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Regulations for Sustainable development On Mitigating Global Climate Change

Regulations for Sustainable development on Mitigating Global Climate Change

Climate Change:

The Climate changes and the effects that it causes is an aspect of the environmental science, which has long been studied in the field of environmental studies. There is evidence of a number of historical and scientific theories, which shows the evidence for this phenomenon. These theories profoundly show the link between the human advancement and the changes in the climate. Scientifically, it is known that Earth I not constant or static. It is constantly undergoing changes in terms of its environment. The change in the environment and subsequently the climate are expected and has been seen in ages. 

Scientists’ beliefs regarding these changes are varying. Some believe that the environment has seen these changes through time in varying transformations. Other than the climatic changes caused by the moon rotation around the earth and the earth rotation around the sun, the cyclic climatic changes are the ones which are going to highlight in this paper. Various theories regarding the extent of the climatic changes and their effect on the inhabitants of the planet has been assessed through various methods by scientists. Studies have highlighted the cause and the effect of these climatic changes in order to better mitigate them (McClanahan & Cinner, 2011).

Effects of Climate Change:

In this century, the interest in this area has increased with the limelight being given to the various environmental issues. The depletion of the ozone layer and the global warming are the top concerns in this regard. The evident increase in the natural disasters has gained the attention and the governments are now sorting ways for recovering from its effects and getting prepared for the upcoming climatic challenges. Climate change is now a concern for every country on every continent. It is affecting the national economies and disrupting the lives of people by costing people, societies and countries dearly today and is expected to affect more in future. The significant impact of the climate is experienced by the people around the globe in the shape of changing weather patterns; more extreme weather events, rising sea levels, and increase in the number of natural disasters. The human activities causing the constant emission of greenhouse gasses are the main drivers of these climatic changes. They are at this moment at their highest levels in the history. Without any action, the temperature of the planet is expected to rise by 3 degree Celsius this century affecting mostly the poor and most vulnerable people (United Nations, 2015).

Mitigating the Affects of Climate Change:

The countries have now ways and solutions, which are easily available for countries to leapfrog towards mitigating the effects of climatic changes. This has given rise to the concept of having increased international cooperation, legislation, and sustainable development. Only by integrating the efforts of sustainable development into international and domestic laws climatic changes affect can be mitigated. Despite the recent setbacks in the international negotiations like that occurred in Copenhagen, the legislation for the sustainable development is imperative to more in more effective manner. For mitigating the effects of climatic change there is a need of paradigm shift towards low carbon development strategy, which is crucial to the sustainable development (Halvorssen, 2011).

Sustainable Development:

The concept of the sustainable development was first adopted by the World commission on Environment and development. The world agrees that the sustainable development involves the integration of the approach towards economic, environmental and social processes. The social, political and the cultural factors are now only getting the required attention towards them. The literature on the sustainable development emphasizes increasingly on its two-way relationship with the climate change mitigation. The climatic changes are not only affected by the climate-specific strategies but by the use of the development choices mix and its trajectories as well. Therefore, by changing the development pathways, which are climatic change specific, can make a significant contribution in this regard (Sathaye, et al., 2007).

The 2015 Global Climate Legislation Study at a Glance

The study conducted by the Grantham Institute covers the climate-change mitigation laws and policies and its adaptation, which were passed prior to January 1, 2015. The study covers 33 developed and 66 developing countries. The study reveals that from the end of the year 1997, the number of the laws pertaining to the climatic changes has doubled over every five years. In 1997, there were only 54 laws related to the climatic changes mitigation, which has increased to 804 by the end of the year 2014 (Nachmany, et al., 2015).

  • The study reveals the following key findings of the legislation on the sustainable development and mitigating of the climatic changes:
  • About 58 countries have framework legislations for addressing the mitigation of the climatic change and its adaptation, whereas 17 countries do not have any framework legislation (Nachmany, et al., 2015).
  • 45 countries (with the European Union as one block) have economy-wide targets for the reduction of the emissions up to the year 2020. Together these 45 countries account for the 75% of the global emissions (Nachmany, et al., 2015).
  • In 51 countries, the adaptation plans have not gone into the implementation stage and have been limited to the reporting requirements of UNFCCC. Most of these countries are the ones, which are the most vulnerable countries to the climatic change (Nachmany, et al., 2015).

Progress in the Year 2014:

In the year 2014, 46 new policies and laws were issued by 34 of the 99 covered countries in this study. Of these, 17 are developed countries while the other 17 are developing countries. The 21 laws passed were of legislative nature (passed by the parliament), while the other 25 were of executive nature (enacted by the governments). However, not all the laws are equal in scope and importance. The eight most important laws, which were issued in the year of 2014, are:

  • Climate Change Mitigation Act (Bulgaria):
  • National Climate Change Adaptation Plan (Chile):
  • Climate Change Act (Denmark)
  • National Plan for Tackling Climate Change (China)
  • Framework for Climate and Energy Policies (European Union)
  • Action Programme on Climate Protection (Germany)
  • Framework Law for Disaster Management (Mozambique)
  • National Adaptation Strategy (Slovakia)

(Nachmany, et al., 2015)

Conclusion:

Ultimately, the aim of the climate change legislation is to guide the governments on public policy. However, any legislation is fruitless without its implementation. The countries, which are making legislations only for fulfilling the requirement of reporting of UNFCCC, cannot be considered as being contributing to the climatic change mitigation process. Nearly 60 percent of the countries have framework or policies for addressing the adaptation of the mitigation. However, 17% have none (Nachmany, et al., 2015). Saudi Arabia and Canada are the only countries out of the top 20 emitters who do not have any framework policy for either mitigation or adaptation (Nachmany, et al., 2015).

References:

Halvorssen, A. M. (2011). INTERNATIONAL LAW AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT- TOOLS FOR ADDRESSING CLIMATE CHANGE. Denver. J. Int’l L. & Pol’y , 397.

McClanahan, T. R., & Cinner, J. (2011). Adapting to a Changing Environment: Confronting the Consequences of Climate Change. Oxford University Press, USA.

Nachmany, M., Fankhauser, S., Davidová, J., Kingsmill, N., Landesman, T., Roppongi, H., et al. (2015). The 2015 Global Climate Legislation Study. Retrieved October 10, 2016, from Lse.ac.uk: http://www.lse.ac.uk/GranthamInstitute/

Sathaye, J., Najam, A., Cocklin, C., Heller, T., Lecocq, F., Llanes-Regueiro, J., et al. (2007). Sustainable Development and Mitigation. Climate Change 2007: Mitigation of Climate Change , 691-743.

United Nations. (2015, February 24). Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts. Retrieved October 10, 2016, from United Nations: http://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/climate-change-2/

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bulletized

Purpose

This project will give students the opportunity to present the benefits of a Risk Management Plan to a board of directors of a fictitious company. 

Learning Objectives and Outcomes

The objective of the project is for students to understand the benefits of risk management planning, then aggregate and summarize those benefits and be able to present them in a business setting. 

The following tools and resources that will be needed to complete this project:

  • Course textbook
  • Internet access for research
  • Microsoft Powerpoint

Deliverables

As discussed in this course, risk management is an important process for all organizations. The project activities will produce:

1. Powerpoint presentation of bulletized benefits of Risk Management assessment.

2. Slide notes that would serve as talking points for the presentation.

Submission Requirements

All project submissions should follow this format:

  • Presentation      slides are to be created in Microsoft Powerpoint. Presentations should      include:
  • A Title Slide that includes your name, date, the course ID       (ISOL533), and “Fall 2017 IIG”
  • 6-10 slides of content that meet the requirements listed below
  • Slide      Notes should be included with each slide as talking points. Slide notes      can be either added to the note tab of each slide in Powerpoint OR you can      create the slide notes in a separate Word document. For each slide, the      slide notes should be between 250-400 WORDS PER SLIDE.
  • Bibliography      Page(s) that lists references for your research citations in APA      format. Books, journals, news articles, websites that are valid      sources, and other digital media are acceptable.
  • Suggestions      for good presentation work:
  • Content from WIKIPEDIA and other second sources is NOT acceptable.       If you must use Wikipedia content, drill down into the references for       that Wiki page and find the original sources
  • Make sure your slides are neat and orderly. Do not clutter the       slide with excessive text. The lengthy text (250-400 words) should be in       the slide notes, not on the slide. Use business fonts such as Arial,       Helvetica, or Times Roman. Do NOT use entertainment fonts such as MS       Comic Sans or Papyrus.
  • Use normal bullets or numbers. Do not distract from the content with       unusual graphics or artwork. If you are including charts or graphs, be       sure they a simple and easily readable.
  • Keep to standard Microsoft business color themes in PowerPoint if       you wish to dress up the presentation with some color. Theme usage and       font colors should be professional and not distracting or tacky. 
  • Do not litter the presentation with a lot of excessive slide       animation. A fade in or slide in for slide transitions is ok. If       used, animation should be subtle and tasteful. Slide animation adds no       value to the content (and will not earn you a better grade). No spinning       text please! 

Scenario

The following scenario sets the stage for your class project. All of the businesses mentioned are fictitious and do not exist (the homes, however, are actually for sale).

You are a risk management consultant working for FRMC, Inc., a firm that provides risk management advice, guidance, and financial audit services to new companies establishing themselves in the financial business sector. A small group of investment and mortgage experts from NYC have incorporated themselves into a new mortgage lending company called East End Loan, Inc. Their primary market focus is the small, sleepy, ocean-front village of Amagansett, NY just east of Southampton on Long Island’s wealthy and trendy south shore.

Following an economic recovery from the financial crash of 2008 and a resurgence of home construction and repair after Superstorm Sandy, the Long Island east-end real estate market has been on the rise. East End Loan, Inc has enjoyed dramatic growth and now has 450 employees. They maintain an extensive IT infrastructure which stores all of their financial lending information as well as critical residential deed, section, block, and lot information in their real estate portfolio which includes many of These Homes.

Now that the company is growing, the CEO and CFO from East End Loan have invited your company to visit them and discuss aspects of Risk Management that they have not implemented yet. Your job is to create a PowerPoint presentation that highlights the best practices of Risk Management.

ASSIGNMENT

Create a PowerPoint presentation of 6-10 slides. When dealing with C-suite executives, you typically have 30 minutes or less to pitch a proposal presentation – about 6-10 slides maximum. Do NOT exceed 10 slides of content. Extra slides will not earn you a better grade and the extra length makes it harder for me to review. The title slide and bibliography information are in addition to the primary slides. Build your 6-10 slides of Risk Management information first, then add on the title slide and the bibliography text.

Your presentation should include:

· Introduce risk management basics to the executives at a high level. How would you describe risk management to a group of people in terms that are simple to understand? (Use Chapter 1 and Lab 1 for ideas). Bulletize the basics on the slide, then expand upon the information in the slide notes.

· Highlight common threats and vulnerabilities in IT systems. This is the “hook” or selling part of the presentation. When you mention corporate threats and vulnerabilities (the “bad stuff”) to executives, you will have their full, undivided attention. Research on the Internet 2 or 3 examples of corporate IT failures or compromises because of poor risk management. Examples can include theft of passwords, system failure from natural disasters, data theft from hacking, and other business disruptions highlighted reported by the news media. Examples do NOT have to be in real estate, but should be within the last 5 years. Again, bulletize the threats/vulnerabilities on the slide, then expand upon in the slide notes. Don’t forget to cite your sources on the bibliography page. 

· Touch upon some of the COBIT P09 risk management controls (refer to Lab 2 for help). Then outline to the executives what a formal Risk Management Plan might look like. You can refer to Lab 3 for help and research example Risk Management Plans or plan templates on the Internet. Don’t forget to cite your sources on the bibliography page. If you actually won this job for work, you would be providing a formal Risk Management Plan as the final delivery. So, the executives will want to see a summary outline of what the Plan would contain.

· Explain risk assessment in general. Executives typically do not concern themselves with working details so skip over quantitative risk analysis. However, at a minimum you must touch upon:

o Qualitative risk analysis

o Threat/vulnerability pairing

o Procedural, technical, and physical controls

o Best practices for risk assessments.

Much of this information can be found in Chapter 6 of the text. 

· The last of the 6-10 slides should sell your company and the services it provides. NOTE: it is important to not get caught up in the homes for sale – that is not part of the presentation. You are selling risk management consulting services. Stay on track with that task.

Rubric for grading:

Weights awarded: 

100% of points listed on items below – well developed content, well written

85% – meets requirements

70% – bare minimum, weakly written, or partially complete

0% – item below is missing

· Student described risk management basics (6 points)

· Student highlighted common threats and vulnerabilities in IT systems (8 points) 

· Student included 2 or 3 examples of corporate IT failures or compromises because of poor risk management (8 points) 

· Student examples were within the last 5 years (3 points)

· Student included information on COBIT P09 risk management controls (8 points)

· Student explained the basics of the risk assessment process (8 points)

· Student included qualitative risk analysis information (8 points)

· Student included Threat/vulnerability pairing information (8 points)

· Student included Procedural, technical, and physical controls information (8 points)

· Student included Best practices for risk assessments information (10 points)

· Student provided a closing slide of company services (2 points)

· Student included adequate slide notes of 250-400 words per slide (15 points)

· Student included a proper APA formatted bibliography of references (8 points)

TOTAL = 100 points. 

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which of the following statements is true regarding a virtual organization?

Question 1

  1. Which of the following statements is true regarding Wireshark?
[removed]Wireshark is probably the most widely used packet capture and analysis software in the world.
[removed]The expense of Wireshark makes it cost-prohibitive for most organizations.
[removed]Compared to similar commercial products, Wireshark has the most sophisticated diagnostic tools.
[removed]Wireshark saves frame details in a format that is incompatible and unusable by other software tools.

5 points  

Question 2

  1. The main screen of Wireshark includes several shortcuts. Which shortcut category displays a list of the network interfaces, or machines, that Wireshark has identified, and from which packets can be captured and analyzed?
[removed]Capture Help
[removed]Capture
[removed]Files
[removed]Online

5 points  

Question 3

  1. Which of the following enables Wireshark to capture packets destined to any host on the same subnet or virtual LAN (VLAN)?
[removed]Capture Help
[removed]Host mode
[removed]Subnet mode
[removed]Promiscuous mode

5 points  

Question 4

  1. The top pane of the Wireshark window, referred to as the __________, contains all of the packets that Wireshark has captured, in time order, and provides a summary of the contents of the packet in a format close to English.
[removed]byte summary
[removed]byte data
[removed]frame detail
[removed]frame summary

5 points  

Question 5

  1. The middle pane of the Wireshark window, referred to as the __________, is used to display the packet structure and contents of fields within the packet.
[removed]byte summary
[removed]byte data
[removed]frame detail
[removed]frame summary

5 points  

Question 6

  1. The bottom pane of the Wireshark window, referred to as the __________, displays all of the information in the packet in hexadecimal and in decimalwhen possible.
[removed]byte summary
[removed]byte data
[removed]frame detail
[removed]frame summary

5 points  

Question 7

  1. Wireshark can be used in a variety of ways, however the most common configuration for Wireshark, and the configuration that you ran in the lab, has the software running:
[removed]in a peer-to-peer configuration.
[removed]from a probe or hub.
[removed]on a local area network.
[removed]on a local host.

5 points  

Question 8

  1. In the simplest terms, Wireshark is used to capture all packets:
[removed]from a computer workstation to the Wireshark application window.
[removed]to and from a computer workstation and the Wireshark application window.
[removed]to and from a computer workstation and the server.
[removed]to and from the Wireshark Network Analyzer and the Capture section of the Wireshark application window.

5 points  

Question 9

  1. Which of the following statements is true regarding how Wireshark works?
[removed]Where packets are captured and how they are captured does not have any impact on how the packets are analyzed.
[removed]By running the Wireshark software on the same computer that generates the packets, the capture is specific to that machine.
[removed]Wireshark has no impact on the operation of the machine itself or its applications.
[removed]No timing information is provided when using a network probe or hub device, or the capture port of a LAN switch.

5 points  

Question 10

  1. Which of the following statements is true regarding how Wireshark handles time?
[removed]Clock time may or may not be the same as the system time of the device or devices used to run Wireshark and capture packets.
[removed]The timestamp used by Wireshark is the current local time in the time zone where the machine resides.
[removed]Any discrepancies regarding time are insignificant when capturing packets from high-speed interfaces.
[removed]In order to overcome time zone mismatches, a common best practice is to use the Eastern Time Zone.

5 points  

Question 11

  1. When examining a frame header, a difference between bytes on the wire and bytes captured can indicate that:
[removed]all packets are being captured effectively.
[removed]partial or malformed packets might be captured.
[removed]the interface speed is low and the computer cannot keep up with Wireshark.
[removed]the computer is infected with some form of malware.

5 points  

Question 12

  1. In the lab, the Ethernet II detail of the provided packet capture file indicated that Wireshark had determined that the __________ was Intel Core hardware.
[removed]frame type
[removed]source
[removed]destination
[removed]type of traffic carried in the next layer

5 points  

Question 13

  1. In the lab, the Ethernet II detail of the provided packet capture file indicated that Wireshark had determined that the __________ was Internet Protocol (IP).
[removed]frame type
[removed]source
[removed]destination
[removed]type of traffic carried in the next layer

5 points  

Question 14

  1. In the lab, the Ethernet II detail of the provided packet capture file indicated that Wireshark had determined that the __________ was IPv4 multicast.
[removed]frame type
[removed]source
[removed]destination
[removed]type of traffic carried in the next layer

5 points  

Question 15

  1. The __________ IP address is the IP address of the local IP host (workstation) from which Wireshark captures packets.
[removed]origination
[removed]destination
[removed]host
[removed]source

5 points  

Question 16

  1. Which of the following statements is true regarding filtering packets in Wireshark?
[removed]Filters are not a particularly useful tool in Wireshark.
[removed]Filters allow a complex set of criteria to be applied to the captured packets and only the result is displayed.
[removed]Filter expressions must be built with the Filter Edit dialog window and cannot be typed directly into the Filter field.
[removed]Once packets have been filtered, they are lost and cannot be restored.

5 points  

Question 17

  1. Selecting a TCP flow in the Flow Graph Analysis tool tells Wireshark that you wanted to see all of the elements in a TCP three-way handshake, which are:
[removed]SYN, SYN-ACK, and ACK.
[removed]SYN, ACK-SYN, and PSH.
[removed]ACK, ACK-PSH, and PSH-ACK.
[removed]PSH-ACK, ACK, and PSH-ACK.

5 points  

Question 18

  1. In the center pane of the __________, the direction of each arrow indicates the direction of the TCP traffic, and the length of the arrow indicates between which two addresses the interaction is taking place.
[removed]Wireshark frame header
[removed]Flow Graph Analysis results
[removed]Frame Summary pane
[removed]Ethernet II frame detail

5 points  

Question 19

  1. Within the frame detail pane, what does it mean when the DNS Flags detail specifies that recursion is desired?
[removed]DNS will continue to query higher level DNSs until it is able to resolve the address.
[removed]DNS will continue to query lower level DNSs until it is able to resolve the address.
[removed]DNS will discontinue querying other DNSs in attempts to resolve the address.
[removed]DNS will be guaranteed show the response “No such name.”

5 points  

Question 20

  1. Within the frame detail pane, the DNS Flags detail response to the query for issaseries.org was “No such name,” indicating that the:
[removed]issaseries.org domain never existed.
[removed]issaseries.org domain existed at one time but no longer exists.
[removed]issaseries.org is not known to any of the Domain Name Servers that were searched.
[removed]search was ineffective or unsuccessful.

Question 1

  1. Which of the following statements is true?
[removed]The Wireshark protocol analyzer has limited capabilities and is not considered multi-faceted.
[removed]Wireshark is used to find anomalies in network traffic as well as to troubleshoot application performance issues.
[removed]Both Wireshark and NetWitness Investigator are expensive tools that are cost-prohibitive for most organizations.
[removed]NetWitness Investigator is available at no charge while Wireshark is a commercial product.

5 points  

Question 2

  1. Wireshark capture files, like the DemoCapturepcap file found in this lab, have a __________ extension, which stands for packet capture, next generation.
[removed].packcng
[removed].paccapnextg
[removed].pcnextgen
[removed].pcapng

5 points  

Question 3

  1. The Wireless Toolbar (View > Wireless Toolbar) is used only:
[removed]when using a pre-captured file.
[removed]when capturing live traffic.
[removed]when reviewing wireless traffic.
[removed]in a virtual lab environment.

5 points  

Question 4

  1. In the frame detail pane, which of the following was a field unique to wireless traffic, confirming that it is a wireless packet?
[removed]The Encapsulation type: Per-Packet Information header
[removed]The Arrival time: May 11, 2007 15:30:37 041165000 Pacific Daylight Time
[removed]The Capture Length: 181 bytes
[removed]The Epoch Time: 1178922637.041165000 seconds

5 points  

Question 5

  1. Which of the following tools provides information about the antennae signal strengths, noise ratios, and other antennae information during a captured transmission?
[removed]Windows Explorer
[removed]DemoCapture
[removed]Wireshark
[removed]NetWitness

5 points  

Question 6

  1. Which of the following can be used to map who is able to communicate with whom, the measured strength of signals, and what frequencies are used, as well as be used for jamming certain frequencies and for determining which devices were likely used to set off remote bombs and Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs)?
[removed]MAC+PHY (MAC and Physical Layer)
[removed]IEEE Layer
[removed]Flags fields
[removed]Quality of Service information

5 points  

Question 7

  1. In the IEEE 802.11 Quality of Service information and Flags fields, Wireshark displays information about the __________, which enables the network administrator to determine which Media Access Control (MAC) addresses match each of them.
[removed]antennae and signal strength
[removed]transmitters and receivers of the data
[removed]payload and frame information
[removed]Domain System and Internet Protocol version

5 points  

Question 8

  1. In the lab, Wireshark displayed the transmitter/receiver address in both full hexadecimal (00:14:a5:cd:74:7b) and a kind of shorthand, which was:
[removed]IEEE 802.11.
[removed]GemtekTe_IEEE.
[removed]GemtekTe_00:14:a5.
[removed]GemtekTe_cd:74:7b.

5 points  

Question 9

  1. Matching the __________ to their appropriate transmitter and receiver addresses can provide the needed forensic evidence of which devices are involved in a particular communication.
[removed]MAC addresses
[removed]IP addresses
[removed]brand names
[removed]IEEE numbers

5 points  

Question 10

  1. Which of the following statements is true regarding the fields displayed in Wireshark?
[removed]There are hundreds of fields of data available and there are many different ways to interpret them.
[removed]There are a few dozen fields of data available but there are many different ways to interpret them.
[removed]There are very few fields of data available and most administrators will interpret them in the same or a similar way.
[removed]Although there are very few fields of data available, most administrators will interpret them differently.

5 points  

Question 11

  1. Which of the following is a packet capture add-on that is frequently installed with Wireshark that enables the capture of more wireless information?
[removed]3Com
[removed]QoS
[removed]GemtekTE
[removed]AirPcap

5 points  

Question 12

  1. Regardless of whether the packet is sent through the air or on a wire, the ultimate payload in an investigation is:
[removed]information regarding the transmitters and receivers of the data.
[removed]detail about the Internet Protocol version.
[removed]a Domain Name System query.
[removed]evidence of any suspicious activity.

5 points  

Question 13

  1. In the lab, the DNS query indicated an IP address of __________ for www.polito.it.
[removed]172.30.0.100
[removed]130.192.73.1
[removed]177.390.13.6
[removed]172.30.121.1

5 points  

Question 14

  1. What is the actual Web host name to which www.polito.it is resolved?
[removed]web01.polito.gov
[removed]web01.polito.it
[removed]web01.polito.com
[removed]www.polito.com

5 points  

Question 15

  1. In order to use NetWitness Investigator to analyze the same packets that you analyzed with Wireshark, you first had to save the DemoCapturepcap.pcapng file in the older __________ format.
[removed].libpcap
[removed].tcpdump-libcap
[removed].pcapng
[removed].pcap

5 points  

Question 16

  1. Which of the following statements is true regarding NetWitness Investigator?
[removed]NetWitness Investigator is available for free so it is only used for some initial analysis.
[removed]NetWitness Investigator is often used only by skilled analysts for specific types of analysis.
[removed]Investigators with little training typically can capture needed information using NetWitness Investigator.
[removed]Wireshark provides a more in-depth, security-focused analysis than NetWitness Investigator.

5 points  

Question 17

  1. Which of the following statements is true regarding NetWitness Investigator reports?
[removed]NetWitness reports contain only low-level wireless information, such as command and control.
[removed]NetWitness reports do not provide the kind of sophisticated analysis that is found within Wireshark.
[removed]NetWitness and Wireshark both provide the same information but the two tools differ in how that information is displayed.
[removed]NetWitness is unable to provide information about the geographic location of the transmitter and receiver.

5 points  

Question 18

  1. Which of the following tools displays the MAC address and IP address information and enables them to be correlated for a given capture transmission?
[removed]DemoCapture
[removed]Wireshark
[removed]NetWitness Investigator
[removed]Both Wireshark and NetWitness Investigator

5 points  

Question 19

  1. When you were using NetWitness Investigator in the lab, the Destination City report indicated that the Destination Organization of www.polito.it was recorded as:
[removed]Turin Polytechnic.
[removed]Politecnico de Tourino.
[removed]Republic of Italia.
[removed]Turin, Italy.

5 points  

Question 20

  1. Which of the following statements is true regarding the information in the Destination City report?
[removed]The Top Level Domain (TLD) “.it” belongs to Italy.
[removed]The Top Level Domain (TLD) “.it” is proofthat the Web site is physically located in Italy.
[removed]The Top Level Domain (TLD) was actually registered in the United States.
[removed]It indicates that it will be impossible to determine the actual physical location of the server.
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identify the hybridization of the c atom in ch2br2.

How would i find the hybridization of the central atom in NO3^- and CH2Br2?
90,770 results
Chemistry
How would i find the hybridization of the central atom in NO3^- and CH2Br2? Also, in general how would I find the hybridization of something, and what is hybridization (I’m very lost)?

asked by Sarah on December 8, 2009
CHEM
What is the hybridization of the central atom in COH2?? Would the correct response, out of the following: a) sp b) sp^2 c) sp^3 d) sp^3d e) sp^3d^2 “e”-> sp^3d^2??

asked by K on November 26, 2007
chemistry
What is the orbital hybridization of the central atom S in SF4? 1) sp 2) sp3d 3) sp2 4) sp3d2 5) sp3

asked by saara on April 9, 2008
chemsitry
The molecular geometry of POCl3 is tetrahedral. What hybridization does this indicate for the central P atom? Why is the answer spy?

asked by Chelsea on December 11, 2013
chem

  1. under what circumstances is the molecular geometry around a single central atom the same as the electron group geometry around the central atom? 2.If all of the electron groups around a single central atom are bonding, and the same outer atom is bonded

asked by natash on April 28, 2008

Chemistry
Hey can you please check my answers? Also, Can you explain interparticle force of attraction? I’m not sure about the difference between IMFOA and IPFOA. Chemical formula: Cl2 Name: Chlorine Bond Type (intermolecular FOA): London VSEPR molecular shape:

asked by Anonymous on December 7, 2015
Chemistry (Check and Help)
Hey can you please check my answers? Also, Can you explain interparticle force of attraction? I’m not sure about the difference between IMFOA and IPFOA. Chemical formula: Cl2 Name: Chlorine Bond Type (intermolecular FOA): London VSEPR molecular shape:

asked by Anonymous on December 6, 2015
chemistry
1.which of the following is the most polar bond? explain n-f c-f h-f o-f 2. in the trigonal bipyramidal geometry, which position – axial or equatorial – do nonbonding electrons prefer? why? 3.under what circumstances is the molecular geometry around a

asked by katherine on April 23, 2010
Chemistry
Hello, What is the hybridization of an H atom on a methane? As far as I understand, the hydrogen has 1 s orbital which bonds only to carbon, so does not have any hybridization. Is this correct? Thank you

asked by Nat on July 15, 2010
chem
what is the appropriate hybridization for the carbon atom in CO2? the explanation I was given is 2 electron groups around the center atom carbon suggest sp hybridization. the 2 unhibridized p orbitals on carbon form the 2 pi bonds. My question is why pi

asked by Natash on November 24, 2008
chemistry
Sulfur forms the following compounds with chlorine. Identify thetype of hybridization for the central sulfur atom in each compound. SCl2,SCl6,SCl4 a. sp b. sp2 c. sp3 d. sp3d e. sp3d2

asked by Mely on November 6, 2010
chemistry
Hello! my question is. Cumulene has chemical formula C4H4 with 7sigma and 3pie bonds. the 2 outer C atoms have a hybridization of “sp2”, the H atoms have a hybridization of “s”, and the 2 C atoms in between have “sp” hybridization. As I figured out, there

asked by Jam09 on January 30, 2009
chemistry
Which of the following has the central atom with the lowest oxidation number? a. CO32- b. NO3- c. ClO2- d. SO42- e. PO43-

asked by Megan on October 31, 2008
chem
Which of the following ions contains lone pair of electrons at the central atom? A) SO4 2- B) NO3 – C) IO3 – (Is there any ways without drawing the diagrams and I could still able to figure out the answer???) Thx very much

asked by ivan on October 2, 2014
Chemistry
Chemical formula: Na Name: Sodium Bond Type (intermolecular FOA): London VSEPR molecular shape: none Central Atom Hybridization: sp Molecular Polarity: nonpolar Interparticle force of attraction (IPFOA): ? State of Matter (at room temperature): solid Can’t

asked by Anonymous on December 8, 2015

CHEM
if you were to draw a Lewis dot structure for HOCl…would it be H:Cl:O: (with double dots above & below the Oxygen & Chlorine) or would it be: H:O:Cl: (same thing for the double dots being above & below the Cl & O? Basically…is Oxygen the central atom

asked by K on November 10, 2007
Chemistry (Help)
I’m having trouble figuring out this one. Can you please help? I haven’t gotten a response to any of my questions. Chemical formula: Na Name: Sodium Bond Type (intramolecular FOA): metallic bond VSEPR molecular shape: none Central Atom Hybridization: none?

asked by Kyle on December 9, 2015
Chemisty Help!!!!!!!!
show how you would obtain (the orbitals used) and the possible types (the orbitals produced) for hybridization of a carbon atom. you must report the shape and the number of orbitals of each type used and produced for each type of hybridization.

asked by Amanda on April 9, 2012
Chemistry (Check)
Are these right? Chemical formula: NaCl Name: Sodium chloride Bond Type (intramolecular FOA): ionic bonding VSEPR molecular shape: none Central Atom Hybridization: sp3 Molecular Polarity: polar Interparticle force of attraction (IPFOA): London,

asked by Kyle on December 9, 2015
Chemistry
Please explain this, I have no idea how to figure this out. What molecule or polyatomic ion has the following features. (a) four bonded atoms, no unshared electrons on the central atom (b) two bonded atoms, no unshared electrons on the central atom (c) two

asked by Lewis on March 7, 2013
Chemistry
Chemical formula: NaCl Name: Sodium chloride Bond Type (intermolecular FOA): London, dipole-dipole, ion-dipole VSEPR molecular shape: none Central Atom Hybridization: sp3 Molecular Polarity: polar Interparticle force of attraction (IPFOA): ? State of

asked by Anonymous on December 8, 2015
chemistry
The hybridization of the lead atom in PbCl4 is…?

asked by Sandy on November 3, 2012
chemistry
what is the hybridization of each atom for hydrocyanic acid?

asked by Mai on March 29, 2014
chemistry
How many bonds can each atom make without hybridization? B,N, and O

asked by Paul on December 5, 2014
Chemistry
Can you please check if these are right? I’m not sure about IPFOA. Chemical formula: H2O Name: Dihydrogen oxide Bond Type (intermolecular FOA): London, dipole-dipole, hydrogen bonding VSEPR molecular shape: bent Central Atom Hybridization: sp3 Molecular

asked by Anonymous on December 8, 2015

chem
Determine the electron and molecular geometries of each of the following molecules. For those with more than one central atom, indicate the geometry about each central atom. (Enter your answers in the order given in the skeletal structure from left to

asked by hannah on January 29, 2011
chemistry
A solution is prepared by mixing 0.0400 mol CH2Cl2 and 0.0800 mol CH2Br2 at 25 degrees C. Assume solution is ideal, calculate the composition of the vapor (in terms of mole fractions) at 25 C. At 25 C, vaporpressure of pure CH2Cl2 and pure CH2Br2 are 133

asked by Sara on March 7, 2010
chem
I really need these answers to balance the net ionic equation or make it into one. Cu(NO3)2 (aq) + NaOH (aq) = CuOH (s) + Na(NO3)2 (aq) Cu(NO3)2 (aq) + NaI (aq) = CuI (s) + Na(NO3)2 (aq) Cu(NO3)2 (aq) + Na3PO4 (aq) = CuPO4 (s) + Na3(NO3)2 (aq) Fe(NO3)3

asked by Suey on February 18, 2012
Chemistry
A solution is prepared by mixing 0.0400 mol CH2Cl2 and 0.0700 mol of CH2Br2 at 25°C. Assuming the solution is ideal, calculate the composition of the vapor (in terms of mole fractions) at 25°C. At 25°C, the vapor pressures of pure CH2Cl2 and pure CH2Br2

asked by Katrina on February 20, 2011
AP Chemistry
A solution is prepared by mixing 0.0200 mol CH2Cl2 and 0.0500 mol CH2Br2 at 25°C. Assuming the solution is ideal, calculate the composition of the vapor (in terms of mole fractions) at 25°C. At 25°C, the vapor pressures of pure CH2Cl2 and pure CH2Br2

asked by Sarah on March 22, 2010
chemistry
A solution is prepared by mixing 0.0433 mol CH2Cl2 and 0.0623 mol CH2Br2 at 25°C. Assuming the solution is ideal, calculate the composition of the vapor (in terms of mole fractions) at 25°C. At 25°C, the vapor pressures of pure CH2Cl2 and pure CH2Br2

asked by bob on May 4, 2010
Chemistry

1) The Lewis structure of PF3 shows that central phosphorus atom has _ nonbonding and _ bonding electron pairs. #2) How many equivalent resonance forms can be drawn for CO3^-2? (carbon is the central atom) #3) The bond angle in NF3 is slightly less

asked by Diana on May 21, 2009
Chemistry
Hey can you please check my answers? Also, Can you explain interparticle force of attraction? I’m not sure about the difference between IMFOA and IPFOA. Chemical formula: Cl2 Name: Chlorine Bond Type (intermolecular FOA): London VSEPR molecular shape:

asked by Anonymous on December 8, 2015
chem
I just need to know the net ionic equation and balance them. I figured the equation. but the net and balance is harder. Co(NO3)2 (aq) + NaOH (aq) = CoOH (s) + Na(NO3)2 (aq) Co(NO3)2 (aq) + Na2CO3 (aq) = CoCO3 (s) + Na2(NO3)2 (aq) Co(NO3)2 (aq) + Na3PO4

asked by Ari on February 18, 2012
Chemistry
Choose the true statements regarding the charge-minimized Lewis structure(s) of the BrO2- ion. (selet all that apply) a. There is only one charge-minimized structure for this ion. b. There are two charge-minimized resonance structures for this ion. c. The

asked by Lindsay on October 5, 2008

chemistry
how would I determine the hybridization of the carbon atom if it has 3 single bonds with hydrogen and no free electrons? Do I draw this out??

asked by ~christina~ on August 31, 2007
Chemistry
Below shows 3 displacement reactions involving metals and solutions of metal nitrates. Cu+2AgNO3->Cu(NO3)2+2Ag Pb+Cu(NO3)2->Pb(NO3)2+Cu Zn+Pb(NO3)2->Zn(NO3)2+Pb Use this information to find the order of reactivity of the 4 metals, with the most reactive

asked by Anonymous on January 17, 2008
chemistry
ratio of lone pair on surrounding atom to central atom in Xeo2F2?

asked by Mukund on May 5, 2011
Chemistry
We’re going over hybridization right now, like sp3 and stuff. But I don’t understand how you got it at all. Can you please tell me the hybridization for these two examples I made up and explain how you got it thanks 1. NH3 2. PF5

asked by beth on October 20, 2009
ms. sue
please help We’re going over hybridization right now, like sp3 and stuff. But I don’t understand how you got it at all. Can you please tell me the hybridization for these two examples I made up and explain how you got it thanks 1. NH3 2. PF5

asked by beth on October 20, 2009
Chemistry
For acids of the same general structure but differing electronegativities of the central atoms, acid strength decreases with increasing electronegativity of the central atom. True or false

asked by Josh G. on November 15, 2012
chemistry
These are short and simple. 🙂 I’ve included my answers, tell me if I am wrong please. CH3 is attached to a carbon on a pentane ring. Is the hybridization of the carbon sp3? NH connects a benzene ring to two benzene rings. Is the hybridization of the

asked by s on March 16, 2011
chemistry
These are short and simple. 🙂 I’ve included my answers, tell me if I am wrong please. CH3 is attached to a carbon on a pentane ring. Is the hybridization of the carbon sp3? NH connects a benzene ring to two benzene rings. Is the hybridization of the

asked by s on March 16, 2011
Chemistry
“Is the following species a dipole?” NH2Cl I have drawn out the lewis dot structure of the molecule and the electronegativy values I have are N- 3.0 Cl- 3.0 H- 2.1 I know that the electronegativity difference between N and Cl is 0 and the bond is non

asked by Alexa on December 6, 2006
chemistry
C4 H10 O or diethyl ether or with a formula of CH3CH2OCH2CH3 its stick structure is H H H H ! ! ! ! .. H-C-C-C-C- O-H ! ! ! ! .. H H H H I used the this ! sign as a sign for bond. pls help me to determine the geometry for each central atom in this

asked by chemdummy on October 5, 2012

Chemistiy
Complete & Balance the Equation: i) Zn + Cu(NO3)2 -> ii) Ag + Mg(NO3)2 -> iii) Al + HNO3 -> iv) Mg + Fe(NO3)2 -> My Answers: i) 2 Zn + Cu(NO3)2 -> Cu + 2 ZnNO3 ii) Ag + Mg(NO3)2 -> No RXN iii) Al + HNO3 -> Al(NO3)3 + NO + 2H2O iv) Mg + Fe(NO3)2 -> Mg(NO3)2

asked by Anonymous on January 15, 2017
Chemistry
Solubility Rules!! Homework problem I desperately need help with Solutions used: 6M HCl, 6M NaOH, 6M NH3, 3M H2SO4 Mixed with: Cr(NO3)3, Fe(NO3)3, Bi(NO3)3, Mg(NO3)2, Pb(NO3)2 please help me and tell me which form precipitates and which

asked by Kelsey on October 30, 2014
chemistry
If the symbol X represents a central atom, Y represents outer atoms, and Z represents lone pairs on the central atom, the structure Y-:X:-Y could be abbreviated as XY2Z2. Classify these structures according to their shape.

asked by Laura on October 19, 2013
Chemistry
If the symbol X represents a central atom, Y represents outer atoms, and Z represents lone pairs on the central atom, the structure Y-:X:-Y could be abbreviated as XY2Z2. Classify these structures according to their shape.

asked by Laura on October 19, 2013
Chemistry
(0.75 moles Al(NO3)3/L Al(NO3)3) x 0.040 L Al(NO3)3 = ??moles Al(NO3)3 I am unsure how to find the factor to convert moles Al(NO3)3 into moles NO3. i think that if i do the first section, you get .03 moles as your answer for moles of Al(NO3)3, but I am not

asked by M on August 23, 2011
chemistry
For CH3CO2H, give the hybridization and approximate bond angles for each atom except hydrogen. Also, draw an orbital bonding picture. Show all lone pairs. Can this be drawn on paint and uploaded to me? Thank you.

asked by kate on September 23, 2009
Chemistry(Please check)
Last question, I just want to make sure I understand the concept of hybridization. For carboxylic acid the hybridization is: CH3= sp3 because there are only single bonds COOH= Sp2 because the oxygen is double bonded to the C Is this correct? Thank you for

asked by Hannah on September 12, 2012
Chemistry…Help!!
I don’t even know how to start this…The valence electron configurations of several atoms are shown below. How many bonds can each atom make without hybridization? 1. Si 3S2 3P2 2. P 3S2 3P3 3. F 2S2 2P5

asked by Stacy on November 6, 2010
Chem—DrBob222
Calculate the oxidation # for each atom in the molecule below. Can you help me with the rest. Thank you!!! H H H H / / / / H — C —C ===C —-N .. / / H H Group # # of E Oxidation # H 1 0 1 x 7 = 7 C 4 7 C 4 C 4 N 5 3 H atom attached to first C atom. 1 H

asked by Layla on September 18, 2014
chemistry
For AsClF42-: a) Name the hybridization of the orbitals of the central atom. s sp sp2 sp3 sp4 sp3d sp3d2 b) Estimate the Cl-As-F bond angle. Slightly less than 90∘ Exactly 90∘ Slightly greater than 90∘ Slightly less than 109.5∘ Exactly 109.5∘

asked by Anonymous on January 11, 2013

chemistry
How many total atoms are in the chemical formula Ai(NO3)3? I thought it was ten because Ai is 1 atom. The No3 is 3 atoms times the 3 is 9 plus the 1 is ten.

asked by lexi on November 19, 2014
Chemistry
The hybridization of nitrogen in FNO3 (or FONO2) I cannot for the life of me draw the spin diagram for the NO single bonds and NO double bonds. Sp2 hybridization?? I think? N is forming 3 sigma bonds and one Pi.

asked by Jen on April 20, 2018
chemistry
Below shows 3 displacement reactions involving metals and solutions of metal nitrates. Cu+2AgNO3->Cu(NO3)2+2Ag Pb+Cu(NO3)2->Pb(NO3)2+Cu Zn+Pb(NO3)2->Zn(NO3)2+Pb Use this information to find the order of reactivity of the 4 metals, with the most reactive. I

asked by Anonymous on January 17, 2008
chem
I just need to know the net ionic equation and balance them. I figured the equation. but the net and balance is harder. Fe(NO3)3 (aq) + Na2CO3 (aq) = FeCO3 (s) + Na2(NO3)3 (aq) Fe(NO3)3 (aq) + NaI (aq) =FeI (s) + Na(NO3)3 (aq) Ba(NO3)3 (aq) + Na3PO4(aq) =

asked by Suey on February 18, 2012
chem
I just need to know the net ionic equation and balance them. I figured the equation. but the net and balance is harder. Co(NO3)2 (aq) + NaOH (aq) = CoOH (s) + Na(NO3)2 (aq) Co(NO3)2 (aq) + Na2CO3 (aq) = CoCO3 (s) + Na2(NO3)2 (aq) Co(NO3)2 (aq) + Na3PO4

asked by Suey on February 18, 2012
chemistry
Which of the following combinations of atomic orbitals can combine to form sigma bonds? s-ss-pp-phybrid orbital – hybrid orbitalhybrid orbital – shybrid orbital – p What is the bond angle (in degrees) resulting from sp hybridization? What is the bond angle

asked by adex on March 12, 2013
science
When an atom is broken down into parts, what happens to its identity? The atom is no longer recognizable. The atom takes on a new average atomic mass. The atom becomes a new type of matter. The atom becomes a new element. Is it the third one?

asked by Dianni on November 7, 2018
Chemistry
how do u complete these questions? 2HCI(aq)+Pb(NO3)2(aq)—> 2HI(aq)+K2SO3(s)—> Pb(NO3)2(aq)+2KCI(aq)—> Ba(NO3)2(aq)+Na2SO4(aq)—> K2CO3(aq)+Ba(NO3)2(aq)—> HCI(aq)+AgNO3(aq)—>

asked by Kim on February 28, 2012
Chemistry
Will Zinc react with Zn(NO3)2, Cu(NO3)2,Pb(NO3)2, Mg(NO3)2, AgNO3, Al(NO3)3, or Fe(NO3)3

asked by Jenn on January 27, 2011
Chemistry Please Help!!!
Airbags contain a mixture of sodium azide, potassium nitrate, and silicon dioxide. A sensor detects a head on collision that cause the sodium azide to be ignited and to decompose forming sodium and nitrogen gas. This gas fills a nylon or polyamide bag such

asked by Annie on July 25, 2014

Chemistry – Hybridization
Can anyone help me with this questioin pleasee? Describe the orientation and relative energy levels of sp2 and sp3 orbitals with respect to unhyberdized orbitals (1s, 2s, 2px, 2py, 2pz orbitals) 1s and 2s are spherical. 2px, 2py, and 2pz are at 90o to each

asked by Eunice on December 5, 2006
Chemistry
A solution contains 23.1 ppm of dissolved Fe(NO3)3 (241.860g/mol), which dissociates completely into Fe3+ and NO3- (62.005g/mol) ions. Find the concentration of NO3- in parts per million

asked by Nick on January 9, 2015
General Chemistry
A student dissolved 4.00 g of Co(NO3)2 in enough water to make 100. mL of stock solution. He took 4.00 mL of the stock solution and then diluted it with water to give 275. mL of a final solution. How many grams of NO3- ion are there in the final solution?

asked by Dave on October 12, 2010
Chemistry (Check and Help)
Determine the type of chemical reaction, find the limiting reagent, determine the amount of product in grams, and the amount in grams of excess reagent. 8.75 g of mercury (II) nitrate solution is mixed with 9.83 g sodium iodide solution (ppt). Hg(NO3)2(aq)

asked by Anonymous on November 2, 2015
Chemistry
Ag(NO3)+ CaClYields to AgCl + (NO3)Ca KI + Pb(NO3) yields to K(NO3)+ IPb What is the precipitate in both??

asked by Emily on November 15, 2012
Chemistry
For AsClF4^2-: a)Name the hybridization of the orbitals of the central atom. i)s ii)sp iii)sp2 iv)sp3 v)sp4 vi)sp3d vii)sp3d2 b)Estimate the Cl-As-F bond angle. i)Slightly less than 90 ii)Exactly 90 iii)Slightly greater than 90 iv)Slightly less than 109.5

asked by Chemgam on January 11, 2013
science
Nitrate concentrations exceeding 44.3 mg NO3-/L are a concern in drinking water due to the infant disease, methemoglobinemia. Nitrate concentrations near three rural wells were reported as 0.01 mg NO3- N/L, 1.3 mg NO3- N/L, and 20.0 mg NO3- N/L. Do any of

asked by cucu on August 24, 2013
Atoms
You discovered a new atom! Wow, everyone at your lab is impressed!! Some are saying you may be nominated for the Nobel Prize in Medicine!!! If this is going to happen, you have to find out as much about the atom as you can, and you don’t have long to do

asked by Gessica on December 4, 2007
CHEMISTRY
Is CF4 an example of a central atom with an expanded octet?

asked by John on May 12, 2012
Chemistry
How many lone pairs are on the central atom in BCl3

asked by Brenda on November 30, 2010

Atoms. Atoms.
YOU DISCOVERED A NEW ATOM! WOW, EVERYONE AT YOUR LAB IS IMPRESSED!! SOME ARE SAYING YOU MAY BE NOMINATED FOR THE NOBEL PRIZE IN MEDICINE!!! IF THIS IS GOING TO HAPPEN, YOU HAVE TO FIND OUT AS MUCH ABOUT THE ATOM AS YOU CAN, AND YOU DON’T HAVE LONG TO DO

asked by Tina on December 3, 2007
Chemistry
Using the following information, identify the strong electrolyte whose general formula is Mx(A)y * zH2O Ignore the effect of interionic attractions in the solution. a. A”-is a common oxyanion. When 30.0 mg of the anhydrous sodium salt containing this

asked by Cynthia on March 29, 2007
Chemistry (Check)
Determine the type of chemical reaction, find the limiting reagent, determine the amount of product in grams, and the amount in grams of excess reagent. Calcium nitrate is decomposed with heat to give calcium nitrite and oxygen gas. Start with 15.99g of

asked by Anonymous on November 2, 2015
chemistry need help
Determine the number of moles of each specified atom or ion in the given samples of the following compounds.( Hint: the formula tells you how many atoms or ions are in each molecule of formula unit.) a. O atom in 3.161×10^21 molecules of CO2 b. C atom in

asked by bre bre on March 10, 2009
chemistry
Determine the number of moles of each specified atom or ion in the given samples of the following compounds.( Hint: the formula tells you how many atoms or ions are in each molecule of formula unit.) a. O atom in 3.161×10^21 molecules of CO2 b. C atom in

asked by bre bre on March 8, 2009
11th grade
In the Bohr model of the hydrogen atom, the speed of the electron is approximately 2.17 x 10^6 m/s. find the central force acting on the electron as it revolves in a circular orbit of radius 5.42 x 10^-11m.

asked by Julia on December 5, 2010
Chemistry
What is the full net ionic equation for each reaction? do they form a precipitate or have a color change? CuSO4+AgNO3 CuSO4+BaCl2 CuSO4+Cu(NO3)2 CuSO4+Pb(NO3)2 CuSO4+KI CuSO4+Na2S2O3 AgNO3+BaCl2 AgNO3+Cu(NO3)2 AgNO3+Pb(NO3)2 AgNO3+KI AgNO3+Na2S2O3

asked by Joe on May 27, 2008
Chemistry
What is the full net ionic equation for each reaction? do they form a precipitate or have a color change? CuSO4+AgNO3 CuSO4+BaCl2 CuSO4+Cu(NO3)2 CuSO4+Pb(NO3)2 CuSO4+KI CuSO4+Na2S2O3 AgNO3+BaCl2 AgNO3+Cu(NO3)2 AgNO3+Pb(NO3)2 AgNO3+KI AgNO3+Na2S2O3

asked by Joe on May 27, 2008
Chemistry

  1. A student uses 6M HCl solution contaminated with Al(NO3)3 to wash the nichrome wire in between recordings of emission spectra for the different known and unknown metal ion solutions. The emission energies for the aluminum are 3.90×10^-19 J/atom,

asked by Sandy on February 16, 2014
Chemistry
What is the electronic geometry of a central atom with 4 electron pairs?

asked by Kevin on December 3, 2012

science-chem question
Hello I have another hybridization question. For example in BeF2 … the electron configuration is 1s2, 2s2, 2p1. It gets hybridized to 1s2, 2s1, 2p2. I know that it will be a sp2 hybridization but I’m not exactly sure why. It’s because the last p orbital

asked by jisun on February 11, 2007
Chem
Determine the number of moles of N atoms in 43.5 g of Mg(NO3)2. Textbook answer: 1.43 mol N My answer: 43.5 g Mg(NO3)x x (1 mol Mg(NO3)2/148.313 g Mg(NO3)2) x (2 mol N/1 mol Mg(NO3)2) = .293 Can tell me where i went wrong?

asked by Bob on March 8, 2009
physics
In the Bohr model of the hydrogen atom, the speed of the electron is approximately 1.97 × 106 m/s. Find the central force acting on the electron as it revolves in a circular orbit of radius 4.72 × 10−11 m. Answer in units of N.

asked by go on May 11, 2011
Physics
In the Bohr model of the hydrogen atom, the speed of the electron is approximately 2.1 × 106 m/s. Find the central force acting on the electron as it revolves in a circular orbit of radius 4.51 × 10−11 m. Answer in units of N

asked by Kate on October 29, 2013
physics
In the Bohr model of the hydrogen atom, the speed of the electron is approximately 1.97 × 106 m/s. Find the central force acting on the electron as it revolves in a circular orbit of radius 4.72 × 10−11 m. Answer in units of N.

asked by go on May 11, 2011
physics
In the Bohr model of the hydrogen atom, the speed of the electron is approximately 1.97 × 106 m/s. Find the central force acting on the electron as it revolves in a circular orbit of radius 4.72 × 10−11 m. Answer in units of N.

asked by go on May 11, 2011
physics
In the Bohr model of the hydrogen atom, the speed of the electron is approximately 1.97 × 106 m/s. Find the central force acting on the electron as it revolves in a circular orbit of radius 4.72 × 10−11 m. Answer in units of N.

asked by go on May 11, 2011
Physics
In the Bohr model of the hydrogen atom, the speed of the electron is approximately 2.45 × 106 m/s. Find the central force acting on the electron as it revolves in a circular orbit of radius 5.18 × 10−11 m. Answer in units of N

asked by Kaylee on June 22, 2014
chemistry, polar or nonpolar
Why is NO3 nonpolar but CIF3 is polar? I looked at the lewis structures, they look similar, but why is one opposite. also, when something is polar or non polar, my teacher said I should see which atom is more electronegativity is higher and draw arrows

asked by Anonymous on January 25, 2009
Physics
The following questions use a central charge of q1=+2×10^-4C 1. What is the field strength at a distance of 5m from the central charge? I got 7.2×10^4 However, I’m not sure which unit to use… is it joules? 2. What is the force acting on another charge

asked by Lucy on April 17, 2009

Chemistry
How many electron domains are around the central atom ina water molecule?

asked by Amelia on November 7, 2017
Chem
How many lone pairs of electrons are on the central atom in the water molecule

asked by Lynn on April 8, 2010
chemistry
how does the number of electron pairs around a central atom determines its shape

asked by Doreen on March 17, 2012
Chemistry
Determine the mass of PbSO4 produced when 10mL of 0.2M CuSO4 reacts with 10mL of 0.2M Pb(NO3)2? Balance the equation CuSO4 + Pb(NO3)2 → PbSO4 + Cu(NO3)2 Find the number of moles for CuSO4 c=n/v n=c × v n=0.2 × 0.01 n=0.002 mol Since it is a 1:1 ratio,

asked by Kendall on August 5, 2015
Chemistry Balancing
K3PO4(aq) + 3Sr(NO3)2 ==> Sr3(PO4)2 + K2(NO3) the reactant was given. I can’t seem to balance this. whenever everything is even either the 3Sr(NO3)2 or K2(NO3) is not balanced. Also, the 3Sr in 3Sr(NO3)2 was already there.

asked by Amy~ on September 8, 2010

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what is the strength of the electric field at the position indicated by the dot in

What are the strength and direction of the electric field at the position indicated by the dot in the diagram below, in which d = 4.9 cm, q = 11
22,904 results
Physics
3 There are two charges +Q and –Q/2 that locate at two positions with a separation of d as shown in Fig. 1. We may put +Q at the origin of the x-axis to facilitate the calculation. (a) Find the electric field for +Q and –Q/2 at the position P. (5

asked by David on September 5, 2010
Physics
An electron moving to the right at 3.0% the speed of light enters a uniform electric field parallel to its direction of motion. If the electron is to be brought to rest in the space of 4.5 cm, determine the following. What direction is required for the

asked by Chris on March 1, 2010
Physics
As you travel through space, you find yourself moving into regions of ever-higher voltage. You are traveling . . . A) perpendicularly to the electric field. B) in exactly the same direction as the electric field. C) in a region with no electric field. D)

asked by O on January 21, 2018
Physics
As you travel through space, you find yourself moving into regions of ever-higher voltage. You are traveling . . . A) perpendicularly to the electric field. B) in exactly the same direction as the electric field. C) in a region with no electric field. D)

asked by O on January 21, 2018
Physics
A charge of 1nC is added to a spherical soap bubble with a radius of 3.0cm. What is the electric field strength just outside of the bubble? What is the electric field strength just inside of the bubble? The field experienced by each charge in the skin of

asked by Winter on October 11, 2013

physics

  1. What is the magnitude of the electric field strength E such that an electron, when placed in the field, would experience an electrical force equal to its weight? What electric field strength E is required if the electron is replaced by a proton

asked by lol on March 13, 2011
physics
An electron has an initial velocity of 2.00 ✕ 10 6 m/s in a uniform 6.00 ✕ 10 5 N/C strength electric field. The field accelerates the electron in the direction opposite to its initial velocity. (a) What is the direction of the electric field? (b) How

asked by mathew on March 19, 2015
physics
A proton is acted on by an uniform electric field of magnitude 233 N/C pointing in the positive x direction. The particle is initially at rest. (a) In what direction will the charge move? (b) Determine the work done by the electric field when the particle

asked by mathew on March 29, 2015
PHYSICS URGENT

  1. A point charge of +1.0 µC is moved in the direction of an electric field, and it has a change in electric potential difference energy of 10.0 J. What was the change in electric potential difference? 1 µC = 10-6 C (Points : 1) -1.0 × 10^8 V -1.0 ×

asked by Hannah on May 1, 2014
physics
Three point charges, A=2.00 uC, B=7.00 uC, C=-4.00 uC, are located at the corners of an equilateral triangle. a) Find the magnitude and direction of the electric field position of the 2.00 uC charge. b) How would the eletric field be affected if the charge

asked by Ella on November 7, 2012
physics
A 30.0 cm diameter loop is rotated in a uniform electric field until the position of maximum electric flux is found. The flux in this position is 5.60 multiplied by 105 N·m2/C. What is the magnitude of the electric field? MN/C

asked by suhani on September 13, 2013
physics
A 30.0 cm diameter loop is rotated in a uniform electric field until the position of maximum electric flux is found. The flux in this position is 5.60 multiplied by 105 N·m2/C. What is the magnitude of the electric field? MN/C

asked by gita on September 8, 2013
physics

  1. Suppose that the strength of the electric field about an isolated point charge has a certain value at a distance of 1 m. How will the electric field strength compare at a distance of 2 m from the point charge? I know it’s At twice the distance the field

asked by anonymous on July 14, 2010
Physics
An electric dipole is formed from two charges, ±q, spaced 1.00cm apart. The dipole is at the origin, oriented along the y-axis. The electric field strength at the point (x,y)=(0cm,10cm) is 320N/C . What is the charge q? Give your answer in nC. What is the

asked by Allison on February 21, 2014
Physics
The electric field strength at a particular distance from an electric charge is 2.0 N/C. What is the electric field strength if you are 2 times closer to the same charge?

asked by Anon on January 18, 2018

physics
Any dielectric material other than vacuum has a maximum electric field that can be produced in the dielectric material before it physically or chemically breaks down and begins to conduct. This maximum electric field is called dielectric strength. The

asked by lauren on March 7, 2010
Physics
I don’t know how to approach this question… Any dielectric material other than vacuum has a maximum electric field that can be produced in the dielectric material before it physically or chemically breaks down and begins to conduct. This maximum electric

asked by Sandra on March 4, 2010
Physics
Any dielectric material other than vacuum has a maximum electric field that can be produced in the dielectric material before it physically or chemically breaks down and begins to conduct. This maximum electric field is called dielectric strength. The

asked by Susie on March 6, 2010
Physics
(a) Find the electric field at x = 5.00 cm in Figure 18.52(a), given that q = 1.00X10^-6;C . (b) At what position between 3.00 and 8.00 cm is the total electric field the same as that for –2q alone? (c) Can the electric field be zero anywhere between

asked by Elizabeth on August 8, 2016
physics!
An electric dipole consists of 2.0 g spheres charged to 5.0 nC (positive and negative) at the ends of a 12 cm long massless rod. The dipole rotates on a frictionless pivot at its center. The dipole is held perpendicular to a uniform electric field with

asked by cha on February 8, 2012
college physics
An electric dipole consists of 2.0 g spheres charged to 5.0 nC (positive and negative) at the ends of a 12 cm long massless rod. The dipole rotates on a frictionless pivot at its center. The dipole is held perpendicular to a uniform electric field with

asked by cha on February 8, 2012
College Physics
An electric dipole consists of 2.0 g spheres charged to 5.0 nC (positive and negative) at the ends of a 12 cm long massless rod. The dipole rotates on a frictionless pivot at its center. The dipole is held perpendicular to a uniform electric field with

asked by Collin on February 8, 2012
math/physics
An electron moving through an electric field experiences an acceleration of 6.1 multiplied by 103 m/s2. (a) Find the electric force acting on the electron. (b) What is the strength of the electric field?

asked by jake on January 11, 2010
physics
a positive point charge q sits at the center of a hollow spherical shell. The shell, with radius R and negligible thickness, has net charge -2q. find an expression for the for the electric field strength (a) inside the sphere, rR. in what direction does

asked by jerry on September 16, 2009
physics
An electron moving to the right at 4.0% the speed of light enters a uniform electric field parallel to its direction of motion. If the electron is to be brought to rest in the space of 5.0 cm, determine what the strength of the field is.

asked by Mercedes on July 17, 2012

Physics
When an electron moves 2.5 m in the direction of an electric field, the change in electrical potential energy of the electron is 8×10-17J. What is the strength of the electric field that causes the change in potential energy? 320 N/C 200 N/C 20 N/C 3.2 N/C

asked by Blah on October 19, 2012
Physics II
An electron with an initial speed of 5.0 ✕ 105 m/s enters a region in which there is an electric field directed along its direction of motion. If the electron travels 9.0 cm in the field before being stopped, what are the magnitude and direction of the

asked by Beat on January 24, 2016
physics
An east-west oriented conducting bar 2.0 m long moves north at 20 m/s through a magnetic field of 0.017 T, directed downward. What is the strength and direction of the electric field generated in the bar?

asked by angela on October 24, 2010
11th grade physics
Two point charges q and q’ are placed respectively at two points A and B. Let O be the midpoint of [AB]. Charge q placed at A creates at O an electric field of strength E=9×10^6 V/m. Determine the resultant electric field at O when: a) q’=q b) q’=-q

asked by vicky on March 15, 2016
11th grade physics
Two point charges q and q’ are placed respectively at two points A and B. Let O be the midpoint of [AB]. Charge q placed at A creates at O an electric field of strength E=9×10^6 V/m. Determine the resultant electric field at O when: a) q’=q b)

asked by vicky on March 15, 2016
11th grade physics
Two point charges q and q’ are placed respectively at two points A and B. Let O be the midpoint of [AB]. Charge q placed at A creates at O an electric field of strength E=9×10^6 V/m. Determine the resultant electric field at O when: a) q’=q b) q’=-q

asked by vicky on March 15, 2016
Physics
I know this is so simple but for some reason I am having a brain fart… A 20 C charge experiences a 2 N force in an electric field. What is the strength of the electric field? Please help and laugh later thank you lol

asked by Trevor on May 1, 2015
Physics
An electrostastic force of 20.0 newtons is exerted on a charge of 8.00 x 10^/2 C at point P in an electric field. The magnitude of the electric field strength at P is Given: Fe = 20 B q = 8.00 x 10^/2 C

asked by Priscilla on February 5, 2010
Physics
When an electron moves 2.5 m in the direction of an electric field, the change in electrical potential energy of the electron is 8×10-17J. What is the strength of the electric field that causes the change in potential energy? 320 N/C 200 N/C 20 N/C 3.2 N/C

asked by La La on October 19, 2012
PHYSICS
The electron gun in a television tube uses a uniform electric field to accelerate electrons from rest to 5.0×107 m/s in a distance of 1.2 cm. What is the electric field strength?

asked by Lucas on February 24, 2010

Physics
A uniform electric field exists everywhere in the x, y plane. This electric field has a magnitude of 5600 N/C and is directed in the positive x direction. A point charge -9.6 × 10-9 C is placed at the origin. Find the magnitude of the net electric field

asked by Anonymous on September 27, 2015
physics
A uniform electric field exists everywhere in the x, y plane. This electric field has a magnitude of 5700 N/C and is directed in the positive x direction. A point charge -5.4 × 10-9 C is placed at the origin. Find the magnitude of the net electric field

asked by namabia on November 19, 2014
physics
The electric field strength 6.0 cm from a very long charged wire is 1700 N/C. What is the electric field strength 10.0 cm from the wire?

asked by David D. on September 3, 2010
physics
Background pertinent to this problem is available in Interactive LearningWare 18.3. A uniform electric field exists everywhere in the x, y plane. This electric field has a magnitude of 5700 N/C and is directed in the positive x direction. A point charge

asked by namabia on November 18, 2014
PHYSICS
A proton, initially traveling in the +x-direction with a speed of 5.30×105m/s , enters a uniform electric field directed vertically upward. After traveling in this field for 4.38×10−7s , the proton’s velocity is directed 45 ∘ above the +x-axis.

asked by Mary on January 28, 2014
Physics
A beam of unknown charged particles passes at right angle to the direction of magnetic field of 9.0 10-2 T. If the speed of the particles is 3.0 104 m/s and force experienced by a particle is 8.64 10-16 N, how many electric charges are carried by one

asked by Landon on May 26, 2009
Physics
There is a very large horizontal conducting plate in the plane (consider it infinitely large). Its thickness is . The charge densities on the upper and the lower surfaces are both equal to . The goal of this problem is to find the electric field (magnitude

asked by P on February 24, 2013
Physics – important
An electron is accelerated through a uniform electric field of magnitude 2.5×10^2 N/C with an initial speed of 1.2×10^6 m/s parallel to the electric field. a) Calculate the work done on the electron by the field when the electron has travelled 2.5 cm in

asked by Linn on April 21, 2009
Physics
An electron is accelerated through a uniform electric field of magnitude 2.5×10^2 N/C with an initial speed of 1.2×10^6 m/s parallel to the electric field. a) Calculate the work done on the electron by the field when the electron has travelled 2.5 cm in

asked by Linn on April 21, 2009
physics
please check my answers and help me with the first one. how can you charge an object negatively with only the help of a positively charged object? -This one I am not too sure, when one material is rubbed against another electrons jump readily from one to

asked by Soly on November 6, 2007

physics
A 0.035 kg spherical oil droplet has charge of +1×10-7C. A uniform electric field is acting upwards as shown below. What strength of electric field is required to make the sphere float in the air without moving?

asked by mable on December 12, 2016
physics
There is a very large horizontal conducting plate in the x-y plane (consider it infinitely large). Its thickness is h . The charge densities on the upper and the lower surfaces are both equal to +σ. The goal of this problem is to find the electric field

asked by Anonymous on February 27, 2013
Science- Electric and Magnetic Potential Energy

  1. At which position will the bar magnets most likely experience the least magnetic potential energy between them? D – position 4 2. A positively charged test object is moving toward the positive source charge in an electric field. B – It’s potential

asked by ImLegit on April 19, 2016
physics
An electromagnetic wave has an electric field strength of 145 V/m at a point P in space at time t. (a) What is the electric field energy density at P? (b) A parallel-plate capacitor whose plates have area 0.110 m2 has a uniform electric field between its

asked by Beth on March 8, 2013
Physics
An electron experiences a force of 12 mN in the positive x-direction in an electric field. What is the magnitude and direction of the electric field?

asked by Sam on February 8, 2011
Physics
There is a very large horizontal conducting plate in the x-y plane (consider it infinitely large). Its thickness is h . The charge densities on the upper and the lower surfaces are both equal to +σ. The goal of this problem is to find the electric field

asked by P on February 25, 2013
Physics
A 20 C charge experiences a 2 N force in an electric field. What is the strength of the electric field?

asked by Jennifer on April 27, 2015
Science
before you say “The answers are in your text” I don’t have one this is based on memory and guessing. Welcome to the 2017 school system. 1. Objects with like charges each other while opposite charges ___ each other. 2. The direction

asked by Senpai on December 4, 2017
Math
Question: An electron is released from rest in a uniform electric field and accelerates to the north at a rate of 249 m/s^2 . Part A: What is the magnitude of the electric field? Answer: E=_ N/C Part B: What is the direction of the electric field?

asked by Ashley on March 15, 2017
Physics
The electric field strength @ distance = 1.0 m from a point charge is 4.0 x 10^4 N/C. What is the Electric field strength @ 2.0 m from the same charge?

asked by Anna on February 27, 2013

Physics
I don’t know if my other post went through or not, so I’m reposting it here. The first question I didn’t know the answer to and the second one was worded in a way that I couldn’t understand. 1. With respect to an electric and a magnetic field, how does the

asked by Emily on March 29, 2008
Physics
A proton is released from rest in a uniform electric field. After the proton has traveled a distance of 10.0 cm, its speed is 1.4 x 106 m/s in the positive x direction. Find the magnitude and direction of the electric field.

asked by Chloe on July 17, 2011
phsics multiple choice
1)A coil of length 1cm has N turns and carries an electric current I. It creates at a point M a magnetic field of intensity B. -If a current 3I is sent in the coil the field strength at M becomes: a. 3B b. B/3 c. B -If the number of turns per unit length

asked by angy on May 17, 2016
physics multiple choice
1)A coil of length 1cm has N turns and carries an electric current I. It creates at a point M a magnetic field of intensity B. -If a current 3I is sent in the coil the field strength at M becomes: a. 3B b. B/3 c. B -If the number of turns per unit length

asked by angy on May 17, 2016
electric force/field
Three point charges, A = 2.2 µC, B = 7.5 µC, and C = -3.9 µC, are located at the corners of an equilateral triangle . Find the magnitude and direction of the electric field at the position of the 2.2 µC charge. magnitude = . N/C direction =

asked by physics on January 23, 2012
College Physics
A doubly charged ion is accelerated to an energy of 33.0 keV by the electric field between two parallel conducting plates separated by 1.70 cm. What is the electric field strength between the plates?

asked by Bill on March 24, 2014
PHYSICS
A doubly charged ion is accelerated to an energy of 34.0 keV by the electric field between two parallel conducting plates separated by 2.00 cm. What is the electric field strength between the plates?

asked by Kg on September 30, 2012
Physics
A doubly charged ion is accelerated to an energy of 33.0 keV by the electric field between two parallel conducting plates separated by 1.70 cm. What is the electric field strength between the plates?

asked by Sam on March 23, 2014
Physics
A particle with mass m = 1.20g and charge q = 345ìC is traveling in the x-direction with an initial velocity of v0 = 68.0m/s. The particle passes through a constant electric field in the y-direction with magnitude |E| = 263N/C over a distance of d =

asked by Nick on January 17, 2013
Chemistry
Two fixed charges, -4μC and -5μC, are separated by a certain distance. If the charges are separated by 20cm, what is the magnitude of the electric field halfway between the charges? My textbook says that the formula for electric field is (kq)/r^2. But

asked by Emma on February 9, 2016

Physics
The electric flux through the surface shown in Figure Ex27.10 is 15.0 Nm2/C, and the electric field makes an angle α = 70° with the surface. What is the electric field strength? The surface is a 10cm by 10cm square.

asked by David D. on September 13, 2010
Physics Flux
The electric flux through the surface shown in Figure Ex27.10 is 15.0 Nm2/C, and the electric field makes an angle á = 70° with the surface. What is the electric field strength? The surface is a 10cm by 10cm square.

asked by David on September 13, 2010
College Physics 2
Estimate the magnitude of the electric field strength due to the proton in a hydrogen atom at a distance of 5.29×10^-11 m, the expected position of the electron in the atom.

asked by Mayga on August 29, 2012
Vectors Math
The magnetic force (Vector FM)on a particle in a magnetic field is found by Vector FM = Vector I × Vector B, Vector I is the charge multiplied by the velocity of a charged particle and Vector B the strength of the magnetic field, in Tesla (T). An electron

asked by Amy on February 23, 2015
Physics
1.) a charge of -2×10^-9 C in an electric field between two metal plates 4cm apart is acted upon by a force of 10^-4 N. a.) what is the strength of the field? b.) what is the potential difference between the plates? my question: how will going to solve

asked by konan on February 8, 2009
Vectors
The magnetic force (Vector FM)on a particle in a magnetic field is found by Vector FM = Vector I × Vector B, Vector I is the charge multiplied by the velocity of a charged particle and Vector B the strength of the magnetic field, in Tesla (T). An electron

asked by Amy on February 22, 2015
Vectors Math
The magnetic force (Vector FM)on a particle in a magnetic field is found by Vector FM = Vector I × Vector B, Vector I is the charge multiplied by the velocity of a charged particle and Vector B the strength of the magnetic field, in Tesla (T). An electron

asked by Zaynab on February 22, 2015
College physics
150 pJ of energy is stored in a 1.0 cm times 1.0 cm times 1.0 cm region of uniform electric field. What is the electric field strength?

asked by Emoni on July 14, 2010
physics
explain the relationship between contours of constant potential and the electric field direction. why is the electric field a vector quantity while the electric potential is a scalar?

asked by jake on February 1, 2010
physics
A laser emits 1.42 1018 photons per second in a beam of light that has a diameter of 1.82 mm and a wavelength of 524.0 nm. Determine each of the following for the electromagnetic wave that constitutes the beam. (a) the average electric field strength (b)

asked by Anonymous on April 17, 2014

physics
Which of the following statements about electric field lines due to static charges are true? (Select all that apply.) Electric field lines can never cross each other. Static charges can create closed loop electric field lines that do not begin or end on a

asked by mathew on March 16, 2015
physics
Gold ions (Au+) are accelerate to high speeds using electric fields. These ions are then passed through a region where uniform electric E and magnetic B fields are present. If the ions are traveling to the right, which configuration of E and B will serve

asked by lauren on March 13, 2010
Physics
What are the strength and direction of the electric field at the position indicated by the dot in the diagram below, in which d = 4.9 cm, q = 11 nC, the positive x-axis points to the right, and the positive y-axis points up? Give your answer in each of the

asked by help! on February 28, 2012
physics

  1. Three particles with charges of +11 mC each are placed at the vertices of an equilateral triangle with sides of 15.0 cm. What is the magnitude and direction of the net force on each particle? 2. A proton is released in an uniform electric field and it

asked by Sasha on January 4, 2010
PHYSICS

  1. Why is an electric field considered to be a vector quantity? 2. Draw the electric field around an electric dipole of +1 µC and -1 µC 3. How many electrons have been removed from a positively charged object if it has a charge of 1.5 x 1011 C? 4. A

asked by Hayden on December 21, 2012
physics
I need help confirming my answers: 1) The work done on an electric charge equals a) IR b)q/t c)Vq d) It I think it’s C.(Vq) 2) The direction of an electric field is the direction that a _ test charge will move when placed in the field. a)negative b)

asked by Katie on April 7, 2011
physics help
I need help confirming my answers: 1) The work done on an electric charge equals a) IR b)q/t c)Vq d) It I think it’s C.(Vq) 2) The direction of an electric field is the direction that a _ test charge will move when placed in the field. a)negative b)

asked by Katie on April 10, 2011
Physics
What happens when an electron travels through an electric field? Will its speed remain constant or will it accelerate? The initial velocity is in the same direction as the electric field.

asked by Ichi on January 26, 2019
physics
An electron is released from rest in a uniform electric field and accelerates to the north at a rate of 115 m/s2. What are the magnitude and direction of the electric field.

asked by electric field on March 1, 2010
physics
A proton is placed in uniform electric field”E” what must be the magnitude and direction of electric field when electrostatic force is balanced by weight

asked by Anonymous on February 13, 2016

Physics
A small object of mass 3.00 g and charge -13 µC “floats” in a uniform electric field. What is the magnitude and direction of the electric field?

asked by Nate on October 4, 2010
Physics
A small object of mass 3.50 g and charge -22 µC “floats” in a uniform electric field. What is the magnitude and direction of the electric field?

asked by Jan on February 6, 2010
Physics
A small object of mass 2.60 g and charge -17 µC “floats” in a uniform electric field. What is the magnitude and direction of the electric field?

asked by Phil on February 17, 2013
Physics
A circular surface with a radius of 0.058 m is exposed to a uniform external electric field of magnitude 1.49 104 N/C. The electric flux through the surface is 74 N · m2/C. What is the angle between the direction of the electric field and the normal to

asked by Sarah on September 6, 2013
physics
A circular surface with a radius of 0.053 m is exposed to a uniform external electric field of magnitude 1.48 104 N/C. The electric flux through the surface is 72 N · m2/C. What is the angle between the direction of the electric field and the normal to

asked by amber on September 8, 2009
Physics
A circular surface with a radius of 0.058 m is exposed to a uniform external electric field of magnitude 1.49 104 N/C. The electric flux through the surface is 74 N · m2/C. What is the angle between the direction of the electric field and the normal to

asked by Sarah on September 6, 2013
Physics
A circular surface with a radius of 0.058 m is exposed to a uniform external electric field of magnitude 1.49 104 N/C. The electric flux through the surface is 74 N · m2/C. What is the angle between the direction of the electric field and the normal to

asked by Sarah on September 6, 2013
Physics
A circular surface with a radius of 0.058 m is exposed to a uniform external electric field of magnitude 1.49 104 N/C. The electric flux through the surface is 74 N · m2/C. What is the angle between the direction of the electric field and the normal to

asked by Sarah on September 8, 2013
Physic
An electron is released from rest in a uniform electric field and accelerates to the north at a rate of 115 m/s^2.Determine the magnitude and direction of electric field.

asked by Syam on December 16, 2014
Physics
What would happen when a dipole is placed in uniform electric field making an angle theta with the direction of electric field ?

asked by Sneha on June 8, 2013

Physics
What would happen when a dipole is placed in uniform electric field making an angle theta with the direction of electric field ?

asked by Aman on June 8, 2013
physics
A 0.10 g plastic bead is charged by the addition of 1.0 x 1010 excess electrons. What electric field (strength and direction) will cause the bead to hang suspended in the air?

asked by Jessika on July 21, 2011
Physics
An object with a charge of -4.4 uC and a mass of 1.4×10^−2 kg experiences an upward electric force, due to a uniform electric field, equal in magnitude to its weight. Find the magnitude of the electric field. Find the direction of the electric field. If

asked by Cooper on January 23, 2012
Physics
Gold ions (Au+) are accelerate to high speeds using electric fields. These ions are then passed through a region where uniform electric E and magnetic B fields are present. If the ions are traveling to the right, which configuration of E and B will serve

asked by mm. on March 15, 2010
Physics
Gold ions (Au+) are accelerate to high speeds using electric fields. These ions are then passed through a region where uniform electric E and magnetic B fields are present. If the ions are traveling to the right, which configuration of E and B will serve

asked by Sandra on March 13, 2010

Categories
research paper done for you research paper writing service writing a research paper

which of the following are characteristic of alphanumeric outlines?

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 1

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 5

Annotated Bibliography

Heba Elwahsh

Annotated Bibliography

Centre of Excellence Defense Against Terrorism. (2008). Organizational and Psychological Aspects of Terrorism. Amsterdam, Netherlands: IOS Press.

When it comes to the need to understand the psychological and nature of a terrorist, this books provides an in-depth understanding of what leads to terrorism and its causes. The source identifies the fact that terrorism is not a new phenomenon and it has been present as long as organized societies have been present. Nonetheless, the book tries to identify the environments that can be regarded as breeding grounds for terrorism. Furthermore, it identifies that terrorism is not singular but is diverse with various causes and types all promoted by either social, economic or political factor. Some factors such as globalization, rapid modernization, poverty, rapid deprivation, democracy, political representation, human rights and freedoms amongst other have been identified as the main triggers of terrorism. Overall, the authors of this source have not fully explored all the causes of terrorism but have covered significant psychological reasons and characteristics that can be attributed to various types of terrorism. It further states that terrorism is an action that has yet to be fully understood as the factors that result in it are too diverse.

Chaliand, G., & Blin, A. (2007). The History of Terrorism: From Antiquity to Al Qaeda. Oakland, California: University of California Press.

In this book, the authors identifies the fact that throughout history power has been acquired more often via terror which can be defined as the incitement of fear into the public. Most if not all authoritarian societies have been instituted by fear, resulting in the term “totalitarian regime” in the contemporary era. The authors furthermore identify the notion that the submission to such brutality and force has been humankind’s singular path towards achieving security and freedom. The book is not only based on the historical facts but also brings to light the nature of terrorism today and how little has changed. Even with the emergence of modern groups such as Al Qaeda and other Islamic factions, they operate on the same basis with the desire for power through the infliction of fear.

Guiora, A. N. (2011). Homeland Security: What Is It and Where Are We Going?Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press.

This book analyses how the Homeland Security Agency has enacted several laws and policies to curb terrorism, ten years after the ill-fated 9/11 terror attack. It analyses if the country has become safer or it has merely moderated the public to a false sense of security. Nonetheless, the source provides the various perspectives available to a broad array of individuals present in the agency this is through interviews. Moreover, it analyzes the manner in which the agency prioritizes the limited resources allocated to it by the federal government. Furthermore, the other identifies to the readers the manner in which the agency lacks consensus when it comes to the definition of the agency and its function. Finally, it provides solutions to a wide number of dilemmas that the agency experiences ranging from internal to external forms of terror, the sharing of intelligence, immigration and business continuity amongst others. Overall, the text in the resource has been written in a manner that can be appropriate for both policymakers, the general public as well as academicians.

Sjoberg, L., & Gentry, C. E. (2011). Women, Gender, and Terrorism. Athens, Georgia: University of Georgia Press.

The authors of this book have identified that in the past decade or so, the number of women involved in terrorist activity has increased. The Book Women, Gender, and Terrorism try to explain the relationship that women have with terrorism. However, unlike most books concentrate on gender alone, this book ensures that it views the notion from almost all terror-affiliated perspectives. These include race, gender, politics, and dynamics of the various cultures in the modern society. From the authors, they identify the statistic that it has been a rare occurrence to hear or witness women participating in terror activities. However, with the welcoming of the new millennium, the number of women in terror activities has been on the increase. The first chapter identifies of how women in various locations that have been involved in various terror activities. Also provided is an overview of the relationship that has been formed between women and terror groups as well as historical evidence of their participation.

References

Centre of Excellence Defense Against Terrorism. (2008). Organizational and Psychological Aspects of Terrorism. Amsterdam, Netherlands: IOS Press.

Chaliand, G., & Blin, A. (2007). The History of Terrorism: From Antiquity to Al Qaeda. Oakland, California: University of California Press.

Guiora, A. N. (2011). Homeland Security: What Is It and Where Are We Going?Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press.

Sjoberg, L., & Gentry, C. E. (2011). Women, Gender, and Terrorism. Athens, Georgia: University of Georgia Press.

Categories
research paper done for you research paper writing service writing a research paper

a capacity cushion is the amount of capacity less than expected demand.

Capacity Planning

Chapter outline

12.1 Facilities decisions

12.2 Facilities strategy

12.3 Sales and operations planning definition

12.4 Cross-functional nature of S&OP

12.5 Planning options

12.6 Basic aggregate planning strategies

12.7 Aggregate planning costs

12.8 Aggregate planning example

12.9 Key points and terms

In this chapter, we discuss capacity decisions related to carrying out the produc- tion of goods and services. Firms make capacity planning decisions that are long range, medium range, and short range in nature. These decisions follow naturally from supply chain decisions that already have been made and forecasting infor- mation as an input.

Capacity decisions must be aligned with the operations strategy of a firm. The operations strategy provides a road map that is used in making supply chain deci- sions to create a network of organizations whose work and output are used to satisfy customers’ product and service needs. Capacity decisions are based on forecasted estimates of future demand. For example, operations and marketing collaborate to develop a forecast for demand for resort spa services before the re- sort makes capacity planning decisions regarding the appropriate facility and staff sizes for the spa.

As was discussed in the previous chapter, long-range decisions are concerned with facilities and process selection, which typically extend about one or more years into the future. The first part of this chapter describes facilities decisions and a strategic approach to making them. In this chapter we also deal with medium- range aggregate planning, which extends from six months to a year or two into the future. The next chapter discusses short-range capacity decisions of less than six months regarding the scheduling of available resources to meet demand.

Facilities, aggregate planning, and scheduling form a hierarchy of capacity deci- sions about the planning of operations extending from long, to medium, to short range in nature. First, facility planning decisions are long term in nature, made to

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FIGURE 12.1 Hierarchy of capacity decisions.

0

Scheduling

.. 6 12

Months Planning Horizon

18 24

obtain physical capacity that must be planned, developed, and constructed bef011! its intended use. Then, aggregate planning determines the workforce level and p:ro– duction output level for the medium term within the facility capacity available Finally, scheduling consists of short-term decisions that are constrained by aggregall! planning and allocates the available capacity by assigning it to specific activities.

This hierarchy of capacity decisions is shown in Figure 12.1. Notice that the deci- sions proceed from the top down and that there are feedback loops from the b~ tom up. Thus, scheduling decisions often indicate a need for revised aggrega~ planning, and aggregate planning also may uncover facility needs.

We define capacity (sometimes referred to as peak capacity) as the maximum output that can be produced over a specific period of time, such as a day, week, or year. Capacity can be measured in terms of output measures such as number ot units produced, tons produced, and number of customers served over a specified period. It also can be measured by physical asset availability, such as the number of hotel rooms available, or labor availability, for example, the labor available fO£ consulting or accounting services.

Estimating capacity depends on reasonable assumptions about facilities, equip- ment, and workforce availability for one, two, or three shifts as well as the operat- ing days per week or per year. If we assume two eight-hour shifts are available for five days per week all year, the capacity of a facility is 16 X 5 = 80 hours per week and 80 X 52 = 4160 hours per year. However, if the facility is staffed for only one shift, these capacity estimates must be halved. Facility capacity is not available un- less there is a workforce in place to operate it.

Utilization is the relationship between actual output and capacity and is de- fined by the following formula:

Actual output Utilization = C . X 100%

apaCity

The utilization of capacity is a useful measure for estimating how busy a facility is or the proportion of total capacity being used . It is almost never reasonable to plan for 100 percent utilization since spare (slack) capacity is needed for planned and unplanned events. Planned events may include required maintenance or equipment replacement, and unpla1med events could be a late delivery from a supplier or unexpected demand.

Chapter 12 Capacity Planning 287

Operations Leader Bridge Collapse Illustrates Need for Emergency Capacity

The I-35W Mississippi River bridge near downtown Mi nneapolis and the University of Minnesota col- lapsed during the evening rush hour on August 1, 2007. Seventy-five city, county, state, and federal agencies were involved in the rescue effort. Such cata- strophic events illustrate the necessity for capacity availability in emergency services.

The Minneapolis police and fire departments were among the first responders to the disaster, and while they generally have excess capacity, utilization of

those services was temporarily pushed to the maxi- mum. Suburban police and fire units, with their own available capacity, were brought in to handle other demands for those services that were unre- lated to the bridge collapse.

While a majority of injured victims were treated at Hennepin County Medical Center, nine other area hospitals also treated victims. Such collaboration among hospital emergency departments is necessary during large disasters as no single hospital has enough capacity to absorb these demand spikes.

The excellent working relationships among agencies that had developed through joint train- ing, planning, and previous emergency incidents were cited as one of the primary reasons that re- sponse and recovery operations went smoothly. As one rescue leader commented, “We didn’t view it as a Minneapolis incident; it was a city/county/state incident.”

Source: Adapted from information compiled from several sources, including “I-35W Mississippi River Bridge,” www.wikipedia.org, 2009.

Utilization rates vary widely by industry and firm. Continuous flow processes may have utilization near 100 percent. Facilities with assembly-line processes may set planned utilization at 80 percent to allow for flexibility to meet unexpected demand. Batch and job shop processes generally have even lower utilization. Emergency services such as police, fire, and emergency medical care often have fairly low utilization, in part so that they can meet the demands placed on them during catastrophic events. The Operations Leader box tells the story of the Inter- state 35W bridge collapse in Minneapolis, Minnesota, as an example of the need for capacity from a variety of organizations during emergencies.

It is possible in the short term for a firm to operate above 100 percent utilization. Overtime or an increased work-flow rate can be used in the short term to meet highly variable or seasonal demand. Mail and package delivery services often use these means to increase work output before major holidays. However, firms cannot sustain this rapid rate of work for more than a short period. Worker burnout, de- layed equipment maintenance, and increased costs make it undesirable to operate at very high utilization over the medium or long term for most firms.

In addition to the theoretical peak capacity, there is an effective capacity that is obtained by subtracting downtime for maintenance, shift breaks, schedule changes, absenteeism, and other activities that decrease the capacity available. The effective capacity, then, is the amount of capacity that can be used in planning for actual facility output over a period of time. To estimate effective capacity for the previously described two-shift facility, we must subtract hours for planned and unforeseen events.

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12.1 FACILITIES DECISIONS

“OM: Featuring St. Alexius

Medical Center,” Vol. X

Facilities decisions, the longest-term capacity planning decisions, are of gm1 importance to a firm. These decisions place physical constraints on the amo.- that can be produced, and they often require significant capital investm~ Therefore, facilities decisions involve all organizational functions and often made at the highest corporate level, including top management and the b~ of directors.

Firms must decide whether to expand existing facilities or build new ones. _ we discuss the facilities strategy below, we will see there are trade-offs that mm be considered. Expanding current facilities may provide location conveniences current employees but may not be the best location in the long-run. Alternativell new facilities can be located near a larger potential workforce but require duplial- tion of activities such as maintenance and training.

When construction is required, the lead time for many facilities decisions r~ from one to five years. The one-year time frame generally involves buildings – equipment that can be constructed quickly or leased. The five-year time frame volves large and complex facilities such as oil refineries, paper mills, steel millll and electricity generating plants.

In facilities decisions, there are five crucial questions:

1. How much capacity is needed? 2. How large should each facility be? 3. When is the capacity needed? 4. Where should the facilities be located?

5. What types of facilities/ capacity are needed?

The questions of how much, how large, when, where, and what type can be s~ rated conceptually but are often intertwined in practice. As a result, facilities deci- sions are exceedingly complex and difficult to analyze.

In the next section, these five types of facilities decisions are considered in de- tail. We stress the notion of a facilities strategy, cross-functional decision ma:king and the relationship of facilities strategy to business strategy.

12.2 FACILITIES STRATEGY

In Chapter 2 it was noted that a facilities strategy is one of the major parts of – operations strategy. Since major facilities decisions affect competitive success they need to be considered as part of the total operations strategy, not simply as a series of incremental capital-budgeting decisions. Supporting the operatioot strategy also applies to other major strategic decisions in operations regardind process design, the supply chain, and quality management, as we have already noted.

A facilities strategy considers the amount of capacity, the size of facilities, the timing of capacity changes, facilities locations, and the types of facilities needed for the long run. It must be coordinated with other functional areas due to the necessary investments (finance), market sizes that determine the amount ot capacity needed (marketing), workforce issues related to staffing new facilities (human resources), estimating costs in new facilities (accounting), and technology decisions regarding equipment investments (engineering). The facilities strategy

Amount of Capacity

FACILITIES STRATEGY. This Bacardi Rum factory supplies the entire North American market from a single modern automated distillery in Puerto Rico.

Chapter 12 Capacity Planning 289

needs to be considered in an integrated fashion with these functional areas and will be affected by the following factors:

1. Predicted demand. Formulating a facility strategy requires a forecast of de- mand; ·techniques for making these forecasts were considered in the previous chap- ter. Marketing often is involved in forecasting future demand.

2. Cost of facilities. Cost is driven by the amount of capacity added at one time, the timing, and the location of capacity. Accounting and finance are involved in estimating future costs and cash flows from facility strategies.

3. Likely behavior of competitors. An expected slow competitive response may lead the firm to add capacity to grab the market before competitors become strong. In contrast, an expected fast competitive response may cause the firm to be more cautious in expanding capacity.

4. Business strategy. The business strategy may dictate that a company put more emphasis on cost, service, or flexibility in facilities choices. For exam- ple, a business strategy to provide the best service can lead to facilities with some excess capacity or several market locations for fast service. Other busi- ness strategies can lead to cost minimization or attempts to maximize future flexibility.

5. International considerations. As markets and supply chains continue to be- come more global in nature, facilities often are located globally. This involves not merely chasing cheap labor but locating facilities for the best strategic ad- vantage, sometimes to access new markets or to obtain desired expertise in the workforce.

One part of a facilities strategy is the amount of capacity needed. This is deter- min~d both by forecasted demand and by a strategic decision by the firm about how much capacity to provide in relation to expected demand. This can best be described by the notion of a capacity cushion, which is defined as follows:

Capacity cushion = 100% – Utilization

The capacity cushion is the difference between the output that a firm could achieve and the real output that it produces to meet demand. Since capacity utilization reflects the output required to satisfy demand, a positive cushion means that there is more capacity available than is required to satisfy demand. Zero cushion means that the average demand equals the capacity available.

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Size of Facilities

The decision regarding a planned amount of cushion is strategic in na~ The capacity cushion should be planned into capacity decisions, as the cushiOIIC will affect service levels as well as the firm’s ability to respond to unexpectel situations.

Three strategies can be adopted with respect to the amount of capacity cushi• 1. Large cushion. In this strategy, a large positive capacity cushion, with ca-

pacity in excess of average demand, is planned. The firm intentionally has more capacity than the average demand forecast. This type of strategy is ap- propriate when there is an expanding market or when the cost of buildinfl and operating capacity is inexpensive relative to the cost of running out capacity. Electric utilities adopt this approach, since blackouts and brown– outs are generally not acceptable. Firms in growing markets may adopt a positive capacity cushion to enable them to capture market share ahead 01 their competitors. Also, a large cushion can help a firm meet unpredictabll customer demand, for example, for new technologies that very quickly be- come popular. Firms using a make-to-order process usually have a signifiJ cant capacity cushion.

2. Moderate cushion. In this strategy, the firm is more conservative with respect to capacity. Capacity is built to meet the average forecasted demand comfort- ably, with enough excess capacity to satisfy unexpected changes in demand as long as the changes are not hugely different from the forecast. This strategy is used when the cost (or consequences) of running out is approximately in bal- ance with the cost of excess capacity. •

3. Small cushion. In this strategy, a small or nearly zero capacity cushion is planned to maximize utilization. This strategy is appropriate when capacity is very expensive, relative to stockouts, as in the case of oil refineries, paper mills, and other capital-intensive industries. These facilities operate profitably only at very high utilization rates between 90 and 100 percent. While this strategy tends to maximize short-run earnings, it can be a disadvantage if competitors adopt larger capacity cushions. Competitors will be able to meet any demand in excess of a firm’s capacity. Make-to-stock processes are likely to plan a small capacity cushion using this strategy.

When planning the capacity cushion, firms assess the probability of various levels of demand and then use those estimates to make decisions about planned increases or decreases in capacity. For example, suppose a firm has capacity to produce 1200 units, SO percent probability of 1000 units of demand, and SO percent probability of 800 units of demand. Then average demand is estimated to be (.S X 1000) + (.S X 800) = 900 units. Producing 900 units results in a (900/ 1200) X 100% = 7S% utilization rate. Based on existing capacity, the cushion is (100% – 7S%) = 2S%.

The solved problems section at the end of the chapter provides an example of how to compute the capacity cushion by using probabilities of demand, existing levels of capacity, and costs of building capacity. This method provides a quantita- tive basis for estimating the amount of capacity cushion that may be required.

After deciding on the amount of capacity to be provided, a facilities strategy must address how large each unit of capacity should be. This is a question involving economies of scale, based on the notion that large facilities are generally more economical because fixed costs can be spread over more units of production.

FIGURE 12.2 Optimum facility size.

Timing of Facility Decisions

Unit Cost

Economies of scale

Facility Size (units produced per year)

Chapter 12 Capacity Planning 291

Economies of scale occur for two reasons. First, the cost of building and operating large production equipment does not increase linearly with volume. A machine with twice the output rate gener- ally costs less than twice as much to buy and operate. Also, in larger facilities the overhead related to manag- ers and staff can be spread

over more units of production. As a result, the unit cost of production falls as facil- ity size increases when scale economies are present, as shown in Figure 12.2.

This is a good news-bad news story, for along with economies of scale come diseconomies of scale. As a facility gets larger, diseconomies can occur for several reasons. First, logistics diseconomies are present. For example, in a manufacturing firm, one large facility incurs more transportation costs to deliver goods to mar- kets than do two smaller facilities that are closer to their markets. In a service firm, a larger facility may require more movement of customers or materials, for exam- ple, moving patients around a large hospital or moving mail through a regional sorting center. Diseconomies of scale also occur because coordination costs in- crease in large facilities. As more layers of staff and management are added to manage large facilities, costs can increase faster than output. Furthermore, costs related to complexity and confusion rise as more products or services are added to a single facility. For these reasons, the curve in Figure 12.2 rises on the right-hand side due to diseconomies of scale.

As Figure 12.2 indicates, there is a minimum unit cost for a certain facility size. This optimal facility size will depend on how high the fixed costs are and how rapidly diseconomies of scale occur. As an example, Hewlett-Packard tends to op- erate small plants of fewer than 300 workers, with relatively low fixed costs. This plant size helps Hewlett-Packard encourage innovation in its many small product lines. By contrast, IBM operates very large plants of 5000 to 10,000 workers. IBM plants tend to be highly automated, and they use a decentralized management ap- proach to minimize diseconomies of scale. Each firm seems to have an optimal facility size, depending on its cost structure, product/ service mix, and particular operations strategy, which may emphasize cost, delivery flexibility, or service. Cost is, after all, not the only factor that affects facility size.

Another element of facilities strategy is the timing of capacity additions. There are basically two opposite strategies here.

1. Preempt the competition. In this strategy, the firm leads by building capacity in advance of the needs· of the market. This strategy provides a positive capacity cushion and may actually stimulate the market while at the same time prevent- ing competition from coming in for a while. Apple Inc. used this strategy in the early days of the personal computer market. Apple built capacity in advance of demand and had a lion’s share of the market before competitors moved in. Apple still uses this strategy today in building massive capacity and invento- ries in advance of new product launches for the iPad and iPhone.

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Facility Location

“Wind Farm Capacity,” Vol. XVII

Types of Facilities

2. Wait and see. In this strategy, the firm waits to add capacity until demand develops and the need for more capacity is clear. As a result, the company lags market demand, using a lower-

·risk strategy. A small or negative capaci cushion can develop, and a loss of poten · market share may result. However, this stra~ egy can be effective because superior market- ing channels or technology can allow the follower to capture market share. For examplE;. in the 1980s, IBM followed the leader (Apple in the personal computer market but was able to take away market share because of its supe- rior brand image, size, and market presence. In

contrast, U.S. automobile companies followed the wait-and-see strategy, to their chagrin, for small autos. While U.S. automakers waited to see how demand for small cars would develop, Japanese manufacturers grabbed a dom- inant position in the U.S. small-car market.

Facility location decisions have become more complex as globalization has ex- panded the options for locating capacity and developing new markets. For example. Starbucks may choose to build facilities in regions with heavy coffee drinkers, com- peting for customers there. Alternatively, it may choose to locate facilities in regions where people typically do not consume coffee and attempt to create demand foc their product and service. Starbucks’s U.S. competitor Caribou Coffee goes to great lengths to find facilities locations on the right-hand side of the road of morning traf- fic, because customers are more likely to stop frequently when they can pull over on the right but are less willing to make cumbersome left-hand turns in heavy traffic!

Location decisions are made by considering both quantitative and qualitative fac- tors. Quantitative factors that affect the location decision may include return on in- vestment, net present value, transportation costs, taxes, and lead times for delivering goods and services. Qualitative factors can include language and norms, attitudes among workers and customers, and proximity to customers, suppliers, and competi- tors. Front office services in particular must often locate near customers for the customers’ convenience, and so this factor may trump most others in deciding where to locate new facilities. Examples include banks, grocery stores, and restaurants.

Firms often compare potential locations by weighting the importance of each factor that is relevant to the decision and then scoring each potential location on those factors. Then, multiplying the factor weight by the location score allows cal- culation of a weighted-average score for each site. This score provides insight on how well each potential site meets the needs of the firm and may be used to make the final facility location decision.

The final element in facility strategy considers the question of what the firm plans to accomplish in each facility. There are four different types of facilities:

1. Product-focused (55 percent)

2. Market-focused (30 p ercent) 3. Process-focused (10 percent) 4. General-purpose (5 p ercent)

Chapter 12 Capacity Planning 293

The figures in parentheses indicate the approximate percentages of companies in the Fortune 500 using each type of facility.

Product-focused facilities produce one family or type of product or service, usually for a large market. An example is the Andersen Window plant, which pro- duces various types of windows for the entire United States from a single product- focused plant. Product-focused plants often are used when transportation costs are low or economies of scale are high. This tends to centralize facilities into one location or a few locations. Other examples of product-focused facilities are large bank credit card processing operations and auto leasing companies that process leases for cars throughout the United States from a single site.

Market-focused facilities are located in the markets they serve. Many service facilities fall into this category since services generally cannot be transported. Plants that require quick customer response or customized products or that have high transportation costs tend to be market focused. For example, due to the bulky nature and high shipping costs of mattresses, most production plants are located in regional markets. International facilities also tend to be market focused because of tariffs, trade barriers, and potential currency fluctuations.

Process-focused facilities have one technology or at most two. These facilities frequently produce components or subassemblies that are supplied to other facili- ties for further processing. This is common in the auto industry, in which en- gine plants and transmission plants feed the final assembly plants. Process-focused plants such as oil refineries can make a wide variety of products within the given process technology.

Operations Leader Strategic Capacity Planning at BMW ‘

Mathematical optimization models (e.g., mixed linear programming) can be helpful in evaluating various ca- pacity strategies. Given a forecast of demand over the next several years, the models will determine the min- imum cost plan for meeting the demand.

An example from BMW helps explain this process. BMW used a 12-year future planning horizon to rep- resent the typical development and production life

cycle for new BMW designs. The mathematical model calculated the supply of finished products that should be produced by each plant to meet the forecasts in all global markets.

As a result, the model determined how much of each product should be produced in each plant over the next 12 years. All possible locations, amounts, and types of BMWs were considered by the mathe- matical model in arriving at the minimum cost plan.

This type of analysis is very helpful in setting overall capacity strategies for how much, how large, where, when, and what type. For example, the resulting strat- egy might be to use distributed production to pro- duce in each national market the amount sold there or a more centralized production and export strategy. Due to the many assumptions made, the models do not determine the final capacity strategy; however, they are very helpful in evaluating many different possibilities.

Source: Fleischmann B., Ferber S. and Henrich P., “Strategic planning of BMW’s Global Production Network,” Interfaces, 2006, 36(3): 194-208 ..

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General-purpose facilities may produce several types of products and sel’- vices, using several different processes. For example, general-purpose facilities a.rr used to manufacture furniture and to provide consumer banking and investmenll services. General-purpose facilities usually offer a great deal of flexibility in terms of the mix of products or services that are produced there. They sometimes are used by firms that do not have sufficient volume to justify more than one facili~ Larger firms often focus their faCilities according to product, market, or procesa using the focused factory approach described in Chapter 4.

We have shown how the facilities strategy can be developed by considerind questions of capacity, size of facilities, timing, location, and types of facilities. Mathematical optimization models can often be helpful in answering these five strategic questions as shown in the BMW Operations Leader box. We now shift from long-term facilities decisions to medium-term decisions regarding how capacity, once built, is used.

12.3 SALES AND OPERATIONS PLANNING DEFINITION

Sales and operations planning (S&OP) is a term used by many firms to describe the aggregate planning process. Aggregate planning is the activity of matching supply of output with demand over the medium time range. The time frame is between six months and two years into the future, or an average of about one year. The term ag- gregate implies that the planning is done for a single overall measure of output or at most a few aggregated product categories. The aim of S&OP is to set overall output levels in the medium-term future in the face of fluctuating or uncertain demand.

We use a broad definition of S&OP with the following characteristics:

1. A time horizon of about 12 months, with updating of the plan on a periodic basis, perhaps monthly.

2. An aggregate level of demand for one or a few categories of product. The de- mand is assumed to be fluctuating, unc~rtain, or seasonal.

3. The possibility of changing both supply and demand variables. 4. A variety of management objectives, which might include low inventories,

good labor relations, low costs, flexibility to increase future output levels, and good customer service.

5. Facilities that are considered fixed and cannot be expanded or reduced.

As a result of S&OP, decisions related to the workforce are made concerning hir- ing, laying off, overtime, and subcontracting. Decisions regarding production out- put and inventory levels are also made. S&OP is used not only to plan production output levels but also to determine the appropriate resource input mix to use. Since facilities are assumed to be fixed and cannot be expanded or contracted, manage- ment must consider how to use facilities and resources to best match market demand.

S&OP can involve plans to influence demand as well as supply. Factors such as pricing, advertising, and product mix may be considered in planning for the me- dium term. We will discuss these tactics more later in this chapter.

S&OP generally is done by product family, that is, a set of similar products or services that more or less share a production process, including the equipment and workforce needed to produce output. Usually no more than a few product

Chapter 12 Capacity Planning 295

Operations Leader S&OP for Household Cleaning Products

Reckitt Benckiser, with £9 billion in sales in 180 coun- tries, has some of the world’s most famous brands, in- cluding Vanish, Lysol, Calgon, and Airwick. In rapidly changing retail markets, rapid adjustments in produc- tion and sales are needed. Because Reckitt has over

500 products in its portfolio, an S&OP system was needed to coordinate its supply chain.

The S&OP system has been successful, allowing Reckitt Benckiser to capture 70 percent of grocery store sales from products that rank first or second in their categories. Its S&OP team consists of managers from marketing, sales, production, distribution, and R&D. Before S&OP, Reckitt Benckiser often used dif- ferent forecast numbers in different parts of the or- ganization. It is now able to manage its brands by “using one set of numbers,” says Ariston Banaag. The team meets regularly to review forecasts and update plans. The team uses software from Demand Solutions to track sales, forecasts, and plans for all its brands and products.

Source: Adapted from www.demandsolutions.com, 2009 and www.rb.com, 2012.

families are used for S&OP to limit the complexity of the planning process. Inconsistencies between supply and demand are resolved by revising the plan as conditions change.

S&OP matches supply and demand by using a cross-functional team ap- proach. The cross-functional team consisting of marketing, sales, engineering, human resources, operations, and finance meets with the general manager to agree on the sales forecast, the supply plan, and any steps needed to modify supply or demand. During the S&OP process, demand is decoupled from sup- ply. For each product family, the cross-functional team must decide whether to produce inventory, manage customer lead time, provide additional capacity (internal or external), or restrict demand. Once plans to manage demand and supply are in balance, however, the current plan may not agree with previous financial plans or human resources plans or budgets, which also may need to be modified.

The resulting sales and operations plan is updated approximately monthly, us- ing a 12-month or longer rolling planning horizon. At its best, S&OP reduces mis- alignment among functions by requiring a common plan to be implemented by all parties. Strong general manager leadership may be required to resolve any con- flicts that arise. Read the Operations Leader box to learn how S&OP is done for household cleaning products at Reckitt Benckiser.

Syngenta is a world leader in agribusiness products, with 19,000 employees in 90 countries. The highly seasonal agricultural market is difficult to forecast and experiences large demand shifts. Syngenta uses S&OP to create collaboration across functions and with its supply chain partners. Managers across several countries use the S&OP process and the supporting software to gain better agree- ment on forecasts, sales promotions, inventory levels, sales plans, and aggregate

296 Part Four Capacity and Scheduling

production plans. Real-time Web collaboration allows each business unit to y~ ticipate in the S&OP process to achieve targeted business goals.1

Since S&OP is a form of aggregate planning, it precedes detailed schedulioj which is covered in the next chapter. Scheduling serves to allocate the capa<4 made available by aggregate planning to specific jobs, activities, or orders.

12.4 CROSS-FUNCTIONAL NATURE OF S&OP

Aggregate planning for how capacity will be used in the medium-term future the primary responsibility of the operations function. However, it requires cross- functional coordination and cooperation with all functions in the firm, includiolll accounting, finance, human resources, and marketing.

S&OP or aggregate planning is closely related to other business decisions in- volving, for example, budgeting, personnel, and marketing. The relationship budgeting is particularly strong. Most budgets are based on assumptions aboul aggregate output, personnel levels, inventory levels, purchasing levels, and forth. An aggregate plan thus should be the basis for initial budget developm~ and for budget revisions as conditions warrant.

Personnel, or human resource planning, is also greatly affected by S&OP be- cause such planning for future production can result in hiring, lay of, and overti:md decisions. In service industries, which cannot use inventory as a buffer againsl changing demand, aggregate planning is sometimes synonymous with budgetinG and personnel planning, particularly in labor-intensive services that rely heavily on the workforce to deliver services. •

Marketing must always be closely involved in S&OP because the future supplJI of output, and thus customer service, is being determined. Furthermore, coopera– tion between marketing and operations is required when both supply and de- mand variables are used to determine the best business approach to aggregate planning. The next section contains a detailed discussion of the options available to modify demand and supply for aggregate planning. This is followed by the development of specific strategies that can be used to plan aggregate output foc both manufacturing and service industries.

S&OP is not a stand-alone system. It is a key input into the enterprise resource planning (ERP) system, which is discussed in Chapter 16. ERP tracks all detailed transactions from orders to shipments to payments, but requires a high-level ag- gregate plan for future sales and operations as an input. When the S&OP process is used, various scenarios and assumptions can be tested by simulation to arrive at an agreed-upon plan that all functions will implement. The ERP system then ac- cepts as input the S&OP plan and projects the detailed transactions (shop orders, purchase orders, inventories, and payments) that are required to support the agreed plan. Figure 12.3 captures these inputs and outputs from an S&OP process.

In some firms, the S&OP process is broken or missing. Top management does not actively support or participate in the process. Accountability for S&OP is in- adequate or in conflict across functions. The firm’s information system may not support S&OP, and so the firm is not able to conduct important “what if” analy- sis. Also, S&OP plans may not be executed by all organizational functions as has been agreed. Therefore, to be successful, the S&OP system may require changes in the organization, reporting and accountability, and the information systems.

1 Herrin (2004).

FIGURE 12.3 lelationship of S&OP with other lanctions.

Accounting -Cost analysis

Finance

Operations – Forecast

– Inventory levels -Capacity

-Current orders

– Investment

Marketing -Forecast

-Sales plan

/

S&OP “) , Process 1

1 “-…. /// ” …….. —- .,.

Chapter 12 Capacity Planning 297

Human Resources – Personnel planning

12.5 PLANNING OPTIONS

Operations and marketing must work closely to plan for matching supply and demand over the medium-term time frame. They do this during aggregate plan- ning when they coordinate their decisions to develop enough demand for prod- ucts and services without overshooting available facility capacity.

The S&OP process can be clarified by a discussion of the various decision op- tions available. These include two categories of decisions: (1) those modifying de- mand and (2) those modifying supply.

Demand management entails modifying or influencing demand in several ways:

1. Pricing. Differential pricing often is used to reduce peak demand or to build up demand in off-peak periods. Some examples are matinee movie prices, off- season hotel rates, factory discounts for early- or late-season purchases, and off-peak specials at restaurants. The purpose of these pricing schemes is to level demand through the day, week, month, or year.

2. Advertising and promotion. These methods are used to stimulate or in some cases smooth out demand. Advertising can be timed to promote demand dur- ing slack periods and shift demand from peak periods to slack times. For ex- ample, ski resorts advertise to lengthen their season and turkey growers advertise to stimulate demand outside the peak holiday seasons.

3. Backlogs or reservations. In some cases, demand is influenced by asking cus- tomers to wait for their orders (backlog) or by reserving capacity in advance (reservations). Generally, this has the effect of shifting demand from peak

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“Service Design at Hotel Monaco,”

Vol. IX

periods to periods with slack capacity. However, the waiting time may resu a loss of business. This loss can be tolerated when the aim is to maximize~ although most operations are extremely reluctant to tum away customers.

4. Development of complementary offerings. Firms with highly seasonal mands may try to develop products that have countercyclic seasonal trends. example, Taro produces both lawn mowers and snow blowers, seasonally ~ plementary products that can share production facilities. In fast-food reslil rants, breakfast has been added in many cases to utilize previously idle capaq

The service industries, using all the mechanisms described above, have .: much further than most of their manufacturing counterparts in influencing mand. Because they are unable to inventory their output-their services—til use these mechanisms to improve their utilization of fixed facility capacity.

Supply management includes a variety of factors that can be used to increase decrease supply through aggregate planning. These factors include the followinll

1. Hiring and laying off employees. Some firms will do almost anything ~ reducing the size of the workforce through layoffs. Other companies routinll increase and decrease the workforce as demand changes. These practices, “‘ vary widely by firm and industry, affect not only costs but also labor relatiollll productivity, and worker morale. As a result, company hiring and layoff p~ tices may be restricted by union contracts or company policies. These effedll must be factored into decisions about whether to change the size of the w0111 force to match demand more closely.

2. Using overtime and undertime. Overtime sometimes is used for short- medium-range labor adjustments in lieu of hiring and layoffs, especially if change in demand is considered temporary. Overtime labor usually costs 1

percent of regular time, with double time on weekends and holidays. BecaU!IIIII of its high cost, managers are sometimes reluctant to use overtime. F~ more, workers may be reluctant to work more than 20 percent weekly overt:ioll for an extended period. Undertime refers to planned underutilization of ~ workforce rather than layoffs, perhaps by using a shortened workweek. Undefll time, in the form of furloughs, was common in many industries, includillllll manufacturing, education, and government, during the recessionary months 2008-2009.

3. Using part-time or temporary labor. In some cases, it is possible to hire pan< time or temporary employees to meet peak or seasonal demand. This option particularly attractive when part-time employees are paid significantly less wages and benefits. Unions frequently frown on the use of part-time employe~!~ because those employees often do not pay union dues and may weaken uni~ influence. Temporary labor is more likely to be used to satisfy seasonal or shod-· to medium-term demand. Part-time labor and temporary labor are used exten- sively in many service operations, such as restaurants, hospitals, supermarkel!i and department stores. Temporary labor is also common in agriculture-relatel industries.

4. Carrying inventory. In manufacturing firms, inventory can be used as a buffer- between supply and demand. Inventories for later use can be built up during periods of slack demand. Inventory thus decouples supply from demand in manufacturing operations, allowing for smoother operations with more even use of capacity throughout a time period. Inventory is a way to store expended

Chapter 12 Capacity Planning 299

capacity and labor for future consumption. This option is generally not avail- able for service operations; this results in greater challenges for service indus- tries in matching supply and demand.

5. Subcontracting. Subcontracting is the outsourcing of work (either manufactur- ing or service activities) to other firms. This option can be very effective for in- creasing or decreasing supply. The subcontractor may supply the entire product or service or only some of the components. For example, a manufacturer of toys may utilize subcontractors to make plastic parts during periods of high de- mand. Service operations may subcontract secretarial assistance, call center op- erations, catering services, or facilities during peak periods.

6. Cooperative arrangements. These arrangements are similar to subcontracting in that other sources of supply are used, but cooperative arrangements often in- volve partner firms that are typically competitors. The firms choose to share their capacity, thus preventing either firm from building capacity that would be used only during brief periods. Examples include electric utilities that link their capac- ity through power-sharing networks, hospitals that send patients to other hospi- tals either for certain specialized services or during demand peaks, and hotels or airlines that shift customers among one another when they are fully booked.

In considering all these options, it is clear that S&OP and the aggregate plan- ning problem are extremely broad and affect most parts of the firm. The decisions that are made are therefore strategic and cross-functional, reflecting all the firm’s objectives. If aggregate planning is considered narrowly, inappropriate decisions result and suboptimization may occur. Some of the multiple trade-offs that should be considered are customer service level (through back orders or lost demand), inventory levels, stability of the labor force, and costs. The conflicting objectives and trade-offs among these elements sometimes are combined into a single cost function. A method for evaluating costs is described later in this chapter.

12.6 BASIC AGGREGATE PlANNING STRATEGIES

When demand slumped, the Parker Hannifin plastic parts manufacturing plant in Spartanburg, South Carolina, kept its workforce but reduced work hours where

Using a level strategy often results in holding inventory during low demand periods.

possible. In contrast, the investment firm Goldman Sachs laid off 10 percent of its workforce in late 2008 and another 10 percent in early 2009. In this section, we discuss the aggregate planning strate- gies used in each of these instances and explain how firms decide which strategy is best for them.

Two basic planning strategies can be used, as well as combinations of them, to meet medium- term aggregate demand. One strategy is to main- tain a level workforce; the other is to chase demand with the workforce.

With a perfectly level strategy, the size of the workforce and the rate of regular-time output are constant. Any variations in demand must be absorbed by using inventories, overtime, temporary workers, subcontracting, cooperative

300 Part Four Capacity and Scheduling

Operations Leader Travelers’ Level Strategy Meets Demand Variation

Travelers offers a wide variety of insurance products and services, covering customers in more than 90 countries. It sells insurance for auto owners, renters,

home owners,

TRAVELER 5 ‘f , ~;a~~~~~n~:s:~ example of a

service firm that uses a level strategy to manage its workforce and capacity.

Before Hurricane Ike slammed the Texas coast in September 2008, Travelers claims employees from around the United States were moving toward the af- fected areas so that they would be immediately avail- able to serve affected customers. Even before the storm made landfall, teams of trained and equipped claims professionals were ready. The company’s Na- tional Catastrophe Response Center had plans in place

to quickly deploy thousands of cross-trained employ- ees from other regions to help customers rather than, as is customary in the industry, relying on out- side contractors.

Travelers uses a level strategy, with workers from many regions pitching in during large-scale disasters and workers being diverted to training and catch-up activities during slow times when it might appear to be overstaffed. The strategy seems to pay off in terms of maintaining high levels of customer service during a peak demand period. Travelers was able to contact most of its Hurricane Ike-affected customers within 48 hours of their reporting a claim and to in- spect, provide payment, and close the majority of claims within 30 days.

Source: Adapted from annual report, www.travelers.com, 2009.

arrangements, or any of the demand-influencing options discussed above. The level strategy essentially holds the regular workforce at a fixed number, and so the rate of workforce output is fixed over the aggregate planning period. However, a firm using a level strategy can respond to fluctuations in demand by using the demand and supply planning options discussed in the previous section.

With the chase strategy, the size of the workforce is changed to meet, or chase, demand. With this strategy, it is not necessary to carry inventory or use the de- mand and supply planning options available for aggregate planning; the work- force absorbs all the changes in demand. The chase strategy generally results in a fair amount of hiring and laying off of workers as demand is chased.

These two strategies are extremes; one strategy makes no change in the work- force, and the other varies the workforce directly with demand changes. In prac- tice, many firms use a combination of these two strategies. Read the Operations Leader box to see how Travelers Insurance successfully uses a level strategy even though demand for its service can vary significantly.

Consider, for example, a brokerage firm that utilizes both strategies. The data processing department maintains the capacity to process 17,000 transactions per day, far in excess of the average load of 12,000. This capacity allows the depart- ment to keep a level workforce of programmers, systems analysts, and computer operators even though capacity exceeds demand on many days. Because of the skilled workforce, the high capital investment, and the difficulty and expense of hiring replacements, the data processing department chooses to follow a level strategy.

Meanwhile, in the cashiering department, a chase strategy is used. As the transaction level varies, part-time workers, hiring, and layoffs are used. This de- partment is very labor-intensive, with high worker turnover and low skill levels

TABLE 12.1 ,.Comparison of

Chase and Level Strategies

Level of labor skill required Job discretion Compensation rate Training required per employee Labor turnover Hire-layoff costs per employee Amount of supervision required Type of budgeting and forecasting required

Chapter 12 Capacity Planning 301

Chase Strategy

Low Low Low Low High Low High Short run

Level Strategy

High High High High Low High Low Long run

required. The manager of the department commented that the high turnover rate is an advantage, facilitating the reduction of the workforce in periods of low demand.

From this scenario, we see that the characteristics of the operation seem to influ- ence the type of strategy followed. This observation can be generalized to the fac- tors shown in Table 12.1. While the chase strategy may be more appropriate for low-skilled labor and routine jobs, the level strategy seems better for highly skilled labor and complex jobs.

These strategies can be compared in terms of their costs to provide insight into the better choice, depending on the particular situation a firm faces. The relevant factors in this decision are represented by their cost, allowing us to develop mod- els to compare the two strategies, as described in the next section.

12.7 AGGREGATE PLANNING COSTS . Most aggregate planning methods include a plan that minimizes costs. These methods assume that demand is given (based on forecasts) but varies over time; therefore, strategies for modifying demand are not considered. If both demand and supply are modified simultaneously, it may be more appropriate to develop a model to maximize profit rather than minimize costs, since demand changes affect revenues along with costs.

When demand is given, the following costs should be included:

1. Hiring and layoff costs. Hiring costs consist of the recruiting, screening, and training costs required to bring a new employee up to full productive skill. For some jobs, this cost may be only a few hundred dollars; for more highly skilled jobs, it may be thousands of dollars. Layoff costs include employee benefits, severance pay, and other associated costs. This cost also may range from a few hundred to several thousand dollars per worker. When an entire shift of work- ers is hired or laid off, a shift cost must be accounted for.

2. Overtime and undertime costs. Overtime costs consist of regular wages plus an overtime premium, typically an additional 50 to 100 percent. Undertime costs reflect the use of employees at less than full productivity.

3. Inventory-carrying costs. Inventory-carrying costs are associated with main- taining goods in inventory, including the cost of capital, the variable cost of stor- age, obsolescence, and deterioration. These costs often are expressed as a percentage of the dollar value of inventory, ranging from 15 to 35 percent per year.

302 Part Four Capacity and Scheduling

This cost can be thought of as an interest charge assessed against the dolW value of inventory held in stock. Thus, if the carrying cost is 20 percent and each unit costs $10 to produce, it will cost $2 to carry one unit in invent0111 for a year.

4. Subcontracting costs. The cost of subcontracting is the price paid to anot:hfti firm to produce the units. Subcontracting costs can be either greater or less t:ru. the cost of producing units in-house. .

5. Part-time labor costs. Due to differences in benefits and hourly rates, the ced of part-time or temporary labor is often less than that of regular labor. Al- though part-time workers often receive no benefits, a maximum percentagtt of part-time labor may be specified by operational considerations or by uni«mm contract. Otherwise, there might be a tendency to use all part-time or tempo-~ rary labor. However, the regular labor force is generally essential for opera- tions continuity as well as to utilize and train part-time and temporaiJI workers effectively.

6. Cost of stockout or back order. The cost of taking a back order or the cost ot a stockout should reflect the effect of reduced customer service. This cost is extremely difficult to estimate, but it should capture the loss of custom~ goodwill, the loss of profit from the order, and the possible loss of future sales.

Some or all of these costs may be relevant in any aggregate planning problem. The applicable costs can be used to “price out” alternative decisions and strate- gies. In the example below, the total costs related to three alternative strategies are estimated. When this type of analysis is conducted o~ a spreadsheet, a very large number of alternative strategies can be considered.

12.8 AGGREGATE PLANNING EXAMPLE

FIGURE 12.4 Hefty Beer Company- demand forecast.

The Hefty Beer Company is constructing an aggregate plan for the next 12 months. Although several types of beers are brewed at the Hefty plant and several con- tainer sizes are bottled, management has decided to use gallons of beer as the ag- gregate measure of capacity.

The demand for beer over the next 12 months is forecast to follow the pattern shown in Figure 12.4. Notice that demand peaks during the summer months and is decidedly lower in the winter.

700

600 8 0

3 500 “‘ c:< 0 ~ 400 0

300

200

I ~

v \ ,/ -/ ~

lL v

J F M A M J p A S 0 N D Month

Chapter 12 Capacity Planning 303

The management of the Hefty brewery would like to consider three aggregate plans:

1. Level workforce. Use inventory to meet peak demands. 2. Level workforce plus overtime. Use 20 percent overtime along with inventory

in June, July, and August to meet peak demands. 3. Chase strategy. Hire and lay off workers each month as necessary to meet

demand.

To evaluate these strategies, management has collected the following cost and resource data:

• Assume the starting workforce is 40 workers. Each worker can produce 10,000 gallons of beer per month on regular time. On overtime, the same production rate is assumed, but overtime can be used for only three months during the year.

• Each worker is paid $2000 per month on regular time. Overtime is paid at 150 percent of regular time. A maximum of 20 percent overtime can be used.

• Hiring a worker costs $1000, including screening, paperwork, and training costs. Laying off a worker costs $2000, including all severance and benefit costs.

• For inventory valuation purposes, beer costs $2 a gallon to produce. The cost of carrying inventory is estimated to be 3 percent per month (or 6 cents per gallon of beer per month).

• Assume the starting inventory is 50,000 gallons. The desired ending inventory a year from now is also 50,000 gallons. All forecast demand must be met; no stockouts are allowed.

The next task is to evaluate each of the three strategies in terms of the costs given. The first step in this process is to construct spreadsheets like those shown in Tables 12.2 through 12.4, which show all the relevant costs: regular workforce, overtime, hiring/layoff, and inventory. Notice that subcontracting, part-time labor, and back orders/ stockouts have not been used as variables in this case.

To evaluate the level strategy, we calculate the size of the workforce required to meet the demand and inventory goals. Since ending and beginning inventories are assumed to be equal, the workforce must be just large enough to meet total de- mand during the year. When the monthly demands from Figure 12.4 are summed, the annual demand is 5,400,000 gallons. Since each worker can produce 10,000(12) = 120,000 gallons per year, a level workforce of 5,400,000–:- 120,000 = 45 workers is needed to meet the total demand. This means that five new workers must be hired. The inventories for each month and the resulting costs have been calculated in Table 12.2.

Consider the calculations for January. With 45 regular workers entered at the top of the table, 450,000 gallons of beer can be produced, since each worker pro- duces 10,000 gallons in a month. The production exceeds the sales forecast by 150,000 (450,000- 300,000) gallons, which is added to the beginning inventory of 50,000 gallons to yield an inventory level of 200,000 gallons at the end of January.

Next the costs in Table 12.2 are calculated as follows: Regular time costs are $90,000 in January (45 workers X $2000 each). There is no overtime cost, but 5 workers have been hired, since the starting workforce level was 40 workers. The cost of hiring these five workers is $5000. Finally, it cost 6 cents to carry a gallon of beer in inventory for a month, and Hefty is carrying 200,000 gallons at the end of

w 0

“”‘

TABLE 12.2 Aggregate Planning Costs-Strategy 1, Level Workforce*

Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug.

Resources

Regular workers 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45

Overtime(%) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Units produced 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450

Sales forecast 300 300 350 400 450 500 650 600

Inventory (end of month) 200 350 450 500 500 450 250 100

Costs

Regular time $90.0 $90.0 $90.0 $90.0 $90.0 $90.0 $90.0 $90.0

Overtime 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

Hire/layoff 5.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

Inventory carrying 12.0 2 1.0 27.0 30.0 30.0 27.0 15.0 6.0

Total cost $107.0 $111.0 $11 7.0 $120.0 $120.0 $1l 7.0 $105.0 $96.0

• All costs are expressed in thousands of dollars. All production and inventory figures are in thousands of gallons. Starting inventory is 50,000 gallons.

Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Total

45 45 45 45

0 0 0 0

450 450 450 450 5400

475 475 450 450 5400

75 50 50 50

$90 .0 $90.0 $90.0 $90.0 $1080.0

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 5.0

4 .5 3.0 3.0 3.0 181.5

$94.5 $93.0 $93.0 $93.0 $1266.5

w 0 U1

TABLE. 12.3 Aggregate Planning Costs-Strategy 2, Level with Overtime*

Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept.

Resources

Regular workers 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43

Overtime(%) 0 0 0 0 0 20 20 20 0

Units produced 430 430 430 430 430 516 516 516 430

Sales forecast 300 300 350 400 450 500 650 600 475

Inventory (end of month) 180 310 390 420 400 416 282 198 153 ~

Costs

Regular time $86.0 $86.0 $86.0 $86.0 $86.0 $86.0 $86.0 $86.0 $86.0

Overtime 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 25.8 25.8 25.8 0.0

Hire/layoff 3.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

Inventory carrying 10.8 18.6 23.4 25.2 24.0 25.0 16.9 11.9 9.2

Total cost $99.8 $104.6 $109.4 $111.2 $110.0 $136.8 $128.7 $123.7 $95.2

‘All costs are expressed in thousands of dollars. All production and inventory figures are in thousands of gallons. Starting inventory is 50,000 gallons.

TABLE 12.4 Aggregate Planning Costs-Strategy 3, Chase Demand*

Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept.

Resources

Regular workers 30 30 35 40 45 50 65 60 48

Overtime (%) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Units produced 300 300 350 400 450 500 650 600 480

Sales forecast 300 300 350 400 450 500 650 600 475

Inventory (end of month) 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 55

Costs

Regular time $60.0 $60.0 $70.0 $80.0 $90.0 $100.0 $130.0 $120.0 $96.0

Overtime 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0 .0 0.0

Hire/layoff 20.0 0.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 15.0 10 .0 24.0

Inventory carrying 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.3

Total cost $83.0 $63 .0 $78.0 $88.0 $198.0 $108.0 $148.0 $133.0 $1 23.3

• All costs are expressed in thousands of dollars. All production and inventory figures are in thousands of gallons. Starting inventory is 50,000 gallons.

Oct. Nov. Dec. Total

43 43 43

0 0 0

430 430 430 5418

475 450 450 5400

108 88 68

$86.0 $86.0 $86.0 $1032.0

0.0 0.0 0.0 77.4

0.0 0.0 0.0 3 .0

6.5 5.3 4.1 180.8

$92 .5 $91.3 $90.1 $1293.2

Oct. Nov. Dec. Total

47 45 45

0 0 0

470 450 450 5400

475 450 450 5400

50 50 50

$94.0 $90.0 $90.0 $1080.0

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

2.0 4.0 0.0 95.0

3.0 3.0 3.0 36.3

$99.0 $97.0 $93.0 $1211.3

306 Part Four Capacity and Scheduling

TABLE 12.5 Cost Summary

Strategy 1-Level Regular-time payroll Hire/layoff Inventory carrying

Total

Strategy 2-Level with overtime Regular-time payroll Hire/layoff Overtime Inventory carrying

Total

Strategy 3-Chase Regular-time payroll Hire/layoff Inventory carrying

Total

$1 ,080,000 5,000

181,500 $1,266,500

$1 ,032,000 3,000

77,400 180,800

$1,293,200

$1 ,080,000 95,000 36,300

$1,211 ,300

the month, which costs $12,000.2 These costs total $107,000 for January. The calcu- lations are continued for each month and then summed for ti;.e year to yield the total cost of $1,266,500 for the level strategy.

The second strategy, level workforce plus overtime, is a bit more complicated. If X is the workforce size for option 2, we must have

9(10,000X) + 3[(1.2)(10,000X)] = 5,400,000 gallons

For nine months Hefty will produce 10,000X gallons per month, and for three months it will produce 120 percent of 10,000X, including overtime. When the above equation is solved for X, we find X = 43 workers. In Table 12.3 we have calculated the inventories and resulting costs for this option.

The third strategy, the chase strategy, varies the workforce each month by hir- ing and laying off workers to meet monthly demand exactly. When this strategy is used, a constant level of 50,000 gallons in inventory is maintained as the minimum inventory level, as shown in Table 12.4.

The annual costs of the three strategies are summarized in Table 12.5. On the ba- sis of the given costs and assumptions, the chase strategy is the lowest-cost strategy. However, cost is not the only consideration. For example, the chase strategy requires building from a minimum workforce of 30 to a peak of 65 workers, and then layoffs are used to reduce the number back to 45 workers. Will the labor climate permit this amount of hiring and laying off each year, or will this lead to unionization and po- tentially higher labor costs? Maybe a two-shift policy or the use of part-time or tem- porary workers should be considered for peak demand portions of the year. These alternatives, along with others, should be considered in attempting to evaluate and possibly improve on the chase strategy, as we have done in the chapter supplement

We have shown how to compare costs in a very simple case of aggregate planning by using three potential strategies. Advanced methods have been developed to con- sider many more strategies and more complex aggregate planning problems. These methods, which can be quite complex, include linear programming, simulation, and various decision rules.

2 For convenience, we use the end-of-month inventory to calculate inventory-carrying costs rather than the average monthly inventory.

Chapter 12 Capacity Planning 307

12.9 KEY POINTS AND TERMS

The following key points are discussed in the chapter:

• Facilities decisions consider the amount of capacity, the size of units, the timing of capacity changes, facility location, and the types of facilities needed. These are long-range decisions in the hierarchy of capacity decisions. Facilities deci- sions are crucial because they determine the future availability of output and require the organization’s scarce capital.

• A facility strategy should be implemented rather than a series of incremental facility decisions. A facilities strategy answers the questions of how much, how large, where, when, and what type.

• The amount of capacity planned should be based on the desired risk of meeting forecast demand. The capacity cushion is a decision that firms must consider, determining whether they will use a large cushion and not run short of capacity or a small cushion with the possibility of a capacity shortage.

• When it is timing capacity expansion, a firm can choose to preempt the com- petition by building capacity sooner or wait and see how much capacity is needed.

• Both economies and diseconomies of scale should be considered in setting an optimum facility size. Facility location is determined by considering relevant factors in this decision and then weighing contrasting factors against one an- other. The type of facility selected is focused on product, market, process, or general-purpose needs.

• Facilities. decisions often are made by the chief executive and the board of direc- tors . Because these decisions are strategic in nature, they require the input of all functional areas in the firm.

• Sales and operations planning (S&OP), or aggregate planning, serves as the link between facilities decisions and scheduling. S&OP decisions set output levels for the medium time range. As a result, decisions regarding workforce size, subcontracting, hiring, and inventory levels are also made. These decisions must fit within the facilities capacity available and are constrained by the re- sources available.

• Aggregate planning is concerned with matching supply and demand over the medium time range. There are many options for managing supply and demand. Because human resources, capital, and demand are affected, all functions must be involved in aggregate planning decisions.

• Supply factors that can be changed by aggregate planning are hiring, layoffs, overtime, under time, inventory, subcontracting, part-time labor, and coopera- tive arrangements. Factors that influence demand are pricing, promotion, back- log or reservations, and complementary products.

• There are two basic.strategies for adjusting supply: the chase strategy and the level strategy. Firms can also use a combination of these two main strategies. A choice of strategy can be analyzed by estimating the total cost of each of the available strategies. Factors, other than costs, to consider are cu stomer service levels, d emand shifts, the labor force, and forecasting accuracy.

308 Part Four Capacity and Scheduling

Key Terms

STUDENT INTERNET EXERCISES

~ •

Hierarchy of capacity decisions 285

Capacity 286 Utilization 286 Effective capacity 287 Facilities decisions 288 Facilities strategy 288 Capacity cushion 289 Economies of scale 290 Diseconomies of scale 291

1. Course site:

Preempt the competition 291

Wait-and-see strategy 292

Product-focused facilities 293

Market-focused facilities 293

Process-focused facilities 293

http://www.uoguelph.ca/-dsparlin!aggregat.htm

General-purpose facilities 293

Sales and operations planning 294

Aggregate planning 294 Demand

management 297 Supply management 298 Level strategy 299 Chase strategy 300

Read this synopsis of aggregate planning from Professor Dave Sparling’s course in Canada.

2. Spreadsheet example from Georgia Southern University http://et.nmsu.edu/-etti/winter97/computers/spreadsheet.html

Work through the details of this example to gain a deeper understanding of ag- gregate planning.

3. Sales and Operations Planning http://www.supplychain.com

Read about S&OP on this site and come to class prepared for a discussion.

4. Demand Solutions http://www.demandsolutions.com/sop.asp

Read about S&OP and come to class with insights gained from the reading.

SOlVED PROBlEMS , .

Problem 1. Probabilistic Capacity Planning The XYZ Chemical Company estimates the annual demand for a certain product as follows:

Thousands of Gallons 140

Probability .10

a. If capacity is 130,000 gallons, how much of a capacity cushion is there?

b . What is the probability of idle capacity? c. If capacity is 130,000 gallons, what is the average utilization of the plant? d. If lost business (stockout) costs $100,000 per thousand gallons and it costs

$5000 to build 1000 gallons of capacity, how much capacity should be built to minimize total costs?

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ece 311

Ashford 2: – Week 1 – Discussion 1

Your initial discussion thread is due on Day 3 (Thursday) and you have until Day 7 (Monday) to respond to your classmates. Your grade will reflect both the quality of your initial post and the depth of your responses. Reference the Discussion Forum Grading Rubric for guidance on how your discussion will be evaluated.
 

Teaching   Philosophy and Curriculum

 Review the major curriculum models and approaches discussed in the chapters this week (e.g. Montessori, Reggio Emilia, Creative Curriculum, etc.).  Which model/approach most closely matches your own teaching philosophy?  Explain why.  Then, suppose that you have started a new teaching position and the curriculum you have been asked to use differs significantly from your teaching philosophy.  Explain how you will address this difference.  Your initial discussion post should be at least 200 words in length.
 

Guided Response: Review several of your classmates’ posts.  Respond to at least two of your classmates with advice on how to address the differences between their teaching philosophy and the required curriculum. 

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a firm in a competitive market receives $500 in total revenue and has marginal revenue of $10.

·FIRM BEHAVIOR AND THE ORGANIZATION OF INDUSTRY

• Because a competitive firm is a price taker, its revenue is proportional to the amount of output it produces. The price of the good equals both the firm’s average revenue and its marginal revenue.

• To maximize profit, a firm chooses a quantity of output such that marginal revenue equals mar- ginal cost. Because marginal revenue for a com- petitive firm equals the market price, the firm chooses quantity so that price equals marginal cost. Thus, the firm’s marginal-cost curve is its supply curve.

• In the short run when a firm cannot recover its fixed costs, the firm will choose to shut down temporarily if the price of the good is less than average variable cost. In the long run when the firm can recover both fixed and variable costs, it

KEY CONCI.PJ:S. competitive market, p. 280 average revenue, p. 281

1. What is meant by a competitive firm? 2. Explain the difference between a firm’s revenue

and its profit. Which do firms maximize? 3. Draw the cost curves for a typical firm. For a

given price, explain how the firm chooses the level of output that maximizes profit. At that level of output, show on your graph the firm’s total revenue and total costs.

4. Under what conditions will a firm shut down temporarily? Explain.

1. Many small boats are made of fiberglass, which is derived from crude oil. Suppose that the price of oil rises. a. Using diagrams, show what happens to the

cost curves of an individual boat-making firm and to the market supply curve.

b. What happens to the profits of boat makers in the short run? What happens to the number of boat makers in the long run?

2. You go out to the best restaurant in town and order a lobster dinner for $40. After eating half

will choose to exit if the price is less than average total cost.

• In a market with free entry and exit, profits are driven to zero in the long run. In this long-run equilibrium, all firms produce at the efficient scale, price equals the minimum of average total cost, and the number of firms adjusts to satisfy the quantity demanded at this price.

• Changes in demand have different effects over different time horizons. In the short run, an increase in demand raises prices and leads to profits, and a decrease in demand lowers prices and leads to losses. But if firms can freely enter and exit the market, then in the long run, the number of firms adjusts to drive the market back to the zero-profit equilibrium.

marginalrevenue,p.282 sunk cost, p. 286

5. Under what conditions will a firm exit a ” market? Explain. ( 6:\Does a firm’s price equal marginal cost in the ~–thort run, in the long run, or both? Explain. V Does a firm’s price equal the minimum of

average total cost in the short run, in the long run, or both? Explain.

8. Are market supply curves typically more elastic in the short run or in the long run? Explain.

of the lobster, you realize that you are quite full. . Your date wants you to finish your dinner because . you can’t take it home and because “you’ve already paid for it.” What should you do? Relate your answer to the material in this chapter.

3. Bob’s lawn-mowing service is a profit-maximizing, competitive firm. Bob mows lawns for $27 each. His total cost each day is $280, of which $30 is a fixed cost. He mows 10 lawns a day. What can you say about Bob’s short-run decision regarding shutdown and his long-run decision regarding exit?

total cost and total revenue given in following table:

012 3 4 56 7

Total cost Total revenue

$8 9 10 $0 8 16

11 13 19 27 37 . ‘ ‘ 24 32 40 48 .Sf> ·

a. Calculate profit for each quantity. How much should the firm produce to maximize profit?

b. Calculate marginal revenue and marginal cost for each quantity. Graph them. (Hint: Put the points between whole numbers. For example, the marginal cost between 2 and 3 should be graphed at 2~.) At what quantity do these curves cross? How does this relate to your answer to part (a)?

c. Can you tell whether this firm is in a competitive industry? If so, can you tell whether the industry is in a long-run equilibrium?

5. Ball Bearings, Inc. faces costs of production as follows:

Total Total Fixed Variable

Quantity Costs Costs

0 $100 $ 0 1 100 50 2 100 70 3 100 90 4 100 140 5 100 200 6 100 360

a. Calculate the company’s average fixed costs, average variable costs, average total costs, an~ marginal costs at each level of production.

b. The price of a case of ball bearings is $50. Seeing that she can’t make a profit, the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) decides to shut down operations. What are the firm’s profits/ losses? Was this a wise decision? Explain.

c. Vaguely remembering his introductory economics coutse, the Chief Financial Officer tells·the CEO it is better to produce 1 case of ball bearings, because marginal revenue equals marginal cost at that quantity. What are the firm’s profits/losses at that level of production? Was this the best decision? Explain.

6. Suppose the book-printing industry is competitive and begins in a long-run equilibrium. a. Draw a diagram describing the typical firm

in the industry. b. Hi-Tech Printing Company invents a new

process that sharply reduces the cost of

CHAPTER 14 FIRMS IN COMPETITIVE MARKETS

printing books. What happens to Hi-Tech’s profits and the price of books in the short run when Hi-Tech’s patent prevents other firms from using the new technology?

c. What happens in the long run when the pat~nt expires and other firms are free to use the technology?

7. A firm in a competitive market receives $500 in total revenue and has marginal revenue of $10. What is the average revenue, and how many units were sold? .

8. A profit-maximizing firm in a competitive market is currently producing 100 units of output. It has average revenue of $10, average total cost of $8, and fixed costs of $200. a. What is its profit? b. What is its marginal cost? c. What is its average variable cost? d. Is the efficient scale of the firm more than,

~ less than, or exactly 100 units?

The market for fertilizer is perfectly competitive. Firms in the market are producing output, but are currently making economic losses. a. How does the price of fertilizer compare to

the· average total cost, the average variable cost, and the marginal cost of producing fertilizer?

b. Draw two graphs, side by side, illustrating the present situation for the typical firm and in the market. ‘

c. Assuming there is no change in either demand or the firms’ cost curves, explain what will happen in the long run to the price of fertilizer, marginal cost, average total cost, the quantity supplied by each firm, and the total quantity supplied to the market.

10. The market for apple pies in the city of Ectenia is competitive and has the following demand schedule:

Price Quantity Demanded

$ 1 1.200 pies 2 1,100 3 1,000 4 %0 5 800 6 700 7 600 8 500 9 400

10. . 300

11 200 12 100 13 0 .

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climate change studies suggest the worst impacts will be felt by the wealthiest people.

Questions:-

  1. Climate change studies suggest the worst impacts will be felt by the wealthiest people.
  2. The greenhouse effect is caused by the burning of fossil fuels and deforestation.
  3. Net-zero energy refers to a building or installation that produces less energy than it consumes, considered to be energy reliant.
  4. Which statement is true regarding nuclear energy?
  5. Which of the following is an impact of increased ocean acidification as caused by global climate change?
  6. Which statement best summarizes the world’s reaction to stratospheric ozone depletion discussed in Chapter 7.4 of your text?
  7. What is the central difference between climate and weather discussed in your text?
  8. Which statement is not true regarding hydroelectric power?
  9. Life-cycle cost is the sum of all recurring and one-time (non-recurring) costs over the full life span of a good, service, structure, or system.
  10. What is the central theme of the “As Cheap as Coal” portion in Section 8.1 of your text?
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Lesson 2 Exam 1

Part 1 of 1 – 60.0/ 100.0 Points

Question 1 of 20 5.0/ 5.0 Points

Determine whether the relation is a function. {(-7, -7), (-7, -8), (-1, 4), (6, 5), (10, -1)}

A. Not a function

B. Function

Question 2 of 20 5.0/ 5.0 Points

Find the domain of the function.

g(x) =

A. (-∞, ∞)

B. (-∞, -9) (-9, 9) (9, ∞)

C. (81, ∞)

D. (-∞, 0) (0, ∞)

Question 3 of 20 5.0/ 5.0 Points

Graph the line whose equation is given.

y = x + 2

A.

jumpjumpjump

Sites MY WORKSPACE ALGEBRA I PART I, SECTION 2 ALGEBRA I PART II, SECTION 2

ALGEBRA II, PART 1 SECTION 4

PRE-CALCULUS PART I, SECTION 2 MORE SITES

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A.

B.

C.

D.

Question 4 of 20 0.0/ 5.0 Points

Use the shape of the graph to name the function.

A. Standard quadratic function

B. Standard cubic function

C. Square root function

D. Constant function

Question 5 of 20 5.0/ 5.0 Points

An open box is made from a square piece of sheet metal 19 inches on a side by cutting identical squares from the corners and turning up the sides. Express the volume of the box, V, as a function of the length of the side of the square cut from each corner, x.

A. V(x) = 361x

B. V(x) = (19 – 2x)2

C. V(x) = x(19 – 2x)

D. V(x) = x(19 – 2x)2

Question 6 of 20 5.0/ 5.0 Points

Use the graph of the function f, plotted with a solid line, to sketch the graph of the given function g.

g(x) =

A.

B.

C.

C.

D.

Question 7 of 20 0.0/ 5.0 Points

Find the domain of the function.

f(x) =

A. (-∞, 6) (6, ∞)

B. (-∞, ) ( , ∞)

C. (-∞, ]

D. (-∞, 6]

Question 8 of 20 5.0/ 5.0 Points

An investment is worth $3518 in 1995. By 2000 it has grown to $5553. Let y be the value of the investment in the year x, where x = 0 represents 1995. Write a linear equation that models the value of the investment in the year x.

A. y = -407x + 7588

B. y = x + 3518

C. y = -407x + 3518

D. y = 407x + 3518

Question 9 of 20 5.0/ 5.0 Points

Use the graph to determine the function’s domain and range.

A. domain: [0, ∞) range: [-1, ∞)

B. domain: (-∞, ∞) range: [-1, ∞)

C. domain: [0, ∞) range: [0, ∞)

D. domain: [0, ∞) range: (-∞, ∞)

Question 10 of 20 5.0/ 5.0 Points

Complete the square and write the equation in standard form. Then give the center and radius of the circle.

10×2 + 10y2 = 100

A. x2 + y2 = 100 (0, 0), r = 10

B. x2 + y2 = 10 (0, 0), r =

C. x2 + y2 = 10 (0, 0), r = 10

D. (x – 10)2 +(y – 10)2 = 10 (10, 10), r =

Question 11 of 20 0.0/ 5.0 Points

Graph the equation.

y = – x – 6

A.

B.

B.

C.

D. ’

Question 12 of 20 5.0/ 5.0 Points

Find the domain of the function.

f(x) = -2x + 4

A. (-∞, 0) (0, ∞)

B. (-∞, ∞)

C. [-4, ∞)

D. (0, ∞)

Question 13 of 20 0.0/ 5.0 Points

Graph the equation in the rectangular coordinate system.

3y = 15

3y = 15

A.

B.

C.

D.

D.

Question 14 of 20 0.0/ 5.0 Points

Use the given conditions to write an equation for the line in point-slope form.

Passing through (-5, -7) and (-8, -6)

A. y – 7 = – (x – 5) or y – 6 = – (x – 8)

B. y + 7 = – (x + 8) or y + 6 = – (x + 5)

C. y + 7 = – (x + 5) or y + 6 = – (x + 8)

D. y + 7 = – x – 5 or y + 6 = – x + 7

Question 15 of 20 5.0/ 5.0 Points

Does the graph represent a function that has an inverse function?

A. No

B. Yes

Question 16 of 20 0.0/ 5.0 Points

Use the graph of y = f(x) to graph the given function g.

g(x) = -2f(x). Where f(x) is the solid function and g(x) is the dotted.

A.

B.

C.

D.

Question 17 of 20 5.0/ 5.0 Points

Find the inverse of the one-to-one function.

f(x) =

A. f-1(x) =

B. f-1(x) =

C. f-1(x) =

D. f-1(x) =

Question 18 of 20 5.0/ 5.0 Points

Complete the square and write the equation in standard form. Then give the center and radius of the circle.

x2 + y2 – 10x – 8y + 29 = 0

A. (x – 5)2 +(y – 4)2 = 12 (5, 4), r = 12

B. (x – 5)2 +(y – 4)2 = 12 (-5, -4), r = 2

C. (x – 5)2 +(y – 4)2 = 12 (5, 4), r = 2

D. (x + 5)2 +(y + 4)2 = 12 (-5, -4), r = 2

Question 19 of 20 0.0/ 5.0 Points

Use the graph to determine the x- and y-intercepts.

A. x-intercept: -3; y-intercepts: 3, 1, 5

B. x-intercepts: -3, 1, -5; y-intercept: -3

C. x-intercepts: 3, 1, 5; y-intercept: -3

D. x-intercept: -3; y-intercepts: -3, 1, -5

Question 20 of 20 0.0/ 5.0 Points

Along with incomes, people’s charitable contributions have steadily increased over the past few years. The table below shows the average deduction for charitable contributions reported on individual income tax returns for the period 1993 to 1998. Find the average annual increase between 1995 and 1997.

A. $270 per year

B. $280 per year

C. $335 per year

D. $540 per year

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4-5 pages

12-point Times New Roman font, double-spaced, 1” margins

Appropriate MLA formatting for all in-text quotations/citations

See A Pocket Style Manual for details

You are encouraged to work with They Say, I Say templates from relevant chapters to practice “academic moves” in your writing

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studies have shown that with the exception of “traditional competitive bargaining,” men were:

The Mind and Heart of the Negotiator

Boston Columbus Indianapolis New York San Francisco Upper Saddle River Amsterdam Cape Town Dubai London Madrid Milan Munich Paris Montréal Toronto

Delhi Mexico City São Paulo Sydney Hong Kong Seoul Singapore Taipei Tokyo

S i x t h E d i t i o n

Leigh L. Thompson Kellogg School of Management

Northwestern University

Editor in Chief: Stephanie Wall Acquisitions Editor: Kristin Ellis-Levy Program Management Lead: Ashley Santora Program Manager: Sarah Holle Editorial Assistant: Bernard Olila Director of Marketing: Maggie Moylan Marketing Manager: Erin Gardner Project Management Lead: Judy Leale Project Manager: Thomas Benfatti Procurement Specialist: Nancy Maneri Program manager/Design Lead: Jon Boylan Cover Designer: PMG Media Cover Art: Robert Weeks Full-Service Project Management and Composition: Anand Natarajan/Integra Software Services. Printer/Binder: STP Courier/Westford Cover Printer: STP Courier/Westford Text Font: 10/12 Times LT Std.

Credits and acknowledgments borrowed from other sources and reproduced, with permission, in this textbook appear on appropriate page in text.

Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030. All rights reserved. Manufactured in the United States of America. This publication is protected by Copyright, and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. To obtain permission(s) to use material from this work, please submit a written request to Pearson Education, Inc., Permissions Department, 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Thompson, Leigh L. The mind and heart of the negotiator/Leigh L. Thompson, Kellogg School of Management, Northwestern University.—Sixth edition. pages cm ISBN-13: 978-0-13-357177-6 (alk. paper) ISBN-10: 0-13-357177-7 (alk. paper) 1. Negotiation in business. 2. Negotiation. I. Title. HD58.6.T478 2014 658.4’052—dc23 2014004868

ISBN 10: 0-13-357177-7 ISBN 13: 978-0-13-357177-6

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

To the loves of my life:

Bob, Sam, Ray, and Anna

BRIEF CoNTENTS

Part I Essentials of Negotiation 1 Chapter 1 Negotiation: The Mind and The Heart 1

Chapter 2 Preparation: What to Do Before Negotiation 12

Chapter 3 Distributive Negotiation: Slicing the Pie 38

Chapter 4 Win-Win Negotiation: Expanding the Pie 69

Part II advanced Negotiation Skills 91 Chapter 5 Developing a Negotiating Style 91

Chapter 6 Establishing Trust and Building a Relationship 122

Chapter 7 Power, Gender, and Ethics 149

Chapter 8 Creativity and Problem Solving in Negotiations 173

Part III applications and Special Scenarios 208 Chapter 9 Multiple Parties, Coalitions, and Teams 208

Chapter 10 Cross-Cultural Negotiation 245

Chapter 11 Social Dilemmas 278

Chapter 12 Negotiating Via Information Technology 308

aPPENdIcES Appendix 1 Are You a Rational Person? Check Yourself 328

Appendix 2 Nonverbal Communication and Lie Detection 349

Appendix 3 Third-Party Intervention 360

Appendix 4 Negotiating a Job Offer 369

iv

CoNTENTS

Preface xix

About the Author xxii

Part I Essentials of Negotiation 1

chapter 1 NEgotIatIoN: thE MINd aNd thE hEart 1 Negotiation: Definition and Scope 2

Negotiation as a Core Management Competency 3

Dynamic Nature of Business 3

Interdependence 3

Economic Forces 4

Information Technology 4

Globalization 4

Most People are Ineffective Negotiators 5

Negotiation Traps 5

Why People are Ineffective Negotiators 6

Egocentrism 6

Confirmation Bias 6

Satisficing 7

Self-Reinforcing Incompetence 7

Debunking Negotiation Myths 8

Myth 1: Negotiations are Fixed-Sum 8

Myth 2: You Need to be either Tough or Soft 8

Myth 3: Good Negotiators are Born 8

Myth 4: Life Experience is a Great Teacher 9

Myth 5: Good Negotiators Take Risks 9

Myth 6: Good Negotiators Rely on Intuition 9

Learning Objectives 10

The Mind and Heart 11

chapter 2 PrEParatIoN: What to do BEforE NEgotIatIoN 12 Self-Assessment 13

What Do I Want? 13

What Is My Alternative to Reaching Agreement in This Situation? 15

v

vi Contents

Determine Your Reservation Point 16

Be Aware of Focal Points 16

Beware of Sunk Costs 16

Do Not Confuse Your Target Point with Your Reservation Point 19

Identify the Issues in the Negotiation 19

Identify the Alternatives for Each Issue 19

Identify Equivalent Multi-Issue Proposals 19

Assess Your Risk Propensity 20

Endowment Effects 23

Am I Going to Regret This? 24

Violations of the Sure Thing Principle 24

Do I Have an Appropriate Level of Confidence? 25

Other Assessment 26

Who Are the Other Parties? 26

Are the Parties Monolithic? 26

Counterparties’ Interests and Position 26

Counterparties’ BATNAs 27

Situation Assessment 27

Is the Negotiation One Shot, Long Term, or Repetitive? 27

Do the Negotiations Involve Scarce Resources, Ideologies, or Both? 27

Is the Negotiation One of Necessity or Opportunity? 28

Is the Negotiation a Transaction or Dispute? 29

Are Linkage Effects Present? 29

Is Agreement Required? 30

Is it Legal to Negotiate? 30

Is Ratification Required? 31

Are Time Constraints or Other Time-Related Costs Involved? 31

Are Contracts Official or Unofficial? 33

Where Do the Negotiations Take Place? 34

Are Negotiations Public or Private? 34

Is Third-Party Intervention a Possibility? 35

What Conventions Guide the Process of Negotiation (Such as Who Makes the First Offer)? 35

Do Negotiations Involve More Than One Offer? 35

Contents vii

Do Negotiators Communicate Explicitly or Tacitly? 36

Is There a Power Differential Between Parties? 36

Is Precedent Important? 36

Conclusion 36

chapter 3 dIStrIButIvE NEgotIatIoN: SlIcINg thE PIE 38 The Bargaining Zone 39

Bargaining Surplus 40

Negotiator’s Surplus 41

Pie-Slicing Strategies 41

Strategy 1: Assess Your BATNA and Improve It 43

Strategy 2: Determine Your Reservation Point, but do not reveal It 43

Strategy 3: Research the Other Party’s BATNA and Estimate Their Reservation Point 44

Strategy 4: Set High Aspirations (Be Realistic but Optimistic) 44

Strategy 5: Make the First Offer (If You Are Prepared) 46

Strategy 6: Immediately Reanchor if the Other Party Opens First 47

Strategy 7: Plan Your Concessions 48

Strategy 8: Support Your Offer with Facts 49

Strategy 9: Appeal to Norms of Fairness 49

Strategy 10: Do Not Fall for the “Even Split” Ploy 50

The Most Commonly Asked Questions 50

Should I Reveal My Reservation Point? 50

Should I Lie About My Reservation Point? 50

Should I Try to Manipulate the Counterparty’s Reservation Point? 52

Should I Make a “Final Offer” or Commit to a Position? 52

Saving Face 53

The Power of Fairness 54

Multiple Methods of Fair Division 54

Situation-Specific Rules of Fairness 54

Social Comparison 56

The Equity Principle 58

Restoring Equity 59

Procedural Justice 60

viii Contents

Fairness in Relationships 62

Egocentrism 62

Wise Pie Slicing 66

Consistency 66

Simplicity 67

Effectiveness 67

Justifiability 67

Consensus 67

Generalizability 67

Satisfaction 67

Conclusion 68

chapter 4 WIN-WIN NEgotIatIoN: ExPaNdINg thE PIE 69 What Is Win-Win Negotiation? 70

Telltale Signs of Win-Win Potential 70

Does the Negotiation Contain More Than One Issue? 70

Can Other Issues Be Brought In? 71

Can Side Deals Be Made? 71

Do Parties Have Different Preferences Across Negotiation Issues? 71

Most Common Pie-Expanding Errors 72

False Conflict 72

Fixed-Pie Perception 73

Most Commonly Used Win-Win Strategies 74

Commitment to Reaching a Win-Win Deal 74

Compromise 74

Focusing on a Long-Term Relationship 74

Adopting a Cooperative Orientation 74

Taking Extra Time to Negotiate 75

Effective Pie-Expanding Strategies 75

Perspective Taking 75

Ask Questions About Interests and Priorities 76

Reveal Information About Your Interests and Priorities 78

Unbundle the Issues 79

Logrolling and Value-Added Trade-Offs 81

Make Package Deals, Not Single-Issue Offers 81

Make Multiple Offers of Equivalent Value Simultaneously 82

Contents ix

Structure Contingency Contracts by Capitalizing on Differences 85

Presettlement Settlements (PreSS) 87

Search for Postsettlement Settlements 88

A Strategic Framework for Reaching Integrative Agreements 88

Resource Assessment 88

Assessment of Differences 89

Offers and Trade-Offs 89

Acceptance/Rejection Decision 90

Prolonging Negotiation and Renegotiation 90

Conclusion 90

Part II advanced Negotiation Skills 91

chapter 5 dEvEloPINg a NEgotIatINg StylE 91 Motivational Orientation 93

Assessing Your Motivational Style 93

Strategic Issues Concerning Motivational Style 96

Interests, Rights, and Power Model of Disputing 100

Assessing Your Approach 102

Strategic Issues Concerning Approaches 105

Emotions and Emotional Knowledge 112

Genuine Versus Strategic Emotion 112

Negative Emotion 113

Positive Emotion 117

Emotional Intelligence and Negotiated Outcomes 118

Strategic Advice for Dealing with Emotions at the Table 119

Conclusion 121

chapter 6 EStaBlIShINg truSt aNd BuIldINg a rElatIoNShIP 122 The People Side of Win-Win 122

Trust as the Bedrock of Relationships 124

Three Types of Trust in Relationships 125

Building Trust: Rational and Deliberate Mechanisms 127

Building Trust: Psychological Strategies 130

What Leads to Mistrust? 134

Repairing Broken Trust 135

x Contents

Reputation 139

Relationships in Negotiation 140

Negotiating with Friends 141

Negotiating with Businesspeople 144

When in Business with Friends and Family 146

Conclusion 148

chapter 7 PoWEr, gENdEr, aNd EthIcS 149 Power 150

The Power of Alternatives 150

Power Triggers in Negotiation 152

Symmetric and Asymmetric Power Relationships 152

The Effect of Using Power on Powerful People 152

The Effects of Power on Those with Less Power 153

Status 154

Gender 155

Gender and Negotiation Outcomes 155

Initiating Negotiations 156

Leveling the Playing Field 157

Evaluations of Negotiators 159

Gender and Race Discrimination in Negotiation 159

Gender and Third-Party Dispute Resolution 160

Ethics 160

Ethics and Lying 161

Other Questionable Negotiation Strategies 163

Sins of Omission and Commission 166

Costs of Lying 166

Under What Conditions Do People Engage in Deception? 168

Responding to Unethical Behavior 171

Conclusion 172

chapter 8 crEatIvIty aNd ProBlEM SolvINg IN NEgotIatIoNS 173 Creativity in Negotiation 173

Test Your Own Creativity 174

What Is Your Mental Model of Negotiation? 174

Haggling 174

Cost-Benefit Analysis 179

Game Playing 179

Contents xi

Partnership 179

Problem Solving 180

Creative Negotiation Agreements 180

Fractionating Single-Issue Negotiations into Multiple Issues 180

Finding Differences: Looking for Patterns in Offers 180

Expanding the Pie 181

Bridging 181

Cost Cutting 182

Nonspecific Compensation 182

Structuring Contingencies 183

Threats to Effective Problem Solving and Creativity 185

The Inert Knowledge Problem 186

Availability Heuristic 189

Representativeness 189

Anchoring and Adjustment 190

Unwarranted Causation 191

Belief Perseverance 191

Illusory Correlation 191

Just World 192

Hindsight Bias 192

Functional Fixedness 193

Set Effect 193

Selective Attention 193

Overconfidence 194

The Limits of Short-Term Memory 195

Techniques for Enhancing Creative Negotiation Agreements 195

Negotiating Skills Training 195

Bilateral or Unilateral Training 196

Feedback 196

Learning Versus Performance Goals 197

Analogical Training 198

Counterfactual Reflection 199

Incubation 199

Rational Problem-Solving Model 200

Brainstorming 201

Deductive Reasoning 201

Inductive Reasoning 203

Conclusion 203

xii Contents

Part III applications and Special Scenarios 208

chapter 9 MultIPlE PartIES, coalItIoNS, aNd tEaMS 208 Analyzing Multiparty Negotiations 209

Multiparty Negotiations 211

Key Challenges of Multiparty Negotiations 211

Strategies for Successful Multiparty Negotiations 215

Coalitions 217

Key Challenges of Coalitions 217

Strategies for Maximizing Coalitional Effectiveness 222

Principal-Agent Negotiations 223

Disadvantages of Agents 224

Strategies for Working Effectively with Agents 226

Constituent Relationships 228

Challenges for Constituent Relationships 228

Strategies for Improving Constituent Relationships 231

Team Negotiation 231

Challenges That Face Negotiating Teams 233

Strategies for Improving Team Negotiations 234

Intergroup Negotiation 236

Challenges of Intergroup Negotiations 236

Strategies for Optimizing Intergroup Negotiations 238

Conclusion 242

chapter 10 croSS-cultural NEgotIatIoN 245 Learning About Cultures 246

Culture as an Iceberg 246

Cultural Values and Negotiation Norms 247

Individualism versus Collectivism 247

Egalitarianism versus Hierarchy 258

Direct versus Indirect Communications 261

Key Challenges of Intercultural Negotiation 264

Expanding the Pie 264

Dividing the Pie 265

Sacred Values and Taboo Trade-Offs 265

Biased Punctuation of Conflict 267

Ethnocentrism 268

Contents xiii

Affiliation Bias 269

Faulty Perceptions of Conciliation and Coercion 270

Naïve Realism 270

Predictors of Success in Intercultural Interactions 271

Advice for Cross-Cultural Negotiations 272

Anticipate Differences in Strategy and Tactics That May Cause Misunderstandings 272

Cultural Perspective Taking 272

Recognize That the Other Party May Not Share Your View of What Constitutes Power 273

Avoid Attribution Errors 273

Find Out How to Show Respect in the Other Culture 274

Find Out How Time is Perceived in the Other Culture 275

Know Your Options for Change 275

Conclusion 277

chapter 11 SocIal dIlEMMaS 278 Social Dilemmas in Business 280

The Prisoner’s Dilemma 280

Cooperation and Defection as Unilateral Choices 281

Rational Analysis 282

Psychological Analysis of Why Tit-for-Tat Is Effective 284

Ultimatum Dilemma 289

Dictator Game 290

Trust Game 291

Binding versus Nonbinding Contracts 291

Social Networks and Reputations 292

Relationship Threat 292

Self-Blame and Regret 292

Restoring Broken Trust 293

Volunteer Dilemma 293

Multiparty Dilemmas 294

The Tragedy of the Commons 294

Types of Social Dilemmas 295

How to Build Cooperation in Social Dilemmas 297

How to Encourage Cooperation in Social Dilemmas When Parties Should Not Collude 303

xiv Contents

Escalation of Commitment 303

Avoiding the Escalation of Commitment in Negotiations 306

Conclusion 307

chapter 12 NEgotIatINg vIa INforMatIoN tEchNology 308 Place-Time Model of Social Interaction 309

Face-to-Face Communication 309

Same Time, Different Place 312

Different Time, Same Place 313

Different Place, Different Time 314

Information Technology and Its Effects on Social Behavior 318

Trust 318

Deception 318

Status and Power: The “Weak Get Strong” Effect 318

Social Networks 320

Risk Taking 321

Rapport and Social Norms 321

Paranoia 322

Intergenerational Negotiation 322

Strategies for Enhancing Technology-Mediated Negotiations 325

Initial Face-to-Face Experience 325

One-Day Videoconference/Teleconference 326

Schmoozing 326

Humor 327

Conclusion 327

appendix 1 arE you a ratIoNal PErSoN? chEck yourSElf 328 Why Is It Important to Be Rational? 328

Individual Decision Making 328

Riskless Choice 329

Decision Making Under Uncertainty 331

Risky Choice 331

Summing Up: Individual Decision Making 343

Game Theoretic Rationality 343

Nash Bargaining Theory 344

Contents xv

appendix 2 NoNvErBal coMMuNIcatIoN aNd lIE dEtEctIoN 349 What Are We Looking for in Nonverbal Communication? 349

Are Women More “Nonverbally Gifted” Than Men? 350

Dominance 351

Personal Charisma 352

Detecting Deception 353

Direct Methods 355

Indirect Methods 355

How Motivation and Temptation Affect Lying and Deception 357

Deception Success 358

appendix 3 thIrd-Party INtErvENtIoN 360 Common Third-Party Roles 360

Mediation 360

Arbitration 361

Mediation-Arbitration 362

Arbitration-Mediation 362

Key Choice Points in Third-Party Intervention 362

Outcome versus Process Control 363

Formal versus Informal 363

Invited versus Uninvited 363

Interpersonal versus Intergroup 363

Content versus Process Orientation 363

Facilitation, Formulation, or Manipulation 363

Disputant Preferences 364

Mediators and Gender 364

Challenges Facing Third Parties 364

Meeting Disputants’ Expectations 365

Increasing the Likelihood That Parties Reach an Agreement if a Positive Bargaining Zone Exists 365

Promoting a Pareto-Efficient Outcome 365

Promoting Outcomes That Are Perceived as Fair in the Eyes of Disputants 365

Improving the Relationship Between Parties 366

Empowering Parties in the Negotiation Process 366

xvi Contents

Debiasing Negotiators 366

Maintaining Neutrality 367

Enhancing the Effectiveness of Third-Party Intervention 368

Accept Your Share of Responsibility 368

Test Your Own Position 368

Role-Play a Third Party in Your Own Dispute 368

Training in Win-Win Negotiation 368

appendix 4 NEgotIatINg a JoB offEr 369 Preparation 369

Step 1: Determine What You Really Want 369

Step 2: Do Your Homework 369

Step 3: Determine Your BATNA and Your Aspiration Point 371

Step 4: Research the Employer’s BATNA 371

Step 5: Determine the Issue Mix 371

Step 6: Prepare Several Scenarios 371

Step 7: Consider Getting a “Coach” 371

In Vivo: During the Negotiation Itself 372

Think About the Best Way to Position and Present Your Opening Offer 372

Assume the Offer Is Negotiable 372

Put the Focus On How You Can Solve Problems, Not Make Demands 373

Don’t Reveal Your BATNA or Your Reservation Point 374

Rehearse and Practice 375

Imagine You Are Negotiating on Behalf of Someone Else (Not Just Yourself) 375

Comparables and Benchmarks 375

Post-Offer: You Have the Offer, Now What? 376

Think Before Posting Anything on Social Media 376

Do Not Immediately Agree to the Offer 376

Get the Offer in Writing 376

Be Enthusiastic and Gracious 376

Assess the Interviewer’s Power to Negotiate with You 376

State Exactly What Needs to Be Done for You to Agree 376

Contents xvii

Do Not Negotiate If You Are Not or Could Not Be Interested 377

Exploding Offers 377

Do Not Try to Create a Bidding War 377

Know When to Stop Pushing 377

Use a Rational Strategy for Choosing Among Job Offers 378

Name Index 379

Subject Index 396

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PREFACE

This book is dedicated to negotiators who want to improve their ability to negotiate—whether in multimillion-dollar business deals or personal interactions. It is possible for most people to dra- matically improve their ability to negotiate. You can improve your economic outcomes and feel better about yourself and the people with whom you deal. The book integrates theory, scientific research, and practical examples. New to this edition are special sections on gender, ethics, emo- tions, intergenerational negotiations, and job negotiations. The book contains hundreds of real examples from business, politics, and personal life spanning the globe to illustrate effective, as well as ineffective, negotiation skills.

Here is what you can expect when you read this book:

• Illustrative case studies. Each chapter opens with a case study of an actual negotiation, drawn from business, government, world affairs, community, and personal life. New to this edition are more than 100 updated examples from the business world, many involving international issues.

• Skills-based approach. Each chapter provides practical takeaway points for the man- ager and the executive. A good example is Chapter 4 on integrative negotiation. A series of hands-on principles that have been proven to increase the value of negotiated deals is provided.

• Self-insight. Most chapters contain several self-assessments, quizzes, and examples that readers can use to examine their negotiation attitudes and behaviors. For example, Chapter 5 gives negotiators an opportunity to assess their “instinctive” bargaining style and provides suggestions for how to further develop their bargaining repertoire. In Chapter 7, negotiators can examine their ethical principles in negotiation. Moreover, Chapter 10 pro- vides a deep look at cultural differences in negotiation so that the negotiator can better understand his or her own cultural style and that of others.

• Advanced bargaining skills. The second and third sections of the book deal with com- plex yet commonly occurring negotiating situations, such as negotiating with people of different generations, different genders, agents, mediation and arbitration, negotiating via e-mail and conference calls, negotiating with competitor companies, and of course, nego- tiating cross-culturally. These sections have been revised in this edition.

• Scientific Research. New to this edition are the groundbreaking results of more than 120 new scientific articles on negotiation.

I benefit greatly from the advice, comments, and critiques given to me by my students and colleagues, and I hope their advice keeps coming so that I am able to improve upon the book even further. The research and ideas in this book come from an invaluable set of scholars in the fields of social psychology, organizational behavior, sociology, negotiation, and cognitive psychology. My research, thinking, and writing have been inspired in important ways by the following people: Wendi Adair, Cameron Anderson, Evan Apfelbaum, Linda Babcock, Chris

xix

Note: Every effort has been made to provide accurate and current Internet information in this book. However, the Internet and information posted on it are constantly changing, so it is inevitable that some of the Internet addresses listed in this textbook will change.

xx Preface

Bauman, Max Bazerman, Kristin Behfar, Terry Boles, Jeanne Brett, Susan Brodt, Karen Cates, Hoon-Seok Choi, Taya Cohen, Susan Crotty, Jeanne Egmon, Hal Ersner-Hershfield, Gary Fine, Craig Fox, Adam Galinsky, Wendi Gardner, Dedre Gentner, Robert Gibbons, Kevin Gibson, James Gillespie, Rich Gonzalez, Deborah Gruenfeld, Erika Hall, Reid Hastie, Andy Hoffman, Elizabeth Howard, Peter Kim, Shirli Kopelman, Rod Kramer, Laura Kray, Terri Kurtzburg, Geoffrey Leonardelli, John Levine, Allan Lind, George Loewenstein, Jeff Loewenstein, Brian Lucas, Deepak Malhotra, Beta Mannix, Kathleen McGinn, Vicki Medvec, Tanya Menon, Dave Messick, Terry Mitchell, Don Moore, Michael Morris, Keith Murnighan, Janice Nadler, Maggie Neale, Kathy Phillips, Robin Pinkley, Ashleigh Rosette, Nancy Rothbard, Catherine Shea, Ned Smith, Marwan Sinaceur, Harris Sondak, Roderick Swaab, Tom Tyler, Leaf Van Boven, Kimberly Wade-Benzoni, Laurie Weingart, Judith White, and Elizabeth Ruth Wilson. Throughout the text of The Mind and Heart of the Negotiator, I use the pronoun “we” because so much of my thinking has been influenced and shaped by this set of eminent scholars.

The revision of this book would not have been possible without the dedication, organiza- tion, and editorial skills of Larissa Tripp, Ellen Hampton, Joel Erickson, and Lee Sol Jee, who created the layout, organized hundreds of drafts, mastered the figures, and researched many case studies for this book.

In this book, I talk about the “power of the situation” and how strongly the environ- ment shapes our behavior. The Kellogg School of Management is one of the most supportive, dynamic environments I have ever had the pleasure to be a part of. In particular, Dean Sally Blount strongly supports research and intellectual leadership as well as pedagogical leadership. I am particularly indebted to my wonderful visionary colleague, Jeanne Brett, who created the Dispute Resolution Research Center (DRRC) at Kellogg in 1986, and to the Hewlett Foundation for their generous support of the DRRC.

This book is very much a team effort of the people I have mentioned here, whose talents are diverse, broad, and extraordinarily impressive. I am deeply indebted to my colleagues and my students, and I feel grateful that they have touched my life and this book.

Overview

This book is divided into three major sections. The first section deals with the essentials of negotiation—the key principles and groundwork for effective negotiation. Chapter 2 leads the manager through effective preparation strategies for negotiation. Chapter 3 discusses distribu- tive negotiation skills, or how to optimally allocate resources in ways that are favorable to one’s self—a process called “slicing the pie.” Chapter 4 is the integral chapter of the book; it focuses on “win-win” negotiation or, more formally, integrative negotiation. This creative part of nego- tiation involves expanding the pie of resources in ways that provide more gains to go around.

The second section of the book deals with advanced and expert negotiation skills. Chapter 5 focuses on assessing and developing your negotiation style. This chapter invites readers to hon- estly appraise their own negotiation style in terms of three dimensions: motivational orientation, disputing style, and emotional expression. The negotiator can accurately assess his or her own style and its limitations and learn to assess the styles adopted by other negotiators. Chapter 6 focuses on establishing trust and building relationships. This chapter examines business and per- sonal relationships and how trust is developed, broken, and repaired. Chapter 7 discusses power, gender, and ethics in negotiation. This chapter looks at the topic of persuasion and influence as it occurs across the bargaining table and also deals with the important issues of gender and ethics in negotiation. In Chapter 8, the focus is on problem solving and creativity. This chapter

Preface xxi

provides strategies for learning how to think out of the box and provides techniques for using creativity and imagination in negotiation.

The third section deals with special scenarios in negotiation. Chapter 9 examines the com- plexities of negotiating with multiple parties, such as conflicting incentives, coalitions, voting rules, and how to leverage one’s own bargaining position when negotiating with multiple parties. Chapter 10 focuses on cross-cultural negotiation, which addresses the key cultural values and negotiation norms across a variety of nationalities, along with some advice for cross-cultural negotiations. Chapter 11 deals with dilemmas, or situations in which negotiators make choices in a mixed-motive context, where cooperation involves building trust with the other party and competition involves an attempt to increase one’s own share of resources. This chapter examines the nature of social dilemmas and how to negotiate successfully within various types of dilem- mas. Chapter 12 focuses on information technology and its impact on negotiation and uses a place-time model of social interaction to examine the challenges and opportunities of negotiation as it occurs in this technological age. It includes a section on intergenerational negotiation and e-negotiations.

Four appendices provide a variety of additional material: Appendix 1 invites readers to examine the rationality of their negotiation beliefs and preferences; Appendix 2 provides a short course on lie detection and nonverbal communication; Appendix 3 reviews the essen- tials of third-party intervention; and Appendix 4 provides tips and a checklist for negotiating a job offer.

Faculty resOurces

instructor resource center At http://www.pearsonhighered.com/educator, instructors can access a variety of resources available with this text in downloadable, digital format.

Once you register, you will not have additional forms to fill out, or multiple usernames and passwords to remember to access new titles and/or editions. As a registered faculty member, you can log in directly to download resource files, and receive immediate access and instructions for installing Course Management content to your campus server.

Our dedicated Technical Support team is ready to assist instructors with questions about the media supplements that accompany this text. Visit http://247pearsoned.custhelp.com for answers to frequently asked questions and toll-free user support phone numbers.

To download the supplements available with this text, including an Instructor’s Manual, Power Point presentation, and Test Item File, please visit: http://www.pearsonhighered.com/ educator.

reviewers The author would like to thank the following colleagues for providing valuable comments and suggestions on how to improve the book.

Lehman Benson: University of Arizona Jason Harris-Boundy San Francisco State Dale F. Kehr: University of Memphis Barry Goldman: University of Arizona Stanley Braverman: La Salle Universityhttp://www.pearsonhighered.com/educatorhttp://www.pearsonhighered.com/educatorhttp://www.pearsonhighered.com/educatorhttp://247pearsoned.custhelp.com

ABouT THE AuTHoR

Leigh L. Thompson joined the Kellogg School of Management in 1995. She is the J. Jay Gerber Distinguished Professor of Dispute Resolution and Organizations. She directs the Leading High Impact Teams executive program and the Kellogg Team and Group Research Center and codirects the Negotiation Strategies for Managers program. An active scholar and researcher, she has published over 100 research articles and chapters and has authored 10  books, including Creative Conspiracy: The New Rules of Breakthrough Collaboration, Making the Team, Creativity in Organizations, Shared Knowledge in Organizations, Nego- tiation: Theory and Research, The Social Psychology of Organizational Behavior: Essential Reading, Organizational Behavior Today, The Truth about Negotiation, and Conflict in Orga- nizational Teams. Thompson has worked with private and public organizations in the United States, Latin America, Canada, Europe, and the Middle East. Her teaching style combines experiential learning with theory-driven best practices. For more information about Leigh Thompson’s teaching and research, please visit leighthompson.com.

xxii

1

A $7.2 billion merger between Microsoft and Nokia began with a phone call and three simple words, “Can we talk?” When Microsoft CEO Steve Ballmer called Nokia Chairman Risto Siilasmaa on a cold January day with that question, it set in motion eight months of complex negotia- tions. Whereas the companies were longtime working partners in the development of Microsoft’s Windows Phone, Ballmer was frustrated with the slow pace of growth for the device. Microsoft and Nokia were each duplicating their efforts—investing marketing money to build separate brands and lure app developers, but they were both solidly way behind—the Windows Phone was considered to be a second-tier product behind Google’s Android and Apple’s iOS. Nokia’s stock price and revenue had declined alarmingly. After the phone call, executives from both companies met for an hour in Barcelona to discuss their ideas; a month later in New York at the offices of Nokia’s outside law firm, the deal nearly fell apart due to Siilasmaa’s frustration over the low perceived value of Nokia by Microsoft executives. Siilasmaa broke the silence the next day, send- ing a text message to Ballmer to reopen talks. When the company executives met in London the following month, a scream was heard during a break. Deep in thought, CEO Ballmer had failed to see a clear glass coffee table in front of him, tripped, and hit his head. As the security team patched up Ballmer’s forehead, he began to talk to the Nokia executives. Meetings followed in Nokia’s home base of Finland, and then back in New York where the CEOs shook hands on key issues, which subsequently led to legal pacts covering patents, trademarks, the selling of Nokia’s handset business, and platform mapping. That fall, Ballmer flew to Finland to finalize one of the largest mergers of all time.1

NegotiatioN: the MiNd aNd the heart

1

W hereas most of us are not involved in billion-dollar mergers, one thing that business scholars and businesspeople are in complete agreement on is that everyone negotiates nearly every day. Getting to Yes begins by stating, “Like it or not, you are a negotiator…. Everyone negotiates something every day.”2 Similarly, Lax and Sebenius, in The Manager as Negotiator, state that “Negotiating is a way of life for managers. . . when managers deal with their superiors, boards of directors, even

2 Fisher, R., & Ury, W. (1981). Getting to yes (p. xviii). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Part I: Essentials of Negotiation

1 Stoll, J. D. (2013, September 13). Nokia’s last great deal: Zero to $7.2 billion. Wall Street Journal. wsj.com; Mossberg, W. (2013, September 4). From “Can we talk?” to a coffee-table mishap: The inside story of Microsoft’s Nokia deal. All Things Digital. allthingsd.com.

2 Part I • Essentials of Negotiation

legislators.”3 G. Richard Shell, who wrote Bargaining for Advantage, asserts, “All of us negoti- ate many times a day.”4 Herb Cohen, author of You Can Negotiate Anything, dramatically sug- gests that “your world is a giant negotiation table.” One business article on negotiation warns, “However much you think negotiation is part of your life, you’re underestimating.”5

Negotiation is your key communication and influence tool inside and outside the company. Anytime you cannot achieve your objectives (whether an acquisition or a dinner date) without the cooperation of others, you are negotiating. We provide dramatic (and disturbing) evidence in this chapter that most people do not live up to their negotiating potential. The good news is that you can do something about it.

The sole purpose of this book is to improve your ability to negotiate. We do this through an integration of scientific studies of negotiation and real business cases. And in case you are wondering, it is not all common sense. Science drives the best practices covered in this book. We focus on business negotiations, and understanding business negotiations helps people to be more effective negotiators in their personal lives.6

In this book, we focus on three major negotiation skills: creating value, claiming value, and building trust. By the end of this book, you will have a mindset or mental model that will allow you to know what to do and say in virtually every negotiation situation. You can prepare effectively for negotiations and enjoy the peace of mind that comes from having a game plan. Things may not always go according to plan but your mental model will allow you to perform effectively and, most important, to learn from your experiences. Indeed, people who view nego- tiation as a challenge are more successful in reaching high-quality deals than people who view negotiation as threatening.7 Moreover, people who believe that negotiation ability is changeable with experience and practice are more likely to discover win-win agreements than people who believe that negotiation skills are not teachable.8

NegotiatioN: DefiNitioN aND Scope

Negotiation is an interpersonal decision-making process necessary whenever we cannot achieve our objectives single-handedly. Negotiations include not only one-on-one business meetings but also multiparty, multicompany, and multinational relationships. Some negotiations involve bargaining over a few dollars; other negotiations involve billions of dollars, such as Kellogg’s acquisition of the Pringles brand from Proctor and Gamble for $2.7 billion. Some negotiations are conducted in less than a few minutes; others linger on for years, such as Hertz’s five-year courtship with rival Dollar Thrifty for an ultimate price of $2.5 billion.9 People negotiate in their

3 Lax, D. A., & Sebenius, J. K. (1986). The manager as negotiator (p. 6). New York: Free Press. 4 Shell, G. R. (1999). Bargaining for advantage: Negotiation strategies for reasonable people (p. 76). New York: Viking. 5 Walker, R. (2003, August). Take it or leave it: The only guide to negotiating you will ever need. Inc., 25(8) 75–82. 6 Gentner, D., Loewenstein, J., & Thompson, L. (2003). Learning and transfer: A general role for analogical encoding. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95(2), 393–408. 7 O’Connor, K. M., Arnold, J. A., & Maurizio, A. M. (2010). The prospect of negotiating: Stress, cognitive appraisal and performance. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46(5), 729–735. 8 Wong, E. M., Haselhaun, M. P., & Kray, L. J. (2012). Improving the future by considering the past: The impact of upward counterfactual reflection and implicit beliefs on negotiation performance. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48(1), 403–406. 9 Applegate, E., & Mider, Z. (2013, December). The year in M&A deals. Businessweek, pp. 64–65.

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Employers have been coming up with innovative employee rewards to boost morale and acknowledge employee needs for creativity and personal goal accomplishment. Some of the latest potential employee rewards include using the Internet at work for personal reasons such as shopping, communicating with friends, or personal finances; bringing a pet to work; instituting a controlled napping policy, and the sports and office betting pools.  

Write an eight to ten (8-10) page paper in which you: 

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  4. Discuss the key elements of integrating innovation into a traditional total rewards program.
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total contribution margin in dollars divided by pretax income is the:

1.Product A requires 5 machine hours per unit to be produced, Product B requires only 3 machine hours per unit, and the company’s productive capacity is limited to 240,000 machine hours. Product A sells for $16 per unit and has variable costs of $6 per unit. Product B sells for $12 per unit and has variable costs of $5 per unit. Assuming the company can sell as many units of either product as it produces, the company should:

2.Parker Plumbing has received a special one-time order for 1,500 faucets (units) at $5 per unit. Parker currently produces and sells 7,500 units at $6.00 each. This level represents 75% of its capacity. Production costs for these units are $4.50 per unit, which includes $3.00 variable cost and $1.50 fixed cost. To produce the special order, a new machine needs to be purchased at a cost of $1,000 with a zero salvage value. Management expects no other changes in costs as a result of the additional production. Should the company accept the special order?

3.The break-even time (BET) method is a variation of the:

4.After-tax net income divided by the annual average investment in an investment, is the:

5.The following data concerns a proposed equipment purchase: Cost…………………$144,000 Salvage value…………..$4,000 Estimated useful life……. 4years Annual net cash flows……$46,100 Depreciation method……..straight-line Assuming that net cash flows are received evenly throughout the year, the accounting rate of return is:

6.The rate that yields a net present value of zero for an investment is the:

7.Select cost information for Winfrey Enterprises is as follows: For 1000 units of output Total Cost/unit Direct material $5,000 $5.00 Utilities expense $1,000 $1.00 Rent expense $4,000 $4.00 For 5,000 units of output Total Cost/unit Direct materials $25,000 $5.00 Utilities expense $3,750 $0.75 Rent expense $4,000 $0.80 Based on this information:

8.The margin of safety is the excess of:

9.Use the following information to determine the margin of safety in dollars:

Unit sales………………..50,000 units

Dollar sales………………$500,000

fixed costs……………….$204,000

Variable costs…………….$187,000

10.Total contribution margin in dollars divided by pretax income is the:

11.Brown Company’s contribution margin ratio is 24%. Total fixed costs are $84,000. What is Brown’s break-even point in sales dollars?

12.A company manufactures and sells a product for $120 per unit. The company’s fixed costs are $68,760, and its variable costs are $90 per unit. The company’s break-even point in units is:

13.Yamaguchi Company’s break even point in units is 1,000. The sales price per unit is $10 and variable cost per unit is $7. If the company sells 2,500 units, what will net income be?

14.A firm sells two products, A and B. For every unit of A the firm sells, two units of B are sold. The firm’s total fixed costs are $1,612,000. Selling prices and cost information for both products follow: Product Unit sales price Veriable costs per Unit A… $20 $8 B… $24 $4 The contribution margin per composite unit is:

15.Wayward Enterprises manufactures and sells three distinct styles of bicycles: the Youth model sells for $300 and has a unit contribution margin of $105; the Adult model sells for $850 and has a unit contribution margin of $450; and the Recreational model sells for $1,000 and has a unit contribution margin of $500. The company’s sales mix includes: 5 Youth models; 9 Adult models; and 6 Recreational models. If the firm’s annual fixed costs total $6,500,000, calculate the firm’s break-even point in sales dollars.

 16.The master budget includes:

17.A plan that lists the types and amounts of operating expenses expected that are not included in the selling expenses budget is a:

18.A plan showing the units of goods to be sold and the revenue to be derived from sales, that is the usual starting point in the budgeting process, is called the:

19.Ecology Co. sells a biodegradable product called Dissol and has predicted the following sales for the first four months of the current year:

Sales in units…. Jan.1,700; Feb.1,900; March 2,100; April1,600

Ending inventory for each month should be 20% of the next month’s sales, and the December 31 inventory is consistent with that policy. How many units should be purchased in February?

20.A quantity of merchandise or materials over the minimum needed reduce the risk of running short is called:

21.A plan that shows the expected cash inflows and cash outflows during the budget period, including receipts from loans needed to maintain a minimum cash balance and repayments of such loans, is called a(n):

22.Long-term liability data for the budgeted balance sheet is derived from:

23.The Palos Company expects sales for June, July, and August of $48,000, $54,000, and $44,000, respectively. Experience suggests that 40% of sales are for cash and 60% are on credit.

The company collects 50% of its credit sales in the month following sale, 45% in the second month following sale, and 5% are not collected. What are the company’s expected cash receipts for August from its current and past sales?

24.Which of the following budgets is part of the manufacturing budget?

25.A process of examining the differences between actual and budgeted costs and describing them in terms of the amounts that resulted from price and quantity differences is called:

26.A report based on predicted amounts of revenues and expenses corresponding to the actual level of output is called a:

27.Sales analysis is useful for:

28.Product A has a sales price of $10 per unit. Based on a 10,000-unit production level, the variable costs are $6 per unit and the fixed costs are $3 per unit. Using a flexible budget for 12,500 units, what is the budgeted operating income from Product A?

29.A job was budgeted to require 3 hours of labor per unit at $8.00 per hour. The job consisted of 8,000 units and was completed in 22,000 hours at a total labor cost of $198,000. What is the total labor cost variance?

30.A company has determined that its standard costs to produce a single unit of output is as follows: Direct material 6 pounds at $0.90 per pound=$5.40 Direct labor 0.5 hour at $12.00 per hour=$6.00 Manyfacturing overhead 0.5 hour at $4.80 per hour=$2.40 During the latest month, the company purchased and used 58,000 pounds of direct materials at a price of $1.00 per pound to produce 10,000 units of output. Direct labor costs for the month totaled $56,350 based on 4,900 direct labor hours worked. Variable manufacturing overhead costs incurred totaled $15,000 and fixed manufacturing overhead incurred was $10,400. Based on this information, the direct materials quantity variance for the month was

31.The difference between the total budgeted overhead cost and the overhead applied to production using the predetermined overhead rate is the:

32. Regarding overhead costs, as volume increases:

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what is the value of x given that pq bc

What is the value of x, given PQ || BC?
Triangle: A, B, C with bisector PQ
AP = 8
PB = x
AQ = 12
QC = 18

1 0 709
asked by Anonymous
Feb 12, 2015
Apparently PQ is not a bisector. It is just parallel to BC.

So,

AQ/QC = AP/PB
12/18 = 8/x
x = 12

0 0
posted by Steve
Feb 13, 2015
37,53

0 1
posted by aman
Jun 24, 2016
Each triangle is different -_-

0 1
posted by Wolfcat
Mar 27, 2018
for this same Q!!!

0 1
posted by Wolfcat
Mar 27, 2018

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what is the simplified form of the following expression?

1)What is the simplified form of the following expression?
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asked by GummyBear on August 31, 2015
Algebra

  1. Simplify the expression: 4√18+5√32 A.45√2 B.32√2 C.116√2 D.9√50 2. Simplify the expression: 7√5-3√80 A.-5√5 B.-4√75 C.-5 D.4√-75 3. Simplify the expression: √21(√3+√14) A.9√7-49√6 B.2√6+√35 C.3√7+7√6 D.√357

asked by GummyBears16 on April 5, 2016
Pre-Calculus
Assume that x, y, and z are positive numbers. Use the properties of logarithms to write the expression 2lnx – 6lny + 1/3ln e^12 as a simplified logarithm. Is this 2lnx – 6lny + 4, or can it be simplified further?

asked by Anonymous on June 2, 2016
algebra
Create a unique example of dividing a polynomial by a monomial and provide the simplified form. Explain, in complete sentences, the two ways used to simplify this expression and how you would check your quotient for accuracy. please explain :/ i only

asked by JoJo on July 6, 2011
math
in math problem.how to change simplified fraction form 2/3 to decimal form and percent form

asked by ivan on November 1, 2014

algebra 2
On a second report that you reviewed, the team simplified the expression to 4. Show how to simplify the rational expression correctly. Explain your steps so that the team understands how to simplify an expression similar to this in future experiments.

asked by hannah on October 23, 2013
Math
What is a simplified form of the expression [sec^2x-1]/[(sinx)(secx)]? a. cot x b. csc x c. tan x* d. sec x tan x I think this is the correct answer, but I do not understand why. Can someone please explain?

asked by girly girl on April 27, 2018
math
A field has a width of x m. Its length is 5 m more than its width. Write an algebraic expression, in simplified form, for the area of the field.

asked by Anonymous on December 18, 2013
Math
Decide whether the given statement is always, sometimes, or never true. The domain of a rational expression and any simplified form are equivalent. a. sometimes true b. never true c. always true

asked by Olivia N J on March 7, 2017
College Math
Simplify the algebraic expression 3xz + 4xy – 2yz + xy + 5yz – 9xz and evaluate it for x = 3, y = -2, z = -5. Identify the variables, constants, and coefficients in the simplified expression.

asked by Richard D on October 11, 2012

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which of the following best describes science fiction

  1. Which of the following best describes science fiction?
    Answer:C The characters often face problems related to future tech advancements.
  2. A literary analysis should contain a
    Answer: A thoughtful interpretation of a work
  3. Which sentence below is incorrectly punctuated?
    Answer: B Help me shovel the driveway please?

I studied and got these answers, are they correct?

0 0 335
asked by Lena Cronedy
Oct 24, 2018
It looks as though two are wrong. But it’s hard to tell without seeing the other choices.

0 1
👩‍🏫
Ms. Sue
Oct 24, 2018
No Lena Cronedy is correct.
C
A
B

0 0
posted by efGg
Nov 27, 2018
C
A
B
is correct

0 0
posted by wrong
Feb 26, 2019

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which of the following statements is true about the internet?

Which of the following statements is true?

All search engines will provide the same results when you enter the same query.

All search engines use the same amount of advertisements.

Some search engines are also browsers. (MY ANSWER)

Search engines often provide different results, even when you enter the same query.

1 0 449
asked by LOVE
Feb 24, 2016
I think there is a better answer.

0 0
posted by Reed
Feb 24, 2016
a
c
d
c

1 0
posted by JAZZZZMIN
Mar 28, 2017
jazzzzmin is right i got a 100

1 0
posted by hmmmmmmm?
Feb 9, 2018
thx jasmine much appreciated

0 0
posted by :}
Apr 3, 2018

what number is that

0 0
posted by hi
Sep 17, 2018
Thanks. Jazz

0 0
posted by Elijah
Oct 24, 2018

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guess the correlation

Ashford 5: – Week 4 – Discussion 1

Your initial discussion thread is due on Day 3 (Thursday) and you have until Day 7 (Monday) to respond to your classmates. Your grade will reflect both the quality of your initial post and the depth of your responses. Reference the Discussion Forum Grading Rubric for guidance on how your discussion will be evaluated.

 

Guess   the Correlation

 The Pearson correlation coefficient is a measure of degree of linear relationship between two variables. There are many correlated variables in health research: weight and height, smoking and drinking, health behaviors, etc.
 

The bivariate scatter plot shown below illustrates a strong negative correlation between two variables:
 

Negative Correlation Graph

The next graph depicts a correlation of 1 (i.e. for a variable correlated with itself):
 

Correlation of 1 Graph

For this discussion, analyze the graph below which represents the correlation between weight (vertical axis; weight in pounds) and height (horizontal axis; height in inches).  Do you think there is a negative or a positive correlation coefficient between these two variables?  What value do you think this correlation coefficient will have?  You do not need to be exact, but come up with a value you think would fit the given data.  For the estimated value, what would be the coefficient of determination and what does it mean?  Is this a strong correlation?  Please explain.

Correlation of Weight and Height Graph

Guided Response:  Review several of your classmates’ posts.  Respond substantively to two peers.  How strong or weak was their correlation?  What factors affect the strength of the correlation?  What about its statistical significance?  
 

http://threadcontent.next.ecollege.com/Images/addnew.gif

Respond 

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kucampus kaplan login

Unit 6 HR400: Employment and Staffing

1 of 2

Assignment: Interview Plan

There are a variety of interview types, each serving a different purpose. In this Assignment, you will develop an interview plan for an organization in which you will determine which types of interviews to

use. In this Assignment, you will be assessed on the following outcomes:

HR400-3: Analyze candidates through the use of interview questions. Assignment:

Before starting this Assignment, review the Assignment Checklist. Then, in a separate Word

document, write a 2–3 page paper based on the following scenario:

You are the human resource manager for a 300–employee insurance organization. You have been

assigned to develop an interview plan in which you determine which types of interviews will be used

in the organization. Address the following in your plan:

1. Describe the interview type(s) you recommend the organization use. Include an explanation

why you are recommending these interview types.

2. Identify how you will ensure those doing the interviewing will have the appropriate interviewing

skills.

Assignment Checklist:

 This Assignment should be a 2–3 page Word document, in addition to the title and reference

pages.

 It must be written in Standard American English and demonstrate exceptional content,

organization, style, and grammar and mechanics.

 Respond to the questions in a thorough manner, providing specific examples where asked.

 Your paper should provide a clearly established and sustained viewpoint and purpose.

 Your writing should be well ordered, logical and unified, as well as original and insightful.

 A separate page at the end of your research paper should contain a list of references, in APA

format. Use your textbook, the KU Online Library, and the internet for research.

 Be sure to cite were appropriate and reference all sources. Your sources and content should

follow proper APA format. Review the APA formats found in the Kaplan Writing Center. To

access the Kaplan Writing Center, select this link.https://kucampus.kaplan.edu/Security/Login?ReturnUrl=%2fMyStudies%2fAcademicSupportCenter%2fWritingCenter%2fWritingReferenceLibrary%2fResearchCitationAndPlagiarism%2fIndex.aspxhttps://kucampus.kaplan.edu/Security/Login?ReturnUrl=%2fMyStudies%2fAcademicSupportCenter%2fWritingCenter%2fWritingReferenceLibrary%2fResearchCitationAndPlagiarism%2fIndex.aspx

Unit 6 HR400: Employment and Staffing

2 of 2

 Review the grading Rubric to ensure all points have been captured in the paper.

Directions for Submitting your Assignment

Be sure to respond to all the questions using the critical elements listed in the Assignment Checklist.

Submit your Assignment in a Word document by the end of the unit by clicking the Dropbox tab and

selecting Unit 6: Assignment from the dropdown menu, then attach your file. Make sure to save a

copy of your work and be sure to confirm that your file uploaded correctly.

Unit 6 Assignment: Interview Plan

Content and Analysis Points

Possible Points Earned

Describe the interview type(s) recommended for the organization and why these types are being recommended.

25

Identify how you will ensure those doing the interviewing will have the appropriate interviewing skills.

20

Writing style, grammar, and APA format. 5

Total 50

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victim vs creator

GU101 Student Success

Assignment W4  (100 points)

“Putting It All Together”

SWOT, grit, growth, victim, creator, motivation, academic integrity.  In the past few weeks, you have been writing short papers that incorporate ideas from sources you have found on the internet and on EBSCOhost.  This week, you will read one more article, and use it along with the others to write an essay about being successful in college.  This paper will be used to help determine your preparedness for future English courses in college.  Do your best work!

***

1.  Read the article Shifting out of the Drama Triangle: Victim vs. Creator Mindsets.

2.  Write a 5-paragraph essay which explains how having the creator mindset can foster greater success in college than having the victim mindset. For sources, be sure to use this week’s article as well as the articles required for weeks two and three to support your argument.

a.  The first paragraph is your introduction.  It should introduce the topic and contain the thesis statement.

b.  The second paragraph should have a topic sentence that relates to the thesis statement.  This paragraph should provide supporting evidence or ideas for your thesis that come from the designated article “Shifting out of the Drama Triangle.”  In this paragraph, you must incorporate one paraphrase from the article and cite it in text properly using APA citations.  This paraphrase must be highlighted in yellow.  Also you must also incorporate one short, direct quote from the article and cite it in text properly using APA citations.  This direct quote must be highlighted in blue.

c.  The third and fourth paragraphs are also supporting paragraphs for your thesis.  They should have topic sentences that support your thesis statement, and contain additional information that further supports the thesis.  Be sure to paraphrase or summarize the two articles you have already found regarding the growth mindset. Use your own words, but provide credit to the articles from which you have taken your ideas.

d.  The final paragraph is the conclusion. It should connect to the introductory paragraph and summarize the main points of the paper.

3.  List your sources in a References page at the end of your paper.

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total contribution margin in dollars divided by pretax income is the

1.Product A requires 5 machine hours per unit to be produced, Product B requires only 3 machine hours per unit, and the company’s productive capacity is limited to 240,000 machine hours. Product A sells for $16 per unit and has variable costs of $6 per unit. Product B sells for $12 per unit and has variable costs of $5 per unit. Assuming the company can sell as many units of either product as it produces, the company should:

2.Parker Plumbing has received a special one-time order for 1,500 faucets (units) at $5 per unit. Parker currently produces and sells 7,500 units at $6.00 each. This level represents 75% of its capacity. Production costs for these units are $4.50 per unit, which includes $3.00 variable cost and $1.50 fixed cost. To produce the special order, a new machine needs to be purchased at a cost of $1,000 with a zero salvage value. Management expects no other changes in costs as a result of the additional production. Should the company accept the special order?

3.The break-even time (BET) method is a variation of the:

4.After-tax net income divided by the annual average investment in an investment, is the:

5.The following data concerns a proposed equipment purchase: Cost…………………$144,000 Salvage value…………..$4,000 Estimated useful life……. 4years Annual net cash flows……$46,100 Depreciation method……..straight-line Assuming that net cash flows are received evenly throughout the year, the accounting rate of return is:

6.The rate that yields a net present value of zero for an investment is the:

7.Select cost information for Winfrey Enterprises is as follows: For 1000 units of output Total Cost/unit Direct material $5,000 $5.00 Utilities expense $1,000 $1.00 Rent expense $4,000 $4.00 For 5,000 units of output Total Cost/unit Direct materials $25,000 $5.00 Utilities expense $3,750 $0.75 Rent expense $4,000 $0.80 Based on this information:

8.The margin of safety is the excess of:

9.Use the following information to determine the margin of safety in dollars:

Unit sales………………..50,000 units

Dollar sales………………$500,000

fixed costs……………….$204,000

Variable costs…………….$187,000

10.Total contribution margin in dollars divided by pretax income is the:

11.Brown Company’s contribution margin ratio is 24%. Total fixed costs are $84,000. What is Brown’s break-even point in sales dollars?

12.A company manufactures and sells a product for $120 per unit. The company’s fixed costs are $68,760, and its variable costs are $90 per unit. The company’s break-even point in units is:

13.Yamaguchi Company’s break even point in units is 1,000. The sales price per unit is $10 and variable cost per unit is $7. If the company sells 2,500 units, what will net income be?

14.A firm sells two products, A and B. For every unit of A the firm sells, two units of B are sold. The firm’s total fixed costs are $1,612,000. Selling prices and cost information for both products follow: Product Unit sales price Veriable costs per Unit A… $20 $8 B… $24 $4 The contribution margin per composite unit is:

15.Wayward Enterprises manufactures and sells three distinct styles of bicycles: the Youth model sells for $300 and has a unit contribution margin of $105; the Adult model sells for $850 and has a unit contribution margin of $450; and the Recreational model sells for $1,000 and has a unit contribution margin of $500. The company’s sales mix includes: 5 Youth models; 9 Adult models; and 6 Recreational models. If the firm’s annual fixed costs total $6,500,000, calculate the firm’s break-even point in sales dollars.

 16.The master budget includes:

17.A plan that lists the types and amounts of operating expenses expected that are not included in the selling expenses budget is a:

18.A plan showing the units of goods to be sold and the revenue to be derived from sales, that is the usual starting point in the budgeting process, is called the:

19.Ecology Co. sells a biodegradable product called Dissol and has predicted the following sales for the first four months of the current year:

Sales in units…. Jan.1,700; Feb.1,900; March 2,100; April1,600

Ending inventory for each month should be 20% of the next month’s sales, and the December 31 inventory is consistent with that policy. How many units should be purchased in February?

20.A quantity of merchandise or materials over the minimum needed reduce the risk of running short is called:

21.A plan that shows the expected cash inflows and cash outflows during the budget period, including receipts from loans needed to maintain a minimum cash balance and repayments of such loans, is called a(n):

22.Long-term liability data for the budgeted balance sheet is derived from:

23.The Palos Company expects sales for June, July, and August of $48,000, $54,000, and $44,000, respectively. Experience suggests that 40% of sales are for cash and 60% are on credit.

The company collects 50% of its credit sales in the month following sale, 45% in the second month following sale, and 5% are not collected. What are the company’s expected cash receipts for August from its current and past sales?

24.Which of the following budgets is part of the manufacturing budget?

25.A process of examining the differences between actual and budgeted costs and describing them in terms of the amounts that resulted from price and quantity differences is called:

26.A report based on predicted amounts of revenues and expenses corresponding to the actual level of output is called a:

27.Sales analysis is useful for:

28.Product A has a sales price of $10 per unit. Based on a 10,000-unit production level, the variable costs are $6 per unit and the fixed costs are $3 per unit. Using a flexible budget for 12,500 units, what is the budgeted operating income from Product A?

29.A job was budgeted to require 3 hours of labor per unit at $8.00 per hour. The job consisted of 8,000 units and was completed in 22,000 hours at a total labor cost of $198,000. What is the total labor cost variance?

30.A company has determined that its standard costs to produce a single unit of output is as follows: Direct material 6 pounds at $0.90 per pound=$5.40 Direct labor 0.5 hour at $12.00 per hour=$6.00 Manyfacturing overhead 0.5 hour at $4.80 per hour=$2.40 During the latest month, the company purchased and used 58,000 pounds of direct materials at a price of $1.00 per pound to produce 10,000 units of output. Direct labor costs for the month totaled $56,350 based on 4,900 direct labor hours worked. Variable manufacturing overhead costs incurred totaled $15,000 and fixed manufacturing overhead incurred was $10,400. Based on this information, the direct materials quantity variance for the month was

31.The difference between the total budgeted overhead cost and the overhead applied to production using the predetermined overhead rate is the:

32. Regarding overhead costs, as volume increases:

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the intrapersonal definition of authentic leadership states that leadership

9 Authentic Leadership

Description

Authentic leadership represents one of the newest areas of leadership research. It focuses on whether leadership is genuine and “real.” As the title of this approach implies, authentic leadership is about the authenticity of leaders and their leadership. Unlike many of the theories that we have discussed in this book, authentic leadership is still in the formative phase of development. As a result, authentic leadership needs to be considered more tentatively: It is likely to change as new research about the theory is published.

In recent times, upheavals in society have energized a tremendous demand for authentic leadership. The destruction on 9/11, corporate scandals at companies like WorldCom and Enron, and massive failures in the banking industry have all created fear and uncertainty. People feel apprehensive and insecure about what is going on around them, and as a result, they long for bona fide leadership they can trust and for leaders who are honest and good. People’s demands for trustworthy leadership make the study of authentic leadership timely and worthwhile.

In addition to the public’s interest, authentic leadership has been intriguing to researchers: It was identified earlier in transformational leadership research but never fully articulated (Bass, 1990; Bass & Steidlmeier, 1999; Burns, 1978; Howell & Avolio, 1993). Furthermore, practitioners had developed approaches to authentic leadership that were not evidence based, and so needed further clarification and testing. In attempts to more fully explore authentic leadership, researchers set out to identify the parameters of authentic leadership and more clearly conceptualize it, efforts that continue today.

Authentic Leadership

Image 1

Character and Purpose

Image 5

Authentic Leadership Defined

On the surface, authentic leadership appears easy to define. In actuality, it is a complex process that is difficult to characterize. Among leadership scholars, there is no single accepted definition of authentic leadership. Instead, there are multiple definitions, each written from a different viewpoint and with a different emphasis (Chan, 2005).

One of those viewpoints is the intrapersonal perspective, which focuses closely on the leader and what goes on within the leader. It incorporates the leader’s self-knowledge, self-regulation, and self-concept. In Shamir and Eilam’s (2005) description of the intrapersonal approach, they suggest that authentic leaders exhibit genuine leadership, lead from conviction, and are originals, not copies. This perspective emphasizes a leader’s life experiences and the meaning he or she attaches to those experiences as being critical to the development of the authentic leader.

A second way of defining authentic leadership is as an interpersonal process. This perspective outlines authentic leadership as relational, created by leaders and followers together (Eagly, 2005). It results not from the leader’s efforts alone, but also from the response of followers. Authenticity emerges from the interactions between leaders and followers. It is a reciprocal process because leaders affect followers and followers affect leaders.

Finally, authentic leadership can be defined from a developmental perspective, which is exemplified in the work of Avolio and his associates (Avolio & Gardner, 2005; Gardner, Avolio, & Walumbwa, 2005; Walumbwa, Avolio, Gardner, Wernsing, & Peterson, 2008). This perspective, which underpins the approaches to authentic leadership discussed in the following section, views authentic leadership as something that can be nurtured in a leader, rather than as a fixed trait. Authentic leadership develops in people over a lifetime and can be triggered by major life events, such as a severe illness or a new career.

Taking a developmental approach, Walumbwa et al. (2008) conceptualized authentic leadership as a pattern of leader behavior that develops from and is grounded in the leader’s positive psychological qualities and strong ethics. They suggest that authentic leadership is composed of four distinct but related components: self-awareness, internalized moral perspective, balanced processing, and relational transparency (Avolio, Walumbwa, & Weber, 2009). Over a lifetime, authentic leaders learn and develop each of these four types of behavior.

Building Authenticity

Image 3

Vital Leadership

Image 5

Approaches to Authentic Leadership

Formulations about authentic leadership can be differentiated into two areas: (1) the practical approach, which evolved from real-life examples and training and development literature; and (2) the theoretical approach, which is based on findings from social science research. Both approaches offer interesting insights about the complex process of authentic leadership.

Practical Approach

Books and programs about authentic leadership are popular today; people are interested in the basics of this type of leadership. Specifically, they want to know the “how to” steps to become an authentic leader. In this section, we will discuss Bill George’s authentic leadership approach (2003).

Bill George’s Authentic Leadership Approach.

The authentic leadership approach developed by George (2003; George & Sims, 2007) focuses on the characteristics of authentic leaders. George describes, in a practical way, the essential qualities of authentic leadership and how individuals can develop these qualities if they want to become authentic leaders.

Based on his experience as a corporate executive and through interviews with a diverse sample of 125 successful leaders, George found that authentic leaders have a genuine desire to serve others, they know themselves, and they feel free to lead from their core values. Specifically, authentic leaders demonstrate five basic characteristics: (1) They understand their purpose, (2) they have strong values about the right thing to do, (3) they establish trusting relationships with others, (4) they demonstrate self-discipline and act on their values, and (5) they are passionate about their mission (i.e., act from their heart) (Figure 9.1; George, 2003).

Figure 9.1 illustrates five dimensions of authentic leadership identified by George: purpose, values, relationships, self-discipline, and heart. The figure also illustrates each of the related characteristics—passion, behavior, connectedness, consistency, and compassion—that individuals need to develop to become authentic leaders.

In his interviews, George found that authentic leaders have a real sense of purpose. They know what they are about and where they are going. In addition to knowing their purpose, authentic leaders are inspired and intrinsically motivated about their goals. They are passionate individuals who have a deep-seated interest in what they are doing and truly care about their work.

The Authentic Leader

Image 3

A good example of an authentic leader who exhibited passion about his goals was Terry Fox, a cancer survivor, whose leg was amputated after it was overcome by bone cancer. Using a special leg prosthesis, Terry attempted to run across Canada, from the Atlantic to the Pacific, to raise awareness and money for cancer research. Although he died before he finished his run, his courage and passion affected the lives of millions of people. He also accomplished his goals to increase cancer awareness and to raise money for cancer research. Today, the Terry Fox Foundation is going strong and has raised more than $400 million (Canadian) for cancer research (www.terryfox.org). Of the dimensions and characteristics in Figure 9.1, Terry Fox clearly demonstrated purpose and passion in his leadership.

Figure 9.1 Authentic Leadership Characteristics

Figure 19

SOURCE: From Authentic Leadership: Rediscovering the Secrets to Creating Lasting Value by Bill George, copyright © 2003. Reproduced with permission of John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Authentic leaders understand their own values and behave toward others based on these values. Stated another way, George suggests that authentic leaders know their “True North.” They have a clear idea of who they are, where they are going, and what the right thing is to do. When tested in difficult situations, authentic leaders do not compromise their values, but rather use those situations to strengthen their values.

An example of a leader with a strong set of values is Nobel Peace Prize Laureate Nelson Mandela. Mandela was a deeply moral man with a strong conscience. While fighting to abolish apartheid in South Africa, he was unyielding in his pursuit of justice and equality for all. When he was in prison and offered early release in exchange for denouncing his viewpoint, he chose to remain incarcerated rather than compromise his position. Nelson Mandela knew who he was at his core. He knew his values, and his leadership reflected those values.

A third characteristic of authentic leadership in the George approach is strong relationships. Authentic leaders have the capacity to open themselves up and establish a connection with others. They are willing to share their own story with others and listen to others’ stories. Through mutual disclosure, leaders and followers develop a sense of trust and closeness.

George argued that people today want to have access to their leaders and they want their leaders to be open with them. In a sense, people are asking leaders to soften the boundary around their leadership role and to be more transparent. People want to have a trusting relationship with their leaders. In exchange, people are willing to give leaders greater loyalty and commitment.

As we discussed in Chapter 7 (leader–member exchange theory), effective leader–follower relationships are marked by high-quality communication in which leaders and followers demonstrate a high degree of mutual trust, respect, and obligation toward each other. Leaders and followers are tied together in productive ways that go beyond the stereotypical leader–follower relationship. This results in strong leader–member relationships, greater understanding, and higher productivity.

Self-discipline is another dimension of authentic leadership, and is the quality that helps leaders to reach their goals. Self-discipline gives leaders focus and determination. When leaders establish objectives and standards of excellence, self-discipline helps them to reach these goals and to keep everyone accountable. Furthermore, self-discipline gives authentic leaders the energy to carry out their work in accordance with their values.

Human Rights Leadership

Image 4

Like long-distance runners, authentic leaders with self-discipline are able to stay focused on their goals. They are able to listen to their inner compass and can discipline themselves to move forward, even in challenging circumstances. In stressful times, self-discipline allows authentic leaders to remain cool, calm, and consistent. Because disciplined leaders are predictable in their behavior, other people know what to expect and find it easier to communicate with them. When the leader is self-directed and “on course,” it gives other people a sense of security.

Last, the George approach identifies compassion and heart as important aspects of authentic leadership. Compassion refers to being sensitive to the plight of others, opening one’s self to others, and being willing to help them. George (2003, p. 40) argued that as leaders develop compassion, they learn to be authentic. Leaders can develop compassion by getting to know others’ life stories, doing community service projects, being involved with other racial or ethnic groups, or traveling to developing countries (George, 2003). These activities increase the leader’s sensitivity to other cultures, backgrounds, and living situations.

In summary, George’s authentic leadership approach highlights five important features of authentic leaders. Collectively, these features provide a practical picture of what people need to do to become authentic in their leadership. Authentic leadership is a lifelong developmental process, which is formed and informed by each individual’s life story.

Theoretical Approach

Although still in its initial stages of development, a theory of authentic leadership is emerging in social science literature. In this section, we identify the basic components of authentic leadership and describe how these components are related to one another.

Background to the Theoretical Approach.

Although people’s interest in “authenticity” is probably timeless, research on authentic leadership is very recent, with the first article appearing in 2003. The primary catalyst for this research was a leadership summit at the University of Nebraska. This summit was sponsored by the Gallup Leadership Institute, and focused on the nature of authentic leadership and its development. From the summit, two sets of publications emerged: (1) a special issue of Leadership Quarterly in the summer of 2005, and (2) Monographs in Leadership and Management,titled “Authentic Leadership Theory and Process: Origins, Effects and Development,” also published in 2005. Prior to the summit, Luthans and Avolio (2003) published an article on authentic leadership development and positive organizational scholarship. The article also helped to ignite this area of research.

Authenticity and Brand

Image 5

Interest in authentic leadership increased during a time in which there was a great deal of societal upheaval and instability in the United States. The attacks of 9/11, widespread corporate corruption, and a troubled economy all created a sense of uncertainty and anxiety in people about leadership. Widespread unethical and ineffective leadership necessitated the need for more humane, constructive leadership that served the common good (Fry & Whittington, 2005; Luthans & Avolio, 2003).

In addition, researchers felt the need to extend the work of Bass (1990) and Bass and Steidlmeier (1999) regarding the meaning of authentic transformational leadership. There was a need to operationalize the meaning of authentic leadership and create a theoretical framework to explain it. To develop a theory of authentic leadership, researchers drew from the fields of leadership, positive organizational scholarship, and ethics (Cooper, Scandura, & Schriesheim, 2005; Gardner et al., 2005).

A major challenge confronting researchers in developing a theory was to define the construct and identify its characteristics. As we discussed earlier in the chapter, authentic leadership has been defined in multiple ways, with each definition emphasizing a different aspect of the process. For this chapter, we have selected the definition set forth in an article by Walumbwa et al. (2008), who defined authentic leadership as “a pattern of leader behavior that draws upon and promotes both positive psychological capacities and a positive ethical climate, to foster greater self-awareness, an internalized moral perspective, balanced processing of information, and relational transparency on the part of leaders working with followers, fostering positive self-development” (p. 94). Although complex, this definition captures the current thinking of scholars regarding the phenomenon of authentic leadership and how it works.

In the research literature, different models have been developed to illustrate the process of authentic leadership. Gardner et al. (2005) created a model that frames authentic leadership around the developmental processes of leader and follower self-awareness and self-regulation. Ilies, Morgeson, and Nahrgang (2005) constructed a multicomponent model that discusses the impact of authenticity on leaders’ and followers’ happiness and well-being. In contrast, Luthans and Avolio (2003) formulated a model that explains authentic leadership as a developmental process. In this chapter, we will present a basic model of authentic leadership that is derived from the research literature that focuses on the core components of authentic leadership. Our discussion will focus on authentic leadership as a process.

Fostering Authenticity

Image 3

CEOs and Positive Psychology

Image 2
Components of Authentic Leadership.

In an effort to further our understanding of authentic leadership, Walumbwa and associates (2008) conducted a comprehensive review of the literature and interviewed groups of content experts in the field to determine what components constituted authentic leadership and to develop a valid measure of this construct. Their research identified four components: self-awareness, internalized moral perspective, balanced processing, and relational transparency (Figure 9.2). Together, these four components form the foundation for a theory of authentic leadership.

Self-awareness refers to the personal insights of the leader. It is not an end in itself but a process in which individuals understand themselves, including their strengths and weaknesses, and the impact they have on others. Self-awareness includes reflecting on your core values, identity, emotions, motives, and goals, and coming to grips with who you really are at the deepest level. In addition, it includes being aware of and trusting your own feelings (Kernis, 2003). When leaders know themselves and have a clear sense of who they are and what they stand for, they have a strong anchor for their decisions and actions (Gardner et al., 2005). Other people see leaders who have greater self-awareness as more authentic.

Figure 9.2 Authentic Leadership

Figure 20

SOURCE: Adapted from Luthans, F., & Avolio, B. J. (2003). Authentic leadership development. In K. S. Cameron, J. E. Dutton, & R. E. Quinn (Eds.), Positive organizational scholarship (pp. 241–258). San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler; and Gardner, W. L., Avolio, B. J., Luthans, F., May, D. R., & Walumbwa, F. O. (2005). “Can you see the real me?” A self-based model of authentic leader and follower development. Leadership Quarterly, 16, 343–372.

Authenticity and Identity

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Internalized moral perspective refers to a self-regulatory process whereby individuals use their internal moral standards and values to guide their behavior rather than allow outside pressures to control them (e.g., group or societal pressure). It is a self-regulatory process because people have control over the extent to which they allow others to influence them. Others see leaders with an internalized moral perspective as authentic because their actions are consistent with their expressed beliefs and morals.

Balanced processing is also a self-regulatory behavior. It refers to an individual’s ability to analyze information objectively and explore other people’s opinions before making a decision. It also means avoiding favoritism about certain issues and remaining unbiased. Balanced processing includes soliciting viewpoints from those who disagree with you and fully considering their positions before taking your own action. Leaders with balanced processing are seen as authentic because they are open about their own perspectives, but are also objective in considering others’ perspectives.

Relational transparency refers to being open and honest in presenting one’s true self to others. It is self-regulatory because individuals can control their transparency with others. Relational transparency occurs when individuals share their core feelings, motives, and inclinations with others in an appropriate manner (Kernis, 2003). It includes the individuals showing both positive and negative aspects of themselves to others. In short, relational transparency is about communicating openly and being real in relationships with others.

Fundamentally, authentic leadership comprises the above four factors—self-awareness, internalized moral perspective, balanced processing, and relational transparency. These factors form the basis for authentic leadership.

Factors That Influence Authentic Leadership.

There are other factors such as positive psychological capacities, moral reasoning, and critical life events that influence authentic leadership (Figure 9.2).

Leadership from Within

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The four key positive psychological attributes that have an impact on authentic leadership—confidence, hope, optimism, and resilience—have been drawn from the fields of positive psychology and positive organizational behavior (Table 9.1; Luthans & Avolio, 2003). Positive attributes predispose or enhance a leader’s capacity to develop the components of authentic leadership discussed in the previous section. Each of these attributes has a trait-like and a state-like quality. They are trait-like because they may characterize a relatively fixed aspect of someone’s personality that has been evident throughout his or her life (e.g., extraversion), and they are state-like because, with training or coaching, individuals are capable of developing or changing their characteristics.

Table 10

SOURCE: Luthans, F., & Avolio, B. J. (2003). Authentic leadership development. In K. S. Cameron, J. E. Dutton, & R. E. Quinn (Eds.), Positive organizational scholarship (pp. 241–258). San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler.

Confidence refers to having self-efficacy—the belief that one has the ability to successfully accomplish a specified task. Leaders who have confidence are more likely to be motivated to succeed, to be persistent when obstacles arise, and to welcome a challenge (Bandura, 1997; Luthans & Avolio, 2003). Hope is a positive motivational state based on willpower and goal planning (Luthans & Avolio, 2003). Authentic leaders with hope have goals they know can be accomplished; their hope inspires followers to trust them and believe in their goals. Optimism refers to the cognitive process of viewing situations from a positive light and having favorable expectations about the future. Leaders with optimism are positive about their capabilities and the outcomes they can achieve. They approach life with a sense of abundance rather than scarcity (Covey, 1990). Resilience is the capacity to recover from and adjust to adverse situations. It includes the ability to positively adapt to hardships and suffering. During difficult times, resilient people are able to bounce back from challenging situations and feel strengthened and more resourceful as a result of them (Sutcliffe & Vogus, 2003).

Authentic Leadership

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Moral reasoning is another factor that can influence authentic leadership (Figure 9.2). It is the capacity to make ethical decisions about issues of right or wrong and good or bad. Developing the capacity for moral reasoning is a lifelong process. Higher levels of moral reasoning make it possible for the authentic leader to make decisions that transcend individual differences and align individuals toward a common goal. They enable leaders to be selfless and make judgments that serve the greater good of the group, organization, or community. Moral reasoning capacity also enables authentic leaders to use this ability to promote justice and achieve what is right for a community.

A final factor related to authentic leadership is critical life events (Figure 9.2). Critical events are major events that shape people’s lives. They can be positive events, like receiving an unexpected promotion, having a child, or reading an important book; or they can be negative events, like being diagnosed with cancer, getting a negative year-end evaluation, or having a loved one die. Critical life events act as catalysts for change. Shamir and Eilam (2005) argued that authentic leadership rests heavily on the insights people attach to their life experiences. When leaders tell their life stories, they gain greater self-knowledge, more clarity about who they are, and a better understanding of their role. By understanding their own life experiences, leaders become more authentic.

Critical life events also stimulate growth in individuals and help them become stronger leaders (Luthans & Avolio, 2003). For example, Howard Schultz (founder and CEO of Starbucks) tells a story about when he was little: His father, who was a delivery driver, fell and was hurt on the job. His father did not have health insurance or worker’s compensation. Seeing the problems that resulted from his father’s difficulties, when Schultz built Starbucks he provided comprehensive health insurance for employees who worked as few as 20 hours a week. Schultz’s style of leadership was triggered by his childhood experience.

As the theory of authentic leadership develops further, other antecedent factors that influence the process may be identified. To date, however, it is positive psychological capacities, moral reasoning capacities, and critical life events that have been identified as factors that are influential in a person’s ability to become an authentic leader.

How Does Authentic Leadership Theory Work?

In this chapter, we have discussed authentic leadership from a practical and theoretical perspective. Both perspectives describe authentic leadership as a developmental process that forms in leaders over time; however, both perspectives provide different descriptions for how authentic leadership works.

Authenticity

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The practical approach provides prescriptions for how to be authentic and how to develop authentic leadership. For example, the George approach (2003) focuses on five characteristics leaders should develop to become authentic leaders. More specifically, George advocates that leaders become more purposeful, value centered, relational, self-disciplined, and compassionate. The essence of authentic leadership is being a leader who strongly demonstrates these five qualities.

Rather than simple prescriptions, the theoretical approach describes what authentic leadership is and what accounts for it. From this perspective, authentic leadership works because leaders demonstrate self-awareness, an internalized moral perspective, balanced processing, and relational transparency. Leaders develop these attributes through a lifelong process that is often influenced by critical life events. In addition, the literature suggests that positive psychological characteristics and moral reasoning have a significant impact on authentic leaders.

Authentic leadership is a complex process that emphasizes the development of qualities that help leaders to be perceived as trustworthy and believable by their followers. The leader’s job is to learn to develop these qualities and apply them to the common good as he or she serves others.

Strengths

Although it is in its early stages of development, the authentic leadership approach has several strengths. First, it fulfills an expressed need for trustworthy leadership in society. During the past 20 years, failures in public and private leadership have created distrust in people. Authentic leadership helps to fill a void and provides an answer to people who are searching for good and sound leadership in an uncertain world.

Second, authentic leadership provides broad guidelines for individuals who want to become authentic leaders. Both the practical and theoretical approaches clearly point to what leaders should do to become authentic leaders. Social science literature emphasizes that it is important for leaders to have self-awareness, an internalized moral perspective, balanced processing, and relational transparency to be authentic. Taken together, these approaches provide a map for becoming an authentic leader.

Third, similar to transformational and servant leadership, authentic leadership has an explicit moral dimension. Underlying both the practical and theoretical approaches is the idea that authenticity requires leaders to do what is “right” and “good” for their followers and society. Authentic leaders understand their own values, place followers’ needs above their own, and work with followers to align their interests in order to create a greater common good.

Authenticity Framework

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Fourth, authentic leadership emphasizes that authentic values and behaviors can be developed in leaders over time. Authentic leadership is not an attribute that only some people exhibit: Everyone can develop authenticity and learn to be more authentic. For example, leaders can learn to become more aware and transparent, or they can learn to be more relational and other-directed. Leaders can also develop moral reasoning capacities. Furthermore, Luthans and Avolio (2003) contended that leaders could learn to develop positive psychological capacities such as confidence, hope, optimism, and resilience, and could use these to create a positive organizational climate. They contended that there are many ways that leaders can learn to become authentic leaders over a lifetime.

Finally, authentic leadership can be measured using the Authentic Leadership Questionnaire (ALQ). The ALQ is a validated, theory-based instrument comprising 16 items that measure four factors of authentic leadership (Avolio et al., 2009; Walumbwa et al., 2008). As research moves forward in refining authentic leadership theory, it is valuable to have an established instrument of this construct that is theory-based and can be used to measure authentic leadership in future research.

Criticisms

Authentic leadership is still in the formative stages of development, and a number of questions still need to be addressed about the theory. First, the concepts and ideas presented in George’s practical approach are not fully substantiated. While the practical approach is interesting and offers insight on authentic leadership, it is not built on a broad empirical base, nor has it been tested for validity. Without research support, the ideas set forth in the practical approach should be treated cautiously as explanations of the authentic leadership process.

Second, the moral component of authentic leadership is not fully explained. Whereas authentic leadership implies that leaders are motivated by higher-order end values such as justice and community, the way that these values function to influence authentic leadership is not clear. For example, how are a leader’s values related to a leader’s self-awareness? Or, what is the path or underlying process through which moral values affect other components of authentic leadership? In its present form, authentic leadership does not offer thorough answers to these questions.

Authentic Leadership Questionnaire

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Third, researchers have questioned whether positive psychological capacities should be included as components of authentic leadership. Although there is an interest in the social sciences to study positive human potential and the best of the human condition (Cameron, Dutton, & Quinn, 2003), the rationale for including positive psychological capacities as an inherent part of authentic leadership has not been clearly explained by researchers. In addition, some have argued that the inclusion of positive leader capacities in authentic leadership broadens the construct of authentic leadership too much and makes it difficult to measure (Cooper et al., 2005). At this point in the development of research on authentic leadership, the role of positive psychological capacities in authentic leadership theory needs further clarification.

Finally, it is not clear how authentic leadership results in positive organizational outcomes. Given that it is a new area of research, it is not unexpected that there are few data on outcomes, but these data are necessary to substantiate the value of the theory. Although authentic leadership is intuitively appealing on the surface, questions remain about whether this approach is effective, in what contexts it is effective, and whether authentic leadership results in productive outcomes. Relatedly, it is also not clear in the research whether authentic leadership is sufficient to achieve organizational goals. For example, can an authentic leader who is disorganized and lacking in technical competence be an effective leader? Authenticity is important and valuable to good leadership, but how authenticity relates to effective leadership is unknown. Clearly, future research should be conducted to explore how authentic leadership is related to organizational outcomes.

Application

Because authentic leadership is still in the early phase of its development, there has been little research on strategies that people can use to develop or enhance authentic leadership behaviors. While there are prescriptions set forth in the practical approach, there is little evidence-based research on whether these prescriptions or how-to strategies actually increase authentic leadership behavior.

Teaching Authentic Leadership

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In spite of the lack of intervention research, there are common themes from the authentic leadership literature that may be applicable to organizational or practice settings. One theme common to all of the formulations of authentic leadership is that people have the capacity to learn to be authentic leaders. In their original work on authentic leadership, Luthans and Avolio (2003) constructed a model of authentic leadership development. Conceptualizing it as a lifelong learning process, they argued that authentic leadership is a process that can be developed over time. This suggests that human resource departments may be able to foster authentic leadership behaviors in employees who move into leadership positions.

Another theme that can be applied to organizations is the overriding goal of authentic leaders to try to do the “right” thing, to be honest with themselves and others, and to work for the common good. Authentic leadership can have a positive impact in organizations. For example, Cianci, Hannah, Roberts, and Tsakumis (2014) investigated the impact of authentic leadership on followers’ morality. Based on the responses of 118 MBA students, they found that authentic leaders significantly inhibited followers from making unethical choices in the face of temptation. Authentic leadership appears to be a critical contextual factor that morally strengthens followers. Cianci et al. suggest that the four components of authentic leadership (i.e., self-awareness, internalized moral perspective, balanced processing, and relational transparency) should be developed in organizational leadership to increase ethical organizational behavior.

Last, authentic leadership is shaped and reformed by critical life events that act as triggers to growth and greater authenticity. Being sensitive to these events and using them as springboards to growth may be relevant to many people who are interested in becoming leaders who are more authentic.

Case Studies

The following section provides three case studies (Cases 9.1, 9.2, and 9.3) of individuals who demonstrate authentic leadership. The first case is about Sally Helgesen, author of The Female Advantage: Women’s Ways of Leadership (1990). The second case is about Greg Mortenson and how his mission to promote schools and peace in Pakistan and Afghanistan came under fire when he was accused of lying and financial impropriety. The final case is about Betty Ford, former First Lady of the United States, and her work in the areas of breast cancer awareness and substance abuse treatment. At the end of each of the cases, questions are provided to help you analyze the case using ideas from authentic leadership.

Case 9.1

Am I Really a Leader?

Sally Helgesen was born in the small Midwestern town of Saint Cloud, Minnesota. Her mother was a housewife who later taught English, and her father was a college professor of speech. After attending a local state college, where she majored in English and comparative religion, Sally spread her wings and moved to New York, inspired by the classic film Breakfast at Tiffany’s.

Sally found work as a writer, first in advertising and then as an assistant to a columnist at the then-influential Village Voice. She contributed freelance articles to magazines such as Harper’s, Glamour, Vogue, Fortune, and Inside Sports. She also returned to school, completing a degree in classics at Hunter College and taking language courses at the city graduate center in preparation for a PhD in comparative religion. She envisioned herself as a college professor, but also enjoyed freelancing. She felt a strong dichotomy within her, part quiet scholar and part footloose dreamer. The conflict bothered her, and she wondered how she would resolve it. Choosing to be a writer—actually declaring herself to be one—seemed scary, grandiose, and fraudulent.

Then one day, while walking on a New York side street in the rain, Sally saw an adventuresome black cat running beside her. It reminded her of Holly Golightly’s cat in Breakfast at Tiffany’s, an emblem in the movie for Holly’s dreamy temperament and rootlessness. It made her realize how much the freedom and independence offered by her “temporary” career as a writer suited her temperament. Sally told the cat she was a writer—she’d never been able to say the words before—and decided she was going to commit to full-time writing, at least for a time. When she saw the opportunity to cover a prominent murder trial in Fort Worth, Texas, she took it.

While covering the trial, Sally became intrigued with the culture of Texas, and decided she wanted to write a book on the role of independent oil producers in shaping the region. Doing so required a huge expenditure of time and money, and for almost a year Sally lived out of the trunk of her car, staying with friends in remote regions all over Texas. It was lonely and hard and exhilarating, but Sally was determined to see the project through. When the book, Wildcatters (1981), was published, it achieved little recognition, but Sally felt an enormous increase in confidence and commitment as a result of having finished the book. It strengthened her conviction that, for better or worse, she was a writer.

Sally moved back to New York and continued to write articles and search around for another book. She also began writing speeches for the CEO at a Fortune 500 company. She loved the work, and particularly enjoyed being an observer of office politics, even though she did not perceive herself to be a part of them. Sally viewed her role as being an “outsider looking in,” an observer of the culture. She sometimes felt like an actor in a play about an office, but this detachment made her feel professional rather than fraudulent.

As a speechwriter, Sally spent a lot of time interviewing people in the companies she worked for. Doing so made her realize that men and women often approach their work in fundamentally different ways. She also became convinced that many of the skills and attitudes women brought to their work were increasingly appropriate for the ways in which organizations were changing, and that women had certain advantages as a result. She also noticed that the unique perspectives of women were seldom valued by CEOs or other organizational leaders, who could have benefited if they had better understood and been more attentive to what women had to offer.

These observations inspired Sally to write another book. In 1988, she signed a contract with a major publisher to write a book on what women had to contribute to organizations. Until then, almost everything written about women at work focused on how they needed to change and adapt. Sally felt strongly that if women were encouraged to emphasize the negative, they would miss a historic opportunity to help lead organizations in a time of change. The time was right for this message, and The Female Advantage: Women’s Ways of Leadership (1990) became very successful, topping a number of best-seller charts and remaining steadily in print for nearly 20 years. The book’s prominence resulted in numerous speaking and consulting opportunities, and Sally began traveling the world delivering seminars and working with a variety of clients.

This acclaim and visibility were somewhat daunting to Sally. While she recognized the value of her book, she also knew that she was not a social scientist with a body of theoretical data on women’s issues. She saw herself as an author rather than an expert, and the old questions about fraudulence that she had dealt with in her early years in New York began to reassert themselves in a different form. Was she really being authentic? Could she take on the mantle of leadership and all it entailed? In short, she wondered if she could be the leader that people seemed to expect.

The path Sally took to answer these questions was simply to present herself for who she was. She was Sally Helgesen, an outsider looking in, a skilled and imaginative observer of current issues. For Sally, the path to leadership did not manifest itself in a step-by-step process. Sally’s leadership began with her own journey of finding herself and accepting her personal authenticity. Through this self-awareness, she grew to trust her own expertise as a writer with a keen eye for current trends in organizational life.

Sally continues to be an internationally recognized consultant and speaker on contemporary issues, and has published five books. She remains uncertain about whether she will finish her degree in comparative religion and become a college professor, but always keeps in mind the career of I. F. Stone, an influential political writer in the 1950s and 1960s who went back to school and got an advanced degree in classics at the age of 75.

Questions

1. Learning about one’s self is an essential step in becoming an authentic leader. What role did self-awareness play in Sally Helgesen’s story of leadership?

2. How would you describe the authenticity of Sally Helgesen’s leadership?

3. At the end of the case, Sally Helgesen is described as taking on the “mantle of leadership.” Was this important for her leadership? How is taking on the mantle of leadership related to a leader’s authenticity? Does every leader reach a point in his or her career where embracing the leadership role is essential?

Case 9.2

A Leader Under Fire

(The previous edition of this book includes a case study outlining Greg Mortenson’s creation of the Central Asia Institute and highlighting his authentic leadership qualities in more detail. For an additional perspective on Mortenson, you can access the original case study at www.sagepub.com/northouse6e .)

By 2011, there were few people who had never heard of Greg Mortenson. He was the subject of two best-selling books, Three Cups of Tea (2006, with David O. Relin) and Stones Into Schools (2009), which told how the former emergency trauma room nurse had become a hero who built schools in rural areas of Afghanistan and Pakistan.

His story was phenomenal: Lost and sick after attempting to scale K2, Greg was nursed back to health by the villagers of remote Korphe, Afghanistan. Greg promised to build the village a school, a monumental effort that took him three years as he learned to raise money, navigate the foreign culture, and build a bridge above a 60-foot-deep chasm. His success led him to create the Central Asia Institute (CAI), a nonprofit organization that “empowers communities of Central Asia through literacy and education, especially for girls, promotes peace through education, and conveys the importance of these activities globally.” By 2011, the CAI had successfully established or supported more than 170 schools in Pakistan and Afghanistan, and helped to educate more than 68,000 students (CAI, 2011a).

Greg’s story seemed too good to be true. In April 2011, television news show 60 Minutes and author Jon Krakauer alleged that it was. 60 Minutes accused Greg of misusing money and benefitting excessively from the CAI. The show’s reporter visited schools the CAI had built overseas and claimed that he could not find six of the schools and that others were abandoned. The show featured an interview with Krakauer, who claimed Greg had fabricated parts of his best-selling book, Three Cups of Tea. When 60 Minutes approached Greg for comment at a book signing, he refused to talk to the program.

The next day, Krakauer (Into Thin Air [1997] and Under the Banner of Heaven [2003]) published a short online book, Three Cups of Deceit (2011), in which he claimed Greg lied many times in Three Cups of Tea, starting with his initial tale of being in Korphe.

Greg and the CAI were caught in a firestorm of media and public scrutiny. An investigation into the alleged financial improprieties was launched by Montana’s attorney general (the CAI is based in Bozeman), and two Montana legislators filed a $5 million class action lawsuit claiming Greg fooled 4 million people into buying his books.

Greg withdrew from the public eye. The day the 60 Minutes program aired, he posted a letter on the CAI website saying he stood by his books and claiming the news show “paints a distorted picture using inaccurate information, innuendo and a microscopic focus on one year’s (2009) IRS 990 financial, and a few points in the book Three Cups of Tea that occurred almost 18 years ago” (CAI, 2011b). Many criticized the organization’s founder for not more aggressively defending himself.

What many people did not know, however, was that two days before the 60 Minutes segment appeared, Greg had been diagnosed with a hole and a large aneurysm in his heart and was scheduled for open-heart surgery in the next few months. Meanwhile, the CAI worked to ensure its transparency by posting its tax returns and a master list of projects and their status. The report documented 210 schools, with 17 of those receiving “full support” from the CAI, which includes teachers’ salaries, supplies, books, and furniture and monitoring by CAI contractors (Flandro, 2011).

The attorney general investigation concluded in 2012 and determined that Greg as well as CAI board members had mismanaged the CAI, and that Greg had personally profited from it. In a settlement, Greg agreed to pay $1 million to the CAI for expenses he incurred that were deemed as personal. The attorney general’s conclusions did not address the allegations that Mortenson fabricated parts of his book. While he continues to be a CAI employee, Greg is not allowed to have any financial oversight for the organization or sit on its board of directors (Flandro, 2012).

Despite the controversy and subsequent finding of wrongdoing, former CAI board member Andrew Marcus hopes the public will consider what Greg and the organization have accomplished.

“It’s hard to imagine anyone who’s done more for education in that part of the world,” Marcus has said. “It took a real human being to do that” (Flandro, 2011).

Questions

1. Would you describe Greg Mortenson as an authentic leader? Explain your answer.

2. In the chapter, we discussed moral reasoning and transparency as components of authentic leadership. Do you think Greg exhibited these components as part his leadership?

3. How was Greg’s response to the allegations against him characteristic of an authentic leader?

4. How did the outcome of the investigation affect the authenticity of Greg Mortenson’s leadership?

Case 9.3

The Reluctant First Lady

Betty Ford admits that August 9, 1974, the day her husband was sworn in as the 38th President of the United States, was “the saddest day of my life” (Ford, 1978, p. 1).

Elizabeth Bloomer Ford was many things—a former professional dancer and dance teacher, the mother of four nearly grown children, the wife of 13-term U.S. Congressman Gerald “Jerry” R. Ford who was looking forward to their retirement—but she never saw being the country’s First Lady as her destiny.

As she held the Bible her husband’s hand rested on while he took the oath of office, Betty began a journey in which she would become many more things: a breast cancer survivor, an outspoken advocate of women’s rights, a recovering alcoholic and addict, and cofounder and president of the Betty Ford Center, a nonprofit treatment center for substance abuse.

The Fords’ path to the White House began in October 1973, when Jerry was tapped to replace then-U.S. Vice President Spiro Agnew who had resigned. After only 9 months in that role, Jerry became the U.S. President after Richard M. Nixon left office amidst the Watergate scandal.

In her first days as the First Lady, Betty became known for her openness and candor. At the time, women were actively fighting for equal rights in the workplace and in society. Less than half of American women were employed outside the home, and women’s earnings were only 38% of their male counterparts’ (Spraggins, 2005). Betty raised a number of eyebrows in her first press conference, when she spoke out in support of abortion rights, women in politics, and the Equal Rights Amendment.

Betty hadn’t even been in the White House a month when she was diagnosed with breast cancer. She again broke with social conventions and spoke openly about the diagnosis and treatment for a disease that was not widely discussed in public. With her cooperation, Newsweek magazine printed a complete account of her surgery and treatment, which included a radical mastectomy. This openness helped raise awareness of breast cancer screening and treatment options and created an atmosphere of support and comfort for other women fighting the disease.

“Lying in the hospital, thinking of all those women going for cancer checkups because of me, I’d come to recognize more clearly the power of the woman in the White House,” she said in her first autobiography, The Times of My Life. “Not my power, but the power of the position, a power which could be used to help” (Ford, 1978, p. 194).

After her recuperation, Betty made good use of that newfound power. She openly supported and lobbied for passage of the Equal Rights Amendment, a bill that would ensure that “equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex” (Francis, 2009).

In an interview with 60 Minutes, Betty drew the ire of many conservatives when she candidly shared her views on the provocative issues of abortion rights, premarital sex, and marijuana use. After the interview aired, public opinion of Betty plummeted, but her popularity quickly rebounded, and within months her approval rating had climbed to 75%.

At the same time, Betty was busy with the duties of First Lady, entertaining dignitaries and heads of state from countries across the globe. In 1975 she began actively campaigning for her husband for the 1976 presidential election, inspiring buttons that read “Vote for Betty’s Husband.” Ford lost the election to Jimmy Carter and, because he was suffering from laryngitis, Betty stepped into the spotlight to read Jerry’s concession speech to the country, congratulating Carter on his victory. Betty’s time as First Lady ended in January 1977, and the Fords retired to Rancho Mirage, California, and Vail, Colorado.

A little more than a year later, at the age of 60, Betty began another personal battle: overcoming alcoholism and an addiction to prescription medicine. Betty had a 14-year dependence on painkillers for chronic neck spasms, arthritis, and a pinched nerve, but refused to admit she was addicted to alcohol. After checking into the Long Beach Naval Hospital’s Alcohol and Drug Rehabilitation Service, she found the strength to face her demons and, again, went public with her struggles.

“I have found that I am not only addicted to the medications I’ve been taking for my arthritis, but also to alcohol,” she wrote in a statement released to the public. “I expect this treatment and fellowship to be a solution for my problems and I embrace it not only for me but for all the others who are here to participate” (Ford, 1978, p. 285).

Betty Ford found recovering from addiction was particularly daunting at a time when most treatment centers were geared toward treating men. “The female alcoholic has more emotional problems, more health problems, more parenting problems, makes more suicide attempts, than the alcoholic man,” Betty explained in her second autobiography, Betty, a Glad Awakening (Ford, 1987, p. 129).

For this reason, Betty helped to establish the nonprofit Betty Ford Center in 1982 in Rancho Mirage. The center splits its space equally between male and female patients, but the treatment is gender specific with programs for the entire family system affected by addiction. The center’s success has attracted celebrities as well as everyday people including middle-class moms, executives, college students, and laborers. Betty’s activism in the field of recovery earned her the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1991 and the Congressional Medal of Honor in 1999.

Speaking at an alumni reunion of Betty Ford Center patients, Betty said, “I’m really proud of this center. And I’m really grateful for my own recovery, because with my recovery, I was able to help some other people come forward and address their own addictions. And I don’t think there’s anything as wonderful in life as being able to help someone else” (Ford, 1987, p. 217).

Questions

1. How would you describe Betty Ford’s leadership? In what ways could her leadership be described as authentic?

2. How did critical life events play a role in the development of her leadership?

3. Is there a clear moral dimension to Betty Ford’s leadership? In what way is her leadership about serving the common good? Discuss.

4. As we discussed in the chapter, self-awareness and transparency are associated with authentic leadership. How does Betty Ford exhibit these qualities?

Leadership Instrument

Although still in its early phases of development, the Authentic Leadership Questionnaire (ALQ) was created by Walumbwa and associates (2008) to explore and validate the assumptions of authentic leadership. It is a 16-item instrument that measures four factors of authentic leadership: self-awareness, internalized moral perspective, balanced processing, and relational transparency. Based on samples in China, Kenya, and the United States, Walumbwa and associates validated the dimensions of the instrument and found it positively related to outcomes such as organizational citizenship, organizational commitment, and satisfaction with supervisor and performance. To obtain this instrument, contact Mind Garden, Inc., in Menlo Park, California, or visit www.mindgarden.com.

In this section, we provide an authentic leadership self-assessment to help you determine your own level of authentic leadership. This questionnaire will help you understand how authentic leadership is measured and provide you with your own scores on items that characterize authentic leadership. The questionnaire includes 16 questions that assess the four major components of authentic leadership discussed earlier in this chapter: self-awareness, internalized moral perspective, balanced processing, and relational transparency. Your results on this self-assessment questionnaire will give you information about your level of authentic leadership on these underlying dimensions of authentic leadership. This questionnaire is intended for practical applications to help you understand the complexities of authentic leadership. It is not designed for research purposes.

Authentic Leadership Self-Assessment Questionnaire

Instructions: This questionnaire contains items about different dimensions of authentic leadership. There are no right or wrong responses, so please answer honestly. Use the following scale when responding to each statement by writing the number from the scale below that you feel most accurately characterizes your response to the statement.

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Scoring

1. Sum the responses on items 1, 5, 9, and 13 (self-awareness).

2. Sum the responses on items 2, 6, 10, and 14 (internalized moral perspective).

3. Sum the responses on items 3, 7, 11, and 15 (balanced processing).

4. Sum the responses on items 4, 8, 12, and 16 (relational transparency).

Total Scores

Self-Awareness: ______

Internalized Moral Perspective: _____

Balanced Processing: _____

Relational Transparency: _____

Scoring Interpretation

This self-assessment questionnaire is designed to measure your authentic leadership by assessing four components of the process: self-awareness, internalized moral perspective, balanced processing, and relational transparency. By comparing your scores on each of these components, you can determine which are your stronger and which are your weaker components in each category. You can interpret your authentic leadership scores using the following guideline: high = 16–20 and low = 15 and below. Scores in the upper range indicate stronger authentic leadership, whereas scores in the lower range indicate weaker authentic leadership.

Summary

As a result of leadership failures in the public and private sectors, authentic leadership is emerging in response to societal demands for genuine, trustworthy, and good leadership. Authentic leadership describes leadership that is transparent, morally grounded, and responsive to people’s needs and values. Even though authentic leadership is still in the early stages of development, the study of authentic leadership is timely and worthwhile, offering hope to people who long for true leadership.

Although there is no single accepted definition of authentic leadership, it can be conceptualized intrapersonally, developmentally, and interpersonally. The intrapersonal perspective focuses on the leader and the leader’s knowledge, self-regulation, and self-concept. The interpersonal perspective claims that authentic leadership is a collective process, created by leaders and followers together. The developmental perspective emphasizes major components of authentic leadership that develop over a lifetime and are triggered by major life events.

The practical approach to authentic leadership provides basic “how to” steps to become an authentic leader. George’s approach (2003) identifies five basic dimensions of authentic leadership and the corresponding behavioral characteristics individuals need to develop to become authentic leaders.

In the social science literature, a theoretical approach to authentic leadership is emerging. Drawing from the fields of leadership, positive organizational scholarship, and ethics, researchers have identified four major components of authentic leadership: self-awareness, internalized moral perspective, balanced processing, and relational transparency.

In addition, researchers have found that authentic leadership is influenced by a leader’s positive psychological capacities, moral reasoning, and critical life events.

Authentic leadership has several positive features. First, it provides an answer to people who are searching for good and sound leadership in an uncertain world. Second, authentic leadership is prescriptive and provides a great deal of information about how leaders can learn to become authentic. Third, it has an explicit moral dimension that asserts that leaders need to do what is “right” and “good” for their followers and society. Fourth, it is framed as a process that is developed by leaders over time rather than as a fixed trait. Last, authentic leadership can be measured with a theory-based instrument.

There are also negative features to authentic leadership. First, the ideas set forth in the practical approach need to be treated cautiously because they have not been fully substantiated by research. Second, the moral component of authentic leadership is not fully explained. For example, it does not describe how values such as justice and community are related to authentic leadership. Third, the rationale for including positive psychological capacities as an inherent part of a model of authentic leadership has not been fully explicated. Finally, there is a lack of evidence regarding the effectiveness of authentic leadership and how it is related to positive organizational outcomes.

In summary, authentic leadership is a new and exciting area of research, which holds a great deal of promise. As more research is conducted on authentic leadership, a clearer picture will emerge about the true nature of the process and the assumptions and principles that it encompasses.

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SE/Shaw, Business Ethics, 8th Edition ISBN -978-1-133-94307-5 ©2014 Designer: PMG Text & Cover printer: XXX Binding: PB Trim: 7.375″ x 9.125″ CMYK

Business Ethics Business Ethics

Business Ethics

William H. Shaw

Shaw

William H. Shaw

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v

Preface  ix

pa rt one | mor a l philosoph y a nd busine ss 1

cha pter 1 the nature of Mor al it y 1 Ethics  3 Moral  versus Nonmoral  Standards  5 Religion  and Morality  10 Ethical  Relativism  13 Having Moral  Principles  15 Morality  and Personal Values  19 Individual  Integrity  and Responsibility  20 Moral  Reasoning  24 Study Corner  30 Case  1.1: Made  in  the U.S.A.—Dumped  in  Brazil, Africa,  Iraq  .  .  .  31 Case  1.2:  Just Drop off  the  Key,  Lee  34 Case  1.3: The A7D Affair  37

cha pter 2 norMat iv e theor ies of e th ics 4 0 Consequentialist  and Nonconsequentialist Theories  42 Egoism  43 Utilitarianism  46 Kant’s  Ethics  53 other  Nonconsequentialist  Perspectives  59 Utilitarianism once More  66 Moral  Decision Making: A  Practical Approach  68 Study Corner  70 Case 2.1:  Hacking  into Harvard  71 Case 2.2: The  Ford  Pinto  74 Case  2.3:  Blood  for  Sale  77

cha pter 3 Just ice and econoMic d istr iBut ion 80 The Nature  of  Justice  83 The Utilitarian View  86 The  Libertarian Approach  90 Rawls’s Theory  of  Justice  97

contents

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vi CONTENTS

Study Corner  106 Case  3.1:  Eminent Domain  107 Case  3.2:  Battling  over  Bottled Water  109 Case  3.3:  Poverty  in America  111

pa rt t wo | a mer ic a n busine ss a nd its basis 114

cha pter 4 the nature of ca p ital isM 114 Capitalism  116 Key  Features  of  Capitalism  119 Two Arguments  for  Capitalism  121 Criticisms  of  Capitalism  125 Today’s  Economic Challenges  133 Study Corner  139 Case  4.1:  Hucksters  in  the Classroom  140 Case  4.2:  Licensing  and  Laissez  Faire  142 Case  4.3: one Nation  under Walmart  144 Case  4.4: A New Work  Ethic?  147 Case  4.5:  Casino  Gambling  on Wall  Street  148

cha pter 5 corpor at ions 150 The  Limited-Liability  Company  152 Corporate Moral Agency  154 Rival Views  of  Corporate Responsibility  158 Debating Corporate Responsibility  164 Institutionalizing  Ethics within  Corporations  169 Study Corner  176 Case  5.1: Yahoo!  in China  177 Case  5.2: Drug Dilemmas  179 Case  5.3:  Levi  Strauss  at  Home  and Abroad  182 Case  5.4:  Free  Speech  or  False Advertising?  186 Case  5.5:  Charity  to  Scouts?  188

pa rt thr ee | busine ss a nd societ y 191

cha pter 6 consuMers 191 Product  Safety  193 other Areas  of  Business  Responsibility  205 Deception  and Unfairness  in Advertising  214 The Debate  over Advertising  224

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CONTENTS      vii

Study Corner  227 Case  6.1:  Breast  Implants  229 Case  6.2:  Hot Coffee  at McDonald’s  231 Case 6.3:  Sniffing Glue Could  Snuff  Profits  232 Case  6.4:  Closing  the Deal  234 Case  6.5: The Rise  and  Fall  of  Four  Loko  236

cha pter 7 the en v ironMent 239 Business  and  Ecology  242 The  Ethics  of  Environmental  Protection  246 Achieving our  Environmental Goals  251 Delving Deeper  into  Environmental  Ethics  256 Study Corner  264 Case  7.1:  Hazardous Homes  in Herculaneum  265 Case  7.2:  Poverty  and Pollution  267 Case  7.3: The  Fordasaurus  269 Case  7.4: The  Fight  over  the Redwoods  270 Case 7.5:  Palm oil  and  Its  Problems  273

pa rt Four | the orG a niZ ation a nd the people in it 276

cha pter 8 the Work pl ace (1) : Bas ic issues 276 Civil  Liberties  in  the Workplace  277 Hiring  283 Promotions  289 Discipline  and Discharge  291 Wages  295 Labor  Unions  298 Study Corner  307 Case  8.1: AIDS  in  the Workplace  308 Case  8.2: Web  Porn  at Work  310 Case  8.3:  Speaking out  about Malt  311 Case  8.4:  Have Gun, Will Travel  .  .  .  to Work  312 Case  8.5:  Union Discrimination  314

cha pter 9 the Work pl ace ( 2 ) : today’s challenges 316 organizational  Influence  in  Private  Lives  317 Testing  and Monitoring  323 Working Conditions  329

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viii CONTENTS

Redesigning Work  337 Study Corner  341 Case  9.1:  Unprofessional  Conduct?  342 Case  9.2: Testing  for  Honesty  344 Case  9.3:  She Snoops  to Conquer  346 Case  9.4:  Protecting  the Unborn  at Work  348 Case  9.5:  Swedish  Daddies  351

cha pter 10 Mor al choices fac ing eMpl oy ees 353 obligations  to  the  Firm  354 Abuse  of official  Position  358 Bribes  and Kickbacks  364 Gifts  and  Entertainment  368 Conflicting obligations  370 Whistle-Blowing  372 Self-Interest  and Moral obligation  377 Study Corner  381 Case  10.1: Changing  Jobs  and  Changing  Loyalties  382 Case  10.2: Conflicting  Perspectives  on Conflicts  of  Interest  383 Case  10.3:  Inside Traders  or Astute  observers?  384 Case  10.4: The Housing Allowance  386 Case  10.5:  Ethically Dubious Conduct  388

cha pter 11 JoB d iscr iMinat ion 390 The Meaning  of  Job Discrimination  393 Evidence  of Discrimination  394 Affirmative Action: The  Legal  Context  399 Affirmative Action: The Moral  Issues  404 Comparable Worth  408 Sexual  Harassment  410 Study Corner  414 Case  11.1: Minority  Set-Asides  415 Case  11.2: Hoop  Dreams  417 Case  11.3:  Raising  the Ante  419 Case  11.4: Consenting  to  Sexual  Harassment  420 Case  11.5:  Facial  Discrimination  423

SuggeStionS for further reading  425

noteS  429

index  449

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ix

It  is difficult  to  imagine an area of study that has greater  importance to society or greater relevance to  students than business ethics. As this text enters its eighth edition, business ethics has become a well- established academic  subject. Most  colleges and universities  offer  courses  in  it,  and  scholarly  interest  continues to grow.

Yet some people still scoff at the idea of business ethics, jesting that the very concept is an oxymoron.  To be sure, recent years have seen the newspapers filled with lurid stories of corporate misconduct and  felonious behavior by individual businesspeople, and many suspect that what the media report represents  only the proverbial tip of the iceberg. However, these scandals should prompt a reflective person not to  make fun of business ethics but rather to think more deeply about the nature and purpose of business in  our society and about the ethical choices individuals must inevitably make in their business and profes- sional lives.

Business  ethics  has  an  interdisciplinary  character.  Questions  of  economic  policy  and  business  practice  intertwine with  issues in politics, sociology, and organizational theory. Although business ethics  remains anchored in philosophy, even here abstract questions in normative ethics and political philosophy  mingle with analysis of practical problems and concrete moral dilemmas. Furthermore, business ethics is  not just an academic study but also an invitation to reflect on our own values and on our own responses to  the hard moral choices that the world of business can pose.

• • •

goal s, org ani z at ion, and topics Business Ethics  has  four goals:  to expose students  to  the  important moral  issues  that  arise  in  various  business contexts; to provide students with an understanding of the moral, social, and economic environ- ments within which those problems occur; to introduce students to the ethical and other concepts that are  relevant for resolving those problems; and to assist students in developing the necessary reasoning and  analytical skills for doing so. Although the book’s primary emphasis is on business, its scope extends to  related moral issues in other organizational and professional contexts.

The book has four parts. Part one, “Moral Philosophy and Business,” discusses the nature of morality  and presents the main theories of normative ethics and the leading approaches to questions of economic  justice. Part Two, “American Business and Its Basis,” examines the institutional foundations of business,  focusing on capitalism as an economic system and the nature and role of corporations in our society. Part  Three, “Business and Society,” concerns moral problems involving business, consumers, and the natural  environment. Part Four, “The organization and the People in It,” identifies a variety of ethical issues and  moral challenges that arise out of the interplay of employers and employees within an organization, includ- ing the problem of discrimination.

Case studies enhance the main text. These cases vary  in kind and  in  length, and are designed to  enable instructors and students to pursue further some of the issues discussed in the text and to analyze  them in more specific contexts. The case studies should provide a lively springboard for classroom discus- sions and the application of ethical concepts.

Business Ethics covers a wide range of  topics relevant  to  today’s world. Three of  these are worth  drawing particular attention to.

preface

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x PrEfaCE

Business and Globalization The moral challenges facing business in today’s globalized world economy are well represented in the book  and seamlessly integrated into the chapters. For example, Chapter 1 discusses ethical relativism, Chapter  4 outsourcing and globalization, and Chapter 8 overseas bribery and the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act; and  there are international examples or comparisons throughout the book. Moreover, almost all the basic issues  discussed in the book (such as corporate responsibility, the nature of moral reasoning, and the value of the  natural world—to name just three) are as crucial to making moral decisions in an international business  context as they are to making them at home. In addition, cases 1.1, 2.3, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 6.3, 7.2, 7.5, 9.5,  and 10.4 deal explicitly with moral issues arising in today’s global economic system. 

The Environment Because of its ongoing relevance and heightened importance in today’s world, an entire chapter, Chapter  7,  is devoted  to  this  topic.  In particular,  it  highlights  recent environmental disasters,  the environmental  dilemmas and challenges we face, and their social and business costs, as well as the changing attitude of  business toward the environment and ecology.

Health and Health Care Far  from being a narrow academic pursuit,  the study of business ethics  is  relevant  to a wide  range of  important social issues—for example, to health and health care, which is currently the subject of much  discussion and debate in the United States.  Aspects of this topic are addressed in the text and developed in  the following cases: 2.3: Blood for Sale, 4.2: Licensing and Laissez Faire, 5.2: Drug Dilemmas, 6.1: Breast  Implants, 8.1: AIDS in the Workplace, and 9.4: Protecting the Unborn at Work. 

• • •

changes in th is ed it ion Your Textbook Instructors who have used the previous edition will find the organization and general content of the book  familiar. They will, however, also be struck by its fresh design and by the graphs, tables, photographs, and  other information that now supplement the pedagogical features introduced in previous editions.

Feedback from students and instructors suggests that readers benefit greatly not only from marginal  summaries and highlights but also from visual breaks, visual guidance, and visual presentation of data and  information. So, the new design was crafted to help readers navigate the text more easily, retain content  more effectively, and review and prepare for tests more successfully. In addition, the Study Corner now  also includes “For Further Reflection,” a set of open-ended questions intended to help students articulate  their own response to some of the issues discussed in the text. An updated Suggestions for Further Reading is intended to provide appropriate material for independent research by students on topics cov- ered in Business Ethics.

The text itself has been thoroughly revised. I have updated and reorganized material throughout the  book in order to enhance the clarity of its discussions and the accuracy of its treatment of both philosophi- cal and empirical issues. At all times the goal has been to provide a textbook that students will find clear,  understandable, and engaging.

Forty-nine  case  studies—more  than  ever  before—now  supplement  the  main  text.  of  the  cases  that are new to this edition, two relate to the financial and mortgage industries: Case 1.2, “Just Drop off  the Key, Lee,” broaches the ongoing foreclosure crisis while Case 4.5, “Casino Gambling on Wall Street,”  discusses one of the financial instruments involved in the recent financial meltdown. Case 4.1, “Hucksters 

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PrEfaCE      xi

in the Classroom,” deals with commercial intrusion into schools. The ethics of sales is the focus of Case  6.4, “Closing the Deal,” while Case 6.5, “The Rise and Fall of Four Loko,” highlights the question of regu- lating consumer products on paternalistic grounds. Case 8.5, “Union Discrimination,” examines some of  the ethical issues posed by unions. The environment and the push and pull between business and envi- ronmentalists are well illustrated in Case 7.5, “Palm oil and Its Problems.” Case 9.5, “Swedish Daddies,”  shows how the sometimes conflicting demands of parenthood and work life challenge today’s employees  and employers. Cases 10.2, “Conflicting Perspectives on Conflicts of Interest,” and 10.3, “Inside Traders  or Astute observers?,” provide recent examples of some of the ethical struggles employees can confront.  Finally, the issue of comparable worth is the focus of Case 11.3, “Raising the Ante.”

Your Media Tools The Business Ethics CourseMate is new to this edition. It can be accessed by searching for this book on  CengageBrain.com. There you will find an array of online tools designed to reinforce theories and concepts  and help students to understand and better retain the book’s content, and to review and study for tests:

Self-Tests Tutorial Quizzes (with answers) Essays Flashcards Current Events Glossary  PowerPoint Slides Web Links

In addition to these CourseMate offerings, video tutorials will complement each chapter. Watching and  reflecting on these can help students improve their grades.

Finally, Global Business Ethics Watch exposes viewers to a wealth of online resources, from photo- graphs to videos and articles. Updated several times a day, the Global Business Ethics Watch is an ideal  one-stop site for classroom discussion and research projects for all things related to business ethics. You and  your students will have access to the latest information from trusted academic journals, news outlets, and  magazines. You also will receive access to statistics, primary sources, case studies, podcasts, and much more.

• • •

Ways of us ing the Book A course in business ethics can be taught in a variety of ways. Instructors have different approaches to  the subject, different intellectual and pedagogical goals, and different classroom styles. They emphasize  different themes and start at different places. Some of them may prefer to treat the foundational questions  of ethical theory thoroughly before moving on to particular moral problems; others reverse this priority. Still  other instructors frame their courses around the question of economic justice, the analysis of capitalism, or  the debate over corporate social responsibility. Some instructors stress individual moral decision making,  others social and economic policy.

Business Ethics permits teachers great flexibility in how they organize their courses. A wide range of  theoretical and applied issues are discussed; and the individual chapters, the major sections within them,  and the case studies are to a surprising extent self-contained. Instructors can thus teach the book in what- ever order they choose, and they can easily skip or touch lightly on some topics in order to concentrate on  others without loss of coherence.

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• • •

acknoWledgMents I wish to acknowledge my great debt to the many people whose ideas and writing have influenced me over  the years. Philosophy is widely recognized to involve a process of ongoing dialogue. This is nowhere more  evident than in the writing of textbooks, whose authors can rarely claim that the ideas being synthesized,  organized,  and  presented  are  theirs  alone.  Without  my  colleagues,  without  my  students,  and  without  a  larger philosophical  community  concerned with business and ethics,  this book would not  have been  possible.

I particularly want to acknowledge my debt to Vincent Barry. Readers familiar with our textbook and  reader Moral Issues in Business1 will realize the extent to which I have drawn on material from that work.  Business Ethics is,  in effect, a revised and updated version of  the textbook portion of  that collaborative  work, and I am very grateful to Vince for permitting me to use our joint work here.

1William H.  Shaw and Vincent  Barry, Moral Issues in Business,  12th  ed.  (Belmont,  Calif.: Wadsworth/Cengage  Learning,  2013).

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1

part one | mor al philosophy and business

Ch a p t er 1

The N aT ure of Mor a l iT y

sometimes the riCh and mighty fall. Take Kenneth Lay, for example. Convicted by a jury in 2006 of conspiracy and multiple counts of fraud, he had been chair- man and CEO of Enron until that once mighty company took a nose dive and crashed. Founded in the 1980s, Enron soon became a dominant player in the field of energy trading, grow- ing rapidly to become America’s seventh biggest company. Wall Street loves growth, and Enron was its darling, admired as dynamic, innovative, and—of course— profitable. Enron stock exploded in value, increasing 40 percent in a single year. The next year it shot up 58 percent and the year after that an unbelievable 89 percent. The fact that nobody could quite understand exactly how the company made its money didn’t seem to matter.

After Fortune magazine voted it “the most innovative company of the year” in 2000, Enron proudly took to calling itself not just “the world’s leading energy company” but also “the world’s lead- ing company.” But when Enron was later forced to declare bankruptcy—at the time the largest Chapter 11 filing in U.S. history—the world learned that its legendary financial prowess was illusory and the company’s success built on the sands of hype. And the hype continued to the end. Even with the com- pany’s financial demise fast approaching, Kenneth Lay was still recommending the company’s stock to its employees—at the

same time that he and other executives were cashing in their shares and bailing out.

Enron’s crash cost the retirement accounts of its employ- ees more than a billion dollars as the company’s stock fell from the stratosphere to only a few pennies a share. Outside investors lost even more. The reason Enron’s collapse caught investors by surprise—the company’s market value was $28 billion just two months before its bankruptcy—was that Enron

had always made its financial records and accounts as opaque as possible. It did this by creating a Byzantine financial structure of off-balance-sheet special- purpose entities—reportedly as many as 9,000—that were supposed to be separate and independent from the main company. Enron’s board of direc- tors condoned these and other dubious accounting practices and voted twice to permit executives to pursue personal interests that ran contrary to those of the company. When Enron was obliged

to redo its financial statements for one three-year period, its profits dropped $600 million and its debts increased $630 million.

Still, Enron’s financial auditors should have spotted these and other problems. After all, the shell game Enron was playing is an old one, and months before the company ran aground, Enron Vice President Sherron Watkins had warned Lay that

IntroductIon

the reason enron’s

collapse caught investors by surprise . . . was

that enron had always made its financial

records and accounts as opaque as possible.

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the company could soon “implode in a wave of accounting scandals.” Yet both Arthur Andersen, Enron’s longtime outside auditing firm, and Vinson & Elkins, the company’s law firm, had routinely put together and signed off on various dubious finan- cial deals, and in doing so made large profits for themselves. Arthur Andersen, in particular, was supposed to make sure that the company’s public records reflected financial reality, but Andersen was more worried about its auditing and consulting fees than about its fiduciary responsibilities. Even worse, when the scandal began to break, a partner at Andersen organ- ized the shredding of incriminating Enron documents before investigators could lay their hands on them. As a result, the eighty-nine-year-old accounting firm was convicted of obstruct- ing justice. The Supreme Court later overturned that verdict on a technicality, but by then Arthur Andersen had already been driven out of business. (The year before Enron went under, by the way, the Securities and Exchange Commission fined Andersen $7 million for approving misleading accounts at Waste Management, and it also had to pay $110 million to settle a lawsuit for auditing work it did for Sunbeam before it, too, filed for bankruptcy. And when massive accounting fraud was later uncovered at WorldCom, it came out that the company’s auditor was—you guessed it—Arthur Andersen.)

Enron’s fall also revealed the conflicts of interest that threaten the credibility of Wall Street’s analysts—analysts who are compensated according to their ability to bring in and support investment banking deals. Enron was known in the industry as the “deal machine” because it generated so much

investment banking business—limited part- nerships, loans, and derivatives. That may explain why, only days before Enron filed bankruptcy, just two of the sixteen Wall Street analysts who covered the company recom- mended that clients sell the stock. The large banks that Enron did business with played a corrupt role, too, by helping manufacture its fraudulent financial statements. (Subsequent lawsuits have forced them to cough up some of their profits: Citibank, for example, had to pay Enron’s victimized shareholders $2 bil- lion.) But the rot didn’t stop there. Enron and Andersen enjoyed extensive political connec- tions, which had helped over the years to ensure the passage of a series of deregula-

tory measures favorable to the energy company. Of the 248 members of Congress sitting on the eleven House and Senate committees charged with investigating Enron’s collapse, 212 had received money from Enron or its accounting firm.1

Stories of business corruption and of greed and wrongdoing in high places have always fascinated the popular press, and media interest in business ethics has never been higher. But one should not be misled by the headlines and news reports. Not all moral issues in business involve giant corporations and their well-heeled executives, and few cases of business ethics are widely publicized. The vast majority of them involve the mundane, uncelebrated moral challenges that working men and women meet daily.

Although the financial shenanigans at Enron were compli- cated, once their basic outline is sketched, the wrongdoing is pretty easy to see: deception, dishonesty, fraud, disregarding one’s professional responsibilities, and unfairly injuring others for one’s own gain. But many of the moral issues that arise in business are complex and difficult to answer. For example:

How far must manufacturers go to ensure product safety? Must they reveal everything about a product, including any possible defects or shortcomings? At what point does acceptable exaggeration become lying about a product or a service? When does aggressive marketing become consumer manipulation? Is adver- tising useful and important or deceptive, misleading, and socially detrimental? When are prices unfair or exploitative?

enron’s stock price in u.s. dollars in late 2001, before its spectacular collapse

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chapter one  The naTure of moraliTy      3chapter one  The naTure of moraliTy      3

• • •

e Thics ethics (or moral philosophy) is a broad field of inquiry that addresses a fundamental query  that all of us, at least from time to time, inevitably think about—namely, how should I  live my life? That question, of course, leads to others, such as: What sort of person should  I strive to be? What values are important? What standards or principles should I live by?  exploring these issues immerses one in the study of right and wrong. among other things,  moral philosophers and others who think seriously about ethics want to understand the  nature of morality, the meaning of its basic concepts, the characteristics of good moral rea- soning, how moral judgments can be justified, and, of course, the principles or properties  that distinguish right actions from wrong actions. Thus, ethics deals with individual char- acter and with the moral rules that govern and limit our conduct. It investigates questions  of right and wrong, fairness and unfairness, good and bad, duty and obligation, and justice  and injustice, as well as moral responsibility and the values that should guide our actions.

You sometimes hear  it  said that  there’s a difference between a person’s ethics and  his or her morals. This can be confusing because what some people mean by saying that  something is a matter of ethics (as opposed to morals) is often what other people mean 

summary Ethics deals with

individual character and the moral rules that govern and limit

our conduct. It investigates questions

of right and wrong, duty and obligation,

and moral responsibility.

Are corporations obliged to help combat social prob- lems? What are the environmental responsibilities of business, and is it living up to them? Are pollution per- mits a good idea? Is factory farming morally justifiable?

May employers screen potential employees on the basis of lifestyle, physical appearance, or personality tests? What rights do employees have on the job? Under what conditions may they be disciplined or fired? What, if anything, must business do to improve work conditions? When are wages fair? Do unions promote the interests of workers or infringe their rights? When, if ever, is an employee morally required to blow the whistle?

May employees ever use their positions inside an organization to advance their own interests? Is insider trading or the use of privileged information immoral? How much loyalty do workers owe their companies? What say should a business have over the off-the-job activities of its employees? Do drug tests violate their right to privacy?

What constitutes job discrimination, and how far must business go to ensure equality of opportunity? Is affirmative action a matter of justice, or a poor idea? How should organizations respond to the problem of sexual harassment?

learning objeCtives

These questions typify business issues with moral significance. The answers we give to them are determined, in large part, by our moral standards—that is, by the moral principles and values we accept. What moral standards are, where they come from, and how they can be assessed are some of the concerns of this opening chapter. In particular, you will encounter the fol- lowing topics:

1. The nature, scope, and purpose of business ethics

2. The distinguishing features of morality and how it differs from etiquette, law, and professional codes of conduct

3. The relationship between morality and religion

4. The doctrine of ethical relativism and its difficulties

5. What it means to have moral principles; the nature of conscience; and the relationship between morality and self-interest

6. The place of values and ideals in a person’s life

7. The social and psychological factors that sometimes jeopardize an individual’s integrity

8. The characteristics of sound moral reasoning

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4      part one  moral philosophy and business

by saying that it is a matter of morals (and not ethics). In fact, however, most people (and  most philosophers)  see no  real distinction between a person’s  “morals”  and a person’s  “ethics.” and  almost  everyone uses  “ethical”  and  “moral”  interchangeably  to describe  people we consider good and actions we consider right, and “unethical” and “immoral”  to designate bad people and wrong actions. This book follows that common usage.

Business and OrganizatiOnal ethics

The primary focus of this book is ethics as it applies to business. business ethics is the  study of what constitutes right and wrong, or good and bad, human conduct in a busi- ness context. For example, would it be right for a store manager to break a promise to a  customer and sell some hard-to-find merchandise to someone else, whose need for it is  greater? What, if anything, should a moral employee do when his or her superiors refuse  to look into apparent wrongdoing in a branch office? If you innocently came across secret  information about a competitor, would it be permissible for you to use it for your own  advantage?

recent business scandals have renewed the interest of business leaders, academics,  and society at large in ethics. For example, the association to advance collegiate Schools  of Business, which comprises all the top business schools, has introduced new rules on  including ethics  in  their  curricula,  and  the Business roundtable  recently unveiled an  initiative to train the nation’s ceos in the finer points of ethics. But an appreciation  of the importance of ethics for a healthy society and a concern, in particular, for what  constitutes ethical conduct in business go back to ancient times. The roman philosopher  cicero (106–43 bce), for instance, discussed the example, much debated at the time,  of an honest merchant  from alexandria who brings a  large stock of wheat to rhodes  where there is a food shortage. on his way there, he learns that other traders are setting  sail for rhodes with substantial cargos of grain. Should he tell the people of rhodes that  more wheat is on the way, or say nothing and sell at the best price he can? Some ancient  ethicists argued that although the merchant must declare defects in his wares as required  by law, as a vendor he is free—provided he tells no untruths—to sell his goods as profit- ably as he can. others, including cicero, argued to the contrary that all the facts must be  revealed and that buyers must be as fully informed as sellers.2

“Business” and “businessperson” are broad terms. a “business” could be a food truck  or a multinational corporation that operates in several countries. “Businessperson” could  refer to a street vendor or a company president responsible for thousands of workers and  millions of shareholder dollars. accordingly, the word business will be used here sim- ply to mean any organization whose objective is to provide goods or services for profit.  businesspeople are those who participate in planning, organizing, or directing the work  of business.

But this book takes a broader view as well because it is concerned with moral issues  that  arise  anywhere  that  employers  and  employees  come  together.  Thus,  it  addresses  organizational  ethics  as  well  as  business  ethics.  an  organization  is  a  group  of  people  working together to achieve a common purpose. The purpose may be to offer a product  or a service primarily for profit, as in business. But the purpose also could be health care,  as in medical organizations; public safety and order, as in law-enforcement organizations;  education, as in academic organizations; and so on. The cases and illustrations presented  in  this  book deal with moral  issues  and dilemmas  in both business  and nonbusiness  organizational settings.

summary Business ethics is the

study of what constitutes right and wrong (or good and

bad) human conduct in a business context.

Closely related moral questions arise in other

organizational contexts.

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chapter one  The naTure of moraliTy      5

people occasionally poke fun at the idea of business ethics, declaring that the term is  a contradiction or that business has no ethics. Such people take themselves to be worldly  and realistic. They think they have a down-to-earth idea of how things really work. In  fact, despite its pretense of sophistication, their attitude shows little grasp of the nature  of ethics and only a superficial understanding of the real world of business. reading this  book should help you comprehend how inaccurate and mistaken their view is.

• • •

Mor al V ersus NoNMor al sTaNda rds Moral questions differ from other kinds of questions. Whether the old computer in your  office can copy a pirated DVD is a factual question. By contrast, whether you should  copy the DVD is a moral question. When we answer a moral question or make a moral  judgment,  we  appeal  to  moral  standards.  These  standards  differ  from  other  kinds  of  standards.

Wearing shorts and a tank top to a formal dinner party is boorish behavior. Writing  an essay that is filled with double negatives or lacks subject-verb agreement violates the  basic conventions of proper language usage. photographing someone at night without  the flash turned on is poor photographic technique. In each case a standard is violated— fashion,  grammatical,  technical—but  the  violation  does  not  pose  a  serious  threat  to  human well-being.

moral standards are  different  because  they  concern  behavior  that  is  of  serious  consequence to human welfare, that can profoundly injure or benefit people.3 The con- ventional moral norms against lying, stealing, and killing deal with actions that can hurt  people. and the moral principle that human beings should be treated with dignity and  respect uplifts the human personality. Whether products are healthful or harmful, work  conditions safe or dangerous, personnel procedures biased or fair, privacy respected or  invaded––these are also matters that seriously affect human well-being. The standards  that govern our conduct in these areas are moral standards.

a  second  characteristic  follows  from  the  first.  Moral  standards  take  priority  over other standards, including self-interest. Something that morality condemns—for  instance, the burglary of your neighbor’s home—cannot be justified on the nonmoral  grounds  that  it would be a  thrill  to do  it or  that  it would pay off handsomely. We  take moral standards to be more important than other considerations in guiding our  actions.

a third characteristic of moral standards is that their soundness depends on the ade- quacy of the reasons that support or justify them. For the most part, fashion standards  are set by clothing designers, merchandisers, and consumers; grammatical standards by  grammarians and students of language; technical standards by practitioners and experts  in the field. Legislators make laws, boards of directors make organizational policy, and  licensing boards establish standards for professionals. In those cases, some authoritative  body is the ultimate validating source of the standards and thus can change the standards  if it wishes. Moral standards are not made by such bodies. Their validity depends not  on official fiat but rather on the quality of the arguments or the reasoning that supports  them. exactly what constitutes adequate grounds or justification for a moral standard is 

Moral standards concern behavior that seriously affects human well-being.

Moral standards take priority over other standards.

The soundness of moral standards depends on the adequacy of the reasons that support them.

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6      part one  moral philosophy and business

a debated question, which, as we shall see in chapter 2, underlies disagreement among  philosophers over which specific moral principles are best.

although these three characteristics set moral standards apart from other standards,  it is useful to discuss more specifically how morality differs from three things with which  it is sometimes confused: etiquette, law, and professional codes of ethics.

MOrality and etiquette

etiquette refers to the norms of correct conduct in polite society or, more generally, to  any special code of social behavior or courtesy. In our society, for example, it is considered  bad etiquette to chew with your mouth open or to pick your nose when talking to some- one; it is considered good etiquette to say “please” when requesting and “thank you” when  receiving, and to hold a door open for someone entering immediately behind you. Good  business  etiquette  typically  calls  for writing  follow-up  letters  after meetings,  returning  phone calls, and dressing appropriately. It is commonplace to judge people’s manners as  “good” or “bad” and the conduct that reflects them as “right” or “wrong.” “Good,” “bad,”  “right,” and “wrong” here simply mean socially appropriate or socially inappropriate. In  these contexts, such words express judgments about manners, not about ethics.

The rules of etiquette are prescriptions for socially acceptable behavior. If you violate  them, you’re likely to be considered ill-mannered, impolite, or even uncivilized, but not  necessarily immoral. If you want to fit in, get along with others, and be thought well  of by them, you should observe the common rules of politeness or etiquette. however,  what’s  considered  correct  or  polite  conduct—for  example,  when  greeting  an  elderly  person, when using your knife and  fork, or when determining how close  to  stand  to  someone you’re conversing with—can change over time and vary from society to society.

although rules of etiquette are generally nonmoral in character, violations of those  rules can have moral implications. For example, the male boss who refers to female sub- ordinates as “honey” or “doll” shows bad manners. If such epithets diminish the worth  of female employees or perpetuate sexism, then they also raise moral issues concerning  equal treatment and denial of dignity to human beings. More generally, rude or impolite  conduct can be offensive, and it may sometimes fail to show the respect for other persons  that morality requires of us. For this reason, it is important to exercise care, in business  situations and elsewhere, when dealing with unfamiliar customs or people from a differ- ent culture.

Scrupulous observance of rules of etiquette, however, does not make a person moral.  In fact, it can sometimes camouflage ethical issues. In some parts of the United States  fifty or so years ago, it was considered bad manners for blacks and whites to eat together.  however, those who obeyed this convention were not acting in a morally desirable way.  In the 1960s, black and white members of the civil rights movement sought to dramatize  the injustice that  lay behind this rule by sitting together  in luncheonettes and restau- rants. although judged at the time to lack good manners, they thought that this was a  small price to pay for exposing the unequal treatment and human degradation underly- ing this rule of etiquette.

MOrality and law

Before distinguishing between morality and law,  let’s examine the term  law. Basically,  there are four kinds of law: statutes, regulations, common law, and constitutional law.

summary We appeal to moral standards when we

answer a moral question or make a

moral judgment. Three characteristics of moral standards

distinguish them from other kinds of

standards.

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chapter one  The naTure of moraliTy      7

statutes  are  laws enacted by  legislative bodies. For example,  the  law  that defines  and prohibits reckless driving on the highway is a statute. congress and state legislatures  enact statutes. (Laws enacted by local governing bodies such as city councils are usually  termed ordinances.) Statutes make up a large part of the law and are what many of us  mean when we speak of “laws.”

Limited in their time and knowledge,  legislatures often set up boards or agencies  whose functions include issuing detailed regulations covering certain kinds of conduct— administrative regulations. For example, state legislatures establish licensing boards to  formulate regulations for the licensing of physicians and nurses. as long as these regula- tions do not exceed the board’s statutory powers and do not conflict with other kinds of  law, they are legally binding.

Common law refers  to  the  body  of  judge-made  law  that  first  developed  in  the  english-speaking world centuries ago when there were few statutes. courts frequently  wrote opinions  explaining  the bases of  their decisions  in  specific  cases,  including  the  legal principles those decisions rested on. each of these opinions became a precedent for  later decisions in similar cases. The massive body of precedents and legal principles that  accumulated over the years is collectively referred to as “common law.” Like administra- tive regulations, common law is valid if it harmonizes with statutory law and with still  another kind: constitutional law.

Constitutional law refers to court rulings on the requirements of the constitution  and the constitutionality of legislation. The U.S. constitution empowers the courts to  decide whether laws are compatible with the constitution. State courts may also rule on  the constitutionality of state laws under state constitutions. although the courts cannot  make laws, they have far-reaching powers to rule on the constitutionality of  laws and  to declare them invalid if they conflict with the constitution. In the United States, the  Supreme court has the greatest judiciary power and rules on an array of cases, some of  which bear directly on the study of business ethics.

people sometimes confuse legality and morality, but they are different things. on one  hand, breaking the law is not always or necessarily immoral. on the other hand, the legality  of an action does not guarantee that it is morally right. Let’s consider these points further.

1. an action can be illegal but morally right. For example, helping a Jewish family to  hide from the nazis was against German law in 1939, but it would have been a mor- ally admirable thing to have done. of course, the nazi regime was vicious and evil.  By contrast,  in a democratic society with a basically  just  legal order, the fact that  something is illegal provides a moral consideration against doing it. For example,  one moral reason for not burning trash in your backyard is that it violates an ordi- nance that your community has voted in favor of. Some philosophers believe that  sometimes the illegality of an action can make it morally wrong, even if the action  would otherwise have been morally acceptable. But even if they are right about that,  the  fact  that  something  is  illegal  does  not  trump  all  other  moral  considerations.  nonconformity to law is not always immoral, even in a democratic society. There  can be circumstances where, all things considered, violating the law is morally per- missible, perhaps even morally required.

probably no one in the modern era has expressed this point more eloquently  than Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. confined in the Birmingham, alabama, city jail  on charges of parading without a permit, King penned his now famous “Letter from 

Legality should not be confused with morality. Breaking the law isn’t always or necessarily immoral, and the legality of an action doesn’t guarantee its morality.

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8      part one  moral philosophy and business

Birmingham Jail” to eight of his fellow clergymen who had published a statement  attacking King’s unauthorized protest of racial segregation as unwise and untimely.  King wrote:

all segregation statutes are unjust because segregation distorts the soul and damages  the personality. It gives the segregator a false sense of superiority and the segregated  a false sense of inferiority. Segregation, to use the terminology of the Jewish philosopher  Martin  Buber,  substitutes  an  “I-it”  relationship  for  an  “I-thou”  relationship  and  ends up relegating persons to the status of things. hence segregation is not only politi- cally, economically, and sociologically unsound, it is morally wrong and sinful. . . .  Thus it is that I can urge men to obey the 1954 decision of the Supreme court,* for  it is morally right; and I can urge them to disobey segregation ordinances, for they  are morally wrong.4

2. an action that is legal can be morally wrong. For example, it may have been per- fectly legal for the chairman of a profitable company to lay off 125 workers and use  three-quarters of the money saved to boost his pay and that of the company’s other  top managers,5 but the morality of his doing so is open to debate.

or, to take another example, suppose that you’re driving to work one day and  see an accident victim sitting on the side of the road, clearly in shock and needing  medical assistance. Because you know first aid and are in no great hurry to get to  your destination,  you could  easily  stop  and assist  the person. Legally  speaking,  though, you are not obligated  to  stop and render aid. Under common  law,  the  prudent thing would be to drive on, because by stopping you could thus  incur  legal liability if you fail to exercise reasonable care and thereby injure the person.  Many  states  have  enacted  so-called Good Samaritan  laws  to provide  immunity  from damages to those rendering aid (except for gross negligence or serious mis- conduct). But in most states, the law does not oblige people to give such aid or  even to call an ambulance. Moral theorists would agree, however, that if you sped  away without helping or even calling for help, your action might be perfectly legal  but would be morally suspect. regardless of the law, such conduct would almost  certainly be wrong.

What then may we say about the relationship between law and morality? to a signif- icant extent, law codifies a society’s customs, ideals, norms, and moral values. changes in  law tend to reflect changes in what a society takes to be right and wrong, but sometimes  changes in the law can alter people’s ideas about the rightness or wrongness of conduct.  however, even if a society’s laws are sensible and morally sound, it is a mistake to see  them as sufficient to establish the moral standards that should guide us. The law cannot  cover all possible human conduct, and in many situations it is too blunt an instrument  to provide adequate moral guidance. The law generally prohibits egregious affronts to a  society’s moral standards and in that sense is the “floor” of moral conduct, but breaches  of moral conduct can slip through cracks in that floor.

summary Morality must be

distinguished from etiquette (rules for

well-mannered behavior), from law

(statutes, regulations, common law, and

constitutional law), and from professional

codes of ethics (the special rules governing

the members of a profession).

*In Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka  (1954),  the  Supreme court  struck down  the   half-century-old  “separate but equal doctrine,” which permitted racially segregated schools as long as comparable quality was  maintained.

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chapter one  The naTure of moraliTy      9

PrOfessiOnal cOdes

Somewhere  between  etiquette  and  law  lie  professional codes of ethics.  These  are  the  rules  that  are  supposed  to govern  the conduct of members of  a given profession.  adhering to these rules is a required part of membership in that profession. Violation  of a professional code may result in the disapproval of one’s professional peers and, in  serious cases, loss of one’s license to practice that profession. Sometimes these codes are  unwritten and are part of the common understanding of members of a particular profes- sion—for example,  that professors  should not date  their  students.  In other  instances,  these codes or portions of them may be written down by an authoritative body so they  may be better taught and more efficiently enforced.

These written rules are sometimes so vague and general as to be of little value, and  often they amount to little more than self-promotion by the professional organization.  The same is frequently true when industries or corporations publish statements of their  ethical standards. In other cases—for example, with attorneys—professional codes can  be very specific and detailed. It is difficult to generalize about the content of professional  codes of ethics, however, because  they  frequently  involve a mix of purely moral  rules  (for example, client confidentiality), of professional etiquette (for example, the billing  of services to other professionals), and of restrictions intended to benefit the group’s eco- nomic interests (for example, limitations on price competition).

Given their nature, professional codes of ethics are neither a complete nor a com- pletely reliable guide to one’s moral obligations. not all the rules of a professional code  are purely moral in character, and even when they are, the fact that a rule is officially  enshrined as part of the code of a profession does not guarantee that it is a sound moral  principle. as a professional, you must take seriously the injunctions of your profession,  but you still have the responsibility to critically assess those rules for yourself.

You come upon this scene—the car is smoking, and it is clear that an accident just took place. In most states, you are not legally obligated to stop and offer help to the victims.

Re ch

ita n

So rin

/ S hu

tte rs

to ck

.co m

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10      part one  moral philosophy and business

regarding those parts of the code that concern etiquette or financial matters, bear in  mind that by joining a profession you are probably agreeing, explicitly or implicitly, to  abide by those standards. assuming that those rules don’t require morally impermissible  conduct, then consenting to them gives you some moral obligation to follow them. In  addition, for many, living up to the standards of one’s chosen profession is an important  source of personal satisfaction. Still, you must be alert to situations in which professional  standards  or  customary  professional  practice  conflicts  with  ordinary  ethical  require- ments. adherence to a professional code does not exempt your conduct from scrutiny  from the broader perspective of morality.

where dO MOral standards cOMe frOM?

So far you have seen how moral standards are different from various nonmoral standards,  but you probably wonder about the source of those moral standards. Most, if not all,  people have certain moral principles or a moral code that they explicitly or implicitly  accept.  Because  the  moral  principles  of  different  people  in  the  same  society  overlap,  at least in part, we can also talk about the moral code of a society, meaning the moral  standards shared by its members. how do we come to have certain moral principles and  not others? obviously, many things influence what moral principles we accept: our early  upbringing, the behavior of those around us, the explicit and implicit standards of our  culture, our own experiences, and our critical reflections on those experiences.

For  philosophers,  though,  the  central  question  is  not  how  we  came  to  have  the  particular principles we have. The philosophical issue is whether those principles can be  justified. Do we simply take for granted the values of those around us? or, like Martin  Luther King, Jr., are we able to think independently about moral matters? By analogy,  we pick up our nonmoral beliefs  from all  sorts of  sources: books,  conversations with  friends,  movies,  various  experiences  we’ve  had.  What  is  important,  however,  is  not  how we acquired the beliefs we have, but whether or to what extent those beliefs—for  example, that women are more emotional than men or that telekinesis is possible—can  withstand critical scrutiny. Likewise, ethical theories attempt to justify moral standards  and ethical beliefs. The next chapter examines some of the major theories of normative  ethics. It looks at what some of the major thinkers in human history have argued are the  best-justified standards of right and wrong.

But first we need to consider the relationship between morality and religion on the  one hand and between morality and society on the other. Some people maintain that  morality just boils down to religion. others have argued for the doctrine of ethical rela- tivism, which says that right and wrong are only a function of what a particular society  takes to be right and wrong. Both those views are mistaken.

• • •

rel ig ioN a Nd Mor al iT y any religion provides its believers with a worldview, part of which involves certain moral  instructions, values, and commitments. The Jewish and christian traditions,  to name  just two, offer a view of humans as unique products of a divine intervention that has  endowed  them with  consciousness  and  an  ability  to  love. Both  these  traditions posit 

You should take seriously the code that governs your

profession, but you still have a

responsibility to assess its rules for

yourself.

For philosophers, the important issue is

not where our moral principles came

from, but whether they can be justified.

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chapter one  The naTure of moraliTy      11

creatures who stand midway between nature and spirit. on one hand, we are finite and  bound to earth, not only capable of wrongdoing but also born morally flawed (original  sin). on the other, we can transcend nature and realize infinite possibilities.

primarily because of the influence of Western religion, many americans and others  view themselves as beings with a supernatural destiny, as possessing a life after death,  as being immortal. one’s purpose in life is found in serving and loving God. For the  christian, the way to serve and love God is by emulating the life of Jesus of nazareth.  In  the  life  of  Jesus,  christians  find  an  expression  of  the  highest  virtue—love.  They  love when they perform selfless acts, develop a keen social conscience, and realize that  human beings are creatures of God and therefore intrinsically worthwhile. For the Jew,  one serves and loves God chiefly through expressions of justice and righteousness. Jews  also develop  a  sense of honor derived  from a  commitment  to  truth, humility, fidel- ity, and kindness. This commitment hones their sense of responsibility to family and  community.

religion, then, involves not only a formal system of worship but also prescriptions  for  social  relationships.  one  example  is  the  mandate  “Do  unto  others  as  you  would  have them do unto you.” termed the “Golden rule,” this injunction represents one of  humankind’s highest moral ideals and can be found in essence in all the great religions of  the world:

Good people proceed while considering that what is best for others is best for  themselves. (Hitopadesa, hinduism)

Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself. (Leviticus 19:18, Judaism)

Therefore all things whatsoever ye would that men should do to you, do ye even  so to them. (Matthew 7:12, christianity)

hurt not others with that which pains yourself. (Udanavarga 5:18, Buddhism)

What you do not want done to yourself, do not do to others. (Analects 15:23,  confucianism)

no one of you is a believer until he loves for his brother what he loves for him- self. (Traditions, Islam)

although  inspiring,  such  religious  ideals  are  very  general  and  can  be  difficult  to  translate  into  precise  policy  injunctions.  religious  bodies,  nevertheless,  occasionally  articulate positions on more specific political, educational, economic, and medical issues,  which help mold public opinion on matters  as diverse as  abortion,  the environment,  national defense, and the ethics of scientific research. roman catholicism, in particular,  has a rich history of formally applying its core values to the moral aspects of industrial   relations and economic life. pope John paul II’s encyclical Centesimus Annus, the national  conference of catholic Bishops’ pastoral letter Economic Justice for All on catholic social  teaching and the U.S. economy, and the pontifical council for Social communication’s  reports on advertising and on ethics and the Internet stand in that  tradition––as does  pope Benedict XVI’s 2007 critique of the growing trend for companies to rely on short- term job contracts, which in his view undermines the stability of society and prevents  young people from building families.6

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12      part one  moral philosophy and business

MOrality needn’t rest On religiOn

Many people believe that morality must be based on religion, either in the sense that  without religion people would have no incentive to be moral or in the sense that only  religion can provide moral guidance. others contend that morality is based on the com- mands of God. none of these claims is convincing.

First, although a desire to avoid hell and to go to heaven may prompt some of us  to act morally, this is not the only reason or even the most common reason that people  behave morally. often we act morally out of habit or just because that is the kind of per- son we are. It would simply not occur to most of us to swipe an elderly lady’s purse, and  if the idea did occur to us, we wouldn’t do it because such an act simply doesn’t fit with  our personal standards or with our concept of ourselves. We are often motivated to do  what is morally right out of concern for others or just because it is right. In addition, the  approval of our peers, the need to appease our conscience, and the desire to avoid earthly  punishment may all motivate us to act morally. Furthermore, atheists generally live lives  as moral and upright as those of believers.

Second, the moral instructions of the world’s great religions are general and im precise:  They do not  relieve us of  the necessity of engaging  in moral  reasoning ourselves. For  example, the Bible says, “Thou shall not kill.” Yet christians disagree among themselves  over the morality of fighting in wars, of capital punishment, of killing in self-defense, of  slaughtering animals, of abortion and euthanasia, and of allowing foreigners to die from  famine because we have not provided them with as much food as we might have. The  Bible does not provide unambiguous solutions to these moral problems, so even believers  must engage in moral philosophy if they are to have intelligent answers. on the other  hand, there are lots of reasons for believing that, say, a cold-blooded murder motivated  by greed is immoral. You don’t have to believe in a religion to figure that out.

Third, although some theologians have advocated the divine command theory— that if something is wrong (like killing an innocent person for fun), then the only reason  it  is wrong  is  that God  commands us not  to  do  it—many  theologians  and  certainly  most philosophers would reject this view. They would contend that if God commands  human beings not to do something, such as commit rape, it is because God sees that rape  is wrong, but it is not God’s forbidding rape that makes it wrong. The fact that rape is  wrong is independent of God’s decrees.

Most believers think not only that God gives us moral instructions or rules but also  that God has moral reasons for giving them to us. according to the divine command  theory, this would make no sense. In this view, there is no reason that something is right  or wrong, other than the fact that it is God’s will. all believers, of course, believe that  God is good and that God commands us to do what is right and forbids us to do what is  wrong. But this doesn’t mean, say critics of the divine command theory, that it is God’s  saying so that makes a thing wrong, any more than it is your mother’s telling you not to  steal that makes it wrong to steal.

all this is simply to argue that morality is not necessarily based on religion in any  of these three senses. That religion influences the moral standards and values of most of  us is beyond doubt. But given that religions differ in their moral beliefs and that even  members of the same faith often disagree on moral matters, you cannot justify a moral  judgment simply by appealing to religion—for that will only persuade those who already  agree  with  your  particular  interpretation  of  your  particular  religion.  Besides,  most   religions hold that human reason is capable of understanding what is right and wrong, 

The idea that morality must be

based on religion can be interpreted in

three different ways, none of which is very

plausible.

summary Morality is not

necessarily based on religion. Although we draw our moral beliefs from many sources, for philosophers the issue

is whether those beliefs can be justified.

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chapter one  The naTure of moraliTy      13

so it is human reason to which you will have to appeal in order to support your ethical  principles and judgments.

• • •

e Thical rel aT iV isM Some people do not believe  that morality boils down to  religion but  rather  that  it  is  merely a function of what a particular society happens to believe. This view is called ethi- cal relativism, the theory that what is right is determined by what a culture or society  says is right. What is right in one place may be wrong in another, because the only crite- rion for distinguishing right from wrong—and so the only ethical standard for judging  an action—is the moral system of the society in which the act occurs.

abortion, for example, is condemned as immoral in catholic Ireland but is prac- ticed as a morally neutral form of birth control in Japan. according to the ethical relativ- ist, then, abortion is wrong in Ireland but morally permissible in Japan. The relativist is  not saying merely that the Irish believe abortion is abominable and the Japanese do not;  that is acknowledged by everyone. rather, the ethical relativist contends that abortion  is immoral in Ireland because the Irish believe it to be immoral and that it is morally  permissible in Japan because the Japanese believe it to be so. Thus, for the ethical relativ- ist there is no absolute ethical standard independent of cultural context, no criterion of  right and wrong by which to judge other than that of particular societies. In short, what  morality requires is relative to society.

Those who endorse ethical relativism point to the apparent diversity of human values  and the multiformity of moral codes to support their case. From our own cultural per- spective, some seemingly immoral moralities have been adopted. polygamy, pedophilia,  stealing, slavery, infanticide, and cannibalism have all been tolerated or even encouraged  by the moral system of one society or another. In light of this fact, the ethical relativist  believes that there can be no non-ethnocentric standard by which to judge actions.

Some thinkers believe that the moral differences between societies are smaller and  less significant than they appear. They contend that variations in moral standards reflect  differing factual beliefs and differing circumstances rather than fundamental differences in  values. But suppose they are wrong about this matter. The relativist’s conclusion still does  not follow. a difference of opinion among societies about right and wrong no more proves  that none of the conflicting beliefs is true or superior to the others than the diversity of  viewpoints expressed in a college seminar establishes that there is no truth. In short, disa- greement in ethical matters does not imply that all opinions are equally correct.

Moreover,  ethical  relativism has  some unsatisfactory  implications. First,  it under- mines any moral criticism of the practices of other societies as long as their actions con- form to their own standards. We cannot say that slavery in a slave society like that of the  american South 160 years ago was immoral and unjust as long as that society held it to  be morally permissible.

Second, and closely related, is the fact that for the relativist there is no such thing as  ethical progress. although moralities may change, they cannot get better or worse. Thus,  we cannot say that moral standards today are more enlightened than were moral stand- ards in the Middle ages.

Ethical disagreement does not imply that all opinions are equally correct.

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14      part one  moral philosophy and business

Third,  from the relativist’s point of view,  it makes no sense for people to criticize  principles or practices  accepted by  their  own  society. people  can be  censured  for not  living up to their society’s moral code, but that is all. The moral code itself cannot be  criticized because whatever a society takes to be right really is right for it. reformers who  identify injustices in their society and campaign against them are only encouraging peo- ple to be immoral—that is, to depart from the moral standards of their society—unless  or until the majority of the society agrees with the reformers. The minority can never be  right in moral matters; to be right it must become the majority.

The ethical relativist is correct to emphasize that in viewing other cultures we should  keep an open mind and not simply dismiss alien social practices on the basis of our own  cultural prejudices. But the relativist’s theory of morality doesn’t hold up. The more care- fully we examine it, the less plausible it becomes. There is no good reason for saying that  the majority view on moral issues is automatically right, and the belief that it is auto- matically right has unacceptable consequences.

relativisM and the “gaMe” Of Business

In his essay “Is Business Bluffing ethical?” albert carr argues that business, as practiced  by  individuals  as well  as by  corporations, has  the  impersonal  character of  a game—a  game  that  demands  both  special  strategy  and  an  understanding  of  its  special  ethical  standards.7 Business has  its own norms and rules  that differ  from those of  the rest of  society. Thus, according to carr, a number of things that we normally think of as wrong  are really permissible in a business context. his examples include conscious misstatement  and concealment of pertinent facts in negotiation, lying about one’s age on a résumé,  deceptive packaging, automobile companies’ neglect of car safety, and utility companies’  manipulation of regulators and overcharging of electricity users. he draws an analogy  with poker:

poker’s own brand of ethics is different from the ethical ideals of civilized human rela- tionships. The game calls for distrust of the other fellow. It ignores the claim of friend- ship.  cunning  deception  and  concealment  of  one’s  strength  and  intentions,  not  kindness  and openheartedness,  are  vital  in poker. no one  thinks  any  the worse of  poker on that account. and no one should think any the worse of the game of business  because its standards of right and wrong differ from the prevailing traditions of moral- ity in our society.8

What carr is defending here is a kind of ethical relativism: Business has its own moral  standards, and business actions should be evaluated only by those standards.

one  can  argue  whether  carr  has  accurately  identified  the  implicit  rules  of  the  business world (for example,  is misrepresentation on one’s résumé really a permissible  move in the business game?), but let’s put that issue aside. The basic question is whether  business is a separate world to which ordinary moral standards don’t apply. carr’s thesis  assumes that any special activity following its own rules is exempt from external moral  evaluation, but as a general proposition this  is unacceptable. The Mafia,  for example,  has an elaborate code of conduct, accepted by the members of the rival “families.” For  them, gunning down a competitor or terrorizing a local shopkeeper may be a strategic  move in a competitive environment. Yet we rightly refuse to say that gangsters cannot  be criticized for following their own standards. normal business activity is a world away  from gangsterism, but the point still holds. any specialized activity or practice will have 

summary Ethical relativism is the theory that right and

wrong are determined by what one’s society

says is right and wrong. There are many

problems with this theory. Also dubious is

the notion that business has its own

morality, divorced from ordinary ideas of right

and wrong.

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chapter one  The naTure of moraliTy      15

its own distinctive rules and procedures, but the morality of those rules and procedures  can still be evaluated.

Moreover,  carr’s  poker  analogy  is  itself  weak.  For  one  thing,  business  activity  can  affect  others—such  as  consumers—who have not  consciously  and  freely  chosen  to play  the “game.” Business is indeed an activity involving distinctive rules and customary ways  of doing things, but it is not really a game. It is the economic basis of our society, and we  all have an interest in the goals of business (in productivity and consumer satisfaction, for  instance) and in the rules business follows. Why should these be exempt from public evalu- ation and assessment? Later chapters return to the question of what these goals and rules  should be. But to take one simple point, note that a business/economic system that permits,  encourages, or tolerates deception will be less efficient (that is, work less well) than one in  which the participants have fuller knowledge of the goods and services being exchanged.

In sum, by divorcing business  from morality, carr misrepresents both. he incor- rectly treats the standards and rules of everyday business activity as if they had nothing to  do with the standards and rules of ordinary morality, and he treats morality as something  that we give lip service to on Sundays but that otherwise has no influence on our lives.