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what is the primary reason ipv6 has not completely replaced ipv4?

Best Answers.

LESSON 10 :

1. What is the primary reason IPv6 has not completely replaced IPv4?
a. Administrators are hesitant and reluctant to change.
b. Stopgap technologies such as Network Address Translation (NAT) and Classless
Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) alleviate the lack of registered IPv4 addresses.
c. IPv4 addresses have only been depleted since early 2011.
d. IPv6 has already replaced IPv4 on the Internet.

2. What is the primary difference between a NAT server and a proxy server?
a. There is no difference; they are functionally the same.
b. There is little difference because NAT servers and proxy servers; both act as an intermediary
between networks.
c. Proxy servers offer additional functions such as they can scan, cache, and filter certain
types of data.
d. NAT servers translate at the Network layer of the protocol stack, whereas proxy servers
function at the Application layer.

3. Your company environment includes Windows Server versions 2003, 2008, and 2012.
Desktops range from Windows XP and Vista. To transition to IPv6, what versions have
IPv6 support running by default?
a. Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, and Vista have IPv6 running by
default.
b. All versions have IPv6 running by default, except the Windows 2003 servers.
c. Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP both include support for IPv6, but they do
not install it by default.
d. Only Windows Server 2012 has IPv6 running by default.

4. What Windows Server 2012 services and applications offer IPv6 support?
a. Nearly all server roles provide IPv6 support.
b. Few offer IPv6 support, but they are expected soon.
c. All offer IPv6 support in Windows Server 2012.
d. Remote Access supports IPv6 routing and advertising, and the DHCP Server role can
allocate IPv6 addresses.

5. What is Intra-Site Automatic Tunnel Addressing Protocol (ISATAP)?
a. ISATAP converts IPv4 address for an IPv6 network just as 6to4 offers.
b. ISATAP emulates an IPv6 link for use on an IPv4 network.
c. ISATAP is a method of multicasting for IPv6 networks.
d. ISATAP translates between IPv4 and IPv6 networks without client configuration.

LESSON 11 :

1. One method a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server allocates IP
addresses is called manual allocation. This process involves manually assigning an IP
address to a particular server. What is the key benefit of DHCP manual allocation over
manually configuring the address directly on the server?
a. The DHCP server then contains a centralized list of permanently assigned addresses.
b. The DHCP server might pass on more information than just an IP address.
c. This process prevents accidental duplication of permanently assigned IP addresses.
d. This manually assigned address is officially known as a reservation.

2. Your DHCP servers are burdened with heavy traffic, most related to IP address renewals.
Unfortunately, virtually all the IP addresses in each of your subnets are allocated. Which
of the following options is the best way to lower the renewal traffic?
a. Increase the lease time.
b. Deploy additional DHCP servers on the most burdened subnets.
c. Shorten the lease time.
d. Switch to manual allocation.

3. You are preparing to deploy Windows 8 to a large number of new workstations. Which
of the following options would be best?
a. Install Windows 8 using Pre-boot Execution Environment (PXE) and Windows
Deployment Services (WDS).
b. Delegate the work to a team of local administrators to divide up.
c. Manually install the operating system yourself.
d. Manually configure each workstation’s IP address.

4. To make use of Pre-boot Execution Environment (PXE) and Windows Deployment
Services (WDS), what special configuration do you require on the server and client?
a. The client must have a special PXE-enabled network adapter.
b. Both client and server are capable by default.
c. The client and server both require some preparatory configuration.
d. The DHCP server on the network must have a custom PXEClient option (option 60)
configured with the location of the WDS server on the network.

5. What servers should not be DHCP clients?
a. Web servers, DHCP servers, and domain controllers
b. Workstations
c. End user laptops
d. Computers, which might have IP addresses in the exclusion range


Lesson 12 :

1. What client applications utilize Domain Name System (DNS) to resolve host names into
IP addresses?
a. Client web browsers, or any application that uses HyperText Transfer Protocol
(HTTP) use DNS to resolve host names into IP addresses.
b. All Internet applications working with host names must use DNS to resolve host
names into IP addresses.
c. Any application on a system that has connectivity to the Internet use DNS to resolve
host names into IP addresses.
d. DNS does not resolve host names into IP addresses.

2. What is the primary purpose of name caching?
a. Name caching saves extraordinary amount of time for the user.
b. Name caching greatly reduces traffic on the company network.
c. Name caching validates why you should deploy caching-only servers.
d. Name caching enables the second name resolution request for the same name to
bypass the referral process.

3. What are the dangerous consequences of a poorly chosen Time To Live (TTL)?
a. Specifying a TTL that is too long can greatly increase traffic, especially to the root
name and top-level domain servers.
b. Specifying a TTL that is too long can delay referrals from being propagated.
c. Specifying a TTL that is too short can overburden root name and top-level domain
servers with requests.
d. Specifying a TTL that is too short can cause incorrectly cached information to
remain before changes get recorded.

4. What is the primary benefit of a DNS forwarder?
a. Exchanging iterative queries for recursive queries across the network perimeter
b. Reducing the traffic and making efficient use of available bandwidth across the
network perimeter
c. Making the most of iterative queries to other DNS servers
d. Reducing the burden on the Internet’s root name servers

5. What are some best practices when creating internal DNS namespaces.
a. Avoid an excessive number of domain levels.
b. Keep domain names full and descriptive; avoid concise subdomains.
c. Place less importance on a convention compared to spelling.
d. Never abbreviate.

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why did the cow want a divorce

Why did the cow want a divorce? Having trouble with this page (158)
6,271 results
9th grade
Why did the cow want a divorce? Having trouble with this page (158)

asked by Robert McKay on March 24, 2010
ENG1010
Which of the following is an announcement rather than a topic sentence? A) I want to talk about the increase in the divorce rate. B) Many people have trouble getting along with others. C) Almost one out of every two marriages ends in divorce. D) The

asked by Alex on March 6, 2011
Math
Why did the cow want a divorce?

asked by Josefina on May 13, 2008
math
why did the cow want a divorce?

asked by Greener the Better on January 24, 2009
Physic
A force of 7000N is applied to drag a 500 kg cow across a flat level floor to McSlaughter House. The cow has an acceleration of 2.5 m/s2. (a) what’s the weight of the cow? (b) what is the normal force acting on the cow? (c) What is the resultant force that

asked by Elaine on March 3, 2017

Math
A cow is tied on a 50-foot rope to the corner of a 20-ft by 50-ft rectangular building. The cow can graze on any of the grass it can reach. What is the area on which the cow can graze?

asked by Nascire on September 12, 2017
English

  1. A cow can make about 12kg of waste in a day. ( Is a cow a female? Can a cow mean both male and female ones? What about in this sentence?)

asked by rfvv on November 20, 2010
statistics
1.What’s the most appropriate procedure for evaluating the relationship between tenure and divorce? 2.What is the correlation and how can it be interpreted in terms of magnitude, direction and practical importance? 3.How much of whether executives have

asked by tina on August 25, 2013
AED 200
I asked a question about reliable sources yesterday. My problem is I am having trouble putting the ERIC site into APA format on my reference page. The city and state is not listed on the page. Could someone help please.

asked by Anonymous on April 22, 2009
statistic

  1. A sociologist conducted a study of divorce patterns in a Midwestern city. In the study, 200 divorced people were selected at random, and X, the number of years married before divorce, was measured. From this sample, it was found that the sample mean was

asked by Tian on January 30, 2011
AP Lit
What is the significance of Mama remembering having been “hooked in the side by a cow in ’49”? A. Like a cow, Mama has a strong spirit and is always ready for a fight. B. Like a cow is mild mannered, Mama is mild mannered and will always give in to Dee. C.

asked by Phee on February 6, 2018
Math
how did farmer john find his missing cow? How did the cow get over the block of hay?

asked by crystal on August 28, 2013
Social Studies
Do you know something about “Cow Power Program” in Vermont, in the USA? Would you summarize how to make electricity using cow waste? Thank you.

asked by rfvv on November 10, 2009
hum205
How is the culture of India reflected in the idea of the sacred cow? What influence does this have on the arts of India? Other than the sacred cow examples listed in your text, what is a sacred cow in the United States? How does that sacred cow influence

asked by bella on September 20, 2009
hum205
How is the culture of India reflected in the idea of the sacred cow? What influence does this have on the arts of India? Other than the sacred cow examples listed in your text, what is a sacred cow in the United States? How does that sacred cow influence

asked by bella on September 17, 2009

hum205
How is the culture of India reflected in the idea of the sacred cow? What influence does this have on the arts of India? Other than the sacred cow examples listed in your text, what is a sacred cow in the United States? How does that sacred cow influence

asked by bella on September 20, 2009
statistics
If a milk cow in California produced a mean of 1,875 pounds of milk per month, what percentage of production would that cow be in compared to the overall production per milk cow in California from 1990 through 2005?

asked by Bobby on August 19, 2014
math
A cow is attached to a rope in a pasture bordered by two fences ( each 60 feet long) which meet at an angle of 24 degree. If the rope attached to the cow is 15 feet long, over how many square feet can the cow graze? a. 2 pi b. 15 pi c. 30 pi d. 45 pi e.

asked by thomas on April 18, 2014
English
I just hav a sentence. Thank you He had been married for two years when his wife decided to apply for a divorce (filed for divorce)/decided to break up their relationship. How can you express this?

asked by Mike on April 9, 2011
geometetry
A cow is tied to the long side of a barn 10 feet from the corner.The rope being used to tie the cow to the barn is 21 feet long .The barn measures 11 feet wide and 28 feet long, what is the total area of the space in which the cow can graze

asked by natasha on August 7, 2008
physics (projectile motion)
A cow on a trebuchet is catapulted toward a castle wall. The cow is released with an inital velocity of 50 m/s at a 60 degree angle above the horizontal. At its release the cow is 8 m above the ground. The castle wall is 100 m from the trebuchet and the

asked by matt on October 13, 2010
physics (projectile motion)
A cow on a trebuchet is catapulted toward a castle wall. The cow is released with an inital velocity of 50 m/s at a 60 degree angle above the horizontal. At its release the cow is 8 m above the ground. The castle wall is 100 m from the trebuchet and the

asked by matt on October 13, 2010
English
Can someone help me with a citation (MLA style)for citing a web-site? I have read several MLA recommendations but am still having trouble. for example: The National Cancer Institue website, a page under Cancer Topics, a page titled Melanoma. I’m not sure

asked by Susan on October 13, 2008
math
This is a “trial and error” type question. Algebra alone won’t help you. First see what you could do buying 19 cow brains ($95) with $5 left. That could get you ten sheep brains ($1) and two pig brains ($4). The total would be only 31 total. Not enough. So

asked by drwls on March 28, 2007
Statistics
This is a question I have to answer for a University of Phoenix class, If any one could help and explain to me (in a stistics for dummies explanation:)I would appreciate it. Here goes: Six months after a divorce, the former wife, and husband each take a

asked by Lost In the Statistics Sauce on November 30, 2007

English
Can someone please tell me the format of a COVER page in MLA. I’m looking in my 6th edition book and I find title page but not cover page. I beleive the title goes 1/3 page down, then may 10 lines or so your name, then at the bottom the class, teacher, and

asked by Sue on February 25, 2010
(Research question)Family Health: Highschool
Is this a good research question? I have to come up with one and this is what I have. 1. Does divorce cause drug abuse in teenagers? My hypothesis would be Divorce does cause drug abuse in teenagers. 2. Or is this one better. Does divorce factor in the

asked by Anna on April 22, 2010
social problems
Increase in divorce rates over the last century related to :A)rejection of the ideology of the “good”family B) increasing financial independence of woman c)increasing abuse and conflict in families d) change in social norms toward greater acceptance of

asked by vedrana on February 23, 2011
Math
A cow is tethered by a 110-ft rope to the inside corner of an L-shaped building, as shown in the figure. Find the area that the cow can graze. (Let a = 10 ft, b = 60 ft, c = 110 ft, d = 70 ft, and e = 60 ft. Round your answer to the nearest whole number.)

asked by Janet on March 21, 2019
Operating Systems
Given that main memory is composed of only three page frames for public use and that a seven-page program (with Pages a, b, c, d, e, f, g) that requests pages in the following order: a, c, a, b, a, d, a, c, b, d, e, f. Using the FIFO page removal

asked by Selena on September 4, 2014
English
What did Mayu Yamamoto do with/from cow droppings? 1. She invented a way to make vanilla flavor from cow droppings. 2. She invented a way to make vanilla flavor with cow droppings. (Are both answers grammatical? Do we have to use ‘with’ or ‘from’ in both

asked by rfvv on October 26, 2013
SCIENCE
I have a wanted poster to make on: mad cow disease and I need to find a picture of bacterium or virus and “label” the parts. I am having trouble finding a picture that labels parts. Can you help me with this?

asked by marko on December 15, 2011
calculus
A printed page is to have 1 in. margin on all sides. The page should contain 80 sq. in. of type. What dimensions of the page will minimize the area of the page while still meeting the other requirements?

asked by Jo on October 17, 2016
Microeconomics
Baseballs cost $5 and baseball gloves cost $20. Assume you have $100 total to spend on these items. Construct a table similar to the one on page 158. What is the point, based on the Equimarginal Rule, that has equal marginal benefit (or the closest) for

asked by Jennifer on October 8, 2011
Chemistry
H2 + F2–> 2HF deltaH = 518.0 kJ H2 —-> 2H deltaH = 436.8 kJ F2 —> 2F deltaH = 158.2 kJ (a) calculate Delta H for H + F—> HF (b) what is the standard enthalpy change of formation of F2 Help please!!! i think this is easier than i’m making it. for (b)

asked by jessica on April 28, 2011

pre cal
Find the angle between the vectors u and v if u = (-1,4) v = (3,-4) a. 155.93 b. 158.58 c. 158.13 d. 155.24 e. 157.17

asked by anna on July 14, 2016
math
A cow is tied with a rope of length 14 m at the corner of rectangular field measured 20 m by 16 m. Find the area of the field in which the cow can graze. #anyone to help me with proper and systematic step by step solution

asked by kelvin on April 19, 2017
math
A cow is attached to a rope 10 feet long in a pasture bordered by two fence( more than 10 feet long) meeting at an angle of 60 degree. What is the area of the space in which the cow is grazing? a. 20 pi b. 5 pi /3 c. 20 pi /3 d. 50 pi /3 e. 100 pi please

asked by thomas on May 9, 2014
Social studies
How is the culture of India reflected in the idea of the sacred cow? What influence does this have on the arts in India? What is a sacred cow in the United States>

asked by Jim on May 9, 2010
Mathematics
A cow-trough has a triangular cross-section of height 25cm and base 30cm and is 2m long. A cow is drinking steadily, and when the water level is 5cm below the top it is being loward at the rate of 1cm/min. Find the rate if consumption in litres per minute.

asked by Amos on September 16, 2015
physics
why is it that, if the cow is falling,we only notice the motion of the cow, but not the motion of the other object

asked by lisa on May 16, 2012
Physics
A bicycle starts at the origin of a circular track that has a circumference of 126 m and travels at a constant speed a distance s = 38.0 m in a time t = 12s. a)what is the angular displacement (in rad) of the bicycle from its starting position? r=20.1 so

asked by Anderson on April 16, 2007
Math
If the height in centimeters of five students are 176,112,160,158 and 158,find the median and mode height for this group of five students.

asked by Kirandeep on January 16, 2014
English
Which of the following is a true statement about an MLA Works Cited page? A. The Works Cited page requires no special formatting. B. The Works Cited page should immediately follow the conclusion and be on the same page. C. The Works Cited page should

asked by anonymous on November 30, 2016
English
Which of the following is a true statement about an MLA Works Cited page? A. The Works Cited page requires no special formatting. B. The Works Cited page should immediately follow the conclusion and be on the same page. C. The Works Cited page should

asked by brooke on November 30, 2016

Math
Wani bought a cow for sh 42000 after being offered a 16% discount. How much money would have been the discount had she bought the cow for sh 21000?

asked by Kud on May 23, 2018
Math/Algebra
A student opens a mathematics book to two facing pages. The product of the page number is 420. Find the page numbers. The first page is _ The second page is _

asked by Angel Eyes on August 20, 2010
algebra
A student opens a math book to two facing pages.The product of the page numbers is 210.Find the page numbers. The first page is The second page is_____

asked by Rose on March 29, 2010
algebra
A student opens a mathematics book to two facing pages. The product of the page number is 2352. Find the page numbers. The first page is__________ The secnd page is__________

asked by Mary on March 5, 2012
English

  1. With his help, her cow gave birth to a cute baby. 2. Because of his help, her cow gave birth to a cute baby. 3. _ his help, her cow gave birth to a cute baby. [What is the meaning of ‘with’ in sentence 1? Does #1 mean #2? If not, what is suitable

asked by rfvv on November 26, 2018
Operating system
What is the . Let us define “most-recently-used” (MRU) as a page removal algorithm that removes from memory the most recently used page. Perform a page trace analysis using three page frames and the page requests from the previous exercise. Compute the

asked by philo on December 31, 2015
reading

  1. Which one of the following passages best suggests an indirect cause? A. Because the cold front arrived, it snowed. B. Jack slew the giant because he sold the cow for magic beans. C. If you mix pleasure and business, business suffers. D. We’ve learned

asked by Cassie on October 21, 2013
Algebra/Language Arts
I have a 15 page paper due tomorrow. I finished the paper, and edited it and all, that’s not my problem. My cover page is a work of art that I designed and I wanted to put a note on how it relates to my essay. How would I go about doing this? Do I add a

asked by MathMat on March 13, 2014
math
The gardener went to the market to buy 100 animals for a total of IDR 1.000.000. If the price of cow IDR. 50,000 /cow and goat IDR 10,000 /goat , rabbit IDR 5000 /rabbit , how many of each kind of animal which can he buy ? I wrote : Cow = X = 50.000 Goat =

asked by Iman on April 7, 2015
biology
How is a cow protein different than a human protein? How is cow DNA physically different from human DNA? Remember all proteins are made up of amino acids

asked by kelley on October 8, 2016

French
Are these right? This is supposed to be points of info on French culture in Canada. •Until the 1960s: Family lives of French Canadians heavily influenced by the Roman Catholic Church. •Large families •TODAY: •Average couple has only two children

asked by Jules on November 15, 2016
English

  1. What is your animal sign? 2. What is your Oriental animal sign? 3. What is your star sign? 4. My animal sign is Cow. 5. My animal sign is the Cow. 6. My animal sign is the cow. (Which expressions are correct?)

asked by rfvv on June 22, 2010
Math
Hi I’m having some trouble with this question: The selling price of a mathematics textbook is related to the number of pages in the text. A 300 page book sells for $25 and each additional 10 pages increases the price by $1. – What is the linear equation

asked by Emily on November 4, 2015
PHYSICS
A 25,000 kilogram train is traveling down a track at 20 meters per second. A cow wanders onto the tracks 75 meters ahead of the train, causing the conductor to slam on the brakes. The rain skids to a stop. If the brakes can provide 62,500 Newtons of

asked by GRISSELL on February 23, 2012
PHYSICS
A 25,000 kilogram train is traveling down a track at 20 meters per second. A cow wanders onto the tracks 75 meters ahead of the train, causing the conductor to slam on the brakes. The rain skids to a stop. If the brakes can provide 62,500 Newtons of

asked by GRISSELL on February 23, 2012
microsoft word
I inserted the page number on the top right hand corner, but it is showing page 1 on every single page. What should I do.

asked by rose on April 6, 2008
Science
Which pair below has the most shared derived characteristics? a. horse, dolphin b. dolphin, spider c. cow, horse d. spider, cow C

asked by Anonymous on November 18, 2013
reposting english correction
Hi, Writeacher this is my reposting from the Jack and the Beanstalk story. #1- Well in the beginning of the of the story he was a caring good boy. So, he was a good character. The only bad thing he did was stealing from the ogre. #2- In the beginning of

asked by Anonymous on January 2, 2012
APA FORMATTING
I think it’s C. Am I right? When using APA, which of the following describes the method in which a work without page numbers should be presented in in-text citations? A. No mention of the page number is required in APA B. If no page number is present, it

asked by David on March 19, 2008
physics
a 25,ooo kilogram train is traveling down a track at 20 meters per second. a cow wanders onto the tracks 75 meters ahead of the train, causing the conductor to slam on the brakes. the train skids to a stop. if the brakes can provide 62,500 newtons of

asked by savid on February 25, 2012

phenolphthalein
sorry, I miss your reply to this answer. I suspect that it was deleted when we transfered to the new server as I notice that every posts before the switch were deleted. It may have been eliminated. Do you want me to do it again. If so, let me know exactly

asked by Anonymous on June 12, 2006
6TH GRADE MATH
A sea cow can stay under water y minutes. This is 11 minutes longer than one – third the time of a hippopotamus can. Write an equation that states the relationship of the minutes these two mammals can stay under water. Complete the table with 16 or 56. Sea

asked by jamar on January 8, 2015
algebra
I’m having trouble getting the symbols to post correctly on this page so let me try this again….. 3(7+2x) ¡Ü 30+7 (x-1) The answer to this inequality problem is x x ¡Ý-2 -2 I can’t figure out how they got this answer. Can you show me the steps?

asked by C on April 5, 2008
Keyboarding and Wording processing?

  1. To start keying a new page of a document before the current page is filled, you can insert a page break by A. hitting the End key. B. pressing Enter until you insert a soft page break. C. pressing CTRL + Enter. D. changing the bottom margin. Would it

asked by missi on July 31, 2006
Computer Science
Given that main memory is composed of three page frames for public use and that a program requests pages in the following order. dcbadcedcbae a.) using the FIFO range removal algorithm, do a page trace analysis indicating page faults with asterisks (*).

asked by Ryan on November 3, 2009
year 7 history
please could someone help me . i need to write a front page newspaper article about queen mary 1 i need to include pictures and information . i`m having trouble finding pictures. thanks to all that help.

asked by hannah on April 11, 2008
Oncology Report
Ok, we’re are supposed to do a one page annual report on oncology and I’m having trouble understanding exactly what I’m supposed to do. Our teacher gave us a sheet saying “You are asked by the CEO of a hospital to contribute to the annual report. She wants

asked by Valerie on May 3, 2011
Math
Suppose there is a cow that is tied to the corner of a barn with a rope as shown in the figure below. One side of square barn measures 50 yards and all the doors on the barn are closed, so the cow cannot enter the barn (he must walk around the sides only).

asked by Kenny on April 24, 2014
Geometry
A cow is tethered by a piece of rope 50 meters long to the side of a rectangular barn. The rope is fastened to a hook (on the barn) that is located 20 meters from the corner along the longest side of the barn which measures 70 meters by 20 meters. Over how

asked by Syd on March 4, 2016
operating system
Given that main memory is composed of three page frames for public use and that a seven page program (with pages a, b, c, d, e, f, g) requests pages in the following order: a, b, a c, d, a, e, f, g, c, b, g a. Using the FIFO page removal algorithm, do

asked by Anonymous on June 22, 2011

Calculus
A rectangular page is to contain 8 square inches of print. The margins at the top and bottom of the page are to be 2 inches wide. The margins on each side are to be 1 inch wide. Find the dimensions of the page that will minimize the amount of paper used.

asked by Bianca on May 7, 2017
calculus
Each page of a book will contain 30 in squared of print, and each page must have 2 inch margins at top and bottom and 1 inch margin at each side. What is the minimum possible area of such a page.

asked by Barbara on November 1, 2011
Calculus
A printed page is to have 1.5 inches margin on all sides. The page should contain 144 square inches of type. What dimension of the page will minimize the area while still meeting these other requirements?

asked by Sarah on June 29, 2016
riddle for bonus
don’t let the name fool you- the Rockies ain’t the stones you’d have to get over at the Cow Country clash.What is it? “Don’t let the name fool you – the Rockies ain’t the stones you’d have to get over at this Cow Country clash. What is it? “Don’t let the

asked by jennifer on August 15, 2006
GUI/Web Editor Writing (HTML)
Open your GUI or Web Editor and bring up a “New” page. Pretend that you have just opened a new business and need to create a web page. This web page needs to look professional and appealing to draw people’s attention. After all, the reason a person

asked by depressed. on January 29, 2008
math
the great goofy gadget comes with a page of instructions. when the page is unfolded, it is 81 square inches. if one side of the page is 9 inches wide, what is the perimeter?

asked by a on January 26, 2016
Microeconomics
What is the supply, demand, and the price discrimination for John Q the movie? I have to write an enconomic principles paper about John Q, I have a full page typed already but im having trouble with the with the question above so can some one help me

asked by LaTarial on July 18, 2010
computer
When you use headers and footers in a Word document, by default they appear on __. odd-numbered pages every page only the first page all pages except the first page B?

asked by Bri on June 4, 2018
English MLA
I having serious trouble with MLA Works Cited Page. How do you cite something that was from CBS Online? Its not really an article from a Newspaper online; should I just site it as a website??? Thank You Thank you for using the Jiskha Homework Help Forum.

asked by Aletha on March 12, 2007
PHYSICS
A 25,000 kilogram train is traveling down a track at 20 meters per second. A cow wanders onto the tracks 75 meters ahead of the train, causing the conductor to slam on the brakes. The rain skids to a stop. If the brakes can provide 62,500 Newtons of

asked by TRACY on February 28, 2012

PHYSICS
A 25,000 kilogram train is traveling down a track at 20 meters per second. A cow wanders onto the tracks 75 meters ahead of the train, causing the conductor to slam on the brakes. The rain skids to a stop. If the brakes can provide 62,500 Newtons of

asked by TRACY on February 26, 2012
Maths
1a) for an organic dairy cow, shortly after calving, assume that the amount of milk produced follows a normal distribution with a mean of 27 litres of milk per day and a standard deviation of 4 litres of milk per day. i) calculate the probability that an

asked by Anonymous on March 3, 2016
geometry
a magazine full page is 30″ how many inches is a 1/8 page and a 3/4 page

asked by inga on September 15, 2010
Perimeter and area
The gadget comes with a page of instructions. When page is unfolded, it is 81 square inches. If one page is nine inches wide what is the perimeter?

asked by Garrett on February 3, 2011
Math
A bookworm finds itself on page 1 of volume 1 and begins eating straight through to the last page of volume 5.If each book is 6 centimeters thick,including the front and back covers,which are half a centimeter each what is the distance the bookworm

asked by Chasity on December 18, 2006
English

  1. MLA formatting requires which of the following? A. double spacing throughout, including the Works Cited page B. half-inch margins C. a title page D. paragraphs indented one inch 2. In MLA, parenthetical references _. A. are optional and may be

asked by Jay on May 1, 2015
math
A cow is tethered by a piece of rope 50 meters long to the side of a rectangular barn. The rope is fastened to a hook (on the barn) that is located 20 meters from the corner along the longest side of the barn which measures 70 meters by 20 meters. Over how

asked by Zunie on March 1, 2015
AP English
I’m having trouble finding IRONIES in George Orwell’s “1984” book in PART 3 where it starts off from page 186 till the end. The beginning of part 3 goes ” He did not know where he was… and so on”. Some books are numbered differently so I wanted to

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math who helps me step by step
A mixture of pure k2cr207 and pure kmn04 weighing 0.561g was treated with excess of ki in acidic medium. iodine liberated required 100ml of 0.15M of sodium thiosulphate solution for exact oxidation. The right answer k2cr207 43.67% kmn04 56.33% K2cr207 =294

asked by Fai on January 1, 2014
statistics
the daily milk production for a certain type of dairy cow has a mean of 43 pounds per day with a standard diviation of 5 pounds per day. Suppose this daily mild production has a normal distribution. Calculate the probability that a randomly selected cow of

asked by bob on July 17, 2014

math
Please check answers 1. Michael, a freelance editor, charges the rates shown in the table below to edit manuscripts. The cost per page increases as the quality of editing improves. Michael also gives a 5% discount if the entire amount is paid up front.

asked by Please Need Help Quickly on October 13, 2015
Physics
As your vacation job, you are driving a concrete mixer (mass 3300 kg). While driving down a hill (angle α = 29° with the horizontal), suddenly, a cow steps out on the road. You hit on the brakes, and with each locked wheel leaving 24 meters of skid

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Keyboarding and Word Processing
What word processing feature protects against printing the last line paragraph at the top of thenext page What is the difference between a hard page break and a soft page break? There’s also a funny thing called “widow and orphan control.” Now you’ll need

asked by Anonymous on November 14, 2006
Calculus
A rectangular page is to contain 72 square inches of print. The page has to have a 4 inch margin on top and at the bottom and a 2 inch margin on each side. Find the dimensions of the page that minimize the amount of paper used.

asked by Uri on June 29, 2015
math (Damon) check step by step for me
A mixture of pure k2cr207 and pure kmno4 weighing 0.561g was treated with excess of ki. In acidic medium. Iodine liberated required 100ml of 0.15M of sodium thiosulphate solution for exact oxidation. The right answer 43.67 k2cr207 and 56.33 kmn04 K2cr207 =

asked by Fai on January 2, 2014

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tú eres menos (less) simpático que federico.

Verbs

Complete the chart with the correct verb forms.

infinitive     follow (1) ________________        

I    (2) ____________    I died

you      followed (3) _______________      

we   follow (4) __________________      

they    (5) ______________    died

To complete

Fill in the blanks with the correct preterite forms of the verbs in parentheses

1.Diego and Javier _____________________  (get) a map.

2.This morning you____________________   (say goodbye) to the students.

3.You ______________________   (feeling) bad yesterday.

4. Last week I did not _______________________   (sleep) well.

5.Impay ___________________________   (prefer) eat at home.

Prayers

Write sentences using the information provided. Use the preterite and make any necessary changes.

Edgar / prefer / roasted chicken

Edgar preferred roast chicken.

1. Alvaro and I / serve / the hors d’oeuvres

2. Who / repeat / instructions?

3.ayer / me / say goodbye / to / my nephews

4. you / fall asleep / at ten

Dinner

Fill in the blanks with the preterite form of the appropriate verbs from the list. Four verbs will not be used.

open  get  choose to  read

look  ask to  prefer to  try

repeat  feeling  server  dress

Last night Jorge, Iván and I went out to dinner at Mi Tierra, a Guatemalan restaurant. We (1) ___________   this place because Jorge (2) ________________   a review (review) on the Internet that said (said) that the food is authentic and very tasty. It is not an elegant restaurant; then we (3) ______________   of bluejeans. Truly, in My Earth my friends and I (4) __________   like (like) at home. The waiter who gave us (5) __________   was very friendly. To start, Jorge and Iván (6) ____________   tamales, but I (7) ____________   wait for the main course: beef with rice and beans. We ate so much (so much) that no (8) ___________   anything for dessert (dessert). It was a delicious dinner!

Try it!

Write the direct or indirect object pronoun that is missing in each sentence.

Model The salad? The waiter served it to us.

Direct object

1. The salmon? The owner me______________   recommends.

2. The food? I’m going to prepare you _______________.

3. The drinks? We are asking for __________________.

4. The sodas? You_______________   can I bring now.

5. The rice dishes? They are going to serve us _______________________ after

Model Can you bring me your plate? No, I can not bring it to you. 

6. Do you want to show her the letter? Yes, I’m going to show ____________ the now.

7. Did you serve the meat? No, I did not _________________.

8. Are you going to read the menu? No, no_________________   I’m going to read it.

9. Do you recommend the lobster? Yes, _________________ I recommend it.

10. When are you going to prepare dinner for us? ___________________ I will prepare it in one hour

Reply

Imagine that you work as a waiter in a restaurant. Respond to the commands of these clients using pronouns. Follow the model.

Model Mrs. Gomez: A salad, please.

Yes ma’am. Right away I bring it to you. 

1.Sres. Lopez: The butter, please.

2.Srta. Rivas: The shrimp, please.

3.Sra. Lugones: The roasted chicken, please.

4. Your companions: Coffee, please.

5. Your Spanish teacher: French fries, please.

6.Dra. González: The pork chop, please.

7. Your father: The mushrooms, please.

8.Dr. Torres: The account (check), please.

Change

Change the following phrases by substituting (by replacing) the nouns for the corresponding pronouns. Make any (any) necessary change.

Model I wrote a letter to my father.

I wrote it to him. 

1. I sent (sent) postcards to my friends.

2.Celia bought fruit for you.

3.Ángel recommended the roasted chicken.

4. The waiter served you a coffee.

5. Who sold us the butter?

6. Who brings you lunch today?

7. I ask the waitress for a flan.

8. Carlos’s mom prepares hamburgers.

9.The saleswoman sells hats to clients.

10.This year I bought a car.

Use the direct and indirect pronouns to write the following sentences again without changing the meaning. Follow the models.

Model You are going to show me this afternoon.

You’re going to show me this afternoon.

Women must buy them.

Women should buy them .

1. Children have to wash them.

2. You can not eat it.

3. We are drinking them.

4. Marta and you should not do them.

5. I’m going to ask for you this afternoon.

Try it!

Write the equivalent of the words in English.

Model Ernesto watches more television than (than) Alberto. 

1.You are _________________ (less) nice than Federico.

2.The waitress serves_______________________   (as much) meat as fish.

3. I receive __________________________   (more) tips than you.

4.No studio_____________________   (as much as) you.

5. Do you know how to play tennis so well__________________   (as) your sister?

6. Can you drink ________________________ (as many) sodas like me?

7. My friends seem like ____________________   (as) like you.

8. I am ___________________   (less) skinny than my brother.

To complete

Write the word that completes each comparison.

1.Martin is so tall_____________   Luis.

2.Luis is less tall_____________  Vicente.

3.Vicente is higher __________________ both (both).

4. Mirta is less athletic ___________________   Blanca.

5. Petra is so athletic ____________________   Mirta.

6. Professor Palafox is older_________________   Professor Porter.

7. But Professor Porter has___________________   classes like him.

8.No, Professor Palafox has more classes___________________   her.

9. Ricardo is lower _________________   Alma.

10.Soledad has less____________________   twenty years

Review

Complete the following grammatical summary

Build comparative sentences from the given elements. Follow the model.

Alice model / be / + / responsible / her big sister

Alicia is more responsible than her older sister. 

1. this year / I have / = / classes / last year

2. my father / traveling / – / your father

3. Margarita / not to speak French / = / well / you

4.in my class / have / + / boys / girls

5.Andrés / ser / = / sympathetic / his brother

Complete the following irregular comparative sentences according to the adjectives in parentheses. Follow the model.

Model Julieta is older (+ large) than her classmates. 

6. Your friend plays tennis   (+ badly) than me.

7. Carolina has   (+ good) grades (grades) that Rodrigo.

8. My art teacher is   (+ old) than my grandfather.

9.Gabriel is   (+ young) than his girlfriend.

10. The number of students in this course is   (+ small) than in the last course.

Try it!

Write the equivalent of the words in English.

Model Marisa is the most intelligent (the most intelligent) of all. 

1.Ricardo and Tomás are________________   (the least boring) of the party.

2. Miguel and Antonio are ________________   (the worst) students in the class.

3. My biology teacher is ___________________   (the oldest) of the university.

4. She is_________________________   (the youngest) of the group.

The more…

Answer the questions affirmatively. Use the words in parentheses.

Model The room is very dirty, is not it? (home)

Yes, it is the dirtiest of the residence. 

1. The Velasco store is great, is not it? (Mall)

2. Your mother’s chair is very comfortable, is not it? (home)

3. Angela and Julia are very nervous about the exam, right? (class)

4. Jorge is very young, right? (my friends)

Superlatives

Complete the sentences with the superlative of the words in parentheses.

Model Bill Gates is the richest man in the world. 

1. We are three brothers: I have two older brothers and I am _____________   (young).

2. If you train every day you can be the________________   (good) player on your team.

3. The Vatican has a population of only seven hundred and seventy people and is the _______________ (small) independent state of the world.

4. As Pablo never practices is the _____________________   (bad) musician in the orchestra.

5. The hair of Verdezuela (Rapunzel) was ___________________   (long).

6. Mary’s great grandfather is one hundred and two years old and is the __________________   (old) of his family.

Review

Complete the following grammatical summary.

Construct correct and logical sentences using the superlatives of the given adjectives. Follow the model.

Eduardo Model / be the person / responsible / your whole family

Eduardo is the most responsible person in his entire family. 

1. this / being the school / small / the country

2.the paella / be the dish / typical (traditional) / Spain

3.Pencho / be the student / bad / the class

4. Anita / ser / grande / of her sisters

5.The Winery / be the restaurant / good / of the city

Complete the following sentences with the irregular superlatives of the adjectives in parentheses. Follow the model.

Estefanía model is the largest (large) of her class group.   

6. Paul is ______________- (young) of his cousins.

7. Adriana is ___________________ (small) of her premiums.

8. These are________________   (good) vacations of my life (life).

9. Monday is ________________   (bad) day of the week.

10. Enrique is__________________   (old) from his group of friends.

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all of the following are evidence supporting the theory of plate tectonics except for

Take Test: Quiz – Week 2

Bottom of Form

Question 1

1. Of the two main sources of Energy that drive the Rock Cycle: 

1) Earth’s Internal Heat 

2) Solar Energy

Match these primary sources of energy to the rock types listed below, meaning that this energy source is responsible for the formation of this rock type.

Sedimentary Rocks are primarily formed by __________

Igneous Rocks are primarily formed by ____________

Question 2

1. Match the Plate Boundary Type with the given locations/features on Earth

Divergent boundary
Transform boundary

1.

Convergent boundary

Continental riftA.East African RiftB.Himalaya Mountains along the Indian PlateC.San Andreas fault in CAD.Mid-Atlantic Ridge

Question 3

1. Wegener’s Continental drift hypothesis paved the way towards our understanding of how the Earth’s surface is moving and changing!  Which of the follow is NOT evidence that Wegener and his supporters gathered to substantiate (“prove”) the continental drift hypothesis?

Fossils match across the seas
Mountain ranges and rock types match on different continents
Ancient climates match, as seen in glacial desposts across several continents
The continents appear to fit together like a jigsaw puzzle
The mechanism for the movement of the continents was proven, explaining exactly how the plates drifted

1 points  

Question 4

1. Identify the rock in the image ( CLICK on “Rock_1.jpg to download the image ). Is it sedimentary, igneous or metamorphic?  Can you give a more specific name for this rock  

Question 5

1.        Plate movements can affect which of the following earth systems/processes?

A.Volcanoes
B.Earthquakes
C.Mountains
D.Migrating Continents and Oceans
E.All of the above

1 points  

Question 6

1. Identify the rock in the image ( CLICK on “Rock_2.jpg to download the image ).  Is it sedimentary, igneous or metamorphic?  Can you give a more specific name for this rock?

Question 7

1. Think About It:  If other planets in our Solar System are not displaying signs of Plate Tectonic motions, what can be inferred about the state of the interior of these planets? (What does this tell us about the state of the interior of other planets in our Solar System)

Question 8

1. When a rock is heated, when pressure increases, or when hot water alters its chemistry, both its minerals and its textures change in a process called _____________.

chemical lithification
metamorphism
abrasion
bedding

Question 9

1. When a sedimentary rock is created it forever remains a sedimentary rock, never changing.

True

False

Question 10

1.          Which of the following statements apply to the asthenosphere, but not the lithosphere?

A.             Zone in the upper mantle that deforms by plastic flowage
B.            Cool, ridge layer of crust and upper mantle that forms the tectonic plates
C.           Deforms mainly by brittle fracturing and faulting
D.                Hard surface which floats on top of molten material

Question 11

1. All of the following are current evidence supporting the theory of plate tectonics except for _________.

changes in the Moon’s orbit due to shifting plates
hot spots
ocean floor drilling
paleomagnetism

Question 12

1. Rocks that contain crystals that are roughly equal in size and can be identified with the unaided eye are said to exhibit a _______ texture.

porphyritic
fine-grained
coarse-grained
glassy

1 points  

Question 13

1.        Subduction zones are associated with a _________ plate boundary.

A.Transform
B.All plate boundaries
C.Divergent
D.Convergent

1 points  

Question 14

1. Use the Plate Tectonic Boundary Map on pages 202-203 in your textbook to answer the following questions:

Describe the tectonic motion taking place between then African Plate and the Eurasian plate.  What major geological feature exists there and why?

Divergent Boundary.  Alps Mountain range, formed from plates pusing together and compressing, building up the mountain range.
Convergent Boundary.  Alps Mountain range, formed from plates pusing together and compressing, building up the mountain range.
Divergent Boundary.  Alps Mountain range, formed from plates pulling apart and decompressing, building up the mountain range.
Transform Boundary.  Alps Mountain range, formed from plates sliding past one another therfore building up the mountain range.

1 points  

Question 15

1. There are two main types of igneous rocks.  Blank 1 igneous rocks are formed from magma that cooled very quickly and are fine-grained.  These can also be called Blank 2 igneous rocks.  The second type of igneous rock is Blank 3 igneous rocks which are coarse-grained because the magma from which they formed cooled slowly.  These can also be called Blank 4 igneous rocks.

2 points  

Question 16

1. Shells and other hard parts of animals such as calms, oysters and corals are comprised of carbonate minerals that eventually become limestone.  This is an example of how changes in the _____________perturb the _______________.

A.Biosphere; Atmosphere
B.Hydrosphere; Biosphere
C.Atmosphere; Hydrosphere
D.Biosphere; Hydrosphere
E.Biosphere; Geosphere
F.Hydrosphere; Geosphere

1 points  

Question 17

1. The Lithosphere is being consumed at Term 1

, and being produced at Term 2

1. , which happens at the same rate, allowing for the Earth to reamain the same relative size.  

1 points  

Question 18

1. Alfred Wegener’s concept of a single supercontinent that broke apart to form the modern continents is called the theory of ______________…..which was later re-named once scientific data confirmed what was causing the plates to move.

Continential drift
Seafloor spreading
Asthenosphere drift
Pangea

1 points  

Question 19

1. Most common igneous rocks are named in pairs, each member having the same Blank 1 but different Blank 2.  An Example is Granite and Rhyolite.

1 points  

Question 20

1. Sedimentary Rocks are broadly divided into four categories.  For the definitions given, match the correct type of sedimentary rock.

2.
Sedimentary rock derived from plant and animal remains.  And example is Coal, which is formed from partially decayed plants called peat.
Halite is a good example of this type of sedimentary rock.  Halite is an evaporate because the salt precipitates from the seawater
Derived from the weathering of pre-existing rocks.  Sandstone is an example of this type of sedimentary rock

1.

2.

Derived from biological clasts.   Limestone is a good example.A.Bioclastic sedimentary rocksB.Detrial or Clastic sedimentary rocksC.Chemical sedimentary rocksD.Organic sedimentary rocks

2 points  

Question 21

1. Probably the single most characteristic feature of sedimentary rocks is layering.

True

False

1 points  

Question 22

1. Which of the following energy sources is thought to drive the lateral motions of Earth’s lithospheric plates?

export of heat from deep in the mantle to the top of the asthenosphere
swirling movements of the molten iron particles in the outer core
gravitational attractive forces of the Sun and Moon
electrical and magnetic fields localized in the inner core

1 points  

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functional health pattern assessment

Children’s Functional Health Pattern Assessment

Functional Health Pattern Assessment (FHP)ToddlerErickson’s Developmental Stage:Preschool-AgedErickson’s Developmental Stage:School-AgedErickson’s Developmental Stage:
Pattern of Health Perception and Health Management:List two normal assessment findings that would be characteristic for each age group.List two potential problems that a nurse may discover in an assessment of each age group.
Nutritional-Metabolic Pattern:List two normal assessment findings that would be characteristic for each age group.List two potential problems that a nurse may discover in an assessment of each age group.
Pattern of Elimination:List two normal assessment findings that would be characteristic for each age group.List two potential problems that a nurse may discover in an assessment of each age group.
Pattern of Activity and Exercise:List two normal assessment findings that would be characteristic for each age group.List two potential problems that a nurse may discover in an assessment of each age group.
Cognitive/Perceptual Pattern:List two normal assessment findings that would be characteristic for each age group.List two potential problems that a nurse may discover in an assessment of each age group.
Pattern of Sleep and Rest:List two normal assessment findings that would be characteristic for each age group.List two potential problems that a nurse may discover in an assessment of each age group.
Pattern of Self-Perception and Self-Concept:List two normal assessment findings that would be characteristic for each age group.List two potential problems that a nurse may discover in an assessment of each age group.
Role-Relationship Pattern:List two normal assessment findings that would be characteristic for each age group.List 2 potential problems that a nurse may discover in an assessment of each age group.
Sexuality – Reproductive Pattern:List two normal assessment findings that would be characteristic for each age group.List two potential problems that a nurse may discover in an assessment of each age group.
Pattern of Coping and Stress Tolerance:List two normal assessment findings that would be characteristic for each age group.List wo potential problems that a nurse may discover in an assessment of each age group.
Pattern of Value and Beliefs:List two normal assessment findings that would be characteristic for each age group.List two potential problems that a nurse may discover in an assessment of each age group.

Short Answer Questions

Address the following based on the above assessment findings. Expected answers will be 1-2 paragraphs in length. Cite and reference outside sources used.

1) Compare and contrast identified similarities as well as differences in expected assessment across the childhood age groups.

2) Summarize how a nurse would handle physical assessments, examinations, education, and communication differently with children versus adults. Consider spirituality and cultural differences in your answer.

© 2016. Grand Canyon University. All Rights Reserved.

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timothy o’sullivan was a photographer whose images were the result of random snapshots.

Chapter Title Chapter

#11Photography If your pictures aren’t

good enough, you aren’t

close enough.

Robert Capa (Endre Ernő Friedmann) 1913–1954 PHOTOJOURNALIST

Once you see the forlorn face of Flor- ence Thompson, you will never forget her (Figure 11.1). With furrowed forehead, a faraway look, hand cupped to her chin in a gesture of uncertainty, two children shyly hiding their faces in the warmth of her shoulders, and an infant sleeping on her lap, the photograph is more than a simple portrait of a family. The image is reminiscent of the “Madonna and Child” religious icon known to millions because painters throughout the history of Christi- anity have captured it on canvas. But here in black and white is a real-life symbol for all parents struggling to survive and feed their families during the Great Depres- sion and for all uncertain economic times. “Migrant Mother” is probably the world’s most reproduced photograph in the his- tory of photography because it makes people care about this mother on a deep, personal level.

But it was a picture that almost was not taken.

Dorothea Nutzhorn was born in Hobo- ken, New Jersey, in 1895. When she was 12 years old she took her mother’s maiden name of Lange after her father left the family. As a child she suffered from polio that gave her a limp in her right leg for the rest of her life. Although she’d never held a camera, at 14 she wanted to be a photographer, because she said that her disability “gave her an almost telepathic connection with those who suffered.” After studying at Columbia University under the photographer Clarence White, she moved in 1918 to San Francisco, where she enjoyed the Bay Area’s bohe- mian lifestyle. She married the painter Maynard Dixon and had two sons. She supported her family through her studio photography business. By 1932, she had become an able portrait photographer

Chapter

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260 PHOTOGRAPHY

with a reputation for capturing the personalities of the rich San Francisco matrons of the day.

News reports of the terrible living conditions of rural Americans prompted Lange to want to document their lives. The country was undergoing the worst drought in its history; dust storms blew away the once-fertile topsoil. The stock market crashed in 1929 and farm prices plummeted, throwing millions out of work. People lived from day to day, and thousands of farmers from the Midwest

Figure 11.1 “Migrant Mother,” 1936, by Dorothea Lange. The disturb- ing and touching story line of a woman alone with her children during the height of America’s Great Depression spurred many to help others. But is she posing or wish- ing the photographer would leave?

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and Great Plains who had lost their land and livelihoods took off in mattress- topped automobiles for the golden West. Lange obtained a job with the State of California to document agricultural labor conditions. She was teamed with social economist Dr. Paul Schuster Taylor, whom she later married.

After completion of the project, the head of the Resettlement Administra- tion (RA), Rexford Tugwell, reviewed her pictures in Washington and promptly hired her.

The RA, later renamed the Farm Secu- rity Administration (FSA), was an agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. President Franklin D. Roosevelt created it to help relocate farmers to more fertile farmland, obtain massive subsidies to offset the low prices farmers were get- ting for their crops, and convince the American public that controversial social programs needed to be passed by the conservative Congress. Thus, the FSA was more of a propaganda wing that the government used to get New Deal legisla- tion through Congress than a direct aid to rural residents. Besides Lange, famous photographers who worked for the FSA were Walker Evans, Russell Lee, Gordon Parks, Arthur Rothstein, and Marion Post Wolcott (Figure 11.2).

The FSA photographers produced an exhaustive document of rural and urban life in America during the 1930s and 1940s that has never been equaled. Newspapers and magazines used their pictures because they were free. However, in 1943 the FSA was eliminated and its employees transferred to the Office of War Information, which was ended in 1945. Nevertheless, the images succeeded in helping pass New Deal legislation and also inspired other photographers to fol- low in their documentary footsteps. More

82820_11_ch11_p259-292.indd 26082820_11_ch11_p259-292.indd 260 8/18/10 8:51:21 PM8/18/10 8:51:21 PM

PHOTOGRAPHY 261

had passed. Finally, the image of the people she had briefly seen overpow- ered her desire to get home. She turned her car around and drove back to the camp. Lange retrieved her press camera, a portable version of the tripod-bound,

Figure 11.2 “Fleeing a Dust Storm,” 1936, by Arthur Rothstein. Okla- homa farmer Arthur Coble and his two sons weather a storm. During the Great Depression, the Farm Security Administration of the U.S. government produced numer- ous classic documents such as this Dust Bowl picture by Arthur Rothstein.

Figure 11.3 Photojournalists call the first picture taken at a scene a “cover shot.” If you are asked or are forced to leave, at least you have something. With the older girl avoiding the camera, the younger one smiling for the lens, and Flor- ence Thompson looking back at a daughter hiding behind her, this image is almost a snapshot—not a particularly telling moment.

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than 250,000 of their images are stored in the collection at the Library of Congress, and a copy of each one can be purchased at a nominal price.

But the image in the collection—the most revered and reproduced—is Lange’s “Migrant Mother.”

Tired, hungry, and anxious to get home after a month-long project taking pictures in central California, Lange drove her car north along the cold and wet Camino Real Highway (101) in early March 1936. Along the way she noted a migrant workers’ camp of about 2,500 people outside the small town of Nipomo. On the side of the road someone had placed a sign that sim- ply proclaimed, “Pea-Pickers Camp.” These sights were all too common, with poor people from all over the country forced to stop for lack of money and gasoline and earn a few dollars picking local crops.

For 30 minutes, Lange drove toward home and thought about the camp she

82820_11_ch11_p259-292.indd 26182820_11_ch11_p259-292.indd 261 1/26/10 1:44:53 AM1/26/10 1:44:53 AM

262 PHOTOGRAPHY

large-format camera, and immediately found Florence Thompson sitting in the barely adequate shelter of an open tent with her daughters (Figure 11.3). With the crop destroyed by a freeze, there was no work at the camp. An engine chain had broken on their Model T Ford, so they were stuck. Thompson’s two sons, along with a man living with Thompson at the time, went to town to get the car fixed, leaving her to care for her daughters. She

Figure 11.4 Perched atop her 1933 Ford Model C four-door wagon, Dorothea Lange poses with a Graflex 4 × 5 Series D cam- era. She was driving this car when she spotted Florence Thompson and her family at the side of the road and used this camera for her famous photograph.

Figure 11.5 The book jacket of An Ameri- can Exodus: A Record of Human Erosion by Dorothea Lange and Paul Taylor shows a typical sight along the roads during America’s Great Depression—a truck filled with household goods. With Lange’s pictures and Taylor’s words, the two documented the migration of many from ruined Dust Bowl farms to migrant worker camps out West.

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was pregnant with her sixth child. She would eventually have seven children.

In notes about the brief encounter, Lange later wrote, “Camped on the edge of a pea field where the crop had failed in a freeze. She said that she had been living on frozen vegetables from the sur- rounding fields and birds that the children had killed.” Lange did not ask her name or anything about her past history. She stayed ten minutes and made six expo- sures (Figure 11.4).

When she returned home, Lange made several prints and gave them to an edi- tor of the San Francisco News, where they were published under the headline, “FOOD RUSHED TO STARVING FARM COLONY.” Two of Lange’s photographs accompanied the story that detailed the situation of the migrants and the efforts of relief workers to bring food and cleanup crews to the camp. The famous close-up was not published. Because of the story and pictures, the camp residents received about 20,000 pounds of food from the government, but Thompson and her family had left before help arrived.

But back in Washington, the historical and social significance of the Thompson portrait were recognized immediately. The picture soon became an American classic with a life of its own. Newspapers across the country reproduced it. In 1941, the Museum of Modern Art in New York City exhibited it. When John Steinbeck saw the picture, it inspired him to write The Grapes of Wrath. Without question, the picture made Lange famous. And despite her later achievements as a staff photographer for Life magazine, her collaboration with Paul Taylor on their book An American Exodus: A Record of Human Erosion, and her docu- mentation of Japanese American internees during World War II, she is forever linked to it (Figure 11.5). Frustrated over that

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story was published about her situation. Readers who saw the story and remem- bered the emotional image were moved to send money to her—more than $15,000 ($33,500 today)—before she died. Many of the letters that contained money noted how the writers’ lives had been touched by Lange’s close-up portrait of the “Migrant Mother.”

In 1998, a print signed by Lange was sold for $244,500 ($328,000 today) at Sotheby’s auction house in New York to an anonymous collector who promptly sold it to the J. Paul Getty Museum in Los Angeles for a higher undisclosed sum.

In a 2008 interview with a CNN reporter, Thompson’s daughter Kather- ine (the girl on her mother’s right shoul- der in the famous photograph) said that the “photograph’s fame made the family feel shame at their poverty.” And yet, on Florence Thompson’s gravestone at the Lakewood Memorial Park in Hughson, California, about 250 miles north of Nipomo, it reads, “Migrant Mother—A Legend of the Strength of American Motherhood.” And in Nipomo, one of the major north–south streets that runs parallel with Highway 101 is named Thompson.

ANALYSIS OF “MIGRANT MOTHER”

Any great work of art always has many stories to tell. There is the story of the sub- jects within the frame, why and how it was created, and what happened after it was made public. But one of the most impor- tant stories any visual message tells is the one the viewer makes up. The way you interpret an image is the story of your life.

Even a casual glance at “Migrant Mother” reveals without question an

fact, she once complained that she was not a “one-picture photographer.” In 1965, Lange died at the age of 70 after a long and event-filled life made possible by her photographic skills and her sensitivity to the important moments in everyday life.

But Florence Thompson’s life didn’t change for the better after the picture was published.

Born to poverty in rural Oklahoma in 1903, her father died when she was a baby. When she was 18 she married Cleo Owens, a logger. Finding little work in their home state, they moved to California in 1922 to work in the sawmills. By 1929 the couple had five children. After Owens lost his job, they moved from field to field to pick peaches until he caught a fever and died at the age of 32. She moved with her children from town to town seeking help from her family, went back home to Oklahoma for a brief time, and returned to California to continue the farm-picking migrant life, traveling from camp to camp.

When she first saw it in print, she didn’t like the image and tried to get it sup- pressed. When that effort failed, she tried to get Lange and/or the government to pay her for being in the picture. In 1979, 44 years after the picture was taken and 14 years after the death of Dorothea Lange, Thompson was finally identified as the woman in the famous photograph after she wrote a letter to the Sacramento Bee and was still bitter about the fact that the photograph made Dorothea Lange famous but didn’t improve her life. In a newspaper article that followed, Thompson, living in a mobile home in Modesto, California, complained to a reporter, “That’s my pic- ture hanging all over the world, and I can’t get a penny out of it.” In 1983, Thompson suffered from colon cancer and couldn’t pay her medical bills. Family members alerted the local newspaper and a national

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emotionally charged, sad moment in a woman’s life. Much of the picture’s power comes from its obvious symbolic link to religious paintings. But where the Madonna icon is a positive affirmation of future possibilities for her child, the Thompson portrait is an anti-Madonna icon filled with uncertainty about the future for herself and her children (Figure 11.6).

With a normal perspective, medium- sized lens opening for limited focus, medium shutter speed to avoid camera blur, black and white film to avoid any distractions color might provide, and a 4-by-5-inch negative for maximum resolu- tion, the picture demonstrates the highest quality possible using the gelatin dry plate photographic process in combination with a large format, portable press camera.

Legally, Dorothea Lange did all that was required. Her job as a visual reporter was to record Thompson’s image on film and give prints to a newspaper for publication, not to help Thompson and her family

directly. But what is strictly legal and what is ethical do not always absolve a person’s moral responsibility to help someone in a more direct way. Lange should have at least asked Thompson’s name. The public learned her name only after newspa- per accounts published her complaints about the image. Lange was one year younger than Thompson, and under dif- ferent circumstances, they might have had much to say to each other. But Lange was anxious to get home and stayed for a short time. Realistically, however, given the differences in their cultures based on their economic situations alone, commu- nication between them would have been difficult.

Another controversial aspect of the photograph was the way it was manipu- lated in two different ways. In a later version of the print, part of a hand and a thumb holding a tent flap was airbrushed from the image (Figure 11.7). But more significantly, the picture was a stage-man- aged setup by Lange. This fact should not be surprising given Lange’s roots as a portrait photographer. Linda Gordon in the Los Angeles Times wrote, “Always a portraitist, she never sought to capture her subjects unaware, as a photojournalist might.”

When one studies the images of Thompson and her family members in the order they were taken, the collaboration between Lange and the children is espe- cially marked by an obvious degree of stage managing. The initial image shows 14-year- old Viola sitting glumly on a rocking chair inside the tent. Daughter Katherine smiles at the camera while Thompson holds baby Norma and looks behind her for Ruby who hides behind her back. The next picture is a formal and stiff portrait of the family group. Viola is now in front of the lean- to tent sitting awkwardly on the rocker.

Figure 11.6 “Madonna dell Granduca,” c. 1505, oil on wood, by Raf- faello Sanzio. Known simply as Raphael, the High Renais- sance Italian painter shared the era with Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo. Typical of the times, he was orphaned at an early age but through an uncle found apprenticeship work where he learned his craft. Best known for his religious works, many of his paintings can be found at the Vatican. He died on his birthday at the age of 37 after having exuberant sex with his mistress. Many have compared Lange’s “Migrant Mother” with Raphael’s Madonna and Child because of the downward, worried gaze of the mother in the painting.

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Figure 11.7 Compare the lower-right corner of this original version of “Migrant Mother” with the retouched photograph that starts this chapter and you will notice the distracting thumb that is probably her eldest daughter Viola’s as she holds the tent flap out of the way. The retouched, darkened thumb is a picture manipula- tion that was common in the day.

Figure 11.8 In this formal portrait of the family group, the older Viola strikes a model’s pose as she sits awkwardly on the cane rocking chair as (from left) Ruby, coaxed from behind her mother and wearing a wool cap, Katherine, Florence, and baby Norma are inside the lean-to tent. Lange is now obviously stage-managing this situation, an ethical viola- tion for documentary and news photographs by today’s standards.

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away to avoid the distraction of their faces. Although such overt manipulations of a news photograph would be discouraged today and could get a photojournalist fired, the ethics of that time were different.

Inside the tent Ruby, who wears a wool cap, has been coaxed to join the others for a picture (Figure 11.8). As an experienced image maker, Lange knew that a family portrait with an older girl would not be an emotionally powerful image, so for the next three pictures, Lange moved in close to concentrate on Thompson with her small children. In one, she nurses the baby (Figure 11.9). In another, Ruby rests her chin on her mother’s shoulder without her knit cap (Figure 11.10). In the third Ruby leans her head more comfortably on the shoulder while grasping the tent pole. With its vertical view that includes the crude camp-life necessities of a kerosene lamp, a tin plate, a suitcase used as a table, a wed- ding ring, and a view of the barren ground beyond the tent, this image is a strong document of the Dust Bowl and further demonstrates Lange’s photographic artistry (Figure 11.11). Finally, the famous portrait is a close-up of Lange looking into the dis- tance with the two children told to turn

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Lange and Thompson came from dif- ferent worlds with no common bond except being at the same place at the same time. The camera became the basis for their relationship that lasted a little longer than the shutter was open. For Thompson the person, not Thompson the public icon, the image revealed a weary numbness in which she was prob- ably too polite or helpless to refuse being photographed. But she was saying “no” in the photograph the only way she could. She looked off as if wishing this “city girl” would move on and leave her alone. The image forever stereotyped Florence Thompson as a homeless matriarch who could survive only with contributions from the public. Never mind that she had worked hard to feed and clothe her fam- ily as best she could, given the country’s and her family’s economic hard times. That is why she was probably upset that the picture was published. As such, “Migrant Mother” is a study not only of Great Depression photography but also a commentary on the ethics of manipu- lation and the right to privacy of those pictured.

PHOTOGRAPHY AND THE SIX PERSPECTIVES

Photography runs the gamut from sim- ple, amateur snapshots to enormously expensive professional enterprises. Artists use images to express their inner emo- tions, commercial photographers to sell products and ideas, visual journalists to illustrate the lives of those in the news, and scientists to make an unseen world visible. With equipment that ranges from less than ten dollars to several thousand dollars, photographers take and preserve millions of images every year. The great Irish playwright and humorist Bernard Shaw, himself an amateur photographer, once said about the medium, “I would willingly exchange every single paint- ing of Christ for one snapshot.” Such a sentiment speaks directly to the power of photography. An image is considered truthful and believable—so much so that it is used as evidence in courts of law. Time will tell if the notion of “seeing is believing” remains for the medium in the digital era.

Figure 11.9 (top left) Wisely, Dorothea Lange quit taking overall portraits and moved in closer to concen- trate on Florence Thompson. Although much richer in content than the famous portrait, with the breast- feeding baby, kerosene lamp, and wedding ring, this photograph does not have the same emotional quality as “Migrant Mother.” Notice that the edge of the canvas tent flap hangs parallel with the wooden pole.

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Figure 11.10 (top right) Dorothea Lange moves in a little closer. Five-year-old Ruby unnaturally rests her chin on her mother’s shoul- der, is not wearing her wool cap, and the tent flap has been pulled back, probably by Viola. All of this stage managing was no doubt suggested by Lange.

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Figure 11.11 If “Migrant Mother” had never been created, this photograph would have been revered as a powerful portrait of migrant life, with probably as much attention given to it as its famous cousin. Florence looks just as forlorn as in “Migrant Mother” and little Ruby now seems more comfortable with one hand on her moth- er’s shoulder as she grasps the pole with the other, but this image also contains more information with the addition of the simple metal plate and worn trunk used as a table and the outside, forbidding farm field beyond the tent’s inadequate shelter.

Figure 11.12 Although inexpensive cam- eras with automatic expo- sure and focus capabilities do not produce professional quality images, they make photography a fun and popular hobby for millions of persons. A tourist (the author’s mother) in New York City captures a mem- ory from her hotel window.

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(Figure 11.12). Not surprisingly, most victims of catastrophic events caused by wind, water, or fire report that after the secured safety of their loved ones, what they most regret and wish could have been preserved from their destroyed houses were their precious photographs.

Personal Perspective

After learning how to use paint on fin- gers, a pencil, and a brush, many children are introduced to a simple point-and- shoot camera, often their first contact with the image-making process using a machine. Although their first attempts may be out of focus, blurred, off-center, or incorrectly exposed, they are never- theless awed by the magic of capturing light and seeing it on a computer screen. Part of the joy of photography is that high-quality pictures can be taken with relative ease—the machine itself is easy to master.

Moments captured by amateur pho- tographers are a combination of space and time that often are prized possessions preserved in ornate frames and leather- bound albums. Pictures give evidence of a trip once taken, a car long since sold, and a baby who is now a grown woman. We use photographs not simply to show others where we have been, what we possess, or whom we have loved, but to remind ourselves of those important events, things, and people in our lives

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Historical Perspective

The camera predates the photographic process by at least 1,000 years. Aristotle wrote about the phenomenon of light that produces an upside-down view of the outside world through a pinhole in one wall of a darkened chamber, called a cam- era obscura. From what is now Iraq, Abu Ali Hasan Ibn al-Hayitham, or simply al Hazen to his Western friends, was the first to use the principle to watch an eclipse of the sun inside a tent in the year 1000 to solidify his ideas about the speed of light and the fact that light travels in straight lines for his scientific work Book of Optics published in 1021 (Figure 11.13). Artists used the camera obscura as a tool to trace rough sketches of natural scenes on paper or canvas, to be filled in later with paint. In the 2003 motion picture Girl with a Pearl Earring, the artist Jan Vermeer shows

the maid, Griet, how to see images with the device. The camera obscura device led to the idea of using photosensitive materi- als in place of a canvas (Figure 11.14).

Throughout the history of photogra- phy, nine main photographic processes have preserved the views captured through the camera obscura: the heliograph, the daguerreotype, calotype, wet-collodion, color emulsions, gelatin- bromide dry plate, holography, instant, and digital (Figure 11.15).

Heliography

Joseph Nicéphore Niépce has been called the founder of photography because he produced the first permanent photo- graph, which can still be viewed. Born to rich and well-educated parents in 1765 in the town of Chalon-Sur-Saône, France, about 350 kilometers southeast of Paris, he became interested in the many

Figure 11.13 Abu Ali al-Hasan ibn al- Haytham or al Hazen is the figure on an Iraqi ten-dinar bank note (worth about one U.S. penny) in 1982. Born in Basra in 965 ce, his scien- tific achievements include significant contributions to astronomy, medicine, and visual perception. He is considered the founder of modern optics.

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Figure 11.15 (right) As this 19th-century wood- cut shows, before light meters were invented, pho- tographers looked to the sky to gauge the intensity of the sun during an exposure.

Figure 11.16 “View from the Window at Le Gras,” heliograph, c. 1826, by Joseph Nicéphore Niépce. For photography to become a successful medium for vis- ual communication, inven- tors needed to use light- recording materials within a camera that (1) could produce a sharp image, (2) stop fast action, (3) could be easily reproduced, and (4) was simple to operate. With this heliograph, considered the first photographic image produced by the French inventor, none of those con- ditions were met.Co

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and amateur inventor who used Niépce’s basic work to produce the first practical photographic process.

Daguerreotype

Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre was born in 1789 in Cormeilles, France, just north of Paris. He became famous in that city for his dioramas, illusionary pictorial effects with painted backdrops and lighting changes. An optician who supplied lenses

scientific and technological discoveries of the day. At the age of 51, Niépce began work that eventually led to the photo- graphic process. In an attempt to improve upon the recently-invented lithographic process for making printing plates, he discovered that bitumen of Judea (a type of asphalt) hardened when exposed to the sun. After the soft, unexposed parts of the picture were washed away, the result was a positive image. Niépce placed his asphalt emulsion on a pewter plate within a crudely constructed camera obscura and produced the world’s first photo- graph—the view outside his home—in 1826 (Figure 11.16). It was the first and only photograph that Niépce ever made. The image now is a part of the Gernsheim photography collection at the University of Texas. The faint picture is encased within a Plexiglas frame where xenon gas protects it from deterioration.

Niépce named his process heliography (Greek for “writing with the sun”). The process never attracted much public attention because the exposure time required was about eight hours, the image was extremely grainy in appearance, it appeared to be out of focus, and the pub- lic never learned of the procedure until many years after Niépce’s death. Never- theless, the process did attract the atten- tion of Louis Daguerre, a theatrical artist

Figure 11.14 (left) This replica of the tabletop camera obscura used by the inventor William Henry Fox Talbot was built for the Science Museum (London). Similar to a photographic camera, an artist would look through the viewfinder at the top, focus the image by sliding the lens in front back and forth, and make a drawing on thin tissue paper. Little wonder inven- tors thought of this device as a way of preserving images through chemical means.

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for Niépce’s camera obscura told Daguerre about the heliographs. At the age of 64, in ill health and in serious financial difficul- ties, Niépce reluctantly signed a contract with Daguerre to share information about the heliographic process. In 1833, Joseph Niépce died before seeing the results from Daguerre’s experiments, but his son Isidore maintained the partnership. Daguerre switched from pewter to a copper plate

and used mercury vapor to speed the exposure time. These technical changes resulted in a one-of-a-kind, reversed image as if seen in a mirror, of extraordi- nary sharpness (Figures 11.17 and 11.18). Daguerre modestly named the first practi- cal photographic process the daguerreo- type (Greek for “Picture by Daguerre”).

On January 7, 1839, the French astrono- mer Arago formally announced Daguerre’s invention to the prestigious Academy of Science. Upon seeing the wondrous exam- ples, the American physician and author Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr. dubbed the reversed daguerreotype image a “mirror with a memory,” while John Ruskin wrote in a letter to his father in 1845, “Daguerreo- types taken by this vivid sunlight are glori- ous things. It is very nearly the same thing as carrying off a palace itself—every chip of stone and stain is there.” The French gov- ernment paid Louis Daguerre and Isidore Niépce an annual pension in return for making the process available to the public.

The precious, positive, one-of-a-kind portraits were an instant hit because com- mon people could finally afford to have a

Figure 11.17 The incredible sharpness of the daguerreotype proc- ess is evident in this image taken by an unknown photographer before 1851. The view shows retail stores and homes of Portsmouth Square in San Francisco. The area is now known as the “Heart of Chinatown.”

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Figure 11.18 Born in Massachusetts in 1791, Samuel Finley Breese Morse was an accomplished painter most famous for his invention of the telegraph and his dot-dash code. In 1830 he traveled to Europe to study painting where in Paris he met Louis Daguerre, the co- inventor of the daguerreotype. Morse helped spark its devel- opment in America by estab- lishing one of the first studios in New York and taught Mat- thew Brady, among others, the process. The one-of-a-kind special quality of the image is indicated by the elaborate frame and case.

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Figure 11.19 Cover of The Pencil of Nature, 1844, by William Henry Fox Talbot, the first book printed with photo- graphs.

picture made of themselves. Before, only the wealthy could afford to hire an artist to paint a picture, which is why museums are mostly filled with images of the rich. Daguerreotypes were often displayed within elegantly crafted miniature boxes made of papier-mâché, leather, or highly finished wood. Samuel F. B. Morse, inventor of the dot-dash code used in telegraphy, opened the first photographic studio in New York City and taught many entrepre- neurs, including the famous photographer Mathew Brady, the process. With a faster chemical process, a larger lens that let in more light, and a smaller plate size, expo- sure times were reduced to 30 seconds.

The new process needed a name other than a derivative of Daguerre. England’s Sir John Herschel coined the word photogra- phy for the new light-sensitive process, from the Greek words that mean “writing with light.” However, the process, as stunning as it was, had two significant drawbacks—it produced a positive image that couldn’t be reproduced, and depending on lighting conditions, exposures were too long for fast action.

Calotype

Coincidentally, a different photographic process was announced the same month as the daguerreotype. Sometimes referred to as the talbotype, the calotype (Greek for “beautiful picture”) was invented by William Henry Fox Talbot. The process is the foundation for modern photography.

Talbot was born in Dorset, England, in 1800. After being educated at Trinity Col- lege in Cambridge, he devoted the next 50 years of his life to studying physics, chemistry, mathematics, astronomy, and archaeology. In 1833, while vacationing in Italy, he came to the conclusion that images from a camera obscura could be

preserved using light-sensitive paper. After several experiments upon his return home in August 1835, he produced a one-inch- square paper negative of a window of his house. He then produced a positive pic- ture by placing another sheet of sensitized paper on top of the negative image and exposing it to the sun. The exposure time was about three minutes in bright sunlight. Talbot continued to produce many views of his estate, which were later collected in the first book illustrated with photographs, The Pencil of Nature, published from 1844 to 1846 (Figure 11.19). The work was pub- lished without binding to subscribers who were meant to collect all 24 plates and pay to have the pages bound. But due to a lack of interest from the public, only six plates were created (Figure 11.20). The calotype process never became widespread because of two reasons—its quality when com- pared with daguerreotypes, and Talbot’s insistence on making the process available

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collodion in 1847 solved that problem. A mixture of guncotton or nitrocellulose dissolved in alcohol and ether, collodion was used to protect wounds from infec- tion. When poured on any surface, it forms a tough film. Archer mixed collo- dion with light-sensitive silver nitrate.

His wet-collodion process produced glass negatives of amazing detail and subtlety of tone that could be used to make hundreds of positive prints. The exposure time was a remarkable 10 sec- onds. Although the process required that the glass plate be exposed while moist and developed immediately, serious por- trait and documentary photographers around the world used the wet-collodion process for the next 30 years. Most of the photographs taken during the Ameri- can Civil War, for example, utilized the wet- collodion process. However, with the long exposure times, only before and after battle scenes could be captured (Figure 11.21). This era also saw the intro- duction of several processes that were popular with the public such as inexpen- sive wet-collodion tintypes (images on metal plates), ambrotypes (images on paper), and albumen prints, a process that used egg whites to bind the photographic emulsion to paper, which was usually used to print small calling cards that were handed out between friends and business associates called carte de visites.

Color Emulsions

Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell is credited with producing the first color slide. In a lecture to the Royal Institu- tion in London in 1861, he admitted that his work was influenced by Thomas Young’s discoveries about the eye’s color perception. Maxwell made three separate pictures of a ribbon through red, green,

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Figure 11.20 “Plate VI—The Open Door,” 1844, by William Henry Fox Talbot. What Talbot wrote about the picture is also a call for being more observant generally: “This is one of the trifling efforts of [photogra- phy’s] infancy, which some partial friends have been kind enough to commend. A painter’s eye will often be arrested where ordinary peo- ple see nothing remarkable. A casual gleam of sunshine, or a shadow thrown across his path, a time withered oak, or a moss covered stone may awaken a train of thoughts and feelings, and picturesque imaginings.” With Talbot’s calotype process, photogra- phy satisfied one other con- dition for its popularity—a negative image that could easily reproduce any number of positive prints, but the pictures weren’t as sharp as daguerreotypes.

only to those who paid for the formula. Because a positive image had to print through the paper fibers of the negative view, Talbot’s pictures never achieved the sharp focus of daguerreotypes. Further- more, unlike the daguerreotype process that was released by the French govern- ment, Talbot charged interested parties a large sum to learn the secret of the calotype. Consequently, few took him up on his offer. Nevertheless, the process represents the first instance in which the modern terms negative and positive were used. Once a negative image was created, any number of positive prints could be made. This concept is the basis for modern photography and encouraged economic development of the medium until it was replaced by digital photography.

Wet-Collodion

In March 1851, the year Louis Daguerre died, Frederick Scott Archer published his formula for all to read in a popular jour- nal of the day, The Chemist. Archer was a British sculptor and part-time calotype photographer. He had grown weary of the poor quality of prints obtained from using paper negatives. He suggested glass as a suitable medium for photographic emulsion. The problem with glass, how- ever, was in making the emulsion adhere to its surface. However, the invention of

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n Figure 11.22 “Tartan Ribbon,” 1861, by Thomas Sutton. The Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell had Thomas Sutton pho- tograph a Scottish “tartan” ribbon three times, each time with a different color filter over the lens. Ironically for Maxwell, who identified the electromagnetic spectrum, the photographic emulsion used for the picture was not sensitive to the red wave- length. However, the red dye of the day used in the ribbon fluorescently created the “red” color for the film. See color insert following page 338.

colored potato starch grains randomly throughout a photographic emulsion. Although the film was quite expensive for the day, photographers immediately favored autochrome because of the qual- ity of the images produced.

Gelatin-Bromide Dry Plate

Dr. Richard Maddox of London was an amateur scientist who helped change the face of photography and sparked motion pictures. A medical doctor and amateur

Figure 11.21 “Battle-field of Gettysburg— Dead Confederate sharp- shooter at foot of Little Round Top,” 1863, by Timothy H. O’Sullivan. Since the famed photographer Mathew Brady was practically blind by the time of the American Civil War, he hired several photog- raphers to take photographs for him. One of those was Timothy O’Sullivan, who made this silent study of a young sniper’s body using Frederick Archer’s wet-col- lodion process. Now, the pho- tographic medium had two conditions met—sharp images that were reproducible.

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and blue colored filters. When he pro- jected the three separate images with the colored light from each filter at the same time and aligned the views, a color slide was the result (Figure 11.22).

But because of the impracticality of Maxwell’s discovery, attention soon focused on color print materials. In 1903, Auguste and Louis Lumière, important figures in the history of motion pictures, started selling their autochrome photo- graphic plates to the public. The Lumière brothers mixed red, green, and blue

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scientist and photographer, he was look- ing for a substitute for collodion as a pho- tography emulsion. After experimenting with a number of sticky substances, he tried gelatin, an organic material obtained from the bones, skins, and hooves of ani- mals. The result was a light-sensitive emul- sion with silver bromide that could be manufactured, stored, and exposed much later by a photographer, unlike the wet- collodion process that had to be taken with the emulsion damp and developed immediately.

With his invention, photography was advanced to a point at which it could truly be a successful mass medium. It now had exposure times that could stop fast action, sharply focused images, and a neg- ative that could produce any number of positive prints. Maddox’s discovery led to the invention of motion picture film after

Figure 11.23 Frank Church made one of the first snapshots in the history of photography. It shows George Eastman hold- ing his invention—a Kodak camera—that made amateur photography possible. Now the photographic process was complete with sharp images, fast shutter speeds, easily reproducible images, and so simple a child can be a photographer.

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the American Thomas Edison saw stop- motion images of animals and persons as discussed in Chapter 12.

His photographic process also started the amateur photography craze after an innovation by an American inven- tor. George Eastman of Rochester, New York, invented cameras that used gelatin dry plate films in long rolls. In 1888, he introduced his $25 Kodak camera (in today’s dollars, the camera would cost about $500). Kodak simply was an eas- ily pronounced and remembered name that he invented (Figure 11.23). With the motto “You push the button—we do the rest,” the camera came loaded with 100 exposures. After taking all the pictures, a customer mailed the camera back to Rochester where the round negatives were printed. The camera was reloaded with film and sent back. By 1900, Eastman was

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selling his enormously popular cameras for one dollar each ($20 today).

Holography

In 1947, Hungarian scientist Dennis Gabor developed holography to improve the sharpness of views obtained with an elec- tron microscope. The unique aspect of holographic images is that they reproduce a three-dimensional view of an object pho- tographed on one sheet of film. Russian researcher Yuri Denisyuk created a slightly different process that is used today to dis- play logos on credit cards, unique jewelry and art presentations, novelty stickers for children, and for publications (Figure 11.24). One of the first mass-produced holographic displays was a picture of an eagle for the March 1984 cover of National Geographic, which featured stories on holography, China, Calgary, Canada, and the rhinoceros. In 2009 an opening bid for the issue was set at $2.99.

Instant

Edwin Land was a prolific American inventor with more than 500 patents to his name. In 1948, he introduced his most famous invention—the black-and-white Polaroid 50-second film camera. Instant photography was born. About 15 years later he announced a color version, calling it Polacolor. Once popular with married couples on their honeymoons and with artists and other professional photogra- phers, the process has been replaced by digital cameras (Figure 11.25). However, artists such as William Wegman have used large-format, 20 × 24-inch cameras to produce fine-quality, one-of-a-kind Polaroid portraits. Another such artist is Stephanie Schneider, who manipulates the colors with heat and pressure to produce

Figure 11.24 A holographic image, such as this one from the Massa- chusetts Institute of Technol- ogy (MIT) Museum, when printed in a textbook will not reproduce the engaging three-dimensional effect when viewed on an acetate sheet from a single light source.

Figure 11.25 Polaroid photographs were once the process of choice for recording weddings and subsequent honeymoons such as these from a wed- ding and reception taken on a beach near San Francisco in 1989. These one-of-a-kind images should remind you of the early daguerreotype pictures—they are in sharp focus, but not easily copied.

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striking results. The Australian musi- cian Sia Furler used about 2,500 Polaroid images in an animation style for the pro- duction of a video for her song, “Breathe Me,” in 2004 (Weblink 11.1).

Digital

In 1981, Sony introduced its electronic still video camera, the Mavica (Magnetic Video Camera). Its two-inch disc could record only 50 color images, which were viewed on a television screen. As such, the camera was not technically a digital camera because it recorded an electronic video signal. Nevertheless, the camera started the era of digital photography, with all the major camera companies pro- ducing true digital models. After an expo- sure, photographers can use a program such as Photoshop and make exposure,

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color balance, and cropping adjustments, just as in a traditional darkroom. The computer images can then be sent to anyone in the world via a cell phone or a wireless connection.

Technical Perspective

It shouldn’t be surprising that a camera’s parts and functions are similar to those of the eye. Knowledge of the physical workings of the eye directly helped in the camera’s development. The essential elements of a camera are housed within a protective box; the eye is protected by an outgrowth of the skull. A visual art- ist often uses a drop of solution to clean the glass elements of the lens of dust and smudges; the eye has a built-in lens-clean- ing system with its salty tears. The shutter regulates the amount of time a computer chip is exposed to light; the eyelids open and shut so that vision is possible. The aperture is an opening that lets light enter

the camera; the pupils with their compan- ion muscles perform the same function for the eye. The lens focuses the outside image to a point at the back of the eye or the camera’s dark chamber. In photogra- phy, a sheet of thin, light-sensitive emul- sion or an electronic process records the picture. Photoreceptors in the back of the eye process the light rays. Photographers manipulate and print their images in a darkroom or on a computer; humans pro- cess their images within the visual cortex region of the brain.

Specifically, you should be aware of five main technical considerations when ana- lyzing your own or someone else’s image: lens type, lens opening, shutter speed, lighting, and image quality.

Lens Type

Lenses come in three variations: wide- angle, normal, and telephoto. As their names imply, a wide-angle lens gives a viewer an expansive, scene-setting view. The visual array photographed also has great depth of field—more is in focus. A normal lens mimics the angle of view as seen by the human eyes and is seldom used by professionals. A telephoto lens produces a close-up, narrow perspective of a scene with the foreground and back- ground compressed. It also has a shallow depth of field with little in focus. If a photographer wants a viewer to see many details at once, a wide-angle lens is pre- ferred over a telephoto (Figure 11.26).

Lens Opening

The opening of a lens is like the pupil in the eye—it regulates the amount of light that enters the camera. If you squint your eyelids, your pupils get smaller and more will be in focus. The same is true for a Cou

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Figure 11.26 “Firebomb Damaged Sale,” 1981. Life and sales go on in Belfast, Northern Ireland, despite violent actions from terrorist organizations. A wide-angle lens is used not only to show as much infor- mation along the edges of the frame as possible but also to give a viewer the illusion of being in the scene.

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typically use shutter speeds of 1/500th of a second and faster (Figure 11.29).

Lighting

Photography exists because of light. Knowledge of how lighting is used by photographers is essential in the analy- sis of an image. There are two kinds

lens. A small opening or aperture will pro- duce an image with much a greater depth of field, whereas a large lens opening will have a shallow depth of field. Like the choice of the type of lens, a photographer can select elements of a scene she wants a viewer to notice by the choice of lens opening (Figures 11.27 and 11.28).

Shutter Speed

The amount of time a camera’s shut- ter stays open—its shutter speed—can greatly affect a picture’s content. A speed of 1/30th of a second or longer will usu- ally cause blurring of anything that moves. A faster shutter speed will stop motion and is required to overcome shaking of the camera during exposure (referred to as camera blur). An important feature of many modern cameras is motion stabi- lizer technology that produces a sharp image during longer shutter speeds and/ or jarring conditions such as on a motor- boat. An extremely fast shutter speed is necessary to photograph fast-moving sub- jects without blur. Sports photographers

Figures 11.27 and 11.28 “Vinton Cemetery #1, Califor- nia,” and “Vinton Cemetery #2, California,” 2002, by Gerry Davey. With a small aperture setting on a camera’s lens, objects close in the fore- ground as well as those in the distance are in focus. How- ever, if a large aperture set- ting is chosen, a photographer can chose what to emphasize within a picture’s frame by controlling focus.

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of lighting: lighting that comes from available sources and lighting that the photographer brings to a location. Natu- ral lighting, most often called available light, is illumination that already exists within a scene. Although its name implies light from the sun, it can also refer to incandescent bulbs, neon light tubes, or fire from a candle. Lighting equipment that a photographer brings to a photog- raphy shoot or that is contained within a studio is called artificial lighting. The most commonly used artificial light for location work is the electronic flash.

Image Quality

Learning how to evaluate the quality of an image in terms of its exposure and contrast is important. A picture that will reproduce well in a publication or

for a web page must have a full range of tones supplied by proper exposure and contrast. As a general rule, a pic- ture is considered properly exposed if it shows detail in the shadow areas and in the light areas. Contrast is defined as the difference between the black and white tones of the image. A low con- trast image has little differences in light and dark areas; a high contrast picture has extreme differences (Figure 11.30). With color correcting software within a program such as Photoshop, a photogra- pher can make most images, even those poorly exposed, acceptable for viewing. For web presentations a pixel-per-inch, or dots-per-inch (DPI), resolution of 72 with GIF, JPG, or PNG picture formats is fine. For printed work, however, a DPI of 300 or greater saved as a TIF file is preferred.

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Figure 11.29 An example of the stopping quality of a camera’s shutter is provided by this picture of a young boy seeking relief from the 100-degree heat in Del Rio, Texas. Note how the mesquite tree in the back- ground seems to cradle the boy in space.

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showed their viewers the full extent of the war with gruesome depictions and wondered why their Western media coun- terparts were sanitizing the violence. The difference may be one of editorial intent.

The executive director of “NBC Nightly News” explained, “You watch some Arab

Ethical Perspective

Visual communicators must be aware of five major ethical concerns whenever images are used. Two of those concerns— visual persuasion and stereotypes—have been discussed. The three other main eth- ical issues are showing victims of violence, violating rights to privacy, and picture manipulations.

Victims of Violence

After the publication or broadcast of a controversial image that shows, for exam- ple, either dead or grieving victims of vio- lence, people often make telephone calls and write letters attacking the photogra- pher as being tasteless and adding to the anguish of those involved. And yet, vio- lence and tragedy are staples of American journalism because readers have always been morbidly attracted to gruesome stories and photographs. It is as if viewers want to know that tragic circumstances exist but don’t want to face the uncom- fortable details (Figure 11.31).

During the war in Iraq that began in March 2003, about 500 journalists were “embedded” with military troops dur- ing the initial stage of the conflict. What resulted was an unprecedented access to fighting areas. Editors were faced with tough choices. Many of the images taken by photojournalists showed bloodied combatants and civilians—victims of the ravages of war. In a New York Times article, for example, a picture submitted to Time magazine was described as “the bloodied head of a dead Iraqi with an American soldier standing tall in the background.” And yet, few images of corpses were ever shown to American print readers or tele- vision or web viewers. Arab and other news agencies around the world, however,

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Figure 11.30 With a selected exposure that creates a high contrast between the dark shadows and the sunlit wall, the diago- nal lines and outline shape of the wild parrot are empha- sized.

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Figure 11.31 The front page of the Bakers- field Californian is a study in contrasts. Mickey Mouse and Edward Romero’s grieving family share the front page. A reader firestorm of 500 letters to the editor, 400 telephone calls, 80 subscription cancel- lations, and one bomb threat resulted. Many readers prob- ably were sparked to protest publication of the picture because of its insensitive dis- play near the popular cartoon character.

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coverage and you get a sense that there is a blood bath at the hand of the U.S. mili- tary. That is not my take on it.” The dif- ference may also be a judgment call based on the taste for such images by readers and viewers. The managing editor of Time, James Kelly, admitted, “You don’t want to give the reader a sanitized war, but there has to be some judgment and taste.”

Susan Sontag, author of Regarding the Pain of Others, took a skeptical view when she stated, “I am always suspicious when institutions talk about good taste. Taste belongs to individuals.” Taste—the presumed appetite of viewers to stomach gruesome and/or controversial images—is a matter of etiquette, not ethics. The news media should report what a govern- ment does in its people’s name. Some- times that means grisly images must be a part of those reports. As Ted Koppel, then of ABC’s “Nightline” said, “The fact that people get killed in a war is precisely what people need to be reminded of.”

Although against the Geneva Conven- tions, prisoners are also tortured during

wartime—whether during a declared war or the so-called “War Against Terrorism” waged by the United States and other countries. But it is rare to see visual evi- dence of such abuse. The chilling images of the torture of Iraqi prisoners at Abu Ghraib in 2003 and 2004 with many that were hooded, naked, and forced to simu- late sexual acts by military personnel was appalling and shameful to most everyone who saw them (Figure 11.32). In this age of high quality and relatively inexpen- sive digital cameras and camera phones, battlefield images taken by the soldiers themselves will no doubt reveal other horrors of war to which seasoned photo- journalists will not have access. Perhaps not surprisingly, the Pentagon has banned digital cameras—including camera phones—from U.S. Army bases in Iraq. In 2009 President Obama reversed an earlier decision to release photographs “depicting alleged abuse of detainees by U.S. soldiers” for fear it might “further inflame anti- American opinion and to put our troops in greater danger.” However, newspaper editorials and the American Civil Liberties Union make the point that the images are part of the historical record and should be made public. Regardless of the outcome that will be decided by the court system, the controversy shows how images more than words are highly emotional objects.

Gruesome images closer to home can have a longer impact on viewers. Reporter Charlie LeDuff of The Detroit News received a telephone call telling him that there was a body “encased in ice, except his legs, which are sticking out like pop- sicle sticks” within an elevator shaft of an abandoned warehouse. Wanting to make sure of the facts before he called police, he investigated and found the gruesome scene. The resulting story and published image shocked the citizens of Detroit and Cou

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Figure 11.32 Images of tortured victims taken with digital cameras and shared via CDs and e-mails by U.S. military per- sonnel stationed at the Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq in 2003 and 2004 were eventually released to the public and shocked the world. Most of these gruesome pictures were not printed in newspapers, but can be easily found on the web.

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videos of returning war dead at Dover Air Force Base in Delaware in 1991. It was said that the policy was made out of respect for the families’ privacy. But when Russ Kick of “The Memory Hole” website was given 288 images of war dead from Afghanistan and Iraq after filing a Freedom of Information Act request, he posted the images on his website (Weblink 11.3). Many newspapers around the country published an image from the collection on their front pages (Figure 11.33). John Molino, a deputy undersecre- tary of defense, explained that the photo- graphs, taken by military photographers for historical purposes, were censored because “we don’t want the remains of our service members who have made the ultimate sacrifice to be the subject of any kind of attention that is unwarranted or undignified.” However, a Boston Globe editor said, “I don’t know how [the pub- lishing of the images] can be disrespectful to the families. They are official photos of flag-draped coffins being treated with respect by military personnel.” In 2009 during the Obama Administration, the Pentagon changed its policy and allowed families of the war dead to decide

the nation. LeDuff’s report illustrated that hard economic times, with over 20,000 persons homeless, sometimes caused cal- lous behavior that should be prevented whenever possible. A month after the gruesome find, the body was identified as a homeless man named Johnnie Redding. LeDuff described his sad life and burial in subsequent stories (Weblink 11.2).

Print and broadcast journalists have a duty to report the news as objectively, fairly, and accurately as possible. Editors and producers should be mindful that some images, because of their emotional content, have the potential to upset many people. However, decisions should be guided, never ruled, by readers and view- ers. One solution attempted by some media organizations is to show contro- versial pictures on a website with a strong disclaimer. That way a user can decide whether or not she wants to click on the link and see the image.

A Right to Privacy

Florence Thompson looked away from Dorothea Lange’s camera lens in the famous “Migrant Mother” photograph because that was the only way she thought she could protect her privacy. When subjects of news events and their families, through no fault of their own, are suddenly thrust into the harsh light of public scrutiny, they often complain bit- terly, as Thompson did the rest of her life.

Many readers of newspaper and maga- zine special editions recoiled in horror at the images of people falling from the World Trade Center twin towers. Some of the com- plaints from viewers were made because it was thought family members might be able to recognize the person falling.

U.S. military officials banned pho- tojournalists from taking pictures and Cou

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Figure 11.33 Flag-draped coffins line the inside of a military transport plane as soldiers honor the dead by standing at atten- tion and saluting. From World War II on, government officials have often censored photographs of those killed in combat from the public on the grounds that they violate the privacy of the soldiers and their families, but more often than not, such images honor those who have fallen rather than exploit them.

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Picture Manipulations

Since the birth of photography, photog- raphers have manipulated subjects and images to produce the result they desired. Hippolyte Bayard was the French inventor of a unique photographic process who did not receive the attention or pension of Louis Daguerre. In protest, he faked his own death in an 1839 photograph. It is the first example of a manipulated image in the history of photography (Figure 11.34). Roger Fenton, one of the most respected war photographers in history, moved cannonballs during the Crimean War in 1855 to make his “Valley of the Shadow of Death” image more harrowing. Coming from a painting tradition in which subjects and compositions were regularly manipu- lated, the Swiss Oscar Rejlander in 1857 produced a good versus evil tableau called “The Two Ways of Life” using at least 30 separate pictures within the composition (Figure 11.35). Before the invention of the halftone process, skillful engravers regu- larly altered the content of photographs. For example, artists regularly added and subtracted subjects portrayed in photo- graphs for their printed engravings of the American Civil War. A curious artistic pro- cess common in newspaper photographs from the turn of the 20th century until as late as the 1970s was the heavy retouching of news images. Retouchers with paints, inks, airbrushes, and scissors “would remove backgrounds to make stark silhou- ettes or add additional elements, including cut-in vignettes or cutaway diagrams of events.”

Critics get most upset when images intended for documentary and news pur- poses are altered for aesthetic reasons. The wake-up call for many was a 1982 cover story on Egypt in National Geo- graphic. A pyramid in Giza was moved

whether to invite the media to their reunion with their loved ones in a casket. The return of the flag-draped coffin con- taining the body of 30-year-old Air Force Staff Sergeant Phillip Myers of Hopeville, Virginia, was the first fallen soldier cov- ered by the media under the new policy.

The judicial system in America has recognized that private and public per- sons have different legal rights in terms of privacy. Privacy laws are much stricter in protecting private citizens not involved in a news story than they are for public celebrities who often invite media atten- tion. As many as 60 paparazzi (if it’s Britney Spears or Paris Hilton) regularly stake out the places where celebrities shop and go clubbing on a 24/7 basis. The general public often justifies such extreme behavior because of the intense interest in the celebrities. Tabloid magazines, tele- vision shows, and websites pay as much as $100,000 for an exclusive picture that shows a private moment of a troubled star. Although photographers need to be aware of the laws concerning privacy and trespass, ethical behavior should not be guided by what is strictly legal.

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Figure 11.34 “Self-Portrait as a Drowned Man,” 1840, by Hippolyte Bayard. The French inventor Hippolyte Bayard created the first practical photographic process that predated the daguerreotype, had the first public exhibition of photo- graphs, made the first self- portrait, and created the first manipulated picture in the history of medium. Frustrated by not receiving recognition from the French government that Daguerre and Niépce enjoyed, Bayard staged a photograph with a caption that read, “The corpse which you see here is that of M. Bayard. The Government which has been only too gen- erous to Monsieur Daguerre, has said it can do nothing for Monsieur Bayard, and the poor wretch has drowned himself.”

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by computer software to accommodate the vertical format (Weblink 11.4). Read- ers who had been to Egypt immediately contacted the magazine to question how the image could have been produced. As a result, the director of photography at the time was forced to resign, and all of the images and words within the maga- zine were subject to question. You may purchase this famous cover on eBay for a starting bid of $9.99.

The police mug shot of O.J. Simpson arrested for the murder of his wife and her friend in 1994 was used for the covers of Time and Newsweek magazines the same week (Weblink 11.5). The Time cover was criticized for illustrator Matt Mahurin’s darkening of O.J.’s facial features, which some said was a slap at all African Ameri- cans, and yet Newsweek was never criti- cized for the manipulation of the words on the cover, “A Trail of Blood.” Brian Walski of the Los Angeles Times was fired for a photo composite he created while a photojournalist covering the war in Iraq (Weblink 11.6). No doubt fatigue, tough conditions, and competition were factors responsible for him combining parts of

two images into a third. However, there is no good reason for such an ethical lapse. Credibility is a precious commodity that should be protected with as much fervor as can be mustered.

But there is little credibility with some types of photography. Wedding and por- trait photographers remove unwanted warts and wrinkles from their subjects. Advertising art directors customarily combine parts of pictures, change col- ors, and create fantasy images to attract customers. Most persons are well aware of such practices and knowingly suspend disbelief when looking at portrait and advertising images. Still, examples such as a Newsweek cover photograph of Martha Stewart’s smiling face just after she was let out of prison sitting on top someone else’s body, a portrait of CBS News anchor Katie Couric with a digitally slimmed waist, and tennis player Andy Roddick with computer-enhanced arms on the cover of Men’s Fitness, all help to degrade the photographic medium’s credibility as a whole. Ironically, during the 2008 presi- dential campaign, many criticized a close- up portrait of Governor Sarah Palin on

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Figure 11.35 One of the first images to be manipulated by a photogra- pher was Oscar Rejlander’s “Two Ways of Life.” He spliced 30 separate pictures together to form the composite. Gambling, drinking, sexual activity, and vanity are the themes to the young boy’s right, and pious behavior, education, philan- thropy, and hard work are pre- sented on the other side.

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the cover of Newsweek because it wasn’t touched-up.

Cultural Perspective

The story of photography, as with any other medium, is never simply about the technical contributions made by scientists and inventors to improve the process. Technological advances allow photogra- phers to communicate the cultural values of the time, but a photographer’s style is formed by the culture in which the pictures are made. Studying the images produced within a certain time period is a study of the society from which they come. Throughout the history of photog- raphy, various photographic styles have reflected the people and the times.

Photographer as Portraitist

One of the earliest uses of the photo- graphic medium was to capture the faces of people, both famous and ordinary.

Eventually, photography became a great equalizer. Because long exposure times and bright sunlight were required for early photography, Victorian portrait subjects appear to be grim, unsmiling people. In reality, they had to keep still in order to get the best picture possible.

In the 19th century, several photogra- phers created a photographic style that reflected the culture of the times. Scottish calotype photographers David Octavius Hill and Robert Adamson made sensitive studies of ordinary people. Julia Margaret Cameron, one of the few women in visual communication history, made dynamic images of her famous friends: Alfred Tennyson, Sir John Herschel, Thomas Carlyle, Charles Darwin, Robert Brown- ing, and Henry Longfellow (Figure 11.36). Gaspard Felix Tournachon, or Nadar, as he was known, matched his bold shoot- ing style with the strong personalities of the day. Before he photographed the Civil War, Mathew Brady had portrait galler- ies in New York and Washington. Brady is credited for the daguerreotype image of President Lincoln that appears on the redesigned five-dollar bill that was first issued in 2008 (Figure 11.37).

The portrait tradition continued with August Sander’s portraits of everyday Ger- man citizens before World War II, Diane Arbus’s direct and sensitive portraits of extraordinary subjects, Irving Penn’s series of everyday workers, Richard Avedon’s large-format images of known and unknown Americans, and Philip-Lorca Di Corcia’s “Heads,” portraits of random pedestrians at Times Square, New York. A standout in this genre is Annie Leibovitz, who made the sensitive portrait of John Lennon and Yoko Ono taken for Roll- ing Stone early on the day of the Beatle’s death, the naked and pregnant Demi Moore on the cover of Vanity Fair, and Cou

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Figure 11.36 “Sir John Herschel,” 1867, by Julia Margaret Cameron. One of the most respected individuals in the history of photography is the British astronomer and scientist Sir John Herschel. He not only discovered a way to make photographic images so they wouldn’t eventually fade if exposed to light, he also invented the cyanotype pho- tographic process later called “blueprints” used by the English botanist Anna Atkins and in architecture, created the first picture on glass, and came up with the terms “snapshot,” “negative,” “posi- tive,” and most importantly, the word “photography,” Greek for “writing with light.” Julia Margaret Cameron, born in India, took up photography when she was 48 years old. She eventually made portraits of many of the most impor- tant figures in the worlds of literature and science at that time.

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views with their awkward wet-collodion technology. In 1873, O’Sullivan made one of his most famous pictures at the ruins of “White House” at the Cañon de Chelle in Arizona (Figure 11.40). The power of photography to shape the opinion of oth- ers is demonstrated by these views of the land. The images became synonymous with what people thought of as natural and beautiful. Jackson, who lived to be 99 years old, made the first photographs of the Yellowstone area in 1871, which helped convince Congress to set aside the land as the country’s first national park because the land was viewed, within the photographs, as naturally beautiful. Fol- lowing in the footsteps of the early land- scape photographers, Ansel Adams, Wynn Bullock, and Harry Callahan all have made photographs that record exquisitely nature’s beauty and sharpen our sense of wonder of it. Contemporary New York photographer Paul Raphaelson captures hauntingly beautiful post-apocalyptic urban landscapes (Weblink 11.8).

Queen Elizabeth II during her state visit to Virginia (Weblink 11.7). Another is the relative newcomer Suzanne Opton, whose close-up portraits of American soldiers who have served in Iraq or Afghanistan have been shown in print, on websites, and on public billboards (Figure 11.38).

Photographer as Painter

Many painters feared that photography would soon replace their profession. To hedge their bets, some artists became photographers who mimicked the style of allegorical painters to tell a story with photographs in the tradition of paint- ings of the day. Two photographers who worked in this style during the 19th century were Oscar Rejlander and Henry Peach Robinson. Rejlander’s “The Two Ways of Life” was discussed earlier. Robinson’s most famous image, “Fading Away,” is a combination print using five separate pictures to show a young woman on her deathbed. Other photographers thought that the new medium should have its own style distinct and apart from that of painting. A photographic school known as “straight photography,” headed by Edward Weston and Ansel Adams, shunned manipulated work. Contem- porary photographers Vicky Alexander, Richard Prince, and Mike and Doug Starn use “cut-and-paste” techniques to pro- duce elaborate artistic renderings from their own or previously published pictures (Figure 11.39).

Photographer as Landscape Documentarian

Photographers have always enjoyed tak- ing pictures of natural scenes. When the American Civil War ended, Timothy O’Sullivan and William Jackson traveled west to explore and photograph scenic

Figure 11.37 “Abraham Lincoln,” daguerreo- type (reversed), 1864, by Mathew Brady. Born in upstate New York, Mathew Brady moved to New York City when he was 18 years old and learned the daguerreotype process from the American inventor of the telegraph, Samuel Morse, who had his own studio. Three years later Brady opened his own studio, and by the time of the American Civil War he was the most famous pho- tographer of his day. Despite reservations from friends, Brady hired and outfitted more than 20 photographers, including Alexander Gardner and Timothy O’Sullivan, to document the battles of the Civil War; Brady took credit for their photographic work. He spent more than $100,000 of his own money (equivalent to about $2.4 million today) and never recouped his investment. Depressed over his financial situation and the death of his wife, he died penniless in the charity ward of a New York hospital after being struck by a streetcar in 1896.

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Photographer as Artist

Many traditional artists have looked down on photography, thinking it a simple craft. Another problem artists had with photography was that any number of images could be made from a single negative. Therefore, acceptance of pho- tography as a fine art on the same level as painting was slow in coming. One of the most important figures in elevat- ing the medium to a fine art was the American Alfred Stieglitz (Figure 11.41).

Not only did he exploit photography’s unique technological features, he also opened a gallery that exhibited painting and photography on an equal footing and published a critical journal about photography, Camera Work. Married to artist Georgia O’Keeffe, he was a strong proponent of modern art photography and inspired many photographers to build that tradition. Recent photographers who view photography as a way of expressing a deeply personal statement include Lucien Clerque, Yasumasa Morimura, and Sandy

Figure 11.38 “Birkholz—353 Days in Iraq, 205 Days in Afghanistan,” 2007, by Suzanne Opton. For her “Soldier” series, Suzanne Opton photographed nine American soldiers who were between tours in Iraq and Afghanistan stationed at Fort Drum, New York. Of her series, Opton says, “We all experi- ence strategic moments when we feel most alive. These are the moments we will always remember, be they transcend- ent or horrific. After all, what are we if not our collection of memories? In making these portraits of soldiers, I simply wanted to look in the face of someone who’d seen some- thing unforgettable.”

Figure 11.39 “Attracted to Light 1,” toned silver prints on Thai mul- berry paper, 4 × 7.3 yards, 1996–2002, by Doug and Mike Starn. The size of this com- posite piece might evoke the Japanese science fiction classic Mothra (1961), the first of the Godzilla monster genre of movies, metaphors for the use of weapons of mass destruc- tion. At once aesthetically pleasing with subtle tones, tex- tual intricacies, and a gestalt sensibility, it is also slightly menacing as you become hyp- notized by the insect’s inces- sant stare. See color insert following page 338.

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Figure 11.40 Stereocard of “Ancient Ruins in the Cañon de Chelle, New Mexico,” 1873, by Timothy O’Sullivan. Born in New York City, Timothy O’Sullivan was a teenager when he was hired by Mathew Brady to work in his studio. After fighting in the Civil War as a Union Army officer and honorably discharged, he joined Brady’s team of photographers to doc- ument war participants and the aftermath of battles. One of his most powerful images is the eerily disturbing “The Harvest of Death,” taken after the battle at Gettysburg, Penn- sylvania, as seen in Figure 8.14. Perhaps disgusted by the death and destruction, after the war O’Sullivan joined several expe- ditions exploring the western United States and Panama. But after an expedition’s boat capsized while exploring the Colorado River, he lost most of his 300 glass negatives. How- ever, the image of the majestic Native American ruins pre- cariously set within a canyon’s wall survived. Nine years after he made the photograph, O’Sullivan died of tuberculosis at the age of 42.

Skoglund. In a reversal of the process, Marc Trujillo makes large paintings that feature a street corner with gas a station, workers in a fast food drive-in restaurant, and passersby in a shopping mall that look like color photographs (Figure 11.42).

Photographer as Social Documentarian

Because images have the capacity to spark interest and convey emotional mes- sages, many photographers have used the medium to shed light on social problems in the hope of getting the public to act. In 1877, John Thompson teamed with writer Adolphe Smith for a book about London’s poor, Victorian London Street Life. News- paper reporter-turned-photographer Jacob Riis used photography to illustrate his writings and lectures on the slums in New York City (Figure 11.43). In 1890, he published his work in a book, How the Other Half Lives. In 1909, Lewis Wickes Hine managed to help enact child labor laws with his sensitive portraits of children working in dangerous, backbreaking occu- pations around the country (Figure 11.44).

Following in their tradition, French photographers Eugene Atget in the 1920s, a social documentarian with a view camera, and Henri Cartier-Bresson in the 1930s, with a small, handheld camera, showed views of ordinary people. Cartier-Bresson captured the “decisive moment”—a term he used to describe the instant when content and composi- tion are at their most revealing.

The FSA photographers documented living conditions of homeless people for the U.S. government during the Great Depression. Photographers for Life maga- zine, most notably W. Eugene Smith, produced photographic stories that illustrated the lives of diverse individu- als. Mary Ellen Mark, James Nachtwey, Eugene Richards, and Sebastião Salgado are photojournalists who continue in Smith’s documentary style tradition. Greg Constantine is an independent photojournalist who travels the world documenting displaced persons, and his images are used by such groups as Doc- tors Without Borders and the United Nations Refugee Agency (Figure 11.45; Weblink 11.9).

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288 PHOTOGRAPHY

Figure 11.41 “A Bit of Venice,” 1894, by Alfred Stieglitz. One of the most important figures in the history of photography as a practitioner, editor, and advocate, Alfred Stieglitz elevated the medium into a respected fine art form. Born in New York to upper-mid- dle-class parents, he studied mechanical engineering in Germany where he happened to enroll in a chemistry class taught by the photographer and inventor Hermann Vogel. Intrigued with the medium, Stieglitz entered and won several competitions. He later promoted photography through two publications, Camera Notes and Camera Work, the Photo-Secession pictorial art movement, and his galleries “291” and “An American Place.” Taken while on his honeymoon with his first wife, whom he left in 1923 to marry the American artist Georgia O’Keeffe, who was known for her erotic paintings of flowers, “A Bit of Venice” reveals the ethereal and transformative power of photographs over paintings after you realize that this cor- ner of the canalled city actu- ally existed in the real world.

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Critical Perspective

Photography was invented at the height of the Industrial Revolution, during which millions of people around the world even- tually had more money and free time to spend taking pictures. Photography, with its emphasis on realistic scenes, freed art- ists to be more expressive. Impressionism and surrealism, for example, flourished because painters no longer had to render natural scenes exactly on canvas.

Photography educated people about social problems within their own commu- nities and among native peoples around the world. Visual messages inspired immigrants to learn to read words after pictures hooked them into buying a news- paper. But photography also was used to mislead and misinform. Government agencies in both totalitarian and demo- cratic countries used photography to

persuade citizens to adopt a desired point of view.

Photographs entertain and educate. They provide a historical record that relies on the idea that a camera does not lie. Throughout the history of photography, the picture enjoyed far greater credibility than the printed or spoken word. But computer operators who can alter the content of a digitized news picture as eas- ily as an advertising image are undermin- ing the picture’s credibility.

TRENDS TO WATCH FOR PHOTOGRAPHY

Photography is undergoing exciting and challenging changes. This era in its history is not unlike the time when the wet-col- lodion process was replaced by the gelatin bromide dry plate. Of the nine major advances in the technological history of photography, only four have significantly changed the way people think about the medium. The daguerreotype introduced the world to the medium. The wet-col- lodion process proved that photography could be a high-quality and reproducible method of communicating visual mes- sages to large numbers of people. The gelatin-bromide dry plate process made photography easy for both amateurs and professionals. Finally, digital photography, which combines the medium with the computer, promises unlimited possibili- ties for visual communicators. As more of us view photographs on monitors, paper prints are less important. Home comput- ers contain collections of images that can be easily shared through wireless connec- tions. Viewers can share their precious pictures with anyone anywhere in the world.

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Figure 11.42 “6800 Hayvenhurst Avenue,” oil on canvas, 2008, by Marc Trujillo. Although photography is not used in his artistic proc- ess, Marc Trujillo’s paintings of drive-thru restaurants, big box stores, and shopping malls dis- play a photographic presence combined with an Edward Hopper unease. See color insert following page 338.

Figure 11.43 “Bandit’s Roost,” New York City, 1888, by Richard Hoe Lawrence. Social reformer Jacob Riis was not a trained photographer, so he often hired them to accompany him on his nightly journeys through New York’s seedy underworld. He used the pic- tures in his lectures and for his book, How the Other Half Lives. One of the most famous photographs that he took credit for, “Bandit’s Roost,” was actually taken by Richard Hoe Lawrence. Taken in an alley off Mulberry Street, today located within New York’s Chinatown district, a menacing and accommodating street gang poses for the photograph. The lines of laundry in the background were a favorite of Riis who wrote, “The true line to be drawn between pauper- ism and honest poverty is the clothesline. With it begins the effort to be clean that is the first and best evidence of a desire to be honest.”Co

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Still cameras may be replaced by digital camcorders that enable the recording of still and moving images with the same quality. If a viewer wants to see a single frame from a recording, the equipment satisfies that option with simply the press of a key or utterance of a word or two. But the stilled moment will always be a vital component of mass commu- nication messages because there is no way to escape its underlying power. As Carina Chocano, a critic for the Los Ange- les Times, wrote, “Video may dominate the visible world, but still photography trumps it when it comes to administering electric jolts to the imagination.”

Examples of the need for still images are easy to find in both the art and docu- mentary worlds. For example, director Steven Soderbergh’s trailer for his 2005 motion picture Bubble was a tribute to still photography, with spooky images taken within a doll factory (Weblink 11.10). David Crawford (Weblink 11.11) takes hundreds of still images of persons riding subways throughout the world and then creates stop-motion studies. When seen on a computer, the effect is a moving, still

image. A commercial for the Olympus PEN camera used a stop-motion animation technique with about 10,000 photographs that told the story of a man’s life in an intriguing and compelling visual array (Weblink 11.12). Artists who use the stop- motion technique with still photographs present their work on YouTube.com. Noah Kalina took one picture of himself

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Figure 11.44 “Newsboys Selling on Brooklyn Bridge, 3 a.m.,” 1908, by Lewis Wickes Hine. The American sociologist Lewis Hine encour- aged his students at New York’s Ethical Culture School to use photographs to document the immigrants arriving daily into the city. After he tried it himself, he devoted the rest of his life to documentary photography. Working for the National Child Labor Committee, he made thousands of pictures of children suffering under long hours in dangerous situations throughout the United States so that the images could be used as evidence to persuade members of Congress to enact child labor laws. He also documented the efforts of the Red Cross in America and in Europe, the construction of the Empire State Building, and served as the chief photogra- pher with the government’s Works Progress Administration (WPA), which concentrated on how work affects workers.

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Figure 11.45 “Bihari woman,” by Greg Con- stantine. During Pakistani rule, the Bihari were a prosperous and privileged community, but after a civil war in East Pakistan resulted in the birth of Bangladesh, they were fired from government jobs and lost ownership of their land. Since 1971 more than 300,000 live in 66 refugee camps where they are exploited, harassed, and unwanted.

every day starting in 2000 and continues to add to the collection the first day of every month (Figure 11.46; Weblink 11.13), “madandcrazychild” took a photo of her- self every day for 200 days (Weblink 11.14), and in a parody of the genre, “Phil” took a picture of himself every day for two days (Weblink 11.15).

One still image project didn’t require a camera. A flash mob called “Improv Everywhere,” comprising more than 200 individuals, dispersed randomly within the Main Concourse of Grand Central Station in New York City (Weblink 11.16). At the same moment they all stood perfectly still for five minutes. Commuters and tourists were obviously intrigued by the stunt and gave a round of applause when the frozen players started moving again.

For documentary presentations, Brian Storm (Weblink 11.17) maintains one of the premiere websites to see the work of still photographers within multimedia presentations that also include voice- overs, sound, music, and interactive navi- gation features. With a master’s degree in photojournalism from the prestigious University of Missouri and experiences as the former director of multimedia for MSNBC.com and vice president of News, Multimedia & Assignment Services for the picture agency Corbis, Storm runs a mul- timedia production studio, MediaStorm, that presents stories created by journal- ists throughout the world. He also trains professionals and academics how to make

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Figure 11.46 “Everyday,” detail, 2009, by Noah Kalina. New York based Noah Kalina is primarily an advertising photographer with clients that include Motorola, Sony, and Neiman Marcus, but he possesses an artist’s inde- pendent spirit. On January 11, 2000, he started to photograph his face every day, a project that continues. A video of the collection was a YouTube favorite and inspired many imitators.

Figure 11.47 “Intended Consequences by Jonathan Torgovnik,” 2009. The MediaStorm interactive mul- timedia website is a showcase of the best photojournalism can offer with text, audio, and video presentations. “Intended Consequences” records the aftermath of the 1994 Rwanda war between the native tribes of Hutu and Tutsis that resulted in more than 800,000 persons killed. It is estimated that 20,000 children were born from rapes of women perpetrated by soldiers. There was also a rampant spread of HIV/AIDS. Women survivors tell their stories in words and pictures on the website.

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their own multimedia programs. Its “Crisis Guide: Darfur” produced for the Coun- cil on Foreign Relations and “Kingsley’s Crossing” by Olivier Jobard won Emmy Awards. Other stories tell of the lives of

women raped in Rwanda in 1994, drug addicts in a New York City apartment, and the lives of Kurdish people in north- ern Iraq— stories you rarely can find on paper (Figure 11.47).

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Regardless of how still and moving images are combined and presented, the stilled moment will always be important. A moving image shocks, illuminates, and entertains, but it is fleeting, quickly replaced by another picture. A stilled image, one that freezes time forever in a powerfully arresting moment, will always have the capacity to rivet a viewer’s atten- tion so that long-term analysis is possible.

KEY TERMS

• Abu Ghraib • Airbrush • Allegorical

• American Civil Liberties Union

• Aperture

• Bitumen of Judea • Collodion • Contrast • Crop • Darkroom • Depth of field • Dioramas • Doctors Without

Borders • Dust Bowl • eBay • Electromagnetic

spectrum • Emulsion • Flash • Flash mob • Geneva Conventions • Gelatin

• GIF • Grain • Impressionism • Industrial Revolution • JPG • Large-format

camera • Life magazine • Lithography • Paparazzi • Plate • Polio • Silver bromide • Silver nitrate • Surrealism • TIF • Visual cortex • Visual journalists

To locate active URLs for the weblinks mentioned in this chapter, please go to the compan- ion site at http://communication.wadsworth.com/lester5 and select the proper chapter.

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universal intellectual standards

Intellectual Standards

For our assignment this week, examine the Universal Intellectual Standards as described in our readings. Select one of these standards, and describe how using that standard has helped you in your:

Work life

School life

Personal life

Your essay should consist of five paragraphs, and should follow the format below:

In your first paragraph, write a detailed description of the standard you have selected and why you selected it.

Then, in a paragraph each, describe how that standard has helped you in your work life, in your school life, and in your personal life. Each paragraph should contain at least one example.

Finally, in your concluding paragraph, discuss the ways you can continue to improve upon this standard moving forward.

Your completed assignment should be written primarily in first person and should be 500-750 words in length. If you use sources in your writing, be sure to identify them. If you use any direct language from a source, be sure to place those words in quotation marks.

Your assignment should adhere to the stated page length requirement for the week and use APA style formatting including a title page and reference section. You should use Times New Roman, 12pt. font, double-spaced lines, and one inch margins. A description of APA style and the APA template can be found in the Writing Center.

Grading Criteria Assignments Maximum Points

Meets or exceeds established assignment criteria 40

Demonstrates an understanding of lesson concepts 20

Clearly present well-reasoned ideas and concepts 30

Mechanics, punctuation, sentence structure, spelling that affects clarity, and citation of sources as needed            10

Total 100 

Copyright Grantham University 2016. All Rights Reserved

Assignment

W4 Reflection Journal “What Is Intelligence?”

Strategies for Decision Making

What Is Intelligence?

This week’s lecture focused on the role of human intelligence. In your own words, what do you think intelligence is? Do you think intelligence is something you are born with or something that you can grow and develop? Why do you feel the way you do about that? How can engaging in good critical thinking impact your intelligence (or can it?)

Your work should be at least 500 words, but mostly draw from your own personal experience. This should be written in first person and give examples from your life. Be sure if you are using information from the readings that you properly cite your readings in this, and in all assignments.

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clc nursing

Pros and cons of mandatory continuing nursing education

Karen DeFilippis, Idalmis Espinosa

Lasharia Graham, Ijeoma Igbokwe

Karan Kortlander, Jessica McGillen

October 01, 2017

objectives

Discuss the pros and cons of continuing education in nursing in the following areas:

Impact on competency.

Impact on knowledge and attitudes.

Relationship to professional certification.

Relationship to ANA Scope and Standards of Practice.

Relationship to ANA Code of Ethics.

Impact on competency

Pros: Cons:

Increased personal knowledge Time

Increased use of EBP treatments Cost

Improved patient outcomes

Increased confidence

Developing and maintaining skills

Professional Networking

“Currently in many states, a nurse is determined to be competent when initially licensed and thereafter unless proven otherwise. Yet many believe this is not enough and are exploring other approaches to assure continuing competence in today’s environment where technology and practice are continually changing, new health care systems are evolving and consumers are pressing for providers who are competent” (Whittaker, Carson, & Smolenski, 2000).

“The ultimate outcomes of continuing nursing education (CNE) activities are to improve the professional practice of nursing and thereby the care that is provided by registered nurses to patients” (American Nurses Credentialing Center’, 2014)

Effective workplace learning, based on current evidence, appears to show potential to prevent errors, support health professional reflection on practice and performance, foster ongoing professional development, and sustain improved individual and organization performance outcomes.

Cost- “Continuing education can be costly. For instance, it is costly to pay employees to attend a nursing lecture or conference and to be away from the patients’ bedside. Additionally, purchasing videos or subscribing to magazines does require an associated payment. Lastly, implementing a change is costly it requires training and often new equipment. Without question, cost is a confounding variable” (Ward, 2013)

Time- This can be time away from work and family. For the employer ‘implementing a change in practice does require time, as does completing continuing education credit hours. This could mean time away from the patient which, in most instances, is frowned upon” (Ward, 2013)

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Pros of higher education in nursing

Enhance patients’ outcome.

Reduces medication errors.

Update with new trends.

Increased knowledge on technology use.

Treatment evaluation and recovery.

Enhance collaboration and networking.

Widens employment opportunities for nurses (University of Saint Mary,2017).

Higher nursing education prepares nurses to make a difference in delivering safe and effective care to patients, nurses gain the skills needed to safely administer medication while eliminating or reducing medication errors, monitoring and assessing the patient’s response to medications (University of Saint Mary, 2017). Nurses acquire proficiency on the use of new technologies because higher education programs explores the latest technology. Nurses are updated on the new trends in healthcare to keep up with patients’ changing needs. Nurses are able to effectively and proficiently coordinate patients’ care by collaborating and communicating with other health care teams, gain new knowledge through networking; nurses are exposed to seminars where they meet and interact with other healthcare professional.

Nurses are prepared to evaluate patients’ response to treatment and follow up after discharge to improve the quality of patients lives (University of Saint Mary, 2017). Nurses who have higher education certificates have more employment opportunities. Most hospitals requiring nurses to go back to school to get BSN, and preferring to hire nurses who have BSN.

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Cons and attitudes of not continuing with higher education in nursing

Limited career opportunities and positions.

Poor patient outcome.

Lack of confidence.

Limited Knowledge, competency and skills.

Lack of opportunities for collaboration.

There are several disadvantage of not pursing higher education in nursing, nurses are most times denied of a job or a position due to the level of their education. Nurses who starts as staff nurses are promoted to a higher position with experience, good performance and continuous education (College Grad, 2017). Studies have linked poor patients outcome to lack of nursing skills and knowledge; Thus to enhance patient’s safety and quality care, nurses are required to go for a higher education or study as recommended in Institute of medicine report . Higher education does not only benefit the patients but also boost the confidence of nurses. Lack of confidence decrease self-esteem, every nurses needs to believe in him/herself to work effectively and efficiently while collaborating with other health care team. Lack of education limits learning new skills and opportunity to grow in knowledge and also could hinder opportunities to fellowship or collaborate effectively with other health care professionals.

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Pros of continuing higher education related to the relationship to professional certification

Increases knowledge and quality of care in nursing practice.

Enhances nurses’ ability to compete in the job market.

Develops a nurses’ confidence and professionalism.

Defines nursing practice and attests to ongoing qualifications (Brunt).

The ANA defines certification as an achievement of exemplary nursing knowledge; therefore, continuing education promotes the above noted benefits. The question of mandatory continuing education for nurses has been brewing since the 1960s (Brunt). The National League for Nursing supports that mandatory continuing education should be required for relicensure. Currently, there are more than 68 various certifications available to nurses, and most of them require continuing education programs.

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CONS OF CONTINUING HIGHER EDUCATION RELATED TO THE RELATIONSHIP TO PROFESSIONAL CERTIFICATION

Cons include:

Education does not assure competence.

Continuing education is expensive.

Evaluation tools are ineffective and not always accurate (Brunt).

Continuing education does not show evidence of better patient-care outcomes (Eustace, 2001).

Those opposed to mandatory continuing education maintain that as professionals, nurses are personally responsible to identify and acquire appropriate education (Brunt). Some have pointed out that mandatory continuing education does not necessarily address advanced practice nurses, or those in administration, research, and education. Others argue that it may be difficult to obtain continuing education in remote areas, and that most healthcare practitioners already take part in continuing education on their own (Brunt).

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PROS TO CONTINUING EDUCATION RELATED TO ANA SCOPE AND STANDARDS OF PRACTICE

Improves quality of patient care

Expands knowledge and contribute to career growth

Ensures competency in practice

Providing best evidence based nursing care

The scope of practice is defined by the , “who”, “what”, “where”, “when”, “why”, and “how” of nursing practice. The practice of nursing requires specialized knowledge, skills and independent decision making. Every nurse should be knowledgeable and up to date with the latest evidence based practice in order to provide the best care to their patients. With higher education nurses are able to take on leadership roles. Leadership roles are important to help lead change to transform health care, and for “public, private, and governmental health care decision makers at every level” to “include representation from nursing on boards (Campaign for Action, 2014).

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CONS TO CONTINUING EDUCATION RELATED TO ANA SCOPE AND STANDARDS OF CARE

Cost of Tuition

Balancing Personal life

Lack of appropriate knowledge on the subject

Lack of a guarantee that the continuing education standards will assist the nurse in the nursing field

The cost of going back to school can be very expensive. There are programs to help pay for some of the cost for tuition, but you still are responsible for a portion of the tuition. Some may not even know about the different programs to help you pay for school. They may be paying out of pocket. And we all know once we graduate, loan repayment will be waiting on us.

Another disadvantage of returning to school is balancing personal life. Some of us work full time jobs and have kids like myself. I also have a part time job as well. It can become very difficult squeezing classes in on top of our already busy schedule. Sometimes I don’t get a chance to do my work until the last minute when its due. I know there were plenty of times I felt like just giving up on classes because I don’t have enough time in a day to get every thing done. Then I start thinking of all the benefits of higher education

9

CODE OF ETHICS provision 5 related to Continuing Education

As outlined by the ANA, provision 5 includes that nurses owe the same duties to self as others, this includes responsibility to preserve integrity and safety, maintain competence, and to continue personal professional growth (Fowler and American Nurse Association, 2010).

PROS

Fair and equal treatment

Safe patient care

Be competent

Be educated to provide the best care

Grow professional and personally

Expand career knowledge and skills

Integrity

Builds confidence

Helps guide better decision making

Creates trust

Extends positive influence

CONS

Personal and professional growth requires a time commitment

Being competent and advancing can include a financial commitment

Growing pains

Feeling out of comfort zone

The Code of Ethics is a public expression of what a nurse commits oneself to when entering the workforce as a nurse. The Code expresses values, duties, and commitments that all nurses will strive for (ANA, 2010). There are many pros and a few cons to nurses agreeing to follow the Code of Ethics. The pros mentioned above can greatly outweigh the cons. As nurses we are here to serve people, we extend ourselves to care for others. In caring for others we must also care for our self in the process. The ANA outlines for professional growth a nurse is responsible for “continued reading, study, observation, and investigation” (2010). All of the above are outlined by the ANA.

10

CODE OF ETHICS PROVISION 7 RELATED TO CONTINING EDUCATION

Fowler and the American Nurses Association defined provision 7 as, a nurses participation in the advancement of the profession through contributions to practice, education, administration, and knowledge development (2010).

PROS

Advancements

In education

In practices of care

In administration

Knowledge

CONS

Having the need to want advancement

Time commitment

Possible financial commitment

Growing pains

Being pushed out of your comfort zone

Nurses are the forefront of advancement for the medical field. We hold many positions from floor nursing, administration and educators within the health care system. For the field of nursing and nurses to continue to grow and advance we all must pledge to participate in advancing the profession with education, and the search of knowledge. Examples of ways that nursing has advanced from the past is nurses now have advanced degrees such as: Master and doctoral level educations and also Nurse Practitioners. The ANA provides specifics on where nurses can advance the profession; be involved in healthcare policy, develop, maintain and implement professional standards in clinical practice, administration and education practices, and apply knowledge development, dissemination and application to practice (2010). As nurses the ANA Code of Ethics provides a pathway to things that will improve nursing practice as a whole.

11

CODE OF ETHICS

CONCLUSION

References

American Nurses Credentialing Center. (2014). The Importance of Evaluating the Impact of Continuing Nursing Education on Outcomes:Professional Nursing Practice and Patient Care. Retrieved from http://www.nurse.credentialing.org/Accreditation/

Fowler, M. D., & American Nurses Association. (2010). Guide to the code of ethics for nurses: Interpretation and application. Silver Spring, MD: American Nurses Association.

Ward, J. (2013, January 23). The Pros and Cons of Getting Nursing CEUs. Retrieved from Nurse Together: http://

www.nursetogether.com/pros-and-cons-getting-nursing-ceus

Whittaker, S., Carson , W., & Smolenski, M. C. (2000, September). Assuring Continued Competence – Policy Questions and Approaches: How Should the Profession Respond? Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. Retrieved from : http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/

Brunt, B. The importance of lifelong learning in managing risks. The Nursing

Risk Management Series(3). Retrieved from http://ana.nursingworld.org/mods/archive/mod311

Eustace, L. (2001). Mandatory continuing education:past, present, and future trends & issues.

The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing 32(3).

References

Nursing: Scope and Standard of Practice. Retrieved from www.nursingworld.org

ANA Leadership – American Nurses Foundation. Retrieved from www.anfonline.org

University of Saint Mary. (2017) Higher Nursing Education and its Impact on Patient Safety. Retrieved on September 21st from http://online.stmary.edu/rn-bsn/resources/higher-nursing-education-impact-on-patient-safety

College Grad (2017) Registered nurses. Retrieved September 24th, from https://collegegrad.com/careers/registered-nurses

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which of the following statements about special sessions of the texas legislature is true?

Question1

Marks: 1

The structural weakening of the office of the governor and the creation of the plural executive in Texas was NOT the result of which of the following?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. The reaction of Texans to Reconstruction
[removed]b. The desire of the founding fathers of Texas to closely copy the structure and operation of the executive branch of the federal government in Washington
[removed]c. The Constitution of 1876
[removed]d. The reaction of Texans to the governorship of E.J. Davis

Question2

Marks: 1

Legislators in Texas are

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. appointed by the governor.
[removed]b. elected in single-member districts in the House of Representatives and in at-large elections in the Texas Senate.
[removed]c. all elected in single-member districts.
[removed]d. subject to term limitation by the Texas Constitution of 1876.
[removed]e. all elected in at-large elections.

Question3

Marks: 1

Although the Governor prepares a budget to submit to the Texas Legislature at the beginning of a session, the members of the Legislature typically ignore the budget proposed by the Governor in favor of a budget drafted by the

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. State Commission on Budgetary Development and Analysis.
[removed]b. Comptroller.
[removed]c. State Treasurer.
[removed]d. Legislative Budget Board.
[removed]e. Congressional Budget Office.

Question4

Marks: 1

The governor of Texas may grant executive clemency.

Answer:

[removed]True[removed]False

Question5

Marks: 1

The vice president of the United States is, according to the U.S. Constitution, the president of the U.S. Senate; however, according to the rules of the U.S. Senate he has little authority over that body. The real head of the U.S. Senate is the Senate Majority Leader. Who is the President of the Texas Senate and the real leader of the Texas Senate?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. the lieutenant governor of Texas is the president of the Texas Senate but the real leader of the Texas Senate is the Senate majority leader of the Texas Senate
[removed]b. the lieutenant governor is the president of the Texas Senate and is, under the rules of the Texas Senate, the real leader of the Texas Senate
[removed]c. the lieutenant governor of Texas is the president of the Texas Senate, however, the real leader of the Texas Senate is the leader of the majority party in the Texas Senate
[removed]d. the vice president of Texas is the president of the Texas Senate, however, the real leader of the Texas Senate is the Senate majority leader
[removed]e. the speaker of the Texas House also acts as the president of the Texas Senate and is its actual leader

Question6

Marks: 1

In what type of committee is the bulk of the work in the legislature done?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. Joint committee
[removed]b. Standing committee
[removed]c. Combined committee
[removed]d. Special committee
[removed]e. Conference committee

Question7

Marks: 1

How long is a special session of the Texas Legislature?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. up to 140 days
[removed]b. no more than two weeks
[removed]c. up to 30 days
[removed]d. as long as required to complete the agenda of the governor.
[removed]e. no more than one year

Question8

Marks: 1

How many members are there on the Texas Railroad Commission?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. three
[removed]b. nine
[removed]c. 12
[removed]d. 15
[removed]e. six

Question9

Marks: 1

The principal responsibility of the Texas Secretary of State is

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. to negotiate treaties for Texas with foreign governments.
[removed]b. to regulate electric and telephone rates in Texas.
[removed]c. to act as the chief election officer for the State of Texas.
[removed]d. to collect taxes for the State of Texas.
[removed]e. to act as the head of the president of the Senate when the Texas legislature is in session.

Question10

Marks: 1

Before an appointment by the governor to an executive branch board or agency becomes effective, the governor’s nominee must first be reviewed and approved by

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. the judicial branch of Texas government, in the form of the Texas Supreme Court, in its oversight function of the executive and legislative branches of government.
[removed]b. a vote of the Texas Senate.
[removed]c. a vote of the full legislature.
[removed]d. a vote of the Texas House.
[removed]e. a joint conference committee made up of Texas Senators and Representatives.

Question11

Marks: 1

Which branch is the central policymaking institution of state government?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. the Texas Supreme Court
[removed]b. the Joint Committee on Public Policy of the Texas House of Representatives
[removed]c. the plural executive
[removed]d. the Central Policy Commission of Texas
[removed]e. the Texas legislature

Question12

Marks: 1

Most of the legislative work of the Texas Legislature is conducted

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. by the governor.
[removed]b. in legislative committees.
[removed]c. on the floor of the Texas House.
[removed]d. during special sessions of the legislature.
[removed]e. in the House of Representatives.

Question13

Marks: 1

The largest area of tax revenue for State of Texas comes from

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. income taxes.
[removed]b. sales taxes.
[removed]c. severance taxes.
[removed]d. ad valorem taxes.
[removed]e. property taxes.

Question14

Marks: 1

There are how many members in the Texas House of Representatives?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. 435
[removed]b. 32
[removed]c. 31
[removed]d. it varies from session to session depending on the state’s population
[removed]e. 150

Question15

Marks: 1

Probably the most contentious issue facing the State Board of Education is its periodic review of

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. textbook adoptions.
[removed]b. state budget requests.
[removed]c. teacher salaries.
[removed]d. state football programs.
[removed]e. University Interscholastic League literary competition rules.

Question16

Marks: 1

The Comptroller of Public Accounts is

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. the chief election officer of the State of Texas.
[removed]b. the chief tax collector for the State of Texas.
[removed]c. responsible for collecting overdue child support payments for Texans.
[removed]d. responsible for administering the Texas Veterans’ Land Board.
[removed]e. issuing corporation charters and monitoring public corporations in the State of Texas.

Question17

Marks: 1

How can the Texas Legislature override a legislative veto by the Governor?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. the Texas Constitution forbids the Legislature to override a gubernatorial veto
[removed]b. by a vote of a conference committee
[removed]c. by a majority vote of the Texas Senate alone in the exercise of its advise and consent power
[removed]d. by a 2/3rds vote of members present from both houses
[removed]e. by a simple majority vote of members present from both houses

Question18

Marks: 1

What type of bill applies only to one unit of local government (example: the Legislature creates a new county-court-at-law for Harris County)?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. general bill
[removed]b. a true bill
[removed]c. a resolution
[removed]d. a special bill
[removed]e. private bill

Question19

Marks: 1

The predominant occupation for members of today’s Texas legislature are

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. pharmacy and real estate.
[removed]b. business and finance.
[removed]c. medicine and insurance.
[removed]d. law and business.
[removed]e. education. 
education and sales.

Question20

Marks: 1

The Lieutenant Governor is elected every four years by

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. the voters of the State of Texas.
[removed]b. the members of the Texas Senate.
[removed]c. the caucus of the majority party at the start of a new legislative session.
[removed]d. a vote of the full legislature.
[removed]e. a single-member district election in Travis County, home county for the Texas Legislature (in Austin).

Question21

Marks: 1

David Dewhurst is the

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. Texas Land Commissioner
[removed]b. Governor of Texas
[removed]c. Comptroller of Public Accounts
[removed]d. Lieutenant Governor of Texas
[removed]e. Texas Secretary of State

Question22

Marks: 1

Rick Perry is currently the

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. Lieutenant Governor of Texas.
[removed]b. Texas Secretary of State.
[removed]c. Comptroller of Public Accounts.
[removed]d. Governor of Texas.
[removed]e. Texas Agricultural Commissioner.

Question23

Marks: 1

Which of the following government entities does NOT rely on or operate primarily from property taxes?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. County government
[removed]b. Independent school districts
[removed]c. State government
[removed]d. Municipal government
[removed]e. Community college districts

Question24

Marks: 1

Which of the following officials enforces the state’s weights and measures laws?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. Texas Secretary of State
[removed]b. Governor of Texas
[removed]c. Texas Land Commissioner
[removed]d. Comptroller of Public Accounts
[removed]e. Texas Agriculture Commissioner

Question25

Marks: 1

What is the purpose served by an interim committee of the Texas Legislature?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. to iron out differences between different versions of legislation passed by the House and the Senate
[removed]b. to meet and study issues in the period between regular legislative sessions
[removed]c. to draft a state budget for consideration be the full legislature
[removed]d. to consider overrides of gubernatorial vetoes
[removed]e. to assign bills to calendars for scheduling on the House floor

Question26

Marks: 1

The governor of Texas is considered to have military powers because he is commander-in-chief of

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. all U.S. military troops which are stationed in Texas at a given time.
[removed]b. the Austin Chapter of the American Legion.
[removed]c. the Texas National Guard.
[removed]d. the Fort Hood military installation in Central Texas.
[removed]e. the Corps of Cadets at Texas A&M University.

Question27

Marks: 1

The impeachment process for a high Texas state official begins with articles of impeachment (the charges, or official allegations) being brought by the

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. Texas Senate.
[removed]b. Texas House of Representatives.
[removed]c. Governor of Texas.
[removed]d. Attorney General of Texas.
[removed]e. Supreme Court of Texas.

Question28

Marks: 1

Police powers are attributed to the Texas governor since he has the authority to appoint members of

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. Criminal Science Institute (CSI) of Texas.
[removed]b. Texas Rangers.
[removed]c. the director of the Texas Bureau of Investigation.
[removed]d. the board of the Department of Public Safety.
[removed]e. state investigatory grand jury.

Question29

Marks: 1

With regard to the creation and adoption of the biennial budget for the State of Texas, the Governor of Texas

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. has tremendous influence over the preparation, creation and adoption of the budget of the state each biennial session.
[removed]b. greatly influences the creation and adoption of the budget for the state through the Government Office of Management and Budget.
[removed]c. influences the creation and adoption of the state’s biennial budget through his selection and appointment of the Texas Secretary of the Treasury.
[removed]d. has sole constitutional power in the state to develop and set the state biennial budget; he then sends the completed budget to the legislature for implementation and distribution based upon his (the governor’s) specific and strict directions
[removed]e. has little official power and influence over the creation and final adoption of the biennial state budget during the regular legislative session.

Question30

Marks: 1

Which of the following is true concerning regular sessions of the Texas Legislature?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. The Legislature meets in regular session starting in January for 160 days every odd-numbered year.
[removed]b. The Legislature meets in regular session every year, holding 140-day sessions in odd-numbered years and 160-day sessions in even-numbered years.
[removed]c. The Legislature meets in regular session starting in January every year, adjourning at the end of the year in early December.
[removed]d. The Legislature meets in regular session for 260 days every other year.
[removed]e. The Legislature meets in regular session starting in January for 140 days every odd-numbered year.

Question31

Marks: 1

Respond to the following statement: “The state income tax in Texas is set at 6.25% of a person’s annual income.”

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. True
[removed]b. False–The income tax is set at 2% of a person’s annual income. When added to the federal income tax requirement, a Texas citizen pays 8.25% of her income in income taxes.
[removed]c. False–there is no state income tax.
[removed]d. False–the state income tax is based on the biennial income of a Texas citizen.

Question32

Marks: 1

The state agency which regulates telephone and electric rates in Texas is called

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. the Legislative Budget Board.
[removed]b. the Public Utility Commission.
[removed]c. the Texas Railroad Commission.
[removed]d. Texas State Board of Insurance.
[removed]e. the Sunset Advisory Board.

Question33

Marks: 1

A committee which has members from both the House and the Senate to serve a unique, particular function is called a

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. joint committee.
[removed]b. combined committee.
[removed]c. conference committee.
[removed]d. special committee.
[removed]e. standing committee.

Question34

Marks: 1

In Texas, the more than ____ agencies have substantial independence from the governor, which means that each agency has more latitude and independence than federal agencies in deciding what was meant by the legislature and in applying the law to unforeseen circumstances.

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. 100
[removed]b. 50
[removed]c. 10
[removed]d. 900
[removed]e. 200

Question35

Marks: 1

Who is the current Commissioner of Agriculture for the State of Texas?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. Earl Butz
[removed]b. Todd Staples
[removed]c. Jim Hightower
[removed]d. Hank Gilbert
[removed]e. Susan Combs

Question36

Marks: 1

Regular formal review and subsequent legislative affirmation to determine that if a state agency or program is to continue is known as

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. senatorial courtesy.
[removed]b. sunset review.
[removed]c. sunshine legislation.
[removed]d. administrative oversight and review.
[removed]e. redistricting.

Question37

Marks: 1

The Attorney General of Texas is LEAST involved in which of the following activities?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. initiating lawsuits against parents delinquent on child support payments
[removed]b. issuing legal opinions interpreting state laws before issues relating to the laws are adjudicated by the courts
[removed]c. defending the state against lawsuits
[removed]d. prosecuting individuals accused of serious crimes
[removed]e. acting as the constitutional lawyer for agencies, boards, and commissions of the state of Texas.

Question38

Marks: 1

In total, how many states in the U.S. (including Texas) have NO personal income tax?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. None; all states, including Texas, tax the personal income of residence of their states
[removed]b. seven
[removed]c. 31
[removed]d. two
[removed]e. 15

Question39

Marks: 1

The Lieutenant Governor is most analogous to what officer in the federal government?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. Vice President
[removed]b. President
[removed]c. Majority Leader of the U.S. Senate
[removed]d. Secretary of State
[removed]e. Speaker of the U.S. House

Question40

Marks: 1

The Texas Legislature cannot pass a state budget which creates a budget deficit. This is required by

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. the Texas Constitution.
[removed]b. a resolution passed by the Texas Legislature in 1980.
[removed]c. the United State Constitution.
[removed]d. the Texas Supreme Court in a constitutional ruling in the early part of the 1950s.
[removed]e. the U.S. Congress.

Question41

Marks: 1

The Governor may use the line-item veto on which of the following bills?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. a bill to increase criminal penalties on drug possession
[removed]b. the governor no longer has the line-item veto power–the Texas line-item veto was declared illegal by a federal court ruling
[removed]c. a bill declaring the Southern Baptist religion the official state religion of Texas
[removed]d. a bill to raise the minimum drinking age
[removed]e. a bill to appropriate money to operate state prisons

Question42

Marks: 1

Which of the following is solely and completely responsible for regulating railroad freight and railroad passenger service in the state of Texas?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. Texas Agriculture Commissioner
[removed]b. No commission or agency or department in Texas government has this power
[removed]c. Texas Railroad Commission
[removed]d. General Land Commission
[removed]e. Texas Secretary of State

Question43

Marks: 1

Which of the following has as its primary responsibly oil and gas regulation in Texas?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. Texas Agriculture Commissioner
[removed]b. Texas Department of Energy
[removed]c. Public Utility Commission
[removed]d. Texas Railroad Commission
[removed]e. Texas Department of Petroleum Development

Question44

Marks: 1

Who calls special legislative sessions in Texas?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. The Governor may call a special session, but only with the approval of the Legislature by a majority vote of both houses
[removed]b. Either the Speaker or Lieutenant Governor may call a special session
[removed]c. Only the Governor may call a special session
[removed]d. The Legislature calls itself into special session by a 2/3rds vote of both houses
[removed]e. The Texas Secretary of State calls special sessions with the approval of the Lieutenant Government and Speaker of the House

Question45

Marks: 1

Which of the following statements is true about the term of office for the governor of Texas?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. The governor is elected by a vote of the Texas Senate every two years at the start of the session of the Texas Legislature in January of odd numbered years
[removed]b. Governors may serve no more than four two-year terms consecutively
[removed]c. The term of office for governor of Texas is four years and the Texas Constitution sets no limit on the number of terms a governor may serve
[removed]d. The governor serves a two-year term of office and there is no limit set by the Texas Constitution as to how many terms he or she may serve
[removed]e. The governor serves an elected four year term but is limited by constitutional amendment to serving no more than ten years (two full elected terms and up to two additional years if first assuming the office due to the death, resignation, or impeachment and conviction of the preceding governor

Question46

Marks: 1

Greg Abbott is the

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. Texas Attorney General.
[removed]b. Speaker of the Texas House of Representatives.
[removed]c. Texas Commissioner of Agriculture.
[removed]d. Comptroller of Public Accounts.
[removed]e. Lieutenant Governor of Texas.

Question47

Marks: 1

Which of the following officials may the Governor normally appoint?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. the Lieutenant Governor
[removed]b. the Texas Attorney General
[removed]c. the Chief Justice of the Texas Supreme Court
[removed]d. the Texas Secretary of State
[removed]e. a member of the Railroad Commission

Question48

Marks: 1

The first Republican to be elected governor in Texas following the Reconstruction administration of Gov. E.J. Davis was

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. Preston Smith.
[removed]b. James Ferguson.
[removed]c. Rick Perry.
[removed]d. Bill Clements.
[removed]e. George W. Bush.

Question49

Marks: 1

This process of redrawing the boundaries of legislative and congressional districts by the state legislature is called

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. district resolution.
[removed]b. district development.
[removed]c. congressional reapportionment.
[removed]d. redistricting.
[removed]e. redlining.

Question50

Marks: 1

The Texas Constitution requires that an estimate be made of state revenues for the upcoming biennial budget period and given to the legislature for its biennial session so that it can prepare a balanced budget? What state official is responsible for the preparation of this estimate and its reporting to the legislature?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. governor
[removed]b. attorney general
[removed]c. chairman of the Legislative Budget Board
[removed]d. treasurer
[removed]e. comptroller

51

Marks: 1

How many members are there on the State Board of Education?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. six
[removed]b. three
[removed]c. 12
[removed]d. nine
[removed]e. 15

Question52

Marks: 1

The governor’s State of the State address is

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. an important aspect of the governor’s “bully pulpit” because it is broadcast live on network television during prime-time to the people of Texas.
[removed]b. an informal tradition initiated by Gov. E. J. Davis during Reconstruction and is an official state holiday.
[removed]c. given by the governor every year at the start of the Texas legislative session in January.
[removed]d. called for by the Texas Constitution and is given before a joint session of the Texas Legislature following the start of the regular session.
[removed]e. is no longer given in person by the governor in the form of a speech delivered before the legislature but instead is a printed message sent to both legislative bodies and posted at the front entrance to each chamber.

Question53

Marks: 1

The only unicameral legislature in the United States is

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. is found in Nebraska.
[removed]b. the U.S. Congress.
[removed]c. is in Texas.
[removed]d. now banned by the U.S. Constitution.
[removed]e. now gone, abandoned when the State of Texas moved to a bicameral organization in the 1970s.

Question54

Marks: 1

Spending bills (i.e., appropriation bills) in Texas must originate

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. in the Legislative Budget Board
[removed]b. in the Texas Senate.
[removed]c. with the governor.
[removed]d. with the Comptroller of Public Accounts.
[removed]e. in the Texas House.

Question55

Marks: 1

How is the Speaker of the Texas House chosen?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. The Speaker is appointed by the Governor and is approved by the Senate in its advice and consent powers
[removed]b. The Secretary of State serves ex officio as Speaker of the Texas House
[removed]c. The Speaker is a state representative elected by the full House to serve as speaker
[removed]d. The Speaker is elected statewide
[removed]e. The Lieutenant Governor acts, as part of his constitutional duties, as Speaker of the Texas House of Representatives.

Question56

Marks: 1

Jerry Patterson is the current

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. Lieutenant Governor of Texas.
[removed]b. Texas Secretary of State.
[removed]c. Texas Land Commissioner.
[removed]d. Comptroller of Public Accounts
[removed]e. Governor of Texas.

Question57

Marks: 1

While the Texas Governor has some appointment powers over the executive branch,

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. he lacks any significant independent removal power over his appointments.
[removed]b. he has complete authority to appoint judges for life terms to all the courts of the state judicial branch at any time at all levels throughout the state of Texas.
[removed]c. he had complete power over the length of service of those appointments, holding the power to independently dismiss any of his appointments at any time without any consultation by or approval from the Texas Legislature.
[removed]d. he has ultimate authority in times of crisis over all the military personnel and bases of the United States quartered in Texas including the power to make field promotions of officers and commanders.
[removed]e. has significant power to make committee assignments for members of the Texas Legislature.

Question58

Marks: 1

A committee created whenever a bill is passed in different versions by the House and Senate is called a

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. joint committee.
[removed]b. combined committee.
[removed]c. conference committee.
[removed]d. special committee.
[removed]e. standing committee

Question59

Marks: 1

Removal powers of the governor over appointees to state boards and commissions are

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. similar to that of an employer in the private sector–he may fire any member of a state board or commission except when that firing is considered racially motivated or retaliatory.
[removed]b. limited to only those members of state boards and commissions from previous administrations.
[removed]c. limited to only those specifically appointed by the governor, with approval of the Senate (two-thirds vote).
[removed]d. unlimited. As chief executive officer of the state, he has the power to appoint and dismiss any member of the state executive branch or its agencies and commissions.
[removed]e. denied to the governor. Once the governor appoints someone to a state board or commission that person cannot be removed from office except by impeachment.

Question60

Marks: 1

Texas’s biggest employers are

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. oil and gas companies.
[removed]b. in the medical field.
[removed]c. farmers and ranchers.
[removed]d. governments.
[removed]e. in the insurance industry.

Question61

Marks: 1

The Texas Secretary of State is

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. Esperanza “Hope” Andrade.
[removed]b. John Steen.
[removed]c. also, by law, the Lieutenant Governor of the State.
[removed]d. Geoffrey Connor.
[removed]e. Roger Williams.

Question62

Marks: 1

Who was the lieutenant governor of Texas to succeed Governor George W. Bush when Bush resigned as governor to become president of the United States?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. Rick Perry
[removed]b. Ted Cruz
[removed]c. Bill Ratliff
[removed]d. David Dewhurst
[removed]e. William “Bill” Hobby

Question63

Marks: 1

The judicial power of the governor consists of his ability

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. appoint judges and justices to state courts when there is a vacancy on a court due to a death, resignation, or removal of the judge or justice.
[removed]b. to reduce prison overcrowding by executive order.
[removed]c. to order the death penalty be imposed following the conviction of a defendant for capital murder.
[removed]d. review and reverse decisions of lower courts when the decisions are appealed directly to his office.
[removed]e. appoint all judges and justices to all the courts on all levels in the State of Texas.

Question64

Marks: 1

The base sales tax rate for the State of Texas is

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. 6.25%.
[removed]b. 8.25%.
[removed]c. tied directly to the federal treasury bills rate.
[removed]d. 7.25%.

Question65

Marks: 1

Who, among the following elected officials, is NOT a member of the Legislative Redistricting Board?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. Attorney General of Texas
[removed]b. Lieutenant Governor of Texas
[removed]c. Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts
[removed]d. Speaker of the Texas House of Representatives
[removed]e. Governor of Texas

Question66

Marks: 1

Regarding the structural powers of the Governor of Texas, how do they compare with the powers of other state governors?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. The official powers of the Governor or Texas are about average in comparison with other governors.
[removed]b. The official powers of the Governor of Texas are among the weakest in the nation.
[removed]c. The official powers of the Governor of Texas are among the strongest in the nation.
[removed]d. They are somewhat above average in comparison with the other governors’ powers.

Question67

Marks: 1

Which of the following in NOT a type of committee in the Texas legislature?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. Joint committee
[removed]b. Special committee
[removed]c. Standing committee
[removed]d. Conference committee
[removed]e. Irregular committee

Question68

Marks: 1

The Veterans’ Land Board provides low interest property loans to Texas veterans. This board is supervised by the

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. Commissioner of the Veterans’ Land Board of Texas.
[removed]b. Commissioner of the Texas General Land Office.
[removed]c. Chairman of the Texas Veterans Administration.
[removed]d. Comptroller of Public Accounts.
[removed]e. Lieutenant Governor.

Question69

Marks: 1

Governors elected after Reconstruction until the late 1970s were all

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. liberal Democrats.
[removed]b. conservative-to-moderate Democrats.
[removed]c. conservative to ultra-conservative Republicans.
[removed]d. former lieutenant governors.
[removed]e. members of the Tea Party of Texas.

Question70

Marks: 1

The only Texas governor to be impeached by the Texas House and convicted of the impeachment charges in the Texas Senate was

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. George W. Bush.
[removed]b. E.J. Davis.
[removed]c. William Clements.
[removed]d. James Ferguson.
[removed]e. Miriam Ferguson.

Question71

Marks: 1

In order to become a Texas State Senator, one must be at least ___ years old to be elected and a resident of Texas for __ years preceding the election.

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. 42/seven
[removed]b. 19/two
[removed]c. 35/six
[removed]d. 26/five
[removed]e. 24/one

Question72

Marks: 1

The U.S. Supreme Court decided a case in its 2013 regarding affirmative action in higher education that modified but did not overturn its prior 2003 decision in Grutter v. Michigan. That case was

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. Marbury v. Madison.
[removed]b. Ruiz v. Texas A&M University-Kingsville.
[removed]c. Brown v. Board of Education.
[removed]d. Fisher v. The University of Texas.
[removed]e. Hopwood v. Texas.

Question73

Marks: 1

There are three members of the Texas Railroad Commission. All three are

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. appointed to their positions by the Governor of Texas (with the approval of the Texas Senate).
[removed]b. required by the Texas Constitution of 1876 to have worked for at least a ten-year period in the railroad industry in Texas.
[removed]c. required by law to serve only one six-year term in office.
[removed]d. elected in single-member district elections from three separate sections of the state by the people of Texas with the approval of the vote of both chambers of the legislature.
[removed]e. elected to their positions by the people of Texas.

Question74

Marks: 1

As a result of the Texas Constitution of 1876, Texas has a

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. bicameral executive system of government.
[removed]b. unitary executive system of government.
[removed]c. cabinet system in operation in the executive branch of government.
[removed]d. nonpartisan unicameral system of government.
[removed]e. plural executive system operating the executive branch of government.

Question75

Marks: 1

How is the Lieutenant Governor of Texas normally chosen?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. The Lieutenant Governor is a member of the House selected by the Texas House to serve as Lieutenant Governor
[removed]b. The Lieutenant Governor is elected every four years by the Texas delegates to the Elector College at their electoral meeting held every four years held prior to voting for the presidential selection.
[removed]c. The Lieutenant Governor is elected statewide directly by the citizens of Texas
[removed]d. The Lieutenant Governor is appointed by the Governor and is approved by the Senate in its advice and consent power
[removed]e. The Lieutenant Governor is a member of the Texas Senate elected by the full Senate to serve as Lieutenant Governor

Question76

Marks: 1

Redistricting–the process of redrawing the boundaries of legislative and congressional districts–generally occurs every ten years in the Texas legislature following the

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. presidential elections.
[removed]b. results of the most recent election of the U.S. House of Representatives and of the Texas House of Representatives.
[removed]c. directives issued by the Senate Committee on Redistricting and the Census.
[removed]d. report from Congress on reapportionment based on the national census.
[removed]e. report of the Interstate Redistricting Commission.

Question77

Marks: 1

Currently, the Texas Legislature is

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. meeting in special session.
[removed]b. meeting in regular session.
[removed]c. meeting as a Committee of the Whole to revise the Texas Constitution of 1876.
[removed]d. not in session.

Question78

Marks: 1

A bill may be formally introduced by

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. any member of the Texas legislature or a member of the Texas delegation to the U.S. Congress.
[removed]b. the Speaker or the Lieutenant Governor only.
[removed]c. any member of the legislature or the governor.
[removed]d. any member of the legislature in the member’s own chamber.
[removed]e. any current or former member of the legislature.

Question79

Marks: 1

Members of the Texas Public Utilities Commission are

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. appointed to their positions by a vote of the Texas Legislature.
[removed]b. are appointed by the Secretary of the Department of Energy and have full authority over the production of and development of all energy resources within the state of Texas.
[removed]c. ex officio officeholder, serving in their PUC positions as a part of their duties as Lieutenant Governor, Speaker of the House, and Comptroller of Public Accounts.
[removed]d. elected to their positions by a direct, statewide vote of the people of Texas.
[removed]e. appointed to their positions by the Governor of Texas (with the approval of the Texas Senate).

Question80

Marks: 1

The chief legal officer of the State of Texas is the

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. Secretary of State.
[removed]b. Comptroller.
[removed]c. Legal Counsel to the Governor of Texas.
[removed]d. Attorney General.
[removed]e. Chief Justice of the Texas Supreme Court.

Question81

Marks: 1

The Texas Legislature is a creation of

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. the Constitutional Convention of 1787.
[removed]b. Article I of the United States Constitution.
[removed]c. the annexation agreement between the United States and the Republic of Texas.
[removed]d. the U.S. Supreme Court decision in Lopez v. Texas.
[removed]e. the Texas Constitution of 1876.

Question82

Marks: 1

Texas has a biennial budget because

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. the Texas Legislature is a bicameral body.
[removed]b. the U.S. Constitution in Article I and II requires it.
[removed]c. the Texas Constitution requires that the state legislature pass a balanced budget.
[removed]d. the governor has a two year term of office.
[removed]e. the Texas Legislature meets once every two years.

Question83

Marks: 1

Which of the following offices was created by the Texas Legislature rather than the Texas Constitution?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. Commissioner of Agriculture.
[removed]b. Lieutenant Governor.
[removed]c. Chief Justice of the Supreme Court.
[removed]d. Secretary of State.
[removed]e. Attorney General.

Question84

Marks: 1

Who among the following was NEVER a governor of Texas?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. George H.W. Bush
[removed]b. Ann Richards
[removed]c. George W. Bush
[removed]d. Miriam Ferguson
[removed]e. E.J. Davis

Question85

Marks: 1

Which of the following statements accurately describes the Texas Legislature?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. The Texas House has 150 members elected for two-year terms while the Texas Senate has 31 members elected for six-year terms
[removed]b. The Texas House has 150 members elected for two-year terms while the Texas Senate has 31 members elected for four-year terms
[removed]c. The Texas House has 435 members elected for 2-year terms and the Texas Senate has 100 members elected for 6-year terms
[removed]d. The Texas Legislature is a unicameral legislative body made up of 100 members.
[removed]e. The Texas House has 31 members elected for four-year terms while the Texas Senate has 150 members elected for two-year terms

Question86

Marks: 1

The next regular session of the Texas Legislature will meet next year starting in January.

Answer:

[removed]True[removed]False

Question87

Marks: 1

If a vacancy occurs during the term of office of the lieutenant governor (such as death, resignation, or succession to the governorship), how is a new lieutenant governor selected?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. the president pro tempore of the Texas Senate takes over the vacated position for the remainder of the term of office
[removed]b. by a called special state-wide election to fill the remaining term of the former lieutenant governor
[removed]c. the governor appoints a new lieutenant governor, with the approval of a vote of the full legislature
[removed]d. the president of the Senate moves into the position of Lieutenant for the remainder of the Lieutenant Governor’s term of office
[removed]e. the Senate elects one of its members to the position of lieutenant governor to serve the balance of the vacant term

Question88

Marks: 1

In the senate, the membership of committees is determined

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. the Committee Assignment Committee.
[removed]b. by seniority.
[removed]c. by appointment by the lieutenant governor.
[removed]d. by the lieutenant governor and a vote of the full Senate.
[removed]e. agreement among the members meeting as a committee of the whole in a conference committee.

Question89

Marks: 1

The impeachment process in Texas ends with the trial and verdict on the articles of impeachment conducted and arrived at by the

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. Texas House of Representatives.
[removed]b. governor’s cabinet and the Governor of Texas.
[removed]c. Supreme Court of Texas with the Chief Justice of Texas sitting as the chief judge over the proceedings.
[removed]d. Texas Senate.
[removed]e. Attorney General of Texas sitting as the head of a court made up of members of the Texas Supreme Court and the Texas Court of Criminal Appeals.

Question90

Marks: 1

The state official in charge of supervising the Permanent University Fund is the

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. Executive Director of the Texas Education Agency.
[removed]b. Chairman of the Higher Education Coordinating Board.
[removed]c. Attorney General.
[removed]d. Land Commissioner.
[removed]e. Comptroller of Public Accounts.

Question91

Marks: 1

Bills rarely reach the floor of the Senate for a vote without the approval of

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. the Lieutenant Governor.
[removed]b. Senate minority leader.
[removed]c. Governor.
[removed]d. Speaker of the House.
[removed]e. Chairman of the House Ways and Means Committee.

Question92

Marks: 1

Texas has had two woman governors in its history–Ann Richards and

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. Sonia Sotomayor.
[removed]b. Kay Bailey Hutchinson.
[removed]c. Carol Keeton Strayhorn.
[removed]d. Miriam Ferguson.
[removed]e. Susan Combs.

Question93

Marks: 1

Child support enforcement and collection for the State of Texas is the responsibility of

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. the Lieutenant Governor of Texas.
[removed]b. the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.
[removed]c. the Attorney General of Texas.
[removed]d. the Comptroller of Public Accounts.
[removed]e. the Governor of Texas.

Question94

Marks: 1

Upon receiving a bill passed by the legislature, the governor has _____ in which to sign a bill, veto it, or allow it to become law without a signature.

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. 10 days
[removed]b. 140 days
[removed]c. until one week after the end of the legislative session
[removed]d. three weeks
[removed]e. three days

Question95

Marks: 1

Joe Straus is the

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. Texas Commissioner of Agriculture.
[removed]b. Texas Attorney General.
[removed]c. Speaker of the Texas House of Representatives.
[removed]d. Comptroller of Public Accounts.
[removed]e. Lieutenant Governor of Texas.

Question96

Marks: 1

The Governor of Texas is empowered by the Texas Constitution of 1876 to appoint

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. the three members of the Texas Railroad Commission to office.
[removed]b. the Lieutenant Governor of Texas to office.
[removed]c. the Texas Agricultural Commissioner to office.
[removed]d. the Texas Secretary of State to office.
[removed]e. the Texas Attorney General to office.

Question97

Marks: 1

Fragmentation of the state executive into so many largely independent agencies was an intentional move by the framers to the Texas Constitution and later legislatures to avoid

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. centralized power.
[removed]b. violating the U.S. Constitution.
[removed]c. a diffusion of power.
[removed]d. confusion.
[removed]e. the spread of socialism.

Question98

Marks: 1

Texas legislative district lines are usually redrawn once every

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. ten years.
[removed]b. year.
[removed]c. five years.
[removed]d. time the Speaker of the House and the Lieutenant Governor decide it is necessary and prudent to do so.
[removed]e. two years.

Question99

Marks: 1

In order to be a member of the Texas House of Representatives, one must be at least ___ years old to be elected and a resident of Texas for _____ years prior to the election.

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. 42/ten
[removed]b. 35/five
[removed]c. 26/five
[removed]d. 21/two
[removed]e. 18/one

Question100

Marks: 1

Susan Combs is currently the

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. Speaker of the Texas House of Representatives
[removed]b. Comptroller of Public Accounts
[removed]c. Lieutenant Governor of Texas
[removed]d. Texas Attorney General
[removed]e. Texas Commissioner of Agriculture
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when constructing an angle bisector why must the arcs intersect

  1. When constructing a perpendicular bisector, why must the compass opening be greater 1/2 than the length of the segment? 0 0 704
    asked by stacey
    Aug 29, 2014
    http://www.sonoma.edu/users/w/wilsonst/courses/math_150/c-s/Perp-Bisect.html 0 0
    👩‍🏫
    Ms. Sue
    Aug 29, 2014
    i don’t get it 0 0
    posted by stacey
    Aug 29, 2014
    can you explain it to me 0 0
    posted by stacey
    Aug 29, 2014
    I can’t explain it any better than that web site. What is it that you don’t understand?

Or try this site.

http://www.mathsisfun.com/geometry/construct-linebisect.html

0 0
👩‍🏫
Ms. Sue
Aug 29, 2014

i don’t get why the compass has to be open more than 1/2 the length segment

0 0
posted by stacey
Aug 29, 2014
Get a compass and try it.

How else are you going to get arcs above and below the line?

0 0
👩‍🏫
Ms. Sue
Aug 29, 2014
so i would answers it like….

the reason that the compass opening has to be greater than 1/2 of the segment is so it can make arcs.

0 0
posted by stacey
Aug 29, 2014
That’s a good start. Continue —

0 0
👩‍🏫
Ms. Sue
Aug 29, 2014
i don’t know how to finish it

0 0
posted by stacey
Aug 29, 2014

Where do the arcs have to cross?

0 0
👩‍🏫
Ms. Sue
Aug 29, 2014
in the middle

0 0
posted by stacey
Aug 29, 2014
Right.

0 0
👩‍🏫
Ms. Sue
Aug 29, 2014
so now it would be

the reason that the compass opening has to be greater than 1/2 of the segment is so it can make arcs. and the arcs would have to cross in the middle so that when go to draw the line it would be straight.

0 0
posted by stacey
Aug 29, 2014
Yay! You’re right!

0 0
👩‍🏫
Ms. Sue
Aug 29, 2014

thank you

0 0
posted by stacey
Aug 29, 2014
You’re welcome.

0 0
👩‍🏫
Ms. Sue
Aug 29, 2014
For once Ms. Sue is helpful! gasp

0 0
posted by lol
Aug 30, 2018
The response was probably from before she ever started getting floods of kids. Or like James Bond, the title just gets passed down person-to-person, so the Ms. Sue we have now is just a jerk.

1 0
posted by lol no kidding
Sep 5, 2018

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h2c6h6o6

http://www.webassign.net/images/thinsp.gif

In Lab 9, students performed acid-base titrations. Redox reactions can also be used in titrations. An example is the titration of ascorbic acid (H2C6H6O6) in lemon juice using triiodide (I3–). A starch indicator will turn the solution blue-black at the endpoint. The half-reactions involved are shown below.

C6H6O6 + 2 H+ + 2 e– → H2C6H6O6    +0.06 V
I3– + 2 e– → 3 I–    +0.53 V

(a) What is the net redox reaction that occurs? (Use the lowest possible coefficients. Omit states-of-matter from your answer.)

chemPad

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(b) What is the stoichiometry of H2C6H6O6 to I3–?

3:1 8:3     2:1 1:1 1:2 3:8 1:3

(c) Use the data given below to determine the amount of ascorbic acid in lemon juice. (Note: The recommended daily allowance of ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) is 90 mg.)

Data Table P6: Titration of ascorbic acid in lemon juice with triiodide
concentration of I3–0.0210 M
volume lemon juice83.44 mL
mass lemon juice84.94 g
equivalence volume of I3–14.93 mL
mmol of I3–mmol
mmol of H2C6H6O6mmol
mass of H2C6H6O6mg              

Determine the errors (if any) with each galvanic cell set-up when the anode is on the left. (Select all that apply.)

http://www.webassign.net/ncsugenchem102labv1/11-post-05a.png

There is nothing wrong with this diagram. The electrodes are in the wrong solution. The electrons are traveling the wrong direction down the wire. The salt bridge ions are migrating to the incorrect electrode. The electrons are traveling through the salt bridge. The electrodes and solutions are in the wrong compartment.

http://www.webassign.net/ncsugenchem102labv1/11-post-05d.png

There is nothing wrong with this diagram. The electrodes are in the wrong solution. The electrons are traveling the wrong direction down the wire. The salt bridge ions are migrating to the incorrect electrode. The electrons are traveling through the salt bridge. The electrodes and solutions are in the wrong compartment.

http://www.webassign.net/ncsugenchem102labv1/11-post-05b.png

There is nothing wrong with this diagram. The electrodes are in the wrong solution. The electrons are traveling the wrong direction down the wire. The salt bridge ions are migrating to the incorrect electrode. The electrons are traveling through the salt bridge. The electrodes and solutions are in the wrong compartment.

http://www.webassign.net/ncsugenchem102labv1/11-post-05e.png

There is nothing wrong with this diagram. The electrodes are in the wrong solution. The electrons are traveling the wrong direction down the wire. The salt bridge ions are migrating to the incorrect electrode. The electrons are traveling through the salt bridge. The electrodes and solutions are in the wrong compartment.

http://www.webassign.net/ncsugenchem102labv1/11-post-05c.png

There is nothing wrong with this diagram. The electrodes are in the wrong solution. The electrons are traveling the wrong direction down the wire. The salt bridge ions are migrating to the incorrect electrode. The electrons are traveling through the salt bridge. The electrodes and solutions are in the wrong compartment.

Consider your experimental results from part A of this lab. Suppose your strongest reducing agent were added to your strongest oxidizing agent. (Use the lowest possible coefficients. Omit states-of-matter from your answers.)

(a) Write the half-reaction for your strongest reducing agent.

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Mg  →  Mg2+ + 2e1-

Correct.

(b) Write the half-reaction for your strongest oxidizing agent.

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MnO4- + 8H+ + 5e-  →  Mn2+ +4H2O

Correct.

(c) Note the number of electrons in each half reaction.

In order to balance the number of electrons lost and gained, the oxidation half-reaction must be multiplied by and the reduction half-reaction must be multiplied by

(d) Write the net redox reaction.

chemPad

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 Assemble a battery, represented by the diagram below with the cathode in compartment A, with Sn2+/Sn and Cu2+/Cu couples in which the voltage reads positive. (Use the . Use the lowest possible coefficients. Omit states-of-matter from your answer.)

http://www.webassign.net/ncsugenchem102labv1/11-post-04.gif

(a) What half-reaction occurs in compartment A?

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Sn  →  Sn2+ +2e-

Your answer contains an ambiguous or incomplete reaction equation. Check all the components on the reactant-side of the equation. Check all the components on the product-side of the equation.

(b) What half-reaction occurs in compartment B?

chemPad

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Cu2+ +2e-  →  Cu

Your answer contains an ambiguous or incomplete reaction equation. Check all the components on the reactant-side of the equation. Check all the components on the product-side of the equation.

(c) Write the net redox reaction.

chemPad

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Sn + Cu2+  →  Sn2+ + Cu

Correct.

Mg –> Mg^

MnO_4^- +

Sn –> Sn^+

Cu^2+ +2e^

Sn + Cu^+

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bipolar neurons are commonly ________

Challenge Examination

5

GED 102 The Human Body

Multiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet)

1. What is the major function of the lymphatic system?

a. return leaked fluids back to the cardiovascular system b. produce offspring c. eliminate nitrogen-containing metabolic wastes from the body d. break down food into absorbable units e. secrete hormones to regulate body processes such as growth and reproduction

2. What are two organ systems that are involved in the excretion of wastes from the body?

a. digestive and urinary b. cardiovascular and skeletal c. muscular and skeletal d. endocrine and nervous e. cardiovascular and nervous

3. Which of the following systems is matched most accurately to the life function it provides?

a. integumentary system—movement b. nervous system—excretion c. muscular system—maintaining boundaries d. nervous system—responsiveness e. respiratory system—digestion

4. Which survival need accounts for 60 to 80 percent of body weight?

a. nutrients b. oxygen c. water d. minerals e. vitamins

5. Which of the following is the correct order of elements in a control system?

a. receptor, stimulus, afferent pathway, control center, efferent pathway, effector, response b. receptor, stimulus, efferent pathway, control center, afferent pathway, effector, response c. effector, stimulus, efferent pathway, control center, afferent pathway, receptor, response d. stimulus, receptor, afferent pathway, control center, efferent pathway, effector, response e. stimulus, receptor, efferent pathway, control center, afferent pathway, effector, response

Challenge Examination

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GED 102 The Human Body

6. Which of the following elements of a control system detects a change?

a. control center b. stimulus c. effector d. receptor e. efferent pathway

7. Positive feedback systems ________.

a. involve blood clotting and the birthing of a baby b. operate in such a way that the initial stimulus is enhanced and increases c. operate in such a way that the initial stimulus is shut off or reduced d. involve blood clotting and the birthing of a baby, and operate in such a way that the initial stimulus is enhanced and increases e. involve blood clotting and the birthing of a baby, and operate in such a way that the initial stimulus is shut off or reduced

8. An atom with 6 protons, 7 neutrons, and 6 electrons shares four pairs of electrons with four other atoms. This atom is now considered to be ________.

a. a cation b. an anion c. a neutral atom d. stable e. an ion

9. An atom has 6 protons, 8 neutrons, and 6 electrons. Its atomic mass is ________.

a. 2 b. 6 c. 8 d. 14 e. 20

10. The atomic number of an atom reveals the number of ________.

a. electrons in the atomic nucleus b. protons in the atomic nucleus c. protons plus neutrons d. protons plus electrons e. neutrons plus electrons

Challenge Examination

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GED 102 The Human Body

11. Isotopes have different numbers of ________; thus, they also have different ________.

a. protons; atomic numbers b. neutrons; atomic masses c. electrons; atomic numbers d. protons; atomic masses e. neutrons; atomic numbers

12. A molecule of methane, CH4, is known specifically as a(n) ________.

a. compound b. radioisotope c. element d. atom e. anion

13. The subatomic particles that are responsible for the chemical behavior of atoms are the ________.

a. protons b. neutrons c. electrons d. isotopes e. ions

14. Passive processes that move substances across membranes ________.

a. utilize ATP b. employ protein pumps c. transport substances against their concentration gradients d. require no ATP e. include exocytosis and endocytosis

15. Osmosis transports water across membranes using ________.

a. ATP b. solute pumping c. aquaporins d. sodium-potassium pump e. vesicles

Challenge Examination

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GED 102 The Human Body

16. What assists the movement of substances by facilitated diffusion?

a. ATP b. protein carrier or channel c. lysosomes d. aquaporins e. solute pumps

17. What is required for diffusion to occur?

a. protein carrier or channel b. concentration gradient c. ATP d. solute pump e. ribosomes

18. Two types of endocytosis are ________.

a. cellular secretion and solute pumping b. solute pumping and active transport c. active transport and phagocytosis d. phagocytosis and pinocytosis e. pinocytosis and passive transport

19. A solution that contains fewer solutes than the cell is ________.

a. hypotonic b. hypertonic c. intravenous d. isotonic e. Ringer’s lactate

20. Jan got her microscope slides mixed up in lab as they were unlabeled. The slide with abundant adipose tissue should be labeled as the ________.

a. epidermis b. papillary layer of the dermis c. subcutaneous tissue d. reticular layer of the dermis e. stratum corneum

Challenge Examination

9

GED 102 The Human Body

21. The two main layers of skin are ________.

a. papillary layer and reticular layer b. stratum basale and dermis c. epidermis and dermis d. stratum corneum and dermis e. epidermis and hypodermis

22. A needle pierces through the epidermal layers of the forearm in which of the following order?

1. stratum basale 2. stratum corneum 3. stratum granulosum 4. stratum lucidum 5. stratum spinosum

a. 2, 4, 3, 5, 1 b. 1, 5, 3, 4, 2 c. 2, 3, 5, 1, 4 d. 1, 3, 5, 2, 4 e. 2, 3, 4, 1, 5

23. Which of the following homeostatic imbalances is caused by a herpes simplex infection?

a. athlete’s foot b. cold sores c. impetigo d. contact dermatitis e. cyanosis

24. The “tanning” effect (darkening of the skin) that occurs when a person is exposed to the sun is due to ________.

a. melanin b. keratin c. oil d. Langerhans cells e. sweat

Challenge Examination

10

GED 102 The Human Body

25. The layer of the epidermis in which cells die because of their inability to get nutrients and oxygen is the clear layer called ________.

a. stratum spinosum b. stratum granulosum c. stratum basale d. stratum corneum e. stratum lucidum

26. Which of these bone markings is a projection that serves as a site for muscle or ligament attachment?

a. meatus b. fossa c. foramen d. fissure e. tubercle

27. Which of the following bones is considered part of the axial skeleton?

a. femur b. sternum c. radius d. metatarsals e. scapula

28. The canal that runs through the core of each osteon (Haversian system) contains ________.

a. cartilage and lamellae b. osteoclasts and osteoblasts c. yellow marrow and perforating, or Sharpey’s, fibers d. blood vessels and nerve fibers e. red marrow

29. The small cavities in bone tissue where osteocytes are found are called ________.

a. lacunae b. perforating (Volkmann’s) canals c. central (Haversian) canals d. trabeculae e. lamellae

Challenge Examination

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GED 102 The Human Body

30. What kind of tissue is the forerunner of long bones in the embryo?

a. elastic connective tissue b. dense fibrous connective tissue c. fibrocartilage d. hyaline cartilage e. loose fibrous connective tissue

31. What type of bone cell is primarily active when bone growth occurs?

a. osteocyte b. erythrocyte c. chondrocyte d. osteoblast e. osteoclast

32. A motor neuron and all of the skeletal muscle fibers it stimulates are termed a ________.

a. myofilament b. synaptic cleft c. motor unit d. neuromuscular junction e. neurotransmitter

33. Why are calcium ions necessary for skeletal muscle contraction?

a. calcium increases the action potential transmitted along the sarcolemma b. calcium releases the inhibition on Z discs c. calcium triggers the binding of myosin to actin d. calcium causes ATP binding to actin e. calcium binds to regulatory proteins on the myosin filaments, changing both their shape and their position on the thick filaments

34. The mechanical force of contraction is generated by ________.

a. shortening of the thick filaments b. shortening of the thin filaments c. a sliding of thin filaments past thick filaments d. the “accordian-like” folding of thin and thick filaments e. the temporary disappearance of thin filaments

Challenge Examination

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GED 102 The Human Body

35. Acetylcholine is ________.

a. an ion pump on the postsynaptic membrane b. a source of energy for muscle contraction c. a component of thick myofilaments d. an oxygen-binding protein e. a neurotransmitter that stimulates skeletal muscle

36. The gap between the axon terminal of a motor neuron and the sarcolemma of a skeletal muscle cell is called the ________.

a. motor unit b. sarcomere c. neuromuscular junction d. synaptic cleft e. cross bridge

37. Neurotransmitters are released upon stimulation from a nerve impulse by the ________.

a. myofibrils b. sarcoplasmic reticulum c. thick filaments d. axon terminals of the motor neuron e. sarcolemma of the muscle cell

38. Impulse conduction is fastest in neurons that are ________.

a. myelinated b. unmyelinated c. sensory d. motor e. cerebral

39. Bipolar neurons are commonly ________.

a. motor neurons b. called neuroglia c. found in ganglia d. found in the eye and nose e. more abundant in adults than in children

Challenge Examination

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GED 102 The Human Body

40. During the resting state, a neuron is ________.

a. polarized with more sodium ions outside the cell and more potassium ions inside the cell b. propagating the action potential c. depolarizing and generating an action potential d. restoring the ionic conditions utilizing the sodium-potassium pump e. repolarizing as potassium ions diffuse out of the cell

41. Immediately after an action potential is propagated, which one of the following ions rapidly diffuses out of the cell into the tissue fluid ________.

a. sodium b. chloride c. calcium d. potassium e. magnesium

42. An action potential is caused by an influx of these ions into the cell.

a. potassium b. sodium c. calcium d. magnesium e. both potassium and sodium

43. Nerve impulse transmissions occurring along myelinated neurons are called ________.

a. saltatory conduction b. threshold c. graded potential d. sodium-potassium pump e. all-or-none response

44. Neurons either conduct action potentials along the length of their axons, or they remain at rest. This statement best describes ________.

a. a reflex arc b. the all-or-none response c. repolarization d. saltatory conduction e. graded potential

Challenge Examination

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GED 102 The Human Body

45. The pigmented portion of the eye that has a rounded opening through which light passes is the ________.

a. iris b. lens c. cornea d. sclera e. retina

46. The three sets of color receptors within the retina are sensitive to wavelengths of visible light that are ________.

a. red, green, and yellow b. red, blue, and yellow c. green, yellow, and purple d. orange, green, and purple e. blue, green, and red

47. Which area of the retina lacks rods and cones and therefore does not detect images?

a. optic disc (blind spot) b. optic nerve c. choroid d. fovea centralis e. ciliary body

48. The aqueous humor of the eye is reabsorbed into venous blood through the ________.

a. inferior lacrimal canal b. nasolacrimal duct c. scleral venous sinus (canal of Schlemm) d. ciliary body e. pupil

49. Which of the following is a sex-linked condition that more often affects males?

a. conjunctivitis b. color blindness c. night blindness d. glaucoma e. cataracts

Challenge Examination

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GED 102 The Human Body

50. The gel-like substance that reinforces the eyeball and prevents it from collapsing inward is the ________.

a. aqueous humor b. ciliary body c. choroid d. vitreous humor (vitreous body) e. scleral venous sinus (canal of Schlemm)

51. The hormone that stimulates follicle development by female ovaries and sperm development by male testes is ________.

a. luteinizing hormone (LH) b. prolactin c. follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) d. progesterone e. antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

52. Hyposecretion of growth hormone during childhood leads to ________.

a. pituitary dwarfism b. Cushing’s disease c. acromegaly d. myxedema e. gigantism

53. Releasing and inhibiting hormones produced by the hypothalamus influence the activities of the ________.

a. pineal gland b. anterior pituitary gland c. adrenal gland d. posterior pituitary gland e. thyroid gland

54. The two hormones released by the thyroid gland are ________.

a. calcitonin and thyroid hormone b. calcitonin and parathyroid hormone (PTH) c. thyroid hormone and parathyroid hormone (PTH) d. prolactin (PRL) and oxytocin e. oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

Challenge Examination

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GED 102 The Human Body

55. Which hormone is alternately known as vasopressin due to its effect on blood vessel diameter and blood pressure?

a. oxytocin b. antidiuretic hormone (ADH) c. thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) d. growth hormone (GH) e. luteinizing hormone (LH)

56. Which two hormones play a role in promoting the milk reflex and in maintaining breast milk production in a mother’s breasts?

a. antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and thyroid hormone b. growth hormone and glucagon c. prolactin (PRL) and oxytocin d. parathyroid hormone (PTH) and thyroid hormone e. prolactin (PRL) and antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

57. The two major groups of white blood cells are ________.

a. leukocytes and erythrocytes b. platelets and megakaryocytes c. neutrophils and basophils d. granulocytes and agranulocytes e. granulocytes and leukocytes

58. Which of the following cells are classified as granulocytes?

a. neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils b. lymphocytes and monocytes c. eosinophils and monocytes d. basophils and lymphocytes e. neutrophils, lymphocytes, and eosinophils

59. Which type of granulocyte produces antibodies?

a. eosinophils b. basophils c. neutrophils d. lymphocytes e. monocytes

Challenge Examination

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GED 102 The Human Body

60. The most numerous of the white blood cells are the ________.

a. lymphocytes b. neutrophils c. eosinophils d. monocytes e. basophils

61. Which type of leukocyte contains heparin, an anticoagulant?

a. neutrophil b. monocyte c. lymphocyte d. basophil e. eosinophil

62. Place these leukocytes in order from the most common to the least common.

1. basophil 2. eosinophil 3. lymphocyte 4. monocyte 5. neutrophil

a. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 b. 3, 4, 5, 1, 2 c. 5, 3, 2, 4, 1 d. 5, 2, 3, 1, 4 e. 5, 3, 4, 2, 1

63. Which valve guards the base of the aorta and opens when the ventricles are contracting?

a. mitral valve b. aortic semilunar valve c. bicuspid valve d. pulmonary semilunar valve e. tricuspid valve

64. Which blood vessels are direct branches of the left coronary artery?

a. circumflex and marginal arteries b. anterior and posterior interventricular arteries c. anterior interventricular and marginal arteries d. anterior interventricular and circumflex arteries e. posterior interventricular and marginal arteries

Challenge Examination

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GED 102 The Human Body

65. The sinoatrial node is located in the ________.

a. aorta b. right atrium c. left atrium d. right ventricle e. interventricular septum

66. Which one of the following represents the correct path for the transmission of an impulse in the intrinsic conduction system of the heart?

a. atrioventricular (AV) node, sinoatrial (SA) node, atrioventricular (AV) bundle (bundle of His), right and left bundle branches, Purkinje fibers b. atrioventricular (AV) node, atrioventricular (AV) bundle (bundle of His), sinoatrial (SA) node, Purkinje fibers, right and left bundle branches c. sinoatrial (SA) node, atrioventricular (AV) bundle (bundle of His), atrioventricular (AV) node, Purkinje fibers, right and left bundle branches d. sinoatrial (SA) node, atrioventricular (AV) bundle (bundle of His), atrioventricular (AV) node, right and left bundle branches, Purkinje fibers e. sinoatrial (SA) node, atrioventricular (AV) node, atrioventricular (AV) bundle (bundle of His), right and left bundle branches, Purkinje fibers

67. Which vessel carries deoxygenated blood from cardiac circulation to the right atrium of the heart?

a. coronary sulcus b. coronary artery c. coronary sinus d. circumflex artery e. pulmonary vein

68. Which of these events is NOT associated with ventricular systole?

a. atrioventricular valves close b. heart is relaxed c. blood rushes out of the ventricles d. pressure in ventricles rises e. semilunar valves open

69. Where is the thymus located?

a. pharynx b. beneath sternum overlying heart c. armpits, groin, and neck d. small intestine e. left side of abdominopelvic cavity

Challenge Examination

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GED 102 The Human Body

70. Mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue (MALT) includes the ________.

a. spleen b. thymus c. tonsils only d. tonsils, the appendix, and Peyer’s patches e. tonsils and spleen

71. The body’s first line of defense against the invasion of disease-causing microorganisms is ________.

a. phagocytes b. natural killer cells c. skin and mucous membranes d. inflammatory response e. fever

72. The adaptive (specific) defense system ________.

a. is an innate defense b. issues an attack specific to particular foreign substances c. includes the skin and mucous membranes d. is the body’s first line of defense against invading pathogens e. provides mechanical barriers to the body

73. Which one of the following is NOT one of the nonspecific body defenses?

a. intact skin b. antibody production c. the inflammatory response d. fever e. natural killer cells

74. The process by which neutrophils are squeezed through the capillary walls during the inflammatory process is called ________.

a. agglutination b. chemotaxis c. diapedesis d. coagulation e. antibody production

Challenge Examination

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GED 102 The Human Body

75. Following the removal of the larynx, a person would be unable to ________.

a. speak b. sneeze c. eat d. hear e. breathe

76. The opening between the vocal cords is called the ________.

a. epiglottis b. glottis c. larynx d. thyroid cartilage e. esophagus

77. The flap of elastic cartilage that protects food from entering the larynx when swallowing is the ________.

a. glottis b. thyroid cartilage c. Adam’s apple d. epiglottis e. trachea

78. Vibration due to exhaled air that results in speech is a function of the ________.

a. complete voice box b. true vocal cords c. false vocal cords d. glottis e. epiglottis

79. The superior portion of each lung is the ________.

a. pleura b. base c. apex d. mediastinum e. fissure

Challenge Examination

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GED 102 The Human Body

80. The serous membrane covering the surface of the lungs is called the ________.

a. mediastinum b. visceral pleura c. parietal pleura d. main (primary) bronchi e. pleurisy

81. What lymphatic tissue in the submucosa of the small intestine prevents bacteria from entering the blood?

a. Peyer’s patches b. rugae c. appendix d. circular folds (plicae circulares) e. lacteals

82. The small intestine extends from the ________.

a. cardioesophageal sphincter to the pyloric sphincter (valve) b. pyloric sphincter (valve) to the ileocecal valve c. ileocecal valve to the appendix d. appendix to the sigmoid colon e. cardioesophageal sphincter to ileocecal valve

83. What organs release secretions into the duodenum of the small intestine?

a. pancreas and spleen b. appendix and Peyer’s patches c. liver and pancreas d. cecum and appendix e. spleen and liver

84. Enzymes and bile are carried by the pancreatic duct and bile duct into the ________.

a. duodenum b. jejunum c. ileocecal valve d. ileum e. large intestine

Challenge Examination

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GED 102 The Human Body

85. One of the main functions of the small intestine is ________.

a. absorption of nutrients b. absorption of water c. waste secretion d. vitamin conversion e. mineral secretion

86. Which one of the following is NOT a modification which is designed to increase surface area for absorption within the small intestine?

a. microvilli b. villi c. Peyer’s patches d. circular folds e. plicae circulares

87. Most nephrons are located within the renal ________.

a. pelvis b. calyces c. medulla d. pyramids e. cortex

88. The percentage of filtrate eventually reabsorbed into the bloodstream is closest to ________.

a. 10% b. 25% c. 50% d. 80% e. 99%

89. Of the capillary beds associated with each nephron, the one that is both fed and drained by arterioles is the ________.

a. peritubular capillaries b. pyramidal capillaries c. glomerulus d. Henle capillaries e. Bowman’s capillaries

Challenge Examination

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GED 102 The Human Body

90. Filtrate typically does NOT contain ________.

a. water b. blood proteins c. glucose d. ions e. amino acids

91. The nonselective, passive process performed by the glomerulus that forms blood plasma with out blood proteins is called ________.

a. micturition b. tubular secretion c. glomerular filtration d. tubular reabsorption e. glomerular reabsorption

92. Thick, clear mucus that cleanses the urethra of acidic urine is produced by the ________.

a. testes b. seminal glands (vesicles) c. prostate d. bulbo-urethral glands e. epididymis

93. Milky-colored fluids secreted from the prostate ________.

a. nourish sperm b. activate sperm c. cleanse the urethra d. neutralize urine e. are endocrine only

94. The spongy tissue of the penis fills with blood during sexual excitement and causes the penis to enlarge and become rigid during ________.

a. erection b. circumcision c. ejaculation d. emission e. parturition

Challenge Examination

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GED 102 The Human Body

95. Circumcision for males removes the ________.

a. glans penis b. shaft of the penis c. scrotum d. prepuce e. ductus (vas) deferens

96. What effect does follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) have on males?

a. Male testes are not influenced by FSH. b. FSH functions solely in females. c. FSH stimulates sperm production in males. d. FSH causes the testes to enlarge in size. e. FSH stimulates estrogen production in males.

97. The primitive stem cell of spermatogenesis, which is found on the periphery of each seminiferous tubule, is called a ________.

a. spermatogonium b. spermatid c. primary spermatocyte d. secondary spermatocyte e. sperm

98. Which statement regarding meiosis is correct?

a. Meiosis produces four gametes. b. Meiosis consists of one nuclear division only. c. Meiosis produces two daughter cells. d. Meiosis occurs in all cells of the body. e. Meiosis produces cells genetically identical to the parent cell.

99. What results from spermiogenesis?

a. four spermatogonia b. four spermatids c. two sperm d. two spermatids e. four sperm

Challenge Examination

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GED 102 The Human Body

100. Each spermatid and each ovum have ________.

a. 23 pairs of chromosomes b. 23 chromosomes c. 46 pairs of chromosomes d. 46 chromosomes e. 2n chromosomes

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what value chain segments has kaiser permanente chosen to enter and perform internally?

CHAPTER 6 Strengthening a Company’s Competitive Position: Strategic Moves, Timing, and Scope of Operations

1

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

THIS CHAPTER WILL HELP YOU UNDERSTAND:

Whether and when to pursue offensive or defensive strategic moves to improve a firm’s market position

When being a first mover or a fast follower or a late mover is most advantageous

The strategic benefits and risks of expanding a firm’s horizontal scope through mergers and acquisitions

The advantages and disadvantages of extending the company’s scope of operations via vertical integration

The conditions that favor outsourcing certain value chain activities to outside parties

When and how strategic alliances can substitute for horizontal mergers and acquisitions or vertical integration and how they can facilitate outsourcing

© McGraw-Hill Education.

MAXIMIZING THE POWER OF A STRATEGY

Offensive and defensive competitive actions

Competitive dynamics and the timing of strategic moves

Scope of operations along the industry’s value chain

Making choices that complement a competitive approach and

maximize the power of strategy

Jump to Appendix 1 long image description

© McGraw-Hill Education.

CONSIDERING STRATEGY-ENHANCING MEASURES

Whether and when to go on the offensive strategically

Whether and when to employ defensive strategies

When to undertake strategic moves—first mover, a fast follower, or a late mover

Whether to merge with or acquire another firm

Whether to integrate backward or forward into more stages of the industry’s activity chain

Which value chain activities, if any, should be outsourced

Whether to enter into strategic alliances or partnership arrangements

© McGraw-Hill Education.

LAUNCHING STRATEGIC OFFENSIVES TO IMPROVE A COMPANY’S MARKET POSITION

Strategic offensive principles

Focusing relentlessly on building competitive advantage and then striving to convert it into sustainable advantage

Applying resources where rivals are least able to defend themselves

Employing the element of surprise as opposed to doing what rivals expect and are prepared for

Displaying a capacity for swift, decisive, and overwhelming actions to overpower rivals

© McGraw-Hill Education.

STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLE (1 of 8)

Sometimes a company’s best strategic option is to seize the initiative, go on the attack, and launch a strategic offensive to improve its market position.

© McGraw-Hill Education.

CHOOSING THE BASIS FOR COMPETITIVE ATTACK

Avoid directly challenging a targeted competitor where it is strongest.

Use the firm’s strongest strategic assets to attack a competitor’s weaknesses.

The offensive may not yield immediate results if market rivals are strong competitors.

Be prepared for the threatened competitor’s counter-response.

© McGraw-Hill Education.

STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLE (2 of 8)

The best offensives use a company’s most powerful resources and capabilities to attack rivals in the areas where they are competitively weakest.

© McGraw-Hill Education.

PRINCIPAL OFFENSIVE STRATEGY OPTIONS

Offering an equally good or better product at a lower price

Leapfrogging competitors by being first to market with next-generation products

Pursuing continuous product innovation to draw sales and market share away from less innovative rivals

Pursuing disruptive product innovations to create new markets

Adopting and improving on the good ideas of other companies (rivals or otherwise)

Using hit-and-run or guerrilla marketing tactics to grab market share from complacent or distracted rivals

Launching a preemptive strike to secure an industry’s limited resources or capture a rare opportunity

© McGraw-Hill Education.

CHOOSING WHICH RIVALS TO ATTACK

Market leaders that are in vulnerable competitive positions

Runner-up firms with weaknesses in areas where the challenger is strong

Struggling enterprises on the verge of going under

Small local and regional firms with limited capabilities

Best Targets for Offensive Attacks

Jump to Appendix 2 long image description

© McGraw-Hill Education.

BLUE-OCEAN STRATEGY—A SPECIAL KIND OF OFFENSIVE

The business universe is divided into:

An existing market with boundaries and rules in which rival firms compete for advantage

A “blue ocean” market space, where the industry has not yet taken shape, with no rivals and wide-open long-term growth and profit potential for a firm that can create demand for new types of products

© McGraw-Hill Education.

Core Concept (1 of 8)

A blue-ocean strategy offers growth in revenues and profits by discovering or inventing new industry segments that create altogether new demand.

© McGraw-Hill Education.

Bonobos’s Blue-Ocean Strategy in the U.S. Men’s Fashion Retail Industry

Given the rapidity with which most first-mover advantages based on Internet technologies can be overcome by competitors, what has Bonobos done to retain its competitive advantage?

Is Bonobos’s unique focused-differentiation entry into brick-and-mortar retailing a sufficiently strong strategic move?

What would you predict is the likelihood of long-term success for Bonobos in the retail clothing sector?

© McGraw-Hill Education.

DEFENSIVE STRATEGIES—PROTECTING MARKET POSITION AND COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

Purposes of Defensive Strategies

Lower the firm’s risk of being attacked

Weaken the impact of an attack that does occur

Influence challengers to aim their efforts at other rivals

Jump to Appendix 3 long image description

© McGraw-Hill Education.

FORMS OF DEFENSIVE STRATEGIES

Defensive strategies can take either of two forms

Actions to block challengers

Actions to signal the likelihood of strong retaliation

© McGraw-Hill Education.

STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLE (3 of 8)

Good defensive strategies can help protect a competitive advantage but rarely are the basis for creating one.

© McGraw-Hill Education.

STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLE (4 of 8)

There are many ways to throw obstacles in the path of would-be challengers.

© McGraw-Hill Education.

BLOCKING THE AVENUES OPEN TO CHALLENGERS

Introduce new features and models to broaden product lines to close off gaps and vacant niches.

Maintain economy-pricing to thwart lower price attacks.

Discourage buyers from trying competitors’ brands.

Make early announcements about new products or price changes to induce buyers to postpone switching.

Offer support and special inducements to current customers to reduce the attractiveness of switching.

Challenge quality and safety of competitor’s products.

Grant discounts or better terms to intermediaries who handle the firm’s product line exclusively.

© McGraw-Hill Education.

SIGNALING CHALLENGERS THAT RETALIATION IS LIKELY

Signaling is an effective defensive strategy when the firm follows through by:

Publicly announcing its commitment to maintaining the firm’s present market share

Publicly committing to a policy of matching competitors’ terms or prices

Maintaining a war chest of cash and marketable securities

Making a strong counter-response to the moves of weaker rivals to enhance its tough defender image

© McGraw-Hill Education.

STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLE (5 of 8)

To be an effective defensive strategy, signaling needs to be accompanied by a credible commitment to follow through.

© McGraw-Hill Education.

Core Concept (2 of 8)

Because of first-mover advantages and disadvantages, competitive advantage can spring from when a move is made as well as from what move is made.

© McGraw-Hill Education.

TIMING A FIRM’S OFFENSIVE AND DEFENSIVE STRATEGIC MOVES

Timing’s importance:

Knowing when to make a strategic move is as crucial as knowing what move to make.

Moving first is no guarantee of success or competitive advantage.

The risks of moving first to stake out a monopoly position versus being a fast follower or even a late mover must be carefully weighed.

© McGraw-Hill Education.

CONDITIONS THAT LEAD TO FIRST-MOVER ADVANTAGES

When pioneering helps build a firm’s reputation and creates strong brand loyalty

When a first mover’s customers will thereafter face significant switching costs

When property rights protections thwart rapid imitation of the initial move

When an early lead enables movement down the learning curve ahead of rivals

When a first mover can set the technical standard for the industry

© McGraw-Hill Education.

Uber’s First-Mover Advantage in Mobile Ride-Hailing Services

Which first-mover advantages contributed to Uber’s domination of the on-demand transportation markets in its chosen cities?

What first-mover advantages will Uber not have in entering overseas markets?

How could Uber extend its success into smaller and less urban markets as user growth in the larger urban markets peaks?

© McGraw-Hill Education.

THE POTENTIAL FOR LATE-MOVER ADVANTAGES OR FIRST-MOVER DISADVANTAGES

When pioneering is more costly than imitating and offers negligible experience or learning-curve benefits

When the products of an innovator are somewhat primitive and do not live up to buyer expectations

When rapid market evolution allows fast followers to leapfrog a first mover’s products with more attractive next-version products

When market uncertainties make it difficult to ascertain what will eventually succeed

When customer loyalty is low and first mover’s skills, know-how, and actions are easily copied or surpassed

© McGraw-Hill Education.

TO BE A FIRST MOVER OR NOT

Does market takeoff depend on complementary products or services that currently are not available?

Is new infrastructure required before buyer demand can surge?

Will buyers need to learn new skills or adopt new behaviors?

Will buyers encounter high switching costs in moving to the newly introduced product or service?

Are there influential competitors in a position to delay or derail the efforts of a first mover?

© McGraw-Hill Education.

STRENGTHENING A FIRM’S MARKET POSITION VIA ITS SCOPE OF OPERATIONS

Range of its activities performed internally

Breadth of its product and service offerings

Extent of its geographic market presence and its mix of businesses

Size of its competitive footprint on its market or industry

Defining the Scope of the Firm’s Operations

Jump to Appendix 4 long image description

© McGraw-Hill Education.

Core Concept (3 of 8)

The scope of the firm refers to the range of activities that the firm performs internally, the breadth of its product and service offerings, the extent of its geographic market presence, and its mix of businesses.

Scope issues are at the very heart of corporate-level strategy.

© McGraw-Hill Education.

Core Concepts (4 of 8)

Horizontal scope is the range of product and service segments that a firm serves within its focal market.

Vertical scope is the extent to which a firm’s internal activities encompass one, some, many, or all of the activities that make up an industry’s entire value chain system, ranging from raw-material production to final sales and service activities.

© McGraw-Hill Education.

HORIZONTAL MERGER AND ACQUISITION STRATEGIES

Merger:

Is the combining of two or more firms into a single corporate entity that often takes on a new name

Acquisition:

Is a combination in which one firm, the “acquirer,” purchases and absorbs the operations of another firm, the “acquired”

© McGraw-Hill Education.

STRATEGIC OJECTIVES FOR HORIZONTAL MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS

Creating a more cost-efficient operation out of the combined companies

Expanding the firm’s geographic coverage

Extending the firm’s business into new product categories

Gaining quick access to new technologies or other resources and capabilities

Leading the convergence of industries whose boundaries are being blurred by changing technologies and new market opportunities

© McGraw-Hill Education.

BENEFITS OF INCREASING HORIZONTAL SCOPE

Increasing a firm’s horizontal scope strengthens its business and increases its profitability by:

Improving the efficiency of its operations

Heightening its product differentiation

Reducing market rivalry

Increasing the firm’s bargaining power over suppliers and buyers

Enhancing its flexibility and dynamic capabilities

© McGraw-Hill Education.

Bristol-Myers Squibb’s “String-of-Pearls” Horizontal Acquisition Strategy

Which strategic outcomes did Bristol-Myers Squibb pursue through its “string-of-pearls” acquisition strategy?

Why did Bristol-Myers Squibb choose to pursue an acquisition strategy that was different from its industry competitors?

How did increasing the horizontal scope of Bristol-Myers Squibb through acquisitions strengthen its competitive position and profitability?

© McGraw-Hill Education.

WHY MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS SOMETIMES FAIL TO PRODUCE ANTICIPATED RESULTS

Strategic issues

Cost savings may prove smaller than expected.

Gains in competitive capabilities take longer to realize or never materialize at all.

Organizational issues

Cultures, operating systems and management styles fail to mesh due to resistance to change from organization members.

Key employees at the acquired firm are lost.

Managers overseeing integration make mistakes in melding the acquired firm into their own.

© McGraw-Hill Education.

Core Concept (5 of 8)

A vertically integrated firm is one that performs value chain activities along more than one stage of an industry’s value chain system.

© McGraw-Hill Education.

VERTICAL INTEGRATION STRATEGIES

Vertically integrated firm

One that participates in multiple segments or stages of an industry’s overall value chain

Vertical integration strategy

Can expand the firm’s range of activities backward into its sources of supply or forward toward end users of its products

© McGraw-Hill Education.

TYPES OF VERTICAL INTEGRATION STRATEGIES

Full integration

A firm participates in all stages of the vertical activity chain.

Partial integration

A firm builds positions only in selected stages of the vertical chain.

Tapered integration

A firm uses a mix of in-house and outsourced activity in any stage of the vertical chain.

© McGraw-Hill Education.

THE ADVANTAGES OF A VERTICAL INTEGRATION STRATEGY

Benefits of a Vertical Integration Strategy

Add materially to a firm’s technological capabilities

Strengthen the firm’s competitive position

Boost the firm’s profitability

Jump to Appendix 5 long image description

© McGraw-Hill Education.

Core Concepts (6 of 8)

Backward integration involves entry into activities previously performed by suppliers or other enterprises positioned along earlier stages of the industry value chain system.

Forward integration involves entry into value chain system activities closer to the end user.

© McGraw-Hill Education.

INTEGRATING BACKWARD TO ACHIEVE GREATER COMPETITIVENESS

Integrating backwards by:

Achieving same scale economies as outside suppliers: low-cost based competitive advantage

Matching or beating suppliers’ production efficiency with no drop-off in quality: differentiation-based competitive advantage

Reasons for integrating backwards

Reduction of supplier power

Reduction in costs of major inputs

Assurance of the supply and flow of critical inputs

Protection of proprietary know-how

© McGraw-Hill Education.

INTEGRATING FORWARD TO ENHANCE COMPETITIVENESS

Reasons for integrating forward

To lower overall costs by increasing channel activity efficiencies relative to competitors

To increase bargaining power through control of channel activities

To gain better access to end users

To strengthen and reinforce brand awareness

To increase product differentiation

© McGraw-Hill Education.

DISADVANTAGES OF A VERTICAL INTEGRATION STRATEGY

Increased business risk due to large capital investment

Slow acceptance of technological advances or more efficient production methods

Less flexibility in accommodating shifting buyer preferences that require non-internally produced parts

Internal production levels may not reach volumes that create economies of scale

Efficient production of internally-produced components and parts hampered by capacity matching problems

New or different resources and capabilities requirements

© McGraw-Hill Education.

WEIGHING THE PROS AND CONS OF VERTICAL INTEGRATION

Will vertical integration enhance the performance of strategy-critical activities ways that lower cost, build expertise, protect proprietary know-how, or increase differentiation?

What impact will vertical integration have on investment costs, flexibility, and response times?

What administrative costs are incurred by coordinating operations across more vertical chain activities?

How difficult will it be for the firm to acquire the set of skills and capabilities needed to operate in another stage of the vertical chain?

© McGraw-Hill Education.

Kaiser Permanente’s Vertical Integration Strategy

What are the most important strategic benefits that Kaiser Permanente derives from its vertical integration strategy?

Over the long term, how could the vertical scope of Kaiser Permanente’s operations threaten its competitive position and profitability?

Why is a vertical integration strategy more appropriate in some industries than in others?

© McGraw-Hill Education.

Core Concept (7 of 8)

Outsourcing involves contracting out certain value chain activities that are normally performed in-house to outside vendors.

© McGraw-Hill Education.

OUTSOURCING STRATEGIES: NARROWING THE SCOPE OF OPERATIONS

Outsource an activity if it:

Can be performed better or more cheaply by outside specialists

Is not crucial to achieving sustainable competitive advantage

Improves organizational flexibility and speeds time to market

Reduces risk exposure due to new technology or buyer preferences

Allows the firm to concentrate on its core business, leverage key resources, and do even better what it already does best

© McGraw-Hill Education.

THE BIG RISKS OF OUTSOURCING VALUE CHAIN ACTIVITIES

Hollowing out resources and capabilities that the firm needs to be a master of its own destiny

Loss of direct control when monitoring, controlling, and coordinating activities of outside parties by means of contracts and arm’s-length transactions

Lack of incentives for outside parties to make investments specific to the needs of the outsourcing firm’s value chain

© McGraw-Hill Education.

STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLE (6 of 8)

A company must guard against outsourcing activities that hollow out the resources and capabilities that it needs to be a master of its own destiny.

© McGraw-Hill Education.

Core Concepts (8 of 8)

A strategic alliance is a formal agreement between two or more separate companies in which they agree to work cooperatively toward some common objective.

A joint venture is a partnership involving the establishment of an independent corporate entity that the partners own and control jointly, sharing in its revenues and expenses.

© McGraw-Hill Education.

FACTORS THAT MAKE AN ALLIANCE “STRATEGIC”

A strategic alliance:

Facilitates achievement of an important business objective

Helps build, sustain, or enhance a core competence or competitive advantage

Helps remedy an important resource deficiency or competitive weakness

Helps defend against a competitive threat, or mitigates a significant risk to a company’s business

Increases the bargaining power over suppliers or buyers.

Helps open up important new market opportunities

Speeds development of new technologies or product innovations

© McGraw-Hill Education.

BENEFITS OF STRATEGIC ALLIANCES AND PARTNERSHIPS

Minimize the problems associated with vertical integration, outsourcing, and mergers and acquisitions

Are useful in extending the scope of operations via international expansion and diversification strategies

Reduce the need to be independent and self-sufficient when strengthening the firm’s competitive position

Offer greater flexibility should a firm’s resource requirements or goals change over time

Are useful when industries are experiencing high-velocity technological advances simultaneously

© McGraw-Hill Education.

STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLE (7 of 8)

Companies that have formed a host of alliances need to manage their alliances like a portfolio.

© McGraw-Hill Education.

WHY AND HOW STRATEGIC ALLIANCES ARE ADVANTAGEOUS

Strategic Alliances:

Expedite development of promising new technologies or products

Help overcome deficits in technical and manufacturing expertise

Bring together the personnel and expertise needed to create new skill sets and capabilities

Improve supply chain efficiency

Help partners allocate venture risk sharing

Allow firms to gain economies of scale

Provide new market access for partners

© McGraw-Hill Education.

CAPTURING THE BENEFITS OF STRATEGIC ALLIANCES

Picking a good partner

Being sensitive to cultural differences

Recognizing that the alliance must benefit both sides

Adjusting the agreement over time to fit new circumstances

Structuring the decision-making process for swift actions

Ensuring both parties keep their commitments

Strategic Alliance Factors

Jump to Appendix 6 long image description

© McGraw-Hill Education.

STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLE (8 of 8)

The best alliances are highly selective, focusing on particular value chain activities and on obtaining a specific competitive benefit.

Alliances enable a firm to learn and to build on its strengths.

© McGraw-Hill Education.

REASONS FOR ENTERING INTO STRATEGIC ALLIANCES

When seeking global market leadership

Enter into critical country markets quickly.

Gain inside knowledge about unfamiliar markets and cultures through alliances with local partners.

Provide access to valuable skills and competencies concentrated in particular geographic locations.

When staking out a strong industry position

Establish a stronger beachhead in target industry.

Master new technologies and build expertise and competencies.

Open up broader opportunities in the target industry.

© McGraw-Hill Education.

PRINCIPLE ADVANTAGES OF STRATEGIC ALLIANCES

They lower investment costs and risks for each partner by facilitating resource pooling and risk sharing.

They are more flexible organizational forms and allow for a more adaptive response to changing conditions.

They are more rapidly deployed—a critical factor when speed is of the essence.

© McGraw-Hill Education.

STRATEGIC ALLIANCES VERSUS OUTSOURCING

Key advantages of strategic alliances

The increased ability to exercise control over the partners’ activities.

A greater commitment and willingness of the partners to make relationship-specific investments as opposed to arm’s-length outsourcing transactions.

© McGraw-Hill Education.

ACHIEVING LONG-LASTING STRATEGIC ALLIANCE RELATIONSHIPS

Collaborating with partners that do not compete directly

Establishing a permanent trusting relationship

Continuing to collaborate is in the parties’ mutual interest

Factors Influencing the Longevity of Alliances

Jump to Appendix 7 long image description

© McGraw-Hill Education.

THE DRAWBACKS OF STRATEGIC ALLIANCES AND PARTNERSHIPS

Culture clash and integration problems due to different management styles and business practices

Anticipated gains not materializing due to an overly optimistic view of the potential for synergies or the unforeseen poor fit of partners’ resources and capabilities

Risk of becoming dependent on partner firms for essential expertise and capabilities

Protection of proprietary technologies, knowledge bases, or trade secrets from partners who are rivals

© McGraw-Hill Education.

HOW TO MAKE STRATEGIC ALLIANCES WORK

Create a system for managing the alliance.

Build trusting relationships with partners.

Set up safeguards to protect from the threat of opportunism by partners.

Make commitments to partners and see that partners do the same.

Make learning a routine part of the management process.

© McGraw-Hill Education.

Appendix 1 Maximizing the Power of a Strategy

Making choices that complement a competitive approach and maximize the power of strategy includes:

Offensive and defensive competitive actions

Competitive dynamics and the timing of strategic moves

Scope of operations along the industry’s value chain

Return to slide

© McGraw-Hill Education.

Appendix 2 Choosing Which Rivals to Attack

The best targets for offensive attacks are: market leaders that are in vulnerable competitive positions, runner-up firms with weaknesses in areas where the challenger is strong, struggling enterprises on the verge of going under, and small local and regional firms with limited capabilities.

Return to slide

© McGraw-Hill Education.

Appendix 3 Defensive Strategies—Protecting Market Position and Competitive Advantage

The three purposes of defensive strategies

Lower the firm’s risk of being attacked

Weaken the impact of an attack that does occur

Influence challengers to aim their efforts at other rivals

Return to slide

© McGraw-Hill Education.

Appendix 4 Strengthening a Firm’s Market Position Via Its Scope of Operations

The scope of a firm’s operations is defined as: the range of its activities performed internally; the breadth of its product and service offerings; the extent of its geographic market presence and its mix of business; and the size of its competitive footprint on its market or industry.

Return to slide

© McGraw-Hill Education.

Appendix 5 The Advantages of a Vertical Integration Strategy

Three benefits of a vertical integration strategy

Add materially to a firm’s technological capabilities

Strengthen the firm’s competitive positon

Boost the firm’s profitability

Return to slide

© McGraw-Hill Education.

Appendix 6 Capturing the Benefits of Strategic Alliances

The strategic alliance factors are:

Being sensitive to culture differences

Recognizing that the alliance must benefit both sides

Adjusting the agreement over time to fit new circumstances

Structuring the decisions-making process for swift actions

Ensuring both parties keep their commitments

Picking a good partner

Return to slide

© McGraw-Hill Education.

Appendix 7 Achieving Long-Lasting Strategic Alliance Relationships

Three factors that influence the longevity of alliances

Collaborating with partners that do not compete directly

Establishing a permanent trusting relationship

Continuing to collaborate is in the parties’ mutual interest

Return to slide

© McGraw-Hill Education.

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professional development plan for nurses

NR 510 APN PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN PAPER

Every Advanced Practice Registered Nurse (APRN) should develop a personal development plan (PDP). A PDP includes a written evaluation of the regulations and requirements needed to obtain licensure and practice in the APRNs designated geographical area. The PDP should also include a personal action plan that reflects the results of one’s self-assessment, including one’s strengths, weaknesses, goals, and objectives. In order to develop a PDP, the APRN should be aware of and understand the state in which they plan to practice educational, regulatory, and licensure requirements. This paper aims to describe the APRNs scope of practice in the state of Florida, a personal assessment using Benner’s self-assessment tool, tactics for marketing and networking, a Curriculum Vitae, and a summary of the information acquired for the PDP.

APN Scope of Practice

Every state decides the guidelines or requirements for licensure, accreditation, certification, and education, also known as LACE, by which an APRN must abide by to practice in that state. Unfortunately, not all states are equal when it comes to the requirements for LACE and how much autonomy the APRN is allowed. In Florida, the Nurse Practitioner (NP) applicant must have a valid RN license, a master’s degree or a certificate in a nurse specialty area from a post master’s program, have completed at least 500 clinical hours, and have a national advanced practice certification from an accepted nursing specialty board (FLBON, 2017).

Per the American Association of Nurse Practitioners (AANP) (2017), nursing regulations and practice laws are set by each state. There are three levels at which an NP can practice: Full practice, reduced practice, and restricted practice (AANP, 2017). Full practice means the NP works under the authority of the state board of nursing (AANP, 2017). An NP who works in a state that allows full practice can evaluate and assess patients, diagnose, set up a treatment plan and manage the treatment plan, order diagnostic testing and interpret diagnostic results, and prescribe medications (AANP, 2017). Full practice for NPs is the scope recommended by the National Council of State Boards of Nursing and by the Institute of Medicine (AANP, 2017). Reduced practice means the state reduces the NPs ability to practice by at least one element (AANP, 2017). In reduced practice states, NPs must have a collaborative agreement with a healthcare provider before they can practice (AANP, 2017). Restricted practice means the state restricts the NP in at least one element of practice and it requires the delegation, supervision, and/or team management by a healthcare provider (most often a physician) before the NP can practice (AANP, 2017).

Florida is a restricted practice state. Per Florida’s administrative code, Rule 64B9-4.010(1), an ARNP “shall only perform medical acts of diagnosis, treatment, and operation pursuant to a protocol between the ARNP and a Florida-licensed medical doctor, osteopathic physician, or dentist” (FLBON, 2016, para. 1). The protocol delineates the professional agreement between the physician and the ARNP. Protocols must include the ARNPs information, the physician’s information, the practice’s information, a description of the ARNPs duties such as procedures the NP can perform, conditions for which the ARNP is allowed to manage and treat, medications the ARNP may prescribe, and situations in which the NP must contact the physician (FLBON, 2016). Currently, NPs in Florida are also restricted from signing a Baker Act, signing a death certificate, certifying DNR orders, and are not recognized by Medicare and Medicaid as primary care providers (FLBON, 2016). In March 2017, bill HB 7011 was presented during the March legislative session; this bill recommended independent practice for ARNPs (FLANP, 2017). As of April 2017, the bill is in the House, specifically being evaluated by the Health and Human Services Committee (The Florida Senate, 2017).

One exciting landmark for NPs in Florida came in April of 2016; bill HB 423 passed, which allows NPs and PAs to prescribe schedule I, schedule II, and schedule III controlled substances (FLBON, 2016). As of January 2017, NPs were allowed to apply for a DEA license. However, there were some stipulations put in place with the passing of this bill. NPs must have an updated protocol filed with the Florida Board of Nursing (FLBON) stating the NP has the authority to prescribe controlled medication (FLANP, 2017). NPs must complete a minimum of three continuing education unit (CEU) hours relating to the safe and effective prescribing of controlled substances (FLBON, 2016). The NP must distinguish on their practitioner profile that they prescribe controlled medications. If the NP prescribes a schedule II medication, they are restricted to prescribing for a maximum of seven days (FLBON, 2016). Lastly, unless the NP is a certified psychiatric nurse, NPs cannot prescribe psychotropic medications to anyone under the age of 18 (FLBON, 2016).

Personal Assessment

Completing a personal assessment tool is beneficial for anyone; they can help determine one’s strengths, weaknesses, goals, and objectives. For NPs, personal assessment tools also allow them to explore their interests, discover passions, and to determine which areas of practice would suit them best. To care for others, one must have a true understanding of themselves, from what they want in life to what their strengths and weaknesses are.

Knowing one’s strengths is the first step to having a true understanding of who they are. The strengths this author possesses are good communication skills, good listening skills, determination, and patience. These strengths, especially communication and listening, are important to anyone wanting to work in the healthcare industry. Effective communication and listening skills are vital to ensuring one accurately assesses, diagnoses, and treats the patient. Aside from diagnosing and treating the patient, patients want to feel as if their concerns have really been heard. How a patient perceives the provider will influence the message they receive and ultimately their care. If the patient feels the provider does not listen, cuts them off, or is too hasty in their diagnosis, it is likely the patient will not fully comply with the treatment options, lifestyle changes, and/or follow-up appointments ordered by the provider.

Just as everyone has their strengths, everyone also has weaknesses. The good thing about weakness is that it can be turned into a strength. If one is aware they are weak in certain areas, one can work on improving in these areas until they are no longer weaknesses. The weaknesses this author deals with are the fear of being an advanced beginner and time management skills. According to Benner’s Novice to Expert Model, the advanced beginner is one who has some clinical knowledge but they still require support and assistance, such as a mentor/preceptor who can help set priorities and give constructive feedback (Davis & Maisano, 2016). Luckily, time builds knowledge and confidence; the new NP should keep in mind that over time they will navigate through all of Benner’s stages. Time management skills are essential if one wants to provide quality care. New NPs often feel they must be the one to complete all tasks, which makes time management even more difficult. The new NP needs to learn that delegating certain tasks is actually beneficial to their patients because it allows the NP to spend more time with them.

Having career goals is important for the NPs professional development. Most often, people have long-term goals and short-term goals. One should always be evaluating their goals and revising them as necessary to make sure they continue to be relevant as they move forward in their life and their career. This author’s short-term goal is to work in Dermatology once NP school is complete; a long-term goal is to become a knowledgeable and confident NP that can help other new graduates find their way. Being a preceptor/mentor to new NPs would be a way of giving back to the profession as well as helping patients.

Having objectives is important because they will help one meet their goals. There are objectives that one should have when seeking a job and once they secure that job. This author’s objective is to obtain clinical sites where employment is of interest. This would be a way of networking. With so many NPs going out into the workforce, one has to think of ways to stand out. It is very difficult to apply to jobs and rely on resumes alone. When an NP student is allowed to do their clinical hours in places they can envision working in one day, they can show the potential employer exactly why they should be hired.

Networking and Marketing Strategies

The new NP must network and market themselves in order to find employment after they obtain certification. Marketing and networking are also an important part of the professional development plan. The NP should begin networking while still in school. There are a number of national and local professional nursing associations that advertise employment opportunities for NPs. Some of the professional nursing organizations in Florida include the Florida Nurse Practitioner Network (FNPN), the Florida Association of Nurse Practitioners (FLANP), and the Tampa Bay Advanced Practice Nurses Council (TBAPNC). These organizations provide a plethora of information, for new and seasoned NPs, with options such as employment opportunities, upcoming events in the area, important information on new bills that are being presented to the legislature, rejected bills, and passed bills, rules and regulations, ways to connect and network with other NPs in the area, access to a preceptor list, and the opportunity to volunteer to be a preceptor. The Florida Nurses Association (FNA) is another website Florida NPs can utilize for help finding employment as well as other resources. The FNA is actually a division of the American Nurses Association (ANA) and it is the only nursing organization that provides information for all nurses in all specialties and all areas of practice (About the Florida Nurses Association, 2012).

Nationally, the American Association of Nurse Practitioners (AANP) is the largest professional membership organization that provides full service to NPs in all areas of practice. For example, the AANP provides information on current healthcare topics and policy updates, advocacy at the state and national levels, employment, resources to assist with professional growth, resources for new graduates as well as retiring NPs, conference information, and free CEUs (“Membership Categories & Benefits”, 2017). The AANPs job link allows non-members access to the available jobs although, members are able to see job postings five days before non-members. Another national organization NPs can utilize is NP Central. Not only does NP Central provide information on job opportunities, it also provides CE opportunities, classes on how to improve your practice, access to certain resources such as Medicare information, legislative contacts, press releases, and product and book reviews. NP Central is also a resource NPs can use to meet other NPs. When googling “local and national organizations that advertise employment opportunities”, this author found an article listing the 75 top professional organizations for nurse practitioners; AANP and NP Central were both listed in the top five choices (“75 Top Professional Organizations for Nurse Practitioners”, 2017). These days, social media is also a great way to network and market oneself; some of the popular websites/applications include Facebook, LinkedIn, and Doximity.

Curriculum Vitae

Whitney Vanater RN, BSN, FNP-S

32837 Natural Bridge Road

Wesley Chapel, FL 33543

(813) 841-9650

wvanater82@me.com

Education:

Master’s of Science in Nursing

July 2016 – Present

Family Nurse Practitioner

Chamberlain College of Nursing

3005 Highland Pkwy

Downers Grove, IL 60515

Bachelors of Science in Nursing

04/2012 – 03/2013

Chamberlain College of Nursing

3005 Highland Pkwy

Downers Grove, IL 60515

Associates of Science in Nursing – Registered Nurse

2008 – 2009

Hillsborough Community College

4001 W. Tampa Bay Blvd

Tampa, FL 33614

Professional Employment:

08/2015 – Present

Florida Hospital Tampa

Registered Nurse – Intensive Care Unit

05/2014 – 01/2016

Moffitt Cancer Center

Registered Nurse – Critical Care Float Team – Bone Marrow Transplant Unit – Direct Referral Center

10/2007 – 02/2014

BayCare Health Systems

Neuro/Trauma Intensive Care Unit – Pulmonary Step Down Unit- Neuro/Medical Surgical Telemetry Unit

Licensure and Certifications:

Registered Nurse

RN 9294088

Florida

ACLS

BLS

PALS

Professional Organizations:

American Nurses Association

American Association of Nurse Practitioners

Public/Community service:

Metropolitan Ministries –Outreach services and kitchen services

Bayshore United Methodist Church – Food drives and feeding the homeless in downtown Tampa

Conclusion

Having a PDP will help the NP understand and promote their abilities and skills. Completing a PDP while in school pushes the student to start thinking about and preparing for their future because it makes them learn about rules, regulations, and state requirements for licensure. The PDP also makes students think about and determine their strengths and weaknesses, goals and objectives for the short and long-term future, and develop a plan of action on how to market and network to reach their goals. As long as the NP is learning and growing, the PDP will always be a work in progress. As the NP advances through Benner’s stages, they have the opportunity to turn their identified weaknesses into strengths. There are many national and local nursing organizations one can utilize for a multitude of resources, including employment opportunities. The PDP is a tool that is beneficial for the new NP and will help in their transition from NP student to a practicing NP.

References

75 Top Professional Organizations for Nurse Practitioners (2017). Retrieved fromhttps://onlinenursepractitionerprograms.com/professional-organizations/

AANP (2017). State practice environment. Retrieved from https://www.aanp.org/legislation-regulation/state-legislation/state-practice-environment – fl-thru-ky

About the Florida Nurses Association (2012). Retrieved from https://www.floridanurse.org/aboutFNA/

Advanced Registered Nurse Practitioner Requirements in Florida (2017). Retrieved from http://www.nursinglicensure.org/np-state/florida-nurse-practitioner.html

Davis, A. & Maisano, P. (2016). Patricia benner: Novice to expert – A concept whose time has come (again). Oklahoma Nurse, 61(3), 13-15.http://proxy.chamberlain.edu:8080/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ccm&AN=117819165&site=eds-live&scope=site

FLANP (2017). Florida association of nurse practitioners: Updates. Retrieved from http://www.flanp.org

FLBON (2017). Advanced registered nurse practitioner (ARNP). Retrieved from http://floridasnursing.gov/nursing-faqs/advanced-registered-nurse-practitioner-arnp/

FLBON (2016). Standards for protocols: Physicians and ARNPs. Retrieved from http://floridasnursing.gov/latest-news/standards-for-protocols-physicians-and-arnps/

Membership Categories & Benefits (2017). Retrieved from https://www.aanp.org/membership

The Florida Senate (2017). HB 7011: Health care access. Retrieved from https://www.flsenate.gov/Session/Bill/2017/07011/ByVersion

Welcome to the new NP Central.net (2004). Retrieved from http://www.npcentral.net/index.nn.shtml

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sbux 10k

SEC 10K Project: Statement of Cash Flow

This activity is designed to help you prepare your paper and is to be written in proper APA format. Before providing your write-up, find the cash flow statement for your chosen company as well as the cash flow for a competitor company. Compare the cash flow for both companies. and compare/comment on each. Attach the cash flow statements as a Word document, to your posting.

Provide a written analysis of the cash flow statements. Please focus on the elements of the cash flow statement and compare each major section (Cash Flow from Operating Activities, Investing Activities and Financing Activities). The analysis is not to compare the volume of cash flow. Many companies that are competitors of each other are very different in size. Concentrate on how each company is obtaining its cash and how they are using that cash and note similarities and differences. Compare year-over-year numbers and note and research any significant trends or differences from year to year.

A reminder – this exercise is designed to help you write your SEC 10-K paper. Please respond to this conference as if you were submitting a section of your paper, using proper APA formatting (with in-text citations and reference list), headers, etc. Please do not respond in a conversational and casual style (no writing in the first person, using slang terminology, etc.)

Here are some pointers to help you write this section of your paper:

· The numbers in the Operating Activities section relating to current assets and liabilities are not balances. These are merely the changes in these accounts from one year to the next. Because this section starts with accrual basis net income, it is necessary to convert this to cash basis in order to compute the cash flow from operating activities. For example, if accounts receivable increased from one year to the next, then that means that there was net income recognized that was not received as cash, so increases in accounts receivable are subtracted from accrual basis net income. Other adjustments in this section are for non-cash related expenses or differences in accrual versus cash basis expenses.

· When comparing your company’s cash flow with another’s, focus more on the sources and uses of cash for each, as well as notable trends from year to year. It is ok to mention the size of one company versus the other, but this should not be the main driver of your analysis.

· “Negative” numbers in the Finance and Investing sections do not represent losses. Gains and losses are reported on the income statement. Cash flow statements deal with the sources and uses of cash. Negative numbers in these sections indicate that the company used cash for these activities and positive numbers means that they received cash from these activities.

· Organize your write up by the major sections of the cash flow statement. This will make your paper flow better and make it easier for the reader to relate your analysis to the statements themselves.

· Use the details provided in the financial statements, read the notes and review other details provided in the 10-K (and you can use other sources as well) in order to gain more insight in order to better explain the numbers. Do not limit your analysis to just reviewing the numbers on the statement and trying to guess what happened. Just stating what the numbers are and whether they went up or down is not an analysis. An analysis explains the numbers and draws conclusions. You are expected to include some level of analysis of the numbers in your paper.

· Make sure your paper is in APA format with in-text citations and a reference list.

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adam smith’s quotation would most likely be used to defend which of the following policies?

In 2011, Finland had a GDP of $195 billion and a per capita GDP of $36,000. Life expectancy was about 79 years. Which of these additional factors would most support the conclusion that Finland has a developed rather than an emerging economy?

[removed] Finland has a low population density.

[removed] Finland has a free-market economy.

[removed] Finland exports more than it imports.

[removed] Finland’s unemployment rate is 9.6 percent.

Graph titled Quantity Demanded versus Price, with x axis labeled in 10 unit increments from 0 to 70. Y axis is labeled with prices 0 to 60 dollars, in increments of 10. A blue line starts at 5, 50 and drops at an angle down to 60, 10.



Kelen wants to open a toy store. He buys the leftover stock of a store going out of business. He opens the boxes and counts the toys. There are 10 Nnedi action figures, 25 Ramez action figures, and 60 Slimeball action figures. Based on the graph, how should he set his prices?

[removed] Kelen should start with the same price for all action figures.

[removed] Nnedi action figures should be $10, Ramez $35, and Slimeball $50.

[removed] Nnedi action figures should be $42, Ramez $30, and Slimeball $10.

[removed] Nnedi action figures should be $60, Ramez $35, and Slimeball $1.

Map indicates the following free trade zones NAFTA is Canada, Mexico, and the U.S. EU-CARICOM includes Europe, Caribbean islands, and South American countries DR-CAFTA includes the U.S., Central American countries, and Caribbean islands; ALADI is most of South America, Cuba, and Mexico; EEA/EUCZ/CEFTA includes Greenland and most of Europe CISFTA is made of former Soviet states GAFTA is in the Arabian Peninsula and North Africa ECOWAS for West Africa CEMAC for some countries in Africa AFTZ includes all African except members of ECOWAS and CEMAC SAFTA is for Himalayan nations APTA includes India, China, and South Asia ASEAN includes Southeast Asia, China, South Korea, and Japan SPARTECA is Australia and Pacific Islands and AANZFTA is for countries in the South West Pacific and Southeast Asia.


Public Domain

Opponents of free trade zones might use this map to argue that free trade

[removed] encourages conflict among market and command economies

[removed] leads to greater mobility among populations

[removed] organizes nations into regional exclusionary blocs

[removed] redraws traditional geographic boundaries

[removed] Capital

[removed] Entrepreneurship

[removed] Labor

[removed] Land

[removed] The shop would decrease the brake-check price to eliminate scarcity.

[removed] The shop would increase worker pay to make up for the opportunity cost of not doing brake checks.

[removed] The shop would shift production to oil changes and away from brake checks.

[removed] The shop would shift production to brake checks and away from oil changes.

A table showing worker hours to produce one unit of two common resources. Canada can produce lumber in 5 and oil in 20 worker hours. Russia produces lumber in 10 and oil in 10 worker hours. Saudi Arabia produces lumber in 60 and oil in 5 worker hours. United States produces lumber in 10 and oil in 15 worker hours. Venezuela produces lumber in 40 and oil in 15 worker hours. A third column, Worker Hours to Produce Oil instead of Lumber, has question marks instead of numbers for each country.



Given the data in the chart, which two countries enjoy an absolute advantage in oil production over the United States?

[removed] Canada and Venezuela

[removed] Russia and Canada

[removed] Saudi Arabia and Venezuela

[removed] Russia and Saudi Arabia

Adam Smith wrote in The Wealth of Nations, Book II, Chapter 2, In general, if any branch of trade, or any division of labour, be advantageous to the public, the freer and more general the competition, it will always be the more so.




Adam Smith’s quotation would most likely be used to defend which of the following policies?

[removed] Higher taxation of corporate profits

[removed] Less stringent regulation of commerce

[removed] More subsidies for farmers

[removed] Stricter restrictions against monopolies

Which of these businesses are in monopolistic competition?

[removed] Two clothing shops, one selling women’s clothing and the other selling kids’ clothing

[removed] Two agricultural producers, each selling a variety of kinds of citrus fruit

[removed] Two pet stores, one of which sells dog products and the other of which sells bird products

[removed] Two phone providers, each offering benefits to customers who switch to its service

A table with title, Hours to Produce One Liquid Unit. Greece produces olive oil in 35 worker hours and wine in 60 worker hours. France produces olive oil in 35 worker hours and wine in 45 worker hours. Italy produces olive oil in 30 worker hours and wine in 30 worker hours. There is a blank column for each country titled additional worker hours to produce wine instead of olive oil.



Given the data in the chart above, which of the following statements is true?

[removed] France has a comparative advantage in olive oil production.

[removed] Greece has an absolute advantage in wine and olive oil production.

[removed] Greece has a comparative advantage in wine production.

[removed] Italy has an absolute advantage in wine and olive oil production.

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0.00378541178 cubic meters

Homework #1

1) An American football player, starting from rest at the line of scrimmage, accelerates along a straight line for a time of 1.25 s. Then, during a negligible amount of time, he changes the magnitude of his acceleration to a value of 1.2 m s-2. With this acceleration, he continues in the same direction for another 1.2 s, until he reaches a speed of 3.7 m s-1. What is the value of his acceleration (assumed to be constant) during the initial 1.25 s period?

i. Sketch a plot of velocity versus time.

ii. To solve this problem, you have to work backwards. If the final speed is 3.7 m s-1after accelerating at 1.2 m s-2 for 1.2 s, then what velocity did he have before this 1.2 s burst of acceleration?

iii. It took the player 1.25 s to reach this velocity, accelerating from rest. What was the initial acceleration?

2) Two students are canoeing on a river. While heading upstream, they accidentally drop an empty bottle overboard. They then continue paddling for 1 hour, reaching a point 2 km farther upstream. At this point they realize that the bottle is missing and, driven by ecological awareness, they turn around and head downstream. They catch up with and retrieve the bottle (which has been moving along with the current) 5 km downstream from the turn-around point. Assuming a constant paddling effort throughout, how fast is the river flowing? What would the canoe speed in a still lake be for the same paddling effort?

The unknown variables in this problem seem to be the speed of the river, the speed of the canoe relative to the river and the time it takes from when they turn around to when they retrieve the bottle. 3 unknowns.

i. Write down an equation in terms of the 3 unknowns for the students canoeing upstream. This is of the form, velocity is equal to distance over time.

ii. Write down a similar equation in terms of the 3 unknowns for the students canoeing down stream to retrieve the bottle.

iii. Write down a similar equation in terms of the 3 unknowns for the journey of the bottle from when it was first dropped to when it was retrieved.

iv. You now have 3 equations and 3 unknowns. Do the algebra and solve the problem.

3) The mass of an ant is 5.5×10-6 kg. What is this in grams (g), milligrams (mg) and micrograms ( g)? A dose of a given antibiotic for an infant is one micro-liter per hour (1 l h-1). What is this in meters cubed per second (m3 s-1) and liters per year (l year-1)?

To change units simply multiply by a conversion factor. For example, to convert 2.6 cm to m would be

where the fraction is the conversion. Note 100 cm is equivalent to 1 m, so multiplying the 2.6 cm by this fraction doesn’t change the quantity just the units.

Homework #2

1) You are driving along with a furry dice hanging from the ceiling of your car. You observe that the furry dice are motionless relative to the car. Draw a clearly labeled free-body diagram for the furry dice if your car has a uniform velocity. Draw a clearly labeled free-body diagram for the furry dice if your car is speeding up uniformly.

Recall that a free-body diagram (FBD) is a diagram where the body (here furry dice) is represented by a dot and the forces acting on that body are represented by arrows emanating from that dot. What forces are acting on the furry dice?

By “motionless relative to the car” the question is telling you that the furry dice are not swinging around, by “uniform velocity” the question tells you there is no acceleration here and the net force is equal to zero (in both x- and y- directions). Finally, by stating that the “car is speeding up” it now implies that the dice, which recall are “motionless relative to the car”, must also be accelerating and for this to happen there must be a net force in the direction of acceleration.

2) A firefighter who weighs 712 N slides down a vertical pole with an acceleration of 3 m s -2, directed downward. What are the magnitude and direction (up or down) of the vertical force on the firefighter from the pole and the magnitude and direction of the vertical force on the pole from the firefighter?

i. Again this is a problem which requires a FBD. Draw a FBD for the firefighter. What forces are acting on him, and what must the net force on the firefighter be for his/her acceleration to be 3 m s-2

ii. Once you’ve found the force on the firefighter from the pole, the force on the pole from the firefighter is easy, right? Look up Newtons’ 3rd law.

3) The coefficient for static friction for rubber on dry asphalt is from 0.35 to 1.2 (average of say 0.775), while for rubber on wet asphalt its from 0.25 to 0.8 (average of say 0.525). These values are taken from Baker, J.S., “Traffic Accident Investigation Manual”, 1975.

Consider a car traveling at 20.1168 m s-1 (45 mph) with a driver reaction time of 0.75 s on a dry road. At what speed should the driver travel in wet conditions to maintain the same stopping distance? Why is the coefficient of static friction used here? Why not the coefficient of kinetic friction?

i. First find the stopping distance for the car on a dry road. Note that there are two parts to this. First the car moves at a constant velocity for 0.75 s (because the car doesn’t decelerate until after the reaction time) and then it decelerates linearly from the initial velocity to the final velocity (zero because it stops). There are different ways to solve this. You could write down an equation for distance with two terms. The first term would be distance during the reaction time is velocity multiplied by time. The second term would have to take into consideration the deceleration (and the coefficient for static friction). Alternatively, you could sketch a plot of velocity versus time (constant for 0.75 s and then decreasing linearly to zero with a slope equal to deceleration). How do you get distance from a velocity vs time graph?

ii. Repeat what you just did, but in reverse. Now you know the stopping distance (from the first part) and you do the same math (or use the same kind of velocity vs time graph) to find the initial velocity.

iii. Why static and not kinetic friction? Google ABS breaks.

Homework #3

1) A moving electron particle has kinetic energy K. After a net amount of work W has been done on it, the electron is moving one-quarter as fast in the opposite direction. Find W in terms of K. Does your answer depend on the final direction of the electron’s motion?

i. This is tricky because surely going from a velocity of v to -¼v should be the same as going from v + ¼v to zero. Is it?

ii. Is going from v to -¼v the same as going from v to ¼v? The starting and finishing kinetic energies are the same, but why would the work required to change be different?

2) A pick-up truck is coasting at a speed vA along a straight and level road. When a load equivalent to 10% of the truck’s mass is thrown off the bed, parallel to the ground and in the forward direction, the truck is brought to a halt. If the direction in which this mass is thrown is exactly reversed, but the speed of this mass relative to the truck remains the same, the wagon accelerates to a new speed vB. Calculate the ratio vB/vA.

i. This problem has some deliberate wording. “coasting” implies that the engine is not providing force, and “straight and level road” implies that we can ignore external forces such as gravity. Therefore, all we have to worry about is momentum conservation. Balance the momentum when the truck is moving with the load in its bed to when the truck has come to a stop and the load is thrown forward. What is the velocity of this load, relative to the trucks initial velocity?

ii. Now solve for when the load is thrown backwards, propelling the truck further forwards. Balance the momentum before and after the mass is thrown and find the new velocity of the truck. The mass of the truck should cancel and you should be able to solve for the ratio vB/vA.

3) A kid on a sled, with a combined mass of 35 kg, is pulled up a slope at constant speed by a tow rope that is parallel to the ground. The ground slopes upwards at a constant angle of 26o above the horizontal and the friction between the sled and the ground is characterized by the coefficient of kinetic friction,

. Draw a clearly labeled free-body diagram for the kid on a sled. Calculate the tension in the tow rope.

i. The question asks you to draw a FBD – which is good as this is exactly where you should start to solve this problem! What are the forces acting on the sled?

ii. The question states that the kid on the sled are pulled “at constant speed” which means the acceleration and net force are both zero. Recall, that for problems with slopes you resolve the forces parallel and perpendicular to the slope (usually the force that needs splitting up is the weight, mg). All the forces (which recall are vectors) when added together equals zero. In other words, forces up the hill are equal to forces down the hill, and forces in to the hill and equal to forces out of the hill. This being the case, find the tension in the rope.

Homework #4

1) Your driving your car at 15.6 m s-1 (about 35 mph) and the traffic light ahead turns amber. Do you brake before the intersection or hit the gas pedal and beat the light? The light has a speed camera which will automatically deposit a hefty fine in the mail (along with a picture of your car speeding through the intersection or stopping within the intersection) if you get it wrong.

The traffic light will remain amber for 3.5 seconds (Texas state minimum), your reaction time is 0.75 s and the intersection is 10 m wide. When you first saw the light turn amber, you where 40 m in front of the intersection. Your car can accelerate at a rate of 4 m s-2 or decelerate at a rate of 6 m s-2 (taking the coefficient of friction from Homework #2).

In Dallas a speed camera issued 9407 tickets worth $705,525 between January 1 and August 31, 2007. Upon investigation by a local news station it was found that the amber light lasted only 3.15 s. How might the decision of the corrupt local government in Dallas, to put profit before safety and reduce the length of time for the amber light, affect your above predicament?

i. The first part is to consider the car approaching the intersection with a 3.5 s amber light. What would happen if you decided to just continue at the same speed through the intersection? What deceleration would the car require to stop in time? What acceleration would the car require to clear the intersection before the light turns red? Don’t forget to include the reaction time in your calculations. Are these values reasonable?

ii. Repeat the same analysis as in part i but with the time that the amber light is on at 3.15 s instead of 3.5 s. How does this change your answers?

2) The chef on the Titanic, Charles Joughin, helped many people onto lifeboats and declined to board one himself. Subsequent to helping others he drank an entire bottle of whiskey, put on a life jacket and, after the Titanic had completely been submerged, stepped onto the bow of the ship without as much as getting his hair wet. Both the alcohol (kept him warm) and the life jacket (kept him afloat) saved his life. His mass was 100 kg and the inflated jacket had a volume of 3.1 x 10-2 cubic meters and was completely submerged under the water. The volume of the chef’s body that was underwater is 8.2 x 10-2 cubic meters. What was the density of the life jacket?

This question has a lot of unrequired information, which I think makes it interesting. The relevant part is that the chef was floating in water and kept afloat by the life jacket. A FBD of this situation would see the weight of the chef and life jacket (mass is density multiplied by volume) being equal to the buoyant forces (weight of water displaced). I believe the only unknown (after taking the density of water to be 1000 kg m-3, will be the density of the life jacket.

3) Yikes! Scooby Doo is being chased by the Phantosaur! Scooby Doo very quickly accelerates at 6 m s-2 to his top velocity of 3 m s-1. Scooby Doo, having been chased by lots of ghosts, is good at running and can maintain this velocity. The Phantosaur accelerates at 3 m s-2, and has a top velocity of 6 m s-1. However, the Phantosaur can only maintain such a high velocity for 1 s before getting tired and slowing down at a rate of 1 m s-2. Will the Phantosaur eat Scooby Doo?

This is a tricky intersection problem, because Scooby Doo and the Phantosaur speed up, maintain a constant velocity and (in the case of the Phantosaur) slow down. Therefore, we have to solve this in sections

i. How long does it take Scooby to accelerate to his top speed and how far has he traveled?

ii. How long does it take the Phantosaur to accelerate to his top speed and how far does it travel? During the time it takes the Phantosaur to get up to its maximum velocity, how far has Scooby ran?

iii. The Phantosaur can only maintain the high velocity for 1 s. After this 1 s, how far has it ran, and how far has Scooby ran?

iv. Finally Scooby maintains a constant velocity, while the Phantosaur slows down. What are the equations for distance traveled by both Scooby and the Phantosaur while the Phantosaur is decelerating?

At any point in the previous steps was the Phantosaur ahead of Scooby Doo?

Homework #5

1) A chitauritwo (Loki’s weird alien friends) is flying past Hawkeye who is stationed on top of a building. The trajectory of the chitauritwo is given by the equations

Hawkeye’s position is given by , and . If he is to fire an arrow with an initial velocity of 137 m s-1 at time t = 0, will he be able to shoot the chitauritwo? In what direction should he fire his arrow? Ignore air resistance, because the arrow is so fast, and note that gravity acts in the negative z-direction.

This is an intersection problem, so we have to write down the trajectory of the arrow and put the x-, y- and z-coordinates of the arrow as a function of time equal to the x-, y- and z-coordinates of the chitauritwo (given in the problem).

i. You have the starting location of the arrow so write down the equation for the position of the arrow in the x-direction as a function of time (note there is no air resistance so no acceleration). Put this equal to the x-coordinate of the chitauritwo to obtain your first equation.

ii. Do the same as in i but in the y-direction (should be simpler as the chitauritwo doesn’t move in this direction).

iii. Obtain a similar equation in the z-direction. This is height so Hawkeye will have to aim slightly upwards to overcome the effects of gravity, which will appear in this equation as a negative term.

So now you have three equations, but 4 unknowns! The unknowns are the initial velocity of the arrow (in x, y, and z) and time. But wait, we have a fourth equation.

iv. The magnitude of the velocity is dictated by the bow. The magnitude is 137 m s-1. Therefore, Pythagoras theory gives us our fourth equation. 4 unknowns and 4 equations. Now its a math problem. Plug it into a calculator or a computer if you can’t do the math.

2) Suppose that a planet were discovered between the sun and Mercury, with a circular orbit of radius equal to 2/3 of the average orbit radius of Mercury. (Such a planet was once postulated, in part to explain the precession of Mercury’s orbit. It was even given the name Vulcan, although we now have no evidence that it actually exists. Mercury’s precession has been explained by general relativity.) The orbital period of Mercury is 88.0 days.

What would be the orbital period of such a planet?

You shouldn’t need any help with this question as its a simple application of Kepler’s 3rd law.

3) A skier leaves the ramp of a ski jump with a velocity of 10 m/s at 20o above the horizontal as shown. The slope where she will land is inclined downward at 40o, and air resistance is negligible. Find the distance from the end of the ramp to where the jumper lands and her velocity components just before landing.

This is an interesting projectile motion problem, because the area where the projectile is landing (the projectile being the skier in this problem) is inclined.

i. First you need to write down the equation of motion for the skier in the x-direction after she has left the ski jump. Take the edge of the ski jump to be x = 0 and y = 0, and the point of time when she leaves as t = 0.

ii. Write down the equation of motion for the skier in the y-direction. Don’t forget gravity.

iii. You should now have two equations but three unknowns (the x and y distances when she lands on the slope and the time this took). The third equation comes from the slope itself! Given that the slope is going down at 40o can you write an equation relating the x and y distances when she lands on the slope?

Now you have 3 equations and 3 unknowns it should be easy enough. Given this information you should be able to get the quantities asked for in the problem.

Homework #6

1) High jumpers usually sustain fractures in the lower third of the fibula. The world record for the high jump is held by Javier Sotomayor (Cuba) at 2.45 m (1993). If he weighed 68 kg could muster a run-up speed of 9 m s-1, had a center of mass which was 1.2 m of the floor and took 0.3 s to push off from the floor then calculate the stress in his fibula. Note that during the Fosbury Flop the higher jumper pushes of from the ground using both feet, the cross-sectional area of the fibula is 1 cm2, and that the fibula plays a minor role in weight-bearing with the tibia supporting approximately 95% of the weight. Stress is defined as force per unit area.

i. In order for Javier to make the jump how much energy does he need? Note he only has to raise his center of mass to 2.45 m from 1.2 m.

ii. By balancing potential energy and kinetic energy, how much velocity does he need?

iii. Given that it took an estimated 0.3 s for this velocity to be acquired, what was his acceleration and what is the force required to generate this acceleration.

iv. If the fibula only provides 5% of this force then how much force is that? And given the definition of stress, what is the stress in the fibula?

2) A shotgun fires a large number of pellets upward, with some pellets traveling very nearly vertically and others as much as 1.0o from the vertical. Assume that the initial speed of the pellets is uniformly 150 m s-1 and ignore air resistance. Within what radius from the point of firing will the pellets land? If there are 1000 pellets, and they fall in a uniform distribution over a circle with the radius you just calculated, what is the probability that at least one pellet will fall on the head of the person who fires the gun?

For this question you might need to brush up on your high school math. Hows your probability?

i. Use the range equation to find the furthest that a bullet could land.

ii. If 1000 bullets fall in a circle with this radius then we can find the probability of at least one bullet falling on the shooters head. First make up the area of his head, say, 0.01 m2? What is the probability of a single bullet hitting the guy?

iii. What is the probability of one bullet missing the guys head?

iv. What is the probability that all the bullets will miss?

v. What is the probability that not all of the bullets will miss, and that at least one will hit?

3) Consider the experiment shown below. A block is pulled across a flat but rough surface. The force applied to the block is plotted on the x-axis while the frictional force due to the surface of the block and the rough surface is plotted on the y-axis.

What is the value of the applied force when the frictional force is equal to F1? Explain the features of the graph. Sketch a plot of the position of the block as a function of time, assuming the applied force ramps up linearly with time. Sketch a plot of the velocity of the block as a function of time, assuming the applied force ramps up linearly with time. Sketch a plot of the acceleration of the block as a function of time, assuming the applied force ramps up linearly with time.

There are some key words here. “Flat surface” implies that you can ignore gravity, but “rough surface” implies that friction is going to be important.

i. The first thing the problem asks is to give the value of the applied force when the frictional force is equal to F1. As the static friction opposes the applied force, then the frictional force and applied force should be equal. The block isn’t moving yet!

ii. You should be able to explain this graph. If not then consult your notes.

iii. You have to provide plots of position, velocity and acceleration. I would consider these in the reverse order. First what is the net force acting on the block as a function of time? Recall that the applied force is said to increase linearly with time. The acceleration is just proportional to the net force (applied force minus frictional force). Second, if you have acceleration as a function of time, then the integration of this would give you velocity. In other words, the velocity vs time plot is the area under the curve of the acceleration vs time graph. Thirdly, the position vs time is the area under the curve of the velocity vs time graph.

Homework #7

1) If you drop both a large and a small ball with the large ball beneath the small, then the small ball can bounce higher into the air than if it was to bounce off the floor directly. If you have a large and small ball handy you could try it! Assume the mass of the large ball is 0.1 kg and the mass of the small ball is 0.01 kg. The radius of the large ball is 30 cm and the radius of the small ball is 10 cm. The balls are initially in contact, with the large ball at a height of 1 m (center of the ball). If the balls are released and fall under gravity to the floor, how high will the small ball bounce up in the air? Assume all collisions to be elastic.

i. How far do the balls initially fall? How fast are they traveling when the large ball hits the ground?

ii. The large ball can be assumed to hit the floor first and rebound back up. At this point, the large ball is traveling up and the small ball is traveling down. Both have the same magnitude of velocity found in i, however, as the collision was “elastic”. Use conservation of momentum in an elastic collision to find the new velocities of the large and small balls after they collide.

iii. Now the small ball is traveling back up. Given its velocity, how high will it reach?

2) To protect their young in the nest, peregrine falcons will fly into birds of prey (such as ravens) at high speed. In one such episode, a 600 g falcon flying at 20 m/s hit a 1.5 kg raven flying at 9 m/s. The falcon hit the raven at right angles to its original path and bounced back at 5 m/s. (These figures are from a research paper and estimated by the author as he watched this attack occur in New Mexico). Find the change in angle of the ravens motion and its final velocity after the collision. Was energy conserved in the collision?

This is a simple case of momentum before the collision equals momentum after the collision.

i. Write an equation for the momentum in the direction of the raven as he flies towards the collision. Put the momentum before the collision equal to the momentum after the collision in this direction.

ii. Do the same analysis for the direction that the falcon was originally flying.

iii. You should have two equations which yield the ravens velocity in both directions after the collision. Use this to find the magnitude and direction.

iv. Was energy conserved? Calculate the energy before collision, knowing the falcon and ravens initial velocities and masses. Calculate the energy after the collision, knowing the falcon and ravens velocities after the collision.

3) A wheel starts from rest and rotates with constant angular acceleration to reach an angular speed of 12 rad/s in 3 s. Find the magnitude of the angular acceleration of the wheel and the angle in radians through which it rotates in this time.

Use the linear equations of motion but for angular motion and this should be easy.

Homework #8

1) A 50 kg woman stands on a bathroom scale while riding in an elevator descending with decreasing speed (magnitude of acceleration is 2 m s-2). Draw a free body diagram for the woman. What is the reading on the scale?

If you get the free body diagram correct then this is an easy problem. Think about how you feel on an elevator, or better still go and ride the elevator. Does your answer make sense?

2) A fire hose has an opening whose radius is 10 cm. The hose discharges water at a velocity of 20 m s-1. How much force is required by the fireman to hold the nozzle stationary? A fire hose ejects a stream of water with a speed of 20 m s-1, as above. At what angle to the horizontal should the fire hose be directed if it is to remove the civil liberties of protesters 20 m from where the hose is being held?

i. There are two parts to this problem. In the first part you have to calculate the force required to hold the fire hose. To do this go back to the definition of force. Its not necessarily , because this assumes the mass is constant. Here its the opposite the velocity of the water is constant, and acceleration is zero, but the mass changes as more and more water is being ejected. Go back to the definition of force from the momentum section in the notes.

ii. The second part is simply a range equation plug and chug problem.

3) A 20 kg monkey has firm hold on a light rope that passes over a frictionless pulley and is attached to a 20 kg bunch of bananas. The monkey looks up, sees the bananas, and starts to climb the rope to get them.

As the monkey climbs do the bananas move up, down or remain at rest? Explain.

As the monkey climbs, does the distance between the monkey and the bananas increase, decrease, or remain the same? Explain.

The monkey releases her hold on the rope. What happens to the distance between the monkey and the bananas while she is falling?

Before reaching the ground, the monkey grabs the rope to stop her fall. What do the bananas do?

A FBD might help here. Have fun!

Homework #9

1) Barnes Wallis is famous for creating a ‘bouncing bomb’ able to destroy the great dams of the Ruhr in Germany. The bomb was cylindrical and bounced along on the water. It was spinning such that as it bounced it slowed down and came to a stop at the dam. The bomb then sank along the dam wall where an internal pneumatic pistol ignited the charge causing the bomb to explode hard against the dam surface. Wallis discovered that he needed the mass of the bomb to be just 4.3 tonnes consisting of 2.7 tonnes of explosives. The density of steel casing was about 7900 kg m-3 and the density of the explosive is about 800 kg m-3 Calculate the average radius of the bomb if the length was fixed at 1.6 meters. The force of impact (average force) of such a bomb on water after falling from a height of 75 m is enormous. First, find the speed of impact, assuming that air resistance is negligible. Then calculate the average force of impact of the bomb if it initially sinks to a depth of 3/4 of its diameter.

i. Use the volume of a cylinder to calculate the size required to encase the explosive. Assume the thickness of the casing is the same at the ends as it is around the outside of the cylinder. You should et two equations one for the size of the inside explosive and another for the outside casing. Some of the variables, however, will be shared between the two equations.

ii. Find the velocity of the bomb when it hits the water.

iii. If you know it goes from this velocity to zero velocity, in a distance equal to 3/4 of its diameter, then what is the deceleration of the bomb and what is the average force of impact?

2) In order to purify salt water and convert it into drinking water it is usually required to first boil the water and then re-condense the evaporated water back into its liquid state. There are now 7 billion people on our planet and in the US we use 1383 gallons per-person per-day, while at the same time pollution and over population is seeing water shortages throughout the world. The UN recently stated “Fierce competition for fresh water may well become a source of conflict and wars in the future.” If solar power (with an efficiency of 10%) was to be used to purify water and the average solar insolation is approximately 250 watts per square meter, how much land would be required to provide water for the world? Assume that we want to rest of the world to have the adequate access to water that we enjoy in the western world. Average temperature of water at the surface of the ocean is 17 oC, the density of water is 1000 kg m-3, and 1 US Gallon = 0.00378541178 Cubic Meters.

This is a simple problem solving exercise. You shouldn’t have any problems solving this. Just make sure that your units match up!

3) Given that the diameter of the moon is 3,480 km, and using a meter stick or tape measure plus a 25¢ coin, estimate the distance, D, from the Earth to the Moon. Show calculations.

This homework is actually due on the new moon. Talk about bad timing. You’ll just have to pretend that there was a moon in the sky…..

Homework #10

1) The fair has a ride that consists of a large vertical cylinder that spins about its axis fast enough that any person inside is held up against the wall when the floor drops away. The coefficient of static friction between the person and the wall is and the radius of the cylinder is R. Determine the period of revolution necessary to keep the person from falling.

Consider the normal force between the person and wall.

2) A “spring activated toy” (see picture) weighs 0.925N and has a spring of length 5cm. Upon release the toy jumps to a height of 0.5m. What is the spring constant of the spring?

The spring is initially held in a compressed state by the adhesive force of the ‘sucker’ which provides a maximum force of the form

where F0 and t0 are constants. Find an expression for the time it would take before the spring-activated toy is launched into the air.

3) One strategy used by the Ewok’s during their battle with the imperial stormtroopers was to throw a rock at a high angle over level ground. While a stormtrooper watched the first one, a second rock was thrown at a low angle timed to arrive before or at the same time as the first one. Assume both rocks are thrown with a speed of 25.0 m/s. The first one is thrown at an angle of 65.0° with respect to the horizontal. At what angle should the second (low angle) rock be thrown to arrive at the same point as the first? How many seconds later should the second rock be thrown, after the first was thrown, to arrive at the same time?

Use projectile motion equations.

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MANAGERIAL ECONOMICS A Problem Solving Approach

Luke M. Froeb Vanderbilt University

Mikhael Shor University of Connecticut

Brian T. McCann Vanderbilt University

Michael R. Ward University of Texas, Arlington

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BRIEF CONTENTS

Preface: Teaching Students to Solve Problems xiii

SECTION I Problem Solving and Decision Making 1 1 Introduction: What This Book Is About 3 2 The One Lesson of Business 15 3 Benefits, Costs, and Decisions 27 4 Extent (How Much) Decisions 39 5 Investment Decisions: Look Ahead and Reason Back 51

SECTION II Pricing, Costs, and Profits 65 6 Simple Pricing 67 7 Economies of Scale and Scope 83 8 Understanding Markets and Industry Changes 95 9 Market Structure and Long-Run Equilibrium 113 10 Strategy: The Quest to Keep Profit from Eroding 125 11 Foreign Exchange, Trade, and Bubbles 137

SECTION III Pricing for Greater Profit 151 12 More Realistic and Complex Pricing 153 13 Direct Price Discrimination 163 14 Indirect Price Discrimination 171

SECTION IV Strategic Decision Making 183 15 Strategic Games 185 16 Bargaining 205

SECTION V Uncertainty 215 17 Making Decisions with Uncertainty 217 18 Auctions 231 19 The Problem of Adverse Selection 241 20 The Problem of Moral Hazard 253

v

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SECTION VI Organizational Design 265 21 Getting Employees to Work in the Firm’s Best Interests 267 22 Getting Divisions to Work in the Firm’s Best Interests 279 23 Managing Vertical Relationships 293

SECTION VII Wrapping Up 305 24 You Be the Consultant 307

Epilogue: Can Those Who Teach, Do? 313

Glossary 315

Index 321

vi BRIEF CONTENTS

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CONTENTS

Preface: Teaching Students to Solve Problems xiii

SECTION I Problem Solving and Decision Making 1

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION: WHAT THIS BOOK IS ABOUT 3 1.1 Using Economics to Solve Problems 3 1.2 Problem-Solving Principles 4 1.3 Test Yourself 6 1.4 Ethics and Economics 7 1.5 Economics in Job Interviews 9 Summary & Homework Problems 11 End Notes 13

CHAPTER 2 THE ONE LESSON OF BUSINESS 15 2.1 Capitalism and Wealth 16 2.2 Does the Government Create Wealth? 18 2.3 Why Economics Is Useful to Business 18 2.4 Wealth Creation in Organizations 21 Summary & Homework Problems 22 End Notes 23

CHAPTER 3 BENEFITS, COSTS, AND DECISIONS 27 3.1 Background: Variable, Fixed, and Total Costs 28 3.2 Background: Accounting Versus Economic Profit 29 3.3 Costs Are What You Give Up 31 3.4 Sunk-Cost Fallacy 32 3.5 Hidden-Cost Fallacy 34 3.6 A Final Warning 35 Summary & Homework Problems 36 End Notes 38

CHAPTER 4 EXTENT (HOW MUCH) DECISIONS 39 4.1 Background: Average and Marginal Costs 40 4.2 Marginal Analysis 41 4.3 Incentive Pay 44 4.4 Tie Pay to Performance Measures That Reflect Effort 45 4.5 Is Incentive Pay Unfair? 46

vii

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Summary & Homework Problems 47 End Notes 50

CHAPTER 5 INVESTMENT DECISIONS: LOOK AHEAD AND REASON BACK 51 5.1 Compounding and Discounting 51 5.2 How to Determine Whether Investments Are Profitable 52 5.3 Break-Even Analysis 54 5.4 Choosing the Right Manufacturing Technology 55 5.5 Shut-Down Decisions and Break-Even Prices 56 5.6 Sunk Costs and Post-Investment Hold-Up 57 5.7 Anticipate Hold-Up 58 Summary & Homework Problems 59 End Notes 62

SECTION II Pricing, Costs, and Profits 65

CHAPTER 6 SIMPLE PRICING 67 6.1 Background: Consumer Values and Demand Curves 68 6.2 Marginal Analysis of Pricing 70 6.3 Price Elasticity and Marginal Revenue 72 6.4 What Makes Demand More Elastic? 74 6.5 Forecasting Demand Using Elasticity 76 6.6 Stay-Even Analysis, Pricing, and Elasticity 77 6.7 Cost-Based Pricing 78 Summary & Homework Problems 78 End Notes 81

CHAPTER 7 ECONOMIES OF SCALE AND SCOPE 83 7.1 Increasing Marginal Cost 84 7.2 Economies of Scale 86 7.3 Learning Curves 87 7.4 Economies of Scope 89 7.5 Diseconomies of Scope 90 Summary & Homework Problems 91 End Notes 93

CHAPTER 8 UNDERSTANDING MARKETS AND INDUSTRY CHANGES 95 8.1 Which Industry or Market? 95 8.2 Shifts in Demand 96 8.3 Shifts in Supply 97 8.4 Market Equilibrium 99 8.5 Predicting Industry Changes Using Supply and Demand 100 8.6 Explaining Industry Changes Using Supply and Demand 103 8.7 Prices Convey Valuable Information 104 8.8 Market Making 106 Summary & Homework Problems 108 End Notes 111

viii CONTENTS

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CHAPTER 9 MARKET STRUCTURE AND LONG-RUN EQUILIBRIUM 113 9.1 Competitive Industries 114 9.2 The Indifference Principle 116 9.3 Monopoly 120 Summary & Homework Problems 121 End Notes 123

CHAPTER 10 STRATEGY: THE QUEST TO KEEP PROFIT FROM ERODING 125 10.1 A Simple View of Strategy 126 10.2 Sources of Economic Profit 127 10.3 The Three Basic Strategies 132 Summary & Homework Problems 133 End Notes 135

CHAPTER 11 FOREIGN EXCHANGE, TRADE, AND BUBBLES 137 11.1 The Market for Foreign Exchange 138 11.2 The Effects of a Currency Devaluation 141 11.3 Bubbles 142 11.4 How Can We Recognize Bubbles? 144 11.5 Purchasing Power Parity 146 Summary & Homework Problems 147 End Notes 149

SECTION III Pricing for Greater Profit 151

CHAPTER 12 MORE REALISTIC AND COMPLEX PRICING 153 12.1 Pricing Commonly Owned Products 154 12.2 Revenue or Yield Management 156 12.3 Advertising and Promotional Pricing 157 12.4 Psychological Pricing 158 Summary & Homework Problems 160 End Notes 162

CHAPTER 13 DIRECT PRICE DISCRIMINATION 163 13.1 Introduction 163 13.2 Direct Price Discrimination 166 13.3 Robinson-Patman Act 167 13.4 Implementing Price Discrimination Schemes 168 13.5 Only Schmucks Pay Retail 169 Summary & Homework Problems 169 End Notes 170

CHAPTER 14 INDIRECT PRICE DISCRIMINATION 171 14.1 Introduction 171 14.2 Indirect Price Discrimination 172 14.3 Volume Discounts as Discrimination 176 14.4 Bundling Different Goods Together 177

CONTENTS ix

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Summary & Homework Problems 178 End Notes 181

SECTION IV Strategic Decision Making 183

CHAPTER 15 STRATEGIC GAMES 185 15.1 Sequential-Move Games 186 15.2 Simultaneous-Move Games 188 15.3 What Can I Learn from Studying Games Like the Prisoners’ Dilemma? 194 15.4 Other Games 195 Summary & Homework Problems 200 End Notes 203

CHAPTER 16 BARGAINING 205 16.1 Strategic View of Bargaining 205 16.2 Nonstrategic View of Bargaining 208 16.3 Conclusion 210 Summary & Homework Problems 211 End Notes 214

SECTION V Uncertainty 215

CHAPTER 17 MAKING DECISIONS WITH UNCERTAINTY 217 17.1 Random Variables and Probability 217 17.2 Uncertainty in Pricing 222 17.3 Run Experiments to Reduce Uncertainty 223 17.4 Minimizing Expected Error Costs 224 17.5 Risk Versus Uncertainty 226 Summary & Homework Problems 227 End Notes 230

CHAPTER 18 AUCTIONS 231 18.1 Oral Auctions 232 18.2 Second-Price Auctions 233 18.3 First-Price Auctions 234 18.4 Bid Rigging 234 18.5 Common-Value Auctions 236 Summary & Homework Problems 238 End Notes 240

CHAPTER 19 THE PROBLEM OF ADVERSE SELECTION 241 19.1 Insurance and Risk 241 19.2 Anticipating Adverse Selection 242 19.3 Screening 244 19.4 Signaling 247 19.5 Adverse Selection and Internet Sales 248

x CONTENTS

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Summary & Homework Problems 249 End Notes 251

CHAPTER 20 THE PROBLEM OF MORAL HAZARD 253 20.1 Introduction 253 20.2 Insurance 254 20.3 Moral Hazard Versus Adverse Selection 255 20.4 Shirking 256 20.5 Moral Hazard in Lending 258 20.6 Moral Hazard and the 2008 Financial Crisis 260 Summary & Homework Problems 260 End Notes 263

SECTION VI Organizational Design 265

CHAPTER 21 GETTING EMPLOYEES TO WORK IN THE FIRM’S BEST INTERESTS 267 21.1 Principal-Agent Relationships 268 21.2 Controlling Incentive Conflict 269 21.3 Marketing Versus Sales 271 21.4 Franchising 272 21.5 A Framework for Diagnosing and Solving Problems 273 Summary & Homework Problems 275 End Notes 278

CHAPTER 22 GETTING DIVISIONS TO WORK IN THE FIRM’S BEST INTERESTS 279 22.1 Incentive Conflict Between Divisions 279 22.2 Transfer Pricing 281 22.3 Organizational Alternatives 283 22.4 Budget Games: Paying People to Lie 285 Summary & Homework Problems 288 End Notes 291

CHAPTER 23 MANAGING VERTICAL RELATIONSHIPS 293 23.1 How Vertical Relationships Increase Profit 294 23.2 Double Marginalization 295 23.3 Incentive Conflicts Between Retailers and Manufacturers 295 23.4 Price Discrimination 297 23.5 Antitrust Risks 298 23.6 Do Not Buy a Customer or Supplier Simply Because It Is Profitable 299 Summary & Homework Problems 300 End Notes 302

SECTION VII Wrapping Up 305

CHAPTER 24 YOU BE THE CONSULTANT 307 24.1 Truck Leasing 307

CONTENTS xi

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24.2 Manufacturer Hiring 308 24.3 American Airlines 309 24.4 Law Firm Pricing 309 24.5 Cash Flow at a Forklift Dealership 310 24.6 Managing Interest-Rate Risk at Banks 311 24.7 What You Should Have Learned 312

Epilogue: Can Those Who Teach, Do? 313

Glossary 315

Index 321

xii CONTENTS

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PREFACE

Teaching Students to Solve Problems1

by Luke Froeb

When I started teaching MBA students, I taught economics as I had learned it, using models and public policy applications. My students complained so much that the dean took me out to the proverbial woodshed and gave me an ultimatum, “improve customer satisfaction or else.” With the help of some disgruntled students who later became teaching assistants, I was able to turn the course around.

The problem I faced can be easily described using the language of eco- nomics: the supply of business education (professors are trained to provide abstract theory) is not closely matched to demand (students want practical knowledge). This mismatch is found throughout academia, but it is perhaps most acute in a business school. Business students expect a return on a fairly sizable investment and want to learn material with immediate and obvious value.

One implication of the mismatch is that teaching economics in the usual way—with models and public policy applications—is not likely to satisfy stu- dent demand. In this book, we use what we call a “problem-solving peda- gogy” to teach microeconomic principles to business students. We begin each chapter with a business problem, like the fixed-cost fallacy, and then give stu- dents enough analytic structure to understand the cause of the problem and how to fix it.

Teaching students to solve real business problems, rather than learn models, satisfies student demand in an obvious way. The approach also allows students to absorb the lessons of economics without as much of the analytical “overhead” as a model-based pedagogy. This is an advantage, especially in a terminal or stand-alone course, like those typically taught in a business school. To see this, ask yourself which of the following ideas is more likely to stay with a student after the class is over: the fixed-cost fallacy or that the partial derivative of profit with respect to price is independent of fixed costs.

xiii

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ELEMENTS OF A PROBLEM-SOLVING PEDAGOGY Our problem-solving pedagogy has three elements.

Begin with a Business Problem Beginning with a real-world business problem puts the particular ahead of the abstract and motivates the material in a straightforward way. We use narrow, focused problems whose solutions require students to use the analytical tools of interest.

Teach Students to View Inefficiency as an Opportunity The second element of our pedagogy turns the traditional focus of benefit- cost analysis on its head. Instead of teaching students to spot and then elimi- nate inefficiency, for example, by changing public policy, we teach them to view each underemployed asset as a money-making opportunity.

Use Economics to Implement Solutions Even after you find an underemployed asset, moving it to a higher-valued use is often hard to do, particularly when the inefficiency occurs within an orga- nization. The third element of our pedagogy addresses the problem of imple- mentation: how to design organizations where employees have enough information to make profitable decisions and the incentive to do so.

Again, we use the tools of economics to address the problem of imple- mentation. If people act rationally, optimally, and self-interestedly, then mis- takes have only one of two causes: either people lack the information necessary to make good decisions or they lack the incentive to do so. This immediately suggests a problem-solving algorithm; ask:

1. Who is making the bad decision? 2. Do they have enough information to make a good decision? 3. Do they have the incentive to do so?

Answers to these three questions will point to the source of the problem and suggest one of three potential solutions:

1. Let someone else make the decision, someone with better information or incentives

2. Give more information to the current decision maker 3. Change the current decision maker’s incentives

The book begins by showing students how to use this algorithm and sub- sequent chapters illustrate its use in a different context, for example, invest- ments, pricing, principal-agent relationships, and uncertain environments.

USING THE BOOK The book is designed to be read cover-to-cover as it is short, concise, and accessible to anyone who can read and think clearly. The pedagogy is built around business problems, so the book is most effective for those with some

xiv PREFACE

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work experience. Its relatively short length makes it reasonably easy to cus- tomize with ancillary material.

The authors use the text in full-time MBA programs, executive MBA pro- grams (weekends), healthcare management executive programs (one night a week), and nondegree executive education. However, some of our biggest customers use the book in online business classes at both the graduate and undergraduate levels.

In the degree programs, we supplement the material in the book with online interactive programs like Cengage’s CourseMate or Samuel Baker’s Economic Interactive Tutorials.2 Complete Blackboard courses, including syllabi, quizzes, homework, slides, videos to complement each chapter, and links to supplementary material, can be downloaded from the Cengage website. OurManagerialEcon.com blog is a good source of new business applications for each of the chapters.

In this fourth edition, we have updated and improved the presentation and pedagogy of the book. The biggest change is in the supplementary mate- rial: we have added videos to complement each chapter, included worked video problems, and dramatically increased the size and quality of the test bank. In addition to the other updates throughout the text, Chapter 24, “You Be the Consultant,” has all-new content.

We wish to acknowledge numerous classes of MBA, executive MBA, nondegree executive education, and healthcare management students, without whom none of this would have been possible—or necessary. Many of our for- mer students will recognize stories from their companies in the book. Most of the stories in the book are from students and are for teaching purposes only.

Thanks to everyone who contributed, knowingly or not, to the book. Professor Froeb owes intellectual debts to former colleagues at the U.S. Department of Justice (among them, Cindy Alexander, Tim Brennan, Ken Heyer, Kevin James, Bruce Kobayahsi, and Greg Werden); to former collea- gues at the Federal Trade Commission (among them James Cooper, Pauline Ippolito, Tim Muris, Dan O’Brien, Maureen Ohlhausen, Paul Pautler, Mike Vita, and Steven Tenn); to colleagues at Vanderbilt (among them, Germain Boer, Jim Bradford, Bill Christie, Mark Cohen, Myeong Chang, Craig Lewis, Rick Oliver, David Parsley, David Rados, Steven Tschantz, David Scheffman, and Bart Victor); and to numerous friends and colleagues who offered sugges- tions, problems, and anecdotes for the book, among them, Lily Alberts, Olafur Arnarson, Raj Asirvatham, Bert Bailey, Pat Bajari, Molly Bash, Sarah Berhalter, Roger Brinner, the Honorable Jim Cooper, Matthew Dixon Cowles, Abie Del Favero, Kelsey Duggan, Vince Durnan, Marjorie Eastman, Keri Floyd, Josh Gapp, Brock Hardisty, Trent Holbrook, Jeff and Jenny Hubbard, Brad Jenkins, Dan Kessler, Bev Landstreet (B5), Bert Mathews, Christine Milner, Jim Overdahl, Rich Peoples, Annaji Pervajie, Jason Rawlins, Mike Saint, David Shayne, Jon Shayne, Bill Shughart, Doug Tice, Whitney Tilson, and Susan Woodward. We owe intellectual and pedagogical debts to Armen Alchian and William Allen,3 Henry Hazlitt,4 Shlomo Maital,5 John MacMillan,6

Steven Landsburg,7 Ivan Png,8 Victor Tabbush,9 Michael Jensen and William Meckling,10 and James Brickley, Clifford Smith, and Jerold Zimmerman.11

Special thanks to everyone who guided us through the publishing process, including Daniel Noguera, Steve Scoble, Michael Worls, and Jyotsna Ojha.

PREFACE xv

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END NOTES

1. Much of the material is taken from Froeb, Luke M. and Ward, James C., “Teaching Managerial Economics with Problems Instead of Models” (April 5, 2011). The International Handbook on Teaching and Learning Economics, ed. Gail Hoyt, KimMarie McGoldrick, eds. (Edward Elgar Publishing, 2012: Northampton, MA.

2. http://sambaker.com/econ/ 3. Armen Alchian and William Allen, Exchange

and Production, 3rd ed. (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1983).

4. Henry Hazlitt, Economics in One Lesson (New York: Crown, 1979).

5. Shlomo Maital, Executive Economics: Ten Essential Tools for Managers (New York: Free Press, 1994).

6. John McMillan, Games, Strategies, and Managers (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992).

7. Steven Landsburg, The Armchair Economist: Economics and Everyday Life (New York: Free Press, 1993).

8. Ivan Png, Managerial Economics (Maiden, MA: Blackwell, 1998).

9. http://www.mbaprimer.com 10. Michael Jensen and William Meckling, A

Theory of the Firm: Governance, Residual Claims and Organizational Forms (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2000).

11. James Brickley, Clifford Smith, and Jerold Zimmerman, Managerial Economics and Organizational Architecture (Chicago: Irwin, 1997).

xvi PREFACE

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MANAGERIAL ECONOMICS

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SECTION 1

Problem Solving and Decision Making

1 Introduction: What This Book Is About

2 The One Lesson of Business

3 Benefits, Costs, and Decisions

4 Extent (How Much) Decisions

5 Investment Decisions: Look Ahead and Reason Back

1

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Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

1 Introduction: What This Book Is About

In 1992, a junior geologist was preparing a bid recommendation for an oil tract in the Gulf of Mexico. He suspected that this tract contained a large accumulation of oil because his company, Oil Ventures International (OVI), had an adjacent tract with several productive wells. Since no competitors had neighboring tracts, none of them suspected a large accumulation of oil. Because of this, he thought that the tract could be won relatively cheaply and recommended a bid of $5 million. Surprisingly, OVI’s senior manage- ment ignored the recommendation and submitted a bid of $21 million. OVI won the tract over the next-highest bid of $750,000.

If the board of directors asked you to review the bidding procedures at OVI, how would you proceed? What questions would you ask? Where would you begin your investigation?

You’d find it difficult to gather information from those closest to the bid- ding. Senior management would be suspicious and uncooperative because no one likes to be singled out for bidding $20 million more than was necessary. Likewise, our junior geologist would be reluctant to criticize his superiors. You might be able to rely on your experience—provided that you had run into a similar problem. But without experience, or when facing novel problems, you would have to rely on your analytic ability.

This book is designed to show you how to complete an assignment like this.

1.1 Using Economics to Solve Problems To solve a problem like OVI’s, first, figure out what’s causing the problem, and second, how to fix it. In this case, you would want to know whether the $21 million bid was too high at the time it was made, not just in retrospect. If the bid was too aggressive, then you’d have to figure out why the senior man- agers overbid and how to make sure they don’t do it again.

Both steps require that you predict how people behave in different cir- cumstances, and this is where the economic content of the book comes in.

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The one thing that unites economists is their use of the rational-actor paradigm to predict behavior. Simply put, it says that people act rationally, optimally, and self-interestedly. In other words, they respond to incentives. The paradigm not only helps you figure out why people behave the way they do but also suggests ways to motivate them to change. To change behavior, you have to change self-interest, and you do that by changing incentives.

Incentives are created by rewarding good performance with, for example, a commission on sales or a bonus based on profitability. The performance evaluation metric (revenue, cost, profit, or similar outcome) is separate from the reward structure (commission, bonus, raise, or promotion), but they work together to create an incentive to behave a certain way.

To illustrate, let’s go back to OVI’s story and try to find the source of the problem. After his company won the auction, our geologist increased the company’s oil reserves by the amount of oil estimated to be in the tract. But when the company drilled a well, they discovered only a small amount of oil, so the acquisition did little to increase the size of the company’s oil reserves. Using the information from the well, our geologist updated the reservoir map and reduced the reserve estimate by two-thirds.

Senior management rejected the lower estimate and directed the geologist to “do what he could” to increase the size of the estimated reserves. So he revised the reservoir map again, adding “additional” reserves to the com- pany’s asset base. The reason behind this behavior became clear when, sev- eral months later, OVI’s senior managers resigned, collecting bonuses tied to the increase in oil reserves that had accumulated during their tenure.

The incentive created by the bonus plan explains the behavior of senior management. Both the overbidding and the effort to inflate the reserve esti- mate were rational, self-interested responses to the incentive created by the bonus. Even if you didn’t know about the geologist’s bid recommendation, you’d still suspect that the senior managers overbid because they had the incentive to do so. Senior managers’ ability to manipulate the reserve estimate made it difficult for shareholders and their representatives on the board of directors to spot the mistake.

To fix this problem, you have to find a way to better align managers’ incentives with the company’s goals. To do this, find a way to reward man- agement for increasing profitability, not just for acquiring reserves. This is not as easy as it sounds because it is difficult to measure a manager’s contri- bution to company profitability. You can do this subjectively, with annual performance reviews, or objectively, using company earnings or stock price appreciation as performance metrics. But each of these performance metrics can create problems, as we’ll see in later chapters.

1.2 Problem-Solving Principles This story illustrates two principles that will help you learn to diagnose and solve problems. Notice that (1) we reduced the problem (overbidding) to a

4 SECTION I • Problem Solving and Decision Making

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bad decision by someone at the firm (senior management) and (2) we used economics to find the source of the problem. Under the rational-actor para- digm, bad decisions happen for one of two reasons: either decision makers do not have enough information to make good decisions, or they lack incen- tive to do so. Using this insight, you can isolate the source of almost any problem by asking three simple questions:

1. Who is making the bad decision? 2. Does the decision maker have enough information to make a good

decision? 3. Does the decision maker have the incentive to make a good decision?

Answers to these three questions not only point to the source of the problem but will also suggest ways to fix it by:

1. letting someone else—someone with better information or better incentives—make the decision,

2. giving more information to the current decision maker, or 3. changing the current decision makers’ incentives.

In OVI’s case, we see that (1) senior management made the bad decision to overbid; (2) they had enough information to make a good decision, but (3) they didn’t have the incentive to do so. One potential fix is to change the incentives of senior management so that they are based on profitability, not oil reserves.

When reading about various business mistakes in this book, you should ask yourself these three questions to see if you can find the cause of each problem, and then try one of the three solutions to fix it. By the time you fin- ish the book, the analysis should become second nature.

Here are some practical tips that will help you develop problem-solving skills:

Think about the problem from the organization’s point of view. Avoid the temptation to think about the problem from the employee’s point of view because you will miss the fundamental problem of goal alignment: how does the organization give employees enough information to make good decisions and the incentive to do so?

Think about the organizational design. Once you identify a bad decision, avoid the temptation to solve the problem by simply reversing the decision. Instead, think about why the bad decision was made, and how to make sure that similar mistakes won’t be made in the future.

What is the trade-off? Every solution has costs as well as benefits. Avoid the temptation to think only about the benefits, as it will make your analysis seem as if it were done to justify your own foregone conclusion. Instead, use the three questions to spot problems with a proposed solu- tion; that is, in whatever solution you propose, make sure decision makers have enough information to make good decisions and the incen- tive to do so.

CHAPTER 1 • Introduction: What This Book Is About 5

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Don’t define the problem as the lack of your solution. This kind of thinking may cause you to miss the best solution. For example, if you define a problem as “the lack of centralized purchasing,” then the solu- tion will be “centralized purchasing” regardless of whether that is the best option. Instead, define the problem as “high acquisition cost,” and then examine “centralized purchasing” versus “decentralized purchasing” (or some other alternative) as potential solutions to the problem.

Avoid jargon because most people misuse it. Force yourself to spell out what you mean in simple language. It will help you think clearly and communicate precisely. In addition, almost every scam is “sold” using jargon. If you use jargon, experienced listeners may suspect fraud.

1.3 Test Yourself In 2006, an investigative news program sent a TV reporter with a perfectly good car into a garage owned by National Auto Repair (NAR). The reporter came out with a new muffler and transmission—and a bill for over $8,000. After the story aired on national TV, consumers began avoiding NAR, and profit plunged. What is the problem, and how do you fix it?

Let’s run the problem through our problem-solving algorithm:

1. Who is making the bad decision? The mechanic recommended unnecessary repairs.

2. Does the decision maker have enough information to make a good decision? Yes, in fact, the mechanic is the only one with enough information to know whether repairs are necessary.

3. Does the decision maker have the incentive to make a good decision? No, the mechanic is evaluated based on the amount of repair work he does, and receives bonuses or commissions tied to the amount of repair work.

Answers to the three questions suggest that the use of quotas, commissions, or similar compensation provides an incentive for mechanics to recommend unnecessary auto repair services.

NAR tried two different solutions to fix the problem. First, they reorga- nized into two divisions: one responsible for recommending repairs where mechanics were paid a flat salary, and the other responsible for doing them. Rather than solving the problem, however, mechanics in the two divisions got together and began colluding. In exchange for recommending unnecessary repairs, the recommending mechanic received a portion of the commission received by the service mechanic for the work that was done.

After they recognized this new problem, NAR went back to the old orga- nizational structure, but they adopted flat pay for the mechanics. This removed the incentive to do unnecessary repairs, but it also removed the incentive to work hard. Since the mechanics made the same amount of

6 SECTION I • Problem Solving and Decision Making

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money regardless of whether they recommended and performed repairs, the mechanics ignored all but the most obvious problems.

This example illustrates several of the problem-solving principles men- tioned earlier. First, it highlights the crucial role played by information. If you are going to let someone else make the decision, as in the first solution, you have to ask whether the new decision maker (the recommending mechanic) has enough information to make good decisions, as well as the incentive to do so. As a third potential solution to this problem, I would keep the original commission scheme, but develop new sources of information (an additional performance evaluation metric) based on reports provided by “secret shoppers” who bring cars into the garage in order to see if the mechanics are ordering unnecessary repairs.

The example also illustrates the trade-offs you face when proposing solu- tions. The first solution involved the costly duplication of effort by the two recommending and service mechanics, the second led to mechanic shirking, and the third would require a new reward scheme based not only on a sales commission but also on the reports of the secret shopper. Figuring out which solution is most profitable involves weighing the trade-offs associated with the various solutions.

1.4 Ethics and Economics Using the rational-actor paradigm in this way—to change behavior by changing incentives—makes some students uncomfortable because it seems to deny the altruism, affection, and personal ethics that most people use to guide their behav- ior. These students resist learning the rational-actor paradigm because they think it implicitly endorses self-interested behavior, as if the primary purpose of economics were to teach students to behave rationally, optimally, and selfishly.

These students would probably agree with a Washington Post editorial, “When It Comes to Ethics, B-Schools Get an F,”1 which blames business schools in general, and economists in particular, for the ethical lapses at Enron, Goldman Sachs, and other companies.

A subtle but damaging factor in this is the dominance of economists at business schools. Although there is no evidence that economists are personally less ethical than members of other disciplines, approaching the world through the dollar sign does make people more cynical.

What these students and the author, a former Harvard ethics profes- sor, do not understand is that to control unethical behavior, you first have to understand why it occurs. When we analyze problems like the one at OVI, we’re not encouraging students to behave opportunistically. Rather, we’re teaching them to anticipate opportunistic behavior and to design organizations that are less susceptible to it. Remember, the rational-actor paradigm is only a tool for analyzing behavior, not advice on how to live your life.

It is also important to realize that these kinds of debates are really debates about value systems. Deontologists judge actions as good or ethical

CHAPTER 1 • Introduction: What This Book Is About 7

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by whether they conform to a set of principles, like the Ten Commandments or the Golden Rule. Consequentialists, on the other hand, judge actions by their consequences. If the consequences of an action are good, then the action is deemed to be good or moral. To illustrate these contrasting value systems, consider this story about price gouging.2

When Notre Dame entered the 2006 season as one of the top-ranked football teams in the country, demand for local hotels during home games rose dramatically. In response, local hotels raised room rates. According to the Wall Street Journal, the Hampton Inn charged $400 a night on football weekends for a room that cost only $129 a night on nonfootball dates. Rates climbed even higher for games against top-ranked foes. For the game against the University of Michigan, the South Bend Marriott charged $649 per night—$500 more than its normal weekend rate of $149.

On a campus founded by priests of the Congregation of Holy Cross, where many students dedicate their year after graduation to working with the underprivileged, these high prices caused alarm. The Wall Street Journal quotes Professor Joe Holt, a former priest who teaches ethics in the school’s executive MBA program: “It is an ‘act of moral abdication’ for businesses to pretend they have no choice but to charge as much as they can based on sup- ply and demand.” The article further reports Mr. Holt’s intention to use the example of rising hotel rates on football weekends for a case study in his class on the integration of business and values.

Deontologists like Professor Holt would object on principle to the practice of raising prices in times of shortage.3 We might label one such principle, the Spider Man principle: with great power comes great responsibility. The laws of capitalism allow corporations to amass significant power; in turn, society should demand a high level of responsibility from corporations. In particular, property rights might give a hotel the option of increasing prices, but posses- sion of these rights does not relieve the hotel of its obligations to be concerned about the consequences of its choices. A simple beneficence argument might suggest that keeping prices low would be better for consumers.

Economics, on the other hand, provides us a consequentialist defense of high prices by comparing them to the implied alternative of not raising prices during periods of high demand. Economists would show, using supply-demand analysis, that if prices did not rise, the consequence would be excess demand for hotel rooms. Would-be guests would find their rooms rationed, perhaps on a first-come, first-served basis. More likely, arbitrageurs would set up a black market, by making early reservations, then “selling” their reservations to custo- mers willing to pay the market-clearing price. Without the ability to earn addi- tional profit during times of scarcity, hotels would have less incentive to build additional rooms, which would make the long-run problem even worse!

Versions of this debate—between those who criticize business on ethical grounds, and those who are simply trying to make money—have been going on in this country since its founding. Although a full treatment of the ethical dimensions of business is beyond the scope of this book, many disagreements are really about whether morality should be defined by deontology or conse- quentialism. Once you realize that a debate is really a debate between value

8 SECTION I • Problem Solving and Decision Making

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systems, it becomes much easier to understand opposing points of view, and to reach compromise with your adversaries. For example, if the government were considering price-gouging laws that made it illegal to raise prices on football weekends, you might offer to donate some of the profits earned on football weekends to a local charity. This might assuage the concerns of those who ascribe to the Spider Man principle.

As a footnote to our story of prices in South Bend, when someone offered our former priest $1,500 for his apartment on home-game weekends, he took the offer and now spends his weekends in Chicago. Apparently his principles became too costly for him.

1.5 Economics in Job Interviews If this well-reasoned introduction doesn’t motivate you to learn economics, read the following interview questions—all from real interviews of my students. These questions should awaken interest in the material for those of you who think economics is merely an obstacle between you and a six-figure salary.

– – – – – – – Original Message – – – – – – –

From: “Student A” Sent: Friday, January 2, 3:57 PM Subject: Economics Interview Questions

I had an interview a few weeks ago where I was told that the position paid a very low base and was mostly incentive com- pensation. I responded that I understood he was simply “screening out” low productivity candidates [low productiv- ity candidates would not earn very much under a system of incentive compensation, and would be less likely to accept the position]. I “signaled” back to him that this compensa- tion structure was acceptable to me, as I was confident in my abilities to produce value for the company, and for me. [Note: “Signalling” and “screening” are both solutions to the problem of adverse selection, the topic of Chapter 19.]

– – – – – – – Original Message – – – – – – –

From: “Student B” Sent: Tuesday, January 18, 1:22 PM Subject: Economics Interview Questions

I got a question from Compaq last year for a marketing intern- ship position that partially dealt with sunk costs. It was a “true” case question where the interviewer used the Internet to pull up the actual products as he asked the question.

CHAPTER 1 • Introduction: What This Book Is About 9

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“I am the product manager for the new X type server with these great features. It is to be launched next month at a cost of $5,500. Dell launched their new Y type server last week; it has the same features (and even a few more) for a cost of $4,500. To date, Compaq has put over $2.5 million in the development process for this server, and as such my manager is expecting above normal returns for the investment.

My question to you is “what advice would you give to me on how to approach the launch of the product, i.e. do I go ahead with it at the current price, if at all, even though Dell has a bet- ter product out that is less expensive, not forgetting the fact that I have spent all the development money and my boss expects me to report a super return?”

I laughed at the question because it was the very first thing we spoke about in the interview, catching me off-guard a bit. He wanted to see if I got caught worrying about all the devel- opment costs in giving advice to scrap the launch or continue ahead as planned. (I’m not an idiot and could see that coming a mile away … thanks to economics, right? ! ! ! ) [NOTE: this is a version of what is called the “sunk cost fallacy” which is covered in Chapter 3.]

– – – – – – – Original Message- – – – – – –

From: “Student C” Sent: Tuesday, January 18, 1:37 PM Subject: Economics Interview Questions

I got questions regarding transfer price within entities of a company. What prices could be used and why. [NOTE: the problem of transfer pricing is one of the most common sources of con- flict between divisions and is covered in Chapters 22 and 23.]

– – – – – – – Original Message- – – – – – –

From: “Student D” Sent: Tuesday, January 18, 1:28 PM Subject: Economics Interview Questions

You are a basketball coach with five seconds on the clock, and you are losing by two points. You have the ball and can take only one more shot (there is no chance of a rebound). There is a 70% chance of making a two-pointer, which would send the game into overtime with each team having an equal chance of winning. There is only a forty percent chance of making a

10 SECTION I • Problem Solving and Decision Making

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on her loving two equally

The following sample essay (which you can read in your textbook on page 694) develops the observations about Aphra Behn’s “On Her Loving Two Equally” into a coherent essay. As this essay also shows, however, you will often discover new ways of looking at a poem (or any literary text) in the very process of writing about it. The writer begins by considering why she is drawn to the poem, even though it does not express her ideal of love. She then uses her personal response to the poem as a starting point for analyzing it in greater depth. As you read, pay attention to the strengths and weaknesses you perceive.

Student Name

Instructor

Course

Date

Multiplying by Dividing in Aphra Behn’s “On Her Loving Two Equally”

My favorite poem in “Reading, Responding, Writing” is Aphra Behn’s “On Her Loving Two Equally”—not because it expresses my ideal of love, but because it challenges conventional ideals. The main ideal or assumption explored in the poem is that true love is exclusive and monogamous, as the very titles of two other poems in the chapter and the “Romantic Love” album insist: “How Do I [singular] Love Thee [singular]?” or “To My Dear and Loving [and One and Only] Husband.” The mere title of Behn’s poem upsets that idea by insisting that at least one woman is capable of “Loving Two Equally.” In fact, one thing that is immediately interesting about Behn’s poem is that, though it poses and explores a question, its question is not “Can a woman love two equally?” The title and the poem take it for granted that she can. Instead, the poem asks whether equally loving two people lessens the power or quality of love—or, as the speaker puts it in the first two lines, “How strongly does my passion flow, / Divided equally twixt two?” Every aspect of this poem suggests that when it comes to love, as opposed to math, Comment by jennifer.heinert: This essay starts very informally and personally. While there is nothing wrong with this per se, make sure you know whether your instructor is okay with this kind of conversational and familiar tone or “I writing.” While this essay starts off informally, the writer quickly shifts to a more formal tone. In fact, the author never returns to the “I” voice for the rest of the essay. So, is it necessary? This “I” voice could be eliminated by saying “Aphra Behn’s poem challenges conventional ideals about love.”

This answer grabs attention because it is so counterintuitive and unconventional. Forget love for just a minute: It’s common sense that anything that is “divided” is smaller and weaker than something unified. In math, for example, division is the opposite of multiplication; if we divide one number by another, we get a number smaller than the first number, if not the second. Although Behn’s use of the word flow to frame her question compares love to a river instead of a number, the implication is the same: When a river divides into two streams, each of them is smaller than the river, and its flow less strong; as a result, each stream is more easily dammed up or diverted than the undivided river. So the way the speaker initially poses her question seems to support the conventional view: Love is stronger when it “flows” toward one person, weaker when divided between two.

However conventional and comforting that implied answer, however, it’s one the poem immediately rejects. In the remaining lines of the first stanza, the speaker insists that each of her two lovers and the love she feels for him has not lessened the strength of her feelings for the other, but the reverse. Each lover and each love has “aid[ed]” (line 6) the other, making him and it more “powerful” (line 5). Indeed, she says, neither man would have “subdued [her] heart” (line 3) or “gain[ed her] love” (line 6) at all if the other hadn’t done so as well. Comment by jennifer.heinert: Even though this is a short paragraph it is strong literary analysis: a clear point, analysis, and short (but important) quotations to support the author’s point. Commenting on the importance of individual words within a poem or other literary work is demonstrates a depth of critical thinking.If you glance at the rest of the essay, you will not see long quotations, and the author often provides multiple quotations to support her analysis.

In the second stanza, the speaker gives us a somewhat more concrete sense of why and how this might be the case. On the one hand, being with either one of these men (“When Alexis present is,” line 7) actually makes her both “scorn” him (line 10) and “miss” (line 9) the man who’s not there (“I for Damon sigh and mourn,” line 8). This isn’t really a paradox; we often yearn more for the person or thing we don’t have (the grass is always greener on the other side of the fence), and we often lose our appreciation for nearby, familiar things and people. What is far away and inaccessible is often dearer to us because its absence either makes us aware of what it means to us or allows us to forget its flaws and idealize it.

Perhaps because all of this makes the speaker feel that she can’t possibly solve the problem by herself, the speaker turns in the third stanza to Cupid—the deity who is supposed to control these things by shooting a “golden-pointed dart” (line 15) into the heart of each lover. She asks him to solve her dilemma for her by “tak[ing] back” her love for either Damon or Alexis (line 15). As with her question in the first stanza, however, this plea is taken back as soon as it’s formulated, for if she loses Damon, “all [her] hopes are crossed”; if she loses Alexis, she is “lost” (lines 17– 18).

Here and throughout the poem, the speaker’s main preoccupation seems to be what she feels and what this situation is like for her—“mypassion” (line 1), “my heart” (line 3), “my Damon’s aid, … my love” (line 6), “my Alexis” (line 7), “I … sigh and mourn” (line 8), “I do miss” (line 9), “my scorn” (line 10), “I languish, sigh, and die” (line 12), “This restless fever in my blood” (line 14), “my hopes” (line 17), “my Alexis” and “I am lost” (line 18). Yet the poem implies that the payoff here is not hers alone and that her feelings are not purely selfish. Both times the word gain appears in the poem, for example, her lovers’ gains and feelings are the focus—the fact that Alexis is able “to gain [her] love” thanks to “Damon’s aid” (line 6) and that “Damon gains nothing but my scorn” when she is missing Alexis (line 10). Moreover, ambiguous wording in the first stanza suggests that the men here may be actively, intentionally helping to create this situation and even themselves acting in contradictory, selfish and unselfish, ways. For when the speaker says that “Damon had ne’er subdued my heart / Had not Alexis took his part” (lines 3– 4), his could refer to Alexis or Damon and part could mean “a portion” (of her “heart,” presumably), “a role” (in her life or in this courtship drama), or a “side in a dispute or conflict” (over and for her love). Thus, she could be saying that Alexis (unselfishly) defended Damon’s suit; (selfishly) fought against Damon or took a share or role that properly belonged to Damon; and/or (neutrally) took his (Alexis’s) own share or role or defended his (Alexis’s) own cause. Perhaps all of this has been the case at various times; people do behave in contradictory ways when they are in love, especially when they perceive that they have a rival. It’s also true that men and women alike often more highly prize something or someone that someone else prizes, too. So perhaps each lover’s “passion” for her also “flow[s]” more strongly than it would otherwise precisely because he has a rival. Comment by jennifer.heinert: This paragraph is substantially longer than all of the other body paragraphs. While that might not indicate there is a problem with the paragraph, it might be an indicator that there should be a break: Read over the paragraph—is there a place where there should be a logical break? Comment by jennifer.heinert: This might be a good place to break the paragraph in half.

In the end, the poem thus seems to say that love doesn’t flow or work like a river because love isn’t a tangible or quantifiable thing. As a result, love is also different from the sort of battle conjured up by the martial language of the first stanza in which someone wins only if someone else loses. The poem attributes this to the perversity of the human heart—especially our tendency to yearn for what we can’t have and what we think other people want, too.

Through its form, the poem demonstrates that division can increase instead of lessen meaning, as well as love. On the one hand, just as the poem’s content stresses the power of the love among three people, so the poem’s form also stresses “threeness” as well as “twoness.” It is after all divided into three distinctly numbered stanzas, and each stanza consists of three sentences. On the other hand, every sentence is “divided equally twixt two” lines, just as the speaker’s “passion” is divided equally between two men. Formally, then, the poem mirrors the kinds of division it describes. Sound and especially rhyme reinforce this pattern since the two lines that make up one sentence usually rhyme with each other to form a couplet. The only lines that don’t conform to this pattern come at the beginning of the second stanza where we instead have alternating rhyme—is (line 7) rhymes with miss (line 9), mourn (line 8) rhymes with scorn (line 10). But here, again, form reinforces content. For these lines describe how the speaker “miss[es]” one man when the other is “by,” a sensation that she arguably reproduces in us as we read by ensuring we twice “miss” the rhyme that the rest of the poem leads us to expect.

Because of the way it challenges our expectations and our conventional ideas about romantic love, the poem might well make us uncomfortable, perhaps all the more so because the speaker and poet here are female. For though we tend to think all true lovers should be loyal and monogamous, this has been expected even more of women than of men. What the poem says about love might make more sense and seem less strange and even objectionable, however, if we think of other, nonromantic kinds of love: After all, do we really think that our mother and father love us less if their love is “divided equally twixt” ourselves and our siblings, or do we love each of our parents less because there are two of them? If we think of these familial kinds of love, it becomes much easier to accept Behn’s suggestion that love multiplies when we spread it around. Comment by jennifer.heinert: Concluding paragraphs are difficult. You want to reiterate the main points without repeating them verbatim, and you want to put your work in an interesting context without going off-topic. In this case, there are some clear connections to the introduction, thesis, and body paragraphs. However, does the issue of gender relate to what has been said up to this point in the essay? Does bringing up gender (without discussion or evidence) make the essay stronger? How might this idea be incorporated into the existing essay?

WORK CITED

Behn, Aphra. “On Her Loving Two Equally.” The Norton Introduction to Literature. Eds. Alison Booth and Kelly J. Mays. 10th ed. New York: Norton, 2010. Print.

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decomposition of hydrogen peroxide lab report

Experiment 2 Decomposition

of Hydrogen Peroxide The decomposition of hydrogen peroxide in aqueous solution proceeds very slowly. A bottle of 3% hydrogen peroxide sitting on a grocery store shelf is stable for a long period of time. The decomposition takes place according to the reaction below.

2 H2O2(aq) → 2 H2O + O2(g)

A number of catalysts can be used to speed up this reaction, including potassium iodide, manganese (IV) oxide, and the enzyme catalase. If you conduct the catalyzed decomposition of hydrogen peroxide in a closed vessel, you will be able to determine the reaction rate as a function of the pressure increase in the vessel that is caused by the production of oxygen gas. If you vary the initial molar concentration of the H2O2 solution, the rate law for the reaction can also be determined. Finally, by conducting the reaction at different temperatures, the activation energy, Ea, can be calculated.

OBJECTIVES In this experiment, you will

· Conduct the catalyzed decomposition of hydrogen peroxide under various conditions. · Calculate the average rate constant for the reaction at room temperature. · Determine the rate law expression for the reaction. · Calculate the activation energy for the reaction.

The rate law for this reaction can be determined using the observed rates of reactions from a series of different experiments. The concentration of one reactant is held constant between two different experiments, acting as the control, while the concentration of the second reactant is different between the two experiments. The rate of reaction is measured in each experiment so the impact of changing the concentration of the second reactant can be determined. The order of the reaction with respect to each reactant is determined in this fashion and once the order of each reactant is know the rate law can then be written.

(A) Sample Exercise for Determining Reaction Order

Consider the following reaction: (CH3)3CBr(aq) + OH-(aq) → (CH3)3COH(aq) + Br-(aq) A series of experiments is carried out with the following results:

Exp 1 Exp 2 Exp 3 Exp 4 Exp 5 [(CH3)3CBr] 0.50 1.0 1.5 1.0 1.0 [OH-] 0.050 0.050 0.050 0.10 0.20 Rate (M/s) 0.0050 0.010 0.015 0.010 0.040

Find the order of the reaction with respect to both (CH3)3CBr and OH-.

Advanced Chemistry with Vernier 1

2 Advanced Chemistry with Vernier

To find the order of the reaction with respect to (CH3)3CBr, choose two experiments, 1 and 3 for example, where [OH-] is constant. A similar approach can be used to find the order of the reaction with respect to OH-, comparing experiments 2 and 5, where [(CH3)3CBr]

(1) Order with Respect to (CH3)3CBr:

Rate exp 3 = k([(CH3)3CBr]exp3)m ([OH-]exp3)n Rate exp 1 k([(CH3)3CBr]exp1)m ([OH-]exp1)n

0.015 M/s = k([1.5 M])m (0.050 M)n simplifies to: 3.0 = (3.0)m 0.0050 M/s k([0.50 M])m (0.050 M)n

Using the natural log applied to both sides and solving for “m”

Ln 3.0 = (Ln 3.0) (m) (Ln 3.0) / (Ln 3.0) = 1.10 / 1.10 = 1 = m

Since “m” = 1 the reaction is first order with respect to (CH3)3CBr.

(2) Order with Respect to [OH-]:

Rate exp 5 = k([(CH3)3CBr]exp5)m ([OH-]exp5)n Rate exp 4 k([(CH3)3CBr]exp2)m ([OH-]exp2)n

0.040 M/s = k([1.0 M])m (0.20 M)n simplifies to: 4.0 = (2.0)n 0.010 M/s k([1.0 M])m (0.10 M)n

Using the natural log applied to both sides and solving for “m”

Ln 4.0 = (Ln 2.0) (m) (Ln 4.0) / (Ln 2.0) = 1.39 / 0.69 = 2.01 = n

Since “n” = 2 the reaction is second order with respect to (CH3)3CBr.

Now that the order of the reaction for each reactant has been determined the rate law can be written for this equation:

Rate = k [(CH3)3CBr] [OH-]2

(B) Sample Exercise for Determining Molarity of a Diluted Solution

When two solutions are mixed in an experiment the total volume of the solutions is increased and the concentration of each solution is diluted. Recall:

Moles solute before dilution = moles solute after dilution

so; (Molarity)conc x (Volume) conc = (Molarity)dil x (Volume)dil

The Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide

Advanced Chemistry with Vernier 3

What is the concentration of each compound when 6.0 mL of a 0.60 M solution of H2O2 is mixed with 2.0 mL of a 0.25 M potassium iodide solution?

(1) First consider the total volume of the solution after mixing:

6.0 mL H2O2 + 2.0 mL KI = 8.0 mL total volume of diluted solution

(2) Determine the concentration of H2O2 after mixing:

[0.75 M]conc x (6.0 mL) conc = [H2O2]dil x (8.0 mL)dil

(0.60 M)(6.0 mL) / (8.0 mL) = 0.45 M = [H2O2]dil

(3) Determine the concentration of KI after mixing:

[0.25 M]conc x (2.0 mL) conc = [H2O2]dil x (8.0 mL)dil

(0.40 M)(2.0 mL) / (8.0 mL) = 0.10 M = [KI]dil

The concentration of the H2O2 decreased from 0.60 M to 0.45 M and the concentration of KI decreased from 0.25 M to 0.10 M after the two solutions are mixed. The solutions will be diluted as the reactions begin so be sure to use the diluted concentrations of each reactant when determining the reaction orders or rate constants.

(C) Sample Exercise for Converting Pressure Rate Data to Molarity Units

The data rate recorded in this experiment is in kilopascals per second (kPa/s). Since pressure is a unit of concentration in the gas phase it can be used to determine rate when the change of pressure is measured over the change in time. However, in this experiment the reactants are in the aqueous phase and the concentration unit for the solutions is in molarity (M). kPa/s can be converted to M/s by using a derivation from the ideal gas law:

Molarity = P / RT

In which P = kPa/s, R = 8.314 L * kPa / K*mol (one of ideal gas constants), and T = temperature on Kelvin.

In one experiment the rate of O2 production was 0.22 kPa/s when the temperature of the water bath was 19.0 oC. What is this rate in M/s?

Molarity = (0.22 kPa/s) / (8.314 L*kPa/K*mol)(292.0 K) = (0.22 kPa / 2.43 x 103 L*kPa / mol)

Molarity = 9.05 x 10-5 M/s

The units kPa and Kelvin cancel leaving mol/L*s or M/s.

(D) Sample Exercise for Converting Percent Solutions (mass/volume) to Molarity Units

Assumed 100 mL of total volume of solution in a percent (mass/volume) solution and the percent value will represent the grams of solute dissolved in water to make a total volume of 100 mL. For example a 10% NaCl solution will have 10 g of NaCl dissolved in 100 mL of solution.

What is the molarity of this 10% NaCl solution?

4 Advanced Chemistry with Vernier

Molarity = moles of solute / liters of solution

If you assume 10 g NaCl and 100 mL of solution and the molar mass of NaCl is 58.5 g / mol then:

(1) Moles NaCl = (10 g NaCl)(1 mole NaCl / 58.5 g NaCl) = 0.17 moles NaCl

(2) Liters solution = (100 mL solution)(1 L solution / 100 mL solution) = 0.100 L solution

(3) Molarity = (0.17 moles NaCl / 0.100 L solution) = 1.7 M

Diagram of the equipment set for this experiment:

Figure 1

MATERIALS Vernier computer interface 3% hydrogen peroxide, H2O2, solution distilled water 0.5 M potassium iodide, KI, solution Vernier Gas Pressure Sensor 18 × 150 mm test tube thermometer or Temperature Probe two 10 mL graduated cylinders one-hole rubber stopper with stem graduated plastic Beral pipet tubing with two Luer-lock connectors 1 liter beaker solid rubber stopper (#1) ~800 mL room temperature water

Procedure Part I Decompose 3% H2O2 solution with 0.5 M KI solution at ~20°C.

The Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide

Advanced Chemistry with Vernier 5

1. Obtain and wear goggles.

2. Prepare the reagents for temperature equilibration. a. Obtain room temperature water to set up a water bath to completely immerse the test tube.

Use a thermometer or a Temperature Probe to measure the temperature of the bath. Record this temperature in your data table for Parts I-III; presume that the water bath temperature remains constant throughout.

b. Measure out 4 mL of 3% H2O2 solution into the test tube. Seal the test tube with the solid rubber stopper and place the test tube in the water bath.

c. Measure out 2 mL of 0.5 M KI solution in a graduated cylinder. Draw about 1 mL of the KI solution into a graduated Beral pipet. Invert the pipet and immerse the reservoir end of the pipet in the water bath.

3. Connect a Gas Pressure Sensor to Channel 1 of the Vernier computer interface. Connect the interface to the computer using the proper cable.

4. Use the plastic tubing to connect the one-hole rubber stopper to the Gas Pressure Sensor, as shown in Figure 1. About one-half turn of the fittings will secure the tubing tightly.

5. Start the Logger Pro program on your computer. Open the file “12 Peroxide” from the Advanced Chemistry with Vernier folder.

6. Prepare to run the reaction and collect pressure data. d. Remove the test tube from the water bath and remove the solid stopper. e. Remove the plastic Beral pipet from the water bath and quickly transfer 1 mL of KI

solution into the test tube. Tap or lightly shake the test tube to mix the reagents. f. Seal the test tube with the one-hole stopper connected to the Gas Pressure Sensor. g. Place the test tube back in the water bath.

7. Click to begin data collection. Data will be gathered for three minutes. If necessary, gently hold the test tube so that it stays completely immersed in the water bath.

8. When the data collection is complete, carefully remove the stopper from the test tube to relieve the pressure. Dispose of the contents of the test tube as directed.

9. Examine the graph of Part I. Select a linear region just beyond the initial flat portion of the graph that covers one minute of the reaction. Click the Linear Regression button, , to calculate the best-fit line equation. Record the slope as the initial rate of the reaction in your data table. Store the results from the first trial by choosing Store Latest Run from the Experiment menu.

10. Rinse and clean the test tube for the second trial.

Part II Decompose 3% H2O2 solution with 0.25 M KI solution at ~20°C

11. Measure out 4 mL of 3% H2O2 solution into the test tube. Seal the test tube with the solid rubber stopper and place the test tube in the water bath.

12. Add 1 mL of distilled water to the remaining 1 mL of KI solution in the graduated cylinder. Swirl the mixture gently to mix the solution.

13. Draw 1 mL of the KI solution into a plastic Beral pipet. Invert the pipet and immerse the reservoir end of the pipet in the water bath. Allow both the test tube and the Beral pipet to remain in the water bath for at least two minutes before proceeding.

14. Repeat Steps 6–10 to complete Part II. Remember to store the data.

6 Advanced Chemistry with Vernier

Part III Decompose 1.5% H2O2 solution with 0.5 M KI solution at ~20°C

15. Prepare a 1.5% H2O2 solution by mixing 2 mL of distilled water with 2 mL of 3% H2O2 solution. Transfer the resulting 4 mL of the 1.5% H2O2 solution to the test tube, seal the test tube with the solid stopper, and place the test tube in the water bath.

16. Rinse and clean the graduated cylinder that you have used for the KI solution. Add a fresh 2 mL of 0.5 M KI solution to the graduated cylinder.

17. Draw 1 mL of the KI solution into a plastic Beral pipet. Invert the pipet and immerse the reservoir end of the pipet in the water bath. Allow both the test tube and the Beral pipet to remain in the water bath for at least two minutes before proceeding.

18. Repeat Steps 6–10 to complete Part III, and store the data.

Part IV Decompose 3% H2O2 solution with 0.5 M KI solution at ~30°C

19. Conduct Part IV identically to the procedure in Part I, with one exception: set the water bath at 30°C.

Part V Decompose 3% H2O2 solution with 0.5 M KI solution at 5-10°C

20. Conduct Part V identically to the procedure in Part I, with one exception: use ice to cool the water bath to the 5-10 °C range – record the temperature of the bath using a thermometer.

PRE-LAB EXERCISE – to be completed before coming to class The hydrogen peroxide solution that you are using in this experiment is labeled as a 3% solution, mass/volume. However, in order to complete the calculations, the concentration must be in molarity. Calculate the molarity of a 3% mass/volume H2O2 solution (Part I, II, and IV) and a 1.5% mass/volume H2O2 solution (Part III) and record these values in the table below. This table should be completed in your lab notebook as part of the pre-lab assignment for this experiment.

Part Volume H2O2 (mL)

[H2O2] before mixing

Volume KI (mL)

[KI] before mixing

I 4 1 0.50 M II 4 1 0.25 M III 4 1 0.50 M IV 4 1 0.50 M V 4 1 0.50 M

Show the calculations used in determining the [H2O2] in the carbonless notebook as part of your pre-lab assignment.

The Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide

Advanced Chemistry with Vernier 7SoraTypewritten Text.88MSoraTypewritten Text.88MSoraTypewritten Text.44MSoraTypewritten Text.88MSoraTypewritten Text.88M

DATA TABLE Type up the following two tables and include them in your formal lab report.

Part Reactants Temperature (°C)

Initial rate (kPa/s)

I 4 mL 3.0% H2O2 + 1 mL 0.5 M KI

II 4 mL 3.0% H2O2 + 1 mL 0.25 M KI

III 4 mL 1.5% H2O2 + 1 mL 0.5 M KI

IV 4 mL 3.0% H2O2 + 1 mL 0.5 M KI

V 4 mL 3.0% H2O2 + 1 mL 0.5 M KI

DATA ANALYSIS

Part Initial rate (mol/L-s)

[H2O2] after mixing

[I–] after mixing

Rate constant k

I

II

III

IV

V

Show the calculations used to answer questions 1 – 4 below after the data section of your formal lab report and explain the chemical principles behind each calculation in your discussion section. You should also explain the chemistry behind your answer to question 5 and define the two different roles described in 5(a) and 5(b).

1. What is the reaction order with respect to hydrogen peroxide?

2. What is the reaction order with respect to potassium iodide?

8 Advanced Chemistry with VernierSoraTypewritten Text21.9SoraTypewritten Text21.9SoraTypewritten TextSoraTypewritten Text21.9SoraTypewritten Text30.4SoraTypewritten Text10.0SoraTypewritten Text.20775SoraTypewritten Text.09819SoraTypewritten Text.1007SoraTypewritten Text.4012SoraTypewritten Text.08099

3. Write the rate law expression for the catalyzed decomposition of hydrogen peroxide and explain how you determined the order of the reaction in H2O2 and KI.

2. Calculate the rate constant, k, for each part of this experiment. Calculate an average rate constant at ~room temperature. Do any of the parts of the experiment have rate constants that are equal or almost equal?

3. Compare the rate of the reaction in part 1 at room temperature with the rate of the reaction in part 4 at approximately 10oC above room temperature. Approximately how much does rate increase with a 10oC increase in temperature? Use your values to explain your answer to this question.

4. Use the Arrhenius equation to determine the activation energy, Ea, for this reaction. Temperature needs to be expressed in Kelvin when using the Arrhenius equation. This determination requires analysis of an Arrhenius plot (ln k vs 1/T) as discussed in class and detailed in your textbook. Use a graphing program to complete the graph and have the program determine the best straight-line fit to the data (it is not acceptable to do this graph by hand). From the equation of the line, you can calculate Ea. Show all calculations. Print your graph and attach it to your lab report when you turn it in…no lab is complete without this plot.

5. The following mechanism has been proposed for this reaction:

H2O2(aq) + I–(aq)→ IO–(aq) + H2O(aq)

H2O2(aq) + IO–(aq) → I–(aq) + H2O(l) + O2(g)

If this mechanism is correct, which step must be the rate-determining step? Please explain your choice.

(a) What is IO-(aq) called in this reaction? (What type of role the ion is playing in the reaction not its actual ionic name, hypoiodite.)

(b) What is I-(aq) called in this reaction? (What type of role the ion is playing in the reaction not its actual ionic name, iodide.)

The Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide

Advanced Chemistry with Vernier 9SoraTypewritten TextSoraTypewritten TextNote : Ea should be in J/mol or KJ/mol convert ‘C to ‘Kelvin

Discussion Section The discussion section should relate the results of this experiment to the impacts of concentration and temperature to the rate of a chemical reaction. For example your discussion should include an explanation of why or how changing the concentration of a reactant impacts the rate of a reaction. You should also include why or how changing the temperature of the solutions impacts the rate of the chemical reactions observed. Cite your data/results as evidence when you discuss the impact of concentration (and temperature) changes on the rate of the reaction.

Since any experiment done in lab involves procedures and measurements the discussion section should also include analysis of errors associated with these. You should include a paragraph or two describing the errors you may have made in this experiment (any procedural errors) and the errors inherent to any measurements (measurement errors) made in the experiment. Explain how each type of error may have influenced the result of the experiment. Since graphical decisions were crucial in this experiment (and can also contribute significantly to the error) be sure to explain how you determined the rate of each reaction (why you chose a certain region of the graph), why it is important to be consistent in this process, and the role this decision plays in the confidence you have in your results. You are welcome to include a small drawing to aid in your discussion if it helps to make an idea more clear.

Conclusion Write a paragraph with a brief conclusion summarizing the results of your experiment and describing what you learned in the process of doing this experiment. Be sure to include the results for the quantities you determined (average rate constant at room temperature, the rate law, and the activation energy) and indicate the largest source of error in your experiment.

10 Advanced Chemistry with Vernier

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asked by Anonymous on May 20, 2009
chemistry
For the following reaction KClO2->KCl+O2 assign oxidation states to each element on each side of the equation. Reactants K=? Cl=? O=? Which element is reduced? I got K=5, Cl=-1, and O=-4 . The element that reduced is K, but its says its wrong. Help,

asked by chris12 on November 20, 2016
Chem I
Ok one more! Write the balanced equations and assign oxidation numbers to all atoms in these two reactions involving iron. If the effective oxidation number of any particular atom changes during the reaction then a redox reaction has occurred. If a redox

asked by Natalea on November 15, 2010
college general chem
If 15.0 of is dissolved in enough water to form 270 of solution, what is the molarity of the solution? What is the oxidation state of an individual sulfur atom in ? What is the oxidation state of an individual nitrogen atom in ?

asked by ronie on October 3, 2011
Chem
Calculate the oxidation # for each atom in the molecule below. Can you help me with the rest. Thank you!!! H H H H / / / / H — C —C ===C —-N .. / / H H Group # # of E Oxidation # H 1 0 1 x 7 = 7 C 4 7 -3 C 4 C 4 N 5

asked by Layla on September 17, 2014

Chemistry
Consider the reaction in aqueous solution: 6 HCl + 2 KMnO4 + 5 H2O2 —> 5 O2 + 2 MnCl2 + 2 KCl + 8 H2O 1.) Write the total ionic equation. 2.) Write the net ionic equation. 3.) For each species (molecule or ion) in the net ionic equation, assign oxidation

asked by Amy on February 29, 2012
Chemistry
Assign oxidation numbers for the following chemical equation: 2Al + 3H2SO4 —> Al2(SO4)3 +3 H2 What was oxidized? What was reduced? My answer: Oxidation numbers going from the left side of the chemical eq to the right side.. Al: 0 H: +1 S: +6 O : -2 Al:

asked by Rucha on November 12, 2015
Chemistry
Mercury(II) sulfide, HgS, is practically insoluble in pure water. Its solubility at 25 degrees C is probably no more than 3×10^−25 g/L. Of the following quantities of pure water, which is the smallest quantity that could be used to make a saturated

asked by Helena on May 2, 2016
chemistry
2 questions please: The highest positive oxidation number that chlorine can exhibit an any compound is +7, whereas its most negative oxidation number is -1. Write the electron configuration of chlorine and explain why these are limiting oxidation numbers

asked by Derrick on May 12, 2012
chem
assign oxidation numbers to PF-6(aq)

asked by amethyst on May 11, 2008
physics
The electron in a hydrogen atom with an energy of -0.544 eV is in a subshell with 18 states. What is the principal quantum number, n, for this atom? What is the maximum possible orbital angular momentum this atom can have? Is the number of states in the

asked by jazz on April 12, 2012
chem
how many grams of sulfur are needed to react w/ 246 grams of mercury to form HgS? Hg + S ==> HgS unless your instructor insists on writing S as S8, in which case it will be 8Hg + S8 ==> 8HgS. The answer will be the same no matter which way the equation is

asked by christine on July 16, 2007
Chemistry
What occurs in the process of ionization? A. Acids dissociate to produce hydroxide ions, as their only negative ions. B. Strong bases ionize almost completely yielding a maximum quantity of hydrogen ions. C. Stationary solid ions are produced. D. Ions are

asked by Sadie on June 24, 2010
Science

  1. Study the amino acid sequences of the same protein taken from four different species of plants. Which pair of plants is most closely related? Species 1: -A-P-A-C-W- Species 2: -G-P-G-S-F- Species 3: -A-P-A-C-F- Species 4: -N-K-M-H-H- A. Species 2 and 4

asked by Melissa bowers on October 23, 2015
physics
a helium atom is in one of its single states.one of the electrons is in an p-state and the other a D-sate.the atom is placed in a magnetic field,B,of strengh 3 tesla. sketch a diagram showing the degenerated states and all permissible transition from

asked by thomas on April 27, 2016

chemistry
Redox reaction in assign oxidation number is ca3(po4)2

asked by Prajwal on June 2, 2014
Chemistry
how do you assign oxidation numbers t o an element? i know u se the periodaic table but i don’t know how to find the number

asked by Madison on November 6, 2007
HELP!
A biologist made population count of four different species of animals in an ecosystem. What can you infer from these numbers possible predator-prey relationship[s between species? Species A : 155 Species B : 17 Species C : 2,467 Species D : 19

asked by Mika on January 22, 2015
Chem – Oxidation States
Determine the oxidation states of Se and S in the products and reactants of the following equation. Amongst the reactants, which species would be called the oxidant and which would be called the reductant? 0.5 SeO4^2- (aq) + 0.125 H2S (aq) = 0.5 SeO3^2-

asked by Derrick on February 22, 2015
Chemistry
calculate the energies of the states of the hydrogen atom with n=2 and n=3, and calculate the wavelength of the photon emitted by the atom when an electron makes a transition between these two states.

asked by masre man on November 23, 2018
science
A species that influences the survival of many other species is an ecosystem is called a(n) (A) Niche species (B) Extinct species (C) Keystone species (D) Endangered species

asked by 220134 on November 2, 2016
Chemistry

  1. Ductility is the ability to be hammered into sheets.- F? 25. A monatomic ion contains only one atom.- T 26. Iron (II) means the iron would have an oxidation number of +2.- F? 27. A polyatomic ion is a group of atoms acting as a single ion.- T 30. The

asked by mysterychicken on October 25, 2010
chemistry
Balance following oxidation reduction reactions using oxidation states method? a) Cl2(g) + Al(s) –> Al3+(aq) + Cl- b.) O2(g) + H2O(l) + Pb(s) –> Pb(OH)2(s) c) H+(aq) + MnO4-(aq) + Fe2+(aq) –> Mn2+(aq) + Fe3+(aq) + H2O(l)

asked by mathew on September 28, 2014
Chemistry
Write the balanced half reaction for the reduction and oxidation reactions for the redox reaction: 2 Mg (s) + O2 (g) -> 2 MgO (s) Notice: for this question you do not have to include a charge of zero and you do not have to include the states. Below is an

asked by Meghan on January 13, 2015
Chemistry
Assign n_hi for each line in the Balmer series of a hydrogen atom.

asked by Ceamus Angelina on April 7, 2018

chemistry grade 12
Question: Balance the following reactions by the oxidation number method. a) I2 + HNO3 –> HIO3 + NO2 + H2O b) MnO4- + H+ + Cl- –> Mn2+ + Cl2 + H2O I know how to give each atom oxidation number but after i don’t know how to apply the method.

asked by Ron on November 17, 2009
Chemistry
Reviewing for exams and completely forgot how to do this and looking back at my notes doesn’t help for this one… Can you please explain how to assign oxidation numbers for Pb(OH)4^2- I guess what’s confusing me is the hydroxide… I haven’t come across

asked by a Canadian on June 19, 2013
History 8
What was one of the main problems with states controlling their own currency? A.States always had to pay the national government more money than they were able to produce. B.States could make their own money and assign it a specific value. C.Paper money

asked by foreveryoung_9914 on May 1, 2014
Chemistry
What is the oxidation number for each atom in NH4F? N=+3, H=-4, F=+1 N=-3, H=+1, F=-1*** N=+3, H+1, F=-1 N=-3, H=-1, F=+1

asked by Holly on May 19, 2016
Science
Two species have a relationship with one another in an ecosystem. Suppose one of these two species goes extinct. Which type of relationship did the two have if the surviving species population increases after the other goes extinct? · The extinct species

asked by Steve on December 27, 2013
Biology
Start by observing the living species around you. Ever wonder why a pollinator is attracted to a particular flower, or what would happen to predator species if a particular prey species is eliminated? If you were a scientist you could do an experiment to

asked by Lisa on May 2, 2010
CHEM
Consider the following balanced oxidation-reduction reaction: Cl2 + SO2 + 2 H2O –> 2 Cl^1- + SO4^2- + 4 H^1+ Based on the above reaction: 1) Which element is oxidized ? 2) How many electrons are lost by each atom ? 3) Which element is reduced ? 4) How

asked by LIARA on February 3, 2012
Physical sciences
How do u calculate the oxidation numbr of an unspecified atom?

asked by Anonymous on October 30, 2009
chemistry
What is the oxidation state of the vanadium atom in VO4−

asked by danny on April 16, 2015
Chemistry
A hydrogen atom in one of its excited states ha an energy of -1.5129^20 J. What is the frequency of radiation is emitted when the atom relaxes down to its ground state?

asked by Kara on February 24, 2017

Physics
Supppose an atom has four distinct energy states. Assuming all transitions are possible, how many spectral lines can this atom produce? Answer with a number only…. ? have no idea

asked by Molly on April 11, 2008
Chemistry 2
Durango redox reaction the oxidation number of species Will decretase, increpase or stay the same

asked by Mary on December 3, 2013
Science
1.which of the following species contains a similar oxidation state as in C of CH2O? CO32- , SO32- CO ,N2O,NO2_

asked by Hari on December 14, 2016
science
When an atom is broken down into parts, what happens to its identity? The atom is no longer recognizable. The atom takes on a new average atomic mass. The atom becomes a new type of matter. The atom becomes a new element. Is it the third one?

asked by Dianni on November 7, 2018
chemistry
(a) Construct a Lewis structure for O2 in which each atom achieves an octet of electrons. (Assign lone pairs where appropriate.) i am using marvin sketch and don’t know what i need to show

asked by Samantha on December 2, 2012
Chemistry
The term degeneracy means the number of different quantum states of an atom or molecule having the same energy. For example, the degeneracy of the n = 2 level of the hydrogen atom is 4 (a 2s quantum state, and three different 2p states). What is the

asked by Lance on June 14, 2011
Honors Chemistry
I have to fill in the blanks of these questions with the elements H (hydrogen), Co (cobalt), Ga (gallium), and O (oxygen), but different sources are telling me different things: 7. Its most common oxidation state is -2 8. A metal with more than one

asked by Emily (different from one before me) on September 28, 2009
Chemistry
Which of the following is true about oxidation reactions? A. Oxidation reactions are the principal source of energy on Earth. B. All oxidation reactions are accompanied by reduction reactions. C. The burning of wood in a fireplace and the metabolization of

asked by sophia on December 28, 2016
Science

  1. Prior to herbicide application, a student notes that there are two related species of weeds (A and B) that occur in similar numbers in plot 5. Species A reproduces sexually and species B reproduces asexually. After exposing both weed populations to

asked by Chelsea on December 19, 2012
Oxidation State
Give the oxidation sate for the monoatomic cobalt species whose electron configuration is the following:[Ar]4s0 3d6 Is the answer +3? Thank you!

asked by chem on March 6, 2010

chemistry
Which statement best describes the oxidation numbers of the atoms found in magnesium chloride? A. Magnesium has a 22 oxidation number and chlorine has 1+ oxidation number. B. Magnesium has 1+ oxidation number and chlorine has a 12 oxidation number. C.

asked by Yui on August 23, 2014
Chemistry
When the oxidation-reduction reaction shown here is balanced, how many electrons are transferred for each atom of copper that reacts? Ag^+ + Cu = Ag + Cu^2+

asked by Danielle on June 26, 2012
chemistry
Which of the following has the central atom with the lowest oxidation number? a. CO32- b. NO3- c. ClO2- d. SO42- e. PO43-

asked by Megan on October 31, 2008
chemistry
Q: I just did an online chemisty lab for Oxidation States of Manganese and I’m stuck. I have three test tubes that have been prepared as follows: Tube 1- Starting PH 13.82 2 mL of KMnO4 1 mL of NaOH Tube 2- Starting PH 7 2 mL of KMnO4 Tube 3- Starting PH 0

asked by jo on July 27, 2010
Science (Biology)
1) In using cladistical analysis to assemble a hypothetical tree of a group of species, there are several things that must first be known. Of the items listed below, which one states an item that is not essential in order to use cladistics? A) Have found

asked by Wande on April 25, 2010
Physics
Consider the Bohr energy expression (Equation 30.13) as it applies to singly ionized helium He+ (Z = 2) and an ionized atom with Z=4 and only a single electron orbiting the nucleus. This expression predicts equal electron energies for these two species for

asked by Ellie on September 30, 2016
Chemistry
Which atom has a change in oxidation number of –3 in the following redox reaction? K2Cr2O7 + H2O + S – – > KOH + Cr2O3 + SO2 K Cr*** O S

asked by Kayla on May 20, 2016
Chemistry
Does the conversion of hydrogen peroxide to oxygen involve oxidation or reduction? What substance is acting as the oxidizer or reducer? and Does the conversion of hydrogen peroxide to water involve oxidation or reduction? What substance is acting as the

asked by Raj on March 10, 2007
science (CHECK plz)
8.two species have a relationship with one another in an ecosystem. suppose one of these two species goes extinct. which type of relationship did the two have if the surviving species population increases after the other goes extinct? A.the extinct species

asked by luna on May 26, 2014
science
8.two species have a relationship with one another in an ecosystem. suppose one of these two species goes extinct. which type of relationship did the two have if the surviving species population increases after the other goes extinct? A.the extinct species

asked by Me on May 27, 2014

science (check plz)
8.two species have a relationship with one another in an ecosystem. suppose one of these two species goes extinct. which type of relationship did the two have if the surviving species population increases after the other goes extinct? A.the extinct species

asked by luna on May 26, 2014
science (CHECK plz)
8.two species have a relationship with one another in an ecosystem. suppose one of these two species goes extinct. which type of relationship did the two have if the surviving species population increases after the other goes extinct? A.the extinct species

asked by me on May 26, 2014
Chemisty Please Help
The instructions are, Write Lewis structures that obey the octet rule for the following species. (Assign atomic charges where appropriate.) 1) XeO4 2) CIO^-4 3) PO4^-3 Would I just draw them in a different way or just the regular Lewis Structure?

asked by Mary on July 3, 2013
Quantitative Chemical Analysis
Hg has an AW of 200.59 g/mol and HgS has a MW of 232.66 g/mol. Compute the gram of Hg needed to prepare 20 g of standard containing 1% Hg(wt/wt) Then compute the gram of HgS needed to prepare 20 g of standard containing this same 1% (wt/wt).

asked by Kyuu on September 4, 2012
Chem, Oxidation
Complete and balance the following half-reactions. In each case indicate whether the half-reaction is an oxidation or reduction. (Use the lowest possible coefficients. Include states-of-matter under SATP conditions in your answer.) OH ‾(aq) ¨ O2(g) I

asked by Thanh on May 6, 2011
Chemistry – Redox
Balance the following redox reactions by inserting the appropriate coefficients. Al + MnO2 –> Al2O3 + Mn HNO3 + H2S –> NO + S + H20 Initially, I know the first step is to find assign all the oxidation numbers for the products and reactants listed, but am

asked by Harold on February 16, 2011
Chemistry
What is the oxidation states for K2CrO4

asked by OLsoftball on March 10, 2011
chemistry
What are the oxidation states of chromium -6(Cr^+6).

asked by ted on September 13, 2011
Chemistry
Identify the atom that increases in oxidation number in the following redox reaction. 2MnO2 + 2K2CO3 + O2 2KMnO4 + 2CO2 *A.) Mn B.) O C.) K D.) C Please show work Thank you.

asked by Jade on March 21, 2013
science
How do I find oxidation numbers of certain elements in compounds? I’m really confused so very simple terms would be appreciated. EX: What is the oxidation number of sodium in NaOH AND What is the oxidation number of Iron in FeCl3??

asked by Viola on March 11, 2012

Quantum Physics

  1. Calculate the transition ratio between the 2P-1S and 3P-2S states of the hydrogen. 2. Find the first order correction in the energy for the states n = 3 of the hydrogen atom subject to a constant electric field in the z direction (effect Stark). What

asked by Carol on May 16, 2018
Quantum Physics

  1. Calculate the transition ratio between the 2P-1S and 3P-2S states of the hydrogen. 2. Find the first order correction in the energy for the states n = 3 of the hydrogen atom subject to a constant electric field in the z direction (effect Stark). What

asked by Carol on May 15, 2018
science

  1. which of the following must occur for speciation to take place? a. a population must be physically separated into groups b. harsh environmental conditions must be imposed on a population c. competition must occur between members of a populations d. some

asked by kayla help plzz on October 6, 2015
science

  1. which of the following must occur for speciation to take place? a. a population must be physically separated into groups b. harsh environmental conditions must be imposed on a population c. competition must occur between members of a populations d. some

asked by kayla help plzz on October 5, 2015
Chemistry
Draw a Lewis dot diagram for NF2H and use the oxidation state method of electron bookkeeping to determine how many electrons each atom should be assigned.

asked by Kali on November 21, 2011

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complete this table of initial and final concentrations.

Complete this table of initial and final concentrations

HF(aq) + KOH(aq) <-> KF(aq) + H20(l)
Initial concentrations: HF-2.0M KOH-1.0M KF-0M Final Concentrations? how do I set this up to figure out the final concentrations?

How can I tell which of the following best describes the final solution?
a) a neutral salt solution
b) a buffer
c) none of the above

0 0 666
asked by Cat
Jul 16, 2013
I’m a little confused by the problem. HOW MUCH 2.0M HF and HOW MUCH 1.0M KOH? For example I could take 1L of 2.0 M HF and mix with 2L of 1.0M KOH and I would have only KF at the equivalence point.l But if I take a larger amount of KOH the solution will have an excess of KOH and be basic. If I take less than that HF will be in excess and the solution will be a buffered solution. Does the problem say you take equal volume of each What about posting the complete question.

0 0
posted by DrBob222
Jul 16, 2013
The hint says the acid and base will react completely until one or both is completely used up.

0 0
posted by Cat
Jul 17, 2013
HF and KOH react in a 1:1 ratio. So if all of the KOH reacts (1.0 M) then the amount of HF that reacts must also be 1.0 M. The amount of KF formed is also equal to the amounts of HF and KOH that react because of the reaction stoichiometry.

0 0
posted by Diana
Sep 3, 2016

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gram staining lab report

Structure and Microscopy

Lab 4: Structure and Microscopy (100 points)

Student Name:

Student ID:

Course ID:

-Each question on the lab worksheet must be answered completely, thoroughly, in complete sentences and correctly in order to be considered for full credit

-If the question asks you to do research or find a source, a reputable, credible and/or scholarly source citation must be included in order to be considered for full credit

-If a math formula is required to arrive to an answer, work must be shown otherwise, no credit will be awarded

Pre-Lab Questions

1. What determines if a bacterial cell is Gram-positive or Gram-negative? (5 points)

Amount and location of the peptidoglycan molecule in the prokaryotic cell wall determines whether a bacterial cell is Gram-positive or Gram-negative.

2. In this lab, both viruses and prions were introduced as acellular organisms. Do some research and describe one other type of acellular organism. What characteristics about this organism classify it as acellular? (5 points)

Viroids are another type of acellular organism along with viruses and prions. They are plant pathogens, which consist only of a short strand of circular RNA capable of self-replication.

3. Bacteria have many different shapes that often determine their class. Research and form a hypothesis on the evolutionary reasons for so many different bacterial morphologies. (5 points)

Each bacterial morphology may be a selectable feature to aid survival and may have affected by different physical, environmental, and biological forces to contribute to natural selection.

Reference:

Young, K. D. (2006, September). The Selective Value of Bacterial Shape. Retrieved September 30, 2018, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1594593/

4. Do a search online or look in your textbook for 1-2 antibiotics that affect Gram-positive bacteria and list them. On what part of the cell do the antibiotics usually work? List one or two antibiotics that affect Gram-negative bacteria? On what part of the cell do the antibiotics usually work? (Be sure to cite your sources in your answer.) (5 points)

5. Why do you think it is important to identify a bacterial disease in a patient before prescribing any antibiotic treatments? (Be specific.) (5 points)

d

Experiment 1 Results Tables

Table 1: Experiment 1 Staining Observations (5 points)

Stain used:Crystal Violet
Observations:Purple rod-shape bacteria with white background were observed

Experiment 1 Post-Lab Questions

1. How does crystal violet enhance the visualization of microbial features? (5 points)

Crystal violet enhances the contrast between the microorganism itself and the slide, making the bacteria appear as purple.

2. What are some of the limitations of simple staining? (5 points)

3. Give an example of a situation in a lab or medical setting in which simple staining would be utilized. (5 points)

Simple staining is used to obtain basic information about morphology of one type of microorganism through clear visualization.

Experiment 2 Results Tables

Table 2: Experiment 2 Staining Observations (5 points)

Stain used:Nigrosin
Observations:Background is stained, bacteria shows up as clear spiral.

Experiment 2 Post-Lab Questions

1. After visualizing the stained samples either using your microscope or by looking at the sample images provided, describe what physical/visual characteristics you were able to observe after performing the negative staining vs. after performing the simple stain. (5 points)

After looking at the sample images provided, negatively stained bacteria showed up as clear straight spirals against a dark background. Bacteria that are simple stained showed up as dark purple rods-shaped with white background.

2. So far in this lab, you have used one type of simple stain and one type of negative stain, yet there are many other simple and negative dyes available. Pick one simple dye and one negative dye, and discuss how those dyes differ from the ones you used in this lab. Give a scenario in which their use would be appropriate. (5 points)

Methylene blue is another dye that can be used for negative stain.

India Ink is another type of negative stain.

Experiment 3 Results Tables

Table 3: Experiment 3 Staining Observations (5 points)

Stain used:Crystal violet (primary stain) & Safranin (counterstain)
Observations:Gram-positive appeared as purple and Gram-negative showed up as pink.

Experiment 3 Post-Lab Questions

1. What color are the Gram-positive bacteria after Gram staining? Gram-negative bacteria? (5 points)

Gram-positive bacteria appear as dark purple or blue due to retaining the primary dye (Crystal Violet) in the cell wall.

Gram-negative bacteria appear as red or pink due to decolorizing to accept the counterstain (Safranin).

2. What different characteristic(s) exist between the two groups that account for the different staining conditions? (5 points)

Gram-positive bacteria are stained purple, and gram-negative bacteria stain as pink. They are two distinct morphological groups of bacteria.

3. Why was the Gram iodine added to the Gram staining procedure? (5 points)

Gram iodine is added as a mordant to stabilize the crystal violet iodine complex so that the dye cannot be removed easily.

4. Why is a counterstain (safranin) added to the Gram staining procedure? (5 points)

A counterstain is used to help identify gram-negative bacteria. Gram-negative bacteria lose the crystal violet and stain red.

5. What are the advantages of performing a Gram stain vs. a simple stain for visualizing bacteria? (5 points)

Gram stain contains two or more different stains and can differentiate the species of bacteria into two main groups (gram-positive and gram-negative) by looking at the color of cells (pink or purple). Simple stain involves single stain and it is used to easily determine cell shape, size, and arrangement.

6. Using either a textbook or a reputable online resource, research some of the typical characteristics of bacteria, and discuss why it might be important for a researcher or a hospital technician to be able to differentiate between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. (5 points)

7. Did you experience any technical difficulties or atypical results during this experiment? If so, what happened, and how could you avoid these issues in the future? (5 points)

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Module 2

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Disease Prevention and Health Promotion HCA 402 Module 2 Written Assignment 2

Written Assignment 2

In general, topic responses should be in the form of a short application paper, 2-3 p APA formatting, not including the required cover page and page for your reference l your chosen topics. In your paper: 1) introduce your topics, 2) discuss your topics, a conclusion about your topics. Read the Written Assignment 2 document for the specific focus of this assignment. Please see the Written Assignment Grading Rubric for specific grading requirement Submit your assignment to the Assignment box no later than Sunday 11:59 PM ES Assignment box is linked to Turnitin.)

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Community Health Evalua�on HCA-402-OL01

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10/27/2018 Module 2 – Community Health Evaluation HCA-402-OL01

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