fashion Retail Industry

Given the rapidity with which most first-mover advantages based on Internet technologies can be overcome by competitors, what has Bonobos done to retain its competitive advantage?

Is Bonobos’s unique focused-differentiation entry into brick-and-mortar retailing a sufficiently strong strategic move?

What would you predict is the likelihood of long-term success for Bonobos in the retail clothing sector?

© McGraw-Hill Education.

DEFENSIVE STRATEGIES—PROTECTING MARKET POSITION AND COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

Purposes of Defensive Strategies

Lower the firm’s risk of being attacked

Weaken the impact of an attack that does occur

Influence challengers to aim their efforts at other rivals

Jump to Appendix 3 long image description

© McGraw-Hill Education.

FORMS OF DEFENSIVE STRATEGIES

Defensive strategies can take either of two forms

Actions to block challengers

Actions to signal the likelihood of strong retaliation

© McGraw-Hill Education.

STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLE (3 of 8)

Good defensive strategies can help protect a competitive advantage but rarely are the basis for creating one.

© McGraw-Hill Education.

STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLE (4 of 8)

There are many ways to throw obstacles in the path of would-be challengers.

© McGraw-Hill Education.

BLOCKING THE AVENUES OPEN TO CHALLENGERS

Introduce new features and models to broaden product lines to close off gaps and vacant niches.

Maintain economy-pricing to thwart lower price attacks.

Discourage buyers from trying competitors’ brands.

Make early announcements about new products or price changes to induce buyers to postpone switching.

Offer support and special inducements to current customers to reduce the attractiveness of switching.

Challenge quality and safety of competitor’s products.

Grant discounts or better terms to intermediaries who handle the firm’s product line exclusively.

© McGraw-Hill Education.

SIGNALING CHALLENGERS THAT RETALIATION IS LIKELY

Signaling is an effective defensive strategy when the firm follows through by:

Publicly announcing its commitment to maintaining the firm’s present market share

Publicly committing to a policy of matching competitors’ terms or prices

Maintaining a war chest of cash and marketable securities

Making a strong counter-response to the moves of weaker rivals to enhance its tough defender image

© McGraw-Hill Education.

STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLE (5 of 8)

To be an effective defensive strategy, signaling needs to be accompanied by a credible commitment to follow through.

© McGraw-Hill Education.

Core Concept (2 of 8)

Because of first-mover advantages and disadvantages, competitive advantage can spring from when a move is made as well as from what move is made.

© McGraw-Hill Education.

TIMING A FIRM’S OFFENSIVE AND DEFENSIVE STRATEGIC MOVES

Timing’s importance:

Knowing when to make a strategic move is as crucial as knowing what move to make.

Moving first is no guarantee of success or competitive advantage.

The risks of moving first to stake out a monopoly position versus being a fast follower or even a late mover must be carefully weighed.

© McGraw-Hill Education.

CONDITIONS THAT LEAD TO FIRST-MOVER ADVANTAGES

When pioneering helps build a firm’s reputation and creates strong brand loyalty

When a first mover’s customers will thereafter face significant switching costs

When property rights protections thwart rapid imitation of the initial move

When an early lead enables movement down the learning curve ahead of rivals

When a first mover can set the technical standard for the industry

© McGraw-Hill Education.

Uber’s First-Mover Advantage in Mobile Ride-Hailing Services

Which first-mover advantages contributed to Uber’s domination of the on-demand transportation markets in its chosen cities?

What first-mover advantages will Uber not have in entering overseas markets?

How could Uber extend its success into smaller and less urban markets as user growth in the larger urban markets peaks?

© McGraw-Hill Education.

THE POTENTIAL FOR LATE-MOVER ADVANTAGES OR FIRST-MOVER DISADVANTAGES

When pioneering is more costly than imitating and offers negligible experience or learning-curve benefits

When the products of an innovator are somewhat primitive and do not live up to buyer expectations

When rapid market evolution allows fast followers to leapfrog a first mover’s products with more attractive next-version products

When market uncertainties make it difficult to ascertain what will eventually succeed

When customer loyalty is low and first mover’s skills, know-how, and actions are easily copied or surpassed

© McGraw-Hill Education.

TO BE A FIRST MOVER OR NOT

Does market takeoff depend on complementary products or services that currently are not available?

Is new infrastructure required before buyer demand can surge?

Will buyers need to learn new skills or adopt new behaviors?

Will buyers encounter high switching costs in moving to the newly introduced product or service?

Are there influential competitors in a position to delay or derail the efforts of a first mover?

© McGraw-Hill Education.

STRENGTHENING A FIRM’S MARKET POSITION VIA ITS SCOPE OF OPERATIONS

Range of its activities performed internally

Breadth of its product and service offerings

Extent of its geographic market presence and its mix of businesses

Size of its competitive footprint on its market or industry

Defining the Scope of the Firm’s Operations

Jump to Appendix 4 long image description

© McGraw-Hill Education.

Core Concept (3 of 8)

The scope of the firm refers to the range of activities that the firm performs internally, the breadth of its product and service offerings, the extent of its geographic market presence, and its mix of businesses.

Scope issues are at the very heart of corporate-level strategy.

© McGraw-Hill Education.

Core Concepts (4 of 8)

Horizontal scope is the range of product and service segments that a firm serves within its focal market.

Vertical scope is the extent to which a firm’s internal activities encompass one, some, many, or all of the activities that make up an industry’s entire value chain system, ranging from raw-material production to final sales and service activities.

© McGraw-Hill Education.

HORIZONTAL MERGER AND ACQUISITION STRATEGIES

Merger:

Is the combining of two or more firms into a single corporate entity that often takes on a new name

Acquisition:

Is a combination in which one firm, the “acquirer,” purchases and absorbs the operations of another firm, the “acquired”

© McGraw-Hill Education.

STRATEGIC OJECTIVES FOR HORIZONTAL MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS

Creating a more cost-efficient operation out of the combined companies

Expanding the firm’s geographic coverage

Extending the firm’s business into new product categories

Gaining quick access to new technologies or other resources and capabilities

Leading the convergence of industries whose boundaries are being blurred by changing technologies and new market opportunities

© McGraw-Hill Education.

BENEFITS OF INCREASING HORIZONTAL SCOPE

Increasing a firm’s horizontal scope strengthens its business and increases its profitability by:

Improving the efficiency of its operations

Heightening its product differentiation

Reducing market rivalry

Increasing the firm’s bargaining power over suppliers and buyers

Enhancing its flexibility and dynamic capabilities

© McGraw-Hill Education.

Bristol-Myers Squibb’s “String-of-Pearls” Horizontal Acquisition Strategy

Which strategic outcomes did Bristol-Myers Squibb pursue through its “string-of-pearls” acquisition strategy?

Why did Bristol-Myers Squibb choose to pursue an acquisition strategy that was different from its industry competitors?

How did increasing the horizontal scope of Bristol-Myers Squibb through acquisitions strengthen its competitive position and profitability?

© McGraw-Hill Education.

WHY MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS SOMETIMES FAIL TO PRODUCE ANTICIPATED RESULTS

Strategic issues

Cost savings may prove smaller than expected.

Gains in competitive capabilities take longer to realize or never materialize at all.

Organizational issues

Cultures, operating systems and management styles fail to mesh due to resistance to change from organization members.

Key employees at the acquired firm are lost.

Managers overseeing integration make mistakes in melding the acquired firm into their own.

© McGraw-Hill Education.

Core Concept (5 of 8)

A vertically integrated firm is one that performs value chain activities along more than one stage of an industry’s value chain system.

© McGraw-Hill Education.

VERTICAL INTEGRATION STRATEGIES

Vertically integrated firm

One that participates in multiple segments or stages of an industry’s overall value chain

Vertical integration strategy

Can expand the firm’s range of activities backward into its sources of supply or forward toward end users of its products

© McGraw-Hill Education.

TYPES OF VERTICAL INTEGRATION STRATEGIES

Full integration

A firm participates in all stages of the vertical activity chain.

Partial integration

A firm builds positions only in selected stages of the vertical chain.

Tapered integration

A firm uses a mix of in-house and outsourced activity in any stage of the vertical chain.

© McGraw-Hill Education.

THE ADVANTAGES OF A VERTICAL INTEGRATION STRATEGY

Benefits of a Vertical Integration Strategy

Add materially to a firm’s technological capabilities

Strengthen the firm’s competitive position

Boost the firm’s profitability

Jump to Appendix 5 long image description

© McGraw-Hill Education.

Core Concepts (6 of 8)

Backward integration involves entry into activities previously performed by suppliers or other enterprises positioned along earlier stages of the industry value chain system.

Forward integration involves entry into value chain system activities closer to the end user.

© McGraw-Hill Education.

INTEGRATING BACKWARD TO ACHIEVE GREATER COMPETITIVENESS

Integrating backwards by:

Achieving same scale economies as outside suppliers: low-cost based competitive advantage

Matching or beating suppliers’ production efficiency with no drop-off in quality: differentiation-based competitive advantage

Reasons for integrating backwards

Reduction of supplier power

Reduction in costs of major inputs

Assurance of the supply and flow of critical inputs

Protection of proprietary know-how

© McGraw-Hill Education.

INTEGRATING FORWARD TO ENHANCE COMPETITIVENESS

Reasons for integrating forward

To lower overall costs by increasing channel activity efficiencies relative to competitors

To increase bargaining power through control of channel activities

To gain better access to end users

To strengthen and reinforce brand awareness

To increase product differentiation

© McGraw-Hill Education.

DISADVANTAGES OF A VERTICAL INTEGRATION STRATEGY

Increased business risk due to large capital investment

Slow acceptance of technological advances or more efficient production methods

Less flexibility in accommodating shifting buyer preferences that require non-internally produced parts

Internal production levels may not reach volumes that create economies of scale

Efficient production of internally-produced components and parts hampered by capacity matching problems

New or different resources and capabilities requirements

© McGraw-Hill Education.

WEIGHING THE PROS AND CONS OF VERTICAL INTEGRATION

Will vertical integration enhance the performance of strategy-critical activities ways that lower cost, build expertise, protect proprietary know-how, or increase differentiation?

What impact will vertical integration have on investment costs, flexibility, and response times?

What administrative costs are incurred by coordinating operations across more vertical chain activities?

How difficult will it be for the firm to acquire the set of skills and capabilities needed to operate in another stage of the vertical chain?

© McGraw-Hill Education.

Kaiser Permanente’s Vertical Integration Strategy

What are the most important strategic benefits that Kaiser Permanente derives from its vertical integration strategy?

Over the long term, how could the vertical scope of Kaiser Permanente’s operations threaten its competitive position and profitability?

Why is a vertical integration strategy more appropriate in some industries than in others?

© McGraw-Hill Education.

Core Concept (7 of 8)

Outsourcing involves contracting out certain value chain activities that are normally performed in-house to outside vendors.

© McGraw-Hill Education.

OUTSOURCING STRATEGIES: NARROWING THE SCOPE OF OPERATIONS

Outsource an activity if it:

Can be performed better or more cheaply by outside specialists

Is not crucial to achieving sustainable competitive advantage

Improves organizational flexibility and speeds time to market

Reduces risk exposure due to new technology or buyer preferences

Allows the firm to concentrate on its core business, leverage key resources, and do even better what it already does best

© McGraw-Hill Education.

THE BIG RISKS OF OUTSOURCING VALUE CHAIN ACTIVITIES

Hollowing out resources and capabilities that the firm needs to be a master of its own destiny

Loss of direct control when monitoring, controlling, and coordinating activities of outside parties by means of contracts and arm’s-length transactions

Lack of incentives for outside parties to make investments specific to the needs of the outsourcing firm’s value chain

© McGraw-Hill Education.

STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLE (6 of 8)

A company must guard against outsourcing activities that hollow out the resources and capabilities that it needs to be a master of its own destiny.

© McGraw-Hill Education.

Core Concepts (8 of 8)

A strategic alliance is a formal agreement between two or more separate companies in which they agree to work cooperatively toward some common objective.

A joint venture is a partnership involving the establishment of an independent corporate entity that the partners own and control jointly, sharing in its revenues and expenses.

© McGraw-Hill Education.

FACTORS THAT MAKE AN ALLIANCE “STRATEGIC”

A strategic alliance:

Facilitates achievement of an important business objective

Helps build, sustain, or enhance a core competence or competitive advantage

Helps remedy an important resource deficiency or competitive weakness

Helps defend against a competitive threat, or mitigates a significant risk to a company’s business

Increases the bargaining power over suppliers or buyers.

Helps open up important new market opportunities

Speeds development of new technologies or product innovations

© McGraw-Hill Education.

BENEFITS OF STRATEGIC ALLIANCES AND PARTNERSHIPS

Minimize the problems associated with vertical integration, outsourcing, and mergers and acquisitions

Are useful in extending the scope of operations via international expansion and diversification strategies

Reduce the need to be independent and self-sufficient when strengthening the firm’s competitive position

Offer greater flexibility should a firm’s resource requirements or goals change over time

Are useful when industries are experiencing high-velocity technological advances simultaneously

© McGraw-Hill Education.

STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLE (7 of 8)

Companies that have formed a host of alliances need to manage their alliances like a portfolio.

© McGraw-Hill Education.

WHY AND HOW STRATEGIC ALLIANCES ARE ADVANTAGEOUS

Strategic Alliances:

Expedite development of promising new technologies or products

Help overcome deficits in technical and manufacturing expertise

Bring together the personnel and expertise needed to create new skill sets and capabilities

Improve supply chain efficiency

Help partners allocate venture risk sharing

Allow firms to gain economies of scale

Provide new market access for partners

© McGraw-Hill Education.

CAPTURING THE BENEFITS OF STRATEGIC ALLIANCES

Picking a good partner

Being sensitive to cultural differences

Recognizing that the alliance must benefit both sides

Adjusting the agreement over time to fit new circumstances

Structuring the decision-making process for swift actions

Ensuring both parties keep their commitments

Strategic Alliance Factors

Jump to Appendix 6 long image description

© McGraw-Hill Education.

STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLE (8 of 8)

The best alliances are highly selective, focusing on particular value chain activities and on obtaining a specific competitive benefit.

Alliances enable a firm to learn and to build on its strengths.

© McGraw-Hill Education.

REASONS FOR ENTERING INTO STRATEGIC ALLIANCES

When seeking global market leadership

Enter into critical country markets quickly.

Gain inside knowledge about unfamiliar markets and cultures through alliances with local partners.

Provide access to valuable skills and competencies concentrated in particular geographic locations.

When staking out a strong industry position

Establish a stronger beachhead in target industry.

Master new technologies and build expertise and competencies.

Open up broader opportunities in the target industry.

© McGraw-Hill Education.

PRINCIPLE ADVANTAGES OF STRATEGIC ALLIANCES

They lower investment costs and risks for each partner by facilitating resource pooling and risk sharing.

They are more flexible organizational forms and allow for a more adaptive response to changing conditions.

They are more rapidly deployed—a critical factor when speed is of the essence.

© McGraw-Hill Education.

STRATEGIC ALLIANCES VERSUS OUTSOURCING

Key advantages of strategic alliances

The increased ability to exercise control over the partners’ activities.

A greater commitment and willingness of the partners to make relationship-specific investments as opposed to arm’s-length outsourcing transactions.

© McGraw-Hill Education.

ACHIEVING LONG-LASTING STRATEGIC ALLIANCE RELATIONSHIPS

Collaborating with partners that do not compete directly

Establishing a permanent trusting relationship

Continuing to collaborate is in the parties’ mutual interest

Factors Influencing the Longevity of Alliances

Jump to Appendix 7 long image description

© McGraw-Hill Education.

THE DRAWBACKS OF STRATEGIC ALLIANCES AND PARTNERSHIPS

Culture clash and integration problems due to different management styles and business practices

Anticipated gains not materializing due to an overly optimistic view of the potential for synergies or the unforeseen poor fit of partners’ resources and capabilities

Risk of becoming dependent on partner firms for essential expertise and capabilities

Protection of proprietary technologies, knowledge bases, or trade secrets from partners who are rivals

© McGraw-Hill Education.

HOW TO MAKE STRATEGIC ALLIANCES WORK

Create a system for managing the alliance.

Build trusting relationships with partners.

Set up safeguards to protect from the threat of opportunism by partners.

Make commitments to partners and see that partners do the same.

Make learning a routine part of the management process.

© McGraw-Hill Education.

Appendix 1 Maximizing the Power of a Strategy

Making choices that complement a competitive approach and maximize the power of strategy includes:

Offensive and defensive competitive actions

Competitive dynamics and the timing of strategic moves

Scope of operations along the industry’s value chain

Return to slide

© McGraw-Hill Education.

Appendix 2 Choosing Which Rivals to Attack

The best targets for offensive attacks are: market leaders that are in vulnerable competitive positions, runner-up firms with weaknesses in areas where the challenger is strong, struggling enterprises on the verge of going under, and small local and regional firms with limited capabilities.

Return to slide

© McGraw-Hill Education.

Appendix 3 Defensive Strategies—Protecting Market Position and Competitive Advantage

The three purposes of defensive strategies

Lower the firm’s risk of being attacked

Weaken the impact of an attack that does occur

Influence challengers to aim their efforts at other rivals

Return to slide

© McGraw-Hill Education.

Appendix 4 Strengthening a Firm’s Market Position Via Its Scope of Operations

The scope of a firm’s operations is defined as: the range of its activities performed internally; the breadth of its product and service offerings; the extent of its geographic market presence and its mix of business; and the size of its competitive footprint on its market or industry.

Return to slide

© McGraw-Hill Education.

Appendix 5 The Advantages of a Vertical Integration Strategy

Three benefits of a vertical integration strategy

Add materially to a firm’s technological capabilities

Strengthen the firm’s competitive positon

Boost the firm’s profitability

Return to slide

© McGraw-Hill Education.

Appendix 6 Capturing the Benefits of Strategic Alliances

The strategic alliance factors are:

Being sensitive to culture differences

Recognizing that the alliance must benefit both sides

Adjusting the agreement over time to fit new circumstances

Structuring the decisions-making process for swift actions

Ensuring both parties keep their commitments

Picking a good partner

Return to slide

© McGraw-Hill Education.

Appendix 7 Achieving Long-Lasting Strategic Alliance Relationships

Three factors that influence the longevity of alliances

Collaborating with partners that do not compete directly

Establishing a permanent trusting relationship

Continuing to collaborate is in the parties’ mutual interest

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two small spheres spaced 20.0 cm apart have equal charge.

11/30/2018 HW1

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HW1 Due: 11:59pm on Friday, September 14, 2018

You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy

Exercise 21.4

You have a pure (24-karat) gold ring with mass 10.8 . Gold has an atomic mass of 197 and an atomic number of 79.

Part A

How many protons are in the ring?

ANSWER:

Part B

What is their total positive charge?

Express your answer with the appropriate units.

ANSWER:

Part C

If the ring carries no net charge, how many electrons are in it?

ANSWER:

Exercise 21.6

Two small spheres spaced 20.0 apart have equal charge.

Part A

How many excess electrons must be present on each sphere if the magnitude of the force of repulsion between them is 3.33 10 ?

ANSWER:

Exercise 21.12

g g/mol

= np

= Q

= ne

cm

× −21 N

= ne

11/30/2018 HW1

https://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?displayMode=studentView&assignmentID=6573925 2/9

A negative charge of -0.510 exerts an upward 0.700- force on an unknown charge that is located 0.500 directly below the first charge.

Part A

What is the value of the unknown charge (magnitude and sign)?

Express your answer with the appropriate units.

ANSWER:

Part B

What is the magnitude of the force that the unknown charge exerts on the -0.510 charge?

Express your answer with the appropriate units.

ANSWER:

Part C

What is the direction of this force?

ANSWER:

Electric Field Conceptual Question

Part A

For the charge distribution provided, indicate the region (A to E) along the horizontal axis where a point exists at which the net electric field is zero.

If no such region exists on the horizontal axis choose the last option (nowhere).

μC N m

= q

μC

= F

upward

downward

11/30/2018 HW1

https://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?displayMode=studentView&assignmentID=6573925 3/9

You did not open hints for this part.

ANSWER:

Part B

For the charge distribution provided, indicate the region (A to E) along the horizontal axis where a point exists at which the net electric field is zero.

If no such region exists on the horizontal axis choose the last option (nowhere).

You did not open hints for this part.

ANSWER:

A

B

C

D

E

nowhere

11/30/2018 HW1

https://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?displayMode=studentView&assignmentID=6573925 4/9

Part C

For the charge distribution provided, indicate the region (A to E) along the horizontal axis where a point exists at which the net electric field is zero.

If no such region exists on the horizontal axis choose the last option (nowhere).

You did not open hints for this part.

ANSWER:

Part D

For the charge distribution provided, indicate the region (A to E) along the horizontal axis where a point exists at which the net electric field is zero.

A

B

C

D

E

nowhere

A

B

C

D

E

nowhere

11/30/2018 HW1

https://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?displayMode=studentView&assignmentID=6573925 5/9

You did not open hints for this part.

ANSWER:

Exercise 21.20

Two point charges are placed on the x-axis as follows: charge = 3.95 is located at 0.204 , and charge = 4.95 is at -0.295 .

Part A

What is the magnitude of the total force exerted by these two charges on a negative point charge = -5.99 that is placed at the origin?

ANSWER:

Part B

What is the direction of the total force exerted by these two charges on a negative point charge = -5.99 that is placed at the origin?

ANSWER:

A

B

C

D

E

Nowhere along the finite x axis

q1 nC x = m q2 nC x = m

q3 nC

= F N

q3 nC

11/30/2018 HW1

https://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?displayMode=studentView&assignmentID=6573925 6/9

Exercise 21.24

A particle has a charge of -5.55 .

Part A

Find the magnitude of the electric field due to this particle at a point 0.350 directly above it.

Express your answer with the appropriate units.

ANSWER:

Part B

Find the direction of this electric field.

ANSWER:

Part C

At what distance from this particle does its electric field have a magnitude of 14.0 ?

Express your answer with the appropriate units.

ANSWER:

Prelecture Concept Question 21.08

Part A

to the + directionx

to the – directionx

perpendicular to the -axisx

the force is zero

nC

m

= E

up, away from the particle

down, toward the particle

N/C

= L

11/30/2018 HW1

https://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?displayMode=studentView&assignmentID=6573925 7/9

The strength of the electric field at a certain distance from a point charge is represented by E. What is the strength of the electric field at twice the distance from the point charge?

ANSWER:

Prelecture Concept Question 21.10

Part A

When a point charge of +q is placed on one corner of a square, an electric field strength of 2 N/C is observed at the center of the square. Suppose three identical charges of +q are placed on the remaining three corners of the square. What is the magnitude of the net electric field at the center of the square?

ANSWER:

Prelecture Concept Question 21.04

Part A

Two charged objects are separated by some distance. The charge on the first object is greater than the charge on the second object. How does the force between the two objects compare?

ANSWER:

At twice the distance, the strength of the field is E/4.

At twice the distance, the strength of the field is E/2.

At twice the distance, the strength of the field is 4E.

At twice the distance, the strength of the field is 2E.

At twice the distance, the strength of the field remains equal to E.

The magnitude of the net electric field at the center of the square is 6 N/C.

The magnitude of the net electric field at the center of the square is 4 N/C.

The magnitude of the net electric field at the center of the square is 0 N/C.

The magnitude of the net electric field at the center of the square is 8 N/C.

The magnitude of the net electric field at the center of the square is 2 N/C.

11/30/2018 HW1

https://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?displayMode=studentView&assignmentID=6573925 8/9

Prelecture Concept Question 21.02

Part A

A positively charged rod is brought close to one end of an uncharged metal rod but does not actually touch it. What type of charge does the end of the metal rod closest to the positively charged rod acquire?

ANSWER:

Problem 21.01

Part A

A piece of plastic has a net charge of +2.00 μC. How many more protons than electrons does this piece of plastic have? (e = 1.60 × 10-19 C)

ANSWER:

The charged objects exert electrostatic forces on each other that are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction.

The first object exerts a large electrostatic force on the second object.

The charged objects exert electrostatic forces on each other that are equal in magnitude and pointing in the same direction.

The second object exerts a large electrostatic force on the first object.

The end of the metal rod closest to the positively charged rod remains neutral.

The end of the metal rod closest to the positively charged rod can acquire either a positive or negative charge, depending on the composition of the metal.

The end of the metal rod closest to the positively charged rod acquires a positive charge.

The end of the metal rod closest to the positively charged rod acquires a negative charge.

1.25 × 1019

2.50 × 1019

2.50 × 1013

1.25 × 1013

11/30/2018 HW1

https://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?displayMode=studentView&assignmentID=6573925 9/9

Problem 21.03

Part A

When two point charges are 2.0 cm apart, each one experiences a 1.0-N electric force due to the other charge. If they are moved to a new separation of 8.0 cm, the electric force on each of them is closest to

ANSWER:

Problem 21.06

Part A

Charge nC is at ( m, ), charge nC is at ( , m), and charge nC is at ( , ). What is the magnitude of the net electrostatic force on the -nC charge due to the other charges? (

N · m2/C2)

ANSWER:

Part B

What is the direction of the net electrostatic force on the -nC charge due to the other charges?

ANSWER:

Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 0.0%.

You received 0 out of a possible total of 13 points.

1.0 N.

4.0 N.

16 N.

0.25 N.

0.063 N.

= 6.0Q1 0.30 0 = −1.0Q2 0 0.10 = 5.0Q3 0 0 5.0

k = 1/4 = 8.99 ×πϵ0 10 9

N

5.0

above -axis ∘ x

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representational art with an approach to naturalism covers:

representational art with an approach to naturalism covers:
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0.00378541178 cubic meters

Homework #1

1) An American football player, starting from rest at the line of scrimmage, accelerates along a straight line for a time of 1.25 s. Then, during a negligible amount of time, he changes the magnitude of his acceleration to a value of 1.2 m s-2. With this acceleration, he continues in the same direction for another 1.2 s, until he reaches a speed of 3.7 m s-1. What is the value of his acceleration (assumed to be constant) during the initial 1.25 s period?

i. Sketch a plot of velocity versus time.

ii. To solve this problem, you have to work backwards. If the final speed is 3.7 m s-1after accelerating at 1.2 m s-2 for 1.2 s, then what velocity did he have before this 1.2 s burst of acceleration?

iii. It took the player 1.25 s to reach this velocity, accelerating from rest. What was the initial acceleration?

2) Two students are canoeing on a river. While heading upstream, they accidentally drop an empty bottle overboard. They then continue paddling for 1 hour, reaching a point 2 km farther upstream. At this point they realize that the bottle is missing and, driven by ecological awareness, they turn around and head downstream. They catch up with and retrieve the bottle (which has been moving along with the current) 5 km downstream from the turn-around point. Assuming a constant paddling effort throughout, how fast is the river flowing? What would the canoe speed in a still lake be for the same paddling effort?

The unknown variables in this problem seem to be the speed of the river, the speed of the canoe relative to the river and the time it takes from when they turn around to when they retrieve the bottle. 3 unknowns.

i. Write down an equation in terms of the 3 unknowns for the students canoeing upstream. This is of the form, velocity is equal to distance over time.

ii. Write down a similar equation in terms of the 3 unknowns for the students canoeing down stream to retrieve the bottle.

iii. Write down a similar equation in terms of the 3 unknowns for the journey of the bottle from when it was first dropped to when it was retrieved.

iv. You now have 3 equations and 3 unknowns. Do the algebra and solve the problem.

3) The mass of an ant is 5.5×10-6 kg. What is this in grams (g), milligrams (mg) and micrograms ( g)? A dose of a given antibiotic for an infant is one micro-liter per hour (1 l h-1). What is this in meters cubed per second (m3 s-1) and liters per year (l year-1)?

To change units simply multiply by a conversion factor. For example, to convert 2.6 cm to m would be

where the fraction is the conversion. Note 100 cm is equivalent to 1 m, so multiplying the 2.6 cm by this fraction doesn’t change the quantity just the units.

Homework #2

1) You are driving along with a furry dice hanging from the ceiling of your car. You observe that the furry dice are motionless relative to the car. Draw a clearly labeled free-body diagram for the furry dice if your car has a uniform velocity. Draw a clearly labeled free-body diagram for the furry dice if your car is speeding up uniformly.

Recall that a free-body diagram (FBD) is a diagram where the body (here furry dice) is represented by a dot and the forces acting on that body are represented by arrows emanating from that dot. What forces are acting on the furry dice?

By “motionless relative to the car” the question is telling you that the furry dice are not swinging around, by “uniform velocity” the question tells you there is no acceleration here and the net force is equal to zero (in both x- and y- directions). Finally, by stating that the “car is speeding up” it now implies that the dice, which recall are “motionless relative to the car”, must also be accelerating and for this to happen there must be a net force in the direction of acceleration.

2) A firefighter who weighs 712 N slides down a vertical pole with an acceleration of 3 m s -2, directed downward. What are the magnitude and direction (up or down) of the vertical force on the firefighter from the pole and the magnitude and direction of the vertical force on the pole from the firefighter?

i. Again this is a problem which requires a FBD. Draw a FBD for the firefighter. What forces are acting on him, and what must the net force on the firefighter be for his/her acceleration to be 3 m s-2

ii. Once you’ve found the force on the firefighter from the pole, the force on the pole from the firefighter is easy, right? Look up Newtons’ 3rd law.

3) The coefficient for static friction for rubber on dry asphalt is from 0.35 to 1.2 (average of say 0.775), while for rubber on wet asphalt its from 0.25 to 0.8 (average of say 0.525). These values are taken from Baker, J.S., “Traffic Accident Investigation Manual”, 1975.

Consider a car traveling at 20.1168 m s-1 (45 mph) with a driver reaction time of 0.75 s on a dry road. At what speed should the driver travel in wet conditions to maintain the same stopping distance? Why is the coefficient of static friction used here? Why not the coefficient of kinetic friction?

i. First find the stopping distance for the car on a dry road. Note that there are two parts to this. First the car moves at a constant velocity for 0.75 s (because the car doesn’t decelerate until after the reaction time) and then it decelerates linearly from the initial velocity to the final velocity (zero because it stops). There are different ways to solve this. You could write down an equation for distance with two terms. The first term would be distance during the reaction time is velocity multiplied by time. The second term would have to take into consideration the deceleration (and the coefficient for static friction). Alternatively, you could sketch a plot of velocity versus time (constant for 0.75 s and then decreasing linearly to zero with a slope equal to deceleration). How do you get distance from a velocity vs time graph?

ii. Repeat what you just did, but in reverse. Now you know the stopping distance (from the first part) and you do the same math (or use the same kind of velocity vs time graph) to find the initial velocity.

iii. Why static and not kinetic friction? Google ABS breaks.

Homework #3

1) A moving electron particle has kinetic energy K. After a net amount of work W has been done on it, the electron is moving one-quarter as fast in the opposite direction. Find W in terms of K. Does your answer depend on the final direction of the electron’s motion?

i. This is tricky because surely going from a velocity of v to -¼v should be the same as going from v + ¼v to zero. Is it?

ii. Is going from v to -¼v the same as going from v to ¼v? The starting and finishing kinetic energies are the same, but why would the work required to change be different?

2) A pick-up truck is coasting at a speed vA along a straight and level road. When a load equivalent to 10% of the truck’s mass is thrown off the bed, parallel to the ground and in the forward direction, the truck is brought to a halt. If the direction in which this mass is thrown is exactly reversed, but the speed of this mass relative to the truck remains the same, the wagon accelerates to a new speed vB. Calculate the ratio vB/vA.

i. This problem has some deliberate wording. “coasting” implies that the engine is not providing force, and “straight and level road” implies that we can ignore external forces such as gravity. Therefore, all we have to worry about is momentum conservation. Balance the momentum when the truck is moving with the load in its bed to when the truck has come to a stop and the load is thrown forward. What is the velocity of this load, relative to the trucks initial velocity?

ii. Now solve for when the load is thrown backwards, propelling the truck further forwards. Balance the momentum before and after the mass is thrown and find the new velocity of the truck. The mass of the truck should cancel and you should be able to solve for the ratio vB/vA.

3) A kid on a sled, with a combined mass of 35 kg, is pulled up a slope at constant speed by a tow rope that is parallel to the ground. The ground slopes upwards at a constant angle of 26o above the horizontal and the friction between the sled and the ground is characterized by the coefficient of kinetic friction,

. Draw a clearly labeled free-body diagram for the kid on a sled. Calculate the tension in the tow rope.

i. The question asks you to draw a FBD – which is good as this is exactly where you should start to solve this problem! What are the forces acting on the sled?

ii. The question states that the kid on the sled are pulled “at constant speed” which means the acceleration and net force are both zero. Recall, that for problems with slopes you resolve the forces parallel and perpendicular to the slope (usually the force that needs splitting up is the weight, mg). All the forces (which recall are vectors) when added together equals zero. In other words, forces up the hill are equal to forces down the hill, and forces in to the hill and equal to forces out of the hill. This being the case, find the tension in the rope.

Homework #4

1) Your driving your car at 15.6 m s-1 (about 35 mph) and the traffic light ahead turns amber. Do you brake before the intersection or hit the gas pedal and beat the light? The light has a speed camera which will automatically deposit a hefty fine in the mail (along with a picture of your car speeding through the intersection or stopping within the intersection) if you get it wrong.

The traffic light will remain amber for 3.5 seconds (Texas state minimum), your reaction time is 0.75 s and the intersection is 10 m wide. When you first saw the light turn amber, you where 40 m in front of the intersection. Your car can accelerate at a rate of 4 m s-2 or decelerate at a rate of 6 m s-2 (taking the coefficient of friction from Homework #2).

In Dallas a speed camera issued 9407 tickets worth $705,525 between January 1 and August 31, 2007. Upon investigation by a local news station it was found that the amber light lasted only 3.15 s. How might the decision of the corrupt local government in Dallas, to put profit before safety and reduce the length of time for the amber light, affect your above predicament?

i. The first part is to consider the car approaching the intersection with a 3.5 s amber light. What would happen if you decided to just continue at the same speed through the intersection? What deceleration would the car require to stop in time? What acceleration would the car require to clear the intersection before the light turns red? Don’t forget to include the reaction time in your calculations. Are these values reasonable?

ii. Repeat the same analysis as in part i but with the time that the amber light is on at 3.15 s instead of 3.5 s. How does this change your answers?

2) The chef on the Titanic, Charles Joughin, helped many people onto lifeboats and declined to board one himself. Subsequent to helping others he drank an entire bottle of whiskey, put on a life jacket and, after the Titanic had completely been submerged, stepped onto the bow of the ship without as much as getting his hair wet. Both the alcohol (kept him warm) and the life jacket (kept him afloat) saved his life. His mass was 100 kg and the inflated jacket had a volume of 3.1 x 10-2 cubic meters and was completely submerged under the water. The volume of the chef’s body that was underwater is 8.2 x 10-2 cubic meters. What was the density of the life jacket?

This question has a lot of unrequired information, which I think makes it interesting. The relevant part is that the chef was floating in water and kept afloat by the life jacket. A FBD of this situation would see the weight of the chef and life jacket (mass is density multiplied by volume) being equal to the buoyant forces (weight of water displaced). I believe the only unknown (after taking the density of water to be 1000 kg m-3, will be the density of the life jacket.

3) Yikes! Scooby Doo is being chased by the Phantosaur! Scooby Doo very quickly accelerates at 6 m s-2 to his top velocity of 3 m s-1. Scooby Doo, having been chased by lots of ghosts, is good at running and can maintain this velocity. The Phantosaur accelerates at 3 m s-2, and has a top velocity of 6 m s-1. However, the Phantosaur can only maintain such a high velocity for 1 s before getting tired and slowing down at a rate of 1 m s-2. Will the Phantosaur eat Scooby Doo?

This is a tricky intersection problem, because Scooby Doo and the Phantosaur speed up, maintain a constant velocity and (in the case of the Phantosaur) slow down. Therefore, we have to solve this in sections

i. How long does it take Scooby to accelerate to his top speed and how far has he traveled?

ii. How long does it take the Phantosaur to accelerate to his top speed and how far does it travel? During the time it takes the Phantosaur to get up to its maximum velocity, how far has Scooby ran?

iii. The Phantosaur can only maintain the high velocity for 1 s. After this 1 s, how far has it ran, and how far has Scooby ran?

iv. Finally Scooby maintains a constant velocity, while the Phantosaur slows down. What are the equations for distance traveled by both Scooby and the Phantosaur while the Phantosaur is decelerating?

At any point in the previous steps was the Phantosaur ahead of Scooby Doo?

Homework #5

1) A chitauritwo (Loki’s weird alien friends) is flying past Hawkeye who is stationed on top of a building. The trajectory of the chitauritwo is given by the equations

Hawkeye’s position is given by , and . If he is to fire an arrow with an initial velocity of 137 m s-1 at time t = 0, will he be able to shoot the chitauritwo? In what direction should he fire his arrow? Ignore air resistance, because the arrow is so fast, and note that gravity acts in the negative z-direction.

This is an intersection problem, so we have to write down the trajectory of the arrow and put the x-, y- and z-coordinates of the arrow as a function of time equal to the x-, y- and z-coordinates of the chitauritwo (given in the problem).

i. You have the starting location of the arrow so write down the equation for the position of the arrow in the x-direction as a function of time (note there is no air resistance so no acceleration). Put this equal to the x-coordinate of the chitauritwo to obtain your first equation.

ii. Do the same as in i but in the y-direction (should be simpler as the chitauritwo doesn’t move in this direction).

iii. Obtain a similar equation in the z-direction. This is height so Hawkeye will have to aim slightly upwards to overcome the effects of gravity, which will appear in this equation as a negative term.

So now you have three equations, but 4 unknowns! The unknowns are the initial velocity of the arrow (in x, y, and z) and time. But wait, we have a fourth equation.

iv. The magnitude of the velocity is dictated by the bow. The magnitude is 137 m s-1. Therefore, Pythagoras theory gives us our fourth equation. 4 unknowns and 4 equations. Now its a math problem. Plug it into a calculator or a computer if you can’t do the math.

2) Suppose that a planet were discovered between the sun and Mercury, with a circular orbit of radius equal to 2/3 of the average orbit radius of Mercury. (Such a planet was once postulated, in part to explain the precession of Mercury’s orbit. It was even given the name Vulcan, although we now have no evidence that it actually exists. Mercury’s precession has been explained by general relativity.) The orbital period of Mercury is 88.0 days.

What would be the orbital period of such a planet?

You shouldn’t need any help with this question as its a simple application of Kepler’s 3rd law.

3) A skier leaves the ramp of a ski jump with a velocity of 10 m/s at 20o above the horizontal as shown. The slope where she will land is inclined downward at 40o, and air resistance is negligible. Find the distance from the end of the ramp to where the jumper lands and her velocity components just before landing.

This is an interesting projectile motion problem, because the area where the projectile is landing (the projectile being the skier in this problem) is inclined.

i. First you need to write down the equation of motion for the skier in the x-direction after she has left the ski jump. Take the edge of the ski jump to be x = 0 and y = 0, and the point of time when she leaves as t = 0.

ii. Write down the equation of motion for the skier in the y-direction. Don’t forget gravity.

iii. You should now have two equations but three unknowns (the x and y distances when she lands on the slope and the time this took). The third equation comes from the slope itself! Given that the slope is going down at 40o can you write an equation relating the x and y distances when she lands on the slope?

Now you have 3 equations and 3 unknowns it should be easy enough. Given this information you should be able to get the quantities asked for in the problem.

Homework #6

1) High jumpers usually sustain fractures in the lower third of the fibula. The world record for the high jump is held by Javier Sotomayor (Cuba) at 2.45 m (1993). If he weighed 68 kg could muster a run-up speed of 9 m s-1, had a center of mass which was 1.2 m of the floor and took 0.3 s to push off from the floor then calculate the stress in his fibula. Note that during the Fosbury Flop the higher jumper pushes of from the ground using both feet, the cross-sectional area of the fibula is 1 cm2, and that the fibula plays a minor role in weight-bearing with the tibia supporting approximately 95% of the weight. Stress is defined as force per unit area.

i. In order for Javier to make the jump how much energy does he need? Note he only has to raise his center of mass to 2.45 m from 1.2 m.

ii. By balancing potential energy and kinetic energy, how much velocity does he need?

iii. Given that it took an estimated 0.3 s for this velocity to be acquired, what was his acceleration and what is the force required to generate this acceleration.

iv. If the fibula only provides 5% of this force then how much force is that? And given the definition of stress, what is the stress in the fibula?

2) A shotgun fires a large number of pellets upward, with some pellets traveling very nearly vertically and others as much as 1.0o from the vertical. Assume that the initial speed of the pellets is uniformly 150 m s-1 and ignore air resistance. Within what radius from the point of firing will the pellets land? If there are 1000 pellets, and they fall in a uniform distribution over a circle with the radius you just calculated, what is the probability that at least one pellet will fall on the head of the person who fires the gun?

For this question you might need to brush up on your high school math. Hows your probability?

i. Use the range equation to find the furthest that a bullet could land.

ii. If 1000 bullets fall in a circle with this radius then we can find the probability of at least one bullet falling on the shooters head. First make up the area of his head, say, 0.01 m2? What is the probability of a single bullet hitting the guy?

iii. What is the probability of one bullet missing the guys head?

iv. What is the probability that all the bullets will miss?

v. What is the probability that not all of the bullets will miss, and that at least one will hit?

3) Consider the experiment shown below. A block is pulled across a flat but rough surface. The force applied to the block is plotted on the x-axis while the frictional force due to the surface of the block and the rough surface is plotted on the y-axis.

What is the value of the applied force when the frictional force is equal to F1? Explain the features of the graph. Sketch a plot of the position of the block as a function of time, assuming the applied force ramps up linearly with time. Sketch a plot of the velocity of the block as a function of time, assuming the applied force ramps up linearly with time. Sketch a plot of the acceleration of the block as a function of time, assuming the applied force ramps up linearly with time.

There are some key words here. “Flat surface” implies that you can ignore gravity, but “rough surface” implies that friction is going to be important.

i. The first thing the problem asks is to give the value of the applied force when the frictional force is equal to F1. As the static friction opposes the applied force, then the frictional force and applied force should be equal. The block isn’t moving yet!

ii. You should be able to explain this graph. If not then consult your notes.

iii. You have to provide plots of position, velocity and acceleration. I would consider these in the reverse order. First what is the net force acting on the block as a function of time? Recall that the applied force is said to increase linearly with time. The acceleration is just proportional to the net force (applied force minus frictional force). Second, if you have acceleration as a function of time, then the integration of this would give you velocity. In other words, the velocity vs time plot is the area under the curve of the acceleration vs time graph. Thirdly, the position vs time is the area under the curve of the velocity vs time graph.

Homework #7

1) If you drop both a large and a small ball with the large ball beneath the small, then the small ball can bounce higher into the air than if it was to bounce off the floor directly. If you have a large and small ball handy you could try it! Assume the mass of the large ball is 0.1 kg and the mass of the small ball is 0.01 kg. The radius of the large ball is 30 cm and the radius of the small ball is 10 cm. The balls are initially in contact, with the large ball at a height of 1 m (center of the ball). If the balls are released and fall under gravity to the floor, how high will the small ball bounce up in the air? Assume all collisions to be elastic.

i. How far do the balls initially fall? How fast are they traveling when the large ball hits the ground?

ii. The large ball can be assumed to hit the floor first and rebound back up. At this point, the large ball is traveling up and the small ball is traveling down. Both have the same magnitude of velocity found in i, however, as the collision was “elastic”. Use conservation of momentum in an elastic collision to find the new velocities of the large and small balls after they collide.

iii. Now the small ball is traveling back up. Given its velocity, how high will it reach?

2) To protect their young in the nest, peregrine falcons will fly into birds of prey (such as ravens) at high speed. In one such episode, a 600 g falcon flying at 20 m/s hit a 1.5 kg raven flying at 9 m/s. The falcon hit the raven at right angles to its original path and bounced back at 5 m/s. (These figures are from a research paper and estimated by the author as he watched this attack occur in New Mexico). Find the change in angle of the ravens motion and its final velocity after the collision. Was energy conserved in the collision?

This is a simple case of momentum before the collision equals momentum after the collision.

i. Write an equation for the momentum in the direction of the raven as he flies towards the collision. Put the momentum before the collision equal to the momentum after the collision in this direction.

ii. Do the same analysis for the direction that the falcon was originally flying.

iii. You should have two equations which yield the ravens velocity in both directions after the collision. Use this to find the magnitude and direction.

iv. Was energy conserved? Calculate the energy before collision, knowing the falcon and ravens initial velocities and masses. Calculate the energy after the collision, knowing the falcon and ravens velocities after the collision.

3) A wheel starts from rest and rotates with constant angular acceleration to reach an angular speed of 12 rad/s in 3 s. Find the magnitude of the angular acceleration of the wheel and the angle in radians through which it rotates in this time.

Use the linear equations of motion but for angular motion and this should be easy.

Homework #8

1) A 50 kg woman stands on a bathroom scale while riding in an elevator descending with decreasing speed (magnitude of acceleration is 2 m s-2). Draw a free body diagram for the woman. What is the reading on the scale?

If you get the free body diagram correct then this is an easy problem. Think about how you feel on an elevator, or better still go and ride the elevator. Does your answer make sense?

2) A fire hose has an opening whose radius is 10 cm. The hose discharges water at a velocity of 20 m s-1. How much force is required by the fireman to hold the nozzle stationary? A fire hose ejects a stream of water with a speed of 20 m s-1, as above. At what angle to the horizontal should the fire hose be directed if it is to remove the civil liberties of protesters 20 m from where the hose is being held?

i. There are two parts to this problem. In the first part you have to calculate the force required to hold the fire hose. To do this go back to the definition of force. Its not necessarily , because this assumes the mass is constant. Here its the opposite the velocity of the water is constant, and acceleration is zero, but the mass changes as more and more water is being ejected. Go back to the definition of force from the momentum section in the notes.

ii. The second part is simply a range equation plug and chug problem.

3) A 20 kg monkey has firm hold on a light rope that passes over a frictionless pulley and is attached to a 20 kg bunch of bananas. The monkey looks up, sees the bananas, and starts to climb the rope to get them.

As the monkey climbs do the bananas move up, down or remain at rest? Explain.

As the monkey climbs, does the distance between the monkey and the bananas increase, decrease, or remain the same? Explain.

The monkey releases her hold on the rope. What happens to the distance between the monkey and the bananas while she is falling?

Before reaching the ground, the monkey grabs the rope to stop her fall. What do the bananas do?

A FBD might help here. Have fun!

Homework #9

1) Barnes Wallis is famous for creating a ‘bouncing bomb’ able to destroy the great dams of the Ruhr in Germany. The bomb was cylindrical and bounced along on the water. It was spinning such that as it bounced it slowed down and came to a stop at the dam. The bomb then sank along the dam wall where an internal pneumatic pistol ignited the charge causing the bomb to explode hard against the dam surface. Wallis discovered that he needed the mass of the bomb to be just 4.3 tonnes consisting of 2.7 tonnes of explosives. The density of steel casing was about 7900 kg m-3 and the density of the explosive is about 800 kg m-3 Calculate the average radius of the bomb if the length was fixed at 1.6 meters. The force of impact (average force) of such a bomb on water after falling from a height of 75 m is enormous. First, find the speed of impact, assuming that air resistance is negligible. Then calculate the average force of impact of the bomb if it initially sinks to a depth of 3/4 of its diameter.

i. Use the volume of a cylinder to calculate the size required to encase the explosive. Assume the thickness of the casing is the same at the ends as it is around the outside of the cylinder. You should et two equations one for the size of the inside explosive and another for the outside casing. Some of the variables, however, will be shared between the two equations.

ii. Find the velocity of the bomb when it hits the water.

iii. If you know it goes from this velocity to zero velocity, in a distance equal to 3/4 of its diameter, then what is the deceleration of the bomb and what is the average force of impact?

2) In order to purify salt water and convert it into drinking water it is usually required to first boil the water and then re-condense the evaporated water back into its liquid state. There are now 7 billion people on our planet and in the US we use 1383 gallons per-person per-day, while at the same time pollution and over population is seeing water shortages throughout the world. The UN recently stated “Fierce competition for fresh water may well become a source of conflict and wars in the future.” If solar power (with an efficiency of 10%) was to be used to purify water and the average solar insolation is approximately 250 watts per square meter, how much land would be required to provide water for the world? Assume that we want to rest of the world to have the adequate access to water that we enjoy in the western world. Average temperature of water at the surface of the ocean is 17 oC, the density of water is 1000 kg m-3, and 1 US Gallon = 0.00378541178 Cubic Meters.

This is a simple problem solving exercise. You shouldn’t have any problems solving this. Just make sure that your units match up!

3) Given that the diameter of the moon is 3,480 km, and using a meter stick or tape measure plus a 25¢ coin, estimate the distance, D, from the Earth to the Moon. Show calculations.

This homework is actually due on the new moon. Talk about bad timing. You’ll just have to pretend that there was a moon in the sky…..

Homework #10

1) The fair has a ride that consists of a large vertical cylinder that spins about its axis fast enough that any person inside is held up against the wall when the floor drops away. The coefficient of static friction between the person and the wall is and the radius of the cylinder is R. Determine the period of revolution necessary to keep the person from falling.

Consider the normal force between the person and wall.

2) A “spring activated toy” (see picture) weighs 0.925N and has a spring of length 5cm. Upon release the toy jumps to a height of 0.5m. What is the spring constant of the spring?

The spring is initially held in a compressed state by the adhesive force of the ‘sucker’ which provides a maximum force of the form

where F0 and t0 are constants. Find an expression for the time it would take before the spring-activated toy is launched into the air.

3) One strategy used by the Ewok’s during their battle with the imperial stormtroopers was to throw a rock at a high angle over level ground. While a stormtrooper watched the first one, a second rock was thrown at a low angle timed to arrive before or at the same time as the first one. Assume both rocks are thrown with a speed of 25.0 m/s. The first one is thrown at an angle of 65.0° with respect to the horizontal. At what angle should the second (low angle) rock be thrown to arrive at the same point as the first? How many seconds later should the second rock be thrown, after the first was thrown, to arrive at the same time?

Use projectile motion equations.

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MANAGERIAL ECONOMICS A Problem Solving Approach

Luke M. Froeb Vanderbilt University

Mikhael Shor University of Connecticut

Brian T. McCann Vanderbilt University

Michael R. Ward University of Texas, Arlington

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BRIEF CONTENTS

Preface: Teaching Students to Solve Problems xiii

SECTION I Problem Solving and Decision Making 1 1 Introduction: What This Book Is About 3 2 The One Lesson of Business 15 3 Benefits, Costs, and Decisions 27 4 Extent (How Much) Decisions 39 5 Investment Decisions: Look Ahead and Reason Back 51

SECTION II Pricing, Costs, and Profits 65 6 Simple Pricing 67 7 Economies of Scale and Scope 83 8 Understanding Markets and Industry Changes 95 9 Market Structure and Long-Run Equilibrium 113 10 Strategy: The Quest to Keep Profit from Eroding 125 11 Foreign Exchange, Trade, and Bubbles 137

SECTION III Pricing for Greater Profit 151 12 More Realistic and Complex Pricing 153 13 Direct Price Discrimination 163 14 Indirect Price Discrimination 171

SECTION IV Strategic Decision Making 183 15 Strategic Games 185 16 Bargaining 205

SECTION V Uncertainty 215 17 Making Decisions with Uncertainty 217 18 Auctions 231 19 The Problem of Adverse Selection 241 20 The Problem of Moral Hazard 253

v

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SECTION VI Organizational Design 265 21 Getting Employees to Work in the Firm’s Best Interests 267 22 Getting Divisions to Work in the Firm’s Best Interests 279 23 Managing Vertical Relationships 293

SECTION VII Wrapping Up 305 24 You Be the Consultant 307

Epilogue: Can Those Who Teach, Do? 313

Glossary 315

Index 321

vi BRIEF CONTENTS

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CONTENTS

Preface: Teaching Students to Solve Problems xiii

SECTION I Problem Solving and Decision Making 1

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION: WHAT THIS BOOK IS ABOUT 3 1.1 Using Economics to Solve Problems 3 1.2 Problem-Solving Principles 4 1.3 Test Yourself 6 1.4 Ethics and Economics 7 1.5 Economics in Job Interviews 9 Summary & Homework Problems 11 End Notes 13

CHAPTER 2 THE ONE LESSON OF BUSINESS 15 2.1 Capitalism and Wealth 16 2.2 Does the Government Create Wealth? 18 2.3 Why Economics Is Useful to Business 18 2.4 Wealth Creation in Organizations 21 Summary & Homework Problems 22 End Notes 23

CHAPTER 3 BENEFITS, COSTS, AND DECISIONS 27 3.1 Background: Variable, Fixed, and Total Costs 28 3.2 Background: Accounting Versus Economic Profit 29 3.3 Costs Are What You Give Up 31 3.4 Sunk-Cost Fallacy 32 3.5 Hidden-Cost Fallacy 34 3.6 A Final Warning 35 Summary & Homework Problems 36 End Notes 38

CHAPTER 4 EXTENT (HOW MUCH) DECISIONS 39 4.1 Background: Average and Marginal Costs 40 4.2 Marginal Analysis 41 4.3 Incentive Pay 44 4.4 Tie Pay to Performance Measures That Reflect Effort 45 4.5 Is Incentive Pay Unfair? 46

vii

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Summary & Homework Problems 47 End Notes 50

CHAPTER 5 INVESTMENT DECISIONS: LOOK AHEAD AND REASON BACK 51 5.1 Compounding and Discounting 51 5.2 How to Determine Whether Investments Are Profitable 52 5.3 Break-Even Analysis 54 5.4 Choosing the Right Manufacturing Technology 55 5.5 Shut-Down Decisions and Break-Even Prices 56 5.6 Sunk Costs and Post-Investment Hold-Up 57 5.7 Anticipate Hold-Up 58 Summary & Homework Problems 59 End Notes 62

SECTION II Pricing, Costs, and Profits 65

CHAPTER 6 SIMPLE PRICING 67 6.1 Background: Consumer Values and Demand Curves 68 6.2 Marginal Analysis of Pricing 70 6.3 Price Elasticity and Marginal Revenue 72 6.4 What Makes Demand More Elastic? 74 6.5 Forecasting Demand Using Elasticity 76 6.6 Stay-Even Analysis, Pricing, and Elasticity 77 6.7 Cost-Based Pricing 78 Summary & Homework Problems 78 End Notes 81

CHAPTER 7 ECONOMIES OF SCALE AND SCOPE 83 7.1 Increasing Marginal Cost 84 7.2 Economies of Scale 86 7.3 Learning Curves 87 7.4 Economies of Scope 89 7.5 Diseconomies of Scope 90 Summary & Homework Problems 91 End Notes 93

CHAPTER 8 UNDERSTANDING MARKETS AND INDUSTRY CHANGES 95 8.1 Which Industry or Market? 95 8.2 Shifts in Demand 96 8.3 Shifts in Supply 97 8.4 Market Equilibrium 99 8.5 Predicting Industry Changes Using Supply and Demand 100 8.6 Explaining Industry Changes Using Supply and Demand 103 8.7 Prices Convey Valuable Information 104 8.8 Market Making 106 Summary & Homework Problems 108 End Notes 111

viii CONTENTS

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CHAPTER 9 MARKET STRUCTURE AND LONG-RUN EQUILIBRIUM 113 9.1 Competitive Industries 114 9.2 The Indifference Principle 116 9.3 Monopoly 120 Summary & Homework Problems 121 End Notes 123

CHAPTER 10 STRATEGY: THE QUEST TO KEEP PROFIT FROM ERODING 125 10.1 A Simple View of Strategy 126 10.2 Sources of Economic Profit 127 10.3 The Three Basic Strategies 132 Summary & Homework Problems 133 End Notes 135

CHAPTER 11 FOREIGN EXCHANGE, TRADE, AND BUBBLES 137 11.1 The Market for Foreign Exchange 138 11.2 The Effects of a Currency Devaluation 141 11.3 Bubbles 142 11.4 How Can We Recognize Bubbles? 144 11.5 Purchasing Power Parity 146 Summary & Homework Problems 147 End Notes 149

SECTION III Pricing for Greater Profit 151

CHAPTER 12 MORE REALISTIC AND COMPLEX PRICING 153 12.1 Pricing Commonly Owned Products 154 12.2 Revenue or Yield Management 156 12.3 Advertising and Promotional Pricing 157 12.4 Psychological Pricing 158 Summary & Homework Problems 160 End Notes 162

CHAPTER 13 DIRECT PRICE DISCRIMINATION 163 13.1 Introduction 163 13.2 Direct Price Discrimination 166 13.3 Robinson-Patman Act 167 13.4 Implementing Price Discrimination Schemes 168 13.5 Only Schmucks Pay Retail 169 Summary & Homework Problems 169 End Notes 170

CHAPTER 14 INDIRECT PRICE DISCRIMINATION 171 14.1 Introduction 171 14.2 Indirect Price Discrimination 172 14.3 Volume Discounts as Discrimination 176 14.4 Bundling Different Goods Together 177

CONTENTS ix

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Summary & Homework Problems 178 End Notes 181

SECTION IV Strategic Decision Making 183

CHAPTER 15 STRATEGIC GAMES 185 15.1 Sequential-Move Games 186 15.2 Simultaneous-Move Games 188 15.3 What Can I Learn from Studying Games Like the Prisoners’ Dilemma? 194 15.4 Other Games 195 Summary & Homework Problems 200 End Notes 203

CHAPTER 16 BARGAINING 205 16.1 Strategic View of Bargaining 205 16.2 Nonstrategic View of Bargaining 208 16.3 Conclusion 210 Summary & Homework Problems 211 End Notes 214

SECTION V Uncertainty 215

CHAPTER 17 MAKING DECISIONS WITH UNCERTAINTY 217 17.1 Random Variables and Probability 217 17.2 Uncertainty in Pricing 222 17.3 Run Experiments to Reduce Uncertainty 223 17.4 Minimizing Expected Error Costs 224 17.5 Risk Versus Uncertainty 226 Summary & Homework Problems 227 End Notes 230

CHAPTER 18 AUCTIONS 231 18.1 Oral Auctions 232 18.2 Second-Price Auctions 233 18.3 First-Price Auctions 234 18.4 Bid Rigging 234 18.5 Common-Value Auctions 236 Summary & Homework Problems 238 End Notes 240

CHAPTER 19 THE PROBLEM OF ADVERSE SELECTION 241 19.1 Insurance and Risk 241 19.2 Anticipating Adverse Selection 242 19.3 Screening 244 19.4 Signaling 247 19.5 Adverse Selection and Internet Sales 248

x CONTENTS

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Summary & Homework Problems 249 End Notes 251

CHAPTER 20 THE PROBLEM OF MORAL HAZARD 253 20.1 Introduction 253 20.2 Insurance 254 20.3 Moral Hazard Versus Adverse Selection 255 20.4 Shirking 256 20.5 Moral Hazard in Lending 258 20.6 Moral Hazard and the 2008 Financial Crisis 260 Summary & Homework Problems 260 End Notes 263

SECTION VI Organizational Design 265

CHAPTER 21 GETTING EMPLOYEES TO WORK IN THE FIRM’S BEST INTERESTS 267 21.1 Principal-Agent Relationships 268 21.2 Controlling Incentive Conflict 269 21.3 Marketing Versus Sales 271 21.4 Franchising 272 21.5 A Framework for Diagnosing and Solving Problems 273 Summary & Homework Problems 275 End Notes 278

CHAPTER 22 GETTING DIVISIONS TO WORK IN THE FIRM’S BEST INTERESTS 279 22.1 Incentive Conflict Between Divisions 279 22.2 Transfer Pricing 281 22.3 Organizational Alternatives 283 22.4 Budget Games: Paying People to Lie 285 Summary & Homework Problems 288 End Notes 291

CHAPTER 23 MANAGING VERTICAL RELATIONSHIPS 293 23.1 How Vertical Relationships Increase Profit 294 23.2 Double Marginalization 295 23.3 Incentive Conflicts Between Retailers and Manufacturers 295 23.4 Price Discrimination 297 23.5 Antitrust Risks 298 23.6 Do Not Buy a Customer or Supplier Simply Because It Is Profitable 299 Summary & Homework Problems 300 End Notes 302

SECTION VII Wrapping Up 305

CHAPTER 24 YOU BE THE CONSULTANT 307 24.1 Truck Leasing 307

CONTENTS xi

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24.2 Manufacturer Hiring 308 24.3 American Airlines 309 24.4 Law Firm Pricing 309 24.5 Cash Flow at a Forklift Dealership 310 24.6 Managing Interest-Rate Risk at Banks 311 24.7 What You Should Have Learned 312

Epilogue: Can Those Who Teach, Do? 313

Glossary 315

Index 321

xii CONTENTS

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PREFACE

Teaching Students to Solve Problems1

by Luke Froeb

When I started teaching MBA students, I taught economics as I had learned it, using models and public policy applications. My students complained so much that the dean took me out to the proverbial woodshed and gave me an ultimatum, “improve customer satisfaction or else.” With the help of some disgruntled students who later became teaching assistants, I was able to turn the course around.

The problem I faced can be easily described using the language of eco- nomics: the supply of business education (professors are trained to provide abstract theory) is not closely matched to demand (students want practical knowledge). This mismatch is found throughout academia, but it is perhaps most acute in a business school. Business students expect a return on a fairly sizable investment and want to learn material with immediate and obvious value.

One implication of the mismatch is that teaching economics in the usual way—with models and public policy applications—is not likely to satisfy stu- dent demand. In this book, we use what we call a “problem-solving peda- gogy” to teach microeconomic principles to business students. We begin each chapter with a business problem, like the fixed-cost fallacy, and then give stu- dents enough analytic structure to understand the cause of the problem and how to fix it.

Teaching students to solve real business problems, rather than learn models, satisfies student demand in an obvious way. The approach also allows students to absorb the lessons of economics without as much of the analytical “overhead” as a model-based pedagogy. This is an advantage, especially in a terminal or stand-alone course, like those typically taught in a business school. To see this, ask yourself which of the following ideas is more likely to stay with a student after the class is over: the fixed-cost fallacy or that the partial derivative of profit with respect to price is independent of fixed costs.

xiii

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ELEMENTS OF A PROBLEM-SOLVING PEDAGOGY Our problem-solving pedagogy has three elements.

Begin with a Business Problem Beginning with a real-world business problem puts the particular ahead of the abstract and motivates the material in a straightforward way. We use narrow, focused problems whose solutions require students to use the analytical tools of interest.

Teach Students to View Inefficiency as an Opportunity The second element of our pedagogy turns the traditional focus of benefit- cost analysis on its head. Instead of teaching students to spot and then elimi- nate inefficiency, for example, by changing public policy, we teach them to view each underemployed asset as a money-making opportunity.

Use Economics to Implement Solutions Even after you find an underemployed asset, moving it to a higher-valued use is often hard to do, particularly when the inefficiency occurs within an orga- nization. The third element of our pedagogy addresses the problem of imple- mentation: how to design organizations where employees have enough information to make profitable decisions and the incentive to do so.

Again, we use the tools of economics to address the problem of imple- mentation. If people act rationally, optimally, and self-interestedly, then mis- takes have only one of two causes: either people lack the information necessary to make good decisions or they lack the incentive to do so. This immediately suggests a problem-solving algorithm; ask:

1. Who is making the bad decision? 2. Do they have enough information to make a good decision? 3. Do they have the incentive to do so?

Answers to these three questions will point to the source of the problem and suggest one of three potential solutions:

1. Let someone else make the decision, someone with better information or incentives

2. Give more information to the current decision maker 3. Change the current decision maker’s incentives

The book begins by showing students how to use this algorithm and sub- sequent chapters illustrate its use in a different context, for example, invest- ments, pricing, principal-agent relationships, and uncertain environments.

USING THE BOOK The book is designed to be read cover-to-cover as it is short, concise, and accessible to anyone who can read and think clearly. The pedagogy is built around business problems, so the book is most effective for those with some

xiv PREFACE

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work experience. Its relatively short length makes it reasonably easy to cus- tomize with ancillary material.

The authors use the text in full-time MBA programs, executive MBA pro- grams (weekends), healthcare management executive programs (one night a week), and nondegree executive education. However, some of our biggest customers use the book in online business classes at both the graduate and undergraduate levels.

In the degree programs, we supplement the material in the book with online interactive programs like Cengage’s CourseMate or Samuel Baker’s Economic Interactive Tutorials.2 Complete Blackboard courses, including syllabi, quizzes, homework, slides, videos to complement each chapter, and links to supplementary material, can be downloaded from the Cengage website. OurManagerialEcon.com blog is a good source of new business applications for each of the chapters.

In this fourth edition, we have updated and improved the presentation and pedagogy of the book. The biggest change is in the supplementary mate- rial: we have added videos to complement each chapter, included worked video problems, and dramatically increased the size and quality of the test bank. In addition to the other updates throughout the text, Chapter 24, “You Be the Consultant,” has all-new content.

We wish to acknowledge numerous classes of MBA, executive MBA, nondegree executive education, and healthcare management students, without whom none of this would have been possible—or necessary. Many of our for- mer students will recognize stories from their companies in the book. Most of the stories in the book are from students and are for teaching purposes only.

Thanks to everyone who contributed, knowingly or not, to the book. Professor Froeb owes intellectual debts to former colleagues at the U.S. Department of Justice (among them, Cindy Alexander, Tim Brennan, Ken Heyer, Kevin James, Bruce Kobayahsi, and Greg Werden); to former collea- gues at the Federal Trade Commission (among them James Cooper, Pauline Ippolito, Tim Muris, Dan O’Brien, Maureen Ohlhausen, Paul Pautler, Mike Vita, and Steven Tenn); to colleagues at Vanderbilt (among them, Germain Boer, Jim Bradford, Bill Christie, Mark Cohen, Myeong Chang, Craig Lewis, Rick Oliver, David Parsley, David Rados, Steven Tschantz, David Scheffman, and Bart Victor); and to numerous friends and colleagues who offered sugges- tions, problems, and anecdotes for the book, among them, Lily Alberts, Olafur Arnarson, Raj Asirvatham, Bert Bailey, Pat Bajari, Molly Bash, Sarah Berhalter, Roger Brinner, the Honorable Jim Cooper, Matthew Dixon Cowles, Abie Del Favero, Kelsey Duggan, Vince Durnan, Marjorie Eastman, Keri Floyd, Josh Gapp, Brock Hardisty, Trent Holbrook, Jeff and Jenny Hubbard, Brad Jenkins, Dan Kessler, Bev Landstreet (B5), Bert Mathews, Christine Milner, Jim Overdahl, Rich Peoples, Annaji Pervajie, Jason Rawlins, Mike Saint, David Shayne, Jon Shayne, Bill Shughart, Doug Tice, Whitney Tilson, and Susan Woodward. We owe intellectual and pedagogical debts to Armen Alchian and William Allen,3 Henry Hazlitt,4 Shlomo Maital,5 John MacMillan,6

Steven Landsburg,7 Ivan Png,8 Victor Tabbush,9 Michael Jensen and William Meckling,10 and James Brickley, Clifford Smith, and Jerold Zimmerman.11

Special thanks to everyone who guided us through the publishing process, including Daniel Noguera, Steve Scoble, Michael Worls, and Jyotsna Ojha.

PREFACE xv

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END NOTES

1. Much of the material is taken from Froeb, Luke M. and Ward, James C., “Teaching Managerial Economics with Problems Instead of Models” (April 5, 2011). The International Handbook on Teaching and Learning Economics, ed. Gail Hoyt, KimMarie McGoldrick, eds. (Edward Elgar Publishing, 2012: Northampton, MA.

2. http://sambaker.com/econ/ 3. Armen Alchian and William Allen, Exchange

and Production, 3rd ed. (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1983).

4. Henry Hazlitt, Economics in One Lesson (New York: Crown, 1979).

5. Shlomo Maital, Executive Economics: Ten Essential Tools for Managers (New York: Free Press, 1994).

6. John McMillan, Games, Strategies, and Managers (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992).

7. Steven Landsburg, The Armchair Economist: Economics and Everyday Life (New York: Free Press, 1993).

8. Ivan Png, Managerial Economics (Maiden, MA: Blackwell, 1998).

9. http://www.mbaprimer.com 10. Michael Jensen and William Meckling, A

Theory of the Firm: Governance, Residual Claims and Organizational Forms (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2000).

11. James Brickley, Clifford Smith, and Jerold Zimmerman, Managerial Economics and Organizational Architecture (Chicago: Irwin, 1997).

xvi PREFACE

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MANAGERIAL ECONOMICS

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Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

SECTION 1

Problem Solving and Decision Making

1 Introduction: What This Book Is About

2 The One Lesson of Business

3 Benefits, Costs, and Decisions

4 Extent (How Much) Decisions

5 Investment Decisions: Look Ahead and Reason Back

1

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Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

1 Introduction: What This Book Is About

In 1992, a junior geologist was preparing a bid recommendation for an oil tract in the Gulf of Mexico. He suspected that this tract contained a large accumulation of oil because his company, Oil Ventures International (OVI), had an adjacent tract with several productive wells. Since no competitors had neighboring tracts, none of them suspected a large accumulation of oil. Because of this, he thought that the tract could be won relatively cheaply and recommended a bid of $5 million. Surprisingly, OVI’s senior manage- ment ignored the recommendation and submitted a bid of $21 million. OVI won the tract over the next-highest bid of $750,000.

If the board of directors asked you to review the bidding procedures at OVI, how would you proceed? What questions would you ask? Where would you begin your investigation?

You’d find it difficult to gather information from those closest to the bid- ding. Senior management would be suspicious and uncooperative because no one likes to be singled out for bidding $20 million more than was necessary. Likewise, our junior geologist would be reluctant to criticize his superiors. You might be able to rely on your experience—provided that you had run into a similar problem. But without experience, or when facing novel problems, you would have to rely on your analytic ability.

This book is designed to show you how to complete an assignment like this.

1.1 Using Economics to Solve Problems To solve a problem like OVI’s, first, figure out what’s causing the problem, and second, how to fix it. In this case, you would want to know whether the $21 million bid was too high at the time it was made, not just in retrospect. If the bid was too aggressive, then you’d have to figure out why the senior man- agers overbid and how to make sure they don’t do it again.

Both steps require that you predict how people behave in different cir- cumstances, and this is where the economic content of the book comes in.

3

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The one thing that unites economists is their use of the rational-actor paradigm to predict behavior. Simply put, it says that people act rationally, optimally, and self-interestedly. In other words, they respond to incentives. The paradigm not only helps you figure out why people behave the way they do but also suggests ways to motivate them to change. To change behavior, you have to change self-interest, and you do that by changing incentives.

Incentives are created by rewarding good performance with, for example, a commission on sales or a bonus based on profitability. The performance evaluation metric (revenue, cost, profit, or similar outcome) is separate from the reward structure (commission, bonus, raise, or promotion), but they work together to create an incentive to behave a certain way.

To illustrate, let’s go back to OVI’s story and try to find the source of the problem. After his company won the auction, our geologist increased the company’s oil reserves by the amount of oil estimated to be in the tract. But when the company drilled a well, they discovered only a small amount of oil, so the acquisition did little to increase the size of the company’s oil reserves. Using the information from the well, our geologist updated the reservoir map and reduced the reserve estimate by two-thirds.

Senior management rejected the lower estimate and directed the geologist to “do what he could” to increase the size of the estimated reserves. So he revised the reservoir map again, adding “additional” reserves to the com- pany’s asset base. The reason behind this behavior became clear when, sev- eral months later, OVI’s senior managers resigned, collecting bonuses tied to the increase in oil reserves that had accumulated during their tenure.

The incentive created by the bonus plan explains the behavior of senior management. Both the overbidding and the effort to inflate the reserve esti- mate were rational, self-interested responses to the incentive created by the bonus. Even if you didn’t know about the geologist’s bid recommendation, you’d still suspect that the senior managers overbid because they had the incentive to do so. Senior managers’ ability to manipulate the reserve estimate made it difficult for shareholders and their representatives on the board of directors to spot the mistake.

To fix this problem, you have to find a way to better align managers’ incentives with the company’s goals. To do this, find a way to reward man- agement for increasing profitability, not just for acquiring reserves. This is not as easy as it sounds because it is difficult to measure a manager’s contri- bution to company profitability. You can do this subjectively, with annual performance reviews, or objectively, using company earnings or stock price appreciation as performance metrics. But each of these performance metrics can create problems, as we’ll see in later chapters.

1.2 Problem-Solving Principles This story illustrates two principles that will help you learn to diagnose and solve problems. Notice that (1) we reduced the problem (overbidding) to a

4 SECTION I • Problem Solving and Decision Making

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bad decision by someone at the firm (senior management) and (2) we used economics to find the source of the problem. Under the rational-actor para- digm, bad decisions happen for one of two reasons: either decision makers do not have enough information to make good decisions, or they lack incen- tive to do so. Using this insight, you can isolate the source of almost any problem by asking three simple questions:

1. Who is making the bad decision? 2. Does the decision maker have enough information to make a good

decision? 3. Does the decision maker have the incentive to make a good decision?

Answers to these three questions not only point to the source of the problem but will also suggest ways to fix it by:

1. letting someone else—someone with better information or better incentives—make the decision,

2. giving more information to the current decision maker, or 3. changing the current decision makers’ incentives.

In OVI’s case, we see that (1) senior management made the bad decision to overbid; (2) they had enough information to make a good decision, but (3) they didn’t have the incentive to do so. One potential fix is to change the incentives of senior management so that they are based on profitability, not oil reserves.

When reading about various business mistakes in this book, you should ask yourself these three questions to see if you can find the cause of each problem, and then try one of the three solutions to fix it. By the time you fin- ish the book, the analysis should become second nature.

Here are some practical tips that will help you develop problem-solving skills:

Think about the problem from the organization’s point of view. Avoid the temptation to think about the problem from the employee’s point of view because you will miss the fundamental problem of goal alignment: how does the organization give employees enough information to make good decisions and the incentive to do so?

Think about the organizational design. Once you identify a bad decision, avoid the temptation to solve the problem by simply reversing the decision. Instead, think about why the bad decision was made, and how to make sure that similar mistakes won’t be made in the future.

What is the trade-off? Every solution has costs as well as benefits. Avoid the temptation to think only about the benefits, as it will make your analysis seem as if it were done to justify your own foregone conclusion. Instead, use the three questions to spot problems with a proposed solu- tion; that is, in whatever solution you propose, make sure decision makers have enough information to make good decisions and the incen- tive to do so.

CHAPTER 1 • Introduction: What This Book Is About 5

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Don’t define the problem as the lack of your solution. This kind of thinking may cause you to miss the best solution. For example, if you define a problem as “the lack of centralized purchasing,” then the solu- tion will be “centralized purchasing” regardless of whether that is the best option. Instead, define the problem as “high acquisition cost,” and then examine “centralized purchasing” versus “decentralized purchasing” (or some other alternative) as potential solutions to the problem.

Avoid jargon because most people misuse it. Force yourself to spell out what you mean in simple language. It will help you think clearly and communicate precisely. In addition, almost every scam is “sold” using jargon. If you use jargon, experienced listeners may suspect fraud.

1.3 Test Yourself In 2006, an investigative news program sent a TV reporter with a perfectly good car into a garage owned by National Auto Repair (NAR). The reporter came out with a new muffler and transmission—and a bill for over $8,000. After the story aired on national TV, consumers began avoiding NAR, and profit plunged. What is the problem, and how do you fix it?

Let’s run the problem through our problem-solving algorithm:

1. Who is making the bad decision? The mechanic recommended unnecessary repairs.

2. Does the decision maker have enough information to make a good decision? Yes, in fact, the mechanic is the only one with enough information to know whether repairs are necessary.

3. Does the decision maker have the incentive to make a good decision? No, the mechanic is evaluated based on the amount of repair work he does, and receives bonuses or commissions tied to the amount of repair work.

Answers to the three questions suggest that the use of quotas, commissions, or similar compensation provides an incentive for mechanics to recommend unnecessary auto repair services.

NAR tried two different solutions to fix the problem. First, they reorga- nized into two divisions: one responsible for recommending repairs where mechanics were paid a flat salary, and the other responsible for doing them. Rather than solving the problem, however, mechanics in the two divisions got together and began colluding. In exchange for recommending unnecessary repairs, the recommending mechanic received a portion of the commission received by the service mechanic for the work that was done.

After they recognized this new problem, NAR went back to the old orga- nizational structure, but they adopted flat pay for the mechanics. This removed the incentive to do unnecessary repairs, but it also removed the incentive to work hard. Since the mechanics made the same amount of

6 SECTION I • Problem Solving and Decision Making

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money regardless of whether they recommended and performed repairs, the mechanics ignored all but the most obvious problems.

This example illustrates several of the problem-solving principles men- tioned earlier. First, it highlights the crucial role played by information. If you are going to let someone else make the decision, as in the first solution, you have to ask whether the new decision maker (the recommending mechanic) has enough information to make good decisions, as well as the incentive to do so. As a third potential solution to this problem, I would keep the original commission scheme, but develop new sources of information (an additional performance evaluation metric) based on reports provided by “secret shoppers” who bring cars into the garage in order to see if the mechanics are ordering unnecessary repairs.

The example also illustrates the trade-offs you face when proposing solu- tions. The first solution involved the costly duplication of effort by the two recommending and service mechanics, the second led to mechanic shirking, and the third would require a new reward scheme based not only on a sales commission but also on the reports of the secret shopper. Figuring out which solution is most profitable involves weighing the trade-offs associated with the various solutions.

1.4 Ethics and Economics Using the rational-actor paradigm in this way—to change behavior by changing incentives—makes some students uncomfortable because it seems to deny the altruism, affection, and personal ethics that most people use to guide their behav- ior. These students resist learning the rational-actor paradigm because they think it implicitly endorses self-interested behavior, as if the primary purpose of economics were to teach students to behave rationally, optimally, and selfishly.

These students would probably agree with a Washington Post editorial, “When It Comes to Ethics, B-Schools Get an F,”1 which blames business schools in general, and economists in particular, for the ethical lapses at Enron, Goldman Sachs, and other companies.

A subtle but damaging factor in this is the dominance of economists at business schools. Although there is no evidence that economists are personally less ethical than members of other disciplines, approaching the world through the dollar sign does make people more cynical.

What these students and the author, a former Harvard ethics profes- sor, do not understand is that to control unethical behavior, you first have to understand why it occurs. When we analyze problems like the one at OVI, we’re not encouraging students to behave opportunistically. Rather, we’re teaching them to anticipate opportunistic behavior and to design organizations that are less susceptible to it. Remember, the rational-actor paradigm is only a tool for analyzing behavior, not advice on how to live your life.

It is also important to realize that these kinds of debates are really debates about value systems. Deontologists judge actions as good or ethical

CHAPTER 1 • Introduction: What This Book Is About 7

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by whether they conform to a set of principles, like the Ten Commandments or the Golden Rule. Consequentialists, on the other hand, judge actions by their consequences. If the consequences of an action are good, then the action is deemed to be good or moral. To illustrate these contrasting value systems, consider this story about price gouging.2

When Notre Dame entered the 2006 season as one of the top-ranked football teams in the country, demand for local hotels during home games rose dramatically. In response, local hotels raised room rates. According to the Wall Street Journal, the Hampton Inn charged $400 a night on football weekends for a room that cost only $129 a night on nonfootball dates. Rates climbed even higher for games against top-ranked foes. For the game against the University of Michigan, the South Bend Marriott charged $649 per night—$500 more than its normal weekend rate of $149.

On a campus founded by priests of the Congregation of Holy Cross, where many students dedicate their year after graduation to working with the underprivileged, these high prices caused alarm. The Wall Street Journal quotes Professor Joe Holt, a former priest who teaches ethics in the school’s executive MBA program: “It is an ‘act of moral abdication’ for businesses to pretend they have no choice but to charge as much as they can based on sup- ply and demand.” The article further reports Mr. Holt’s intention to use the example of rising hotel rates on football weekends for a case study in his class on the integration of business and values.

Deontologists like Professor Holt would object on principle to the practice of raising prices in times of shortage.3 We might label one such principle, the Spider Man principle: with great power comes great responsibility. The laws of capitalism allow corporations to amass significant power; in turn, society should demand a high level of responsibility from corporations. In particular, property rights might give a hotel the option of increasing prices, but posses- sion of these rights does not relieve the hotel of its obligations to be concerned about the consequences of its choices. A simple beneficence argument might suggest that keeping prices low would be better for consumers.

Economics, on the other hand, provides us a consequentialist defense of high prices by comparing them to the implied alternative of not raising prices during periods of high demand. Economists would show, using supply-demand analysis, that if prices did not rise, the consequence would be excess demand for hotel rooms. Would-be guests would find their rooms rationed, perhaps on a first-come, first-served basis. More likely, arbitrageurs would set up a black market, by making early reservations, then “selling” their reservations to custo- mers willing to pay the market-clearing price. Without the ability to earn addi- tional profit during times of scarcity, hotels would have less incentive to build additional rooms, which would make the long-run problem even worse!

Versions of this debate—between those who criticize business on ethical grounds, and those who are simply trying to make money—have been going on in this country since its founding. Although a full treatment of the ethical dimensions of business is beyond the scope of this book, many disagreements are really about whether morality should be defined by deontology or conse- quentialism. Once you realize that a debate is really a debate between value

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systems, it becomes much easier to understand opposing points of view, and to reach compromise with your adversaries. For example, if the government were considering price-gouging laws that made it illegal to raise prices on football weekends, you might offer to donate some of the profits earned on football weekends to a local charity. This might assuage the concerns of those who ascribe to the Spider Man principle.

As a footnote to our story of prices in South Bend, when someone offered our former priest $1,500 for his apartment on home-game weekends, he took the offer and now spends his weekends in Chicago. Apparently his principles became too costly for him.

1.5 Economics in Job Interviews If this well-reasoned introduction doesn’t motivate you to learn economics, read the following interview questions—all from real interviews of my students. These questions should awaken interest in the material for those of you who think economics is merely an obstacle between you and a six-figure salary.

– – – – – – – Original Message – – – – – – –

From: “Student A” Sent: Friday, January 2, 3:57 PM Subject: Economics Interview Questions

I had an interview a few weeks ago where I was told that the position paid a very low base and was mostly incentive com- pensation. I responded that I understood he was simply “screening out” low productivity candidates [low productiv- ity candidates would not earn very much under a system of incentive compensation, and would be less likely to accept the position]. I “signaled” back to him that this compensa- tion structure was acceptable to me, as I was confident in my abilities to produce value for the company, and for me. [Note: “Signalling” and “screening” are both solutions to the problem of adverse selection, the topic of Chapter 19.]

– – – – – – – Original Message – – – – – – –

From: “Student B” Sent: Tuesday, January 18, 1:22 PM Subject: Economics Interview Questions

I got a question from Compaq last year for a marketing intern- ship position that partially dealt with sunk costs. It was a “true” case question where the interviewer used the Internet to pull up the actual products as he asked the question.

CHAPTER 1 • Introduction: What This Book Is About 9

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“I am the product manager for the new X type server with these great features. It is to be launched next month at a cost of $5,500. Dell launched their new Y type server last week; it has the same features (and even a few more) for a cost of $4,500. To date, Compaq has put over $2.5 million in the development process for this server, and as such my manager is expecting above normal returns for the investment.

My question to you is “what advice would you give to me on how to approach the launch of the product, i.e. do I go ahead with it at the current price, if at all, even though Dell has a bet- ter product out that is less expensive, not forgetting the fact that I have spent all the development money and my boss expects me to report a super return?”

I laughed at the question because it was the very first thing we spoke about in the interview, catching me off-guard a bit. He wanted to see if I got caught worrying about all the devel- opment costs in giving advice to scrap the launch or continue ahead as planned. (I’m not an idiot and could see that coming a mile away … thanks to economics, right? ! ! ! ) [NOTE: this is a version of what is called the “sunk cost fallacy” which is covered in Chapter 3.]

– – – – – – – Original Message- – – – – – –

From: “Student C” Sent: Tuesday, January 18, 1:37 PM Subject: Economics Interview Questions

I got questions regarding transfer price within entities of a company. What prices could be used and why. [NOTE: the problem of transfer pricing is one of the most common sources of con- flict between divisions and is covered in Chapters 22 and 23.]

– – – – – – – Original Message- – – – – – –

From: “Student D” Sent: Tuesday, January 18, 1:28 PM Subject: Economics Interview Questions

You are a basketball coach with five seconds on the clock, and you are losing by two points. You have the ball and can take only one more shot (there is no chance of a rebound). There is a 70% chance of making a two-pointer, which would send the game into overtime with each team having an equal chance of winning. There is only a forty percent chance of making a

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cheap research papers custom research paper pay for research paper

on her loving two equally

The following sample essay (which you can read in your textbook on page 694) develops the observations about Aphra Behn’s “On Her Loving Two Equally” into a coherent essay. As this essay also shows, however, you will often discover new ways of looking at a poem (or any literary text) in the very process of writing about it. The writer begins by considering why she is drawn to the poem, even though it does not express her ideal of love. She then uses her personal response to the poem as a starting point for analyzing it in greater depth. As you read, pay attention to the strengths and weaknesses you perceive.

Student Name

Instructor

Course

Date

Multiplying by Dividing in Aphra Behn’s “On Her Loving Two Equally”

My favorite poem in “Reading, Responding, Writing” is Aphra Behn’s “On Her Loving Two Equally”—not because it expresses my ideal of love, but because it challenges conventional ideals. The main ideal or assumption explored in the poem is that true love is exclusive and monogamous, as the very titles of two other poems in the chapter and the “Romantic Love” album insist: “How Do I [singular] Love Thee [singular]?” or “To My Dear and Loving [and One and Only] Husband.” The mere title of Behn’s poem upsets that idea by insisting that at least one woman is capable of “Loving Two Equally.” In fact, one thing that is immediately interesting about Behn’s poem is that, though it poses and explores a question, its question is not “Can a woman love two equally?” The title and the poem take it for granted that she can. Instead, the poem asks whether equally loving two people lessens the power or quality of love—or, as the speaker puts it in the first two lines, “How strongly does my passion flow, / Divided equally twixt two?” Every aspect of this poem suggests that when it comes to love, as opposed to math, Comment by jennifer.heinert: This essay starts very informally and personally. While there is nothing wrong with this per se, make sure you know whether your instructor is okay with this kind of conversational and familiar tone or “I writing.” While this essay starts off informally, the writer quickly shifts to a more formal tone. In fact, the author never returns to the “I” voice for the rest of the essay. So, is it necessary? This “I” voice could be eliminated by saying “Aphra Behn’s poem challenges conventional ideals about love.”

This answer grabs attention because it is so counterintuitive and unconventional. Forget love for just a minute: It’s common sense that anything that is “divided” is smaller and weaker than something unified. In math, for example, division is the opposite of multiplication; if we divide one number by another, we get a number smaller than the first number, if not the second. Although Behn’s use of the word flow to frame her question compares love to a river instead of a number, the implication is the same: When a river divides into two streams, each of them is smaller than the river, and its flow less strong; as a result, each stream is more easily dammed up or diverted than the undivided river. So the way the speaker initially poses her question seems to support the conventional view: Love is stronger when it “flows” toward one person, weaker when divided between two.

However conventional and comforting that implied answer, however, it’s one the poem immediately rejects. In the remaining lines of the first stanza, the speaker insists that each of her two lovers and the love she feels for him has not lessened the strength of her feelings for the other, but the reverse. Each lover and each love has “aid[ed]” (line 6) the other, making him and it more “powerful” (line 5). Indeed, she says, neither man would have “subdued [her] heart” (line 3) or “gain[ed her] love” (line 6) at all if the other hadn’t done so as well. Comment by jennifer.heinert: Even though this is a short paragraph it is strong literary analysis: a clear point, analysis, and short (but important) quotations to support the author’s point. Commenting on the importance of individual words within a poem or other literary work is demonstrates a depth of critical thinking.If you glance at the rest of the essay, you will not see long quotations, and the author often provides multiple quotations to support her analysis.

In the second stanza, the speaker gives us a somewhat more concrete sense of why and how this might be the case. On the one hand, being with either one of these men (“When Alexis present is,” line 7) actually makes her both “scorn” him (line 10) and “miss” (line 9) the man who’s not there (“I for Damon sigh and mourn,” line 8). This isn’t really a paradox; we often yearn more for the person or thing we don’t have (the grass is always greener on the other side of the fence), and we often lose our appreciation for nearby, familiar things and people. What is far away and inaccessible is often dearer to us because its absence either makes us aware of what it means to us or allows us to forget its flaws and idealize it.

Perhaps because all of this makes the speaker feel that she can’t possibly solve the problem by herself, the speaker turns in the third stanza to Cupid—the deity who is supposed to control these things by shooting a “golden-pointed dart” (line 15) into the heart of each lover. She asks him to solve her dilemma for her by “tak[ing] back” her love for either Damon or Alexis (line 15). As with her question in the first stanza, however, this plea is taken back as soon as it’s formulated, for if she loses Damon, “all [her] hopes are crossed”; if she loses Alexis, she is “lost” (lines 17– 18).

Here and throughout the poem, the speaker’s main preoccupation seems to be what she feels and what this situation is like for her—“mypassion” (line 1), “my heart” (line 3), “my Damon’s aid, … my love” (line 6), “my Alexis” (line 7), “I … sigh and mourn” (line 8), “I do miss” (line 9), “my scorn” (line 10), “I languish, sigh, and die” (line 12), “This restless fever in my blood” (line 14), “my hopes” (line 17), “my Alexis” and “I am lost” (line 18). Yet the poem implies that the payoff here is not hers alone and that her feelings are not purely selfish. Both times the word gain appears in the poem, for example, her lovers’ gains and feelings are the focus—the fact that Alexis is able “to gain [her] love” thanks to “Damon’s aid” (line 6) and that “Damon gains nothing but my scorn” when she is missing Alexis (line 10). Moreover, ambiguous wording in the first stanza suggests that the men here may be actively, intentionally helping to create this situation and even themselves acting in contradictory, selfish and unselfish, ways. For when the speaker says that “Damon had ne’er subdued my heart / Had not Alexis took his part” (lines 3– 4), his could refer to Alexis or Damon and part could mean “a portion” (of her “heart,” presumably), “a role” (in her life or in this courtship drama), or a “side in a dispute or conflict” (over and for her love). Thus, she could be saying that Alexis (unselfishly) defended Damon’s suit; (selfishly) fought against Damon or took a share or role that properly belonged to Damon; and/or (neutrally) took his (Alexis’s) own share or role or defended his (Alexis’s) own cause. Perhaps all of this has been the case at various times; people do behave in contradictory ways when they are in love, especially when they perceive that they have a rival. It’s also true that men and women alike often more highly prize something or someone that someone else prizes, too. So perhaps each lover’s “passion” for her also “flow[s]” more strongly than it would otherwise precisely because he has a rival. Comment by jennifer.heinert: This paragraph is substantially longer than all of the other body paragraphs. While that might not indicate there is a problem with the paragraph, it might be an indicator that there should be a break: Read over the paragraph—is there a place where there should be a logical break? Comment by jennifer.heinert: This might be a good place to break the paragraph in half.

In the end, the poem thus seems to say that love doesn’t flow or work like a river because love isn’t a tangible or quantifiable thing. As a result, love is also different from the sort of battle conjured up by the martial language of the first stanza in which someone wins only if someone else loses. The poem attributes this to the perversity of the human heart—especially our tendency to yearn for what we can’t have and what we think other people want, too.

Through its form, the poem demonstrates that division can increase instead of lessen meaning, as well as love. On the one hand, just as the poem’s content stresses the power of the love among three people, so the poem’s form also stresses “threeness” as well as “twoness.” It is after all divided into three distinctly numbered stanzas, and each stanza consists of three sentences. On the other hand, every sentence is “divided equally twixt two” lines, just as the speaker’s “passion” is divided equally between two men. Formally, then, the poem mirrors the kinds of division it describes. Sound and especially rhyme reinforce this pattern since the two lines that make up one sentence usually rhyme with each other to form a couplet. The only lines that don’t conform to this pattern come at the beginning of the second stanza where we instead have alternating rhyme—is (line 7) rhymes with miss (line 9), mourn (line 8) rhymes with scorn (line 10). But here, again, form reinforces content. For these lines describe how the speaker “miss[es]” one man when the other is “by,” a sensation that she arguably reproduces in us as we read by ensuring we twice “miss” the rhyme that the rest of the poem leads us to expect.

Because of the way it challenges our expectations and our conventional ideas about romantic love, the poem might well make us uncomfortable, perhaps all the more so because the speaker and poet here are female. For though we tend to think all true lovers should be loyal and monogamous, this has been expected even more of women than of men. What the poem says about love might make more sense and seem less strange and even objectionable, however, if we think of other, nonromantic kinds of love: After all, do we really think that our mother and father love us less if their love is “divided equally twixt” ourselves and our siblings, or do we love each of our parents less because there are two of them? If we think of these familial kinds of love, it becomes much easier to accept Behn’s suggestion that love multiplies when we spread it around. Comment by jennifer.heinert: Concluding paragraphs are difficult. You want to reiterate the main points without repeating them verbatim, and you want to put your work in an interesting context without going off-topic. In this case, there are some clear connections to the introduction, thesis, and body paragraphs. However, does the issue of gender relate to what has been said up to this point in the essay? Does bringing up gender (without discussion or evidence) make the essay stronger? How might this idea be incorporated into the existing essay?

WORK CITED

Behn, Aphra. “On Her Loving Two Equally.” The Norton Introduction to Literature. Eds. Alison Booth and Kelly J. Mays. 10th ed. New York: Norton, 2010. Print.

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cspd temple

Proposal Assignment

The assignment includes five parts: Outline Proposing a Topic, Evaluation of Sources, Proposal Presentation, Written Proposal, and Executive Summary.

For these assignments, you will present and write a formal proposal. A proposal is an offer to solve a problem or fulfill a business need. The goal is to persuade, and you must be straightforward. It’s important that you analyze your audience and write your proposal to persuade them to accept your ideas. The assignment is complex, with five separate assignments and each builds on the one before it. You are expected to use feedback from each assignment to improve on the next. The assignments are designed to guide you through the development process in writing.

Assignments:

· Topic Proposal – 50 points

· Evaluation of Sources – 30 points

· Proposal Presentation – 100 points

· Draft of Written Proposal – 200 points

· Final Written Proposal – 100 points

Part 1: Proposing Topic for Approval (50 points):

Your specific topic must be approved by your instructor. You cannot submit any subsequent assignments without submitting a topic proposal and getting approval from your instructor.

Your topic proposal will address the following questions:

· What are you proposing?

· To whom are you proposing it?

· What need does the proposal address?

· What are other companies/organizations/schools doing?

Students are encouraged to choose from the following topics:

· Propose an internship program to an existing company

· If you are already in an internship, identify a problem at your company & propose a solution

· Propose a new student service not already offered at Temple

· For example, we now have Cherry Pantry to give students that need it access to healthy food

· Propose a conference for the Fox School to host

· Propose a new LLC (Living Learning Community) for a Temple residence hall

· Propose a student-run business (like STHM & the Saxby’s in Speakman Hall)

· Propose a service-learning project for one of the majors within Fox

· Propose a student-run sustainability program for campus

· Propose a post-college life skills seminar (different from the services that CSPD already provides) – this could be a one-credit course or a special badge on Suitable

Format Requirements:

· No more than one page

· Use 1-inch margins and 11 or 12-point font

· Use brevity tools such as bullet lists, headers, bold, etc., to make this document look clean, neat, professional and attractive

Part 2: Evaluation of Sources (30 points):

It’s important that you evaluate each source you will use to make sure it’s credible and useful for your purpose. You will submit a list of three sources you plan to use: one source you will use to assess your audience, one source you will use to identify the need/problem, and one source you will use to analyze the market. For each source, include a citation using APA style. You will also address the following to explain what key information you’ll get from the source and why the source is credible:

· A brief summary of the source.

· What are the main arguments/ideas? If someone asked you about the content in this source, how would you answer?

· A brief assessment of the source.

· Analyze why the source is useful and credible. Mention if the source is objective or biased.

· A brief reflection on how/why this source will be used for your proposal.

Note: please see the Purdue OWL’s page on annotated bibliographies for more information at https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/614/01/.

Format Requirements:

· Use bullet points to organize your list.

· Use 1-inch margins and 11 or 12-point font.

Part 3: Proposal Presentation (100 points):

Your presentation will include:

· A title slide that includes your name and the title of the proposal

· Definition of the problem/business need

· Give background information to help the reader understand the need for your proposal

· Proposal

· Your idea – make sure to include the who, what, when, where, and why here

· Give details on your approach and qualifications

· Give any needed market analysis here (i.e. what competitors are doing, how your proposal will compare, etc.)

· Implementation Plan/Timeline

· A visual timeline is recommended

· Budget/Initial Costs

· A table or chart is recommended

· The benefits of your solution

· Conclusion

· Restate your main points – tie them all together

· List of References (APA style)

Format Requirements:

· You must use Power Point

· Your PowerPoint should include visual information – not clip art, but visuals that help the audience understand our ideas with ease

· You must use WebEx to record yourself

· No more than 10 slides (not including title slide and list of references)

· Ten minutes MAXIMUM

· No notes

Part 4: Draft of Written proposal (200 points):

Your written proposal will include:

· Cover page that includes your name, the title of the proposal, the date, and your instructor’s last name and section number

· Executive Summary

· The executive summary is where you present your case and give the reader the main takeaway of your proposal. Don’t focus on covering every detail. Instead, give an overview of the main points, focusing on the conclusions you want the reader to come to. Tell your solution to the reader’s problem. It should be results oriented and persuasive.

· Your summary should be less than one page.

· Definition of the problem/business need

· Give background information to help the reader understand the need for your proposal

· Proposal

· Your idea – make sure to include the who, what, when, where, and why here

· Give details on your approach and qualifications

· Give any needed market analysis here (i.e. what competitors are doing, how your proposal will compare, etc.)

· Implementation Plan/Timeline

· Budget/Initial Costs

· If applicable, include any forecasted revenues.

· The benefits of your solution

· Conclusion

· Restate your main points – tie them all together

· List of References (APA style)

Format Requirements:

· Your proposal will be no more than 5 pages, not including the reference list or the cover page.

· Use 1-inch margins and 11 or 12-point font.

· Use brevity tools, like section headers, lists, timetables, budget charts, etc.

· At a minimum, you should include a visual timeline (there’s a template for this in Microsoft Word) and a table or chart outlining the budget/costs.

· You should also include other visuals throughout to support other information in your proposal.

Part 5: Final Written Proposal (100 points):

As we’ve been discussing all semester, careful editing is an integral part of the writing process. Now that you have feedback from your instructor, you’ll need to apply it by rewriting your proposal. The rewrite is worth 100 points. If you do not follow your instructor’s feedback, your rewrite grade could be lower than the grade you earned on your draft. If you do not submit a rewrite that includes changes, you will receive a grade of zero.

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gram staining lab report

Structure and Microscopy

Lab 4: Structure and Microscopy (100 points)

Student Name:

Student ID:

Course ID:

-Each question on the lab worksheet must be answered completely, thoroughly, in complete sentences and correctly in order to be considered for full credit

-If the question asks you to do research or find a source, a reputable, credible and/or scholarly source citation must be included in order to be considered for full credit

-If a math formula is required to arrive to an answer, work must be shown otherwise, no credit will be awarded

Pre-Lab Questions

1. What determines if a bacterial cell is Gram-positive or Gram-negative? (5 points)

Amount and location of the peptidoglycan molecule in the prokaryotic cell wall determines whether a bacterial cell is Gram-positive or Gram-negative.

2. In this lab, both viruses and prions were introduced as acellular organisms. Do some research and describe one other type of acellular organism. What characteristics about this organism classify it as acellular? (5 points)

Viroids are another type of acellular organism along with viruses and prions. They are plant pathogens, which consist only of a short strand of circular RNA capable of self-replication.

3. Bacteria have many different shapes that often determine their class. Research and form a hypothesis on the evolutionary reasons for so many different bacterial morphologies. (5 points)

Each bacterial morphology may be a selectable feature to aid survival and may have affected by different physical, environmental, and biological forces to contribute to natural selection.

Reference:

Young, K. D. (2006, September). The Selective Value of Bacterial Shape. Retrieved September 30, 2018, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1594593/

4. Do a search online or look in your textbook for 1-2 antibiotics that affect Gram-positive bacteria and list them. On what part of the cell do the antibiotics usually work? List one or two antibiotics that affect Gram-negative bacteria? On what part of the cell do the antibiotics usually work? (Be sure to cite your sources in your answer.) (5 points)

5. Why do you think it is important to identify a bacterial disease in a patient before prescribing any antibiotic treatments? (Be specific.) (5 points)

d

Experiment 1 Results Tables

Table 1: Experiment 1 Staining Observations (5 points)

Stain used:Crystal Violet
Observations:Purple rod-shape bacteria with white background were observed

Experiment 1 Post-Lab Questions

1. How does crystal violet enhance the visualization of microbial features? (5 points)

Crystal violet enhances the contrast between the microorganism itself and the slide, making the bacteria appear as purple.

2. What are some of the limitations of simple staining? (5 points)

3. Give an example of a situation in a lab or medical setting in which simple staining would be utilized. (5 points)

Simple staining is used to obtain basic information about morphology of one type of microorganism through clear visualization.

Experiment 2 Results Tables

Table 2: Experiment 2 Staining Observations (5 points)

Stain used:Nigrosin
Observations:Background is stained, bacteria shows up as clear spiral.

Experiment 2 Post-Lab Questions

1. After visualizing the stained samples either using your microscope or by looking at the sample images provided, describe what physical/visual characteristics you were able to observe after performing the negative staining vs. after performing the simple stain. (5 points)

After looking at the sample images provided, negatively stained bacteria showed up as clear straight spirals against a dark background. Bacteria that are simple stained showed up as dark purple rods-shaped with white background.

2. So far in this lab, you have used one type of simple stain and one type of negative stain, yet there are many other simple and negative dyes available. Pick one simple dye and one negative dye, and discuss how those dyes differ from the ones you used in this lab. Give a scenario in which their use would be appropriate. (5 points)

Methylene blue is another dye that can be used for negative stain.

India Ink is another type of negative stain.

Experiment 3 Results Tables

Table 3: Experiment 3 Staining Observations (5 points)

Stain used:Crystal violet (primary stain) & Safranin (counterstain)
Observations:Gram-positive appeared as purple and Gram-negative showed up as pink.

Experiment 3 Post-Lab Questions

1. What color are the Gram-positive bacteria after Gram staining? Gram-negative bacteria? (5 points)

Gram-positive bacteria appear as dark purple or blue due to retaining the primary dye (Crystal Violet) in the cell wall.

Gram-negative bacteria appear as red or pink due to decolorizing to accept the counterstain (Safranin).

2. What different characteristic(s) exist between the two groups that account for the different staining conditions? (5 points)

Gram-positive bacteria are stained purple, and gram-negative bacteria stain as pink. They are two distinct morphological groups of bacteria.

3. Why was the Gram iodine added to the Gram staining procedure? (5 points)

Gram iodine is added as a mordant to stabilize the crystal violet iodine complex so that the dye cannot be removed easily.

4. Why is a counterstain (safranin) added to the Gram staining procedure? (5 points)

A counterstain is used to help identify gram-negative bacteria. Gram-negative bacteria lose the crystal violet and stain red.

5. What are the advantages of performing a Gram stain vs. a simple stain for visualizing bacteria? (5 points)

Gram stain contains two or more different stains and can differentiate the species of bacteria into two main groups (gram-positive and gram-negative) by looking at the color of cells (pink or purple). Simple stain involves single stain and it is used to easily determine cell shape, size, and arrangement.

6. Using either a textbook or a reputable online resource, research some of the typical characteristics of bacteria, and discuss why it might be important for a researcher or a hospital technician to be able to differentiate between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. (5 points)

7. Did you experience any technical difficulties or atypical results during this experiment? If so, what happened, and how could you avoid these issues in the future? (5 points)

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Unit 1 Assignment: Management Aptitude Analysis This Assignment will assess your knowledge based on the following outcome: GM500-1: Evaluate the relevancy and value of historical management theory for use in a contemporary organizational context. Step 1 Learning Activity: Management Aptitude Questionnaire Preparing to become a more effective 21st Century manager begins by assessing management skills and aptitudes. Review the Aptitude Questionnaire in the section called “Apply Your Skills: Experiential Exercise” on pages 30–31 of the Daft textbook. Be honest with yourself and respond to the 18 questions. Tally and record your scores according to the instructions. Review the Reading section on Management Skills on pages 11–14. Step 2 Assignment: Management Aptitude Analysis The next step is to write a 4-page (1,200 words) paper that analyzes your own management aptitude and management theories that you could apply in a contemporary organizational context. Review the grading rubric below for this Assignment before you begin writing your paper. You should draw from insights you gained from the Aptitude Questionnaire and from your textbook readings. Introduction: What is the objective or purpose in taking this self-assessment to identify management aptitude? Results: Explain your management aptitude scores and which management theory you can apply in a contemporary organizational context. Interpretation: Interpret and discuss which management theory skills you currently practice; analyze areas of strength and weakness. Evaluate how this self-assessment adds value to your plans to identify and attain goals for future management performance. Conclusion: Under what conditions could your management weakness hinder your success as a leader or present challenges as a leader? Under what conditions would your management strengths be useful in an organizational situation? Which management skills do you think are most valuable and relevant in becoming an effective manager who can respond to organizational challenges in the 21st Century? Review the components below and the grading rubric for this Assignment before you begin writing your paper. Construct and write your paper with subheadings that connect to the key components below. This is a sound Unit 1 [GM500: Management Theories and Practices I] v.1801D Page 2 of 3 Subheadings ● Introduction ● Results ● Interpretation ● Conclusion ● Reference Page Components ● Your Assignment should have a cover sheet with the following information: Title of the paper, your name, course number and section number, and date. ● It must be a minimum of 4 pages (1,200 words) long (excluding title page, references, etc.). ● Your paper should include an introduction and conclusion. ● Be sure to include the criteria located in the rubric below within your paper. ● It must be APA 6th edition formatted with citations to your sources and your last page should list all references used. Review APA format found in the Writing Center and utilize the APA Guidelines Summary found in Course Documents under Course Resources. ● You must use at least two scholarly, high quality, and current sources in addition to your course materials. Peer-reviewed academic articles, articles published in journals, textbooks, and library resources found in the “ABI/Inform Collection” database from the Library are examples of high-quality resources. ● Note that Wikipedia, Investopedia, etc. are not considered as reliable resources for this research. Be sure to utilize the APA Guidelines Summary document located in Course Documents. How to Access the ABI/Inform database, selecting peer-reviewed journal articles: 1. Locate the Library link from Academic Resources. 2. Scroll midway down the page and locate “ABI/Inform Collection.” 3. Make sure “Full text” and “Peer Reviewed” are checked. 4. Enter your key word in the search area and select the search button. 5. Under Source Type, select Scholarly Journals. Under Course Documents, you will find the “How to Access the ABI/Inform Database” video to learn more on how to access and search using the database along with additional resources. If you prefer, you can bypass this and go directly to the close captioning video. 

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saint leo brightspace

Module 2

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Disease Prevention and Health Promotion HCA 402 Module 2 Written Assignment 2

Written Assignment 2

In general, topic responses should be in the form of a short application paper, 2-3 p APA formatting, not including the required cover page and page for your reference l your chosen topics. In your paper: 1) introduce your topics, 2) discuss your topics, a conclusion about your topics. Read the Written Assignment 2 document for the specific focus of this assignment. Please see the Written Assignment Grading Rubric for specific grading requirement Submit your assignment to the Assignment box no later than Sunday 11:59 PM ES Assignment box is linked to Turnitin.)

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Community Health Evalua�on HCA-402-OL01

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10/27/2018 Module 2 – Community Health Evaluation HCA-402-OL01

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