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langston hughes song for a dark girl

Journal eassy 4. 

Topic: discuss the theme of pessimism in the three assigned of the assigned Hughes 

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incremental analysis is the process of identifying the financial data that:

38. A major accounting contribution to the managerial decision-making process in evaluating 

possible courses of action is to 

a. assign responsibility for the decision. 

b. provide relevant revenue and cost data about each course of action. 

c. determine the amount of money that should be spent on a project. 

d. decide which actions that management should consider. 

 39. Which of the following stages of the management decision-making process is improperly 

sequenced? 

a. Evaluate possible courses of action Æ Make decision. 

b. Assign responsibility for the decision Æ Identify the problem. 

c. Identify the problem Æ Determine possible courses of action. 

d. Assign responsibility for decision Æ Determine possible courses of action. 

 40. Internal reports that review the actual impact of decisions are prepared by 

a. department heads. 

b. the controller. 

c. management accountants. 

d. factory workers. 

 41. Which of the following steps in the management decision-making process does not 

generally involve the managerial accountant? 

a. Determine possible courses of action 

b. Make the appropriate decision based on relevant data 

c. Prepare internal reports that review the impact of decisions 

d. None of these 

The process of evaluating financial data that change under alternative courses of action is 

called 

a. double entry analysis. 

b. contribution margin analysis. 

c. incremental analysis. 

d. cost-benefit analysis. 

 43. Nonfinancial information that management might evaluate in making a decision would not 

include 

a. employee turnover. 

b. contribution margin. 

c. the environment. 

d. the corporate profile in the community. 

 44. Incremental analysis is synonymous with 

a. difficult analysis. 

b. differential analysis. 

c. gross profit analysis. 

d. derivative analysis. 

 45. In incremental analysis, 

a. only costs are analyzed. 

b. only revenues are analyzed. 

c. both costs and revenues may be analyzed. 

d. both costs and revenues that stay the same between alternate courses of action will 

be analyzed. 

 46. Incremental analysis is most useful 

a. in developing relevant information for management decisions. 

b. in choosing between the net present value method and the internal rate of return 

method. 

c. in evaluating the master budget. 

d. as a replacement technique for variance analysis. 

 47. The source of data to serve as inputs in incremental analysis is generated by 

a. market analysts. 

b. engineers. 

c. accountants. 

d. all of these. 

Which of the following is not a true statement? 

a. Incremental analysis might also be referred to as differential analysis. 

b. Incremental analysis is the same as CVP analysis. 

c. Incremental analysis is useful in making decisions. 

d. Incremental analysis focuses on decisions that involve a choice among alternative 

courses of action. 

 49. Incremental analysis would not be appropriate for 

a. a make or buy decision. 

b. an allocation of limited resource decision. 

c. elimination of an unprofitable segment. 

d. analysis of manufacturing variances. 

Incremental analysis would be appropriate for 

a. acceptance of an order at a special price. 

b. a retain or replace equipment decision. 

c. a sell or process further decision. 

d. all of these. 

 51. Which of the following is a true statement about cost behaviors in incremental analysis? 

1. Fixed costs will not change between alternatives. 

2. Fixed costs may change between alternatives. 

3. Variable costs will always change between alternatives. 

a. 1 

b. 2 

c. 3 

d. 2 and 3 

 52. A company is considering the following alternatives: 

 Alternative 1 Alternative 2 

Revenues $120,000 $120,000 

Variable costs 60,000 70,000 

Fixed costs 35,000 35,000 

Which of the following are relevant in choosing between the alternatives? 

a. Variable costs 

b. Revenues 

c. Fixed costs 

d. Variable costs and fixed costs 

 53. It costs Harmon Company $12 of variable and $5 of fixed costs to produce one bathroom 

scale which normally sells for $35. A foreign wholesaler offers to purchase 2,000 scales at 

$15 each. Harmon would incur special shipping costs of $1 per scale if the order were 

accepted. Harmon has sufficient unused capacity to produce the 2,000 scales. If the 

special order is accepted, what will be the effect on net income? 

a. $4,000 increase 

b. $4,000 decrease 

c. $6,000 decrease 

d. $30,000 increase

Adler Company manufactures a product with a unit variable cost of $50 and a unit sales 

price of $88. Fixed manufacturing costs were $240,000 when 10,000 units were produced 

and sold. The company has a one-time opportunity to sell an additional 1,000 units at $70 

each in a foreign market which would not affect its present sales. If the company has 

sufficient capacity to produce the additional units, acceptance of the special order would 

affect net income as follows: 

a. Income would decrease by $4,000. 

b. Income would increase by $4,000. 

c. Income would increase by $70,000. 

d. Income would increase by $20,000. 

 55. In incremental analysis, 

a. costs are not relevant if they change between alternatives. 

b. all costs are relevant if they change between alternatives. 

c. only fixed costs are relevant. 

d. only variable costs are relevant

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ece 311

Ashford 2: – Week 1 – Discussion 1

Your initial discussion thread is due on Day 3 (Thursday) and you have until Day 7 (Monday) to respond to your classmates. Your grade will reflect both the quality of your initial post and the depth of your responses. Reference the Discussion Forum Grading Rubric for guidance on how your discussion will be evaluated.
 

Teaching   Philosophy and Curriculum

 Review the major curriculum models and approaches discussed in the chapters this week (e.g. Montessori, Reggio Emilia, Creative Curriculum, etc.).  Which model/approach most closely matches your own teaching philosophy?  Explain why.  Then, suppose that you have started a new teaching position and the curriculum you have been asked to use differs significantly from your teaching philosophy.  Explain how you will address this difference.  Your initial discussion post should be at least 200 words in length.
 

Guided Response: Review several of your classmates’ posts.  Respond to at least two of your classmates with advice on how to address the differences between their teaching philosophy and the required curriculum. 

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a firm in a competitive market receives $500 in total revenue and has marginal revenue of $10.

·FIRM BEHAVIOR AND THE ORGANIZATION OF INDUSTRY

• Because a competitive firm is a price taker, its revenue is proportional to the amount of output it produces. The price of the good equals both the firm’s average revenue and its marginal revenue.

• To maximize profit, a firm chooses a quantity of output such that marginal revenue equals mar- ginal cost. Because marginal revenue for a com- petitive firm equals the market price, the firm chooses quantity so that price equals marginal cost. Thus, the firm’s marginal-cost curve is its supply curve.

• In the short run when a firm cannot recover its fixed costs, the firm will choose to shut down temporarily if the price of the good is less than average variable cost. In the long run when the firm can recover both fixed and variable costs, it

KEY CONCI.PJ:S. competitive market, p. 280 average revenue, p. 281

1. What is meant by a competitive firm? 2. Explain the difference between a firm’s revenue

and its profit. Which do firms maximize? 3. Draw the cost curves for a typical firm. For a

given price, explain how the firm chooses the level of output that maximizes profit. At that level of output, show on your graph the firm’s total revenue and total costs.

4. Under what conditions will a firm shut down temporarily? Explain.

1. Many small boats are made of fiberglass, which is derived from crude oil. Suppose that the price of oil rises. a. Using diagrams, show what happens to the

cost curves of an individual boat-making firm and to the market supply curve.

b. What happens to the profits of boat makers in the short run? What happens to the number of boat makers in the long run?

2. You go out to the best restaurant in town and order a lobster dinner for $40. After eating half

will choose to exit if the price is less than average total cost.

• In a market with free entry and exit, profits are driven to zero in the long run. In this long-run equilibrium, all firms produce at the efficient scale, price equals the minimum of average total cost, and the number of firms adjusts to satisfy the quantity demanded at this price.

• Changes in demand have different effects over different time horizons. In the short run, an increase in demand raises prices and leads to profits, and a decrease in demand lowers prices and leads to losses. But if firms can freely enter and exit the market, then in the long run, the number of firms adjusts to drive the market back to the zero-profit equilibrium.

marginalrevenue,p.282 sunk cost, p. 286

5. Under what conditions will a firm exit a ” market? Explain. ( 6:\Does a firm’s price equal marginal cost in the ~–thort run, in the long run, or both? Explain. V Does a firm’s price equal the minimum of

average total cost in the short run, in the long run, or both? Explain.

8. Are market supply curves typically more elastic in the short run or in the long run? Explain.

of the lobster, you realize that you are quite full. . Your date wants you to finish your dinner because . you can’t take it home and because “you’ve already paid for it.” What should you do? Relate your answer to the material in this chapter.

3. Bob’s lawn-mowing service is a profit-maximizing, competitive firm. Bob mows lawns for $27 each. His total cost each day is $280, of which $30 is a fixed cost. He mows 10 lawns a day. What can you say about Bob’s short-run decision regarding shutdown and his long-run decision regarding exit?

total cost and total revenue given in following table:

012 3 4 56 7

Total cost Total revenue

$8 9 10 $0 8 16

11 13 19 27 37 . ‘ ‘ 24 32 40 48 .Sf> ·

a. Calculate profit for each quantity. How much should the firm produce to maximize profit?

b. Calculate marginal revenue and marginal cost for each quantity. Graph them. (Hint: Put the points between whole numbers. For example, the marginal cost between 2 and 3 should be graphed at 2~.) At what quantity do these curves cross? How does this relate to your answer to part (a)?

c. Can you tell whether this firm is in a competitive industry? If so, can you tell whether the industry is in a long-run equilibrium?

5. Ball Bearings, Inc. faces costs of production as follows:

Total Total Fixed Variable

Quantity Costs Costs

0 $100 $ 0 1 100 50 2 100 70 3 100 90 4 100 140 5 100 200 6 100 360

a. Calculate the company’s average fixed costs, average variable costs, average total costs, an~ marginal costs at each level of production.

b. The price of a case of ball bearings is $50. Seeing that she can’t make a profit, the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) decides to shut down operations. What are the firm’s profits/ losses? Was this a wise decision? Explain.

c. Vaguely remembering his introductory economics coutse, the Chief Financial Officer tells·the CEO it is better to produce 1 case of ball bearings, because marginal revenue equals marginal cost at that quantity. What are the firm’s profits/losses at that level of production? Was this the best decision? Explain.

6. Suppose the book-printing industry is competitive and begins in a long-run equilibrium. a. Draw a diagram describing the typical firm

in the industry. b. Hi-Tech Printing Company invents a new

process that sharply reduces the cost of

CHAPTER 14 FIRMS IN COMPETITIVE MARKETS

printing books. What happens to Hi-Tech’s profits and the price of books in the short run when Hi-Tech’s patent prevents other firms from using the new technology?

c. What happens in the long run when the pat~nt expires and other firms are free to use the technology?

7. A firm in a competitive market receives $500 in total revenue and has marginal revenue of $10. What is the average revenue, and how many units were sold? .

8. A profit-maximizing firm in a competitive market is currently producing 100 units of output. It has average revenue of $10, average total cost of $8, and fixed costs of $200. a. What is its profit? b. What is its marginal cost? c. What is its average variable cost? d. Is the efficient scale of the firm more than,

~ less than, or exactly 100 units?

The market for fertilizer is perfectly competitive. Firms in the market are producing output, but are currently making economic losses. a. How does the price of fertilizer compare to

the· average total cost, the average variable cost, and the marginal cost of producing fertilizer?

b. Draw two graphs, side by side, illustrating the present situation for the typical firm and in the market. ‘

c. Assuming there is no change in either demand or the firms’ cost curves, explain what will happen in the long run to the price of fertilizer, marginal cost, average total cost, the quantity supplied by each firm, and the total quantity supplied to the market.

10. The market for apple pies in the city of Ectenia is competitive and has the following demand schedule:

Price Quantity Demanded

$ 1 1.200 pies 2 1,100 3 1,000 4 %0 5 800 6 700 7 600 8 500 9 400

10. . 300

11 200 12 100 13 0 .

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two dogs pull horizontally on ropes attached to a post

Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University Department of Physical Sciences

Home Work # 4 & 5 PS 103 � Technical Physics�I

Due Date: Oct 3, 2014 (Friday)

Name:

Date: September 23, 2014 (Tuesday)

Semester: Fall-2014

Section:

Total point: 20

Important:

• Home work is due in the beginning of the class on the date mentioned above.

• Please note that providing answers without showing any working will not qualify as correct. So to get full points show EACH AND EVERY STEP.

• Please answer all questions neat and clean in as much detail as you can.

• All the conventions followed in the homework are same as that of lectures.

Question# 1:- You throw a ball vertically upward from the roof of a tall building. The ball leaves your hand at a point even with the roof railing with an upward speed of 15.0 m/s; the ball is then in free fall. On its way back down, it just misses the railing. Find

a) the ball’s position and velocity 1.00 s, 2.00 s, 3.00 s, and 4.00 s after leaving your hand;

b) the ball’s velocity when it is 5.00 m above the railing;

c) the maximum height reached;

d) the ball’s acceleration when it is at its maximum height.

e) At what time after being released has the ball fallen 5.00 m below the roof railing? and what will it’s speed be at that time?

f) At what time after being released has the ball fallen 2.00 m below the roof railing? and what will it’s speed be at that time?

Question# 2:- The boat in Figure 1 is heading due north as it crosses a wide river with a velocity of 10.0 km/h relative to the water. The river has a uniform velocity of 5.00 km/h due east. Determine the magnitude and direction of the boat’s velocity with respect to an observer on the riverbank.

Figure 1: Problem-2

1

Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Question# 3:- A batter hits a baseball so that it leaves the bat at speed v0 = 37.0 m/s at an angle ↵0 = 53.1�.

a) Find the position of the ball and its velocity (magnitude and direction) at t = 2.00 s.

b) Find the time when the ball reaches the high- est point of its flight, and its height h at this time.

c) Find the horizontal range R that is, the hor- izontal distance from the starting point to where the ball hits the ground. Figure 2: Problem-3

Question# 4:- Two tanks are engaged in a training exercise on level ground. The first tank fires a paint-filled training round with a muzzle speed of 250 m/s at 10.0� above the horizontal while advancing toward the second tank with a speed of 15.0 m/s relative to the ground. The second tank is retreating at 35.0 m/s relative to the ground, but is hit by the shell. You can ignore air resistance and assume the shell hits at the same height above ground from which it was fired. Find the distance between the tanks

a) when the round was first fired and

b) at the time of impact.

Question# 5:- Workmen are trying to free an SUV stuck in the mud. To extricate the vehicle, they use three horizontal ropes, producing the force vectors shown Figure 3.

a) Find the x� and y�components of each of the three pulls.

b) Use the components to find the magnitude and direction of the resultant of the three pulls. Figure 3: Problem-5

Question# 6:- Two horses are pulling a barge with mass 2.00⇥103 kg along a canal, as shown in Figure 4. The cable connected to the first horse makes an angle of ✓1 = 30.0� with respect to the direction of the canal, while the cable connected to the second horse makes an angle of ✓1 = 30.0�. Find the initial acceleration of the barge, starting at rest, if each horse exerts a force of magnitude 6.00 ⇥ 102 N on the barge. Ignore forces of resistance on the barge.

Figure 4: Problem-6

Question# 7:- Two dogs pull horizontally on ropes attached to a post; the angle between the ropes is 60.0�. If dog A exerts a force of 270 N and dog B exerts a force of 300 N, find the magnitude of the resultant force and the angle it makes with dog A’s rope.

2

Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Question# 8:- A 68.5-kg skater moving initially at 2.40 m/s on rough horizontal ice comes to rest uniformly in 3.52 s due to friction from the ice. What force does friction exert on the skater?

Question# 9:- You walk into an elevator, step onto a scale, and push the “up” button. You also recall that your normal weight is 625 N. Start answering each of the following questions by drawing a freebody diagram.

a) If the elevator has an acceleration of magnitude 2.50 m/s2, what does the scale read?

b) If you start holding a 3.85-kg package by a light vertical string, what will be the tension in this string once the elevator begins accelerating?

Question# 10:- A box rests on a frozen pond, which serves as a frictionless horizontal surface. If a fisherman applies a horizontal force with magnitude 48.0 N to the box and produces an acceleration of magnitude 3.00 m/s2, what is the mass of the box?

Question# 11:- Boxes A and B are in contact on a hor- izontal, frictionless surface, as shown in Figure 5. Box A has mass 20.0 kg and box B has mass 5.0 kg. A horizontal force of 100 N is exerted on box A. What is the magnitude of the force that box A exerts on box B? Figure 5: Problem-11

Question# 12:- Two objects of mass m1 and m2, with m2 > m1, are connected by a light, inextensible cord and hung over a frictionless pulley, as in Ac- tive Figure 6. Both cord and pulley have negligible mass. Find the magnitude of the acceleration of the system and the tension

Figure 6: Problem-12

Question# 13:- A 150-N bird feeder is supported by three cables as shown in Figure 7. Find the tension in each cable.

Figure 7: Problem-13

Question# 14:- An object with mass m1 = 5.00 kg rests on a frictionless horizontal table and is con- nected to a cable that passes over a pulley and is then fastened to a hanging object with mass m2 = 10.0 kg, as shown in Figure 8. Find

a) the acceleration of each object and

b) the tension in the cable. Figure 8: Problem-14

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capstone courier

600 words  5 references that respond to the following questions with your thoughts, ideas, and comments. This will be the foundation for future discussions with your classmates. Be substantive and clear, and use examples to reinforce your ideas.

Review the Industry Conditions Report and CapStone Courier found in the Reports section of the left hand menu in the CapSim simulation. Also, review the CapStone Team Member Guide.  Based on your initial review of the CAPSIM Capstone Business Simulation, what have you have identified as the key business issues that will impact your company? Prepare to discuss this issue with the other members of your team.

Your discussion should include the following:

  • Discuss the current situation in the CapSim simulation and the recent changes to the industry and competitive environment.   
  • What competitive challenge is faced by your company? What are the opportunities and threats (Pettus, Ch. 4)?    
  • Applying the business level strategies discussed in Pettus, Chapter 4, and market segment strategies discussed on page 24 of the Team Member Guide, explore possible strategic directions for your company and various sensor products. Reading and responding to the posts of your teammates is highly recommended.   

CAPSIM. (2013). Retrieved from http://www.capsim.com

Other guidelines on assignments include the following: 

§ Check spelling, grammar, and punctuation to avoid any point deductions related to these matters.

§ It is encouraged that you use at least 5 credible and relevant sources (credible can be peer reviewed articles, articles from reputable journals, company specific internet web pages, or published books) for each task in most cases, this practice will essential for completing tasks. I encourage the use of CTU’s extensive library search engine for references. It is better than simply going to the Internet and searching non-peer reviewed sites or professional journals. Sources can include course textbook and at least one outside sources will also be helpful and per the grading rubrics, can sometimes impact the points earned on specific tasks. 

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define flotation costs

Define The Term: Flotation Costs. Why Should We Expect The Flotation Costs For Debt To Be Significantly Lower Than Those For Equity?

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Lesson 2 Exam 1

Part 1 of 1 – 60.0/ 100.0 Points

Question 1 of 20 5.0/ 5.0 Points

Determine whether the relation is a function. {(-7, -7), (-7, -8), (-1, 4), (6, 5), (10, -1)}

A. Not a function

B. Function

Question 2 of 20 5.0/ 5.0 Points

Find the domain of the function.

g(x) =

A. (-∞, ∞)

B. (-∞, -9) (-9, 9) (9, ∞)

C. (81, ∞)

D. (-∞, 0) (0, ∞)

Question 3 of 20 5.0/ 5.0 Points

Graph the line whose equation is given.

y = x + 2

A.

jumpjumpjump

Sites MY WORKSPACE ALGEBRA I PART I, SECTION 2 ALGEBRA I PART II, SECTION 2

ALGEBRA II, PART 1 SECTION 4

PRE-CALCULUS PART I, SECTION 2 MORE SITES

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A.

B.

C.

D.

Question 4 of 20 0.0/ 5.0 Points

Use the shape of the graph to name the function.

A. Standard quadratic function

B. Standard cubic function

C. Square root function

D. Constant function

Question 5 of 20 5.0/ 5.0 Points

An open box is made from a square piece of sheet metal 19 inches on a side by cutting identical squares from the corners and turning up the sides. Express the volume of the box, V, as a function of the length of the side of the square cut from each corner, x.

A. V(x) = 361x

B. V(x) = (19 – 2x)2

C. V(x) = x(19 – 2x)

D. V(x) = x(19 – 2x)2

Question 6 of 20 5.0/ 5.0 Points

Use the graph of the function f, plotted with a solid line, to sketch the graph of the given function g.

g(x) =

A.

B.

C.

C.

D.

Question 7 of 20 0.0/ 5.0 Points

Find the domain of the function.

f(x) =

A. (-∞, 6) (6, ∞)

B. (-∞, ) ( , ∞)

C. (-∞, ]

D. (-∞, 6]

Question 8 of 20 5.0/ 5.0 Points

An investment is worth $3518 in 1995. By 2000 it has grown to $5553. Let y be the value of the investment in the year x, where x = 0 represents 1995. Write a linear equation that models the value of the investment in the year x.

A. y = -407x + 7588

B. y = x + 3518

C. y = -407x + 3518

D. y = 407x + 3518

Question 9 of 20 5.0/ 5.0 Points

Use the graph to determine the function’s domain and range.

A. domain: [0, ∞) range: [-1, ∞)

B. domain: (-∞, ∞) range: [-1, ∞)

C. domain: [0, ∞) range: [0, ∞)

D. domain: [0, ∞) range: (-∞, ∞)

Question 10 of 20 5.0/ 5.0 Points

Complete the square and write the equation in standard form. Then give the center and radius of the circle.

10×2 + 10y2 = 100

A. x2 + y2 = 100 (0, 0), r = 10

B. x2 + y2 = 10 (0, 0), r =

C. x2 + y2 = 10 (0, 0), r = 10

D. (x – 10)2 +(y – 10)2 = 10 (10, 10), r =

Question 11 of 20 0.0/ 5.0 Points

Graph the equation.

y = – x – 6

A.

B.

B.

C.

D. ’

Question 12 of 20 5.0/ 5.0 Points

Find the domain of the function.

f(x) = -2x + 4

A. (-∞, 0) (0, ∞)

B. (-∞, ∞)

C. [-4, ∞)

D. (0, ∞)

Question 13 of 20 0.0/ 5.0 Points

Graph the equation in the rectangular coordinate system.

3y = 15

3y = 15

A.

B.

C.

D.

D.

Question 14 of 20 0.0/ 5.0 Points

Use the given conditions to write an equation for the line in point-slope form.

Passing through (-5, -7) and (-8, -6)

A. y – 7 = – (x – 5) or y – 6 = – (x – 8)

B. y + 7 = – (x + 8) or y + 6 = – (x + 5)

C. y + 7 = – (x + 5) or y + 6 = – (x + 8)

D. y + 7 = – x – 5 or y + 6 = – x + 7

Question 15 of 20 5.0/ 5.0 Points

Does the graph represent a function that has an inverse function?

A. No

B. Yes

Question 16 of 20 0.0/ 5.0 Points

Use the graph of y = f(x) to graph the given function g.

g(x) = -2f(x). Where f(x) is the solid function and g(x) is the dotted.

A.

B.

C.

D.

Question 17 of 20 5.0/ 5.0 Points

Find the inverse of the one-to-one function.

f(x) =

A. f-1(x) =

B. f-1(x) =

C. f-1(x) =

D. f-1(x) =

Question 18 of 20 5.0/ 5.0 Points

Complete the square and write the equation in standard form. Then give the center and radius of the circle.

x2 + y2 – 10x – 8y + 29 = 0

A. (x – 5)2 +(y – 4)2 = 12 (5, 4), r = 12

B. (x – 5)2 +(y – 4)2 = 12 (-5, -4), r = 2

C. (x – 5)2 +(y – 4)2 = 12 (5, 4), r = 2

D. (x + 5)2 +(y + 4)2 = 12 (-5, -4), r = 2

Question 19 of 20 0.0/ 5.0 Points

Use the graph to determine the x- and y-intercepts.

A. x-intercept: -3; y-intercepts: 3, 1, 5

B. x-intercepts: -3, 1, -5; y-intercept: -3

C. x-intercepts: 3, 1, 5; y-intercept: -3

D. x-intercept: -3; y-intercepts: -3, 1, -5

Question 20 of 20 0.0/ 5.0 Points

Along with incomes, people’s charitable contributions have steadily increased over the past few years. The table below shows the average deduction for charitable contributions reported on individual income tax returns for the period 1993 to 1998. Find the average annual increase between 1995 and 1997.

A. $270 per year

B. $280 per year

C. $335 per year

D. $540 per year

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actx.blackboard

NAME Judy Brown CLASS & SECTION: PSYC 2301 – 002

SERVICE PROJECT ESSAY TEMPLATE

Instructions: Type your essay in the spaces below. Save frequently to your computer as you work. Edit your work thoroughly. UPLOAD YOUR DOCUMENT as a WORD or RICH TEXT FORMAT file into the SERVICE PROJPSYCECT ESSAY DROP BOX in your BLACKBOARD CLASSROOM for grading by the DUE DATE.

1. In Paragraph 1, describe the specific history of the agency where you selected to volunteer. What is the name of the agency/organization? Where is it located? What does your agency/organization do? What social problem is your agency working on and what specific intervention are they using? This part of the 1st question must be a minimum of 150 words.

In Paragraph 2: What did you do while volunteering that helped with this intervention? For example; poverty is the social issue and they are providing meals is the intervention. This will require you to research online, talk with the people in charge and/or read information provided by the agency. What is the name, title, phone number and/or email address of your supervisor or agency contact person for your project (this is required!)? Be sure you CITE any sources for this agency in your BIBLIOGRAPHY section in the template you will use to complete your essay. Sources don’t count towards word count. This second part of the 1st question must also be a minimum of 150 words. (Note: these two paragraphs contain 153 words and 9 lines of text). Worth a maximum of 20% and/or 20 points

Skip a line between the question and YOUR ANSWER!

Bibliography: Any references you used, including books, websites, articles, personal interviews, cite here as shown in the instruction sheet.

2. How does your time serving in the community influence your ideas and perceptions about your community and the people who live there? This question must be a minimum of 100 words. Skip a line between the question and YOUR ANSWER! Worth a maximum of 10% of your grade or 10 points.

3. Relate what you have learned in the readings and class discussion to your experience in your agency. Specifically, you must relate at least 2 specific concepts from your textbook in this class to your experience in your agency. You MUST reference in the body of your paper the sources that you used with the specific page number. For example, if you used page 35 from your textbook in the body of your paper, be sure you cite your textbook author and year and page number (such as: Myers, 2014 p. 35 or Henslin, 2015, pg 101). As well, you will need to include this citation in your “bibliography” section of the template for this essay. See below on citing your sources. Note: The bibliography doesn’t count in the word count. This question must be a minimum of 200 words. Skip a line between the question and YOUR ANSWER! Worth a maximum of 20% of your grade or 20 points.

Bibliography: Any references you used, including books, websites, articles, personal interviews, cite here as shown in the instruction sheet.

4. Will you continue to volunteer and take action? What impact do you hope to have by continuing to volunteer at your selected agency? If you choose not to volunteer at your selected agency, then describe and discuss in SPECIFIC DETAIL, at least ONE ACTION STEP that you would be willing to do to apply some aspect of “social responsibility” that you learned in your volunteer work in your life. This question must be a minimum of 100 words. Worth a maximum of 10% of your grade or 10 points.

5. UNDERSTANDING THE EMPIRICAL DATA ON POVERTY: Below you will be examining some graphs and data related to poverty. Please type in the correct answers to the blanks BELOW IN THE ANSWER based on reading the data in this paragraph and these graphs.

Worth a maximum of 25% of your grade or 25 points. The rest of your points will be based on Organization (5% or 5 points) and your WRITING MECHANICS (10% or 10 points).

ANSWERS GO HERE: TYPE YOUR ANSWERS TO 5A, B, C, D and E: Delete the blanks, and PUT YOUR ANSWERS TO THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS BELOW:

5A) The # of homeless children and teens that die on the streets of America is ___________.

5B) If I am a homeless child in America I am most likely __________________(age group) and LEAST likely to be ______________(race).

5C) If current trends continue into the year 2020, WE CAN PREDICT that ______ % of adults WITHOUT a high school diploma will live in poverty, while only _________% of people with an Associate’s degree will live in poverty.

5D) Based on 50 week year, you will make $________ more a week if you have an Associate’s degree than if you have a high school diploma, and $___________ more a week than someone who has NO high school diploma, and based on a 50 week year, you would make $__________ a year with a high School Diploma versus $___________ a year with a 4 year Bachelor’s Degree .

5E) You will be ____________ times as likely to be unemployed if you don’t finish high school than if you have your Associate’s Degree.

EMPIRICAL AND GRAPHICAL DATA ON POVERTY:

5 A) Read the information below and answer 5A) So, who are the people you helped in doing your service project? Well, according to the National Center for Children in Poverty (NCCP, 2014), a large percentage of people you are helping with your service project include American children and adolescents. More than sixteen million children and adolescents in the United States (21% of all children under the age of 18) live in families with incomes below the federal poverty level (NCPP, 2014). As well, only three in four American adolescents graduate from high school. That means, 25% of all American teens won’t graduate high school. This is troubling because not graduating from high school raises the chance of living in poverty by 49%, generating a cycle of poverty within families.

Other problems with poverty and lack of proper education are seen in the problem of homelessness. One in 50 U.S. children are currently homeless. Outside of the issue with lack of education, another reason for homelessness is that 44.9% of the children and adolescents who are now homeless had parents that were alcohol or drug addicted. There are many problems associated with homelessness. When children and teens are homeless it makes them more vulnerable to getting sick, as more than 1 in 7 homeless children and teens have moderate to severe health conditions, such as asthma. Tragically, homelessness also leads to 13 children or teenagers dying on the streets of America every day (Slesnick, 2004). Most children whose families are chronically homeless will not graduate high school.

Research conducted by Betts (1995) indicates that the most poverty-stricken neighborhoods have a negative impact on schools due to a declining tax base, making it harder to have decent facilities, educational supplies, and quality teachers. Many schools in low income areas are underfunded, and have trouble taking on all the challenges of giving the most needy children and adolescents the type of education that can lead them out of poverty (Betts, 1995). Hence, we see the succession of poverty that extends generationally in an unending cycle of despair.

Betts, J.R. (1995). Does school quality matter? Evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey of YouthThe Review of Economics and Statistics, 77-2, pp 231-250.

National Center for Children in Poverty (2014): Basic facts about low-income children. Retrieved from http://www.nccp.org/publications/pub_1145.html

Slesnick, N. (2004) Homeless children and youth: A guide to understanding. Praeger Publisher.

5A) Put your answer above in the section for your answers: Calculate how many homeless children and teens will die each year in America based on 352 days in a year.

For 5B: Homelessness, Children & Teens: Fill in the blank: These two pie charts show the distribution of ages when it comes to homeless children and teens, as well as the racial make-up of the over 3.5 million homeless Americans. Put your answers above in the space for answers.

5B) By looking at the data in both the pie graphs below on the percentages of age groups and percentages of racial designations of the homeless children in America, if I am a homeless child in America, I am MOST likely _____________________(which age group?) and LEAST LIKELY to be _____________________ (which race)? (put your answers above in the answer sheet.

Figure 1: Age groups of homeless children in U.S.

5C ) TRENDS in POVERTY and UNEMPLOYMENT as they RELATE TO EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT: The line graph below shows us trends across 4 decades of time in the relationship between poverty and educational levels. The 2nd graph, a comparative bar graph, gives us a graphic representation of data on unemployment rates and salaries based on educational attainment. Please put your answers above for the space for answers to these questions regarding the trends in people without college educations and those with college education as they relate to poverty, earnings and unemployment rates.

5C) Based on the line graph below, and IF the current trends in poverty rates continue into 2020, put your ANSWERS ABOVE in the space for answers by filling in the statistical percentages for each educational level for living in poverty (based on the previous decades of change). If current trends hold steady, in 2020, we can predict that _______________% of people without a high school degree will live in poverty, while only ____________ % of people with a two-year college degree will be living in poverty.

Figure 21 March Curnet Population Survey NOTE: Civilians 25 years and older

5D and 5E) Relationships between educational attainment salary and unemployment. This comparative bar graph shows us the relationships between educational attainment, salary and unemployment rates. Put your answers above in the space provided for ANSWERS.

5D) Based on the comparative bar graph below, Calculate: In 2014, people with an Associate’s degree will make $____________ a week MORE than someone WITH a high school diploma and $______________ MORE a week than someone WITHOUT a high school diploma, and based on 50 weeks for a year, you would make $____________ a year with a high school diploma versus $__________ a year with a Bachelor’s Degree. .

5E) According to the bar graph below, you are ________ times more likely to be unemployed and if you have a high school diploma or just take a few classes here at Amarillo College, than if you stay the course and finish your ASSOCIATES degree or certification program.

Reminder: Be sure you thoroughly edit this before you submit it in the SERVICE PROJECT ESSAY DROP BOX. If you are not a strong writer contact the Writer’s Corner at:   writerscorner@actx.edu Phone:345-5580 or go to Ordway Hall, Room 102 for help.

AMERICA HOMELESS POPULATION By RACE = 3.5 Million People

including 1 in 50 children in U.S. (1.35 million)

National Law Center on Homelessness & Poverty, January 2007HOMELESS POPULATION = 3.5 Million People

African American Caucasian Hispanic Native American Asian 0.42000000000000032 0.3900000000000004 0.13 4.0000000000000029E-2 2.0000000000000014E-2

Trends: Poverty Rates by Educational Level

(1970-2010)High School Drop Out 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 0.2 0.15000000000000024 0.25 0.30000000000000032 0.35000000000000031 High School Graduate 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 0.05 7.0000000000000021E-2 0.1 0.15000000000000024 0.2 2 Year College 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 0.05 0.05 7.0000000000000021E-2 7.0000000000000021E-2 6.0000000000000032E-2 4 Year College Graduate 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 4.0000000000000022E-2 3.0000000000000002E-2 3.0000000000000002E-2 3.0000000000000002E-2 3.0000000000000002E-2

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flabby expressions

1. Revising for Conciseness

Time is money in any business environment. To be successful in the business world, you must be able to create concise and easy-to-read messages.

As you revise, eliminate flabby expressions, long lead-ins, fillers, redundancies, and empty words. Your audience will appreciate your brevity.

Which of the following sentences contain flabby expressions? Check all that apply.

Complete the sentence with the most concise option.

are canceled this week.

Read the following paragraph, and choose the best revision for one of its sentences.

Dr. Blake is retiring at the end of the month. There will be an unoccupied office upon his departure, and it is big in size. Because each

and every one of the other offices is fully occupied, it is recommended that we convert Dr. Blake’s office into a lounge. It is absolutely

essential that this issue is discussed at the next staff meeting.

Evaluate each of the following sentences, and choose the most concise revision.

It is the user who should contact the help center.

I am sending you this letter to inform you that we have experienced an unexpected surprise within our expense sheet, but we are positively certain we

He seldom returns text messages.

Feel free to help yourself to the delectable desserts in the break room until such time as they are all consumed.

Alessia will probably be promoted.

In the event that Marie calls, please inform her that we will be proceeding along the normal course of events.

Contact Jorge; he can allow access to the beta version.

Because every other office is occupied, it’s recommended that we should convert Dr. Blake’s office into a lounge.

Because every other office is filled, we should convert Dr. Blake’s office into a lounge.

The user should contact the help center.

It is the user who should contact the help center if there is a problem.

The user should contact the help center as to whether or not they have a problem.javascript:jumpTo(‘/af/servlet/quiz?ctx=lindsay.bennion-0007&quiz_action=showContents&quiz_psetGuid=PSETC0A801010000003ef74800020000’)

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will solve it.

I would like to inform you that the Johnson report might not be complete by the deadline.

We have identified a problem with our expense sheet, but we will solve it.

I am sending you this letter to inform you that we have a problem with our expense sheet, but we are positively certain we have a

solution.

We have experienced an unexpected surprise with our expense sheet, but we are midway to an end result.

The Johnson report might not be complete by the deadline.

I am unsure as to whether or not the Johnson report will be complete by the deadline.javascript:jumpTo(leavePageLink)

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why did the texas constitution establish a plural executive

Government and Politics in the Lone Star State

Tenth Edition

Chapter 6

The Texas Executive

Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Learning Objectives

6.1 Trace the evolution of the Texas governor from a strong unified executive to a plural executive.

6.2 Assess what qualifies an individual to serve as governor, common career patterns that have led to the governorship, and select benefits of the office.

6.3 Explain the legislative, budgetary, appointive, judicial, and military powers of the Texas governor.

6.4 Evaluate the informal resources of the Texas governor for advancing public policy and political objectives.

6.5 Differentiate the leadership styles of recent Texas governors.

6.6 Describe the duties and responsibilities of the other offices of the executive branch in Texas.

Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

A Historical Perspective on the Executive Function in Texas (1 of 4)

Governors Enjoyed Stronger Constitutional Powers from 1836 to 1866.

Elected offices of comptroller and state treasurer added in 1861

Granted line-item veto powers in 1866

1869 Constitution

Influenced by Jacksonian democracy

Created a plural executive

Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

A Historical Perspective on the Executive Function in Texas (2 of 4)

Expanded Powers in the Twentieth Century

Salary could be raised by the legislature (1954)

Term of office expanded to four years (1972)

Given removal power over persons appointed to boards and commissions (1980)

Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

A Historical Perspective on the Executive Function in Texas (3 of 4)

The Constitutional Framework for the Plural Executive

Article 1, Section 4 of the Constitution of 1876 created the executive branch.

In Texas, the governor appoints more than 200 policy-setting boards over state agencies and universities, but the boards appoint the individuals responsible for day-to-day administration.

Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

A Historical Perspective on the Executive Function in Texas (4 of 4)

The Potential for Conflict in the Plural Executive

Members of the plural executive

Operate independently of the governor

Can claim their own electoral mandates

May clash with the governor over policies

Potential for conflict increases in a two-party state

Makes it difficult to pursue coordinated policies

Does serve to constrain the power of the governor

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Journal 6.1

Do you think Texas should replace its plural executive with an executive structure similar to that of the president, where the lieutenant governor would be elected as a team with the governor and the governor would have a cabinet composed of appointed agency heads?

Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Historical Overview of the Men and Women Who Have Served as Governor (1 of 3)

Qualifications and Backgrounds of Texas Governors

Constitutional requirements

At least thirty years old, U.S. citizen, and resident of Texas for five years

Past governors

Most have been Democrats (not recently), wealthy, educated, middle-aged, white male Protestants.

Many have previous public service.

Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Historical Overview of the Men and Women Who Have Served as Governor (2 of 3)

Impeachment and Incapacitation

Impeachment

Charges brought by the House of Representatives

Removal follows a trial and conviction in the Senate.

Texas does not have a voter-initiated recall process.

The lieutenant governor replaces the governor if the office is vacated.

Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Historical Overview of the Men and Women Who Have Served as Governor (3 of 3)

The Salary and “Perks” of the Governor’s Office

In 2015, the governor of Texas was paid a salary of $150,000 a year.

Perks of the governor’s office

Mansion and staff

State-owned planes and cars

Security detail

Travel expenses

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The Powers of the Governor (1 of 5)

Legislative Powers

State of the State address

Establish a policy agenda

Special sessions

Last for up to thirty days each

Governor controls the agenda.

Veto power

Overridden by a two-thirds vote in the House and Senate

Can veto bills up to twenty days after the close of a legislative session

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State of the State Address

Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Governor Greg Abbott delivered his first State of the State Address in which he outlined his legislative priorities to a joint session of the Texas Legislature in February of 2015. The governor and other state dignitaries are seen here applauding veterans during his address.

12

Table 6-2 Comparison of the Formal/Institutional Powers of the Governors (1 of 2)

Strong (4.0 and above)Strong (4.0 and above)Strong (4.0 and above)Strong (4.0 and above)
Alaska (4.1)Maryland (4.1)New York (4.3)Utah (4.2)
Hawaii (4.1)Massachusetts (4.3)Pennsylvania (4.0)West Virginia (4.1)
Strong (3.5–3.9) ModeratelyModerately Strong (3.5–3.9)Moderately Strong (3.5–3.9)Moderately Strong (3.5–3.9)
Arizona (3.8)Idaho (3.5)Minnesota (3.9)Oregon (3.5)
California (3.5)Illinois (3.8)Nebraska (3.8)Tennessee (3.9)
Colorado (3.9)Iowa (3.7)New Jersey (3.8)Washington (3.6)
Connecticut (3.9)Kansas (3.7)North Dakota (3.9)Wisconsin (3.7)
Delaware (3.7)Kentucky (3.5)Ohio (3.9)Wyoming (3.8)
Florida (3.6)Michigan (3.9)

SOURCE: Based on Thad Beyle, “The Governors;” Multistate Associates Incorporated, “2014 Governors and Legislatures;” National Council of State Legislatures; and National Governors Association, “Governors Political Affiliations and Terms of Office.”

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Meg (M) – where is table 6-1?

Table 6-2 Comparison of the Formal/Institutional Powers of the Governors (2 of 2)

Moderate (3.0–3.4)Moderate (3.0–3.4)Moderate (3.0–3.4)Moderate (3.0–3.4)
Alabama (3.2)Maine (3.1)New Hampshire (3.0)South Carolina (3.0)
Georgia (3.2)Mississippi (3.3)New Mexico (3.3)South Dakota (3.0)
Indiana (3.1)Missouri (3.1)Oklahoma (3.0)Texas (3.2)
Louisiana (3.4)Montana (3.3)Rhode Island (3.3)Virginia (3.3)
Weak (2.9 and below)Weak (2.9 and below)Weak (2.9 and below)Weak (2.9 and below)
Arkansas (2.9)Nevada (2.8)North Carolina (2.9)Vermont (2.8)

SOURCE: Based on Thad Beyle, “The Governors;” Multistate Associates Incorporated, “2014 Governors and Legislatures;” National Council of State Legislatures; and National Governors Association, “Governors Political Affiliations and Terms of Office.”

Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Signing Ceremonies

Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Governors use a variety of public occasions to cultivate public support for their legislative programs, including signing ceremonies that are usually held in the governor’s Reception Room on the second floor of the Capitol. To bring special attention to the newly enacted legislation, Texas Governor Greg Abbott signed into law at Red’s Indoor Range in Pflugerville bills permitting Texans to carry concealed handguns on college campuses and openly carry them virtually everywhere in the state.

15

The Powers of the Governor (2 of 5)

Budgetary Powers

Weaker budgetary authority

Primary authority rests with the legislature and Legislative Budget Board.

The Texas governor has line-item veto over appropriations bills.

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The Powers of the Governor (3 of 5)

Appointive Powers

Selects members to serve on more than 200 boards and commissions

Subject to Senate confirmation

Many serve six-year staggered terms.

Limited ability to remove appointees

Filling vacancies

State, district, appellate courts; U.S. Senate seats; and all statewide offices except the lieutenant governor

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The Powers of the Governor (4 of 5)

Judicial Powers

Appoints members of the Board of Pardons and Paroles

Grants executive clemency

Thirty-day stay of execution

Commutation of a death sentence to life in prison

Full or conditional pardons

Responsible for ordering state officials to carry out extradition proceedings

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The Powers of the Governor (5 of 5)

Military Powers

Acts as commander-in-chief of the state’s military forces

Appoints the adjutant general

Mobilizes the national guard to protect lives and property, and to keep the peace

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Informal Resources of the Governor (1 of 4)

The Governor’s Staff

Organization reflects leadership styles.

Highly centralized or may seek greater contact with advisors

Affects the flow of information to the governor

Chosen for their media and public relations skills or policy expertise

Help develop policy agendas and legislative strategies

Function as the governor’s surrogates

Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Staff Can Really Make a Difference

Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

A governor’s success is dependent, in part, on a competent staff capable of assisting the governor in meeting expanded responsibilities and increased expectations from the general public, the legislature, administrative agencies, the media, and interest groups. Governor-elect Greg Abbott, center left, is seen here in the Old Supreme Court Room in the Capitol introducing his key staff members prior to the 2015 legislative session.

21

Table 6-3 The Governor’s Leadership Resources

Formal Constitutional Powers
1. Veto legislation
2. Exercise a line-item veto over the state budget
3. Call and set the agenda for special legislative sessions
4. Make recommendations on the budget
5. Propose emergency budgetary transfers when the legislature is not in session
6. Appoint hundreds of members of policymaking boards and commissions, subject to Senate confirmation
7. Remove his or her own appointees from boards, with Senate approval
8. Fill vacancies in U.S. Senate seats and certain elective state offices
9. Proclaim acts of executive clemency, including stays of execution, for convicted criminals
10. Mobilize the Texas National Guard to protect lives and property during natural disasters and other emergencies
Informal Resources
1. Governor’s electoral mandate
2. A large staff to help develop and sell policy proposals
3. Ability to communicate to the public through the mass media
4. Public’s perception and opinions about the governor’s job performance
5. The governor’s political party and relationships with legislative leaders
6. Support and mobilization of interest groups

Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Informal Resources of the Governor (2 of 4)

The Governor and the Mass Media

Communicate policy objectives to the general public to mobilize public opinion

Strategies

Press conferences, news leaks, and trial balloons

Use of public opinion polls

Staging pseudo-events to emphasize issues

Use of radio and television

Twitter alerts

Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Informal Resources of the Governor (3 of 4)

The Governor and the Political Party

Historically

Governors built policy coalitions around factions within the Democratic Party.

Gained little power from serving as head of the party

Under the two-party system

Parties provide greater resources and support.

Republicans have sought the support of social conservatives within the party.

Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Informal Resources of the Governor (4 of 4)

The Governor and Interest Groups

Solicit endorsements and campaign contributions from groups

Pursue policy initiatives and legislation that benefit key support groups

Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Leadership Styles of Recent Texas Governors (1 of 4)

Ann Richards (1991–1995)

Activist stance

Populist policy agenda called for a “new Texas”

Pragmatic approach to legislation, seeking compromise

Staff given greater responsibility to pursue policy objectives

Filled role as Texas’s chief ambassador

Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Leadership Styles of Recent Texas Governors (2 of 4)

George W. Bush (1995–2000)

Kept a low public profile in his first year

Often worked behind the scenes with legislators to reach compromise

Met frequently with Republican and conservative Democratic legislators

Faced opposition over school property tax reform and school vouchers

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Leadership Styles of Recent Texas Governors (3 of 4)

Rick Perry (2000–2015 )

Gave no clear direction in first term

Vetoed a record eighty-two bills in 2001

Took advantage of Republican majority

Oversaw partisan redistricting battle

Rocky relationship with lawmakers

Washington “outsider”

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The State’s Longest-Serving Governor

Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Governor Rick Perry was governor from 2000 to 2015, longer than any of his predecessors. His public career included a six-year stint as a state representative, eight years as the state’s agriculture commissioner, and almost two years as lieutenant governor prior to assuming the governorship when George Bush won the presidency in 2000.

29

Leadership Styles of Recent Texas Governors (4 of 4)

Greg Abbott (2015– )

Conservative record from time on Texas Supreme Court and as attorney general

More restrained than Perry at first

Mostly successful in first legislative session

Critical of federal government policies and advocate of efforts to curtail federal power

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Other Offices of the Plural Executive (1 of 8)

Lieutenant Governor

Dan Patrick holds the office.

Primarily a legislative office with few administrative duties

Considered by some to be the most powerful state office

Presides over the Senate

Chairs the Legislative Budget Board

Succeeds the governor if the governor dies, is incapacitated, or is removed from office

Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Other Offices of the Plural Executive (2 of 8)

Attorney General

Ken Paxton holds the office.

Serves as the state’s chief legal officer

Represents the state in litigation

Enforces antitrust and consumer protection laws

Provides for child support collection

Creates advisory opinions on the legality of actions by state and local agencies or officials

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Other Offices of the Plural Executive (3 of 8)

Comptroller of Public Accounts

Glenn Hegar holds the office.

Serves as the state’s tax administrator, accounting officer, and revenue estimator

Assumed the state treasurer’s duties in 1995

Provides a revenue estimate of state income to guide budget preparation

Must certify that the state budget falls within revenue projections

Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Other Offices of the Plural Executive (4 of 8)

Commissioner of the General Land Office

George P. Bush holds the office.

Manages state-owned lands and mineral rights

Revenues are earmarked for the Permanent University Fund and Permanent School Fund.

Responsible for the Veterans Land Program

Develops environmental programs

Plans for dealing with oil spills

Preventing soil erosion along Texas beaches

Don’t Mess with Texas!

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Other Offices of the Plural Executive (5 of 8)

Commissioner of Agriculture

Sid Miller holds the office.

Statutory officer who regulates agriculture

Administers consumer protection laws

Weights and measures

Packaging and labeling

Marketing

Supports agricultural research and education programs

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Other Offices of the Plural Executive (6 of 8)

Secretary of State

Carlos Cascos holds the office.

Appointed by the governor

Grants charters to corporations

Processes the extradition of prisoners

Administers state election laws

Reviews local and county election procedures

Develops statewide voter registration policy

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Other Offices of the Plural Executive (7 of 8)

Elected Boards and Commissions

Texas Railroad Commission

Three members; each one elected statewide to staggered six-year terms

Oversees railroad safety and oil, natural gas, and mining industries

Often used as a stepping stone to higher state office

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Other Offices of the Plural Executive (8 of 8)

Elected Boards and Commissions

State Board of Education

Fifteen members, each one elected from a single-member district

Key responsibilities

Translating legislative mandates into public policy

Investment of money in the Permanent School Fund

Oversight of textbook selection and curriculum standards

Administration of the Texas Education Agency

Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Shared Writing 6.6

Consider the discussion in “Combs, Patterson Spar Over Ruling on State Incentives.” Policy conflicts within the plural executive are not limited to those between the governor and other statewide elected officials. For a variety of reasons, officials other than the governor have become involved in controversial issues, such as the use of state funding for Formula 1 racing. When conflict emerges between state officials of the plural executive, is the governor likely to become involved? What, if anything, might be the consequences of such conflicts between statewide elected officials?

Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Photo Credits

Page 166: Office of the Governor Greg Abbott; 168: Eric Gay/AP Images; 175: Eric Gay/AP Images; 176: Ralph Barrera/AP Images; 180: Dborah Cannon/AP Images; 182: Eric Gay/AP Images; 185: David Breslauer/AP Images; 187: Eric Gay/AP Images; 187: Harry Cabluck/AP Images; 190: Harry Cabluck/AP Images; 193: Eric Gay/AP Images; 196: The Railroad Commission of Texas; 198: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division [LC-DIG-ggbain-25234]

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dc network.gcu

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Kendrick Kim 

4 posts

Re:Module 3 DQ 2

Review the Prospectus Template, Dissertation Proposal Template, Milestone Guide, and Milestone Table in the DC Network and discuss how these documents have been helpful to you in completing your ISP. What challenges have you encountered while developing your ISP? How will you work with your chair to address these challenges so that you can meet the goals in your ISP?

After reviewing the Content Expert presentation, what steps have you taken to identify a content expert to serve on your committee?

The resources that the GCU DC network provides has a wealth of information and resources. The templates really makes the formatting and expectation and issues of the dissertation that need to be addressed more workable and fluid. It also makes life of the doctoral student’s life a lot more easier. These guidelines and time tables assist the doctoral learner in the dissertation process and the journey to see the light at the end of the tunnel. I think the challenges is not the difficulty of utilizing the templates and following the instructions, for me it is the amount of time I put in and honestly speaking, I am not putting in more time that I should. Focus now, is to get the prospectus draft solid to standard Dr. Rowell wants it at and then play catch up with the many of you my colleagues.

Reference(s)

www.gcu.edu. (n.d.). GRAND CANYON UNIVERSITY . Retrieved July 21, 2017, from  https://www.gcu.edu/college-of-doctoral-studies/doctoral-resources.php

www.gcu.edu. (n.d.).  Grand Canyon University.  Retrieved July 21, 2017 from  http://blogs.gcu.edu/college-of-doctoral-studies/category/dissertation-resources/page/2/

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guess the correlation

Ashford 5: – Week 4 – Discussion 1

Your initial discussion thread is due on Day 3 (Thursday) and you have until Day 7 (Monday) to respond to your classmates. Your grade will reflect both the quality of your initial post and the depth of your responses. Reference the Discussion Forum Grading Rubric for guidance on how your discussion will be evaluated.

 

Guess   the Correlation

 The Pearson correlation coefficient is a measure of degree of linear relationship between two variables. There are many correlated variables in health research: weight and height, smoking and drinking, health behaviors, etc.
 

The bivariate scatter plot shown below illustrates a strong negative correlation between two variables:
 

Negative Correlation Graph

The next graph depicts a correlation of 1 (i.e. for a variable correlated with itself):
 

Correlation of 1 Graph

For this discussion, analyze the graph below which represents the correlation between weight (vertical axis; weight in pounds) and height (horizontal axis; height in inches).  Do you think there is a negative or a positive correlation coefficient between these two variables?  What value do you think this correlation coefficient will have?  You do not need to be exact, but come up with a value you think would fit the given data.  For the estimated value, what would be the coefficient of determination and what does it mean?  Is this a strong correlation?  Please explain.

Correlation of Weight and Height Graph

Guided Response:  Review several of your classmates’ posts.  Respond substantively to two peers.  How strong or weak was their correlation?  What factors affect the strength of the correlation?  What about its statistical significance?  
 

http://threadcontent.next.ecollege.com/Images/addnew.gif

Respond 

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total contribution margin in dollars divided by pretax income is the

1.Product A requires 5 machine hours per unit to be produced, Product B requires only 3 machine hours per unit, and the company’s productive capacity is limited to 240,000 machine hours. Product A sells for $16 per unit and has variable costs of $6 per unit. Product B sells for $12 per unit and has variable costs of $5 per unit. Assuming the company can sell as many units of either product as it produces, the company should:

2.Parker Plumbing has received a special one-time order for 1,500 faucets (units) at $5 per unit. Parker currently produces and sells 7,500 units at $6.00 each. This level represents 75% of its capacity. Production costs for these units are $4.50 per unit, which includes $3.00 variable cost and $1.50 fixed cost. To produce the special order, a new machine needs to be purchased at a cost of $1,000 with a zero salvage value. Management expects no other changes in costs as a result of the additional production. Should the company accept the special order?

3.The break-even time (BET) method is a variation of the:

4.After-tax net income divided by the annual average investment in an investment, is the:

5.The following data concerns a proposed equipment purchase: Cost…………………$144,000 Salvage value…………..$4,000 Estimated useful life……. 4years Annual net cash flows……$46,100 Depreciation method……..straight-line Assuming that net cash flows are received evenly throughout the year, the accounting rate of return is:

6.The rate that yields a net present value of zero for an investment is the:

7.Select cost information for Winfrey Enterprises is as follows: For 1000 units of output Total Cost/unit Direct material $5,000 $5.00 Utilities expense $1,000 $1.00 Rent expense $4,000 $4.00 For 5,000 units of output Total Cost/unit Direct materials $25,000 $5.00 Utilities expense $3,750 $0.75 Rent expense $4,000 $0.80 Based on this information:

8.The margin of safety is the excess of:

9.Use the following information to determine the margin of safety in dollars:

Unit sales………………..50,000 units

Dollar sales………………$500,000

fixed costs……………….$204,000

Variable costs…………….$187,000

10.Total contribution margin in dollars divided by pretax income is the:

11.Brown Company’s contribution margin ratio is 24%. Total fixed costs are $84,000. What is Brown’s break-even point in sales dollars?

12.A company manufactures and sells a product for $120 per unit. The company’s fixed costs are $68,760, and its variable costs are $90 per unit. The company’s break-even point in units is:

13.Yamaguchi Company’s break even point in units is 1,000. The sales price per unit is $10 and variable cost per unit is $7. If the company sells 2,500 units, what will net income be?

14.A firm sells two products, A and B. For every unit of A the firm sells, two units of B are sold. The firm’s total fixed costs are $1,612,000. Selling prices and cost information for both products follow: Product Unit sales price Veriable costs per Unit A… $20 $8 B… $24 $4 The contribution margin per composite unit is:

15.Wayward Enterprises manufactures and sells three distinct styles of bicycles: the Youth model sells for $300 and has a unit contribution margin of $105; the Adult model sells for $850 and has a unit contribution margin of $450; and the Recreational model sells for $1,000 and has a unit contribution margin of $500. The company’s sales mix includes: 5 Youth models; 9 Adult models; and 6 Recreational models. If the firm’s annual fixed costs total $6,500,000, calculate the firm’s break-even point in sales dollars.

 16.The master budget includes:

17.A plan that lists the types and amounts of operating expenses expected that are not included in the selling expenses budget is a:

18.A plan showing the units of goods to be sold and the revenue to be derived from sales, that is the usual starting point in the budgeting process, is called the:

19.Ecology Co. sells a biodegradable product called Dissol and has predicted the following sales for the first four months of the current year:

Sales in units…. Jan.1,700; Feb.1,900; March 2,100; April1,600

Ending inventory for each month should be 20% of the next month’s sales, and the December 31 inventory is consistent with that policy. How many units should be purchased in February?

20.A quantity of merchandise or materials over the minimum needed reduce the risk of running short is called:

21.A plan that shows the expected cash inflows and cash outflows during the budget period, including receipts from loans needed to maintain a minimum cash balance and repayments of such loans, is called a(n):

22.Long-term liability data for the budgeted balance sheet is derived from:

23.The Palos Company expects sales for June, July, and August of $48,000, $54,000, and $44,000, respectively. Experience suggests that 40% of sales are for cash and 60% are on credit.

The company collects 50% of its credit sales in the month following sale, 45% in the second month following sale, and 5% are not collected. What are the company’s expected cash receipts for August from its current and past sales?

24.Which of the following budgets is part of the manufacturing budget?

25.A process of examining the differences between actual and budgeted costs and describing them in terms of the amounts that resulted from price and quantity differences is called:

26.A report based on predicted amounts of revenues and expenses corresponding to the actual level of output is called a:

27.Sales analysis is useful for:

28.Product A has a sales price of $10 per unit. Based on a 10,000-unit production level, the variable costs are $6 per unit and the fixed costs are $3 per unit. Using a flexible budget for 12,500 units, what is the budgeted operating income from Product A?

29.A job was budgeted to require 3 hours of labor per unit at $8.00 per hour. The job consisted of 8,000 units and was completed in 22,000 hours at a total labor cost of $198,000. What is the total labor cost variance?

30.A company has determined that its standard costs to produce a single unit of output is as follows: Direct material 6 pounds at $0.90 per pound=$5.40 Direct labor 0.5 hour at $12.00 per hour=$6.00 Manyfacturing overhead 0.5 hour at $4.80 per hour=$2.40 During the latest month, the company purchased and used 58,000 pounds of direct materials at a price of $1.00 per pound to produce 10,000 units of output. Direct labor costs for the month totaled $56,350 based on 4,900 direct labor hours worked. Variable manufacturing overhead costs incurred totaled $15,000 and fixed manufacturing overhead incurred was $10,400. Based on this information, the direct materials quantity variance for the month was

31.The difference between the total budgeted overhead cost and the overhead applied to production using the predetermined overhead rate is the:

32. Regarding overhead costs, as volume increases:

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“hidden costs,” such as ________ costs, can easily undercut anticipated benefits from outsourcing.

SE/Shaw, Business Ethics, 8th Edition ISBN -978-1-133-94307-5 ©2014 Designer: PMG Text & Cover printer: XXX Binding: PB Trim: 7.375″ x 9.125″ CMYK

Business Ethics Business Ethics

Business Ethics

William H. Shaw

Shaw

William H. Shaw

EIGHTH EDITION

EIGHTH EDITION

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Bus iness eth ics

8t h e di t ion

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Will iam H. Shaw San Jose State Univers i ty

Bus iness eth ics

8t h e di t ion

Australia • Brazil • Japan • Korea • Mexico • Singapore • Spain • United Kingdom • United States

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Printed in the United States of America 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 16 15 14 13 12

Business Ethics, Eighth Edition William H. Shaw

Publisher/Executive Editor: Baxter Clark

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Cover Image: ©Paul Price/getty images

© 2014, 2011, 2008 Wadsworth, Cengage Learning

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. No part of this work covered by the copyright herein may be reproduced, transmitted, stored, or used in any form or by any means graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including but not limited to photocopying, recording, scanning, digitizing, taping, Web distribution, information networks, or information storage and retrieval systems, except as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without the prior written permission of the publisher.

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Library of Congress Control Number: 2012945758

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v

Preface  ix

pa rt one | mor a l philosoph y a nd busine ss 1

cha pter 1 the nature of Mor al it y 1 Ethics  3 Moral  versus Nonmoral  Standards  5 Religion  and Morality  10 Ethical  Relativism  13 Having Moral  Principles  15 Morality  and Personal Values  19 Individual  Integrity  and Responsibility  20 Moral  Reasoning  24 Study Corner  30 Case  1.1: Made  in  the U.S.A.—Dumped  in  Brazil, Africa,  Iraq  .  .  .  31 Case  1.2:  Just Drop off  the  Key,  Lee  34 Case  1.3: The A7D Affair  37

cha pter 2 norMat iv e theor ies of e th ics 4 0 Consequentialist  and Nonconsequentialist Theories  42 Egoism  43 Utilitarianism  46 Kant’s  Ethics  53 other  Nonconsequentialist  Perspectives  59 Utilitarianism once More  66 Moral  Decision Making: A  Practical Approach  68 Study Corner  70 Case 2.1:  Hacking  into Harvard  71 Case 2.2: The  Ford  Pinto  74 Case  2.3:  Blood  for  Sale  77

cha pter 3 Just ice and econoMic d istr iBut ion 80 The Nature  of  Justice  83 The Utilitarian View  86 The  Libertarian Approach  90 Rawls’s Theory  of  Justice  97

contents

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vi CONTENTS

Study Corner  106 Case  3.1:  Eminent Domain  107 Case  3.2:  Battling  over  Bottled Water  109 Case  3.3:  Poverty  in America  111

pa rt t wo | a mer ic a n busine ss a nd its basis 114

cha pter 4 the nature of ca p ital isM 114 Capitalism  116 Key  Features  of  Capitalism  119 Two Arguments  for  Capitalism  121 Criticisms  of  Capitalism  125 Today’s  Economic Challenges  133 Study Corner  139 Case  4.1:  Hucksters  in  the Classroom  140 Case  4.2:  Licensing  and  Laissez  Faire  142 Case  4.3: one Nation  under Walmart  144 Case  4.4: A New Work  Ethic?  147 Case  4.5:  Casino  Gambling  on Wall  Street  148

cha pter 5 corpor at ions 150 The  Limited-Liability  Company  152 Corporate Moral Agency  154 Rival Views  of  Corporate Responsibility  158 Debating Corporate Responsibility  164 Institutionalizing  Ethics within  Corporations  169 Study Corner  176 Case  5.1: Yahoo!  in China  177 Case  5.2: Drug Dilemmas  179 Case  5.3:  Levi  Strauss  at  Home  and Abroad  182 Case  5.4:  Free  Speech  or  False Advertising?  186 Case  5.5:  Charity  to  Scouts?  188

pa rt thr ee | busine ss a nd societ y 191

cha pter 6 consuMers 191 Product  Safety  193 other Areas  of  Business  Responsibility  205 Deception  and Unfairness  in Advertising  214 The Debate  over Advertising  224

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CONTENTS      vii

Study Corner  227 Case  6.1:  Breast  Implants  229 Case  6.2:  Hot Coffee  at McDonald’s  231 Case 6.3:  Sniffing Glue Could  Snuff  Profits  232 Case  6.4:  Closing  the Deal  234 Case  6.5: The Rise  and  Fall  of  Four  Loko  236

cha pter 7 the en v ironMent 239 Business  and  Ecology  242 The  Ethics  of  Environmental  Protection  246 Achieving our  Environmental Goals  251 Delving Deeper  into  Environmental  Ethics  256 Study Corner  264 Case  7.1:  Hazardous Homes  in Herculaneum  265 Case  7.2:  Poverty  and Pollution  267 Case  7.3: The  Fordasaurus  269 Case  7.4: The  Fight  over  the Redwoods  270 Case 7.5:  Palm oil  and  Its  Problems  273

pa rt Four | the orG a niZ ation a nd the people in it 276

cha pter 8 the Work pl ace (1) : Bas ic issues 276 Civil  Liberties  in  the Workplace  277 Hiring  283 Promotions  289 Discipline  and Discharge  291 Wages  295 Labor  Unions  298 Study Corner  307 Case  8.1: AIDS  in  the Workplace  308 Case  8.2: Web  Porn  at Work  310 Case  8.3:  Speaking out  about Malt  311 Case  8.4:  Have Gun, Will Travel  .  .  .  to Work  312 Case  8.5:  Union Discrimination  314

cha pter 9 the Work pl ace ( 2 ) : today’s challenges 316 organizational  Influence  in  Private  Lives  317 Testing  and Monitoring  323 Working Conditions  329

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viii CONTENTS

Redesigning Work  337 Study Corner  341 Case  9.1:  Unprofessional  Conduct?  342 Case  9.2: Testing  for  Honesty  344 Case  9.3:  She Snoops  to Conquer  346 Case  9.4:  Protecting  the Unborn  at Work  348 Case  9.5:  Swedish  Daddies  351

cha pter 10 Mor al choices fac ing eMpl oy ees 353 obligations  to  the  Firm  354 Abuse  of official  Position  358 Bribes  and Kickbacks  364 Gifts  and  Entertainment  368 Conflicting obligations  370 Whistle-Blowing  372 Self-Interest  and Moral obligation  377 Study Corner  381 Case  10.1: Changing  Jobs  and  Changing  Loyalties  382 Case  10.2: Conflicting  Perspectives  on Conflicts  of  Interest  383 Case  10.3:  Inside Traders  or Astute  observers?  384 Case  10.4: The Housing Allowance  386 Case  10.5:  Ethically Dubious Conduct  388

cha pter 11 JoB d iscr iMinat ion 390 The Meaning  of  Job Discrimination  393 Evidence  of Discrimination  394 Affirmative Action: The  Legal  Context  399 Affirmative Action: The Moral  Issues  404 Comparable Worth  408 Sexual  Harassment  410 Study Corner  414 Case  11.1: Minority  Set-Asides  415 Case  11.2: Hoop  Dreams  417 Case  11.3:  Raising  the Ante  419 Case  11.4: Consenting  to  Sexual  Harassment  420 Case  11.5:  Facial  Discrimination  423

SuggeStionS for further reading  425

noteS  429

index  449

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ix

It  is difficult  to  imagine an area of study that has greater  importance to society or greater relevance to  students than business ethics. As this text enters its eighth edition, business ethics has become a well- established academic  subject. Most  colleges and universities  offer  courses  in  it,  and  scholarly  interest  continues to grow.

Yet some people still scoff at the idea of business ethics, jesting that the very concept is an oxymoron.  To be sure, recent years have seen the newspapers filled with lurid stories of corporate misconduct and  felonious behavior by individual businesspeople, and many suspect that what the media report represents  only the proverbial tip of the iceberg. However, these scandals should prompt a reflective person not to  make fun of business ethics but rather to think more deeply about the nature and purpose of business in  our society and about the ethical choices individuals must inevitably make in their business and profes- sional lives.

Business  ethics  has  an  interdisciplinary  character.  Questions  of  economic  policy  and  business  practice  intertwine with  issues in politics, sociology, and organizational theory. Although business ethics  remains anchored in philosophy, even here abstract questions in normative ethics and political philosophy  mingle with analysis of practical problems and concrete moral dilemmas. Furthermore, business ethics is  not just an academic study but also an invitation to reflect on our own values and on our own responses to  the hard moral choices that the world of business can pose.

• • •

goal s, org ani z at ion, and topics Business Ethics  has  four goals:  to expose students  to  the  important moral  issues  that  arise  in  various  business contexts; to provide students with an understanding of the moral, social, and economic environ- ments within which those problems occur; to introduce students to the ethical and other concepts that are  relevant for resolving those problems; and to assist students in developing the necessary reasoning and  analytical skills for doing so. Although the book’s primary emphasis is on business, its scope extends to  related moral issues in other organizational and professional contexts.

The book has four parts. Part one, “Moral Philosophy and Business,” discusses the nature of morality  and presents the main theories of normative ethics and the leading approaches to questions of economic  justice. Part Two, “American Business and Its Basis,” examines the institutional foundations of business,  focusing on capitalism as an economic system and the nature and role of corporations in our society. Part  Three, “Business and Society,” concerns moral problems involving business, consumers, and the natural  environment. Part Four, “The organization and the People in It,” identifies a variety of ethical issues and  moral challenges that arise out of the interplay of employers and employees within an organization, includ- ing the problem of discrimination.

Case studies enhance the main text. These cases vary  in kind and  in  length, and are designed to  enable instructors and students to pursue further some of the issues discussed in the text and to analyze  them in more specific contexts. The case studies should provide a lively springboard for classroom discus- sions and the application of ethical concepts.

Business Ethics covers a wide range of  topics relevant  to  today’s world. Three of  these are worth  drawing particular attention to.

preface

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Business and Globalization The moral challenges facing business in today’s globalized world economy are well represented in the book  and seamlessly integrated into the chapters. For example, Chapter 1 discusses ethical relativism, Chapter  4 outsourcing and globalization, and Chapter 8 overseas bribery and the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act; and  there are international examples or comparisons throughout the book. Moreover, almost all the basic issues  discussed in the book (such as corporate responsibility, the nature of moral reasoning, and the value of the  natural world—to name just three) are as crucial to making moral decisions in an international business  context as they are to making them at home. In addition, cases 1.1, 2.3, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 6.3, 7.2, 7.5, 9.5,  and 10.4 deal explicitly with moral issues arising in today’s global economic system. 

The Environment Because of its ongoing relevance and heightened importance in today’s world, an entire chapter, Chapter  7,  is devoted  to  this  topic.  In particular,  it  highlights  recent environmental disasters,  the environmental  dilemmas and challenges we face, and their social and business costs, as well as the changing attitude of  business toward the environment and ecology.

Health and Health Care Far  from being a narrow academic pursuit,  the study of business ethics  is  relevant  to a wide  range of  important social issues—for example, to health and health care, which is currently the subject of much  discussion and debate in the United States.  Aspects of this topic are addressed in the text and developed in  the following cases: 2.3: Blood for Sale, 4.2: Licensing and Laissez Faire, 5.2: Drug Dilemmas, 6.1: Breast  Implants, 8.1: AIDS in the Workplace, and 9.4: Protecting the Unborn at Work. 

• • •

changes in th is ed it ion Your Textbook Instructors who have used the previous edition will find the organization and general content of the book  familiar. They will, however, also be struck by its fresh design and by the graphs, tables, photographs, and  other information that now supplement the pedagogical features introduced in previous editions.

Feedback from students and instructors suggests that readers benefit greatly not only from marginal  summaries and highlights but also from visual breaks, visual guidance, and visual presentation of data and  information. So, the new design was crafted to help readers navigate the text more easily, retain content  more effectively, and review and prepare for tests more successfully. In addition, the Study Corner now  also includes “For Further Reflection,” a set of open-ended questions intended to help students articulate  their own response to some of the issues discussed in the text. An updated Suggestions for Further Reading is intended to provide appropriate material for independent research by students on topics cov- ered in Business Ethics.

The text itself has been thoroughly revised. I have updated and reorganized material throughout the  book in order to enhance the clarity of its discussions and the accuracy of its treatment of both philosophi- cal and empirical issues. At all times the goal has been to provide a textbook that students will find clear,  understandable, and engaging.

Forty-nine  case  studies—more  than  ever  before—now  supplement  the  main  text.  of  the  cases  that are new to this edition, two relate to the financial and mortgage industries: Case 1.2, “Just Drop off  the Key, Lee,” broaches the ongoing foreclosure crisis while Case 4.5, “Casino Gambling on Wall Street,”  discusses one of the financial instruments involved in the recent financial meltdown. Case 4.1, “Hucksters 

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in the Classroom,” deals with commercial intrusion into schools. The ethics of sales is the focus of Case  6.4, “Closing the Deal,” while Case 6.5, “The Rise and Fall of Four Loko,” highlights the question of regu- lating consumer products on paternalistic grounds. Case 8.5, “Union Discrimination,” examines some of  the ethical issues posed by unions. The environment and the push and pull between business and envi- ronmentalists are well illustrated in Case 7.5, “Palm oil and Its Problems.” Case 9.5, “Swedish Daddies,”  shows how the sometimes conflicting demands of parenthood and work life challenge today’s employees  and employers. Cases 10.2, “Conflicting Perspectives on Conflicts of Interest,” and 10.3, “Inside Traders  or Astute observers?,” provide recent examples of some of the ethical struggles employees can confront.  Finally, the issue of comparable worth is the focus of Case 11.3, “Raising the Ante.”

Your Media Tools The Business Ethics CourseMate is new to this edition. It can be accessed by searching for this book on  CengageBrain.com. There you will find an array of online tools designed to reinforce theories and concepts  and help students to understand and better retain the book’s content, and to review and study for tests:

Self-Tests Tutorial Quizzes (with answers) Essays Flashcards Current Events Glossary  PowerPoint Slides Web Links

In addition to these CourseMate offerings, video tutorials will complement each chapter. Watching and  reflecting on these can help students improve their grades.

Finally, Global Business Ethics Watch exposes viewers to a wealth of online resources, from photo- graphs to videos and articles. Updated several times a day, the Global Business Ethics Watch is an ideal  one-stop site for classroom discussion and research projects for all things related to business ethics. You and  your students will have access to the latest information from trusted academic journals, news outlets, and  magazines. You also will receive access to statistics, primary sources, case studies, podcasts, and much more.

• • •

Ways of us ing the Book A course in business ethics can be taught in a variety of ways. Instructors have different approaches to  the subject, different intellectual and pedagogical goals, and different classroom styles. They emphasize  different themes and start at different places. Some of them may prefer to treat the foundational questions  of ethical theory thoroughly before moving on to particular moral problems; others reverse this priority. Still  other instructors frame their courses around the question of economic justice, the analysis of capitalism, or  the debate over corporate social responsibility. Some instructors stress individual moral decision making,  others social and economic policy.

Business Ethics permits teachers great flexibility in how they organize their courses. A wide range of  theoretical and applied issues are discussed; and the individual chapters, the major sections within them,  and the case studies are to a surprising extent self-contained. Instructors can thus teach the book in what- ever order they choose, and they can easily skip or touch lightly on some topics in order to concentrate on  others without loss of coherence.

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• • •

acknoWledgMents I wish to acknowledge my great debt to the many people whose ideas and writing have influenced me over  the years. Philosophy is widely recognized to involve a process of ongoing dialogue. This is nowhere more  evident than in the writing of textbooks, whose authors can rarely claim that the ideas being synthesized,  organized,  and  presented  are  theirs  alone.  Without  my  colleagues,  without  my  students,  and  without  a  larger philosophical  community  concerned with business and ethics,  this book would not  have been  possible.

I particularly want to acknowledge my debt to Vincent Barry. Readers familiar with our textbook and  reader Moral Issues in Business1 will realize the extent to which I have drawn on material from that work.  Business Ethics is,  in effect, a revised and updated version of  the textbook portion of  that collaborative  work, and I am very grateful to Vince for permitting me to use our joint work here.

1William H.  Shaw and Vincent  Barry, Moral Issues in Business,  12th  ed.  (Belmont,  Calif.: Wadsworth/Cengage  Learning,  2013).

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1

part one | mor al philosophy and business

Ch a p t er 1

The N aT ure of Mor a l iT y

sometimes the riCh and mighty fall. Take Kenneth Lay, for example. Convicted by a jury in 2006 of conspiracy and multiple counts of fraud, he had been chair- man and CEO of Enron until that once mighty company took a nose dive and crashed. Founded in the 1980s, Enron soon became a dominant player in the field of energy trading, grow- ing rapidly to become America’s seventh biggest company. Wall Street loves growth, and Enron was its darling, admired as dynamic, innovative, and—of course— profitable. Enron stock exploded in value, increasing 40 percent in a single year. The next year it shot up 58 percent and the year after that an unbelievable 89 percent. The fact that nobody could quite understand exactly how the company made its money didn’t seem to matter.

After Fortune magazine voted it “the most innovative company of the year” in 2000, Enron proudly took to calling itself not just “the world’s leading energy company” but also “the world’s lead- ing company.” But when Enron was later forced to declare bankruptcy—at the time the largest Chapter 11 filing in U.S. history—the world learned that its legendary financial prowess was illusory and the company’s success built on the sands of hype. And the hype continued to the end. Even with the com- pany’s financial demise fast approaching, Kenneth Lay was still recommending the company’s stock to its employees—at the

same time that he and other executives were cashing in their shares and bailing out.

Enron’s crash cost the retirement accounts of its employ- ees more than a billion dollars as the company’s stock fell from the stratosphere to only a few pennies a share. Outside investors lost even more. The reason Enron’s collapse caught investors by surprise—the company’s market value was $28 billion just two months before its bankruptcy—was that Enron

had always made its financial records and accounts as opaque as possible. It did this by creating a Byzantine financial structure of off-balance-sheet special- purpose entities—reportedly as many as 9,000—that were supposed to be separate and independent from the main company. Enron’s board of direc- tors condoned these and other dubious accounting practices and voted twice to permit executives to pursue personal interests that ran contrary to those of the company. When Enron was obliged

to redo its financial statements for one three-year period, its profits dropped $600 million and its debts increased $630 million.

Still, Enron’s financial auditors should have spotted these and other problems. After all, the shell game Enron was playing is an old one, and months before the company ran aground, Enron Vice President Sherron Watkins had warned Lay that

IntroductIon

the reason enron’s

collapse caught investors by surprise . . . was

that enron had always made its financial

records and accounts as opaque as possible.

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the company could soon “implode in a wave of accounting scandals.” Yet both Arthur Andersen, Enron’s longtime outside auditing firm, and Vinson & Elkins, the company’s law firm, had routinely put together and signed off on various dubious finan- cial deals, and in doing so made large profits for themselves. Arthur Andersen, in particular, was supposed to make sure that the company’s public records reflected financial reality, but Andersen was more worried about its auditing and consulting fees than about its fiduciary responsibilities. Even worse, when the scandal began to break, a partner at Andersen organ- ized the shredding of incriminating Enron documents before investigators could lay their hands on them. As a result, the eighty-nine-year-old accounting firm was convicted of obstruct- ing justice. The Supreme Court later overturned that verdict on a technicality, but by then Arthur Andersen had already been driven out of business. (The year before Enron went under, by the way, the Securities and Exchange Commission fined Andersen $7 million for approving misleading accounts at Waste Management, and it also had to pay $110 million to settle a lawsuit for auditing work it did for Sunbeam before it, too, filed for bankruptcy. And when massive accounting fraud was later uncovered at WorldCom, it came out that the company’s auditor was—you guessed it—Arthur Andersen.)

Enron’s fall also revealed the conflicts of interest that threaten the credibility of Wall Street’s analysts—analysts who are compensated according to their ability to bring in and support investment banking deals. Enron was known in the industry as the “deal machine” because it generated so much

investment banking business—limited part- nerships, loans, and derivatives. That may explain why, only days before Enron filed bankruptcy, just two of the sixteen Wall Street analysts who covered the company recom- mended that clients sell the stock. The large banks that Enron did business with played a corrupt role, too, by helping manufacture its fraudulent financial statements. (Subsequent lawsuits have forced them to cough up some of their profits: Citibank, for example, had to pay Enron’s victimized shareholders $2 bil- lion.) But the rot didn’t stop there. Enron and Andersen enjoyed extensive political connec- tions, which had helped over the years to ensure the passage of a series of deregula-

tory measures favorable to the energy company. Of the 248 members of Congress sitting on the eleven House and Senate committees charged with investigating Enron’s collapse, 212 had received money from Enron or its accounting firm.1

Stories of business corruption and of greed and wrongdoing in high places have always fascinated the popular press, and media interest in business ethics has never been higher. But one should not be misled by the headlines and news reports. Not all moral issues in business involve giant corporations and their well-heeled executives, and few cases of business ethics are widely publicized. The vast majority of them involve the mundane, uncelebrated moral challenges that working men and women meet daily.

Although the financial shenanigans at Enron were compli- cated, once their basic outline is sketched, the wrongdoing is pretty easy to see: deception, dishonesty, fraud, disregarding one’s professional responsibilities, and unfairly injuring others for one’s own gain. But many of the moral issues that arise in business are complex and difficult to answer. For example:

How far must manufacturers go to ensure product safety? Must they reveal everything about a product, including any possible defects or shortcomings? At what point does acceptable exaggeration become lying about a product or a service? When does aggressive marketing become consumer manipulation? Is adver- tising useful and important or deceptive, misleading, and socially detrimental? When are prices unfair or exploitative?

enron’s stock price in u.s. dollars in late 2001, before its spectacular collapse

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chapter one  The naTure of moraliTy      3chapter one  The naTure of moraliTy      3

• • •

e Thics ethics (or moral philosophy) is a broad field of inquiry that addresses a fundamental query  that all of us, at least from time to time, inevitably think about—namely, how should I  live my life? That question, of course, leads to others, such as: What sort of person should  I strive to be? What values are important? What standards or principles should I live by?  exploring these issues immerses one in the study of right and wrong. among other things,  moral philosophers and others who think seriously about ethics want to understand the  nature of morality, the meaning of its basic concepts, the characteristics of good moral rea- soning, how moral judgments can be justified, and, of course, the principles or properties  that distinguish right actions from wrong actions. Thus, ethics deals with individual char- acter and with the moral rules that govern and limit our conduct. It investigates questions  of right and wrong, fairness and unfairness, good and bad, duty and obligation, and justice  and injustice, as well as moral responsibility and the values that should guide our actions.

You sometimes hear  it  said that  there’s a difference between a person’s ethics and  his or her morals. This can be confusing because what some people mean by saying that  something is a matter of ethics (as opposed to morals) is often what other people mean 

summary Ethics deals with

individual character and the moral rules that govern and limit

our conduct. It investigates questions

of right and wrong, duty and obligation,

and moral responsibility.

Are corporations obliged to help combat social prob- lems? What are the environmental responsibilities of business, and is it living up to them? Are pollution per- mits a good idea? Is factory farming morally justifiable?

May employers screen potential employees on the basis of lifestyle, physical appearance, or personality tests? What rights do employees have on the job? Under what conditions may they be disciplined or fired? What, if anything, must business do to improve work conditions? When are wages fair? Do unions promote the interests of workers or infringe their rights? When, if ever, is an employee morally required to blow the whistle?

May employees ever use their positions inside an organization to advance their own interests? Is insider trading or the use of privileged information immoral? How much loyalty do workers owe their companies? What say should a business have over the off-the-job activities of its employees? Do drug tests violate their right to privacy?

What constitutes job discrimination, and how far must business go to ensure equality of opportunity? Is affirmative action a matter of justice, or a poor idea? How should organizations respond to the problem of sexual harassment?

learning objeCtives

These questions typify business issues with moral significance. The answers we give to them are determined, in large part, by our moral standards—that is, by the moral principles and values we accept. What moral standards are, where they come from, and how they can be assessed are some of the concerns of this opening chapter. In particular, you will encounter the fol- lowing topics:

1. The nature, scope, and purpose of business ethics

2. The distinguishing features of morality and how it differs from etiquette, law, and professional codes of conduct

3. The relationship between morality and religion

4. The doctrine of ethical relativism and its difficulties

5. What it means to have moral principles; the nature of conscience; and the relationship between morality and self-interest

6. The place of values and ideals in a person’s life

7. The social and psychological factors that sometimes jeopardize an individual’s integrity

8. The characteristics of sound moral reasoning

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by saying that it is a matter of morals (and not ethics). In fact, however, most people (and  most philosophers)  see no  real distinction between a person’s  “morals”  and a person’s  “ethics.” and  almost  everyone uses  “ethical”  and  “moral”  interchangeably  to describe  people we consider good and actions we consider right, and “unethical” and “immoral”  to designate bad people and wrong actions. This book follows that common usage.

Business and OrganizatiOnal ethics

The primary focus of this book is ethics as it applies to business. business ethics is the  study of what constitutes right and wrong, or good and bad, human conduct in a busi- ness context. For example, would it be right for a store manager to break a promise to a  customer and sell some hard-to-find merchandise to someone else, whose need for it is  greater? What, if anything, should a moral employee do when his or her superiors refuse  to look into apparent wrongdoing in a branch office? If you innocently came across secret  information about a competitor, would it be permissible for you to use it for your own  advantage?

recent business scandals have renewed the interest of business leaders, academics,  and society at large in ethics. For example, the association to advance collegiate Schools  of Business, which comprises all the top business schools, has introduced new rules on  including ethics  in  their  curricula,  and  the Business roundtable  recently unveiled an  initiative to train the nation’s ceos in the finer points of ethics. But an appreciation  of the importance of ethics for a healthy society and a concern, in particular, for what  constitutes ethical conduct in business go back to ancient times. The roman philosopher  cicero (106–43 bce), for instance, discussed the example, much debated at the time,  of an honest merchant  from alexandria who brings a  large stock of wheat to rhodes  where there is a food shortage. on his way there, he learns that other traders are setting  sail for rhodes with substantial cargos of grain. Should he tell the people of rhodes that  more wheat is on the way, or say nothing and sell at the best price he can? Some ancient  ethicists argued that although the merchant must declare defects in his wares as required  by law, as a vendor he is free—provided he tells no untruths—to sell his goods as profit- ably as he can. others, including cicero, argued to the contrary that all the facts must be  revealed and that buyers must be as fully informed as sellers.2

“Business” and “businessperson” are broad terms. a “business” could be a food truck  or a multinational corporation that operates in several countries. “Businessperson” could  refer to a street vendor or a company president responsible for thousands of workers and  millions of shareholder dollars. accordingly, the word business will be used here sim- ply to mean any organization whose objective is to provide goods or services for profit.  businesspeople are those who participate in planning, organizing, or directing the work  of business.

But this book takes a broader view as well because it is concerned with moral issues  that  arise  anywhere  that  employers  and  employees  come  together.  Thus,  it  addresses  organizational  ethics  as  well  as  business  ethics.  an  organization  is  a  group  of  people  working together to achieve a common purpose. The purpose may be to offer a product  or a service primarily for profit, as in business. But the purpose also could be health care,  as in medical organizations; public safety and order, as in law-enforcement organizations;  education, as in academic organizations; and so on. The cases and illustrations presented  in  this  book deal with moral  issues  and dilemmas  in both business  and nonbusiness  organizational settings.

summary Business ethics is the

study of what constitutes right and wrong (or good and

bad) human conduct in a business context.

Closely related moral questions arise in other

organizational contexts.

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chapter one  The naTure of moraliTy      5

people occasionally poke fun at the idea of business ethics, declaring that the term is  a contradiction or that business has no ethics. Such people take themselves to be worldly  and realistic. They think they have a down-to-earth idea of how things really work. In  fact, despite its pretense of sophistication, their attitude shows little grasp of the nature  of ethics and only a superficial understanding of the real world of business. reading this  book should help you comprehend how inaccurate and mistaken their view is.

• • •

Mor al V ersus NoNMor al sTaNda rds Moral questions differ from other kinds of questions. Whether the old computer in your  office can copy a pirated DVD is a factual question. By contrast, whether you should  copy the DVD is a moral question. When we answer a moral question or make a moral  judgment,  we  appeal  to  moral  standards.  These  standards  differ  from  other  kinds  of  standards.

Wearing shorts and a tank top to a formal dinner party is boorish behavior. Writing  an essay that is filled with double negatives or lacks subject-verb agreement violates the  basic conventions of proper language usage. photographing someone at night without  the flash turned on is poor photographic technique. In each case a standard is violated— fashion,  grammatical,  technical—but  the  violation  does  not  pose  a  serious  threat  to  human well-being.

moral standards are  different  because  they  concern  behavior  that  is  of  serious  consequence to human welfare, that can profoundly injure or benefit people.3 The con- ventional moral norms against lying, stealing, and killing deal with actions that can hurt  people. and the moral principle that human beings should be treated with dignity and  respect uplifts the human personality. Whether products are healthful or harmful, work  conditions safe or dangerous, personnel procedures biased or fair, privacy respected or  invaded––these are also matters that seriously affect human well-being. The standards  that govern our conduct in these areas are moral standards.

a  second  characteristic  follows  from  the  first.  Moral  standards  take  priority  over other standards, including self-interest. Something that morality condemns—for  instance, the burglary of your neighbor’s home—cannot be justified on the nonmoral  grounds  that  it would be a  thrill  to do  it or  that  it would pay off handsomely. We  take moral standards to be more important than other considerations in guiding our  actions.

a third characteristic of moral standards is that their soundness depends on the ade- quacy of the reasons that support or justify them. For the most part, fashion standards  are set by clothing designers, merchandisers, and consumers; grammatical standards by  grammarians and students of language; technical standards by practitioners and experts  in the field. Legislators make laws, boards of directors make organizational policy, and  licensing boards establish standards for professionals. In those cases, some authoritative  body is the ultimate validating source of the standards and thus can change the standards  if it wishes. Moral standards are not made by such bodies. Their validity depends not  on official fiat but rather on the quality of the arguments or the reasoning that supports  them. exactly what constitutes adequate grounds or justification for a moral standard is 

Moral standards concern behavior that seriously affects human well-being.

Moral standards take priority over other standards.

The soundness of moral standards depends on the adequacy of the reasons that support them.

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6      part one  moral philosophy and business

a debated question, which, as we shall see in chapter 2, underlies disagreement among  philosophers over which specific moral principles are best.

although these three characteristics set moral standards apart from other standards,  it is useful to discuss more specifically how morality differs from three things with which  it is sometimes confused: etiquette, law, and professional codes of ethics.

MOrality and etiquette

etiquette refers to the norms of correct conduct in polite society or, more generally, to  any special code of social behavior or courtesy. In our society, for example, it is considered  bad etiquette to chew with your mouth open or to pick your nose when talking to some- one; it is considered good etiquette to say “please” when requesting and “thank you” when  receiving, and to hold a door open for someone entering immediately behind you. Good  business  etiquette  typically  calls  for writing  follow-up  letters  after meetings,  returning  phone calls, and dressing appropriately. It is commonplace to judge people’s manners as  “good” or “bad” and the conduct that reflects them as “right” or “wrong.” “Good,” “bad,”  “right,” and “wrong” here simply mean socially appropriate or socially inappropriate. In  these contexts, such words express judgments about manners, not about ethics.

The rules of etiquette are prescriptions for socially acceptable behavior. If you violate  them, you’re likely to be considered ill-mannered, impolite, or even uncivilized, but not  necessarily immoral. If you want to fit in, get along with others, and be thought well  of by them, you should observe the common rules of politeness or etiquette. however,  what’s  considered  correct  or  polite  conduct—for  example,  when  greeting  an  elderly  person, when using your knife and  fork, or when determining how close  to  stand  to  someone you’re conversing with—can change over time and vary from society to society.

although rules of etiquette are generally nonmoral in character, violations of those  rules can have moral implications. For example, the male boss who refers to female sub- ordinates as “honey” or “doll” shows bad manners. If such epithets diminish the worth  of female employees or perpetuate sexism, then they also raise moral issues concerning  equal treatment and denial of dignity to human beings. More generally, rude or impolite  conduct can be offensive, and it may sometimes fail to show the respect for other persons  that morality requires of us. For this reason, it is important to exercise care, in business  situations and elsewhere, when dealing with unfamiliar customs or people from a differ- ent culture.

Scrupulous observance of rules of etiquette, however, does not make a person moral.  In fact, it can sometimes camouflage ethical issues. In some parts of the United States  fifty or so years ago, it was considered bad manners for blacks and whites to eat together.  however, those who obeyed this convention were not acting in a morally desirable way.  In the 1960s, black and white members of the civil rights movement sought to dramatize  the injustice that  lay behind this rule by sitting together  in luncheonettes and restau- rants. although judged at the time to lack good manners, they thought that this was a  small price to pay for exposing the unequal treatment and human degradation underly- ing this rule of etiquette.

MOrality and law

Before distinguishing between morality and law,  let’s examine the term  law. Basically,  there are four kinds of law: statutes, regulations, common law, and constitutional law.

summary We appeal to moral standards when we

answer a moral question or make a

moral judgment. Three characteristics of moral standards

distinguish them from other kinds of

standards.

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chapter one  The naTure of moraliTy      7

statutes  are  laws enacted by  legislative bodies. For example,  the  law  that defines  and prohibits reckless driving on the highway is a statute. congress and state legislatures  enact statutes. (Laws enacted by local governing bodies such as city councils are usually  termed ordinances.) Statutes make up a large part of the law and are what many of us  mean when we speak of “laws.”

Limited in their time and knowledge,  legislatures often set up boards or agencies  whose functions include issuing detailed regulations covering certain kinds of conduct— administrative regulations. For example, state legislatures establish licensing boards to  formulate regulations for the licensing of physicians and nurses. as long as these regula- tions do not exceed the board’s statutory powers and do not conflict with other kinds of  law, they are legally binding.

Common law refers  to  the  body  of  judge-made  law  that  first  developed  in  the  english-speaking world centuries ago when there were few statutes. courts frequently  wrote opinions  explaining  the bases of  their decisions  in  specific  cases,  including  the  legal principles those decisions rested on. each of these opinions became a precedent for  later decisions in similar cases. The massive body of precedents and legal principles that  accumulated over the years is collectively referred to as “common law.” Like administra- tive regulations, common law is valid if it harmonizes with statutory law and with still  another kind: constitutional law.

Constitutional law refers to court rulings on the requirements of the constitution  and the constitutionality of legislation. The U.S. constitution empowers the courts to  decide whether laws are compatible with the constitution. State courts may also rule on  the constitutionality of state laws under state constitutions. although the courts cannot  make laws, they have far-reaching powers to rule on the constitutionality of  laws and  to declare them invalid if they conflict with the constitution. In the United States, the  Supreme court has the greatest judiciary power and rules on an array of cases, some of  which bear directly on the study of business ethics.

people sometimes confuse legality and morality, but they are different things. on one  hand, breaking the law is not always or necessarily immoral. on the other hand, the legality  of an action does not guarantee that it is morally right. Let’s consider these points further.

1. an action can be illegal but morally right. For example, helping a Jewish family to  hide from the nazis was against German law in 1939, but it would have been a mor- ally admirable thing to have done. of course, the nazi regime was vicious and evil.  By contrast,  in a democratic society with a basically  just  legal order, the fact that  something is illegal provides a moral consideration against doing it. For example,  one moral reason for not burning trash in your backyard is that it violates an ordi- nance that your community has voted in favor of. Some philosophers believe that  sometimes the illegality of an action can make it morally wrong, even if the action  would otherwise have been morally acceptable. But even if they are right about that,  the  fact  that  something  is  illegal  does  not  trump  all  other  moral  considerations.  nonconformity to law is not always immoral, even in a democratic society. There  can be circumstances where, all things considered, violating the law is morally per- missible, perhaps even morally required.

probably no one in the modern era has expressed this point more eloquently  than Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. confined in the Birmingham, alabama, city jail  on charges of parading without a permit, King penned his now famous “Letter from 

Legality should not be confused with morality. Breaking the law isn’t always or necessarily immoral, and the legality of an action doesn’t guarantee its morality.

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8      part one  moral philosophy and business

Birmingham Jail” to eight of his fellow clergymen who had published a statement  attacking King’s unauthorized protest of racial segregation as unwise and untimely.  King wrote:

all segregation statutes are unjust because segregation distorts the soul and damages  the personality. It gives the segregator a false sense of superiority and the segregated  a false sense of inferiority. Segregation, to use the terminology of the Jewish philosopher  Martin  Buber,  substitutes  an  “I-it”  relationship  for  an  “I-thou”  relationship  and  ends up relegating persons to the status of things. hence segregation is not only politi- cally, economically, and sociologically unsound, it is morally wrong and sinful. . . .  Thus it is that I can urge men to obey the 1954 decision of the Supreme court,* for  it is morally right; and I can urge them to disobey segregation ordinances, for they  are morally wrong.4

2. an action that is legal can be morally wrong. For example, it may have been per- fectly legal for the chairman of a profitable company to lay off 125 workers and use  three-quarters of the money saved to boost his pay and that of the company’s other  top managers,5 but the morality of his doing so is open to debate.

or, to take another example, suppose that you’re driving to work one day and  see an accident victim sitting on the side of the road, clearly in shock and needing  medical assistance. Because you know first aid and are in no great hurry to get to  your destination,  you could  easily  stop  and assist  the person. Legally  speaking,  though, you are not obligated  to  stop and render aid. Under common  law,  the  prudent thing would be to drive on, because by stopping you could thus  incur  legal liability if you fail to exercise reasonable care and thereby injure the person.  Many  states  have  enacted  so-called Good Samaritan  laws  to provide  immunity  from damages to those rendering aid (except for gross negligence or serious mis- conduct). But in most states, the law does not oblige people to give such aid or  even to call an ambulance. Moral theorists would agree, however, that if you sped  away without helping or even calling for help, your action might be perfectly legal  but would be morally suspect. regardless of the law, such conduct would almost  certainly be wrong.

What then may we say about the relationship between law and morality? to a signif- icant extent, law codifies a society’s customs, ideals, norms, and moral values. changes in  law tend to reflect changes in what a society takes to be right and wrong, but sometimes  changes in the law can alter people’s ideas about the rightness or wrongness of conduct.  however, even if a society’s laws are sensible and morally sound, it is a mistake to see  them as sufficient to establish the moral standards that should guide us. The law cannot  cover all possible human conduct, and in many situations it is too blunt an instrument  to provide adequate moral guidance. The law generally prohibits egregious affronts to a  society’s moral standards and in that sense is the “floor” of moral conduct, but breaches  of moral conduct can slip through cracks in that floor.

summary Morality must be

distinguished from etiquette (rules for

well-mannered behavior), from law

(statutes, regulations, common law, and

constitutional law), and from professional

codes of ethics (the special rules governing

the members of a profession).

*In Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka  (1954),  the  Supreme court  struck down  the   half-century-old  “separate but equal doctrine,” which permitted racially segregated schools as long as comparable quality was  maintained.

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chapter one  The naTure of moraliTy      9

PrOfessiOnal cOdes

Somewhere  between  etiquette  and  law  lie  professional codes of ethics.  These  are  the  rules  that  are  supposed  to govern  the conduct of members of  a given profession.  adhering to these rules is a required part of membership in that profession. Violation  of a professional code may result in the disapproval of one’s professional peers and, in  serious cases, loss of one’s license to practice that profession. Sometimes these codes are  unwritten and are part of the common understanding of members of a particular profes- sion—for example,  that professors  should not date  their  students.  In other  instances,  these codes or portions of them may be written down by an authoritative body so they  may be better taught and more efficiently enforced.

These written rules are sometimes so vague and general as to be of little value, and  often they amount to little more than self-promotion by the professional organization.  The same is frequently true when industries or corporations publish statements of their  ethical standards. In other cases—for example, with attorneys—professional codes can  be very specific and detailed. It is difficult to generalize about the content of professional  codes of ethics, however, because  they  frequently  involve a mix of purely moral  rules  (for example, client confidentiality), of professional etiquette (for example, the billing  of services to other professionals), and of restrictions intended to benefit the group’s eco- nomic interests (for example, limitations on price competition).

Given their nature, professional codes of ethics are neither a complete nor a com- pletely reliable guide to one’s moral obligations. not all the rules of a professional code  are purely moral in character, and even when they are, the fact that a rule is officially  enshrined as part of the code of a profession does not guarantee that it is a sound moral  principle. as a professional, you must take seriously the injunctions of your profession,  but you still have the responsibility to critically assess those rules for yourself.

You come upon this scene—the car is smoking, and it is clear that an accident just took place. In most states, you are not legally obligated to stop and offer help to the victims.

Re ch

ita n

So rin

/ S hu

tte rs

to ck

.co m

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10      part one  moral philosophy and business

regarding those parts of the code that concern etiquette or financial matters, bear in  mind that by joining a profession you are probably agreeing, explicitly or implicitly, to  abide by those standards. assuming that those rules don’t require morally impermissible  conduct, then consenting to them gives you some moral obligation to follow them. In  addition, for many, living up to the standards of one’s chosen profession is an important  source of personal satisfaction. Still, you must be alert to situations in which professional  standards  or  customary  professional  practice  conflicts  with  ordinary  ethical  require- ments. adherence to a professional code does not exempt your conduct from scrutiny  from the broader perspective of morality.

where dO MOral standards cOMe frOM?

So far you have seen how moral standards are different from various nonmoral standards,  but you probably wonder about the source of those moral standards. Most, if not all,  people have certain moral principles or a moral code that they explicitly or implicitly  accept.  Because  the  moral  principles  of  different  people  in  the  same  society  overlap,  at least in part, we can also talk about the moral code of a society, meaning the moral  standards shared by its members. how do we come to have certain moral principles and  not others? obviously, many things influence what moral principles we accept: our early  upbringing, the behavior of those around us, the explicit and implicit standards of our  culture, our own experiences, and our critical reflections on those experiences.

For  philosophers,  though,  the  central  question  is  not  how  we  came  to  have  the  particular principles we have. The philosophical issue is whether those principles can be  justified. Do we simply take for granted the values of those around us? or, like Martin  Luther King, Jr., are we able to think independently about moral matters? By analogy,  we pick up our nonmoral beliefs  from all  sorts of  sources: books,  conversations with  friends,  movies,  various  experiences  we’ve  had.  What  is  important,  however,  is  not  how we acquired the beliefs we have, but whether or to what extent those beliefs—for  example, that women are more emotional than men or that telekinesis is possible—can  withstand critical scrutiny. Likewise, ethical theories attempt to justify moral standards  and ethical beliefs. The next chapter examines some of the major theories of normative  ethics. It looks at what some of the major thinkers in human history have argued are the  best-justified standards of right and wrong.

But first we need to consider the relationship between morality and religion on the  one hand and between morality and society on the other. Some people maintain that  morality just boils down to religion. others have argued for the doctrine of ethical rela- tivism, which says that right and wrong are only a function of what a particular society  takes to be right and wrong. Both those views are mistaken.

• • •

rel ig ioN a Nd Mor al iT y any religion provides its believers with a worldview, part of which involves certain moral  instructions, values, and commitments. The Jewish and christian traditions,  to name  just two, offer a view of humans as unique products of a divine intervention that has  endowed  them with  consciousness  and  an  ability  to  love. Both  these  traditions posit 

You should take seriously the code that governs your

profession, but you still have a

responsibility to assess its rules for

yourself.

For philosophers, the important issue is

not where our moral principles came

from, but whether they can be justified.

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chapter one  The naTure of moraliTy      11

creatures who stand midway between nature and spirit. on one hand, we are finite and  bound to earth, not only capable of wrongdoing but also born morally flawed (original  sin). on the other, we can transcend nature and realize infinite possibilities.

primarily because of the influence of Western religion, many americans and others  view themselves as beings with a supernatural destiny, as possessing a life after death,  as being immortal. one’s purpose in life is found in serving and loving God. For the  christian, the way to serve and love God is by emulating the life of Jesus of nazareth.  In  the  life  of  Jesus,  christians  find  an  expression  of  the  highest  virtue—love.  They  love when they perform selfless acts, develop a keen social conscience, and realize that  human beings are creatures of God and therefore intrinsically worthwhile. For the Jew,  one serves and loves God chiefly through expressions of justice and righteousness. Jews  also develop  a  sense of honor derived  from a  commitment  to  truth, humility, fidel- ity, and kindness. This commitment hones their sense of responsibility to family and  community.

religion, then, involves not only a formal system of worship but also prescriptions  for  social  relationships.  one  example  is  the  mandate  “Do  unto  others  as  you  would  have them do unto you.” termed the “Golden rule,” this injunction represents one of  humankind’s highest moral ideals and can be found in essence in all the great religions of  the world:

Good people proceed while considering that what is best for others is best for  themselves. (Hitopadesa, hinduism)

Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself. (Leviticus 19:18, Judaism)

Therefore all things whatsoever ye would that men should do to you, do ye even  so to them. (Matthew 7:12, christianity)

hurt not others with that which pains yourself. (Udanavarga 5:18, Buddhism)

What you do not want done to yourself, do not do to others. (Analects 15:23,  confucianism)

no one of you is a believer until he loves for his brother what he loves for him- self. (Traditions, Islam)

although  inspiring,  such  religious  ideals  are  very  general  and  can  be  difficult  to  translate  into  precise  policy  injunctions.  religious  bodies,  nevertheless,  occasionally  articulate positions on more specific political, educational, economic, and medical issues,  which help mold public opinion on matters  as diverse as  abortion,  the environment,  national defense, and the ethics of scientific research. roman catholicism, in particular,  has a rich history of formally applying its core values to the moral aspects of industrial   relations and economic life. pope John paul II’s encyclical Centesimus Annus, the national  conference of catholic Bishops’ pastoral letter Economic Justice for All on catholic social  teaching and the U.S. economy, and the pontifical council for Social communication’s  reports on advertising and on ethics and the Internet stand in that  tradition––as does  pope Benedict XVI’s 2007 critique of the growing trend for companies to rely on short- term job contracts, which in his view undermines the stability of society and prevents  young people from building families.6

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12      part one  moral philosophy and business

MOrality needn’t rest On religiOn

Many people believe that morality must be based on religion, either in the sense that  without religion people would have no incentive to be moral or in the sense that only  religion can provide moral guidance. others contend that morality is based on the com- mands of God. none of these claims is convincing.

First, although a desire to avoid hell and to go to heaven may prompt some of us  to act morally, this is not the only reason or even the most common reason that people  behave morally. often we act morally out of habit or just because that is the kind of per- son we are. It would simply not occur to most of us to swipe an elderly lady’s purse, and  if the idea did occur to us, we wouldn’t do it because such an act simply doesn’t fit with  our personal standards or with our concept of ourselves. We are often motivated to do  what is morally right out of concern for others or just because it is right. In addition, the  approval of our peers, the need to appease our conscience, and the desire to avoid earthly  punishment may all motivate us to act morally. Furthermore, atheists generally live lives  as moral and upright as those of believers.

Second, the moral instructions of the world’s great religions are general and im precise:  They do not  relieve us of  the necessity of engaging  in moral  reasoning ourselves. For  example, the Bible says, “Thou shall not kill.” Yet christians disagree among themselves  over the morality of fighting in wars, of capital punishment, of killing in self-defense, of  slaughtering animals, of abortion and euthanasia, and of allowing foreigners to die from  famine because we have not provided them with as much food as we might have. The  Bible does not provide unambiguous solutions to these moral problems, so even believers  must engage in moral philosophy if they are to have intelligent answers. on the other  hand, there are lots of reasons for believing that, say, a cold-blooded murder motivated  by greed is immoral. You don’t have to believe in a religion to figure that out.

Third, although some theologians have advocated the divine command theory— that if something is wrong (like killing an innocent person for fun), then the only reason  it  is wrong  is  that God  commands us not  to  do  it—many  theologians  and  certainly  most philosophers would reject this view. They would contend that if God commands  human beings not to do something, such as commit rape, it is because God sees that rape  is wrong, but it is not God’s forbidding rape that makes it wrong. The fact that rape is  wrong is independent of God’s decrees.

Most believers think not only that God gives us moral instructions or rules but also  that God has moral reasons for giving them to us. according to the divine command  theory, this would make no sense. In this view, there is no reason that something is right  or wrong, other than the fact that it is God’s will. all believers, of course, believe that  God is good and that God commands us to do what is right and forbids us to do what is  wrong. But this doesn’t mean, say critics of the divine command theory, that it is God’s  saying so that makes a thing wrong, any more than it is your mother’s telling you not to  steal that makes it wrong to steal.

all this is simply to argue that morality is not necessarily based on religion in any  of these three senses. That religion influences the moral standards and values of most of  us is beyond doubt. But given that religions differ in their moral beliefs and that even  members of the same faith often disagree on moral matters, you cannot justify a moral  judgment simply by appealing to religion—for that will only persuade those who already  agree  with  your  particular  interpretation  of  your  particular  religion.  Besides,  most   religions hold that human reason is capable of understanding what is right and wrong, 

The idea that morality must be

based on religion can be interpreted in

three different ways, none of which is very

plausible.

summary Morality is not

necessarily based on religion. Although we draw our moral beliefs from many sources, for philosophers the issue

is whether those beliefs can be justified.

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chapter one  The naTure of moraliTy      13

so it is human reason to which you will have to appeal in order to support your ethical  principles and judgments.

• • •

e Thical rel aT iV isM Some people do not believe  that morality boils down to  religion but  rather  that  it  is  merely a function of what a particular society happens to believe. This view is called ethi- cal relativism, the theory that what is right is determined by what a culture or society  says is right. What is right in one place may be wrong in another, because the only crite- rion for distinguishing right from wrong—and so the only ethical standard for judging  an action—is the moral system of the society in which the act occurs.

abortion, for example, is condemned as immoral in catholic Ireland but is prac- ticed as a morally neutral form of birth control in Japan. according to the ethical relativ- ist, then, abortion is wrong in Ireland but morally permissible in Japan. The relativist is  not saying merely that the Irish believe abortion is abominable and the Japanese do not;  that is acknowledged by everyone. rather, the ethical relativist contends that abortion  is immoral in Ireland because the Irish believe it to be immoral and that it is morally  permissible in Japan because the Japanese believe it to be so. Thus, for the ethical relativ- ist there is no absolute ethical standard independent of cultural context, no criterion of  right and wrong by which to judge other than that of particular societies. In short, what  morality requires is relative to society.

Those who endorse ethical relativism point to the apparent diversity of human values  and the multiformity of moral codes to support their case. From our own cultural per- spective, some seemingly immoral moralities have been adopted. polygamy, pedophilia,  stealing, slavery, infanticide, and cannibalism have all been tolerated or even encouraged  by the moral system of one society or another. In light of this fact, the ethical relativist  believes that there can be no non-ethnocentric standard by which to judge actions.

Some thinkers believe that the moral differences between societies are smaller and  less significant than they appear. They contend that variations in moral standards reflect  differing factual beliefs and differing circumstances rather than fundamental differences in  values. But suppose they are wrong about this matter. The relativist’s conclusion still does  not follow. a difference of opinion among societies about right and wrong no more proves  that none of the conflicting beliefs is true or superior to the others than the diversity of  viewpoints expressed in a college seminar establishes that there is no truth. In short, disa- greement in ethical matters does not imply that all opinions are equally correct.

Moreover,  ethical  relativism has  some unsatisfactory  implications. First,  it under- mines any moral criticism of the practices of other societies as long as their actions con- form to their own standards. We cannot say that slavery in a slave society like that of the  american South 160 years ago was immoral and unjust as long as that society held it to  be morally permissible.

Second, and closely related, is the fact that for the relativist there is no such thing as  ethical progress. although moralities may change, they cannot get better or worse. Thus,  we cannot say that moral standards today are more enlightened than were moral stand- ards in the Middle ages.

Ethical disagreement does not imply that all opinions are equally correct.

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14      part one  moral philosophy and business

Third,  from the relativist’s point of view,  it makes no sense for people to criticize  principles or practices  accepted by  their  own  society. people  can be  censured  for not  living up to their society’s moral code, but that is all. The moral code itself cannot be  criticized because whatever a society takes to be right really is right for it. reformers who  identify injustices in their society and campaign against them are only encouraging peo- ple to be immoral—that is, to depart from the moral standards of their society—unless  or until the majority of the society agrees with the reformers. The minority can never be  right in moral matters; to be right it must become the majority.

The ethical relativist is correct to emphasize that in viewing other cultures we should  keep an open mind and not simply dismiss alien social practices on the basis of our own  cultural prejudices. But the relativist’s theory of morality doesn’t hold up. The more care- fully we examine it, the less plausible it becomes. There is no good reason for saying that  the majority view on moral issues is automatically right, and the belief that it is auto- matically right has unacceptable consequences.

relativisM and the “gaMe” Of Business

In his essay “Is Business Bluffing ethical?” albert carr argues that business, as practiced  by  individuals  as well  as by  corporations, has  the  impersonal  character of  a game—a  game  that  demands  both  special  strategy  and  an  understanding  of  its  special  ethical  standards.7 Business has  its own norms and rules  that differ  from those of  the rest of  society. Thus, according to carr, a number of things that we normally think of as wrong  are really permissible in a business context. his examples include conscious misstatement  and concealment of pertinent facts in negotiation, lying about one’s age on a résumé,  deceptive packaging, automobile companies’ neglect of car safety, and utility companies’  manipulation of regulators and overcharging of electricity users. he draws an analogy  with poker:

poker’s own brand of ethics is different from the ethical ideals of civilized human rela- tionships. The game calls for distrust of the other fellow. It ignores the claim of friend- ship.  cunning  deception  and  concealment  of  one’s  strength  and  intentions,  not  kindness  and openheartedness,  are  vital  in poker. no one  thinks  any  the worse of  poker on that account. and no one should think any the worse of the game of business  because its standards of right and wrong differ from the prevailing traditions of moral- ity in our society.8

What carr is defending here is a kind of ethical relativism: Business has its own moral  standards, and business actions should be evaluated only by those standards.

one  can  argue  whether  carr  has  accurately  identified  the  implicit  rules  of  the  business world (for example,  is misrepresentation on one’s résumé really a permissible  move in the business game?), but let’s put that issue aside. The basic question is whether  business is a separate world to which ordinary moral standards don’t apply. carr’s thesis  assumes that any special activity following its own rules is exempt from external moral  evaluation, but as a general proposition this  is unacceptable. The Mafia,  for example,  has an elaborate code of conduct, accepted by the members of the rival “families.” For  them, gunning down a competitor or terrorizing a local shopkeeper may be a strategic  move in a competitive environment. Yet we rightly refuse to say that gangsters cannot  be criticized for following their own standards. normal business activity is a world away  from gangsterism, but the point still holds. any specialized activity or practice will have 

summary Ethical relativism is the theory that right and

wrong are determined by what one’s society

says is right and wrong. There are many

problems with this theory. Also dubious is

the notion that business has its own

morality, divorced from ordinary ideas of right

and wrong.

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chapter one  The naTure of moraliTy      15

its own distinctive rules and procedures, but the morality of those rules and procedures  can still be evaluated.

Moreover,  carr’s  poker  analogy  is  itself  weak.  For  one  thing,  business  activity  can  affect  others—such  as  consumers—who have not  consciously  and  freely  chosen  to play  the “game.” Business is indeed an activity involving distinctive rules and customary ways  of doing things, but it is not really a game. It is the economic basis of our society, and we  all have an interest in the goals of business (in productivity and consumer satisfaction, for  instance) and in the rules business follows. Why should these be exempt from public evalu- ation and assessment? Later chapters return to the question of what these goals and rules  should be. But to take one simple point, note that a business/economic system that permits,  encourages, or tolerates deception will be less efficient (that is, work less well) than one in  which the participants have fuller knowledge of the goods and services being exchanged.

In sum, by divorcing business  from morality, carr misrepresents both. he incor- rectly treats the standards and rules of everyday business activity as if they had nothing to  do with the standards and rules of ordinary morality, and he treats morality as something  that we give lip service to on Sundays but that otherwise has no influence on our lives.

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a company resource weakness or competitive deficiency

page 82

CHAPTER 4

Evaluating a Company’s Resources, Capabilities, and Competitiveness

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Learning Objectives THIS CHAPTER WILL HELP YOU UNDERSTAND:

LO 1 How to take stock of how well a company’s strategy is working.

LO 2 Why a company’s resources and capabilities are centrally important in giving the company a competitive edge over rivals.

LO 3 How to assess the company’s strengths and weaknesses in light of market opportunities and external threats.

LO 4 How a company’s value chain activities can affect the company’s cost structure and customer value proposition.

LO 5 How a comprehensive evaluation of a company’s competitive situation can assist managers in making critical decisions about their next strategic moves.

Crucial, of course, is having a difference that matters in the industry.

Cynthia Montgomery—Professor and author

If you don’t have a competitive advantage, don’t compete

Jack Welch—Former CEO of General Electric

Organizations succeed in a competitive marketplace over the long run because they can do certain things their customers value better than can their competitors.

Robert Hayes, Gary Pisano, and David Upton—-Professors and consultants

Chapter 3 described how to use the tools of industry and competitor analysis to assess a company’s external environment and lay the groundwork for matching a company’s strategy to its external situation. This chapter discusses techniques for evaluating a company’s internal situation, including its collection of resources and capabilities and the activities it performs along its value chain. Internal analysis enables managers to determine whether their strategy is likely to give the company a significant competitive edge over rival firms. Combined with external analysis, it facilitates an understanding of how to reposition a firm to take advantage of new opportunities and to cope with emerging competitive threats. The analytic spotlight will be trained on six questions:

1. How well is the company’s present strategy working? 2. What are the company’s most important resources and capabilities, and will they give the company a

lasting competitive advantage over rival companies? 3. What are the company’s strengths and weaknesses in relation to the market opportunities and

external threats? 4. How do a company’s value chain activities impact its cost structure and customer value proposition? 5. Is the company competitively stronger or weaker than key rivals? 6. What strategic issues and problems merit front-burner managerial attention?

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In probing for answers to these questions, five analytic tools—resource and capability analysis, SWOT analysis, value chain analysis, benchmarking, and competitive strength assessment—will be used. All five are valuable techniques for revealing a company’s competitiveness and for helping company managers match their strategy to the company’s particular circumstances.

QUESTION 1: HOW WELL IS THE COMPANY’S PRESENT STRATEGY WORKING?

LO 1 How to take stock of how well a company’s strategy is working.

In evaluating how well a company’s present strategy is working, the best way to start is with a clear view of what the strategy entails. Figure 4.1 shows the key components of a single-business company’s strategy. The first thing to examine is the company’s competitive approach. What moves has the company made recently to attract customers and improve its market position—for instance, has it cut prices, improved the design of its product, added new features, stepped up advertising, entered a new geographic market, or merged with a competitor? Is it striving for a competitive advantage based on low costs or a better product offering? Is it concentrating on serving a broad spectrum of customers or a narrow market niche? The company’s functional strategies in R&D, production, marketing, finance, human resources, information technology, and so on further characterize company strategy, as do any efforts to establish alliances with other enterprises.

FIGURE 4.1 Identifying the Components of a Single-Business Company’s Strategy

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The three best indicators of how well a company’s strategy is working are (1) whether the company is achieving its stated financial and strategic objectives, (2) whether its financial performance is above the industry average, and (3) whether it is gaining customers and gaining market share. Persistent shortfalls in meeting company performance targets and weak marketplace performance relative to rivals are reliable warning signs that the company has a weak strategy, suffers from poor strategy execution, or both. Specific indicators of how well a company’s strategy is working include:

• Trends in the company’s sales and earnings growth. • Trends in the company’s stock price. • The company’s overall financial strength. • The company’s customer retention rate. • The rate at which new customers are acquired. • Evidence of improvement in internal processes such as defect rate, order fulfillment,

delivery times, days of inventory, and employee productivity.

Sluggish financial performance and second-rate market accomplishments almost always signal weak strategy, weak execution, or both.

The stronger a company’s current overall performance, the more likely it has a well-conceived, well- executed strategy. The weaker a company’s financial performance and market standing, the more its current strategy must be questioned and the more likely the need for radical changes. Table 4.1 provides

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a compilation of the financial ratios most commonly used to evaluate a company’s financial performance and balance sheet strength.

TABLE 4.1 Key Financial Ratios: How to Calculate Them and What They Mean

Ratio How Calculated What It Shows

Profitability ratios

1.  Gross profit margin Shows the percentage of

revenues available to cover operating expenses and yield a profit.

2.  Operating profit margin (or return on sales)

Shows the profitability of current operations without regard to interest charges and income taxes. Earnings before interest and taxes is known as EBIT in financial and business accounting.

3.  Net profit margin (or net return on sales)

Shows after-tax profits per dollar of sales.

4.  Total return on assets A measure of the return on

total investment in the enterprise. Interest is added to after-tax profits to form the numerator, since total assets are

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Ratio How Calculated What It Shows

financed by creditors as well as by stockholders.

5.  Net return on total assets (ROA)

A measure of the return earned by stockholders on the firm’s total assets.

6.  Return on stockholders’ equity (ROE)

The return stockholders are earning on their capital investment in the enterprise. A return in the 12%–15% range is average.

7.  Return on invested capital (ROIC) —sometimes referred to as return on capital employed (ROCE)

A measure of the return that shareholders are earning on the monetary capital invested in the enterprise. A higher return reflects greater bottom-line effectiveness in the use of long- term capital.

Liquidity ratios

1.  Current ratio Shows a firm’s ability to pay

current liabilities using assets that can be converted to

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Ratio How Calculated What It Shows

cash in the near term. Ratio should be higher than 1.0.

2.  Working capital

Current assets – Current liabilities The cash available for a firm’s day-to-day operations. Larger amounts mean the company has more internal funds to (1) pay its current liabilities on a timely basis and (2) finance inventory expansion, additional accounts receivable, and a larger base of operations without resorting to borrowing or raising more equity capital.

Leverage ratios

1.  Total debt- to-assets ratio

Measures the extent to which borrowed funds (both short-term loans and long- term debt) have been used to finance the firm’s operations. A low ratio is better—a high fraction indicates overuse of debt

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Ratio How Calculated What It Shows

and greater risk of bankruptcy.

2.  Long-term debt-to- capital ratio

A measure of creditworthiness and balance sheet strength. It indicates the percentage of capital investment that has been financed by both long-term lenders and stockholders. A ratio below 0.25 is preferable since the lower the ratio, the greater the capacity to borrow additional funds. Debt-to-capital ratios above 0.50 indicate an excessive reliance on long- term borrowing, lower creditworthiness, and weak balance sheet strength.

3.  Debt-to- equity ratio Shows the balance

between debt (funds borrowed both short term and long term) and the amount that stockholders have invested in the enterprise. The further the ratio is below 1.0, the greater

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Ratio How Calculated What It Shows

the firm’s ability to borrow additional funds. Ratios above 1.0 put creditors at greater risk, signal weaker balance sheet strength, and often result in lower credit ratings.

4.  Long-term debt-to- equity ratio

Shows the balance between long- term debt and stockholders’ equity in the firm’s long-term capital structure. Low ratios indicate a greater capacity to borrow additional funds if needed.

5.  Times- interest- earned (or coverage) ratio

Measures the ability to pay annual interest charges. Lenders usually insist on a minimum ratio of 2.0, but ratios above 3.0 signal progressively better creditworthiness.

Activity ratios

1.  Days of inventory Measures inventory

management efficiency. Fewer

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Ratio How Calculated What It Shows

days of inventory are better.

2.  Inventory turnover Measures the number of

inventory turns per year. Higher is better.

3.  Average collection period

Indicates the average length of time the firm must wait after making a sale to receive cash payment. A shorter collection time is better.

Other important measures of financial performance

1.  Dividend yield on common stock

A measure of the return that shareholders receive in the form of dividends. A “typical” dividend yield is 2%–3%. The dividend yield for fast-growth companies is often below 1%; the dividend yield for slow- growth companies can run 4%–5%.

2.  Price-to- earnings (P/E) ratio

P/E ratios above 20 indicate strong investor confidence in a firm’s outlook

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Ratio How Calculated What It Shows

and earnings growth; firms whose future earnings are at risk or likely to grow slowly typically have ratios below 12.

3.  Dividend payout ratio Indicates the percentage of

after-tax profits paid out as dividends.

4.  Internal cash flow

After-tax profits + Depreciation A rough estimate of the cash a company’s business is generating after payment of operating expenses, interest, and taxes. Such amounts can be used for dividend payments or funding capital expenditures.

5.  Free cash flow

After- tax profits + Depreciation – Capital expenditures – Dividends A rough

estimate of the cash a company’s business is generating after payment of operating expenses, interest, taxes, dividends, and desirable reinvestments in the business. The larger a company’s free

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Ratio How Calculated What It Shows

cash flow, the greater its ability to internally fund new strategic initiatives, repay debt, make new acquisitions, repurchase shares of stock, or increase dividend payments.

QUESTION 2: WHAT ARE THE COMPANY’S MOST IMPORTANT RESOURCES AND CAPABILITIES, AND WILL THEY GIVE THE COMPANY A LASTING COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE OVER RIVAL COMPANIES?

An essential element of deciding whether a company’s overall situation is fundamentally healthy or unhealthy entails examining the attractiveness of its resources and capabilities. A company’s resources and capabilities are its competitive assets and determine whether its competitive power in the marketplace will be impressively strong or disappointingly weak. Companies with second-rate competitive assets nearly always are relegated to a trailing position in the industry.

CORE CONCEPT A company’s resources and capabilities represent its competitive assets and are determinants of its competitiveness and ability to succeed in the marketplace.

Resource and capability analysis provides managers with a powerful tool for sizing up the company’s competitive assets and determining whether they can provide the foundation necessary for competitive success in the marketplace. This is a two-step process. The first step is to identify the company’s resources and capabilities. The second step is to examine them more closely to ascertain which are the most competitively important and whether they can support a sustainable competitive advantage over rival firms.1 This second step involves applying the four tests of a resource’s competitive power.

Resource and capability analysis is a powerful tool for sizing up a company’s competitive assets and determining whether the assets can support a sustainable competitive advantage over market rivals.

Identifying the Company’s Resources and Capabilities

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A firm’s resources and capabilities are the fundamental building blocks of its competitive strategy. In crafting strategy, it is essential for managers to know how to take stock of the company’s full complement of resources and capabilities. But before they can do so, managers and strategists need a more precise definition of these terms.

LO 2 Why a company’s resources and capabilities are centrally important in giving the company a competitive edge over rivals.

In brief, a resource is a productive input or competitive asset that is owned or controlled by the firm. Firms have many different types of resources at their disposal that vary not only in kind but in quality as well. Some are of a higher quality than others, and some are more competitively valuable, having greater potential to give a firm a competitive advantage over its rivals. For example, a company’s brand is a resource, as is an R&D team—yet some brands such as Coca-Cola and Xerox are well known, with enduring value, while others have little more name recognition than generic products. In similar fashion, some R&D teams are far more innovative and productive than others due to the outstanding talents of the individual team members, the team’s composition, its experience, and its chemistry.

A capability (or competence) is the capacity of a firm to perform some internal activity competently. Capabilities or competences also vary in form, quality, and competitive importance, with some being more competitively valuable than others. American Express displays superior capabilities in brand management and marketing; Starbucks’s employee management, training, and real estate capabilities are the drivers behind its rapid growth; LinkedIn relies on superior software innovation capabilities to increase new user memberships. Organizational capabilities are developed and enabled through the deployment of a company’s resources.2 For example, Nestlé’s brand management capabilities for its 2,000+ food, beverage, and pet care brands draw on the knowledge of the company’s brand managers, the expertise of its marketing department, and the company’s relationships with retailers in nearly 200 countries. W. L. Gore’s product innovation capabilities in its fabrics and medical and industrial product businesses result from the personal initiative, creative talents, and technological expertise of its associates and the company’s culture that encourages accountability and creative thinking.

CORE CONCEPT A resource is a competitive asset that is owned or controlled by a company; a capability (or competence) is the capacity of a firm to perform some internal activity competently. Capabilities are developed and enabled through the deployment of a company’s resources.

Types of Company Resources A useful way to identify a company’s resources is to look for them within categories, as shown in Table 4.2. Broadly speaking, resources can be divided into two main categories: tangible and intangible resources. Although human resources make up one of the most important parts of a company’s resource base, we include them in the intangible category to emphasize the role played by the skills, talents, and knowledge of a company’s human resources.

Table 4.2 Types of Company Resources

Tangible resources

• Physical resources: land and real estate; manufacturing plants, equipment, and/or distribution facilities; the locations of stores, plants, or distribution centers, including the overall pattern of

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Tangible resources

their physical locations; ownership of or access rights to natural resources (such as mineral deposits)

• Financial resources: cash and cash equivalents; marketable securities; other financial assets such as a company’s credit rating and borrowing capacity

• Technological assets: patents, copyrights, production technology, innovation technologies, technological processes

• Organizational resources: IT and communication systems (satellites, servers, workstations, etc.); other planning, coordination, and control systems; the company’s organizational design and reporting structure

Intangible resources

• Human assets and intellectual capital: the education, experience, knowledge, and talent of the workforce, cumulative learning, and tacit knowledge of employees; collective learning embedded in the organization, the intellectual capital and know-how of specialized teams and work groups; the knowledge of key personnel concerning important business functions; managerial talent and leadership skill; the creativity and innovativeness of certain personnel

• Brands, company image, and reputational assets: brand names, trademarks, product or company image, buyer loyalty and goodwill; company reputation for quality, service, and reliability; reputation with suppliers and partners for fair dealing

• Relationships: alliances, joint ventures, or partnerships that provide access to technologies, specialized know-how, or geographic markets; networks of dealers or distributors; the trust established with various partners

• Company culture and incentive system: the norms of behavior, business principles, and ingrained beliefs within the company; the attachment of personnel to the company’s ideals; the compensation system and the motivation level of company personnel

Tangible resources are the most easily identified, since tangible resources are those that can be touched or quantified readily. Obviously, they include various types of physical resources such as manufacturing facilities and mineral resources, but they also include a company’s financial resources, technological resources, and organizational resources such as the company’s communication and control systems. Note that technological resources are included among tangible resources, by convention, even though some types, such as copyrights and trade secrets, might be more logically categorized as intangible.

Intangible resources are harder to discern, but they are often among the most important of a firm’s competitive assets. They include various sorts of human assets and intellectual capital, as well as a

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company’s brands, image, and reputational assets. While intangible resources have no material existence on their own, they are often embodied in something material. Thus, the skills and knowledge resources of a firm are embodied in its managers and employees; a company’s brand name is embodied in the company logo or product labels. Other important kinds of intangible resources include a company’s relationships with suppliers, buyers, or partners of various sorts, and the company’s culture and incentive system. A more detailed listing of the various types of tangible and intangible resources is provided in Table 4.2.

Listing a company’s resources category by category can prevent managers from inadvertently overlooking some company resources that might be competitively important. At times, it can be difficult to decide exactly how to categorize certain types of resources. For example, resources such as a work group’s specialized expertise in developing innovative products can be considered to be technological assets or human assets or intellectual capital and knowledge assets; the work ethic and drive of a company’s workforce could be included under the company’s human assets or its culture and incentive system. In this regard, it is important to remember that it is not exactly how a resource is categorized that matters but, rather, that all of the company’s different types of resources are included in the inventory. The real purpose of using categories in identifying a company’s resources is to ensure that none of a company’s resources go unnoticed when sizing up the company’s competitive assets.

Identifying Capabilities Organizational capabilities are more complex entities than resources; indeed, they are built up through the use of resources and draw on some combination of the firm’s resources as they are exercised. Virtually all organizational capabilities are knowledge-based, residing in people and in a company’s intellectual capital, or in organizational processes and systems, which embody tacit knowledge. For example, Amazon’s speedy delivery capabilities rely on the knowledge of its fulfillment center managers, its relationship with the United Postal Service, and the experience of its merchandisers to correctly predict inventory flow. Bose’s capabilities in auditory system design arise from the talented engineers that form the R&D team as well as the company’s strong culture, which celebrates innovation and beautiful design.

Because of their complexity, capabilities are harder to categorize than resources and more challenging to search for as a result. There are, however, two approaches that can make the process of uncovering and identifying a firm’s capabilities more systematic. The first method takes the completed listing of a firm’s resources as its starting point. Since capabilities are built from resources and utilize resources as they are exercised, a firm’s resources can provide a strong set of clues about the types of capabilities the firm is likely to have accumulated. This approach simply involves looking over the firm’s resources and considering whether (and to what extent) the firm has built up any related capabilities. So, for example, a fleet of trucks, the latest RFID tracking technology, and a set of large automated distribution centers may be indicative of sophisticated capabilities in logistics and distribution. R&D teams composed of top scientists with expertise in genomics may suggest organizational capabilities in developing new gene therapies or in biotechnology more generally.

The second method of identifying a firm’s capabilities takes a functional approach. Many capabilities relate to fairly specific functions; these draw on a limited set of resources and typically involve a single department or organizational unit. Capabilities in injection molding or continuous casting or metal stamping are manufacturing-related; capabilities in direct selling, promotional pricing, or database marketing all connect to the sales and marketing functions; capabilities in basic research, strategic innovation, or new product development link to a company’s R&D function. This approach requires managers to survey the various functions a firm performs to find the different capabilities associated with each function.

A problem with this second method is that many of the most important capabilities of firms are inherently cross-functional. Cross-functional capabilities draw on a number of different kinds of resources and are multidimensional in nature—they spring from the effective collaboration among people with different types of expertise working in different organizational units. Warby Parker draws from its cross- functional design process to create its popular eyewear. Its design capabilities are not just due to its creative designers, but are the product of their capabilities in market research and engineering as well as their relations with suppliers and manufacturing companies. Cross-functional capabilities and other complex capabilities involving numerous linked and closely integrated competitive assets are sometimes referred to as resource bundles.

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CORE CONCEPT A resource bundle is a linked and closely integrated set of competitive assets centered around one or more cross-functional capabilities.

It is important not to miss identifying a company’s resource bundles, since they can be the most competitively important of a firm’s competitive assets. Resource bundles can sometimes pass the four tests of a resource’s competitive power (described below) even when the individual components of the resource bundle cannot. Although PetSmart’s supply chain and marketing capabilities are matched well by rival Petco, the company has and continues to outperform competitors through its customer service capabilities (including animal grooming and veterinary and day care services). Nike’s bundle of styling expertise, marketing research skills, professional endorsements, brand name, and managerial know-how has allowed it to remain number one in the athletic footwear and apparel industry for more than 20 years.

Assessing the Competitive Power of a Company’s Resources and Capabilities To assess a company’s competitive power, one must go beyond merely identifying its resources and capabilities to probe its caliber.3 Thus, the second step in resource and capability analysis is designed to ascertain which of a company’s resources and capabilities are competitively superior and to what extent they can support a company’s quest for a sustainable competitive advantage over market rivals. When a company has competitive assets that are central to its strategy and superior to those of rival firms, they can support a competitive advantage, as defined in Chapter 1. If this advantage proves durable despite the best efforts of competitors to overcome it, then the company is said to have a sustainable competitive advantage. While it may be difficult for a company to achieve a sustainable competitive advantage, it is an important strategic objective because it imparts a potential for attractive and long- lived profitability.

The Four Tests of a Resource’s Competitive Power The competitive power of a resource or capability is measured by how many of four specific tests it can pass.4 These tests are referred to as the VRIN tests for sustainable competitive advantage—VRIN is a shorthand reminder standing for Valuable, Rare, Inimitable, and Nonsubstitutable. The first two tests determine whether a resource or capability can support a competitive advantage. The last two determine whether the competitive advantage can be sustained.

CORE CONCEPT The VRIN tests for sustainable competitive advantage ask whether a resource is valuable, rare, inimitable, and nonsubstitutable.

1. Is the resource or capability competitively Valuable? To be competitively valuable, a resource or capability must be directly relevant to the company’s strategy, making the company a more effective competitor. Unless the resource or capability contributes to the effectiveness of the company’s strategy, it cannot pass this first test. An indicator of its effectiveness is whether the resource enables the company to strengthen its business model by improving its customer value proposition and/or profit formula (see Chapter 1). Companies have to guard against contending that something they do well is necessarily competitively valuable. Apple’s OS X operating system for its personal computers

PRINTED BY: Aaron Reagan <reaganap@me.com>. Printing is for personal, private use only. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted without publisher’s prior permission. Violators will be prosecuted.

11/7/2017http://e.pub/lc7027taixs89fglf6e8.vbk/OEBPS/chapter04-print-1510071469.xhtml

page 92

by some accounts is superior to Microsoft’s Windows 10, but Apple has failed in converting its resources devoted to operating system design into anything more than moderate competitive success in the global PC market.

2. Is the resource or capability Rare—is it something rivals lack? Resources and capabilities that are common among firms and widely available cannot be a source of competitive advantage. All makers of branded cereals have valuable marketing capabilities and brands, since the key success factors in the ready-to-eat cereal industry demand this. They are not rare. However, the brand strength of Oreo cookies is uncommon and has provided Kraft Foods with greater market share as well as the opportunity to benefit from brand extensions such as Double Stuf Oreos and Mini Oreos. A resource or capability is considered rare if it is held by only a small number of firms in an industry or specific competitive domain. Thus, while general management capabilities are not rare in an absolute sense, they are relatively rare in some of the less developed regions of the world and in some business domains.

3. Is the resource or capability Inimitable—is it hard to copy? The more difficult and more costly it is for competitors to imitate a company’s resource or capability, the more likely that it can also provide a sustainable competitive advantage. Resources and capabilities tend to be difficult to copy when they are unique (a fantastic real estate location, patent-protected technology, an unusually talented and motivated labor force), when they must be built over time in ways that are difficult to imitate (a well- known brand name, mastery of a complex process technology, years of cumulative experience and learning), and when they entail financial outlays or large-scale operations that few industry members can undertake (a global network of dealers and distributors). Imitation is also difficult for resources and capabilities that reflect a high level of social complexity (company culture, interpersonal relationships among the managers or R&D teams, trust-based relations with customers or suppliers) and causal ambiguity, a term that signifies the hard-to-disentangle nature of the complex resources, such as a web of intricate processes enabling new drug discovery. Hard-to-copy resources and capabilities are important competitive assets, contributing to the longevity of a company’s market position and offering the potential for sustained profitability.

4. Is the resource or capability Nonsubstitutable—is it invulnerable to the threat of substitution from different types of resources and capabilities? Even resources that are competitively valuable, rare, and costly to imitate may lose much of their ability to offer competitive advantage if rivals possess equivalent substitute resources. For example, manufacturers relying on automation to gain a cost- based advantage in production activities may find their technology-based advantage nullified by rivals’ use of low-wage offshore manufacturing. Resources can contribute to a sustainable competitive advantage only when resource substitutes aren’t on the horizon.

CORE CONCEPT Social complexity and causal ambiguity are two factors that inhibit the ability of rivals to imitate a firm’s most valuable resources and capabilities. Causal ambiguity makes it very hard to figure out how a complex resource contributes to competitive advantage and therefore exactly what to imitate.

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interbb blackboard

Write a minimum 5 pages reflection critical analysis’ essay entitled “Is morality relative or are there objective moral truths?” This essay should explore the ethical, scientific, historic and socio-cultural dimensions of the readings. You have to read two readings (links you will find below the assignment description), one written by Ruth Benedict, “The Case for Moral Relativism” and a second written by Louis P. Pojman entitled “The Case Against Moral Relativism.”

What position do you hold regarding the essay’s question? Do you agree or disagree with the positions stated in the two readings? In order to prove your thesis make reference to the required readings from Unit 1 and 2, to the Instructor’s Lecture, as well as to two readings included in this assignment. In the Instructor’s Lecture you have an additional bibliography.

Refer to Essay’s Rubrics in order to see the grading system.

In your essay you should:

  1. Use both readings as well as the rest of the required readings included in the Learning Modules.
  2. Give answers to the following questions:
  3. Regarding Benedict’s paper:
  1. Is Benedict correct in saying that our culture is “but one entry in a long series of possible adjustments”? What are the implications of this statement?
  2. Can we separate the descriptive (or fact-stating) aspect of anthropological study from the prescriptive (evaluative) aspect of evaluating cultures? Are there some independent criteria by which we can say that some cultures are better than others? Can you think how this project might begin?
  3. What are the implications of Benedict’s claim that morality is simply whatever a culture deems normal behavior? Is this a satisfactory equation? Can you apply it to the institution of slavery or the Nazi policy of anti-Semitism?
  4. What is the significance of Benedict’s statement, “The very eyes with which we see the problem are conditioned by the long traditional habits of our own society”? Can we apply the conceptual relativism embodied in this statement to her own position? (taken form Pojman L.P., Vaughn L., The Moral Life, New York 2007, p. 165.)

    b. Regarding Pojman’s paper:

  1. Is Pojman correct in thinking most American students tend to be moral relativists? If he is, why is this? What is the attraction of relativism? If he’s not correct, explain your answer.
  2. Explain the difference between subjective ethical relativism and conventionalism.
  3. Sometimes people argue that since there are no universal moral truths, each culture’s morality is as good as every other, so we ought not to interfere in its practices. Assess this argument.
  4. Does moral relativism have a bad effect on society? Reread the tape-recorded conversation between serial murderer Ted Bundy and one of his victims (pages 171-172) in which Bundy attempts to justify the murder of his victim on the basis of the idea that all moral values are subjective. Analyze Bundy’s discussion. How would the relativist respond to Bundy’s claim that relativism justifies rape and murder? What do you think? Why? (taken form Pojman L.P., Vaughn L., The Moral Life, New York 2007, pp. 190-191.) Here are the readings :
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which of the following statements about the formation of cross beds is correct?

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 1/41

Homework 5 Geologic Time Due: 11:59pm on Sunday, February 28, 2016

You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy

Interactive Animation: Relative Geologic Dating

When you have finished, answer the questions.

Part A

Which of the following statements about relative and absolute age dating is most accurate?

ANSWER:

Correct

Part B

What is the principle of original horizontality?

ANSWER:

Relative age dating places rocks and events in chronological order and can provide information about absolute age.

Relative age dating provides information about absolute ages but does not place rocks and events in chronological order.

Relative age dating places rocks and events in chronological order but does not provide information about absolute age.

Relative age dating does not provide information about absolute ages, nor does it place rocks and events in chronological order.

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 2/41

Correct

Part C

What is the principle of superposition? 

ANSWER:

Correct

Part D

What is the principle of cross­cutting relationships?

ANSWER:

Correct

Part E

Five layers of rock are cut by two faults. Both faults cut through all five layers of rock. Fault A breaks through to the surface, whereas fault B does not. Which of the following statements about faults A and B is most accurate?

Metamorphic rocks are close to horizontal when deposited.

Sedimentary rocks are close to horizontal when deposited.

Sedimentary rocks are close to horizontal when eroded.

Metamorphic rocks are close to horizontal when eroded.

Within a sequence of rock layers formed at Earth’s surface, rock layers in the middle of a sequence are older.

Within a sequence of rock layers formed at Earth’s surface, rock layers higher in the sequence are older.

Within a sequence of rock layers formed at Earth’s surface, rock layers lower in the sequence are older.

Geologic features that cut through rocks must form at roughly the same time as the rocks that they cut through.

Geologic features that cut through rocks must form before the rocks that they cut through.

Geologic features that cut through rocks must form after the rocks that they cut through.

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 3/41

ANSWER:

Correct

Part F

Which principle of relative age dating is important for determining the relative age of igneous rock that has intruded into overlying rock?

ANSWER:

Correct

Part G

A fault (F) breaks three layers of sedimentary rock (S). An igneous intrusion (I1) has broken through the bottommost layer of rock. A second igneous intrusion (I2) has moved up the fault and pooled on top of the uppermost layer of rock. Which event would be considered the youngest?

ANSWER:

Correct

Faults A and B are about the same age, and both are older than the five layers of rock.

Fault A is younger than fault B, and both are older than the five layers of rock.

Faults A and B are about the same age, and both are younger than the five layers of rock.

Fault A is younger than fault B, and both are younger than the five layers of rock.

the principle of original horizontality

the principle of cross­cutting relationships

the principle of intrusive relationships

the principle of superposition

Faulting of rock along F is the youngest event. We know this because all three layers of sedimentary rock have been broken.

The intrusion of I2 is the youngest event. We can know this because I2 sits on top of all other rocks.

Deposition of the three sedimentary layers, S, is the youngest event. We know this because the fault underlies the igneous rocks.

The intrusion of I1 or I2 is the youngest event. Without more information, we cannot know which igneous rock is youngest.

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 4/41

SmartFigure: Relative Dating

Launch the SmartFigure Video

When you have finished, answer the questions.

Part A

A sandstone contains inclusions of metamorphic rock. An igneous dike cuts both the sandstone and inclusions. List the rocks from youngest to oldest.

Hint 1.

Use your knowledge regarding the principles of cross­cutting relationships and dating by inclusions to answer this question.

ANSWER:

Correct

Part B

metamorphic rock, igneous dike, sandstone

igneous dike, sandstone, metamorphic rock

metamorphic rock, sandstone, igneous dike

sandstone, metamorphic rock, igneous dike

igneous dike, metamorphic rock, sandstone

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 5/41

If a sequence of sedimentary units is cut by a fault, what does the principle of cross­cutting relationships tell a geologist?

Hint 1.

Recall what the principle cross­cutting relationships states and how it is used for relative age dating.

ANSWER:

Correct

Part C

Which of the following describes the principle of original horizontality?

Hint 1.

The video showed a sequence of folded sedimentary rocks. What had to occur to form this feature?

ANSWER:

Correct

Part D

The sedimentary units on the left side of the fault are the same as those on the right side.

All of the sedimentary units must have been deposited and lithified before being cut by the fault.

The fault is older than the sedimentary sequence.

Sedimentary layers are laid down horizontally.

The oldest sedimentary unit is located at the base of the sequence, while the youngest is at the top.

Inclusions within a sedimentary rock are older than the sedimentary rock itself.

Folded sedimentary layers were originally laid down flat and later deformed.

A fault or dike that cut a sedimentary sequence is younger than the sedimentary rocks it breaks through.

Undeformed sedimentary layers present on one side of a river­cut canyon are the same as those on the opposite side.

The oldest sedimentary unit is located at the base of the sequence, while the youngest is at the top.

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 6/41

An undeformed sequence of sedimentary rocks is exposed in a large river canyon. Which two principles would be demonstrated by the rocks?

Hint 1.

Think back to the five principles you learned about in the video. Which two would be the most applicable to an undeformed rock sequence that has been eroded by a large stream?

ANSWER:

Correct

Part E

An igneous dike cuts through limestone, but not through the overlying sandstone. Which of the following statements is most accurate?

Hint 1.

Think about how the principles of superposition and cross­cutting relationships are used for this question.

ANSWER:

Correct

principles of lateral continuity and inclusions

principles of superposition and lateral continuity

principles of cross­cutting relationships and superposition

principles of superposition and dating by inclusions

principles of lateral continuity and cross­cutting relationships

First, the sandstone was laid down, next the limestone was deposited, and finally was cut by the igneous dike.

The limestone and sandstone were deposited and then cut by the igneous dike.

First, the limestone was laid down, then intruded by the igneous dike, and lastly the sandstone was deposited.

The igneous dike represents the oldest rock, while the sedimentary rocks are relatively younger.

First, the limestone was laid down, folded and cut by an igneous dike, and finally the sandstone was deposited.

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 7/41

GeoTutor: Constructing an Order of Sequence of Geologic Events ­ Geologic Time Scale

Geologists have divided the whole of history into units of increasing magnitude. This is called the geologic time scale. The entire time scale was originally based on relative dating, since radiometric dating was not available at the time. Absolute dating techniques determine a numerical age of strata given in number of years. Relative dating techniques, on the other hand, determine the age of a stratum relative to other strata (i.e., if it is younger or older), without providing any numerical data. Geologists have been able to determine the relative ages of rocks and any fossils they contain to reconstruct a history that reveals the evolution of Earth’s continents and living organisms using four laws of stratigraphy:

1. Law of Superposition: Younger strata are deposited on top of older strata. 2. Law of Original Horizontality: Strata are deposited horizontally. Tilted strata had been tilted by some geologic event after the time of deposition. 3. Law of Lateral Continuity: Layers of sediment initially extend laterally in all directions. As a result, rocks that are otherwise similar, but are now separated by a valley or other erosional feature, can be assumed to be originally continuous.

4. Law of Cross­Cutting Relationships: Magma intrudes and crystallizes (forming features such as faults and dikes). These features are younger than the strata they cut through.

The geologic time scale subdivides the 4.6­billion­year history of Earth into several units, outlining the time frames of several events of the geologic past. See below for the geologic time scale chart.

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 8/41

Part A ­ Laws of stratigraphy

In the figure below, a series of geologic events, A­J, shows the configuration of rocks as seen from a road. Some strata have been tilted, and a volcanic dike has intruded some

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 9/41

of the rocks. Use the laws of stratigraphy to rank these strata.

Rank the strata from oldest to youngest.

Hint 1. The Law of Cross­Cutting Relationships

The volcanic dike (H) must be older than any strata it does not cut through and younger than any strata it does cut through, because the strata it cuts through must have been there before the intrusion of magma.

Hint 2. The Law of Original Horizontality

Pretend the tilted strata are horizontal. That is, “D” is above “A,” “C” is above “A,” and so on. The Law of Original Horizontality states that strata are deposited horizontally in their original states. Tilted strata had been tilted by some geologic event after the time of deposition, but still retain their relative order.

ANSWER:

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 10/41

All attempts used; correct answer displayed

Notice that the tilted strata are immediately overlain by horizontal strata. This can only occur if erosion has partially removed the tilted strata so they all terminate at the same depth.

Part B ­ The geologic time scale and unconformities

Gaps in the rock record are called unconformities. Unconformities are caused by periods of erosion that have occurred between periods of deposition, which have erased a portion of the rock record. There are three types of unconformities: (1) angular unconformities occur when tilted strata are overlain by horizontal strata—Click here to see an angular unconformity; (2) disconformities occur when strata are separated by an erosional surface—Click here to see a disconformity); (3) nonconformities occur when strata overlay igneous or metamorphic rocks that are resistant to erosion—Click here to see a nonconformity.

Now use the figure below, which has labeled each of the rock strata/layers from Part A with their respective geologic time periods, to fill in the gaps in the following sentences.

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 11/41

Match the words in the left column to the appropriate blanks in the sentences on the right. Make certain each sentence is complete before submitting your answer.

Hint 1. How to determine the missing time period

Identify the youngest and oldest strata in the diagram, and use the geologic time scale provided above to find all of the geologic periods between these ages.

Hint 2. The types of unconformities

The volcanic dike terminating abruptly at a stratigraphic boundary would indicate that erosion has occurred.

Hint 3. The age of unconformities

An unconformity must be at least the age of the strata overlying it and can be as old as the strata below it.

ANSWER:

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 12/41

Correct

The tilting of the Triassic rocks could have occurred in the Triassic, Jurassic, or Cretaceous periods. This amounts to an uncertainty of at least 55 million years.

Interactive Animation: Angular Uncomformities, Noncomformities, and Discomformities

When you have finished, answer the questions.

Help

1. The Quaternary and Tertiary rocks are separated by this type of unconformity: 

a disconformity .

2. Due to an unconformity, the  Jurassic  period is missing from the rock record.

3. The Triassic rocks must have been most likely tilted during or after the  Triassic  period

4. The dike dates at least to the  Quarternary  period.

5. The Triassic and Cretaceous rocks are separated by this type of unconformity: 

an angular unconformity .

Reset

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 13/41

Part A

Which image is an example of an angular unconformity?

SEE IMAGES BELOW FOR ANSWER SELECTIONS.

ANSWER:

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 14/41

Correct

Part B

In the images below, which contains a disconformity?

ANSWER:

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 15/41

Correct

Part C

What does the term unconformity mean?

Hint 1.

un = NOT; conform = go along with

ANSWER:

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 16/41

Correct

Part D

In the following rock sequence, how much erosion might have occurred between rock layer A and rock layer B?

ANSWER:

Correct

Part E

What characteristic most directly DISTINGUISHES an angular unconformity from a nonconformity?

Hint 1.

The word angular is the key hint.

ANSWER:

a missing rock layer in a sequence that represents a period of deposition

an extra rock layer that represents a period of deposition

a missing rock layer in a sequence that represents a period of erosion or nondeposition

an extra rock layer that represents a period of erosion

at least 10,000 years

none or only a very small amount (Time does not equate to erosion.)

more time than it took to deposit rock layer B

at least 1 million years

more time than it took to deposit rock layer A

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 17/41

Correct

Part F

Which list best describes the events that would lead to the layering of sedimentary rocks in this diagram?

ANSWER:

Correct

GeoTutor: Constructing an Order of Sequence of Geologic Events – Relative Dating

The ordering of events in geological history has long been a difficult task, but once simple principles were determined observation and logic could be used to determine the order of events. With these principles, one cannot calculate the exact number of years ago an event occurred, but instead the sequence of events can be determined. This is referred to as relative dating. The principles are as follows:

1. The law of superposition: In sedimentary rocks, the rock bed on the bottom must be older than the rock bed on the top. 2. The principle of original horizontality: Sedimentary rocks were originally deposited as flat­lying, horizontal layers.

Angular unconformities represent missing time, whereas nonconformities do not.

Conformities represent missing rock layers.

Nonconformities separate parallel rock layers of the same rock type.

Nonconformities separate two different rock types, whereas angular unconformities form only between strata of the same rock type.

Angular unconformities separate rock layers along nonparallel surfaces.

deposition, erosion, deposition, erosion, deposition

erosion, deformation, erosion, deformation, erosion

deposition, deformation, deposition, deformation, deposition

erosion, deposition, erosion, deposition, erosion, deposition, erosion

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 18/41

3. The principle of cross­cutting relationships: Any rock or feature, cutting through another rock or feature, must be younger than the material through which it cuts. (For example, with faults, igneous intrusions such as dikes, or fractures, the first rock must be there for these secondary features to cut through.)

4. Inclusions: Any rock fragments included within another rock must be older than the rock in which they are included. (For example, if eroded fragments of one rock layer become part of another sedimentary rock layer, the rock with the included fragments must be younger than the fragments themselves.)

Part A ­ Basic Principles for Relative Geologic Dating

Below is a geologic structure that illustrates the various principles of relative dating. You will identify the basic principles used in relative geologic dating by dragging labels to their corresponding targets in the image below.

Drag the appropriate labels to their respective targets.

Hint 1. Inclusions in sedimentary rock layers

According to the principle of inclusions, the layer of rock that has inclusions from another rock layer must be younger.

Hint 2. A dike cutting through sedimentary rock layers

The rock layers that the dike cut through must have been there first. This is the principle of cross­cutting relationships.

ANSWER:

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 19/41

Correct

As you can see from above, using the logic of these principles when observing sedimentary rock, we can determine a sequence of events.

Now that we have investigated the principles of relative dating, we can use these principles to determine how to read the sequence of geologic events in a location.

Part B ­ Ordering of Geologic Events

The principles of relative dating can be used to understand the order of geologic events. A geologic event can be anything: the deposition of horizontal layers of sedimentary rock, the faulting or folding of rock layers, the tilting of rock layers, the erosion (or wearing away) of rock, the intrusion of volcanic rock within existing rock layers, and so on. Refer to these relative dating principles:

1. Inclusions: Any rock fragments included within another rock must be older than the rock in which they are included. (For example, if eroded fragments of one rock

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 20/41

layer become part of another sedimentary rock layer, the rock with the included fragments must be younger than the fragments themselves.) 2. The principle of cross­cutting relationships: Any rock or feature, cutting through another rock or feature, must be younger than the material through which it cuts. (For example, with faults, igneous intrusions such as dikes, or fractures, the first rock must be there for these secondary features to cut through.)

3. Angular Unconformity: It consists of tilted or folded sedimentary rocks that are overlain by younger, more flat­lying strata. An angular unconformity indicates that during the pause in deposition, a period of deformation (folding or tilting) and erosion occurred.

4. Tilting or deformation could occur to an otherwise horizontally layered sedimentary rocks. Most layers of sediment are deposited in a nearly horizontal position. Thus, when we see rock layers that are folded or tilted, we can assume that they must have been moved into that position by crustal disturbances after their deposition. In such an instance, the tilted structure will be younger than the orginal horizontal layers.

Order the five images below along the timeline based on the sequence of geologic events. To find the oldest, look for the image that shows the least geologic changes. To find the youngest, look for the picture that has the most geologic changes.

Rank from oldest to youngest.

Hint 1. Inclusions from rock layers above and below

In the picture where the gray layer first appears, the layer must be younger than the layers above and below because it has inclusions of both layers of rock within it according to the principle of inclusions. Therefore, this event must have happened after the picture without the gray layer. This can occur when igneous rock intrudes between layers of sedimentary rock and incorporates pieces of the rock layers above and below into the cooling magma.

Hint 2. The oldest and the youngest geologic features/events

The oldest geologic feature should have the least geologic changes and the youngest should have all features from the previous events.

ANSWER:

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 21/41

All attempts used; correct answer displayed

As you can see, you can apply the logic of the principles of relative dating to successfully sequence the order of geologic events in a scene. The principles allow you to tell the geologic story of a landscape.

Lab Activity 8.2.1 ­ Relative Dating

Now that you have practiced ordering geologic events that occurred within a scene or outcrop, you will relate the five geologic laws to this process. First, apply geologic laws to an outcrop in the order that they are invoked by events within said outcrop. Then examine a second scene, where you will identify the geologic laws that explain the relative orders of pairs of events.

Part A ­ Applying Geologic Laws in Order

Please rank from first to last the geologic laws that are used to determine the relative order of the four events that are labeled (but not ordered) in the drawing of the outcrop below.

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 22/41

Please rank the geologic laws used for the history of this outcrop from first to last.

You did not open hints for this part.

ANSWER:

Part B ­ Supporting an Outcrop’s History with Geologic Laws

For each rectangle associated with a pair of geologic structures or events, please identify the name of the geologic law that determines which of the two events within the pair

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 23/41

occurred first.

Drag the appropriate labels to their respective targets.

You did not open hints for this part.

ANSWER:

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 24/41

Gigapan: Virtual Fieldwork—Relative Dating and Unconformities

Geologists can determine the geologic history of an area by describing rock outcrops and analyzing the layers of rock. Today you will be a geologist visiting a rock outcrop virtually. You will be able to zoom in and out of the Gigapan image to explore the outcrop and determine the relative ages of rock layers and the geologic history of the area by applying your knowledge of the principles of geology and unconformities.

The principles of geology that you will use in this example are:

The law of superposition: A sedimentary rock bed on the bottom must be older than the rock bed on the top. The principle of original horizontality: Sedimentary rocks were originally deposited as flat­lying, horizontal layers. The principle of lateral continuity: Sedimentary layers, when formed, extended horizontally in all directions.

You will also use your knowledge of unconformities, features created when deposition stopped, uplifting and erosion occurred, and, after a period of time, sedimentation began anew above the eroded layer. There are three main types of unconformities:  

A nonconformity is found where igneous or metamorphic rocks have eroded and then sedimentary rock layers are deposited above. A disconformity is a break between parallel sedimentary rock layers above and below. Disconformities represent times when sediments were not deposited or were eroded. An angular unconformity is found where sedimentary layers were tilted and eroded and younger and more flat­laying sedimentary layers were deposited above.  

In this exercise, you will use Gigapan technology to:

become familiar with interpreting rock outcrops, understand the sequence of events that occurred as these rocks formed and changed over time, and identify the location of an unconformity in this outcrop and provide evidence for its type.

Gigapan technology mosaics thousands of photos together into a single image, allowing you to zoom in and see the tiniest of details. Imagine zooming in on a grain of sand on a photo of a beach!

Instructions for all Parts:

1. Launch the Gigapan image http://www.gigapan.com/galleries/10030/gigapans/129421 2. You can zoom into the image to take a close look at the angular unconformity.

Instructions for Part A:

1. Scroll down and click on the  Google Earth link   on the Gigapan site to launch the Gigapan image  in Google Earth. 2. Close the photo by clicking on Exit Photo to see your field site location in Google Earth. 3. Zoom in or out to determine your location. Also, on the upper right side, your will find the north arrow. If “N” is not aligned with “North” move it to North. This will ensure that the alignment of your field site is directly facing you in an east­west direction.

4. You can reopen the Gigapan image by clicking on Angular Unconformity, west of El Paso, Texas on the left pane of Google Earth. 5. Do not close Google Earth.

Part A ­ Locating your field site

As a geologist, you always want to first locate your field site on a map. It helps other geologists to locate the field site for future studies and helps you look for relationships with data from other nearby field sites. Now, determine where you are (your field site) in the world. Choose the map that best locates your field site.http://www.gigapan.com/galleries/10030/gigapans/129421

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 25/41

You did not open hints for this part.

ANSWER:

Instructions for Part B:

1. Go back to the Gigapan image for the Angular Unconformity, west of El Paso, Texas. 2. Examine the outcrop carefully. Make note of any features that would show up on a map (e.g., roads, trees, etc.). 3. Now switch back to Google Earth and zoom in or out to determine how the outcrop is oriented (runs north to south, runs northeast to southwest, etc.) compared to where you are standing and viewing the outcrop. If “N” is not aligned with “North” move it to North.

Part B ­ The orientation of the outcrop

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 26/41

Rock units tell us about Earth’s past, so if we find evidence of geologic processes that have directional components (direction of plate movement, folds and faults, mineral foliation, wind and water currents, etc.), we need to be able to accurately reconstruct those directions. Also, in terms of the scientific method, it helps other geologists to be able to recreate the field investigation step­by­step to confirm or refute any previous findings.

Imagine visiting this outcrop, standing at the location where the Gigapan image was taken, and observing the natural and built features around you. Choose the most accurate representation of the outcrop’s orientation and your vantage point (where you are standing in relation to the outcrop). The representations below depict you and the outcrop as viewed from above. Similar to how you identified the location of this outcrop in the previous part, use Google Earth at a multiple zoom levels. The yellow dot is the point where the Gigapan image was taken.

You did not open hints for this part.

ANSWER:

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 27/41

Instructions for Parts C and D:

1. Exit Google Earth and go back to the Gigapan image for Angular Unconformity, west of El Paso, Texas. 2. Examine the outcrop carefully, and make note of the orientation of the layers of sedimentation in this image. Are all of the rock layers running in the same direction? Does the formation contain layers running at different angles?

3. Recall that angular unconformities refer to the junction between sedimentary rocks at an angle and rocks that are more horizontal and represent a time when the rocks were uplifted and eroded. Can you see the evidence of uplift and erosion in the image?

Part C ­ Analysis of an outcrop sketch

Where you see layers of sedimentary rock at an angle in contact with rocks that are horizontal, they are separated by a surface called an angular unconformity. This erosion surface represents a time when rocks were eroded before new layers of rock were formed. This can also occur during a pause in deposition, when a period of deformation (such as folding or tilting) has occurred.

Choose the sketch that best represents the rock outcrop.

You did not open hints for this part.

ANSWER:

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 28/41

Part D ­ Making observations I

Simple yet thoughtful observation exposes the history of an outcrop. The sedimentary rocks in the Gigapan image were formed as sediment accumulated as layers that stacked atop older layers. As layers became lower in the stack sequence and covered by newer layers, they became rocks.

If this area had been under water, the shells of organisms would have become limestone, a rock that can’t be identified visually but can be identified using field­based tests. Underwater movement of sediment may also create mixes of fine and coarse grains. This sediment becomes conglomerate, a rock clearly identifiable given its combined

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 29/41

coarse and fine grains. Over time, some layers would have become exposed as the water retreated and the rock layers above them were eroded. Additionally, some layers would have been tilted by tectonic forces.

Classify the observations according to the rock that they describe, or choose “Not enough information to tell.”

Drag the appropriate items to their respective bins. Each item may be used only once.

You did not open hints for this part.

ANSWER:

Part E ­ Making observations II

Choose the location of the unconformity.

You did not open hints for this part.

ANSWER:

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 30/41

Part F ­ Making observations III

Now that you have identified the unconformity in this outcrop, can you explain why it is an angular unconformity? Review the statements below, and indicate which are correct.

Select all that apply.

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 31/41

You did not open hints for this part.

ANSWER:

Part G ­ Drawing conclusions from the timing of events

Review the outcrop again. Order the specific locations identified in the outcrop by their age. Note where the arrow, square, and circles are located.

Rank the areas identified in the cross section from oldest to youngest.

You did not open hints for this part.

ANSWER:

It is an angular unconformity because layers of sedimentary rock are above and below the unconformity and the layers above and below are not parallel.

It is an angular unconformity because it is at an angle to the ground surface instead of parallel.

The tilting of the layers of rock occurred before erosion of the unconformity surface.

It is an angular unconformity because the layers of sedimentary rock above and below the unconformity are at the same angle.

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 32/41

Part H ­ Forming a conclusion: Determining the geologic history of an area from an outcrop

Geologists collect observations from field sites and then summarize their interpretations. It’s your turn to take everything you learned while exploring the rocks in this formation near El Paso, Texas, into a coherent story. Arrange the following geologic events in the order that they occurred.

Rank from oldest to youngest.

You did not open hints for this part.

ANSWER:

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 33/41

Interactive Animation: Radioactive Decay

When you have finished, answer the questions.

Part A

What happens during radioactive decay?

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 34/41

ANSWER:

Part B

What is the scientific definition of half­life?

ANSWER:

Part C

Two containers hold the same radioactive isotope. Container A contains 1000 atoms, and container B contains 500 atoms. Which of the following statements about containers A and B is true?

ANSWER:

Part D

A container holds 100 atoms of an isotope. This isotope has a half­life of 1.5 months. How many total atoms will be in the container after 3 months?

ANSWER:

Daughter isotopes turn into energy.

Parent isotopes turn into energy.

Energy turns into daughter isotopes.

Parent isotopes turn into daughter isotopes.

Daughter isotopes turn into parent isotopes.

the number of parent isotopes that will be lost during a single radioactive decay event

the number of daughter isotopes that will be gained during a single radioactive decay event

the amount of time over which the number of daughter isotopes increases by half

the amount of time over which the number of parent isotopes decreases by half

The rate of decay of atoms in container B is the same as the rate of decay of atoms in container A.

The rate of decay of atoms in container B is greater than the rate of decay of atoms in container A.

The rate of decay of atoms in container A is greater than the rate of decay of atoms in container B.

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 35/41

Part E

A container holds 100 atoms of an isotope. This isotope has a half­life of 1.5 months. How many atoms of the radioactive isotope will be in the container after 3 months?

ANSWER:

Part F

A rock sample contains 75 atoms of a parent isotope and 25 atoms of a daughter isotope. The half­life of the parent isotope is 100 years. How old is this rock?

ANSWER:

GeoTutor: Constructing an Order of Sequence of Geologic Events ­ Dating with Radioactivity ­ 2

You probably have read or seen stories about archeological findings that include organic remains of a 1000­year­old mummy or an ancient weapon made from stone, which is an inorganic material. Geologists and paleontologists calculate the age of these organic (contain carbon) and inorganic (do not contain carbon) materials by radiometric dating using the isotopes C­14 and U­235, respectively.

1. C­14 dating: This process is often known as radiocarbon dating. It is used to determine both historical and recent events of archeological artifacts of biological origin such as bone, cloth, wood, and plant fibers.

2. U­235 dating: This is used to determine the age of inorganic substances such as ancient rocks and minerals.

100 atoms

50 atoms

33 atoms

25 atoms

25 atoms

33 atoms

50 atoms

100 atoms

25 years old

50 years old

75 years old

100 years old

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 36/41

Part A ­ Calculating the Age of a Fossil Based on the Number of Half­lives Elapsed

Each isotope has a unique half­life. The half­life of an isotope is the time taken for half of the starting quantity to decay (with a ratio of 1:1). After two half­lives, there will be one­ fourth of the original parent sample and three­quarters would have decayed to the daughter product (with a ratio of 1:3). After three half­lives, the ratio becomes 1:7, and so forth.

The graph, for instance, shows that assuming the half­life of a sample is 4 months, then in 4 months, there will be 0.5 gram of the parent element and 0.5 gram of the daughter element will be produced. In month 8 (which is two­half­lives), there will be only 0.25 gram of parent element left and 0.75 gram of daughter element; that is, one­fourth of the parent sample (in red) is left, and in month 12, there is only one­eighth of the parent element.

You attend a geology lab where you are asked to estimate the age of a fossil. The ratio of parent to daughter elements in the fossil sample is 1:7. You know that fossils are the remains of living organisms, which have some amount of C­14 isotope. The C­14 isotope, which has a half­life of 5730 years, begins to decay as the organism dies.

What would be your estimation of the fossil’s age?

You did not open hints for this part.

ANSWER:

22,920

5730

2865

11,460

40,110

17,190

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 37/41

Part B ­ Radiometric Dating of Organic and Inorganic materials

John is assisting a geologist who has traveled across the world and collected a few samples. He asks John to classify the samples that can be dated using carbon­14 and uranium­235 (or U­235). All organic materials contain carbon and are dated using C­14; inorganic materials are dated using any radioactive element, such as uranium, rubidium, potassium, and thorium, except carbon. Now, help John group the samples.

Drag the appropriate items to their respective bins. Each item may be used only once.

You did not open hints for this part.

ANSWER:

Chapter 18 Reading Quiz Question 2

Part A

Which geological principle states that even if most sedimentary rock layers are presently folded, they were deformed after deposition?

You did not open hints for this part.

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 38/41

ANSWER:

Chapter 18 Problem 1 Multiple Choice

Part A

An unconformity is a buried ________.

ANSWER:

Chapter 18 Problem 2 Multiple Choice

Part A

Which of the following best characterizes an angular unconformity?

ANSWER:

principle of original horizontality

law of superposition

principle of cross­cutting relationships

principle of unconformities

principle of inclusions

surface of erosion separating younger strata above from older strata below

surface of erosion with older strata above and younger strata below

fault or fracture with older rocks above and younger rocks below

fault or fracture with younger strata above and older strata below

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 39/41

Chapter 18 Problem 6 Multiple Choice

Part A

By applying the law of superposition ________ dates can be determined.

ANSWER:

Chapter 18 Problem 9 Multiple Choice

Part A

Sandstone strata and a mass of granite are observed to be in contact. Which of the following statements is correct geologically?

ANSWER:

Tilted strata lie below the unconformity, and bedding in younger strata above is parallel to the unconformity.

Horizontal lava flows lie below the unconformity, and horizontal, sedimentary strata lie above.

It is the discordant boundary between older strata and an intrusive body of granite.

Tilted strata lie below the unconformity with loose, unconsolidated soil above.

conventional

radiometric

relative

both relative and radiometric

The sandstone is younger if the granite contains sandstone inclusions.

The granite is older if the sandstone contains pebbles of the granite.

The granite is older if it contains inclusions of sandstone.

The sandstone is younger if it shows evidence of contact metamorphism.

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 40/41

Chapter 18 Problem 28 True/False

Part A

A disconformity is an erosional unconformity with parallel beds or strata above and below.

ANSWER:

Chapter 18 Problem 12 Multiple Choice

Part A

A worm would stand a poor chance of being fossilized because ________.

ANSWER:

Chapter 18 Problem 51 Short Answer

Part A

The remains or traces of prehistoric life are called ________.

ANSWER:

True

False

worms have been rare during the geologic past

worms have no hard parts

worms contain no carbon­14

all of these

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 41/41

Chapter 18 Problem 16 Multiple Choice

Part A

Which of the following is not a very long­lived, radioactive isotope?

ANSWER:

Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 47.1%. You received 7.06 out of a possible total of 15 points, plus 0 points of extra credit.

C­14

K­40

U­238

Rb­87

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jetblue 794

This week, you will work on the JetBlue case within your text.

  • Integrating concepts and theories from the text, analyze the company’s general and industry environment, internal resources and intellectual assets. Specifically, what are key forces in the general and industry environments that affect JetBlue’s choice of strategy? What internal resources and assets does JetBlue have that may give it a competitive advantage?
  • Integrating concepts and theories form the text, analyze the company’s business-level and corporate-level strategies. Consider what are the components of JetBlue’s competitive advantage and whether JetBlue’s competitive advantage is sustainable.
  • Conduct financial analysis and develop implications on a firm’s strategy. Specifically, 1) What trends do you see in the expenses of JetBlue, and how does this cost impact JetBlue’s pretax income, 2) During the years 2012 through 2016, one year stands out as particularly successful for JetBlue. Identify the year and describe the factors that played the largest role in making it an exceptional year for the company, and 3) What major year-to-year changes do you see in JetBlue’s financial statement (Exhibit 4)? Given what you know about JetBlue from the case, how would you explain these changes?
  • Develop recommendations(s) for a 3-5 year strategy. Provide an overview of the timetable and required resources.
  • Construct a document in APA 6th edition format effectively demonstrating mastery of written communication with a targeted audience. Your analysis should be based solely on the information in the case. Other than the text, external sources should not be included. Your paper should be between 10-15 pages in length.

Other than the text, external sources should not be included. Your paper should be between 10-15 pages in length.

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a quilt of a country by anna quindlen answers

A Quilt of a Country, by Anna Quindlen

Article found at this link:

1. What opposing viewpoint does Quindlen respond to in paragraph 3?

2. What counterargument does she offer to it? List the reasons and evidence she includes in her counterargument and evaluate if it is relevant and sufficient.

3. In paragraph 4, Quindlen uses repetition and parallelism. What sentence structure and words does she repeat?

4. What is the effect of this repetition? (What happens as a result?)

5. Quindlen uses many different types of evidence throughout the argument to support her claim, for example facts, statistics, and quotations. Identify at least three examples of evidence and evaluate how she uses each one to support her claim.

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middle passage hayden

Part 1: Identify and analyze the following textual elements briefly in one of the three parts of Robert Hayden’s “Middle Passage” 3-5 sentences each

1. Speaker

2. Title

3. Setting and situation

4. Diction and Tone

5. Symbolism

6. Theme

7. Images

8. Figures of Speech

9. Irony

10. Sound and rhyme

11. Rhythm and meter

12. Form and Structure

Part II: Drawing on your responses to the respective critical questions above, write a minimum of 350 words in response. It should include an introductory paragraph and a statement of thesis for a prospective essay.  Your response should demonstrate the ways in which the poem’s technical elements (above) work to develop and reinforce a dominant theme (irony) Be sure to identify the theme in a single thesis statement of your introductory paragraph.

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which genre best describes the prelude to “the afternoon of a faun”?

Describe “Impressionism” as an artistic and musical style. 

~Mention musical examples and composers that you select on which to base your ideas.

2. Refer to Chapter 49 – Listening Guide 41:

-After listening to Debussy’s Prelude to “The Afternoon of a Faun” (Prelude a “L’apres-midi d’un faune”) identify what best describes its rhythm/meter, expression, and performing forces.

3. List and describe five (5) musical elements innovative and characteristic of:

Early 20th Century music ~ Modernism

Refer to Chapter 52 – Listening Guide 44:

-After listening to Schoenberg’s Pierrot lunaire, Part III, No.18, identify what best describes its melody, rhythm/meter, and harmony.

4. Expressionism:

• What do you consider “Expressionistic” about Alban Berg’s opera Wozzeck?

• What musical elements did Stravinsky use in the Rite of Spring to produce such a shocking reaction from some people in the audience?

5. Nationalism, Modernism, and Realism in the Americas:

• Describe each of these musical styles:

o Nationalism

o Modernism

o Realism

• Choose one (1) composer for each of these unique musical styles.  Explain how each composer represents the corresponding style.

6. Refer to Chapter 60 – Listening Guide 54:

-After listening to Revueltas’ ”Noche de jaranas” from La Noche de los Mayas identify what best describes its melody, harmony, and performing forces.

7. ~Based on your readings and own research, describe the role of women in music from the turn of the century and throughout the 20th century.

~Refer to Part 6 – Chapter 54 of the textbook:

• Lili Boulanger (1893 – 1918)

• Post-Impressionism and the Prix de Rome

~“Women’s suffrage” – 19th Amendment of the U.S. Constitution (1920)

~Research, list and describe three (3) female musicians who are significant to the time.

8. ~List three (3) musical characteristics common to all jazz styles and describe in a brief paragraph these commonalities.

~List and describe three (3) African-American and three (3) European musical characteristics present in jazz music.

WSR:

~Research three (3) Websites related to any of the topics and/or concepts that you found interesting and that we have covered in Lesson 5.

~For proper credit, provide the URL and then compose a brief description and summary of the information you learn from each Website.

Listening Guide:

~Refer to Listening Guide (LG) numbers:

o LG 41 – Debussy: Prelude to “The Afternoon of a Faun” (Prelude a “L’apres-midi d’un faune”)

o LG 44 – Schoenberg: Pierrot lunaire, Part III, No.18

o LG 45 – Stravinsky: “The Rite of Spring” (Le sacre du printemps), Part I, excerpts

o LG 46 – Boulanger: Psalm 24

o LG 47 – Berg: Wozzeck, Act III, scene 4, Interlude, scene 5

o LG 48 – Holiday: Billie’s Blues

o LG 49 – Strayhorn: Take the A Train by the Duke Ellington Orchestra

o LG 50 – Still: Suite for Violin and Piano, III

o LG 51 – Gershwin: Rhapsody in Blue

o LG 52 – Ives: Country Band March

o LG 53 – Copland: Appalachian Spring, excerpts

o LG 54 – Revueltas: “Noche de jaranas” (“Night of Revelry” from La noche de los Mayas (The Night of the Mayas)

o LG 55 – Bartok: Interrupted Intermezzo, from Concerto for Orchestra

~Listen carefully to the compositions above as you pay close attention to these musical elements:

-Melody – Rhythm – Harmony – Texture – Form – Expression

-Performing Forces

~Categorize each of the compositions above into a particular musical genre.

~ Choose three (3) to analyze specifically.

~Critically examine and explain one (1) of the musical elements mentioned above that you find outstanding or representative for each of the three (3) compositions you selected.

~Compose a full paragraph for each of the three (3) compositions describing your impressions, analysis, thoughts, and ideas.  Be sure to use musical terms, vocabulary, and concepts you have learned so far in this class.

~Click-on Videos-Lesson 5.  

• Watch the videos associated with this lesson.

• After you have viewed the videos associated with the lesson, choose three (3) to analyze specifically and explain their significance regarding the topics found in this lesson.  

• Why did you choose them, and what did you find interesting?  Why and how so?

The videos are 1-Claude Debussy – “Minstrels” – Michelangeli (Piano))……..2-Erik Satie – Alessio Nanni (Piano) – “Gnossienne No.1″…….3- Alban Berg – “Wozzeck” (behind the scenes)…….. each video is two minutes which you can find on YouTube .

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myitlabs

Office 2013 – myitlab:grader – Instructions GO! – Excel Chapter 3: Assessment Project 3

Department Expenses

Project Description: In the following project, you will edit a worksheet that will be used to summarize the departmental administration expenses for the City of Orange Blossom Beach.

Instructions: For the purpose of grading the project you are required to perform the following tasks: Step Instructions Points Possible 1 Start Excel. Download and open the file named go_e03_grader_a3.xlsx. 0 2 In the Expenses worksheet, calculate row totals for each Expense item in the range F5:F9. Format F6:F9 with Comma Style, zero decimal places. Calculate column totals for each quarter and for the Annual Total in the range B10:F10. 4 3 In cell G5, construct a formula to calculate the Percent of Total by dividing the Annual Total for City Manager by the Annual Total for Totals by Quarter. Use absolute cell references as necessary, format the result in Percent Style, and then Center. Fill the formula down through cell G9. 4 4 Create a 3-D Pie chart to chart the Annual Total for each item using the ranges A5:A9 and F5:F9. Move the chart to a new sheet and then name the sheet Administration Costs Chart. 6 5 For the chart title, type Summary of Administration Costs and format the chart title using WordArt Style Fill – Dark Red, Accent 1, Shadow—in the first row, the second style. Change the chart title font size to 28. 10 6 Remove the Legend from the chart and then add Data Labels formatted so that only the Category Name and Percentage display positioned in the Center. Change the data labels Font Size to 12, and apply Bold and Italic. 6 7 Format the Data Series using a 3-D Format effect. Change the Top bevel and Bottom bevel to Circle. Set the Top bevel Width and Height to 50 pt and then set the Bottom bevel Width and Height to 256 pt. Change the Material to the fourth Standard Effect—Metal. 10 8 Display the Series Options, and then set the Angle of first slice to 140 so that the City Manager slice is in the front of the pie. Select the City Manager slice, and then explode the slice 10%. Change the Fill Color of the City Manager slice to a Solid fill using Dark Red, Accent 1, Lighter 40%—in the fifth column, the fourth color. 4 9 Format the Chart Area by applying a Gradient fill using the Preset gradients Light Gradient – Accent 4. Format the Border of the Chart Area by adding a Solid line border using Brown, Accent 4 and a 5 pt Width. 6 10 Display the Page Setup dialog box, and then for this chart sheet, insert a custom footer in the left section with the file name. 4 11 Display the Expenses worksheet, and then by using the Quarter names and the Totals by Quarter, insert a Line with Markers chart in the worksheet. Move the chart so that its upper left corner is positioned slightly inside the upper left corner of cell B12. As the Chart Title, type Annual Administration Expenses by Department. 6 12 Format the Bounds of the Vertical (Value) Axis so that the Minimum is 1085000 and the Major unit is at 10000. Format the Fill of the Chart Area with a Gradient fill by applying the Preset gradient Light gradient Accent 3—in the first row, the third gradient. Format the Plot Area with a Solid fill using White, Background 1—in the first column, the first color. 6 13 Copy the Annual Total in cell F10 and then use Paste Special to paste Values & Number Formatting in cell B35. In cell C35, construct a formula to calculate the Projected Expenses after the forecasted increase of 3.5% in cell B31 is applied. Fill the formula through cell F35, and then use Format Painter to copy the formatting from cell B35 to the range C35:F35. 10 14 Change the Orientation of this worksheet to Landscape, and then use the Scale to Fit options to fit the Height to 1 page. From the Page Setup dialog box, center the worksheet Horizontally, and insert a custom footer in the left section with the file name. 10 15 Display the Projected Decrease worksheet. In cell C5, calculate the Percent of Total for the first department, apply Percent Style, and then copy the formula down for the remaining expenses. 4 16 Copy cell B5, and then use Paste Special to paste the Values & Number Formatting to cell B13. Copy and Paste cell C5 to cell C13. With cell C13 selected, use Goal Seek to determine the goal amount of City Manager expenses in cell B13 if the value in C13 is set to 15%. 6 17 From the Page Setup dialog box, center this worksheet Horizontally, and insert a custom footer in the left section with the file name. 4 18 Ensure that the worksheets are correctly named and placed in the following order in the workbook: Administration Costs Chart, Expenses, Projected Decrease. Save and close the workbook. Exit Excel. Submit the file as directed. 0 Total Points 100

Updated: 01/07/2013 1 E_CH03_GOV1_A3_Instructions.docx

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the crests of mid-oceanic ridges ________.

Description

INSTANT DOWNLOAD
Earth Science 14th Edition By Tarbuck And Lutgens –Test Bank
Earth Science, 14e (Tarbuck/Lutgens)

Chapter 1   Introduction to Earth Science

1) What are the basic differences between the disciplines of physical and historical geology?

  1. A) Physical geology is the study of fossils and sequences of rock strata; historical geology is the study of how rocks and minerals were used in the past.
  2. B) Historical geology involves the study of rock strata, fossils, and geologic events, utilizing the geologic time scale as a reference; physical geology includes the study of how rocks form and of how erosion shapes the land surface.
  3. C) Physical geology involves the study of rock strata, fossils, and deposition in relation to plate movements in the geologic past; historical geology charts how and where the plates were moving in the past.
  4. D) none of the above—physical geology and historical geology are essentially the same.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.1 What Is Earth Science

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

2) The study of Earth’s atmosphere is known as ________.

  1. A) astronomy
  2. B) oceanography
  3. C) meteorology
  4. D) cosmology

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.1 What Is Earth Science

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

3) Which science is not used within the Earth sciences?

  1. A) Chemistry
  2. B) Physics
  3. C) Biology
  4. D) Mathematics
  5. E) None of the above; Earth Science makes use of all of these sciences.

Answer:  E

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.1 What Is Earth Science

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

4) Oceanography is the study of the oceans and geology is the study of the earth, so what is meteorology?

  1. A) the study of meteors
  2. B) the study of the Sun’s impact on the upper atmosphere
  3. C) the study of the atmosphere
  4. D) the study of how to be a TV newscaster

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.1 What Is Earth Science

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

5) Sedimentary rocks with marine fossils are exposed at the top of Mt. Everest.  Which scientists would make most use of this observation in their study?

  1. A) Meteorologists, because they could use the fossils as a guide to ancient climates
  2. B) Geologists, because their elevation is related to physical geology and fossils are related to Earth history
  3. C) Oceanographers, because the fossils can tell us about periods when the earth was covered with water to the height of Mt. Everest
  4. D) Astronomers, because they can study how life came from outer space to Earth

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.1 What Is Earth Science

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

6) Hurricanes and tornados are natural disasters.  What branch of the Earth sciences studies the origin of these phenomena?

  1. A) Meteorology
  2. B) Geology
  3. C) Oceanography
  4. D) Astronomy

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.1 What Is Earth Science

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

7) Hurricanes are natural disasters.  Which branch of the Earth sciences studies the impact of this phenomenon on coastal environments?

  1. A) Meteorology
  2. B) Geology
  3. C) Oceanography
  4. D) Astronomy

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.1 What Is Earth Science

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

8) Tsunamis and earthquakes have killed millions of people during human history.  What branch of the Earth sciences is the main group that studies these phenomena?

  1. A) Meteorology
  2. B) Geology
  3. C) Oceanography
  4. D) Astronomy

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.1 What Is Earth Science

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

9) If you want to buy a house in an area and you are worried there may be an earthquake hazard, who would be the best person to ask for advice on this hazard?

  1. A) a civil engineer
  2. B) a geologist
  3. C) a physicist
  4. D) an astrologer

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.1 What Is Earth Science

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

10) The earth is estimated to be approximately 4.6 billion years old.  Life appeared early in the history of Earth, but metazoans (multicelled organisms) did not appear until about 600 million years ago.  If the history of Earth were compressed into a single year, when would metazoans appear?

  1. A) late September
  2. B) late November
  3. C) mid-December
  4. D) late January

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.1 What Is Earth Science

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

11) Which of the following would not typically be considered an Earth Science study?

  1. A) studies of volcanic eruptions
  2. B) studies of impact craters on the moon
  3. C) studies of acid mine waters and the bacteria that live in those waters
  4. D) chemical refining of petroleum

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Topic:  1.1 What Is Earth Science

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension; Application/Analysis

12) Climate change is a well-known human problem and remains controversial despite widespread scientific agreement on the issue.  Although most scientists are familiar with the issues, if you were a congressman and wanted an informed analysis of the problem, which of the following would be most likely to give you the most complete analysis?

  1. A) an astronomer
  2. B) a meteorologist with knowledge of oceanography
  3. C) a geologist with knowledge of astronomy
  4. D) a physicist

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Topic:  1.1 What Is Earth Science

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

13) A ________ is a well-tested and widely accepted view that best explains certain scientific observations.

  1. A) hypothesis
  2. B) generalization
  3. C) law
  4. D) theory

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.2 The Nature of Scientific Inquiry

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

14) The primary goal of Earth Science is ________.

  1. A) to develop things that will benefit mankind
  2. B) to identify the patterns in nature and use that information to predict the future
  3. C) to locate resources
  4. D) to protect the environment

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.2 The Nature of Scientific Inquiry

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

15) All of the following are possible steps of scientific investigation except for ________.

  1. A) the collection of scientific facts through observation and measurement
  2. B) assumption of conclusions without prior experimentation or observation
  3. C) the development of one or more working hypotheses or models to explain facts
  4. D) development of observations and experiments to test the hypotheses

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.2 The Nature of Scientific Inquiry

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

16) Which of the following is not necessary for a hypothesis to be accepted by the scientific community?

  1. A) It must be testable.
  2. B) It must predict something other than the observations it was based on.
  3. C) There must be alternative hypotheses proposed.
  4. D) It must be based on observations or facts.

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.2 The Nature of Scientific Inquiry

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

17) The ________ explains how our solar system probably formed from a giant cloud of gases and dispersed solid particles.

  1. A) protogalactic theory
  2. B) nebular theory
  3. C) extrastellar solar hypothesis
  4. D) planetary compression theory

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.3 Early Evolution of Earth

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

18) Which of the following is not a planet?

  1. A) Europa
  2. B) Venus
  3. C) Saturn
  4. D) Neptune

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.3 Early Evolution of Earth

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

19) In the television series “Cosmos” the astronomer Carl Sagan used to say, “We are all made of star stuff.”  What did he mean by that?

  1. A) All of the chemical elements were formed during the big bang when the universe began, so we are like the stars.
  2. B) We all have to potential to be stars.
  3. C) All of the chemical elements in our solar system were forged in an ancient star that went supernova.
  4. D) The earth has incorporated large amounts of chemical material from the solar wind, so our bodies carry this material.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Topic:  1.3 Early Evolution of Earth

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

20) In the proto-solar system nebula, gravity pulled matter together to form larger bodies. As they collided, what happened to these bodies?

  1. A) Oblique collisions caused individual bodies to spin.
  2. B) The objects broke apart to form asteroids, much like a neutron colliding with a heavy atom produces fission.
  3. C) The objects temporarily broke apart and then reformed into large objects, cooling rapidly during the breakup period.
  4. D) Immense heat was released within the colliding bodies as gravitational potential energy was converted to heat.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Topic:  1.3 Early Evolution of Earth

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

21) Light elements like hydrogen and helium form a large percentage of the outer planets and Sun is made up primarily of hydrogen.  Why are these elements nearly absent from the inner planets?

  1. A) The Sun captured all of the hydrogen during its formation.
  2. B) These light elements are blown away from the inner planets by the solar wind.
  3. C) It is a mystery that has never been solved by science.
  4. D) Hydrogen and helium have all been bound up by chemical reactions on the inner planets and are held in rock.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Topic:  1.3 Early Evolution of Earth

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

22) Comets are made up primarily of ________.

  1. A) iron-nickel alloys
  2. B) silicate minerals, like rocks on Earth
  3. C) frozen hydrogen
  4. D) frozen water, carbon dioxide, and methane

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Topic:  1.3 Early Evolution of Earth

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

23) The Oort cloud is ________.

  1. A) an unusual type of cloud formed when meteorites strike the earth
  2. B) another name for the inner solar system, just before the Sun became hot enough for nuclear fusion
  3. C) the outer solar system where planetesimals, rocky debris and comets orbit outside beyond the outer planets but cross into the inner solar system at times
  4. D) the asteroid belt

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Topic:  1.3 Early Evolution of Earth

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

24) The ________ refers to the sum total of all life on Earth.

  1. A) hydrosphere
  2. B) atmosphere
  3. C) biosphere
  4. D) geosphere

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.4 Earth’s Spheres

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

25) The ________ refers to the water-dominated parts of the earth.

  1. A) hydrosphere
  2. B) atmosphere
  3. C) biosphere
  4. D) geosphere

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.4 Earth’s Spheres

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

26) The largest of Earth’s spheres is the ________.

  1. A) hydrosphere
  2. B) atmosphere
  3. C) geosphere
  4. D) biosphere

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.4 Earth’s Spheres

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

27) Soil belongs to the ________.

  1. A) hydrosphere
  2. B) atmosphere
  3. C) geosphere
  4. D) biosphere
  5. E) All of the above

Answer:  E

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.4 Earth’s Spheres

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

28) The exchange of energy between the surface of the earth, the atmosphere, and space causes ________.

  1. A) topography
  2. B) temperature
  3. C) weather
  4. D) glaciers

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.4 Earth’s Spheres

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

29) In correct order from the center outward, Earth includes which units?

  1. A) core, inner mantle, outer mantle, crust
  2. B) inner core, outer core, mantle, crust
  3. C) inner core, crust, mantle, hydrosphere
  4. D) core, crust, mantle, hydrosphere

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.5 A Closer Look at the Geosphere

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

30) The composition of the earth’s inner core is thought to be ________.

  1. A) basalt
  2. B) granite
  3. C) peridotite
  4. D) solid iron-nickel alloy

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.5 A Closer Look at the Geosphere

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

31) The asthenosphere is actually a part of the ________ of the earth.

  1. A) outer core
  2. B) crust
  3. C) inner core
  4. D) mantle

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.5 A Closer Look at the Geosphere

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

32) The ________ is thought to be a liquid, metallic region in the earth’s interior.

  1. A) inner core
  2. B) lithosphere
  3. C) mantle
  4. D) outer core

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.5 A Closer Look at the Geosphere

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

33) The ________ is the thinnest layer of the earth.

  1. A) crust
  2. B) outer core
  3. C) mantle
  4. D) inner core

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.5 A Closer Look at the Geosphere

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

34) The ________ forms the relatively cool, brittle tectonic plates.

  1. A) asthenosphere
  2. B) lithosphere
  3. C) astrosphere
  4. D) eosphere

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.5 A Closer Look at the Geosphere

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

35) Which of the following energy sources is thought to drive the lateral motions of Earth’s lithospheric plates?

  1. A) gravitational attractive forces of the Sun and Moon
  2. B) electrical and magnetic fields localized in the inner core
  3. C) heat transfer between the earth’s interior and the surface of the earth
  4. D) swirling movements of the molten iron particles in the outer core

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.5 A Closer Look at the Geosphere

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

36) Convergent plate boundaries are ________.

  1. A) sites where cold, downgoing convective cells, the plates, descent into the mantle
  2. B) sites where heat from the earth’s interior is vented to the surface as volcanos
  3. C) areas where two plates slide laterally past one another, generating earthquakes, like the San Andrea fault
  4. D) sites of supervolcanos like Yellowstone

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.5 A Closer Look at the Geosphere

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

37) Oceanic crust is generated at ________.

  1. A) hot spots on the sea floor, like Iceland
  2. B) spreading ridges
  3. C) convergent plate margins
  4. D) transform plate margins

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.5 A Closer Look at the Geosphere

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

38) Continental shields and platforms represent ________.

  1. A) sites where continents collide, analogous to warriors clashing shields
  2. B) names given to Paleozoic mountain belts
  3. C) sedimentary basins with inland seas shaped like a shield, like Hudson’s bay
  4. D) areas in the interior of continents that have not experienced mountain building for billions of years

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.5 A Closer Look at the Geosphere; Fig. 1.21

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

39) Which of the following layers in the earth has the highest density?

  1. A) Lithosphere
  2. B) Asthenosphere
  3. C) Lower mantle
  4. D) Outer Core

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.5 A Closer Look at the Geosphere

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

40) The Andes Mountains in South America are formed by ________.

  1. A) subduction
  2. B) sea floor spreading
  3. C) back-arc contraction
  4. D) continental collision

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.5 A Closer Look at the Geosphere

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

41) The Himalayan Mountains and adjacent Tibet are a mountain system formed by ________.

  1. A) subduction
  2. B) sea floor spreading
  3. C) back-arc contraction
  4. D) continental collision

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.5 A Closer Look at the Geosphere

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

42) Which of the following is a reasonable approximation of the rate that plates move?

  1. A) the rate of growth of human hair or fingernails
  2. B) the speed a turtle walks
  3. C) the speed of a mountain glacier
  4. D) the speed of deep ocean currents

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Topic:  1.5 A Closer Look at the Geosphere

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

43) What two chemical elements are most abundant in the deep interior of the earth?

  1. A) iron and magnesium
  2. B) magnesium and oxygen
  3. C) hydrogen and helium
  4. D) silicon and oxygen

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Topic:  1.5 A Closer Look at the Geosphere

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

44) A major cause of the differences in elevation between ocean basins and continents is ________.

  1. A) viscosity
  2. B) temperature
  3. C) density
  4. D) mass

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.6 The Face of Earth

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

45) Ocean floor averages about ________ km depth below sea level.

  1. A) 2
  2. B) 4
  3. C) 6
  4. D) 8

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.6 The Face of Earth

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

46) Ocean crust is denser than continental crust because ocean crust is ________.

  1. A) composed primarily of basalt
  2. B) composed primarily of granite
  3. C) thicker than continental crust
  4. D) thinner than continental crust

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.6 The Face of Earth

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

47) Flat, stable areas of continental crust tend to be located ________.

  1. A) along coastlines
  2. B) near desert regions
  3. C) in the interior of continents
  4. D) in areas that receive large amounts of rainfall

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.6 The Face of Earth

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

48) Major mountain belts on the earth are ________.

  1. A) older than smaller mountain belts because they have had enough time to grow large
  2. B) located around the Pacific Ocean
  3. C) over 10 km high
  4. D) made of granite because it is low density and allows for maximum growth

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.6 The Face of Earth

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

49) Shield areas in continental interiors are characterized by ________.

  1. A) linear chains of mountains less than 100 million years old
  2. B) flat areas that include rocks older than 1 billion years old
  3. C) flat river valleys that cut through older mountain ranges
  4. D) ancient coastal regions that have become abandoned and eroded

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.6 The Face of Earth

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

50) Which of the following is not considered to be part of a typical ocean basin?

  1. A) a linear chain of volcanoes
  2. B) large expanses of flat plains
  3. C) granitic intrusions
  4. D) deep canyons

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.6 The Face of Earth

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

51) Deep ocean trenches typically are not located adjacent to ________.

  1. A) transform plate boundaries
  2. B) volcanic island arc chains
  3. C) young continental mountains
  4. D) abyssal plains

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.6 The Face of Earth

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

52) Long oceanic mountain chains typically are characterized by ________.

  1. A) highly deformed sedimentary rocks
  2. B) granitic plutons and batholiths
  3. C) layers of igneous rocks
  4. D) rocks older than 1 billion years old

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.6 The Face of Earth

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

53) Active mountain belts are most likely to be found ________.

  1. A) along the margins of continents
  2. B) in the interior regions of continents
  3. C) scattered throughout continents
  4. D) along only the eastern margins of continents

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.6 The Face of Earth

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

54) The continental shelf is located ________.

  1. A) between the continental slope and continental rise
  2. B) between the continental rise and the abyssal plains
  3. C) seaward of the continental slope
  4. D) landward of the continental slope

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.6 The Face of Earth

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

55) The most prominent features on the ocean floor are the ________.

  1. A) deep-ocean trenches
  2. B) oceanic ridges
  3. C) seamounts
  4. D) lava plateaus

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.6 The Face of Earth

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

56) A(n) ________ system is one in which energy moves freely in and out, but no matter enters or leaves the system.

  1. A) closed
  2. B) open
  3. C) feedback
  4. D) equilibrated

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.7 Earth as a System

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

57) Mechanisms that enhance or drive change are known as ________.

  1. A) negative feedback mechanisms
  2. B) positive feedback mechanisms
  3. C) closed feedback mechanisms
  4. D) open feedback mechanisms

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.7 Earth as a System

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

58) What is the source of the energy that powers the Earth system?

  1. A) the Sun
  2. B) heat from Earth’s interior
  3. C) both A and B
  4. D) none of the above

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.7 Earth as a System

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

59) Which of the following is not a system?

  1. A) the biosphere
  2. B) soil, plants, rock, soil organisms, and animals
  3. C) the study of minerals
  4. D) the Pacific Ocean and the west coast of North America

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Topic:  1.7 Earth as a System

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

60) A mineralogist studies minerals and their origins. A mineralogist studying the Earth system would ________.

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group potency and collective efficacy

Part 1: Group Potency and Collective Efficacy

Review at least four (4) academically reviewed articles on Group Potency and Collective Efficacy. Develop power presentation of the 4 articles. Support your presentation with appropriate references. Use APA format throughout.

Part 2: Group Cohesiveness:

Review at least four (4) academically reviewed articles on Group Cohesiveness. Develop power presentation of the 4 articles. Support your presentation with appropriate references. Use APA format throughout.

Specific Instructions:

1. Discuss requirements for Parts 1 and 2 above.

2. Develop power points. You power points should contain a minimum of 20 slides (excluding the cover page and reference page.

3. Use APA format throughout.