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## what is the enthalpy for the following reaction? overall: c2h4 + h2oâ†’c2h5oh

What is the enthalpy for the following reaction? C2H4 H2O—
17,023 results
Chem
What is the enthalpy for the following reaction? C2H4+H2O—>C2H5OH

asked by Kay on November 4, 2010
Chem
What is the enthalpy for the following reaction? overall: C2H4+H2O—>C2H5OH is -1411kJ correct??

asked by Angel on November 4, 2010
chemistry
If you need to multiply the following reaction by 2 to be an intermediate reaction in a Hess’s law problem, what would be the final value for the enthalpy of reaction you use for this intermediate reaction? C2H4 + 3 O2 2 CO2 + 2 H2O, H = -1410 kJ

asked by Anonymous on November 24, 2014
chemistry
For the reaction shown below complete the following calculations. H2(g) + C2H4(g) –> C2H6(g) (a) Estimate the enthalpy of reaction using the bond energy values in Table 9.4. (b) Calculate the enthalpy of reaction, using standard enthalpies of formation.

asked by hannah on October 27, 2008
Chemistry
Calculate the enthalpy change for: C2H4(g) + H2 –> C2H6(g) delta Hrxn: H2(g) + 1/2O2 –> H2O (l) C2H4(g) + 3O2 –> 2H20(l) + 2CO2(g) C2H6(g) + 7/2O2(g) –> 3H20(l) + 2CO2(g) I know I have to flip the third reaction but I don’t know what to do next

asked by Jessica on October 29, 2014

chemistry

1. Calculate the enthalpy change of combustion for ethene gas (C2H4) given the following enthalpy changes of formation: ΔHºf(C2H4)(g) = +52 kJ mol^-1 ΔHºf(CO2)(g) = -394 kJ mol^-1 ΔHºf(H2O)(g) = -286 kJ mol^-1

asked by John on July 19, 2014
Chemistry
Calculate the work involved if a reaction with an enthalpy change of -2418 kJ is carried out in a vessel with a mobile, frictionless piston. Other details: the reaction is H2(g) + 1/2Oxygen2(g) yields H2O(g) with enthalpy change of -241.8 kJ/mol. The

asked by Mark on November 22, 2008
chemistry
Calculate the ΔH of reaction for: C2H4(g) + H2O(l) = C2H5OH(l) if the ΔH of formation for C2H4(g), H2O(l) and C2H5OH are +52, -286 and -278 kJ/mol, respectively? Enter a numerical value below and be sure to include a minus sign if needed. The error

asked by danny 16 on January 31, 2015
Chemistry
I know I posted this question before, but can you clarify it?? MY QUESTION IS AFTER YOU SWITCHED THE DELTA H1 THE CHANGE IN THE ENTHALPY IS NEGATIVE…. BUT THAT DOES NOT MAKE SENSE BECAUSE THE CHANGE IN ENTHALPY OF THE ORIGINAL DELTA H1 IS

asked by Anonymous on November 14, 2013
CHEMISTRY
I know I posted this question before, but can you clarify it?? MY QUESTION IS AFTER YOU SWITCHED THE DELTA H1 THE CHANGE IN THE ENTHALPY IS NEGATIVE…. BUT THAT DOES NOT MAKE SENSE BECAUSE THE CHANGE IN ENTHALPY OF THE ORIGINAL DELTA H1 IS

asked by Anonymous on November 14, 2013
chemistry

1. Calculate the standard enthalpy change for the reaction: C2H4(g) + H2(g) → C2H6(g) given that the enthalpy of combustion for the reactants and products are: ΔHºc(C2H4)(g) = -1411 kJ mol^-1 ΔHºc(C2H6)(g) = -1560 kJ mol^-1 ΔHºc(H2)(g) = -286 kJ

asked by John on July 19, 2014
Chemistry
Calculate enthalpy of reaction C2H4 + H2 gives C2H6.enthalpy of combustion of ethene, H2,and ethane are -1410,-286,-15.60kj/mol respectively

asked by Shaika on November 7, 2016
Chemistry
Ethanol (C2H5OH) is synthesized for industrial use by the following reaction, carried out at very high pressure. C2H4(g) + H2O(g) → C2H5OH(l) What is the maximum amount, in kg, of ethanol that can be produced when 1.65 kg of ethylene (C2H4) and 0.0610 kg

asked by Brittney on October 6, 2013
Chemistry
Ethanol (C2H5OH) is synthesized for industrial use by the following reaction, carried out at very high pressure. C2H4(g) + H2O(g) C2H5OH(l) What is the maximum amount of ethanol (in grams) that can be produced when 1.0 kg of ethylene (C2H4) and 0.014 kg of

asked by Jack on November 1, 2011
chemistry
What is the maximum amount of ethanol (in grams) that can be produced when 1.0 kg of ethylene (C2H4) and 0.014 kg of steam are placed into the reaction vessel? Ethanol (C2H5OH) is synthesized for industrial use by the following reaction, carried out at

asked by Amanda on November 1, 2011

NEED HELP WITH CHEM HW
Ethanol (C2H5OH) is synthesized for industrial use by the following reaction, carried out at very high pressure. C2H4(g) + H2O(g) C2H5OH(l) What is the maximum amount of ethanol (in grams) that can be produced when 2.2 kg of ethylene (C2H4) and 0.014 kg of

asked by Anonymous on October 1, 2011
Chemistry 2!
consider the following reaction, equilibrium concentrations, and equilibrium constant at a particular temperature. Determine the equilibrium concentration of H2O(g) C2H4(g) + H2O(g) C2H5OH(g) kc= 7.0* 10^3 [C2H4]= 0.010M [C2H5OH]= 1.99M

asked by anonymous. on December 10, 2014
Chemistry
Consider the following reaction, equilibrium concentrations, and equilibrium constant at a particular temperature. Determine the equilibrium concentration of H2O(g). C2H4(g) + H2O(g) C2H5OH(g) Kc = 9.0 × 103 [C2H4]eq = 0.015 M [C2H5OH]eq = 1.69 M

asked by Jane on December 2, 2014
Chemistry
CONTINUE>>>>>>>>>>> The enthalpy changes for two different hydrogenation reactions of C2H2 are: C2H2+H2—->C2H4 Delta H 1 (there is a degree sign….standard enthalpy of formation??) *WAIT A SECOND, IF I USE THE HEAT OF FORMATION VALUES TO CALCULATE

asked by Anonymous on November 14, 2013
Chemistry
Calculate the standard entropy, ΔS°rxn, of the following reaction at 25.0 °C using the data in this table. The standard enthalpy of the reaction, ΔH°rxn, is –44.2 kJ·mol–1. C2H4(G)+H20 —> C5H5OH ΔS°rxn= __ JK^-1mol^-1 Then, calculate

CHEMISTRY
Please explain. The enthalpy changes for two different hydrogenation reactions of C2H2 are: C2H2+H2—->C2H4 Delta H 1 C2H2+2H2—->C2H6 Delta H 2 Which expression represents the enthalpy change for the reaction below? C2H4+H2—->C2H6 Delta H = ? A. Delta

asked by Anonymous on November 11, 2013
Chemistry
Please explain. The enthalpy changes for two different hydrogenation reactions of C2H2 are: C2H2+H2—->C2H4 Delta H 1 C2H2+2H2—->C2H6 Delta H 2 Which expression represents the enthalpy change for the reaction below? C2H4+H2—->C2H6 Delta H = ? A. Delta

asked by Anonymous on November 11, 2013
Science
The enthalpy change for the reaction 2 H2 + O2 > 2 H20 is -571.6 kJ. Determine the enthalpy change for the decomposition of 24.0g H2O. My Process -571.6 is the enthalpy of 2 mols of H2O. So the enthalpy of 1 mol of H2O will be -285.8. Since it’s

asked by Mike on July 9, 2015
Chemistry
Calculate the work involved if a reaction with an enthalpy change of -2418 kJ is carried out in a vessel with a mobile, frictionless piston. Other details: the reaction is H2(g) + 1/2Oxygen2(g) yields H2O(g) with enthalpy change of -241.8 kJ/mol. The

asked by Mark on November 23, 2008
Chemistry
Ethylene glycol, HOCH2CH2OH, is used as antifreeze. It is produced from ethylene oxide, C2H4O, by the following reaction. C2H4O(g) + H2O(l) → HOCH2CH2OH(l) Use Hess’s law to obtain the enthalpy change for this reaction from the following enthalpy

asked by Mariam on December 13, 2009

chemistry
Ethylene glycol, HOCH2CH2OH, is used as antifreeze. It is produced from ethylene oxide, C2H4O, by the following reaction. C2H4O(g) + H2O(l) → HOCH2CH2OH(l) Use Hess’s law to obtain the enthalpy change for this reaction from the following enthalpy

asked by caroline on October 29, 2010
calculate enthalpy of H for the reaction N2H4(l) + 2H2O(l) -> N2(g) + 4H2)(l) Given the reactions N2H4(l) + O2(g) -> N2(g) + 2H2O(l) Enthalpy of H = -6.22.2 kJ H2(g) + (1/2)O2(g) -> H2O(l) enthalpy of H = -285.8 kJ/mol H2(g) + O2(g) -> H2O2(l) enthalpy of

asked by Rose Bud on February 16, 2012
calculate enthalpy of H for the reaction N2H4(l) + 2H2O(l) -> N2(g) + 4H2)(l) Given the reactions N2H4(l) + O2(g) -> N2(g) + 2H2O(l) Enthalpy of H = -6.22.2 kJ H2(g) + (1/2)O2(g) -> H2O(l) enthalpy of H = -285.8 kJ/mol H2(g) + O2(g) -> H2O2(l) enthalpy of

asked by Rose Bud on February 16, 2012
Chemistry!
Calculate the work involved if a reaction with an enthalpy change of -2418 kJ is carried out in a vessel with a mobile, frictionless piston. Other details: the reaction is H2(g) + 1/2Oxygen2(g) yields H2O(g) with enthalpy change of -241.8 kJ/mol. The

asked by Elizabeth on November 23, 2008
Chemistry due soon
What is enthalpy? A. Enthalpy is the kinetic energy of a system. B. Enthalpy is the heat involved in a reaction. C. Enthalpy is the temperature of a reaction. D. Enthalpy is the mass involved in a reaction. I think the answer is a or b

asked by Morgan on November 6, 2014
chemistry
Given the following equations: 2 H2O2 (aq) → 2 H2O (l) + O2 (g) and C2H4 (g) + 3 O2 (g) → 2 CO2 (g) + 2 H2O (l) The first reaction is the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen gas. The oxygen gas generated in the first reaction is

asked by april on July 1, 2018
CHEMISTRY
calculate the delta h for the reaction 2C+2H–> C2H4 C+O2–> Co2 delta h= -393.5 C2H4+ 3O2–> 2CO2+ 2H2O delta h= 1410.9 H2+ 1/2 O2–> H2O delta h= -285.8 2CO+ O2–> 2CO2 delta h= -566.0 do you flip the first two equations and times the first and third one

asked by Anonymous on June 6, 2010
chemistry
A scientist measures the standard enthalpy change for the following reaction to be -53.4 kJ : Ca(OH)2(aq) + 2 HCl(aq) CaCl2(s) + 2 H2O(l) Based on this value and the standard enthalpies of formation for the other substances, the standard enthalpy of

asked by Austin on March 18, 2012
chemistry
A scientist measures the standard enthalpy change for the following reaction to be -53.4 kJ : Ca(OH)2(aq) + 2 HCl(aq) CaCl2(s) + 2 H2O(l) Based on this value and the standard enthalpies of formation for the other substances, the standard enthalpy of

asked by Austin on March 18, 2012
chemistry
Calculate enthalpy change of reaction for the combustion of gaseous ethanol. C2H5OH + 3O2 >> CO2 + 3H2O. Using standard molar enthalpies of formation. C2H5OH -235.3 ( it’s negative sign) CO2 -393.5 H2O -241.8 (1) Calculate the enthalpy change of reaction

asked by Alex on April 20, 2010

Chemistry
C2H4(g) + H2O(l) → C2H5O(l) what is the rendition percentage if 4.50g of C2H4 produce 4.7g of ethyl alcohol?

asked by Alex on September 11, 2012
Chemistry
Calculate the enthalpy change for the reaction 2C (s) + H2 (g) yield C2H2 (g) given the following reactions and their respective enthalpy changes: C2H2(g) + 5/2 O2(g) yield 2CO2(g) + H2O (l) = -1299.6kJ C(s) + O2(g) yield CO2 (g) -393.5 H2(g) + 1/2 O2(g)

asked by Lucy on December 29, 2007
Chemistry
Calculate the enthalpy change for the reaction 2C + H2 yield C2H2 given the following reactions and their respective enthalpy changes: C2H2 + 5/2 O2 yield 2CO + H2O -1299.6 C + O yield CO2 -393.5 H2 + 1/2 O2 yield H2O -285.9 I don’t even know how to start

asked by Lucy on December 24, 2007
chemistry
Calculate the enthalpy of reaction for the combustion of ethene. Express the enthalpy of reaction calculated in question above as a molar enthalpy of reaction per mole of carbon dioxide.

asked by shyanne on January 8, 2013
chemistry
c2h4(g) + 3O2(g) -> 2 CO2 (g) + 2 H2O (g) What volume of oxygen will react with 18 ml of ehtylene, c2h4, assuming that the gases are present at the same temperature and pressure?

asked by Monica on April 19, 2010
Chemistry
The standard enthalpy of formation of H2O (l) is -285.8 kJ/mol. Calculate ∆E° for the following reaction. H2O (l) → H2 (g) + 1/2 O2 (g)

asked by Mahnoor on November 15, 2014
Chemistry
The standard enthalpy of formation of H2O (l) is -285.8 kJ/mol. Calculate DEO for the following reaction. H2O (l) → H2 (g) + 1/2 O2 (g)

asked by Mahnoor on November 15, 2014
CHemistry
Given the following information calculate the heat of formation of C2H4. C2H4 + 3 O2 ¡æ 2 CO2 + 2 H2O ¥ÄH¡Æ = -414 kJ/mol C + O2 ¡æ CO2 ¥ÄH¡Æ = -393.5 kJ/mol H2 + ¨ö O2 ¡æ H2O ¥ÄH¡Æ = -241.8 kJ/mol

asked by sam on April 26, 2015
Chemistry
Reposted: Use Hess’s law to calculate the enthalpy change for the reaction: 3C(s) + 3H2(g) yield C3H6(g) Given the following thermochemical equations: 2C3H6(g) + 9O2(g) yield 6CO2(g) + 6H2O(l) enthalpy change= -4116.0 kJ/mol C(s) + O2(g) yield CO2(g)

asked by Hailee on March 17, 2012
Chemisty
I need a recap of how to do the question below. I just need the basic guidelines: The enthalpy change for the reaction 2H2(g)+O2 > 2H2O is -571.6kJ. Determine the enthalpy change for the decomposition of 24.0g H2O.

asked by Todd on June 26, 2015

chemistry
Consider the reaction, C2H4(g) + H2(g) ® C2H6(g), where DH = – 137 kJ. How many kilojoules are released when 55.3 g of C2H4 reacts?

asked by Cooper on October 21, 2011
Chemistry
Find the enthalpy for : 4Fe + 3O2 = 2Fe2O3 I got the following informations: Fe + 3H2O = Fe(OH)3 + 3/2H2 – Enthalpy is 160.9 kj H2 + 1/2O2 = H2O – Enthalpy is -285.8 kj Fe2O3 + 3H2O = 2Fe(OH)3 – Enthalpy is 288.6 I try using Hess Law but cannot solve it.

Chemistry
Which of the following is the best definition of Hess’ Law? A. Heat is always released by the decomposition of 1 mole of a compound into its constitute elements. B. The enthalpy of a process is the difference between the enthalpy of the products and the

asked by Anonymous on February 20, 2008
Consider the following equations. N2H4(l) + O2(g) N2(g) + 2 H2O(l) ÄH = -622.2 kJ H2(g) + 1/2 O2(g) H2O(l) ÄH = -258.5 kJ H2(g) + O2(g) H2O2(l) ÄH = -187.8 kJ Use this information to calculate the enthalpy change for the reaction shown below. N2H4(l) +

asked by hannah on November 6, 2012
chem- i reallyneed help
Consider the following equations. N2H4(l) + O2(g) N2(g) + 2 H2O(l) ÄH = -622.2 kJ H2(g) + 1/2 O2(g) H2O(l) ÄH = -258.5 kJ H2(g) + O2(g) H2O2(l) ÄH = -187.8 kJ Use this information to calculate the enthalpy change for the reaction shown below. N2H4(l) +

asked by hannah on November 6, 2012
chemistry- stoichiometry problems
C2H4+3 O2->2 co2+2 H2O If you start wit 45 grams of C2H4 how many grams of carbon dioxide will be produced?

asked by anon on April 22, 2009
Chemistry
Which of the following is the best definition of Hess’ Law? A. Heat evolved in a given process can be expressed as the sum of the heats of several processes that, when added, yield the process of interest. B. The enthalpy of a process is the difference

asked by Jared on May 7, 2007
Hess’ law
Which of the following is the best definition of Hess’ Law? A. Heat is always released by the decomposition of 1 mole of a compound into its constitute elements. B. Since enthalpy is a state function, it will be different if a reaction takes place in one

asked by christine on February 9, 2007
college chem
Calculate the molar enthalpy of reaction standard enthalpy of formation below. H20 = -285.8 kj/mole H+ = 0.0 kj/mole OH- = -229.9 kj/mol H+(aq) + OH-(aq)→H2O(l) For this, don’t you do the summation of products x stoichemtry + the sum of reactants x

asked by sam on November 20, 2014
Enthalypy Reaction
What is the standard enthalpy of reaction for the following chemical reaction? CO2(g) + 2KOH(s) –> H2O(g) + K2CO3 (s) Express your answers numerically in kJ.

asked by Sarah on September 23, 2008

Chemistry
Please write the chemical equation and calculate the reaction enthalpy (or energy) for the total chlorination (addition of chlorine gas to all double bonds) of cyclopentadiene (if you do not know what cyclopentadiene is, assume C2H4).

asked by Eddie on December 6, 2010
chemistry
Please write the chemical equation and calculate the reaction enthalpy (or energy) for the total bromination (addition of bromine gas to all double bonds) of 2,3-dimethylbutadiene (if you do not know what 2,3-dimethylbutadiene is, assume C2H4).

asked by Eddie on December 7, 2010
Thermochemistry determine the final temperature if 45.67 kJ of heat energy is removed from 18.5 g of H2O (g) at 122 degrees Celsius useful information sp. heat H2O (s) = 2.03 J/g(degree C) sp heat H2O (l) = 4.18 J/g(degree C) Sp heat H2O (g) = 2.01

asked by Rose Bud on February 15, 2012
Chemistry
Which of the following is the best definition of Hess’ Law? A. Since enthalpy is a state function, it will be different if a reaction takes place in one step or a series of steps. B. Heat is always released by the decomposition of 1 mole of a compound into

asked by Anonymous on February 24, 2008
Chemistry
Consider the reaction of Lithium with water: 2 Li(s) + 2H2O(l) —-> 2 LiOH(aq) + H2(g) The delta H of the reaction is -160 KJ The enthalpy of fusion of H2O is 6.0 kJ/mol The specific heat capacity of H2O(l) is 4.18 J/gC When 10 grams of Li(s) is dropped

asked by Vinit on October 27, 2015
Chemistry
With a platinum catalyst, ammonia will burn in oxygen to give nitric oxide, NO. 4 NH3(g) + 5 O2(g) 4 NO(g) + 6 H2O(g) ÄH = -906 kJ What is the enthalpy change for the following reaction? NO(g) + 3/2 H2O(g) NH3(g) + 5/4 O2(g)

asked by Glenna on October 18, 2008
Chemistry
What is the standard enthalpy of reaction for the following reaction: H2 + 1/2 O2 –> H2O(g)

asked by Lauren on March 11, 2011
Chemistry
Calculate the enthalpy of the reaction 2B2H6 + 6O2=2B2O3 +6H2O given the following pertinent information: A. B2O3(s) + 2H2) )g) = 3O2 (g) + B2H6 (g), delta H= +2035kJ B. 2B (s) + 3H2 (g) =B2H6 (g), delta H= +36 kJ C. H2 (g) + 1/2)2 (g) =H2O (l), delta

asked by B on April 22, 2012
Chemistry
The enthalpy of formation for a substance corresponds to the enthalpy change for a reaction. Write the specific chemical reaction defining the enthalpy of formation of butane: Just checking to make sure this is correct: 4C + 5H2 —> C4H10

asked by AJ on March 26, 2017
chemistry
A scientist measures the standard enthalpy change for the following reaction to be -2923.0 kJ : 2C2H6(g) + 7 O2(g) 4CO2(g) + 6 H2O(g) Based on this value and the standard enthalpies of formation for the other substances, the standard enthalpy of formation

asked by Anonymous on October 24, 2012

Chemistry
A calorimeter contains 30.0 mL of water at 15.0 C. When 1.50 g of X (a substance with a molar mas of 46.0g/ mol is added, it dissolves via the reaction X (s) + H2O (l) —-> X (aq) and the temperature of the solution increases to 26.5 C. Calculate the

asked by Student on March 11, 2016
chemistry
The reaction SO2 + H2O =H2SO4 Is the last step in the commercial production of sulfuric acid . the enthalpy change for this reaction is -227 KJ . In designing a sulfuric acid plant is it necessary to provide for heating or cooling of the reaction mixture ?

asked by mathew on November 12, 2014
Chemistry
Table sugar consists mostly of sucrose, C12H22O11. The standard enthalpy of combustion for sucrose is the standard state delta H for the reaction: C12H22O11 + 12 O 2 —> 12 CO2 + 11 H2O Calculate this standard state delta H. Give answer in units of kJ to

asked by Eli on December 3, 2016
chemistry
Consider the reaction, C2H4 (g) + H2 (g)- C2H6 (g) where -137kJ of heat is released. How many kilojoules are released when 55.3g of C2H4 reacts?

asked by Sandy on July 10, 2011
Chemistry
Estimate the enthalpy change for the following reaction OH(g)+CH4(g)==>CH3(g)+H2O(g)

asked by West on April 19, 2011
College Chemistry
Estimate the enthalpy change for the following reaction OH(g)+CH4(g)==>CH3(g)+H2O(g)

asked by West on April 21, 2011
chemistry
Calculate the standard enthalpy change for the following reaction at 25 °C. H2O+C(graphite)(s) –> H2(g) +CO(g)

asked by anon on October 28, 2016
chemistry
estimate the enthalpy change for the following reaction: OF2 + H2O = O2 + 2HF

asked by small on November 27, 2016
Chemistry
how many C2H4 molecules are contained in 45.8 mg C2H4 when the molar mass of C2H4 is 28.05g/mol

asked by Thomissa on September 5, 2011
Calculate the enthalpy of the reaction of boron trioxide with steam: B2O3(s) + 3H2O(g) → 3O2(g) + B2H6(g) Given: H2O(l) H2(g) + 1⁄2 O2(g) 2B(s) + 3H2(g) 2B(s) + 3/2 O2(g) → B2O3(s) → H2O(g) → H2O(l) → B2H6(g) 44 kJ/mol -286 kJ/mol 36 kJ/mol

asked by Lay on October 19, 2015

college chemistry
The chemical reaction representing production of water gas is as follows: C(s)+H2O(l)=CO(g)+H2(g) calculate the enthalpy change in the production of 200L(at 500mmHg and 65degree celcius) of hydrogen by this reaction.

asked by bennett on November 3, 2008
chemistry URGENT (2)
Label each of the following reactions as exothermic or endothermic (“exo” or “endo”), and according to whether work is done on or by the system (“on” or “by”)? Note that no “en-on” cases appear here, as these are always thermodynamically unfavourable.

asked by Anonymous on November 16, 2008
chemistry
Label each of the following reactions as exothermic or endothermic (“exo” or “endo”), and according to whether work is done on or by the system (“on” or “by”)? Note that no “en-on” cases appear here, as these are always thermodynamically unfavourable.

asked by Anonymous on November 16, 2008
Chemistry
The equation for the complete combustion of ethene (C2H4) is C2H4(g) + 3 O2(g) ==> 2CO2(g) + 2H2O(g) If 2.70 mol C2H4 is reacted with 6.30 mole O2, identify the limiting reagent. show all work.

asked by Danny on March 27, 2010
Chemistry
The reaction between 0.045 g of calcium with an excess of water was carried out in an ice calorimeter as used in this lab. The volume of water in the calorimeter decreased by 0.18 mL during the reaction a) Write the equation for the reaction which occurs.

asked by Sean on June 3, 2009
chemistry
When NH3 is treated with oxygen gas, the products obtained are N2(g) and H2O(l). If standard enthalpies of formation at 298 K for NH3(g) and H2O(l) are –46.00 kJ/mol and –286.0 kJ/mol respectively, calculate the enthalpy change of the reaction.

asked by Shana on January 27, 2015
chem
When NH3 is treated with oxygen gas, the products obtained are N2(g) and H2O(l). If standard enthalpies of formation at 298 K for NH3(g) and H2O(l) are –46.00 kJ/mol and –286.0 kJ/mol respectively, calculate the enthalpy change of the reaction.

asked by shana on January 27, 2015
Chemistry
Question 9 Unsaved What is the rate law for the following reaction, if the order of the reaction is m, an unknown? H2O2(aq) → H2O(l) + ½O2(g) a. k [H2O2]m b.k [H2O]m [O2]1/2 c.k [H2O] m /[H2O][O2 d.k[H2O] m [O2]m Thanks in advance. The k and m are meant

asked by Ramon on March 23, 2018
Chemistry
‘At 600.0 K, the equilibrium constant based on pressure is Kp = 1.83 x 10^2. Gaseous C2H4 and H2O are placed in a 1.2 L closed flask at 600.0 K. At equilibrium, the flask contains 0.0062 mol of C2H4 and 0.041 mol of H2O. Determine the equilibrium

asked by SaraF275 on January 30, 2018
Chemistry practice
Using the form of energy diagram,make a concept map of the two different methods of calculation of reaction enthalpy(via the bond enthalpy and via the enthalpy of formation)

Chemistry
When a chemist burns ammonia according to the reaction below she finds that the reaction releases heat. (It is exothermic.) 4NH3(g) + 3O2(g) 2N2(g) + 6H2O(g) The enthalpy of the reaction DH = -1267 kJ. What is the enthalpy change (in kJ) when 7 grams of

asked by Devin on January 12, 2015
Chemisty
Calculate the standard enthalpy change for the following reaction at 25 °C. MgCl2(s)+H2O(l)–>MgO(s)+2HCl

asked by Orton on April 1, 2013
Chemistry
Calculate the standard enthalpy change for the following reaction at 25 °C. MgCl2(s) + H2o(l) —> MgO(s) + 2HCl(g)

asked by Matt on June 19, 2013
Chemistry
In the dehydrogenation of ethane two reactions take place: C2H6 => C2H4 + H2 C2H6 + H2 => 2CH4 The mass distribution of the product is: 27% C2H6; 33% C2H4; 13% H2; 27% CH4. 1. What was the conversion of C2H6 to CH4? 2. What was the yield of C2H4 expressed

asked by Hoang on November 24, 2016
Chemistry
O3 + NO –> O2 + NO2 (all in gas state) Calculate the change in enthalpy for the reaction at room temp. using the following data ^Hf: O3 = 143 NO = 90 NO2 = 33 So, I have 143+90–> X + 33. I don’t know what the enthalpy of O2 is. I assume you simply

asked by Anonymous on February 18, 2008
Chemistry
Calculate the enthalpy of formation if 78.5 g of carbon dioxide in the following reaction: C(s) + H2O(g) –> CO2(g) Use the following equations: a) H2O(l) –> H2(g) + (1/2)O2(g): Δ°f = +285.8 kJ/mol b) C2H6(g) –> 2C(s) + 3H2(g): Δ°f = +84.7 kJ/mol c)

asked by anon on March 23, 2017
Chemistry
Using standard enthalpies information, calculate the standard enthalpy change for this reaction. a)(thermite reaction) 2Al(s) + Fe2O3(s) = Al2O3(s) + 2Fe(s) b)Mg(OH)2(s) = MgO(s) + H2O(I) c)N2O4(g) + 4H2(g) = N2(g) + 4H2O(g) d)SiCl4(I) + 2H2O(I) = SiO2(s)

asked by Dan on July 3, 2014
Chemistry
Using standard enthalpies information, calculate the standard enthalpy change for this reaction: a) (thermite reaction) 2Al(s) + Fe2O3(s) = Al2O3(s) + 2Fe(s) b) Mg(OH)2(s) = MgO(s) + H2O(I) c) N2O4(g) + 4H2(g) = N2(g) + 4H2O(g) d) SiCl4(I) + 2H2O(I) =

asked by Brett on July 3, 2014
chemistry
Calculate the molar enthalpy change for this reaction: HCl(aq 1.00M) + NaOH -> NaCl(aq,.500M)+ H2O Initial temp: 22.15 degrees Celsius Extrapolated temp: 25.87 degrees Celsius DT: 3.72 degrees Celsius Notes: Calculate the enthalpy change for this reaction.

asked by Failure on November 10, 2015
chemistry
The reaction between 0.045 g of calcium with an excess of water was carried out in an ice calorimeter as used in this lab. The volume of water in the calorimeter decreased by 0.18 mL during the reaction a) Write the equation for the reaction which occurs.

asked by Anonymous on November 10, 2008

chem
Are bond energies (single and multiple bonds) applicable only to gas phase?? For instance, I can use the bond energy data to calculate for enthalpy of reaction for the formation of water: 2 H2(g) + O2(g) -> H2O(g) But I can’t directly use it to calculate

asked by Namie on September 19, 2012
chemistry
Are bond energies (single and multiple bonds) applicable only to gas phase?? For instance, I can use the bond energy data to calculate for enthalpy of reaction for the formation of water: 2 H2(g) + O2(g) -> H2O(g) But I can’t directly use it to calculate

asked by Namie on September 19, 2012
Chemistry
Calculate the enthalpy change, ΔrH, for the following reaction, 4 NH3 (g) + 5 O2(g) → 4 NO (g) + 6 H2O (g) given the thermochemical equations below. N2 (g) + O2 (g) → 2 NO (g) ΔrH° = +181 kJ N2 (g) + 3 H2 (g) → 2 NH3 (g) ΔrH° = 91.8 kJ 2 H2

asked by Hannah on October 2, 2011
physics 30
Given the reaction 3 NO2(g) + H2O(l) ¨ 2 HNO3(l) + NO(g) ƒ¢rH = -72.0 kJ, calculate the molar enthalpy of reaction, rH for: 1) NO2(g) 2) H20 (l) 3) HNO3 (l) 4) NO (g) Express you answer in Kj/mol

asked by ?????halp on February 10, 2015
Chemistry
The homework question is : Calculate the Delta H for the following reaction: C6H6 + O2 -> C + H2O(l) State whether the reaction is exothermic or endothermic. I’m not sure where to go with this but so far I balanced out the formula to this C6H6 + (3/2)O2 ->

asked by Alexa on December 1, 2014

Categories

## trans-dichlorobis(ethylenediamine)platinum(iv)

Give the chemical formula for trans-dichlorobis(ethylenediamine)platinum(IV). Use (en) as the symbol for ethylenediamine.

0 0 407
Mar 30, 2012
[Pt(en)2Cl2]

0 0
posted by DrBob222
Mar 30, 2012
[PtCl2(en)2]2+

1 0
posted by Kelci
Apr 6, 2012

Categories

## langston hughes song for a dark girl

Journal eassy 4.

Topic: discuss the theme of pessimism in the three assigned of the assigned Hughes

Categories

## incremental analysis is the process of identifying the financial data that:

38. A major accounting contribution to the managerial decision-making process in evaluating

possible courses of action is to

a. assign responsibility for the decision.

b. provide relevant revenue and cost data about each course of action.

c. determine the amount of money that should be spent on a project.

d. decide which actions that management should consider.

39. Which of the following stages of the management decision-making process is improperly

sequenced?

a. Evaluate possible courses of action Æ Make decision.

b. Assign responsibility for the decision Æ Identify the problem.

c. Identify the problem Æ Determine possible courses of action.

d. Assign responsibility for decision Æ Determine possible courses of action.

40. Internal reports that review the actual impact of decisions are prepared by

b. the controller.

c. management accountants.

d. factory workers.

41. Which of the following steps in the management decision-making process does not

generally involve the managerial accountant?

a. Determine possible courses of action

b. Make the appropriate decision based on relevant data

c. Prepare internal reports that review the impact of decisions

d. None of these

The process of evaluating financial data that change under alternative courses of action is

called

a. double entry analysis.

b. contribution margin analysis.

c. incremental analysis.

d. cost-benefit analysis.

43. Nonfinancial information that management might evaluate in making a decision would not

include

a. employee turnover.

b. contribution margin.

c. the environment.

d. the corporate profile in the community.

44. Incremental analysis is synonymous with

a. difficult analysis.

b. differential analysis.

c. gross profit analysis.

d. derivative analysis.

45. In incremental analysis,

a. only costs are analyzed.

b. only revenues are analyzed.

c. both costs and revenues may be analyzed.

d. both costs and revenues that stay the same between alternate courses of action will

be analyzed.

46. Incremental analysis is most useful

a. in developing relevant information for management decisions.

b. in choosing between the net present value method and the internal rate of return

method.

c. in evaluating the master budget.

d. as a replacement technique for variance analysis.

47. The source of data to serve as inputs in incremental analysis is generated by

a. market analysts.

b. engineers.

c. accountants.

d. all of these.

Which of the following is not a true statement?

a. Incremental analysis might also be referred to as differential analysis.

b. Incremental analysis is the same as CVP analysis.

c. Incremental analysis is useful in making decisions.

d. Incremental analysis focuses on decisions that involve a choice among alternative

courses of action.

49. Incremental analysis would not be appropriate for

a. a make or buy decision.

b. an allocation of limited resource decision.

c. elimination of an unprofitable segment.

d. analysis of manufacturing variances.

Incremental analysis would be appropriate for

a. acceptance of an order at a special price.

b. a retain or replace equipment decision.

c. a sell or process further decision.

d. all of these.

51. Which of the following is a true statement about cost behaviors in incremental analysis?

1. Fixed costs will not change between alternatives.

2. Fixed costs may change between alternatives.

3. Variable costs will always change between alternatives.

a. 1

b. 2

c. 3

d. 2 and 3

52. A company is considering the following alternatives:

Alternative 1 Alternative 2

Revenues \$120,000 \$120,000

Variable costs 60,000 70,000

Fixed costs 35,000 35,000

Which of the following are relevant in choosing between the alternatives?

a. Variable costs

b. Revenues

c. Fixed costs

d. Variable costs and fixed costs

53. It costs Harmon Company \$12 of variable and \$5 of fixed costs to produce one bathroom

scale which normally sells for \$35. A foreign wholesaler offers to purchase 2,000 scales at

\$15 each. Harmon would incur special shipping costs of \$1 per scale if the order were

accepted. Harmon has sufficient unused capacity to produce the 2,000 scales. If the

special order is accepted, what will be the effect on net income?

a. \$4,000 increase

b. \$4,000 decrease

c. \$6,000 decrease

d. \$30,000 increase

Adler Company manufactures a product with a unit variable cost of \$50 and a unit sales

price of \$88. Fixed manufacturing costs were \$240,000 when 10,000 units were produced

and sold. The company has a one-time opportunity to sell an additional 1,000 units at \$70

each in a foreign market which would not affect its present sales. If the company has

sufficient capacity to produce the additional units, acceptance of the special order would

affect net income as follows:

a. Income would decrease by \$4,000.

b. Income would increase by \$4,000.

c. Income would increase by \$70,000.

d. Income would increase by \$20,000.

55. In incremental analysis,

a. costs are not relevant if they change between alternatives.

b. all costs are relevant if they change between alternatives.

c. only fixed costs are relevant.

d. only variable costs are relevant

Categories

## ece 311

Ashford 2: – Week 1 – Discussion 1

Your initial discussion thread is due on Day 3 (Thursday) and you have until Day 7 (Monday) to respond to your classmates. Your grade will reflect both the quality of your initial post and the depth of your responses. Reference the Discussion Forum Grading Rubric for guidance on how your discussion will be evaluated.

Teaching   Philosophy and Curriculum

Review the major curriculum models and approaches discussed in the chapters this week (e.g. Montessori, Reggio Emilia, Creative Curriculum, etc.).  Which model/approach most closely matches your own teaching philosophy?  Explain why.  Then, suppose that you have started a new teaching position and the curriculum you have been asked to use differs significantly from your teaching philosophy.  Explain how you will address this difference.  Your initial discussion post should be at least 200 words in length.

Guided Response: Review several of your classmates’ posts.  Respond to at least two of your classmates with advice on how to address the differences between their teaching philosophy and the required curriculum.

Categories

## a firm in a competitive market receives \$500 in total revenue and has marginal revenue of \$10.

·FIRM BEHAVIOR AND THE ORGANIZATION OF INDUSTRY

• Because a competitive firm is a price taker, its revenue is proportional to the amount of output it produces. The price of the good equals both the firm’s average revenue and its marginal revenue.

• To maximize profit, a firm chooses a quantity of output such that marginal revenue equals mar- ginal cost. Because marginal revenue for a com- petitive firm equals the market price, the firm chooses quantity so that price equals marginal cost. Thus, the firm’s marginal-cost curve is its supply curve.

• In the short run when a firm cannot recover its fixed costs, the firm will choose to shut down temporarily if the price of the good is less than average variable cost. In the long run when the firm can recover both fixed and variable costs, it

KEY CONCI.PJ:S. competitive market, p. 280 average revenue, p. 281

1. What is meant by a competitive firm? 2. Explain the difference between a firm’s revenue

and its profit. Which do firms maximize? 3. Draw the cost curves for a typical firm. For a

given price, explain how the firm chooses the level of output that maximizes profit. At that level of output, show on your graph the firm’s total revenue and total costs.

4. Under what conditions will a firm shut down temporarily? Explain.

1. Many small boats are made of fiberglass, which is derived from crude oil. Suppose that the price of oil rises. a. Using diagrams, show what happens to the

cost curves of an individual boat-making firm and to the market supply curve.

b. What happens to the profits of boat makers in the short run? What happens to the number of boat makers in the long run?

2. You go out to the best restaurant in town and order a lobster dinner for \$40. After eating half

will choose to exit if the price is less than average total cost.

• In a market with free entry and exit, profits are driven to zero in the long run. In this long-run equilibrium, all firms produce at the efficient scale, price equals the minimum of average total cost, and the number of firms adjusts to satisfy the quantity demanded at this price.

• Changes in demand have different effects over different time horizons. In the short run, an increase in demand raises prices and leads to profits, and a decrease in demand lowers prices and leads to losses. But if firms can freely enter and exit the market, then in the long run, the number of firms adjusts to drive the market back to the zero-profit equilibrium.

marginalrevenue,p.282 sunk cost, p. 286

5. Under what conditions will a firm exit a ” market? Explain. ( 6:\Does a firm’s price equal marginal cost in the ~–thort run, in the long run, or both? Explain. V Does a firm’s price equal the minimum of

average total cost in the short run, in the long run, or both? Explain.

8. Are market supply curves typically more elastic in the short run or in the long run? Explain.

of the lobster, you realize that you are quite full. . Your date wants you to finish your dinner because . you can’t take it home and because “you’ve already paid for it.” What should you do? Relate your answer to the material in this chapter.

3. Bob’s lawn-mowing service is a profit-maximizing, competitive firm. Bob mows lawns for \$27 each. His total cost each day is \$280, of which \$30 is a fixed cost. He mows 10 lawns a day. What can you say about Bob’s short-run decision regarding shutdown and his long-run decision regarding exit?

total cost and total revenue given in following table:

012 3 4 56 7

Total cost Total revenue

\$8 9 10 \$0 8 16

11 13 19 27 37 . ‘ ‘ 24 32 40 48 .Sf> ·

a. Calculate profit for each quantity. How much should the firm produce to maximize profit?

b. Calculate marginal revenue and marginal cost for each quantity. Graph them. (Hint: Put the points between whole numbers. For example, the marginal cost between 2 and 3 should be graphed at 2~.) At what quantity do these curves cross? How does this relate to your answer to part (a)?

c. Can you tell whether this firm is in a competitive industry? If so, can you tell whether the industry is in a long-run equilibrium?

5. Ball Bearings, Inc. faces costs of production as follows:

Total Total Fixed Variable

Quantity Costs Costs

0 \$100 \$ 0 1 100 50 2 100 70 3 100 90 4 100 140 5 100 200 6 100 360

a. Calculate the company’s average fixed costs, average variable costs, average total costs, an~ marginal costs at each level of production.

b. The price of a case of ball bearings is \$50. Seeing that she can’t make a profit, the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) decides to shut down operations. What are the firm’s profits/ losses? Was this a wise decision? Explain.

c. Vaguely remembering his introductory economics coutse, the Chief Financial Officer tells·the CEO it is better to produce 1 case of ball bearings, because marginal revenue equals marginal cost at that quantity. What are the firm’s profits/losses at that level of production? Was this the best decision? Explain.

6. Suppose the book-printing industry is competitive and begins in a long-run equilibrium. a. Draw a diagram describing the typical firm

in the industry. b. Hi-Tech Printing Company invents a new

process that sharply reduces the cost of

CHAPTER 14 FIRMS IN COMPETITIVE MARKETS

printing books. What happens to Hi-Tech’s profits and the price of books in the short run when Hi-Tech’s patent prevents other firms from using the new technology?

c. What happens in the long run when the pat~nt expires and other firms are free to use the technology?

7. A firm in a competitive market receives \$500 in total revenue and has marginal revenue of \$10. What is the average revenue, and how many units were sold? .

8. A profit-maximizing firm in a competitive market is currently producing 100 units of output. It has average revenue of \$10, average total cost of \$8, and fixed costs of \$200. a. What is its profit? b. What is its marginal cost? c. What is its average variable cost? d. Is the efficient scale of the firm more than,

~ less than, or exactly 100 units?

The market for fertilizer is perfectly competitive. Firms in the market are producing output, but are currently making economic losses. a. How does the price of fertilizer compare to

the· average total cost, the average variable cost, and the marginal cost of producing fertilizer?

b. Draw two graphs, side by side, illustrating the present situation for the typical firm and in the market. ‘

c. Assuming there is no change in either demand or the firms’ cost curves, explain what will happen in the long run to the price of fertilizer, marginal cost, average total cost, the quantity supplied by each firm, and the total quantity supplied to the market.

10. The market for apple pies in the city of Ectenia is competitive and has the following demand schedule:

Price Quantity Demanded

\$ 1 1.200 pies 2 1,100 3 1,000 4 %0 5 800 6 700 7 600 8 500 9 400

10. . 300

11 200 12 100 13 0 .

Categories

## every inductive argument is __________.

6Deduction and Induction: Putting It All Together

Wavebreakmedia Ltd./Thinkstock and GoldenShrimp/iStock/Thinkstock

Learning Objectives After reading this chapter, you should be able to:

1. Compare and contrast the advantages of deduction and induction.

2. Explain why one might choose an inductive argument over a deductive argument.

3. Analyze an argument for its deductive and inductive components.

4. Explain the use of induction within the hypothetico–deductive method.

5. Compare and contrast falsification and confirmation within scientific inquiry.

6. Describe the combined use of induction and deduction within scientific reasoning.

7. Explain the role of inference to the best explanation in science and in daily life.

har85668_06_c06_207-238.indd 207 4/9/15 11:38 AM

Section 6.1 Contrasting Deduction and Induction

Now that you have learned something about deduction and induction, you may be wondering why we need both. This chapter is devoted to answering that question. We will start by learn- ing a bit more about the differences between deductive and inductive reasoning and how the two types of reasoning can work together. After that, we will move on to explore how scien- tific reasoning applies to both types of reasoning to achieve spectacular results. Arguments with both inductive and deductive elements are very common. Recognizing the advantages and disadvantages of each type can help you build better arguments. We will also investigate another very useful type of inference, known as inference to the best explanation, and explore its advantages.

6.1 Contrasting Deduction and Induction Remember that in logic, the difference between induction and deduction lies in the connec- tion between the premises and conclusion. Deductive arguments aim for an absolute connec- tion, one in which it is impossible that the premises could all be true and the conclusion false. Arguments that achieve this aim are called valid. Inductive arguments aim for a probable connection, one in which, if all the premises are true, the conclusion is more likely to be true than it would be otherwise. Arguments that achieve this aim are called strong. (For a discus- sion on common misconceptions about the meanings of induction and deduction, see A Closer Look: Doesn’t Induction Mean Going From Specific to General?). Recall from Chapter 5 that inductive strength is the counterpart of deductive validity, and cogency is the inductive coun- terpart of deductive soundness. One of the purposes of this chapter is to properly understand the differences and connections between these two major types of reasoning.

There is another important difference between deductive and inductive rea- soning. As discussed in Chapter 5, if you add another premise to an induc- tive argument, the argument may become either stronger or weaker. For example, suppose you are thinking of buying a new cell phone. After looking at all your options, you decide that one model suits your needs better than the others. New information about the phone may make you either more con- vinced or less convinced that it is the right one for you—it depends on what the new information is. With deductive reasoning, by contrast, adding prem- ises to a valid argument can never render it invalid. New information may show that a deductive argument

Fuse/Thinkstock

New information can have an impact on both deductive and inductive arguments. It can render deductive arguments unsound and can strengthen or weaken inductive arguments, such as arguments for buying one car over another.

har85668_06_c06_207-238.indd 208 4/9/15 11:38 AM

Section 6.1 Contrasting Deduction and Induction

is unsound or that one of its premises is not true after all, but it cannot undermine a valid connection between the premises and the conclusion. For example, consider the following argument:

All whales are mammals. Shamu is a whale. Therefore, Shamu is a mammal.

This argument is valid, and there is nothing at all we could learn about Shamu that would change this. We might learn that we were mistaken about whales being mammals or about Shamu being a whale, but that would lead us to conclude that the argument is unsound, not invalid. Compare this to an inductive argument about Shamu.

Whales typically live in the ocean. Shamu is a whale. Therefore, Shamu lives in the ocean.

Now suppose you learn that Shamu has been trained to do tricks in front of audiences at an amusement park. This seems to make it less likely that Shamu lives in the ocean. The addition of this new information has made this strong inductive argument weaker. It is, however, pos- sible to make it stronger again with the addition of more information. For example, we could learn that Shamu was part of a captive release program.

An interesting exercise for exploring this concept is to see if you can keep adding premises to make an inductive argument stronger, then weaker, then stronger again. For example, see if you can think of a series of premises that make you change your mind back and forth about the quality of the cell phone discussed earlier.

Determining whether an argument is deductive or inductive is an important step both in evaluating arguments that you encounter and in developing your own arguments. If an argu- ment is deductive, there are really only two questions to ask: Is it valid? And, are the premises true? If you determine that the argument is valid, then only the truth of the premises remains in question. If it is valid and all of the premises are true, then we know that the argument is sound and that therefore the conclusion must be true as well.

On the other hand, because inductive arguments can go from strong to weak with the addi- tion of more information, there are more questions to consider regarding the connection between the premises and conclusion. In addition to considering the truth of the premises and the strength of the connection between the premises and conclusion, you must also con- sider whether relevant information has been left out of the premises. If so, the argument may become either stronger or weaker when the relevant information is included.

Later in this chapter we will see that many arguments combine both inductive and deductive elements. Learning to carefully distinguish between these elements will help you know what questions to ask when evaluating the argument.

har85668_06_c06_207-238.indd 209 4/9/15 11:38 AM

Section 6.1 Contrasting Deduction and Induction

A Closer Look: Doesn’t Induction Mean Going From Specific to General? A common misunderstanding of the meanings of induction and deduction is that deduction goes from the general to the specific, whereas induction goes from the specific to the gen- eral. This definition is used by some fields, but not by logic or philosophy. It is true that some deductive arguments go from general premises to specific conclusions, and that some induc- tive arguments go from the specific premises to general conclusions. However, neither state- ment is true in general.

First, although some deductive arguments go from general to specific, there are many deduc- tive arguments that do not go from general to specific. Some deductive arguments, for exam- ple, go from general to general, like the following:

All S are M. All M are P. Therefore, all S are P.

Propositional logic is deductive, but its arguments do not go from general to specific. Instead, arguments are based on the use of connectives (and, or, not, and if . . . then). For example, modus ponens (discussed in Chapter 4) does not go from the general to the spe- cific, but it is deductively valid. When it comes to inductive arguments, some—for example, inductive generalizations—go from specific to general; others do not. Statistical syllogisms, for example, go from general to specific, yet they are inductive.

This common misunderstanding about the definitions of induction and deduction is not sur- prising given the different goals of the fields in which the terms are used. However, the defini- tions used by logicians are especially suited for the classification and evaluation of different types of reasoning.

For example, if we defined terms the old way, then the category of deductive reasoning would include arguments from analogy, statistical syllogisms, and some categorical syllogisms. Inductive reasoning, on the other hand, would include only inductive generalizations. In addi- tion, there would be other types of inference that would fit into neither category, like many categorical syllogisms, inferences to the best explanation, appeals to authority, and the whole field of propositional logic.

The use of the old definitions, therefore, would not clear up or simplify the categories of logic at all but would make them more confusing. The current distinction, based on whether the premises are intended to guarantee the truth of the conclusion, does a much better job of simplifying logic’s categories, and it does so based on a very important and relevant distinction.

har85668_06_c06_207-238.indd 210 4/9/15 11:38 AM

Section 6.2 Choosing Between Induction and Deduction

Practice Problems 6.1

1. A deductive argument that establishes an absolute connection between the premises and conclusion is called a __________. a. strong argument b. weak argument c. invalid argument d. valid argument

2. An inductive argument whose premises give a lot of support for the truth of its con- clusion is said to be __________. a. strong b. weak c. valid d. invalid

3. Inductive arguments always reason from the specific to the general. a. true b. false

4. Deductive arguments always reason from the general to the specific. a. true b. false

6.2 Choosing Between Induction and Deduction You might wonder why one would choose to use inductive reasoning over deductive reason- ing. After all, why would you want to show that a conclusion was only probably true rather than guaranteed to be true? There are several reasons, which will be discussed in this sec- tion. First, there may not be an available deductive argument based on agreeable premises. Second, inductive arguments can be more robust than deductive arguments. Third, inductive arguments can be more persuasive than deductive arguments.

Availability Sometimes the best evidence available does not lend itself to a deductive argument. Let us consider a readily accepted fact: Gravity is a force that pulls everything toward the earth. How would you provide an argument for that claim? You would probably pick something up, let go of it, and note that it falls toward the earth. For added effect, you might pick up several things and show that each of them falls. Put in premise–conclusion form, your argument looks something like the following:

My coffee cup fell when I let go of it. My wallet fell when I let go of it. This rock fell when I let go of it. Therefore, everything will fall when I let go of it.

har85668_06_c06_207-238.indd 211 4/9/15 11:38 AM

Section 6.2 Choosing Between Induction and Deduction

When we put the argument that way, it should be clear that it is inductive. Even if we grant that the premises are true, it is not guaranteed that every- thing will fall when you let go of it. Perhaps grav- ity does not affect very small things or very large things. We could do more experiments, but we can- not check every single thing to make sure that it is affected by gravity. Our belief in gravity is the result of extremely strong inductive reasoning. We there- fore have great reasons to believe in gravity, even if our reasoning is not deductive.

All subjects that rely on observation use induc- tive reasoning: It is at least theoretically possible that future observations may be totally different than past ones. Therefore, our inferences based on observation are at best probable. It turns out that there are very few subjects in which we can pro- ceed entirely by deductive reasoning. These tend to be very abstract and formal subjects, such as math- ematics. Although other fields also use deductive reasoning, they do so in combination with inductive reasoning. The result is that most fields rely heavily on inductive reasoning.

Robustness Inductive arguments have some other advantages over deductive arguments. Deductive argu- ments can be extremely persuasive, but they are also fragile in a certain sense. When some- thing goes wrong in a deductive argument, if a premise is found to be false or if it is found to be invalid, there is typically not much of an argument left. In contrast, inductive arguments tend to be more robust. The robustness of an inductive argument means that it is less fragile; if there is a problem with a premise, the argument may become weaker, but it can still be quite persuasive. Deductive arguments, by contrast, tend to be completely unconvincing once they are shown not to be sound. Let us work through a couple of examples to see what this means in practice.

Consider the following deductive argument:

All dogs are mammals. Some dogs are brown. Therefore, some mammals are brown.

As it stands, the argument is sound. However, if we change a premise so that it is no longer sound, then we end up with an argument that is nearly worthless. For example, if you change the first premise to “Most dogs are mammals,” you end up with an invalid argument. Valid- ity is an all-or-nothing affair; there is no such thing as “sort of valid” or “more valid.” The

Alistair Scott/iStock/Thinkstock

Despite knowing that a helium-filled balloon will rise when we let go of it, we still hold our belief in gravity due to strong inductive reasoning and our reliance on observation.

har85668_06_c06_207-238.indd 212 4/9/15 11:38 AM

Section 6.2 Choosing Between Induction and Deduction

argument would simply be invalid and therefore unsound; it would not accomplish its pur- pose of demonstrating that the conclusion must be true. Similarly, if you were to change the second premise to something false, like “Some dogs are purple,” then the argument would be unsound and therefore would supply no reason to accept the conclusion.

In contrast, inductive arguments may retain much of their strength even when there are prob- lems with them. An inductive argument may list several reasons in support of a conclusion. If one of those reasons is found to be false, the other reasons continue to support the conclu- sion, though to a lesser degree. If an argument based on statistics shows that a particular conclusion is extremely likely to be true, the result of a problem with the argument may be that the conclusion should be accepted as only fairly likely. The argument may still give good reasons to accept the conclusion.

Fields that rely heavily on statistical arguments often have some threshold that is typically required in order for results to be publishable. In the social sciences, this is typically 90% or 95%. However, studies that do not quite meet the threshold can still be instructive and pro- vide evidence for their conclusions. If we discover a flaw that reduces our confidence in an argument, in many cases the argument may still be strong enough to meet a threshold.

As an example, consider a tweet made by President Barack Obama regarding climate change.

Although the tweet does not spell out the argument fully, it seems to have the following structure:

A study concluded that 97% of scientists agree that climate change is real, man-made, and dangerous. Therefore, 97% of scientists really do agree that climate change is real, man- made, and dangerous. Therefore, climate change is real, man-made, and dangerous.

Given the politically charged nature of the discussion of climate change, it is not surprising that the president’s argument and the study it referred to received considerable criticism. (You can read the study at http://iopscience.iop.org/1748–9326/8/2/024024/pdf/1748 –9326_8_2_024024.pdf.) Looking at the effect some of those criticisms have on the argument is a good way to see how inductive arguments can be more robust than deductive ones.

One criticism of Obama’s claim is that the study he referenced did not say anything about whether climate change was dangerous, only about whether it was real and man-made. How does this affect the argument? Strictly speaking, it makes the first premise false. But notice that even so, the argument can still give good evidence that climate change is real and

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Section 6.2 Choosing Between Induction and Deduction

man-made. Since climate change, by its nature, has a strong potential to be dangerous, the argument is weakened but still may give strong evidence for its conclusion.

A deeper criticism notes that the study did not find out what all scientists thought; it just looked at those scientists who expressed an opinion in their published work or in response to a voluntary survey. This is a significant criticism, for it may expose a bias in the sampling method (as discussed in Chapters 5, 7, and 8). Even granting the criticism, the argument can retain some strength. The fact that 97% of scientists who expressed an opinion on the issue said that climate change is real and man-made is still some reason to think that it is real and man-made. Of course, some scientists may have chosen not to voice an opposing opinion for reasons that have nothing to do with their beliefs about climate change; they may have simply wanted to keep their views private, for example. Taking all of this into account, we get the fol- lowing argument:

A study found that 97% of scientists who stated their opinion said that cli- mate change is real and man-made. Therefore, 97% of scientists agree that climate change is real and man-made. Climate change, if real, is dangerous. Therefore, climate change is real, man-made, and dangerous.

This is not nearly as strong as the original argument, but it has not collapsed entirely in the way a purely deductive argument would. There is, of course, much more that could be said about this argument, both in terms of criticizing the study and in terms of responding to those criticisms and bringing in other considerations. The point here is merely to highlight the dif- ference between deductive and inductive arguments, not to settle issues in climate science or public policy.

Persuasiveness A final point in favor of inductive reasoning is that it can often be more persuasive than deduc- tive reasoning. The persuasiveness of an argument is based on how likely it is to convince someone of the truth of its conclusion. Consider the following classic argument:

All Greeks are mortal. Socrates was a Greek. Therefore, Socrates was mortal.

Is this a good argument? From the standpoint of logic, it is a perfect argument: It is deduc- tively valid, and its premises are true, so it is sound (therefore, its conclusion must be true). However, can you persuade anyone with this argument?

Imagine someone wondering whether Socrates was mortal. Could you use this argument to convince him or her that Socrates was mortal? Probably not. The argument is so simple and

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Section 6.2 Choosing Between Induction and Deduction

so obviously valid that anyone who accepts the premises likely already accepts the conclu- sion. So if someone is wondering about the conclusion, it is unlikely that he or she will be persuaded by these premises. He or she may, for example, remember that some legendary Greeks, such as Hercules, were granted immortality and wonder whether Socrates was one of these. The deductive approach, therefore, is unlikely to win anyone over to the conclusion here. On the other hand, consider a very similar inductive argument.

Of all the real and mythical Greeks, only a few were considered to be immortal. Socrates was a Greek. Therefore, it is extremely unlikely that Socrates was immortal.

Again, the reasoning is very simple. However, in this case, we can imagine someone who had been wondering about Socrates’s mortality being at least somewhat persuaded that he was mortal. More will likely need to be said to fully persuade her or him, but this simple argument may have at least some persuasive power where its deductive version likely does not.

Of course, deductive arguments can be persuasive, but they generally need to be more com- plicated or subtle in order to be so. Persuasion requires that a person change his or her mind to some degree. In a deductive argument, when the connection between premises and conclu- sion is too obvious, the argument is unlikely to persuade because the truth of the premises will be no more obvious than the truth of the conclusion. Therefore, even if the argument is valid, someone who questions the truth of the conclusion will often be unlikely to accept the truth of the premises, so she or he may be unpersuaded by the argument. Suppose, for example, that we wanted to convince someone that the sun will rise tomorrow morning. The deductive argument may look like this:

The sun will always rise in the morning. Therefore, the sun will rise tomorrow morning.

One problem with this argument, as with the Socrates argument, is that its premise seems to assume the truth of the conclusion (and therefore commits the fallacy of begging the ques- tion, as discussed in Chapter 7), making the argument unpersuasive. Additionally, however, the premise might not even be true. What if, billions of years from now, the earth is swallowed up into the sun after it expands to become a red giant? At that time, the whole concept of morning may be out the window. If this is true then the first premise may be technically false. That means that the argument is unsound and therefore fairly worthless deductively.

The inductive version, however, does not lose much strength at all after we learn of this trou- bling information:

The sun has risen in the morning every day for millions of years. Therefore, the sun will rise again tomorrow morning.

This argument remains extremely strong (and persuasive) regardless of what will happen billions of years in the future.

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Section 6.3 Combining Induction and Deduction

Practice Problems 6.2

1. Which form of reasoning is taking place in this example?

The sun has risen every day of my life. The sun rose today. Therefore, the sun will rise tomorrow.

a. inductive b. deductive

2. Inductive arguments __________. a. can retain strength even with false premises b. collapse when a premise is shown to be false c. are equivalent to deductive arguments d. strive to be valid

3. Deductive arguments are often __________. a. less persuasive than inductive arguments b. more persuasive than inductive arguments c. weaker than inductive arguments d. less valid than inductive arguments

4. Inductive arguments are sometimes used because __________. a. the available evidence does not allow for a deductive argument b. they are more likely to be sound than deductive ones c. they are always strong d. they never have false premises

6.3 Combining Induction and Deduction You may have noticed that most of the examples we have explored have been fairly short and simple. Real-life arguments tend to be much longer and more complicated. They also tend to mix inductive and deductive elements. To see how this might work, let us revisit an example from the previous section.

All Greeks are mortal. Socrates was Greek. Therefore, Socrates was mortal.

As we noted, this simple argument is valid but unlikely to convince anyone. So suppose now that someone questioned the premises, asking what reasons there are for thinking that all Greeks are mortal or that Socrates was Greek. How might we respond?

We might begin by noting that, although we cannot check each and every Greek to be sure he or she is mortal, there are no documented cases of any Greek, or any other human, living more

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Section 6.3 Combining Induction and Deduction

than 200 years. In contrast, every case that we can document is a case in which the person dies at some point. So, although we cannot absolutely prove that all Greeks are mortal, we have good reason to believe it. We might put our argument in standard form as follows:

We know the mortality of a huge number of Greeks. In each of these cases, the Greek is mortal. Therefore, all Greeks are mortal.

This is an inductive argument. Even though it is theoretically possible that the conclusion might still be false, the premises provide a strong reason to accept the conclusion. We can now combine the two arguments into a single, larger argument:

We know the mortality of a huge number of Greeks. In each of these cases, the Greek is mortal. Therefore, all Greeks are mortal. Socrates was Greek. Therefore, Socrates was mortal.

This argument has two parts. The first argument, leading to the subconclusion that all Greeks are mortal, is inductive. The second argument (whose conclusion is “Socrates was mortal”) is deductive. What about the overall reasoning presented for the conclusion that Socrates was mortal (combining both arguments); is it inductive or deductive?

The crucial issue is whether the prem- ises guarantee the truth of the conclu- sion. Because the basic premise used to arrive at the conclusion is that all of the Greeks whose mortality we know are mortal, the overall reasoning is inductive. This is how it generally works. As noted earlier, when an argu- ment has both inductive and deductive components, the overall argument is generally inductive. There are occa- sional exceptions to this general rule, so in particular cases, you still have to check whether the premises guarantee the conclusion. But, almost always, the longer argument will be inductive.

Fran/Cartoonstock

Sometimes a simple deductive argument needs to be combined with a persuasive inductive argument to convince others to accept it.

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Section 6.4 Reasoning About Science: The Hypothetico–Deductive Method

A similar thing happens when we combine inductive arguments of different strength. In gen- eral, an argument is only as strong as its weakest part. You can think of each inference in an argument as being like a link in a chain. A chain is only as strong as its weakest link.

6.4 Reasoning About Science: The Hypothetico– Deductive Method Science is one of the most successful endeavors of the modern world, and arguments play a central role in it. Science uses both deductive and inductive reasoning extensively. Scientific reasoning is a broad field in itself—and this chapter will only touch on the basics—but dis- cussing scientific reasoning will provide good examples of how to apply what we have learned about inductive and deductive arguments.

At some point, you may have learned or heard of the scientific method, which often refers to how scientists systematically form, test, and modify hypotheses. It turns out that there is not a single method that is universally used by all scientists.

In a sense, science is the ultimate critical thinking experiment. Scientists use a wide variety of reasoning techniques and are constantly examining those techniques to make sure that the conclusions drawn are justified by the premises—that is exactly what a good critical thinker should do in any subject. The next two sections will explore two such methods—the hypothetico–deductive method and inferences to the best explanation—and discover ways that they can improve our understanding of the types of reasoning used in much of science.

The hypothetico–deductive method consists of four steps:

1. Formulate a hypothesis. 2. Deduce a consequence from the hypothesis. 3. Test whether the consequence occurs. 4. Reject the hypothesis if the consequence does not occur.

Although these four steps are not sufficient to explain all scientific reasoning, they still remain a core part of much discussion of how science works. You may recognize them as part of the scientific method that you likely learned about in school. Let us take a look at each step in turn.

Practice Problem 6.3

1. When an argument contains both inductive and deductive elements, the entire argu- ment is considered deductive. a. true b. false

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Section 6.4 Reasoning About Science: The Hypothetico–Deductive Method

Step 1: Formulate a Hypothesis A hypothesis is a conjecture about how some part of the world works. Although the phrase “educated guess” is often used, it can give the impression that a hypothesis is simply guessed without much effort. In reality, scientific hypotheses are formulated on the basis of a back- ground of quite a bit of knowledge and experience; a good scientific hypothesis often comes after years of prior investigation, thought, and research about the issue at hand.

You may have heard the expression “necessity is the mother of invention.” Often, hypotheses are formulated in response to a problem that needs to be solved. Suppose you are unsatisfied with the performance of your car and would like better fuel economy. Rather than buy a new car, you try to figure out how to improve the one you have. You guess that you might be able to improve your car’s fuel economy by using a higher grade of gas. Your guess is not just random; it is based on what you already know or believe about how cars work. Your hypothesis is that higher grade gas will improve your fuel economy.

Of course, science is not really concerned with your car all by itself. Science is concerned with general principles. A scientist would reword your hypothesis in terms of a general rule, something like, “Increasing fuel octane increases fuel economy in automobiles.” The hypothetico–deductive method can work with either kind of hypothesis, but the general hypothesis is more interesting scientifically.

Step 2: Deduce a Consequence From the Hypothesis Your hypothesis from step 1 should have predictive value: Things should be different in some noticeable way, depending on whether the hypothesis is true or false. Our hypothesis is that increasing fuel octane improves fuel economy. If this general fact is true, then it is true for your car. So from our general hypothesis we can deduce the consequence that your car will get more miles per gallon if it is running on higher octane fuel.

It is often but not always the case that the prediction is a more specific case of the hypothesis. In such cases it is possible to infer the prediction deductively from the general hypothesis. The argument may go as follows:

Hypothesis: All things of type A have characteristic B.

Consequence (the prediction): Therefore, this specific thing of type A will have characteristic B.

Since the argument is deductively valid, there is a strong connection between the hypothesis and the prediction. However, not all predictions can be deductively inferred. In such cases we can get close to the hypothetico–deductive method by using a strong inductive inference instead. For example, suppose the argument went as follows:

Hypothesis: 95% of things of type A have characteristic B.

Consequence: Therefore, a specific thing of type A will probably have charac- teristic B.

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Section 6.4 Reasoning About Science: The Hypothetico–Deductive Method

In such cases the connection between the hypothesis and the prediction is less strong. The stronger the connection that can be established, the better for the reliability of the test. Essen- tially, you are making an argument for the conditional statement “If H, then C,” where H is your hypothesis and C is a consequence of the hypothesis. The more solid the connection is between H and C, the stronger the overall argument will be.

In this specific case, “If H, then C” translates to “If increasing fuel octane increases fuel econ- omy in all cars, then using higher octane fuel in your car will increase its fuel economy.” The truth of this conditional is deductively certain.

We can now test the truth of the hypothesis by testing the truth of the consequence.

Step 3: Test Whether the Consequence Occurs Your prediction (the consequence) is that your car will get better fuel economy if you use a higher grade of fuel. How will you test this? You may think this is obvious: Just put better gas in the car and record your fuel economy for a period before and after changing the type of gas you use. However, there are many other factors to consider. How long should the period of time be? Fuel economy varies depending on the kind of driving you do and many other factors. You need to choose a length of time for which you can be reasonably confident the driving conditions are similar on average. You also need to account for the fact that the first tank of better gas you put in will be mixed with some of the lower grade gas that is still in your tank. The more you can address these and other issues, the more certain you can be that your conclusion is correct.

In this step, you are constructing an inductive argument from the outcome of your test as to whether your car actually did get better fuel economy. The arguments in this step are induc- tive because there is always some possibility that you have not adequately addressed all of the relevant issues. If you do notice better fuel economy, it is always possible that the increase in economy is due to some factor other than the one you are tracking. The possibility may be very small, but it is enough to make this kind of argument inductive rather than deductive.

Step 4: Reject the Hypothesis If the Consequence Does Not Occur We now compare the results to the prediction and find out if the prediction came true. If your test finds that your car’s fuel economy does not improve when you use higher octane fuel, then you know your prediction was wrong.

Does this mean that your hypothesis, H, was wrong? That depends on the strength of the con- nection between H and C. If the inference from H to C is deductively certain, then we know for sure that, if H is true, then C must be true also. Therefore, if C is false, it follows logically that H must be false as well.

In our specific case, if your car does not get better fuel economy by switching to higher octane fuel, then we know for sure that it is not true that all cars get better fuel economy by doing so. However, if the inference from H to C is inductive, then the connection between H and C is less than totally certain. So if we find that C is false, we are not absolutely sure that the hypothesis, H, is false.

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Section 6.4 Reasoning About Science: The Hypothetico–Deductive Method

For example, suppose that the hypothesis is that cars that use higher octane fuel will have a higher tendency to get better fuel mileage. In that case if your car does not get higher gas mileage, then you still cannot infer for certain that the hypothesis is false. To test that hypothesis adequately, you would have to do a large study with many cars. Such a study would be much more complicated, but it could provide very strong evidence that the hypoth- esis is false.

It is important to note that although the falsity of the prediction can dem- onstrate that the hypothesis is false, the truth of the prediction does not prove that the hypothesis is true. If you find that your car does get better fuel economy when you switch gas, you cannot conclude that your hypothesis is true.

Why? There may be other factors at play for which you have not ade- quately accounted. Suppose that at the same time you switch fuel grade, you also get a tune-up and new tires and start driving a completely different route to work. Any one of these things might be the cause of the improved gas mileage; you cannot conclude that it is due to the change in fuel (for this rea- son, when conducting experiments it is best to change only one variable at a time and carefully control the rest). In

other words, in the hypothetico–deductive method, failed tests can show that a hypothesis is wrong, but tests that succeed do not show that the hypothesis was correct.

This logic is known as falsification; it can be demonstrated clearly by looking at the structure of the argument. When a test yields a negative result, the hypothetico–deductive method sets up the following argument:

If H, then C. Not C. Therefore, not H.

You may recognize this argument form as modus tollens, or denying the consequent, which was discussed in the chapter on propositional logic (Chapter 4). This argument form is a valid, deductive form. Therefore, if both of these premises are true, then we can be certain that the conclusion is true as well; namely, that our hypothesis, H, is not true. In the specific case at hand, if your test shows that higher octane fuel does not increase your mileage, then we can be sure that it is not true that it improves mileage in all vehicles (though it may improve it in some).

IPGGutenbergUKLtd/iStock/Thinkstock

At best, the fuel economy hypothesis will be a strong inductive argument because there is a chance that something other than higher octane gas is improving fuel economy. The more you can address relevant issues that may impact your test results, the stronger your conclusions will be.

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Section 6.4 Reasoning About Science: The Hypothetico–Deductive Method

Contrast this with the argument form that results when your fuel economy yields a positive result:

If H, then C. C. Therefore, H.

This argument is not valid. In fact, you may recognize this argument form as the invalid deduc- tive form called affirming the consequent (see Chapter 4). It is possible that the two premises are true, but the conclusion false. Perhaps, for example, the improvement in fuel economy was caused by a change in tires or different driving conditions instead. So the hypothetico –deductive method can be used only to reject a hypothesis, not to confirm it. This fact has led many to see the primary role of science to be the falsification of hypotheses. Philosopher Karl Popper is a central source for this view (see A Closer Look: Karl Popper and Falsification in Science).

A Closer Look: Karl Popper and Falsification in Science Karl Popper, one of the most influential philosophers of sci- ence to emerge from the early 20th century, is perhaps best known for rejecting the idea that scientific theories could be proved by simply finding confirming evidence—the prevail- ing philosophy at the time. Instead, Popper emphasized that claims must be testable and falsifiable in order to be consid- ered scientific.

A claim is testable if we can devise a way of seeing if it is true or not. We can test, for instance, that pure water will freeze at 0°C at sea level; we cannot currently test the claim that the oceans in another galaxy taste like root beer. We have no realistic way to determine the truth or falsity of the second claim.

A claim is said to be falsifiable if we know how one could show it to be false. For instance, “there are no wild kangaroos in Georgia” is a falsifiable claim; if one went to Georgia and found some wild kangaroos, then it would have been shown to be false. But what if someone claimed that there are ghosts in Georgia but that they are imperceptible (unseeable, unfeel- able, unhearable, etc.)? Could one ever show that this claim is false? Since such a claim could not conceivably be shown to be false, it is said to be unfalsifiable. While being unfalsifiable might sound like a good thing, according to Popper it is not, because it means that the claim is unscientific.

Following Popper, most scientists today operate with the assumption that any scientific hypothesis must be testable and must be the kind of claim that one could possibly show to be false. So if a claim turns out not to be conceivably falsifiable, the claim is not really scientific—and some philosophers have gone so far as to regard such claims as meaningless (Thornton, 2014).

Keystone/Getty Images

Karl Popper, a 20th- century philosopher of science, put forth the idea that unfalsifiable claims are unscientific.

(continued)

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Section 6.4 Reasoning About Science: The Hypothetico–Deductive Method

As an example, suppose a friend claims that “everything works out for the best.” Then suppose that you have the worst month of your life, and you go back to your friend and say that the claim is false: Not everything is for the best. Your friend might then reply that in fact it was for the best because you learned from the experience. Such a statement may make you feel better, but it runs afoul of Popper’s rule. Can you imagine any circumstance that your friend would not claim is for the best? Since your friend would probably say that it was for the best no mat- ter what happens, your friend’s claim is unfalsifiable and therefore unscientific.

In logic, claims that are interpreted so that they come out true no matter what happens are called self-sealing propositions. They are understood as being internally protected against any objections. People who state such claims may feel that they are saying something deeply meaningful, but according to Popper’s rule, since the claim could never be falsified no matter what, it does not really tell us anything at all.

Other examples of self-sealing propositions occur within philosophy itself. There is a philo- sophical theory known as psychological egoism, for example, which teaches that everything everyone does is completely selfish. Most people respond to this claim by coming up with examples of unselfish acts: giving to the needy, spending time helping others, and even dying to save someone’s life. The psychological egoist predictably responds to all such examples by stating that people who do such things really just do them in order to feel better about them- selves. It appears that the word selfish is being interpreted so that everything everyone does will automatically be considered selfish by definition. It is therefore a self-sealing claim (Rachels, 1999). According to Popper’s method, since this claim will always come out true no mat- ter what, it is unfalsifiable and unscientific. Such claims are always true but are actually empty because they tell us nothing about the world. They can even be said to be “too true to be good.”

Popper’s explorations of scientific hypotheses and what it means to confirm or disconfirm such hypotheses have been very influential among both scientists and philosophers of scien- tists. Scientists do their best to avoid making claims that are not falsifiable.

A Closer Look: Karl Popper and Falsification in Science (continued)

If the hypothetico-deductive method cannot be used to confirm a hypothesis, how can this test give evidence for the truth of the claim? By failing to falsify the claim. Though the hypo- thetico–deductive method does not ever specifically prove the hypothesis true, if research- ers try their hardest to refute a claim but it keeps passing the test (not being refuted), then there can grow a substantial amount of inductive evidence for the truth of the claim. If you repeatedly test many cars and control for other variables, and if every time cars are filled with higher octane gas their fuel economy increases, you may have strong inductive evidence that the hypothesis might be true (in which case you may make an inference to the best explana- tion, which will be discussed in Section 6.5).

Experiments that would have the highest chance of refuting the claim if it were false thus provide the strongest inductive evidence that it may be true. For example, suppose we want to test the claim that all swans are white. If we only look for swans at places in which they are known to be white, then we are not providing a strong test for the claim. The best thing to do (short of observing every swan in the whole world) is to try as hard as we can to refute the claim, to find a swan that is not white. If our best methods of looking for nonwhite swans still fail to refute the claim, then there is a growing likelihood that perhaps all swans are indeed white.

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Section 6.4 Reasoning About Science: The Hypothetico–Deductive Method

Similarly, if we want to test to see if a certain type of medicine cures a certain type of dis- ease, we test the product by giving the medicine to a wide variety of patients with the dis- ease, including those with the least likelihood of being cured by the medicine. Only by trying as hard as we can to refute the claim can we get the strongest evidence about whether all instances of the disease are treatable with the medicine in question.

Notice that the hypothetico–deductive method involves a combination of inductive and deductive reasoning. Step 1 typically involves inductive reasoning as we formulate a hypoth- esis against the background of our current beliefs and knowledge. Step 2 typically provides a deductive argument for the premise “If H, then C.” Step 3 provides an inductive argument for whether C is or is not true. Finally, if the prediction is falsified, then the conclusion—that H is false—is derived by a deductive inference (using the deductively valid modus tollens form). If, on the other hand, the best attempts to prove C to be false fail to do so, then there is growing evidence that H might be true.

Therefore, our overall argument has both inductive and deductive elements. It is valuable to know that, although the methodology of science involves research and experimentation that goes well beyond the scope of pure logic, we can use logic to understand and clarify the basic principles of scientific reasoning.

Practice Problems 6.4

1. A hypothesis is __________. a. something that is a mere guess b. something that is often arrived at after a lot of research c. an unnecessary component of the scientific method d. something that is already solved

2. In a scientific experiment, __________. a. the truth of the prediction guarantees that the hypothesis was correct b. the truth of the prediction negates the possibility of the hypothesis being correct c. the truth of the prediction can have different levels of probability in relation to

the hypothesis being correct d. the truth of the prediction is of little importance

3. The argument form that is set up when a test yields negative results is __________. a. disjunctive syllogism b. modus ponens c. hypothetical syllogism d. modus tollens

4. A claim is testable if __________. a. we know how one could show it to be false b. we know how one could show it to be true c. we cannot determine a way to prove it false d. we can determine a way to see if it is true or false

(continued)

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Section 6.5 Inference to the Best Explanation

5. Which of the following claims is not falsifiable? a. The moon is made of cheese. b. There is an invisible alien in my garage. c. Octane ratings in gasoline influence fuel economy. d. The Willis Tower is the tallest building in the world.

Practice Problems 6.4 (continued)

6.5 Inference to the Best Explanation You may feel that if you were very careful about testing your fuel economy, you would be entitled to conclude that the change in fuel grade really did have an effect. Unfortunately, as we have seen, the hypothetico–deductive method does not support this inference. The best you can say is that changing fuel might have an effect; that you have not been able to show that it does not have an effect. The method does, however, lend inductive support to which- ever hypothesis withstands the falsification test better than any other. One way of articulating this type of support is with an inference pattern known as inference to the best explanation.

As the name suggests, inference to the best explanation draws a conclusion based on what would best explain one’s observations. It is an extremely important form of inference that we use every day of our lives. This type of inference is often called abductive reasoning, a term pioneered by American logician Charles Sanders Peirce (Douven, 2011).

Suppose that you are in your backyard gazing at the stars. Suddenly, you see some flashing lights hovering above you in the sky. You do not hear any sound, so it does not appear that the lights are coming from a helicopter. What do you think it is? What happens next is abductive reasoning: Your brain searches among all kinds of possibilities to attempt to come up with the most likely explanation.

One possibility is that it is an alien spacecraft coming to get you (one could joke that this is why it is called abductive reasoning). Another possibility is that it is some kind of military vessel or a weather balloon. A more extreme hypothesis is that you are actually dreaming the whole thing.

Notice that what you are inclined to believe depends on your existing beliefs. If you already think that alien spaceships come to Earth all the time, then you may arrive at that conclusion with a high degree of certainty (you may even shout, “Take me with you!”). However, if you are somewhat skeptical of those kinds of theories, then you will try hard to find any other explanation. Therefore, the strength of a particular inference to the best explanation can be measured only in relation to the rest of the things that we already believe.

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Section 6.5 Inference to the Best Explanation

This type of inference does not occur only in unusual circumstances like the one described. In fact, we make infer- ences to the best explanation all the time. Returning to our fuel economy example from the previous section, suppose that you test a higher octane fuel and notice that your car gets bet- ter gas mileage. It is possible that the mileage change is due to the change in fuel. However, as noted there, it is possible that there is another expla- nation. Perhaps you are not driving in stop-and-go traffic as much. Perhaps you are driving with less weight in the car. The careful use of inference to the best explanation can help us to discern what is the most likely among many possibilities (for more examples, see A Closer Look: Is Abductive Reasoning Everywhere?).

If you look at the range of possible explanations and find one of them is more likely than any of the others, inference to the best explanation allows you to conclude that this explanation is likely to be the correct one. If you are driving the same way, to the same places, and with the same weight in your car as before, it seems fairly likely that it was the change in fuel that caused the improvement in fuel economy (if you have studied Mill’s methods in Chapter 5, you should recognize this as the method of difference). Inference to the best explanation is the engine that powers many inductive techniques.

The great fictional detective Sherlock Holmes, for example, is fond of claiming that he uses deductive reasoning. Chapter 2 suggested that Holmes instead uses inductive reasoning. However, since Holmes comes up with the most reasonable explanation of observed phe- nomena, like blood on a coat, for example, he is actually doing abductive reasoning. There is some dispute about whether inference to the best explanation is inductive or whether it is an entirely different kind of argument that is neither inductive nor deductive. For our purposes, it is treated as inductive.

Image Asset Management/SuperStock

Sherlock Holmes often used abductive reasoning, not deductive reasoning, to solve his mysteries.

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Section 6.5 Inference to the Best Explanation

A Closer Look: Is Abductive Reasoning Everywhere? Some see inference to the best explanation as the most common type of inductive inference. A few of the inferences we have discussed in this book, for example, can potentially be cast as examples of inferences to the best explanation.

For example, appeals to authority (discussed in Chapter 5) can be seen as implicitly using inference to the best explanation (Harman, 1965). If you accept something as true because someone said it was, then you can be described as seeing the truth of the claim as the best explanation for why he or she said it. If we have good reason to think that the person was deluded or lying, then we are less certain of this conclusion because there are other likely explanations of why the person said it.

Furthermore, it is possible to see what we do when we interpret people’s words as a kind of inference to the best explanation of what they probably mean (Hobbs, 2004). If your neighbor says, “You are so funny,” for instance, we might use the context and tone to decide what he means by “funny” and why he is saying it (and whether he is being sarcastic). His comment can be seen as either rude or flattering, depending on what explanation we give for why he said it and what he meant.

Even the classic inductive inference pattern of inductive generalization can possibly be seen as implicitly involving a kind of inference to the best explanation: The best explanation of why our sample population showed that 90% of students have laptops is probably that 90% of all students have laptops. If there is good evidence that our sample was biased, then there would be a good competing explanation of our data.

Finally, much of scientific inference may be seen as trying to provide the best explanation for our observations (McMullin, 1992). Many hypotheses are attempts to explain observed phe- nomena. Testing them in such cases could then be seen as being done in the service of seeking the best explanation of why certain things are the way they are.

Take a look at the following examples of everyday inferences and see if they seem to involve arriving at the conclusion because it seems to offer the most likely explanation of the truth of the premise:

• “John is smiling; he must be happy.” • “My phone says that Julie is calling, so it is probably Julie.” • “I see a brown Labrador across the street; my neighbor’s dog must have gotten out.” • “This movie has great reviews; it must be good.” • “The sky is getting brighter; it must be morning.” • “I see shoes that look like mine by the door; I apparently left my shoes there.” • “She still hasn’t called back yet; she probably doesn’t like me.” • “It smells good; someone is cooking a nice dinner.” • “My congressperson voted against this bill I support; she must have been afraid of

offending her wealthy donors.” • “The test showed that the isotopes in the rock surrounding newly excavated bones had

decayed X amount; therefore, the animals from which the bones came must have been here about 150 million years ago.”

These examples, and many others, suggest to some that inference to the explanation may be the most common form of reasoning that we use (Douven, 2011). Do you agree? Whether you agree with these expanded views on the role of inference or not, it clearly makes an enormous contribution to how we understand the world around us.

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Section 6.5 Inference to the Best Explanation

Form Inferences to the best explanation generally involve the following pattern of reasoning:

X has been observed to be true. Y would provide an explanation of why X is true. No other explanation for X is as likely as Y. Therefore, Y is probably true.

One strange thing about inferences to the best explanation is that they are often expressed in the form of a common fallacy, as follows:

If P is the case, then Q would also be true. Q is true. Therefore, P is probably true.

This pattern is the logical form of a deductive fallacy known as affirming the consequent (discussed in Chapter 4). Therefore, we sometimes have to use the principle of charity to determine whether the person is attempting to provide an inference to the best explanation or making a simple deductive error. The principle of charity will be discussed in detail in Chapter 9; however, for our purposes here, you can think of it as giving your opponent and his or her argument the benefit of the doubt.

For example, the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle reasoned as follows: “The world must be spherical, for the night sky looks different in the northern and southern regions, and that would be the case if the earth were spherical” (as cited in Wolf, 2004). His argument appears to have this structure:

If the earth is spherical, then the night sky would look different in the north- ern and southern regions. The night sky does look different in the northern and southern regions. Therefore, the earth is spherical.

It is not likely that Aristotle, the founding father of formal logic, would have made a mistake as silly as to affirm the consequent. It is far more likely that he was using inference to the best explanation. It is logically possible that there are other explanations for southern stars moving higher in the sky as one moves south, but it seems far more likely that it is due to the shape of the earth. Aristotle was just practicing strong abductive reasoning thousands of years before Columbus sailed the ocean blue (even Columbus would have had to use this type of reasoning, for he would have had to infer why he did not sail off the edge).

In more recent times, astronomers are still using inference to the best explanation to learn about the heavens. Let us consider the case of discovering planets outside our solar system, known as “exoplanets.” There are many methods employed to discover planets orbiting other stars. One of them, the radial velocity method, uses small changes in the frequency of light a

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Section 6.5 Inference to the Best Explanation

star emits. A star with a large planet orbiting it will wobble a little bit as the planet pulls on the star. That wobble will result in a pattern of changes in the frequency of light coming from the star. When astronomers see this pattern, they conclude that there is a planet orbiting the star. We can more fully explicate this reasoning in the following way:

That star’s light changes in a specific pattern. Something must explain the changes. A large planet orbiting the star would explain the changes. No other explanation is as likely as the explanation provided by the large planet. Therefore, that star probably has a large planet orbiting it.

The basic idea is that if there must be an explanation, and one of the available explanations is better than all the others, then that explanation is the one that is most likely to be true. The key issue here is that the explanation inferred in the conclusion has to be the best explana- tion available. If another explanation is as good—or better—then the inference is not nearly as strong.

Virtue of Simplicity Another way to think about inferences to the best explanation is that they choose the simplest explanation from among otherwise equal explanations. In other words, if two theories make the same prediction, the one that gives the simplest explanation is usually the best one. This standard for comparing scientific theories is known as Occam’s razor, because it was origi- nally posited by William of Ockham in the 14th century (Gibbs & Hiroshi, 1997).

A great example of this principle is Galileo’s demonstration that the sun, not the earth, is at the center of the solar system. Galileo’s theory provided the simplest explanation of observa- tions about the planets. His heliocentric model, for example, provides a simpler explanation for the phases of Venus and why some of the planets appear to move backward (retrograde motion) than does the geocentric model. Geocentric astronomers tried to explain both of these with the idea that the planets sometimes make little loops (called epicycles) within their orbits (Gronwall, 2006). While it is certainly conceivable that they do make little loops, it seems to make the theory unnecessarily complex, because it requires a type of motion with no independent explanation of why it occurs, whereas Galileo’s theory does not require such extra assumptions.

Therefore, putting the sun at the center allows one to explain observed phenomena in the most simple manner possible, without making ad hoc assumptions (like epicycles) that today seem absurd. Galileo’s theory was ultimately correct, and he demonstrated it with strong inductive (more specifically, abductive) reasoning. (For another example of Occam’s razor at work, see A Closer Look: Abductive Reasoning and the Matrix.)

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Section 6.5 Inference to the Best Explanation

A Closer Look: Abductive Reasoning and the Matrix One of the great questions from the history of philosophy is, “How do we know that the world exists outside of us as we perceive it?” We see a tree and we infer that it exists, but do we actu- ally know for sure that it exists? The argument seems to go as follows:

I see a tree. Therefore, a tree exists.

This inference, however, is invalid; it is possible for the premise to be true and the conclusion false. For example, we could be dreaming. Perhaps we think that the testimony of our other senses will make the argument valid:

I see a tree, I hear a tree, I feel a tree, and I smell a tree. Therefore, a tree exists.

However, this argument is still invalid; it is pos- sible that we could be dreaming all of those things as well. Some people state that senses like smell do not exist within dreams, but how do we know that is true? Perhaps we only dreamed that someone said that! In any case, even that would not rescue our argument, for there is an even stronger way to make the premise true and the conclusion false: What if your brain is actually in a vat somewhere attached to a computer, and a scientist is directly controlling all of your perceptions? (Or think of the 1999 movie The Matrix, in which humans are living in a simulated reality created by machines.)

One individual who struggled with these types of questions (though there were no computers back then) was a French philosopher named René Des- cartes. He sought a deductive proof that the world outside of us is real, despite these types of disturbing possibilities (Descartes, 1641/1993). He eventually came up with one of philoso- phy’s most famous arguments, “I think, therefore, I am” (or, more precisely, “I am thinking, therefore, I exist”), and from there attempted to prove that the world must exist outside of him.

Many philosophers feel that Descartes did a great job of raising difficult questions, but most feel that he failed in his attempt to find deductive proof of the world outside of our minds. Other philosophers, including David Hume, despaired of the possibility of a proof that we know that there is a world outside of us and became skeptics: They decided that absolute knowledge of a world outside of us is impossible (Hume, 1902).

However, perhaps the problem is not the failure of the particular arguments but the type of reasoning employed. Perhaps the solution is not deductive at all but rather abductive. It is not that it is logically impossible that tables and chairs and trees (and even other people) do not really exist; it is just that their actual existence provides the best explanation of our experi- ences. Consider these competing explanations of our experiences:

• We are dreaming this whole thing. • We are hallucinating all of this.

In The Matrix, we learn that our world is simulated by machines, and although we can see X, hear X, and feel X, X does not exist.

(continued)

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Section 6.5 Inference to the Best Explanation

• Our brains are in a vat being controlled by a scientist. • Light waves are bouncing off the molecules on the surface of the tree and entering our

eyeballs, where they are turned into electrical impulses that travel along neurons into our brains, somehow causing us to have the perception of a tree.

It may seem at first glance that the final option is the most complex and so should be rejected. However, let us take a closer look. The first two options do not offer much of an explanation for the details of our experience. They do not tell us why we are seeing a tree rather than some- thing else or nothing at all. The third option seems to assume that there is a real world some- where from which these experiences are generated (that is, the lab with the scientist in it). The full explanation of how things work in that world presumably must involve some complex laws of physics as well. There is no obvious reason to think that such an account would require fewer assumptions than an account of the world as we see it. Hence, all things considered, if our goal is to create a full explanation of reality, the final option seems to give the best account of why we are seeing the tree. It explains our observations without needless extra assumptions.

Therefore, if knowledge is assumed only to be deductive, then perhaps we do not know (with absolute deductive certainty) that there is a world outside of us. However, when we consider abductive knowledge, our evidence for the existence of the world as we see it may be rather strong.

A Closer Look: Abductive Reasoning and the Matrix (continued)

How to Assess an Explanation There are many factors that influence the strength of an inference to the best explanation. However, when testing inferences to the best explanation for strength, these questions are good to keep in mind:

• Does it agree well with the rest of human knowledge? Suggesting that your room- mate’s car is gone because it floated away, for example, is not a very credible story because it would violate the laws of physics.

• Does it provide the simplest explanation of the observed phenomena? According to Occam’s razor, we want to explain why things happen without unnecessary complexity.

• Does it explain all relevant observations? We cannot simply ignore contradicting data because it contradicts our theory; we have to be able to explain why we see what we see.

• Is it noncircular? Some explanations merely lead us in a circle. Stating that it is raining because water is falling from the sky, for example, does not give us any new information about what causes the water to fall.

• Is it testable? Suggesting that invisible elves stole the car does not allow for empirical confirmation. An explanation is stronger if its elements are potentially observable.

• Does it help us explain other phenomena as well? The best scientific theories do not just explain one thing but allow us to understand a whole range of related phenom- ena. This principle is called fecundity. Galileo’s explanation of the orbits of the plan- ets is an example of a fecund theory because it explains several things all at once.

An explanation that has all of these virtues is likely to be better than one that does not.

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Section 6.5 Inference to the Best Explanation

A Limitation One limitation of inference to the best explanation is that it depends on our coming up with the correct explanation as one of the candidates. If we do not think of the correct explana- tion when trying to imagine possible explanation, then inference to the best explanation can steer us wrong. This can happen with any inductive argument, of course; inductive arguments always carry some possibility that the conclusion may be false even if the premises are true. However, this limitation is a particular danger with inference to the best explanation because it relies on our being able to imagine the true explanation.

This is one reason that it is essential to always keep an open mind when using this technique. Further information may introduce new explanations or change which explanation is best. Being open to further information is important for all inductive inferences, but especially so for those involving inference to the best explanation.

Practice Problems 6.5

1. This philosopher coined the term abductive reasoning. a. Karl Popper b. Charles Sanders Peirce c. Aristotle d. G. W. F. Hegel

2. Sherlock Holmes is often said to be engaging in this form of reasoning, even though from a logical perspective he wasn’t. a. deductive b. inductive c. abductive d. productive

3. In a specific city that happens to be a popular tourist destination, the number of residents going to the emergency rooms for asthma attacks increases in the summer. When the winter comes and tourism decreases, the number of asthma attacks goes down. What is the most probable inference to be drawn in this situation? a. The locals are allergic to tourists. b. Summer is the time that most people generally have asthma attacks. c. The increased tourism leads to higher levels of air pollution due to traffic. d. The tourists pollute the ocean with trash that then causes the locals to get sick.

4. A couple goes to dinner and shares an appetizer, entrée, and dessert. Only one of the two gets sick. She drank a glass of wine, and her husband drank a beer. What is the most probable inference to be drawn in this situation? a. The wine was the cause of the sickness. b. The beer protected the man from the sickness. c. The appetizer affected the woman but not the man. d. The wine was rotten.

(continued)

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Section 6.5 Inference to the Best Explanation

5. You are watching a magic performance, and there is a woman who appears to be floating in space. The magician passes a ring over her to give the impression that she is floating. What explanation fits best with Occam’s razor? a. The woman is actually floating off the ground. b. The magician is a great magician. c. There is some sort of unseen physical object holding the woman.

6. You get a stomachache after eating out at a restaurant. What explanation fits best with Occam’s razor? a. You contracted Ebola and are in the beginning phases of symptoms. b. Someone poisoned the food that you ate. c. Something was wrong with the food you ate.

7. In order to determine how a disease was spread in humans, researchers placed two groups of people into two rooms. Both rooms were exactly alike, and no people touched each other while in the rooms. However, researchers placed someone who was infected with the disease in one room. They found that those who were in the room with the infected person got sick, whereas those who were not with an infected person remained well. What explanation fits best with Occam’s razor? a. The disease is spread through direct physical contact. b. The disease is spread by airborne transmission. c. The people in the first room were already sick as well.

8. There is a dent in your car door when you come out of the grocery store. What expla- nation fits best with Occam’s razor? a. Some other patron of the store hit your car with their car. b. A child kicked your door when walking into the store. c. Bad things tend to happen only to you in these types of situations.

9. A student submits a paper that has an 80% matching rate when submitted to Tur- nitin. There are multiple sites that align exactly with the content of the paper. What explanation fits best with Occam’s razor? a. The student didn’t know it was wrong to copy things word for word without

citing. b. The student knowingly took material that he did not write and used it as his

own. c. Someone else copied the student’s work.

10. You are a man, and you jokingly take a pregnancy test. The test comes up positive. What explanation fits best with Occam’s razor? a. You are pregnant. b. The test is correct. c. The test is defective.

11. A bomb goes off in a supermarket in London. A terrorist group takes credit for the bombing. What explanation fits best with Occam’s razor? a. The British government is trying to cover up the bombing by blaming a terrorist

group. b. The terrorist group is the cause of the bombing. c. The U.S. government actually bombed the market to get the British to help them

fight terrorist groups.

Practice Problems 6.5 (continued)

(continued)

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Section 6.5 Inference to the Best Explanation

12. You have friends and extended family over for Thanksgiving dinner. There are kids running through the house. You check the turkey and find that it is overcooked because the temperature on the oven is too high. What explanation fits best with Occam’s razor? a. The oven increased the temperature on its own. b. Someone turned up the heat to sabotage your turkey. c. You bumped the knob when you were putting something into the oven.

13. Researchers recently mapped the genome of a human skeleton that was 45,000 years old. They found long fragments of Neanderthal DNA integrated into this human genome. What explanation fits best with Occam’s razor? a. Humans and Neanderthals interbred at some point prior to the life of this hu-

man. b. The scientists used a faulty method in establishing the genetic sequence. c. This was actually a Neanderthal skeleton.

14. There is a recent downturn in employment and the economy. A politically far-leaning radio host claims that the downturn in the economy is the direct result of the presi- dent’s actions. What explanation fits best with Occam’s razor? a. The downturn in employment is due to many factors, and more research is in

order. b. The downturn in employment is due to the president’s actions. c. The downturn in employment is really no one’s fault.

15. In order for an explanation to be adequate, one should remember that __________. a. it should agree with other human knowledge b. it should include the highest level of complexity c. it should assume the thing it is trying to prove d. there are outlying situations that contradict the explanation

16. The fecundity of an explanation refers to its __________. a. breadth of explanatory power b. inability to provide an understanding of a phenomenon c. lack of connection to what is being examined d. ability to bear children

17. Why might one choose to use an inductive argument rather than a deductive argument? a. One possible explanation must be the correct one. b. The argument relates to something that is probabilistic rather than absolute. c. An inductive argument makes the argument valid. d. One should always use inductive arguments when possible.

18. This is the method by which one can make a valid argument invalid. a. adding false supporting premises b. demonstrating that the argument is valid c. adding true supporting premises d. valid arguments cannot be made invalid

(continued)

Practice Problems 6.5 (continued)

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Section 6.5 Inference to the Best Explanation

19. This form of inductive argument moves from the general to the specific. a. generalizations b. statistical syllogisms c. hypothetical syllogism d. modus tollens

Questions 20–24 relate to the following passage:

If I had gone to the theater, then I would have seen the new film about aliens. I didn’t go to the theater though, so I didn’t see the movie. I think that films about aliens and supernatural events are able to teach people a lot about what the future might hold in the realm of tech- nology. Things like cell phones and space travel were only dreams in old movies, and now they actually exist. Science fiction can also demonstrate new futures in which people are more accepting of those that are different from them. The different species of characters in these films all working together and interacting with one another in harmony displays the unity of different people without explicitly making race or ethnicity an issue, thereby bringing people into these forms of thought without turning those away who do not want to explicitly confront these issues.

20. How many arguments are in this passage? a. 0 b. 1 c. 2 d. 3

21. How many deductive arguments are in this passage? a. 0 b. 1 c. 2 d. 3

22. How many inductive arguments are in this passage? a. 0 b. 1 c. 2 d. 3

23. Which of the following are conclusions in the passage? Select all that apply. a. If I had gone to the theater, then I would have seen the new film about aliens. b. I didn’t go to the theater. c. Films about aliens and supernatural events are able to teach people a lot about

what the future might hold in the realm of technology. d. The different species of characters in these films all working together and

interacting with one another in harmony displays the unity of different people without explicitly making race or ethnicity an issue.

24. Which change to the deductive argument would make it valid? Select all that apply. a. Changing the first sentence to “If I would have gone to the theater, I would not

have seen the new film about aliens.” b. Changing the second sentence to “I didn’t see the new film about aliens.” c. Changing the conclusion to “Alien movies are at the theater.” d. Changing the second sentence to “I didn’t see the movie, so I didn’t go to the theater.”

Practice Problems 6.5 (continued)

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Summary and Resources

Summary and Resources

Chapter Summary Although induction and deduction are treated differently in the field of logic, they are fre- quently combined in arguments. Arguments with both deductive and inductive components are generally considered to be inductive as a whole, but the important thing is to recognize when deduction and induction are being used within the argument. Arguments that com- bine inductive and deductive elements can take advantage of the strengths of each. They can retain the robustness and persuasiveness of inductive arguments while using the stronger connections of deductive arguments where these are available.

Science is one discipline in which we can see inductive and deductive arguments play out in this fashion. The hypothetico–deductive method is one of the central logical tools of science. It uses a deductive form to draw a conclusion from inductively supported premises. The hypothetico–deductive method excels at disconfirming or falsifying hypotheses but cannot be used to confirm hypotheses directly.

Inference to the best explanation, however, does provide evidence supporting the truth of a hypothesis if it provides the best explanation of our observations and withstands our best attempts at refutation. A key limitation of this method is that it depends on our being able to come up with the correct explanation as a possibility in the first place. Nevertheless, it is a powerful form of inference that is used all the time, not only in science but in our daily lives.

Critical Thinking Questions

1. You have probably encountered numerous conspiracy theories on the Internet and in popular media. One such theory is that 9/11 was actually plotted and orches- trated by the U.S. government. What is the relationship between conspiracy theories and inference to the best possible explanation? In this example, do you think that this is a better explanation than the most popular one? Why or why not?

2. What are some methods you can use to determine whether or not information represents the best possible explanation of events? How can you evaluate sources of information to determine whether or not they should be trusted?

3. Descartes claimed that it might be the case that humans are totally deceived about all aspects of their existence. He went so far as to claim that God could be evil and could be making it so that human perception is completely wrong about everything. However, he also claimed that there is one thing that cannot be doubted: So long as he is thinking, it is impossible for him to doubt that it is he who is thinking. Hence, so long as he thinks, he exists. Do you think that this argument establishes the inherent existence of the thinking being? Why or why not?

4. Have you ever been persuaded by an argument that ended up leading you to a false conclusion? If so, what happened, and what could you have done differently to pre- vent yourself from believing a false conclusion?

5. How can you incorporate elements of the hypothetico–deductive method into your own problem solving? Are there methods here that can be used to analyze situations in your personal and professional life? What can we learn about the search for truth from the methods that scientists use to enhance knowledge?

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Summary and Resources

abductive reasoning See inference to the best explanation.

falsifiable Describes a claim that is conceiv- ably possible to prove false. That does not mean that it is false; only that prior to test- ing, it is possible that it could have been.

falsification The effort to disprove a claim (typically by finding a counterexample to it).

hypothesis A conjecture about how some part of the world works.

hypothetico–deductive method The method of creating a hypothesis and then attempting to falsify it through experimentation.

inference to the best explanation The process of inferring something to be true because it is the most likely explanation of some observations. Also known as abductive reasoning.

Occam’s razor The principle that, when seeking an explanation for some phenom- ena, the simpler the explanation the better.

self-sealing propositions Claims that can- not be proved false because they are inter- preted in a way that protects them against any possible counterexample.

Web Resources https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RauTW8F-PMM Watch Ashford professor Justin Harrison lecture on the difference between inductive and deductive arguments.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VXW5mLE5Y2g Shmoop offers an animated video on the difference between induction and deduction.

http://www.ac4d.com/2012/06/03/abductive-reasoning-in-airport-security-and-profiling Design expert Jon Kolko applies abductive reasoning to airport security in this blog post.

Key Terms

Answers to Practice Problems Practice Problems 6.1

1. d 2. a

3. b 4. b

Practice Problems 6.2

1. a 2. a

3. a 4. a

Practice Problem 6.3

1. b

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Summary and Resources

Practice Problems 6.4

1. b 2. c 3. d

4. d 5. b

Practice Problems 6.5

1. b 2. a 3. c 4. a 5. c 6. c 7. b 8. a 9. b

10. c 11. b 12. c

13. a 14. a 15. a 16. a 17. b 18. d 19. b 20. d 21. b 22. c 23. c 24. d

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Categories

## two dogs pull horizontally on ropes attached to a post

Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University Department of Physical Sciences

Home Work # 4 & 5 PS 103 � Technical Physics�I

Due Date: Oct 3, 2014 (Friday)

Name:

Date: September 23, 2014 (Tuesday)

Semester: Fall-2014

Section:

Total point: 20

Important:

• Home work is due in the beginning of the class on the date mentioned above.

• Please note that providing answers without showing any working will not qualify as correct. So to get full points show EACH AND EVERY STEP.

• Please answer all questions neat and clean in as much detail as you can.

• All the conventions followed in the homework are same as that of lectures.

Question# 1:- You throw a ball vertically upward from the roof of a tall building. The ball leaves your hand at a point even with the roof railing with an upward speed of 15.0 m/s; the ball is then in free fall. On its way back down, it just misses the railing. Find

a) the ball’s position and velocity 1.00 s, 2.00 s, 3.00 s, and 4.00 s after leaving your hand;

b) the ball’s velocity when it is 5.00 m above the railing;

c) the maximum height reached;

d) the ball’s acceleration when it is at its maximum height.

e) At what time after being released has the ball fallen 5.00 m below the roof railing? and what will it’s speed be at that time?

f) At what time after being released has the ball fallen 2.00 m below the roof railing? and what will it’s speed be at that time?

Question# 2:- The boat in Figure 1 is heading due north as it crosses a wide river with a velocity of 10.0 km/h relative to the water. The river has a uniform velocity of 5.00 km/h due east. Determine the magnitude and direction of the boat’s velocity with respect to an observer on the riverbank.

Figure 1: Problem-2

1

Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Question# 3:- A batter hits a baseball so that it leaves the bat at speed v0 = 37.0 m/s at an angle ↵0 = 53.1�.

a) Find the position of the ball and its velocity (magnitude and direction) at t = 2.00 s.

b) Find the time when the ball reaches the high- est point of its flight, and its height h at this time.

c) Find the horizontal range R that is, the hor- izontal distance from the starting point to where the ball hits the ground. Figure 2: Problem-3

Question# 4:- Two tanks are engaged in a training exercise on level ground. The first tank fires a paint-filled training round with a muzzle speed of 250 m/s at 10.0� above the horizontal while advancing toward the second tank with a speed of 15.0 m/s relative to the ground. The second tank is retreating at 35.0 m/s relative to the ground, but is hit by the shell. You can ignore air resistance and assume the shell hits at the same height above ground from which it was fired. Find the distance between the tanks

a) when the round was first fired and

b) at the time of impact.

Question# 5:- Workmen are trying to free an SUV stuck in the mud. To extricate the vehicle, they use three horizontal ropes, producing the force vectors shown Figure 3.

a) Find the x� and y�components of each of the three pulls.

b) Use the components to find the magnitude and direction of the resultant of the three pulls. Figure 3: Problem-5

Question# 6:- Two horses are pulling a barge with mass 2.00⇥103 kg along a canal, as shown in Figure 4. The cable connected to the first horse makes an angle of ✓1 = 30.0� with respect to the direction of the canal, while the cable connected to the second horse makes an angle of ✓1 = 30.0�. Find the initial acceleration of the barge, starting at rest, if each horse exerts a force of magnitude 6.00 ⇥ 102 N on the barge. Ignore forces of resistance on the barge.

Figure 4: Problem-6

Question# 7:- Two dogs pull horizontally on ropes attached to a post; the angle between the ropes is 60.0�. If dog A exerts a force of 270 N and dog B exerts a force of 300 N, find the magnitude of the resultant force and the angle it makes with dog A’s rope.

2

Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Question# 8:- A 68.5-kg skater moving initially at 2.40 m/s on rough horizontal ice comes to rest uniformly in 3.52 s due to friction from the ice. What force does friction exert on the skater?

Question# 9:- You walk into an elevator, step onto a scale, and push the “up” button. You also recall that your normal weight is 625 N. Start answering each of the following questions by drawing a freebody diagram.

a) If the elevator has an acceleration of magnitude 2.50 m/s2, what does the scale read?

b) If you start holding a 3.85-kg package by a light vertical string, what will be the tension in this string once the elevator begins accelerating?

Question# 10:- A box rests on a frozen pond, which serves as a frictionless horizontal surface. If a fisherman applies a horizontal force with magnitude 48.0 N to the box and produces an acceleration of magnitude 3.00 m/s2, what is the mass of the box?

Question# 11:- Boxes A and B are in contact on a hor- izontal, frictionless surface, as shown in Figure 5. Box A has mass 20.0 kg and box B has mass 5.0 kg. A horizontal force of 100 N is exerted on box A. What is the magnitude of the force that box A exerts on box B? Figure 5: Problem-11

Question# 12:- Two objects of mass m1 and m2, with m2 > m1, are connected by a light, inextensible cord and hung over a frictionless pulley, as in Ac- tive Figure 6. Both cord and pulley have negligible mass. Find the magnitude of the acceleration of the system and the tension

Figure 6: Problem-12

Question# 13:- A 150-N bird feeder is supported by three cables as shown in Figure 7. Find the tension in each cable.

Figure 7: Problem-13

Question# 14:- An object with mass m1 = 5.00 kg rests on a frictionless horizontal table and is con- nected to a cable that passes over a pulley and is then fastened to a hanging object with mass m2 = 10.0 kg, as shown in Figure 8. Find

a) the acceleration of each object and

b) the tension in the cable. Figure 8: Problem-14

Categories

## capstone courier

600 words  5 references that respond to the following questions with your thoughts, ideas, and comments. This will be the foundation for future discussions with your classmates. Be substantive and clear, and use examples to reinforce your ideas.

Review the Industry Conditions Report and CapStone Courier found in the Reports section of the left hand menu in the CapSim simulation. Also, review the CapStone Team Member Guide.  Based on your initial review of the CAPSIM Capstone Business Simulation, what have you have identified as the key business issues that will impact your company? Prepare to discuss this issue with the other members of your team.

Your discussion should include the following:

• Discuss the current situation in the CapSim simulation and the recent changes to the industry and competitive environment.
• What competitive challenge is faced by your company? What are the opportunities and threats (Pettus, Ch. 4)?
• Applying the business level strategies discussed in Pettus, Chapter 4, and market segment strategies discussed on page 24 of the Team Member Guide, explore possible strategic directions for your company and various sensor products. Reading and responding to the posts of your teammates is highly recommended.

Other guidelines on assignments include the following:

§ Check spelling, grammar, and punctuation to avoid any point deductions related to these matters.

§ It is encouraged that you use at least 5 credible and relevant sources (credible can be peer reviewed articles, articles from reputable journals, company specific internet web pages, or published books) for each task in most cases, this practice will essential for completing tasks. I encourage the use of CTU’s extensive library search engine for references. It is better than simply going to the Internet and searching non-peer reviewed sites or professional journals. Sources can include course textbook and at least one outside sources will also be helpful and per the grading rubrics, can sometimes impact the points earned on specific tasks.

Categories

## climate change studies suggest the worst impacts will be felt by the wealthiest people.

Questions:-

1. Climate change studies suggest the worst impacts will be felt by the wealthiest people.
2. The greenhouse effect is caused by the burning of fossil fuels and deforestation.
3. Net-zero energy refers to a building or installation that produces less energy than it consumes, considered to be energy reliant.
4. Which statement is true regarding nuclear energy?
5. Which of the following is an impact of increased ocean acidification as caused by global climate change?
6. Which statement best summarizes the world’s reaction to stratospheric ozone depletion discussed in Chapter 7.4 of your text?
7. What is the central difference between climate and weather discussed in your text?
8. Which statement is not true regarding hydroelectric power?
9. Life-cycle cost is the sum of all recurring and one-time (non-recurring) costs over the full life span of a good, service, structure, or system.
10. What is the central theme of the “As Cheap as Coal” portion in Section 8.1 of your text?
Categories

## define flotation costs

Define The Term: Flotation Costs. Why Should We Expect The Flotation Costs For Debt To Be Significantly Lower Than Those For Equity?

Categories

## students ashworthcollege edu portal

Exams & QuizzesHome

Announcements

Calendar

Chat Room

Welcome Video

Orientation

Student Handbook

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Syllabus

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Textbook

Lesson 1

Lesson 2

Lesson 3

Lesson 4

Lesson 5

Lesson 6

Lesson 7

Exams & Quizzes

Midterm Exam

Lesson 2 Exam 1

Part 1 of 1 – 60.0/ 100.0 Points

Question 1 of 20 5.0/ 5.0 Points

Determine whether the relation is a function. {(-7, -7), (-7, -8), (-1, 4), (6, 5), (10, -1)}

A. Not a function

B. Function

Question 2 of 20 5.0/ 5.0 Points

Find the domain of the function.

g(x) =

A. (-∞, ∞)

B. (-∞, -9) (-9, 9) (9, ∞)

C. (81, ∞)

D. (-∞, 0) (0, ∞)

Question 3 of 20 5.0/ 5.0 Points

Graph the line whose equation is given.

y = x + 2

A.

jumpjumpjump

Sites MY WORKSPACE ALGEBRA I PART I, SECTION 2 ALGEBRA I PART II, SECTION 2

ALGEBRA II, PART 1 SECTION 4

PRE-CALCULUS PART I, SECTION 2 MORE SITES

A.

B.

C.

D.

Question 4 of 20 0.0/ 5.0 Points

Use the shape of the graph to name the function.

B. Standard cubic function

C. Square root function

D. Constant function

Question 5 of 20 5.0/ 5.0 Points

An open box is made from a square piece of sheet metal 19 inches on a side by cutting identical squares from the corners and turning up the sides. Express the volume of the box, V, as a function of the length of the side of the square cut from each corner, x.

A. V(x) = 361x

B. V(x) = (19 – 2x)2

C. V(x) = x(19 – 2x)

D. V(x) = x(19 – 2x)2

Question 6 of 20 5.0/ 5.0 Points

Use the graph of the function f, plotted with a solid line, to sketch the graph of the given function g.

g(x) =

A.

B.

C.

C.

D.

Question 7 of 20 0.0/ 5.0 Points

Find the domain of the function.

f(x) =

A. (-∞, 6) (6, ∞)

B. (-∞, ) ( , ∞)

C. (-∞, ]

D. (-∞, 6]

Question 8 of 20 5.0/ 5.0 Points

An investment is worth \$3518 in 1995. By 2000 it has grown to \$5553. Let y be the value of the investment in the year x, where x = 0 represents 1995. Write a linear equation that models the value of the investment in the year x.

A. y = -407x + 7588

B. y = x + 3518

C. y = -407x + 3518

D. y = 407x + 3518

Question 9 of 20 5.0/ 5.0 Points

Use the graph to determine the function’s domain and range.

A. domain: [0, ∞) range: [-1, ∞)

B. domain: (-∞, ∞) range: [-1, ∞)

C. domain: [0, ∞) range: [0, ∞)

D. domain: [0, ∞) range: (-∞, ∞)

Question 10 of 20 5.0/ 5.0 Points

Complete the square and write the equation in standard form. Then give the center and radius of the circle.

10×2 + 10y2 = 100

A. x2 + y2 = 100 (0, 0), r = 10

B. x2 + y2 = 10 (0, 0), r =

C. x2 + y2 = 10 (0, 0), r = 10

D. (x – 10)2 +(y – 10)2 = 10 (10, 10), r =

Question 11 of 20 0.0/ 5.0 Points

Graph the equation.

y = – x – 6

A.

B.

B.

C.

D. ’

Question 12 of 20 5.0/ 5.0 Points

Find the domain of the function.

f(x) = -2x + 4

A. (-∞, 0) (0, ∞)

B. (-∞, ∞)

C. [-4, ∞)

D. (0, ∞)

Question 13 of 20 0.0/ 5.0 Points

Graph the equation in the rectangular coordinate system.

3y = 15

3y = 15

A.

B.

C.

D.

D.

Question 14 of 20 0.0/ 5.0 Points

Use the given conditions to write an equation for the line in point-slope form.

Passing through (-5, -7) and (-8, -6)

A. y – 7 = – (x – 5) or y – 6 = – (x – 8)

B. y + 7 = – (x + 8) or y + 6 = – (x + 5)

C. y + 7 = – (x + 5) or y + 6 = – (x + 8)

D. y + 7 = – x – 5 or y + 6 = – x + 7

Question 15 of 20 5.0/ 5.0 Points

Does the graph represent a function that has an inverse function?

A. No

B. Yes

Question 16 of 20 0.0/ 5.0 Points

Use the graph of y = f(x) to graph the given function g.

g(x) = -2f(x). Where f(x) is the solid function and g(x) is the dotted.

A.

B.

C.

D.

Question 17 of 20 5.0/ 5.0 Points

Find the inverse of the one-to-one function.

f(x) =

A. f-1(x) =

B. f-1(x) =

C. f-1(x) =

D. f-1(x) =

Question 18 of 20 5.0/ 5.0 Points

Complete the square and write the equation in standard form. Then give the center and radius of the circle.

x2 + y2 – 10x – 8y + 29 = 0

A. (x – 5)2 +(y – 4)2 = 12 (5, 4), r = 12

B. (x – 5)2 +(y – 4)2 = 12 (-5, -4), r = 2

C. (x – 5)2 +(y – 4)2 = 12 (5, 4), r = 2

D. (x + 5)2 +(y + 4)2 = 12 (-5, -4), r = 2

Question 19 of 20 0.0/ 5.0 Points

Use the graph to determine the x- and y-intercepts.

A. x-intercept: -3; y-intercepts: 3, 1, 5

B. x-intercepts: -3, 1, -5; y-intercept: -3

C. x-intercepts: 3, 1, 5; y-intercept: -3

D. x-intercept: -3; y-intercepts: -3, 1, -5

Question 20 of 20 0.0/ 5.0 Points

Along with incomes, people’s charitable contributions have steadily increased over the past few years. The table below shows the average deduction for charitable contributions reported on individual income tax returns for the period 1993 to 1998. Find the average annual increase between 1995 and 1997.

A. \$270 per year

B. \$280 per year

C. \$335 per year

D. \$540 per year

described in the Acknowledgments screen. Ashworth College – 2.9.3.9 – Sakai 2.9.3.0 (Kernel 1.3.3)- Server ashworth7https://study.ashworthcollege.edu/portal/logout

Categories

## actx.blackboard

NAME Judy Brown CLASS & SECTION: PSYC 2301 – 002

SERVICE PROJECT ESSAY TEMPLATE

Instructions: Type your essay in the spaces below. Save frequently to your computer as you work. Edit your work thoroughly. UPLOAD YOUR DOCUMENT as a WORD or RICH TEXT FORMAT file into the SERVICE PROJPSYCECT ESSAY DROP BOX in your BLACKBOARD CLASSROOM for grading by the DUE DATE.

1. In Paragraph 1, describe the specific history of the agency where you selected to volunteer. What is the name of the agency/organization? Where is it located? What does your agency/organization do? What social problem is your agency working on and what specific intervention are they using? This part of the 1st question must be a minimum of 150 words.

In Paragraph 2: What did you do while volunteering that helped with this intervention? For example; poverty is the social issue and they are providing meals is the intervention. This will require you to research online, talk with the people in charge and/or read information provided by the agency. What is the name, title, phone number and/or email address of your supervisor or agency contact person for your project (this is required!)? Be sure you CITE any sources for this agency in your BIBLIOGRAPHY section in the template you will use to complete your essay. Sources don’t count towards word count. This second part of the 1st question must also be a minimum of 150 words. (Note: these two paragraphs contain 153 words and 9 lines of text). Worth a maximum of 20% and/or 20 points

Bibliography: Any references you used, including books, websites, articles, personal interviews, cite here as shown in the instruction sheet.

2. How does your time serving in the community influence your ideas and perceptions about your community and the people who live there? This question must be a minimum of 100 words. Skip a line between the question and YOUR ANSWER! Worth a maximum of 10% of your grade or 10 points.

3. Relate what you have learned in the readings and class discussion to your experience in your agency. Specifically, you must relate at least 2 specific concepts from your textbook in this class to your experience in your agency. You MUST reference in the body of your paper the sources that you used with the specific page number. For example, if you used page 35 from your textbook in the body of your paper, be sure you cite your textbook author and year and page number (such as: Myers, 2014 p. 35 or Henslin, 2015, pg 101). As well, you will need to include this citation in your “bibliography” section of the template for this essay. See below on citing your sources. Note: The bibliography doesn’t count in the word count. This question must be a minimum of 200 words. Skip a line between the question and YOUR ANSWER! Worth a maximum of 20% of your grade or 20 points.

Bibliography: Any references you used, including books, websites, articles, personal interviews, cite here as shown in the instruction sheet.

4. Will you continue to volunteer and take action? What impact do you hope to have by continuing to volunteer at your selected agency? If you choose not to volunteer at your selected agency, then describe and discuss in SPECIFIC DETAIL, at least ONE ACTION STEP that you would be willing to do to apply some aspect of “social responsibility” that you learned in your volunteer work in your life. This question must be a minimum of 100 words. Worth a maximum of 10% of your grade or 10 points.

5. UNDERSTANDING THE EMPIRICAL DATA ON POVERTY: Below you will be examining some graphs and data related to poverty. Please type in the correct answers to the blanks BELOW IN THE ANSWER based on reading the data in this paragraph and these graphs.

Worth a maximum of 25% of your grade or 25 points. The rest of your points will be based on Organization (5% or 5 points) and your WRITING MECHANICS (10% or 10 points).

5A) The # of homeless children and teens that die on the streets of America is ___________.

5B) If I am a homeless child in America I am most likely __________________(age group) and LEAST likely to be ______________(race).

5C) If current trends continue into the year 2020, WE CAN PREDICT that ______ % of adults WITHOUT a high school diploma will live in poverty, while only _________% of people with an Associate’s degree will live in poverty.

5D) Based on 50 week year, you will make \$________ more a week if you have an Associate’s degree than if you have a high school diploma, and \$___________ more a week than someone who has NO high school diploma, and based on a 50 week year, you would make \$__________ a year with a high School Diploma versus \$___________ a year with a 4 year Bachelor’s Degree .

5E) You will be ____________ times as likely to be unemployed if you don’t finish high school than if you have your Associate’s Degree.

EMPIRICAL AND GRAPHICAL DATA ON POVERTY:

5 A) Read the information below and answer 5A) So, who are the people you helped in doing your service project? Well, according to the National Center for Children in Poverty (NCCP, 2014), a large percentage of people you are helping with your service project include American children and adolescents. More than sixteen million children and adolescents in the United States (21% of all children under the age of 18) live in families with incomes below the federal poverty level (NCPP, 2014). As well, only three in four American adolescents graduate from high school. That means, 25% of all American teens won’t graduate high school. This is troubling because not graduating from high school raises the chance of living in poverty by 49%, generating a cycle of poverty within families.

Other problems with poverty and lack of proper education are seen in the problem of homelessness. One in 50 U.S. children are currently homeless. Outside of the issue with lack of education, another reason for homelessness is that 44.9% of the children and adolescents who are now homeless had parents that were alcohol or drug addicted. There are many problems associated with homelessness. When children and teens are homeless it makes them more vulnerable to getting sick, as more than 1 in 7 homeless children and teens have moderate to severe health conditions, such as asthma. Tragically, homelessness also leads to 13 children or teenagers dying on the streets of America every day (Slesnick, 2004). Most children whose families are chronically homeless will not graduate high school.

Research conducted by Betts (1995) indicates that the most poverty-stricken neighborhoods have a negative impact on schools due to a declining tax base, making it harder to have decent facilities, educational supplies, and quality teachers. Many schools in low income areas are underfunded, and have trouble taking on all the challenges of giving the most needy children and adolescents the type of education that can lead them out of poverty (Betts, 1995). Hence, we see the succession of poverty that extends generationally in an unending cycle of despair.

### Betts, J.R. (1995). Does school quality matter? Evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 77-2, pp 231-250.

Slesnick, N. (2004) Homeless children and youth: A guide to understanding. Praeger Publisher.

5A) Put your answer above in the section for your answers: Calculate how many homeless children and teens will die each year in America based on 352 days in a year.

For 5B: Homelessness, Children & Teens: Fill in the blank: These two pie charts show the distribution of ages when it comes to homeless children and teens, as well as the racial make-up of the over 3.5 million homeless Americans. Put your answers above in the space for answers.

5B) By looking at the data in both the pie graphs below on the percentages of age groups and percentages of racial designations of the homeless children in America, if I am a homeless child in America, I am MOST likely _____________________(which age group?) and LEAST LIKELY to be _____________________ (which race)? (put your answers above in the answer sheet.

Figure 1: Age groups of homeless children in U.S.

5C ) TRENDS in POVERTY and UNEMPLOYMENT as they RELATE TO EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT: The line graph below shows us trends across 4 decades of time in the relationship between poverty and educational levels. The 2nd graph, a comparative bar graph, gives us a graphic representation of data on unemployment rates and salaries based on educational attainment. Please put your answers above for the space for answers to these questions regarding the trends in people without college educations and those with college education as they relate to poverty, earnings and unemployment rates.

5C) Based on the line graph below, and IF the current trends in poverty rates continue into 2020, put your ANSWERS ABOVE in the space for answers by filling in the statistical percentages for each educational level for living in poverty (based on the previous decades of change). If current trends hold steady, in 2020, we can predict that _______________% of people without a high school degree will live in poverty, while only ____________ % of people with a two-year college degree will be living in poverty.

Figure 21 March Curnet Population Survey NOTE: Civilians 25 years and older

5D and 5E) Relationships between educational attainment salary and unemployment. This comparative bar graph shows us the relationships between educational attainment, salary and unemployment rates. Put your answers above in the space provided for ANSWERS.

5D) Based on the comparative bar graph below, Calculate: In 2014, people with an Associate’s degree will make \$____________ a week MORE than someone WITH a high school diploma and \$______________ MORE a week than someone WITHOUT a high school diploma, and based on 50 weeks for a year, you would make \$____________ a year with a high school diploma versus \$__________ a year with a Bachelor’s Degree. .

5E) According to the bar graph below, you are ________ times more likely to be unemployed and if you have a high school diploma or just take a few classes here at Amarillo College, than if you stay the course and finish your ASSOCIATES degree or certification program.

Reminder: Be sure you thoroughly edit this before you submit it in the SERVICE PROJECT ESSAY DROP BOX. If you are not a strong writer contact the Writer’s Corner at:   writerscorner@actx.edu Phone:345-5580 or go to Ordway Hall, Room 102 for help.

AMERICA HOMELESS POPULATION By RACE = 3.5 Million People

including 1 in 50 children in U.S. (1.35 million)

National Law Center on Homelessness & Poverty, January 2007HOMELESS POPULATION = 3.5 Million People

African American Caucasian Hispanic Native American Asian 0.42000000000000032 0.3900000000000004 0.13 4.0000000000000029E-2 2.0000000000000014E-2

Trends: Poverty Rates by Educational Level

(1970-2010)High School Drop Out 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 0.2 0.15000000000000024 0.25 0.30000000000000032 0.35000000000000031 High School Graduate 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 0.05 7.0000000000000021E-2 0.1 0.15000000000000024 0.2 2 Year College 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 0.05 0.05 7.0000000000000021E-2 7.0000000000000021E-2 6.0000000000000032E-2 4 Year College Graduate 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 4.0000000000000022E-2 3.0000000000000002E-2 3.0000000000000002E-2 3.0000000000000002E-2 3.0000000000000002E-2

Categories

## flabby expressions

1. Revising for Conciseness

Time is money in any business environment. To be successful in the business world, you must be able to create concise and easy-to-read messages.

As you revise, eliminate flabby expressions, long lead-ins, fillers, redundancies, and empty words. Your audience will appreciate your brevity.

Which of the following sentences contain flabby expressions? Check all that apply.

Complete the sentence with the most concise option.

are canceled this week.

Read the following paragraph, and choose the best revision for one of its sentences.

Dr. Blake is retiring at the end of the month. There will be an unoccupied office upon his departure, and it is big in size. Because each

and every one of the other offices is fully occupied, it is recommended that we convert Dr. Blake’s office into a lounge. It is absolutely

essential that this issue is discussed at the next staff meeting.

Evaluate each of the following sentences, and choose the most concise revision.

It is the user who should contact the help center.

I am sending you this letter to inform you that we have experienced an unexpected surprise within our expense sheet, but we are positively certain we

He seldom returns text messages.

Feel free to help yourself to the delectable desserts in the break room until such time as they are all consumed.

Alessia will probably be promoted.

In the event that Marie calls, please inform her that we will be proceeding along the normal course of events.

Because every other office is occupied, it’s recommended that we should convert Dr. Blake’s office into a lounge.

Because every other office is filled, we should convert Dr. Blake’s office into a lounge.

The user should contact the help center.

It is the user who should contact the help center if there is a problem.

The user should contact the help center as to whether or not they have a problem.javascript:jumpTo(‘/af/servlet/quiz?ctx=lindsay.bennion-0007&quiz_action=showContents&quiz_psetGuid=PSETC0A801010000003ef74800020000’)

2/21/18, 11:18 AMAplia: Student Question

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Grade It Now Save & Continue

Continue without saving

will solve it.

I would like to inform you that the Johnson report might not be complete by the deadline.

We have identified a problem with our expense sheet, but we will solve it.

I am sending you this letter to inform you that we have a problem with our expense sheet, but we are positively certain we have a

solution.

We have experienced an unexpected surprise with our expense sheet, but we are midway to an end result.

The Johnson report might not be complete by the deadline.

I am unsure as to whether or not the Johnson report will be complete by the deadline.javascript:jumpTo(leavePageLink)

Categories

## why did the texas constitution establish a plural executive

Government and Politics in the Lone Star State

Tenth Edition

Chapter 6

The Texas Executive

Learning Objectives

6.1 Trace the evolution of the Texas governor from a strong unified executive to a plural executive.

6.2 Assess what qualifies an individual to serve as governor, common career patterns that have led to the governorship, and select benefits of the office.

6.3 Explain the legislative, budgetary, appointive, judicial, and military powers of the Texas governor.

6.4 Evaluate the informal resources of the Texas governor for advancing public policy and political objectives.

6.5 Differentiate the leadership styles of recent Texas governors.

6.6 Describe the duties and responsibilities of the other offices of the executive branch in Texas.

A Historical Perspective on the Executive Function in Texas (1 of 4)

Governors Enjoyed Stronger Constitutional Powers from 1836 to 1866.

Elected offices of comptroller and state treasurer added in 1861

Granted line-item veto powers in 1866

1869 Constitution

Influenced by Jacksonian democracy

Created a plural executive

A Historical Perspective on the Executive Function in Texas (2 of 4)

Expanded Powers in the Twentieth Century

Salary could be raised by the legislature (1954)

Term of office expanded to four years (1972)

Given removal power over persons appointed to boards and commissions (1980)

A Historical Perspective on the Executive Function in Texas (3 of 4)

The Constitutional Framework for the Plural Executive

Article 1, Section 4 of the Constitution of 1876 created the executive branch.

In Texas, the governor appoints more than 200 policy-setting boards over state agencies and universities, but the boards appoint the individuals responsible for day-to-day administration.

A Historical Perspective on the Executive Function in Texas (4 of 4)

The Potential for Conflict in the Plural Executive

Members of the plural executive

Operate independently of the governor

Can claim their own electoral mandates

May clash with the governor over policies

Potential for conflict increases in a two-party state

Makes it difficult to pursue coordinated policies

Does serve to constrain the power of the governor

Journal 6.1

Do you think Texas should replace its plural executive with an executive structure similar to that of the president, where the lieutenant governor would be elected as a team with the governor and the governor would have a cabinet composed of appointed agency heads?

Historical Overview of the Men and Women Who Have Served as Governor (1 of 3)

Qualifications and Backgrounds of Texas Governors

Constitutional requirements

At least thirty years old, U.S. citizen, and resident of Texas for five years

Past governors

Most have been Democrats (not recently), wealthy, educated, middle-aged, white male Protestants.

Many have previous public service.

Historical Overview of the Men and Women Who Have Served as Governor (2 of 3)

Impeachment and Incapacitation

Impeachment

Charges brought by the House of Representatives

Removal follows a trial and conviction in the Senate.

Texas does not have a voter-initiated recall process.

The lieutenant governor replaces the governor if the office is vacated.

Historical Overview of the Men and Women Who Have Served as Governor (3 of 3)

The Salary and “Perks” of the Governor’s Office

In 2015, the governor of Texas was paid a salary of \$150,000 a year.

Perks of the governor’s office

Mansion and staff

State-owned planes and cars

Security detail

Travel expenses

The Powers of the Governor (1 of 5)

Legislative Powers

Establish a policy agenda

Special sessions

Last for up to thirty days each

Governor controls the agenda.

Veto power

Overridden by a two-thirds vote in the House and Senate

Can veto bills up to twenty days after the close of a legislative session

Governor Greg Abbott delivered his first State of the State Address in which he outlined his legislative priorities to a joint session of the Texas Legislature in February of 2015. The governor and other state dignitaries are seen here applauding veterans during his address.

12

Table 6-2 Comparison of the Formal/Institutional Powers of the Governors (1 of 2)

 Strong (4.0 and above) Strong (4.0 and above) Strong (4.0 and above) Strong (4.0 and above) Alaska (4.1) Maryland (4.1) New York (4.3) Utah (4.2) Hawaii (4.1) Massachusetts (4.3) Pennsylvania (4.0) West Virginia (4.1) Strong (3.5–3.9) Moderately Moderately Strong (3.5–3.9) Moderately Strong (3.5–3.9) Moderately Strong (3.5–3.9) Arizona (3.8) Idaho (3.5) Minnesota (3.9) Oregon (3.5) California (3.5) Illinois (3.8) Nebraska (3.8) Tennessee (3.9) Colorado (3.9) Iowa (3.7) New Jersey (3.8) Washington (3.6) Connecticut (3.9) Kansas (3.7) North Dakota (3.9) Wisconsin (3.7) Delaware (3.7) Kentucky (3.5) Ohio (3.9) Wyoming (3.8) Florida (3.6) Michigan (3.9)

SOURCE: Based on Thad Beyle, “The Governors;” Multistate Associates Incorporated, “2014 Governors and Legislatures;” National Council of State Legislatures; and National Governors Association, “Governors Political Affiliations and Terms of Office.”

Meg (M) – where is table 6-1?

Table 6-2 Comparison of the Formal/Institutional Powers of the Governors (2 of 2)

 Moderate (3.0–3.4) Moderate (3.0–3.4) Moderate (3.0–3.4) Moderate (3.0–3.4) Alabama (3.2) Maine (3.1) New Hampshire (3.0) South Carolina (3.0) Georgia (3.2) Mississippi (3.3) New Mexico (3.3) South Dakota (3.0) Indiana (3.1) Missouri (3.1) Oklahoma (3.0) Texas (3.2) Louisiana (3.4) Montana (3.3) Rhode Island (3.3) Virginia (3.3) Weak (2.9 and below) Weak (2.9 and below) Weak (2.9 and below) Weak (2.9 and below) Arkansas (2.9) Nevada (2.8) North Carolina (2.9) Vermont (2.8)

SOURCE: Based on Thad Beyle, “The Governors;” Multistate Associates Incorporated, “2014 Governors and Legislatures;” National Council of State Legislatures; and National Governors Association, “Governors Political Affiliations and Terms of Office.”

Signing Ceremonies

Governors use a variety of public occasions to cultivate public support for their legislative programs, including signing ceremonies that are usually held in the governor’s Reception Room on the second floor of the Capitol. To bring special attention to the newly enacted legislation, Texas Governor Greg Abbott signed into law at Red’s Indoor Range in Pflugerville bills permitting Texans to carry concealed handguns on college campuses and openly carry them virtually everywhere in the state.

15

The Powers of the Governor (2 of 5)

Budgetary Powers

Weaker budgetary authority

Primary authority rests with the legislature and Legislative Budget Board.

The Texas governor has line-item veto over appropriations bills.

The Powers of the Governor (3 of 5)

Appointive Powers

Selects members to serve on more than 200 boards and commissions

Subject to Senate confirmation

Many serve six-year staggered terms.

Limited ability to remove appointees

Filling vacancies

State, district, appellate courts; U.S. Senate seats; and all statewide offices except the lieutenant governor

The Powers of the Governor (4 of 5)

Judicial Powers

Appoints members of the Board of Pardons and Paroles

Grants executive clemency

Thirty-day stay of execution

Commutation of a death sentence to life in prison

Full or conditional pardons

Responsible for ordering state officials to carry out extradition proceedings

The Powers of the Governor (5 of 5)

Military Powers

Acts as commander-in-chief of the state’s military forces

Mobilizes the national guard to protect lives and property, and to keep the peace

Informal Resources of the Governor (1 of 4)

The Governor’s Staff

Highly centralized or may seek greater contact with advisors

Affects the flow of information to the governor

Chosen for their media and public relations skills or policy expertise

Help develop policy agendas and legislative strategies

Function as the governor’s surrogates

Staff Can Really Make a Difference

A governor’s success is dependent, in part, on a competent staff capable of assisting the governor in meeting expanded responsibilities and increased expectations from the general public, the legislature, administrative agencies, the media, and interest groups. Governor-elect Greg Abbott, center left, is seen here in the Old Supreme Court Room in the Capitol introducing his key staff members prior to the 2015 legislative session.

21

Table 6-3 The Governor’s Leadership Resources

 Formal Constitutional Powers 1. Veto legislation 2. Exercise a line-item veto over the state budget 3. Call and set the agenda for special legislative sessions 4. Make recommendations on the budget 5. Propose emergency budgetary transfers when the legislature is not in session 6. Appoint hundreds of members of policymaking boards and commissions, subject to Senate confirmation 7. Remove his or her own appointees from boards, with Senate approval 8. Fill vacancies in U.S. Senate seats and certain elective state offices 9. Proclaim acts of executive clemency, including stays of execution, for convicted criminals 10. Mobilize the Texas National Guard to protect lives and property during natural disasters and other emergencies Informal Resources 1. Governor’s electoral mandate 2. A large staff to help develop and sell policy proposals 3. Ability to communicate to the public through the mass media 4. Public’s perception and opinions about the governor’s job performance 5. The governor’s political party and relationships with legislative leaders 6. Support and mobilization of interest groups

Informal Resources of the Governor (2 of 4)

The Governor and the Mass Media

Communicate policy objectives to the general public to mobilize public opinion

Strategies

Press conferences, news leaks, and trial balloons

Use of public opinion polls

Staging pseudo-events to emphasize issues

Informal Resources of the Governor (3 of 4)

The Governor and the Political Party

Historically

Governors built policy coalitions around factions within the Democratic Party.

Gained little power from serving as head of the party

Under the two-party system

Parties provide greater resources and support.

Republicans have sought the support of social conservatives within the party.

Informal Resources of the Governor (4 of 4)

The Governor and Interest Groups

Solicit endorsements and campaign contributions from groups

Pursue policy initiatives and legislation that benefit key support groups

Leadership Styles of Recent Texas Governors (1 of 4)

Ann Richards (1991–1995)

Activist stance

Populist policy agenda called for a “new Texas”

Pragmatic approach to legislation, seeking compromise

Staff given greater responsibility to pursue policy objectives

Filled role as Texas’s chief ambassador

Leadership Styles of Recent Texas Governors (2 of 4)

George W. Bush (1995–2000)

Kept a low public profile in his first year

Often worked behind the scenes with legislators to reach compromise

Met frequently with Republican and conservative Democratic legislators

Faced opposition over school property tax reform and school vouchers

Leadership Styles of Recent Texas Governors (3 of 4)

Rick Perry (2000–2015 )

Gave no clear direction in first term

Vetoed a record eighty-two bills in 2001

Oversaw partisan redistricting battle

Rocky relationship with lawmakers

Washington “outsider”

The State’s Longest-Serving Governor

Governor Rick Perry was governor from 2000 to 2015, longer than any of his predecessors. His public career included a six-year stint as a state representative, eight years as the state’s agriculture commissioner, and almost two years as lieutenant governor prior to assuming the governorship when George Bush won the presidency in 2000.

29

Leadership Styles of Recent Texas Governors (4 of 4)

Greg Abbott (2015– )

Conservative record from time on Texas Supreme Court and as attorney general

More restrained than Perry at first

Mostly successful in first legislative session

Critical of federal government policies and advocate of efforts to curtail federal power

Other Offices of the Plural Executive (1 of 8)

Lieutenant Governor

Dan Patrick holds the office.

Primarily a legislative office with few administrative duties

Considered by some to be the most powerful state office

Presides over the Senate

Chairs the Legislative Budget Board

Succeeds the governor if the governor dies, is incapacitated, or is removed from office

Other Offices of the Plural Executive (2 of 8)

Attorney General

Ken Paxton holds the office.

Serves as the state’s chief legal officer

Represents the state in litigation

Enforces antitrust and consumer protection laws

Provides for child support collection

Creates advisory opinions on the legality of actions by state and local agencies or officials

Other Offices of the Plural Executive (3 of 8)

Comptroller of Public Accounts

Glenn Hegar holds the office.

Serves as the state’s tax administrator, accounting officer, and revenue estimator

Assumed the state treasurer’s duties in 1995

Provides a revenue estimate of state income to guide budget preparation

Must certify that the state budget falls within revenue projections

Other Offices of the Plural Executive (4 of 8)

Commissioner of the General Land Office

George P. Bush holds the office.

Manages state-owned lands and mineral rights

Revenues are earmarked for the Permanent University Fund and Permanent School Fund.

Responsible for the Veterans Land Program

Develops environmental programs

Plans for dealing with oil spills

Preventing soil erosion along Texas beaches

Don’t Mess with Texas!

Other Offices of the Plural Executive (5 of 8)

Commissioner of Agriculture

Sid Miller holds the office.

Statutory officer who regulates agriculture

Weights and measures

Packaging and labeling

Marketing

Supports agricultural research and education programs

Other Offices of the Plural Executive (6 of 8)

Secretary of State

Carlos Cascos holds the office.

Appointed by the governor

Grants charters to corporations

Reviews local and county election procedures

Develops statewide voter registration policy

Other Offices of the Plural Executive (7 of 8)

Elected Boards and Commissions

Three members; each one elected statewide to staggered six-year terms

Oversees railroad safety and oil, natural gas, and mining industries

Often used as a stepping stone to higher state office

Other Offices of the Plural Executive (8 of 8)

Elected Boards and Commissions

State Board of Education

Fifteen members, each one elected from a single-member district

Key responsibilities

Translating legislative mandates into public policy

Investment of money in the Permanent School Fund

Oversight of textbook selection and curriculum standards

Administration of the Texas Education Agency

Shared Writing 6.6

Consider the discussion in “Combs, Patterson Spar Over Ruling on State Incentives.” Policy conflicts within the plural executive are not limited to those between the governor and other statewide elected officials. For a variety of reasons, officials other than the governor have become involved in controversial issues, such as the use of state funding for Formula 1 racing. When conflict emerges between state officials of the plural executive, is the governor likely to become involved? What, if anything, might be the consequences of such conflicts between statewide elected officials?

Photo Credits

Page 166: Office of the Governor Greg Abbott; 168: Eric Gay/AP Images; 175: Eric Gay/AP Images; 176: Ralph Barrera/AP Images; 180: Dborah Cannon/AP Images; 182: Eric Gay/AP Images; 185: David Breslauer/AP Images; 187: Eric Gay/AP Images; 187: Harry Cabluck/AP Images; 190: Harry Cabluck/AP Images; 193: Eric Gay/AP Images; 196: The Railroad Commission of Texas; 198: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division [LC-DIG-ggbain-25234]

Categories

## dc network.gcu

Deactivated

Kendrick Kim

4 posts

Re:Module 3 DQ 2

Review the Prospectus Template, Dissertation Proposal Template, Milestone Guide, and Milestone Table in the DC Network and discuss how these documents have been helpful to you in completing your ISP. What challenges have you encountered while developing your ISP? How will you work with your chair to address these challenges so that you can meet the goals in your ISP?

After reviewing the Content Expert presentation, what steps have you taken to identify a content expert to serve on your committee?

The resources that the GCU DC network provides has a wealth of information and resources. The templates really makes the formatting and expectation and issues of the dissertation that need to be addressed more workable and fluid. It also makes life of the doctoral student’s life a lot more easier. These guidelines and time tables assist the doctoral learner in the dissertation process and the journey to see the light at the end of the tunnel. I think the challenges is not the difficulty of utilizing the templates and following the instructions, for me it is the amount of time I put in and honestly speaking, I am not putting in more time that I should. Focus now, is to get the prospectus draft solid to standard Dr. Rowell wants it at and then play catch up with the many of you my colleagues.

Reference(s)

www.gcu.edu. (n.d.). GRAND CANYON UNIVERSITY . Retrieved July 21, 2017, from  https://www.gcu.edu/college-of-doctoral-studies/doctoral-resources.php

www.gcu.edu. (n.d.).  Grand Canyon University.  Retrieved July 21, 2017 from  http://blogs.gcu.edu/college-of-doctoral-studies/category/dissertation-resources/page/2/

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## what negative impact did gold and silver mining have in the west

1. What negative impact did gold and silver mining have on the west?
15,885 results
Social Studies
2. What negative impact did gold and silver mining have in the west? I think it would be Ghost towns were left behind after the mines stopped producing. Is this right?

asked by Help on January 9, 2018
American History
what negative impact did gold and silver mining have in the west A) Tent cities near the mines fostered criminals as long-term residents B) Ghost towns were left behind after the mines stopped producing C) Mining camps were sources of many contagious

asked by yogirlsman on January 24, 2018
History
What negative impact did gold and silver mining have in the West? A. Tent cities near the mines fostered criminals as long-term residents. B. Ghost towns were left behind after the mines stopped producing. C. Mining camps were sources of many contagious

asked by Anonymous on February 12, 2019
social studies
what negative impact did gold and silver mining have in the west? A. Tent cities near the mines fostered criminals as long-term residents B. ghost towns were left behind after the mines stopped producing. C. mining camps were sources of many contagious

asked by sally on February 12, 2018
Social Studies
What negative impact did gold and silver mining have in the south? a)Tent cities near the mines fostered criminals as long term residents b)Ghost towns were left behind after the mines stopped producing c)Mining camps were sources of many contagious

asked by Anonymous on January 19, 2018

Math
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chemistry
silver has density of 10.5 g/cm3 and gold has a density of 193.g/cm3 which liquid is denser silver and gold are liquids? That’s news to me. You’re given the ratios for density, which ratio is greater 10.5gm/cm^3 or 193gm/cm^3? It appears gold is over 18

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Chemistry 101
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asked by Lilly on January 20, 2016
Chemistry 101
A crown is determine to weigh 2.65 kg. When this crown is submerged in a full basin of water, the overflow is found to be 145 mL. Is the crown pure gold or a gold-silver alloy? The density of silver is 10.5 g/mL and gold that of gold is 19.3 g/mL

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math
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Chemistry 101
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asked by Lilly on February 25, 2016
Chemistry 101
If gold sells today for 1625 per ounce, and a large mining truck hauls 400 tons of gold ore, what is the value of the gold in each truck if each ton of gold ore contains 1.0 ounces of gold? Use dimensional analysis.

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social studies
why does gold sink to the bottom of the pan? other than prospectors who else made money from the gold rush? why did some people in boomtowns become wealthy without mining for gold?

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chemistry
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asked by Jason on July 25, 2008
History
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Math Concentration
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asked by Amy Love on September 27, 2011
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Joe has a ring weighing 16 grams made of an alloy of 20% silver and the rest gold. He decides to melt down the rings and add enough silver to reduce the gold content to 69% . How many grams of silver should he add?

asked by Toulouse on October 4, 2012
chemistry
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asked by barbie on June 15, 2012
social studies
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asked by Anonymous on April 3, 2015
Globalization
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asked by Lynda on June 29, 2018
Social Studies

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asked by 🙁 on January 28, 2019

Chemistry
Consider a piece of gold jewelry that weighs 9.81 g and has a volume of 0.670 cm3. The jewelry contains only gold and silver, which have densities of 19.3 g/cm3 and 10.5 g/cm3, respectively. Assuming that the total volume of the jewelry is the sum of the

asked by Anonymous on August 18, 2013
science
Consider a piece of gold jewelry that weighs 9.35 g and has a volume of 0.690 cm3 . The jewelry contains only gold and silver, which have densities of 19.3 g/cm3 and 10.5 g/cm3, respectively. If the total volume of the jewelry is the sum of the volumes of

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Science
What time of reactions is Silver + gold(III)> silver nitrate + gold

asked by Aj on April 20, 2011
Social Studies
Which of the following was an effect of the discovery of gold and silver on western devolpment? It causes a sharp decrease in the population of eastern cities There was no longer a need for the railroad *The value of gold and silver decreased It

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Geography
Due to the violent & complex origins of the Andies, many rich & precious metals and minerals were found in the Andies. The inital economic wealth of many Adean coutries came from mining gold, silver, tin, copper, and iron. How can this cause conflict with

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History
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cinquain poem
For social studies we had to make our own 4 topic of cinquain poems. I asked some people and not many knew this type of poem, but one person said it all seem good except for the last lines. Do you think I did the format corret? Thanks for your help

asked by liz on October 8, 2013
Pre-Calc
Gold weighs 19.3 grams per cubic centimeter (cc), and silver weighs 10.5 grams per cc. A. Write a formula for the weight of one cc of a mizture of silver and gold in terms of the volume of gold in the cc. B. If one cc of mizture weighs 12.7 grams, what is

asked by Tritanianna on November 11, 2009
probability self study
each of three identical jewelry boxes has two drawers. in each drawer of the first box there is a gold watch. in each drawer of the second box there is a silver watch. in one drawer of the third box there is a gold watch while in the other there is a

asked by Woody on May 19, 2015
Physics
Archimedes purportedly used his principle to verify that the king’s crown was pure gold, by weighing the crown while it was submerged in water. Suppose the crown’s actual weight was 14.0 N. The densities of gold, silver, and water are 19.3 g/cm^3, 10.5

asked by Victor on December 3, 2012

U.S.History
please check Most pioneers who settled west of the Appalachins were a. families looking for good land b. miners looking for gold and silver c. missionaries seeking converts d. bankers from New York and Boston A

asked by y912f on February 10, 2009
algebra
A chemist has x grams of an alloy that is 20% silver and 10% gold, and y grams of an alloy that is 25% silver and 30% gold. Express the number of grams of gold in the two allows in terms of x and y.

Social Studies
What did West Africans trade to North Africans in exchange for salt? A camels (my answer) B gold C silver D masks Am I correct?

chemestry
a coin is composed of gold and silver. the 5.00g coin is dissolved in nitric acid and the solution treated with NaCl to precipitate out 2.35g of AgCl. Gold chlorides do not precipitate under the same conditions. What is the composition of silver (by mass)

social studies
How is silver harvested in Australia? Silver is not “harvested.” It’s “mined.” http://www.google.com/search?q=australia+mining+silver&rls=com.microsoft:en-us:IE-SearchBox&ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8&sourceid=ie7&rlz=1I7SUNA

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pre calc
A jeweler wants to make a 1 ounce ring composed of gold and silver, using \$200 worth of metal. If gold costs \$6000 per ounce and silver is \$50 per ounce, how much of eat metal should she use?

asked by Jody on September 15, 2014
Algebra 1
In 2000, the internatonal price of gold was \$270 per ounce, and the price of silver was \$5 per ounce. How much silver could be mixed with 9 oz of gold to obtain a mixture that costs \$164 per ounce?

asked by Kris on October 16, 2011
English
Which accurately describes the experience of gold seeker traveling to the Klondike? a. most gold seekers travel the whole distance by water b. about half of the gold seekers complete the journey to the Klondike*** c. all gold seeker were aided by the

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Finance
Using Monte Carlo simulation, calculate the price of a 1-year European option to give up 100 ounces of silver in exchange for 1 ounce of gold. The current prices of gold and silver are \$380 and \$4, respectively; the risk-free interest rate is 10% per

asked by Justin on April 25, 2011
U.S.History
not so sure about this Most African American Exodusters migrated west to a. work as sharecroppers on bonanza farms b. escape racial violence in the South c. find relatives who had fled during the Civil War d. prospect for gold and silver

asked by y912f on February 19, 2009

permutations in math
suppose 15 countries compete in an olympic event. gold, and silver,and bronze medals are awarded. how many different arrangements of winners are there if no country wins more than one medal in this event? show the work. thanks. 15 countries can get the

asked by dillon on April 9, 2007
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asked by Caroline on February 3, 2015
chemistry
a gold nugget and a silver nugget have a combined mass of 14.9g. The two nuggets are heated to 62C and dropped into 15.0mL of H2O at 23.5C. When thermal equilibrium is reached, the temperature of the H2O is 25.0C. Calculate the mass of each nugget. Denisty

asked by Jule on November 19, 2015
The risk premium is likely to be highest for? A. U.S. government bonds B. corporate bonds C. gold mining expedition D. either B or C I like C. I think th risk premium the rate added to the risk free rate would be highest for a gold mining expedition.

asked by Jason on July 26, 2008
English

1. Coins were made from gold and silver. 2. Coins were made with gold and silver. 3. Coins were made of gold and silver. =============== Which expressions are correct? Are they all correct? Which ones are commonly used?

asked by rfvv on June 3, 2015
physics
gold and silver have densities of 19.3 and 10.5 grams per cubic centimer, respectively. If you have eual volumes of each, which one will have the larger mass? I am thinking the gold. how do i prove it? Thank you

asked by Loui on April 24, 2011
U.S. History
How did the mining industry and the growth of ranching and farming contribute to the development of the West? A: The mining industry lured thousands of people into areas previously ignored as wilderness. The growth of ranching and farming also brought

asked by Victoria on October 7, 2015
micro economics
1) Assume that the gold-mining industry is competitive. a) Illustrate a long-run equilibrium using diagrams for the gold market and for the a representative gold mine. b) Suppose that an increase in jewellery demand induces a a surge for in the demand for

asked by Silvia on April 5, 2012
algebra
a jeweler purchased 5 oz of a gold alloy and 20 oz of a silver alloy for a total cost of \$540. The next day at the same price per ounce, the jeweler purchased 4 oz of th egold alloy and 25 oz of the silver alloy for a total cost of \$450. Find the cost per

asked by julie on April 29, 2011
Math
A bag contains 3 gold marbles, 10 silver marbles, and 21 black marbles. Someone offers to play this game: You randomly select on marble from the bag. If it is gold, you win \$3. If it is silver, you win \$2. If it is black, you lose \$1.

asked by Anonymous on April 19, 2016

history
what is a good website to describe a boom town in the west in the 1800s. a website of what they do there and what occurs during a typical day of mining.. including techniques of mining, description of the town, the mines, and the town’s inhabitants… also

asked by justin on September 23, 2013
help with physics
A gold wire and a silver wire have the same dimensions. At what temperature will the silver wire have the same resistance that the gold wire has at 20°C?

asked by lindsey on March 4, 2013
Physics
A gold wire and a silver wire have the same dimensions. At what temperature will the silver wire have the same resistance that the gold wire has at 20°C?

asked by lindsey on February 28, 2013
chemistry
A 9.35 gram of ring with it’s volume of 0.654 cm3 is an alloy of gold and with density of gold and silver respectively 19.3 g/cm3 and 10.5 g/cm3 assume there is no change in volume when pure metals are mixed. calculate volume of gold?

asked by Anonymous on November 7, 2016
chemistry
A 9.35 gram of ring with it’s volume of 0.654 cm3 is an alloy of gold and with density of gold and silver respectively 19.3 g/cm3 and 10.5 g/cm3 assume there is no change in volume when pure metals are mixed. The volume of gold is?

asked by sami on November 7, 2016
Chemistry
A piece of metal alloy (a solution of metals) is made of gold and silver. It is 20% by mass silver. An irregularly shaped piece of this alloy contains 0.356 lb of gold. When the alloy is added to a graduated cylinder that contains 31.55 mL of alcohol, the

asked by Mom on October 9, 2011
Math
The amounts by weight of gold, silver and lead in three alloys of these metals are in the ratio 1:5:3 in the first alloy, 2:3:4 in the second and 5:2:2 in the third. How many kg of the first alloy must be used to obtain 10kg of an alloy containing equal

asked by Anne B. on July 27, 2015
Chemistry
Gold is alloyed with other metals to increase its hardness in making jewelry. Consider a piece of gold jewelry that weighs 9.85 g and has a colume of 0.675 cm cubed. The jewelry contains only gold and silver, which have densities of 19.3 g/cm cubed and

asked by william on July 25, 2005
Chemistry
I need help I do not know how to set up this problem. Calculate the energy to heat three cubes gold aluminum and silver from 15 Celsius to 25 degrees Celsius. Density gold:0.129 J/g degrees C Density aluminum: .896 J/g degrees C Density silver: .235 J/g

asked by Amber on September 23, 2015
Math
MEDALS WON BY THE OLYMPIC US IN THE OLYMPIC GAMES. TOTAL=2407 GOLD=974 SILVER=772 BRONZE=661 FRACTION FOR GOLD IS 974 OVER 2407 FRACTION FOR SILVER AND BRONZE PUT TOGETHER IS 1433 OVER 2407 HERE IS THE QUESTON!!! LOOK AT THE FRACTON ABOVE. WHAT IS THEIR

asked by Mackenzie on March 9, 2008

physics
When the temperature of a thin silver [α = 19 × 10-6 (C°)-1] rod is increased, the length of the rod increases by 3.6 × 10-3 cm. Another rod is identical in all respects, except that it is made from gold [α = 14 × 10-6 (C°)-1]. By how much ΔL does

asked by Micah on February 13, 2017
Math
A bag is filled with 200 silver coins and 123 gold coins. What is the theoretical probability of NOT pulling out a silver coin? I keep gettin this wrong .How can i do this ?

asked by Rose on February 28, 2018
Social studies
What resulted in the loss of the continental dollar Foreign countries demanded repayment of their war loans from the government Trade became complicated because states printed their own currencies Congress began to sell sections of land in the northwest

asked by Online girl on September 12, 2016
Social studies
What resulted from the loss in value of continental dollar A) foreign countries demanded repayment of their word loans for the government B) trade became complicated because states printed their own currency C) Congress began to sell their sections of land

asked by jennifer trejos on October 5, 2017
English

1. They made coins from gold and silver. 2. They made coins of gold and silver. 3. They made coins out of gold and silver. (Which ones are grammatical?)

asked by rfvv on May 11, 2014
Math – Algebra
Von’s arcade uses 3 different colored tokens for its game machines. For 500, you can purchase any of the following combinations of tokens: 8 gold, 18 silver, and 7 bronze tokens; 8 gold, 14 silver, and 13 bronze tokens; or 16 gold, 6 silver, and 9 bronze

asked by Ashley Kate on January 4, 2014
Social Studies
What natural resource attracted other nations to trade with West and Central Africa beginning around AD 750? A. copper B. silver C. gold** D. salt Which of the following is an example of how people have adapted to the environment of West and Central

asked by Anonymous on October 28, 2016
Social Studies
What natural resource attracted other nations to trade with West and Central Africa beginning around AD 750? A. copper B. silver C. gold** D. salt Which of the following is an example of how people have adapted to the environment of West and Central

asked by Anonymous on October 28, 2016
SS
What natural resource attracted other nations to trade with West and Central Africa beginning around AD 750? A. copper B. silver C. gold** D. salt Which of the following is an example of how people have adapted to the environment of West and Central

More SS just a couple more to go…
What natural resource attracted other nations to trade with West and Central Africa beginning around AD 750? A. copper B. silver C. gold** D. salt Which of the following is an example of how people have adapted to the environment of West and Central

asked by Haley on November 6, 2017

Earth Science
Silver has a density of 10.5 g/cm cubed, and gold has a density of 19.3 g/cm cubed. Which would have the greater mass, 5cm cubed of silver or 5 cm cubed of gold?

asked by Bern on January 17, 2014
algebra
If the value of 10 ounces of gold is d dollars and an ounce of gold is equivalent to s ounces of silver, what is the value, in dollars, of 3 ounces of silver.

asked by wing on September 17, 2016
Social Studies
How did mining help the west grow?

asked by Hailey on December 8, 2012
policial science
I have to do an interview so can you guys help me out answering these questions? I need atleast 2 person’s oppionion 1- do you agree with the Bush Administration policy of spreading Democracy you and the world. 2- Do you how Bush agree w. handling the war

asked by DeeDee on January 6, 2007
ELA
Read the social studies article about the gold rush below. Then list the prepositional phrases on the lines. Underline the object of the preposition in each phrase In 1849, gold was discovered at Sutter’s Mill in California. Thousands of settlers headed

asked by Andrew on January 30, 2012
English

1. Coins were made from gold and silver. 2. Coins were made of gold and silver. —————— Which one is grammatical?

asked by rfvv on May 9, 2014
Georgia studies
_ is the primary mining area for gold in Georgia. 1. Cartersville 2. Augusta 3. Dahlonega 4. Richmond **** ?

asked by Haruhi on September 26, 2016
What are the aspects of the external environment of a gold mining company in South Africa? What about internal?

IPC
The specific heat of gold is 0.031 calories/gram°C and the specific heat of silver is 0.057 calories/gram°C. If equal amounts of each metal are exposed to equal heating, which will heat up faster? The answers are: 1) The silver will heat up almost twice

asked by Katy on October 13, 2010
Expected Value
A bag contains 2 gold marbles, 7 silver marbles, and 23 black marbles. Someone offers to play this game: You randomly select one marble from the bag. If it is gold, you win \$4. If it is silver, you win \$2. If it is black, you lose \$1. What is your expected

asked by tatiana on October 6, 2016

Expected Value
A bag contains 1 gold marbles, 10 silver marbles, and 29 black marbles. Someone offers to play this game: You randomly select one marble from the bag. If it is gold, you win \$4. If it is silver, you win \$2. If it is black, you lose \$1. What is your

asked by tatiana on September 25, 2016
Chemistry
How many grams silver is added to 13 grams gold to produce 85% gold alloy?

asked by Anonymous on September 25, 2015
Chemistry
How many grams silver is added to 13 grams gold to produce 85% gold alloy?

asked by Anonymous on September 25, 2015
Chemistry
How many grams silver is added to 13 grams gold to produce 85% gold alloy?

asked by Brenna on September 25, 2015
science
what is the karat count of gold in a bracelet that contains 15 grams of gold and 5 grams of silver

asked by demarco on May 13, 2008
His 103 World Civilization I
Provide a brief summary of the impact of the Mongol conquests. What, in your opinion, were the two most negative and most positive things that came out of the Mongol conquests of the 13th and 14th centuries, and why? Overall, would you call their impact on

asked by Quanta on August 15, 2012
Chem
when a 328 mg sample of gold and chlorine was treated with silver nitrate, Cl was converted to AgCl producing 464 mg of silver chloride. what is the empirical formula? AuCl + Ag(NO3) -> AgCl + Au(NO3)

asked by jay985 on November 17, 2016
chemistry
total mass 9.85 grms and total volume 0.65 cm ^3 . The jewlry contain only gold and silver which has densities 19.3 g/cm^3 amd 10.5 g/cm^3.calculate the % of mass of gold in jewellery

asked by manisha on February 12, 2011
Chemistry
Silver has a density of 10.5 g/cm3 and gold has a density of 19.3 g/cm3. Which would have a greater mass, 5 cm3 of silver or 5 cm3 of gold

asked by Monique on September 1, 2011
US History
Last 4 for the day! 19. Most pioneers who settled west of the Appalachians were a. families looking for good land b. miners looking for gold and silver c. missionaries seeking converts d. bankers from New York and Boston A? 20. What message did Protestant

asked by mysterychicken on October 18, 2010

Literature
“Slowly, silently, now the moon Walks the night in her silver shoon This way, and that, she peers, and sees Silver fruit upon silver trees; One by one the casements catch Her beams beneath the silvery thatch; Couched in his kennel, like a log, With paws of

asked by Anonymous on April 8, 2013
History
The wealth of East African city-states was based on A. Gold mining. B. Trade. C. Farming D. Control of natural resources. Is it A?

asked by Phebe on March 20, 2019
Math
At a track meet, competitors could win gold, silver or bronze medals. Kennedy High Schools track team won a total of 18 medals. Three of the medals were gold. There were twice as many bronze medals as silver medals. How many bronze medals did the track

asked by Kate on April 17, 2012
SS
Which area was known as the Gold Coast because of its abundance of gold? Cape of Good Hope coast of West Africa** Portugal Mediterranean coast

asked by Stacy on October 1, 2015
Science
What are byproducts of zinc and silver mining? Are they toxic enough to pollute water in large quantities? Thank you for thinking about this. I had a difficult time finding this on the internet.

asked by Bethany on March 20, 2009

Categories

## guess the correlation

Ashford 5: – Week 4 – Discussion 1

Your initial discussion thread is due on Day 3 (Thursday) and you have until Day 7 (Monday) to respond to your classmates. Your grade will reflect both the quality of your initial post and the depth of your responses. Reference the Discussion Forum Grading Rubric for guidance on how your discussion will be evaluated.

Guess   the Correlation

The Pearson correlation coefficient is a measure of degree of linear relationship between two variables. There are many correlated variables in health research: weight and height, smoking and drinking, health behaviors, etc.

The bivariate scatter plot shown below illustrates a strong negative correlation between two variables:

The next graph depicts a correlation of 1 (i.e. for a variable correlated with itself):

For this discussion, analyze the graph below which represents the correlation between weight (vertical axis; weight in pounds) and height (horizontal axis; height in inches).  Do you think there is a negative or a positive correlation coefficient between these two variables?  What value do you think this correlation coefficient will have?  You do not need to be exact, but come up with a value you think would fit the given data.  For the estimated value, what would be the coefficient of determination and what does it mean?  Is this a strong correlation?  Please explain.

Guided Response:  Review several of your classmates’ posts.  Respond substantively to two peers.  How strong or weak was their correlation?  What factors affect the strength of the correlation?  What about its statistical significance?

Respond

Categories

## victim vs creator

GU101 Student Success

Assignment W4  (100 points)

“Putting It All Together”

SWOT, grit, growth, victim, creator, motivation, academic integrity.  In the past few weeks, you have been writing short papers that incorporate ideas from sources you have found on the internet and on EBSCOhost.  This week, you will read one more article, and use it along with the others to write an essay about being successful in college.  This paper will be used to help determine your preparedness for future English courses in college.  Do your best work!

***

1.  Read the article Shifting out of the Drama Triangle: Victim vs. Creator Mindsets.

2.  Write a 5-paragraph essay which explains how having the creator mindset can foster greater success in college than having the victim mindset. For sources, be sure to use this week’s article as well as the articles required for weeks two and three to support your argument.

a.  The first paragraph is your introduction.  It should introduce the topic and contain the thesis statement.

b.  The second paragraph should have a topic sentence that relates to the thesis statement.  This paragraph should provide supporting evidence or ideas for your thesis that come from the designated article “Shifting out of the Drama Triangle.”  In this paragraph, you must incorporate one paraphrase from the article and cite it in text properly using APA citations.  This paraphrase must be highlighted in yellow.  Also you must also incorporate one short, direct quote from the article and cite it in text properly using APA citations.  This direct quote must be highlighted in blue.

c.  The third and fourth paragraphs are also supporting paragraphs for your thesis.  They should have topic sentences that support your thesis statement, and contain additional information that further supports the thesis.  Be sure to paraphrase or summarize the two articles you have already found regarding the growth mindset. Use your own words, but provide credit to the articles from which you have taken your ideas.

d.  The final paragraph is the conclusion. It should connect to the introductory paragraph and summarize the main points of the paper.

3.  List your sources in a References page at the end of your paper.

Categories

## total contribution margin in dollars divided by pretax income is the

1.Product A requires 5 machine hours per unit to be produced, Product B requires only 3 machine hours per unit, and the company’s productive capacity is limited to 240,000 machine hours. Product A sells for \$16 per unit and has variable costs of \$6 per unit. Product B sells for \$12 per unit and has variable costs of \$5 per unit. Assuming the company can sell as many units of either product as it produces, the company should:

2.Parker Plumbing has received a special one-time order for 1,500 faucets (units) at \$5 per unit. Parker currently produces and sells 7,500 units at \$6.00 each. This level represents 75% of its capacity. Production costs for these units are \$4.50 per unit, which includes \$3.00 variable cost and \$1.50 fixed cost. To produce the special order, a new machine needs to be purchased at a cost of \$1,000 with a zero salvage value. Management expects no other changes in costs as a result of the additional production. Should the company accept the special order?

3.The break-even time (BET) method is a variation of the:

4.After-tax net income divided by the annual average investment in an investment, is the:

5.The following data concerns a proposed equipment purchase: Cost…………………\$144,000 Salvage value…………..\$4,000 Estimated useful life……. 4years Annual net cash flows……\$46,100 Depreciation method……..straight-line Assuming that net cash flows are received evenly throughout the year, the accounting rate of return is:

6.The rate that yields a net present value of zero for an investment is the:

7.Select cost information for Winfrey Enterprises is as follows: For 1000 units of output Total Cost/unit Direct material \$5,000 \$5.00 Utilities expense \$1,000 \$1.00 Rent expense \$4,000 \$4.00 For 5,000 units of output Total Cost/unit Direct materials \$25,000 \$5.00 Utilities expense \$3,750 \$0.75 Rent expense \$4,000 \$0.80 Based on this information:

8.The margin of safety is the excess of:

9.Use the following information to determine the margin of safety in dollars:

Unit sales………………..50,000 units

Dollar sales………………\$500,000

fixed costs……………….\$204,000

Variable costs…………….\$187,000

10.Total contribution margin in dollars divided by pretax income is the:

11.Brown Company’s contribution margin ratio is 24%. Total fixed costs are \$84,000. What is Brown’s break-even point in sales dollars?

12.A company manufactures and sells a product for \$120 per unit. The company’s fixed costs are \$68,760, and its variable costs are \$90 per unit. The company’s break-even point in units is:

13.Yamaguchi Company’s break even point in units is 1,000. The sales price per unit is \$10 and variable cost per unit is \$7. If the company sells 2,500 units, what will net income be?

14.A firm sells two products, A and B. For every unit of A the firm sells, two units of B are sold. The firm’s total fixed costs are \$1,612,000. Selling prices and cost information for both products follow: Product Unit sales price Veriable costs per Unit A… \$20 \$8 B… \$24 \$4 The contribution margin per composite unit is:

15.Wayward Enterprises manufactures and sells three distinct styles of bicycles: the Youth model sells for \$300 and has a unit contribution margin of \$105; the Adult model sells for \$850 and has a unit contribution margin of \$450; and the Recreational model sells for \$1,000 and has a unit contribution margin of \$500. The company’s sales mix includes: 5 Youth models; 9 Adult models; and 6 Recreational models. If the firm’s annual fixed costs total \$6,500,000, calculate the firm’s break-even point in sales dollars.

16.The master budget includes:

17.A plan that lists the types and amounts of operating expenses expected that are not included in the selling expenses budget is a:

18.A plan showing the units of goods to be sold and the revenue to be derived from sales, that is the usual starting point in the budgeting process, is called the:

19.Ecology Co. sells a biodegradable product called Dissol and has predicted the following sales for the first four months of the current year:

Sales in units…. Jan.1,700; Feb.1,900; March 2,100; April1,600

Ending inventory for each month should be 20% of the next month’s sales, and the December 31 inventory is consistent with that policy. How many units should be purchased in February?

20.A quantity of merchandise or materials over the minimum needed reduce the risk of running short is called:

21.A plan that shows the expected cash inflows and cash outflows during the budget period, including receipts from loans needed to maintain a minimum cash balance and repayments of such loans, is called a(n):

22.Long-term liability data for the budgeted balance sheet is derived from:

23.The Palos Company expects sales for June, July, and August of \$48,000, \$54,000, and \$44,000, respectively. Experience suggests that 40% of sales are for cash and 60% are on credit.

The company collects 50% of its credit sales in the month following sale, 45% in the second month following sale, and 5% are not collected. What are the company’s expected cash receipts for August from its current and past sales?

24.Which of the following budgets is part of the manufacturing budget?

25.A process of examining the differences between actual and budgeted costs and describing them in terms of the amounts that resulted from price and quantity differences is called:

26.A report based on predicted amounts of revenues and expenses corresponding to the actual level of output is called a:

27.Sales analysis is useful for:

28.Product A has a sales price of \$10 per unit. Based on a 10,000-unit production level, the variable costs are \$6 per unit and the fixed costs are \$3 per unit. Using a flexible budget for 12,500 units, what is the budgeted operating income from Product A?

29.A job was budgeted to require 3 hours of labor per unit at \$8.00 per hour. The job consisted of 8,000 units and was completed in 22,000 hours at a total labor cost of \$198,000. What is the total labor cost variance?

30.A company has determined that its standard costs to produce a single unit of output is as follows: Direct material 6 pounds at \$0.90 per pound=\$5.40 Direct labor 0.5 hour at \$12.00 per hour=\$6.00 Manyfacturing overhead 0.5 hour at \$4.80 per hour=\$2.40 During the latest month, the company purchased and used 58,000 pounds of direct materials at a price of \$1.00 per pound to produce 10,000 units of output. Direct labor costs for the month totaled \$56,350 based on 4,900 direct labor hours worked. Variable manufacturing overhead costs incurred totaled \$15,000 and fixed manufacturing overhead incurred was \$10,400. Based on this information, the direct materials quantity variance for the month was

31.The difference between the total budgeted overhead cost and the overhead applied to production using the predetermined overhead rate is the:

32. Regarding overhead costs, as volume increases:

Categories

## jiskha

science
3,176 results
Science
Have to answer these in a reflection. Help? How has science evolved over time? How is human ingenuity portrayed in sciences? In what ways have humans shaped science? In what ways has science shaped our lives? What would the world be like without science?

asked by Rag on January 14, 2014
Psychology
Need help double checking these tricky psychology questions. I put an asterix (*)next to my answers, Thanks! Which of the following fields is the best example of psychology as a basic science? A-Educational psychology B-industrial organizational psychology

asked by Lilly on September 11, 2012
Psychology
Need help double checking these tricky psychology questions. I put an asterix (*)next to my answers, Thanks! Which of the following fields is the best example of psychology as a basic science? A-Educational psychology B-industrial organizational psychology

asked by Lilly on September 12, 2012
science
Using what you learned about science in your coursework thus far, discuss: 1. Why you think scientists probably want to leave what they do open to revision. 2. What are the hard-and-fast rules of science? Are there any? 3. With so few firm rules, how does

asked by ca on October 30, 2010
science
Need help distinguishing between applied science and basic science. would like your thoughts on my examples Applied science would be research, using rats, to see how rewards affect learning Basic science would be like a seminar with community leaders to

asked by Sue on October 23, 2018

Science
Science project ideas for science fair. I need to prepare a model for science fair. But I need some ideas about the major problems facing today’s world. So that I can get idea for improvement in any area and to show this in science fair. Please get me know

asked by Edd on October 21, 2014
Science
I have to do a project with a science related career (that doesn’t necessarily mean a scientist, but someone who uses science frequently). What do you call a scientist who studies the science of music? I’ve google this but I couldn’t find any results, but

asked by Jeff on April 24, 2009
General
This is a question to everybody: I was just wondering if anyone had any science related questions or things they wonder about that may require experiments. If you have any ideas please mention them. I need this for a science for a science fair project and

asked by Samantha on September 6, 2012
Courses URGENT
I have to complete a course selection form for school but I’m having some trouble understanding some of the courses. Can someone please help me please? Science and Technology: This is a science course provided to meet the needs of students requiring a

asked by John on March 22, 2010
Sciencies
1) Which two of the 12 science processes do you feel are the most important for students to understand early in their science studies? Defend your rationale. 2 What do you see as some benefits to teaching and learning science through an inquiry approach?

asked by Anonymous on February 15, 2011
For 9th grade science, which would be easier to take? Environmental Science or Life Science? Thanks -MC

asked by mysterychicken on July 15, 2009
english (gurublue or anyone)
I’m stumped on what seems to be a fairly easy question that has been asked of me after reading about “Mike Rose”. I will summarize the story and provide the question that has given me the mental block. Simple story… Mike Rose as a kid didn’t do well in

asked by Joey on February 1, 2009
Creating High-Quality Centers
Which of the following statements accurately reflects what we know about facilitating science learning for infants and toddlers? A. It’s important to have a science circle each week where the teacher demonstrates a science concept to the infants and

asked by Priscila on March 14, 2017
SCI
Hi, I really need some help with the anwsers to the First one, having hard time, maybe some help plz? What are the characteristics of scientific thinking and investigating? Why is science literacy important? What skills and tools do scientists use? Why is

asked by HELP!!! on September 25, 2018
psychology
What is basic science? What is applied science? What traits to people need to be successful in basic science psychology fields? applied science?

asked by Christian on September 4, 2007

using skills
According to the text, why should teachers of young children share science activities with parents? A. Everybody should know the facts of science. B. Parents want to learn science. C. Science relates to all aspects of a child’s life. D. Parents are their

asked by lauren on March 5, 2015
learning skills
According to the text, why should teachers of young children share science activities with parents? A. Everybody should know the facts of science. B. Parents want to learn science. C. Science relates to all aspects of a child’s life. D. Parents are their

asked by Eva on March 8, 2015
Science
An area in your state has been flooded due to heavy rains. How might scientists from the three main branches of science interact in their study of the flood, its effects, and how future flooding might be controlled? Life science, Earth science, and

asked by Jenny on August 21, 2010
science
The various groups who make up the US public have different expectations of science. How do these differing expectations of science affect the ways groups place trust in science? Describe one example of a controversial expectation that the author gives.

asked by Linda on December 21, 2014
Science
I’m really bad at Biology and Science in general. Chemistry and Physics will be difficult for me because I’m not good at the Science branch even though I study and work hard for Science/Biology. What can I do to improve?

asked by Anonymous on February 15, 2016
Sciences
Why you think scientists probably want to leave what they do open to revision. What are the hard-and-fast rules of science? Are there any? With so few firm rules, how does science avoid becoming fiction? What might make science and its constant revising

asked by Jackie on October 10, 2010
Science

1. How does the study of science benefit society? A. Non scientists in society often use the same experiments conducted by scientists in the laboratory. B. The study of science helps slow down a fast paced society. C. The study of science keeps more people

asked by Me on August 29, 2018
probability
out of 250 students interviewed at a community college, 90 were taking mathematics but not computer science, 160 were taking mathematics, and 50 were taking neither mathematics nor computer science. Find the probability that a student chosen at random was

asked by Emma on October 27, 2011
Science Helpers
My science post is almost at the bottom and I need it to be checked urgently. I see science helpers on this site as of right now.–Can you please have a moment to look at my Science post. Thank you very much in advance:-)

asked by Sara on April 6, 2010
Physics Check
1.)The making of the nuclear reactor was an advance in a)Science *b)Technology c)none of the above 2.)The development of the airplane was an advance in a)Science b)Technology *c)none of the above 3.)The discovery of gravity was an advance in *a)Science

asked by Ariel on July 2, 2010

Biology
I would like some help if that is OK, like soon!:) 1.) A group of scientists proposes an idea that a chemical compound will enable bean plants to grow faster. They grow one group of bean plants in the presence of the compound and another group in the

asked by Jessica on September 19, 2016
Technology
What are some key points historically in which we can say that science became reliant upon technology? We know that technology is a product of science, but at what point did science rely upon technology to make its investigations, and its claims to

asked by anonymous on March 6, 2008
Science
I have to write a paper on what I consider to be “bad science” and proved an example of what is bad science such as something from the media, commericals, scientist’s statement. I was wondering if someone could help me find an example of “bad” science

asked by Amanda on May 25, 2008
Environmental Science
We are being asked to identify reasons that an article is or is not science using the list of 8 characteristics of science. What are the 8 characteristics of science?

asked by Alexa on October 5, 2008
Psychology
Can the Bible and science co-exist without either losing its authority? How? In my opinion, the Bible teaches moral and spiritual precepts. It doesn’t pretend to be a scientific text book. Science tells us how things work. I don’t see a conflict between

asked by Nelda on January 17, 2007
English

1. I can’t do the science project myself. It’s too difficult? What does it refer to? #2 or #3? 2. doing the science project myself 3. the science project ——————————— 4. I’m going to Tom’s house to work on the science project. 5. I’m

asked by rfvv on April 12, 2017
Mathematics
Of the 82 pupils in grade 9, 73 take mathematics 56 take science, all those who take science take mathematics. Show the information on the venn diagram. How many take neither mathematics nor science?

asked by Philip Chiwala on January 29, 2017
Science
How would you compare and contrast the three different teaching methodologies: expository, guided inquiry, and free discovery, in a science lesson with respect to a) the amount of learning likely to occur, and b) the amount of prescribed science content

asked by Anonymous on March 7, 2011
science
WHat branches of science fall under the environmental science umbrella? Go to Wikepedia…very good article on environmental science…they list sub-categories. Depending upon what is being investigated, there are many; such as chemistry, biology,

asked by Sherry on September 3, 2006
Intro to Physical Science
Define physical science Andrew: I went to www.dictionary.com and typed in physical science. The following is what it returned.I hope this helps. physical science  1. any of the natural sciences dealing with inanimate matter or with energy, as physics,

asked by andrew on September 9, 2006

English
Subject names at school are as follows. math,science, social studies, computer science,etc. ————————————————— Can we use ‘information’ instead of ‘computer science’ as a subject name?

asked by rfvv on March 4, 2018
Science Project suggestions??
I cannot think of an original science project idea. I would really like an original one instead of the online ones which have already have their own procedures and stuff. I would like to do a science project that is has to do with chemistry or computer

asked by Eunice on September 22, 2015
English

1. learning subjects: English, math, science, etc. 2. subjects to learn:English, math, science, etc. 3. studying subject:English, math, science, etc. 4. subjects learning:English, math, science, etc. 5. taking subjects:English, math, science, etc.

asked by rfvv on March 11, 2018
Biology
Which of the following best describes the relationship between science and society? A. Science influences society but society does not influence science.** B. Society influences science but science does not influence society. C. Science influences society

asked by Wolf on September 13, 2017
SCIENCE PROJECT
I am interested in doing a science project on the math and science of different snowboarding tricks and techniques. Does anyone have advice and suggestions about how to do a project like this?? Please help! Very Urgent! Well you could do a nu,ber of

asked by Rachel on January 23, 2007
science
This analogy compares researchers in pure and applied science. applied science : tinkerers :: pure science : [blank] Choose the answer that best completes the analogy. a mechanics b truth-seekers c artists d technicians b?

asked by dianni on November 5, 2018
Math And Science for Young Children
After assessing your students, what question should you ask as you start organizing for teaching? A. What do my students know about this science topic? B. What is the appropriate science content that my students need to know? C. What do my students want to

asked by Tonya on January 9, 2016
science
Two im not sure on, please check? What is the true work of all scientists? Scientists ask testable questions and devise ways to answer those questions through experimentation or observation.*** Scientists research other scientists’ discoveries and present

asked by SkatingDJ on September 8, 2014
SCIENCE
Which of the following is not true of a scientific theory? A. being able to make personal decisions about science related issues. B.being able to evaluate scientific information. C.being able to rely on opinions about science related issues. D.being able

asked by yanna on October 16, 2017
education
What can you major if you have associate degree in science. What is difference between associate in science and Associate of Applied Science?

asked by marija on September 6, 2013

Science
What is science when it is applied? Science that is applied has several names: Applied Science Technology Engineering Construction

asked by Hunter on August 21, 2006
science
An area in your state has been flooded due to heavy rains. How might scientists from the three main branches of science interact in their study of the flood, its effects, and how future flooding might be controlled? OK, I will bite: What do you think the

asked by alexa on September 17, 2006
Social Studies
In what way is geography an integrative science? a. Geography is an integrative science because it examines Earth in both physical and human terms.*** b. Geography is an integrative science because it borrows from physical sciences such as chemistry,

asked by Kaai97 on February 4, 2016
math/everything
do you know any website that can help me with all this 1.Language Arts, Writing, in two parts. •Part 1: Organization, Sentence Structure, Usage, and Mechanics •Part 2: Essay 2.Language Arts, Reading •Poetry •Drama and •Fiction •Non-fiction

asked by monica on July 22, 2010
English
Writeacher, I need your help to develop a few ideas. Thank you very much. 1) It would be really important if in the future a science teacher from your school could embark in a Comenius project (I don’t know how to express it), which will enable him, on the

asked by Henry on March 9, 2012
Science
How does that contribute to the continuous and ongoing nature of science? In other words, why is science a never-ending process?

asked by Help i need somebody not just anybody on October 9, 2017
science
Which two of the 12 science processes do you feel are the most important for students to understand early in their science studies?

asked by brigida on April 12, 2011
maths, physical science , life science , geography
Hi I am in grade 10 , I am doing maths physical science, life science and geography, what jobs can I get into with those subjects

asked by zaakiyah on January 19, 2014
science
consumer science or chemistry What is the field of science if I am dealing with the problem which detergent works the best?

asked by bobpursley on December 4, 2006
science
Which two of the 12 science processes do you feel are the most important for students to understand early in their science studies?

English
I have to write a Haiku with has to do with Science, please let me know if this is good. Science is great fun you get to use chemicals, but safety is first. Thank you.

asked by Kyle on November 2, 2011
to writeacher
can you help me with science. we usually have science on wednesday, but during that time, i have to go to violin. i don’t get aything about electricity or magnets.

asked by Celest on March 21, 2012
to writeacher
can you help me with science. we usually have science on wednesday, but during that time, i have to go to violin. i don’t get aything about electricity or magnets.

asked by Celest on March 21, 2012
science
i need help on my science project i have a science fair on march somethin please give me any ideas possible u know plz thanks. (0.o)

asked by jonah on January 23, 2008
sociology
whether science or religion is best suited in postmodernity???? i think it’s science but i cant find any explanations on the internet

asked by helppp11111 on October 2, 2018
Edward Phatudi
Am doing physical science.life science.geography and maths lit i want to know which career can i do

asked by Precious on July 2, 2014
To: DrBob222
Can you please check my previous science post. As of right now, you are the only science teacher on this site–which is why I am pleading you to. Thank you very much:-)

asked by Sara on April 8, 2010
French
In French, how do you say “The ost useful subject is science? I need to know how to say the science part..is it plural, like math, and is it masculine or feminine?

asked by Angie on May 1, 2009
Geography,maths lit,life science,physical science,xhosa,life orientation and english
Will i be able to do law with the following subject maths lit,geography,life science,physical science and english

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Science
How does cell differentiation connect to other branches of science or STEAM (science, technology, engineering, art, mathematics)

asked by Anonymous on January 19, 2015

writing
find information about a hurricane that occurred within the last week? A newspaper science journal science magazine encyclopedia

asked by Anonymous on May 10, 2012
science fair ideas
PLZ help i have a science project due in less than a week and still have no idea what im going to do dose anyone have ideas for zoology science experiments?

asked by Courtney on November 29, 2010
science fair
I need to do a project for the science fair but I don’t know what to do. My science teacher says it has to be like the water dancing on a penny, everything has to be the same but you have to change one thing. What can I do?????? HELP ME PLEASE :/

asked by Molisa on October 9, 2012
physical science
gimme a side of what physical science is. I know there’s no shortcuts but it means alot of ev’rything I gotta know. Sho’ me. I have little understanding of what you wrote. When one tries to communicate in non-standard English, the results are

asked by Henry on September 3, 2005
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What is science is the question and btw Im in grade 8 so could u plz give an answer according to that like explain what is science first and then wht r its branches plzzz!!!

asked by Daisy on September 4, 2013
Science
Which two of the twelve science processes do you feel are the most important for students to understand early in their science studies. Defend your rational.

asked by Candi on August 23, 2013
Science plz help
Which of the following is a valid reason to study science All employers require an in-depth knowledge of science Carrying out scientific experiments is a requirement of everyday life Most colleges require advance science classes Understanding basic

asked by Boiwho needs help on August 22, 2018
science

asked by leah on August 19, 2014
anthropology
There are anthropological links between social science and natural science

asked by tasha on August 4, 2009
Science
give 3 examples of pure science vs applied science

asked by Matt on June 7, 2009

Just for I.AM..RUNNING.FROM.MYSELF,
I’m doing a poster in science and its about radon. Radon is a radioactive gas and it causes lung cancer, but i don’t know what to do for the poster and it’s due March 16,2012 but i have to turn it in by tomorrow so that the poster can get to the science

asked by Portia on March 9, 2012
childcare
An inappropriate science activity for a toddler would be A. reporting on the weather. B. caring for pets of the facility. C. planting a flower. D. watching a science show on TV.

asked by Heather on April 7, 2011
Maths Lit, Agic Science, Geography & Life Science
Hi, Im in grade 10 in Ngodini High School at Mpumalanga. I’m doing Life Science, Agricultural Science, Geography & Maths Lit – I want 2 know that which career path I can do?

asked by Mabuza Glen on December 4, 2015
History of Technology
In developed countries, technological advances are most closely related to: A. cultural philosophy. B. warfare. C. applied science. D. theoretical science. Ans : D

asked by angela on October 26, 2016
Conceps of development
Which of the following is the crux of the interrelationship between mathematics and science? A. About half of the basic math concepts are related to science concepts. B. The basic concepts of mathematics are the basic process skills of science. C. Basic

asked by Daniella on January 22, 2015
how concepts develop
Which of the following is the crux of the interrelationship between mathematics and science? A. About half of the basic math concepts are related to science concepts. B. The basic concepts of mathematics are the basic process skills of science. C. Basic

asked by Daniea on January 15, 2015
concept development
Which of the following is the crux of the interrelationship between mathematics and science? A. About half of the basic math concepts are related to science concepts. B. The basic concepts of mathematics are the basic process skills of science. C. Basic

asked by Daniella on January 25, 2015
Math
To determine a GPA: 2(credit( Hr. Art, 3Hr. History, 4 Hr. Science 3 Hr. Math, & 1 Hr. Science lab. The scores were B in Art, A in History, C in Science, B in Math, A in Science Lab. What was the GPA based on 4 point scale? I continue to get 3.2 but that

asked by Betty on March 5, 2007
Science
Which of the following is a valid reason to study science? A. All employers require an in-depth knowledge of science. B. Carrying out scientific experiments is a requirement of everyday life. C. Most colleges require advanced science classes. D.

asked by dOg.eXe has stopped working. on August 20, 2018
science help
A scientist plans to find out the percent of teenagers who like science. She interviews 500 teenagers leaving a science museum and finds that 450 of them like science. The scientist concludes that 90 percent of teenagers like science. Why is the

asked by Oscar on February 23, 2016

Science Fair Project
Please help any tutors around, i really need help on what topic to choose, and my science fair is in February 16, 2015!!!!!! I just want to get a really good mark so i get an A in Science again this year in my report card. From a Student in need!!!Wimbika

asked by Wimbika on February 3, 2015
Math
In a class of 550 students, students may take all, none, or a combination of courses as follows.? Draw a Venn diagram to find how many students are not in any of these courses. Mathematics-280 Science-200 Technology-230 Mathematics and Technology-110

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computer science
ineed help with c++. i am using code blocks and i have a problem with the compiler. when I run this code ¡é # include using namespace std; int main() { cout

asked by lj on March 7, 2010
Child Care
An inappropriate science activity for a toddler would be A.reporting on the weather B.caring for pets of the facility C.planting a flower D.watching a science show on T.V. I PICK THE LETTER D

asked by Brenna on February 21, 2009
English
Which of the following publications are both listed under the “Magazines” results? A. Astronomy and Science B. Odyssey and Natural History C. Science News and Earth Island D. The Economist and American Scientist

asked by Leo on November 29, 2011
science
How does earth science overlap with life science?

asked by HEY:)) on September 15, 2017
European History
Explain the role of science and empiricism in reshaping Europen cities in the nineteenth century. How did advancements in science and technology improve the lives of the working class in Europe? These sites may be of help.

asked by Ashley on December 5, 2006
Literacy
Which of the following publications are both listed under the “Magazines” results? A. Science News and Earth Island B. Astronomy and Science C. Odyssey and Natural History D. The Economist and American Scientist my answer is D

asked by Heather on January 17, 2012
Literacy

1. Which of the following publications are both listed under the “Magazines” results? A. Science News and Earth Island B. The Economist and American Scientist C. Odyssey and Natural History D. Astronomy and Science ANSWER IS A

asked by Mrs. Jane on March 10, 2012
OK, here’s a list of the subjects I think I want to take: English 1 Refresher Math Life Science, Biology, or Environmental Science…not sure which one would be the best?? I want to take Sociology for Social Sciences Health And Fine Arts is mandatory Sound

asked by mysterychicken on May 26, 2009

science
I am SOOOO stuck on this science question!! It’s not that hard but, science isn’t my forte….. here it is….” If the mass of the brick is 50 grams and it’s volume is 9cm cubed, calculate the density of the block using the formula D = m/v.” HELP

asked by Rachel Bond on December 13, 2010
Algebra
I am so confused with some word problems math is not my strong point here is the problem if you know how to solve it please tell me how to solve but just don’t give me the answer Austin has 42 paperback books that are either Mysteries or science fiction.

asked by danielle on August 23, 2005
science
Any topic (writer’s choice) Research paper Science 3 pages / 825 words Discipline: Science Type of service: Writing from scratch Format or citation style: APA

asked by mark on November 5, 2013
AED
I know I posted this but AI wanted to pose what i have so far and need more info. I have this so far: The hands-on learning in a science classroom when few resources are provided by the school can be the discovery bottles that the teacher can make, sensory

asked by troyer0269 on November 26, 2008
Science
1.How is science & society related? i have no idea what the answer to this question is 2. What is a scientist’s usual next step if data supports a hypothesis? can you tell me if i’m right?… i think that they either published or the experiment is

asked by Leslie on August 21, 2006

Categories

## Description

Authentic leadership represents one of the newest areas of leadership research. It focuses on whether leadership is genuine and “real.” As the title of this approach implies, authentic leadership is about the authenticity of leaders and their leadership. Unlike many of the theories that we have discussed in this book, authentic leadership is still in the formative phase of development. As a result, authentic leadership needs to be considered more tentatively: It is likely to change as new research about the theory is published.

In recent times, upheavals in society have energized a tremendous demand for authentic leadership. The destruction on 9/11, corporate scandals at companies like WorldCom and Enron, and massive failures in the banking industry have all created fear and uncertainty. People feel apprehensive and insecure about what is going on around them, and as a result, they long for bona fide leadership they can trust and for leaders who are honest and good. People’s demands for trustworthy leadership make the study of authentic leadership timely and worthwhile.

In addition to the public’s interest, authentic leadership has been intriguing to researchers: It was identified earlier in transformational leadership research but never fully articulated (Bass, 1990; Bass & Steidlmeier, 1999; Burns, 1978; Howell & Avolio, 1993). Furthermore, practitioners had developed approaches to authentic leadership that were not evidence based, and so needed further clarification and testing. In attempts to more fully explore authentic leadership, researchers set out to identify the parameters of authentic leadership and more clearly conceptualize it, efforts that continue today.

Character and Purpose

On the surface, authentic leadership appears easy to define. In actuality, it is a complex process that is difficult to characterize. Among leadership scholars, there is no single accepted definition of authentic leadership. Instead, there are multiple definitions, each written from a different viewpoint and with a different emphasis (Chan, 2005).

One of those viewpoints is the intrapersonal perspective, which focuses closely on the leader and what goes on within the leader. It incorporates the leader’s self-knowledge, self-regulation, and self-concept. In Shamir and Eilam’s (2005) description of the intrapersonal approach, they suggest that authentic leaders exhibit genuine leadership, lead from conviction, and are originals, not copies. This perspective emphasizes a leader’s life experiences and the meaning he or she attaches to those experiences as being critical to the development of the authentic leader.

A second way of defining authentic leadership is as an interpersonal process. This perspective outlines authentic leadership as relational, created by leaders and followers together (Eagly, 2005). It results not from the leader’s efforts alone, but also from the response of followers. Authenticity emerges from the interactions between leaders and followers. It is a reciprocal process because leaders affect followers and followers affect leaders.

Finally, authentic leadership can be defined from a developmental perspective, which is exemplified in the work of Avolio and his associates (Avolio & Gardner, 2005; Gardner, Avolio, & Walumbwa, 2005; Walumbwa, Avolio, Gardner, Wernsing, & Peterson, 2008). This perspective, which underpins the approaches to authentic leadership discussed in the following section, views authentic leadership as something that can be nurtured in a leader, rather than as a fixed trait. Authentic leadership develops in people over a lifetime and can be triggered by major life events, such as a severe illness or a new career.

Taking a developmental approach, Walumbwa et al. (2008) conceptualized authentic leadership as a pattern of leader behavior that develops from and is grounded in the leader’s positive psychological qualities and strong ethics. They suggest that authentic leadership is composed of four distinct but related components: self-awareness, internalized moral perspective, balanced processing, and relational transparency (Avolio, Walumbwa, & Weber, 2009). Over a lifetime, authentic leaders learn and develop each of these four types of behavior.

Building Authenticity

Formulations about authentic leadership can be differentiated into two areas: (1) the practical approach, which evolved from real-life examples and training and development literature; and (2) the theoretical approach, which is based on findings from social science research. Both approaches offer interesting insights about the complex process of authentic leadership.

#### Practical Approach

Books and programs about authentic leadership are popular today; people are interested in the basics of this type of leadership. Specifically, they want to know the “how to” steps to become an authentic leader. In this section, we will discuss Bill George’s authentic leadership approach (2003).

##### Bill George’s Authentic Leadership Approach.

The authentic leadership approach developed by George (2003; George & Sims, 2007) focuses on the characteristics of authentic leaders. George describes, in a practical way, the essential qualities of authentic leadership and how individuals can develop these qualities if they want to become authentic leaders.

Based on his experience as a corporate executive and through interviews with a diverse sample of 125 successful leaders, George found that authentic leaders have a genuine desire to serve others, they know themselves, and they feel free to lead from their core values. Specifically, authentic leaders demonstrate five basic characteristics: (1) They understand their purpose, (2) they have strong values about the right thing to do, (3) they establish trusting relationships with others, (4) they demonstrate self-discipline and act on their values, and (5) they are passionate about their mission (i.e., act from their heart) (Figure 9.1; George, 2003).

Figure 9.1 illustrates five dimensions of authentic leadership identified by George: purpose, values, relationships, self-discipline, and heart. The figure also illustrates each of the related characteristics—passion, behavior, connectedness, consistency, and compassion—that individuals need to develop to become authentic leaders.

In his interviews, George found that authentic leaders have a real sense of purpose. They know what they are about and where they are going. In addition to knowing their purpose, authentic leaders are inspired and intrinsically motivated about their goals. They are passionate individuals who have a deep-seated interest in what they are doing and truly care about their work.

A good example of an authentic leader who exhibited passion about his goals was Terry Fox, a cancer survivor, whose leg was amputated after it was overcome by bone cancer. Using a special leg prosthesis, Terry attempted to run across Canada, from the Atlantic to the Pacific, to raise awareness and money for cancer research. Although he died before he finished his run, his courage and passion affected the lives of millions of people. He also accomplished his goals to increase cancer awareness and to raise money for cancer research. Today, the Terry Fox Foundation is going strong and has raised more than \$400 million (Canadian) for cancer research (www.terryfox.org). Of the dimensions and characteristics in Figure 9.1, Terry Fox clearly demonstrated purpose and passion in his leadership.

SOURCE: From Authentic Leadership: Rediscovering the Secrets to Creating Lasting Value by Bill George, copyright © 2003. Reproduced with permission of John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Authentic leaders understand their own values and behave toward others based on these values. Stated another way, George suggests that authentic leaders know their “True North.” They have a clear idea of who they are, where they are going, and what the right thing is to do. When tested in difficult situations, authentic leaders do not compromise their values, but rather use those situations to strengthen their values.

An example of a leader with a strong set of values is Nobel Peace Prize Laureate Nelson Mandela. Mandela was a deeply moral man with a strong conscience. While fighting to abolish apartheid in South Africa, he was unyielding in his pursuit of justice and equality for all. When he was in prison and offered early release in exchange for denouncing his viewpoint, he chose to remain incarcerated rather than compromise his position. Nelson Mandela knew who he was at his core. He knew his values, and his leadership reflected those values.

A third characteristic of authentic leadership in the George approach is strong relationships. Authentic leaders have the capacity to open themselves up and establish a connection with others. They are willing to share their own story with others and listen to others’ stories. Through mutual disclosure, leaders and followers develop a sense of trust and closeness.

George argued that people today want to have access to their leaders and they want their leaders to be open with them. In a sense, people are asking leaders to soften the boundary around their leadership role and to be more transparent. People want to have a trusting relationship with their leaders. In exchange, people are willing to give leaders greater loyalty and commitment.

As we discussed in Chapter 7 (leader–member exchange theory), effective leader–follower relationships are marked by high-quality communication in which leaders and followers demonstrate a high degree of mutual trust, respect, and obligation toward each other. Leaders and followers are tied together in productive ways that go beyond the stereotypical leader–follower relationship. This results in strong leader–member relationships, greater understanding, and higher productivity.

Self-discipline is another dimension of authentic leadership, and is the quality that helps leaders to reach their goals. Self-discipline gives leaders focus and determination. When leaders establish objectives and standards of excellence, self-discipline helps them to reach these goals and to keep everyone accountable. Furthermore, self-discipline gives authentic leaders the energy to carry out their work in accordance with their values.

Like long-distance runners, authentic leaders with self-discipline are able to stay focused on their goals. They are able to listen to their inner compass and can discipline themselves to move forward, even in challenging circumstances. In stressful times, self-discipline allows authentic leaders to remain cool, calm, and consistent. Because disciplined leaders are predictable in their behavior, other people know what to expect and find it easier to communicate with them. When the leader is self-directed and “on course,” it gives other people a sense of security.

Last, the George approach identifies compassion and heart as important aspects of authentic leadership. Compassion refers to being sensitive to the plight of others, opening one’s self to others, and being willing to help them. George (2003, p. 40) argued that as leaders develop compassion, they learn to be authentic. Leaders can develop compassion by getting to know others’ life stories, doing community service projects, being involved with other racial or ethnic groups, or traveling to developing countries (George, 2003). These activities increase the leader’s sensitivity to other cultures, backgrounds, and living situations.

In summary, George’s authentic leadership approach highlights five important features of authentic leaders. Collectively, these features provide a practical picture of what people need to do to become authentic in their leadership. Authentic leadership is a lifelong developmental process, which is formed and informed by each individual’s life story.

#### Theoretical Approach

Although still in its initial stages of development, a theory of authentic leadership is emerging in social science literature. In this section, we identify the basic components of authentic leadership and describe how these components are related to one another.

##### Background to the Theoretical Approach.

Although people’s interest in “authenticity” is probably timeless, research on authentic leadership is very recent, with the first article appearing in 2003. The primary catalyst for this research was a leadership summit at the University of Nebraska. This summit was sponsored by the Gallup Leadership Institute, and focused on the nature of authentic leadership and its development. From the summit, two sets of publications emerged: (1) a special issue of Leadership Quarterly in the summer of 2005, and (2) Monographs in Leadership and Management,titled “Authentic Leadership Theory and Process: Origins, Effects and Development,” also published in 2005. Prior to the summit, Luthans and Avolio (2003) published an article on authentic leadership development and positive organizational scholarship. The article also helped to ignite this area of research.

Authenticity and Brand

Interest in authentic leadership increased during a time in which there was a great deal of societal upheaval and instability in the United States. The attacks of 9/11, widespread corporate corruption, and a troubled economy all created a sense of uncertainty and anxiety in people about leadership. Widespread unethical and ineffective leadership necessitated the need for more humane, constructive leadership that served the common good (Fry & Whittington, 2005; Luthans & Avolio, 2003).

In addition, researchers felt the need to extend the work of Bass (1990) and Bass and Steidlmeier (1999) regarding the meaning of authentic transformational leadership. There was a need to operationalize the meaning of authentic leadership and create a theoretical framework to explain it. To develop a theory of authentic leadership, researchers drew from the fields of leadership, positive organizational scholarship, and ethics (Cooper, Scandura, & Schriesheim, 2005; Gardner et al., 2005).

A major challenge confronting researchers in developing a theory was to define the construct and identify its characteristics. As we discussed earlier in the chapter, authentic leadership has been defined in multiple ways, with each definition emphasizing a different aspect of the process. For this chapter, we have selected the definition set forth in an article by Walumbwa et al. (2008), who defined authentic leadership as “a pattern of leader behavior that draws upon and promotes both positive psychological capacities and a positive ethical climate, to foster greater self-awareness, an internalized moral perspective, balanced processing of information, and relational transparency on the part of leaders working with followers, fostering positive self-development” (p. 94). Although complex, this definition captures the current thinking of scholars regarding the phenomenon of authentic leadership and how it works.

In the research literature, different models have been developed to illustrate the process of authentic leadership. Gardner et al. (2005) created a model that frames authentic leadership around the developmental processes of leader and follower self-awareness and self-regulation. Ilies, Morgeson, and Nahrgang (2005) constructed a multicomponent model that discusses the impact of authenticity on leaders’ and followers’ happiness and well-being. In contrast, Luthans and Avolio (2003) formulated a model that explains authentic leadership as a developmental process. In this chapter, we will present a basic model of authentic leadership that is derived from the research literature that focuses on the core components of authentic leadership. Our discussion will focus on authentic leadership as a process.

Fostering Authenticity

CEOs and Positive Psychology

In an effort to further our understanding of authentic leadership, Walumbwa and associates (2008) conducted a comprehensive review of the literature and interviewed groups of content experts in the field to determine what components constituted authentic leadership and to develop a valid measure of this construct. Their research identified four components: self-awareness, internalized moral perspective, balanced processing, and relational transparency (Figure 9.2). Together, these four components form the foundation for a theory of authentic leadership.

Self-awareness refers to the personal insights of the leader. It is not an end in itself but a process in which individuals understand themselves, including their strengths and weaknesses, and the impact they have on others. Self-awareness includes reflecting on your core values, identity, emotions, motives, and goals, and coming to grips with who you really are at the deepest level. In addition, it includes being aware of and trusting your own feelings (Kernis, 2003). When leaders know themselves and have a clear sense of who they are and what they stand for, they have a strong anchor for their decisions and actions (Gardner et al., 2005). Other people see leaders who have greater self-awareness as more authentic.

SOURCE: Adapted from Luthans, F., & Avolio, B. J. (2003). Authentic leadership development. In K. S. Cameron, J. E. Dutton, & R. E. Quinn (Eds.), Positive organizational scholarship (pp. 241–258). San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler; and Gardner, W. L., Avolio, B. J., Luthans, F., May, D. R., & Walumbwa, F. O. (2005). “Can you see the real me?” A self-based model of authentic leader and follower development. Leadership Quarterly, 16, 343–372.

Authenticity and Identity

Internalized moral perspective refers to a self-regulatory process whereby individuals use their internal moral standards and values to guide their behavior rather than allow outside pressures to control them (e.g., group or societal pressure). It is a self-regulatory process because people have control over the extent to which they allow others to influence them. Others see leaders with an internalized moral perspective as authentic because their actions are consistent with their expressed beliefs and morals.

Balanced processing is also a self-regulatory behavior. It refers to an individual’s ability to analyze information objectively and explore other people’s opinions before making a decision. It also means avoiding favoritism about certain issues and remaining unbiased. Balanced processing includes soliciting viewpoints from those who disagree with you and fully considering their positions before taking your own action. Leaders with balanced processing are seen as authentic because they are open about their own perspectives, but are also objective in considering others’ perspectives.

Relational transparency refers to being open and honest in presenting one’s true self to others. It is self-regulatory because individuals can control their transparency with others. Relational transparency occurs when individuals share their core feelings, motives, and inclinations with others in an appropriate manner (Kernis, 2003). It includes the individuals showing both positive and negative aspects of themselves to others. In short, relational transparency is about communicating openly and being real in relationships with others.

Fundamentally, authentic leadership comprises the above four factors—self-awareness, internalized moral perspective, balanced processing, and relational transparency. These factors form the basis for authentic leadership.

##### Factors That Influence Authentic Leadership.

There are other factors such as positive psychological capacities, moral reasoning, and critical life events that influence authentic leadership (Figure 9.2).

The four key positive psychological attributes that have an impact on authentic leadership—confidence, hope, optimism, and resilience—have been drawn from the fields of positive psychology and positive organizational behavior (Table 9.1; Luthans & Avolio, 2003). Positive attributes predispose or enhance a leader’s capacity to develop the components of authentic leadership discussed in the previous section. Each of these attributes has a trait-like and a state-like quality. They are trait-like because they may characterize a relatively fixed aspect of someone’s personality that has been evident throughout his or her life (e.g., extraversion), and they are state-like because, with training or coaching, individuals are capable of developing or changing their characteristics.

SOURCE: Luthans, F., & Avolio, B. J. (2003). Authentic leadership development. In K. S. Cameron, J. E. Dutton, & R. E. Quinn (Eds.), Positive organizational scholarship (pp. 241–258). San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler.

Confidence refers to having self-efficacy—the belief that one has the ability to successfully accomplish a specified task. Leaders who have confidence are more likely to be motivated to succeed, to be persistent when obstacles arise, and to welcome a challenge (Bandura, 1997; Luthans & Avolio, 2003). Hope is a positive motivational state based on willpower and goal planning (Luthans & Avolio, 2003). Authentic leaders with hope have goals they know can be accomplished; their hope inspires followers to trust them and believe in their goals. Optimism refers to the cognitive process of viewing situations from a positive light and having favorable expectations about the future. Leaders with optimism are positive about their capabilities and the outcomes they can achieve. They approach life with a sense of abundance rather than scarcity (Covey, 1990). Resilience is the capacity to recover from and adjust to adverse situations. It includes the ability to positively adapt to hardships and suffering. During difficult times, resilient people are able to bounce back from challenging situations and feel strengthened and more resourceful as a result of them (Sutcliffe & Vogus, 2003).

Moral reasoning is another factor that can influence authentic leadership (Figure 9.2). It is the capacity to make ethical decisions about issues of right or wrong and good or bad. Developing the capacity for moral reasoning is a lifelong process. Higher levels of moral reasoning make it possible for the authentic leader to make decisions that transcend individual differences and align individuals toward a common goal. They enable leaders to be selfless and make judgments that serve the greater good of the group, organization, or community. Moral reasoning capacity also enables authentic leaders to use this ability to promote justice and achieve what is right for a community.

A final factor related to authentic leadership is critical life events (Figure 9.2). Critical events are major events that shape people’s lives. They can be positive events, like receiving an unexpected promotion, having a child, or reading an important book; or they can be negative events, like being diagnosed with cancer, getting a negative year-end evaluation, or having a loved one die. Critical life events act as catalysts for change. Shamir and Eilam (2005) argued that authentic leadership rests heavily on the insights people attach to their life experiences. When leaders tell their life stories, they gain greater self-knowledge, more clarity about who they are, and a better understanding of their role. By understanding their own life experiences, leaders become more authentic.

Critical life events also stimulate growth in individuals and help them become stronger leaders (Luthans & Avolio, 2003). For example, Howard Schultz (founder and CEO of Starbucks) tells a story about when he was little: His father, who was a delivery driver, fell and was hurt on the job. His father did not have health insurance or worker’s compensation. Seeing the problems that resulted from his father’s difficulties, when Schultz built Starbucks he provided comprehensive health insurance for employees who worked as few as 20 hours a week. Schultz’s style of leadership was triggered by his childhood experience.

As the theory of authentic leadership develops further, other antecedent factors that influence the process may be identified. To date, however, it is positive psychological capacities, moral reasoning capacities, and critical life events that have been identified as factors that are influential in a person’s ability to become an authentic leader.

## How Does Authentic Leadership Theory Work?

In this chapter, we have discussed authentic leadership from a practical and theoretical perspective. Both perspectives describe authentic leadership as a developmental process that forms in leaders over time; however, both perspectives provide different descriptions for how authentic leadership works.

Authenticity

The practical approach provides prescriptions for how to be authentic and how to develop authentic leadership. For example, the George approach (2003) focuses on five characteristics leaders should develop to become authentic leaders. More specifically, George advocates that leaders become more purposeful, value centered, relational, self-disciplined, and compassionate. The essence of authentic leadership is being a leader who strongly demonstrates these five qualities.

Rather than simple prescriptions, the theoretical approach describes what authentic leadership is and what accounts for it. From this perspective, authentic leadership works because leaders demonstrate self-awareness, an internalized moral perspective, balanced processing, and relational transparency. Leaders develop these attributes through a lifelong process that is often influenced by critical life events. In addition, the literature suggests that positive psychological characteristics and moral reasoning have a significant impact on authentic leaders.

Authentic leadership is a complex process that emphasizes the development of qualities that help leaders to be perceived as trustworthy and believable by their followers. The leader’s job is to learn to develop these qualities and apply them to the common good as he or she serves others.

## Strengths

Although it is in its early stages of development, the authentic leadership approach has several strengths. First, it fulfills an expressed need for trustworthy leadership in society. During the past 20 years, failures in public and private leadership have created distrust in people. Authentic leadership helps to fill a void and provides an answer to people who are searching for good and sound leadership in an uncertain world.

Second, authentic leadership provides broad guidelines for individuals who want to become authentic leaders. Both the practical and theoretical approaches clearly point to what leaders should do to become authentic leaders. Social science literature emphasizes that it is important for leaders to have self-awareness, an internalized moral perspective, balanced processing, and relational transparency to be authentic. Taken together, these approaches provide a map for becoming an authentic leader.

Third, similar to transformational and servant leadership, authentic leadership has an explicit moral dimension. Underlying both the practical and theoretical approaches is the idea that authenticity requires leaders to do what is “right” and “good” for their followers and society. Authentic leaders understand their own values, place followers’ needs above their own, and work with followers to align their interests in order to create a greater common good.

Authenticity Framework

Fourth, authentic leadership emphasizes that authentic values and behaviors can be developed in leaders over time. Authentic leadership is not an attribute that only some people exhibit: Everyone can develop authenticity and learn to be more authentic. For example, leaders can learn to become more aware and transparent, or they can learn to be more relational and other-directed. Leaders can also develop moral reasoning capacities. Furthermore, Luthans and Avolio (2003) contended that leaders could learn to develop positive psychological capacities such as confidence, hope, optimism, and resilience, and could use these to create a positive organizational climate. They contended that there are many ways that leaders can learn to become authentic leaders over a lifetime.

Finally, authentic leadership can be measured using the Authentic Leadership Questionnaire (ALQ). The ALQ is a validated, theory-based instrument comprising 16 items that measure four factors of authentic leadership (Avolio et al., 2009; Walumbwa et al., 2008). As research moves forward in refining authentic leadership theory, it is valuable to have an established instrument of this construct that is theory-based and can be used to measure authentic leadership in future research.

## Criticisms

Authentic leadership is still in the formative stages of development, and a number of questions still need to be addressed about the theory. First, the concepts and ideas presented in George’s practical approach are not fully substantiated. While the practical approach is interesting and offers insight on authentic leadership, it is not built on a broad empirical base, nor has it been tested for validity. Without research support, the ideas set forth in the practical approach should be treated cautiously as explanations of the authentic leadership process.

Second, the moral component of authentic leadership is not fully explained. Whereas authentic leadership implies that leaders are motivated by higher-order end values such as justice and community, the way that these values function to influence authentic leadership is not clear. For example, how are a leader’s values related to a leader’s self-awareness? Or, what is the path or underlying process through which moral values affect other components of authentic leadership? In its present form, authentic leadership does not offer thorough answers to these questions.

Third, researchers have questioned whether positive psychological capacities should be included as components of authentic leadership. Although there is an interest in the social sciences to study positive human potential and the best of the human condition (Cameron, Dutton, & Quinn, 2003), the rationale for including positive psychological capacities as an inherent part of authentic leadership has not been clearly explained by researchers. In addition, some have argued that the inclusion of positive leader capacities in authentic leadership broadens the construct of authentic leadership too much and makes it difficult to measure (Cooper et al., 2005). At this point in the development of research on authentic leadership, the role of positive psychological capacities in authentic leadership theory needs further clarification.

Finally, it is not clear how authentic leadership results in positive organizational outcomes. Given that it is a new area of research, it is not unexpected that there are few data on outcomes, but these data are necessary to substantiate the value of the theory. Although authentic leadership is intuitively appealing on the surface, questions remain about whether this approach is effective, in what contexts it is effective, and whether authentic leadership results in productive outcomes. Relatedly, it is also not clear in the research whether authentic leadership is sufficient to achieve organizational goals. For example, can an authentic leader who is disorganized and lacking in technical competence be an effective leader? Authenticity is important and valuable to good leadership, but how authenticity relates to effective leadership is unknown. Clearly, future research should be conducted to explore how authentic leadership is related to organizational outcomes.

## Application

Because authentic leadership is still in the early phase of its development, there has been little research on strategies that people can use to develop or enhance authentic leadership behaviors. While there are prescriptions set forth in the practical approach, there is little evidence-based research on whether these prescriptions or how-to strategies actually increase authentic leadership behavior.

In spite of the lack of intervention research, there are common themes from the authentic leadership literature that may be applicable to organizational or practice settings. One theme common to all of the formulations of authentic leadership is that people have the capacity to learn to be authentic leaders. In their original work on authentic leadership, Luthans and Avolio (2003) constructed a model of authentic leadership development. Conceptualizing it as a lifelong learning process, they argued that authentic leadership is a process that can be developed over time. This suggests that human resource departments may be able to foster authentic leadership behaviors in employees who move into leadership positions.

Another theme that can be applied to organizations is the overriding goal of authentic leaders to try to do the “right” thing, to be honest with themselves and others, and to work for the common good. Authentic leadership can have a positive impact in organizations. For example, Cianci, Hannah, Roberts, and Tsakumis (2014) investigated the impact of authentic leadership on followers’ morality. Based on the responses of 118 MBA students, they found that authentic leaders significantly inhibited followers from making unethical choices in the face of temptation. Authentic leadership appears to be a critical contextual factor that morally strengthens followers. Cianci et al. suggest that the four components of authentic leadership (i.e., self-awareness, internalized moral perspective, balanced processing, and relational transparency) should be developed in organizational leadership to increase ethical organizational behavior.

Last, authentic leadership is shaped and reformed by critical life events that act as triggers to growth and greater authenticity. Being sensitive to these events and using them as springboards to growth may be relevant to many people who are interested in becoming leaders who are more authentic.

## Case Studies

The following section provides three case studies (Cases 9.1, 9.2, and 9.3) of individuals who demonstrate authentic leadership. The first case is about Sally Helgesen, author of The Female Advantage: Women’s Ways of Leadership (1990). The second case is about Greg Mortenson and how his mission to promote schools and peace in Pakistan and Afghanistan came under fire when he was accused of lying and financial impropriety. The final case is about Betty Ford, former First Lady of the United States, and her work in the areas of breast cancer awareness and substance abuse treatment. At the end of each of the cases, questions are provided to help you analyze the case using ideas from authentic leadership.

## Case 9.1

### Am I Really a Leader?

Sally Helgesen was born in the small Midwestern town of Saint Cloud, Minnesota. Her mother was a housewife who later taught English, and her father was a college professor of speech. After attending a local state college, where she majored in English and comparative religion, Sally spread her wings and moved to New York, inspired by the classic film Breakfast at Tiffany’s.

Sally found work as a writer, first in advertising and then as an assistant to a columnist at the then-influential Village Voice. She contributed freelance articles to magazines such as Harper’s, Glamour, Vogue, Fortune, and Inside Sports. She also returned to school, completing a degree in classics at Hunter College and taking language courses at the city graduate center in preparation for a PhD in comparative religion. She envisioned herself as a college professor, but also enjoyed freelancing. She felt a strong dichotomy within her, part quiet scholar and part footloose dreamer. The conflict bothered her, and she wondered how she would resolve it. Choosing to be a writer—actually declaring herself to be one—seemed scary, grandiose, and fraudulent.

Then one day, while walking on a New York side street in the rain, Sally saw an adventuresome black cat running beside her. It reminded her of Holly Golightly’s cat in Breakfast at Tiffany’s, an emblem in the movie for Holly’s dreamy temperament and rootlessness. It made her realize how much the freedom and independence offered by her “temporary” career as a writer suited her temperament. Sally told the cat she was a writer—she’d never been able to say the words before—and decided she was going to commit to full-time writing, at least for a time. When she saw the opportunity to cover a prominent murder trial in Fort Worth, Texas, she took it.

While covering the trial, Sally became intrigued with the culture of Texas, and decided she wanted to write a book on the role of independent oil producers in shaping the region. Doing so required a huge expenditure of time and money, and for almost a year Sally lived out of the trunk of her car, staying with friends in remote regions all over Texas. It was lonely and hard and exhilarating, but Sally was determined to see the project through. When the book, Wildcatters (1981), was published, it achieved little recognition, but Sally felt an enormous increase in confidence and commitment as a result of having finished the book. It strengthened her conviction that, for better or worse, she was a writer.

Sally moved back to New York and continued to write articles and search around for another book. She also began writing speeches for the CEO at a Fortune 500 company. She loved the work, and particularly enjoyed being an observer of office politics, even though she did not perceive herself to be a part of them. Sally viewed her role as being an “outsider looking in,” an observer of the culture. She sometimes felt like an actor in a play about an office, but this detachment made her feel professional rather than fraudulent.

As a speechwriter, Sally spent a lot of time interviewing people in the companies she worked for. Doing so made her realize that men and women often approach their work in fundamentally different ways. She also became convinced that many of the skills and attitudes women brought to their work were increasingly appropriate for the ways in which organizations were changing, and that women had certain advantages as a result. She also noticed that the unique perspectives of women were seldom valued by CEOs or other organizational leaders, who could have benefited if they had better understood and been more attentive to what women had to offer.

These observations inspired Sally to write another book. In 1988, she signed a contract with a major publisher to write a book on what women had to contribute to organizations. Until then, almost everything written about women at work focused on how they needed to change and adapt. Sally felt strongly that if women were encouraged to emphasize the negative, they would miss a historic opportunity to help lead organizations in a time of change. The time was right for this message, and The Female Advantage: Women’s Ways of Leadership (1990) became very successful, topping a number of best-seller charts and remaining steadily in print for nearly 20 years. The book’s prominence resulted in numerous speaking and consulting opportunities, and Sally began traveling the world delivering seminars and working with a variety of clients.

This acclaim and visibility were somewhat daunting to Sally. While she recognized the value of her book, she also knew that she was not a social scientist with a body of theoretical data on women’s issues. She saw herself as an author rather than an expert, and the old questions about fraudulence that she had dealt with in her early years in New York began to reassert themselves in a different form. Was she really being authentic? Could she take on the mantle of leadership and all it entailed? In short, she wondered if she could be the leader that people seemed to expect.

The path Sally took to answer these questions was simply to present herself for who she was. She was Sally Helgesen, an outsider looking in, a skilled and imaginative observer of current issues. For Sally, the path to leadership did not manifest itself in a step-by-step process. Sally’s leadership began with her own journey of finding herself and accepting her personal authenticity. Through this self-awareness, she grew to trust her own expertise as a writer with a keen eye for current trends in organizational life.

Sally continues to be an internationally recognized consultant and speaker on contemporary issues, and has published five books. She remains uncertain about whether she will finish her degree in comparative religion and become a college professor, but always keeps in mind the career of I. F. Stone, an influential political writer in the 1950s and 1960s who went back to school and got an advanced degree in classics at the age of 75.

#### Questions

1. Learning about one’s self is an essential step in becoming an authentic leader. What role did self-awareness play in Sally Helgesen’s story of leadership?

2. How would you describe the authenticity of Sally Helgesen’s leadership?

3. At the end of the case, Sally Helgesen is described as taking on the “mantle of leadership.” Was this important for her leadership? How is taking on the mantle of leadership related to a leader’s authenticity? Does every leader reach a point in his or her career where embracing the leadership role is essential?

## Case 9.2

(The previous edition of this book includes a case study outlining Greg Mortenson’s creation of the Central Asia Institute and highlighting his authentic leadership qualities in more detail. For an additional perspective on Mortenson, you can access the original case study at www.sagepub.com/northouse6e .)

By 2011, there were few people who had never heard of Greg Mortenson. He was the subject of two best-selling books, Three Cups of Tea (2006, with David O. Relin) and Stones Into Schools (2009), which told how the former emergency trauma room nurse had become a hero who built schools in rural areas of Afghanistan and Pakistan.

His story was phenomenal: Lost and sick after attempting to scale K2, Greg was nursed back to health by the villagers of remote Korphe, Afghanistan. Greg promised to build the village a school, a monumental effort that took him three years as he learned to raise money, navigate the foreign culture, and build a bridge above a 60-foot-deep chasm. His success led him to create the Central Asia Institute (CAI), a nonprofit organization that “empowers communities of Central Asia through literacy and education, especially for girls, promotes peace through education, and conveys the importance of these activities globally.” By 2011, the CAI had successfully established or supported more than 170 schools in Pakistan and Afghanistan, and helped to educate more than 68,000 students (CAI, 2011a).

Greg’s story seemed too good to be true. In April 2011, television news show 60 Minutes and author Jon Krakauer alleged that it was. 60 Minutes accused Greg of misusing money and benefitting excessively from the CAI. The show’s reporter visited schools the CAI had built overseas and claimed that he could not find six of the schools and that others were abandoned. The show featured an interview with Krakauer, who claimed Greg had fabricated parts of his best-selling book, Three Cups of Tea. When 60 Minutes approached Greg for comment at a book signing, he refused to talk to the program.

The next day, Krakauer (Into Thin Air [1997] and Under the Banner of Heaven [2003]) published a short online book, Three Cups of Deceit (2011), in which he claimed Greg lied many times in Three Cups of Tea, starting with his initial tale of being in Korphe.

Greg and the CAI were caught in a firestorm of media and public scrutiny. An investigation into the alleged financial improprieties was launched by Montana’s attorney general (the CAI is based in Bozeman), and two Montana legislators filed a \$5 million class action lawsuit claiming Greg fooled 4 million people into buying his books.

Greg withdrew from the public eye. The day the 60 Minutes program aired, he posted a letter on the CAI website saying he stood by his books and claiming the news show “paints a distorted picture using inaccurate information, innuendo and a microscopic focus on one year’s (2009) IRS 990 financial, and a few points in the book Three Cups of Tea that occurred almost 18 years ago” (CAI, 2011b). Many criticized the organization’s founder for not more aggressively defending himself.

What many people did not know, however, was that two days before the 60 Minutes segment appeared, Greg had been diagnosed with a hole and a large aneurysm in his heart and was scheduled for open-heart surgery in the next few months. Meanwhile, the CAI worked to ensure its transparency by posting its tax returns and a master list of projects and their status. The report documented 210 schools, with 17 of those receiving “full support” from the CAI, which includes teachers’ salaries, supplies, books, and furniture and monitoring by CAI contractors (Flandro, 2011).

The attorney general investigation concluded in 2012 and determined that Greg as well as CAI board members had mismanaged the CAI, and that Greg had personally profited from it. In a settlement, Greg agreed to pay \$1 million to the CAI for expenses he incurred that were deemed as personal. The attorney general’s conclusions did not address the allegations that Mortenson fabricated parts of his book. While he continues to be a CAI employee, Greg is not allowed to have any financial oversight for the organization or sit on its board of directors (Flandro, 2012).

Despite the controversy and subsequent finding of wrongdoing, former CAI board member Andrew Marcus hopes the public will consider what Greg and the organization have accomplished.

“It’s hard to imagine anyone who’s done more for education in that part of the world,” Marcus has said. “It took a real human being to do that” (Flandro, 2011).

#### Questions

2. In the chapter, we discussed moral reasoning and transparency as components of authentic leadership. Do you think Greg exhibited these components as part his leadership?

3. How was Greg’s response to the allegations against him characteristic of an authentic leader?

4. How did the outcome of the investigation affect the authenticity of Greg Mortenson’s leadership?

## Case 9.3

Betty Ford admits that August 9, 1974, the day her husband was sworn in as the 38th President of the United States, was “the saddest day of my life” (Ford, 1978, p. 1).

Elizabeth Bloomer Ford was many things—a former professional dancer and dance teacher, the mother of four nearly grown children, the wife of 13-term U.S. Congressman Gerald “Jerry” R. Ford who was looking forward to their retirement—but she never saw being the country’s First Lady as her destiny.

As she held the Bible her husband’s hand rested on while he took the oath of office, Betty began a journey in which she would become many more things: a breast cancer survivor, an outspoken advocate of women’s rights, a recovering alcoholic and addict, and cofounder and president of the Betty Ford Center, a nonprofit treatment center for substance abuse.

The Fords’ path to the White House began in October 1973, when Jerry was tapped to replace then-U.S. Vice President Spiro Agnew who had resigned. After only 9 months in that role, Jerry became the U.S. President after Richard M. Nixon left office amidst the Watergate scandal.

In her first days as the First Lady, Betty became known for her openness and candor. At the time, women were actively fighting for equal rights in the workplace and in society. Less than half of American women were employed outside the home, and women’s earnings were only 38% of their male counterparts’ (Spraggins, 2005). Betty raised a number of eyebrows in her first press conference, when she spoke out in support of abortion rights, women in politics, and the Equal Rights Amendment.

Betty hadn’t even been in the White House a month when she was diagnosed with breast cancer. She again broke with social conventions and spoke openly about the diagnosis and treatment for a disease that was not widely discussed in public. With her cooperation, Newsweek magazine printed a complete account of her surgery and treatment, which included a radical mastectomy. This openness helped raise awareness of breast cancer screening and treatment options and created an atmosphere of support and comfort for other women fighting the disease.

“Lying in the hospital, thinking of all those women going for cancer checkups because of me, I’d come to recognize more clearly the power of the woman in the White House,” she said in her first autobiography, The Times of My Life. “Not my power, but the power of the position, a power which could be used to help” (Ford, 1978, p. 194).

After her recuperation, Betty made good use of that newfound power. She openly supported and lobbied for passage of the Equal Rights Amendment, a bill that would ensure that “equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex” (Francis, 2009).

In an interview with 60 Minutes, Betty drew the ire of many conservatives when she candidly shared her views on the provocative issues of abortion rights, premarital sex, and marijuana use. After the interview aired, public opinion of Betty plummeted, but her popularity quickly rebounded, and within months her approval rating had climbed to 75%.

At the same time, Betty was busy with the duties of First Lady, entertaining dignitaries and heads of state from countries across the globe. In 1975 she began actively campaigning for her husband for the 1976 presidential election, inspiring buttons that read “Vote for Betty’s Husband.” Ford lost the election to Jimmy Carter and, because he was suffering from laryngitis, Betty stepped into the spotlight to read Jerry’s concession speech to the country, congratulating Carter on his victory. Betty’s time as First Lady ended in January 1977, and the Fords retired to Rancho Mirage, California, and Vail, Colorado.

A little more than a year later, at the age of 60, Betty began another personal battle: overcoming alcoholism and an addiction to prescription medicine. Betty had a 14-year dependence on painkillers for chronic neck spasms, arthritis, and a pinched nerve, but refused to admit she was addicted to alcohol. After checking into the Long Beach Naval Hospital’s Alcohol and Drug Rehabilitation Service, she found the strength to face her demons and, again, went public with her struggles.

“I have found that I am not only addicted to the medications I’ve been taking for my arthritis, but also to alcohol,” she wrote in a statement released to the public. “I expect this treatment and fellowship to be a solution for my problems and I embrace it not only for me but for all the others who are here to participate” (Ford, 1978, p. 285).

Betty Ford found recovering from addiction was particularly daunting at a time when most treatment centers were geared toward treating men. “The female alcoholic has more emotional problems, more health problems, more parenting problems, makes more suicide attempts, than the alcoholic man,” Betty explained in her second autobiography, Betty, a Glad Awakening (Ford, 1987, p. 129).

For this reason, Betty helped to establish the nonprofit Betty Ford Center in 1982 in Rancho Mirage. The center splits its space equally between male and female patients, but the treatment is gender specific with programs for the entire family system affected by addiction. The center’s success has attracted celebrities as well as everyday people including middle-class moms, executives, college students, and laborers. Betty’s activism in the field of recovery earned her the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1991 and the Congressional Medal of Honor in 1999.

Speaking at an alumni reunion of Betty Ford Center patients, Betty said, “I’m really proud of this center. And I’m really grateful for my own recovery, because with my recovery, I was able to help some other people come forward and address their own addictions. And I don’t think there’s anything as wonderful in life as being able to help someone else” (Ford, 1987, p. 217).

#### Questions

1. How would you describe Betty Ford’s leadership? In what ways could her leadership be described as authentic?

2. How did critical life events play a role in the development of her leadership?

3. Is there a clear moral dimension to Betty Ford’s leadership? In what way is her leadership about serving the common good? Discuss.

4. As we discussed in the chapter, self-awareness and transparency are associated with authentic leadership. How does Betty Ford exhibit these qualities?

Although still in its early phases of development, the Authentic Leadership Questionnaire (ALQ) was created by Walumbwa and associates (2008) to explore and validate the assumptions of authentic leadership. It is a 16-item instrument that measures four factors of authentic leadership: self-awareness, internalized moral perspective, balanced processing, and relational transparency. Based on samples in China, Kenya, and the United States, Walumbwa and associates validated the dimensions of the instrument and found it positively related to outcomes such as organizational citizenship, organizational commitment, and satisfaction with supervisor and performance. To obtain this instrument, contact Mind Garden, Inc., in Menlo Park, California, or visit www.mindgarden.com.

In this section, we provide an authentic leadership self-assessment to help you determine your own level of authentic leadership. This questionnaire will help you understand how authentic leadership is measured and provide you with your own scores on items that characterize authentic leadership. The questionnaire includes 16 questions that assess the four major components of authentic leadership discussed earlier in this chapter: self-awareness, internalized moral perspective, balanced processing, and relational transparency. Your results on this self-assessment questionnaire will give you information about your level of authentic leadership on these underlying dimensions of authentic leadership. This questionnaire is intended for practical applications to help you understand the complexities of authentic leadership. It is not designed for research purposes.

Instructions: This questionnaire contains items about different dimensions of authentic leadership. There are no right or wrong responses, so please answer honestly. Use the following scale when responding to each statement by writing the number from the scale below that you feel most accurately characterizes your response to the statement.

## Scoring

1. Sum the responses on items 1, 5, 9, and 13 (self-awareness).

2. Sum the responses on items 2, 6, 10, and 14 (internalized moral perspective).

3. Sum the responses on items 3, 7, 11, and 15 (balanced processing).

4. Sum the responses on items 4, 8, 12, and 16 (relational transparency).

## Total Scores

Self-Awareness: ______

Internalized Moral Perspective: _____

Balanced Processing: _____

Relational Transparency: _____

## Scoring Interpretation

This self-assessment questionnaire is designed to measure your authentic leadership by assessing four components of the process: self-awareness, internalized moral perspective, balanced processing, and relational transparency. By comparing your scores on each of these components, you can determine which are your stronger and which are your weaker components in each category. You can interpret your authentic leadership scores using the following guideline: high = 16–20 and low = 15 and below. Scores in the upper range indicate stronger authentic leadership, whereas scores in the lower range indicate weaker authentic leadership.

## Summary

As a result of leadership failures in the public and private sectors, authentic leadership is emerging in response to societal demands for genuine, trustworthy, and good leadership. Authentic leadership describes leadership that is transparent, morally grounded, and responsive to people’s needs and values. Even though authentic leadership is still in the early stages of development, the study of authentic leadership is timely and worthwhile, offering hope to people who long for true leadership.

Although there is no single accepted definition of authentic leadership, it can be conceptualized intrapersonally, developmentally, and interpersonally. The intrapersonal perspective focuses on the leader and the leader’s knowledge, self-regulation, and self-concept. The interpersonal perspective claims that authentic leadership is a collective process, created by leaders and followers together. The developmental perspective emphasizes major components of authentic leadership that develop over a lifetime and are triggered by major life events.

The practical approach to authentic leadership provides basic “how to” steps to become an authentic leader. George’s approach (2003) identifies five basic dimensions of authentic leadership and the corresponding behavioral characteristics individuals need to develop to become authentic leaders.

In the social science literature, a theoretical approach to authentic leadership is emerging. Drawing from the fields of leadership, positive organizational scholarship, and ethics, researchers have identified four major components of authentic leadership: self-awareness, internalized moral perspective, balanced processing, and relational transparency.

In addition, researchers have found that authentic leadership is influenced by a leader’s positive psychological capacities, moral reasoning, and critical life events.

Authentic leadership has several positive features. First, it provides an answer to people who are searching for good and sound leadership in an uncertain world. Second, authentic leadership is prescriptive and provides a great deal of information about how leaders can learn to become authentic. Third, it has an explicit moral dimension that asserts that leaders need to do what is “right” and “good” for their followers and society. Fourth, it is framed as a process that is developed by leaders over time rather than as a fixed trait. Last, authentic leadership can be measured with a theory-based instrument.

There are also negative features to authentic leadership. First, the ideas set forth in the practical approach need to be treated cautiously because they have not been fully substantiated by research. Second, the moral component of authentic leadership is not fully explained. For example, it does not describe how values such as justice and community are related to authentic leadership. Third, the rationale for including positive psychological capacities as an inherent part of a model of authentic leadership has not been fully explicated. Finally, there is a lack of evidence regarding the effectiveness of authentic leadership and how it is related to positive organizational outcomes.

In summary, authentic leadership is a new and exciting area of research, which holds a great deal of promise. As more research is conducted on authentic leadership, a clearer picture will emerge about the true nature of the process and the assumptions and principles that it encompasses.

Sharpen your skills with SAGE edge at  edge.sagepub.com/northouse7e

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Ilies, R., Morgeson, F. P., & Nahrgang, J. D. (2005). Authentic leadership and eudaemonic well-being: Understanding leader-follower outcomes. Leadership Quarterly, 16, 373–394.

Kernis, M. H. (2003). Toward a conceptualization of optimal self-esteem. Psychological Inquiry, 14, 1–26.

Krakauer, J. (1997). Into thin air: A personal account of the Mount Everest disaster. New York: Villard Books.

Krakauer, J. (2003). Under the banner of heaven: A story of violent faith. New York: Doubleday.

Krakauer, J. (2011). Three cups of deceit. New York: Anchor Books.

Luthans, F., & Avolio, B. J. (2003). Authentic leadership development. In K. S. Cameron, J. E. Dutton, & R. E. Quinn (Eds.), Positive organizational scholarship (pp. 241–258). San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler.

Mortenson, G. (2009). Stones into schools: Promoting peace with education in Afghanistan and Pakistan. New York: Penguin Books.

Mortenson, G., & Relin, D. O. (2006). Three cups of tea: One man’s mission to promote peace . . . one school at a time. New York: Penguin Books.

Shamir, B., & Eilam, G. (2005). “What’s your story?” A life-stories approach to authentic leadership development. Leadership Quarterly, 16, 395–417.

Spraggins, R. E. (2005). We the people: Men and women in the United States. Retrieved May 30, 2009, from http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/censr-20.pdf

Sutcliffe, K. M., & Vogus, T. J. (2003). Organizing for resilience. In K. S. Cameron, J. E. Dutton, & R. E. Quinn (Eds.), Positive organizational scholarship (pp. 94–110). San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler.

Walumbwa, F. O., Avolio, B. J., Gardner, W. L., Wernsing, T. S., & Peterson, S. J. (2008). Authentic leadership: Development and validation of a theory-based measure. Article of Management, 34(1), 89–126.

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## “hidden costs,” such as ________ costs, can easily undercut anticipated benefits from outsourcing.

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Bus iness eth ics

8t h e di t ion

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Will iam H. Shaw San Jose State Univers i ty

Bus iness eth ics

8t h e di t ion

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v

Preface  ix

pa rt one | mor a l philosoph y a nd busine ss 1

cha pter 1 the nature of Mor al it y 1 Ethics  3 Moral  versus Nonmoral  Standards  5 Religion  and Morality  10 Ethical  Relativism  13 Having Moral  Principles  15 Morality  and Personal Values  19 Individual  Integrity  and Responsibility  20 Moral  Reasoning  24 Study Corner  30 Case  1.1: Made  in  the U.S.A.—Dumped  in  Brazil, Africa,  Iraq  .  .  .  31 Case  1.2:  Just Drop off  the  Key,  Lee  34 Case  1.3: The A7D Affair  37

cha pter 2 norMat iv e theor ies of e th ics 4 0 Consequentialist  and Nonconsequentialist Theories  42 Egoism  43 Utilitarianism  46 Kant’s  Ethics  53 other  Nonconsequentialist  Perspectives  59 Utilitarianism once More  66 Moral  Decision Making: A  Practical Approach  68 Study Corner  70 Case 2.1:  Hacking  into Harvard  71 Case 2.2: The  Ford  Pinto  74 Case  2.3:  Blood  for  Sale  77

cha pter 3 Just ice and econoMic d istr iBut ion 80 The Nature  of  Justice  83 The Utilitarian View  86 The  Libertarian Approach  90 Rawls’s Theory  of  Justice  97

contents

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vi CONTENTS

Study Corner  106 Case  3.1:  Eminent Domain  107 Case  3.2:  Battling  over  Bottled Water  109 Case  3.3:  Poverty  in America  111

pa rt t wo | a mer ic a n busine ss a nd its basis 114

cha pter 4 the nature of ca p ital isM 114 Capitalism  116 Key  Features  of  Capitalism  119 Two Arguments  for  Capitalism  121 Criticisms  of  Capitalism  125 Today’s  Economic Challenges  133 Study Corner  139 Case  4.1:  Hucksters  in  the Classroom  140 Case  4.2:  Licensing  and  Laissez  Faire  142 Case  4.3: one Nation  under Walmart  144 Case  4.4: A New Work  Ethic?  147 Case  4.5:  Casino  Gambling  on Wall  Street  148

cha pter 5 corpor at ions 150 The  Limited-Liability  Company  152 Corporate Moral Agency  154 Rival Views  of  Corporate Responsibility  158 Debating Corporate Responsibility  164 Institutionalizing  Ethics within  Corporations  169 Study Corner  176 Case  5.1: Yahoo!  in China  177 Case  5.2: Drug Dilemmas  179 Case  5.3:  Levi  Strauss  at  Home  and Abroad  182 Case  5.4:  Free  Speech  or  False Advertising?  186 Case  5.5:  Charity  to  Scouts?  188

pa rt thr ee | busine ss a nd societ y 191

cha pter 6 consuMers 191 Product  Safety  193 other Areas  of  Business  Responsibility  205 Deception  and Unfairness  in Advertising  214 The Debate  over Advertising  224

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CONTENTS      vii

Study Corner  227 Case  6.1:  Breast  Implants  229 Case  6.2:  Hot Coffee  at McDonald’s  231 Case 6.3:  Sniffing Glue Could  Snuff  Profits  232 Case  6.4:  Closing  the Deal  234 Case  6.5: The Rise  and  Fall  of  Four  Loko  236

cha pter 7 the en v ironMent 239 Business  and  Ecology  242 The  Ethics  of  Environmental  Protection  246 Achieving our  Environmental Goals  251 Delving Deeper  into  Environmental  Ethics  256 Study Corner  264 Case  7.1:  Hazardous Homes  in Herculaneum  265 Case  7.2:  Poverty  and Pollution  267 Case  7.3: The  Fordasaurus  269 Case  7.4: The  Fight  over  the Redwoods  270 Case 7.5:  Palm oil  and  Its  Problems  273

pa rt Four | the orG a niZ ation a nd the people in it 276

cha pter 8 the Work pl ace (1) : Bas ic issues 276 Civil  Liberties  in  the Workplace  277 Hiring  283 Promotions  289 Discipline  and Discharge  291 Wages  295 Labor  Unions  298 Study Corner  307 Case  8.1: AIDS  in  the Workplace  308 Case  8.2: Web  Porn  at Work  310 Case  8.3:  Speaking out  about Malt  311 Case  8.4:  Have Gun, Will Travel  .  .  .  to Work  312 Case  8.5:  Union Discrimination  314

cha pter 9 the Work pl ace ( 2 ) : today’s challenges 316 organizational  Influence  in  Private  Lives  317 Testing  and Monitoring  323 Working Conditions  329

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viii CONTENTS

Redesigning Work  337 Study Corner  341 Case  9.1:  Unprofessional  Conduct?  342 Case  9.2: Testing  for  Honesty  344 Case  9.3:  She Snoops  to Conquer  346 Case  9.4:  Protecting  the Unborn  at Work  348 Case  9.5:  Swedish  Daddies  351

cha pter 10 Mor al choices fac ing eMpl oy ees 353 obligations  to  the  Firm  354 Abuse  of official  Position  358 Bribes  and Kickbacks  364 Gifts  and  Entertainment  368 Conflicting obligations  370 Whistle-Blowing  372 Self-Interest  and Moral obligation  377 Study Corner  381 Case  10.1: Changing  Jobs  and  Changing  Loyalties  382 Case  10.2: Conflicting  Perspectives  on Conflicts  of  Interest  383 Case  10.3:  Inside Traders  or Astute  observers?  384 Case  10.4: The Housing Allowance  386 Case  10.5:  Ethically Dubious Conduct  388

cha pter 11 JoB d iscr iMinat ion 390 The Meaning  of  Job Discrimination  393 Evidence  of Discrimination  394 Affirmative Action: The  Legal  Context  399 Affirmative Action: The Moral  Issues  404 Comparable Worth  408 Sexual  Harassment  410 Study Corner  414 Case  11.1: Minority  Set-Asides  415 Case  11.2: Hoop  Dreams  417 Case  11.3:  Raising  the Ante  419 Case  11.4: Consenting  to  Sexual  Harassment  420 Case  11.5:  Facial  Discrimination  423

noteS  429

index  449

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ix

It  is difficult  to  imagine an area of study that has greater  importance to society or greater relevance to  students than business ethics. As this text enters its eighth edition, business ethics has become a well- established academic  subject. Most  colleges and universities  offer  courses  in  it,  and  scholarly  interest  continues to grow.

Yet some people still scoff at the idea of business ethics, jesting that the very concept is an oxymoron.  To be sure, recent years have seen the newspapers filled with lurid stories of corporate misconduct and  felonious behavior by individual businesspeople, and many suspect that what the media report represents  only the proverbial tip of the iceberg. However, these scandals should prompt a reflective person not to  make fun of business ethics but rather to think more deeply about the nature and purpose of business in  our society and about the ethical choices individuals must inevitably make in their business and profes- sional lives.

Business  ethics  has  an  interdisciplinary  character.  Questions  of  economic  policy  and  business  practice  intertwine with  issues in politics, sociology, and organizational theory. Although business ethics  remains anchored in philosophy, even here abstract questions in normative ethics and political philosophy  mingle with analysis of practical problems and concrete moral dilemmas. Furthermore, business ethics is  not just an academic study but also an invitation to reflect on our own values and on our own responses to  the hard moral choices that the world of business can pose.

• • •

goal s, org ani z at ion, and topics Business Ethics  has  four goals:  to expose students  to  the  important moral  issues  that  arise  in  various  business contexts; to provide students with an understanding of the moral, social, and economic environ- ments within which those problems occur; to introduce students to the ethical and other concepts that are  relevant for resolving those problems; and to assist students in developing the necessary reasoning and  analytical skills for doing so. Although the book’s primary emphasis is on business, its scope extends to  related moral issues in other organizational and professional contexts.

The book has four parts. Part one, “Moral Philosophy and Business,” discusses the nature of morality  and presents the main theories of normative ethics and the leading approaches to questions of economic  justice. Part Two, “American Business and Its Basis,” examines the institutional foundations of business,  focusing on capitalism as an economic system and the nature and role of corporations in our society. Part  Three, “Business and Society,” concerns moral problems involving business, consumers, and the natural  environment. Part Four, “The organization and the People in It,” identifies a variety of ethical issues and  moral challenges that arise out of the interplay of employers and employees within an organization, includ- ing the problem of discrimination.

Case studies enhance the main text. These cases vary  in kind and  in  length, and are designed to  enable instructors and students to pursue further some of the issues discussed in the text and to analyze  them in more specific contexts. The case studies should provide a lively springboard for classroom discus- sions and the application of ethical concepts.

Business Ethics covers a wide range of  topics relevant  to  today’s world. Three of  these are worth  drawing particular attention to.

preface

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x PrEfaCE

Business and Globalization The moral challenges facing business in today’s globalized world economy are well represented in the book  and seamlessly integrated into the chapters. For example, Chapter 1 discusses ethical relativism, Chapter  4 outsourcing and globalization, and Chapter 8 overseas bribery and the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act; and  there are international examples or comparisons throughout the book. Moreover, almost all the basic issues  discussed in the book (such as corporate responsibility, the nature of moral reasoning, and the value of the  natural world—to name just three) are as crucial to making moral decisions in an international business  context as they are to making them at home. In addition, cases 1.1, 2.3, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 6.3, 7.2, 7.5, 9.5,  and 10.4 deal explicitly with moral issues arising in today’s global economic system.

The Environment Because of its ongoing relevance and heightened importance in today’s world, an entire chapter, Chapter  7,  is devoted  to  this  topic.  In particular,  it  highlights  recent environmental disasters,  the environmental  dilemmas and challenges we face, and their social and business costs, as well as the changing attitude of  business toward the environment and ecology.

Health and Health Care Far  from being a narrow academic pursuit,  the study of business ethics  is  relevant  to a wide  range of  important social issues—for example, to health and health care, which is currently the subject of much  discussion and debate in the United States.  Aspects of this topic are addressed in the text and developed in  the following cases: 2.3: Blood for Sale, 4.2: Licensing and Laissez Faire, 5.2: Drug Dilemmas, 6.1: Breast  Implants, 8.1: AIDS in the Workplace, and 9.4: Protecting the Unborn at Work.

• • •

changes in th is ed it ion Your Textbook Instructors who have used the previous edition will find the organization and general content of the book  familiar. They will, however, also be struck by its fresh design and by the graphs, tables, photographs, and  other information that now supplement the pedagogical features introduced in previous editions.

Feedback from students and instructors suggests that readers benefit greatly not only from marginal  summaries and highlights but also from visual breaks, visual guidance, and visual presentation of data and  information. So, the new design was crafted to help readers navigate the text more easily, retain content  more effectively, and review and prepare for tests more successfully. In addition, the Study Corner now  also includes “For Further Reflection,” a set of open-ended questions intended to help students articulate  their own response to some of the issues discussed in the text. An updated Suggestions for Further Reading is intended to provide appropriate material for independent research by students on topics cov- ered in Business Ethics.

The text itself has been thoroughly revised. I have updated and reorganized material throughout the  book in order to enhance the clarity of its discussions and the accuracy of its treatment of both philosophi- cal and empirical issues. At all times the goal has been to provide a textbook that students will find clear,  understandable, and engaging.

Forty-nine  case  studies—more  than  ever  before—now  supplement  the  main  text.  of  the  cases  that are new to this edition, two relate to the financial and mortgage industries: Case 1.2, “Just Drop off  the Key, Lee,” broaches the ongoing foreclosure crisis while Case 4.5, “Casino Gambling on Wall Street,”  discusses one of the financial instruments involved in the recent financial meltdown. Case 4.1, “Hucksters

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PrEfaCE      xi

in the Classroom,” deals with commercial intrusion into schools. The ethics of sales is the focus of Case  6.4, “Closing the Deal,” while Case 6.5, “The Rise and Fall of Four Loko,” highlights the question of regu- lating consumer products on paternalistic grounds. Case 8.5, “Union Discrimination,” examines some of  the ethical issues posed by unions. The environment and the push and pull between business and envi- ronmentalists are well illustrated in Case 7.5, “Palm oil and Its Problems.” Case 9.5, “Swedish Daddies,”  shows how the sometimes conflicting demands of parenthood and work life challenge today’s employees  and employers. Cases 10.2, “Conflicting Perspectives on Conflicts of Interest,” and 10.3, “Inside Traders  or Astute observers?,” provide recent examples of some of the ethical struggles employees can confront.  Finally, the issue of comparable worth is the focus of Case 11.3, “Raising the Ante.”

Your Media Tools The Business Ethics CourseMate is new to this edition. It can be accessed by searching for this book on  CengageBrain.com. There you will find an array of online tools designed to reinforce theories and concepts  and help students to understand and better retain the book’s content, and to review and study for tests:

Self-Tests Tutorial Quizzes (with answers) Essays Flashcards Current Events Glossary  PowerPoint Slides Web Links

In addition to these CourseMate offerings, video tutorials will complement each chapter. Watching and  reflecting on these can help students improve their grades.

Finally, Global Business Ethics Watch exposes viewers to a wealth of online resources, from photo- graphs to videos and articles. Updated several times a day, the Global Business Ethics Watch is an ideal  one-stop site for classroom discussion and research projects for all things related to business ethics. You and  your students will have access to the latest information from trusted academic journals, news outlets, and  magazines. You also will receive access to statistics, primary sources, case studies, podcasts, and much more.

• • •

Ways of us ing the Book A course in business ethics can be taught in a variety of ways. Instructors have different approaches to  the subject, different intellectual and pedagogical goals, and different classroom styles. They emphasize  different themes and start at different places. Some of them may prefer to treat the foundational questions  of ethical theory thoroughly before moving on to particular moral problems; others reverse this priority. Still  other instructors frame their courses around the question of economic justice, the analysis of capitalism, or  the debate over corporate social responsibility. Some instructors stress individual moral decision making,  others social and economic policy.

Business Ethics permits teachers great flexibility in how they organize their courses. A wide range of  theoretical and applied issues are discussed; and the individual chapters, the major sections within them,  and the case studies are to a surprising extent self-contained. Instructors can thus teach the book in what- ever order they choose, and they can easily skip or touch lightly on some topics in order to concentrate on  others without loss of coherence.

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xii PrEfaCE

• • •

acknoWledgMents I wish to acknowledge my great debt to the many people whose ideas and writing have influenced me over  the years. Philosophy is widely recognized to involve a process of ongoing dialogue. This is nowhere more  evident than in the writing of textbooks, whose authors can rarely claim that the ideas being synthesized,  organized,  and  presented  are  theirs  alone.  Without  my  colleagues,  without  my  students,  and  without  a  larger philosophical  community  concerned with business and ethics,  this book would not  have been  possible.

I particularly want to acknowledge my debt to Vincent Barry. Readers familiar with our textbook and  reader Moral Issues in Business1 will realize the extent to which I have drawn on material from that work.  Business Ethics is,  in effect, a revised and updated version of  the textbook portion of  that collaborative  work, and I am very grateful to Vince for permitting me to use our joint work here.

1William H.  Shaw and Vincent  Barry, Moral Issues in Business,  12th  ed.  (Belmont,  Calif.: Wadsworth/Cengage  Learning,  2013).

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1

part one | mor al philosophy and business

Ch a p t er 1

The N aT ure of Mor a l iT y

sometimes the riCh and mighty fall. Take Kenneth Lay, for example. Convicted by a jury in 2006 of conspiracy and multiple counts of fraud, he had been chair- man and CEO of Enron until that once mighty company took a nose dive and crashed. Founded in the 1980s, Enron soon became a dominant player in the field of energy trading, grow- ing rapidly to become America’s seventh biggest company. Wall Street loves growth, and Enron was its darling, admired as dynamic, innovative, and—of course— profitable. Enron stock exploded in value, increasing 40 percent in a single year. The next year it shot up 58 percent and the year after that an unbelievable 89 percent. The fact that nobody could quite understand exactly how the company made its money didn’t seem to matter.

After Fortune magazine voted it “the most innovative company of the year” in 2000, Enron proudly took to calling itself not just “the world’s leading energy company” but also “the world’s lead- ing company.” But when Enron was later forced to declare bankruptcy—at the time the largest Chapter 11 filing in U.S. history—the world learned that its legendary financial prowess was illusory and the company’s success built on the sands of hype. And the hype continued to the end. Even with the com- pany’s financial demise fast approaching, Kenneth Lay was still recommending the company’s stock to its employees—at the

same time that he and other executives were cashing in their shares and bailing out.

Enron’s crash cost the retirement accounts of its employ- ees more than a billion dollars as the company’s stock fell from the stratosphere to only a few pennies a share. Outside investors lost even more. The reason Enron’s collapse caught investors by surprise—the company’s market value was \$28 billion just two months before its bankruptcy—was that Enron

had always made its financial records and accounts as opaque as possible. It did this by creating a Byzantine financial structure of off-balance-sheet special- purpose entities—reportedly as many as 9,000—that were supposed to be separate and independent from the main company. Enron’s board of direc- tors condoned these and other dubious accounting practices and voted twice to permit executives to pursue personal interests that ran contrary to those of the company. When Enron was obliged

to redo its financial statements for one three-year period, its profits dropped \$600 million and its debts increased \$630 million.

Still, Enron’s financial auditors should have spotted these and other problems. After all, the shell game Enron was playing is an old one, and months before the company ran aground, Enron Vice President Sherron Watkins had warned Lay that

IntroductIon

the reason enron’s

collapse caught investors by surprise . . . was

records and accounts as opaque as possible.

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2      part one  moral philosophy and business2      part one  moral philosophy and business

the company could soon “implode in a wave of accounting scandals.” Yet both Arthur Andersen, Enron’s longtime outside auditing firm, and Vinson & Elkins, the company’s law firm, had routinely put together and signed off on various dubious finan- cial deals, and in doing so made large profits for themselves. Arthur Andersen, in particular, was supposed to make sure that the company’s public records reflected financial reality, but Andersen was more worried about its auditing and consulting fees than about its fiduciary responsibilities. Even worse, when the scandal began to break, a partner at Andersen organ- ized the shredding of incriminating Enron documents before investigators could lay their hands on them. As a result, the eighty-nine-year-old accounting firm was convicted of obstruct- ing justice. The Supreme Court later overturned that verdict on a technicality, but by then Arthur Andersen had already been driven out of business. (The year before Enron went under, by the way, the Securities and Exchange Commission fined Andersen \$7 million for approving misleading accounts at Waste Management, and it also had to pay \$110 million to settle a lawsuit for auditing work it did for Sunbeam before it, too, filed for bankruptcy. And when massive accounting fraud was later uncovered at WorldCom, it came out that the company’s auditor was—you guessed it—Arthur Andersen.)

Enron’s fall also revealed the conflicts of interest that threaten the credibility of Wall Street’s analysts—analysts who are compensated according to their ability to bring in and support investment banking deals. Enron was known in the industry as the “deal machine” because it generated so much

investment banking business—limited part- nerships, loans, and derivatives. That may explain why, only days before Enron filed bankruptcy, just two of the sixteen Wall Street analysts who covered the company recom- mended that clients sell the stock. The large banks that Enron did business with played a corrupt role, too, by helping manufacture its fraudulent financial statements. (Subsequent lawsuits have forced them to cough up some of their profits: Citibank, for example, had to pay Enron’s victimized shareholders \$2 bil- lion.) But the rot didn’t stop there. Enron and Andersen enjoyed extensive political connec- tions, which had helped over the years to ensure the passage of a series of deregula-

tory measures favorable to the energy company. Of the 248 members of Congress sitting on the eleven House and Senate committees charged with investigating Enron’s collapse, 212 had received money from Enron or its accounting firm.1

Stories of business corruption and of greed and wrongdoing in high places have always fascinated the popular press, and media interest in business ethics has never been higher. But one should not be misled by the headlines and news reports. Not all moral issues in business involve giant corporations and their well-heeled executives, and few cases of business ethics are widely publicized. The vast majority of them involve the mundane, uncelebrated moral challenges that working men and women meet daily.

Although the financial shenanigans at Enron were compli- cated, once their basic outline is sketched, the wrongdoing is pretty easy to see: deception, dishonesty, fraud, disregarding one’s professional responsibilities, and unfairly injuring others for one’s own gain. But many of the moral issues that arise in business are complex and difficult to answer. For example:

How far must manufacturers go to ensure product safety? Must they reveal everything about a product, including any possible defects or shortcomings? At what point does acceptable exaggeration become lying about a product or a service? When does aggressive marketing become consumer manipulation? Is adver- tising useful and important or deceptive, misleading, and socially detrimental? When are prices unfair or exploitative?

enron’s stock price in u.s. dollars in late 2001, before its spectacular collapse

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chapter one  The naTure of moraliTy      3chapter one  The naTure of moraliTy      3

• • •

e Thics ethics (or moral philosophy) is a broad field of inquiry that addresses a fundamental query  that all of us, at least from time to time, inevitably think about—namely, how should I  live my life? That question, of course, leads to others, such as: What sort of person should  I strive to be? What values are important? What standards or principles should I live by?  exploring these issues immerses one in the study of right and wrong. among other things,  moral philosophers and others who think seriously about ethics want to understand the  nature of morality, the meaning of its basic concepts, the characteristics of good moral rea- soning, how moral judgments can be justified, and, of course, the principles or properties  that distinguish right actions from wrong actions. Thus, ethics deals with individual char- acter and with the moral rules that govern and limit our conduct. It investigates questions  of right and wrong, fairness and unfairness, good and bad, duty and obligation, and justice  and injustice, as well as moral responsibility and the values that should guide our actions.

You sometimes hear  it  said that  there’s a difference between a person’s ethics and  his or her morals. This can be confusing because what some people mean by saying that  something is a matter of ethics (as opposed to morals) is often what other people mean

summary Ethics deals with

individual character and the moral rules that govern and limit

our conduct. It investigates questions

of right and wrong, duty and obligation,

and moral responsibility.

Are corporations obliged to help combat social prob- lems? What are the environmental responsibilities of business, and is it living up to them? Are pollution per- mits a good idea? Is factory farming morally justifiable?

May employers screen potential employees on the basis of lifestyle, physical appearance, or personality tests? What rights do employees have on the job? Under what conditions may they be disciplined or fired? What, if anything, must business do to improve work conditions? When are wages fair? Do unions promote the interests of workers or infringe their rights? When, if ever, is an employee morally required to blow the whistle?

May employees ever use their positions inside an organization to advance their own interests? Is insider trading or the use of privileged information immoral? How much loyalty do workers owe their companies? What say should a business have over the off-the-job activities of its employees? Do drug tests violate their right to privacy?

What constitutes job discrimination, and how far must business go to ensure equality of opportunity? Is affirmative action a matter of justice, or a poor idea? How should organizations respond to the problem of sexual harassment?

learning objeCtives

These questions typify business issues with moral significance. The answers we give to them are determined, in large part, by our moral standards—that is, by the moral principles and values we accept. What moral standards are, where they come from, and how they can be assessed are some of the concerns of this opening chapter. In particular, you will encounter the fol- lowing topics:

1. The nature, scope, and purpose of business ethics

2. The distinguishing features of morality and how it differs from etiquette, law, and professional codes of conduct

3. The relationship between morality and religion

4. The doctrine of ethical relativism and its difficulties

5. What it means to have moral principles; the nature of conscience; and the relationship between morality and self-interest

6. The place of values and ideals in a person’s life

7. The social and psychological factors that sometimes jeopardize an individual’s integrity

8. The characteristics of sound moral reasoning

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4      part one  moral philosophy and business

by saying that it is a matter of morals (and not ethics). In fact, however, most people (and  most philosophers)  see no  real distinction between a person’s  “morals”  and a person’s  “ethics.” and  almost  everyone uses  “ethical”  and  “moral”  interchangeably  to describe  people we consider good and actions we consider right, and “unethical” and “immoral”  to designate bad people and wrong actions. This book follows that common usage.

The primary focus of this book is ethics as it applies to business. business ethics is the  study of what constitutes right and wrong, or good and bad, human conduct in a busi- ness context. For example, would it be right for a store manager to break a promise to a  customer and sell some hard-to-find merchandise to someone else, whose need for it is  greater? What, if anything, should a moral employee do when his or her superiors refuse  to look into apparent wrongdoing in a branch office? If you innocently came across secret  information about a competitor, would it be permissible for you to use it for your own  advantage?

recent business scandals have renewed the interest of business leaders, academics,  and society at large in ethics. For example, the association to advance collegiate Schools  of Business, which comprises all the top business schools, has introduced new rules on  including ethics  in  their  curricula,  and  the Business roundtable  recently unveiled an  initiative to train the nation’s ceos in the finer points of ethics. But an appreciation  of the importance of ethics for a healthy society and a concern, in particular, for what  constitutes ethical conduct in business go back to ancient times. The roman philosopher  cicero (106–43 bce), for instance, discussed the example, much debated at the time,  of an honest merchant  from alexandria who brings a  large stock of wheat to rhodes  where there is a food shortage. on his way there, he learns that other traders are setting  sail for rhodes with substantial cargos of grain. Should he tell the people of rhodes that  more wheat is on the way, or say nothing and sell at the best price he can? Some ancient  ethicists argued that although the merchant must declare defects in his wares as required  by law, as a vendor he is free—provided he tells no untruths—to sell his goods as profit- ably as he can. others, including cicero, argued to the contrary that all the facts must be  revealed and that buyers must be as fully informed as sellers.2

“Business” and “businessperson” are broad terms. a “business” could be a food truck  or a multinational corporation that operates in several countries. “Businessperson” could  refer to a street vendor or a company president responsible for thousands of workers and  millions of shareholder dollars. accordingly, the word business will be used here sim- ply to mean any organization whose objective is to provide goods or services for profit.  businesspeople are those who participate in planning, organizing, or directing the work  of business.

But this book takes a broader view as well because it is concerned with moral issues  that  arise  anywhere  that  employers  and  employees  come  together.  Thus,  it  addresses  organizational  ethics  as  well  as  business  ethics.  an  organization  is  a  group  of  people  working together to achieve a common purpose. The purpose may be to offer a product  or a service primarily for profit, as in business. But the purpose also could be health care,  as in medical organizations; public safety and order, as in law-enforcement organizations;  education, as in academic organizations; and so on. The cases and illustrations presented  in  this  book deal with moral  issues  and dilemmas  in both business  and nonbusiness  organizational settings.

study of what constitutes right and wrong (or good and

Closely related moral questions arise in other

organizational contexts.

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chapter one  The naTure of moraliTy      5

people occasionally poke fun at the idea of business ethics, declaring that the term is  a contradiction or that business has no ethics. Such people take themselves to be worldly  and realistic. They think they have a down-to-earth idea of how things really work. In  fact, despite its pretense of sophistication, their attitude shows little grasp of the nature  of ethics and only a superficial understanding of the real world of business. reading this  book should help you comprehend how inaccurate and mistaken their view is.

• • •

Mor al V ersus NoNMor al sTaNda rds Moral questions differ from other kinds of questions. Whether the old computer in your  office can copy a pirated DVD is a factual question. By contrast, whether you should  copy the DVD is a moral question. When we answer a moral question or make a moral  judgment,  we  appeal  to  moral  standards.  These  standards  differ  from  other  kinds  of  standards.

Wearing shorts and a tank top to a formal dinner party is boorish behavior. Writing  an essay that is filled with double negatives or lacks subject-verb agreement violates the  basic conventions of proper language usage. photographing someone at night without  the flash turned on is poor photographic technique. In each case a standard is violated— fashion,  grammatical,  technical—but  the  violation  does  not  pose  a  serious  threat  to  human well-being.

moral standards are  different  because  they  concern  behavior  that  is  of  serious  consequence to human welfare, that can profoundly injure or benefit people.3 The con- ventional moral norms against lying, stealing, and killing deal with actions that can hurt  people. and the moral principle that human beings should be treated with dignity and  respect uplifts the human personality. Whether products are healthful or harmful, work  conditions safe or dangerous, personnel procedures biased or fair, privacy respected or  invaded––these are also matters that seriously affect human well-being. The standards  that govern our conduct in these areas are moral standards.

a  second  characteristic  follows  from  the  first.  Moral  standards  take  priority  over other standards, including self-interest. Something that morality condemns—for  instance, the burglary of your neighbor’s home—cannot be justified on the nonmoral  grounds  that  it would be a  thrill  to do  it or  that  it would pay off handsomely. We  take moral standards to be more important than other considerations in guiding our  actions.

a third characteristic of moral standards is that their soundness depends on the ade- quacy of the reasons that support or justify them. For the most part, fashion standards  are set by clothing designers, merchandisers, and consumers; grammatical standards by  grammarians and students of language; technical standards by practitioners and experts  in the field. Legislators make laws, boards of directors make organizational policy, and  licensing boards establish standards for professionals. In those cases, some authoritative  body is the ultimate validating source of the standards and thus can change the standards  if it wishes. Moral standards are not made by such bodies. Their validity depends not  on official fiat but rather on the quality of the arguments or the reasoning that supports  them. exactly what constitutes adequate grounds or justification for a moral standard is

Moral standards concern behavior that seriously affects human well-being.

Moral standards take priority over other standards.

The soundness of moral standards depends on the adequacy of the reasons that support them.

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6      part one  moral philosophy and business

a debated question, which, as we shall see in chapter 2, underlies disagreement among  philosophers over which specific moral principles are best.

although these three characteristics set moral standards apart from other standards,  it is useful to discuss more specifically how morality differs from three things with which  it is sometimes confused: etiquette, law, and professional codes of ethics.

MOrality and etiquette

etiquette refers to the norms of correct conduct in polite society or, more generally, to  any special code of social behavior or courtesy. In our society, for example, it is considered  bad etiquette to chew with your mouth open or to pick your nose when talking to some- one; it is considered good etiquette to say “please” when requesting and “thank you” when  receiving, and to hold a door open for someone entering immediately behind you. Good  business  etiquette  typically  calls  for writing  follow-up  letters  after meetings,  returning  phone calls, and dressing appropriately. It is commonplace to judge people’s manners as  “good” or “bad” and the conduct that reflects them as “right” or “wrong.” “Good,” “bad,”  “right,” and “wrong” here simply mean socially appropriate or socially inappropriate. In  these contexts, such words express judgments about manners, not about ethics.

The rules of etiquette are prescriptions for socially acceptable behavior. If you violate  them, you’re likely to be considered ill-mannered, impolite, or even uncivilized, but not  necessarily immoral. If you want to fit in, get along with others, and be thought well  of by them, you should observe the common rules of politeness or etiquette. however,  what’s  considered  correct  or  polite  conduct—for  example,  when  greeting  an  elderly  person, when using your knife and  fork, or when determining how close  to  stand  to  someone you’re conversing with—can change over time and vary from society to society.

although rules of etiquette are generally nonmoral in character, violations of those  rules can have moral implications. For example, the male boss who refers to female sub- ordinates as “honey” or “doll” shows bad manners. If such epithets diminish the worth  of female employees or perpetuate sexism, then they also raise moral issues concerning  equal treatment and denial of dignity to human beings. More generally, rude or impolite  conduct can be offensive, and it may sometimes fail to show the respect for other persons  that morality requires of us. For this reason, it is important to exercise care, in business  situations and elsewhere, when dealing with unfamiliar customs or people from a differ- ent culture.

Scrupulous observance of rules of etiquette, however, does not make a person moral.  In fact, it can sometimes camouflage ethical issues. In some parts of the United States  fifty or so years ago, it was considered bad manners for blacks and whites to eat together.  however, those who obeyed this convention were not acting in a morally desirable way.  In the 1960s, black and white members of the civil rights movement sought to dramatize  the injustice that  lay behind this rule by sitting together  in luncheonettes and restau- rants. although judged at the time to lack good manners, they thought that this was a  small price to pay for exposing the unequal treatment and human degradation underly- ing this rule of etiquette.

MOrality and law

Before distinguishing between morality and law,  let’s examine the term  law. Basically,  there are four kinds of law: statutes, regulations, common law, and constitutional law.

summary We appeal to moral standards when we

answer a moral question or make a

moral judgment. Three characteristics of moral standards

distinguish them from other kinds of

standards.

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chapter one  The naTure of moraliTy      7

statutes  are  laws enacted by  legislative bodies. For example,  the  law  that defines  and prohibits reckless driving on the highway is a statute. congress and state legislatures  enact statutes. (Laws enacted by local governing bodies such as city councils are usually  termed ordinances.) Statutes make up a large part of the law and are what many of us  mean when we speak of “laws.”

Limited in their time and knowledge,  legislatures often set up boards or agencies  whose functions include issuing detailed regulations covering certain kinds of conduct— administrative regulations. For example, state legislatures establish licensing boards to  formulate regulations for the licensing of physicians and nurses. as long as these regula- tions do not exceed the board’s statutory powers and do not conflict with other kinds of  law, they are legally binding.

Common law refers  to  the  body  of  judge-made  law  that  first  developed  in  the  english-speaking world centuries ago when there were few statutes. courts frequently  wrote opinions  explaining  the bases of  their decisions  in  specific  cases,  including  the  legal principles those decisions rested on. each of these opinions became a precedent for  later decisions in similar cases. The massive body of precedents and legal principles that  accumulated over the years is collectively referred to as “common law.” Like administra- tive regulations, common law is valid if it harmonizes with statutory law and with still  another kind: constitutional law.

Constitutional law refers to court rulings on the requirements of the constitution  and the constitutionality of legislation. The U.S. constitution empowers the courts to  decide whether laws are compatible with the constitution. State courts may also rule on  the constitutionality of state laws under state constitutions. although the courts cannot  make laws, they have far-reaching powers to rule on the constitutionality of  laws and  to declare them invalid if they conflict with the constitution. In the United States, the  Supreme court has the greatest judiciary power and rules on an array of cases, some of  which bear directly on the study of business ethics.

people sometimes confuse legality and morality, but they are different things. on one  hand, breaking the law is not always or necessarily immoral. on the other hand, the legality  of an action does not guarantee that it is morally right. Let’s consider these points further.

1. an action can be illegal but morally right. For example, helping a Jewish family to  hide from the nazis was against German law in 1939, but it would have been a mor- ally admirable thing to have done. of course, the nazi regime was vicious and evil.  By contrast,  in a democratic society with a basically  just  legal order, the fact that  something is illegal provides a moral consideration against doing it. For example,  one moral reason for not burning trash in your backyard is that it violates an ordi- nance that your community has voted in favor of. Some philosophers believe that  sometimes the illegality of an action can make it morally wrong, even if the action  would otherwise have been morally acceptable. But even if they are right about that,  the  fact  that  something  is  illegal  does  not  trump  all  other  moral  considerations.  nonconformity to law is not always immoral, even in a democratic society. There  can be circumstances where, all things considered, violating the law is morally per- missible, perhaps even morally required.

probably no one in the modern era has expressed this point more eloquently  than Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. confined in the Birmingham, alabama, city jail  on charges of parading without a permit, King penned his now famous “Letter from

Legality should not be confused with morality. Breaking the law isn’t always or necessarily immoral, and the legality of an action doesn’t guarantee its morality.

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8      part one  moral philosophy and business

Birmingham Jail” to eight of his fellow clergymen who had published a statement  attacking King’s unauthorized protest of racial segregation as unwise and untimely.  King wrote:

all segregation statutes are unjust because segregation distorts the soul and damages  the personality. It gives the segregator a false sense of superiority and the segregated  a false sense of inferiority. Segregation, to use the terminology of the Jewish philosopher  Martin  Buber,  substitutes  an  “I-it”  relationship  for  an  “I-thou”  relationship  and  ends up relegating persons to the status of things. hence segregation is not only politi- cally, economically, and sociologically unsound, it is morally wrong and sinful. . . .  Thus it is that I can urge men to obey the 1954 decision of the Supreme court,* for  it is morally right; and I can urge them to disobey segregation ordinances, for they  are morally wrong.4

2. an action that is legal can be morally wrong. For example, it may have been per- fectly legal for the chairman of a profitable company to lay off 125 workers and use  three-quarters of the money saved to boost his pay and that of the company’s other  top managers,5 but the morality of his doing so is open to debate.

or, to take another example, suppose that you’re driving to work one day and  see an accident victim sitting on the side of the road, clearly in shock and needing  medical assistance. Because you know first aid and are in no great hurry to get to  your destination,  you could  easily  stop  and assist  the person. Legally  speaking,  though, you are not obligated  to  stop and render aid. Under common  law,  the  prudent thing would be to drive on, because by stopping you could thus  incur  legal liability if you fail to exercise reasonable care and thereby injure the person.  Many  states  have  enacted  so-called Good Samaritan  laws  to provide  immunity  from damages to those rendering aid (except for gross negligence or serious mis- conduct). But in most states, the law does not oblige people to give such aid or  even to call an ambulance. Moral theorists would agree, however, that if you sped  away without helping or even calling for help, your action might be perfectly legal  but would be morally suspect. regardless of the law, such conduct would almost  certainly be wrong.

What then may we say about the relationship between law and morality? to a signif- icant extent, law codifies a society’s customs, ideals, norms, and moral values. changes in  law tend to reflect changes in what a society takes to be right and wrong, but sometimes  changes in the law can alter people’s ideas about the rightness or wrongness of conduct.  however, even if a society’s laws are sensible and morally sound, it is a mistake to see  them as sufficient to establish the moral standards that should guide us. The law cannot  cover all possible human conduct, and in many situations it is too blunt an instrument  to provide adequate moral guidance. The law generally prohibits egregious affronts to a  society’s moral standards and in that sense is the “floor” of moral conduct, but breaches  of moral conduct can slip through cracks in that floor.

summary Morality must be

distinguished from etiquette (rules for

well-mannered behavior), from law

(statutes, regulations, common law, and

constitutional law), and from professional

codes of ethics (the special rules governing

the members of a profession).

*In Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka  (1954),  the  Supreme court  struck down  the   half-century-old  “separate but equal doctrine,” which permitted racially segregated schools as long as comparable quality was  maintained.

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chapter one  The naTure of moraliTy      9

PrOfessiOnal cOdes

Somewhere  between  etiquette  and  law  lie  professional codes of ethics.  These  are  the  rules  that  are  supposed  to govern  the conduct of members of  a given profession.  adhering to these rules is a required part of membership in that profession. Violation  of a professional code may result in the disapproval of one’s professional peers and, in  serious cases, loss of one’s license to practice that profession. Sometimes these codes are  unwritten and are part of the common understanding of members of a particular profes- sion—for example,  that professors  should not date  their  students.  In other  instances,  these codes or portions of them may be written down by an authoritative body so they  may be better taught and more efficiently enforced.

These written rules are sometimes so vague and general as to be of little value, and  often they amount to little more than self-promotion by the professional organization.  The same is frequently true when industries or corporations publish statements of their  ethical standards. In other cases—for example, with attorneys—professional codes can  be very specific and detailed. It is difficult to generalize about the content of professional  codes of ethics, however, because  they  frequently  involve a mix of purely moral  rules  (for example, client confidentiality), of professional etiquette (for example, the billing  of services to other professionals), and of restrictions intended to benefit the group’s eco- nomic interests (for example, limitations on price competition).

Given their nature, professional codes of ethics are neither a complete nor a com- pletely reliable guide to one’s moral obligations. not all the rules of a professional code  are purely moral in character, and even when they are, the fact that a rule is officially  enshrined as part of the code of a profession does not guarantee that it is a sound moral  principle. as a professional, you must take seriously the injunctions of your profession,  but you still have the responsibility to critically assess those rules for yourself.

You come upon this scene—the car is smoking, and it is clear that an accident just took place. In most states, you are not legally obligated to stop and offer help to the victims.

Re ch

ita n

So rin

/ S hu

tte rs

to ck

.co m

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10      part one  moral philosophy and business

regarding those parts of the code that concern etiquette or financial matters, bear in  mind that by joining a profession you are probably agreeing, explicitly or implicitly, to  abide by those standards. assuming that those rules don’t require morally impermissible  conduct, then consenting to them gives you some moral obligation to follow them. In  addition, for many, living up to the standards of one’s chosen profession is an important  source of personal satisfaction. Still, you must be alert to situations in which professional  standards  or  customary  professional  practice  conflicts  with  ordinary  ethical  require- ments. adherence to a professional code does not exempt your conduct from scrutiny  from the broader perspective of morality.

where dO MOral standards cOMe frOM?

So far you have seen how moral standards are different from various nonmoral standards,  but you probably wonder about the source of those moral standards. Most, if not all,  people have certain moral principles or a moral code that they explicitly or implicitly  accept.  Because  the  moral  principles  of  different  people  in  the  same  society  overlap,  at least in part, we can also talk about the moral code of a society, meaning the moral  standards shared by its members. how do we come to have certain moral principles and  not others? obviously, many things influence what moral principles we accept: our early  upbringing, the behavior of those around us, the explicit and implicit standards of our  culture, our own experiences, and our critical reflections on those experiences.

For  philosophers,  though,  the  central  question  is  not  how  we  came  to  have  the  particular principles we have. The philosophical issue is whether those principles can be  justified. Do we simply take for granted the values of those around us? or, like Martin  Luther King, Jr., are we able to think independently about moral matters? By analogy,  we pick up our nonmoral beliefs  from all  sorts of  sources: books,  conversations with  friends,  movies,  various  experiences  we’ve  had.  What  is  important,  however,  is  not  how we acquired the beliefs we have, but whether or to what extent those beliefs—for  example, that women are more emotional than men or that telekinesis is possible—can  withstand critical scrutiny. Likewise, ethical theories attempt to justify moral standards  and ethical beliefs. The next chapter examines some of the major theories of normative  ethics. It looks at what some of the major thinkers in human history have argued are the  best-justified standards of right and wrong.

But first we need to consider the relationship between morality and religion on the  one hand and between morality and society on the other. Some people maintain that  morality just boils down to religion. others have argued for the doctrine of ethical rela- tivism, which says that right and wrong are only a function of what a particular society  takes to be right and wrong. Both those views are mistaken.

• • •

rel ig ioN a Nd Mor al iT y any religion provides its believers with a worldview, part of which involves certain moral  instructions, values, and commitments. The Jewish and christian traditions,  to name  just two, offer a view of humans as unique products of a divine intervention that has  endowed  them with  consciousness  and  an  ability  to  love. Both  these  traditions posit

You should take seriously the code that governs your

profession, but you still have a

responsibility to assess its rules for

yourself.

For philosophers, the important issue is

not where our moral principles came

from, but whether they can be justified.

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chapter one  The naTure of moraliTy      11

creatures who stand midway between nature and spirit. on one hand, we are finite and  bound to earth, not only capable of wrongdoing but also born morally flawed (original  sin). on the other, we can transcend nature and realize infinite possibilities.

primarily because of the influence of Western religion, many americans and others  view themselves as beings with a supernatural destiny, as possessing a life after death,  as being immortal. one’s purpose in life is found in serving and loving God. For the  christian, the way to serve and love God is by emulating the life of Jesus of nazareth.  In  the  life  of  Jesus,  christians  find  an  expression  of  the  highest  virtue—love.  They  love when they perform selfless acts, develop a keen social conscience, and realize that  human beings are creatures of God and therefore intrinsically worthwhile. For the Jew,  one serves and loves God chiefly through expressions of justice and righteousness. Jews  also develop  a  sense of honor derived  from a  commitment  to  truth, humility, fidel- ity, and kindness. This commitment hones their sense of responsibility to family and  community.

religion, then, involves not only a formal system of worship but also prescriptions  for  social  relationships.  one  example  is  the  mandate  “Do  unto  others  as  you  would  have them do unto you.” termed the “Golden rule,” this injunction represents one of  humankind’s highest moral ideals and can be found in essence in all the great religions of  the world:

Good people proceed while considering that what is best for others is best for  themselves. (Hitopadesa, hinduism)

Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself. (Leviticus 19:18, Judaism)

Therefore all things whatsoever ye would that men should do to you, do ye even  so to them. (Matthew 7:12, christianity)

hurt not others with that which pains yourself. (Udanavarga 5:18, Buddhism)

What you do not want done to yourself, do not do to others. (Analects 15:23,  confucianism)

no one of you is a believer until he loves for his brother what he loves for him- self. (Traditions, Islam)

although  inspiring,  such  religious  ideals  are  very  general  and  can  be  difficult  to  translate  into  precise  policy  injunctions.  religious  bodies,  nevertheless,  occasionally  articulate positions on more specific political, educational, economic, and medical issues,  which help mold public opinion on matters  as diverse as  abortion,  the environment,  national defense, and the ethics of scientific research. roman catholicism, in particular,  has a rich history of formally applying its core values to the moral aspects of industrial   relations and economic life. pope John paul II’s encyclical Centesimus Annus, the national  conference of catholic Bishops’ pastoral letter Economic Justice for All on catholic social  teaching and the U.S. economy, and the pontifical council for Social communication’s  reports on advertising and on ethics and the Internet stand in that  tradition––as does  pope Benedict XVI’s 2007 critique of the growing trend for companies to rely on short- term job contracts, which in his view undermines the stability of society and prevents  young people from building families.6

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12      part one  moral philosophy and business

MOrality needn’t rest On religiOn

Many people believe that morality must be based on religion, either in the sense that  without religion people would have no incentive to be moral or in the sense that only  religion can provide moral guidance. others contend that morality is based on the com- mands of God. none of these claims is convincing.

First, although a desire to avoid hell and to go to heaven may prompt some of us  to act morally, this is not the only reason or even the most common reason that people  behave morally. often we act morally out of habit or just because that is the kind of per- son we are. It would simply not occur to most of us to swipe an elderly lady’s purse, and  if the idea did occur to us, we wouldn’t do it because such an act simply doesn’t fit with  our personal standards or with our concept of ourselves. We are often motivated to do  what is morally right out of concern for others or just because it is right. In addition, the  approval of our peers, the need to appease our conscience, and the desire to avoid earthly  punishment may all motivate us to act morally. Furthermore, atheists generally live lives  as moral and upright as those of believers.

Second, the moral instructions of the world’s great religions are general and im precise:  They do not  relieve us of  the necessity of engaging  in moral  reasoning ourselves. For  example, the Bible says, “Thou shall not kill.” Yet christians disagree among themselves  over the morality of fighting in wars, of capital punishment, of killing in self-defense, of  slaughtering animals, of abortion and euthanasia, and of allowing foreigners to die from  famine because we have not provided them with as much food as we might have. The  Bible does not provide unambiguous solutions to these moral problems, so even believers  must engage in moral philosophy if they are to have intelligent answers. on the other  hand, there are lots of reasons for believing that, say, a cold-blooded murder motivated  by greed is immoral. You don’t have to believe in a religion to figure that out.

Third, although some theologians have advocated the divine command theory— that if something is wrong (like killing an innocent person for fun), then the only reason  it  is wrong  is  that God  commands us not  to  do  it—many  theologians  and  certainly  most philosophers would reject this view. They would contend that if God commands  human beings not to do something, such as commit rape, it is because God sees that rape  is wrong, but it is not God’s forbidding rape that makes it wrong. The fact that rape is  wrong is independent of God’s decrees.

Most believers think not only that God gives us moral instructions or rules but also  that God has moral reasons for giving them to us. according to the divine command  theory, this would make no sense. In this view, there is no reason that something is right  or wrong, other than the fact that it is God’s will. all believers, of course, believe that  God is good and that God commands us to do what is right and forbids us to do what is  wrong. But this doesn’t mean, say critics of the divine command theory, that it is God’s  saying so that makes a thing wrong, any more than it is your mother’s telling you not to  steal that makes it wrong to steal.

all this is simply to argue that morality is not necessarily based on religion in any  of these three senses. That religion influences the moral standards and values of most of  us is beyond doubt. But given that religions differ in their moral beliefs and that even  members of the same faith often disagree on moral matters, you cannot justify a moral  judgment simply by appealing to religion—for that will only persuade those who already  agree  with  your  particular  interpretation  of  your  particular  religion.  Besides,  most   religions hold that human reason is capable of understanding what is right and wrong,

The idea that morality must be

based on religion can be interpreted in

three different ways, none of which is very

plausible.

summary Morality is not

necessarily based on religion. Although we draw our moral beliefs from many sources, for philosophers the issue

is whether those beliefs can be justified.

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chapter one  The naTure of moraliTy      13

so it is human reason to which you will have to appeal in order to support your ethical  principles and judgments.

• • •

e Thical rel aT iV isM Some people do not believe  that morality boils down to  religion but  rather  that  it  is  merely a function of what a particular society happens to believe. This view is called ethi- cal relativism, the theory that what is right is determined by what a culture or society  says is right. What is right in one place may be wrong in another, because the only crite- rion for distinguishing right from wrong—and so the only ethical standard for judging  an action—is the moral system of the society in which the act occurs.

abortion, for example, is condemned as immoral in catholic Ireland but is prac- ticed as a morally neutral form of birth control in Japan. according to the ethical relativ- ist, then, abortion is wrong in Ireland but morally permissible in Japan. The relativist is  not saying merely that the Irish believe abortion is abominable and the Japanese do not;  that is acknowledged by everyone. rather, the ethical relativist contends that abortion  is immoral in Ireland because the Irish believe it to be immoral and that it is morally  permissible in Japan because the Japanese believe it to be so. Thus, for the ethical relativ- ist there is no absolute ethical standard independent of cultural context, no criterion of  right and wrong by which to judge other than that of particular societies. In short, what  morality requires is relative to society.

Those who endorse ethical relativism point to the apparent diversity of human values  and the multiformity of moral codes to support their case. From our own cultural per- spective, some seemingly immoral moralities have been adopted. polygamy, pedophilia,  stealing, slavery, infanticide, and cannibalism have all been tolerated or even encouraged  by the moral system of one society or another. In light of this fact, the ethical relativist  believes that there can be no non-ethnocentric standard by which to judge actions.

Some thinkers believe that the moral differences between societies are smaller and  less significant than they appear. They contend that variations in moral standards reflect  differing factual beliefs and differing circumstances rather than fundamental differences in  values. But suppose they are wrong about this matter. The relativist’s conclusion still does  not follow. a difference of opinion among societies about right and wrong no more proves  that none of the conflicting beliefs is true or superior to the others than the diversity of  viewpoints expressed in a college seminar establishes that there is no truth. In short, disa- greement in ethical matters does not imply that all opinions are equally correct.

Moreover,  ethical  relativism has  some unsatisfactory  implications. First,  it under- mines any moral criticism of the practices of other societies as long as their actions con- form to their own standards. We cannot say that slavery in a slave society like that of the  american South 160 years ago was immoral and unjust as long as that society held it to  be morally permissible.

Second, and closely related, is the fact that for the relativist there is no such thing as  ethical progress. although moralities may change, they cannot get better or worse. Thus,  we cannot say that moral standards today are more enlightened than were moral stand- ards in the Middle ages.

Ethical disagreement does not imply that all opinions are equally correct.

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14      part one  moral philosophy and business

Third,  from the relativist’s point of view,  it makes no sense for people to criticize  principles or practices  accepted by  their  own  society. people  can be  censured  for not  living up to their society’s moral code, but that is all. The moral code itself cannot be  criticized because whatever a society takes to be right really is right for it. reformers who  identify injustices in their society and campaign against them are only encouraging peo- ple to be immoral—that is, to depart from the moral standards of their society—unless  or until the majority of the society agrees with the reformers. The minority can never be  right in moral matters; to be right it must become the majority.

The ethical relativist is correct to emphasize that in viewing other cultures we should  keep an open mind and not simply dismiss alien social practices on the basis of our own  cultural prejudices. But the relativist’s theory of morality doesn’t hold up. The more care- fully we examine it, the less plausible it becomes. There is no good reason for saying that  the majority view on moral issues is automatically right, and the belief that it is auto- matically right has unacceptable consequences.

relativisM and the “gaMe” Of Business

In his essay “Is Business Bluffing ethical?” albert carr argues that business, as practiced  by  individuals  as well  as by  corporations, has  the  impersonal  character of  a game—a  game  that  demands  both  special  strategy  and  an  understanding  of  its  special  ethical  standards.7 Business has  its own norms and rules  that differ  from those of  the rest of  society. Thus, according to carr, a number of things that we normally think of as wrong  are really permissible in a business context. his examples include conscious misstatement  and concealment of pertinent facts in negotiation, lying about one’s age on a résumé,  deceptive packaging, automobile companies’ neglect of car safety, and utility companies’  manipulation of regulators and overcharging of electricity users. he draws an analogy  with poker:

poker’s own brand of ethics is different from the ethical ideals of civilized human rela- tionships. The game calls for distrust of the other fellow. It ignores the claim of friend- ship.  cunning  deception  and  concealment  of  one’s  strength  and  intentions,  not  kindness  and openheartedness,  are  vital  in poker. no one  thinks  any  the worse of  poker on that account. and no one should think any the worse of the game of business  because its standards of right and wrong differ from the prevailing traditions of moral- ity in our society.8

What carr is defending here is a kind of ethical relativism: Business has its own moral  standards, and business actions should be evaluated only by those standards.

one  can  argue  whether  carr  has  accurately  identified  the  implicit  rules  of  the  business world (for example,  is misrepresentation on one’s résumé really a permissible  move in the business game?), but let’s put that issue aside. The basic question is whether  business is a separate world to which ordinary moral standards don’t apply. carr’s thesis  assumes that any special activity following its own rules is exempt from external moral  evaluation, but as a general proposition this  is unacceptable. The Mafia,  for example,  has an elaborate code of conduct, accepted by the members of the rival “families.” For  them, gunning down a competitor or terrorizing a local shopkeeper may be a strategic  move in a competitive environment. Yet we rightly refuse to say that gangsters cannot  be criticized for following their own standards. normal business activity is a world away  from gangsterism, but the point still holds. any specialized activity or practice will have

summary Ethical relativism is the theory that right and

wrong are determined by what one’s society

says is right and wrong. There are many

problems with this theory. Also dubious is

the notion that business has its own

morality, divorced from ordinary ideas of right

and wrong.

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chapter one  The naTure of moraliTy      15

its own distinctive rules and procedures, but the morality of those rules and procedures  can still be evaluated.

Moreover,  carr’s  poker  analogy  is  itself  weak.  For  one  thing,  business  activity  can  affect  others—such  as  consumers—who have not  consciously  and  freely  chosen  to play  the “game.” Business is indeed an activity involving distinctive rules and customary ways  of doing things, but it is not really a game. It is the economic basis of our society, and we  all have an interest in the goals of business (in productivity and consumer satisfaction, for  instance) and in the rules business follows. Why should these be exempt from public evalu- ation and assessment? Later chapters return to the question of what these goals and rules  should be. But to take one simple point, note that a business/economic system that permits,  encourages, or tolerates deception will be less efficient (that is, work less well) than one in  which the participants have fuller knowledge of the goods and services being exchanged.

In sum, by divorcing business  from morality, carr misrepresents both. he incor- rectly treats the standards and rules of everyday business activity as if they had nothing to  do with the standards and rules of ordinary morality, and he treats morality as something  that we give lip service to on Sundays but that otherwise has no influence on our lives.

Categories

## a company resource weakness or competitive deficiency

page 82

CHAPTER 4

Evaluating a Company’s Resources, Capabilities, and Competitiveness

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LO 1 How to take stock of how well a company’s strategy is working.

LO 2 Why a company’s resources and capabilities are centrally important in giving the company a competitive edge over rivals.

LO 3 How to assess the company’s strengths and weaknesses in light of market opportunities and external threats.

LO 4 How a company’s value chain activities can affect the company’s cost structure and customer value proposition.

LO 5 How a comprehensive evaluation of a company’s competitive situation can assist managers in making critical decisions about their next strategic moves.

Crucial, of course, is having a difference that matters in the industry.

Cynthia Montgomery—Professor and author

If you don’t have a competitive advantage, don’t compete

Jack Welch—Former CEO of General Electric

Organizations succeed in a competitive marketplace over the long run because they can do certain things their customers value better than can their competitors.

Robert Hayes, Gary Pisano, and David Upton—-Professors and consultants

Chapter 3 described how to use the tools of industry and competitor analysis to assess a company’s external environment and lay the groundwork for matching a company’s strategy to its external situation. This chapter discusses techniques for evaluating a company’s internal situation, including its collection of resources and capabilities and the activities it performs along its value chain. Internal analysis enables managers to determine whether their strategy is likely to give the company a significant competitive edge over rival firms. Combined with external analysis, it facilitates an understanding of how to reposition a firm to take advantage of new opportunities and to cope with emerging competitive threats. The analytic spotlight will be trained on six questions:

1. How well is the company’s present strategy working? 2. What are the company’s most important resources and capabilities, and will they give the company a

lasting competitive advantage over rival companies? 3. What are the company’s strengths and weaknesses in relation to the market opportunities and

external threats? 4. How do a company’s value chain activities impact its cost structure and customer value proposition? 5. Is the company competitively stronger or weaker than key rivals? 6. What strategic issues and problems merit front-burner managerial attention?

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In probing for answers to these questions, five analytic tools—resource and capability analysis, SWOT analysis, value chain analysis, benchmarking, and competitive strength assessment—will be used. All five are valuable techniques for revealing a company’s competitiveness and for helping company managers match their strategy to the company’s particular circumstances.

QUESTION 1: HOW WELL IS THE COMPANY’S PRESENT STRATEGY WORKING?

LO 1 How to take stock of how well a company’s strategy is working.

In evaluating how well a company’s present strategy is working, the best way to start is with a clear view of what the strategy entails. Figure 4.1 shows the key components of a single-business company’s strategy. The first thing to examine is the company’s competitive approach. What moves has the company made recently to attract customers and improve its market position—for instance, has it cut prices, improved the design of its product, added new features, stepped up advertising, entered a new geographic market, or merged with a competitor? Is it striving for a competitive advantage based on low costs or a better product offering? Is it concentrating on serving a broad spectrum of customers or a narrow market niche? The company’s functional strategies in R&D, production, marketing, finance, human resources, information technology, and so on further characterize company strategy, as do any efforts to establish alliances with other enterprises.

FIGURE 4.1 Identifying the Components of a Single-Business Company’s Strategy

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The three best indicators of how well a company’s strategy is working are (1) whether the company is achieving its stated financial and strategic objectives, (2) whether its financial performance is above the industry average, and (3) whether it is gaining customers and gaining market share. Persistent shortfalls in meeting company performance targets and weak marketplace performance relative to rivals are reliable warning signs that the company has a weak strategy, suffers from poor strategy execution, or both. Specific indicators of how well a company’s strategy is working include:

• Trends in the company’s sales and earnings growth. • Trends in the company’s stock price. • The company’s overall financial strength. • The company’s customer retention rate. • The rate at which new customers are acquired. • Evidence of improvement in internal processes such as defect rate, order fulfillment,

delivery times, days of inventory, and employee productivity.

Sluggish financial performance and second-rate market accomplishments almost always signal weak strategy, weak execution, or both.

The stronger a company’s current overall performance, the more likely it has a well-conceived, well- executed strategy. The weaker a company’s financial performance and market standing, the more its current strategy must be questioned and the more likely the need for radical changes. Table 4.1 provides

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a compilation of the financial ratios most commonly used to evaluate a company’s financial performance and balance sheet strength.

TABLE 4.1 Key Financial Ratios: How to Calculate Them and What They Mean

Ratio How Calculated What It Shows

Profitability ratios

1.  Gross profit margin Shows the percentage of

revenues available to cover operating expenses and yield a profit.

2.  Operating profit margin (or return on sales)

Shows the profitability of current operations without regard to interest charges and income taxes. Earnings before interest and taxes is known as EBIT in financial and business accounting.

3.  Net profit margin (or net return on sales)

Shows after-tax profits per dollar of sales.

4.  Total return on assets A measure of the return on

total investment in the enterprise. Interest is added to after-tax profits to form the numerator, since total assets are

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Ratio How Calculated What It Shows

financed by creditors as well as by stockholders.

5.  Net return on total assets (ROA)

A measure of the return earned by stockholders on the firm’s total assets.

6.  Return on stockholders’ equity (ROE)

The return stockholders are earning on their capital investment in the enterprise. A return in the 12%–15% range is average.

7.  Return on invested capital (ROIC) —sometimes referred to as return on capital employed (ROCE)

A measure of the return that shareholders are earning on the monetary capital invested in the enterprise. A higher return reflects greater bottom-line effectiveness in the use of long- term capital.

Liquidity ratios

1.  Current ratio Shows a firm’s ability to pay

current liabilities using assets that can be converted to

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Ratio How Calculated What It Shows

cash in the near term. Ratio should be higher than 1.0.

2.  Working capital

Current assets – Current liabilities The cash available for a firm’s day-to-day operations. Larger amounts mean the company has more internal funds to (1) pay its current liabilities on a timely basis and (2) finance inventory expansion, additional accounts receivable, and a larger base of operations without resorting to borrowing or raising more equity capital.

Leverage ratios

1.  Total debt- to-assets ratio

Measures the extent to which borrowed funds (both short-term loans and long- term debt) have been used to finance the firm’s operations. A low ratio is better—a high fraction indicates overuse of debt

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Ratio How Calculated What It Shows

and greater risk of bankruptcy.

2.  Long-term debt-to- capital ratio

A measure of creditworthiness and balance sheet strength. It indicates the percentage of capital investment that has been financed by both long-term lenders and stockholders. A ratio below 0.25 is preferable since the lower the ratio, the greater the capacity to borrow additional funds. Debt-to-capital ratios above 0.50 indicate an excessive reliance on long- term borrowing, lower creditworthiness, and weak balance sheet strength.

3.  Debt-to- equity ratio Shows the balance

between debt (funds borrowed both short term and long term) and the amount that stockholders have invested in the enterprise. The further the ratio is below 1.0, the greater

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Ratio How Calculated What It Shows

the firm’s ability to borrow additional funds. Ratios above 1.0 put creditors at greater risk, signal weaker balance sheet strength, and often result in lower credit ratings.

4.  Long-term debt-to- equity ratio

Shows the balance between long- term debt and stockholders’ equity in the firm’s long-term capital structure. Low ratios indicate a greater capacity to borrow additional funds if needed.

5.  Times- interest- earned (or coverage) ratio

Measures the ability to pay annual interest charges. Lenders usually insist on a minimum ratio of 2.0, but ratios above 3.0 signal progressively better creditworthiness.

Activity ratios

1.  Days of inventory Measures inventory

management efficiency. Fewer

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Ratio How Calculated What It Shows

days of inventory are better.

2.  Inventory turnover Measures the number of

inventory turns per year. Higher is better.

3.  Average collection period

Indicates the average length of time the firm must wait after making a sale to receive cash payment. A shorter collection time is better.

Other important measures of financial performance

1.  Dividend yield on common stock

A measure of the return that shareholders receive in the form of dividends. A “typical” dividend yield is 2%–3%. The dividend yield for fast-growth companies is often below 1%; the dividend yield for slow- growth companies can run 4%–5%.

2.  Price-to- earnings (P/E) ratio

P/E ratios above 20 indicate strong investor confidence in a firm’s outlook

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Ratio How Calculated What It Shows

and earnings growth; firms whose future earnings are at risk or likely to grow slowly typically have ratios below 12.

3.  Dividend payout ratio Indicates the percentage of

after-tax profits paid out as dividends.

4.  Internal cash flow

After-tax profits + Depreciation A rough estimate of the cash a company’s business is generating after payment of operating expenses, interest, and taxes. Such amounts can be used for dividend payments or funding capital expenditures.

5.  Free cash flow

After- tax profits + Depreciation – Capital expenditures – Dividends A rough

estimate of the cash a company’s business is generating after payment of operating expenses, interest, taxes, dividends, and desirable reinvestments in the business. The larger a company’s free

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Ratio How Calculated What It Shows

cash flow, the greater its ability to internally fund new strategic initiatives, repay debt, make new acquisitions, repurchase shares of stock, or increase dividend payments.

QUESTION 2: WHAT ARE THE COMPANY’S MOST IMPORTANT RESOURCES AND CAPABILITIES, AND WILL THEY GIVE THE COMPANY A LASTING COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE OVER RIVAL COMPANIES?

An essential element of deciding whether a company’s overall situation is fundamentally healthy or unhealthy entails examining the attractiveness of its resources and capabilities. A company’s resources and capabilities are its competitive assets and determine whether its competitive power in the marketplace will be impressively strong or disappointingly weak. Companies with second-rate competitive assets nearly always are relegated to a trailing position in the industry.

CORE CONCEPT A company’s resources and capabilities represent its competitive assets and are determinants of its competitiveness and ability to succeed in the marketplace.

Resource and capability analysis provides managers with a powerful tool for sizing up the company’s competitive assets and determining whether they can provide the foundation necessary for competitive success in the marketplace. This is a two-step process. The first step is to identify the company’s resources and capabilities. The second step is to examine them more closely to ascertain which are the most competitively important and whether they can support a sustainable competitive advantage over rival firms.1 This second step involves applying the four tests of a resource’s competitive power.

Resource and capability analysis is a powerful tool for sizing up a company’s competitive assets and determining whether the assets can support a sustainable competitive advantage over market rivals.

Identifying the Company’s Resources and Capabilities

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A firm’s resources and capabilities are the fundamental building blocks of its competitive strategy. In crafting strategy, it is essential for managers to know how to take stock of the company’s full complement of resources and capabilities. But before they can do so, managers and strategists need a more precise definition of these terms.

LO 2 Why a company’s resources and capabilities are centrally important in giving the company a competitive edge over rivals.

In brief, a resource is a productive input or competitive asset that is owned or controlled by the firm. Firms have many different types of resources at their disposal that vary not only in kind but in quality as well. Some are of a higher quality than others, and some are more competitively valuable, having greater potential to give a firm a competitive advantage over its rivals. For example, a company’s brand is a resource, as is an R&D team—yet some brands such as Coca-Cola and Xerox are well known, with enduring value, while others have little more name recognition than generic products. In similar fashion, some R&D teams are far more innovative and productive than others due to the outstanding talents of the individual team members, the team’s composition, its experience, and its chemistry.

A capability (or competence) is the capacity of a firm to perform some internal activity competently. Capabilities or competences also vary in form, quality, and competitive importance, with some being more competitively valuable than others. American Express displays superior capabilities in brand management and marketing; Starbucks’s employee management, training, and real estate capabilities are the drivers behind its rapid growth; LinkedIn relies on superior software innovation capabilities to increase new user memberships. Organizational capabilities are developed and enabled through the deployment of a company’s resources.2 For example, Nestlé’s brand management capabilities for its 2,000+ food, beverage, and pet care brands draw on the knowledge of the company’s brand managers, the expertise of its marketing department, and the company’s relationships with retailers in nearly 200 countries. W. L. Gore’s product innovation capabilities in its fabrics and medical and industrial product businesses result from the personal initiative, creative talents, and technological expertise of its associates and the company’s culture that encourages accountability and creative thinking.

CORE CONCEPT A resource is a competitive asset that is owned or controlled by a company; a capability (or competence) is the capacity of a firm to perform some internal activity competently. Capabilities are developed and enabled through the deployment of a company’s resources.

Types of Company Resources A useful way to identify a company’s resources is to look for them within categories, as shown in Table 4.2. Broadly speaking, resources can be divided into two main categories: tangible and intangible resources. Although human resources make up one of the most important parts of a company’s resource base, we include them in the intangible category to emphasize the role played by the skills, talents, and knowledge of a company’s human resources.

Table 4.2 Types of Company Resources

Tangible resources

• Physical resources: land and real estate; manufacturing plants, equipment, and/or distribution facilities; the locations of stores, plants, or distribution centers, including the overall pattern of

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Tangible resources

their physical locations; ownership of or access rights to natural resources (such as mineral deposits)

• Financial resources: cash and cash equivalents; marketable securities; other financial assets such as a company’s credit rating and borrowing capacity

• Technological assets: patents, copyrights, production technology, innovation technologies, technological processes

• Organizational resources: IT and communication systems (satellites, servers, workstations, etc.); other planning, coordination, and control systems; the company’s organizational design and reporting structure

Intangible resources

• Human assets and intellectual capital: the education, experience, knowledge, and talent of the workforce, cumulative learning, and tacit knowledge of employees; collective learning embedded in the organization, the intellectual capital and know-how of specialized teams and work groups; the knowledge of key personnel concerning important business functions; managerial talent and leadership skill; the creativity and innovativeness of certain personnel

• Brands, company image, and reputational assets: brand names, trademarks, product or company image, buyer loyalty and goodwill; company reputation for quality, service, and reliability; reputation with suppliers and partners for fair dealing

• Relationships: alliances, joint ventures, or partnerships that provide access to technologies, specialized know-how, or geographic markets; networks of dealers or distributors; the trust established with various partners

• Company culture and incentive system: the norms of behavior, business principles, and ingrained beliefs within the company; the attachment of personnel to the company’s ideals; the compensation system and the motivation level of company personnel

Tangible resources are the most easily identified, since tangible resources are those that can be touched or quantified readily. Obviously, they include various types of physical resources such as manufacturing facilities and mineral resources, but they also include a company’s financial resources, technological resources, and organizational resources such as the company’s communication and control systems. Note that technological resources are included among tangible resources, by convention, even though some types, such as copyrights and trade secrets, might be more logically categorized as intangible.

Intangible resources are harder to discern, but they are often among the most important of a firm’s competitive assets. They include various sorts of human assets and intellectual capital, as well as a

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company’s brands, image, and reputational assets. While intangible resources have no material existence on their own, they are often embodied in something material. Thus, the skills and knowledge resources of a firm are embodied in its managers and employees; a company’s brand name is embodied in the company logo or product labels. Other important kinds of intangible resources include a company’s relationships with suppliers, buyers, or partners of various sorts, and the company’s culture and incentive system. A more detailed listing of the various types of tangible and intangible resources is provided in Table 4.2.

Listing a company’s resources category by category can prevent managers from inadvertently overlooking some company resources that might be competitively important. At times, it can be difficult to decide exactly how to categorize certain types of resources. For example, resources such as a work group’s specialized expertise in developing innovative products can be considered to be technological assets or human assets or intellectual capital and knowledge assets; the work ethic and drive of a company’s workforce could be included under the company’s human assets or its culture and incentive system. In this regard, it is important to remember that it is not exactly how a resource is categorized that matters but, rather, that all of the company’s different types of resources are included in the inventory. The real purpose of using categories in identifying a company’s resources is to ensure that none of a company’s resources go unnoticed when sizing up the company’s competitive assets.

Identifying Capabilities Organizational capabilities are more complex entities than resources; indeed, they are built up through the use of resources and draw on some combination of the firm’s resources as they are exercised. Virtually all organizational capabilities are knowledge-based, residing in people and in a company’s intellectual capital, or in organizational processes and systems, which embody tacit knowledge. For example, Amazon’s speedy delivery capabilities rely on the knowledge of its fulfillment center managers, its relationship with the United Postal Service, and the experience of its merchandisers to correctly predict inventory flow. Bose’s capabilities in auditory system design arise from the talented engineers that form the R&D team as well as the company’s strong culture, which celebrates innovation and beautiful design.

Because of their complexity, capabilities are harder to categorize than resources and more challenging to search for as a result. There are, however, two approaches that can make the process of uncovering and identifying a firm’s capabilities more systematic. The first method takes the completed listing of a firm’s resources as its starting point. Since capabilities are built from resources and utilize resources as they are exercised, a firm’s resources can provide a strong set of clues about the types of capabilities the firm is likely to have accumulated. This approach simply involves looking over the firm’s resources and considering whether (and to what extent) the firm has built up any related capabilities. So, for example, a fleet of trucks, the latest RFID tracking technology, and a set of large automated distribution centers may be indicative of sophisticated capabilities in logistics and distribution. R&D teams composed of top scientists with expertise in genomics may suggest organizational capabilities in developing new gene therapies or in biotechnology more generally.

The second method of identifying a firm’s capabilities takes a functional approach. Many capabilities relate to fairly specific functions; these draw on a limited set of resources and typically involve a single department or organizational unit. Capabilities in injection molding or continuous casting or metal stamping are manufacturing-related; capabilities in direct selling, promotional pricing, or database marketing all connect to the sales and marketing functions; capabilities in basic research, strategic innovation, or new product development link to a company’s R&D function. This approach requires managers to survey the various functions a firm performs to find the different capabilities associated with each function.

A problem with this second method is that many of the most important capabilities of firms are inherently cross-functional. Cross-functional capabilities draw on a number of different kinds of resources and are multidimensional in nature—they spring from the effective collaboration among people with different types of expertise working in different organizational units. Warby Parker draws from its cross- functional design process to create its popular eyewear. Its design capabilities are not just due to its creative designers, but are the product of their capabilities in market research and engineering as well as their relations with suppliers and manufacturing companies. Cross-functional capabilities and other complex capabilities involving numerous linked and closely integrated competitive assets are sometimes referred to as resource bundles.

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CORE CONCEPT A resource bundle is a linked and closely integrated set of competitive assets centered around one or more cross-functional capabilities.

It is important not to miss identifying a company’s resource bundles, since they can be the most competitively important of a firm’s competitive assets. Resource bundles can sometimes pass the four tests of a resource’s competitive power (described below) even when the individual components of the resource bundle cannot. Although PetSmart’s supply chain and marketing capabilities are matched well by rival Petco, the company has and continues to outperform competitors through its customer service capabilities (including animal grooming and veterinary and day care services). Nike’s bundle of styling expertise, marketing research skills, professional endorsements, brand name, and managerial know-how has allowed it to remain number one in the athletic footwear and apparel industry for more than 20 years.

Assessing the Competitive Power of a Company’s Resources and Capabilities To assess a company’s competitive power, one must go beyond merely identifying its resources and capabilities to probe its caliber.3 Thus, the second step in resource and capability analysis is designed to ascertain which of a company’s resources and capabilities are competitively superior and to what extent they can support a company’s quest for a sustainable competitive advantage over market rivals. When a company has competitive assets that are central to its strategy and superior to those of rival firms, they can support a competitive advantage, as defined in Chapter 1. If this advantage proves durable despite the best efforts of competitors to overcome it, then the company is said to have a sustainable competitive advantage. While it may be difficult for a company to achieve a sustainable competitive advantage, it is an important strategic objective because it imparts a potential for attractive and long- lived profitability.

The Four Tests of a Resource’s Competitive Power The competitive power of a resource or capability is measured by how many of four specific tests it can pass.4 These tests are referred to as the VRIN tests for sustainable competitive advantage—VRIN is a shorthand reminder standing for Valuable, Rare, Inimitable, and Nonsubstitutable. The first two tests determine whether a resource or capability can support a competitive advantage. The last two determine whether the competitive advantage can be sustained.

CORE CONCEPT The VRIN tests for sustainable competitive advantage ask whether a resource is valuable, rare, inimitable, and nonsubstitutable.

1. Is the resource or capability competitively Valuable? To be competitively valuable, a resource or capability must be directly relevant to the company’s strategy, making the company a more effective competitor. Unless the resource or capability contributes to the effectiveness of the company’s strategy, it cannot pass this first test. An indicator of its effectiveness is whether the resource enables the company to strengthen its business model by improving its customer value proposition and/or profit formula (see Chapter 1). Companies have to guard against contending that something they do well is necessarily competitively valuable. Apple’s OS X operating system for its personal computers

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by some accounts is superior to Microsoft’s Windows 10, but Apple has failed in converting its resources devoted to operating system design into anything more than moderate competitive success in the global PC market.

2. Is the resource or capability Rare—is it something rivals lack? Resources and capabilities that are common among firms and widely available cannot be a source of competitive advantage. All makers of branded cereals have valuable marketing capabilities and brands, since the key success factors in the ready-to-eat cereal industry demand this. They are not rare. However, the brand strength of Oreo cookies is uncommon and has provided Kraft Foods with greater market share as well as the opportunity to benefit from brand extensions such as Double Stuf Oreos and Mini Oreos. A resource or capability is considered rare if it is held by only a small number of firms in an industry or specific competitive domain. Thus, while general management capabilities are not rare in an absolute sense, they are relatively rare in some of the less developed regions of the world and in some business domains.

3. Is the resource or capability Inimitable—is it hard to copy? The more difficult and more costly it is for competitors to imitate a company’s resource or capability, the more likely that it can also provide a sustainable competitive advantage. Resources and capabilities tend to be difficult to copy when they are unique (a fantastic real estate location, patent-protected technology, an unusually talented and motivated labor force), when they must be built over time in ways that are difficult to imitate (a well- known brand name, mastery of a complex process technology, years of cumulative experience and learning), and when they entail financial outlays or large-scale operations that few industry members can undertake (a global network of dealers and distributors). Imitation is also difficult for resources and capabilities that reflect a high level of social complexity (company culture, interpersonal relationships among the managers or R&D teams, trust-based relations with customers or suppliers) and causal ambiguity, a term that signifies the hard-to-disentangle nature of the complex resources, such as a web of intricate processes enabling new drug discovery. Hard-to-copy resources and capabilities are important competitive assets, contributing to the longevity of a company’s market position and offering the potential for sustained profitability.

4. Is the resource or capability Nonsubstitutable—is it invulnerable to the threat of substitution from different types of resources and capabilities? Even resources that are competitively valuable, rare, and costly to imitate may lose much of their ability to offer competitive advantage if rivals possess equivalent substitute resources. For example, manufacturers relying on automation to gain a cost- based advantage in production activities may find their technology-based advantage nullified by rivals’ use of low-wage offshore manufacturing. Resources can contribute to a sustainable competitive advantage only when resource substitutes aren’t on the horizon.

CORE CONCEPT Social complexity and causal ambiguity are two factors that inhibit the ability of rivals to imitate a firm’s most valuable resources and capabilities. Causal ambiguity makes it very hard to figure out how a complex resource contributes to competitive advantage and therefore exactly what to imitate.

Categories

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Write a minimum 5 pages reflection critical analysis’ essay entitled “Is morality relative or are there objective moral truths?” This essay should explore the ethical, scientific, historic and socio-cultural dimensions of the readings. You have to read two readings (links you will find below the assignment description), one written by Ruth Benedict, “The Case for Moral Relativism” and a second written by Louis P. Pojman entitled “The Case Against Moral Relativism.”

What position do you hold regarding the essay’s question? Do you agree or disagree with the positions stated in the two readings? In order to prove your thesis make reference to the required readings from Unit 1 and 2, to the Instructor’s Lecture, as well as to two readings included in this assignment. In the Instructor’s Lecture you have an additional bibliography.

Refer to Essay’s Rubrics in order to see the grading system.

1. Use both readings as well as the rest of the required readings included in the Learning Modules.
2. Give answers to the following questions:
3. Regarding Benedict’s paper:
1. Is Benedict correct in saying that our culture is “but one entry in a long series of possible adjustments”? What are the implications of this statement?
2. Can we separate the descriptive (or fact-stating) aspect of anthropological study from the prescriptive (evaluative) aspect of evaluating cultures? Are there some independent criteria by which we can say that some cultures are better than others? Can you think how this project might begin?
3. What are the implications of Benedict’s claim that morality is simply whatever a culture deems normal behavior? Is this a satisfactory equation? Can you apply it to the institution of slavery or the Nazi policy of anti-Semitism?
4. What is the significance of Benedict’s statement, “The very eyes with which we see the problem are conditioned by the long traditional habits of our own society”? Can we apply the conceptual relativism embodied in this statement to her own position? (taken form Pojman L.P., Vaughn L., The Moral Life, New York 2007, p. 165.)

b. Regarding Pojman’s paper:

1. Is Pojman correct in thinking most American students tend to be moral relativists? If he is, why is this? What is the attraction of relativism? If he’s not correct, explain your answer.
2. Explain the difference between subjective ethical relativism and conventionalism.
3. Sometimes people argue that since there are no universal moral truths, each culture’s morality is as good as every other, so we ought not to interfere in its practices. Assess this argument.
4. Does moral relativism have a bad effect on society? Reread the tape-recorded conversation between serial murderer Ted Bundy and one of his victims (pages 171-172) in which Bundy attempts to justify the murder of his victim on the basis of the idea that all moral values are subjective. Analyze Bundy’s discussion. How would the relativist respond to Bundy’s claim that relativism justifies rape and murder? What do you think? Why? (taken form Pojman L.P., Vaughn L., The Moral Life, New York 2007, pp. 190-191.) Here are the readings :