Categories

## Internal and external Challenges of Saudi Arabia

Key internal and external challenges of Saudi Arabia

The Saudi government is facing both internal and external challenges. Mainly, these challenges belong to two major spheres of the Saudi Kingdom that include:

• Security
• Economy
• Internal Politics

Currently the Saudi government has substantial security and economy crisis. Moreover, the internal politics of the Saudi Arabia is also posing challenges for the country.  The security of the Saudi Arabia is a major external threat that needed to be eliminated. There are five common internal and external threats in the realm of security, economy and internal politics and these threats include:

• War in Yemen
• War in Syria
• Rivalry with Iran
• Falling oil prices
• Disputes in domestics politics

There is an ongoing war in Yemen and the rebels wanted to occupy Saudi land. Therefore, the armed forces of the Saudi Arabia are in the position of war. A substantial amount of the budget is being used in the war crisis that also poses substantial challenges to the economy. Moreover, Saudi Arabia is also threatened with the Syria regime. This is in the favor of the Saudi Arabia to eliminate the Syrian regime to put an end to the security threats from Syria. The Saudi government has difficulties in relations with Iran. The Iran is striving to achieve nuclear power and it is against the security of the Saudi Arabia (Pant & Behar, 2015).

Although the Saudi Arabia economy has grown very strongly, the major challenges are the substantial oil prices since 2014 it is an important risk towards the economy. The Saudi Arabian economy depends on the oil revenue. The revenue comes of export of the 80 percent oil sales export. The lower oil prices will have the impact on the fiscal and external balances. The reliance on the oil makes issues for the policy makers. The first is how to deal with the dependency on the oil and initiate the domestic economy.  Therefore, this is an important economic challenge for Susi Arabia.

The internal politics of the Saudi Arabia is also troublesome. The appointment of young defense minister Mohammad bin Salman is not liked by the key people in internal political structure of the Saudi Arabia. The current crown prince is 55-year old Mohammed bin Nayef who is favorable for western allies. Moreover, Mohammad bin Salman is likely to expand its own poer base and willing to appoint his key people in key positions. Therefore, political disputes are severe and it could weaken the country internally (Dan, 2015).

Consequences of internal and external challenges of Saudi Arabia

The major consequences of the internal and external challenge are the weak security situation, economic condition and internal politics. The ongoing war in Yemen, Syria and abrupt relations with Iran has posed significant challenges for Saudi Kingdom. Therefore, the Saudi government is worried about the security situation in the country.  Moreover, the economy is the dependant on the oil prices, which grows with the oil prices growing and decreases with the oil prices decreased.

The economy is of the type to be known to be diverse from the oil. The oil is the thing, which is there for the economy majority, which needs to be diversifying. The oil prices are to be initiated from the economy and should be dealt in the economical issues (Dan, 2015). These challenges will affect the fiscal and the external balance. The fluctuations to the oil will be diversifying the fiscal policy and will be different issues as if the prices will grow with the economy and decrease with the oil prices.

The disputes in internal politics of the Saudi Arabia and power struggle have led to the weak political condition in the domestic politics. The weak internal politics also poses threats to the external security of the kingdom. Therefore, the internal political struggle and power sharing must be settled down. The political appointments in the royal families needed to settle down appropriately without any problems (Husein, 2006).

Remedial measures to overcome challenges

The ongoing war must be put an end. The more will be the scale of the war, the more will be the security threats for the Saudi Arabia. Therefore, disputes with Yemen and Iran must be put to an end.  The role of Pakistan is important and recently the Saudi delegation visited Pakistan to get the support. This is an important step. Such efforts must be carried out in future as well. In addition, the relations with Iran also needed to be settled. The longer will be the dispute with Iran, the more it will be problematic with Saudi Arabia.  The oil will be needed to be leaving the dependency, which needs to be changed over time (Pant & Behar, 2015).

The Saudi Arabian economy needs to be changing the factor, which 80% part of their economy, which is laid down in the fiscal and external balance, which should be removing the dependency.   The dependency over oil must be reduced. Currently, the 80% of revenues of the Saudi Arabia comes from the oil. Therefore, this is not a god sign for the economy. Other sectors of the economy must need to be promoted in that regard. The fiscal policies dependency should be changed with changing the economy factor, which should evolve the economy. The change are in the economic factor should be diversified and should be leading the economy with the different style of economy the dealing in the verdict to be taken (Husein, 2006).

Responsibility of decision makers

The decision makers need to be dealing in the scenario of mitigation and resolving the issue, which need to be mitigated. The security council of the Saudi Arabia makes the relations better with the Yemen and Iran and also play its role in the settlement of disputes with Syria. The Oil dependency need to be changed because the economy is to be fluctuate and will result in the form of the fiscal and external balance to be dealt in the form of the exports of the country (Pant & Behar, 2015). Saudi Arabia needs to differentiate the factors, which should come to the economic factors.

The dependency should be removed and should be dealt in the format that the economy is resolved and worked over the scenario. The scenario is which will deal in the factors to be removed dependency to another level. The decision maker should be thinking of the scenario that the issues of the oil dependency should be put to another place. The dependency should be revealed and other factors will be adjusted to the fiscal and external balance. Moreover, internal political landscape needed to be improved with compromise over the power sharing.

References

Dan. (2015). Saudi Arbia facing many challanges. Retrieved April 30, 2016, from http://tradinggods.net/trading-gods-blog/saudi-arabia-facing-many-challenges/

Husein, A. T. (2006). Construction and projects in Saudi Arabia. Construction and projects in Saudi Arabia , 1-11.

Pant, M., & Behar, A. (2015). Saudi Arabia: Tackling Emerging Economic Challenges to Sustain Growth. Saudi Arabia: Tackling Emerging Economic Challenges to Sustain Growth , 1-94.

Categories

## Conflicts between Parents & Children in Arab Society

Contents

Introduction. 4

Emotional Security Theory by Patrick T. Davies and Cummings EM… 4

Hypothesis. 5

The Affects of Parental conflict on the Children Behavior 5

Understanding of Family System.. 6

Theoretical Perspective of Family as a System.. 8

Functionalism.. 8

Symbolic Interaction. 9

Conflict theory. 10

Supporting content 10

Social functions of the Family. 11

The changing Arab Family. 14

Factors causing the changes in Arab Family. 15

Conflicts between Parents & Children. 17

Conflict resolution. 20

Solution to Conflict between societies. 22

Symbolic interaction theories supporting conflict resolution. 24

Aligning with sociological focus. 24

Conclusion. 25

Conflicts between Parents & Children in Arab Society

In context of

Emotional Security Theory by Patrick T. Davies and Cummings EM

# Introduction

The conflicts between the parents and the children in Arab community are recognized through applying the analytical framework of the psychological cognitive theory of emotions proposed by the Patrick T. Davies and the Cummings EM. The psychological behavior in terms of the emotions, feelings, attitudes and the generation gap as per the life cycle or growth stage of the children is interlinked with the family system, core cultural, religious values. The lack of space as per the security theory of emotions in the psychological behavior of the children is analyzed as the marriages or social context setting is impacted by the changes in behaviors that leads towards the conflict between the parents and their children in the Arab community. The system of the family as per the functionalities and the theory of conflicts deeply review in this paper as the changes in the mindset or behaviors such as space must be provided in the decision making of personal as well as professional life (Robert Sedgwick, 2001).

# Emotional Security Theory by Patrick T. Davies and Cummings EM

The theory of the emotional security by Patrick T. Davies is the empirical study of the psychological or the emotional behaviors in terms of the physiological patterns in the development of the adulthood with respect to age is analyzed. The gap is studied as a psychological tool with cognitive behavior pattern in the Arab society while identifying the core reasons behind the relationship flaws of the children and their parents. Using the approaches of the constructive conceptual behavior models and the destructive application of the materials as per the psychological adjustment in the changing behavior of the children is analyzed (Davies & Cummings, 2009).

# Hypothesis

The generation gap is associated with the relationship with the child-parent relationship in Arab community that leads towards the psychological, emotional changes in behaviors in terms of social limitations in the social interaction context on the children relying on traditional socio-cultural behavior patterns. The controlling or the authoritative style from the parents at the pro-social contextual and the role of the emotional security threat that implies to the minds of the children in terms social, psychological or physiological stage of the growth is an important reason.

# The Affects of Parental conflict on the Children Behavior

There is a huge impact on the minds of the children especially in the dimension of the pre-social adoptions of the lifestyle of the children in their growing stage or adolescence. The marriages as per the conflict caused among the parents or the couples, disputes regarding the decision-making of the mutual need fulfillment, sexual desires, the asset management household policies are include in the list of the behavior pattern of the emotional attitudes or feelings that have the very negative impacts on the minds of children especially in the Arab community.

The children are the creature of the God who wants an advantage in terms of the social, cultural context of the physiological decision-makings while learning a lot from the external environment and the sanctions put on the lifestyle of the cultural patterns is the most important issue that must be addressed. The common issues of quarrel among the parental or the couple in the Arab community are mostly related to the social right of spending the life, the practical limitations for the women while doing the job or the employment concerns. The personal issues including the marriages within the family, the decision of birth of child along with family planning inefficiencies are analyzed. The children when found that the situation in which they do not have the ideal scenario to learn from the role models such as the parents, they found the mental stress and the physiological changes in terms of the emotional risks aroused in them. The strategy that the children in terms of the generation gap for the social interactions having the circles with the friends, or the other closed community (Bensi, Giusberti, Raffaella Nori, & Gambetti, 2010).

They profound the changing in terms of the material sources of getting them out of the trouble. The parents usually do not notice or ignore the situation most of the times while arguing or treating the women in the bad way that leads towards the divorce is the common example that is illustrated in this paper at many occasions. The divorce is the major cause of the psychological changing impact as the emotional attitudes or the feelings of the children in the Arab community are related as per the core findings of the emotional security.

# Understanding of Family System

There is no as such concept of the independent living style or pattern in terms of the economic trend of lifestyle, the social beliefs, or the way of interaction as a life spending cognitive approach and the living together as a family of a single unit. The family system in the Arab background is include of the pure joint system of the family spending, living pattern or approach, relying on each other on the social, financial state or the elements of the well-being. The Arab cannot imagine living a life an independent state of mindset. They proclaim that the joint venture or the style of the family is beneficial for them in sought of the socio-economic independence while relying on others, as the social prevention of the complexity social framework of reference as the dwellings in the cultural aspects are highlighted according to the compound system of the family rather than living independently (saudiarabia.angloinfo.com, 2011).

The big question arises that the physiological and the psychological subconscious state of the young people in the Arab community is Patrick T. Davies as per the theory of the emotional theory for the security of the feelings in the adulthood as they are in the growing stage is most important to interpret. Since this allows the system of the social gathering as the factor of alienation for lacking the core skills or abilities to do all the private work or tasks in a way that all the closed circle of the family. That would be monitoring as the risk of the element of the psychological sought of the interpersonal manner is examined using the analytical framework.

The qualitative aspects of the emotional attitudes in the behaviors of the human lifestyle especially in the young age, while marinating the challenging behaviors for the child when one perceives the immense level of the difficulty while representing the feelings to the other person in the society. Te theory that linked with the stress of the stress of the emotional feelings as per the rate of the intrapersonal reference and the interpersonal cognition factors that would impact the relationship of the child with the parents especially in the dimensions of the core Arabian society or the community. The distinctive psychological perspective is that the generation gap is highly illustrated in the core dimensions of the psychological depending on the theory of the security in terms of the setting that develop the cultural frame of precise informing about the limitations. This prevails that the children in the Arab society could highly monitor as the foundation of the psychological rights of the threats of social security (Workman, 2014).

# Theoretical Perspective of Family as a System

The theoretical prospects of the family systems in the Arab community are highlighted as per the joint system as the impact on the lives of the psychopathology through the developmental concerns in the threats of the security treated as the social dimensions. The framework used to study the dimensions of the system of the family in the community of the Arab region is described in a way that the innovative process of the ideal family system is imposed as the proposed solution under such circumstances.

## Functionalism

The values that discover the psychological cognitive frame of reference in the social context of the psychological pattern to perceive the system is analyzed. The Patrick Davies highly emphasize on the point that it is very crucial for the parents to represent an ideal psychological scenario in the external model of reference that children would follow. The constructive functional approach works best in the way when the adoptions would occur as the primary psychological need with the perspective of both the parent-child that the generation gap would be removed from the threat or the factor risk as the social security in the minds of the children in the Arab community in an explicit way.

The greatest suggestion that the functional approach of the system of the family in the concurrence rate of the psychological preference of the children social as per the context of the system of the family is the  primary goal. The discord between the strong or the sound relationship of the parent with the children is treated as the emotional stage of values that would fifer at many times in the pre-growth life cycle or stage of the growth, the behavioral cognitive factor that would use the core values of the Arab socio-economic dimensions. The processes of the physiological growth in the minds of the children that would consider highly interactive in terms of the conscious settings would occur in this psychopath matrix (Crossman, 2012).

## Symbolic Interaction

The most important phase in the lifecycle of the parent-children relationship as per the context of the child-parent is that at least the symbolic relationship as per the social interaction that treats as the social interpersonal as the adjustment of the emotional key elements for the concerns of the family adopting the core sound interaction as relationship is maintained. The revolutionary origins that characterizing the conflict resolution theories with the behaviors in the schools, home to the outside environment with community, awareness of the global progressive state of the art in technology with the healthy directions with the parents as per the trajectory that reaches to the highest level of the sequel. The core factor that would rate symbolic interaction with parents as per the psychological challenges  for the broader aspect of the social security that would rate as the behavioral proportions in the dilemma attitude that study the guidelines for social behaviors of the Arab children.

The latest strategy as per the psychological regard of the emotional feelings as the threat reducing roots is the development of the objectives that any cost ethological such as following both the use core beliefs of the socio-cultural boundaries that are imposed by the parents. The translation that regards the functioning of the children and the liberty to express oneself as the cognate restructuring of the psychological abilities in the academic or practical compliances is analyzed. This would definitely produce the threat to the cognitive psychological security for the anxiety as well as creating tension in the life of the children.

## Conflict theory

Strife speculations are viewpoints in human science and social brain science that underline the social, political, or material disparity of a social gathering, that investigate the wide socio-political framework, or that generally take away from support functionalism and ideological conservatism. Struggle hypotheses attract consideration regarding power differential, for example, class strife, and by and large differentiation verifiably overwhelming belief systems. It is consequently a full-scale level examination of society. While a considerable lot of these points of view hold parallels, strife hypothesis does not allude to a brought together school of thought, and ought not to be mistaken for, for incidence, peace, and struggle examine, or some other particular hypothesis of the social class. Karl Marx is the father of the social clash hypothesis, which is a segment of the four ideal models of human science. Certain contention hypothesis set out to highlight the ideological viewpoints inborn in customary thought.

## Supporting content

It can be seen that there are many problems in the Arab families. Mostly it can be seen that the parent- children conflict arises due to the conflict on different things that needs to be understood fully. The main point in this paper is that there are conflicts that prevail in between parents and children’s; hence, we can say that the theory, which is in the support with the content, is the conflict theory.

The reason behind that is that the conflict theory itself explains the difference that consists between the two persons that could be any one. However relating to our topic, we can say that the conflict theory relates in between the children’s and the parents as well. There could be many conflicts that arose in between them some of them could be due to the class conflict which arises the mostly. The social conflict also is a part, which is actually seen in between the children’s and the parents in the Arab world. By looking at the above discussion, we can say that the conflict theory supports our content fully.

# Social functions of the Family

Generally, the Bedouin lived by raising camels, sheep, and goats and took after their crowds looking for touching ranges. Just 5 percent of Bedouin still live as peaceful migrants; the rest of settled in towns and towns Starting in the last third of the twentieth century, peaceful itinerant turned out to be progressively uncommon due to country states with shut outskirts and the quick urbanization of the area’s populaces. Subsequently, the Bedouin have turned out to be progressively stationary.

The Bedouin family, as other Arab families, is moored in a culture-bound financial and political system. The biggest unit in the Bedouin system is the Qabilah, or country, comprising of a few tribes (ashira, plural ashir) each with its own particular land and pioneer. A matrilineal family relationship structure of a few eras includes a wide system of blood relations plunged through the male line. Previously, the hamula gave its individuals, who lived and meandered together and shared land and work, with monetary security and insurance. The tribe is a union of more distant families, or hamula (plural hamail). The hamula constitutes the momentous family. With the loss of the Bedouin’s predictable employments, the hamula is less ready to satisfy these capacities. Regardless it serves, in any case, as significant wellspring of personality and psychosocial backing and economic good. The atomic family, hamula, and tribe are steadfastly bound by broad common duties and commitments. The atomic group of guardians and kids is the littlest family.

This interpersonal organization is supported and kept up by a profoundly imbued arrangement of qualities and desires that oversee the conduct and the connections of the individuals. People are relied upon to show unreliability and obligation to the group, to place its great over their own, and to take after the guidelines and charges of those above them in the chain of importance. The key qualities are agreeableness, connection camaraderie, and order. The Bedouin nervous tension participation, adjustment, settlement, and family attachment is analyzed.

Arab Family System

The way of life of the Arab world is profoundly commanded by center Muslim esteem frameworks, for example, respect, duty, feeling, confront sparing and a few other definitive practices. It is attention to be the coupling power and is considered critical in all the social and financial exercises. The three examples of society in the Arab culture integrate the Bedouin tribes and individuals living in the provincial and urban ranges. The family is thought to be the essential unit of social union in the conventional and old Arab society. Solidarity and unity is an essential part of the Arab culture as every one of the individuals coordinate concordantly to secure its vocation and enhance to enhance its notoriety in the group. The realization or disappointment of an individual part turns into that of the family overall.

The sentiment congruity and harmony is exceedingly up and coming amongst the families. This is because of the way that family association gives high level of security. The idea of monetary commonality in the families in the Arab culture is under genuine risk by different schools of musings and other social foundations in the innovative world. Bedouins demonstrate awesome respect and high level of dependability toward their families. The family unit emotionally supportive network is thought to be amazingly occupant and it is esteemed as the individual’s definitive asylum.

This prompts the making of turmoil as it obliterates the distinction of individuals living in the group. This perspective gives security on one hand furthermore prompts strife for the people then again. There might be the times when the people feel that they have distinctive thoughts, which are not in friendship with that of gathering.

The father is the key figure in the family framework and he appreciates incredible self-sufficiency over the whole family. The state of mind of father may get unbending grim, stern, and to a great degree definitive, though the mother is wonderfully adoring and merciful. Bedouins take a gander at life personalized. They are worried about individuals and sentiments and place accentuation on human variables when they settle on choices towards individuals. This is to a great degree inimitable in the way of life of Arab world in overwhelmingly all the Arab nations.

## The changing Arab Family

The Arab family might be depicted as the essential unit of generation and the focal point of Arab social association and financial exercises. The Arab Family as a Central Socioeconomic Unit The customary Arab family constitutes a monetary and social unit since all individuals collaborate to guarantee its maintenance and enhance its remaining in the group. Endeavors, for example, shops, industrial facilities, organizations, and fields are regularly claimed and worked for the advantage of all. It developed into a patriarchal, pyramidal various level (especially as for sex and age), and amplified foundation. Give us a chance to take a gander at each of these qualities thusly. As of not long ago, when the state started to give administrations to its natives, the family attempted such varied undertakings and duties as instruction, socialization, preparing, protection, welfare, job, and religious childhood.

The family is at the focal point of social association in each of the three Arab examples of living (Bedouin, provincial, and urban) and especially among tribes, laborers, and the urban poor. It additionally gives security and backing in times of individual and societal push. The achievement or disappointment of an personality part turns into that of the family all in all. Each individual from the family might be considered in charge of the demonstrations of each other part. The family constitute the prevailing social establishment through which people and gatherings acquire their religious, class, and social affiliations. The sexual trouble making of a young lady, for instance, reflects upon herself as fit as upon her dad, her sibling, and her family in general.

In this way the “wrongdoing of respect,” which now and again still happens in firmly weave groups, is an endeavor to reestablish the family’s respect and place in the group by executing a sister or little girl who has been eminent in sexual unfortunate behavior. Guardians, and especially the mother, deny themselves for their youngsters. The wellspring of the mother’s satisfaction is the joy and flourishing of her youngsters. One’s dedication to the family may include widespread abstinence.  In a just right world, both kids and guardians are completely dedicated to the family itself. The very idea of family in Arabic ( ‘aila or usra ) reflects such shared odd jobs and connections of association and correspondence.

The foundation of the word ‘aila furthermore of usra signifies “to bolster.” While the father’s part is characterized as that of supplier ( janna ) and the mother’s part as that of homemaker ( banna ), kids change from being ‘iyal (wards) to sanadi (supporters) once their folks achieve seniority. This symbolizes the dropping of one’s individual character and appropriation rather than the personality or part of parenthood or parenthood. This clarifies why guardians in a few sections of the Arab world may allude to a tyke as sanadi (my backing). Another outflow of the dedication and restraint of guardians is the convention in the eastern Arab universe of getting to be known as “Abu,” father of, or “Umm,” mother of, one’s eldest child. A tape sent by a young fellow from a Syrian town to his dad and mom, who were on a two-month visit to their higher-ranking two children contemplate in the United States, reveals extensive insight into the inward progression of Arab employee families.

### Factors causing the changes in Arab Family

There are the diverse systems used by these procedures have added to the ascent of another circumstance whereby the old and the new exist one next to the other. It has altered the structure, capacity and part of marriage. In will of the fact that we cannot say that patriarchal family in Gulf society has vanished as far as preceded with male power and control over family issues, This new circumstance has escalated existing social issues and made new ones. It has brought on changes in the structures and elements of social establishments, most remarkably the 12 family. we can in any case watch a few markers that mean constriction and withdraw in patriarchal family structures.

Emphasize that adjustments in Gulf family structure and capacities were not exclusively brought about by the strengths and procedures of globalization.  Some of these weights are section of Gulf ladies into the work market; ladies’ support in numerous exercises and regions that were not passable before; the changing spouse wife relationship; change in the relationship of guardians with their youngsters. the way youth identify with society; Nevertheless, these strengths and procedures have expanded and strengthened these weights, overall. the expanding financial, instructive and social weight of bringing up kids; the debilitating of customary techniques and method for socialization. Globalized correspondences play an imperative and compelling part in today’s socialization of kids and youth.

The mother or grandma is no more the principle operator of bringing up kids or of managing them. Issues relating to socialization no more appear as qualities and background got from grown-ups (senior people) or starting grown-ups’ supply of experience. These sources are a portion of the section doors to social stereotyping made by globalization. Propels in method for communication, which are an item and instrument of globalization, to be had ascend to new factors and standards are dictated by the new culture of globalization. Such values and information are gotten from books, TV, telephone system and the Internet.

Despite the fact that we don’t have exact and clear information on, for instance, the marriage cases that occur through web visiting, we do realize that numerous relational unions in the Gulf area occurred as an aftereffect of bracket together over settled or cell phone lines. In addition, despite the fact that we have no precise experimental information on the element of cell phones in the ascent of marriage rates, some daily paper reports allude to the way that cell phones have encouraged contacts among youth of both gender outside family and societal control. The simplicity by which an individual can claim a cell phone line, men and ladies alike, even among the most conservative gatherings and groups helped people defeat the boundaries of separation and isolation forced by society and the family on the relationship of men and ladies in Gulf social orders.

In addition, travel and touristic trips opened the entryway for sex-tourism to Gulf people who go to some East Asian nations, and to different nations for this reason. The thriving and development of business shopping centers gave the chance to guys and females to meet. A great deal of dating happens in coffeehouses and stores situated in advanced selling shopping centers. Travel and sightseeing additionally offer ascent to instances of blended relational unions or outside relational unions finished up by people and females from the Gulf area

### Conflicts between Parents & Children

They have hormones dashing around inside, which abandons them stuck on a passionate indirect. They are finding their identity and experimenting with assorted personalities, which imply they can be unruly and challenge your power. Amid pre-adulthood, young people feel pulled in a hundred unique headings by every one of the progressions that are occurring in and around them. Their body is changing, which can make them undergo cumbersome and humiliated. Being acknowledged by their associates goes up against significantly more noteworthy significance, which implies they may instigate acting or carrying on in an unexpected way.

Regardless they need to satisfy their folks (trust it or not!), which can appear inconsistent with everything else that is continuing for them. Being a parent in a multicultural society like Australia can be exceptionally testing, especially if group values about how kids ought to be raised and how they ought to act are not quite the same as your own. They feel under weight to do well at school or locate the right occupation, which can make them on edge and questionable. They are trying their freedom and figuring out how to settle on choices for themselves, which implies they will require your backing and direction.

Obviously, there are numerous advantages to raising kids in a various group – they can be instructed to be glad for their legacy and still figure out how to esteem and value the distinctions in alternate societies around them. In any case, as your tyke achieves immaturity, and begins investing more energy far from the family, it’s basic for strains to erupt For example, at home youngsters may be relied upon to obey rules without question. However, outside the home, it is not ill bred for youngsters to have their own particular perspectives and to communicate. . Your adolescent may explore different avenues regarding new thoughts and ways to deal with perceive how they ‘fit’. They may begin to scrutinize your social and religious qualities.

It is unavoidable that there will be times when you and your adolescent bolt horns. Some of the time, the explanation behind this comes down to a conflict of societies and qualities. Whatever the reason, it is essential to attempt and work towards determining your disparities. Adhering unbendingly to your thoughts could imply that your tyke moves in the opposite direction of you. Now and then it is because of your youngster is growing up. Then again, young people who have a decent association with no less than one parent are less inclined to get into genuine inconvenience. There are frequently no “privilege” or “wrong” responses to taking care of an issue. Alternatively, maybe, it’s critical to take an ideal opportunity to listen to your youngster and comprehend what they’re stating, regardless of the possibility that you don’t concur with them.

In case you are having, genuine clash hold a family meeting and permit everybody to talk straightforwardly and sincerely. search for an assortment of conceivable arrangements ask a regarded relative or group part to take a seat and chat with the family look for help and counsel from somebody in your group who you trust create fellowships with different guardians in your group – the backing of a ‘more distant family’ can be essential. Different guardians may have the same battles.

Guardians who have solid associations with their youngsters are frequently in a decent position to manage issues that surface. Here are some approaches to fabricate trust and regard with your adolescent.

• Be positive and empowering – see the great things they do.
• Get to know them and the things they are keen on.
• Be accessible for them.
• Do not be hesitant to say sorry on the off chance that you have committed an error.
• Learn to joke and mess around with each other.
• Show them that you give it a second thought

They truly do need to realize that you adore them and will be there for them! Not adapting in spite of the fact that it is ordinary for young people to have times when they are grouchy, bad tempered and defiant; furthermore, recollect no issue is excessively shocking or humiliating, making it impossible to discuss it. This does not imply that guardians ought to endure unsatisfactory conduct, particularly on the off chance that it grows into physical savagery. You may achieve a phase when you require outside offer assistance. Numerous individuals and associations can offer secret help and backing.

### Conflict resolution

Distinctive dialects pass on various renditions of reality. To handle what individuals think about, for instance, the expression “compromise,” we should first discover what they mean by the comparable idea in their own dialect. In the event that compromise suggests in their dialect the substitution of disdain by affection, then diverse direct will be fitting than if it essentially implies reestablishing the routine of everyday life. Obviously, what the heroes really do in a given circumstance relies on upon conditions; what they will expect of compromise will be educated by the neighborhood learning that illuminates their comprehension of the term. however, we would expect clear examples of conduct to rise in total. By looking into the semantic fields and meanings of ideas like “clash” and “determination” in different dialects, we can reveal insight into likenesses and contrasts (Arévalo-Flechas, 2014).

At a down to earth level, this can recognize potential pitfalls and openings, in actuality, struggle determination crosswise over societies. Most of the writing takes a gander at the subject nonexclusively, which implies that regular basic elements of contention determination that cut crosswise over societies are underscored. As a rule, the presumption of all inclusiveness is certain. P.H. Gulliver unequivocally thoroughly analyzes the transaction of debate in various societies to uncover the hidden and invariant rationale of the procedure. Huge advance has been made in late decades in the investigation of contention determination, and a voluminous group of work has been delivered that would be difficult to compress briefly.  His purpose of flight is “the speculation that there are normal examples and regularities of communication between the gatherings in arrangement, regardless of the specific setting or the issues in debate.”

This approach appears to be supported in the main occasion in light of the fact that the significant classes of contention determination in English-transaction, settling, intervention, and mediation have all the earmarks of being widespread and share family similitude’s. Gulliver’s speculation on the suspicion of all inclusiveness has paid off liberally at both the hypothetical and connected levels. Additionally, at the establishment of a teaching it is proper to build up a common calculated structure, regardless of the fact that this implies briefly putting aside abnormalities. It has conveyed us to the point where there is a set up train and generous accord at any rate in a great part of the English-talking world (Australia, Britain, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States)- about the utility of integrative dealing and elective (or fitting) question determination (ADR) methods (Edmonds, 2015).

Morals aside, there is developing acknowledgment that contradictions are occasionally took care of viably by a distraction with relative pick up to others’ detriment, thoughtless uncompromising nature, or savagery. Where fundamental, the aptitudes of prepared outsiders are drawn upon. No one is considered to have a syndication of truth and equity, and results are looked for that neither leave triumphalism champions nor upset failures. The critical thinking way to deal with struggle determination keeps up those genuine needs instead of strategic positions ought to be tended to, and innovativeness and practicality connected to the settlement of contrasts. As Jeffrey Rubin aptly put it: “As opposed to view transaction as a pull of war in which each of two sides endeavors to surrender as meager of its goals as could be expected under the circumstances, the common increases approach sees arrangement as a bewilder to be understood.”

It is a declaration to the accomplishment of Gulliver’s theory that we can now certainly relax the presumption of comprehensiveness and concentrate on more socially particular components of contention determination. As social orders become progressively multicultural and globalization prompts a blossoming of contacts crosswise over social orders, contrasts turn out to be more remarkable. Incidentally, the more the worldwide framework looks like a worldwide group, the more open door there is for scraped spot. Contact advances understanding, as well as conflict. There is a justifiable reason explanation behind this change in accentuation from purposes of similarity to varieties crosswise over societies. For whatever length of time that the onus is on struggle determination inside sensibly homogenous social orders, or inside groups commanded by a hegemonic culture, there is no squeezing need to examine assortment (Hergenhahn, 2013).

# Solution to Conflict between societies

The expression “sulha” gets from the Arabic word Sulh. The dynamic idea of peace is Salaam; however, the exacting demonstration of ceasing strife and subsiding into peace is Sulh. The word can likewise signify “compromise,” “collaboration” or “pardoning.”

The standards of sulha are “installed in tribal culture and in intelligence and experience went down from era to era.” Much of the writing on the procedure is set with regards to physical ambush conferred by an individual from one family or tribe against an individual from another, and the least demanding approach to comprehend the wide standards of sulha is to set the clarification in that theoretical connection: An assault by one relative against an individual from an alternate family. Sulha emerged to react to the need to reestablish arrange between families, tribes or towns so that fights and quarrels don’t debilitate the steadiness of the bigger community.

This statute, nevertheless, may subject the group to savagery in its middle for a long time, as retribution sustains dependable quarrels. Keeping in mind the end goal to counteract such brokenness, the custom of sulha is summoned. By custom, a family has the privilege, as well as the commitment to exact retribution an assault on one of its individuals. “To retaliate for the murder of a nearby brother is decent; to neglect to do as such is shameful.”

Instantly upon the assault having happened, the group of the aggressor approaches one or even more exceedingly regarded, persuasive individuals, soliciting that they intercede for benefit from the gathering. Certain expressions of supplication are generally utilized, begging the jaha to accept the accountability. Among them may be “We are in your home and you should help us .Our child has perpetrated a wrongdoing and our family is in your grasp.” These interveners are alluded to overall as the jaha. There is no supporting of the certainties or of the family’s obligation. The deed is admitted and the jaha is requested that follow up on that premise. The assailant’s family should actually ask the jaha to go up against the matter; generally, when they do visit the oppressed family it will not have the capacity to convey the power required.

## Symbolic interaction theories supporting conflict resolution

The interactions in the symbolic direction that would support the relationship in the mutual consent or agreement between the parents along with their children in a way that the exposure would decrease in the form of risk as social or emotional challenging behavior of the children in the community of Arab regions is monitored. The wide array of the impairments is accomplished from the depression level as the cognitive psychological significant challenges in the inter-parental interaction that would highlight the physiological inter-parental factors of well being socially, financially, hospitality and health. The significant level of problems that exist between the family as the development stage of the child is raise while organizing the core dimensional issues for the settings that would treat as the extra-familial guidelines in the exposure of the families regularities that are deliberately forced onto the behaviors of the young people in the Arab families (Hergenhahn, 2013).

## Aligning with sociological focus

Looking at the theory by Patrick T. Davis the emotional security theory we come to know that children’s are main point of focus in this. We can see that the children’s mainly are looking for the higher goals in their lives and we can see that they want to be safe and want to secure their family in this regard. However, it can be seen that marital conflicts have been classified in to two categories, which are constructive and destructive in nature. We can see that marital conflicts actually threaten in the different way as that is not one of the best things that can be seen.

However, it can be seen that the parents actually maintain their children’s security in this case so that they feel comfortable with that. The parents are always in the need to maintain the harmony of the family so that children will not get disturbed and the flow could be maintained as well. Therefore, these symbolic interaction theries actually supports the conflicts. We can see that the conflict theory does align with this as we come to know this is the main point on which the different theories evolve.

# Conclusion

In the end, it is concluded that the main reason behind the conflict of the relationship between the parents with their children in the Arab community is the psychological cognitive emotions, feelings, non-flexibility in the family system in this culture as according to the social security theory proposed from the Patrick and Cummins. The most important theory that plays the role in this manner is the conflict theory which defines the complexities in the interaction with the peers, adaptations to the behaviors with reference to the external environment in a way that the balance and the sustainable relationship for parent-child is highly maintain. With the effort that encourages the psychological trajectories for the inter-parental as the translation of the discord could achieve through certain issues are necessary in this regard. The family system in the Arab community demands the children must possess the cultural beliefs, core norms that bind them towards the cultural limitations in the development of lifecycle. The relationship is analyzed using the psychological patterns of the conflict challenges as they raise because of the material social approach of the adjustments in the behaviors while the investigation is analytically composed of the positive outcomes and the negative outcomes of the applying the social-emotional security theory in the context of the Arab community. The meanderings are found in the cross mixing or amalgamation of the various western cultures comprised of the technological advancements or the social liberty of the children and the other side where the restrictions are made on the children according to the social interactions or technological use of the resources or tools (Arévalo-Flechas, 2014).

# References

Arévalo-Flechas, L. C. (2014). Latino Alzheimer’s caregivers: what is important to them? Journal of Managerial Psychology , 29 (6), 661-684.

Bensi, L., Giusberti, F., Raffaella Nori, R., & Gambetti, E. (2010). Individual differences and reasoning: A study on personality traits. British Journal of Psychology , 101 (3), 545-562.

Crossman, A. (2012). Charles Horton Cooley. Retrieved april 20, 2015, from http://sociology.about.com/od/Profiles/p/Charles-Horton-Cooley.htm

Davies, P. T., & Cummings, E. M. (2009). Constructive and destructive marital conflict, emotional security and children’s prosocial behavior. J Child Psychol Psychiatry , 50 (3), 270–279.

Davis, D. (2003). Auguste Comte: Theories & Contributions to Sociology. Retrieved april 20, 2015, from http://study.com/academy/lesson/auguste-comte-theories-contributions-to-sociology.html

Edmonds, L. (2015, january 6). The Seasons of Life. Retrieved May 6, 2015, from https://www.psychologytoday.com/articles/201501/the-seasons-life?collection=167224

Hergenhahn, B. R. (2013). An Introduction to the History of Psychology. Cengage Learning.

Robert Sedgwick. (2001, november 1). Education in Saudi Arabia. Retrieved october 12, 2015, from http://wenr.wes.org/2001/11/wenr-nov-dec-2001-education-in-saudi-arabia/

saudiarabia.angloinfo.com. (2011). The School System in Saudi Arabia. Retrieved october 12, 2015, from http://saudiarabia.angloinfo.com/family/schooling-education/the-school-system/

SmileySammy. (2011, may 7). Positive and Negative Deviance. Retrieved april 20, 2015, from http://haassociology32444.blogspot.com/2011/05/positive-and-negative-deviance.html

Workman, L. (2014). Evolutionary Psychology. Cambridge University Press.

Categories

## what is the primary reason ipv6 has not completely replaced ipv4?

LESSON 10 :

1. What is the primary reason IPv6 has not completely replaced IPv4?
a. Administrators are hesitant and reluctant to change.
b. Stopgap technologies such as Network Address Translation (NAT) and Classless
Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) alleviate the lack of registered IPv4 addresses.
c. IPv4 addresses have only been depleted since early 2011.
d. IPv6 has already replaced IPv4 on the Internet.

2. What is the primary difference between a NAT server and a proxy server?
a. There is no difference; they are functionally the same.
b. There is little difference because NAT servers and proxy servers; both act as an intermediary
between networks.
c. Proxy servers offer additional functions such as they can scan, cache, and filter certain
types of data.
d. NAT servers translate at the Network layer of the protocol stack, whereas proxy servers
function at the Application layer.

3. Your company environment includes Windows Server versions 2003, 2008, and 2012.
Desktops range from Windows XP and Vista. To transition to IPv6, what versions have
IPv6 support running by default?
a. Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, and Vista have IPv6 running by
default.
b. All versions have IPv6 running by default, except the Windows 2003 servers.
c. Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP both include support for IPv6, but they do
not install it by default.
d. Only Windows Server 2012 has IPv6 running by default.

4. What Windows Server 2012 services and applications offer IPv6 support?
a. Nearly all server roles provide IPv6 support.
b. Few offer IPv6 support, but they are expected soon.
c. All offer IPv6 support in Windows Server 2012.
d. Remote Access supports IPv6 routing and advertising, and the DHCP Server role can

5. What is Intra-Site Automatic Tunnel Addressing Protocol (ISATAP)?
a. ISATAP converts IPv4 address for an IPv6 network just as 6to4 offers.
b. ISATAP emulates an IPv6 link for use on an IPv4 network.
c. ISATAP is a method of multicasting for IPv6 networks.
d. ISATAP translates between IPv4 and IPv6 networks without client configuration.

LESSON 11 :

1. One method a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server allocates IP
addresses is called manual allocation. This process involves manually assigning an IP
address to a particular server. What is the key benefit of DHCP manual allocation over
manually configuring the address directly on the server?
a. The DHCP server then contains a centralized list of permanently assigned addresses.
c. This process prevents accidental duplication of permanently assigned IP addresses.
d. This manually assigned address is officially known as a reservation.

2. Your DHCP servers are burdened with heavy traffic, most related to IP address renewals.
Unfortunately, virtually all the IP addresses in each of your subnets are allocated. Which
of the following options is the best way to lower the renewal traffic?
a. Increase the lease time.
b. Deploy additional DHCP servers on the most burdened subnets.
c. Shorten the lease time.
d. Switch to manual allocation.

3. You are preparing to deploy Windows 8 to a large number of new workstations. Which
of the following options would be best?
a. Install Windows 8 using Pre-boot Execution Environment (PXE) and Windows
Deployment Services (WDS).
b. Delegate the work to a team of local administrators to divide up.
c. Manually install the operating system yourself.
d. Manually configure each workstation’s IP address.

4. To make use of Pre-boot Execution Environment (PXE) and Windows Deployment
Services (WDS), what special configuration do you require on the server and client?
a. The client must have a special PXE-enabled network adapter.
b. Both client and server are capable by default.
c. The client and server both require some preparatory configuration.
d. The DHCP server on the network must have a custom PXEClient option (option 60)
configured with the location of the WDS server on the network.

5. What servers should not be DHCP clients?
a. Web servers, DHCP servers, and domain controllers
b. Workstations
c. End user laptops
d. Computers, which might have IP addresses in the exclusion range

Lesson 12 :

1. What client applications utilize Domain Name System (DNS) to resolve host names into
a. Client web browsers, or any application that uses HyperText Transfer Protocol
(HTTP) use DNS to resolve host names into IP addresses.
b. All Internet applications working with host names must use DNS to resolve host
c. Any application on a system that has connectivity to the Internet use DNS to resolve
d. DNS does not resolve host names into IP addresses.

2. What is the primary purpose of name caching?
a. Name caching saves extraordinary amount of time for the user.
b. Name caching greatly reduces traffic on the company network.
c. Name caching validates why you should deploy caching-only servers.
d. Name caching enables the second name resolution request for the same name to
bypass the referral process.

3. What are the dangerous consequences of a poorly chosen Time To Live (TTL)?
a. Specifying a TTL that is too long can greatly increase traffic, especially to the root
name and top-level domain servers.
b. Specifying a TTL that is too long can delay referrals from being propagated.
c. Specifying a TTL that is too short can overburden root name and top-level domain
servers with requests.
d. Specifying a TTL that is too short can cause incorrectly cached information to
remain before changes get recorded.

4. What is the primary benefit of a DNS forwarder?
a. Exchanging iterative queries for recursive queries across the network perimeter
b. Reducing the traffic and making efficient use of available bandwidth across the
network perimeter
c. Making the most of iterative queries to other DNS servers
d. Reducing the burden on the Internet’s root name servers

5. What are some best practices when creating internal DNS namespaces.
a. Avoid an excessive number of domain levels.
b. Keep domain names full and descriptive; avoid concise subdomains.
c. Place less importance on a convention compared to spelling.
d. Never abbreviate.

Categories

## tú eres menos (less) simpático que federico.

Verbs

Complete the chart with the correct verb forms.

I    (2) ____________    I died

you      followed (3) _______________

they    (5) ______________    died

To complete

Fill in the blanks with the correct preterite forms of the verbs in parentheses

1.Diego and Javier _____________________  (get) a map.

2.This morning you____________________   (say goodbye) to the students.

4. Last week I did not _______________________   (sleep) well.

5.Impay ___________________________   (prefer) eat at home.

Prayers

Write sentences using the information provided. Use the preterite and make any necessary changes.

Edgar / prefer / roasted chicken

Edgar preferred roast chicken.

1. Alvaro and I / serve / the hors d’oeuvres

2. Who / repeat / instructions?

3.ayer / me / say goodbye / to / my nephews

4. you / fall asleep / at ten

Dinner

Fill in the blanks with the preterite form of the appropriate verbs from the list. Four verbs will not be used.

look  ask to  prefer to  try

repeat  feeling  server  dress

Last night Jorge, Iván and I went out to dinner at Mi Tierra, a Guatemalan restaurant. We (1) ___________   this place because Jorge (2) ________________   a review (review) on the Internet that said (said) that the food is authentic and very tasty. It is not an elegant restaurant; then we (3) ______________   of bluejeans. Truly, in My Earth my friends and I (4) __________   like (like) at home. The waiter who gave us (5) __________   was very friendly. To start, Jorge and Iván (6) ____________   tamales, but I (7) ____________   wait for the main course: beef with rice and beans. We ate so much (so much) that no (8) ___________   anything for dessert (dessert). It was a delicious dinner!

Try it!

Write the direct or indirect object pronoun that is missing in each sentence.

Model The salad? The waiter served it to us.

Direct object

1. The salmon? The owner me______________   recommends.

2. The food? I’m going to prepare you _______________.

3. The drinks? We are asking for __________________.

4. The sodas? You_______________   can I bring now.

5. The rice dishes? They are going to serve us _______________________ after

Model Can you bring me your plate? No, I can not bring it to you.

6. Do you want to show her the letter? Yes, I’m going to show ____________ the now.

7. Did you serve the meat? No, I did not _________________.

9. Do you recommend the lobster? Yes, _________________ I recommend it.

10. When are you going to prepare dinner for us? ___________________ I will prepare it in one hour

Imagine that you work as a waiter in a restaurant. Respond to the commands of these clients using pronouns. Follow the model.

Yes ma’am. Right away I bring it to you.

3.Sra. Lugones: The roasted chicken, please.

6.Dra. González: The pork chop, please.

8.Dr. Torres: The account (check), please.

Change

Change the following phrases by substituting (by replacing) the nouns for the corresponding pronouns. Make any (any) necessary change.

Model I wrote a letter to my father.

I wrote it to him.

1. I sent (sent) postcards to my friends.

2.Celia bought fruit for you.

3.Ángel recommended the roasted chicken.

4. The waiter served you a coffee.

5. Who sold us the butter?

6. Who brings you lunch today?

7. I ask the waitress for a flan.

8. Carlos’s mom prepares hamburgers.

9.The saleswoman sells hats to clients.

10.This year I bought a car.

Use the direct and indirect pronouns to write the following sentences again without changing the meaning. Follow the models.

Model You are going to show me this afternoon.

You’re going to show me this afternoon.

1. Children have to wash them.

2. You can not eat it.

3. We are drinking them.

4. Marta and you should not do them.

5. I’m going to ask for you this afternoon.

Try it!

Write the equivalent of the words in English.

Model Ernesto watches more television than (than) Alberto.

1.You are _________________ (less) nice than Federico.

2.The waitress serves_______________________   (as much) meat as fish.

3. I receive __________________________   (more) tips than you.

4.No studio_____________________   (as much as) you.

5. Do you know how to play tennis so well__________________   (as) your sister?

6. Can you drink ________________________ (as many) sodas like me?

7. My friends seem like ____________________   (as) like you.

8. I am ___________________   (less) skinny than my brother.

To complete

Write the word that completes each comparison.

1.Martin is so tall_____________   Luis.

2.Luis is less tall_____________  Vicente.

3.Vicente is higher __________________ both (both).

4. Mirta is less athletic ___________________   Blanca.

5. Petra is so athletic ____________________   Mirta.

6. Professor Palafox is older_________________   Professor Porter.

7. But Professor Porter has___________________   classes like him.

8.No, Professor Palafox has more classes___________________   her.

9. Ricardo is lower _________________   Alma.

Review

Complete the following grammatical summary

Build comparative sentences from the given elements. Follow the model.

Alice model / be / + / responsible / her big sister

Alicia is more responsible than her older sister.

1. this year / I have / = / classes / last year

2. my father / traveling / – / your father

3. Margarita / not to speak French / = / well / you

4.in my class / have / + / boys / girls

5.Andrés / ser / = / sympathetic / his brother

Complete the following irregular comparative sentences according to the adjectives in parentheses. Follow the model.

Model Julieta is older (+ large) than her classmates.

8. My art teacher is   (+ old) than my grandfather.

9.Gabriel is   (+ young) than his girlfriend.

10. The number of students in this course is   (+ small) than in the last course.

Try it!

Write the equivalent of the words in English.

Model Marisa is the most intelligent (the most intelligent) of all.

1.Ricardo and Tomás are________________   (the least boring) of the party.

2. Miguel and Antonio are ________________   (the worst) students in the class.

3. My biology teacher is ___________________   (the oldest) of the university.

4. She is_________________________   (the youngest) of the group.

The more…

Answer the questions affirmatively. Use the words in parentheses.

Model The room is very dirty, is not it? (home)

Yes, it is the dirtiest of the residence.

1. The Velasco store is great, is not it? (Mall)

2. Your mother’s chair is very comfortable, is not it? (home)

3. Angela and Julia are very nervous about the exam, right? (class)

4. Jorge is very young, right? (my friends)

Superlatives

Complete the sentences with the superlative of the words in parentheses.

Model Bill Gates is the richest man in the world.

1. We are three brothers: I have two older brothers and I am _____________   (young).

2. If you train every day you can be the________________   (good) player on your team.

3. The Vatican has a population of only seven hundred and seventy people and is the _______________ (small) independent state of the world.

4. As Pablo never practices is the _____________________   (bad) musician in the orchestra.

5. The hair of Verdezuela (Rapunzel) was ___________________   (long).

6. Mary’s great grandfather is one hundred and two years old and is the __________________   (old) of his family.

Review

Complete the following grammatical summary.

Construct correct and logical sentences using the superlatives of the given adjectives. Follow the model.

Eduardo Model / be the person / responsible / your whole family

Eduardo is the most responsible person in his entire family.

1. this / being the school / small / the country

2.the paella / be the dish / typical (traditional) / Spain

3.Pencho / be the student / bad / the class

4. Anita / ser / grande / of her sisters

5.The Winery / be the restaurant / good / of the city

Complete the following sentences with the irregular superlatives of the adjectives in parentheses. Follow the model.

Estefanía model is the largest (large) of her class group.

6. Paul is ______________- (young) of his cousins.

8. These are________________   (good) vacations of my life (life).

9. Monday is ________________   (bad) day of the week.

10. Enrique is__________________   (old) from his group of friends.

Categories

## all of the following are evidence supporting the theory of plate tectonics except for

Take Test: Quiz – Week 2

Bottom of Form

Question 1

1. Of the two main sources of Energy that drive the Rock Cycle:

1) Earth’s Internal Heat

2) Solar Energy

Match these primary sources of energy to the rock types listed below, meaning that this energy source is responsible for the formation of this rock type.

Sedimentary Rocks are primarily formed by __________

Igneous Rocks are primarily formed by ____________

Question 2

1. Match the Plate Boundary Type with the given locations/features on Earth

 Divergent boundary
 Transform boundary

1.

Convergent boundary

 Continental rift A.East African RiftB.Himalaya Mountains along the Indian PlateC.San Andreas fault in CAD.Mid-Atlantic Ridge

Question 3

1. Wegener’s Continental drift hypothesis paved the way towards our understanding of how the Earth’s surface is moving and changing!  Which of the follow is NOT evidence that Wegener and his supporters gathered to substantiate (“prove”) the continental drift hypothesis?

 Fossils match across the seas Mountain ranges and rock types match on different continents Ancient climates match, as seen in glacial desposts across several continents The continents appear to fit together like a jigsaw puzzle The mechanism for the movement of the continents was proven, explaining exactly how the plates drifted

1 points

Question 4

1. Identify the rock in the image ( CLICK on “Rock_1.jpg to download the image ). Is it sedimentary, igneous or metamorphic?  Can you give a more specific name for this rock

Question 5

1.        Plate movements can affect which of the following earth systems/processes?

 A. Volcanoes B. Earthquakes C. Mountains D. Migrating Continents and Oceans E. All of the above

1 points

Question 6

1. Identify the rock in the image ( CLICK on “Rock_2.jpg to download the image ).  Is it sedimentary, igneous or metamorphic?  Can you give a more specific name for this rock?

Question 7

1. Think About It:  If other planets in our Solar System are not displaying signs of Plate Tectonic motions, what can be inferred about the state of the interior of these planets? (What does this tell us about the state of the interior of other planets in our Solar System)

Question 8

1. When a rock is heated, when pressure increases, or when hot water alters its chemistry, both its minerals and its textures change in a process called _____________.

 chemical lithification metamorphism abrasion bedding

Question 9

1. When a sedimentary rock is created it forever remains a sedimentary rock, never changing.

True

False

Question 10

 A. Zone in the upper mantle that deforms by plastic flowage B. Cool, ridge layer of crust and upper mantle that forms the tectonic plates C. Deforms mainly by brittle fracturing and faulting D. Hard surface which floats on top of molten material

Question 11

1. All of the following are current evidence supporting the theory of plate tectonics except for _________.

 changes in the Moon’s orbit due to shifting plates hot spots ocean floor drilling paleomagnetism

Question 12

1. Rocks that contain crystals that are roughly equal in size and can be identified with the unaided eye are said to exhibit a _______ texture.

 porphyritic fine-grained coarse-grained glassy

1 points

Question 13

1.        Subduction zones are associated with a _________ plate boundary.

 A. Transform B. All plate boundaries C. Divergent D. Convergent

1 points

Question 14

1. Use the Plate Tectonic Boundary Map on pages 202-203 in your textbook to answer the following questions:

Describe the tectonic motion taking place between then African Plate and the Eurasian plate.  What major geological feature exists there and why?

 Divergent Boundary.  Alps Mountain range, formed from plates pusing together and compressing, building up the mountain range. Convergent Boundary.  Alps Mountain range, formed from plates pusing together and compressing, building up the mountain range. Divergent Boundary.  Alps Mountain range, formed from plates pulling apart and decompressing, building up the mountain range. Transform Boundary.  Alps Mountain range, formed from plates sliding past one another therfore building up the mountain range.

1 points

Question 15

1. There are two main types of igneous rocks.  Blank 1 igneous rocks are formed from magma that cooled very quickly and are fine-grained.  These can also be called Blank 2 igneous rocks.  The second type of igneous rock is Blank 3 igneous rocks which are coarse-grained because the magma from which they formed cooled slowly.  These can also be called Blank 4 igneous rocks.

2 points

Question 16

1. Shells and other hard parts of animals such as calms, oysters and corals are comprised of carbonate minerals that eventually become limestone.  This is an example of how changes in the _____________perturb the _______________.

 A. Biosphere; Atmosphere B. Hydrosphere; Biosphere C. Atmosphere; Hydrosphere D. Biosphere; Hydrosphere E. Biosphere; Geosphere F. Hydrosphere; Geosphere

1 points

Question 17

1. The Lithosphere is being consumed at Term 1

, and being produced at Term 2

1. , which happens at the same rate, allowing for the Earth to reamain the same relative size.

1 points

Question 18

1. Alfred Wegener’s concept of a single supercontinent that broke apart to form the modern continents is called the theory of ______________…..which was later re-named once scientific data confirmed what was causing the plates to move.

 Continential drift Seafloor spreading Asthenosphere drift Pangea

1 points

Question 19

1. Most common igneous rocks are named in pairs, each member having the same Blank 1 but different Blank 2.  An Example is Granite and Rhyolite.

1 points

Question 20

1. Sedimentary Rocks are broadly divided into four categories.  For the definitions given, match the correct type of sedimentary rock.

 2. Sedimentary rock derived from plant and animal remains.  And example is Coal, which is formed from partially decayed plants called peat.
 Halite is a good example of this type of sedimentary rock.  Halite is an evaporate because the salt precipitates from the seawater
 Derived from the weathering of pre-existing rocks.  Sandstone is an example of this type of sedimentary rock

1.

2.

 Derived from biological clasts.   Limestone is a good example. A.Bioclastic sedimentary rocksB.Detrial or Clastic sedimentary rocksC.Chemical sedimentary rocksD.Organic sedimentary rocks

2 points

Question 21

1. Probably the single most characteristic feature of sedimentary rocks is layering.

True

False

1 points

Question 22

1. Which of the following energy sources is thought to drive the lateral motions of Earth’s lithospheric plates?

 export of heat from deep in the mantle to the top of the asthenosphere swirling movements of the molten iron particles in the outer core gravitational attractive forces of the Sun and Moon electrical and magnetic fields localized in the inner core

1 points

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Categories

## nothing puzzles god

Introduction
The country of Nigeria was very unstable after gaining its independence from Great Britain in 1960. From July 1967 to January 1970, there was a great Civil War when Ibo tried to separate and form the Republic of Biafra. The country was finally forced to surrender in 1970, after several years of horrific war. Chinua Achebe’s story, “Civil Peace,” takes place shortly after the war ends.

Initial Post Instructions
Chinua Achebe repeats, “Nothing puzzles God,” several times throughout “Civil Peace.” Considering the author’s background and setting of the story, why is this line so significant? Use specific examples from the text to illustrate your claims.

Do NOT use Sparksnotes, eNotes, Wikipedia, or similar websites, as these are not academic in nature. If you do so, you will earn an automatic F. Your discussion may be submitted to Turnitin, so please use the University library or .org and .edu resources.

Secondary Post Instructions
As you are responding to your peers, consider the main character in the story, Jonathan. Do you agree with your peers’ statements regarding his character? Why or why not? Use specific examples from the text to illustrate your claims.

Writing Requirements

• In addition to one initial post, respond to at least two peers.
• Initial Post Length: minimum of 250 words
• Secondary Post Length: minimum of 200 words per post
• Use APA format for in-text citations and list of references.
Categories

## universal intellectual standards

Intellectual Standards

For our assignment this week, examine the Universal Intellectual Standards as described in our readings. Select one of these standards, and describe how using that standard has helped you in your:

Work life

School life

Personal life

Your essay should consist of five paragraphs, and should follow the format below:

In your first paragraph, write a detailed description of the standard you have selected and why you selected it.

Then, in a paragraph each, describe how that standard has helped you in your work life, in your school life, and in your personal life. Each paragraph should contain at least one example.

Finally, in your concluding paragraph, discuss the ways you can continue to improve upon this standard moving forward.

Your completed assignment should be written primarily in first person and should be 500-750 words in length. If you use sources in your writing, be sure to identify them. If you use any direct language from a source, be sure to place those words in quotation marks.

Your assignment should adhere to the stated page length requirement for the week and use APA style formatting including a title page and reference section. You should use Times New Roman, 12pt. font, double-spaced lines, and one inch margins. A description of APA style and the APA template can be found in the Writing Center.

Meets or exceeds established assignment criteria 40

Demonstrates an understanding of lesson concepts 20

Clearly present well-reasoned ideas and concepts 30

Mechanics, punctuation, sentence structure, spelling that affects clarity, and citation of sources as needed            10

Total 100

Assignment

W4 Reflection Journal “What Is Intelligence?”

Strategies for Decision Making

What Is Intelligence?

This week’s lecture focused on the role of human intelligence. In your own words, what do you think intelligence is? Do you think intelligence is something you are born with or something that you can grow and develop? Why do you feel the way you do about that? How can engaging in good critical thinking impact your intelligence (or can it?)

Your work should be at least 500 words, but mostly draw from your own personal experience. This should be written in first person and give examples from your life. Be sure if you are using information from the readings that you properly cite your readings in this, and in all assignments.

Categories

## capsim practice round 1

Capstone® Debrief Rubric Report

How to Use This Report ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 2

Sample Report …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3

The Company Rubric ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 4 ROS ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 4

EPS (Earnings Per Share) …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 5

Contribution Margin ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 5

Change in Stock Price ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 6

Leverage …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 6

Stock Price ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 7

Bond Rating …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 8

Emergency Loans …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 8

Current Ratio …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 9

Inventory Reserves…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 10

Plant Purchases Funded ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 11

Accounts Receivable ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 12

Accounts Payable …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 13

Asset Turnover ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 14

Sales to Current Assets …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 14

Overall Plant Utilization ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 15

Stock Outs (Company level) …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 15

Bloated Inventories ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 16

Overall Actual vs. Potential Demand ………………………………………………………………………………………… 16

Market Share Overall ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 17

Overall Awareness …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 18

Overall Accessibility ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 18

Overall Design ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 19

Asset Base …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 19

The Product Rubric ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 19 Positioning ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 19

Age ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 20

Reliability ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 20

Price Percentile ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 21

Awareness …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 21

Accessibility …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 22

Customer Survey Score …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 22

Potential Share/Average Share ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 23

Actual Share/Potential Share …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 23

Plant Utilization ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 24

Automation …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 24

Contribution Margin ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 24

Days of Inventory …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 24

Promotion Budget ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 25

Sales Budget ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 25

R&D Utilization ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 25

Overall Product Evaluation ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 25

Summary Rubrics ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 26

How to Use This Report

The Capstone® Debrief Rubric Report offers a comprehensive evaluation of a company and its products.

It is prepared as a rubric, with each item in the report scored on a scale of zero to three: • Excellent – 3 points • Satisfactory – 2 points • Poor – 1 point • Trouble – 0 points

There are seven categories ranging from “Margins & Profitability” to individual products. Each line item is discussed below, beginning with how the item was scored.

To make quick use of the report, scan it for zeros. Find the description below to learn why the company earned a zero. We recommend having a Capstone Courier at your disposal as you interpret the results.

Sample Report

DEBRIEF REPORT 2013 Ferris C42681

COMPANY RUBRIC Points (0..3)

Margins & Profitability Asset Utilization ROS (Profits/Sales) 0 Asset turnover (Sales / Assets) 1 EPS (Earnings Per Share) 0 Sales to Current Assets 1 Contribution Margin 2 Overall plant utilization 2 Change in Stock Price 0 Total (Max 9) 4 Total (Max 12) 2

Ability to raise growth capital Forecasting Leverage 2 Stock outs 2 Stock price 0 Bloated inventories 2 Bond rating 1 Overall Actual vs. Potential Demand 3 Total (Max 9) 3 Total (Max 9) 7

Sound Fiscal Policies Competitive Advantage Emergency loans 3 Cost leadership 0 Leverage 2 Product breadth 3 Current Ratio 3 Market share 2 Inventory reserves 0 Overall Awareness 2 Plant purchases funded 3 Overall Accessibility 2 Accounts Receivable 2 Overall Design 1 Accounts Payable 2 Asset Base 3 Total (Max 21) 15 Total (Max 21) 10

PRODUCT RUBRIC Cake Cedar Cid Coat Cure Ch Cp Cs Overall Primary Segment Trad Low High Pfmn Size 0 Pfmn Size Positioning 1 3 2 2 2 0 1 1 2 Age 3 3 1 3 3 0 2 1 2 Reliability 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Price Percentile 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Awareness 2 2 3 3 3 0 2 2 2 Accessibility 2 2 0 2 2 0 2 2 2 CustomerSurveyScore 1 0 3 3 3 0 3 1 2 PotentialShare/Avg 1 1 3 3 3 0 0 0 1 ActualShare/Potential 3 2 3 3 2 0 2 2 2 PlantUtilization 3 3 3 2 2 0 0 0 2 Automation 0 0 1 2 2 0 2 2 1 ContributionMargin 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Days of Inventory 2 2 2 1 2 0 0 0 1 Promotion Budget 0 0 3 3 3 0 3 3 2 Sales Budget 0 0 3 3 3 0 2 2 2 R&D Utilization 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Total (Max 48) 18 19 27 30 30 0 19 16 21

The Company Rubric

ROS Return on Sales (Profit/Sales) answers the question, “How much of every sales dollar did we keep as profit?”

Excellent ROS > 8% Satisfactory 4% < ROS <=8% Poor 0% < ROS <= 4% Trouble ROS <= 0%

Between 0% and 4%, while the company is at least making a profit, it is not bringing in sufficient new equity to fund growth. The industry is growing at about 15% per year. The industry consumes about 15% more capacity each year, which arrives in the form of plant expansions and new products. Therefore, as the simulation begins, an average company would add about $12 million in new plant each year. If half that or$6 million was funded with bonds, an average company would need about $6 million in new equity. Therefore, if the company does not have the profits, it must either issue$6 million in new stock, or $12 million in bonds, or not grow to keep up with demand. Worse, if it has no profits, its stock price falls, making it difficult to raise equity through stock issues. This ignores investments in automation, which also require a funding mix of equity and debt. In the opening round of Capstone® companies have an excess of assets, and that can convert idle assets into productive ones. Therefore, do not worry too much if the company’s profits are low. But after year 3, expect that idle asset cushion to be gone. Profits become critical because those companies with profits can grow, and those without cannot. What if profits are negative? The company is destroying equity. Its stock price has plummeted, making it more difficult to raise equity. All of the problems described above are now accelerated. In short, trouble. How can companies improve ROS? Here are a few questions to pose. 1. Can you raise prices? 2. Can you reduce your labor costs? Your material costs? 3. Can you forecast sales better and thereby reduce your inventory carrying expenses? 4. Have you pushed your promotion or sales budgets into diminishing returns? 5. Can you sell idle plant to reduce depreciation? Alternatively, can you convert idle plant into some other productive asset, like automation or new products? 6. Is your leverage too high, resulting in high interest expenses. (See leverage.) 5 © 2011 Capsim Management Simulations, Inc. All rights reserved. EPS (Earnings Per Share) EPS (profits/shares outstanding) answers the question, “What profits did each share earn?” EPS is a driver of stock price, and stock issues are an important source of growth capital. Excellent EPS >$2 + Round # Satisfactory ($2 + Round #)/3 < EPS <=$2 + Round # Poor $0.00 < EPS < ($2 + Round #)/3 Trouble EPS <= $0.00 In the table, “Round #” refers to the year in the Capstone®. Round 1 is year 1, round 2 is year 2. The market is growing, and so should profits. In Round 5, for example, an excellent EPS would be ($2 + $5) =$7.00 per share, and a satisfactory EPS would be at least 1/3 that or $2.33. EPS is important for three reasons. First, profits bring new equity into the company. Second, EPS drives stock price, and the company can issue shares to bring in new equity. Third, any new equity can be leveraged with new debt. An example may help. Suppose the company wants to invest$15 million in new plant and equipment each year for the next three years. If its profits are zero and it issues no stock, the purchases would need to be funded entirely with bonds. But this would drive up interest expense, and worse, eventually the company would reach a ceiling where bond holders would give it no additional debt. The company would stop growing.

In the end, a company’s growth is built upon equity. If it has equity, it can get debt, too.

How can companies improve EPS? Improve sales volume while maintaining margins. EPS is closely linked with the Asset Utilization and Competitive Advantage categories.

Contribution Margin Contribution margin is what is left over after variable costs. Variable costs include the cost of goods (material and labor) and inventory carrying expense.

The biggest expense is the cost of goods. If the contribution margin is 30%, then out of every sales dollar, $0.70 paid for inventory and$0.30 is available for everything else, including profits.

Excellent Contribution Margin > 35% Satisfactory Contribution Margin > 27% Poor Contribution Margin > 22% Trouble Contribution Margin < 22%

Fixed costs are those expenses that will be paid regardless of sales. They include promotion, sales budget, R&D, admin, and interest expenses.

As the contribution margin falls below 30%, it becomes increasingly difficult to cover fixed costs.

How can a company improve its contribution margin? Guard price and attack material and labor expenses.

Change in Stock Price The change in stock price from one year to the next is an indicator for the long term growth potential of the company.

Excellent > $20.00 Satisfactory >$7.00 Poor > – $5.00 Trouble < –$5.00

If the stock price is increasing, the company will enjoy easier access to new equity via profits and stock issues, which in turn can be leveraged with additional bonds, and the combined capital can fund plant improvements and new products.

If the stock price is falling, it becomes increasingly difficult to obtain new investment capital, either equity or debt. Eventually the company’s ability to make improvements comes to a halt.

Leverage In Capstone® Leverage is defined as Assets/Equity. (It is sometimes defined as Debt/Equity, but in either case, Leverage is addressing the question, “How much of the company assets are funded with debt?”) The higher the Assets/Equity ratio, the more debt is in the mix.

Using Assets/Equity, a Leverage of 2.0 means half the assets are financed with debt and half with equity. Read it as, “There are $2 of assets for every$1 of equity.” A leverage of 3 reads as, “There are $3 of assets for every$1 of equity.”

Excellent 1.8 < Leverage < 2.5 Satisfactory 1.6 < Leverage <1.8 , or 2.5 < Leverage < 2.8 Poor 1.4 < Leverage <1.6, or 2.8 < Leverage < 3.2 Trouble Leverage < 1.4, or Leverage > 3.2

It is easy to see why too much Leverage can cause problems. As debt increases, loans become more expensive. The company becomes high risk, and lenders eventually decline to lend the company money.

On the other hand, companies with a competitive advantage usually have a larger asset base than their competitors. For example, a broad product line implies a larger plant. A highly automated facility implies a large investment. Growing the company’s asset base quickly calls for prudent use of debt.

Here is an example. Suppose Andrews has assets of $100 million, and Baldwin$125 million. Assume that each team is utilizing their assets productively. An observer will bet on Baldwin because its larger asset base translates into more products or more productivity. Now suppose that Andrews is leveraged at 2.0, and Baldwin at 2.5. If so, they both have $50 million in equity. By leveraging its equity, Baldwin gained an advantage. Too little leverage can also indicate weakness, provided that investment opportunities exist. Think of it this way. When a company retires debt, it is saying to stockholders, “We are out of ideas for investments. The best we can come up with is to save you the interest on debt.” This will not impress stockholders, who are looking for a high return on their equity (ROE). An investor expecting a 20% ROE will be unhappy learning that their money was used to reduce debt at 10%. ROS * Asset Turnover *Leverage = Price/Sales * Sales/Assets * Assets/ Equity = ROE. If the company can somehow hold its margins and productivity constant, increasing leverage improves ROE. If leverage is falling, here are some things to suggest to the company. 1. Decide upon a policy towards leverage. For example, “Our leverage will be 2.5.” Adjust your leverage before saving your decisions. (Issue/retire debt, issue/retire stock, pay dividends.) 2. Find investment opportunities. For example, if the market is still growing, and you are already at a high plant utilization, you will need to add some capacity each year. Or perhaps you can add a new product. Fund these investment opportunities with a mix of debt and equity consistent with your policy. 3. In the latter rounds of Capstone® you are likely to become a “cash cow”. You discover that you have excess working capital that cannot be put to good use. In the real world management might get into new businesses, but in Capstone® there are no such alternatives. In this case, make your stockholders happy by buying back stock or paying dividends to maintain the leverage. Stock Price Stock price is a function of book value, EPS and the number of shares outstanding. Book value sets a floor, although negative earnings can depress stock price below book. Stock price can also be negatively impacted by emergency loans. In the absence of losses and emergency loans, Capstone’s stock price is primarily a function of past and present EPS. Excellent Stock price >$40 + 5 * Round number Satisfactory Stock price > $25 + 5 * Round number Poor Stock price >$10 + 5 * Round number Trouble Stock price < $10 + 5 * Round number In the table, “Round Number” refers to the year in the Capstone®. Round 1 is year 1, round 2 is year 2. The market is growing, and so should profits. As time passes and EPS increases, we should expect stock price to increase. 8 © 2011 Capsim Management Simulations, Inc. All rights reserved. Stock price is important because, ultimately, equity drives the company’s ability to raise capital for growth. Even if it never issues a share, a rising stock price means it is accumulating profits as retained earnings. More equity means that it can raise additional debt, and together its mix of debt and equity fuels the company’s growth. Also see the discussion for EPS and Leverage. Bond Rating The bond ratings are, from best to worst, AAA, AA, A, BBB, BB, B, CCC, CC, C, DDD. Bond ratings are driven by leverage. As bond ratings fall, interest rates climb on both short term and long term debt. As the bond rating decays, bond holders become reluctant to give the company additional debt. This sets a limit on the company’s ability to acquire additional assets, particularly automation, capacity, and new products. Since leverage is a function of equity, the bond rating is in some sense derived from equity. Companies can improve their bond rating by adding equity, either as a stock issue or as profits. The more equity they have, the more debt they can raise, and the bigger their asset base. Alternatively, companies can improve their bond rating by reducing debt. However, reducing debt also implies shrinking the asset base. While there are always exceptions to the rule, shrinking the asset base in a growing market would be limiting to growth. Excellent AAA, AA, A Satisfactory BBB, BB, B Poor CCC, CC, C Trouble DDD Emergency Loans If a company is out of cash on December 31st, a character in the simulation, Big Al, arrives to give it just enough money to bring its cash balance to zero. The company pays Big Al its short term interest rate plus a 7.5% premium. Stock price also falls – how much depending upon the severity of the loan. Excellent No emergency loan Satisfactory Emergency loan less than$1 million Poor Emergency loan less than $8 million Trouble Emergency loan greater than$8 million

The great majority of emergency loans are rooted in three mistakes.

1. The company purchased a plant, but did not fund it adequately. 2. The company forecasted too much demand, and when it did not materialize, its inventory

expansion exceeded reserves. 3. The company neglected to fund your current assets adequately, usually because it brought its

current debt to zero.

You can also direct students to the online Team Member Guide, and the Analyst Report, where emergency loans are also discussed at some length.

While painful, an emergency loan that purchased assets is not destructive so long as the assets are useful. After all, the company could have and should have funded the assets with cheaper debt. It now has an asset at its disposal, even though it overpaid for it.

However, there is another cause of emergency loans – sustained negative profits. The company is, well, a zombie, kept in motion by transfusions from the deep pockets of Big Al. The only advice we can offer here is, intervene before the company joins the walking dead. If profits are negative two years in row, intervene to improve margins and reverse the trend.

Current Ratio Current Ratio is defined as Current Assets/Current Liabilities, which in turn is (Cash + A/R + Inventory) / (A/P + Current Debt). From a banker and vendor’s point of view, it answers the question, “How likely am I to get my money back?”

Excellent 1.8 < Current Ratio <= 2.2 Satisfactory 1.6 < Current Ratio <=1.8, or 2.2 < Current Ratio <= 2.4 Poor 1.3 < Current Ratio <=1.4, or 2.4 < Current Ratio <= 2.7 Trouble Current Ratio < 1.3, or Current Ratio > 2.7

Like any asset, current assets are paid for with a mix of debt and equity. The debt is Accounts Payable and Current Debt, which we can think of as “short term funding”. The balance is “long term funding”, and it is probably equity, but it could be long term debt. More precisely this long term funding is Working Capital, which is defined as Current Assets – Current Liabilities.

What should the Current Ratio be? While that is a policy decision, we suggest starting with the debt/equity mix of the entire company. If the mix is 50/50 overall, why would the company have a different policy for Current Assets? If Current Assets are funded half with Current Liabilities and half with equity, then the Current Ratio is 2.0.

Where does trouble begin? A Current Ratio of 1.0 says that Current Assets are funded entirely with Current Liabilities. Bankers and Vendors are very worried, and are likely to withhold additional funding. They do not begin to relax until the ratio reaches 1.3, which in effect says for every $1.30 of current assets they fund$1.00. By 1.6 they remain watchful but are less concerned, and at 1.8 they are happy to lend money or offer credit.

However, trouble exists at the high side, too. A Current Ratio of 3.0 says that the company has $3.00 of assets for every$1.00 of debt, and therefore $2.00 of current assets are being funded with long term money. But if long term money is tied up with current assets, it cannot be used to fund long term assets – capacity, automation, and new products. Consider a stockholder. The stockholder knows that he/she gets no return on current assets. Stockholders make no return on Cash, on Accounts Receivable, or on inventory. In some sense they are necessary evils. Stockholders recognize the necessity of current assets, but if they expect a 20% return on their investment, they would rather the company borrow money from a bank at 10% so their money can be invested in wealth producing assets – capacity, automation, and new products. A stockholder wants to see a low Current Ratio, while vendors want to see a high Current Ratio. It follows from this reasoning that paying current debt to$0 is a mistake. The question companies must answer is, “How much current debt should be in the mix?”

In the real world, bankers will typically fund up to 75% of Accounts Receivable and 50% of inventory. Using this as a rule of thumb, here is a quick method to arrive at Current Debt before a company saves decisions.

1. Drive the proforma financial statements into a “worst case scenario”. In the worst case, the pessimistic unit sales forecast is put into the Marketing worksheet, and the best case unit sales forecast into the Production schedule. In the worst case, the proforma balance sheet ‘s inventory is at a maximum.

2. Looking at the proforma balance sheet, calculate 50% of the inventory and 75% of the Receivables.

3. On the Finance sheet, enter the result as Current Debt for next year.

Companies will discover that if its policy towards A/R is 30 days, its policy towards inventory is 90 days, and it has $1 of cash, then a policy of A/P at 30 days, and current debt at 75% of A/R and 50% of inventory, will give it a Current Ratio of about 2.0. Inventory Reserves Inventory expansions are the number one cause of emergency loans. This can be further broken down into two root causes – forecasting, and inadequate inventory reserves. By inventory reserves we mean, “How much inventory are we willing to accumulate during the year in our worst case?” We express this as “days of inventory.” Suppose the gross margin is 30%. If so, then the cost of inventory consumes 70% of every sales dollar. If sales are$100 million, over the course of a year the company spends $70 million on inventory. In one day it spends$191 thousand. In 30 days it spends $5.7 million. In 90 days$17.3 million.

We are interested in how many days of inventory the company planned to be able to absorb, because if inventory expanded beyond this, it would see Big Al for an emergency loan.

Excellent 75 to 105 days of inventory Satisfactory 55 to 75 days, or 105 to 135 days of inventory Poor 30 to 55 days, or 135 to 160 days of inventory Trouble Below 30 days or more than 160 days of inventory

To find inventory reserves we determine cash and inventory positions on January 2nd, after all the dust has settled from borrowing, stock issues, bond issues, debt retirement, etc.

Inventory reserves in days = ((Starting Cash + Starting Inventory)/COG) * 365. For example, if starting cash and inventory totaled 30 million on January 2nd, and annual cost of goods is expected to be $120 million, then days of inventory was$30/$120 * 365 or 91 days. If the company sells its entire inventory, it converts it all to cash. The more inventory accumulated, the more that cash is crystallized as inventory. Eventually the company runs out of cash and turns to Big Al to pay for the inventory that has accumulated in the warehouse. Companies can develop an inventory reserves policy by considering their worst case forecast for sales. If the inventory policy is 90 days, they can plan the production schedule so that they will have (1 + 90/365) = 125% of their worst case forecast, including any starting inventory. Companies cannot predict what competitors will do in detail. Therefore, companies plan for the worst and hope for the best. Trouble is highly likely to occur when inventory reserves are less than 30 days. The company may get away with it, but that requires both precise forecasting and predictable competitors or, more likely, lots of luck. Trouble appears in a different form when inventory reserves exceed 160 days. Now the company has idle assets, which should either have been put to work or given back to the stockholders. Plant Purchases Funded Failure to fully fund plant purchase is the number two cause of emergency loans. The error occurs because companies often count on profits or perhaps inventory reductions that do not materialize. Excellent Fully funded Satisfactory Funding shortfall is within$4 million Poor Funding shortfall is within $8 million Trouble Funding shortfall is greater than$8 million

Funding sources include:

1. Depreciation 2. Stock issue 3. Bond issues 4. Excess current assets

Depreciation often confuses students. While we do pay cash for expenses like promotion or inventory, we never actually pay cash for depreciation. And yet governments allow businesses to deduct depreciation as an expense, thereby reducing profits and taxes. Why?

Governments want businesses to continue to pay taxes, and they agree that equipment wears out and must be replaced. The purpose of depreciation is to set aside a guaranteed cash flow that can be used for the purchase of new plant and equipment. Teams can successfully argue that cash from depreciation is a valid source of funding.

Stock and bond issues raise long term funds for any investment in the company.

Excess current assets can be defined as “anything greater than the current assets required to operate in our worst case scenario”. For our purposes, we assume that teams need a minimum of 90 days of inventory, 30 days of accounts receivable, and $1 of cash. Of course, teams might want to have deeper reserves, but in applying the rubric to Plant Purchases, we allow companies to apply anything above this minimum to plant purchases. We use the January 1st balance sheet (same as the December 31st balance sheet from last year’s reports) to discover starting current assets. If the sum of the company’s funding sources is greater than its plant purchases, the company fully funded the purchase. If the shortfall is less than$4 million, it is plausible that its intention was to reduce the current asset base by $4 million. If the funding shortfall is$8 million, it is conceivable albeit unlikely that the shortfall was planned. Anything more than $8 million is cutting deeply into current assets, and will likely result in an emergency loan. Accounts Receivable The accounts receivable policy affects both demand and the balance sheet. Companies express the policy in days. A 30 day policy means that accounts receivable will be 30/365 * Sales. Excellent 45 to 60 days Satisfactory 30 to 45 days, or 60 to 75 days Poor 20 to 30 days, or 75 to 90 days Trouble Less than 20 days or more than 90 days On the balance sheet, if a company expands A/R policy from 30 days to 60 days, it doubles A/R. In effect it gives a loan to customers, and in the process it incurs the additional expense of carrying that loan. For 13 © 2011 Capsim Management Simulations, Inc. All rights reserved. example, if accounts receivable expanded from$10 million to $20 million, and the company funded the expansion with short term debt at 10%, it would incur an additional$1.0 million in interest expense.

On the other hand, demand would increase by about 5% from $120 million to$126 million, while fixed costs would remain the same. Profits would increase by about $0.8 million after paying the additional$1 million in interest expense. And, of course, the additional $6 million in sales came out of competitors. But there is a risk. It is trivial for competitors to copy A/R policies, and if that happens, the increase in demand is neutralized while everyone absorbs the additional$1.0 million in interest expense. The question then is, “Will competitors realize we have expanded our credit terms? All of them?”

Beyond 60 days, the incremental cost in interest exceeds the incremental gain in demand.

As companies shorten A/R policy, they effectively reduce the loan they have made to customers. Cash goes up, interest expense falls. However, customers want credit terms. If the company demands cash payment, demand falls to 65% of its potential.

These relationships are easily explored with the company’s Marketing worksheet. As they vary the A/R policy, they should watch the computer’s demand forecast.

Accounts Payable Accounts payable policy affects both parts deliveries and the balance sheet. Companies express the policy in days. A 30 day policy means that it pays vendors 30 days after it receives a bill.

Excellent 0 to 15 days Satisfactory 15 to 30 days Poor 30 to 45 days Trouble Over 45 days

On the balance sheet, if companies expand A/P policy from 30 to 60 days, it doubles A/P. In effect it extracts a loan from vendors on which its pay no interest. If payables expand from $10 million to$20 million, that means that it could borrow $10 million less from its banker, and if interest rates are 10%, it saves$1 million in interest expense.

However, vendors want to be paid. If they are not paid, they begin withholding parts deliveries. At 60 days, parts deliveries fall 8%. The company pays for the workforce, but it gets 8% less inventory to sell. In Round 1 this translates to about $2.35 million in wasted labor expense, and potentially missed sales from stockouts. A policy between 0 and 15 days improves production about 2%. This translates to about 84 thousand units that the company in Round 1 that the company would not have had before. In effect, the labor cost on these units is free, a savings of$700 thousand, plus the contribution margin on these units, another $800 thousand. These relationships are easily explored with the Production worksheet. As the company varies A/P policy, watch the impact upon total Production After Adjustments. 14 © 2011 Capsim Management Simulations, Inc. All rights reserved. Asset Turnover Asset Turnover or Sales/Assets answers the question, “For every dollar of assets, how many sales dollars do we generate?” We would like to generate as many sales dollars as possible. Excellent ATO > 1.3 Satisfactory 1.0 < ATO <=1.3 Poor 0.8 < ATO <= 1.0 Trouble ATO <= 0.8 In Capstone®, 1.0 to 1.3 (that is,$1.00 to $1.30 of sales for every dollar of assets) is considered satisfactory. Anything over 1.3 is excellent. Between 0.8 and 1.0, chances are the company has idle assets. Consider its starting Traditional product (Able, Baker, Cake, Daze, Eat, or Fast). In Round 0 it could produce 1.8 million units on first shift, yet demand was only 1.0 million units. Almost half the plant was idle. Its Sales/Assets ratio was depressed, dragging down the entire company’s Asset Turnover. Below 0.8 the company is in trouble. Either sales are depressed, or the assets are unproductive, or both. What can companies do to improve Asset Turnover? Fundamentally a company needs to increase demand or reduce the asset base. Many of the other items in the rubric drill down into these issues. Consider these questions: 1. Is the plant utilization on any product below 130%? (See plant utilization.) 2. Can the company make its products more competitive? (See Design, Awareness, Accessibility). 3. Are its current assets appropriate for its sales base? (See Sales to Current Assets). Excellent Asset Turnover >1.3 Satisfactory 1.0 < Asset Turnover < 1.3 Poor 0.8 < Asset Turnover < 1.0 Trouble Asset Turnover < 0.8 Sales to Current Assets This ratio asks the question, “Given our sales base, do we have adequate current assets to operate the company?” Current assets are comprised of Cash, Accounts Receivable and Inventory. In the worst case scenario, cash has dwindled to$1 as inventory expanded. The accounts receivable policy (for example, 30 day terms) is a direct function of Sales.

Given the A/R policy in days, inventory policy in days, and sales, it is easy to calculate whether a company has adequate Current Assets to operate the company. For example, suppose the company projects worst case sales to be $120 million, sets A/R policy to 30 days, and is willing to carry 90 days of inventory. If its gross margin is 30%, then it will spend 70% *$120 million on inventory during the year,

or $84 million, and a 90 day inventory policy translates to 90/365*$84 = $21 million. Accounts Receivable will be 30/365*$120 million = $10 million. In the worst case the company will have only$1 in cash. Current Assets = $1 +$10 million + $21 million =$31 Million. Sales/Current Assets = 3.8

Excellent 3.5 < Sales/Current Assets <4.5 Satisfactory 3.0 to 3.5, or 4.5 to 5.0 Poor 2.5 to 3.0, or 5.0 to 5.5 Trouble Sales/Current Assets < 2.5, or > 5.5

Too low a ratio risks a visit from Big Al. Too high a ratio indicates idle current assets which should either be put to work or given back to shareholders as a dividend or stock repurchase.

Overall Plant Utilization Overall Plant Utilization asks the question, “Are we working our plant hard?” It is calculated as Total Production / Total Capacity.

Excellent Plant Utilization > 1.7 Satisfactory Plant Utilization > 1.3 Poor Plant Utilization > 0.9 Trouble Plant Utilization < 0.9

It is easy to demonstrate that second shift is nearly always more profitable than first shift. This often surprises students who look at the 50% second shift wage premium and assume that second shift must be something to avoid. But suppose we only run one shift – by necessity it must pay all of the fixed costs – depreciation, R&D, Promotion, Sales Budget, Admin, and Interest. Anything on second shift only pays for the 50% premium on labor.

It follows that we want to run as much second shift as possible. In a perfect world, we would run two shifts, our best case demand forecast would come true, and we would have only one unit of inventory left at the end of the year. On the other hand, if we max out second shift, there is a good chance we could stock out, and stock outs are very costly. Therefore, 170% plant utilization or more is considered excellent and 130% satisfactory.

Stock Outs (Company level) Stock outs are HUGELY expensive. Consider a typical stock out. Demand is 500 thousand. The company stocks out at 400 thousand. The price is $30, and the unit cost is$21. Consider – the 400 thousand that were sold must have paid for all of the fixed costs – depreciation, R&D, Promotion, Sales Budget, Admin, and Interest. Therefore, the missed units would have only have paid for their cost of goods, contributing $900 thousand towards profit, been taxed at 35%, resulting in a$585 thousand net profit.

At the company level, we are interested in how many of the company’s products stocked out. (At the product level below, we will examine the individual stock out.) Chronic stock outs suggest problems with forecasting.

Excellent No product stocked out Satisfactory 1 product stocked out Poor 2 products stocked out Trouble 3 or more products stocked out

Bloated Inventories We define a bloated inventory as any product that has more than 4 months of sales sitting in the warehouse.

While it is not uncommon to be taken by surprise by a competitor on a single product (perhaps a new product was introduced), if inventories are bloated across several products, the company is having difficulty forecasting demand.

Excellent No product had a bloated inventory Satisfactory 1 or 2 products with bloated inventories Poor 3 or 4 products with bloated inventories Trouble 5 or more products with bloated inventories

Overall Actual vs. Potential Demand The company worked hard to create the demand, but did it meet it?

Potential Demand tells companies what they deserved to sell based upon customer preferences. Actual demand is what companies actually sold, and it is often affected by stock outs.

If companies are not meeting potential demand, the problem is usually forecasting, and sometimes capacity shortages.

Excellent Met potential demand (or exceeded) Satisfactory Met 98% of potential demand Poor Met 96 % of potential demand Trouble Met less than 96% of potential demand

Cost Leadership Cost leaders attack the cost of goods, both material and labor costs. We can assess overall cost leadership by assess the average unit cost across the company’s product line.

Excellent < $18 – (Round #/4) Satisfactory <$20 – (Round #/4) Poor <$22 – (Round # /4) Trouble >$22 – (Round#/4)

Over time we expect companies to become more efficient. The simulation advances the clock a year at a time, and a Round is one advance. Using the formula, an excellent average cost of goods in Round 2 is $17.50. Companies can attack cost of goods by: 1. Reducing MTBF. 2. Placing products well behind the leading edge of the segment. The Material cost can be several dollars cheaper per unit at the trailing edge versus the leading edge. 3. Automating to reduce labor costs Product Breadth How many products does the company have in its line-up? Consider this thought experiment. Suppose that there are four competitors in a segment and they all offer identical products. Each gets a 25% share. Now the “A” competitor adds a fifth identical product. “A’s” share becomes 40%. The gain was not free. “A” doubled its R&D, Promotion, Sales Budget, Admin costs, and it had to buy a new plant for its new product. But it has 40% share. “B” likes this and adds a sixth identical product to the mix. Its share (and “A’s”) are now 33%. What should “C” and “D” do? If they match, everybody’s costs double. If they do not match, their share falls from 25% to 16%. Product breadth also impacts accessibility. In Capstone® two products in a segment both contribute towards the Accessibility because two Sales Budgets are contributing instead of 1. You can only reach 100% accessibility if you have two or more products in the segment. Excellent 7 or 8 products Satisfactory 4, 5 or 6 products Poor 3 products Trouble 1 or 2 products Market Share Overall Overall market share is an indicator of strength or weakness. Companies began the simulation with a share of 1/#Teams. Excellent 1.5 times average share Satisfactory 0.9 to 1.5 times average share Poor 0.6 to 0.9 times average share Trouble <0. 6 times average share There is a synergistic relationship between falling share and expenses. Fixed costs do not vary much relative to sales from year to year. Fixed costs include R&D, Promotion, and Sales Budget. The R&D budget will be about the same whether the product is making$20 million in sales or $40 million in sales. 18 © 2011 Capsim Management Simulations, Inc. All rights reserved. But as market share slips, companies feel pressure to reduce these fixed costs. Trimming R&D, Promotion and Sales leads to reduced demand, which leads to lower share, then further trimming – a deadly spiral. Overall Awareness Economists speak of “perfect information”. In Capstone® 100% awareness means that the product loses none of its attractiveness because some potential customers are not aware of it. Awareness answers two questions, “How many potential customers know about a product before they make a purchase decision? How difficult is it for them to discover a product offer?” If awareness is 75%, then 75% know about the product beforehand, and 25% have to work to discover it. Attractiveness is expressed in the Customer Survey score. Products are evaluated on a scale of 0 to 100 on the four buying criteria – price, positioning, age, and reliability. A perfect product scores 100. If awareness is 100%, the perfect product keeps all 100 points. But as awareness falls, so does its product score. At 0% awareness, the perfect product is down to 50 points. Excellent Average awareness > 85% Satisfactory Average awareness > 70% Poor Average awareness > 50% Trouble Average awareness < 50% Overall awareness looks at the product line average awareness. A low average exposes a chronic problem with awareness. Overall Accessibility Accessibility addresses the question, “How easy is it for customers to work with the company during and after the sale?” Accessibility translates into sales people, distribution centers, customer service departments, etc. If accessibility is 75%, then 75% of customers find it easy to work with the company, and 25% have problems ranging from getting through to a salesman to taking delivery. Capstone® requires two products in a segment to reach 100% accessibility. With a single product, companies can reach 75% accessibility. This constraint is relaxed if the Advanced Marketing module is switched on, in which case teams are given direct access to their distribution channel budgets. Like Awareness, Accessibility affects the Customer Survey score. Products are evaluated on a scale of 0 to 100 on the four buying criteria – price, positioning, age, and reliability. A perfect product scores 100. If accessibility is 100%, the product keeps all 100 points. But as accessibility falls, so does its product score. At 0% accessibility, the perfect product’s score is down to 50 points. At 75% accessibility, an otherwise perfect product would score 87.5. Excellent Average accessibility > 70% Satisfactory Average accessibility > 60% Poor Average accessibility > 50% Trouble Average accessibility < 50% 19 © 2011 Capsim Management Simulations, Inc. All rights reserved. Overall accessibility looks at the product line’s average accessibility. A low average exposes a chronic problem with accessibility. Overall Design In Capstone® product design includes Positioning, Age, and Reliability. They offer the customer “value”, which is then compared with Price. Overall design averages these three design attributes across the product line. See the Product Rubric for Positioning, Age, and Reliability criteria. From an overall perspective, we average these rubric scores. Excellent Average across design attributes > 2.5 Satisfactory Average across design attributes > 1.5 Poor Average across design attributes > 0.5 Trouble Average across design attributes <0.5 A low average exposes a chronic problem with design. Asset Base Companies with a competitive advantage usually have a larger asset base than their competitors. For example, a broad product line or a highly automated plant implies a large investment in equipment. (See the discussion on Leverage.) Over time we expect teams to accumulate more assets. Excellent Assets >$84M + $20M * Round# Satisfactory Assets >$84M + $16M * Round# Poor Assets >$84M + $12M * Round# Trouble Assets <$84M + $12M * Round# In the table, “Round #” refers to the year in the Capstone®. Round 1 is year 1, round 2 is year 2. The market is growing, and so should our asset base. In Round 5, for example, and excellent asset base would be$84M + $20M * 5 =$184M, and a satisfactory asset base would be at least $164M. The Product Rubric Positioning Positioning refers to the product’s placement on the Perceptual Map relative to the Ideal Spot in its primary segment. The closer a product is to the ideal spot, the more points it earns towards its Customer Survey Score. 20 © 2011 Capsim Management Simulations, Inc. All rights reserved. The ideal spot is moving constantly across the map, while products only move when an R&D project finishes. Products play “leap frog” with the ideal spot. Excellent Product within 0.5 of ideal spot Satisfactory Product within 1.0 of ideal spot Poor Product within 1.5 of ideal spot Trouble Product beyond 1.5 of ideal spot Segment Importance Ideal Positioning Traditional 21% Ideal spot in center of segment. Low End 16% Ideal spot trails the center of the segment. High End 43% Ideal spot leads the center of the segment. Performance 29% Ideal spot leads the center of the segment. Size 43% Ideal spot leads the center of the segment. Age Age refers the customer’s perceived age of the design. When a product is repositioned in an R&D project, on the day of completion its age is cut in half. It becomes “the new improved” product, which is not as old as the previous model, but not brand new either. Product’s age throughout the year, becoming a little older each month. Excellent Product within 0.5 of ideal age Satisfactory Product within 1.0 of ideal age Poor Product within 1.5 of ideal age Trouble Product beyond 1.5 of ideal age Segment Importance Ideal Age Traditional 47% 2.0 Years Low End 24% 7.0 Years High End 29% 0.0 Years Performance 9% 1.0 Years Size 29% 1.5 Years Reliability Reliability refers the customer’s expectations for MTBF (Mean Time Before Failure) specification. This does not change over time. Excellent MTBF within 1000 hours of the top of the range Satisfactory MTBF within 2500 hours of the top of the range Poor MTBF within 4000 hours of the top of the range Trouble MTBF below 4000 hours of the top of the range 21 © 2011 Capsim Management Simulations, Inc. All rights reserved. Segment Importance MTBF Range Traditional 9% 14000 – 19000 hours Low End 7% 12000 – 17000 hours High End 19% 20000 – 25000 hours Performance 45% 22000 – 27000 hours Size 19% 16000 – 21000 hours Price Percentile The Price Percentile is defined as (Price – Low End of Expected Price Range)/(High End – Low End). For example, if the expected price range is$30-$40, a$32 is at the 20th percentile.

The Expected Price Range declines by $0.50 each year. For example, if the expected price range was$20-$30 last year, it will be$19.50 to $29.50 this year. Excellent Below the 50th percentile Satisfactory Below the 75th percentile Poor Below the 90th percentile Trouble Above the 90th percentile Segment Importance Expected Price Range Round 0 Traditional 23%$20 – $30 Low End 53%$15 – $25 High End 9%$30 – $40 Performance 19%$25 – $35 Size 9%$25 – $35 To be candid, this particular item in the rubric is difficult to defend. For example, in the High End, it makes little sense to price below the 50th percentile. Further, competitive rivalry is certainly a factor in pricing, yet what is “Excellent” in one situation could be “Poor” in another. Yet we must say something about pricing. In the end we decided to use the customer’s perspective. A customer would say that any price below the 50th percentile in the range is an excellent price. Awareness (See also Overall Awareness.) Economists speak of “perfect information”. In Capstone® 100% awareness means that your product loses none of its attractiveness because some potential customers are not aware of the product. Awareness answers two questions, “How many potential customers know about the product before they make a purchase decision? How difficult is it for them to discover the product offer?” If awareness is 75%, then 75% know about your product beforehand, and 25% have to work to discover it. Attractiveness is expressed in the Customer Survey score. Products are evaluated on a scale of 0 to 100 on the four buying criteria – price, positioning, age, and reliability. A perfect product scores 100. If 22 © 2011 Capsim Management Simulations, Inc. All rights reserved. awareness is 100%, a product keeps all 100 points. But as awareness falls, so does the product score. At 0% awareness, the perfect product is down to 50 points. Excellent Awareness > 90% Satisfactory Awareness > 75% Poor Awareness > 50% Trouble Awareness <= 50% Accessibility (See also Overall Accessibility.) Accessibility addresses the question, “How easy is it for customers to work with the company during and after the sale?” Accessibility translates into sales people, distribution centers, customer service departments, etc. If accessibility is 75%, then 75% of customers find it easy to work with the company, and 25% have problems ranging from getting through to a salesman to taking delivery. Capstone® requires two products in a segment to reach 100% accessibility. With a single product, companies can reach 75% accessibility. This constraint is relaxed if the Advanced Marketing module is switched on, in which case teams are given direct access to their distribution channel budgets. Like Awareness, Accessibility affects the Customer Survey score. Products are evaluated on a scale of 0 to 100 on the four buying criteria – price, positioning, age, and reliability. A perfect product scores 100. If accessibility is 100%, the product keeps all 100 points. But as accessibility falls, so does the product score. At 0% accessibility, the product score is down to 50 points. At 75% accessibility, an otherwise perfect product would score 87.5. Excellent Accessibility > 75% Satisfactory Accessibility > 60% Poor Accessibility > 50% Trouble Accessibility <= 50% Customer Survey Score In any month, a product’s demand is driven by its monthly customer survey score. Assuming it does not run out of inventory, a product with a higher score will outsell a product with a lower score. A customer survey score reflects how well a product meets its segment’s buying criteria. Company promotion, sales and accounts receivable policies also affect the survey score. Scores are calculated once each month because a product’s age and positioning change a little each month. If during the year a product is revised by Research and Development, the product’s age, positioning and MTBF characteristics can change quite a bit. As a result, it is possible for a product with a very good December customer survey score to have had a much poorer score – and therefore poorer sales – in the months prior to an R&D revision. 23 © 2011 Capsim Management Simulations, Inc. All rights reserved. The Rubric exams the December Customer Survey score. Scores are on a scale of 0 to 100, but scores above 60 are rare. Excellent December Customer Survey Score > 45 Satisfactory December Customer Survey Score > 30 Poor December Customer Survey Score > 15 Trouble December Customer Survey Score <= 15 Potential Share/Average Share This ratio offers insight into how well the product is doing relative to an average product. The potential share is what the product would have sold had there been sufficient inventory in every month. Average share is 1/Teams. If there are 6 teams, average share would be 16.67%. For example, if product Able’s potential share was 20%, then the ratio would be 20%/16.67% = 1.2. Observe that the fewer the products in a segment, the higher the potential. We are not using the number of products to compute an average share, but the number of competitors in the industry. All teams had one product in the segment at the beginning of the simulation. We are also interested in the rivalry in the segment, and where the team has chosen to compete. For example, if only 3 products are left in the segment, and our product had a 40% share, the ratio would yield 40%/16.67% = 2.4. But if there are now 10 products in the segment, and our share is 12%, the ratio would yield 12%/16.67% = 0.72. Therefore, we are asking the related questions, “Did you choose a good place to compete?”, and “Were you successful in either driving competitors out or in keeping them from entering?” Excellent Potential/Average Share > 1.5 Satisfactory Potential/Average Share > 1.0 Poor Potential/Average Share > 0.5 Trouble Potential/Average Share < 0.5 Actual Share/Potential Share This ratio examines the question, “Did the product meet the demand it generated?” It ignores those situations where the product picked up undeserved demand from a competitor’s stock out. Excellent Actual/Potential share > 0.999 Satisfactory Actual/Potential share > 0.949 Poor Actual/Potential share > 0.899 Trouble Actual/Potential share <=0.899 24 © 2011 Capsim Management Simulations, Inc. All rights reserved. Plant Utilization See also Overall Plant Utilization. As discussed some second shift production is desirable. Excellent Plant Utilization > 150% Satisfactory Plant Utilization > 100% Poor Plant Utilization > 90% Trouble Plant Utilization <=90% Automation Potential automation levels in a segment are affected by R&D cycle times. On the one hand, a team wants all the automation they can get. On the other, the higher the automation level, the more difficult it becomes to reposition a product in a 12 month time-frame. For example, in the fastest moving High End segment, it is highly desirable to reposition a product every year. At an automation level of 6.5 to 7.0, this becomes difficult. R&D cycle times are further constrained by the number of projects underway – the more projects, the longer each project takes. Therefore, a differentiator with a broad product line cannot automate as highly as a niche differentiator with a narrower product line. In the table below, automation levels are listed by segment in the order of Traditional, Low End, High End, Performance and Size. Excellent Automation > (8,9,6,7,7) Satisfactory Automation > (6,7,5,6,6) Poor Automation > (5,6,4,5,5) Trouble Automation < (5,6,4,5,5) Contribution Margin Contribution margin is defined as: (Price – Unit Cost)/Price. It is the percentage of the price left over after paying for the inventory. The remainder can then be applied towards fixed costs. As a practical matter it is difficult to make a profit in Capstone® if the contribution margin is less than 30%. Excellent Contribution Margin > 36% Satisfactory Contribution Margin > 30% Poor Contribution Margin > 25% Trouble Contribution Margin <= 25% Days of Inventory Days of Inventory addresses the question, “Given our rate of annual sales, how many more days would it take to sell our inventory?” 25 © 2011 Capsim Management Simulations, Inc. All rights reserved. Excellent 1 <= Days of Inventory <=45 Satisfactory 45 < Days of Inventory <=90 Poor 90 < Days of Inventory <= 120 Trouble 120 < Days of Inventory OR 0 (stocked out) Promotion Budget The promotion budget is subject to diminishing returns. Beyond$2 million per year little additional gain is seen in awareness, and by $3 million any gain has disappeared. On the other hand, we would like to see a product reach 100% awareness eventually. If it does reach 100%, the company can maintain its awareness for$1.4 million each year.

Excellent $1.4M < Promo Budget <=$2.0M Satisfactory $1.0..$1.4M, or $2.0..$2.5M Poor $0.7..$1.0M, or $2.5..$3.0M Trouble <$0.7M, or >$3.0M

Sales Budget The Sales Budget is subject to diminishing returns. Beyond $3.0M the product contributes no additional gain in accessibility. Excellent$2.2M < Sales Budget <=$3.0M Satisfactory$1.5M < Sales Budget <=$2.2M Poor$0.7M < Sales Budget <= $1.5M Trouble Sales Budget <$0.7M

R&D Utilization We would like to see the R&D department work as hard as possible. If a project ends before December, we are wasting months of potential R&D time. If a company discovers that they can reposition a product perfectly in less than 12 months, it should add additional automation to both reduce labor costs and improve R&D utilization.

Excellent Project ends in December Satisfactory Project ends in November Poor Project ends in October Trouble Project ends before October

Overall Product Evaluation How did the team do on each element across the product line? We sum the row and divide by the product count. For example, if a team has 4 products and their positioning scores are (3,2,3,2), the formula will yield 10/4 = 2.5 which will round to 3.

Summary Rubrics

Using the Courier Excellent – 3 points Satisfactory –

2 points Poor – 1

point Trouble – 0

point

1 Pg 1. ROS >8% 4%..8% 0%..4% < 0% 2 Pg 1. Turnover >1.3 1.0..1.3 0.8..1.0 < 0.8

3 Pg 1. Leverage 1.8 – 2.5 1.6-1.8, 2.5-2.8

1.4-1.6,2.8 – 3.2 <1.4, >3.2

4 Pg 1. Emergency Loan $0$0 – $1M$1M .. $8M >$8M 5 Pg 1. Contrib. Margin >35% 27% .. 35% 22% .. 27% <22%

6

Pg 1. Market Share (depends on # teams) >1.5 times

average share

0.9 – 1.5 times average

share

0.6 – 0.9 times

average share

< 0.6 times average share

7 Pg 2. Stock Price (round # =

1..8) >$40 + 5*Round # >$25 +

5*Round # >$10 + 5*Round # <$10 +

5*Round #

8 Pg 2. Stock Price Change

>$20 >$7 >-$5 <-$5

9 Pg 2. EPS (round # = 1..8) >$2 + Round # >(2 + round#)/3$0..(2+Roun

d#)/3 < $0 10 Pg 2. Bond Rating AAA, AA, A BBB, BB, B CCC, CC, C DDD 11 Pg 3. Inventory fluctuation reserves 75..105 days 55..75, or 105..135 days 30..55, or 135..160 days <30 or >160 days 12 Pg 3. Plant Improvement$12M to $24M investment$6..12M or $24..30M investment$0..$6M or$31..$36M investment <$0M or >$36M investment 13 Pg. 3. Plant purchases funded. StockIssues+BondIssues+Depre ciation+Excess Working Capital – Plant Improvement Fully funded. Funding-Plant Improvement> 0 Funded within$4M.

Funding-Plant Improvement

> -$4M Funded within$8M.

Funding- Plant

Improvemen t > -$8M Not funded within$8M

14

Pg 3. Sales to Current Assets (Note. Typically AR policy is 30

days and inventory 90 days. Ratio between

3.5 and 4.5

Ratio is 3.0..3.5 or

4.5..5.0

Ratio 2.5..3.0 or

5.0..5.5

Ratio <2.5 or >5.5

15

Pg 3. Current Ratio (Current Assets over Current Liabilities) Ratio between

1.8 and 2.2 Ratio 1.6..1.8

or 2.2..2.4 1.3..1.6 or

2.4..2.7 <1.3 or >2.7

16 Pg. 3 Total Assets >($84M+20*R ound#) >($84M+16*R

ound#) >($84M+12* Round#) <($84M+12*Ro

und#)

17

Pg. 4. Overall Plant Utilization (Total Production/Total Capacity)

>1.7 >1.3 >0.9 <0.9

18

Pg.4 Automation Spread All Product Automation with 2.0 of each other

All Product Automation with 3.0 of each other

>All Product Automation within 4.0 of each other

19 Pg 4. Product count >7 products >=4 products <4 products <4 products 20 Pg 4. Stock outs None 1 stockout 2 stockouts 3 or more

21

Pg. 4 Products with Big Inventories. (More than > 4

months of sales.) None <=2 products <=4 products 5+ products

22 A/R credit terms 45-60 days 30-45 or 60-75 days

20-30 or 75- 90 days

<20 days or >90 days

23 A/P credit terms 0-15 days 15-30 days 30-45 days >45 days

24

Pg 10 Overall Actual versus Potential Demand Met Demand

Met 98% of potential demand

Met 96% of potential demand

Met < 96% of potential demand

25 Average Unit Cost <$18-round#/4 <$20-round#/4

<$22- round#/4 >$22-Round#/4

Product Rubric

Excellent – 3 points

Satisfactory – 2 points

Poor – 1 point

Trouble – 0 point

1 Positioning Within 0.5 of Ideal Spot Within 1.0 Within 1.5 Beyond 1.5

2 Age Within 0.5 of

ideal age Within 1.0 Within 1.5 Beyond 1.5

3 Reliability

Within 1000 of top of range Within 2500 Within 4000

Below 4000 from top of

range

4 Price Percentile <50% of the

range <75% of the

range <90% of the

range >90% of the

range 5 Awareness >90% >75% >50% <=50% 6 Accessibility >75% >60% >50% <=50% 7 Customer Survey Score >45 >30 >15 <15

8 Potential Share/Avg

>1.5*average share

>Average share

>0.5 * average

share

<0.5 * average share

9 Actual Share/Potential >0.999 >0.949 >0.899 Unit

Sales<=.899 10 Plant Utilization >=150% >=100% >=90% <90%

11 Automation >=(8,9,6,7,7) >=(6,7,5,6,6) >=(5,6,4,5,5

) <(5,6,4,5,5)

12 Contribution Margin >=36% >=30% >=25% <25%

13 Days of Inventory 1..45 days 45..90 days 90..120

days >120 days or

stock out

14 Promotion Budget $1.4M..2.0M 1.0M..1.4M, 2.0M..2.5M 0.7M..1.0M, 2.5M..3M.. <0.7M or >3.0M 15 Sales Budget$2.2M..3.0M 1.5M..2.2M 0.7M..1.5M <0.7M or >3.0M

16 R&D Utilization Project ends in December

Project ends in November

Project ends in October

Project ends before October

• How to Use This Report
• Sample Report
• The Company Rubric
• ROS
• EPS (Earnings Per Share)
• Contribution Margin
• Change in Stock Price
• Leverage
• Stock Price
• Bond Rating
• Emergency Loans
• Current Ratio
• Inventory Reserves
• Plant Purchases Funded
• Accounts Receivable
• Accounts Payable
• Asset Turnover
• Sales to Current Assets
• Overall Plant Utilization
• Stock Outs (Company level)
• Bloated Inventories
• Overall Actual vs. Potential Demand
• Market Share Overall
• Overall Awareness
• Overall Accessibility
• Overall Design
• Asset Base
• The Product Rubric
• Positioning
• Age
• Reliability
• Price Percentile
• Awareness
• Accessibility
• Customer Survey Score
• Potential Share/Average Share
• Actual Share/Potential Share
• Plant Utilization
• Automation
• Contribution Margin
• Days of Inventory
• Promotion Budget
• Sales Budget
• R&D Utilization
• Overall Product Evaluation
• Summary Rubrics
Categories

## clc nursing

Pros and cons of mandatory continuing nursing education

Karen DeFilippis, Idalmis Espinosa

Lasharia Graham, Ijeoma Igbokwe

Karan Kortlander, Jessica McGillen

October 01, 2017

objectives

Discuss the pros and cons of continuing education in nursing in the following areas:

Impact on competency.

Impact on knowledge and attitudes.

Relationship to professional certification.

Relationship to ANA Scope and Standards of Practice.

Relationship to ANA Code of Ethics.

Impact on competency

Pros: Cons:

Increased personal knowledge Time

Increased use of EBP treatments Cost

Improved patient outcomes

Increased confidence

Developing and maintaining skills

Professional Networking

“Currently in many states, a nurse is determined to be competent when initially licensed and thereafter unless proven otherwise. Yet many believe this is not enough and are exploring other approaches to assure continuing competence in today’s environment where technology and practice are continually changing, new health care systems are evolving and consumers are pressing for providers who are competent” (Whittaker, Carson, & Smolenski, 2000).

“The ultimate outcomes of continuing nursing education (CNE) activities are to improve the professional practice of nursing and thereby the care that is provided by registered nurses to patients” (American Nurses Credentialing Center’, 2014)

Effective workplace learning, based on current evidence, appears to show potential to prevent errors, support health professional reflection on practice and performance, foster ongoing professional development, and sustain improved individual and organization performance outcomes.

Cost- “Continuing education can be costly. For instance, it is costly to pay employees to attend a nursing lecture or conference and to be away from the patients’ bedside. Additionally, purchasing videos or subscribing to magazines does require an associated payment. Lastly, implementing a change is costly it requires training and often new equipment. Without question, cost is a confounding variable” (Ward, 2013)

Time- This can be time away from work and family. For the employer ‘implementing a change in practice does require time, as does completing continuing education credit hours. This could mean time away from the patient which, in most instances, is frowned upon” (Ward, 2013)

3

Pros of higher education in nursing

Enhance patients’ outcome.

Reduces medication errors.

Update with new trends.

Increased knowledge on technology use.

Treatment evaluation and recovery.

Enhance collaboration and networking.

Widens employment opportunities for nurses (University of Saint Mary,2017).

Higher nursing education prepares nurses to make a difference in delivering safe and effective care to patients, nurses gain the skills needed to safely administer medication while eliminating or reducing medication errors, monitoring and assessing the patient’s response to medications (University of Saint Mary, 2017). Nurses acquire proficiency on the use of new technologies because higher education programs explores the latest technology. Nurses are updated on the new trends in healthcare to keep up with patients’ changing needs. Nurses are able to effectively and proficiently coordinate patients’ care by collaborating and communicating with other health care teams, gain new knowledge through networking; nurses are exposed to seminars where they meet and interact with other healthcare professional.

Nurses are prepared to evaluate patients’ response to treatment and follow up after discharge to improve the quality of patients lives (University of Saint Mary, 2017). Nurses who have higher education certificates have more employment opportunities. Most hospitals requiring nurses to go back to school to get BSN, and preferring to hire nurses who have BSN.

4

Cons and attitudes of not continuing with higher education in nursing

Limited career opportunities and positions.

Poor patient outcome.

Lack of confidence.

Limited Knowledge, competency and skills.

Lack of opportunities for collaboration.

There are several disadvantage of not pursing higher education in nursing, nurses are most times denied of a job or a position due to the level of their education. Nurses who starts as staff nurses are promoted to a higher position with experience, good performance and continuous education (College Grad, 2017). Studies have linked poor patients outcome to lack of nursing skills and knowledge; Thus to enhance patient’s safety and quality care, nurses are required to go for a higher education or study as recommended in Institute of medicine report . Higher education does not only benefit the patients but also boost the confidence of nurses. Lack of confidence decrease self-esteem, every nurses needs to believe in him/herself to work effectively and efficiently while collaborating with other health care team. Lack of education limits learning new skills and opportunity to grow in knowledge and also could hinder opportunities to fellowship or collaborate effectively with other health care professionals.

5

Pros of continuing higher education related to the relationship to professional certification

Increases knowledge and quality of care in nursing practice.

Enhances nurses’ ability to compete in the job market.

Develops a nurses’ confidence and professionalism.

Defines nursing practice and attests to ongoing qualifications (Brunt).

The ANA defines certification as an achievement of exemplary nursing knowledge; therefore, continuing education promotes the above noted benefits. The question of mandatory continuing education for nurses has been brewing since the 1960s (Brunt). The National League for Nursing supports that mandatory continuing education should be required for relicensure. Currently, there are more than 68 various certifications available to nurses, and most of them require continuing education programs.

6

CONS OF CONTINUING HIGHER EDUCATION RELATED TO THE RELATIONSHIP TO PROFESSIONAL CERTIFICATION

Cons include:

Education does not assure competence.

Continuing education is expensive.

Evaluation tools are ineffective and not always accurate (Brunt).

Continuing education does not show evidence of better patient-care outcomes (Eustace, 2001).

Those opposed to mandatory continuing education maintain that as professionals, nurses are personally responsible to identify and acquire appropriate education (Brunt). Some have pointed out that mandatory continuing education does not necessarily address advanced practice nurses, or those in administration, research, and education. Others argue that it may be difficult to obtain continuing education in remote areas, and that most healthcare practitioners already take part in continuing education on their own (Brunt).

7

PROS TO CONTINUING EDUCATION RELATED TO ANA SCOPE AND STANDARDS OF PRACTICE

Improves quality of patient care

Expands knowledge and contribute to career growth

Ensures competency in practice

Providing best evidence based nursing care

The scope of practice is defined by the , “who”, “what”, “where”, “when”, “why”, and “how” of nursing practice. The practice of nursing requires specialized knowledge, skills and independent decision making. Every nurse should be knowledgeable and up to date with the latest evidence based practice in order to provide the best care to their patients. With higher education nurses are able to take on leadership roles. Leadership roles are important to help lead change to transform health care, and for “public, private, and governmental health care decision makers at every level” to “include representation from nursing on boards (Campaign for Action, 2014).

8

CONS TO CONTINUING EDUCATION RELATED TO ANA SCOPE AND STANDARDS OF CARE

Cost of Tuition

Balancing Personal life

Lack of appropriate knowledge on the subject

Lack of a guarantee that the continuing education standards will assist the nurse in the nursing field

The cost of going back to school can be very expensive. There are programs to help pay for some of the cost for tuition, but you still are responsible for a portion of the tuition. Some may not even know about the different programs to help you pay for school. They may be paying out of pocket. And we all know once we graduate, loan repayment will be waiting on us.

Another disadvantage of returning to school is balancing personal life. Some of us work full time jobs and have kids like myself. I also have a part time job as well. It can become very difficult squeezing classes in on top of our already busy schedule. Sometimes I don’t get a chance to do my work until the last minute when its due. I know there were plenty of times I felt like just giving up on classes because I don’t have enough time in a day to get every thing done. Then I start thinking of all the benefits of higher education

9

CODE OF ETHICS provision 5 related to Continuing Education

As outlined by the ANA, provision 5 includes that nurses owe the same duties to self as others, this includes responsibility to preserve integrity and safety, maintain competence, and to continue personal professional growth (Fowler and American Nurse Association, 2010).

PROS

Fair and equal treatment

Safe patient care

Be competent

Be educated to provide the best care

Grow professional and personally

Expand career knowledge and skills

Integrity

Builds confidence

Helps guide better decision making

Creates trust

Extends positive influence

CONS

Personal and professional growth requires a time commitment

Being competent and advancing can include a financial commitment

Growing pains

Feeling out of comfort zone

The Code of Ethics is a public expression of what a nurse commits oneself to when entering the workforce as a nurse. The Code expresses values, duties, and commitments that all nurses will strive for (ANA, 2010). There are many pros and a few cons to nurses agreeing to follow the Code of Ethics. The pros mentioned above can greatly outweigh the cons. As nurses we are here to serve people, we extend ourselves to care for others. In caring for others we must also care for our self in the process. The ANA outlines for professional growth a nurse is responsible for “continued reading, study, observation, and investigation” (2010). All of the above are outlined by the ANA.

10

CODE OF ETHICS PROVISION 7 RELATED TO CONTINING EDUCATION

Fowler and the American Nurses Association defined provision 7 as, a nurses participation in the advancement of the profession through contributions to practice, education, administration, and knowledge development (2010).

PROS

In education

In practices of care

Knowledge

CONS

Having the need to want advancement

Time commitment

Possible financial commitment

Growing pains

Being pushed out of your comfort zone

Nurses are the forefront of advancement for the medical field. We hold many positions from floor nursing, administration and educators within the health care system. For the field of nursing and nurses to continue to grow and advance we all must pledge to participate in advancing the profession with education, and the search of knowledge. Examples of ways that nursing has advanced from the past is nurses now have advanced degrees such as: Master and doctoral level educations and also Nurse Practitioners. The ANA provides specifics on where nurses can advance the profession; be involved in healthcare policy, develop, maintain and implement professional standards in clinical practice, administration and education practices, and apply knowledge development, dissemination and application to practice (2010). As nurses the ANA Code of Ethics provides a pathway to things that will improve nursing practice as a whole.

11

CODE OF ETHICS

CONCLUSION

References

American Nurses Credentialing Center. (2014). The Importance of Evaluating the Impact of Continuing Nursing Education on Outcomes:Professional Nursing Practice and Patient Care. Retrieved from http://www.nurse.credentialing.org/Accreditation/

Fowler, M. D., & American Nurses Association. (2010). Guide to the code of ethics for nurses: Interpretation and application. Silver Spring, MD: American Nurses Association.

Ward, J. (2013, January 23). The Pros and Cons of Getting Nursing CEUs. Retrieved from Nurse Together: http://

www.nursetogether.com/pros-and-cons-getting-nursing-ceus

Whittaker, S., Carson , W., & Smolenski, M. C. (2000, September). Assuring Continued Competence – Policy Questions and Approaches: How Should the Profession Respond? Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. Retrieved from : http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/

Brunt, B. The importance of lifelong learning in managing risks. The Nursing

Eustace, L. (2001). Mandatory continuing education:past, present, and future trends & issues.

The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing 32(3).

References

University of Saint Mary. (2017) Higher Nursing Education and its Impact on Patient Safety. Retrieved on September 21st from http://online.stmary.edu/rn-bsn/resources/higher-nursing-education-impact-on-patient-safety

Categories

## which of the following statements about special sessions of the texas legislature is true?

Question1

Marks: 1

The structural weakening of the office of the governor and the creation of the plural executive in Texas was NOT the result of which of the following?

 [removed] a. The reaction of Texans to Reconstruction [removed] b. The desire of the founding fathers of Texas to closely copy the structure and operation of the executive branch of the federal government in Washington [removed] c. The Constitution of 1876 [removed] d. The reaction of Texans to the governorship of E.J. Davis

Question2

Marks: 1

Legislators in Texas are

 [removed] a. appointed by the governor. [removed] b. elected in single-member districts in the House of Representatives and in at-large elections in the Texas Senate. [removed] c. all elected in single-member districts. [removed] d. subject to term limitation by the Texas Constitution of 1876. [removed] e. all elected in at-large elections.

Question3

Marks: 1

Although the Governor prepares a budget to submit to the Texas Legislature at the beginning of a session, the members of the Legislature typically ignore the budget proposed by the Governor in favor of a budget drafted by the

 [removed] a. State Commission on Budgetary Development and Analysis. [removed] b. Comptroller. [removed] c. State Treasurer. [removed] d. Legislative Budget Board. [removed] e. Congressional Budget Office.

Question4

Marks: 1

The governor of Texas may grant executive clemency.

[removed]True[removed]False

Question5

Marks: 1

The vice president of the United States is, according to the U.S. Constitution, the president of the U.S. Senate; however, according to the rules of the U.S. Senate he has little authority over that body. The real head of the U.S. Senate is the Senate Majority Leader. Who is the President of the Texas Senate and the real leader of the Texas Senate?

 [removed] a. the lieutenant governor of Texas is the president of the Texas Senate but the real leader of the Texas Senate is the Senate majority leader of the Texas Senate [removed] b. the lieutenant governor is the president of the Texas Senate and is, under the rules of the Texas Senate, the real leader of the Texas Senate [removed] c. the lieutenant governor of Texas is the president of the Texas Senate, however, the real leader of the Texas Senate is the leader of the majority party in the Texas Senate [removed] d. the vice president of Texas is the president of the Texas Senate, however, the real leader of the Texas Senate is the Senate majority leader [removed] e. the speaker of the Texas House also acts as the president of the Texas Senate and is its actual leader

Question6

Marks: 1

In what type of committee is the bulk of the work in the legislature done?

 [removed] a. Joint committee [removed] b. Standing committee [removed] c. Combined committee [removed] d. Special committee [removed] e. Conference committee

Question7

Marks: 1

How long is a special session of the Texas Legislature?

 [removed] a. up to 140 days [removed] b. no more than two weeks [removed] c. up to 30 days [removed] d. as long as required to complete the agenda of the governor. [removed] e. no more than one year

Question8

Marks: 1

How many members are there on the Texas Railroad Commission?

 [removed] a. three [removed] b. nine [removed] c. 12 [removed] d. 15 [removed] e. six

Question9

Marks: 1

The principal responsibility of the Texas Secretary of State is

 [removed] a. to negotiate treaties for Texas with foreign governments. [removed] b. to regulate electric and telephone rates in Texas. [removed] c. to act as the chief election officer for the State of Texas. [removed] d. to collect taxes for the State of Texas. [removed] e. to act as the head of the president of the Senate when the Texas legislature is in session.

Question10

Marks: 1

Before an appointment by the governor to an executive branch board or agency becomes effective, the governor’s nominee must first be reviewed and approved by

 [removed] a. the judicial branch of Texas government, in the form of the Texas Supreme Court, in its oversight function of the executive and legislative branches of government. [removed] b. a vote of the Texas Senate. [removed] c. a vote of the full legislature. [removed] d. a vote of the Texas House. [removed] e. a joint conference committee made up of Texas Senators and Representatives.

Question11

Marks: 1

Which branch is the central policymaking institution of state government?

 [removed] a. the Texas Supreme Court [removed] b. the Joint Committee on Public Policy of the Texas House of Representatives [removed] c. the plural executive [removed] d. the Central Policy Commission of Texas [removed] e. the Texas legislature

Question12

Marks: 1

Most of the legislative work of the Texas Legislature is conducted

 [removed] a. by the governor. [removed] b. in legislative committees. [removed] c. on the floor of the Texas House. [removed] d. during special sessions of the legislature. [removed] e. in the House of Representatives.

Question13

Marks: 1

The largest area of tax revenue for State of Texas comes from

 [removed] a. income taxes. [removed] b. sales taxes. [removed] c. severance taxes. [removed] d. ad valorem taxes. [removed] e. property taxes.

Question14

Marks: 1

There are how many members in the Texas House of Representatives?

 [removed] a. 435 [removed] b. 32 [removed] c. 31 [removed] d. it varies from session to session depending on the state’s population [removed] e. 150

Question15

Marks: 1

Probably the most contentious issue facing the State Board of Education is its periodic review of

 [removed] a. textbook adoptions. [removed] b. state budget requests. [removed] c. teacher salaries. [removed] d. state football programs. [removed] e. University Interscholastic League literary competition rules.

Question16

Marks: 1

The Comptroller of Public Accounts is

 [removed] a. the chief election officer of the State of Texas. [removed] b. the chief tax collector for the State of Texas. [removed] c. responsible for collecting overdue child support payments for Texans. [removed] d. responsible for administering the Texas Veterans’ Land Board. [removed] e. issuing corporation charters and monitoring public corporations in the State of Texas.

Question17

Marks: 1

How can the Texas Legislature override a legislative veto by the Governor?

 [removed] a. the Texas Constitution forbids the Legislature to override a gubernatorial veto [removed] b. by a vote of a conference committee [removed] c. by a majority vote of the Texas Senate alone in the exercise of its advise and consent power [removed] d. by a 2/3rds vote of members present from both houses [removed] e. by a simple majority vote of members present from both houses

Question18

Marks: 1

What type of bill applies only to one unit of local government (example: the Legislature creates a new county-court-at-law for Harris County)?

 [removed] a. general bill [removed] b. a true bill [removed] c. a resolution [removed] d. a special bill [removed] e. private bill

Question19

Marks: 1

The predominant occupation for members of today’s Texas legislature are

 [removed] a. pharmacy and real estate. [removed] b. business and finance. [removed] c. medicine and insurance. [removed] d. law and business. [removed] e. education.  education and sales.

Question20

Marks: 1

The Lieutenant Governor is elected every four years by

 [removed] a. the voters of the State of Texas. [removed] b. the members of the Texas Senate. [removed] c. the caucus of the majority party at the start of a new legislative session. [removed] d. a vote of the full legislature. [removed] e. a single-member district election in Travis County, home county for the Texas Legislature (in Austin).

Question21

Marks: 1

David Dewhurst is the

 [removed] a. Texas Land Commissioner [removed] b. Governor of Texas [removed] c. Comptroller of Public Accounts [removed] d. Lieutenant Governor of Texas [removed] e. Texas Secretary of State

Question22

Marks: 1

Rick Perry is currently the

 [removed] a. Lieutenant Governor of Texas. [removed] b. Texas Secretary of State. [removed] c. Comptroller of Public Accounts. [removed] d. Governor of Texas. [removed] e. Texas Agricultural Commissioner.

Question23

Marks: 1

Which of the following government entities does NOT rely on or operate primarily from property taxes?

 [removed] a. County government [removed] b. Independent school districts [removed] c. State government [removed] d. Municipal government [removed] e. Community college districts

Question24

Marks: 1

Which of the following officials enforces the state’s weights and measures laws?

 [removed] a. Texas Secretary of State [removed] b. Governor of Texas [removed] c. Texas Land Commissioner [removed] d. Comptroller of Public Accounts [removed] e. Texas Agriculture Commissioner

Question25

Marks: 1

What is the purpose served by an interim committee of the Texas Legislature?

 [removed] a. to iron out differences between different versions of legislation passed by the House and the Senate [removed] b. to meet and study issues in the period between regular legislative sessions [removed] c. to draft a state budget for consideration be the full legislature [removed] d. to consider overrides of gubernatorial vetoes [removed] e. to assign bills to calendars for scheduling on the House floor

Question26

Marks: 1

The governor of Texas is considered to have military powers because he is commander-in-chief of

 [removed] a. all U.S. military troops which are stationed in Texas at a given time. [removed] b. the Austin Chapter of the American Legion. [removed] c. the Texas National Guard. [removed] d. the Fort Hood military installation in Central Texas. [removed] e. the Corps of Cadets at Texas A&M University.

Question27

Marks: 1

The impeachment process for a high Texas state official begins with articles of impeachment (the charges, or official allegations) being brought by the

 [removed] a. Texas Senate. [removed] b. Texas House of Representatives. [removed] c. Governor of Texas. [removed] d. Attorney General of Texas. [removed] e. Supreme Court of Texas.

Question28

Marks: 1

Police powers are attributed to the Texas governor since he has the authority to appoint members of

 [removed] a. Criminal Science Institute (CSI) of Texas. [removed] b. Texas Rangers. [removed] c. the director of the Texas Bureau of Investigation. [removed] d. the board of the Department of Public Safety. [removed] e. state investigatory grand jury.

Question29

Marks: 1

With regard to the creation and adoption of the biennial budget for the State of Texas, the Governor of Texas

 [removed] a. has tremendous influence over the preparation, creation and adoption of the budget of the state each biennial session. [removed] b. greatly influences the creation and adoption of the budget for the state through the Government Office of Management and Budget. [removed] c. influences the creation and adoption of the state’s biennial budget through his selection and appointment of the Texas Secretary of the Treasury. [removed] d. has sole constitutional power in the state to develop and set the state biennial budget; he then sends the completed budget to the legislature for implementation and distribution based upon his (the governor’s) specific and strict directions [removed] e. has little official power and influence over the creation and final adoption of the biennial state budget during the regular legislative session.

Question30

Marks: 1

Which of the following is true concerning regular sessions of the Texas Legislature?

 [removed] a. The Legislature meets in regular session starting in January for 160 days every odd-numbered year. [removed] b. The Legislature meets in regular session every year, holding 140-day sessions in odd-numbered years and 160-day sessions in even-numbered years. [removed] c. The Legislature meets in regular session starting in January every year, adjourning at the end of the year in early December. [removed] d. The Legislature meets in regular session for 260 days every other year. [removed] e. The Legislature meets in regular session starting in January for 140 days every odd-numbered year.

Question31

Marks: 1

Respond to the following statement: “The state income tax in Texas is set at 6.25% of a person’s annual income.”

 [removed] a. True [removed] b. False–The income tax is set at 2% of a person’s annual income. When added to the federal income tax requirement, a Texas citizen pays 8.25% of her income in income taxes. [removed] c. False–there is no state income tax. [removed] d. False–the state income tax is based on the biennial income of a Texas citizen.

Question32

Marks: 1

The state agency which regulates telephone and electric rates in Texas is called

 [removed] a. the Legislative Budget Board. [removed] b. the Public Utility Commission. [removed] c. the Texas Railroad Commission. [removed] d. Texas State Board of Insurance. [removed] e. the Sunset Advisory Board.

Question33

Marks: 1

A committee which has members from both the House and the Senate to serve a unique, particular function is called a

 [removed] a. joint committee. [removed] b. combined committee. [removed] c. conference committee. [removed] d. special committee. [removed] e. standing committee.

Question34

Marks: 1

In Texas, the more than ____ agencies have substantial independence from the governor, which means that each agency has more latitude and independence than federal agencies in deciding what was meant by the legislature and in applying the law to unforeseen circumstances.

 [removed] a. 100 [removed] b. 50 [removed] c. 10 [removed] d. 900 [removed] e. 200

Question35

Marks: 1

Who is the current Commissioner of Agriculture for the State of Texas?

 [removed] a. Earl Butz [removed] b. Todd Staples [removed] c. Jim Hightower [removed] d. Hank Gilbert [removed] e. Susan Combs

Question36

Marks: 1

Regular formal review and subsequent legislative affirmation to determine that if a state agency or program is to continue is known as

 [removed] a. senatorial courtesy. [removed] b. sunset review. [removed] c. sunshine legislation. [removed] d. administrative oversight and review. [removed] e. redistricting.

Question37

Marks: 1

The Attorney General of Texas is LEAST involved in which of the following activities?

 [removed] a. initiating lawsuits against parents delinquent on child support payments [removed] b. issuing legal opinions interpreting state laws before issues relating to the laws are adjudicated by the courts [removed] c. defending the state against lawsuits [removed] d. prosecuting individuals accused of serious crimes [removed] e. acting as the constitutional lawyer for agencies, boards, and commissions of the state of Texas.

Question38

Marks: 1

In total, how many states in the U.S. (including Texas) have NO personal income tax?

 [removed] a. None; all states, including Texas, tax the personal income of residence of their states [removed] b. seven [removed] c. 31 [removed] d. two [removed] e. 15

Question39

Marks: 1

The Lieutenant Governor is most analogous to what officer in the federal government?

 [removed] a. Vice President [removed] b. President [removed] c. Majority Leader of the U.S. Senate [removed] d. Secretary of State [removed] e. Speaker of the U.S. House

Question40

Marks: 1

The Texas Legislature cannot pass a state budget which creates a budget deficit. This is required by

 [removed] a. the Texas Constitution. [removed] b. a resolution passed by the Texas Legislature in 1980. [removed] c. the United State Constitution. [removed] d. the Texas Supreme Court in a constitutional ruling in the early part of the 1950s. [removed] e. the U.S. Congress.

Question41

Marks: 1

The Governor may use the line-item veto on which of the following bills?

 [removed] a. a bill to increase criminal penalties on drug possession [removed] b. the governor no longer has the line-item veto power–the Texas line-item veto was declared illegal by a federal court ruling [removed] c. a bill declaring the Southern Baptist religion the official state religion of Texas [removed] d. a bill to raise the minimum drinking age [removed] e. a bill to appropriate money to operate state prisons

Question42

Marks: 1

Which of the following is solely and completely responsible for regulating railroad freight and railroad passenger service in the state of Texas?

 [removed] a. Texas Agriculture Commissioner [removed] b. No commission or agency or department in Texas government has this power [removed] c. Texas Railroad Commission [removed] d. General Land Commission [removed] e. Texas Secretary of State

Question43

Marks: 1

Which of the following has as its primary responsibly oil and gas regulation in Texas?

 [removed] a. Texas Agriculture Commissioner [removed] b. Texas Department of Energy [removed] c. Public Utility Commission [removed] d. Texas Railroad Commission [removed] e. Texas Department of Petroleum Development

Question44

Marks: 1

Who calls special legislative sessions in Texas?

 [removed] a. The Governor may call a special session, but only with the approval of the Legislature by a majority vote of both houses [removed] b. Either the Speaker or Lieutenant Governor may call a special session [removed] c. Only the Governor may call a special session [removed] d. The Legislature calls itself into special session by a 2/3rds vote of both houses [removed] e. The Texas Secretary of State calls special sessions with the approval of the Lieutenant Government and Speaker of the House

Question45

Marks: 1

Which of the following statements is true about the term of office for the governor of Texas?

 [removed] a. The governor is elected by a vote of the Texas Senate every two years at the start of the session of the Texas Legislature in January of odd numbered years [removed] b. Governors may serve no more than four two-year terms consecutively [removed] c. The term of office for governor of Texas is four years and the Texas Constitution sets no limit on the number of terms a governor may serve [removed] d. The governor serves a two-year term of office and there is no limit set by the Texas Constitution as to how many terms he or she may serve [removed] e. The governor serves an elected four year term but is limited by constitutional amendment to serving no more than ten years (two full elected terms and up to two additional years if first assuming the office due to the death, resignation, or impeachment and conviction of the preceding governor

Question46

Marks: 1

Greg Abbott is the

 [removed] a. Texas Attorney General. [removed] b. Speaker of the Texas House of Representatives. [removed] c. Texas Commissioner of Agriculture. [removed] d. Comptroller of Public Accounts. [removed] e. Lieutenant Governor of Texas.

Question47

Marks: 1

Which of the following officials may the Governor normally appoint?

 [removed] a. the Lieutenant Governor [removed] b. the Texas Attorney General [removed] c. the Chief Justice of the Texas Supreme Court [removed] d. the Texas Secretary of State [removed] e. a member of the Railroad Commission

Question48

Marks: 1

The first Republican to be elected governor in Texas following the Reconstruction administration of Gov. E.J. Davis was

 [removed] a. Preston Smith. [removed] b. James Ferguson. [removed] c. Rick Perry. [removed] d. Bill Clements. [removed] e. George W. Bush.

Question49

Marks: 1

This process of redrawing the boundaries of legislative and congressional districts by the state legislature is called

 [removed] a. district resolution. [removed] b. district development. [removed] c. congressional reapportionment. [removed] d. redistricting. [removed] e. redlining.

Question50

Marks: 1

The Texas Constitution requires that an estimate be made of state revenues for the upcoming biennial budget period and given to the legislature for its biennial session so that it can prepare a balanced budget? What state official is responsible for the preparation of this estimate and its reporting to the legislature?

 [removed] a. governor [removed] b. attorney general [removed] c. chairman of the Legislative Budget Board [removed] d. treasurer [removed] e. comptroller

51

Marks: 1

How many members are there on the State Board of Education?

 [removed] a. six [removed] b. three [removed] c. 12 [removed] d. nine [removed] e. 15

Question52

Marks: 1

The governor’s State of the State address is

 [removed] a. an important aspect of the governor’s “bully pulpit” because it is broadcast live on network television during prime-time to the people of Texas. [removed] b. an informal tradition initiated by Gov. E. J. Davis during Reconstruction and is an official state holiday. [removed] c. given by the governor every year at the start of the Texas legislative session in January. [removed] d. called for by the Texas Constitution and is given before a joint session of the Texas Legislature following the start of the regular session. [removed] e. is no longer given in person by the governor in the form of a speech delivered before the legislature but instead is a printed message sent to both legislative bodies and posted at the front entrance to each chamber.

Question53

Marks: 1

The only unicameral legislature in the United States is

 [removed] a. is found in Nebraska. [removed] b. the U.S. Congress. [removed] c. is in Texas. [removed] d. now banned by the U.S. Constitution. [removed] e. now gone, abandoned when the State of Texas moved to a bicameral organization in the 1970s.

Question54

Marks: 1

Spending bills (i.e., appropriation bills) in Texas must originate

 [removed] a. in the Legislative Budget Board [removed] b. in the Texas Senate. [removed] c. with the governor. [removed] d. with the Comptroller of Public Accounts. [removed] e. in the Texas House.

Question55

Marks: 1

How is the Speaker of the Texas House chosen?

 [removed] a. The Speaker is appointed by the Governor and is approved by the Senate in its advice and consent powers [removed] b. The Secretary of State serves ex officio as Speaker of the Texas House [removed] c. The Speaker is a state representative elected by the full House to serve as speaker [removed] d. The Speaker is elected statewide [removed] e. The Lieutenant Governor acts, as part of his constitutional duties, as Speaker of the Texas House of Representatives.

Question56

Marks: 1

Jerry Patterson is the current

 [removed] a. Lieutenant Governor of Texas. [removed] b. Texas Secretary of State. [removed] c. Texas Land Commissioner. [removed] d. Comptroller of Public Accounts [removed] e. Governor of Texas.

Question57

Marks: 1

While the Texas Governor has some appointment powers over the executive branch,

 [removed] a. he lacks any significant independent removal power over his appointments. [removed] b. he has complete authority to appoint judges for life terms to all the courts of the state judicial branch at any time at all levels throughout the state of Texas. [removed] c. he had complete power over the length of service of those appointments, holding the power to independently dismiss any of his appointments at any time without any consultation by or approval from the Texas Legislature. [removed] d. he has ultimate authority in times of crisis over all the military personnel and bases of the United States quartered in Texas including the power to make field promotions of officers and commanders. [removed] e. has significant power to make committee assignments for members of the Texas Legislature.

Question58

Marks: 1

A committee created whenever a bill is passed in different versions by the House and Senate is called a

 [removed] a. joint committee. [removed] b. combined committee. [removed] c. conference committee. [removed] d. special committee. [removed] e. standing committee

Question59

Marks: 1

Removal powers of the governor over appointees to state boards and commissions are

 [removed] a. similar to that of an employer in the private sector–he may fire any member of a state board or commission except when that firing is considered racially motivated or retaliatory. [removed] b. limited to only those members of state boards and commissions from previous administrations. [removed] c. limited to only those specifically appointed by the governor, with approval of the Senate (two-thirds vote). [removed] d. unlimited. As chief executive officer of the state, he has the power to appoint and dismiss any member of the state executive branch or its agencies and commissions. [removed] e. denied to the governor. Once the governor appoints someone to a state board or commission that person cannot be removed from office except by impeachment.

Question60

Marks: 1

Texas’s biggest employers are

 [removed] a. oil and gas companies. [removed] b. in the medical field. [removed] c. farmers and ranchers. [removed] d. governments. [removed] e. in the insurance industry.

Question61

Marks: 1

The Texas Secretary of State is

 [removed] a. Esperanza “Hope” Andrade. [removed] b. John Steen. [removed] c. also, by law, the Lieutenant Governor of the State. [removed] d. Geoffrey Connor. [removed] e. Roger Williams.

Question62

Marks: 1

Who was the lieutenant governor of Texas to succeed Governor George W. Bush when Bush resigned as governor to become president of the United States?

 [removed] a. Rick Perry [removed] b. Ted Cruz [removed] c. Bill Ratliff [removed] d. David Dewhurst [removed] e. William “Bill” Hobby

Question63

Marks: 1

The judicial power of the governor consists of his ability

 [removed] a. appoint judges and justices to state courts when there is a vacancy on a court due to a death, resignation, or removal of the judge or justice. [removed] b. to reduce prison overcrowding by executive order. [removed] c. to order the death penalty be imposed following the conviction of a defendant for capital murder. [removed] d. review and reverse decisions of lower courts when the decisions are appealed directly to his office. [removed] e. appoint all judges and justices to all the courts on all levels in the State of Texas.

Question64

Marks: 1

The base sales tax rate for the State of Texas is

 [removed] a. 6.25%. [removed] b. 8.25%. [removed] c. tied directly to the federal treasury bills rate. [removed] d. 7.25%.

Question65

Marks: 1

Who, among the following elected officials, is NOT a member of the Legislative Redistricting Board?

 [removed] a. Attorney General of Texas [removed] b. Lieutenant Governor of Texas [removed] c. Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts [removed] d. Speaker of the Texas House of Representatives [removed] e. Governor of Texas

Question66

Marks: 1

Regarding the structural powers of the Governor of Texas, how do they compare with the powers of other state governors?

 [removed] a. The official powers of the Governor or Texas are about average in comparison with other governors. [removed] b. The official powers of the Governor of Texas are among the weakest in the nation. [removed] c. The official powers of the Governor of Texas are among the strongest in the nation. [removed] d. They are somewhat above average in comparison with the other governors’ powers.

Question67

Marks: 1

Which of the following in NOT a type of committee in the Texas legislature?

 [removed] a. Joint committee [removed] b. Special committee [removed] c. Standing committee [removed] d. Conference committee [removed] e. Irregular committee

Question68

Marks: 1

The Veterans’ Land Board provides low interest property loans to Texas veterans. This board is supervised by the

 [removed] a. Commissioner of the Veterans’ Land Board of Texas. [removed] b. Commissioner of the Texas General Land Office. [removed] c. Chairman of the Texas Veterans Administration. [removed] d. Comptroller of Public Accounts. [removed] e. Lieutenant Governor.

Question69

Marks: 1

Governors elected after Reconstruction until the late 1970s were all

 [removed] a. liberal Democrats. [removed] b. conservative-to-moderate Democrats. [removed] c. conservative to ultra-conservative Republicans. [removed] d. former lieutenant governors. [removed] e. members of the Tea Party of Texas.

Question70

Marks: 1

The only Texas governor to be impeached by the Texas House and convicted of the impeachment charges in the Texas Senate was

 [removed] a. George W. Bush. [removed] b. E.J. Davis. [removed] c. William Clements. [removed] d. James Ferguson. [removed] e. Miriam Ferguson.

Question71

Marks: 1

In order to become a Texas State Senator, one must be at least ___ years old to be elected and a resident of Texas for __ years preceding the election.

 [removed] a. 42/seven [removed] b. 19/two [removed] c. 35/six [removed] d. 26/five [removed] e. 24/one

Question72

Marks: 1

The U.S. Supreme Court decided a case in its 2013 regarding affirmative action in higher education that modified but did not overturn its prior 2003 decision in Grutter v. Michigan. That case was

 [removed] a. Marbury v. Madison. [removed] b. Ruiz v. Texas A&M University-Kingsville. [removed] c. Brown v. Board of Education. [removed] d. Fisher v. The University of Texas. [removed] e. Hopwood v. Texas.

Question73

Marks: 1

There are three members of the Texas Railroad Commission. All three are

 [removed] a. appointed to their positions by the Governor of Texas (with the approval of the Texas Senate). [removed] b. required by the Texas Constitution of 1876 to have worked for at least a ten-year period in the railroad industry in Texas. [removed] c. required by law to serve only one six-year term in office. [removed] d. elected in single-member district elections from three separate sections of the state by the people of Texas with the approval of the vote of both chambers of the legislature. [removed] e. elected to their positions by the people of Texas.

Question74

Marks: 1

As a result of the Texas Constitution of 1876, Texas has a

 [removed] a. bicameral executive system of government. [removed] b. unitary executive system of government. [removed] c. cabinet system in operation in the executive branch of government. [removed] d. nonpartisan unicameral system of government. [removed] e. plural executive system operating the executive branch of government.

Question75

Marks: 1

How is the Lieutenant Governor of Texas normally chosen?

 [removed] a. The Lieutenant Governor is a member of the House selected by the Texas House to serve as Lieutenant Governor [removed] b. The Lieutenant Governor is elected every four years by the Texas delegates to the Elector College at their electoral meeting held every four years held prior to voting for the presidential selection. [removed] c. The Lieutenant Governor is elected statewide directly by the citizens of Texas [removed] d. The Lieutenant Governor is appointed by the Governor and is approved by the Senate in its advice and consent power [removed] e. The Lieutenant Governor is a member of the Texas Senate elected by the full Senate to serve as Lieutenant Governor

Question76

Marks: 1

Redistricting–the process of redrawing the boundaries of legislative and congressional districts–generally occurs every ten years in the Texas legislature following the

 [removed] a. presidential elections. [removed] b. results of the most recent election of the U.S. House of Representatives and of the Texas House of Representatives. [removed] c. directives issued by the Senate Committee on Redistricting and the Census. [removed] d. report from Congress on reapportionment based on the national census. [removed] e. report of the Interstate Redistricting Commission.

Question77

Marks: 1

Currently, the Texas Legislature is

 [removed] a. meeting in special session. [removed] b. meeting in regular session. [removed] c. meeting as a Committee of the Whole to revise the Texas Constitution of 1876. [removed] d. not in session.

Question78

Marks: 1

A bill may be formally introduced by

 [removed] a. any member of the Texas legislature or a member of the Texas delegation to the U.S. Congress. [removed] b. the Speaker or the Lieutenant Governor only. [removed] c. any member of the legislature or the governor. [removed] d. any member of the legislature in the member’s own chamber. [removed] e. any current or former member of the legislature.

Question79

Marks: 1

Members of the Texas Public Utilities Commission are

 [removed] a. appointed to their positions by a vote of the Texas Legislature. [removed] b. are appointed by the Secretary of the Department of Energy and have full authority over the production of and development of all energy resources within the state of Texas. [removed] c. ex officio officeholder, serving in their PUC positions as a part of their duties as Lieutenant Governor, Speaker of the House, and Comptroller of Public Accounts. [removed] d. elected to their positions by a direct, statewide vote of the people of Texas. [removed] e. appointed to their positions by the Governor of Texas (with the approval of the Texas Senate).

Question80

Marks: 1

The chief legal officer of the State of Texas is the

 [removed] a. Secretary of State. [removed] b. Comptroller. [removed] c. Legal Counsel to the Governor of Texas. [removed] d. Attorney General. [removed] e. Chief Justice of the Texas Supreme Court.

Question81

Marks: 1

The Texas Legislature is a creation of

 [removed] a. the Constitutional Convention of 1787. [removed] b. Article I of the United States Constitution. [removed] c. the annexation agreement between the United States and the Republic of Texas. [removed] d. the U.S. Supreme Court decision in Lopez v. Texas. [removed] e. the Texas Constitution of 1876.

Question82

Marks: 1

Texas has a biennial budget because

 [removed] a. the Texas Legislature is a bicameral body. [removed] b. the U.S. Constitution in Article I and II requires it. [removed] c. the Texas Constitution requires that the state legislature pass a balanced budget. [removed] d. the governor has a two year term of office. [removed] e. the Texas Legislature meets once every two years.

Question83

Marks: 1

Which of the following offices was created by the Texas Legislature rather than the Texas Constitution?

 [removed] a. Commissioner of Agriculture. [removed] b. Lieutenant Governor. [removed] c. Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. [removed] d. Secretary of State. [removed] e. Attorney General.

Question84

Marks: 1

Who among the following was NEVER a governor of Texas?

 [removed] a. George H.W. Bush [removed] b. Ann Richards [removed] c. George W. Bush [removed] d. Miriam Ferguson [removed] e. E.J. Davis

Question85

Marks: 1

Which of the following statements accurately describes the Texas Legislature?

 [removed] a. The Texas House has 150 members elected for two-year terms while the Texas Senate has 31 members elected for six-year terms [removed] b. The Texas House has 150 members elected for two-year terms while the Texas Senate has 31 members elected for four-year terms [removed] c. The Texas House has 435 members elected for 2-year terms and the Texas Senate has 100 members elected for 6-year terms [removed] d. The Texas Legislature is a unicameral legislative body made up of 100 members. [removed] e. The Texas House has 31 members elected for four-year terms while the Texas Senate has 150 members elected for two-year terms

Question86

Marks: 1

The next regular session of the Texas Legislature will meet next year starting in January.

[removed]True[removed]False

Question87

Marks: 1

If a vacancy occurs during the term of office of the lieutenant governor (such as death, resignation, or succession to the governorship), how is a new lieutenant governor selected?

 [removed] a. the president pro tempore of the Texas Senate takes over the vacated position for the remainder of the term of office [removed] b. by a called special state-wide election to fill the remaining term of the former lieutenant governor [removed] c. the governor appoints a new lieutenant governor, with the approval of a vote of the full legislature [removed] d. the president of the Senate moves into the position of Lieutenant for the remainder of the Lieutenant Governor’s term of office [removed] e. the Senate elects one of its members to the position of lieutenant governor to serve the balance of the vacant term

Question88

Marks: 1

In the senate, the membership of committees is determined

 [removed] a. the Committee Assignment Committee. [removed] b. by seniority. [removed] c. by appointment by the lieutenant governor. [removed] d. by the lieutenant governor and a vote of the full Senate. [removed] e. agreement among the members meeting as a committee of the whole in a conference committee.

Question89

Marks: 1

The impeachment process in Texas ends with the trial and verdict on the articles of impeachment conducted and arrived at by the

 [removed] a. Texas House of Representatives. [removed] b. governor’s cabinet and the Governor of Texas. [removed] c. Supreme Court of Texas with the Chief Justice of Texas sitting as the chief judge over the proceedings. [removed] d. Texas Senate. [removed] e. Attorney General of Texas sitting as the head of a court made up of members of the Texas Supreme Court and the Texas Court of Criminal Appeals.

Question90

Marks: 1

The state official in charge of supervising the Permanent University Fund is the

 [removed] a. Executive Director of the Texas Education Agency. [removed] b. Chairman of the Higher Education Coordinating Board. [removed] c. Attorney General. [removed] d. Land Commissioner. [removed] e. Comptroller of Public Accounts.

Question91

Marks: 1

Bills rarely reach the floor of the Senate for a vote without the approval of

 [removed] a. the Lieutenant Governor. [removed] b. Senate minority leader. [removed] c. Governor. [removed] d. Speaker of the House. [removed] e. Chairman of the House Ways and Means Committee.

Question92

Marks: 1

Texas has had two woman governors in its history–Ann Richards and

 [removed] a. Sonia Sotomayor. [removed] b. Kay Bailey Hutchinson. [removed] c. Carol Keeton Strayhorn. [removed] d. Miriam Ferguson. [removed] e. Susan Combs.

Question93

Marks: 1

Child support enforcement and collection for the State of Texas is the responsibility of

 [removed] a. the Lieutenant Governor of Texas. [removed] b. the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. [removed] c. the Attorney General of Texas. [removed] d. the Comptroller of Public Accounts. [removed] e. the Governor of Texas.

Question94

Marks: 1

Upon receiving a bill passed by the legislature, the governor has _____ in which to sign a bill, veto it, or allow it to become law without a signature.

 [removed] a. 10 days [removed] b. 140 days [removed] c. until one week after the end of the legislative session [removed] d. three weeks [removed] e. three days

Question95

Marks: 1

Joe Straus is the

 [removed] a. Texas Commissioner of Agriculture. [removed] b. Texas Attorney General. [removed] c. Speaker of the Texas House of Representatives. [removed] d. Comptroller of Public Accounts. [removed] e. Lieutenant Governor of Texas.

Question96

Marks: 1

The Governor of Texas is empowered by the Texas Constitution of 1876 to appoint

 [removed] a. the three members of the Texas Railroad Commission to office. [removed] b. the Lieutenant Governor of Texas to office. [removed] c. the Texas Agricultural Commissioner to office. [removed] d. the Texas Secretary of State to office. [removed] e. the Texas Attorney General to office.

Question97

Marks: 1

Fragmentation of the state executive into so many largely independent agencies was an intentional move by the framers to the Texas Constitution and later legislatures to avoid

 [removed] a. centralized power. [removed] b. violating the U.S. Constitution. [removed] c. a diffusion of power. [removed] d. confusion. [removed] e. the spread of socialism.

Question98

Marks: 1

Texas legislative district lines are usually redrawn once every

 [removed] a. ten years. [removed] b. year. [removed] c. five years. [removed] d. time the Speaker of the House and the Lieutenant Governor decide it is necessary and prudent to do so. [removed] e. two years.

Question99

Marks: 1

In order to be a member of the Texas House of Representatives, one must be at least ___ years old to be elected and a resident of Texas for _____ years prior to the election.

 [removed] a. 42/ten [removed] b. 35/five [removed] c. 26/five [removed] d. 21/two [removed] e. 18/one

Question100

Marks: 1

Susan Combs is currently the

 [removed] a. Speaker of the Texas House of Representatives [removed] b. Comptroller of Public Accounts [removed] c. Lieutenant Governor of Texas [removed] d. Texas Attorney General [removed] e. Texas Commissioner of Agriculture
Categories

## h2c6h6o6

In Lab 9, students performed acid-base titrations. Redox reactions can also be used in titrations. An example is the titration of ascorbic acid (H2C6H6O6) in lemon juice using triiodide (I3–). A starch indicator will turn the solution blue-black at the endpoint. The half-reactions involved are shown below.

 C6H6O6 + 2 H+ + 2 e– → H2C6H6O6 +0.06 V I3– + 2 e– → 3 I– +0.53 V

(a) What is the net redox reaction that occurs? (Use the lowest possible coefficients. Omit states-of-matter from your answer.)

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(b) What is the stoichiometry of H2C6H6O6 to I3–?

3:1 8:3     2:1 1:1 1:2 3:8 1:3

(c) Use the data given below to determine the amount of ascorbic acid in lemon juice. (Note: The recommended daily allowance of ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) is 90 mg.)

 Data Table P6: Titration of ascorbic acid in lemon juice with triiodide concentration of I3– 0.0210 M volume lemon juice 83.44 mL mass lemon juice 84.94 g equivalence volume of I3– 14.93 mL mmol of I3– mmol mmol of H2C6H6O6 mmol mass of H2C6H6O6 mg

Determine the errors (if any) with each galvanic cell set-up when the anode is on the left. (Select all that apply.)

There is nothing wrong with this diagram. The electrodes are in the wrong solution. The electrons are traveling the wrong direction down the wire. The salt bridge ions are migrating to the incorrect electrode. The electrons are traveling through the salt bridge. The electrodes and solutions are in the wrong compartment.

There is nothing wrong with this diagram. The electrodes are in the wrong solution. The electrons are traveling the wrong direction down the wire. The salt bridge ions are migrating to the incorrect electrode. The electrons are traveling through the salt bridge. The electrodes and solutions are in the wrong compartment.

There is nothing wrong with this diagram. The electrodes are in the wrong solution. The electrons are traveling the wrong direction down the wire. The salt bridge ions are migrating to the incorrect electrode. The electrons are traveling through the salt bridge. The electrodes and solutions are in the wrong compartment.

There is nothing wrong with this diagram. The electrodes are in the wrong solution. The electrons are traveling the wrong direction down the wire. The salt bridge ions are migrating to the incorrect electrode. The electrons are traveling through the salt bridge. The electrodes and solutions are in the wrong compartment.

There is nothing wrong with this diagram. The electrodes are in the wrong solution. The electrons are traveling the wrong direction down the wire. The salt bridge ions are migrating to the incorrect electrode. The electrons are traveling through the salt bridge. The electrodes and solutions are in the wrong compartment.

(a) Write the half-reaction for your strongest reducing agent.

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Mg  →  Mg2+ + 2e1-

Correct.

(b) Write the half-reaction for your strongest oxidizing agent.

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MnO4- + 8H+ + 5e-  →  Mn2+ +4H2O

Correct.

(c) Note the number of electrons in each half reaction.

In order to balance the number of electrons lost and gained, the oxidation half-reaction must be multiplied by and the reduction half-reaction must be multiplied by

(d) Write the net redox reaction.

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Assemble a battery, represented by the diagram below with the cathode in compartment A, with Sn2+/Sn and Cu2+/Cu couples in which the voltage reads positive. (Use the . Use the lowest possible coefficients. Omit states-of-matter from your answer.)

(a) What half-reaction occurs in compartment A?

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Sn  →  Sn2+ +2e-

Your answer contains an ambiguous or incomplete reaction equation. Check all the components on the reactant-side of the equation. Check all the components on the product-side of the equation.

(b) What half-reaction occurs in compartment B?

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Cu2+ +2e-  →  Cu

Your answer contains an ambiguous or incomplete reaction equation. Check all the components on the reactant-side of the equation. Check all the components on the product-side of the equation.

(c) Write the net redox reaction.

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Sn + Cu2+  →  Sn2+ + Cu

Correct.

Mg –> Mg^

MnO_4^- +

Sn –> Sn^+

Cu^2+ +2e^

Sn + Cu^+

Categories

## bipolar neurons are commonly ________

Challenge Examination

5

GED 102 The Human Body

1. What is the major function of the lymphatic system?

a. return leaked fluids back to the cardiovascular system b. produce offspring c. eliminate nitrogen-containing metabolic wastes from the body d. break down food into absorbable units e. secrete hormones to regulate body processes such as growth and reproduction

2. What are two organ systems that are involved in the excretion of wastes from the body?

a. digestive and urinary b. cardiovascular and skeletal c. muscular and skeletal d. endocrine and nervous e. cardiovascular and nervous

3. Which of the following systems is matched most accurately to the life function it provides?

a. integumentary system—movement b. nervous system—excretion c. muscular system—maintaining boundaries d. nervous system—responsiveness e. respiratory system—digestion

4. Which survival need accounts for 60 to 80 percent of body weight?

a. nutrients b. oxygen c. water d. minerals e. vitamins

5. Which of the following is the correct order of elements in a control system?

a. receptor, stimulus, afferent pathway, control center, efferent pathway, effector, response b. receptor, stimulus, efferent pathway, control center, afferent pathway, effector, response c. effector, stimulus, efferent pathway, control center, afferent pathway, receptor, response d. stimulus, receptor, afferent pathway, control center, efferent pathway, effector, response e. stimulus, receptor, efferent pathway, control center, afferent pathway, effector, response

Challenge Examination

6

GED 102 The Human Body

6. Which of the following elements of a control system detects a change?

a. control center b. stimulus c. effector d. receptor e. efferent pathway

7. Positive feedback systems ________.

a. involve blood clotting and the birthing of a baby b. operate in such a way that the initial stimulus is enhanced and increases c. operate in such a way that the initial stimulus is shut off or reduced d. involve blood clotting and the birthing of a baby, and operate in such a way that the initial stimulus is enhanced and increases e. involve blood clotting and the birthing of a baby, and operate in such a way that the initial stimulus is shut off or reduced

8. An atom with 6 protons, 7 neutrons, and 6 electrons shares four pairs of electrons with four other atoms. This atom is now considered to be ________.

a. a cation b. an anion c. a neutral atom d. stable e. an ion

9. An atom has 6 protons, 8 neutrons, and 6 electrons. Its atomic mass is ________.

a. 2 b. 6 c. 8 d. 14 e. 20

10. The atomic number of an atom reveals the number of ________.

a. electrons in the atomic nucleus b. protons in the atomic nucleus c. protons plus neutrons d. protons plus electrons e. neutrons plus electrons

Challenge Examination

7

GED 102 The Human Body

11. Isotopes have different numbers of ________; thus, they also have different ________.

a. protons; atomic numbers b. neutrons; atomic masses c. electrons; atomic numbers d. protons; atomic masses e. neutrons; atomic numbers

12. A molecule of methane, CH4, is known specifically as a(n) ________.

a. compound b. radioisotope c. element d. atom e. anion

13. The subatomic particles that are responsible for the chemical behavior of atoms are the ________.

a. protons b. neutrons c. electrons d. isotopes e. ions

14. Passive processes that move substances across membranes ________.

a. utilize ATP b. employ protein pumps c. transport substances against their concentration gradients d. require no ATP e. include exocytosis and endocytosis

15. Osmosis transports water across membranes using ________.

a. ATP b. solute pumping c. aquaporins d. sodium-potassium pump e. vesicles

Challenge Examination

8

GED 102 The Human Body

16. What assists the movement of substances by facilitated diffusion?

a. ATP b. protein carrier or channel c. lysosomes d. aquaporins e. solute pumps

17. What is required for diffusion to occur?

a. protein carrier or channel b. concentration gradient c. ATP d. solute pump e. ribosomes

18. Two types of endocytosis are ________.

a. cellular secretion and solute pumping b. solute pumping and active transport c. active transport and phagocytosis d. phagocytosis and pinocytosis e. pinocytosis and passive transport

19. A solution that contains fewer solutes than the cell is ________.

a. hypotonic b. hypertonic c. intravenous d. isotonic e. Ringer’s lactate

20. Jan got her microscope slides mixed up in lab as they were unlabeled. The slide with abundant adipose tissue should be labeled as the ________.

a. epidermis b. papillary layer of the dermis c. subcutaneous tissue d. reticular layer of the dermis e. stratum corneum

Challenge Examination

9

GED 102 The Human Body

21. The two main layers of skin are ________.

a. papillary layer and reticular layer b. stratum basale and dermis c. epidermis and dermis d. stratum corneum and dermis e. epidermis and hypodermis

22. A needle pierces through the epidermal layers of the forearm in which of the following order?

1. stratum basale 2. stratum corneum 3. stratum granulosum 4. stratum lucidum 5. stratum spinosum

a. 2, 4, 3, 5, 1 b. 1, 5, 3, 4, 2 c. 2, 3, 5, 1, 4 d. 1, 3, 5, 2, 4 e. 2, 3, 4, 1, 5

23. Which of the following homeostatic imbalances is caused by a herpes simplex infection?

a. athlete’s foot b. cold sores c. impetigo d. contact dermatitis e. cyanosis

24. The “tanning” effect (darkening of the skin) that occurs when a person is exposed to the sun is due to ________.

a. melanin b. keratin c. oil d. Langerhans cells e. sweat

Challenge Examination

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GED 102 The Human Body

25. The layer of the epidermis in which cells die because of their inability to get nutrients and oxygen is the clear layer called ________.

a. stratum spinosum b. stratum granulosum c. stratum basale d. stratum corneum e. stratum lucidum

26. Which of these bone markings is a projection that serves as a site for muscle or ligament attachment?

a. meatus b. fossa c. foramen d. fissure e. tubercle

27. Which of the following bones is considered part of the axial skeleton?

a. femur b. sternum c. radius d. metatarsals e. scapula

28. The canal that runs through the core of each osteon (Haversian system) contains ________.

a. cartilage and lamellae b. osteoclasts and osteoblasts c. yellow marrow and perforating, or Sharpey’s, fibers d. blood vessels and nerve fibers e. red marrow

29. The small cavities in bone tissue where osteocytes are found are called ________.

a. lacunae b. perforating (Volkmann’s) canals c. central (Haversian) canals d. trabeculae e. lamellae

Challenge Examination

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GED 102 The Human Body

30. What kind of tissue is the forerunner of long bones in the embryo?

a. elastic connective tissue b. dense fibrous connective tissue c. fibrocartilage d. hyaline cartilage e. loose fibrous connective tissue

31. What type of bone cell is primarily active when bone growth occurs?

a. osteocyte b. erythrocyte c. chondrocyte d. osteoblast e. osteoclast

32. A motor neuron and all of the skeletal muscle fibers it stimulates are termed a ________.

a. myofilament b. synaptic cleft c. motor unit d. neuromuscular junction e. neurotransmitter

33. Why are calcium ions necessary for skeletal muscle contraction?

a. calcium increases the action potential transmitted along the sarcolemma b. calcium releases the inhibition on Z discs c. calcium triggers the binding of myosin to actin d. calcium causes ATP binding to actin e. calcium binds to regulatory proteins on the myosin filaments, changing both their shape and their position on the thick filaments

34. The mechanical force of contraction is generated by ________.

a. shortening of the thick filaments b. shortening of the thin filaments c. a sliding of thin filaments past thick filaments d. the “accordian-like” folding of thin and thick filaments e. the temporary disappearance of thin filaments

Challenge Examination

12

GED 102 The Human Body

35. Acetylcholine is ________.

a. an ion pump on the postsynaptic membrane b. a source of energy for muscle contraction c. a component of thick myofilaments d. an oxygen-binding protein e. a neurotransmitter that stimulates skeletal muscle

36. The gap between the axon terminal of a motor neuron and the sarcolemma of a skeletal muscle cell is called the ________.

a. motor unit b. sarcomere c. neuromuscular junction d. synaptic cleft e. cross bridge

37. Neurotransmitters are released upon stimulation from a nerve impulse by the ________.

a. myofibrils b. sarcoplasmic reticulum c. thick filaments d. axon terminals of the motor neuron e. sarcolemma of the muscle cell

38. Impulse conduction is fastest in neurons that are ________.

a. myelinated b. unmyelinated c. sensory d. motor e. cerebral

39. Bipolar neurons are commonly ________.

a. motor neurons b. called neuroglia c. found in ganglia d. found in the eye and nose e. more abundant in adults than in children

Challenge Examination

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GED 102 The Human Body

40. During the resting state, a neuron is ________.

a. polarized with more sodium ions outside the cell and more potassium ions inside the cell b. propagating the action potential c. depolarizing and generating an action potential d. restoring the ionic conditions utilizing the sodium-potassium pump e. repolarizing as potassium ions diffuse out of the cell

41. Immediately after an action potential is propagated, which one of the following ions rapidly diffuses out of the cell into the tissue fluid ________.

a. sodium b. chloride c. calcium d. potassium e. magnesium

42. An action potential is caused by an influx of these ions into the cell.

a. potassium b. sodium c. calcium d. magnesium e. both potassium and sodium

43. Nerve impulse transmissions occurring along myelinated neurons are called ________.

a. saltatory conduction b. threshold c. graded potential d. sodium-potassium pump e. all-or-none response

44. Neurons either conduct action potentials along the length of their axons, or they remain at rest. This statement best describes ________.

a. a reflex arc b. the all-or-none response c. repolarization d. saltatory conduction e. graded potential

Challenge Examination

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GED 102 The Human Body

45. The pigmented portion of the eye that has a rounded opening through which light passes is the ________.

a. iris b. lens c. cornea d. sclera e. retina

46. The three sets of color receptors within the retina are sensitive to wavelengths of visible light that are ________.

a. red, green, and yellow b. red, blue, and yellow c. green, yellow, and purple d. orange, green, and purple e. blue, green, and red

47. Which area of the retina lacks rods and cones and therefore does not detect images?

a. optic disc (blind spot) b. optic nerve c. choroid d. fovea centralis e. ciliary body

48. The aqueous humor of the eye is reabsorbed into venous blood through the ________.

a. inferior lacrimal canal b. nasolacrimal duct c. scleral venous sinus (canal of Schlemm) d. ciliary body e. pupil

49. Which of the following is a sex-linked condition that more often affects males?

a. conjunctivitis b. color blindness c. night blindness d. glaucoma e. cataracts

Challenge Examination

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GED 102 The Human Body

50. The gel-like substance that reinforces the eyeball and prevents it from collapsing inward is the ________.

a. aqueous humor b. ciliary body c. choroid d. vitreous humor (vitreous body) e. scleral venous sinus (canal of Schlemm)

51. The hormone that stimulates follicle development by female ovaries and sperm development by male testes is ________.

a. luteinizing hormone (LH) b. prolactin c. follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) d. progesterone e. antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

52. Hyposecretion of growth hormone during childhood leads to ________.

a. pituitary dwarfism b. Cushing’s disease c. acromegaly d. myxedema e. gigantism

53. Releasing and inhibiting hormones produced by the hypothalamus influence the activities of the ________.

a. pineal gland b. anterior pituitary gland c. adrenal gland d. posterior pituitary gland e. thyroid gland

54. The two hormones released by the thyroid gland are ________.

a. calcitonin and thyroid hormone b. calcitonin and parathyroid hormone (PTH) c. thyroid hormone and parathyroid hormone (PTH) d. prolactin (PRL) and oxytocin e. oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

Challenge Examination

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GED 102 The Human Body

55. Which hormone is alternately known as vasopressin due to its effect on blood vessel diameter and blood pressure?

a. oxytocin b. antidiuretic hormone (ADH) c. thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) d. growth hormone (GH) e. luteinizing hormone (LH)

56. Which two hormones play a role in promoting the milk reflex and in maintaining breast milk production in a mother’s breasts?

a. antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and thyroid hormone b. growth hormone and glucagon c. prolactin (PRL) and oxytocin d. parathyroid hormone (PTH) and thyroid hormone e. prolactin (PRL) and antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

57. The two major groups of white blood cells are ________.

a. leukocytes and erythrocytes b. platelets and megakaryocytes c. neutrophils and basophils d. granulocytes and agranulocytes e. granulocytes and leukocytes

58. Which of the following cells are classified as granulocytes?

a. neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils b. lymphocytes and monocytes c. eosinophils and monocytes d. basophils and lymphocytes e. neutrophils, lymphocytes, and eosinophils

59. Which type of granulocyte produces antibodies?

a. eosinophils b. basophils c. neutrophils d. lymphocytes e. monocytes

Challenge Examination

17

GED 102 The Human Body

60. The most numerous of the white blood cells are the ________.

a. lymphocytes b. neutrophils c. eosinophils d. monocytes e. basophils

61. Which type of leukocyte contains heparin, an anticoagulant?

a. neutrophil b. monocyte c. lymphocyte d. basophil e. eosinophil

62. Place these leukocytes in order from the most common to the least common.

1. basophil 2. eosinophil 3. lymphocyte 4. monocyte 5. neutrophil

a. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 b. 3, 4, 5, 1, 2 c. 5, 3, 2, 4, 1 d. 5, 2, 3, 1, 4 e. 5, 3, 4, 2, 1

63. Which valve guards the base of the aorta and opens when the ventricles are contracting?

a. mitral valve b. aortic semilunar valve c. bicuspid valve d. pulmonary semilunar valve e. tricuspid valve

64. Which blood vessels are direct branches of the left coronary artery?

a. circumflex and marginal arteries b. anterior and posterior interventricular arteries c. anterior interventricular and marginal arteries d. anterior interventricular and circumflex arteries e. posterior interventricular and marginal arteries

Challenge Examination

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GED 102 The Human Body

65. The sinoatrial node is located in the ________.

a. aorta b. right atrium c. left atrium d. right ventricle e. interventricular septum

66. Which one of the following represents the correct path for the transmission of an impulse in the intrinsic conduction system of the heart?

a. atrioventricular (AV) node, sinoatrial (SA) node, atrioventricular (AV) bundle (bundle of His), right and left bundle branches, Purkinje fibers b. atrioventricular (AV) node, atrioventricular (AV) bundle (bundle of His), sinoatrial (SA) node, Purkinje fibers, right and left bundle branches c. sinoatrial (SA) node, atrioventricular (AV) bundle (bundle of His), atrioventricular (AV) node, Purkinje fibers, right and left bundle branches d. sinoatrial (SA) node, atrioventricular (AV) bundle (bundle of His), atrioventricular (AV) node, right and left bundle branches, Purkinje fibers e. sinoatrial (SA) node, atrioventricular (AV) node, atrioventricular (AV) bundle (bundle of His), right and left bundle branches, Purkinje fibers

67. Which vessel carries deoxygenated blood from cardiac circulation to the right atrium of the heart?

a. coronary sulcus b. coronary artery c. coronary sinus d. circumflex artery e. pulmonary vein

68. Which of these events is NOT associated with ventricular systole?

a. atrioventricular valves close b. heart is relaxed c. blood rushes out of the ventricles d. pressure in ventricles rises e. semilunar valves open

69. Where is the thymus located?

a. pharynx b. beneath sternum overlying heart c. armpits, groin, and neck d. small intestine e. left side of abdominopelvic cavity

Challenge Examination

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GED 102 The Human Body

70. Mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue (MALT) includes the ________.

a. spleen b. thymus c. tonsils only d. tonsils, the appendix, and Peyer’s patches e. tonsils and spleen

71. The body’s first line of defense against the invasion of disease-causing microorganisms is ________.

a. phagocytes b. natural killer cells c. skin and mucous membranes d. inflammatory response e. fever

72. The adaptive (specific) defense system ________.

a. is an innate defense b. issues an attack specific to particular foreign substances c. includes the skin and mucous membranes d. is the body’s first line of defense against invading pathogens e. provides mechanical barriers to the body

73. Which one of the following is NOT one of the nonspecific body defenses?

a. intact skin b. antibody production c. the inflammatory response d. fever e. natural killer cells

74. The process by which neutrophils are squeezed through the capillary walls during the inflammatory process is called ________.

a. agglutination b. chemotaxis c. diapedesis d. coagulation e. antibody production

Challenge Examination

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GED 102 The Human Body

75. Following the removal of the larynx, a person would be unable to ________.

a. speak b. sneeze c. eat d. hear e. breathe

76. The opening between the vocal cords is called the ________.

a. epiglottis b. glottis c. larynx d. thyroid cartilage e. esophagus

77. The flap of elastic cartilage that protects food from entering the larynx when swallowing is the ________.

a. glottis b. thyroid cartilage c. Adam’s apple d. epiglottis e. trachea

78. Vibration due to exhaled air that results in speech is a function of the ________.

a. complete voice box b. true vocal cords c. false vocal cords d. glottis e. epiglottis

79. The superior portion of each lung is the ________.

a. pleura b. base c. apex d. mediastinum e. fissure

Challenge Examination

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GED 102 The Human Body

80. The serous membrane covering the surface of the lungs is called the ________.

a. mediastinum b. visceral pleura c. parietal pleura d. main (primary) bronchi e. pleurisy

81. What lymphatic tissue in the submucosa of the small intestine prevents bacteria from entering the blood?

a. Peyer’s patches b. rugae c. appendix d. circular folds (plicae circulares) e. lacteals

82. The small intestine extends from the ________.

a. cardioesophageal sphincter to the pyloric sphincter (valve) b. pyloric sphincter (valve) to the ileocecal valve c. ileocecal valve to the appendix d. appendix to the sigmoid colon e. cardioesophageal sphincter to ileocecal valve

83. What organs release secretions into the duodenum of the small intestine?

a. pancreas and spleen b. appendix and Peyer’s patches c. liver and pancreas d. cecum and appendix e. spleen and liver

84. Enzymes and bile are carried by the pancreatic duct and bile duct into the ________.

a. duodenum b. jejunum c. ileocecal valve d. ileum e. large intestine

Challenge Examination

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GED 102 The Human Body

85. One of the main functions of the small intestine is ________.

a. absorption of nutrients b. absorption of water c. waste secretion d. vitamin conversion e. mineral secretion

86. Which one of the following is NOT a modification which is designed to increase surface area for absorption within the small intestine?

a. microvilli b. villi c. Peyer’s patches d. circular folds e. plicae circulares

87. Most nephrons are located within the renal ________.

a. pelvis b. calyces c. medulla d. pyramids e. cortex

88. The percentage of filtrate eventually reabsorbed into the bloodstream is closest to ________.

a. 10% b. 25% c. 50% d. 80% e. 99%

89. Of the capillary beds associated with each nephron, the one that is both fed and drained by arterioles is the ________.

a. peritubular capillaries b. pyramidal capillaries c. glomerulus d. Henle capillaries e. Bowman’s capillaries

Challenge Examination

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GED 102 The Human Body

90. Filtrate typically does NOT contain ________.

a. water b. blood proteins c. glucose d. ions e. amino acids

91. The nonselective, passive process performed by the glomerulus that forms blood plasma with out blood proteins is called ________.

a. micturition b. tubular secretion c. glomerular filtration d. tubular reabsorption e. glomerular reabsorption

92. Thick, clear mucus that cleanses the urethra of acidic urine is produced by the ________.

a. testes b. seminal glands (vesicles) c. prostate d. bulbo-urethral glands e. epididymis

93. Milky-colored fluids secreted from the prostate ________.

a. nourish sperm b. activate sperm c. cleanse the urethra d. neutralize urine e. are endocrine only

94. The spongy tissue of the penis fills with blood during sexual excitement and causes the penis to enlarge and become rigid during ________.

a. erection b. circumcision c. ejaculation d. emission e. parturition

Challenge Examination

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GED 102 The Human Body

95. Circumcision for males removes the ________.

a. glans penis b. shaft of the penis c. scrotum d. prepuce e. ductus (vas) deferens

96. What effect does follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) have on males?

a. Male testes are not influenced by FSH. b. FSH functions solely in females. c. FSH stimulates sperm production in males. d. FSH causes the testes to enlarge in size. e. FSH stimulates estrogen production in males.

97. The primitive stem cell of spermatogenesis, which is found on the periphery of each seminiferous tubule, is called a ________.

a. spermatogonium b. spermatid c. primary spermatocyte d. secondary spermatocyte e. sperm

98. Which statement regarding meiosis is correct?

a. Meiosis produces four gametes. b. Meiosis consists of one nuclear division only. c. Meiosis produces two daughter cells. d. Meiosis occurs in all cells of the body. e. Meiosis produces cells genetically identical to the parent cell.

99. What results from spermiogenesis?

a. four spermatogonia b. four spermatids c. two sperm d. two spermatids e. four sperm

Challenge Examination

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GED 102 The Human Body

100. Each spermatid and each ovum have ________.

a. 23 pairs of chromosomes b. 23 chromosomes c. 46 pairs of chromosomes d. 46 chromosomes e. 2n chromosomes

Categories

## what value chain segments has kaiser permanente chosen to enter and perform internally?

CHAPTER 6 Strengthening a Company’s Competitive Position: Strategic Moves, Timing, and Scope of Operations

1

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

Whether and when to pursue offensive or defensive strategic moves to improve a firm’s market position

When being a first mover or a fast follower or a late mover is most advantageous

The strategic benefits and risks of expanding a firm’s horizontal scope through mergers and acquisitions

The advantages and disadvantages of extending the company’s scope of operations via vertical integration

The conditions that favor outsourcing certain value chain activities to outside parties

When and how strategic alliances can substitute for horizontal mergers and acquisitions or vertical integration and how they can facilitate outsourcing

MAXIMIZING THE POWER OF A STRATEGY

Offensive and defensive competitive actions

Competitive dynamics and the timing of strategic moves

Scope of operations along the industry’s value chain

Making choices that complement a competitive approach and

maximize the power of strategy

CONSIDERING STRATEGY-ENHANCING MEASURES

Whether and when to go on the offensive strategically

Whether and when to employ defensive strategies

When to undertake strategic moves—first mover, a fast follower, or a late mover

Whether to merge with or acquire another firm

Whether to integrate backward or forward into more stages of the industry’s activity chain

Which value chain activities, if any, should be outsourced

Whether to enter into strategic alliances or partnership arrangements

LAUNCHING STRATEGIC OFFENSIVES TO IMPROVE A COMPANY’S MARKET POSITION

Strategic offensive principles

Focusing relentlessly on building competitive advantage and then striving to convert it into sustainable advantage

Applying resources where rivals are least able to defend themselves

Employing the element of surprise as opposed to doing what rivals expect and are prepared for

Displaying a capacity for swift, decisive, and overwhelming actions to overpower rivals

STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLE (1 of 8)

Sometimes a company’s best strategic option is to seize the initiative, go on the attack, and launch a strategic offensive to improve its market position.

CHOOSING THE BASIS FOR COMPETITIVE ATTACK

Avoid directly challenging a targeted competitor where it is strongest.

Use the firm’s strongest strategic assets to attack a competitor’s weaknesses.

The offensive may not yield immediate results if market rivals are strong competitors.

Be prepared for the threatened competitor’s counter-response.

STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLE (2 of 8)

The best offensives use a company’s most powerful resources and capabilities to attack rivals in the areas where they are competitively weakest.

PRINCIPAL OFFENSIVE STRATEGY OPTIONS

Offering an equally good or better product at a lower price

Leapfrogging competitors by being first to market with next-generation products

Pursuing continuous product innovation to draw sales and market share away from less innovative rivals

Pursuing disruptive product innovations to create new markets

Adopting and improving on the good ideas of other companies (rivals or otherwise)

Using hit-and-run or guerrilla marketing tactics to grab market share from complacent or distracted rivals

Launching a preemptive strike to secure an industry’s limited resources or capture a rare opportunity

CHOOSING WHICH RIVALS TO ATTACK

Market leaders that are in vulnerable competitive positions

Runner-up firms with weaknesses in areas where the challenger is strong

Struggling enterprises on the verge of going under

Small local and regional firms with limited capabilities

Best Targets for Offensive Attacks

BLUE-OCEAN STRATEGY—A SPECIAL KIND OF OFFENSIVE

The business universe is divided into:

An existing market with boundaries and rules in which rival firms compete for advantage

A “blue ocean” market space, where the industry has not yet taken shape, with no rivals and wide-open long-term growth and profit potential for a firm that can create demand for new types of products

Core Concept (1 of 8)

A blue-ocean strategy offers growth in revenues and profits by discovering or inventing new industry segments that create altogether new demand.

Bonobos’s Blue-Ocean Strategy in the U.S. Men’s Fashion Retail Industry

Given the rapidity with which most first-mover advantages based on Internet technologies can be overcome by competitors, what has Bonobos done to retain its competitive advantage?

Is Bonobos’s unique focused-differentiation entry into brick-and-mortar retailing a sufficiently strong strategic move?

What would you predict is the likelihood of long-term success for Bonobos in the retail clothing sector?

DEFENSIVE STRATEGIES—PROTECTING MARKET POSITION AND COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

Purposes of Defensive Strategies

Lower the firm’s risk of being attacked

Weaken the impact of an attack that does occur

Influence challengers to aim their efforts at other rivals

FORMS OF DEFENSIVE STRATEGIES

Defensive strategies can take either of two forms

Actions to block challengers

Actions to signal the likelihood of strong retaliation

STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLE (3 of 8)

Good defensive strategies can help protect a competitive advantage but rarely are the basis for creating one.

STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLE (4 of 8)

There are many ways to throw obstacles in the path of would-be challengers.

BLOCKING THE AVENUES OPEN TO CHALLENGERS

Introduce new features and models to broaden product lines to close off gaps and vacant niches.

Maintain economy-pricing to thwart lower price attacks.

Discourage buyers from trying competitors’ brands.

Make early announcements about new products or price changes to induce buyers to postpone switching.

Offer support and special inducements to current customers to reduce the attractiveness of switching.

Challenge quality and safety of competitor’s products.

Grant discounts or better terms to intermediaries who handle the firm’s product line exclusively.

SIGNALING CHALLENGERS THAT RETALIATION IS LIKELY

Signaling is an effective defensive strategy when the firm follows through by:

Publicly announcing its commitment to maintaining the firm’s present market share

Publicly committing to a policy of matching competitors’ terms or prices

Maintaining a war chest of cash and marketable securities

Making a strong counter-response to the moves of weaker rivals to enhance its tough defender image

STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLE (5 of 8)

To be an effective defensive strategy, signaling needs to be accompanied by a credible commitment to follow through.

Core Concept (2 of 8)

TIMING A FIRM’S OFFENSIVE AND DEFENSIVE STRATEGIC MOVES

Timing’s importance:

Knowing when to make a strategic move is as crucial as knowing what move to make.

Moving first is no guarantee of success or competitive advantage.

The risks of moving first to stake out a monopoly position versus being a fast follower or even a late mover must be carefully weighed.

When pioneering helps build a firm’s reputation and creates strong brand loyalty

When a first mover’s customers will thereafter face significant switching costs

When property rights protections thwart rapid imitation of the initial move

When an early lead enables movement down the learning curve ahead of rivals

When a first mover can set the technical standard for the industry

Uber’s First-Mover Advantage in Mobile Ride-Hailing Services

Which first-mover advantages contributed to Uber’s domination of the on-demand transportation markets in its chosen cities?

What first-mover advantages will Uber not have in entering overseas markets?

How could Uber extend its success into smaller and less urban markets as user growth in the larger urban markets peaks?

When pioneering is more costly than imitating and offers negligible experience or learning-curve benefits

When the products of an innovator are somewhat primitive and do not live up to buyer expectations

When rapid market evolution allows fast followers to leapfrog a first mover’s products with more attractive next-version products

When market uncertainties make it difficult to ascertain what will eventually succeed

When customer loyalty is low and first mover’s skills, know-how, and actions are easily copied or surpassed

TO BE A FIRST MOVER OR NOT

Does market takeoff depend on complementary products or services that currently are not available?

Is new infrastructure required before buyer demand can surge?

Will buyers encounter high switching costs in moving to the newly introduced product or service?

Are there influential competitors in a position to delay or derail the efforts of a first mover?

STRENGTHENING A FIRM’S MARKET POSITION VIA ITS SCOPE OF OPERATIONS

Range of its activities performed internally

Breadth of its product and service offerings

Extent of its geographic market presence and its mix of businesses

Size of its competitive footprint on its market or industry

Defining the Scope of the Firm’s Operations

Core Concept (3 of 8)

The scope of the firm refers to the range of activities that the firm performs internally, the breadth of its product and service offerings, the extent of its geographic market presence, and its mix of businesses.

Scope issues are at the very heart of corporate-level strategy.

Core Concepts (4 of 8)

Horizontal scope is the range of product and service segments that a firm serves within its focal market.

Vertical scope is the extent to which a firm’s internal activities encompass one, some, many, or all of the activities that make up an industry’s entire value chain system, ranging from raw-material production to final sales and service activities.

HORIZONTAL MERGER AND ACQUISITION STRATEGIES

Merger:

Is the combining of two or more firms into a single corporate entity that often takes on a new name

Acquisition:

Is a combination in which one firm, the “acquirer,” purchases and absorbs the operations of another firm, the “acquired”

STRATEGIC OJECTIVES FOR HORIZONTAL MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS

Creating a more cost-efficient operation out of the combined companies

Expanding the firm’s geographic coverage

Extending the firm’s business into new product categories

Leading the convergence of industries whose boundaries are being blurred by changing technologies and new market opportunities

BENEFITS OF INCREASING HORIZONTAL SCOPE

Increasing a firm’s horizontal scope strengthens its business and increases its profitability by:

Improving the efficiency of its operations

Heightening its product differentiation

Reducing market rivalry

Increasing the firm’s bargaining power over suppliers and buyers

Enhancing its flexibility and dynamic capabilities

Bristol-Myers Squibb’s “String-of-Pearls” Horizontal Acquisition Strategy

Which strategic outcomes did Bristol-Myers Squibb pursue through its “string-of-pearls” acquisition strategy?

Why did Bristol-Myers Squibb choose to pursue an acquisition strategy that was different from its industry competitors?

How did increasing the horizontal scope of Bristol-Myers Squibb through acquisitions strengthen its competitive position and profitability?

WHY MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS SOMETIMES FAIL TO PRODUCE ANTICIPATED RESULTS

Strategic issues

Cost savings may prove smaller than expected.

Gains in competitive capabilities take longer to realize or never materialize at all.

Organizational issues

Cultures, operating systems and management styles fail to mesh due to resistance to change from organization members.

Key employees at the acquired firm are lost.

Managers overseeing integration make mistakes in melding the acquired firm into their own.

Core Concept (5 of 8)

A vertically integrated firm is one that performs value chain activities along more than one stage of an industry’s value chain system.

VERTICAL INTEGRATION STRATEGIES

Vertically integrated firm

One that participates in multiple segments or stages of an industry’s overall value chain

Vertical integration strategy

Can expand the firm’s range of activities backward into its sources of supply or forward toward end users of its products

TYPES OF VERTICAL INTEGRATION STRATEGIES

Full integration

A firm participates in all stages of the vertical activity chain.

Partial integration

A firm builds positions only in selected stages of the vertical chain.

Tapered integration

A firm uses a mix of in-house and outsourced activity in any stage of the vertical chain.

THE ADVANTAGES OF A VERTICAL INTEGRATION STRATEGY

Benefits of a Vertical Integration Strategy

Add materially to a firm’s technological capabilities

Strengthen the firm’s competitive position

Boost the firm’s profitability

Core Concepts (6 of 8)

Backward integration involves entry into activities previously performed by suppliers or other enterprises positioned along earlier stages of the industry value chain system.

Forward integration involves entry into value chain system activities closer to the end user.

INTEGRATING BACKWARD TO ACHIEVE GREATER COMPETITIVENESS

Integrating backwards by:

Achieving same scale economies as outside suppliers: low-cost based competitive advantage

Matching or beating suppliers’ production efficiency with no drop-off in quality: differentiation-based competitive advantage

Reasons for integrating backwards

Reduction of supplier power

Reduction in costs of major inputs

Assurance of the supply and flow of critical inputs

Protection of proprietary know-how

INTEGRATING FORWARD TO ENHANCE COMPETITIVENESS

Reasons for integrating forward

To lower overall costs by increasing channel activity efficiencies relative to competitors

To increase bargaining power through control of channel activities

To strengthen and reinforce brand awareness

To increase product differentiation

DISADVANTAGES OF A VERTICAL INTEGRATION STRATEGY

Increased business risk due to large capital investment

Slow acceptance of technological advances or more efficient production methods

Less flexibility in accommodating shifting buyer preferences that require non-internally produced parts

Internal production levels may not reach volumes that create economies of scale

Efficient production of internally-produced components and parts hampered by capacity matching problems

New or different resources and capabilities requirements

WEIGHING THE PROS AND CONS OF VERTICAL INTEGRATION

Will vertical integration enhance the performance of strategy-critical activities ways that lower cost, build expertise, protect proprietary know-how, or increase differentiation?

What impact will vertical integration have on investment costs, flexibility, and response times?

What administrative costs are incurred by coordinating operations across more vertical chain activities?

How difficult will it be for the firm to acquire the set of skills and capabilities needed to operate in another stage of the vertical chain?

Kaiser Permanente’s Vertical Integration Strategy

What are the most important strategic benefits that Kaiser Permanente derives from its vertical integration strategy?

Over the long term, how could the vertical scope of Kaiser Permanente’s operations threaten its competitive position and profitability?

Why is a vertical integration strategy more appropriate in some industries than in others?

Core Concept (7 of 8)

Outsourcing involves contracting out certain value chain activities that are normally performed in-house to outside vendors.

OUTSOURCING STRATEGIES: NARROWING THE SCOPE OF OPERATIONS

Outsource an activity if it:

Can be performed better or more cheaply by outside specialists

Is not crucial to achieving sustainable competitive advantage

Improves organizational flexibility and speeds time to market

Reduces risk exposure due to new technology or buyer preferences

Allows the firm to concentrate on its core business, leverage key resources, and do even better what it already does best

THE BIG RISKS OF OUTSOURCING VALUE CHAIN ACTIVITIES

Hollowing out resources and capabilities that the firm needs to be a master of its own destiny

Loss of direct control when monitoring, controlling, and coordinating activities of outside parties by means of contracts and arm’s-length transactions

Lack of incentives for outside parties to make investments specific to the needs of the outsourcing firm’s value chain

STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLE (6 of 8)

A company must guard against outsourcing activities that hollow out the resources and capabilities that it needs to be a master of its own destiny.

Core Concepts (8 of 8)

A strategic alliance is a formal agreement between two or more separate companies in which they agree to work cooperatively toward some common objective.

A joint venture is a partnership involving the establishment of an independent corporate entity that the partners own and control jointly, sharing in its revenues and expenses.

FACTORS THAT MAKE AN ALLIANCE “STRATEGIC”

A strategic alliance:

Facilitates achievement of an important business objective

Helps build, sustain, or enhance a core competence or competitive advantage

Helps remedy an important resource deficiency or competitive weakness

Helps defend against a competitive threat, or mitigates a significant risk to a company’s business

Increases the bargaining power over suppliers or buyers.

Helps open up important new market opportunities

Speeds development of new technologies or product innovations

BENEFITS OF STRATEGIC ALLIANCES AND PARTNERSHIPS

Minimize the problems associated with vertical integration, outsourcing, and mergers and acquisitions

Are useful in extending the scope of operations via international expansion and diversification strategies

Reduce the need to be independent and self-sufficient when strengthening the firm’s competitive position

Offer greater flexibility should a firm’s resource requirements or goals change over time

Are useful when industries are experiencing high-velocity technological advances simultaneously

STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLE (7 of 8)

Companies that have formed a host of alliances need to manage their alliances like a portfolio.

WHY AND HOW STRATEGIC ALLIANCES ARE ADVANTAGEOUS

Strategic Alliances:

Expedite development of promising new technologies or products

Help overcome deficits in technical and manufacturing expertise

Bring together the personnel and expertise needed to create new skill sets and capabilities

Improve supply chain efficiency

Help partners allocate venture risk sharing

Allow firms to gain economies of scale

Provide new market access for partners

CAPTURING THE BENEFITS OF STRATEGIC ALLIANCES

Picking a good partner

Being sensitive to cultural differences

Recognizing that the alliance must benefit both sides

Adjusting the agreement over time to fit new circumstances

Structuring the decision-making process for swift actions

Ensuring both parties keep their commitments

Strategic Alliance Factors

STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLE (8 of 8)

The best alliances are highly selective, focusing on particular value chain activities and on obtaining a specific competitive benefit.

Alliances enable a firm to learn and to build on its strengths.

REASONS FOR ENTERING INTO STRATEGIC ALLIANCES

Enter into critical country markets quickly.

Gain inside knowledge about unfamiliar markets and cultures through alliances with local partners.

Provide access to valuable skills and competencies concentrated in particular geographic locations.

When staking out a strong industry position

Establish a stronger beachhead in target industry.

Master new technologies and build expertise and competencies.

Open up broader opportunities in the target industry.

They lower investment costs and risks for each partner by facilitating resource pooling and risk sharing.

They are more flexible organizational forms and allow for a more adaptive response to changing conditions.

They are more rapidly deployed—a critical factor when speed is of the essence.

STRATEGIC ALLIANCES VERSUS OUTSOURCING

The increased ability to exercise control over the partners’ activities.

A greater commitment and willingness of the partners to make relationship-specific investments as opposed to arm’s-length outsourcing transactions.

ACHIEVING LONG-LASTING STRATEGIC ALLIANCE RELATIONSHIPS

Collaborating with partners that do not compete directly

Establishing a permanent trusting relationship

Continuing to collaborate is in the parties’ mutual interest

Factors Influencing the Longevity of Alliances

THE DRAWBACKS OF STRATEGIC ALLIANCES AND PARTNERSHIPS

Culture clash and integration problems due to different management styles and business practices

Anticipated gains not materializing due to an overly optimistic view of the potential for synergies or the unforeseen poor fit of partners’ resources and capabilities

Risk of becoming dependent on partner firms for essential expertise and capabilities

Protection of proprietary technologies, knowledge bases, or trade secrets from partners who are rivals

HOW TO MAKE STRATEGIC ALLIANCES WORK

Create a system for managing the alliance.

Build trusting relationships with partners.

Set up safeguards to protect from the threat of opportunism by partners.

Make commitments to partners and see that partners do the same.

Make learning a routine part of the management process.

Appendix 1 Maximizing the Power of a Strategy

Making choices that complement a competitive approach and maximize the power of strategy includes:

Offensive and defensive competitive actions

Competitive dynamics and the timing of strategic moves

Scope of operations along the industry’s value chain

Appendix 2 Choosing Which Rivals to Attack

The best targets for offensive attacks are: market leaders that are in vulnerable competitive positions, runner-up firms with weaknesses in areas where the challenger is strong, struggling enterprises on the verge of going under, and small local and regional firms with limited capabilities.

Appendix 3 Defensive Strategies—Protecting Market Position and Competitive Advantage

The three purposes of defensive strategies

Lower the firm’s risk of being attacked

Weaken the impact of an attack that does occur

Influence challengers to aim their efforts at other rivals

Appendix 4 Strengthening a Firm’s Market Position Via Its Scope of Operations

The scope of a firm’s operations is defined as: the range of its activities performed internally; the breadth of its product and service offerings; the extent of its geographic market presence and its mix of business; and the size of its competitive footprint on its market or industry.

Appendix 5 The Advantages of a Vertical Integration Strategy

Three benefits of a vertical integration strategy

Add materially to a firm’s technological capabilities

Strengthen the firm’s competitive positon

Boost the firm’s profitability

Appendix 6 Capturing the Benefits of Strategic Alliances

The strategic alliance factors are:

Being sensitive to culture differences

Recognizing that the alliance must benefit both sides

Adjusting the agreement over time to fit new circumstances

Structuring the decisions-making process for swift actions

Ensuring both parties keep their commitments

Picking a good partner

Appendix 7 Achieving Long-Lasting Strategic Alliance Relationships

Three factors that influence the longevity of alliances

Collaborating with partners that do not compete directly

Establishing a permanent trusting relationship

Continuing to collaborate is in the parties’ mutual interest

Categories

## representational art with an approach to naturalism covers:

 representational art with an approach to naturalism covers:
Categories

## adam smith’s quotation would most likely be used to defend which of the following policies?

In 2011, Finland had a GDP of $195 billion and a per capita GDP of$36,000. Life expectancy was about 79 years. Which of these additional factors would most support the conclusion that Finland has a developed rather than an emerging economy?

[removed] Finland has a low population density.

[removed] Finland has a free-market economy.

[removed] Finland exports more than it imports.

[removed] Finland’s unemployment rate is 9.6 percent.

Kelen wants to open a toy store. He buys the leftover stock of a store going out of business. He opens the boxes and counts the toys. There are 10 Nnedi action figures, 25 Ramez action figures, and 60 Slimeball action figures. Based on the graph, how should he set his prices?

[removed] Kelen should start with the same price for all action figures.

[removed] Nnedi action figures should be $10, Ramez$35, and Slimeball $50. [removed] Nnedi action figures should be$42, Ramez $30, and Slimeball$10.

[removed] Nnedi action figures should be $60, Ramez$35, and Slimeball $1. Public Domain Opponents of free trade zones might use this map to argue that free trade [removed] encourages conflict among market and command economies [removed] leads to greater mobility among populations [removed] organizes nations into regional exclusionary blocs [removed] redraws traditional geographic boundaries [removed] Capital [removed] Entrepreneurship [removed] Labor [removed] Land [removed] The shop would decrease the brake-check price to eliminate scarcity. [removed] The shop would increase worker pay to make up for the opportunity cost of not doing brake checks. [removed] The shop would shift production to oil changes and away from brake checks. [removed] The shop would shift production to brake checks and away from oil changes. Given the data in the chart, which two countries enjoy an absolute advantage in oil production over the United States? [removed] Canada and Venezuela [removed] Russia and Canada [removed] Saudi Arabia and Venezuela [removed] Russia and Saudi Arabia Adam Smith’s quotation would most likely be used to defend which of the following policies? [removed] Higher taxation of corporate profits [removed] Less stringent regulation of commerce [removed] More subsidies for farmers [removed] Stricter restrictions against monopolies Which of these businesses are in monopolistic competition? [removed] Two clothing shops, one selling women’s clothing and the other selling kids’ clothing [removed] Two agricultural producers, each selling a variety of kinds of citrus fruit [removed] Two pet stores, one of which sells dog products and the other of which sells bird products [removed] Two phone providers, each offering benefits to customers who switch to its service Given the data in the chart above, which of the following statements is true? [removed] France has a comparative advantage in olive oil production. [removed] Greece has an absolute advantage in wine and olive oil production. [removed] Greece has a comparative advantage in wine production. [removed] Italy has an absolute advantage in wine and olive oil production. Categories ## 0.00378541178 cubic meters Homework #1 1) An American football player, starting from rest at the line of scrimmage, accelerates along a straight line for a time of 1.25 s. Then, during a negligible amount of time, he changes the magnitude of his acceleration to a value of 1.2 m s-2. With this acceleration, he continues in the same direction for another 1.2 s, until he reaches a speed of 3.7 m s-1. What is the value of his acceleration (assumed to be constant) during the initial 1.25 s period? i. Sketch a plot of velocity versus time. ii. To solve this problem, you have to work backwards. If the final speed is 3.7 m s-1after accelerating at 1.2 m s-2 for 1.2 s, then what velocity did he have before this 1.2 s burst of acceleration? iii. It took the player 1.25 s to reach this velocity, accelerating from rest. What was the initial acceleration? 2) Two students are canoeing on a river. While heading upstream, they accidentally drop an empty bottle overboard. They then continue paddling for 1 hour, reaching a point 2 km farther upstream. At this point they realize that the bottle is missing and, driven by ecological awareness, they turn around and head downstream. They catch up with and retrieve the bottle (which has been moving along with the current) 5 km downstream from the turn-around point. Assuming a constant paddling effort throughout, how fast is the river flowing? What would the canoe speed in a still lake be for the same paddling effort? The unknown variables in this problem seem to be the speed of the river, the speed of the canoe relative to the river and the time it takes from when they turn around to when they retrieve the bottle. 3 unknowns. i. Write down an equation in terms of the 3 unknowns for the students canoeing upstream. This is of the form, velocity is equal to distance over time. ii. Write down a similar equation in terms of the 3 unknowns for the students canoeing down stream to retrieve the bottle. iii. Write down a similar equation in terms of the 3 unknowns for the journey of the bottle from when it was first dropped to when it was retrieved. iv. You now have 3 equations and 3 unknowns. Do the algebra and solve the problem. 3) The mass of an ant is 5.5×10-6 kg. What is this in grams (g), milligrams (mg) and micrograms ( g)? A dose of a given antibiotic for an infant is one micro-liter per hour (1 l h-1). What is this in meters cubed per second (m3 s-1) and liters per year (l year-1)? To change units simply multiply by a conversion factor. For example, to convert 2.6 cm to m would be where the fraction is the conversion. Note 100 cm is equivalent to 1 m, so multiplying the 2.6 cm by this fraction doesn’t change the quantity just the units. Homework #2 1) You are driving along with a furry dice hanging from the ceiling of your car. You observe that the furry dice are motionless relative to the car. Draw a clearly labeled free-body diagram for the furry dice if your car has a uniform velocity. Draw a clearly labeled free-body diagram for the furry dice if your car is speeding up uniformly. Recall that a free-body diagram (FBD) is a diagram where the body (here furry dice) is represented by a dot and the forces acting on that body are represented by arrows emanating from that dot. What forces are acting on the furry dice? By “motionless relative to the car” the question is telling you that the furry dice are not swinging around, by “uniform velocity” the question tells you there is no acceleration here and the net force is equal to zero (in both x- and y- directions). Finally, by stating that the “car is speeding up” it now implies that the dice, which recall are “motionless relative to the car”, must also be accelerating and for this to happen there must be a net force in the direction of acceleration. 2) A firefighter who weighs 712 N slides down a vertical pole with an acceleration of 3 m s -2, directed downward. What are the magnitude and direction (up or down) of the vertical force on the firefighter from the pole and the magnitude and direction of the vertical force on the pole from the firefighter? i. Again this is a problem which requires a FBD. Draw a FBD for the firefighter. What forces are acting on him, and what must the net force on the firefighter be for his/her acceleration to be 3 m s-2 ii. Once you’ve found the force on the firefighter from the pole, the force on the pole from the firefighter is easy, right? Look up Newtons’ 3rd law. 3) The coefficient for static friction for rubber on dry asphalt is from 0.35 to 1.2 (average of say 0.775), while for rubber on wet asphalt its from 0.25 to 0.8 (average of say 0.525). These values are taken from Baker, J.S., “Traffic Accident Investigation Manual”, 1975. Consider a car traveling at 20.1168 m s-1 (45 mph) with a driver reaction time of 0.75 s on a dry road. At what speed should the driver travel in wet conditions to maintain the same stopping distance? Why is the coefficient of static friction used here? Why not the coefficient of kinetic friction? i. First find the stopping distance for the car on a dry road. Note that there are two parts to this. First the car moves at a constant velocity for 0.75 s (because the car doesn’t decelerate until after the reaction time) and then it decelerates linearly from the initial velocity to the final velocity (zero because it stops). There are different ways to solve this. You could write down an equation for distance with two terms. The first term would be distance during the reaction time is velocity multiplied by time. The second term would have to take into consideration the deceleration (and the coefficient for static friction). Alternatively, you could sketch a plot of velocity versus time (constant for 0.75 s and then decreasing linearly to zero with a slope equal to deceleration). How do you get distance from a velocity vs time graph? ii. Repeat what you just did, but in reverse. Now you know the stopping distance (from the first part) and you do the same math (or use the same kind of velocity vs time graph) to find the initial velocity. iii. Why static and not kinetic friction? Google ABS breaks. Homework #3 1) A moving electron particle has kinetic energy K. After a net amount of work W has been done on it, the electron is moving one-quarter as fast in the opposite direction. Find W in terms of K. Does your answer depend on the final direction of the electron’s motion? i. This is tricky because surely going from a velocity of v to -¼v should be the same as going from v + ¼v to zero. Is it? ii. Is going from v to -¼v the same as going from v to ¼v? The starting and finishing kinetic energies are the same, but why would the work required to change be different? 2) A pick-up truck is coasting at a speed vA along a straight and level road. When a load equivalent to 10% of the truck’s mass is thrown off the bed, parallel to the ground and in the forward direction, the truck is brought to a halt. If the direction in which this mass is thrown is exactly reversed, but the speed of this mass relative to the truck remains the same, the wagon accelerates to a new speed vB. Calculate the ratio vB/vA. i. This problem has some deliberate wording. “coasting” implies that the engine is not providing force, and “straight and level road” implies that we can ignore external forces such as gravity. Therefore, all we have to worry about is momentum conservation. Balance the momentum when the truck is moving with the load in its bed to when the truck has come to a stop and the load is thrown forward. What is the velocity of this load, relative to the trucks initial velocity? ii. Now solve for when the load is thrown backwards, propelling the truck further forwards. Balance the momentum before and after the mass is thrown and find the new velocity of the truck. The mass of the truck should cancel and you should be able to solve for the ratio vB/vA. 3) A kid on a sled, with a combined mass of 35 kg, is pulled up a slope at constant speed by a tow rope that is parallel to the ground. The ground slopes upwards at a constant angle of 26o above the horizontal and the friction between the sled and the ground is characterized by the coefficient of kinetic friction, . Draw a clearly labeled free-body diagram for the kid on a sled. Calculate the tension in the tow rope. i. The question asks you to draw a FBD – which is good as this is exactly where you should start to solve this problem! What are the forces acting on the sled? ii. The question states that the kid on the sled are pulled “at constant speed” which means the acceleration and net force are both zero. Recall, that for problems with slopes you resolve the forces parallel and perpendicular to the slope (usually the force that needs splitting up is the weight, mg). All the forces (which recall are vectors) when added together equals zero. In other words, forces up the hill are equal to forces down the hill, and forces in to the hill and equal to forces out of the hill. This being the case, find the tension in the rope. Homework #4 1) Your driving your car at 15.6 m s-1 (about 35 mph) and the traffic light ahead turns amber. Do you brake before the intersection or hit the gas pedal and beat the light? The light has a speed camera which will automatically deposit a hefty fine in the mail (along with a picture of your car speeding through the intersection or stopping within the intersection) if you get it wrong. The traffic light will remain amber for 3.5 seconds (Texas state minimum), your reaction time is 0.75 s and the intersection is 10 m wide. When you first saw the light turn amber, you where 40 m in front of the intersection. Your car can accelerate at a rate of 4 m s-2 or decelerate at a rate of 6 m s-2 (taking the coefficient of friction from Homework #2). In Dallas a speed camera issued 9407 tickets worth$705,525 between January 1 and August 31, 2007. Upon investigation by a local news station it was found that the amber light lasted only 3.15 s. How might the decision of the corrupt local government in Dallas, to put profit before safety and reduce the length of time for the amber light, affect your above predicament?

i. The first part is to consider the car approaching the intersection with a 3.5 s amber light. What would happen if you decided to just continue at the same speed through the intersection? What deceleration would the car require to stop in time? What acceleration would the car require to clear the intersection before the light turns red? Don’t forget to include the reaction time in your calculations. Are these values reasonable?

ii. Repeat the same analysis as in part i but with the time that the amber light is on at 3.15 s instead of 3.5 s. How does this change your answers?

2) The chef on the Titanic, Charles Joughin, helped many people onto lifeboats and declined to board one himself. Subsequent to helping others he drank an entire bottle of whiskey, put on a life jacket and, after the Titanic had completely been submerged, stepped onto the bow of the ship without as much as getting his hair wet. Both the alcohol (kept him warm) and the life jacket (kept him afloat) saved his life. His mass was 100 kg and the inflated jacket had a volume of 3.1 x 10-2 cubic meters and was completely submerged under the water. The volume of the chef’s body that was underwater is 8.2 x 10-2 cubic meters. What was the density of the life jacket?

This question has a lot of unrequired information, which I think makes it interesting. The relevant part is that the chef was floating in water and kept afloat by the life jacket. A FBD of this situation would see the weight of the chef and life jacket (mass is density multiplied by volume) being equal to the buoyant forces (weight of water displaced). I believe the only unknown (after taking the density of water to be 1000 kg m-3, will be the density of the life jacket.

3) Yikes! Scooby Doo is being chased by the Phantosaur! Scooby Doo very quickly accelerates at 6 m s-2 to his top velocity of 3 m s-1. Scooby Doo, having been chased by lots of ghosts, is good at running and can maintain this velocity. The Phantosaur accelerates at 3 m s-2, and has a top velocity of 6 m s-1. However, the Phantosaur can only maintain such a high velocity for 1 s before getting tired and slowing down at a rate of 1 m s-2. Will the Phantosaur eat Scooby Doo?

This is a tricky intersection problem, because Scooby Doo and the Phantosaur speed up, maintain a constant velocity and (in the case of the Phantosaur) slow down. Therefore, we have to solve this in sections

i. How long does it take Scooby to accelerate to his top speed and how far has he traveled?

ii. How long does it take the Phantosaur to accelerate to his top speed and how far does it travel? During the time it takes the Phantosaur to get up to its maximum velocity, how far has Scooby ran?

iii. The Phantosaur can only maintain the high velocity for 1 s. After this 1 s, how far has it ran, and how far has Scooby ran?

iv. Finally Scooby maintains a constant velocity, while the Phantosaur slows down. What are the equations for distance traveled by both Scooby and the Phantosaur while the Phantosaur is decelerating?

At any point in the previous steps was the Phantosaur ahead of Scooby Doo?

Homework #5

1) A chitauritwo (Loki’s weird alien friends) is flying past Hawkeye who is stationed on top of a building. The trajectory of the chitauritwo is given by the equations

Hawkeye’s position is given by , and . If he is to fire an arrow with an initial velocity of 137 m s-1 at time t = 0, will he be able to shoot the chitauritwo? In what direction should he fire his arrow? Ignore air resistance, because the arrow is so fast, and note that gravity acts in the negative z-direction.

This is an intersection problem, so we have to write down the trajectory of the arrow and put the x-, y- and z-coordinates of the arrow as a function of time equal to the x-, y- and z-coordinates of the chitauritwo (given in the problem).

i. You have the starting location of the arrow so write down the equation for the position of the arrow in the x-direction as a function of time (note there is no air resistance so no acceleration). Put this equal to the x-coordinate of the chitauritwo to obtain your first equation.

ii. Do the same as in i but in the y-direction (should be simpler as the chitauritwo doesn’t move in this direction).

iii. Obtain a similar equation in the z-direction. This is height so Hawkeye will have to aim slightly upwards to overcome the effects of gravity, which will appear in this equation as a negative term.

So now you have three equations, but 4 unknowns! The unknowns are the initial velocity of the arrow (in x, y, and z) and time. But wait, we have a fourth equation.

iv. The magnitude of the velocity is dictated by the bow. The magnitude is 137 m s-1. Therefore, Pythagoras theory gives us our fourth equation. 4 unknowns and 4 equations. Now its a math problem. Plug it into a calculator or a computer if you can’t do the math.

2) Suppose that a planet were discovered between the sun and Mercury, with a circular orbit of radius equal to 2/3 of the average orbit radius of Mercury. (Such a planet was once postulated, in part to explain the precession of Mercury’s orbit. It was even given the name Vulcan, although we now have no evidence that it actually exists. Mercury’s precession has been explained by general relativity.) The orbital period of Mercury is 88.0 days.

What would be the orbital period of such a planet?

You shouldn’t need any help with this question as its a simple application of Kepler’s 3rd law.

3) A skier leaves the ramp of a ski jump with a velocity of 10 m/s at 20o above the horizontal as shown. The slope where she will land is inclined downward at 40o, and air resistance is negligible. Find the distance from the end of the ramp to where the jumper lands and her velocity components just before landing.

This is an interesting projectile motion problem, because the area where the projectile is landing (the projectile being the skier in this problem) is inclined.

i. First you need to write down the equation of motion for the skier in the x-direction after she has left the ski jump. Take the edge of the ski jump to be x = 0 and y = 0, and the point of time when she leaves as t = 0.

ii. Write down the equation of motion for the skier in the y-direction. Don’t forget gravity.

iii. You should now have two equations but three unknowns (the x and y distances when she lands on the slope and the time this took). The third equation comes from the slope itself! Given that the slope is going down at 40o can you write an equation relating the x and y distances when she lands on the slope?

Now you have 3 equations and 3 unknowns it should be easy enough. Given this information you should be able to get the quantities asked for in the problem.

Homework #6

1) High jumpers usually sustain fractures in the lower third of the fibula. The world record for the high jump is held by Javier Sotomayor (Cuba) at 2.45 m (1993). If he weighed 68 kg could muster a run-up speed of 9 m s-1, had a center of mass which was 1.2 m of the floor and took 0.3 s to push off from the floor then calculate the stress in his fibula. Note that during the Fosbury Flop the higher jumper pushes of from the ground using both feet, the cross-sectional area of the fibula is 1 cm2, and that the fibula plays a minor role in weight-bearing with the tibia supporting approximately 95% of the weight. Stress is defined as force per unit area.

i. In order for Javier to make the jump how much energy does he need? Note he only has to raise his center of mass to 2.45 m from 1.2 m.

ii. By balancing potential energy and kinetic energy, how much velocity does he need?

iii. Given that it took an estimated 0.3 s for this velocity to be acquired, what was his acceleration and what is the force required to generate this acceleration.

iv. If the fibula only provides 5% of this force then how much force is that? And given the definition of stress, what is the stress in the fibula?

2) A shotgun fires a large number of pellets upward, with some pellets traveling very nearly vertically and others as much as 1.0o from the vertical. Assume that the initial speed of the pellets is uniformly 150 m s-1 and ignore air resistance. Within what radius from the point of firing will the pellets land? If there are 1000 pellets, and they fall in a uniform distribution over a circle with the radius you just calculated, what is the probability that at least one pellet will fall on the head of the person who fires the gun?

For this question you might need to brush up on your high school math. Hows your probability?

i. Use the range equation to find the furthest that a bullet could land.

ii. If 1000 bullets fall in a circle with this radius then we can find the probability of at least one bullet falling on the shooters head. First make up the area of his head, say, 0.01 m2? What is the probability of a single bullet hitting the guy?

iii. What is the probability of one bullet missing the guys head?

iv. What is the probability that all the bullets will miss?

v. What is the probability that not all of the bullets will miss, and that at least one will hit?

3) Consider the experiment shown below. A block is pulled across a flat but rough surface. The force applied to the block is plotted on the x-axis while the frictional force due to the surface of the block and the rough surface is plotted on the y-axis.

What is the value of the applied force when the frictional force is equal to F1? Explain the features of the graph. Sketch a plot of the position of the block as a function of time, assuming the applied force ramps up linearly with time. Sketch a plot of the velocity of the block as a function of time, assuming the applied force ramps up linearly with time. Sketch a plot of the acceleration of the block as a function of time, assuming the applied force ramps up linearly with time.

There are some key words here. “Flat surface” implies that you can ignore gravity, but “rough surface” implies that friction is going to be important.

i. The first thing the problem asks is to give the value of the applied force when the frictional force is equal to F1. As the static friction opposes the applied force, then the frictional force and applied force should be equal. The block isn’t moving yet!

ii. You should be able to explain this graph. If not then consult your notes.

iii. You have to provide plots of position, velocity and acceleration. I would consider these in the reverse order. First what is the net force acting on the block as a function of time? Recall that the applied force is said to increase linearly with time. The acceleration is just proportional to the net force (applied force minus frictional force). Second, if you have acceleration as a function of time, then the integration of this would give you velocity. In other words, the velocity vs time plot is the area under the curve of the acceleration vs time graph. Thirdly, the position vs time is the area under the curve of the velocity vs time graph.

Homework #7

1) If you drop both a large and a small ball with the large ball beneath the small, then the small ball can bounce higher into the air than if it was to bounce off the floor directly. If you have a large and small ball handy you could try it! Assume the mass of the large ball is 0.1 kg and the mass of the small ball is 0.01 kg. The radius of the large ball is 30 cm and the radius of the small ball is 10 cm. The balls are initially in contact, with the large ball at a height of 1 m (center of the ball). If the balls are released and fall under gravity to the floor, how high will the small ball bounce up in the air? Assume all collisions to be elastic.

i. How far do the balls initially fall? How fast are they traveling when the large ball hits the ground?

ii. The large ball can be assumed to hit the floor first and rebound back up. At this point, the large ball is traveling up and the small ball is traveling down. Both have the same magnitude of velocity found in i, however, as the collision was “elastic”. Use conservation of momentum in an elastic collision to find the new velocities of the large and small balls after they collide.

iii. Now the small ball is traveling back up. Given its velocity, how high will it reach?

2) To protect their young in the nest, peregrine falcons will fly into birds of prey (such as ravens) at high speed. In one such episode, a 600 g falcon flying at 20 m/s hit a 1.5 kg raven flying at 9 m/s. The falcon hit the raven at right angles to its original path and bounced back at 5 m/s. (These figures are from a research paper and estimated by the author as he watched this attack occur in New Mexico). Find the change in angle of the ravens motion and its final velocity after the collision. Was energy conserved in the collision?

This is a simple case of momentum before the collision equals momentum after the collision.

i. Write an equation for the momentum in the direction of the raven as he flies towards the collision. Put the momentum before the collision equal to the momentum after the collision in this direction.

ii. Do the same analysis for the direction that the falcon was originally flying.

iii. You should have two equations which yield the ravens velocity in both directions after the collision. Use this to find the magnitude and direction.

iv. Was energy conserved? Calculate the energy before collision, knowing the falcon and ravens initial velocities and masses. Calculate the energy after the collision, knowing the falcon and ravens velocities after the collision.

3) A wheel starts from rest and rotates with constant angular acceleration to reach an angular speed of 12 rad/s in 3 s. Find the magnitude of the angular acceleration of the wheel and the angle in radians through which it rotates in this time.

Use the linear equations of motion but for angular motion and this should be easy.

Homework #8

1) A 50 kg woman stands on a bathroom scale while riding in an elevator descending with decreasing speed (magnitude of acceleration is 2 m s-2). Draw a free body diagram for the woman. What is the reading on the scale?

If you get the free body diagram correct then this is an easy problem. Think about how you feel on an elevator, or better still go and ride the elevator. Does your answer make sense?

2) A fire hose has an opening whose radius is 10 cm. The hose discharges water at a velocity of 20 m s-1. How much force is required by the fireman to hold the nozzle stationary? A fire hose ejects a stream of water with a speed of 20 m s-1, as above. At what angle to the horizontal should the fire hose be directed if it is to remove the civil liberties of protesters 20 m from where the hose is being held?

i. There are two parts to this problem. In the first part you have to calculate the force required to hold the fire hose. To do this go back to the definition of force. Its not necessarily , because this assumes the mass is constant. Here its the opposite the velocity of the water is constant, and acceleration is zero, but the mass changes as more and more water is being ejected. Go back to the definition of force from the momentum section in the notes.

ii. The second part is simply a range equation plug and chug problem.

3) A 20 kg monkey has firm hold on a light rope that passes over a frictionless pulley and is attached to a 20 kg bunch of bananas. The monkey looks up, sees the bananas, and starts to climb the rope to get them.

As the monkey climbs do the bananas move up, down or remain at rest? Explain.

As the monkey climbs, does the distance between the monkey and the bananas increase, decrease, or remain the same? Explain.

The monkey releases her hold on the rope. What happens to the distance between the monkey and the bananas while she is falling?

Before reaching the ground, the monkey grabs the rope to stop her fall. What do the bananas do?

A FBD might help here. Have fun!

Homework #9

1) Barnes Wallis is famous for creating a ‘bouncing bomb’ able to destroy the great dams of the Ruhr in Germany. The bomb was cylindrical and bounced along on the water. It was spinning such that as it bounced it slowed down and came to a stop at the dam. The bomb then sank along the dam wall where an internal pneumatic pistol ignited the charge causing the bomb to explode hard against the dam surface. Wallis discovered that he needed the mass of the bomb to be just 4.3 tonnes consisting of 2.7 tonnes of explosives. The density of steel casing was about 7900 kg m-3 and the density of the explosive is about 800 kg m-3 Calculate the average radius of the bomb if the length was fixed at 1.6 meters. The force of impact (average force) of such a bomb on water after falling from a height of 75 m is enormous. First, find the speed of impact, assuming that air resistance is negligible. Then calculate the average force of impact of the bomb if it initially sinks to a depth of 3/4 of its diameter.

i. Use the volume of a cylinder to calculate the size required to encase the explosive. Assume the thickness of the casing is the same at the ends as it is around the outside of the cylinder. You should et two equations one for the size of the inside explosive and another for the outside casing. Some of the variables, however, will be shared between the two equations.

ii. Find the velocity of the bomb when it hits the water.

iii. If you know it goes from this velocity to zero velocity, in a distance equal to 3/4 of its diameter, then what is the deceleration of the bomb and what is the average force of impact?

2) In order to purify salt water and convert it into drinking water it is usually required to first boil the water and then re-condense the evaporated water back into its liquid state. There are now 7 billion people on our planet and in the US we use 1383 gallons per-person per-day, while at the same time pollution and over population is seeing water shortages throughout the world. The UN recently stated “Fierce competition for fresh water may well become a source of conflict and wars in the future.” If solar power (with an efficiency of 10%) was to be used to purify water and the average solar insolation is approximately 250 watts per square meter, how much land would be required to provide water for the world? Assume that we want to rest of the world to have the adequate access to water that we enjoy in the western world. Average temperature of water at the surface of the ocean is 17 oC, the density of water is 1000 kg m-3, and 1 US Gallon = 0.00378541178 Cubic Meters.

This is a simple problem solving exercise. You shouldn’t have any problems solving this. Just make sure that your units match up!

3) Given that the diameter of the moon is 3,480 km, and using a meter stick or tape measure plus a 25¢ coin, estimate the distance, D, from the Earth to the Moon. Show calculations.

This homework is actually due on the new moon. Talk about bad timing. You’ll just have to pretend that there was a moon in the sky…..

Homework #10

1) The fair has a ride that consists of a large vertical cylinder that spins about its axis fast enough that any person inside is held up against the wall when the floor drops away. The coefficient of static friction between the person and the wall is and the radius of the cylinder is R. Determine the period of revolution necessary to keep the person from falling.

Consider the normal force between the person and wall.

2) A “spring activated toy” (see picture) weighs 0.925N and has a spring of length 5cm. Upon release the toy jumps to a height of 0.5m. What is the spring constant of the spring?

The spring is initially held in a compressed state by the adhesive force of the ‘sucker’ which provides a maximum force of the form

where F0 and t0 are constants. Find an expression for the time it would take before the spring-activated toy is launched into the air.

3) One strategy used by the Ewok’s during their battle with the imperial stormtroopers was to throw a rock at a high angle over level ground. While a stormtrooper watched the first one, a second rock was thrown at a low angle timed to arrive before or at the same time as the first one. Assume both rocks are thrown with a speed of 25.0 m/s. The first one is thrown at an angle of 65.0° with respect to the horizontal. At what angle should the second (low angle) rock be thrown to arrive at the same point as the first? How many seconds later should the second rock be thrown, after the first was thrown, to arrive at the same time?

Use projectile motion equations.

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MANAGERIAL ECONOMICS A Problem Solving Approach

Luke M. Froeb Vanderbilt University

Mikhael Shor University of Connecticut

Brian T. McCann Vanderbilt University

Michael R. Ward University of Texas, Arlington

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BRIEF CONTENTS

Preface: Teaching Students to Solve Problems xiii

SECTION I Problem Solving and Decision Making 1 1 Introduction: What This Book Is About 3 2 The One Lesson of Business 15 3 Benefits, Costs, and Decisions 27 4 Extent (How Much) Decisions 39 5 Investment Decisions: Look Ahead and Reason Back 51

SECTION II Pricing, Costs, and Profits 65 6 Simple Pricing 67 7 Economies of Scale and Scope 83 8 Understanding Markets and Industry Changes 95 9 Market Structure and Long-Run Equilibrium 113 10 Strategy: The Quest to Keep Profit from Eroding 125 11 Foreign Exchange, Trade, and Bubbles 137

SECTION III Pricing for Greater Profit 151 12 More Realistic and Complex Pricing 153 13 Direct Price Discrimination 163 14 Indirect Price Discrimination 171

SECTION IV Strategic Decision Making 183 15 Strategic Games 185 16 Bargaining 205

SECTION V Uncertainty 215 17 Making Decisions with Uncertainty 217 18 Auctions 231 19 The Problem of Adverse Selection 241 20 The Problem of Moral Hazard 253

v

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SECTION VI Organizational Design 265 21 Getting Employees to Work in the Firm’s Best Interests 267 22 Getting Divisions to Work in the Firm’s Best Interests 279 23 Managing Vertical Relationships 293

SECTION VII Wrapping Up 305 24 You Be the Consultant 307

Epilogue: Can Those Who Teach, Do? 313

Glossary 315

Index 321

vi BRIEF CONTENTS

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CONTENTS

Preface: Teaching Students to Solve Problems xiii

SECTION I Problem Solving and Decision Making 1

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION: WHAT THIS BOOK IS ABOUT 3 1.1 Using Economics to Solve Problems 3 1.2 Problem-Solving Principles 4 1.3 Test Yourself 6 1.4 Ethics and Economics 7 1.5 Economics in Job Interviews 9 Summary & Homework Problems 11 End Notes 13

CHAPTER 2 THE ONE LESSON OF BUSINESS 15 2.1 Capitalism and Wealth 16 2.2 Does the Government Create Wealth? 18 2.3 Why Economics Is Useful to Business 18 2.4 Wealth Creation in Organizations 21 Summary & Homework Problems 22 End Notes 23

CHAPTER 3 BENEFITS, COSTS, AND DECISIONS 27 3.1 Background: Variable, Fixed, and Total Costs 28 3.2 Background: Accounting Versus Economic Profit 29 3.3 Costs Are What You Give Up 31 3.4 Sunk-Cost Fallacy 32 3.5 Hidden-Cost Fallacy 34 3.6 A Final Warning 35 Summary & Homework Problems 36 End Notes 38

CHAPTER 4 EXTENT (HOW MUCH) DECISIONS 39 4.1 Background: Average and Marginal Costs 40 4.2 Marginal Analysis 41 4.3 Incentive Pay 44 4.4 Tie Pay to Performance Measures That Reflect Effort 45 4.5 Is Incentive Pay Unfair? 46

vii

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Summary & Homework Problems 47 End Notes 50

CHAPTER 5 INVESTMENT DECISIONS: LOOK AHEAD AND REASON BACK 51 5.1 Compounding and Discounting 51 5.2 How to Determine Whether Investments Are Profitable 52 5.3 Break-Even Analysis 54 5.4 Choosing the Right Manufacturing Technology 55 5.5 Shut-Down Decisions and Break-Even Prices 56 5.6 Sunk Costs and Post-Investment Hold-Up 57 5.7 Anticipate Hold-Up 58 Summary & Homework Problems 59 End Notes 62

SECTION II Pricing, Costs, and Profits 65

CHAPTER 6 SIMPLE PRICING 67 6.1 Background: Consumer Values and Demand Curves 68 6.2 Marginal Analysis of Pricing 70 6.3 Price Elasticity and Marginal Revenue 72 6.4 What Makes Demand More Elastic? 74 6.5 Forecasting Demand Using Elasticity 76 6.6 Stay-Even Analysis, Pricing, and Elasticity 77 6.7 Cost-Based Pricing 78 Summary & Homework Problems 78 End Notes 81

CHAPTER 7 ECONOMIES OF SCALE AND SCOPE 83 7.1 Increasing Marginal Cost 84 7.2 Economies of Scale 86 7.3 Learning Curves 87 7.4 Economies of Scope 89 7.5 Diseconomies of Scope 90 Summary & Homework Problems 91 End Notes 93

CHAPTER 8 UNDERSTANDING MARKETS AND INDUSTRY CHANGES 95 8.1 Which Industry or Market? 95 8.2 Shifts in Demand 96 8.3 Shifts in Supply 97 8.4 Market Equilibrium 99 8.5 Predicting Industry Changes Using Supply and Demand 100 8.6 Explaining Industry Changes Using Supply and Demand 103 8.7 Prices Convey Valuable Information 104 8.8 Market Making 106 Summary & Homework Problems 108 End Notes 111

viii CONTENTS

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CHAPTER 9 MARKET STRUCTURE AND LONG-RUN EQUILIBRIUM 113 9.1 Competitive Industries 114 9.2 The Indifference Principle 116 9.3 Monopoly 120 Summary & Homework Problems 121 End Notes 123

CHAPTER 10 STRATEGY: THE QUEST TO KEEP PROFIT FROM ERODING 125 10.1 A Simple View of Strategy 126 10.2 Sources of Economic Profit 127 10.3 The Three Basic Strategies 132 Summary & Homework Problems 133 End Notes 135

CHAPTER 11 FOREIGN EXCHANGE, TRADE, AND BUBBLES 137 11.1 The Market for Foreign Exchange 138 11.2 The Effects of a Currency Devaluation 141 11.3 Bubbles 142 11.4 How Can We Recognize Bubbles? 144 11.5 Purchasing Power Parity 146 Summary & Homework Problems 147 End Notes 149

SECTION III Pricing for Greater Profit 151

CHAPTER 12 MORE REALISTIC AND COMPLEX PRICING 153 12.1 Pricing Commonly Owned Products 154 12.2 Revenue or Yield Management 156 12.3 Advertising and Promotional Pricing 157 12.4 Psychological Pricing 158 Summary & Homework Problems 160 End Notes 162

CHAPTER 13 DIRECT PRICE DISCRIMINATION 163 13.1 Introduction 163 13.2 Direct Price Discrimination 166 13.3 Robinson-Patman Act 167 13.4 Implementing Price Discrimination Schemes 168 13.5 Only Schmucks Pay Retail 169 Summary & Homework Problems 169 End Notes 170

CHAPTER 14 INDIRECT PRICE DISCRIMINATION 171 14.1 Introduction 171 14.2 Indirect Price Discrimination 172 14.3 Volume Discounts as Discrimination 176 14.4 Bundling Different Goods Together 177

CONTENTS ix

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Summary & Homework Problems 178 End Notes 181

SECTION IV Strategic Decision Making 183

CHAPTER 15 STRATEGIC GAMES 185 15.1 Sequential-Move Games 186 15.2 Simultaneous-Move Games 188 15.3 What Can I Learn from Studying Games Like the Prisoners’ Dilemma? 194 15.4 Other Games 195 Summary & Homework Problems 200 End Notes 203

CHAPTER 16 BARGAINING 205 16.1 Strategic View of Bargaining 205 16.2 Nonstrategic View of Bargaining 208 16.3 Conclusion 210 Summary & Homework Problems 211 End Notes 214

SECTION V Uncertainty 215

CHAPTER 17 MAKING DECISIONS WITH UNCERTAINTY 217 17.1 Random Variables and Probability 217 17.2 Uncertainty in Pricing 222 17.3 Run Experiments to Reduce Uncertainty 223 17.4 Minimizing Expected Error Costs 224 17.5 Risk Versus Uncertainty 226 Summary & Homework Problems 227 End Notes 230

CHAPTER 18 AUCTIONS 231 18.1 Oral Auctions 232 18.2 Second-Price Auctions 233 18.3 First-Price Auctions 234 18.4 Bid Rigging 234 18.5 Common-Value Auctions 236 Summary & Homework Problems 238 End Notes 240

CHAPTER 19 THE PROBLEM OF ADVERSE SELECTION 241 19.1 Insurance and Risk 241 19.2 Anticipating Adverse Selection 242 19.3 Screening 244 19.4 Signaling 247 19.5 Adverse Selection and Internet Sales 248

x CONTENTS

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Summary & Homework Problems 249 End Notes 251

CHAPTER 20 THE PROBLEM OF MORAL HAZARD 253 20.1 Introduction 253 20.2 Insurance 254 20.3 Moral Hazard Versus Adverse Selection 255 20.4 Shirking 256 20.5 Moral Hazard in Lending 258 20.6 Moral Hazard and the 2008 Financial Crisis 260 Summary & Homework Problems 260 End Notes 263

SECTION VI Organizational Design 265

CHAPTER 21 GETTING EMPLOYEES TO WORK IN THE FIRM’S BEST INTERESTS 267 21.1 Principal-Agent Relationships 268 21.2 Controlling Incentive Conflict 269 21.3 Marketing Versus Sales 271 21.4 Franchising 272 21.5 A Framework for Diagnosing and Solving Problems 273 Summary & Homework Problems 275 End Notes 278

CHAPTER 22 GETTING DIVISIONS TO WORK IN THE FIRM’S BEST INTERESTS 279 22.1 Incentive Conflict Between Divisions 279 22.2 Transfer Pricing 281 22.3 Organizational Alternatives 283 22.4 Budget Games: Paying People to Lie 285 Summary & Homework Problems 288 End Notes 291

CHAPTER 23 MANAGING VERTICAL RELATIONSHIPS 293 23.1 How Vertical Relationships Increase Profit 294 23.2 Double Marginalization 295 23.3 Incentive Conflicts Between Retailers and Manufacturers 295 23.4 Price Discrimination 297 23.5 Antitrust Risks 298 23.6 Do Not Buy a Customer or Supplier Simply Because It Is Profitable 299 Summary & Homework Problems 300 End Notes 302

SECTION VII Wrapping Up 305

CHAPTER 24 YOU BE THE CONSULTANT 307 24.1 Truck Leasing 307

CONTENTS xi

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24.2 Manufacturer Hiring 308 24.3 American Airlines 309 24.4 Law Firm Pricing 309 24.5 Cash Flow at a Forklift Dealership 310 24.6 Managing Interest-Rate Risk at Banks 311 24.7 What You Should Have Learned 312

Epilogue: Can Those Who Teach, Do? 313

Glossary 315

Index 321

xii CONTENTS

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PREFACE

Teaching Students to Solve Problems1

by Luke Froeb

When I started teaching MBA students, I taught economics as I had learned it, using models and public policy applications. My students complained so much that the dean took me out to the proverbial woodshed and gave me an ultimatum, “improve customer satisfaction or else.” With the help of some disgruntled students who later became teaching assistants, I was able to turn the course around.

The problem I faced can be easily described using the language of eco- nomics: the supply of business education (professors are trained to provide abstract theory) is not closely matched to demand (students want practical knowledge). This mismatch is found throughout academia, but it is perhaps most acute in a business school. Business students expect a return on a fairly sizable investment and want to learn material with immediate and obvious value.

One implication of the mismatch is that teaching economics in the usual way—with models and public policy applications—is not likely to satisfy stu- dent demand. In this book, we use what we call a “problem-solving peda- gogy” to teach microeconomic principles to business students. We begin each chapter with a business problem, like the fixed-cost fallacy, and then give stu- dents enough analytic structure to understand the cause of the problem and how to fix it.

Teaching students to solve real business problems, rather than learn models, satisfies student demand in an obvious way. The approach also allows students to absorb the lessons of economics without as much of the analytical “overhead” as a model-based pedagogy. This is an advantage, especially in a terminal or stand-alone course, like those typically taught in a business school. To see this, ask yourself which of the following ideas is more likely to stay with a student after the class is over: the fixed-cost fallacy or that the partial derivative of profit with respect to price is independent of fixed costs.

xiii

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ELEMENTS OF A PROBLEM-SOLVING PEDAGOGY Our problem-solving pedagogy has three elements.

Begin with a Business Problem Beginning with a real-world business problem puts the particular ahead of the abstract and motivates the material in a straightforward way. We use narrow, focused problems whose solutions require students to use the analytical tools of interest.

Teach Students to View Inefficiency as an Opportunity The second element of our pedagogy turns the traditional focus of benefit- cost analysis on its head. Instead of teaching students to spot and then elimi- nate inefficiency, for example, by changing public policy, we teach them to view each underemployed asset as a money-making opportunity.

Use Economics to Implement Solutions Even after you find an underemployed asset, moving it to a higher-valued use is often hard to do, particularly when the inefficiency occurs within an orga- nization. The third element of our pedagogy addresses the problem of imple- mentation: how to design organizations where employees have enough information to make profitable decisions and the incentive to do so.

Again, we use the tools of economics to address the problem of imple- mentation. If people act rationally, optimally, and self-interestedly, then mis- takes have only one of two causes: either people lack the information necessary to make good decisions or they lack the incentive to do so. This immediately suggests a problem-solving algorithm; ask:

1. Who is making the bad decision? 2. Do they have enough information to make a good decision? 3. Do they have the incentive to do so?

Answers to these three questions will point to the source of the problem and suggest one of three potential solutions:

1. Let someone else make the decision, someone with better information or incentives

2. Give more information to the current decision maker 3. Change the current decision maker’s incentives

The book begins by showing students how to use this algorithm and sub- sequent chapters illustrate its use in a different context, for example, invest- ments, pricing, principal-agent relationships, and uncertain environments.

USING THE BOOK The book is designed to be read cover-to-cover as it is short, concise, and accessible to anyone who can read and think clearly. The pedagogy is built around business problems, so the book is most effective for those with some

xiv PREFACE

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work experience. Its relatively short length makes it reasonably easy to cus- tomize with ancillary material.

The authors use the text in full-time MBA programs, executive MBA pro- grams (weekends), healthcare management executive programs (one night a week), and nondegree executive education. However, some of our biggest customers use the book in online business classes at both the graduate and undergraduate levels.

In the degree programs, we supplement the material in the book with online interactive programs like Cengage’s CourseMate or Samuel Baker’s Economic Interactive Tutorials.2 Complete Blackboard courses, including syllabi, quizzes, homework, slides, videos to complement each chapter, and links to supplementary material, can be downloaded from the Cengage website. OurManagerialEcon.com blog is a good source of new business applications for each of the chapters.

In this fourth edition, we have updated and improved the presentation and pedagogy of the book. The biggest change is in the supplementary mate- rial: we have added videos to complement each chapter, included worked video problems, and dramatically increased the size and quality of the test bank. In addition to the other updates throughout the text, Chapter 24, “You Be the Consultant,” has all-new content.

We wish to acknowledge numerous classes of MBA, executive MBA, nondegree executive education, and healthcare management students, without whom none of this would have been possible—or necessary. Many of our for- mer students will recognize stories from their companies in the book. Most of the stories in the book are from students and are for teaching purposes only.

Thanks to everyone who contributed, knowingly or not, to the book. Professor Froeb owes intellectual debts to former colleagues at the U.S. Department of Justice (among them, Cindy Alexander, Tim Brennan, Ken Heyer, Kevin James, Bruce Kobayahsi, and Greg Werden); to former collea- gues at the Federal Trade Commission (among them James Cooper, Pauline Ippolito, Tim Muris, Dan O’Brien, Maureen Ohlhausen, Paul Pautler, Mike Vita, and Steven Tenn); to colleagues at Vanderbilt (among them, Germain Boer, Jim Bradford, Bill Christie, Mark Cohen, Myeong Chang, Craig Lewis, Rick Oliver, David Parsley, David Rados, Steven Tschantz, David Scheffman, and Bart Victor); and to numerous friends and colleagues who offered sugges- tions, problems, and anecdotes for the book, among them, Lily Alberts, Olafur Arnarson, Raj Asirvatham, Bert Bailey, Pat Bajari, Molly Bash, Sarah Berhalter, Roger Brinner, the Honorable Jim Cooper, Matthew Dixon Cowles, Abie Del Favero, Kelsey Duggan, Vince Durnan, Marjorie Eastman, Keri Floyd, Josh Gapp, Brock Hardisty, Trent Holbrook, Jeff and Jenny Hubbard, Brad Jenkins, Dan Kessler, Bev Landstreet (B5), Bert Mathews, Christine Milner, Jim Overdahl, Rich Peoples, Annaji Pervajie, Jason Rawlins, Mike Saint, David Shayne, Jon Shayne, Bill Shughart, Doug Tice, Whitney Tilson, and Susan Woodward. We owe intellectual and pedagogical debts to Armen Alchian and William Allen,3 Henry Hazlitt,4 Shlomo Maital,5 John MacMillan,6

Steven Landsburg,7 Ivan Png,8 Victor Tabbush,9 Michael Jensen and William Meckling,10 and James Brickley, Clifford Smith, and Jerold Zimmerman.11

Special thanks to everyone who guided us through the publishing process, including Daniel Noguera, Steve Scoble, Michael Worls, and Jyotsna Ojha.

PREFACE xv

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END NOTES

1. Much of the material is taken from Froeb, Luke M. and Ward, James C., “Teaching Managerial Economics with Problems Instead of Models” (April 5, 2011). The International Handbook on Teaching and Learning Economics, ed. Gail Hoyt, KimMarie McGoldrick, eds. (Edward Elgar Publishing, 2012: Northampton, MA.

2. http://sambaker.com/econ/ 3. Armen Alchian and William Allen, Exchange

and Production, 3rd ed. (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1983).

4. Henry Hazlitt, Economics in One Lesson (New York: Crown, 1979).

5. Shlomo Maital, Executive Economics: Ten Essential Tools for Managers (New York: Free Press, 1994).

6. John McMillan, Games, Strategies, and Managers (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992).

7. Steven Landsburg, The Armchair Economist: Economics and Everyday Life (New York: Free Press, 1993).

8. Ivan Png, Managerial Economics (Maiden, MA: Blackwell, 1998).

9. http://www.mbaprimer.com 10. Michael Jensen and William Meckling, A

Theory of the Firm: Governance, Residual Claims and Organizational Forms (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2000).

11. James Brickley, Clifford Smith, and Jerold Zimmerman, Managerial Economics and Organizational Architecture (Chicago: Irwin, 1997).

xvi PREFACE

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MANAGERIAL ECONOMICS

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Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

SECTION 1

Problem Solving and Decision Making

1 Introduction: What This Book Is About

2 The One Lesson of Business

3 Benefits, Costs, and Decisions

4 Extent (How Much) Decisions

5 Investment Decisions: Look Ahead and Reason Back

1

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Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

1 Introduction: What This Book Is About

In 1992, a junior geologist was preparing a bid recommendation for an oil tract in the Gulf of Mexico. He suspected that this tract contained a large accumulation of oil because his company, Oil Ventures International (OVI), had an adjacent tract with several productive wells. Since no competitors had neighboring tracts, none of them suspected a large accumulation of oil. Because of this, he thought that the tract could be won relatively cheaply and recommended a bid of $5 million. Surprisingly, OVI’s senior manage- ment ignored the recommendation and submitted a bid of$21 million. OVI won the tract over the next-highest bid of $750,000. If the board of directors asked you to review the bidding procedures at OVI, how would you proceed? What questions would you ask? Where would you begin your investigation? You’d find it difficult to gather information from those closest to the bid- ding. Senior management would be suspicious and uncooperative because no one likes to be singled out for bidding$20 million more than was necessary. Likewise, our junior geologist would be reluctant to criticize his superiors. You might be able to rely on your experience—provided that you had run into a similar problem. But without experience, or when facing novel problems, you would have to rely on your analytic ability.

This book is designed to show you how to complete an assignment like this.

1.1 Using Economics to Solve Problems To solve a problem like OVI’s, first, figure out what’s causing the problem, and second, how to fix it. In this case, you would want to know whether the 21 million bid was too high at the time it was made, not just in retrospect. If the bid was too aggressive, then you’d have to figure out why the senior man- agers overbid and how to make sure they don’t do it again. Both steps require that you predict how people behave in different cir- cumstances, and this is where the economic content of the book comes in. 3 Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. The one thing that unites economists is their use of the rational-actor paradigm to predict behavior. Simply put, it says that people act rationally, optimally, and self-interestedly. In other words, they respond to incentives. The paradigm not only helps you figure out why people behave the way they do but also suggests ways to motivate them to change. To change behavior, you have to change self-interest, and you do that by changing incentives. Incentives are created by rewarding good performance with, for example, a commission on sales or a bonus based on profitability. The performance evaluation metric (revenue, cost, profit, or similar outcome) is separate from the reward structure (commission, bonus, raise, or promotion), but they work together to create an incentive to behave a certain way. To illustrate, let’s go back to OVI’s story and try to find the source of the problem. After his company won the auction, our geologist increased the company’s oil reserves by the amount of oil estimated to be in the tract. But when the company drilled a well, they discovered only a small amount of oil, so the acquisition did little to increase the size of the company’s oil reserves. Using the information from the well, our geologist updated the reservoir map and reduced the reserve estimate by two-thirds. Senior management rejected the lower estimate and directed the geologist to “do what he could” to increase the size of the estimated reserves. So he revised the reservoir map again, adding “additional” reserves to the com- pany’s asset base. The reason behind this behavior became clear when, sev- eral months later, OVI’s senior managers resigned, collecting bonuses tied to the increase in oil reserves that had accumulated during their tenure. The incentive created by the bonus plan explains the behavior of senior management. Both the overbidding and the effort to inflate the reserve esti- mate were rational, self-interested responses to the incentive created by the bonus. Even if you didn’t know about the geologist’s bid recommendation, you’d still suspect that the senior managers overbid because they had the incentive to do so. Senior managers’ ability to manipulate the reserve estimate made it difficult for shareholders and their representatives on the board of directors to spot the mistake. To fix this problem, you have to find a way to better align managers’ incentives with the company’s goals. To do this, find a way to reward man- agement for increasing profitability, not just for acquiring reserves. This is not as easy as it sounds because it is difficult to measure a manager’s contri- bution to company profitability. You can do this subjectively, with annual performance reviews, or objectively, using company earnings or stock price appreciation as performance metrics. But each of these performance metrics can create problems, as we’ll see in later chapters. 1.2 Problem-Solving Principles This story illustrates two principles that will help you learn to diagnose and solve problems. Notice that (1) we reduced the problem (overbidding) to a 4 SECTION I • Problem Solving and Decision Making Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. bad decision by someone at the firm (senior management) and (2) we used economics to find the source of the problem. Under the rational-actor para- digm, bad decisions happen for one of two reasons: either decision makers do not have enough information to make good decisions, or they lack incen- tive to do so. Using this insight, you can isolate the source of almost any problem by asking three simple questions: 1. Who is making the bad decision? 2. Does the decision maker have enough information to make a good decision? 3. Does the decision maker have the incentive to make a good decision? Answers to these three questions not only point to the source of the problem but will also suggest ways to fix it by: 1. letting someone else—someone with better information or better incentives—make the decision, 2. giving more information to the current decision maker, or 3. changing the current decision makers’ incentives. In OVI’s case, we see that (1) senior management made the bad decision to overbid; (2) they had enough information to make a good decision, but (3) they didn’t have the incentive to do so. One potential fix is to change the incentives of senior management so that they are based on profitability, not oil reserves. When reading about various business mistakes in this book, you should ask yourself these three questions to see if you can find the cause of each problem, and then try one of the three solutions to fix it. By the time you fin- ish the book, the analysis should become second nature. Here are some practical tips that will help you develop problem-solving skills: Think about the problem from the organization’s point of view. Avoid the temptation to think about the problem from the employee’s point of view because you will miss the fundamental problem of goal alignment: how does the organization give employees enough information to make good decisions and the incentive to do so? Think about the organizational design. Once you identify a bad decision, avoid the temptation to solve the problem by simply reversing the decision. Instead, think about why the bad decision was made, and how to make sure that similar mistakes won’t be made in the future. What is the trade-off? Every solution has costs as well as benefits. Avoid the temptation to think only about the benefits, as it will make your analysis seem as if it were done to justify your own foregone conclusion. Instead, use the three questions to spot problems with a proposed solu- tion; that is, in whatever solution you propose, make sure decision makers have enough information to make good decisions and the incen- tive to do so. CHAPTER 1 • Introduction: What This Book Is About 5 Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. Don’t define the problem as the lack of your solution. This kind of thinking may cause you to miss the best solution. For example, if you define a problem as “the lack of centralized purchasing,” then the solu- tion will be “centralized purchasing” regardless of whether that is the best option. Instead, define the problem as “high acquisition cost,” and then examine “centralized purchasing” versus “decentralized purchasing” (or some other alternative) as potential solutions to the problem. Avoid jargon because most people misuse it. Force yourself to spell out what you mean in simple language. It will help you think clearly and communicate precisely. In addition, almost every scam is “sold” using jargon. If you use jargon, experienced listeners may suspect fraud. 1.3 Test Yourself In 2006, an investigative news program sent a TV reporter with a perfectly good car into a garage owned by National Auto Repair (NAR). The reporter came out with a new muffler and transmission—and a bill for over8,000. After the story aired on national TV, consumers began avoiding NAR, and profit plunged. What is the problem, and how do you fix it?

Let’s run the problem through our problem-solving algorithm:

1. Who is making the bad decision? The mechanic recommended unnecessary repairs.

2. Does the decision maker have enough information to make a good decision? Yes, in fact, the mechanic is the only one with enough information to know whether repairs are necessary.

3. Does the decision maker have the incentive to make a good decision? No, the mechanic is evaluated based on the amount of repair work he does, and receives bonuses or commissions tied to the amount of repair work.

Answers to the three questions suggest that the use of quotas, commissions, or similar compensation provides an incentive for mechanics to recommend unnecessary auto repair services.

NAR tried two different solutions to fix the problem. First, they reorga- nized into two divisions: one responsible for recommending repairs where mechanics were paid a flat salary, and the other responsible for doing them. Rather than solving the problem, however, mechanics in the two divisions got together and began colluding. In exchange for recommending unnecessary repairs, the recommending mechanic received a portion of the commission received by the service mechanic for the work that was done.

After they recognized this new problem, NAR went back to the old orga- nizational structure, but they adopted flat pay for the mechanics. This removed the incentive to do unnecessary repairs, but it also removed the incentive to work hard. Since the mechanics made the same amount of

6 SECTION I • Problem Solving and Decision Making

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money regardless of whether they recommended and performed repairs, the mechanics ignored all but the most obvious problems.

This example illustrates several of the problem-solving principles men- tioned earlier. First, it highlights the crucial role played by information. If you are going to let someone else make the decision, as in the first solution, you have to ask whether the new decision maker (the recommending mechanic) has enough information to make good decisions, as well as the incentive to do so. As a third potential solution to this problem, I would keep the original commission scheme, but develop new sources of information (an additional performance evaluation metric) based on reports provided by “secret shoppers” who bring cars into the garage in order to see if the mechanics are ordering unnecessary repairs.

The example also illustrates the trade-offs you face when proposing solu- tions. The first solution involved the costly duplication of effort by the two recommending and service mechanics, the second led to mechanic shirking, and the third would require a new reward scheme based not only on a sales commission but also on the reports of the secret shopper. Figuring out which solution is most profitable involves weighing the trade-offs associated with the various solutions.

1.4 Ethics and Economics Using the rational-actor paradigm in this way—to change behavior by changing incentives—makes some students uncomfortable because it seems to deny the altruism, affection, and personal ethics that most people use to guide their behav- ior. These students resist learning the rational-actor paradigm because they think it implicitly endorses self-interested behavior, as if the primary purpose of economics were to teach students to behave rationally, optimally, and selfishly.

These students would probably agree with a Washington Post editorial, “When It Comes to Ethics, B-Schools Get an F,”1 which blames business schools in general, and economists in particular, for the ethical lapses at Enron, Goldman Sachs, and other companies.

A subtle but damaging factor in this is the dominance of economists at business schools. Although there is no evidence that economists are personally less ethical than members of other disciplines, approaching the world through the dollar sign does make people more cynical.

What these students and the author, a former Harvard ethics profes- sor, do not understand is that to control unethical behavior, you first have to understand why it occurs. When we analyze problems like the one at OVI, we’re not encouraging students to behave opportunistically. Rather, we’re teaching them to anticipate opportunistic behavior and to design organizations that are less susceptible to it. Remember, the rational-actor paradigm is only a tool for analyzing behavior, not advice on how to live your life.

It is also important to realize that these kinds of debates are really debates about value systems. Deontologists judge actions as good or ethical

CHAPTER 1 • Introduction: What This Book Is About 7

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by whether they conform to a set of principles, like the Ten Commandments or the Golden Rule. Consequentialists, on the other hand, judge actions by their consequences. If the consequences of an action are good, then the action is deemed to be good or moral. To illustrate these contrasting value systems, consider this story about price gouging.2

When Notre Dame entered the 2006 season as one of the top-ranked football teams in the country, demand for local hotels during home games rose dramatically. In response, local hotels raised room rates. According to the Wall Street Journal, the Hampton Inn charged $400 a night on football weekends for a room that cost only$129 a night on nonfootball dates. Rates climbed even higher for games against top-ranked foes. For the game against the University of Michigan, the South Bend Marriott charged $649 per night—$500 more than its normal weekend rate of $149. On a campus founded by priests of the Congregation of Holy Cross, where many students dedicate their year after graduation to working with the underprivileged, these high prices caused alarm. The Wall Street Journal quotes Professor Joe Holt, a former priest who teaches ethics in the school’s executive MBA program: “It is an ‘act of moral abdication’ for businesses to pretend they have no choice but to charge as much as they can based on sup- ply and demand.” The article further reports Mr. Holt’s intention to use the example of rising hotel rates on football weekends for a case study in his class on the integration of business and values. Deontologists like Professor Holt would object on principle to the practice of raising prices in times of shortage.3 We might label one such principle, the Spider Man principle: with great power comes great responsibility. The laws of capitalism allow corporations to amass significant power; in turn, society should demand a high level of responsibility from corporations. In particular, property rights might give a hotel the option of increasing prices, but posses- sion of these rights does not relieve the hotel of its obligations to be concerned about the consequences of its choices. A simple beneficence argument might suggest that keeping prices low would be better for consumers. Economics, on the other hand, provides us a consequentialist defense of high prices by comparing them to the implied alternative of not raising prices during periods of high demand. Economists would show, using supply-demand analysis, that if prices did not rise, the consequence would be excess demand for hotel rooms. Would-be guests would find their rooms rationed, perhaps on a first-come, first-served basis. More likely, arbitrageurs would set up a black market, by making early reservations, then “selling” their reservations to custo- mers willing to pay the market-clearing price. Without the ability to earn addi- tional profit during times of scarcity, hotels would have less incentive to build additional rooms, which would make the long-run problem even worse! Versions of this debate—between those who criticize business on ethical grounds, and those who are simply trying to make money—have been going on in this country since its founding. Although a full treatment of the ethical dimensions of business is beyond the scope of this book, many disagreements are really about whether morality should be defined by deontology or conse- quentialism. Once you realize that a debate is really a debate between value 8 SECTION I • Problem Solving and Decision Making Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. systems, it becomes much easier to understand opposing points of view, and to reach compromise with your adversaries. For example, if the government were considering price-gouging laws that made it illegal to raise prices on football weekends, you might offer to donate some of the profits earned on football weekends to a local charity. This might assuage the concerns of those who ascribe to the Spider Man principle. As a footnote to our story of prices in South Bend, when someone offered our former priest$1,500 for his apartment on home-game weekends, he took the offer and now spends his weekends in Chicago. Apparently his principles became too costly for him.

1.5 Economics in Job Interviews If this well-reasoned introduction doesn’t motivate you to learn economics, read the following interview questions—all from real interviews of my students. These questions should awaken interest in the material for those of you who think economics is merely an obstacle between you and a six-figure salary.

– – – – – – – Original Message – – – – – – –

From: “Student A” Sent: Friday, January 2, 3:57 PM Subject: Economics Interview Questions

I had an interview a few weeks ago where I was told that the position paid a very low base and was mostly incentive com- pensation. I responded that I understood he was simply “screening out” low productivity candidates [low productiv- ity candidates would not earn very much under a system of incentive compensation, and would be less likely to accept the position]. I “signaled” back to him that this compensa- tion structure was acceptable to me, as I was confident in my abilities to produce value for the company, and for me. [Note: “Signalling” and “screening” are both solutions to the problem of adverse selection, the topic of Chapter 19.]

– – – – – – – Original Message – – – – – – –

From: “Student B” Sent: Tuesday, January 18, 1:22 PM Subject: Economics Interview Questions

I got a question from Compaq last year for a marketing intern- ship position that partially dealt with sunk costs. It was a “true” case question where the interviewer used the Internet to pull up the actual products as he asked the question.

CHAPTER 1 • Introduction: What This Book Is About 9

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“I am the product manager for the new X type server with these great features. It is to be launched next month at a cost of $5,500. Dell launched their new Y type server last week; it has the same features (and even a few more) for a cost of$4,500. To date, Compaq has put over \$2.5 million in the development process for this server, and as such my manager is expecting above normal returns for the investment.

My question to you is “what advice would you give to me on how to approach the launch of the product, i.e. do I go ahead with it at the current price, if at all, even though Dell has a bet- ter product out that is less expensive, not forgetting the fact that I have spent all the development money and my boss expects me to report a super return?”

I laughed at the question because it was the very first thing we spoke about in the interview, catching me off-guard a bit. He wanted to see if I got caught worrying about all the devel- opment costs in giving advice to scrap the launch or continue ahead as planned. (I’m not an idiot and could see that coming a mile away … thanks to economics, right? ! ! ! ) [NOTE: this is a version of what is called the “sunk cost fallacy” which is covered in Chapter 3.]

– – – – – – – Original Message- – – – – – –

From: “Student C” Sent: Tuesday, January 18, 1:37 PM Subject: Economics Interview Questions

I got questions regarding transfer price within entities of a company. What prices could be used and why. [NOTE: the problem of transfer pricing is one of the most common sources of con- flict between divisions and is covered in Chapters 22 and 23.]

– – – – – – – Original Message- – – – – – –

From: “Student D” Sent: Tuesday, January 18, 1:28 PM Subject: Economics Interview Questions

You are a basketball coach with five seconds on the clock, and you are losing by two points. You have the ball and can take only one more shot (there is no chance of a rebound). There is a 70% chance of making a two-pointer, which would send the game into overtime with each team having an equal chance of winning. There is only a forty percent chance of making a

10 SECTION I • Problem Solving and Decision Making

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Categories

## on her loving two equally

The following sample essay (which you can read in your textbook on page 694) develops the observations about Aphra Behn’s “On Her Loving Two Equally” into a coherent essay. As this essay also shows, however, you will often discover new ways of looking at a poem (or any literary text) in the very process of writing about it. The writer begins by considering why she is drawn to the poem, even though it does not express her ideal of love. She then uses her personal response to the poem as a starting point for analyzing it in greater depth. As you read, pay attention to the strengths and weaknesses you perceive.

Student Name

Instructor

Course

Date

Multiplying by Dividing in Aphra Behn’s “On Her Loving Two Equally”

My favorite poem in “Reading, Responding, Writing” is Aphra Behn’s “On Her Loving Two Equally”—not because it expresses my ideal of love, but because it challenges conventional ideals. The main ideal or assumption explored in the poem is that true love is exclusive and monogamous, as the very titles of two other poems in the chapter and the “Romantic Love” album insist: “How Do I [singular] Love Thee [singular]?” or “To My Dear and Loving [and One and Only] Husband.” The mere title of Behn’s poem upsets that idea by insisting that at least one woman is capable of “Loving Two Equally.” In fact, one thing that is immediately interesting about Behn’s poem is that, though it poses and explores a question, its question is not “Can a woman love two equally?” The title and the poem take it for granted that she can. Instead, the poem asks whether equally loving two people lessens the power or quality of love—or, as the speaker puts it in the first two lines, “How strongly does my passion flow, / Divided equally twixt two?” Every aspect of this poem suggests that when it comes to love, as opposed to math, Comment by jennifer.heinert: This essay starts very informally and personally. While there is nothing wrong with this per se, make sure you know whether your instructor is okay with this kind of conversational and familiar tone or “I writing.” While this essay starts off informally, the writer quickly shifts to a more formal tone. In fact, the author never returns to the “I” voice for the rest of the essay. So, is it necessary? This “I” voice could be eliminated by saying “Aphra Behn’s poem challenges conventional ideals about love.”

This answer grabs attention because it is so counterintuitive and unconventional. Forget love for just a minute: It’s common sense that anything that is “divided” is smaller and weaker than something unified. In math, for example, division is the opposite of multiplication; if we divide one number by another, we get a number smaller than the first number, if not the second. Although Behn’s use of the word flow to frame her question compares love to a river instead of a number, the implication is the same: When a river divides into two streams, each of them is smaller than the river, and its flow less strong; as a result, each stream is more easily dammed up or diverted than the undivided river. So the way the speaker initially poses her question seems to support the conventional view: Love is stronger when it “flows” toward one person, weaker when divided between two.

However conventional and comforting that implied answer, however, it’s one the poem immediately rejects. In the remaining lines of the first stanza, the speaker insists that each of her two lovers and the love she feels for him has not lessened the strength of her feelings for the other, but the reverse. Each lover and each love has “aid[ed]” (line 6) the other, making him and it more “powerful” (line 5). Indeed, she says, neither man would have “subdued [her] heart” (line 3) or “gain[ed her] love” (line 6) at all if the other hadn’t done so as well. Comment by jennifer.heinert: Even though this is a short paragraph it is strong literary analysis: a clear point, analysis, and short (but important) quotations to support the author’s point. Commenting on the importance of individual words within a poem or other literary work is demonstrates a depth of critical thinking.If you glance at the rest of the essay, you will not see long quotations, and the author often provides multiple quotations to support her analysis.

In the second stanza, the speaker gives us a somewhat more concrete sense of why and how this might be the case. On the one hand, being with either one of these men (“When Alexis present is,” line 7) actually makes her both “scorn” him (line 10) and “miss” (line 9) the man who’s not there (“I for Damon sigh and mourn,” line 8). This isn’t really a paradox; we often yearn more for the person or thing we don’t have (the grass is always greener on the other side of the fence), and we often lose our appreciation for nearby, familiar things and people. What is far away and inaccessible is often dearer to us because its absence either makes us aware of what it means to us or allows us to forget its flaws and idealize it.

Perhaps because all of this makes the speaker feel that she can’t possibly solve the problem by herself, the speaker turns in the third stanza to Cupid—the deity who is supposed to control these things by shooting a “golden-pointed dart” (line 15) into the heart of each lover. She asks him to solve her dilemma for her by “tak[ing] back” her love for either Damon or Alexis (line 15). As with her question in the first stanza, however, this plea is taken back as soon as it’s formulated, for if she loses Damon, “all [her] hopes are crossed”; if she loses Alexis, she is “lost” (lines 17– 18).

Here and throughout the poem, the speaker’s main preoccupation seems to be what she feels and what this situation is like for her—“mypassion” (line 1), “my heart” (line 3), “my Damon’s aid, … my love” (line 6), “my Alexis” (line 7), “I … sigh and mourn” (line 8), “I do miss” (line 9), “my scorn” (line 10), “I languish, sigh, and die” (line 12), “This restless fever in my blood” (line 14), “my hopes” (line 17), “my Alexis” and “I am lost” (line 18). Yet the poem implies that the payoff here is not hers alone and that her feelings are not purely selfish. Both times the word gain appears in the poem, for example, her lovers’ gains and feelings are the focus—the fact that Alexis is able “to gain [her] love” thanks to “Damon’s aid” (line 6) and that “Damon gains nothing but my scorn” when she is missing Alexis (line 10). Moreover, ambiguous wording in the first stanza suggests that the men here may be actively, intentionally helping to create this situation and even themselves acting in contradictory, selfish and unselfish, ways. For when the speaker says that “Damon had ne’er subdued my heart / Had not Alexis took his part” (lines 3– 4), his could refer to Alexis or Damon and part could mean “a portion” (of her “heart,” presumably), “a role” (in her life or in this courtship drama), or a “side in a dispute or conflict” (over and for her love). Thus, she could be saying that Alexis (unselfishly) defended Damon’s suit; (selfishly) fought against Damon or took a share or role that properly belonged to Damon; and/or (neutrally) took his (Alexis’s) own share or role or defended his (Alexis’s) own cause. Perhaps all of this has been the case at various times; people do behave in contradictory ways when they are in love, especially when they perceive that they have a rival. It’s also true that men and women alike often more highly prize something or someone that someone else prizes, too. So perhaps each lover’s “passion” for her also “flow[s]” more strongly than it would otherwise precisely because he has a rival. Comment by jennifer.heinert: This paragraph is substantially longer than all of the other body paragraphs. While that might not indicate there is a problem with the paragraph, it might be an indicator that there should be a break: Read over the paragraph—is there a place where there should be a logical break? Comment by jennifer.heinert: This might be a good place to break the paragraph in half.

In the end, the poem thus seems to say that love doesn’t flow or work like a river because love isn’t a tangible or quantifiable thing. As a result, love is also different from the sort of battle conjured up by the martial language of the first stanza in which someone wins only if someone else loses. The poem attributes this to the perversity of the human heart—especially our tendency to yearn for what we can’t have and what we think other people want, too.

Through its form, the poem demonstrates that division can increase instead of lessen meaning, as well as love. On the one hand, just as the poem’s content stresses the power of the love among three people, so the poem’s form also stresses “threeness” as well as “twoness.” It is after all divided into three distinctly numbered stanzas, and each stanza consists of three sentences. On the other hand, every sentence is “divided equally twixt two” lines, just as the speaker’s “passion” is divided equally between two men. Formally, then, the poem mirrors the kinds of division it describes. Sound and especially rhyme reinforce this pattern since the two lines that make up one sentence usually rhyme with each other to form a couplet. The only lines that don’t conform to this pattern come at the beginning of the second stanza where we instead have alternating rhyme—is (line 7) rhymes with miss (line 9), mourn (line 8) rhymes with scorn (line 10). But here, again, form reinforces content. For these lines describe how the speaker “miss[es]” one man when the other is “by,” a sensation that she arguably reproduces in us as we read by ensuring we twice “miss” the rhyme that the rest of the poem leads us to expect.

Because of the way it challenges our expectations and our conventional ideas about romantic love, the poem might well make us uncomfortable, perhaps all the more so because the speaker and poet here are female. For though we tend to think all true lovers should be loyal and monogamous, this has been expected even more of women than of men. What the poem says about love might make more sense and seem less strange and even objectionable, however, if we think of other, nonromantic kinds of love: After all, do we really think that our mother and father love us less if their love is “divided equally twixt” ourselves and our siblings, or do we love each of our parents less because there are two of them? If we think of these familial kinds of love, it becomes much easier to accept Behn’s suggestion that love multiplies when we spread it around. Comment by jennifer.heinert: Concluding paragraphs are difficult. You want to reiterate the main points without repeating them verbatim, and you want to put your work in an interesting context without going off-topic. In this case, there are some clear connections to the introduction, thesis, and body paragraphs. However, does the issue of gender relate to what has been said up to this point in the essay? Does bringing up gender (without discussion or evidence) make the essay stronger? How might this idea be incorporated into the existing essay?

WORK CITED

Behn, Aphra. “On Her Loving Two Equally.” The Norton Introduction to Literature. Eds. Alison Booth and Kelly J. Mays. 10th ed. New York: Norton, 2010. Print.

Categories

## cspd temple

Proposal Assignment

The assignment includes five parts: Outline Proposing a Topic, Evaluation of Sources, Proposal Presentation, Written Proposal, and Executive Summary.

For these assignments, you will present and write a formal proposal. A proposal is an offer to solve a problem or fulfill a business need. The goal is to persuade, and you must be straightforward. It’s important that you analyze your audience and write your proposal to persuade them to accept your ideas. The assignment is complex, with five separate assignments and each builds on the one before it. You are expected to use feedback from each assignment to improve on the next. The assignments are designed to guide you through the development process in writing.

Assignments:

· Topic Proposal – 50 points

· Evaluation of Sources – 30 points

· Proposal Presentation – 100 points

· Draft of Written Proposal – 200 points

· Final Written Proposal – 100 points

Part 1: Proposing Topic for Approval (50 points):

Your specific topic must be approved by your instructor. You cannot submit any subsequent assignments without submitting a topic proposal and getting approval from your instructor.

· What are you proposing?

· To whom are you proposing it?

· What need does the proposal address?

· What are other companies/organizations/schools doing?

Students are encouraged to choose from the following topics:

· Propose an internship program to an existing company

· If you are already in an internship, identify a problem at your company & propose a solution

· Propose a new student service not already offered at Temple

· For example, we now have Cherry Pantry to give students that need it access to healthy food

· Propose a conference for the Fox School to host

· Propose a new LLC (Living Learning Community) for a Temple residence hall

· Propose a student-run business (like STHM & the Saxby’s in Speakman Hall)

· Propose a service-learning project for one of the majors within Fox

· Propose a student-run sustainability program for campus

· Propose a post-college life skills seminar (different from the services that CSPD already provides) – this could be a one-credit course or a special badge on Suitable

Format Requirements:

· No more than one page

· Use 1-inch margins and 11 or 12-point font

· Use brevity tools such as bullet lists, headers, bold, etc., to make this document look clean, neat, professional and attractive

Part 2: Evaluation of Sources (30 points):

It’s important that you evaluate each source you will use to make sure it’s credible and useful for your purpose. You will submit a list of three sources you plan to use: one source you will use to assess your audience, one source you will use to identify the need/problem, and one source you will use to analyze the market. For each source, include a citation using APA style. You will also address the following to explain what key information you’ll get from the source and why the source is credible:

· A brief summary of the source.

· What are the main arguments/ideas? If someone asked you about the content in this source, how would you answer?

· A brief assessment of the source.

· Analyze why the source is useful and credible. Mention if the source is objective or biased.

· A brief reflection on how/why this source will be used for your proposal.

Format Requirements:

· Use bullet points to organize your list.

· Use 1-inch margins and 11 or 12-point font.

Part 3: Proposal Presentation (100 points):

· A title slide that includes your name and the title of the proposal

· Definition of the problem/business need

· Give background information to help the reader understand the need for your proposal

· Proposal

· Your idea – make sure to include the who, what, when, where, and why here

· Give details on your approach and qualifications

· Give any needed market analysis here (i.e. what competitors are doing, how your proposal will compare, etc.)

· Implementation Plan/Timeline

· A visual timeline is recommended

· Budget/Initial Costs

· A table or chart is recommended

· The benefits of your solution

· Conclusion

· Restate your main points – tie them all together

· List of References (APA style)

Format Requirements:

· You must use Power Point

· Your PowerPoint should include visual information – not clip art, but visuals that help the audience understand our ideas with ease

· You must use WebEx to record yourself

· No more than 10 slides (not including title slide and list of references)

· Ten minutes MAXIMUM

· No notes

Part 4: Draft of Written proposal (200 points):

· Cover page that includes your name, the title of the proposal, the date, and your instructor’s last name and section number

· Executive Summary

· The executive summary is where you present your case and give the reader the main takeaway of your proposal. Don’t focus on covering every detail. Instead, give an overview of the main points, focusing on the conclusions you want the reader to come to. Tell your solution to the reader’s problem. It should be results oriented and persuasive.

· Your summary should be less than one page.

· Definition of the problem/business need

· Give background information to help the reader understand the need for your proposal

· Proposal

· Your idea – make sure to include the who, what, when, where, and why here

· Give details on your approach and qualifications

· Give any needed market analysis here (i.e. what competitors are doing, how your proposal will compare, etc.)

· Implementation Plan/Timeline

· Budget/Initial Costs

· If applicable, include any forecasted revenues.

· The benefits of your solution

· Conclusion

· Restate your main points – tie them all together

· List of References (APA style)

Format Requirements:

· Your proposal will be no more than 5 pages, not including the reference list or the cover page.

· Use 1-inch margins and 11 or 12-point font.

· Use brevity tools, like section headers, lists, timetables, budget charts, etc.

· At a minimum, you should include a visual timeline (there’s a template for this in Microsoft Word) and a table or chart outlining the budget/costs.

· You should also include other visuals throughout to support other information in your proposal.

Part 5: Final Written Proposal (100 points):

As we’ve been discussing all semester, careful editing is an integral part of the writing process. Now that you have feedback from your instructor, you’ll need to apply it by rewriting your proposal. The rewrite is worth 100 points. If you do not follow your instructor’s feedback, your rewrite grade could be lower than the grade you earned on your draft. If you do not submit a rewrite that includes changes, you will receive a grade of zero.

Categories

## gram staining lab report

Structure and Microscopy

Lab 4: Structure and Microscopy (100 points)

Student Name:

Student ID:

# Course ID:

## Pre-Lab Questions

1. What determines if a bacterial cell is Gram-positive or Gram-negative? (5 points)

Amount and location of the peptidoglycan molecule in the prokaryotic cell wall determines whether a bacterial cell is Gram-positive or Gram-negative.

2. In this lab, both viruses and prions were introduced as acellular organisms. Do some research and describe one other type of acellular organism. What characteristics about this organism classify it as acellular? (5 points)

Viroids are another type of acellular organism along with viruses and prions. They are plant pathogens, which consist only of a short strand of circular RNA capable of self-replication.

Each bacterial morphology may be a selectable feature to aid survival and may have affected by different physical, environmental, and biological forces to contribute to natural selection.

Reference:

Young, K. D. (2006, September). The Selective Value of Bacterial Shape. Retrieved September 30, 2018, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1594593/

4. Do a search online or look in your textbook for 1-2 antibiotics that affect Gram-positive bacteria and list them. On what part of the cell do the antibiotics usually work? List one or two antibiotics that affect Gram-negative bacteria? On what part of the cell do the antibiotics usually work? (Be sure to cite your sources in your answer.) (5 points)

d

## Experiment 1 Results Tables

Table 1: Experiment 1 Staining Observations (5 points)

 Stain used: Crystal Violet Observations: Purple rod-shape bacteria with white background were observed

## Experiment 1 Post-Lab Questions

1. How does crystal violet enhance the visualization of microbial features? (5 points)

Crystal violet enhances the contrast between the microorganism itself and the slide, making the bacteria appear as purple.

2. What are some of the limitations of simple staining? (5 points)

3. Give an example of a situation in a lab or medical setting in which simple staining would be utilized. (5 points)

Simple staining is used to obtain basic information about morphology of one type of microorganism through clear visualization.

## Experiment 2 Results Tables

Table 2: Experiment 2 Staining Observations (5 points)

 Stain used: Nigrosin Observations: Background is stained, bacteria shows up as clear spiral.

## Experiment 2 Post-Lab Questions

After looking at the sample images provided, negatively stained bacteria showed up as clear straight spirals against a dark background. Bacteria that are simple stained showed up as dark purple rods-shaped with white background.

Methylene blue is another dye that can be used for negative stain.

India Ink is another type of negative stain.

## Experiment 3 Results Tables

Table 3: Experiment 3 Staining Observations (5 points)

 Stain used: Crystal violet (primary stain) & Safranin (counterstain) Observations: Gram-positive appeared as purple and Gram-negative showed up as pink.

## Experiment 3 Post-Lab Questions

1. What color are the Gram-positive bacteria after Gram staining? Gram-negative bacteria? (5 points)

Gram-positive bacteria appear as dark purple or blue due to retaining the primary dye (Crystal Violet) in the cell wall.

Gram-negative bacteria appear as red or pink due to decolorizing to accept the counterstain (Safranin).

2. What different characteristic(s) exist between the two groups that account for the different staining conditions? (5 points)

Gram-positive bacteria are stained purple, and gram-negative bacteria stain as pink. They are two distinct morphological groups of bacteria.

3. Why was the Gram iodine added to the Gram staining procedure? (5 points)

Gram iodine is added as a mordant to stabilize the crystal violet iodine complex so that the dye cannot be removed easily.

4. Why is a counterstain (safranin) added to the Gram staining procedure? (5 points)

A counterstain is used to help identify gram-negative bacteria. Gram-negative bacteria lose the crystal violet and stain red.

5. What are the advantages of performing a Gram stain vs. a simple stain for visualizing bacteria? (5 points)

Gram stain contains two or more different stains and can differentiate the species of bacteria into two main groups (gram-positive and gram-negative) by looking at the color of cells (pink or purple). Simple stain involves single stain and it is used to easily determine cell shape, size, and arrangement.

Categories

## arrange these elements according to atomic radius.

Rank these elements in terms of increasing atomic radius AI, F, Sr, N, Cs
26,843 results
chemistry
Rank these elements in terms of increasing atomic radius AI, F, Sr, N, Cs

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Rank the elements B, Al, Na, Mg from largest to smallest atomic radius. Would it be: Al, Mg, Na, B?

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Rank thefollowing elements in order of decreasing atomic radius. N, B, Be, Li? I thought it was N, B, Be, Li

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Rank the following atoms in terms of decreasing atomic radius. 1. Na, N, O, Mg, F 2. F, O, N, Mg, Na 3. F, Mg, Na, O, N 4. Na, Mg, N, O, F 5. F, O, N, Na, Mg

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Which trends are observed when the elements in Period 3 on the Periodic Table are considered in order of increasing atomic number? (1) The atomic radius decreases, and the first ionization energy generally increases. (2) The atomic radius decreases, and

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Order the elements S, Cl, and F in terms of increasing atomic radii. I thought the answer was F, S, Cl, but the answer key said it was S, F, CL Why? AR decreases from left to right. Sulfur has one more energy level, so shouldn’t its atomic radii be greater

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Math please check and thank you very much
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asked by Anonymous on November 18, 2012
science,physics,chemistry
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chem
Rank the following elements by electron affinity, from most positive to most negative EA value. Rank from most positive to most negative. To rank items as equivalent, overlap them. argon,sodium,iodine,oxygen,phosphorus

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The standard atom for the atomic masses of all the elements is the atom of carbon which has 6 protons and 6 neutrons (12C) and is assigned the atomic mass of exactly 12. Under this standard, the atomic mass of iron, atomic number 26, is 55.845 u and the

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chem1 WORD PROBLEM!!
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Order the elements carbon, oxygen and chlorine from the ff: 1) greatest to least according to atomic radius 2) greatest to least according to ionization energy

asked by Marie Ashley on December 16, 2013
The transuranium elements A. are the elements with atomic numbers above 92. *** B. occur in nature. C. are sometimes radioactive. D. all of the above

asked by Cherry on September 9, 2016
Please Check 1. How does nanotechnology help engineers make products for the future? a. By changing a materials atomic structure, it can be made from elements that are easier to obtain.*** b. By changing a material’s atomic structure, its physical

asked by Blair on March 18, 2016
Science
Please Check! 1. How does nanotechnology help engineers make products for the future? a. By changing a materials atomic structure, it can be made from elements that are easier to obtain.*** b. By changing a material’s atomic structure, its physical

science
Mercury is a heavy metal. Using atomic models and the periodic table of elements, explain why it belongs to this category of elements

asked by Matt on October 10, 2011
Science

1. 3 elements are listed by atomic number, #19, 20, and 21. Which property do all of these elements have in common? They are all brittle. They all have 4 valence electrons. They are all malleable. * They shatter easily.

asked by ThatGirl on January 31, 2018
Science
The Periodic Table 1) What conclusions can be drawn about the relationship between the arrangement of elements on the periodic table and the patterns observed in their properties? :Properties of elements are related to atomic numbers.*** :Properties of

asked by TheLOUDEST_0430 on March 9, 2015

chemistry
using data in table 6.5, calculate the densities of (spherical) atoms of potassium and calcium and compare to the listed densitites of these metals K=39.10 amu, .231 nm (atomic radius) Ca= 40.08 amu, .197nm (atomic radius)

asked by trish on October 27, 2011
Science

1. How does nanotechnology how engineers make products for the future? A. By changing a materials atomic structure, it can be made from elements that are easier to obtain. B. By changing a materials atomic structure, it’s physical properties can also be

asked by Rhyleigh on February 27, 2016
Calculus
In increasing order, rank: 3^ln 2, 2^3, 2^ln 3 *do not use a calculator, and explain your choices Obviously, 2^3=8 So, instinctively, I entered the other values into my calculator just to rank the quantities using decimal places. However, in my calculator,

asked by Jon on October 3, 2010
So I would like to check some of my answers. I really appreciate any help 1. Which of the following atoms or ions is diamagnetic; Cr Br Mn2+ B C4+ – I said C4+ 2. Which of the following atoms or ions is paramagnetic? C4- S^4+ V^4+ Se2- Ge4+I said V^4+

asked by Josh on November 12, 2017
Chemistry 106
What are the elements used to make the ingrediants of each category (the same element may be listed in several categories, but a maximum of once in each of the 6 categories, no matter how many different ingrediants it may be in)? **name of the element with

asked by samantha on October 26, 2010
Chemistry
Predict the answer to each question according to trends in the periodic table. Justify each answer based on the locations of the elements on the periodic table and/or the shell model. a. Which has a greater atomic radius, Al or Cl? b. Which has a greater

Chemistry 130
Can someone please help me with these questions? 1 (7). Rank the following in order of increasing radius based on their positions on the periodic table: S, S-2, Cl a. S, S-2, Cl b. S-2, Cl, S c. Cl, S, S-2 d. Cl, S-2, S e. S, Cl, S-2 6 (16). Methane burns

asked by Jessie on September 8, 2009
space/astronomy
Rank the objects based on the strength of the gravitational force that would be felt by a spacecraft traveling at a distance of 10 AU from the center of each of the objects, from weakest to strongest. 1)red giant mass: 1Msun radius: 100Rsun 2)sun 3)white

asked by zack on November 30, 2009
Chemistry
Without referring to a periodic table, pick the electron configuration of elements with the following atomic numbers and classify the elements. (Type your answer in noble gas notation using the format [Ar] 4s2 3d10 4p2 for [Ar]4s23d104p2.) (a) 17 (b) 20

asked by jamie on October 6, 2008
Chemistry
Shown below are several options for the box notations of the ground state electron configuration of the following gas-phase species. Identify the correct electronic configuration. i. Al2− ii. Mn (a)Select the reason that best explains why the first

asked by c on January 11, 2013

Chemistry
Element X has a face-centered cubic unit cell structure. If the density of the element is measured to be 12.4 g/cm^3, what is the atomic radius of X? units are in pm (picometers) I can’t seem to find how to get the atomic radius with only the density given

asked by Amanda on February 11, 2017
calculus
The radius of the base of a right circular cylinder is r com and the height is 2r cm. Find the rate at which the surface area of the cylinder is increasing when the radius is 5 cm and the volume is increasing at 5pi cm/sec. Thank you!

asked by Krystal on May 6, 2012
Calc
Oil spilled from a ruptured tanker spreads in a circle whose area increases at a constant rate of 6.5 {\rm mi}^2{\rm /hr}. How rapidly is radius of the spill increasing when the area is 10 {\rm mi}^2? The radius is increasing at

asked by Smith on November 3, 2015
math
Oil spilled from a ruptured tanker spreads in a circle whose area increases at a constant rate of 6.5 {\rm mi}^2{\rm /hr}. How rapidly is radius of the spill increasing when the area is 10 {\rm mi}^2? The radius is increasing at

asked by PAT on November 3, 2015
math
Oil spilled from a ruptured tanker spreads in a circle whose area increases at a constant rate of 6.5 {\rm mi}^2{\rm /hr}. How rapidly is radius of the spill increasing when the area is 10 {\rm mi}^2? The radius is increasing at

asked by PAT on November 3, 2015
relaited rates
A spherical balloon is being inflated so that its volume is increasing at the rate of 5 cubic meter per minute.At what rate is the radius increasing when the radius is 6 meters?

asked by 🙂 on May 15, 2012
Calculus- Related rates
A spherical balloon is inflated at the rate of 1 cm^3 per minuter. At the instant when the radius r=1.5, (a.) how fast is the radius increasing? (b.) how fast is the surface area increasing?

asked by Lance on March 1, 2017
Calculus
Let V be the volume of a right circular cone having height h and radius r and assume that h and r vary with time. a. Express the time rate of change of the cylinder in terms of h, r and their rates of change. b. At a certain instant, the height is 10 in

asked by Jay on August 4, 2012
science chem
give one example of two elements that would be placed incorrecty if they were in order of their relative atomic masses. and explain why placing these two elements like this would not be correct. Pleasw could someone help me. Co/Ni is one. Ar/K is a second

asked by sam on May 1, 2007
Science/math
BCC crystal structure, atomic radius of .1363, and an atomic weight of 95.94g/mol. How would you compute the theoretical density?

asked by Z32 on September 15, 2009

calculus
A spherical balloon is being inflated so that its volume is increasing at the rate of 200 cm3/min. At what rate is the radius increasing when the radius is 15 cm.

asked by Jeffrey on July 31, 2011
Math
A spherical balloon is being inflated so that its volume is increasing at the rate of 200 cm3/min. At what rate is the radius increasing when the radius is 15 cm.

asked by Maya on July 31, 2011
What elements results if one of the neutrons is in a nitrogen neucleus is converted by radioactive decay into a proton? The atomic number goes from 7 to 8, while the atomic weight stays the same. An electron (beta-) is emitted from the nucleus. Actually,

Phyiscal science test monday
The following is a periodic table below All the letters are in squares The S = an empty square 13 Colums in total Questions: 1. Which pair of eleemtns has the same number of valence electrons? clueless 2. What pair of elements is in the same period? D and

asked by liz on November 4, 2007
science
Some hypothetical metal has the simple cubic crystal structure. If its atomic weight is 70.4 g/mol and the atomic radius is 0.126 nm, compute its density in g/cc.

asked by Cam on January 22, 2015
Chemistry
the density of an unknown metal is 2.64 g/cm^3 and its atomic radius is 0.215 nm. It has a face-centered cubic lattice. What is the atomic weight. Answer: 89.4 g/mol how?

asked by ChemGeek on May 15, 2011
Chemistry 130
Will someone let me know if I did these correct? 1. Rank the following in order of increasing radius based on their positions on the periodic table: S, S-2, Cl a. S, S-2, Cl b. S-2, Cl, S c. Cl, S, S-2 d. Cl, S-2, S e. S, Cl, S-2 I believe it’s C. Cl, S,

asked by Jessie on September 8, 2009
Chemistry
Rank the following in order of increasing bond polarity: H-F, H-Br, F-F, Na-Cl. Is it this….? F-F, H-Br, H-F, Na-Cl

asked by Christina on November 22, 2015
chemistry
Answer the following for a primitive cubic unit cell. Answers should be numerical, set r = 7.0. edge in terms of r, the lattice pt radius=? face diagonal in terms of r, the lattice pt radius=? body diagonal in terms of r, the lattice pt radius=?

asked by leah on February 16, 2009
CHEM
Arrange the following elements in order of decreasing atomic radius: Cs, Sb, S, Pb, Se *(list from largest to smallest…or…”the correct ranking cannot be determined”) ***I think the answer ‘should be’, from largest to smallest: ***Cs, Pb, Sb, Se,

asked by K on November 13, 2007

chem
of cesium, Cs, hafnium, Hf, and gold, Au, which element has the smallest atomic radius? explain in terms of trends in periodic table? also which element is most electronegative among C, N, O, Br and S? Which group does it belong to?

asked by jerson on May 21, 2008
chemistry 2
Which property of group 2 elements ( magnesium to barium) and their compounds increases with an increasing proton (atomic) number? A)the magnitude of the enthalpy change of hydration of the metal ion B)the pH of the aqueous chloride C)the solubility of the

asked by areebah on August 31, 2017
chemistry 2
Which property of group 2 elements ( magnesium to barium) and their compounds increases with an increasing proton (atomic) number? A)the magnitude of the enthalpy change of hydration of the metal ion B)the pH of the aqueous chloride C)the solubility of the

asked by areebah on August 31, 2017
Chemistry
Rank Na, Mg and K in order of increasing 2nd ionization energy a. Na < K < Mg b. Mg < K < Na c. K < Na < Mg d. K < Mg < Na e. Mg < Na < K

asked by Zacky on April 23, 2010
Calculus
A spherical balloon is being inflated and the radius of the balloon is increasing at a rate of 2cm/min. At what rates are the volume and surface area of the balloon increasing when the radius is 5cm?

asked by ChrismB on April 26, 2016

Categories

## saint leo brightspace

Module 2

You have viewed this topic

Disease Prevention and Health Promotion HCA 402 Module 2 Written Assignment 2

Written Assignment 2

In general, topic responses should be in the form of a short application paper, 2-3 p APA formatting, not including the required cover page and page for your reference l your chosen topics. In your paper: 1) introduce your topics, 2) discuss your topics, a conclusion about your topics. Read the Written Assignment 2 document for the specific focus of this assignment. Please see the Written Assignment Grading Rubric for specific grading requirement Submit your assignment to the Assignment box no later than Sunday 11:59 PM ES Assignment box is linked to Turnitin.)

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Community Health Evalua�on HCA-402-OL01

10/27/2018 Module 2 – Community Health Evaluation HCA-402-OL01

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Categories

## prefirieron el menú vegetariano.

Seleccionar

Selecciona la respuesta que mejor completa cada oración.

1.Paulino le pide el  (plato)  (menu)  al camarero.

2.El plato del día es  (salmón ) (atún ).

3.Pilar ordena  (leche ) (agua) mineral para beber.

4.Paulino quiere un refresco de  (naranja) ( limón) .

5.Paulino hoy prefiere ( la chuleta) (el salmon) .

6.Dicen que la carne en ese restaurante es muy  (mal) ( sabrosa ).

7.Pilar come salmón con  (champiñones) ( zanahorias ).

Clasificar

Assign the appropriate category to each word.

1.  ( la cena) ( el almuerzo) ( el desayuno ) arroz con pollo

2.  ( la cena) ( el almuerzo ) (el desayuno)  café con leche

3.   (la cena)  (el almuerzo)  (el desayuno) cereales

4.  ( la cena ) (el almuerzo) ( el desayuno )espárragos

5.   (la cena) (el almuerzo ) (el desayuno ) huevos

6.   (la cena)  (el almuerzo ) (el desayuno) refresco

7.   (la cena) ( el almuerzo ) (el desayuno)  sándwich  de jamón

8.   (la cena) (el almuerzo ) (el desayuno)  uvas

Seleccionar
Select the item that does not belong

1.

arvejas

champiñones

frijoles

entremeses

2.

pavo

camarones

salmón

atún

3.

jugo

aceite

vino

té

4.

naranja

maíz

manzana

pera

5.

chuleta de cerdo

melocotón

camarero

zanahoria

6.

lechuga

queso

yogur

leche

¿Lógico o ilógico?

Indicate whether each statement is lógico or ilógico

1.Tengo sed; voy a beber un jugo de pimienta.

lógico

ilógico

2.Normalmente, las salchichas son de carne, de pollo o de cerdo.

lógico

ilógico

lógico

ilógico

4.Generalmente, el dueño de un restaurante no sirve los platos.

lógico

ilógico

5.El limón es una verdura.

lógico

ilógico

6.Si quieres merendar, puedes comer una fruta.

lógico

ilógico

Completar

Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the words from the list. Four words will not be used.

Frijoles  langosta  menú  pollo

probar recomendar  saber  sabroso/a

1.—Y tu amiga Cristina, ¿come______________ ?

—No, a ella no le gustan nada los mariscos.

2.—No conozco este restaurante. ¿Usted me puede recomendar un plato principal?

—Sí. Debe_____________  el bistec con cebolla. Es muy________________ .

3.—¿Te gusta la sopa?

—Mmm… sí. ____________________ mucho a ajo

¡Inténtalo!

Completa la tabla con la forma correcta del pretérito.

Modelo yo (servir)

serví

Infinitivo  yo  tú  Ud./él/ella  nosotros/as  Uds./ellas

conseguir  – tu__________     nosotros_____________      ellas________________

despedirse  – ella_____________  nosotros_______________ ellas_________________

dormir –yo________________  tu___________________  ella_____________________

dormirse-nostoros_________________     ellas_________________________

morir-tu___________________ ella__________________________

pedir – yo_____________tu_____________  ella____________  ellas______________

preferir_yo_____________ella_____________nosotros__________Ellas_______________

repetir –yo____________ tu_______________ ella_____________  ellas_________________

seguir-yo_____________ella____________nosotros_____________ellas_____________

sentirse –ella___________________ ellas________________________

server-tu_____________________ nostors__________ ellas_____________________

vestirse-ella________________nosotros_______________ellas__________________

Completar

Completa estas oraciones para describir lo que pasó anoche en el restaurante El Famoso.

1.Paula y Humberto Suárez llegaron al restaurante El Famoso a las ocho y_____________  (seguir) al camarero a una mesa en la sección de no fumar.

2.El señor Suárez______________  (pedir) una chuleta de cerdo.

3.La señora Suárez______________  (preferir) probar los camarones.

4.De tomar, los dos_____________  (pedir) vino tinto.

5.El camarero__________________  (repetir) el pedido (the order) para confirmarlo.

6.La comida tardó mucho (took a long time) en llegar y los señores Suárez_____________  (dormirse) esperando la comida.

7.A las nueve y media el camarero les_________________  (servir) la comida.

8.Después de comer la chuleta, el señor Suárez_________________  (sentirse) muy mal.

9.Pobre señor Suárez… ¿por qué no _______________ (pedir) los camarones?

Oraciones

Completa las oraciones con el pretérito de un verbo que termine (ends) en -ir.

Modelo Daniel y Carolina / servir / la comida

Daniel y Carolina sirvieron la comida

6.nosotros / seguir / hablando de cocina

7.Francisco / preferir / el pescado a la carne

8.los niños / dormirse / en el restaurante

10.tú / no pedir / la especialidad de la casa

Oraciones

Completa las oraciones con el pretérito de un verbo que termine (ends) en -ir.

Conseguir  decider  vestirse

1.Anoche Pilar y Guillermo______________  cenar en un restaurante elegante.

2.Guillermo_______________  con un traje gris muy elegante y Pilar con un vestido de última moda.

3.Guillermo___________________  un taxi sin ningún problema.

4.Desafortunadamente, el taxista ___________________ tomar el camino más largo al restaurante.

dormirse  pedir  preferir  seguir

5.Tardaron tanto tiempo (They took so long) en llegar que Pilar casi (almost)_______________  , y Guillermo pensó: —¡Ay, me muero de hambre!

6.En el restaurante, Pilar y Guillermo____________________  al camarero a una mesa cerca de la ventana.

7.Guillermo__________________  un bistec y arroz.

8.Pilar________________  probar el salmón a la parrilla con papas fritas.

9.También ellos____________________  unos cócteles.

decidir  pedir  sentirse  server

10.El camarero les________________  los cócteles y algunos entremeses.

11.La comida tardó en llegar, y Guillermo_______________  pedir otro cóctel.

12.Después del segundo cóctel, Guillermo_________________  bastante bien.

13.Finalmente llegaron dos camareros y les________________  la comida a Guillermo y a Pilar.

14.Guillermo y Pilar se comieron todo y después________________  un flan de postre.

decidir  despedirse  dormirse  morirse  pedir

15.Después del postre, ellos____________ dos copas de vino de Jerez.

16.Por fin, ellos______________  regresar a casa.

17.El camarero________________  cortésmente de sus clientes.

18.Entonces Pilar_______________  de verdad en el taxi.

19.Al llegar a casa, Guillermo la despertó diciéndole: ¡Mira que___________  de verdad esta vez!

20.¡Y tú no________________  de hambre! —le contestó Pilar

Categories

## a magnificent mortuary temple was built at deir el bahri for which of the following pharaohs?

Art 23 — The Art of Africa and Oceania

Spring 2016

Exam #1

1. Which work likely commemorates the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt?

a. Saqqara relief

b. Palette of Djoser

c. Saqqara Stele

d. Palette of Narmer

2. Which of the following describes the function of the pyramids?

a. Served as a reminder of the afterlife

b. Provided work for the powerful mason guild

c. Served as a platform for the priests of Amun to gain followers

d. Served as a reminder of the eternal power of the pharaoh

3. Which of the following describes one of the drawbacks of the fresco secco technique?

a. Colors fused to the wall surface

b. Fresco secco is more durable than true fresco

c. Colors do not fuse to the wall surface

d. Application of paint must be done quickly

4. Why is the Palette of Narmer unique among surviving Egyptian artworks?

a. Commemorative rather than funerary

b. Hidden in the tomb of Djoser

c. Buried in the Temple of Amun at Karnak

d. Found in the inner sanctuary of an unknown pharaoh

5. Pyramids were most popular during which of the following periods?

a. Predynastic period

b. Early Dynastic period

c. Middle Kingdom

d. Old Kingdom

6. The god who is symbolic of the river Nile and who dies and is reborn each year is:

a. Isis

b. Horus

c. Sekhmet

d. Osiris

7. An early Egyptian tomb that resembles a truncated pyramid is called a:

a. Tholos

b. Dromos

c. Mastaba

d. Serdab

8. A magnificent mortuary temple was built at Deir el Bahri for which of the following pharaohs?

a. Nefertiti

b. Imhotep

c. Ti

d. Hatshepsut

9. The use of elongated heads and necks and intimate, relaxed poses describes which of the following periods?

a. New Kingdom

b. Middle Kingdom

c. Amara Period

d. Ptolomeaic Period

10. In the Old Kingdom this structure adjoined the pyramid and was the site where offerings were made to the dead king and ceremonies were performed. Which of the following does this describe?

a. Temple at Luxor

b. Temple at Karnak

c. Mortuary temple

d. Valley temple

11. The ___ ceremonies of the Dogon are held every three to six years to honor the lives of those who have died.

a. Ife

b. Nok

c. Dama

d. None of the above

12. Which culture is found in Mali?

a. Nok

b. Benin

c. Igbo

d. Dogon

13. Which European nation established contact with the Kingdom of Benin in the 1470’s?

a. Germany

b. France

c. Portugal

d. Spain

14. The earliest known culture in sub-Saharan Africa is:

a. Benin

b. Ife

c. Yaruba

d. Nok

15. The lost-wax method of casting is called piece-mold.

a. True

b. False

16. The region of Africa consists mainly of:

a. Savanna

b. Forest

c. Desert

d. Jungle

17. A type of African body ornamentation that is permanent is:

a. Body piercing

b. Tattooing

c. Scarification

d. Both a and c

18. Figurative sculpture is created within sets of formal parameters is called:

a. Naturalistic

b. Abstract

c. Non-representational

d. Both a and b

19. Rock painting in the Sahara began around:

a. 12,000 BC

b. 25,000 BC

d. 6,000 BC

20. Islam began to penetrate North Africa in the 9th century AD.

a. True

b. False

21. African religion is based on the premise that:

a. Human beings are helpless with regard to the deities

b. Deities are fiction

c. Human beings can manipulate the spirit world

d. Human beings cannot manipulate with spirit world without music

22. The majority of sculptures created in African societies, like the door from a king’s

Palace, is made of what medium?

a. Wood

b. Natural material

c. Stone

d. Both a and b

23. The very vertical Friday Mosque at Djenne is constructed of what material?

b. Mud brick

c. Stone

d. Wood

e. Both a and b

24. What types of items does kingship regalia include?

a. Stools

c. Shell

d. Cloth

e. All of the above

25. An African culture known for its bronze casting is:

a. Ife

b. Benin

c. Yaruba

d. None of the above

26. The prosperity and power of the ancient kingdoms of Ghana and Mali were based on their control of ____ resources.

a. Bronze

b. Silver

c. Gold

d. Ivory

27. Bamana iron working includes the concept of Nyama as the source of ritual power associated with ____.

a. Gold

b. Silver

c. Ivory

d. Iron

28. Kingship in Benin was hereditary, and its kings were not considered divine as were the Egyptian pharaohs.

a. True

b. False

29. The _____ led an expeditionary force in 1897 that destroyed the Benin palace, looted its art and exiled its king.

a. Portuguese

b. French

c. Ife

d. None of the above

30. The oba is an absolute ruler who rules entirely independently.

a. True

b. False

31. The ____ titles are the most ancient and highest variety of the three orders of the chiefs of Benin.

a. Oba

b. Palace chief

c. Town chief

d. Uzama

e. Ancestor

32. Ife terra cotta and cast brass heads are ___ in style.

a. Abstract

b. Idealized

c. Naturalistic

d. Non-objective

e. Both b and c

33. Annual rituals involving dedication to royal ancestors are common in ____ African kingdoms.

a. North

b. South

c. East

d. West

e. Central

34. The ancient city of Ile-Ife is a sacred place for all ____ peoples.

a. Mali

b. Fon

c. Nupe

d. Benin

e. None of the above

35. Patterns of scarification in Africa usually refer to :

a. Ethnic identity

b. Gender

c. Status

d. Association affiliation

e. A, c and d

36. There are three distinct styles of Baule masks:

a. Naturalistic

b. Red ogre

e. A, c and d

37. The king of Ife is called the:

a. Oni

b. Oba

c. Both a and b

d. Neither a nor b

38. The god Oduduwa founded Benin kingship rites.

a. True

b. False

39. The oba of Benin and his court are the political focus of the kingdom, but are not involved in art patronage.

a. True

b. False

40. In Benin, ____ is the color of dangerous and potentially hostile deities.

a. Black

b. White

c. Green

d. Yellow

e. Red

41. The obas of the ____ dynasty introduced brass commemorative heads.

a. Oduduwa

b. Oranmiyan

c. Emboro

d. Uzama

42. Nigeria is a land-locked African country.

a. True

b. False

43. North Africa is primarily a polytheistic area of Africa.

a. True

b. False

44. Nok and Benin cultures are located in:

a. Mali

b. Congo

c. Central Africa

d. Ethiopia

e. Nigeria

45. The earliest Nok terra cotta heads date to:

a. 500 BC

c. 6,000 BC

46. Nyama is a Mende peoples’ concept that can be compared to:

a. Art

b. Heat

c. Wind

d. Death

47. In Africa, the ____ is widely regarded as a symbol of regeneration.

a. Elephant

b. Antelope

c. Snake

d. None of the above

a. Female forest spirit

b. Male forest spirit

c. Female water spirit

d. Male mountain spirit

49. Dogon figures are carved by a skilled carpenter.

a. True

b. False

50. The birds on a Yoruba crown represent:

a. Power of medicine

b. Divination

c. Withcraft

d. The power of royal ancestors

e. All of the above

PAGE

1

Categories

## afi framework

The  AFI  strategy  framework links  three interdependent  areas  to  consider  in  effectively  managing  the  strategy  process – to  analyze,

formulate  and  implement — that  taken  together,  help  plan  and  realize  the  strategy.  In  terms  of  getting  to  the  next  level  after  you  graduate  and  your  future  career  aspirations,  please  apply  the AFI framework to your career choice.

PART 1:

Use  the  VRIO  framework  to  evaluate  what  resources  and  capabilities  you  would  further need  to  acquire  to  ensure  career  success as a Accounting student

PART 2:

Rapid  changes  in  the  environment  are  significantly  shaping  our  work  lives.  Use  the PESTEL  analysis  to  think  about  how these  external  forces  may  influence  your  career, analyze what dynamic capabilities you may need to ensure your long-term success, and formulate a plan for how you would acquire them