Categories

## what is the enthalpy for the following reaction? overall: c2h4 + h2oâ†’c2h5oh

What is the enthalpy for the following reaction? C2H4 H2O—
17,023 results
Chem
What is the enthalpy for the following reaction? C2H4+H2O—>C2H5OH

asked by Kay on November 4, 2010
Chem
What is the enthalpy for the following reaction? overall: C2H4+H2O—>C2H5OH is -1411kJ correct??

asked by Angel on November 4, 2010
chemistry
If you need to multiply the following reaction by 2 to be an intermediate reaction in a Hess’s law problem, what would be the final value for the enthalpy of reaction you use for this intermediate reaction? C2H4 + 3 O2 2 CO2 + 2 H2O, H = -1410 kJ

asked by Anonymous on November 24, 2014
chemistry
For the reaction shown below complete the following calculations. H2(g) + C2H4(g) –> C2H6(g) (a) Estimate the enthalpy of reaction using the bond energy values in Table 9.4. (b) Calculate the enthalpy of reaction, using standard enthalpies of formation.

asked by hannah on October 27, 2008
Chemistry
Calculate the enthalpy change for: C2H4(g) + H2 –> C2H6(g) delta Hrxn: H2(g) + 1/2O2 –> H2O (l) C2H4(g) + 3O2 –> 2H20(l) + 2CO2(g) C2H6(g) + 7/2O2(g) –> 3H20(l) + 2CO2(g) I know I have to flip the third reaction but I don’t know what to do next

asked by Jessica on October 29, 2014

chemistry

1. Calculate the enthalpy change of combustion for ethene gas (C2H4) given the following enthalpy changes of formation: ΔHºf(C2H4)(g) = +52 kJ mol^-1 ΔHºf(CO2)(g) = -394 kJ mol^-1 ΔHºf(H2O)(g) = -286 kJ mol^-1

asked by John on July 19, 2014
Chemistry
Calculate the work involved if a reaction with an enthalpy change of -2418 kJ is carried out in a vessel with a mobile, frictionless piston. Other details: the reaction is H2(g) + 1/2Oxygen2(g) yields H2O(g) with enthalpy change of -241.8 kJ/mol. The

asked by Mark on November 22, 2008
chemistry
Calculate the ΔH of reaction for: C2H4(g) + H2O(l) = C2H5OH(l) if the ΔH of formation for C2H4(g), H2O(l) and C2H5OH are +52, -286 and -278 kJ/mol, respectively? Enter a numerical value below and be sure to include a minus sign if needed. The error

asked by danny 16 on January 31, 2015
Chemistry
I know I posted this question before, but can you clarify it?? MY QUESTION IS AFTER YOU SWITCHED THE DELTA H1 THE CHANGE IN THE ENTHALPY IS NEGATIVE…. BUT THAT DOES NOT MAKE SENSE BECAUSE THE CHANGE IN ENTHALPY OF THE ORIGINAL DELTA H1 IS

asked by Anonymous on November 14, 2013
CHEMISTRY
I know I posted this question before, but can you clarify it?? MY QUESTION IS AFTER YOU SWITCHED THE DELTA H1 THE CHANGE IN THE ENTHALPY IS NEGATIVE…. BUT THAT DOES NOT MAKE SENSE BECAUSE THE CHANGE IN ENTHALPY OF THE ORIGINAL DELTA H1 IS

asked by Anonymous on November 14, 2013
chemistry

1. Calculate the standard enthalpy change for the reaction: C2H4(g) + H2(g) → C2H6(g) given that the enthalpy of combustion for the reactants and products are: ΔHºc(C2H4)(g) = -1411 kJ mol^-1 ΔHºc(C2H6)(g) = -1560 kJ mol^-1 ΔHºc(H2)(g) = -286 kJ

asked by John on July 19, 2014
Chemistry
Calculate enthalpy of reaction C2H4 + H2 gives C2H6.enthalpy of combustion of ethene, H2,and ethane are -1410,-286,-15.60kj/mol respectively

asked by Shaika on November 7, 2016
Chemistry
Ethanol (C2H5OH) is synthesized for industrial use by the following reaction, carried out at very high pressure. C2H4(g) + H2O(g) → C2H5OH(l) What is the maximum amount, in kg, of ethanol that can be produced when 1.65 kg of ethylene (C2H4) and 0.0610 kg

asked by Brittney on October 6, 2013
Chemistry
Ethanol (C2H5OH) is synthesized for industrial use by the following reaction, carried out at very high pressure. C2H4(g) + H2O(g) C2H5OH(l) What is the maximum amount of ethanol (in grams) that can be produced when 1.0 kg of ethylene (C2H4) and 0.014 kg of

asked by Jack on November 1, 2011
chemistry
What is the maximum amount of ethanol (in grams) that can be produced when 1.0 kg of ethylene (C2H4) and 0.014 kg of steam are placed into the reaction vessel? Ethanol (C2H5OH) is synthesized for industrial use by the following reaction, carried out at

asked by Amanda on November 1, 2011

NEED HELP WITH CHEM HW
Ethanol (C2H5OH) is synthesized for industrial use by the following reaction, carried out at very high pressure. C2H4(g) + H2O(g) C2H5OH(l) What is the maximum amount of ethanol (in grams) that can be produced when 2.2 kg of ethylene (C2H4) and 0.014 kg of

asked by Anonymous on October 1, 2011
Chemistry 2!
consider the following reaction, equilibrium concentrations, and equilibrium constant at a particular temperature. Determine the equilibrium concentration of H2O(g) C2H4(g) + H2O(g) C2H5OH(g) kc= 7.0* 10^3 [C2H4]= 0.010M [C2H5OH]= 1.99M

asked by anonymous. on December 10, 2014
Chemistry
Consider the following reaction, equilibrium concentrations, and equilibrium constant at a particular temperature. Determine the equilibrium concentration of H2O(g). C2H4(g) + H2O(g) C2H5OH(g) Kc = 9.0 × 103 [C2H4]eq = 0.015 M [C2H5OH]eq = 1.69 M

asked by Jane on December 2, 2014
Chemistry
CONTINUE>>>>>>>>>>> The enthalpy changes for two different hydrogenation reactions of C2H2 are: C2H2+H2—->C2H4 Delta H 1 (there is a degree sign….standard enthalpy of formation??) *WAIT A SECOND, IF I USE THE HEAT OF FORMATION VALUES TO CALCULATE

asked by Anonymous on November 14, 2013
Chemistry
Calculate the standard entropy, ΔS°rxn, of the following reaction at 25.0 °C using the data in this table. The standard enthalpy of the reaction, ΔH°rxn, is –44.2 kJ·mol–1. C2H4(G)+H20 —> C5H5OH ΔS°rxn= __ JK^-1mol^-1 Then, calculate

asked by Patrick Panasko on November 30, 2014
CHEMISTRY
Please explain. The enthalpy changes for two different hydrogenation reactions of C2H2 are: C2H2+H2—->C2H4 Delta H 1 C2H2+2H2—->C2H6 Delta H 2 Which expression represents the enthalpy change for the reaction below? C2H4+H2—->C2H6 Delta H = ? A. Delta

asked by Anonymous on November 11, 2013
Chemistry
Please explain. The enthalpy changes for two different hydrogenation reactions of C2H2 are: C2H2+H2—->C2H4 Delta H 1 C2H2+2H2—->C2H6 Delta H 2 Which expression represents the enthalpy change for the reaction below? C2H4+H2—->C2H6 Delta H = ? A. Delta

asked by Anonymous on November 11, 2013
Science
The enthalpy change for the reaction 2 H2 + O2 > 2 H20 is -571.6 kJ. Determine the enthalpy change for the decomposition of 24.0g H2O. My Process -571.6 is the enthalpy of 2 mols of H2O. So the enthalpy of 1 mol of H2O will be -285.8. Since it’s

asked by Mike on July 9, 2015
Chemistry
Calculate the work involved if a reaction with an enthalpy change of -2418 kJ is carried out in a vessel with a mobile, frictionless piston. Other details: the reaction is H2(g) + 1/2Oxygen2(g) yields H2O(g) with enthalpy change of -241.8 kJ/mol. The

asked by Mark on November 23, 2008
Chemistry
Ethylene glycol, HOCH2CH2OH, is used as antifreeze. It is produced from ethylene oxide, C2H4O, by the following reaction. C2H4O(g) + H2O(l) → HOCH2CH2OH(l) Use Hess’s law to obtain the enthalpy change for this reaction from the following enthalpy

asked by Mariam on December 13, 2009

chemistry
Ethylene glycol, HOCH2CH2OH, is used as antifreeze. It is produced from ethylene oxide, C2H4O, by the following reaction. C2H4O(g) + H2O(l) → HOCH2CH2OH(l) Use Hess’s law to obtain the enthalpy change for this reaction from the following enthalpy

asked by caroline on October 29, 2010
calculate enthalpy of H for the reaction N2H4(l) + 2H2O(l) -> N2(g) + 4H2)(l) Given the reactions N2H4(l) + O2(g) -> N2(g) + 2H2O(l) Enthalpy of H = -6.22.2 kJ H2(g) + (1/2)O2(g) -> H2O(l) enthalpy of H = -285.8 kJ/mol H2(g) + O2(g) -> H2O2(l) enthalpy of

asked by Rose Bud on February 16, 2012
calculate enthalpy of H for the reaction N2H4(l) + 2H2O(l) -> N2(g) + 4H2)(l) Given the reactions N2H4(l) + O2(g) -> N2(g) + 2H2O(l) Enthalpy of H = -6.22.2 kJ H2(g) + (1/2)O2(g) -> H2O(l) enthalpy of H = -285.8 kJ/mol H2(g) + O2(g) -> H2O2(l) enthalpy of

asked by Rose Bud on February 16, 2012
Chemistry!
Calculate the work involved if a reaction with an enthalpy change of -2418 kJ is carried out in a vessel with a mobile, frictionless piston. Other details: the reaction is H2(g) + 1/2Oxygen2(g) yields H2O(g) with enthalpy change of -241.8 kJ/mol. The

asked by Elizabeth on November 23, 2008
Chemistry due soon
What is enthalpy? A. Enthalpy is the kinetic energy of a system. B. Enthalpy is the heat involved in a reaction. C. Enthalpy is the temperature of a reaction. D. Enthalpy is the mass involved in a reaction. I think the answer is a or b

asked by Morgan on November 6, 2014
chemistry
Given the following equations: 2 H2O2 (aq) → 2 H2O (l) + O2 (g) and C2H4 (g) + 3 O2 (g) → 2 CO2 (g) + 2 H2O (l) The first reaction is the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen gas. The oxygen gas generated in the first reaction is

asked by april on July 1, 2018
CHEMISTRY
calculate the delta h for the reaction 2C+2H–> C2H4 C+O2–> Co2 delta h= -393.5 C2H4+ 3O2–> 2CO2+ 2H2O delta h= 1410.9 H2+ 1/2 O2–> H2O delta h= -285.8 2CO+ O2–> 2CO2 delta h= -566.0 do you flip the first two equations and times the first and third one

asked by Anonymous on June 6, 2010
chemistry
A scientist measures the standard enthalpy change for the following reaction to be -53.4 kJ : Ca(OH)2(aq) + 2 HCl(aq) CaCl2(s) + 2 H2O(l) Based on this value and the standard enthalpies of formation for the other substances, the standard enthalpy of

asked by Austin on March 18, 2012
chemistry
A scientist measures the standard enthalpy change for the following reaction to be -53.4 kJ : Ca(OH)2(aq) + 2 HCl(aq) CaCl2(s) + 2 H2O(l) Based on this value and the standard enthalpies of formation for the other substances, the standard enthalpy of

asked by Austin on March 18, 2012
chemistry
Calculate enthalpy change of reaction for the combustion of gaseous ethanol. C2H5OH + 3O2 >> CO2 + 3H2O. Using standard molar enthalpies of formation. C2H5OH -235.3 ( it’s negative sign) CO2 -393.5 H2O -241.8 (1) Calculate the enthalpy change of reaction

asked by Alex on April 20, 2010

Chemistry
C2H4(g) + H2O(l) → C2H5O(l) what is the rendition percentage if 4.50g of C2H4 produce 4.7g of ethyl alcohol?

asked by Alex on September 11, 2012
Chemistry
Calculate the enthalpy change for the reaction 2C (s) + H2 (g) yield C2H2 (g) given the following reactions and their respective enthalpy changes: C2H2(g) + 5/2 O2(g) yield 2CO2(g) + H2O (l) = -1299.6kJ C(s) + O2(g) yield CO2 (g) -393.5 H2(g) + 1/2 O2(g)

asked by Lucy on December 29, 2007
Chemistry
Calculate the enthalpy change for the reaction 2C + H2 yield C2H2 given the following reactions and their respective enthalpy changes: C2H2 + 5/2 O2 yield 2CO + H2O -1299.6 C + O yield CO2 -393.5 H2 + 1/2 O2 yield H2O -285.9 I don’t even know how to start

asked by Lucy on December 24, 2007
chemistry
Calculate the enthalpy of reaction for the combustion of ethene. Express the enthalpy of reaction calculated in question above as a molar enthalpy of reaction per mole of carbon dioxide.

asked by shyanne on January 8, 2013
chemistry
c2h4(g) + 3O2(g) -> 2 CO2 (g) + 2 H2O (g) What volume of oxygen will react with 18 ml of ehtylene, c2h4, assuming that the gases are present at the same temperature and pressure?

asked by Monica on April 19, 2010
Chemistry
The standard enthalpy of formation of H2O (l) is -285.8 kJ/mol. Calculate ∆E° for the following reaction. H2O (l) → H2 (g) + 1/2 O2 (g)

asked by Mahnoor on November 15, 2014
Chemistry
The standard enthalpy of formation of H2O (l) is -285.8 kJ/mol. Calculate DEO for the following reaction. H2O (l) → H2 (g) + 1/2 O2 (g)

asked by Mahnoor on November 15, 2014
CHemistry
Given the following information calculate the heat of formation of C2H4. C2H4 + 3 O2 ¡æ 2 CO2 + 2 H2O ¥ÄH¡Æ = -414 kJ/mol C + O2 ¡æ CO2 ¥ÄH¡Æ = -393.5 kJ/mol H2 + ¨ö O2 ¡æ H2O ¥ÄH¡Æ = -241.8 kJ/mol

asked by sam on April 26, 2015
Chemistry
Reposted: Use Hess’s law to calculate the enthalpy change for the reaction: 3C(s) + 3H2(g) yield C3H6(g) Given the following thermochemical equations: 2C3H6(g) + 9O2(g) yield 6CO2(g) + 6H2O(l) enthalpy change= -4116.0 kJ/mol C(s) + O2(g) yield CO2(g)

asked by Hailee on March 17, 2012
Chemisty
I need a recap of how to do the question below. I just need the basic guidelines: The enthalpy change for the reaction 2H2(g)+O2 > 2H2O is -571.6kJ. Determine the enthalpy change for the decomposition of 24.0g H2O.

asked by Todd on June 26, 2015

chemistry
Consider the reaction, C2H4(g) + H2(g) ® C2H6(g), where DH = – 137 kJ. How many kilojoules are released when 55.3 g of C2H4 reacts?

asked by Cooper on October 21, 2011
Chemistry
Find the enthalpy for : 4Fe + 3O2 = 2Fe2O3 I got the following informations: Fe + 3H2O = Fe(OH)3 + 3/2H2 – Enthalpy is 160.9 kj H2 + 1/2O2 = H2O – Enthalpy is -285.8 kj Fe2O3 + 3H2O = 2Fe(OH)3 – Enthalpy is 288.6 I try using Hess Law but cannot solve it.

asked by Shadow on May 13, 2013
Chemistry
Which of the following is the best definition of Hess’ Law? A. Heat is always released by the decomposition of 1 mole of a compound into its constitute elements. B. The enthalpy of a process is the difference between the enthalpy of the products and the

asked by Anonymous on February 20, 2008
Consider the following equations. N2H4(l) + O2(g) N2(g) + 2 H2O(l) ÄH = -622.2 kJ H2(g) + 1/2 O2(g) H2O(l) ÄH = -258.5 kJ H2(g) + O2(g) H2O2(l) ÄH = -187.8 kJ Use this information to calculate the enthalpy change for the reaction shown below. N2H4(l) +

asked by hannah on November 6, 2012
chem- i reallyneed help
Consider the following equations. N2H4(l) + O2(g) N2(g) + 2 H2O(l) ÄH = -622.2 kJ H2(g) + 1/2 O2(g) H2O(l) ÄH = -258.5 kJ H2(g) + O2(g) H2O2(l) ÄH = -187.8 kJ Use this information to calculate the enthalpy change for the reaction shown below. N2H4(l) +

asked by hannah on November 6, 2012
chemistry- stoichiometry problems
C2H4+3 O2->2 co2+2 H2O If you start wit 45 grams of C2H4 how many grams of carbon dioxide will be produced?

asked by anon on April 22, 2009
Chemistry
Which of the following is the best definition of Hess’ Law? A. Heat evolved in a given process can be expressed as the sum of the heats of several processes that, when added, yield the process of interest. B. The enthalpy of a process is the difference

asked by Jared on May 7, 2007
Hess’ law
Which of the following is the best definition of Hess’ Law? A. Heat is always released by the decomposition of 1 mole of a compound into its constitute elements. B. Since enthalpy is a state function, it will be different if a reaction takes place in one

asked by christine on February 9, 2007
college chem
Calculate the molar enthalpy of reaction standard enthalpy of formation below. H20 = -285.8 kj/mole H+ = 0.0 kj/mole OH- = -229.9 kj/mol H+(aq) + OH-(aq)→H2O(l) For this, don’t you do the summation of products x stoichemtry + the sum of reactants x

asked by sam on November 20, 2014
Enthalypy Reaction
What is the standard enthalpy of reaction for the following chemical reaction? CO2(g) + 2KOH(s) –> H2O(g) + K2CO3 (s) Express your answers numerically in kJ.

asked by Sarah on September 23, 2008

Chemistry
Please write the chemical equation and calculate the reaction enthalpy (or energy) for the total chlorination (addition of chlorine gas to all double bonds) of cyclopentadiene (if you do not know what cyclopentadiene is, assume C2H4).

asked by Eddie on December 6, 2010
chemistry
Please write the chemical equation and calculate the reaction enthalpy (or energy) for the total bromination (addition of bromine gas to all double bonds) of 2,3-dimethylbutadiene (if you do not know what 2,3-dimethylbutadiene is, assume C2H4).

asked by Eddie on December 7, 2010
Thermochemistry determine the final temperature if 45.67 kJ of heat energy is removed from 18.5 g of H2O (g) at 122 degrees Celsius useful information sp. heat H2O (s) = 2.03 J/g(degree C) sp heat H2O (l) = 4.18 J/g(degree C) Sp heat H2O (g) = 2.01

asked by Rose Bud on February 15, 2012
Chemistry
Which of the following is the best definition of Hess’ Law? A. Since enthalpy is a state function, it will be different if a reaction takes place in one step or a series of steps. B. Heat is always released by the decomposition of 1 mole of a compound into

asked by Anonymous on February 24, 2008
Chemistry
Consider the reaction of Lithium with water: 2 Li(s) + 2H2O(l) —-> 2 LiOH(aq) + H2(g) The delta H of the reaction is -160 KJ The enthalpy of fusion of H2O is 6.0 kJ/mol The specific heat capacity of H2O(l) is 4.18 J/gC When 10 grams of Li(s) is dropped

asked by Vinit on October 27, 2015
Chemistry
With a platinum catalyst, ammonia will burn in oxygen to give nitric oxide, NO. 4 NH3(g) + 5 O2(g) 4 NO(g) + 6 H2O(g) ÄH = -906 kJ What is the enthalpy change for the following reaction? NO(g) + 3/2 H2O(g) NH3(g) + 5/4 O2(g)

asked by Glenna on October 18, 2008
Chemistry
What is the standard enthalpy of reaction for the following reaction: H2 + 1/2 O2 –> H2O(g)

asked by Lauren on March 11, 2011
Chemistry
Calculate the enthalpy of the reaction 2B2H6 + 6O2=2B2O3 +6H2O given the following pertinent information: A. B2O3(s) + 2H2) )g) = 3O2 (g) + B2H6 (g), delta H= +2035kJ B. 2B (s) + 3H2 (g) =B2H6 (g), delta H= +36 kJ C. H2 (g) + 1/2)2 (g) =H2O (l), delta

asked by B on April 22, 2012
Chemistry
The enthalpy of formation for a substance corresponds to the enthalpy change for a reaction. Write the specific chemical reaction defining the enthalpy of formation of butane: Just checking to make sure this is correct: 4C + 5H2 —> C4H10

asked by AJ on March 26, 2017
chemistry
A scientist measures the standard enthalpy change for the following reaction to be -2923.0 kJ : 2C2H6(g) + 7 O2(g) 4CO2(g) + 6 H2O(g) Based on this value and the standard enthalpies of formation for the other substances, the standard enthalpy of formation

asked by Anonymous on October 24, 2012

Chemistry
A calorimeter contains 30.0 mL of water at 15.0 C. When 1.50 g of X (a substance with a molar mas of 46.0g/ mol is added, it dissolves via the reaction X (s) + H2O (l) —-> X (aq) and the temperature of the solution increases to 26.5 C. Calculate the

asked by Student on March 11, 2016
chemistry
The reaction SO2 + H2O =H2SO4 Is the last step in the commercial production of sulfuric acid . the enthalpy change for this reaction is -227 KJ . In designing a sulfuric acid plant is it necessary to provide for heating or cooling of the reaction mixture ?

asked by mathew on November 12, 2014
Chemistry
Table sugar consists mostly of sucrose, C12H22O11. The standard enthalpy of combustion for sucrose is the standard state delta H for the reaction: C12H22O11 + 12 O 2 —> 12 CO2 + 11 H2O Calculate this standard state delta H. Give answer in units of kJ to

asked by Eli on December 3, 2016
chemistry
Consider the reaction, C2H4 (g) + H2 (g)- C2H6 (g) where -137kJ of heat is released. How many kilojoules are released when 55.3g of C2H4 reacts?

asked by Sandy on July 10, 2011
Chemistry
Estimate the enthalpy change for the following reaction OH(g)+CH4(g)==>CH3(g)+H2O(g)

asked by West on April 19, 2011
College Chemistry
Estimate the enthalpy change for the following reaction OH(g)+CH4(g)==>CH3(g)+H2O(g)

asked by West on April 21, 2011
chemistry
Calculate the standard enthalpy change for the following reaction at 25 °C. H2O+C(graphite)(s) –> H2(g) +CO(g)

asked by anon on October 28, 2016
chemistry
estimate the enthalpy change for the following reaction: OF2 + H2O = O2 + 2HF

asked by small on November 27, 2016
Chemistry
how many C2H4 molecules are contained in 45.8 mg C2H4 when the molar mass of C2H4 is 28.05g/mol

asked by Thomissa on September 5, 2011
Calculate the enthalpy of the reaction of boron trioxide with steam: B2O3(s) + 3H2O(g) → 3O2(g) + B2H6(g) Given: H2O(l) H2(g) + 1⁄2 O2(g) 2B(s) + 3H2(g) 2B(s) + 3/2 O2(g) → B2O3(s) → H2O(g) → H2O(l) → B2H6(g) 44 kJ/mol -286 kJ/mol 36 kJ/mol

asked by Lay on October 19, 2015

college chemistry
The chemical reaction representing production of water gas is as follows: C(s)+H2O(l)=CO(g)+H2(g) calculate the enthalpy change in the production of 200L(at 500mmHg and 65degree celcius) of hydrogen by this reaction.

asked by bennett on November 3, 2008
chemistry URGENT (2)
Label each of the following reactions as exothermic or endothermic (“exo” or “endo”), and according to whether work is done on or by the system (“on” or “by”)? Note that no “en-on” cases appear here, as these are always thermodynamically unfavourable.

asked by Anonymous on November 16, 2008
chemistry
Label each of the following reactions as exothermic or endothermic (“exo” or “endo”), and according to whether work is done on or by the system (“on” or “by”)? Note that no “en-on” cases appear here, as these are always thermodynamically unfavourable.

asked by Anonymous on November 16, 2008
Chemistry
The equation for the complete combustion of ethene (C2H4) is C2H4(g) + 3 O2(g) ==> 2CO2(g) + 2H2O(g) If 2.70 mol C2H4 is reacted with 6.30 mole O2, identify the limiting reagent. show all work.

asked by Danny on March 27, 2010
Chemistry
The reaction between 0.045 g of calcium with an excess of water was carried out in an ice calorimeter as used in this lab. The volume of water in the calorimeter decreased by 0.18 mL during the reaction a) Write the equation for the reaction which occurs.

asked by Sean on June 3, 2009
chemistry
When NH3 is treated with oxygen gas, the products obtained are N2(g) and H2O(l). If standard enthalpies of formation at 298 K for NH3(g) and H2O(l) are –46.00 kJ/mol and –286.0 kJ/mol respectively, calculate the enthalpy change of the reaction.

asked by Shana on January 27, 2015
chem
When NH3 is treated with oxygen gas, the products obtained are N2(g) and H2O(l). If standard enthalpies of formation at 298 K for NH3(g) and H2O(l) are –46.00 kJ/mol and –286.0 kJ/mol respectively, calculate the enthalpy change of the reaction.

asked by shana on January 27, 2015
Chemistry
Question 9 Unsaved What is the rate law for the following reaction, if the order of the reaction is m, an unknown? H2O2(aq) → H2O(l) + ½O2(g) a. k [H2O2]m b.k [H2O]m [O2]1/2 c.k [H2O] m /[H2O][O2 d.k[H2O] m [O2]m Thanks in advance. The k and m are meant

asked by Ramon on March 23, 2018
Chemistry
‘At 600.0 K, the equilibrium constant based on pressure is Kp = 1.83 x 10^2. Gaseous C2H4 and H2O are placed in a 1.2 L closed flask at 600.0 K. At equilibrium, the flask contains 0.0062 mol of C2H4 and 0.041 mol of H2O. Determine the equilibrium

asked by SaraF275 on January 30, 2018
Chemistry practice
Using the form of energy diagram,make a concept map of the two different methods of calculation of reaction enthalpy(via the bond enthalpy and via the enthalpy of formation)

asked by Gift on July 31, 2011

Chemistry
When a chemist burns ammonia according to the reaction below she finds that the reaction releases heat. (It is exothermic.) 4NH3(g) + 3O2(g) 2N2(g) + 6H2O(g) The enthalpy of the reaction DH = -1267 kJ. What is the enthalpy change (in kJ) when 7 grams of

asked by Devin on January 12, 2015
Chemisty
Calculate the standard enthalpy change for the following reaction at 25 °C. MgCl2(s)+H2O(l)–>MgO(s)+2HCl

asked by Orton on April 1, 2013
Chemistry
Calculate the standard enthalpy change for the following reaction at 25 °C. MgCl2(s) + H2o(l) —> MgO(s) + 2HCl(g)

asked by Matt on June 19, 2013
Chemistry
In the dehydrogenation of ethane two reactions take place: C2H6 => C2H4 + H2 C2H6 + H2 => 2CH4 The mass distribution of the product is: 27% C2H6; 33% C2H4; 13% H2; 27% CH4. 1. What was the conversion of C2H6 to CH4? 2. What was the yield of C2H4 expressed

asked by Hoang on November 24, 2016
Chemistry
O3 + NO –> O2 + NO2 (all in gas state) Calculate the change in enthalpy for the reaction at room temp. using the following data ^Hf: O3 = 143 NO = 90 NO2 = 33 So, I have 143+90–> X + 33. I don’t know what the enthalpy of O2 is. I assume you simply

asked by Anonymous on February 18, 2008
Chemistry
Calculate the enthalpy of formation if 78.5 g of carbon dioxide in the following reaction: C(s) + H2O(g) –> CO2(g) Use the following equations: a) H2O(l) –> H2(g) + (1/2)O2(g): Δ°f = +285.8 kJ/mol b) C2H6(g) –> 2C(s) + 3H2(g): Δ°f = +84.7 kJ/mol c)

asked by anon on March 23, 2017
Chemistry
Using standard enthalpies information, calculate the standard enthalpy change for this reaction. a)(thermite reaction) 2Al(s) + Fe2O3(s) = Al2O3(s) + 2Fe(s) b)Mg(OH)2(s) = MgO(s) + H2O(I) c)N2O4(g) + 4H2(g) = N2(g) + 4H2O(g) d)SiCl4(I) + 2H2O(I) = SiO2(s)

asked by Dan on July 3, 2014
Chemistry
Using standard enthalpies information, calculate the standard enthalpy change for this reaction: a) (thermite reaction) 2Al(s) + Fe2O3(s) = Al2O3(s) + 2Fe(s) b) Mg(OH)2(s) = MgO(s) + H2O(I) c) N2O4(g) + 4H2(g) = N2(g) + 4H2O(g) d) SiCl4(I) + 2H2O(I) =

asked by Brett on July 3, 2014
chemistry
Calculate the molar enthalpy change for this reaction: HCl(aq 1.00M) + NaOH -> NaCl(aq,.500M)+ H2O Initial temp: 22.15 degrees Celsius Extrapolated temp: 25.87 degrees Celsius DT: 3.72 degrees Celsius Notes: Calculate the enthalpy change for this reaction.

asked by Failure on November 10, 2015
chemistry
The reaction between 0.045 g of calcium with an excess of water was carried out in an ice calorimeter as used in this lab. The volume of water in the calorimeter decreased by 0.18 mL during the reaction a) Write the equation for the reaction which occurs.

asked by Anonymous on November 10, 2008

chem
Are bond energies (single and multiple bonds) applicable only to gas phase?? For instance, I can use the bond energy data to calculate for enthalpy of reaction for the formation of water: 2 H2(g) + O2(g) -> H2O(g) But I can’t directly use it to calculate

asked by Namie on September 19, 2012
chemistry
Are bond energies (single and multiple bonds) applicable only to gas phase?? For instance, I can use the bond energy data to calculate for enthalpy of reaction for the formation of water: 2 H2(g) + O2(g) -> H2O(g) But I can’t directly use it to calculate

asked by Namie on September 19, 2012
Chemistry
Calculate the enthalpy change, ΔrH, for the following reaction, 4 NH3 (g) + 5 O2(g) → 4 NO (g) + 6 H2O (g) given the thermochemical equations below. N2 (g) + O2 (g) → 2 NO (g) ΔrH° = +181 kJ N2 (g) + 3 H2 (g) → 2 NH3 (g) ΔrH° = 91.8 kJ 2 H2

asked by Hannah on October 2, 2011
physics 30
Given the reaction 3 NO2(g) + H2O(l) ¨ 2 HNO3(l) + NO(g) ƒ¢rH = -72.0 kJ, calculate the molar enthalpy of reaction, rH for: 1) NO2(g) 2) H20 (l) 3) HNO3 (l) 4) NO (g) Express you answer in Kj/mol

asked by ?????halp on February 10, 2015
Chemistry
The homework question is : Calculate the Delta H for the following reaction: C6H6 + O2 -> C + H2O(l) State whether the reaction is exothermic or endothermic. I’m not sure where to go with this but so far I balanced out the formula to this C6H6 + (3/2)O2 ->

asked by Alexa on December 1, 2014

Categories

## trans-dichlorobis(ethylenediamine)platinum(iv)

Give the chemical formula for trans-dichlorobis(ethylenediamine)platinum(IV). Use (en) as the symbol for ethylenediamine.

0 0 407
Mar 30, 2012
[Pt(en)2Cl2]

0 0
posted by DrBob222
Mar 30, 2012
[PtCl2(en)2]2+

1 0
posted by Kelci
Apr 6, 2012

Categories

## langston hughes song for a dark girl

Journal eassy 4.

Topic: discuss the theme of pessimism in the three assigned of the assigned Hughes

Categories

## incremental analysis is the process of identifying the financial data that:

38. A major accounting contribution to the managerial decision-making process in evaluating

possible courses of action is to

a. assign responsibility for the decision.

b. provide relevant revenue and cost data about each course of action.

c. determine the amount of money that should be spent on a project.

d. decide which actions that management should consider.

39. Which of the following stages of the management decision-making process is improperly

sequenced?

a. Evaluate possible courses of action Æ Make decision.

b. Assign responsibility for the decision Æ Identify the problem.

c. Identify the problem Æ Determine possible courses of action.

d. Assign responsibility for decision Æ Determine possible courses of action.

40. Internal reports that review the actual impact of decisions are prepared by

b. the controller.

c. management accountants.

d. factory workers.

41. Which of the following steps in the management decision-making process does not

generally involve the managerial accountant?

a. Determine possible courses of action

b. Make the appropriate decision based on relevant data

c. Prepare internal reports that review the impact of decisions

d. None of these

The process of evaluating financial data that change under alternative courses of action is

called

a. double entry analysis.

b. contribution margin analysis.

c. incremental analysis.

d. cost-benefit analysis.

43. Nonfinancial information that management might evaluate in making a decision would not

include

a. employee turnover.

b. contribution margin.

c. the environment.

d. the corporate profile in the community.

44. Incremental analysis is synonymous with

a. difficult analysis.

b. differential analysis.

c. gross profit analysis.

d. derivative analysis.

45. In incremental analysis,

a. only costs are analyzed.

b. only revenues are analyzed.

c. both costs and revenues may be analyzed.

d. both costs and revenues that stay the same between alternate courses of action will

be analyzed.

46. Incremental analysis is most useful

a. in developing relevant information for management decisions.

b. in choosing between the net present value method and the internal rate of return

method.

c. in evaluating the master budget.

d. as a replacement technique for variance analysis.

47. The source of data to serve as inputs in incremental analysis is generated by

a. market analysts.

b. engineers.

c. accountants.

d. all of these.

Which of the following is not a true statement?

a. Incremental analysis might also be referred to as differential analysis.

b. Incremental analysis is the same as CVP analysis.

c. Incremental analysis is useful in making decisions.

d. Incremental analysis focuses on decisions that involve a choice among alternative

courses of action.

49. Incremental analysis would not be appropriate for

a. a make or buy decision.

b. an allocation of limited resource decision.

c. elimination of an unprofitable segment.

d. analysis of manufacturing variances.

Incremental analysis would be appropriate for

a. acceptance of an order at a special price.

b. a retain or replace equipment decision.

c. a sell or process further decision.

d. all of these.

51. Which of the following is a true statement about cost behaviors in incremental analysis?

1. Fixed costs will not change between alternatives.

2. Fixed costs may change between alternatives.

3. Variable costs will always change between alternatives.

a. 1

b. 2

c. 3

d. 2 and 3

52. A company is considering the following alternatives:

Alternative 1 Alternative 2

Revenues \$120,000 \$120,000

Variable costs 60,000 70,000

Fixed costs 35,000 35,000

Which of the following are relevant in choosing between the alternatives?

a. Variable costs

b. Revenues

c. Fixed costs

d. Variable costs and fixed costs

53. It costs Harmon Company \$12 of variable and \$5 of fixed costs to produce one bathroom

scale which normally sells for \$35. A foreign wholesaler offers to purchase 2,000 scales at

\$15 each. Harmon would incur special shipping costs of \$1 per scale if the order were

accepted. Harmon has sufficient unused capacity to produce the 2,000 scales. If the

special order is accepted, what will be the effect on net income?

a. \$4,000 increase

b. \$4,000 decrease

c. \$6,000 decrease

d. \$30,000 increase

Adler Company manufactures a product with a unit variable cost of \$50 and a unit sales

price of \$88. Fixed manufacturing costs were \$240,000 when 10,000 units were produced

and sold. The company has a one-time opportunity to sell an additional 1,000 units at \$70

each in a foreign market which would not affect its present sales. If the company has

sufficient capacity to produce the additional units, acceptance of the special order would

affect net income as follows:

a. Income would decrease by \$4,000.

b. Income would increase by \$4,000.

c. Income would increase by \$70,000.

d. Income would increase by \$20,000.

55. In incremental analysis,

a. costs are not relevant if they change between alternatives.

b. all costs are relevant if they change between alternatives.

c. only fixed costs are relevant.

d. only variable costs are relevant

Categories

## every inductive argument is __________.

6Deduction and Induction: Putting It All Together

Wavebreakmedia Ltd./Thinkstock and GoldenShrimp/iStock/Thinkstock

Learning Objectives After reading this chapter, you should be able to:

1. Compare and contrast the advantages of deduction and induction.

2. Explain why one might choose an inductive argument over a deductive argument.

3. Analyze an argument for its deductive and inductive components.

4. Explain the use of induction within the hypothetico–deductive method.

5. Compare and contrast falsification and confirmation within scientific inquiry.

6. Describe the combined use of induction and deduction within scientific reasoning.

7. Explain the role of inference to the best explanation in science and in daily life.

har85668_06_c06_207-238.indd 207 4/9/15 11:38 AM

Section 6.1 Contrasting Deduction and Induction

Now that you have learned something about deduction and induction, you may be wondering why we need both. This chapter is devoted to answering that question. We will start by learn- ing a bit more about the differences between deductive and inductive reasoning and how the two types of reasoning can work together. After that, we will move on to explore how scien- tific reasoning applies to both types of reasoning to achieve spectacular results. Arguments with both inductive and deductive elements are very common. Recognizing the advantages and disadvantages of each type can help you build better arguments. We will also investigate another very useful type of inference, known as inference to the best explanation, and explore its advantages.

6.1 Contrasting Deduction and Induction Remember that in logic, the difference between induction and deduction lies in the connec- tion between the premises and conclusion. Deductive arguments aim for an absolute connec- tion, one in which it is impossible that the premises could all be true and the conclusion false. Arguments that achieve this aim are called valid. Inductive arguments aim for a probable connection, one in which, if all the premises are true, the conclusion is more likely to be true than it would be otherwise. Arguments that achieve this aim are called strong. (For a discus- sion on common misconceptions about the meanings of induction and deduction, see A Closer Look: Doesn’t Induction Mean Going From Specific to General?). Recall from Chapter 5 that inductive strength is the counterpart of deductive validity, and cogency is the inductive coun- terpart of deductive soundness. One of the purposes of this chapter is to properly understand the differences and connections between these two major types of reasoning.

There is another important difference between deductive and inductive rea- soning. As discussed in Chapter 5, if you add another premise to an induc- tive argument, the argument may become either stronger or weaker. For example, suppose you are thinking of buying a new cell phone. After looking at all your options, you decide that one model suits your needs better than the others. New information about the phone may make you either more con- vinced or less convinced that it is the right one for you—it depends on what the new information is. With deductive reasoning, by contrast, adding prem- ises to a valid argument can never render it invalid. New information may show that a deductive argument

Fuse/Thinkstock

New information can have an impact on both deductive and inductive arguments. It can render deductive arguments unsound and can strengthen or weaken inductive arguments, such as arguments for buying one car over another.

har85668_06_c06_207-238.indd 208 4/9/15 11:38 AM

Section 6.1 Contrasting Deduction and Induction

is unsound or that one of its premises is not true after all, but it cannot undermine a valid connection between the premises and the conclusion. For example, consider the following argument:

All whales are mammals. Shamu is a whale. Therefore, Shamu is a mammal.

This argument is valid, and there is nothing at all we could learn about Shamu that would change this. We might learn that we were mistaken about whales being mammals or about Shamu being a whale, but that would lead us to conclude that the argument is unsound, not invalid. Compare this to an inductive argument about Shamu.

Whales typically live in the ocean. Shamu is a whale. Therefore, Shamu lives in the ocean.

Now suppose you learn that Shamu has been trained to do tricks in front of audiences at an amusement park. This seems to make it less likely that Shamu lives in the ocean. The addition of this new information has made this strong inductive argument weaker. It is, however, pos- sible to make it stronger again with the addition of more information. For example, we could learn that Shamu was part of a captive release program.

An interesting exercise for exploring this concept is to see if you can keep adding premises to make an inductive argument stronger, then weaker, then stronger again. For example, see if you can think of a series of premises that make you change your mind back and forth about the quality of the cell phone discussed earlier.

Determining whether an argument is deductive or inductive is an important step both in evaluating arguments that you encounter and in developing your own arguments. If an argu- ment is deductive, there are really only two questions to ask: Is it valid? And, are the premises true? If you determine that the argument is valid, then only the truth of the premises remains in question. If it is valid and all of the premises are true, then we know that the argument is sound and that therefore the conclusion must be true as well.

On the other hand, because inductive arguments can go from strong to weak with the addi- tion of more information, there are more questions to consider regarding the connection between the premises and conclusion. In addition to considering the truth of the premises and the strength of the connection between the premises and conclusion, you must also con- sider whether relevant information has been left out of the premises. If so, the argument may become either stronger or weaker when the relevant information is included.

Later in this chapter we will see that many arguments combine both inductive and deductive elements. Learning to carefully distinguish between these elements will help you know what questions to ask when evaluating the argument.

har85668_06_c06_207-238.indd 209 4/9/15 11:38 AM

Section 6.1 Contrasting Deduction and Induction

A Closer Look: Doesn’t Induction Mean Going From Specific to General? A common misunderstanding of the meanings of induction and deduction is that deduction goes from the general to the specific, whereas induction goes from the specific to the gen- eral. This definition is used by some fields, but not by logic or philosophy. It is true that some deductive arguments go from general premises to specific conclusions, and that some induc- tive arguments go from the specific premises to general conclusions. However, neither state- ment is true in general.

First, although some deductive arguments go from general to specific, there are many deduc- tive arguments that do not go from general to specific. Some deductive arguments, for exam- ple, go from general to general, like the following:

All S are M. All M are P. Therefore, all S are P.

Propositional logic is deductive, but its arguments do not go from general to specific. Instead, arguments are based on the use of connectives (and, or, not, and if . . . then). For example, modus ponens (discussed in Chapter 4) does not go from the general to the spe- cific, but it is deductively valid. When it comes to inductive arguments, some—for example, inductive generalizations—go from specific to general; others do not. Statistical syllogisms, for example, go from general to specific, yet they are inductive.

This common misunderstanding about the definitions of induction and deduction is not sur- prising given the different goals of the fields in which the terms are used. However, the defini- tions used by logicians are especially suited for the classification and evaluation of different types of reasoning.

For example, if we defined terms the old way, then the category of deductive reasoning would include arguments from analogy, statistical syllogisms, and some categorical syllogisms. Inductive reasoning, on the other hand, would include only inductive generalizations. In addi- tion, there would be other types of inference that would fit into neither category, like many categorical syllogisms, inferences to the best explanation, appeals to authority, and the whole field of propositional logic.

The use of the old definitions, therefore, would not clear up or simplify the categories of logic at all but would make them more confusing. The current distinction, based on whether the premises are intended to guarantee the truth of the conclusion, does a much better job of simplifying logic’s categories, and it does so based on a very important and relevant distinction.

har85668_06_c06_207-238.indd 210 4/9/15 11:38 AM

Section 6.2 Choosing Between Induction and Deduction

Practice Problems 6.1

1. A deductive argument that establishes an absolute connection between the premises and conclusion is called a __________. a. strong argument b. weak argument c. invalid argument d. valid argument

2. An inductive argument whose premises give a lot of support for the truth of its con- clusion is said to be __________. a. strong b. weak c. valid d. invalid

3. Inductive arguments always reason from the specific to the general. a. true b. false

4. Deductive arguments always reason from the general to the specific. a. true b. false

6.2 Choosing Between Induction and Deduction You might wonder why one would choose to use inductive reasoning over deductive reason- ing. After all, why would you want to show that a conclusion was only probably true rather than guaranteed to be true? There are several reasons, which will be discussed in this sec- tion. First, there may not be an available deductive argument based on agreeable premises. Second, inductive arguments can be more robust than deductive arguments. Third, inductive arguments can be more persuasive than deductive arguments.

Availability Sometimes the best evidence available does not lend itself to a deductive argument. Let us consider a readily accepted fact: Gravity is a force that pulls everything toward the earth. How would you provide an argument for that claim? You would probably pick something up, let go of it, and note that it falls toward the earth. For added effect, you might pick up several things and show that each of them falls. Put in premise–conclusion form, your argument looks something like the following:

My coffee cup fell when I let go of it. My wallet fell when I let go of it. This rock fell when I let go of it. Therefore, everything will fall when I let go of it.

har85668_06_c06_207-238.indd 211 4/9/15 11:38 AM

Section 6.2 Choosing Between Induction and Deduction

When we put the argument that way, it should be clear that it is inductive. Even if we grant that the premises are true, it is not guaranteed that every- thing will fall when you let go of it. Perhaps grav- ity does not affect very small things or very large things. We could do more experiments, but we can- not check every single thing to make sure that it is affected by gravity. Our belief in gravity is the result of extremely strong inductive reasoning. We there- fore have great reasons to believe in gravity, even if our reasoning is not deductive.

All subjects that rely on observation use induc- tive reasoning: It is at least theoretically possible that future observations may be totally different than past ones. Therefore, our inferences based on observation are at best probable. It turns out that there are very few subjects in which we can pro- ceed entirely by deductive reasoning. These tend to be very abstract and formal subjects, such as math- ematics. Although other fields also use deductive reasoning, they do so in combination with inductive reasoning. The result is that most fields rely heavily on inductive reasoning.

Robustness Inductive arguments have some other advantages over deductive arguments. Deductive argu- ments can be extremely persuasive, but they are also fragile in a certain sense. When some- thing goes wrong in a deductive argument, if a premise is found to be false or if it is found to be invalid, there is typically not much of an argument left. In contrast, inductive arguments tend to be more robust. The robustness of an inductive argument means that it is less fragile; if there is a problem with a premise, the argument may become weaker, but it can still be quite persuasive. Deductive arguments, by contrast, tend to be completely unconvincing once they are shown not to be sound. Let us work through a couple of examples to see what this means in practice.

Consider the following deductive argument:

All dogs are mammals. Some dogs are brown. Therefore, some mammals are brown.

As it stands, the argument is sound. However, if we change a premise so that it is no longer sound, then we end up with an argument that is nearly worthless. For example, if you change the first premise to “Most dogs are mammals,” you end up with an invalid argument. Valid- ity is an all-or-nothing affair; there is no such thing as “sort of valid” or “more valid.” The

Alistair Scott/iStock/Thinkstock

Despite knowing that a helium-filled balloon will rise when we let go of it, we still hold our belief in gravity due to strong inductive reasoning and our reliance on observation.

har85668_06_c06_207-238.indd 212 4/9/15 11:38 AM

Section 6.2 Choosing Between Induction and Deduction

argument would simply be invalid and therefore unsound; it would not accomplish its pur- pose of demonstrating that the conclusion must be true. Similarly, if you were to change the second premise to something false, like “Some dogs are purple,” then the argument would be unsound and therefore would supply no reason to accept the conclusion.

In contrast, inductive arguments may retain much of their strength even when there are prob- lems with them. An inductive argument may list several reasons in support of a conclusion. If one of those reasons is found to be false, the other reasons continue to support the conclu- sion, though to a lesser degree. If an argument based on statistics shows that a particular conclusion is extremely likely to be true, the result of a problem with the argument may be that the conclusion should be accepted as only fairly likely. The argument may still give good reasons to accept the conclusion.

Fields that rely heavily on statistical arguments often have some threshold that is typically required in order for results to be publishable. In the social sciences, this is typically 90% or 95%. However, studies that do not quite meet the threshold can still be instructive and pro- vide evidence for their conclusions. If we discover a flaw that reduces our confidence in an argument, in many cases the argument may still be strong enough to meet a threshold.

As an example, consider a tweet made by President Barack Obama regarding climate change.

Although the tweet does not spell out the argument fully, it seems to have the following structure:

A study concluded that 97% of scientists agree that climate change is real, man-made, and dangerous. Therefore, 97% of scientists really do agree that climate change is real, man- made, and dangerous. Therefore, climate change is real, man-made, and dangerous.

Given the politically charged nature of the discussion of climate change, it is not surprising that the president’s argument and the study it referred to received considerable criticism. (You can read the study at http://iopscience.iop.org/1748–9326/8/2/024024/pdf/1748 –9326_8_2_024024.pdf.) Looking at the effect some of those criticisms have on the argument is a good way to see how inductive arguments can be more robust than deductive ones.

One criticism of Obama’s claim is that the study he referenced did not say anything about whether climate change was dangerous, only about whether it was real and man-made. How does this affect the argument? Strictly speaking, it makes the first premise false. But notice that even so, the argument can still give good evidence that climate change is real and

har85668_06_c06_207-238.indd 213 4/9/15 11:38 AM

Section 6.2 Choosing Between Induction and Deduction

man-made. Since climate change, by its nature, has a strong potential to be dangerous, the argument is weakened but still may give strong evidence for its conclusion.

A deeper criticism notes that the study did not find out what all scientists thought; it just looked at those scientists who expressed an opinion in their published work or in response to a voluntary survey. This is a significant criticism, for it may expose a bias in the sampling method (as discussed in Chapters 5, 7, and 8). Even granting the criticism, the argument can retain some strength. The fact that 97% of scientists who expressed an opinion on the issue said that climate change is real and man-made is still some reason to think that it is real and man-made. Of course, some scientists may have chosen not to voice an opposing opinion for reasons that have nothing to do with their beliefs about climate change; they may have simply wanted to keep their views private, for example. Taking all of this into account, we get the fol- lowing argument:

A study found that 97% of scientists who stated their opinion said that cli- mate change is real and man-made. Therefore, 97% of scientists agree that climate change is real and man-made. Climate change, if real, is dangerous. Therefore, climate change is real, man-made, and dangerous.

This is not nearly as strong as the original argument, but it has not collapsed entirely in the way a purely deductive argument would. There is, of course, much more that could be said about this argument, both in terms of criticizing the study and in terms of responding to those criticisms and bringing in other considerations. The point here is merely to highlight the dif- ference between deductive and inductive arguments, not to settle issues in climate science or public policy.

Persuasiveness A final point in favor of inductive reasoning is that it can often be more persuasive than deduc- tive reasoning. The persuasiveness of an argument is based on how likely it is to convince someone of the truth of its conclusion. Consider the following classic argument:

All Greeks are mortal. Socrates was a Greek. Therefore, Socrates was mortal.

Is this a good argument? From the standpoint of logic, it is a perfect argument: It is deduc- tively valid, and its premises are true, so it is sound (therefore, its conclusion must be true). However, can you persuade anyone with this argument?

Imagine someone wondering whether Socrates was mortal. Could you use this argument to convince him or her that Socrates was mortal? Probably not. The argument is so simple and

har85668_06_c06_207-238.indd 214 4/9/15 11:38 AM

Section 6.2 Choosing Between Induction and Deduction

so obviously valid that anyone who accepts the premises likely already accepts the conclu- sion. So if someone is wondering about the conclusion, it is unlikely that he or she will be persuaded by these premises. He or she may, for example, remember that some legendary Greeks, such as Hercules, were granted immortality and wonder whether Socrates was one of these. The deductive approach, therefore, is unlikely to win anyone over to the conclusion here. On the other hand, consider a very similar inductive argument.

Of all the real and mythical Greeks, only a few were considered to be immortal. Socrates was a Greek. Therefore, it is extremely unlikely that Socrates was immortal.

Again, the reasoning is very simple. However, in this case, we can imagine someone who had been wondering about Socrates’s mortality being at least somewhat persuaded that he was mortal. More will likely need to be said to fully persuade her or him, but this simple argument may have at least some persuasive power where its deductive version likely does not.

Of course, deductive arguments can be persuasive, but they generally need to be more com- plicated or subtle in order to be so. Persuasion requires that a person change his or her mind to some degree. In a deductive argument, when the connection between premises and conclu- sion is too obvious, the argument is unlikely to persuade because the truth of the premises will be no more obvious than the truth of the conclusion. Therefore, even if the argument is valid, someone who questions the truth of the conclusion will often be unlikely to accept the truth of the premises, so she or he may be unpersuaded by the argument. Suppose, for example, that we wanted to convince someone that the sun will rise tomorrow morning. The deductive argument may look like this:

The sun will always rise in the morning. Therefore, the sun will rise tomorrow morning.

One problem with this argument, as with the Socrates argument, is that its premise seems to assume the truth of the conclusion (and therefore commits the fallacy of begging the ques- tion, as discussed in Chapter 7), making the argument unpersuasive. Additionally, however, the premise might not even be true. What if, billions of years from now, the earth is swallowed up into the sun after it expands to become a red giant? At that time, the whole concept of morning may be out the window. If this is true then the first premise may be technically false. That means that the argument is unsound and therefore fairly worthless deductively.

The inductive version, however, does not lose much strength at all after we learn of this trou- bling information:

The sun has risen in the morning every day for millions of years. Therefore, the sun will rise again tomorrow morning.

This argument remains extremely strong (and persuasive) regardless of what will happen billions of years in the future.

har85668_06_c06_207-238.indd 215 4/9/15 11:38 AM

Section 6.3 Combining Induction and Deduction

Practice Problems 6.2

1. Which form of reasoning is taking place in this example?

The sun has risen every day of my life. The sun rose today. Therefore, the sun will rise tomorrow.

a. inductive b. deductive

2. Inductive arguments __________. a. can retain strength even with false premises b. collapse when a premise is shown to be false c. are equivalent to deductive arguments d. strive to be valid

3. Deductive arguments are often __________. a. less persuasive than inductive arguments b. more persuasive than inductive arguments c. weaker than inductive arguments d. less valid than inductive arguments

4. Inductive arguments are sometimes used because __________. a. the available evidence does not allow for a deductive argument b. they are more likely to be sound than deductive ones c. they are always strong d. they never have false premises

6.3 Combining Induction and Deduction You may have noticed that most of the examples we have explored have been fairly short and simple. Real-life arguments tend to be much longer and more complicated. They also tend to mix inductive and deductive elements. To see how this might work, let us revisit an example from the previous section.

All Greeks are mortal. Socrates was Greek. Therefore, Socrates was mortal.

As we noted, this simple argument is valid but unlikely to convince anyone. So suppose now that someone questioned the premises, asking what reasons there are for thinking that all Greeks are mortal or that Socrates was Greek. How might we respond?

We might begin by noting that, although we cannot check each and every Greek to be sure he or she is mortal, there are no documented cases of any Greek, or any other human, living more

har85668_06_c06_207-238.indd 216 4/9/15 11:38 AM

Section 6.3 Combining Induction and Deduction

than 200 years. In contrast, every case that we can document is a case in which the person dies at some point. So, although we cannot absolutely prove that all Greeks are mortal, we have good reason to believe it. We might put our argument in standard form as follows:

We know the mortality of a huge number of Greeks. In each of these cases, the Greek is mortal. Therefore, all Greeks are mortal.

This is an inductive argument. Even though it is theoretically possible that the conclusion might still be false, the premises provide a strong reason to accept the conclusion. We can now combine the two arguments into a single, larger argument:

We know the mortality of a huge number of Greeks. In each of these cases, the Greek is mortal. Therefore, all Greeks are mortal. Socrates was Greek. Therefore, Socrates was mortal.

This argument has two parts. The first argument, leading to the subconclusion that all Greeks are mortal, is inductive. The second argument (whose conclusion is “Socrates was mortal”) is deductive. What about the overall reasoning presented for the conclusion that Socrates was mortal (combining both arguments); is it inductive or deductive?

The crucial issue is whether the prem- ises guarantee the truth of the conclu- sion. Because the basic premise used to arrive at the conclusion is that all of the Greeks whose mortality we know are mortal, the overall reasoning is inductive. This is how it generally works. As noted earlier, when an argu- ment has both inductive and deductive components, the overall argument is generally inductive. There are occa- sional exceptions to this general rule, so in particular cases, you still have to check whether the premises guarantee the conclusion. But, almost always, the longer argument will be inductive.

Fran/Cartoonstock

Sometimes a simple deductive argument needs to be combined with a persuasive inductive argument to convince others to accept it.

har85668_06_c06_207-238.indd 217 4/9/15 11:38 AM

Section 6.4 Reasoning About Science: The Hypothetico–Deductive Method

A similar thing happens when we combine inductive arguments of different strength. In gen- eral, an argument is only as strong as its weakest part. You can think of each inference in an argument as being like a link in a chain. A chain is only as strong as its weakest link.

6.4 Reasoning About Science: The Hypothetico– Deductive Method Science is one of the most successful endeavors of the modern world, and arguments play a central role in it. Science uses both deductive and inductive reasoning extensively. Scientific reasoning is a broad field in itself—and this chapter will only touch on the basics—but dis- cussing scientific reasoning will provide good examples of how to apply what we have learned about inductive and deductive arguments.

At some point, you may have learned or heard of the scientific method, which often refers to how scientists systematically form, test, and modify hypotheses. It turns out that there is not a single method that is universally used by all scientists.

In a sense, science is the ultimate critical thinking experiment. Scientists use a wide variety of reasoning techniques and are constantly examining those techniques to make sure that the conclusions drawn are justified by the premises—that is exactly what a good critical thinker should do in any subject. The next two sections will explore two such methods—the hypothetico–deductive method and inferences to the best explanation—and discover ways that they can improve our understanding of the types of reasoning used in much of science.

The hypothetico–deductive method consists of four steps:

1. Formulate a hypothesis. 2. Deduce a consequence from the hypothesis. 3. Test whether the consequence occurs. 4. Reject the hypothesis if the consequence does not occur.

Although these four steps are not sufficient to explain all scientific reasoning, they still remain a core part of much discussion of how science works. You may recognize them as part of the scientific method that you likely learned about in school. Let us take a look at each step in turn.

Practice Problem 6.3

1. When an argument contains both inductive and deductive elements, the entire argu- ment is considered deductive. a. true b. false

har85668_06_c06_207-238.indd 218 4/9/15 11:38 AM

Section 6.4 Reasoning About Science: The Hypothetico–Deductive Method

Step 1: Formulate a Hypothesis A hypothesis is a conjecture about how some part of the world works. Although the phrase “educated guess” is often used, it can give the impression that a hypothesis is simply guessed without much effort. In reality, scientific hypotheses are formulated on the basis of a back- ground of quite a bit of knowledge and experience; a good scientific hypothesis often comes after years of prior investigation, thought, and research about the issue at hand.

You may have heard the expression “necessity is the mother of invention.” Often, hypotheses are formulated in response to a problem that needs to be solved. Suppose you are unsatisfied with the performance of your car and would like better fuel economy. Rather than buy a new car, you try to figure out how to improve the one you have. You guess that you might be able to improve your car’s fuel economy by using a higher grade of gas. Your guess is not just random; it is based on what you already know or believe about how cars work. Your hypothesis is that higher grade gas will improve your fuel economy.

Of course, science is not really concerned with your car all by itself. Science is concerned with general principles. A scientist would reword your hypothesis in terms of a general rule, something like, “Increasing fuel octane increases fuel economy in automobiles.” The hypothetico–deductive method can work with either kind of hypothesis, but the general hypothesis is more interesting scientifically.

Step 2: Deduce a Consequence From the Hypothesis Your hypothesis from step 1 should have predictive value: Things should be different in some noticeable way, depending on whether the hypothesis is true or false. Our hypothesis is that increasing fuel octane improves fuel economy. If this general fact is true, then it is true for your car. So from our general hypothesis we can deduce the consequence that your car will get more miles per gallon if it is running on higher octane fuel.

It is often but not always the case that the prediction is a more specific case of the hypothesis. In such cases it is possible to infer the prediction deductively from the general hypothesis. The argument may go as follows:

Hypothesis: All things of type A have characteristic B.

Consequence (the prediction): Therefore, this specific thing of type A will have characteristic B.

Since the argument is deductively valid, there is a strong connection between the hypothesis and the prediction. However, not all predictions can be deductively inferred. In such cases we can get close to the hypothetico–deductive method by using a strong inductive inference instead. For example, suppose the argument went as follows:

Hypothesis: 95% of things of type A have characteristic B.

Consequence: Therefore, a specific thing of type A will probably have charac- teristic B.

har85668_06_c06_207-238.indd 219 4/9/15 11:38 AM

Section 6.4 Reasoning About Science: The Hypothetico–Deductive Method

In such cases the connection between the hypothesis and the prediction is less strong. The stronger the connection that can be established, the better for the reliability of the test. Essen- tially, you are making an argument for the conditional statement “If H, then C,” where H is your hypothesis and C is a consequence of the hypothesis. The more solid the connection is between H and C, the stronger the overall argument will be.

In this specific case, “If H, then C” translates to “If increasing fuel octane increases fuel econ- omy in all cars, then using higher octane fuel in your car will increase its fuel economy.” The truth of this conditional is deductively certain.

We can now test the truth of the hypothesis by testing the truth of the consequence.

Step 3: Test Whether the Consequence Occurs Your prediction (the consequence) is that your car will get better fuel economy if you use a higher grade of fuel. How will you test this? You may think this is obvious: Just put better gas in the car and record your fuel economy for a period before and after changing the type of gas you use. However, there are many other factors to consider. How long should the period of time be? Fuel economy varies depending on the kind of driving you do and many other factors. You need to choose a length of time for which you can be reasonably confident the driving conditions are similar on average. You also need to account for the fact that the first tank of better gas you put in will be mixed with some of the lower grade gas that is still in your tank. The more you can address these and other issues, the more certain you can be that your conclusion is correct.

In this step, you are constructing an inductive argument from the outcome of your test as to whether your car actually did get better fuel economy. The arguments in this step are induc- tive because there is always some possibility that you have not adequately addressed all of the relevant issues. If you do notice better fuel economy, it is always possible that the increase in economy is due to some factor other than the one you are tracking. The possibility may be very small, but it is enough to make this kind of argument inductive rather than deductive.

Step 4: Reject the Hypothesis If the Consequence Does Not Occur We now compare the results to the prediction and find out if the prediction came true. If your test finds that your car’s fuel economy does not improve when you use higher octane fuel, then you know your prediction was wrong.

Does this mean that your hypothesis, H, was wrong? That depends on the strength of the con- nection between H and C. If the inference from H to C is deductively certain, then we know for sure that, if H is true, then C must be true also. Therefore, if C is false, it follows logically that H must be false as well.

In our specific case, if your car does not get better fuel economy by switching to higher octane fuel, then we know for sure that it is not true that all cars get better fuel economy by doing so. However, if the inference from H to C is inductive, then the connection between H and C is less than totally certain. So if we find that C is false, we are not absolutely sure that the hypothesis, H, is false.

har85668_06_c06_207-238.indd 220 4/9/15 11:38 AM

Section 6.4 Reasoning About Science: The Hypothetico–Deductive Method

For example, suppose that the hypothesis is that cars that use higher octane fuel will have a higher tendency to get better fuel mileage. In that case if your car does not get higher gas mileage, then you still cannot infer for certain that the hypothesis is false. To test that hypothesis adequately, you would have to do a large study with many cars. Such a study would be much more complicated, but it could provide very strong evidence that the hypoth- esis is false.

It is important to note that although the falsity of the prediction can dem- onstrate that the hypothesis is false, the truth of the prediction does not prove that the hypothesis is true. If you find that your car does get better fuel economy when you switch gas, you cannot conclude that your hypothesis is true.

Why? There may be other factors at play for which you have not ade- quately accounted. Suppose that at the same time you switch fuel grade, you also get a tune-up and new tires and start driving a completely different route to work. Any one of these things might be the cause of the improved gas mileage; you cannot conclude that it is due to the change in fuel (for this rea- son, when conducting experiments it is best to change only one variable at a time and carefully control the rest). In

other words, in the hypothetico–deductive method, failed tests can show that a hypothesis is wrong, but tests that succeed do not show that the hypothesis was correct.

This logic is known as falsification; it can be demonstrated clearly by looking at the structure of the argument. When a test yields a negative result, the hypothetico–deductive method sets up the following argument:

If H, then C. Not C. Therefore, not H.

You may recognize this argument form as modus tollens, or denying the consequent, which was discussed in the chapter on propositional logic (Chapter 4). This argument form is a valid, deductive form. Therefore, if both of these premises are true, then we can be certain that the conclusion is true as well; namely, that our hypothesis, H, is not true. In the specific case at hand, if your test shows that higher octane fuel does not increase your mileage, then we can be sure that it is not true that it improves mileage in all vehicles (though it may improve it in some).

IPGGutenbergUKLtd/iStock/Thinkstock

At best, the fuel economy hypothesis will be a strong inductive argument because there is a chance that something other than higher octane gas is improving fuel economy. The more you can address relevant issues that may impact your test results, the stronger your conclusions will be.

har85668_06_c06_207-238.indd 221 4/9/15 11:38 AM

Section 6.4 Reasoning About Science: The Hypothetico–Deductive Method

Contrast this with the argument form that results when your fuel economy yields a positive result:

If H, then C. C. Therefore, H.

This argument is not valid. In fact, you may recognize this argument form as the invalid deduc- tive form called affirming the consequent (see Chapter 4). It is possible that the two premises are true, but the conclusion false. Perhaps, for example, the improvement in fuel economy was caused by a change in tires or different driving conditions instead. So the hypothetico –deductive method can be used only to reject a hypothesis, not to confirm it. This fact has led many to see the primary role of science to be the falsification of hypotheses. Philosopher Karl Popper is a central source for this view (see A Closer Look: Karl Popper and Falsification in Science).

A Closer Look: Karl Popper and Falsification in Science Karl Popper, one of the most influential philosophers of sci- ence to emerge from the early 20th century, is perhaps best known for rejecting the idea that scientific theories could be proved by simply finding confirming evidence—the prevail- ing philosophy at the time. Instead, Popper emphasized that claims must be testable and falsifiable in order to be consid- ered scientific.

A claim is testable if we can devise a way of seeing if it is true or not. We can test, for instance, that pure water will freeze at 0°C at sea level; we cannot currently test the claim that the oceans in another galaxy taste like root beer. We have no realistic way to determine the truth or falsity of the second claim.

A claim is said to be falsifiable if we know how one could show it to be false. For instance, “there are no wild kangaroos in Georgia” is a falsifiable claim; if one went to Georgia and found some wild kangaroos, then it would have been shown to be false. But what if someone claimed that there are ghosts in Georgia but that they are imperceptible (unseeable, unfeel- able, unhearable, etc.)? Could one ever show that this claim is false? Since such a claim could not conceivably be shown to be false, it is said to be unfalsifiable. While being unfalsifiable might sound like a good thing, according to Popper it is not, because it means that the claim is unscientific.

Following Popper, most scientists today operate with the assumption that any scientific hypothesis must be testable and must be the kind of claim that one could possibly show to be false. So if a claim turns out not to be conceivably falsifiable, the claim is not really scientific—and some philosophers have gone so far as to regard such claims as meaningless (Thornton, 2014).

Keystone/Getty Images

Karl Popper, a 20th- century philosopher of science, put forth the idea that unfalsifiable claims are unscientific.

(continued)

har85668_06_c06_207-238.indd 222 4/9/15 11:38 AM

Section 6.4 Reasoning About Science: The Hypothetico–Deductive Method

As an example, suppose a friend claims that “everything works out for the best.” Then suppose that you have the worst month of your life, and you go back to your friend and say that the claim is false: Not everything is for the best. Your friend might then reply that in fact it was for the best because you learned from the experience. Such a statement may make you feel better, but it runs afoul of Popper’s rule. Can you imagine any circumstance that your friend would not claim is for the best? Since your friend would probably say that it was for the best no mat- ter what happens, your friend’s claim is unfalsifiable and therefore unscientific.

In logic, claims that are interpreted so that they come out true no matter what happens are called self-sealing propositions. They are understood as being internally protected against any objections. People who state such claims may feel that they are saying something deeply meaningful, but according to Popper’s rule, since the claim could never be falsified no matter what, it does not really tell us anything at all.

Other examples of self-sealing propositions occur within philosophy itself. There is a philo- sophical theory known as psychological egoism, for example, which teaches that everything everyone does is completely selfish. Most people respond to this claim by coming up with examples of unselfish acts: giving to the needy, spending time helping others, and even dying to save someone’s life. The psychological egoist predictably responds to all such examples by stating that people who do such things really just do them in order to feel better about them- selves. It appears that the word selfish is being interpreted so that everything everyone does will automatically be considered selfish by definition. It is therefore a self-sealing claim (Rachels, 1999). According to Popper’s method, since this claim will always come out true no mat- ter what, it is unfalsifiable and unscientific. Such claims are always true but are actually empty because they tell us nothing about the world. They can even be said to be “too true to be good.”

Popper’s explorations of scientific hypotheses and what it means to confirm or disconfirm such hypotheses have been very influential among both scientists and philosophers of scien- tists. Scientists do their best to avoid making claims that are not falsifiable.

A Closer Look: Karl Popper and Falsification in Science (continued)

If the hypothetico-deductive method cannot be used to confirm a hypothesis, how can this test give evidence for the truth of the claim? By failing to falsify the claim. Though the hypo- thetico–deductive method does not ever specifically prove the hypothesis true, if research- ers try their hardest to refute a claim but it keeps passing the test (not being refuted), then there can grow a substantial amount of inductive evidence for the truth of the claim. If you repeatedly test many cars and control for other variables, and if every time cars are filled with higher octane gas their fuel economy increases, you may have strong inductive evidence that the hypothesis might be true (in which case you may make an inference to the best explana- tion, which will be discussed in Section 6.5).

Experiments that would have the highest chance of refuting the claim if it were false thus provide the strongest inductive evidence that it may be true. For example, suppose we want to test the claim that all swans are white. If we only look for swans at places in which they are known to be white, then we are not providing a strong test for the claim. The best thing to do (short of observing every swan in the whole world) is to try as hard as we can to refute the claim, to find a swan that is not white. If our best methods of looking for nonwhite swans still fail to refute the claim, then there is a growing likelihood that perhaps all swans are indeed white.

har85668_06_c06_207-238.indd 223 4/9/15 11:38 AM

Section 6.4 Reasoning About Science: The Hypothetico–Deductive Method

Similarly, if we want to test to see if a certain type of medicine cures a certain type of dis- ease, we test the product by giving the medicine to a wide variety of patients with the dis- ease, including those with the least likelihood of being cured by the medicine. Only by trying as hard as we can to refute the claim can we get the strongest evidence about whether all instances of the disease are treatable with the medicine in question.

Notice that the hypothetico–deductive method involves a combination of inductive and deductive reasoning. Step 1 typically involves inductive reasoning as we formulate a hypoth- esis against the background of our current beliefs and knowledge. Step 2 typically provides a deductive argument for the premise “If H, then C.” Step 3 provides an inductive argument for whether C is or is not true. Finally, if the prediction is falsified, then the conclusion—that H is false—is derived by a deductive inference (using the deductively valid modus tollens form). If, on the other hand, the best attempts to prove C to be false fail to do so, then there is growing evidence that H might be true.

Therefore, our overall argument has both inductive and deductive elements. It is valuable to know that, although the methodology of science involves research and experimentation that goes well beyond the scope of pure logic, we can use logic to understand and clarify the basic principles of scientific reasoning.

Practice Problems 6.4

1. A hypothesis is __________. a. something that is a mere guess b. something that is often arrived at after a lot of research c. an unnecessary component of the scientific method d. something that is already solved

2. In a scientific experiment, __________. a. the truth of the prediction guarantees that the hypothesis was correct b. the truth of the prediction negates the possibility of the hypothesis being correct c. the truth of the prediction can have different levels of probability in relation to

the hypothesis being correct d. the truth of the prediction is of little importance

3. The argument form that is set up when a test yields negative results is __________. a. disjunctive syllogism b. modus ponens c. hypothetical syllogism d. modus tollens

4. A claim is testable if __________. a. we know how one could show it to be false b. we know how one could show it to be true c. we cannot determine a way to prove it false d. we can determine a way to see if it is true or false

(continued)

har85668_06_c06_207-238.indd 224 4/9/15 11:38 AM

Section 6.5 Inference to the Best Explanation

5. Which of the following claims is not falsifiable? a. The moon is made of cheese. b. There is an invisible alien in my garage. c. Octane ratings in gasoline influence fuel economy. d. The Willis Tower is the tallest building in the world.

Practice Problems 6.4 (continued)

6.5 Inference to the Best Explanation You may feel that if you were very careful about testing your fuel economy, you would be entitled to conclude that the change in fuel grade really did have an effect. Unfortunately, as we have seen, the hypothetico–deductive method does not support this inference. The best you can say is that changing fuel might have an effect; that you have not been able to show that it does not have an effect. The method does, however, lend inductive support to which- ever hypothesis withstands the falsification test better than any other. One way of articulating this type of support is with an inference pattern known as inference to the best explanation.

As the name suggests, inference to the best explanation draws a conclusion based on what would best explain one’s observations. It is an extremely important form of inference that we use every day of our lives. This type of inference is often called abductive reasoning, a term pioneered by American logician Charles Sanders Peirce (Douven, 2011).

Suppose that you are in your backyard gazing at the stars. Suddenly, you see some flashing lights hovering above you in the sky. You do not hear any sound, so it does not appear that the lights are coming from a helicopter. What do you think it is? What happens next is abductive reasoning: Your brain searches among all kinds of possibilities to attempt to come up with the most likely explanation.

One possibility is that it is an alien spacecraft coming to get you (one could joke that this is why it is called abductive reasoning). Another possibility is that it is some kind of military vessel or a weather balloon. A more extreme hypothesis is that you are actually dreaming the whole thing.

Notice that what you are inclined to believe depends on your existing beliefs. If you already think that alien spaceships come to Earth all the time, then you may arrive at that conclusion with a high degree of certainty (you may even shout, “Take me with you!”). However, if you are somewhat skeptical of those kinds of theories, then you will try hard to find any other explanation. Therefore, the strength of a particular inference to the best explanation can be measured only in relation to the rest of the things that we already believe.

har85668_06_c06_207-238.indd 225 4/9/15 11:38 AM

Section 6.5 Inference to the Best Explanation

This type of inference does not occur only in unusual circumstances like the one described. In fact, we make infer- ences to the best explanation all the time. Returning to our fuel economy example from the previous section, suppose that you test a higher octane fuel and notice that your car gets bet- ter gas mileage. It is possible that the mileage change is due to the change in fuel. However, as noted there, it is possible that there is another expla- nation. Perhaps you are not driving in stop-and-go traffic as much. Perhaps you are driving with less weight in the car. The careful use of inference to the best explanation can help us to discern what is the most likely among many possibilities (for more examples, see A Closer Look: Is Abductive Reasoning Everywhere?).

If you look at the range of possible explanations and find one of them is more likely than any of the others, inference to the best explanation allows you to conclude that this explanation is likely to be the correct one. If you are driving the same way, to the same places, and with the same weight in your car as before, it seems fairly likely that it was the change in fuel that caused the improvement in fuel economy (if you have studied Mill’s methods in Chapter 5, you should recognize this as the method of difference). Inference to the best explanation is the engine that powers many inductive techniques.

The great fictional detective Sherlock Holmes, for example, is fond of claiming that he uses deductive reasoning. Chapter 2 suggested that Holmes instead uses inductive reasoning. However, since Holmes comes up with the most reasonable explanation of observed phe- nomena, like blood on a coat, for example, he is actually doing abductive reasoning. There is some dispute about whether inference to the best explanation is inductive or whether it is an entirely different kind of argument that is neither inductive nor deductive. For our purposes, it is treated as inductive.

Image Asset Management/SuperStock

Sherlock Holmes often used abductive reasoning, not deductive reasoning, to solve his mysteries.

har85668_06_c06_207-238.indd 226 4/9/15 11:38 AM

Section 6.5 Inference to the Best Explanation

A Closer Look: Is Abductive Reasoning Everywhere? Some see inference to the best explanation as the most common type of inductive inference. A few of the inferences we have discussed in this book, for example, can potentially be cast as examples of inferences to the best explanation.

For example, appeals to authority (discussed in Chapter 5) can be seen as implicitly using inference to the best explanation (Harman, 1965). If you accept something as true because someone said it was, then you can be described as seeing the truth of the claim as the best explanation for why he or she said it. If we have good reason to think that the person was deluded or lying, then we are less certain of this conclusion because there are other likely explanations of why the person said it.

Furthermore, it is possible to see what we do when we interpret people’s words as a kind of inference to the best explanation of what they probably mean (Hobbs, 2004). If your neighbor says, “You are so funny,” for instance, we might use the context and tone to decide what he means by “funny” and why he is saying it (and whether he is being sarcastic). His comment can be seen as either rude or flattering, depending on what explanation we give for why he said it and what he meant.

Even the classic inductive inference pattern of inductive generalization can possibly be seen as implicitly involving a kind of inference to the best explanation: The best explanation of why our sample population showed that 90% of students have laptops is probably that 90% of all students have laptops. If there is good evidence that our sample was biased, then there would be a good competing explanation of our data.

Finally, much of scientific inference may be seen as trying to provide the best explanation for our observations (McMullin, 1992). Many hypotheses are attempts to explain observed phe- nomena. Testing them in such cases could then be seen as being done in the service of seeking the best explanation of why certain things are the way they are.

Take a look at the following examples of everyday inferences and see if they seem to involve arriving at the conclusion because it seems to offer the most likely explanation of the truth of the premise:

• “John is smiling; he must be happy.” • “My phone says that Julie is calling, so it is probably Julie.” • “I see a brown Labrador across the street; my neighbor’s dog must have gotten out.” • “This movie has great reviews; it must be good.” • “The sky is getting brighter; it must be morning.” • “I see shoes that look like mine by the door; I apparently left my shoes there.” • “She still hasn’t called back yet; she probably doesn’t like me.” • “It smells good; someone is cooking a nice dinner.” • “My congressperson voted against this bill I support; she must have been afraid of

offending her wealthy donors.” • “The test showed that the isotopes in the rock surrounding newly excavated bones had

decayed X amount; therefore, the animals from which the bones came must have been here about 150 million years ago.”

These examples, and many others, suggest to some that inference to the explanation may be the most common form of reasoning that we use (Douven, 2011). Do you agree? Whether you agree with these expanded views on the role of inference or not, it clearly makes an enormous contribution to how we understand the world around us.

har85668_06_c06_207-238.indd 227 4/9/15 11:38 AM

Section 6.5 Inference to the Best Explanation

Form Inferences to the best explanation generally involve the following pattern of reasoning:

X has been observed to be true. Y would provide an explanation of why X is true. No other explanation for X is as likely as Y. Therefore, Y is probably true.

One strange thing about inferences to the best explanation is that they are often expressed in the form of a common fallacy, as follows:

If P is the case, then Q would also be true. Q is true. Therefore, P is probably true.

This pattern is the logical form of a deductive fallacy known as affirming the consequent (discussed in Chapter 4). Therefore, we sometimes have to use the principle of charity to determine whether the person is attempting to provide an inference to the best explanation or making a simple deductive error. The principle of charity will be discussed in detail in Chapter 9; however, for our purposes here, you can think of it as giving your opponent and his or her argument the benefit of the doubt.

For example, the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle reasoned as follows: “The world must be spherical, for the night sky looks different in the northern and southern regions, and that would be the case if the earth were spherical” (as cited in Wolf, 2004). His argument appears to have this structure:

If the earth is spherical, then the night sky would look different in the north- ern and southern regions. The night sky does look different in the northern and southern regions. Therefore, the earth is spherical.

It is not likely that Aristotle, the founding father of formal logic, would have made a mistake as silly as to affirm the consequent. It is far more likely that he was using inference to the best explanation. It is logically possible that there are other explanations for southern stars moving higher in the sky as one moves south, but it seems far more likely that it is due to the shape of the earth. Aristotle was just practicing strong abductive reasoning thousands of years before Columbus sailed the ocean blue (even Columbus would have had to use this type of reasoning, for he would have had to infer why he did not sail off the edge).

In more recent times, astronomers are still using inference to the best explanation to learn about the heavens. Let us consider the case of discovering planets outside our solar system, known as “exoplanets.” There are many methods employed to discover planets orbiting other stars. One of them, the radial velocity method, uses small changes in the frequency of light a

har85668_06_c06_207-238.indd 228 4/9/15 11:38 AM

Section 6.5 Inference to the Best Explanation

star emits. A star with a large planet orbiting it will wobble a little bit as the planet pulls on the star. That wobble will result in a pattern of changes in the frequency of light coming from the star. When astronomers see this pattern, they conclude that there is a planet orbiting the star. We can more fully explicate this reasoning in the following way:

That star’s light changes in a specific pattern. Something must explain the changes. A large planet orbiting the star would explain the changes. No other explanation is as likely as the explanation provided by the large planet. Therefore, that star probably has a large planet orbiting it.

The basic idea is that if there must be an explanation, and one of the available explanations is better than all the others, then that explanation is the one that is most likely to be true. The key issue here is that the explanation inferred in the conclusion has to be the best explana- tion available. If another explanation is as good—or better—then the inference is not nearly as strong.

Virtue of Simplicity Another way to think about inferences to the best explanation is that they choose the simplest explanation from among otherwise equal explanations. In other words, if two theories make the same prediction, the one that gives the simplest explanation is usually the best one. This standard for comparing scientific theories is known as Occam’s razor, because it was origi- nally posited by William of Ockham in the 14th century (Gibbs & Hiroshi, 1997).

A great example of this principle is Galileo’s demonstration that the sun, not the earth, is at the center of the solar system. Galileo’s theory provided the simplest explanation of observa- tions about the planets. His heliocentric model, for example, provides a simpler explanation for the phases of Venus and why some of the planets appear to move backward (retrograde motion) than does the geocentric model. Geocentric astronomers tried to explain both of these with the idea that the planets sometimes make little loops (called epicycles) within their orbits (Gronwall, 2006). While it is certainly conceivable that they do make little loops, it seems to make the theory unnecessarily complex, because it requires a type of motion with no independent explanation of why it occurs, whereas Galileo’s theory does not require such extra assumptions.

Therefore, putting the sun at the center allows one to explain observed phenomena in the most simple manner possible, without making ad hoc assumptions (like epicycles) that today seem absurd. Galileo’s theory was ultimately correct, and he demonstrated it with strong inductive (more specifically, abductive) reasoning. (For another example of Occam’s razor at work, see A Closer Look: Abductive Reasoning and the Matrix.)

har85668_06_c06_207-238.indd 229 4/9/15 11:38 AM

Section 6.5 Inference to the Best Explanation

A Closer Look: Abductive Reasoning and the Matrix One of the great questions from the history of philosophy is, “How do we know that the world exists outside of us as we perceive it?” We see a tree and we infer that it exists, but do we actu- ally know for sure that it exists? The argument seems to go as follows:

I see a tree. Therefore, a tree exists.

This inference, however, is invalid; it is possible for the premise to be true and the conclusion false. For example, we could be dreaming. Perhaps we think that the testimony of our other senses will make the argument valid:

I see a tree, I hear a tree, I feel a tree, and I smell a tree. Therefore, a tree exists.

However, this argument is still invalid; it is pos- sible that we could be dreaming all of those things as well. Some people state that senses like smell do not exist within dreams, but how do we know that is true? Perhaps we only dreamed that someone said that! In any case, even that would not rescue our argument, for there is an even stronger way to make the premise true and the conclusion false: What if your brain is actually in a vat somewhere attached to a computer, and a scientist is directly controlling all of your perceptions? (Or think of the 1999 movie The Matrix, in which humans are living in a simulated reality created by machines.)

One individual who struggled with these types of questions (though there were no computers back then) was a French philosopher named René Des- cartes. He sought a deductive proof that the world outside of us is real, despite these types of disturbing possibilities (Descartes, 1641/1993). He eventually came up with one of philoso- phy’s most famous arguments, “I think, therefore, I am” (or, more precisely, “I am thinking, therefore, I exist”), and from there attempted to prove that the world must exist outside of him.

Many philosophers feel that Descartes did a great job of raising difficult questions, but most feel that he failed in his attempt to find deductive proof of the world outside of our minds. Other philosophers, including David Hume, despaired of the possibility of a proof that we know that there is a world outside of us and became skeptics: They decided that absolute knowledge of a world outside of us is impossible (Hume, 1902).

However, perhaps the problem is not the failure of the particular arguments but the type of reasoning employed. Perhaps the solution is not deductive at all but rather abductive. It is not that it is logically impossible that tables and chairs and trees (and even other people) do not really exist; it is just that their actual existence provides the best explanation of our experi- ences. Consider these competing explanations of our experiences:

• We are dreaming this whole thing. • We are hallucinating all of this.

©Warner Bros./Courtesy Everett Collection

In The Matrix, we learn that our world is simulated by machines, and although we can see X, hear X, and feel X, X does not exist.

(continued)

har85668_06_c06_207-238.indd 230 4/9/15 11:38 AM

Section 6.5 Inference to the Best Explanation

• Our brains are in a vat being controlled by a scientist. • Light waves are bouncing off the molecules on the surface of the tree and entering our

eyeballs, where they are turned into electrical impulses that travel along neurons into our brains, somehow causing us to have the perception of a tree.

It may seem at first glance that the final option is the most complex and so should be rejected. However, let us take a closer look. The first two options do not offer much of an explanation for the details of our experience. They do not tell us why we are seeing a tree rather than some- thing else or nothing at all. The third option seems to assume that there is a real world some- where from which these experiences are generated (that is, the lab with the scientist in it). The full explanation of how things work in that world presumably must involve some complex laws of physics as well. There is no obvious reason to think that such an account would require fewer assumptions than an account of the world as we see it. Hence, all things considered, if our goal is to create a full explanation of reality, the final option seems to give the best account of why we are seeing the tree. It explains our observations without needless extra assumptions.

Therefore, if knowledge is assumed only to be deductive, then perhaps we do not know (with absolute deductive certainty) that there is a world outside of us. However, when we consider abductive knowledge, our evidence for the existence of the world as we see it may be rather strong.

A Closer Look: Abductive Reasoning and the Matrix (continued)

How to Assess an Explanation There are many factors that influence the strength of an inference to the best explanation. However, when testing inferences to the best explanation for strength, these questions are good to keep in mind:

• Does it agree well with the rest of human knowledge? Suggesting that your room- mate’s car is gone because it floated away, for example, is not a very credible story because it would violate the laws of physics.

• Does it provide the simplest explanation of the observed phenomena? According to Occam’s razor, we want to explain why things happen without unnecessary complexity.

• Does it explain all relevant observations? We cannot simply ignore contradicting data because it contradicts our theory; we have to be able to explain why we see what we see.

• Is it noncircular? Some explanations merely lead us in a circle. Stating that it is raining because water is falling from the sky, for example, does not give us any new information about what causes the water to fall.

• Is it testable? Suggesting that invisible elves stole the car does not allow for empirical confirmation. An explanation is stronger if its elements are potentially observable.

• Does it help us explain other phenomena as well? The best scientific theories do not just explain one thing but allow us to understand a whole range of related phenom- ena. This principle is called fecundity. Galileo’s explanation of the orbits of the plan- ets is an example of a fecund theory because it explains several things all at once.

An explanation that has all of these virtues is likely to be better than one that does not.

har85668_06_c06_207-238.indd 231 4/9/15 11:38 AM

Section 6.5 Inference to the Best Explanation

A Limitation One limitation of inference to the best explanation is that it depends on our coming up with the correct explanation as one of the candidates. If we do not think of the correct explana- tion when trying to imagine possible explanation, then inference to the best explanation can steer us wrong. This can happen with any inductive argument, of course; inductive arguments always carry some possibility that the conclusion may be false even if the premises are true. However, this limitation is a particular danger with inference to the best explanation because it relies on our being able to imagine the true explanation.

This is one reason that it is essential to always keep an open mind when using this technique. Further information may introduce new explanations or change which explanation is best. Being open to further information is important for all inductive inferences, but especially so for those involving inference to the best explanation.

Practice Problems 6.5

1. This philosopher coined the term abductive reasoning. a. Karl Popper b. Charles Sanders Peirce c. Aristotle d. G. W. F. Hegel

2. Sherlock Holmes is often said to be engaging in this form of reasoning, even though from a logical perspective he wasn’t. a. deductive b. inductive c. abductive d. productive

3. In a specific city that happens to be a popular tourist destination, the number of residents going to the emergency rooms for asthma attacks increases in the summer. When the winter comes and tourism decreases, the number of asthma attacks goes down. What is the most probable inference to be drawn in this situation? a. The locals are allergic to tourists. b. Summer is the time that most people generally have asthma attacks. c. The increased tourism leads to higher levels of air pollution due to traffic. d. The tourists pollute the ocean with trash that then causes the locals to get sick.

4. A couple goes to dinner and shares an appetizer, entrée, and dessert. Only one of the two gets sick. She drank a glass of wine, and her husband drank a beer. What is the most probable inference to be drawn in this situation? a. The wine was the cause of the sickness. b. The beer protected the man from the sickness. c. The appetizer affected the woman but not the man. d. The wine was rotten.

(continued)

har85668_06_c06_207-238.indd 232 4/9/15 11:38 AM

Section 6.5 Inference to the Best Explanation

5. You are watching a magic performance, and there is a woman who appears to be floating in space. The magician passes a ring over her to give the impression that she is floating. What explanation fits best with Occam’s razor? a. The woman is actually floating off the ground. b. The magician is a great magician. c. There is some sort of unseen physical object holding the woman.

6. You get a stomachache after eating out at a restaurant. What explanation fits best with Occam’s razor? a. You contracted Ebola and are in the beginning phases of symptoms. b. Someone poisoned the food that you ate. c. Something was wrong with the food you ate.

7. In order to determine how a disease was spread in humans, researchers placed two groups of people into two rooms. Both rooms were exactly alike, and no people touched each other while in the rooms. However, researchers placed someone who was infected with the disease in one room. They found that those who were in the room with the infected person got sick, whereas those who were not with an infected person remained well. What explanation fits best with Occam’s razor? a. The disease is spread through direct physical contact. b. The disease is spread by airborne transmission. c. The people in the first room were already sick as well.

8. There is a dent in your car door when you come out of the grocery store. What expla- nation fits best with Occam’s razor? a. Some other patron of the store hit your car with their car. b. A child kicked your door when walking into the store. c. Bad things tend to happen only to you in these types of situations.

9. A student submits a paper that has an 80% matching rate when submitted to Tur- nitin. There are multiple sites that align exactly with the content of the paper. What explanation fits best with Occam’s razor? a. The student didn’t know it was wrong to copy things word for word without

citing. b. The student knowingly took material that he did not write and used it as his

own. c. Someone else copied the student’s work.

10. You are a man, and you jokingly take a pregnancy test. The test comes up positive. What explanation fits best with Occam’s razor? a. You are pregnant. b. The test is correct. c. The test is defective.

11. A bomb goes off in a supermarket in London. A terrorist group takes credit for the bombing. What explanation fits best with Occam’s razor? a. The British government is trying to cover up the bombing by blaming a terrorist

group. b. The terrorist group is the cause of the bombing. c. The U.S. government actually bombed the market to get the British to help them

fight terrorist groups.

Practice Problems 6.5 (continued)

(continued)

har85668_06_c06_207-238.indd 233 4/9/15 11:38 AM

Section 6.5 Inference to the Best Explanation

12. You have friends and extended family over for Thanksgiving dinner. There are kids running through the house. You check the turkey and find that it is overcooked because the temperature on the oven is too high. What explanation fits best with Occam’s razor? a. The oven increased the temperature on its own. b. Someone turned up the heat to sabotage your turkey. c. You bumped the knob when you were putting something into the oven.

13. Researchers recently mapped the genome of a human skeleton that was 45,000 years old. They found long fragments of Neanderthal DNA integrated into this human genome. What explanation fits best with Occam’s razor? a. Humans and Neanderthals interbred at some point prior to the life of this hu-

man. b. The scientists used a faulty method in establishing the genetic sequence. c. This was actually a Neanderthal skeleton.

14. There is a recent downturn in employment and the economy. A politically far-leaning radio host claims that the downturn in the economy is the direct result of the presi- dent’s actions. What explanation fits best with Occam’s razor? a. The downturn in employment is due to many factors, and more research is in

order. b. The downturn in employment is due to the president’s actions. c. The downturn in employment is really no one’s fault.

15. In order for an explanation to be adequate, one should remember that __________. a. it should agree with other human knowledge b. it should include the highest level of complexity c. it should assume the thing it is trying to prove d. there are outlying situations that contradict the explanation

16. The fecundity of an explanation refers to its __________. a. breadth of explanatory power b. inability to provide an understanding of a phenomenon c. lack of connection to what is being examined d. ability to bear children

17. Why might one choose to use an inductive argument rather than a deductive argument? a. One possible explanation must be the correct one. b. The argument relates to something that is probabilistic rather than absolute. c. An inductive argument makes the argument valid. d. One should always use inductive arguments when possible.

18. This is the method by which one can make a valid argument invalid. a. adding false supporting premises b. demonstrating that the argument is valid c. adding true supporting premises d. valid arguments cannot be made invalid

(continued)

Practice Problems 6.5 (continued)

har85668_06_c06_207-238.indd 234 4/9/15 11:38 AM

Section 6.5 Inference to the Best Explanation

19. This form of inductive argument moves from the general to the specific. a. generalizations b. statistical syllogisms c. hypothetical syllogism d. modus tollens

Questions 20–24 relate to the following passage:

If I had gone to the theater, then I would have seen the new film about aliens. I didn’t go to the theater though, so I didn’t see the movie. I think that films about aliens and supernatural events are able to teach people a lot about what the future might hold in the realm of tech- nology. Things like cell phones and space travel were only dreams in old movies, and now they actually exist. Science fiction can also demonstrate new futures in which people are more accepting of those that are different from them. The different species of characters in these films all working together and interacting with one another in harmony displays the unity of different people without explicitly making race or ethnicity an issue, thereby bringing people into these forms of thought without turning those away who do not want to explicitly confront these issues.

20. How many arguments are in this passage? a. 0 b. 1 c. 2 d. 3

21. How many deductive arguments are in this passage? a. 0 b. 1 c. 2 d. 3

22. How many inductive arguments are in this passage? a. 0 b. 1 c. 2 d. 3

23. Which of the following are conclusions in the passage? Select all that apply. a. If I had gone to the theater, then I would have seen the new film about aliens. b. I didn’t go to the theater. c. Films about aliens and supernatural events are able to teach people a lot about

what the future might hold in the realm of technology. d. The different species of characters in these films all working together and

interacting with one another in harmony displays the unity of different people without explicitly making race or ethnicity an issue.

24. Which change to the deductive argument would make it valid? Select all that apply. a. Changing the first sentence to “If I would have gone to the theater, I would not

have seen the new film about aliens.” b. Changing the second sentence to “I didn’t see the new film about aliens.” c. Changing the conclusion to “Alien movies are at the theater.” d. Changing the second sentence to “I didn’t see the movie, so I didn’t go to the theater.”

Practice Problems 6.5 (continued)

har85668_06_c06_207-238.indd 235 4/9/15 11:38 AM

Summary and Resources

Summary and Resources

Chapter Summary Although induction and deduction are treated differently in the field of logic, they are fre- quently combined in arguments. Arguments with both deductive and inductive components are generally considered to be inductive as a whole, but the important thing is to recognize when deduction and induction are being used within the argument. Arguments that com- bine inductive and deductive elements can take advantage of the strengths of each. They can retain the robustness and persuasiveness of inductive arguments while using the stronger connections of deductive arguments where these are available.

Science is one discipline in which we can see inductive and deductive arguments play out in this fashion. The hypothetico–deductive method is one of the central logical tools of science. It uses a deductive form to draw a conclusion from inductively supported premises. The hypothetico–deductive method excels at disconfirming or falsifying hypotheses but cannot be used to confirm hypotheses directly.

Inference to the best explanation, however, does provide evidence supporting the truth of a hypothesis if it provides the best explanation of our observations and withstands our best attempts at refutation. A key limitation of this method is that it depends on our being able to come up with the correct explanation as a possibility in the first place. Nevertheless, it is a powerful form of inference that is used all the time, not only in science but in our daily lives.

Critical Thinking Questions

1. You have probably encountered numerous conspiracy theories on the Internet and in popular media. One such theory is that 9/11 was actually plotted and orches- trated by the U.S. government. What is the relationship between conspiracy theories and inference to the best possible explanation? In this example, do you think that this is a better explanation than the most popular one? Why or why not?

2. What are some methods you can use to determine whether or not information represents the best possible explanation of events? How can you evaluate sources of information to determine whether or not they should be trusted?

3. Descartes claimed that it might be the case that humans are totally deceived about all aspects of their existence. He went so far as to claim that God could be evil and could be making it so that human perception is completely wrong about everything. However, he also claimed that there is one thing that cannot be doubted: So long as he is thinking, it is impossible for him to doubt that it is he who is thinking. Hence, so long as he thinks, he exists. Do you think that this argument establishes the inherent existence of the thinking being? Why or why not?

4. Have you ever been persuaded by an argument that ended up leading you to a false conclusion? If so, what happened, and what could you have done differently to pre- vent yourself from believing a false conclusion?

5. How can you incorporate elements of the hypothetico–deductive method into your own problem solving? Are there methods here that can be used to analyze situations in your personal and professional life? What can we learn about the search for truth from the methods that scientists use to enhance knowledge?

har85668_06_c06_207-238.indd 236 4/9/15 11:38 AM

Summary and Resources

abductive reasoning See inference to the best explanation.

falsifiable Describes a claim that is conceiv- ably possible to prove false. That does not mean that it is false; only that prior to test- ing, it is possible that it could have been.

falsification The effort to disprove a claim (typically by finding a counterexample to it).

hypothesis A conjecture about how some part of the world works.

hypothetico–deductive method The method of creating a hypothesis and then attempting to falsify it through experimentation.

inference to the best explanation The process of inferring something to be true because it is the most likely explanation of some observations. Also known as abductive reasoning.

Occam’s razor The principle that, when seeking an explanation for some phenom- ena, the simpler the explanation the better.

self-sealing propositions Claims that can- not be proved false because they are inter- preted in a way that protects them against any possible counterexample.

Web Resources https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RauTW8F-PMM Watch Ashford professor Justin Harrison lecture on the difference between inductive and deductive arguments.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VXW5mLE5Y2g Shmoop offers an animated video on the difference between induction and deduction.

http://www.ac4d.com/2012/06/03/abductive-reasoning-in-airport-security-and-profiling Design expert Jon Kolko applies abductive reasoning to airport security in this blog post.

Key Terms

Answers to Practice Problems Practice Problems 6.1

1. d 2. a

3. b 4. b

Practice Problems 6.2

1. a 2. a

3. a 4. a

Practice Problem 6.3

1. b

har85668_06_c06_207-238.indd 237 4/9/15 11:38 AM

Summary and Resources

Practice Problems 6.4

1. b 2. c 3. d

4. d 5. b

Practice Problems 6.5

1. b 2. a 3. c 4. a 5. c 6. c 7. b 8. a 9. b

10. c 11. b 12. c

13. a 14. a 15. a 16. a 17. b 18. d 19. b 20. d 21. b 22. c 23. c 24. d

har85668_06_c06_207-238.indd 238 4/9/15 11:38 AM

Categories

## two dogs pull horizontally on ropes attached to a post

Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University Department of Physical Sciences

Home Work # 4 & 5 PS 103 � Technical Physics�I

Due Date: Oct 3, 2014 (Friday)

Name:

Date: September 23, 2014 (Tuesday)

Semester: Fall-2014

Section:

Total point: 20

Important:

• Home work is due in the beginning of the class on the date mentioned above.

• Please note that providing answers without showing any working will not qualify as correct. So to get full points show EACH AND EVERY STEP.

• Please answer all questions neat and clean in as much detail as you can.

• All the conventions followed in the homework are same as that of lectures.

Question# 1:- You throw a ball vertically upward from the roof of a tall building. The ball leaves your hand at a point even with the roof railing with an upward speed of 15.0 m/s; the ball is then in free fall. On its way back down, it just misses the railing. Find

a) the ball’s position and velocity 1.00 s, 2.00 s, 3.00 s, and 4.00 s after leaving your hand;

b) the ball’s velocity when it is 5.00 m above the railing;

c) the maximum height reached;

d) the ball’s acceleration when it is at its maximum height.

e) At what time after being released has the ball fallen 5.00 m below the roof railing? and what will it’s speed be at that time?

f) At what time after being released has the ball fallen 2.00 m below the roof railing? and what will it’s speed be at that time?

Question# 2:- The boat in Figure 1 is heading due north as it crosses a wide river with a velocity of 10.0 km/h relative to the water. The river has a uniform velocity of 5.00 km/h due east. Determine the magnitude and direction of the boat’s velocity with respect to an observer on the riverbank.

Figure 1: Problem-2

1

Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Question# 3:- A batter hits a baseball so that it leaves the bat at speed v0 = 37.0 m/s at an angle ↵0 = 53.1�.

a) Find the position of the ball and its velocity (magnitude and direction) at t = 2.00 s.

b) Find the time when the ball reaches the high- est point of its flight, and its height h at this time.

c) Find the horizontal range R that is, the hor- izontal distance from the starting point to where the ball hits the ground. Figure 2: Problem-3

Question# 4:- Two tanks are engaged in a training exercise on level ground. The first tank fires a paint-filled training round with a muzzle speed of 250 m/s at 10.0� above the horizontal while advancing toward the second tank with a speed of 15.0 m/s relative to the ground. The second tank is retreating at 35.0 m/s relative to the ground, but is hit by the shell. You can ignore air resistance and assume the shell hits at the same height above ground from which it was fired. Find the distance between the tanks

a) when the round was first fired and

b) at the time of impact.

Question# 5:- Workmen are trying to free an SUV stuck in the mud. To extricate the vehicle, they use three horizontal ropes, producing the force vectors shown Figure 3.

a) Find the x� and y�components of each of the three pulls.

b) Use the components to find the magnitude and direction of the resultant of the three pulls. Figure 3: Problem-5

Question# 6:- Two horses are pulling a barge with mass 2.00⇥103 kg along a canal, as shown in Figure 4. The cable connected to the first horse makes an angle of ✓1 = 30.0� with respect to the direction of the canal, while the cable connected to the second horse makes an angle of ✓1 = 30.0�. Find the initial acceleration of the barge, starting at rest, if each horse exerts a force of magnitude 6.00 ⇥ 102 N on the barge. Ignore forces of resistance on the barge.

Figure 4: Problem-6

Question# 7:- Two dogs pull horizontally on ropes attached to a post; the angle between the ropes is 60.0�. If dog A exerts a force of 270 N and dog B exerts a force of 300 N, find the magnitude of the resultant force and the angle it makes with dog A’s rope.

2

Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Question# 8:- A 68.5-kg skater moving initially at 2.40 m/s on rough horizontal ice comes to rest uniformly in 3.52 s due to friction from the ice. What force does friction exert on the skater?

Question# 9:- You walk into an elevator, step onto a scale, and push the “up” button. You also recall that your normal weight is 625 N. Start answering each of the following questions by drawing a freebody diagram.

a) If the elevator has an acceleration of magnitude 2.50 m/s2, what does the scale read?

b) If you start holding a 3.85-kg package by a light vertical string, what will be the tension in this string once the elevator begins accelerating?

Question# 10:- A box rests on a frozen pond, which serves as a frictionless horizontal surface. If a fisherman applies a horizontal force with magnitude 48.0 N to the box and produces an acceleration of magnitude 3.00 m/s2, what is the mass of the box?

Question# 11:- Boxes A and B are in contact on a hor- izontal, frictionless surface, as shown in Figure 5. Box A has mass 20.0 kg and box B has mass 5.0 kg. A horizontal force of 100 N is exerted on box A. What is the magnitude of the force that box A exerts on box B? Figure 5: Problem-11

Question# 12:- Two objects of mass m1 and m2, with m2 > m1, are connected by a light, inextensible cord and hung over a frictionless pulley, as in Ac- tive Figure 6. Both cord and pulley have negligible mass. Find the magnitude of the acceleration of the system and the tension

Figure 6: Problem-12

Question# 13:- A 150-N bird feeder is supported by three cables as shown in Figure 7. Find the tension in each cable.

Figure 7: Problem-13

Question# 14:- An object with mass m1 = 5.00 kg rests on a frictionless horizontal table and is con- nected to a cable that passes over a pulley and is then fastened to a hanging object with mass m2 = 10.0 kg, as shown in Figure 8. Find

a) the acceleration of each object and

b) the tension in the cable. Figure 8: Problem-14

Categories

## capstone courier

600 words  5 references that respond to the following questions with your thoughts, ideas, and comments. This will be the foundation for future discussions with your classmates. Be substantive and clear, and use examples to reinforce your ideas.

Review the Industry Conditions Report and CapStone Courier found in the Reports section of the left hand menu in the CapSim simulation. Also, review the CapStone Team Member Guide.  Based on your initial review of the CAPSIM Capstone Business Simulation, what have you have identified as the key business issues that will impact your company? Prepare to discuss this issue with the other members of your team.

Your discussion should include the following:

• Discuss the current situation in the CapSim simulation and the recent changes to the industry and competitive environment.
• What competitive challenge is faced by your company? What are the opportunities and threats (Pettus, Ch. 4)?
• Applying the business level strategies discussed in Pettus, Chapter 4, and market segment strategies discussed on page 24 of the Team Member Guide, explore possible strategic directions for your company and various sensor products. Reading and responding to the posts of your teammates is highly recommended.

Other guidelines on assignments include the following:

§ Check spelling, grammar, and punctuation to avoid any point deductions related to these matters.

§ It is encouraged that you use at least 5 credible and relevant sources (credible can be peer reviewed articles, articles from reputable journals, company specific internet web pages, or published books) for each task in most cases, this practice will essential for completing tasks. I encourage the use of CTU’s extensive library search engine for references. It is better than simply going to the Internet and searching non-peer reviewed sites or professional journals. Sources can include course textbook and at least one outside sources will also be helpful and per the grading rubrics, can sometimes impact the points earned on specific tasks.

Categories

## define flotation costs

Define The Term: Flotation Costs. Why Should We Expect The Flotation Costs For Debt To Be Significantly Lower Than Those For Equity?

Categories

## actx.blackboard

NAME Judy Brown CLASS & SECTION: PSYC 2301 – 002

SERVICE PROJECT ESSAY TEMPLATE

Instructions: Type your essay in the spaces below. Save frequently to your computer as you work. Edit your work thoroughly. UPLOAD YOUR DOCUMENT as a WORD or RICH TEXT FORMAT file into the SERVICE PROJPSYCECT ESSAY DROP BOX in your BLACKBOARD CLASSROOM for grading by the DUE DATE.

1. In Paragraph 1, describe the specific history of the agency where you selected to volunteer. What is the name of the agency/organization? Where is it located? What does your agency/organization do? What social problem is your agency working on and what specific intervention are they using? This part of the 1st question must be a minimum of 150 words.

In Paragraph 2: What did you do while volunteering that helped with this intervention? For example; poverty is the social issue and they are providing meals is the intervention. This will require you to research online, talk with the people in charge and/or read information provided by the agency. What is the name, title, phone number and/or email address of your supervisor or agency contact person for your project (this is required!)? Be sure you CITE any sources for this agency in your BIBLIOGRAPHY section in the template you will use to complete your essay. Sources don’t count towards word count. This second part of the 1st question must also be a minimum of 150 words. (Note: these two paragraphs contain 153 words and 9 lines of text). Worth a maximum of 20% and/or 20 points

Skip a line between the question and YOUR ANSWER!

Bibliography: Any references you used, including books, websites, articles, personal interviews, cite here as shown in the instruction sheet.

2. How does your time serving in the community influence your ideas and perceptions about your community and the people who live there? This question must be a minimum of 100 words. Skip a line between the question and YOUR ANSWER! Worth a maximum of 10% of your grade or 10 points.

Bibliography: Any references you used, including books, websites, articles, personal interviews, cite here as shown in the instruction sheet.

4. Will you continue to volunteer and take action? What impact do you hope to have by continuing to volunteer at your selected agency? If you choose not to volunteer at your selected agency, then describe and discuss in SPECIFIC DETAIL, at least ONE ACTION STEP that you would be willing to do to apply some aspect of “social responsibility” that you learned in your volunteer work in your life. This question must be a minimum of 100 words. Worth a maximum of 10% of your grade or 10 points.

5. UNDERSTANDING THE EMPIRICAL DATA ON POVERTY: Below you will be examining some graphs and data related to poverty. Please type in the correct answers to the blanks BELOW IN THE ANSWER based on reading the data in this paragraph and these graphs.

Worth a maximum of 25% of your grade or 25 points. The rest of your points will be based on Organization (5% or 5 points) and your WRITING MECHANICS (10% or 10 points).

ANSWERS GO HERE: TYPE YOUR ANSWERS TO 5A, B, C, D and E: Delete the blanks, and PUT YOUR ANSWERS TO THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS BELOW:

5A) The # of homeless children and teens that die on the streets of America is ___________.

5B) If I am a homeless child in America I am most likely __________________(age group) and LEAST likely to be ______________(race).

5C) If current trends continue into the year 2020, WE CAN PREDICT that ______ % of adults WITHOUT a high school diploma will live in poverty, while only _________% of people with an Associate’s degree will live in poverty.

5D) Based on 50 week year, you will make \$________ more a week if you have an Associate’s degree than if you have a high school diploma, and \$___________ more a week than someone who has NO high school diploma, and based on a 50 week year, you would make \$__________ a year with a high School Diploma versus \$___________ a year with a 4 year Bachelor’s Degree .

5E) You will be ____________ times as likely to be unemployed if you don’t finish high school than if you have your Associate’s Degree.

EMPIRICAL AND GRAPHICAL DATA ON POVERTY:

Other problems with poverty and lack of proper education are seen in the problem of homelessness. One in 50 U.S. children are currently homeless. Outside of the issue with lack of education, another reason for homelessness is that 44.9% of the children and adolescents who are now homeless had parents that were alcohol or drug addicted. There are many problems associated with homelessness. When children and teens are homeless it makes them more vulnerable to getting sick, as more than 1 in 7 homeless children and teens have moderate to severe health conditions, such as asthma. Tragically, homelessness also leads to 13 children or teenagers dying on the streets of America every day (Slesnick, 2004). Most children whose families are chronically homeless will not graduate high school.

Research conducted by Betts (1995) indicates that the most poverty-stricken neighborhoods have a negative impact on schools due to a declining tax base, making it harder to have decent facilities, educational supplies, and quality teachers. Many schools in low income areas are underfunded, and have trouble taking on all the challenges of giving the most needy children and adolescents the type of education that can lead them out of poverty (Betts, 1995). Hence, we see the succession of poverty that extends generationally in an unending cycle of despair.

### Betts, J.R. (1995). Does school quality matter? Evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 77-2, pp 231-250.

National Center for Children in Poverty (2014): Basic facts about low-income children. Retrieved from http://www.nccp.org/publications/pub_1145.html

Slesnick, N. (2004) Homeless children and youth: A guide to understanding. Praeger Publisher.

5A) Put your answer above in the section for your answers: Calculate how many homeless children and teens will die each year in America based on 352 days in a year.

For 5B: Homelessness, Children & Teens: Fill in the blank: These two pie charts show the distribution of ages when it comes to homeless children and teens, as well as the racial make-up of the over 3.5 million homeless Americans. Put your answers above in the space for answers.

5B) By looking at the data in both the pie graphs below on the percentages of age groups and percentages of racial designations of the homeless children in America, if I am a homeless child in America, I am MOST likely _____________________(which age group?) and LEAST LIKELY to be _____________________ (which race)? (put your answers above in the answer sheet.

Figure 1: Age groups of homeless children in U.S.

5C ) TRENDS in POVERTY and UNEMPLOYMENT as they RELATE TO EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT: The line graph below shows us trends across 4 decades of time in the relationship between poverty and educational levels. The 2nd graph, a comparative bar graph, gives us a graphic representation of data on unemployment rates and salaries based on educational attainment. Please put your answers above for the space for answers to these questions regarding the trends in people without college educations and those with college education as they relate to poverty, earnings and unemployment rates.

5C) Based on the line graph below, and IF the current trends in poverty rates continue into 2020, put your ANSWERS ABOVE in the space for answers by filling in the statistical percentages for each educational level for living in poverty (based on the previous decades of change). If current trends hold steady, in 2020, we can predict that _______________% of people without a high school degree will live in poverty, while only ____________ % of people with a two-year college degree will be living in poverty.

Figure 21 March Curnet Population Survey NOTE: Civilians 25 years and older

5D and 5E) Relationships between educational attainment salary and unemployment. This comparative bar graph shows us the relationships between educational attainment, salary and unemployment rates. Put your answers above in the space provided for ANSWERS.

5D) Based on the comparative bar graph below, Calculate: In 2014, people with an Associate’s degree will make \$____________ a week MORE than someone WITH a high school diploma and \$______________ MORE a week than someone WITHOUT a high school diploma, and based on 50 weeks for a year, you would make \$____________ a year with a high school diploma versus \$__________ a year with a Bachelor’s Degree. .

5E) According to the bar graph below, you are ________ times more likely to be unemployed and if you have a high school diploma or just take a few classes here at Amarillo College, than if you stay the course and finish your ASSOCIATES degree or certification program.

Reminder: Be sure you thoroughly edit this before you submit it in the SERVICE PROJECT ESSAY DROP BOX. If you are not a strong writer contact the Writer’s Corner at:   writerscorner@actx.edu Phone:345-5580 or go to Ordway Hall, Room 102 for help.

AMERICA HOMELESS POPULATION By RACE = 3.5 Million People

including 1 in 50 children in U.S. (1.35 million)

National Law Center on Homelessness & Poverty, January 2007HOMELESS POPULATION = 3.5 Million People

African American Caucasian Hispanic Native American Asian 0.42000000000000032 0.3900000000000004 0.13 4.0000000000000029E-2 2.0000000000000014E-2

Trends: Poverty Rates by Educational Level

(1970-2010)High School Drop Out 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 0.2 0.15000000000000024 0.25 0.30000000000000032 0.35000000000000031 High School Graduate 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 0.05 7.0000000000000021E-2 0.1 0.15000000000000024 0.2 2 Year College 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 0.05 0.05 7.0000000000000021E-2 7.0000000000000021E-2 6.0000000000000032E-2 4 Year College Graduate 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 4.0000000000000022E-2 3.0000000000000002E-2 3.0000000000000002E-2 3.0000000000000002E-2 3.0000000000000002E-2

Categories

## flabby expressions

1. Revising for Conciseness

Time is money in any business environment. To be successful in the business world, you must be able to create concise and easy-to-read messages.

As you revise, eliminate flabby expressions, long lead-ins, fillers, redundancies, and empty words. Your audience will appreciate your brevity.

Which of the following sentences contain flabby expressions? Check all that apply.

Complete the sentence with the most concise option.

are canceled this week.

Read the following paragraph, and choose the best revision for one of its sentences.

Dr. Blake is retiring at the end of the month. There will be an unoccupied office upon his departure, and it is big in size. Because each

and every one of the other offices is fully occupied, it is recommended that we convert Dr. Blake’s office into a lounge. It is absolutely

essential that this issue is discussed at the next staff meeting.

Evaluate each of the following sentences, and choose the most concise revision.

It is the user who should contact the help center.

I am sending you this letter to inform you that we have experienced an unexpected surprise within our expense sheet, but we are positively certain we

He seldom returns text messages.

Feel free to help yourself to the delectable desserts in the break room until such time as they are all consumed.

Alessia will probably be promoted.

In the event that Marie calls, please inform her that we will be proceeding along the normal course of events.

Contact Jorge; he can allow access to the beta version.

Because every other office is occupied, it’s recommended that we should convert Dr. Blake’s office into a lounge.

Because every other office is filled, we should convert Dr. Blake’s office into a lounge.

The user should contact the help center.

It is the user who should contact the help center if there is a problem.

The user should contact the help center as to whether or not they have a problem.javascript:jumpTo(‘/af/servlet/quiz?ctx=lindsay.bennion-0007&quiz_action=showContents&quiz_psetGuid=PSETC0A801010000003ef74800020000’)

2/21/18, 11:18 AMAplia: Student Question

Page 2 of 2http://aplia.apps.ng.cengage.com/af/servlet/quiz?quiz_action=take…say.bennion-0007&ck=m_1519237020277_0AAA051D016161DBA55F96100000

Grade It Now Save & Continue

Continue without saving

will solve it.

I would like to inform you that the Johnson report might not be complete by the deadline.

We have identified a problem with our expense sheet, but we will solve it.

I am sending you this letter to inform you that we have a problem with our expense sheet, but we are positively certain we have a

solution.

We have experienced an unexpected surprise with our expense sheet, but we are midway to an end result.

The Johnson report might not be complete by the deadline.

I am unsure as to whether or not the Johnson report will be complete by the deadline.javascript:jumpTo(leavePageLink)

Categories

## why did the texas constitution establish a plural executive

Government and Politics in the Lone Star State

Tenth Edition

Chapter 6

The Texas Executive

Learning Objectives

6.1 Trace the evolution of the Texas governor from a strong unified executive to a plural executive.

6.2 Assess what qualifies an individual to serve as governor, common career patterns that have led to the governorship, and select benefits of the office.

6.3 Explain the legislative, budgetary, appointive, judicial, and military powers of the Texas governor.

6.4 Evaluate the informal resources of the Texas governor for advancing public policy and political objectives.

6.5 Differentiate the leadership styles of recent Texas governors.

6.6 Describe the duties and responsibilities of the other offices of the executive branch in Texas.

A Historical Perspective on the Executive Function in Texas (1 of 4)

Governors Enjoyed Stronger Constitutional Powers from 1836 to 1866.

Elected offices of comptroller and state treasurer added in 1861

Granted line-item veto powers in 1866

1869 Constitution

Influenced by Jacksonian democracy

Created a plural executive

A Historical Perspective on the Executive Function in Texas (2 of 4)

Expanded Powers in the Twentieth Century

Salary could be raised by the legislature (1954)

Term of office expanded to four years (1972)

Given removal power over persons appointed to boards and commissions (1980)

A Historical Perspective on the Executive Function in Texas (3 of 4)

The Constitutional Framework for the Plural Executive

Article 1, Section 4 of the Constitution of 1876 created the executive branch.

In Texas, the governor appoints more than 200 policy-setting boards over state agencies and universities, but the boards appoint the individuals responsible for day-to-day administration.

A Historical Perspective on the Executive Function in Texas (4 of 4)

The Potential for Conflict in the Plural Executive

Members of the plural executive

Operate independently of the governor

Can claim their own electoral mandates

May clash with the governor over policies

Potential for conflict increases in a two-party state

Makes it difficult to pursue coordinated policies

Does serve to constrain the power of the governor

Journal 6.1

Do you think Texas should replace its plural executive with an executive structure similar to that of the president, where the lieutenant governor would be elected as a team with the governor and the governor would have a cabinet composed of appointed agency heads?

Historical Overview of the Men and Women Who Have Served as Governor (1 of 3)

Qualifications and Backgrounds of Texas Governors

Constitutional requirements

At least thirty years old, U.S. citizen, and resident of Texas for five years

Past governors

Most have been Democrats (not recently), wealthy, educated, middle-aged, white male Protestants.

Many have previous public service.

Historical Overview of the Men and Women Who Have Served as Governor (2 of 3)

Impeachment and Incapacitation

Impeachment

Charges brought by the House of Representatives

Removal follows a trial and conviction in the Senate.

Texas does not have a voter-initiated recall process.

The lieutenant governor replaces the governor if the office is vacated.

Historical Overview of the Men and Women Who Have Served as Governor (3 of 3)

The Salary and “Perks” of the Governor’s Office

In 2015, the governor of Texas was paid a salary of \$150,000 a year.

Perks of the governor’s office

Mansion and staff

State-owned planes and cars

Security detail

Travel expenses

The Powers of the Governor (1 of 5)

Legislative Powers

State of the State address

Establish a policy agenda

Special sessions

Last for up to thirty days each

Governor controls the agenda.

Veto power

Overridden by a two-thirds vote in the House and Senate

Can veto bills up to twenty days after the close of a legislative session

State of the State Address

Governor Greg Abbott delivered his first State of the State Address in which he outlined his legislative priorities to a joint session of the Texas Legislature in February of 2015. The governor and other state dignitaries are seen here applauding veterans during his address.

12

Table 6-2 Comparison of the Formal/Institutional Powers of the Governors (1 of 2)

 Strong (4.0 and above) Strong (4.0 and above) Strong (4.0 and above) Strong (4.0 and above) Alaska (4.1) Maryland (4.1) New York (4.3) Utah (4.2) Hawaii (4.1) Massachusetts (4.3) Pennsylvania (4.0) West Virginia (4.1) Strong (3.5–3.9) Moderately Moderately Strong (3.5–3.9) Moderately Strong (3.5–3.9) Moderately Strong (3.5–3.9) Arizona (3.8) Idaho (3.5) Minnesota (3.9) Oregon (3.5) California (3.5) Illinois (3.8) Nebraska (3.8) Tennessee (3.9) Colorado (3.9) Iowa (3.7) New Jersey (3.8) Washington (3.6) Connecticut (3.9) Kansas (3.7) North Dakota (3.9) Wisconsin (3.7) Delaware (3.7) Kentucky (3.5) Ohio (3.9) Wyoming (3.8) Florida (3.6) Michigan (3.9)

SOURCE: Based on Thad Beyle, “The Governors;” Multistate Associates Incorporated, “2014 Governors and Legislatures;” National Council of State Legislatures; and National Governors Association, “Governors Political Affiliations and Terms of Office.”

Meg (M) – where is table 6-1?

Table 6-2 Comparison of the Formal/Institutional Powers of the Governors (2 of 2)

 Moderate (3.0–3.4) Moderate (3.0–3.4) Moderate (3.0–3.4) Moderate (3.0–3.4) Alabama (3.2) Maine (3.1) New Hampshire (3.0) South Carolina (3.0) Georgia (3.2) Mississippi (3.3) New Mexico (3.3) South Dakota (3.0) Indiana (3.1) Missouri (3.1) Oklahoma (3.0) Texas (3.2) Louisiana (3.4) Montana (3.3) Rhode Island (3.3) Virginia (3.3) Weak (2.9 and below) Weak (2.9 and below) Weak (2.9 and below) Weak (2.9 and below) Arkansas (2.9) Nevada (2.8) North Carolina (2.9) Vermont (2.8)

SOURCE: Based on Thad Beyle, “The Governors;” Multistate Associates Incorporated, “2014 Governors and Legislatures;” National Council of State Legislatures; and National Governors Association, “Governors Political Affiliations and Terms of Office.”

Signing Ceremonies

Governors use a variety of public occasions to cultivate public support for their legislative programs, including signing ceremonies that are usually held in the governor’s Reception Room on the second floor of the Capitol. To bring special attention to the newly enacted legislation, Texas Governor Greg Abbott signed into law at Red’s Indoor Range in Pflugerville bills permitting Texans to carry concealed handguns on college campuses and openly carry them virtually everywhere in the state.

15

The Powers of the Governor (2 of 5)

Budgetary Powers

Weaker budgetary authority

Primary authority rests with the legislature and Legislative Budget Board.

The Texas governor has line-item veto over appropriations bills.

The Powers of the Governor (3 of 5)

Appointive Powers

Selects members to serve on more than 200 boards and commissions

Subject to Senate confirmation

Many serve six-year staggered terms.

Limited ability to remove appointees

Filling vacancies

State, district, appellate courts; U.S. Senate seats; and all statewide offices except the lieutenant governor

The Powers of the Governor (4 of 5)

Judicial Powers

Appoints members of the Board of Pardons and Paroles

Grants executive clemency

Thirty-day stay of execution

Commutation of a death sentence to life in prison

Full or conditional pardons

Responsible for ordering state officials to carry out extradition proceedings

The Powers of the Governor (5 of 5)

Military Powers

Acts as commander-in-chief of the state’s military forces

Appoints the adjutant general

Mobilizes the national guard to protect lives and property, and to keep the peace

Informal Resources of the Governor (1 of 4)

The Governor’s Staff

Organization reflects leadership styles.

Highly centralized or may seek greater contact with advisors

Affects the flow of information to the governor

Chosen for their media and public relations skills or policy expertise

Help develop policy agendas and legislative strategies

Function as the governor’s surrogates

Staff Can Really Make a Difference

A governor’s success is dependent, in part, on a competent staff capable of assisting the governor in meeting expanded responsibilities and increased expectations from the general public, the legislature, administrative agencies, the media, and interest groups. Governor-elect Greg Abbott, center left, is seen here in the Old Supreme Court Room in the Capitol introducing his key staff members prior to the 2015 legislative session.

21

Table 6-3 The Governor’s Leadership Resources

 Formal Constitutional Powers 1. Veto legislation 2. Exercise a line-item veto over the state budget 3. Call and set the agenda for special legislative sessions 4. Make recommendations on the budget 5. Propose emergency budgetary transfers when the legislature is not in session 6. Appoint hundreds of members of policymaking boards and commissions, subject to Senate confirmation 7. Remove his or her own appointees from boards, with Senate approval 8. Fill vacancies in U.S. Senate seats and certain elective state offices 9. Proclaim acts of executive clemency, including stays of execution, for convicted criminals 10. Mobilize the Texas National Guard to protect lives and property during natural disasters and other emergencies Informal Resources 1. Governor’s electoral mandate 2. A large staff to help develop and sell policy proposals 3. Ability to communicate to the public through the mass media 4. Public’s perception and opinions about the governor’s job performance 5. The governor’s political party and relationships with legislative leaders 6. Support and mobilization of interest groups

Informal Resources of the Governor (2 of 4)

The Governor and the Mass Media

Communicate policy objectives to the general public to mobilize public opinion

Strategies

Press conferences, news leaks, and trial balloons

Use of public opinion polls

Staging pseudo-events to emphasize issues

Use of radio and television

Informal Resources of the Governor (3 of 4)

The Governor and the Political Party

Historically

Governors built policy coalitions around factions within the Democratic Party.

Gained little power from serving as head of the party

Under the two-party system

Parties provide greater resources and support.

Republicans have sought the support of social conservatives within the party.

Informal Resources of the Governor (4 of 4)

The Governor and Interest Groups

Solicit endorsements and campaign contributions from groups

Pursue policy initiatives and legislation that benefit key support groups

Leadership Styles of Recent Texas Governors (1 of 4)

Ann Richards (1991–1995)

Activist stance

Populist policy agenda called for a “new Texas”

Pragmatic approach to legislation, seeking compromise

Staff given greater responsibility to pursue policy objectives

Filled role as Texas’s chief ambassador

Leadership Styles of Recent Texas Governors (2 of 4)

George W. Bush (1995–2000)

Kept a low public profile in his first year

Often worked behind the scenes with legislators to reach compromise

Met frequently with Republican and conservative Democratic legislators

Faced opposition over school property tax reform and school vouchers

Leadership Styles of Recent Texas Governors (3 of 4)

Rick Perry (2000–2015 )

Gave no clear direction in first term

Vetoed a record eighty-two bills in 2001

Took advantage of Republican majority

Oversaw partisan redistricting battle

Rocky relationship with lawmakers

Washington “outsider”

The State’s Longest-Serving Governor

Governor Rick Perry was governor from 2000 to 2015, longer than any of his predecessors. His public career included a six-year stint as a state representative, eight years as the state’s agriculture commissioner, and almost two years as lieutenant governor prior to assuming the governorship when George Bush won the presidency in 2000.

29

Leadership Styles of Recent Texas Governors (4 of 4)

Greg Abbott (2015– )

Conservative record from time on Texas Supreme Court and as attorney general

More restrained than Perry at first

Mostly successful in first legislative session

Critical of federal government policies and advocate of efforts to curtail federal power

Other Offices of the Plural Executive (1 of 8)

Lieutenant Governor

Dan Patrick holds the office.

Primarily a legislative office with few administrative duties

Considered by some to be the most powerful state office

Presides over the Senate

Chairs the Legislative Budget Board

Succeeds the governor if the governor dies, is incapacitated, or is removed from office

Other Offices of the Plural Executive (2 of 8)

Attorney General

Ken Paxton holds the office.

Serves as the state’s chief legal officer

Represents the state in litigation

Enforces antitrust and consumer protection laws

Provides for child support collection

Creates advisory opinions on the legality of actions by state and local agencies or officials

Other Offices of the Plural Executive (3 of 8)

Comptroller of Public Accounts

Glenn Hegar holds the office.

Serves as the state’s tax administrator, accounting officer, and revenue estimator

Assumed the state treasurer’s duties in 1995

Provides a revenue estimate of state income to guide budget preparation

Must certify that the state budget falls within revenue projections

Other Offices of the Plural Executive (4 of 8)

Commissioner of the General Land Office

George P. Bush holds the office.

Manages state-owned lands and mineral rights

Revenues are earmarked for the Permanent University Fund and Permanent School Fund.

Responsible for the Veterans Land Program

Develops environmental programs

Plans for dealing with oil spills

Preventing soil erosion along Texas beaches

Don’t Mess with Texas!

Other Offices of the Plural Executive (5 of 8)

Commissioner of Agriculture

Sid Miller holds the office.

Statutory officer who regulates agriculture

Administers consumer protection laws

Weights and measures

Packaging and labeling

Marketing

Supports agricultural research and education programs

Other Offices of the Plural Executive (6 of 8)

Secretary of State

Carlos Cascos holds the office.

Appointed by the governor

Grants charters to corporations

Processes the extradition of prisoners

Administers state election laws

Reviews local and county election procedures

Develops statewide voter registration policy

Other Offices of the Plural Executive (7 of 8)

Elected Boards and Commissions

Three members; each one elected statewide to staggered six-year terms

Oversees railroad safety and oil, natural gas, and mining industries

Often used as a stepping stone to higher state office

Other Offices of the Plural Executive (8 of 8)

Elected Boards and Commissions

State Board of Education

Fifteen members, each one elected from a single-member district

Key responsibilities

Translating legislative mandates into public policy

Investment of money in the Permanent School Fund

Oversight of textbook selection and curriculum standards

Administration of the Texas Education Agency

Shared Writing 6.6

Consider the discussion in “Combs, Patterson Spar Over Ruling on State Incentives.” Policy conflicts within the plural executive are not limited to those between the governor and other statewide elected officials. For a variety of reasons, officials other than the governor have become involved in controversial issues, such as the use of state funding for Formula 1 racing. When conflict emerges between state officials of the plural executive, is the governor likely to become involved? What, if anything, might be the consequences of such conflicts between statewide elected officials?

Photo Credits

Page 166: Office of the Governor Greg Abbott; 168: Eric Gay/AP Images; 175: Eric Gay/AP Images; 176: Ralph Barrera/AP Images; 180: Dborah Cannon/AP Images; 182: Eric Gay/AP Images; 185: David Breslauer/AP Images; 187: Eric Gay/AP Images; 187: Harry Cabluck/AP Images; 190: Harry Cabluck/AP Images; 193: Eric Gay/AP Images; 196: The Railroad Commission of Texas; 198: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division [LC-DIG-ggbain-25234]

Categories

## dc network.gcu

Deactivated

Kendrick Kim

4 posts

Re:Module 3 DQ 2

Review the Prospectus Template, Dissertation Proposal Template, Milestone Guide, and Milestone Table in the DC Network and discuss how these documents have been helpful to you in completing your ISP. What challenges have you encountered while developing your ISP? How will you work with your chair to address these challenges so that you can meet the goals in your ISP?

After reviewing the Content Expert presentation, what steps have you taken to identify a content expert to serve on your committee?

The resources that the GCU DC network provides has a wealth of information and resources. The templates really makes the formatting and expectation and issues of the dissertation that need to be addressed more workable and fluid. It also makes life of the doctoral student’s life a lot more easier. These guidelines and time tables assist the doctoral learner in the dissertation process and the journey to see the light at the end of the tunnel. I think the challenges is not the difficulty of utilizing the templates and following the instructions, for me it is the amount of time I put in and honestly speaking, I am not putting in more time that I should. Focus now, is to get the prospectus draft solid to standard Dr. Rowell wants it at and then play catch up with the many of you my colleagues.

Reference(s)

www.gcu.edu. (n.d.). GRAND CANYON UNIVERSITY . Retrieved July 21, 2017, from  https://www.gcu.edu/college-of-doctoral-studies/doctoral-resources.php

www.gcu.edu. (n.d.).  Grand Canyon University.  Retrieved July 21, 2017 from  http://blogs.gcu.edu/college-of-doctoral-studies/category/dissertation-resources/page/2/

{hiddenBy}

Substantive Post Yes | No

DQ Points

{dqCommentIdValue}

Abuse Reports

Previous

{dqPointsEntered

{hiddenUserIdVal

Categories

## what negative impact did gold and silver mining have in the west

1. What negative impact did gold and silver mining have on the west?
15,885 results
Social Studies
2. What negative impact did gold and silver mining have in the west? I think it would be Ghost towns were left behind after the mines stopped producing. Is this right?

asked by Help on January 9, 2018
American History
what negative impact did gold and silver mining have in the west A) Tent cities near the mines fostered criminals as long-term residents B) Ghost towns were left behind after the mines stopped producing C) Mining camps were sources of many contagious

asked by yogirlsman on January 24, 2018
History
What negative impact did gold and silver mining have in the West? A. Tent cities near the mines fostered criminals as long-term residents. B. Ghost towns were left behind after the mines stopped producing. C. Mining camps were sources of many contagious

asked by Anonymous on February 12, 2019
social studies
what negative impact did gold and silver mining have in the west? A. Tent cities near the mines fostered criminals as long-term residents B. ghost towns were left behind after the mines stopped producing. C. mining camps were sources of many contagious

asked by sally on February 12, 2018
Social Studies
What negative impact did gold and silver mining have in the south? a)Tent cities near the mines fostered criminals as long term residents b)Ghost towns were left behind after the mines stopped producing c)Mining camps were sources of many contagious

asked by Anonymous on January 19, 2018

Math
A safety deposit box contains three ancient Roman coins: #1 both sides are silver #2 both sides are gold #3 one side is silver, the other gold You are blindfolded, then you pick a coin, then toss it so that it lands on the floor. At this point, the sample

asked by William Marand on March 28, 2019
chemistry
silver has density of 10.5 g/cm3 and gold has a density of 193.g/cm3 which liquid is denser silver and gold are liquids? That’s news to me. You’re given the ratios for density, which ratio is greater 10.5gm/cm^3 or 193gm/cm^3? It appears gold is over 18

asked by delonte on September 10, 2006
Chemistry 101
A crown is determine to weigh 2.65 kg. When this crown is submerged in a full basin of water, the overflow is found to be 145 mL. Is the crown pure gold or a gold-silver alloy? The density of silver is 10.5 g/mL and gold that of gold is 19.3 g/mL. Show

asked by Lilly on January 20, 2016
Chemistry 101
A crown is determine to weigh 2.65 kg. When this crown is submerged in a full basin of water, the overflow is found to be 145 mL. Is the crown pure gold or a gold-silver alloy? The density of silver is 10.5 g/mL and gold that of gold is 19.3 g/mL

asked by Lilly on January 18, 2016
math
Use the information below to write and simplify an expression to find the total weight of the medals won by the top medal-winning nations in the 2012 London Olympic Games. The three types of medals have different weights. U.S.A. Gold=46 Silver=29 Bronze=29

asked by Sam on February 24, 2015
math
An arcade uses 3 different colored tokens for their game machines. For \$20 you can purchase any of the following mixtures of tokens: 14 gold, 20 silver, and 24 bronze; OR, 20 gold, 15 silver, and 19 bronze; OR, 30 gold, 5 silver, and 13 bronze. What is the

asked by laurie on October 28, 2011
Chemistry 101
If gold sells today for 1625 per ounce, and a large mining truck hauls 400 tons of gold ore, what is the value of the gold in each truck if each ton of gold ore contains 1.0 ounces of gold? Use dimensional analysis.

asked by Lilly on February 25, 2016
Chemistry 101
If gold sells today for 1625 per ounce, and a large mining truck hauls 400 tons of gold ore, what is the value of the gold in each truck if each ton of gold ore contains 1.0 ounces of gold? Use dimensional analysis.

asked by Lilly on February 25, 2016
social studies
why does gold sink to the bottom of the pan? other than prospectors who else made money from the gold rush? why did some people in boomtowns become wealthy without mining for gold?

asked by Celest on April 17, 2012
chemistry
Archimedes used density along with mass and volume of alloys (mixtures) of gold and silver to determine the percent of gold (and also silver) in these alloys by simple, non-destructive measurements. Prove that the mass of gold in a given mass of silver

asked by mitchell on September 26, 2011

The risk premium is likely to be highest for A. U.S. government bonds B. corporate bonds C. gold mining expedition D. either B or C I like C the gold mining expedition I that correct??

asked by Jason on July 25, 2008
History
16.)What was an effect of the California Gold Rush in 1849? A.)Many people discovered gold, became rich, and established multiple mining towns in California.*** B.)The president authorized the forced removal of the Sioux tribes in California where gold was

asked by #FreeGucci on February 24, 2016
Math Concentration
Joe has a ring weighing 10 grams made of an alloy of 13% silver and the rest gold. He decides to melt down the rings and add enough silver to reduce the gold content to 69%. How many grams of silver should he add? My set up is: 10 (.13 + .87) = 10 (.13 + X

asked by missy on June 26, 2011
algebra
Joe has a ring weighing 15 grams made of an alloy of 20 silver and the rest gold. He decides to melt down the rings and add enough silver to reduce the gold content to 67 . How many grams of silver should he add?

asked by Amy Love on September 27, 2011
Physics(class) /Math (problem)
Joe has a ring weighing 16 grams made of an alloy of 20% silver and the rest gold. He decides to melt down the rings and add enough silver to reduce the gold content to 69% . How many grams of silver should he add?

asked by Toulouse on October 4, 2012
chemistry
Follow the steps provided in the simulation to add water to the graduated cylinder, select one of the three samples (copper, silver, or gold), set its mass to the values given in the statements below, find its volume, and calculate its density. To save

asked by fatimah on September 21, 2011
math
a bag has 5 silver 3 gold and 2 brass buttons . what is the probability of choosing a silver then a gold button with replacement

asked by barbie on June 15, 2012
social studies
Andrew Jackson’s specie circular of 1836 stipulated that after August 15 only _ would be accepted in payment for public lands. A. gold B. gold and silver C. special banknotes D. silver

asked by Anonymous on April 3, 2015
Globalization
Various project are handled by internal financial institution on a year basis. It is your task to give one gold one sliver and one bronze medal to each chose project. Name and detailed description of the project. type of medal (gold,sliver or bronze).

asked by Lynda on June 29, 2018
Social Studies

1. Which of the following are true about railroad expansion in the late 19th century? Choose all that apply. It led to new managerial forms and techniques It accelerated the growth of new territories It was financed by the government It grew to

asked by 🙁 on January 28, 2019

Chemistry
Consider a piece of gold jewelry that weighs 9.81 g and has a volume of 0.670 cm3. The jewelry contains only gold and silver, which have densities of 19.3 g/cm3 and 10.5 g/cm3, respectively. Assuming that the total volume of the jewelry is the sum of the

asked by Anonymous on August 18, 2013
science
Consider a piece of gold jewelry that weighs 9.35 g and has a volume of 0.690 cm3 . The jewelry contains only gold and silver, which have densities of 19.3 g/cm3 and 10.5 g/cm3, respectively. If the total volume of the jewelry is the sum of the volumes of

asked by Mikel on July 15, 2017
Science
What time of reactions is Silver + gold(III)> silver nitrate + gold

asked by Aj on April 20, 2011
Social Studies
Which of the following was an effect of the discovery of gold and silver on western devolpment? It causes a sharp decrease in the population of eastern cities There was no longer a need for the railroad *The value of gold and silver decreased It

asked by Moesha on February 14, 2017
Geography
Due to the violent & complex origins of the Andies, many rich & precious metals and minerals were found in the Andies. The inital economic wealth of many Adean coutries came from mining gold, silver, tin, copper, and iron. How can this cause conflict with

asked by Hannah on September 10, 2010
History
Which accurately describes Bartolomeu Dias’s impact on future European explorers? europeans learned about the Inca empire of Peru and the city of Machu Picchu European realized they could establish their own trade route to India by sea travel europeans

asked by malia on October 19, 2017
cinquain poem
For social studies we had to make our own 4 topic of cinquain poems. I asked some people and not many knew this type of poem, but one person said it all seem good except for the last lines. Do you think I did the format corret? Thanks for your help

asked by liz on October 8, 2013
Pre-Calc
Gold weighs 19.3 grams per cubic centimeter (cc), and silver weighs 10.5 grams per cc. A. Write a formula for the weight of one cc of a mizture of silver and gold in terms of the volume of gold in the cc. B. If one cc of mizture weighs 12.7 grams, what is

asked by Tritanianna on November 11, 2009
probability self study
each of three identical jewelry boxes has two drawers. in each drawer of the first box there is a gold watch. in each drawer of the second box there is a silver watch. in one drawer of the third box there is a gold watch while in the other there is a

asked by Woody on May 19, 2015
Physics
Archimedes purportedly used his principle to verify that the king’s crown was pure gold, by weighing the crown while it was submerged in water. Suppose the crown’s actual weight was 14.0 N. The densities of gold, silver, and water are 19.3 g/cm^3, 10.5

asked by Victor on December 3, 2012

U.S.History
please check Most pioneers who settled west of the Appalachins were a. families looking for good land b. miners looking for gold and silver c. missionaries seeking converts d. bankers from New York and Boston A

asked by y912f on February 10, 2009
algebra
A chemist has x grams of an alloy that is 20% silver and 10% gold, and y grams of an alloy that is 25% silver and 30% gold. Express the number of grams of gold in the two allows in terms of x and y.

asked by jadine on January 5, 2015
Social Studies
What did West Africans trade to North Africans in exchange for salt? A camels (my answer) B gold C silver D masks Am I correct?

asked by LinkHasTheTriforce on June 15, 2016
chemestry
a coin is composed of gold and silver. the 5.00g coin is dissolved in nitric acid and the solution treated with NaCl to precipitate out 2.35g of AgCl. Gold chlorides do not precipitate under the same conditions. What is the composition of silver (by mass)

asked by Help please! on September 29, 2011
social studies
How is silver harvested in Australia? Silver is not “harvested.” It’s “mined.” http://www.google.com/search?q=australia+mining+silver&rls=com.microsoft:en-us:IE-SearchBox&ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8&sourceid=ie7&rlz=1I7SUNA

asked by Emma on May 31, 2007
pre calc
A jeweler wants to make a 1 ounce ring composed of gold and silver, using \$200 worth of metal. If gold costs \$6000 per ounce and silver is \$50 per ounce, how much of eat metal should she use?

asked by Jody on September 15, 2014
Algebra 1
In 2000, the internatonal price of gold was \$270 per ounce, and the price of silver was \$5 per ounce. How much silver could be mixed with 9 oz of gold to obtain a mixture that costs \$164 per ounce?

asked by Kris on October 16, 2011
English
Which accurately describes the experience of gold seeker traveling to the Klondike? a. most gold seekers travel the whole distance by water b. about half of the gold seekers complete the journey to the Klondike*** c. all gold seeker were aided by the

asked by Kaai97 on October 28, 2015
Finance
Using Monte Carlo simulation, calculate the price of a 1-year European option to give up 100 ounces of silver in exchange for 1 ounce of gold. The current prices of gold and silver are \$380 and \$4, respectively; the risk-free interest rate is 10% per

asked by Justin on April 25, 2011
U.S.History
not so sure about this Most African American Exodusters migrated west to a. work as sharecroppers on bonanza farms b. escape racial violence in the South c. find relatives who had fled during the Civil War d. prospect for gold and silver

asked by y912f on February 19, 2009

permutations in math
suppose 15 countries compete in an olympic event. gold, and silver,and bronze medals are awarded. how many different arrangements of winners are there if no country wins more than one medal in this event? show the work. thanks. 15 countries can get the

asked by dillon on April 9, 2007
Chemistry
The coinage metals — copper, silver, and gold — crystallize in a cubic closest packed structure. Use the density of gold (19.3 g/cm3) and its molar mass (197 g/mol) to calculate an approximate atomic radius for gold. Work So Far:

asked by Caroline on February 3, 2015
chemistry
a gold nugget and a silver nugget have a combined mass of 14.9g. The two nuggets are heated to 62C and dropped into 15.0mL of H2O at 23.5C. When thermal equilibrium is reached, the temperature of the H2O is 25.0C. Calculate the mass of each nugget. Denisty

asked by Jule on November 19, 2015
The risk premium is likely to be highest for? A. U.S. government bonds B. corporate bonds C. gold mining expedition D. either B or C I like C. I think th risk premium the rate added to the risk free rate would be highest for a gold mining expedition.

asked by Jason on July 26, 2008
English

1. Coins were made from gold and silver. 2. Coins were made with gold and silver. 3. Coins were made of gold and silver. =============== Which expressions are correct? Are they all correct? Which ones are commonly used?

asked by rfvv on June 3, 2015
physics
gold and silver have densities of 19.3 and 10.5 grams per cubic centimer, respectively. If you have eual volumes of each, which one will have the larger mass? I am thinking the gold. how do i prove it? Thank you

asked by Loui on April 24, 2011
U.S. History
How did the mining industry and the growth of ranching and farming contribute to the development of the West? A: The mining industry lured thousands of people into areas previously ignored as wilderness. The growth of ranching and farming also brought

asked by Victoria on October 7, 2015
micro economics
1) Assume that the gold-mining industry is competitive. a) Illustrate a long-run equilibrium using diagrams for the gold market and for the a representative gold mine. b) Suppose that an increase in jewellery demand induces a a surge for in the demand for

asked by Silvia on April 5, 2012
algebra
a jeweler purchased 5 oz of a gold alloy and 20 oz of a silver alloy for a total cost of \$540. The next day at the same price per ounce, the jeweler purchased 4 oz of th egold alloy and 25 oz of the silver alloy for a total cost of \$450. Find the cost per

asked by julie on April 29, 2011
Math
A bag contains 3 gold marbles, 10 silver marbles, and 21 black marbles. Someone offers to play this game: You randomly select on marble from the bag. If it is gold, you win \$3. If it is silver, you win \$2. If it is black, you lose \$1.

asked by Anonymous on April 19, 2016

history
what is a good website to describe a boom town in the west in the 1800s. a website of what they do there and what occurs during a typical day of mining.. including techniques of mining, description of the town, the mines, and the town’s inhabitants… also

asked by justin on September 23, 2013
help with physics
A gold wire and a silver wire have the same dimensions. At what temperature will the silver wire have the same resistance that the gold wire has at 20°C?

asked by lindsey on March 4, 2013
Physics
A gold wire and a silver wire have the same dimensions. At what temperature will the silver wire have the same resistance that the gold wire has at 20°C?

asked by lindsey on February 28, 2013
chemistry
A 9.35 gram of ring with it’s volume of 0.654 cm3 is an alloy of gold and with density of gold and silver respectively 19.3 g/cm3 and 10.5 g/cm3 assume there is no change in volume when pure metals are mixed. calculate volume of gold?

asked by Anonymous on November 7, 2016
chemistry
A 9.35 gram of ring with it’s volume of 0.654 cm3 is an alloy of gold and with density of gold and silver respectively 19.3 g/cm3 and 10.5 g/cm3 assume there is no change in volume when pure metals are mixed. The volume of gold is?

asked by sami on November 7, 2016
Chemistry
A piece of metal alloy (a solution of metals) is made of gold and silver. It is 20% by mass silver. An irregularly shaped piece of this alloy contains 0.356 lb of gold. When the alloy is added to a graduated cylinder that contains 31.55 mL of alcohol, the

asked by Mom on October 9, 2011
Math
The amounts by weight of gold, silver and lead in three alloys of these metals are in the ratio 1:5:3 in the first alloy, 2:3:4 in the second and 5:2:2 in the third. How many kg of the first alloy must be used to obtain 10kg of an alloy containing equal

asked by Anne B. on July 27, 2015
Chemistry
Gold is alloyed with other metals to increase its hardness in making jewelry. Consider a piece of gold jewelry that weighs 9.85 g and has a colume of 0.675 cm cubed. The jewelry contains only gold and silver, which have densities of 19.3 g/cm cubed and

asked by william on July 25, 2005
Chemistry
I need help I do not know how to set up this problem. Calculate the energy to heat three cubes gold aluminum and silver from 15 Celsius to 25 degrees Celsius. Density gold:0.129 J/g degrees C Density aluminum: .896 J/g degrees C Density silver: .235 J/g

asked by Amber on September 23, 2015
Math
MEDALS WON BY THE OLYMPIC US IN THE OLYMPIC GAMES. TOTAL=2407 GOLD=974 SILVER=772 BRONZE=661 FRACTION FOR GOLD IS 974 OVER 2407 FRACTION FOR SILVER AND BRONZE PUT TOGETHER IS 1433 OVER 2407 HERE IS THE QUESTON!!! LOOK AT THE FRACTON ABOVE. WHAT IS THEIR

asked by Mackenzie on March 9, 2008

physics
When the temperature of a thin silver [α = 19 × 10-6 (C°)-1] rod is increased, the length of the rod increases by 3.6 × 10-3 cm. Another rod is identical in all respects, except that it is made from gold [α = 14 × 10-6 (C°)-1]. By how much ΔL does

asked by Micah on February 13, 2017
Math
A bag is filled with 200 silver coins and 123 gold coins. What is the theoretical probability of NOT pulling out a silver coin? I keep gettin this wrong .How can i do this ?

asked by Rose on February 28, 2018
Social studies
What resulted in the loss of the continental dollar Foreign countries demanded repayment of their war loans from the government Trade became complicated because states printed their own currencies Congress began to sell sections of land in the northwest

asked by Online girl on September 12, 2016
Social studies
What resulted from the loss in value of continental dollar A) foreign countries demanded repayment of their word loans for the government B) trade became complicated because states printed their own currency C) Congress began to sell their sections of land

asked by jennifer trejos on October 5, 2017
English

1. They made coins from gold and silver. 2. They made coins of gold and silver. 3. They made coins out of gold and silver. (Which ones are grammatical?)

asked by rfvv on May 11, 2014
Math – Algebra
Von’s arcade uses 3 different colored tokens for its game machines. For 500, you can purchase any of the following combinations of tokens: 8 gold, 18 silver, and 7 bronze tokens; 8 gold, 14 silver, and 13 bronze tokens; or 16 gold, 6 silver, and 9 bronze

asked by Ashley Kate on January 4, 2014
Social Studies
What natural resource attracted other nations to trade with West and Central Africa beginning around AD 750? A. copper B. silver C. gold** D. salt Which of the following is an example of how people have adapted to the environment of West and Central

asked by Anonymous on October 28, 2016
Social Studies
What natural resource attracted other nations to trade with West and Central Africa beginning around AD 750? A. copper B. silver C. gold** D. salt Which of the following is an example of how people have adapted to the environment of West and Central

asked by Anonymous on October 28, 2016
SS
What natural resource attracted other nations to trade with West and Central Africa beginning around AD 750? A. copper B. silver C. gold** D. salt Which of the following is an example of how people have adapted to the environment of West and Central

asked by Check please on November 14, 2016
More SS just a couple more to go…
What natural resource attracted other nations to trade with West and Central Africa beginning around AD 750? A. copper B. silver C. gold** D. salt Which of the following is an example of how people have adapted to the environment of West and Central

asked by Haley on November 6, 2017

Earth Science
Silver has a density of 10.5 g/cm cubed, and gold has a density of 19.3 g/cm cubed. Which would have the greater mass, 5cm cubed of silver or 5 cm cubed of gold?

asked by Bern on January 17, 2014
algebra
If the value of 10 ounces of gold is d dollars and an ounce of gold is equivalent to s ounces of silver, what is the value, in dollars, of 3 ounces of silver.

asked by wing on September 17, 2016
Social Studies
How did mining help the west grow?

asked by Hailey on December 8, 2012
policial science
I have to do an interview so can you guys help me out answering these questions? I need atleast 2 person’s oppionion 1- do you agree with the Bush Administration policy of spreading Democracy you and the world. 2- Do you how Bush agree w. handling the war

asked by DeeDee on January 6, 2007
ELA
Read the social studies article about the gold rush below. Then list the prepositional phrases on the lines. Underline the object of the preposition in each phrase In 1849, gold was discovered at Sutter’s Mill in California. Thousands of settlers headed

asked by Andrew on January 30, 2012
English

1. Coins were made from gold and silver. 2. Coins were made of gold and silver. —————— Which one is grammatical?

asked by rfvv on May 9, 2014
Georgia studies
_ is the primary mining area for gold in Georgia. 1. Cartersville 2. Augusta 3. Dahlonega 4. Richmond **** ?

asked by Haruhi on September 26, 2016
What are the aspects of the external environment of a gold mining company in South Africa? What about internal?

IPC
The specific heat of gold is 0.031 calories/gram°C and the specific heat of silver is 0.057 calories/gram°C. If equal amounts of each metal are exposed to equal heating, which will heat up faster? The answers are: 1) The silver will heat up almost twice

asked by Katy on October 13, 2010
Expected Value
A bag contains 2 gold marbles, 7 silver marbles, and 23 black marbles. Someone offers to play this game: You randomly select one marble from the bag. If it is gold, you win \$4. If it is silver, you win \$2. If it is black, you lose \$1. What is your expected

asked by tatiana on October 6, 2016

Expected Value
A bag contains 1 gold marbles, 10 silver marbles, and 29 black marbles. Someone offers to play this game: You randomly select one marble from the bag. If it is gold, you win \$4. If it is silver, you win \$2. If it is black, you lose \$1. What is your

asked by tatiana on September 25, 2016
Chemistry
How many grams silver is added to 13 grams gold to produce 85% gold alloy?

asked by Anonymous on September 25, 2015
Chemistry
How many grams silver is added to 13 grams gold to produce 85% gold alloy?

asked by Anonymous on September 25, 2015
Chemistry
How many grams silver is added to 13 grams gold to produce 85% gold alloy?

asked by Brenna on September 25, 2015
science
what is the karat count of gold in a bracelet that contains 15 grams of gold and 5 grams of silver

asked by demarco on May 13, 2008
His 103 World Civilization I
Provide a brief summary of the impact of the Mongol conquests. What, in your opinion, were the two most negative and most positive things that came out of the Mongol conquests of the 13th and 14th centuries, and why? Overall, would you call their impact on

asked by Quanta on August 15, 2012
Chem
when a 328 mg sample of gold and chlorine was treated with silver nitrate, Cl was converted to AgCl producing 464 mg of silver chloride. what is the empirical formula? AuCl + Ag(NO3) -> AgCl + Au(NO3)

asked by jay985 on November 17, 2016
chemistry
total mass 9.85 grms and total volume 0.65 cm ^3 . The jewlry contain only gold and silver which has densities 19.3 g/cm^3 amd 10.5 g/cm^3.calculate the % of mass of gold in jewellery

asked by manisha on February 12, 2011
Chemistry
Silver has a density of 10.5 g/cm3 and gold has a density of 19.3 g/cm3. Which would have a greater mass, 5 cm3 of silver or 5 cm3 of gold

asked by Monique on September 1, 2011
US History
Last 4 for the day! 19. Most pioneers who settled west of the Appalachians were a. families looking for good land b. miners looking for gold and silver c. missionaries seeking converts d. bankers from New York and Boston A? 20. What message did Protestant

asked by mysterychicken on October 18, 2010

Literature
“Slowly, silently, now the moon Walks the night in her silver shoon This way, and that, she peers, and sees Silver fruit upon silver trees; One by one the casements catch Her beams beneath the silvery thatch; Couched in his kennel, like a log, With paws of

asked by Anonymous on April 8, 2013
History
The wealth of East African city-states was based on A. Gold mining. B. Trade. C. Farming D. Control of natural resources. Is it A?

asked by Phebe on March 20, 2019
Math
At a track meet, competitors could win gold, silver or bronze medals. Kennedy High Schools track team won a total of 18 medals. Three of the medals were gold. There were twice as many bronze medals as silver medals. How many bronze medals did the track

asked by Kate on April 17, 2012
SS
Which area was known as the Gold Coast because of its abundance of gold? Cape of Good Hope coast of West Africa** Portugal Mediterranean coast

asked by Stacy on October 1, 2015
Science
What are byproducts of zinc and silver mining? Are they toxic enough to pollute water in large quantities? Thank you for thinking about this. I had a difficult time finding this on the internet.

asked by Bethany on March 20, 2009

Categories

## jiskha

science
3,176 results
Science
Have to answer these in a reflection. Help? How has science evolved over time? How is human ingenuity portrayed in sciences? In what ways have humans shaped science? In what ways has science shaped our lives? What would the world be like without science?

asked by Rag on January 14, 2014
Psychology
Need help double checking these tricky psychology questions. I put an asterix (*)next to my answers, Thanks! Which of the following fields is the best example of psychology as a basic science? A-Educational psychology B-industrial organizational psychology

asked by Lilly on September 11, 2012
Psychology
Need help double checking these tricky psychology questions. I put an asterix (*)next to my answers, Thanks! Which of the following fields is the best example of psychology as a basic science? A-Educational psychology B-industrial organizational psychology

asked by Lilly on September 12, 2012
science
Using what you learned about science in your coursework thus far, discuss: 1. Why you think scientists probably want to leave what they do open to revision. 2. What are the hard-and-fast rules of science? Are there any? 3. With so few firm rules, how does

asked by ca on October 30, 2010
science
Need help distinguishing between applied science and basic science. would like your thoughts on my examples Applied science would be research, using rats, to see how rewards affect learning Basic science would be like a seminar with community leaders to

asked by Sue on October 23, 2018

Science
Science project ideas for science fair. I need to prepare a model for science fair. But I need some ideas about the major problems facing today’s world. So that I can get idea for improvement in any area and to show this in science fair. Please get me know

asked by Edd on October 21, 2014
Science
I have to do a project with a science related career (that doesn’t necessarily mean a scientist, but someone who uses science frequently). What do you call a scientist who studies the science of music? I’ve google this but I couldn’t find any results, but

asked by Jeff on April 24, 2009
General
This is a question to everybody: I was just wondering if anyone had any science related questions or things they wonder about that may require experiments. If you have any ideas please mention them. I need this for a science for a science fair project and

asked by Samantha on September 6, 2012
Courses URGENT
I have to complete a course selection form for school but I’m having some trouble understanding some of the courses. Can someone please help me please? Science and Technology: This is a science course provided to meet the needs of students requiring a

asked by John on March 22, 2010
Sciencies
1) Which two of the 12 science processes do you feel are the most important for students to understand early in their science studies? Defend your rationale. 2 What do you see as some benefits to teaching and learning science through an inquiry approach?

asked by Anonymous on February 15, 2011
For 9th grade science, which would be easier to take? Environmental Science or Life Science? Thanks -MC

asked by mysterychicken on July 15, 2009
english (gurublue or anyone)
I’m stumped on what seems to be a fairly easy question that has been asked of me after reading about “Mike Rose”. I will summarize the story and provide the question that has given me the mental block. Simple story… Mike Rose as a kid didn’t do well in

asked by Joey on February 1, 2009
Creating High-Quality Centers
Which of the following statements accurately reflects what we know about facilitating science learning for infants and toddlers? A. It’s important to have a science circle each week where the teacher demonstrates a science concept to the infants and

asked by Priscila on March 14, 2017
SCI
Hi, I really need some help with the anwsers to the First one, having hard time, maybe some help plz? What are the characteristics of scientific thinking and investigating? Why is science literacy important? What skills and tools do scientists use? Why is

asked by HELP!!! on September 25, 2018
psychology
What is basic science? What is applied science? What traits to people need to be successful in basic science psychology fields? applied science?

asked by Christian on September 4, 2007

using skills
According to the text, why should teachers of young children share science activities with parents? A. Everybody should know the facts of science. B. Parents want to learn science. C. Science relates to all aspects of a child’s life. D. Parents are their

asked by lauren on March 5, 2015
learning skills
According to the text, why should teachers of young children share science activities with parents? A. Everybody should know the facts of science. B. Parents want to learn science. C. Science relates to all aspects of a child’s life. D. Parents are their

asked by Eva on March 8, 2015
Science
An area in your state has been flooded due to heavy rains. How might scientists from the three main branches of science interact in their study of the flood, its effects, and how future flooding might be controlled? Life science, Earth science, and

asked by Jenny on August 21, 2010
science
The various groups who make up the US public have different expectations of science. How do these differing expectations of science affect the ways groups place trust in science? Describe one example of a controversial expectation that the author gives.

asked by Linda on December 21, 2014
Science
I’m really bad at Biology and Science in general. Chemistry and Physics will be difficult for me because I’m not good at the Science branch even though I study and work hard for Science/Biology. What can I do to improve?

asked by Anonymous on February 15, 2016
Sciences
Why you think scientists probably want to leave what they do open to revision. What are the hard-and-fast rules of science? Are there any? With so few firm rules, how does science avoid becoming fiction? What might make science and its constant revising

asked by Jackie on October 10, 2010
Science

1. How does the study of science benefit society? A. Non scientists in society often use the same experiments conducted by scientists in the laboratory. B. The study of science helps slow down a fast paced society. C. The study of science keeps more people

asked by Me on August 29, 2018
probability
out of 250 students interviewed at a community college, 90 were taking mathematics but not computer science, 160 were taking mathematics, and 50 were taking neither mathematics nor computer science. Find the probability that a student chosen at random was

asked by Emma on October 27, 2011
Science Helpers
My science post is almost at the bottom and I need it to be checked urgently. I see science helpers on this site as of right now.–Can you please have a moment to look at my Science post. Thank you very much in advance:-)

asked by Sara on April 6, 2010
Physics Check
1.)The making of the nuclear reactor was an advance in a)Science *b)Technology c)none of the above 2.)The development of the airplane was an advance in a)Science b)Technology *c)none of the above 3.)The discovery of gravity was an advance in *a)Science

asked by Ariel on July 2, 2010

Biology
I would like some help if that is OK, like soon!:) 1.) A group of scientists proposes an idea that a chemical compound will enable bean plants to grow faster. They grow one group of bean plants in the presence of the compound and another group in the

asked by Jessica on September 19, 2016
Technology
What are some key points historically in which we can say that science became reliant upon technology? We know that technology is a product of science, but at what point did science rely upon technology to make its investigations, and its claims to

asked by anonymous on March 6, 2008
Science
I have to write a paper on what I consider to be “bad science” and proved an example of what is bad science such as something from the media, commericals, scientist’s statement. I was wondering if someone could help me find an example of “bad” science

asked by Amanda on May 25, 2008
Environmental Science
We are being asked to identify reasons that an article is or is not science using the list of 8 characteristics of science. What are the 8 characteristics of science?

asked by Alexa on October 5, 2008
Psychology
Can the Bible and science co-exist without either losing its authority? How? In my opinion, the Bible teaches moral and spiritual precepts. It doesn’t pretend to be a scientific text book. Science tells us how things work. I don’t see a conflict between

asked by Nelda on January 17, 2007
English

1. I can’t do the science project myself. It’s too difficult? What does it refer to? #2 or #3? 2. doing the science project myself 3. the science project ——————————— 4. I’m going to Tom’s house to work on the science project. 5. I’m

asked by rfvv on April 12, 2017
Mathematics
Of the 82 pupils in grade 9, 73 take mathematics 56 take science, all those who take science take mathematics. Show the information on the venn diagram. How many take neither mathematics nor science?

asked by Philip Chiwala on January 29, 2017
Science
How would you compare and contrast the three different teaching methodologies: expository, guided inquiry, and free discovery, in a science lesson with respect to a) the amount of learning likely to occur, and b) the amount of prescribed science content

asked by Anonymous on March 7, 2011
science
WHat branches of science fall under the environmental science umbrella? Go to Wikepedia…very good article on environmental science…they list sub-categories. Depending upon what is being investigated, there are many; such as chemistry, biology,

asked by Sherry on September 3, 2006
Intro to Physical Science
Define physical science Andrew: I went to www.dictionary.com and typed in physical science. The following is what it returned.I hope this helps. physical science  1. any of the natural sciences dealing with inanimate matter or with energy, as physics,

asked by andrew on September 9, 2006

English
Subject names at school are as follows. math,science, social studies, computer science,etc. ————————————————— Can we use ‘information’ instead of ‘computer science’ as a subject name?

asked by rfvv on March 4, 2018
Science Project suggestions??
I cannot think of an original science project idea. I would really like an original one instead of the online ones which have already have their own procedures and stuff. I would like to do a science project that is has to do with chemistry or computer

asked by Eunice on September 22, 2015
English

1. learning subjects: English, math, science, etc. 2. subjects to learn:English, math, science, etc. 3. studying subject:English, math, science, etc. 4. subjects learning:English, math, science, etc. 5. taking subjects:English, math, science, etc.

asked by rfvv on March 11, 2018
Biology
Which of the following best describes the relationship between science and society? A. Science influences society but society does not influence science.** B. Society influences science but science does not influence society. C. Science influences society

asked by Wolf on September 13, 2017
SCIENCE PROJECT
I am interested in doing a science project on the math and science of different snowboarding tricks and techniques. Does anyone have advice and suggestions about how to do a project like this?? Please help! Very Urgent! Well you could do a nu,ber of

asked by Rachel on January 23, 2007
science
This analogy compares researchers in pure and applied science. applied science : tinkerers :: pure science : [blank] Choose the answer that best completes the analogy. a mechanics b truth-seekers c artists d technicians b?

asked by dianni on November 5, 2018
Math And Science for Young Children
After assessing your students, what question should you ask as you start organizing for teaching? A. What do my students know about this science topic? B. What is the appropriate science content that my students need to know? C. What do my students want to

asked by Tonya on January 9, 2016
science
Two im not sure on, please check? What is the true work of all scientists? Scientists ask testable questions and devise ways to answer those questions through experimentation or observation.*** Scientists research other scientists’ discoveries and present

asked by SkatingDJ on September 8, 2014
SCIENCE
Which of the following is not true of a scientific theory? A. being able to make personal decisions about science related issues. B.being able to evaluate scientific information. C.being able to rely on opinions about science related issues. D.being able

asked by yanna on October 16, 2017
education
What can you major if you have associate degree in science. What is difference between associate in science and Associate of Applied Science?

asked by marija on September 6, 2013

Science
What is science when it is applied? Science that is applied has several names: Applied Science Technology Engineering Construction

asked by Hunter on August 21, 2006
science
An area in your state has been flooded due to heavy rains. How might scientists from the three main branches of science interact in their study of the flood, its effects, and how future flooding might be controlled? OK, I will bite: What do you think the

asked by alexa on September 17, 2006
Social Studies
In what way is geography an integrative science? a. Geography is an integrative science because it examines Earth in both physical and human terms.*** b. Geography is an integrative science because it borrows from physical sciences such as chemistry,

asked by Kaai97 on February 4, 2016
math/everything
do you know any website that can help me with all this 1.Language Arts, Writing, in two parts. •Part 1: Organization, Sentence Structure, Usage, and Mechanics •Part 2: Essay 2.Language Arts, Reading •Poetry •Drama and •Fiction •Non-fiction

asked by monica on July 22, 2010
English
Writeacher, I need your help to develop a few ideas. Thank you very much. 1) It would be really important if in the future a science teacher from your school could embark in a Comenius project (I don’t know how to express it), which will enable him, on the

asked by Henry on March 9, 2012
Science
How does that contribute to the continuous and ongoing nature of science? In other words, why is science a never-ending process?

asked by Help i need somebody not just anybody on October 9, 2017
science
Which two of the 12 science processes do you feel are the most important for students to understand early in their science studies?

asked by brigida on April 12, 2011
maths, physical science , life science , geography
Hi I am in grade 10 , I am doing maths physical science, life science and geography, what jobs can I get into with those subjects

asked by zaakiyah on January 19, 2014
science
consumer science or chemistry What is the field of science if I am dealing with the problem which detergent works the best?

asked by bobpursley on December 4, 2006
science
Which two of the 12 science processes do you feel are the most important for students to understand early in their science studies?

asked by Chad on October 27, 2011

English
I have to write a Haiku with has to do with Science, please let me know if this is good. Science is great fun you get to use chemicals, but safety is first. Thank you.

asked by Kyle on November 2, 2011
to writeacher
can you help me with science. we usually have science on wednesday, but during that time, i have to go to violin. i don’t get aything about electricity or magnets.

asked by Celest on March 21, 2012
to writeacher
can you help me with science. we usually have science on wednesday, but during that time, i have to go to violin. i don’t get aything about electricity or magnets.

asked by Celest on March 21, 2012
science
i need help on my science project i have a science fair on march somethin please give me any ideas possible u know plz thanks. (0.o)

asked by jonah on January 23, 2008
sociology
whether science or religion is best suited in postmodernity???? i think it’s science but i cant find any explanations on the internet

asked by helppp11111 on October 2, 2018
Edward Phatudi
Am doing physical science.life science.geography and maths lit i want to know which career can i do

asked by Precious on July 2, 2014
To: DrBob222
Can you please check my previous science post. As of right now, you are the only science teacher on this site–which is why I am pleading you to. Thank you very much:-)

asked by Sara on April 8, 2010
French
In French, how do you say “The ost useful subject is science? I need to know how to say the science part..is it plural, like math, and is it masculine or feminine?

asked by Angie on May 1, 2009
Geography,maths lit,life science,physical science,xhosa,life orientation and english
Will i be able to do law with the following subject maths lit,geography,life science,physical science and english

asked by Amanda mnyaka on March 29, 2016
Science
How does cell differentiation connect to other branches of science or STEAM (science, technology, engineering, art, mathematics)

asked by Anonymous on January 19, 2015

writing
find information about a hurricane that occurred within the last week? A newspaper science journal science magazine encyclopedia

asked by Anonymous on May 10, 2012
science fair ideas
PLZ help i have a science project due in less than a week and still have no idea what im going to do dose anyone have ideas for zoology science experiments?

asked by Courtney on November 29, 2010
science fair
I need to do a project for the science fair but I don’t know what to do. My science teacher says it has to be like the water dancing on a penny, everything has to be the same but you have to change one thing. What can I do?????? HELP ME PLEASE :/

asked by Molisa on October 9, 2012
physical science
gimme a side of what physical science is. I know there’s no shortcuts but it means alot of ev’rything I gotta know. Sho’ me. I have little understanding of what you wrote. When one tries to communicate in non-standard English, the results are

asked by Henry on September 3, 2005
science
What is science is the question and btw Im in grade 8 so could u plz give an answer according to that like explain what is science first and then wht r its branches plzzz!!!

asked by Daisy on September 4, 2013
Science
Which two of the twelve science processes do you feel are the most important for students to understand early in their science studies. Defend your rational.

asked by Candi on August 23, 2013
Science plz help
Which of the following is a valid reason to study science All employers require an in-depth knowledge of science Carrying out scientific experiments is a requirement of everyday life Most colleges require advance science classes Understanding basic

asked by Boiwho needs help on August 22, 2018
science
can you please help me find 3 good science experiment? for the science fair….

asked by leah on August 19, 2014
anthropology
There are anthropological links between social science and natural science

asked by tasha on August 4, 2009
Science
give 3 examples of pure science vs applied science

asked by Matt on June 7, 2009

Just for I.AM..RUNNING.FROM.MYSELF,
I’m doing a poster in science and its about radon. Radon is a radioactive gas and it causes lung cancer, but i don’t know what to do for the poster and it’s due March 16,2012 but i have to turn it in by tomorrow so that the poster can get to the science

asked by Portia on March 9, 2012
childcare
An inappropriate science activity for a toddler would be A. reporting on the weather. B. caring for pets of the facility. C. planting a flower. D. watching a science show on TV.

asked by Heather on April 7, 2011
Maths Lit, Agic Science, Geography & Life Science
Hi, Im in grade 10 in Ngodini High School at Mpumalanga. I’m doing Life Science, Agricultural Science, Geography & Maths Lit – I want 2 know that which career path I can do?

asked by Mabuza Glen on December 4, 2015
History of Technology
In developed countries, technological advances are most closely related to: A. cultural philosophy. B. warfare. C. applied science. D. theoretical science. Ans : D

asked by angela on October 26, 2016
Conceps of development
Which of the following is the crux of the interrelationship between mathematics and science? A. About half of the basic math concepts are related to science concepts. B. The basic concepts of mathematics are the basic process skills of science. C. Basic

asked by Daniella on January 22, 2015
how concepts develop
Which of the following is the crux of the interrelationship between mathematics and science? A. About half of the basic math concepts are related to science concepts. B. The basic concepts of mathematics are the basic process skills of science. C. Basic

asked by Daniea on January 15, 2015
concept development
Which of the following is the crux of the interrelationship between mathematics and science? A. About half of the basic math concepts are related to science concepts. B. The basic concepts of mathematics are the basic process skills of science. C. Basic

asked by Daniella on January 25, 2015
Math
To determine a GPA: 2(credit( Hr. Art, 3Hr. History, 4 Hr. Science 3 Hr. Math, & 1 Hr. Science lab. The scores were B in Art, A in History, C in Science, B in Math, A in Science Lab. What was the GPA based on 4 point scale? I continue to get 3.2 but that

asked by Betty on March 5, 2007
Science
Which of the following is a valid reason to study science? A. All employers require an in-depth knowledge of science. B. Carrying out scientific experiments is a requirement of everyday life. C. Most colleges require advanced science classes. D.

asked by dOg.eXe has stopped working. on August 20, 2018
science help
A scientist plans to find out the percent of teenagers who like science. She interviews 500 teenagers leaving a science museum and finds that 450 of them like science. The scientist concludes that 90 percent of teenagers like science. Why is the

asked by Oscar on February 23, 2016

Science Fair Project
Please help any tutors around, i really need help on what topic to choose, and my science fair is in February 16, 2015!!!!!! I just want to get a really good mark so i get an A in Science again this year in my report card. From a Student in need!!!Wimbika

asked by Wimbika on February 3, 2015
Math
In a class of 550 students, students may take all, none, or a combination of courses as follows.? Draw a Venn diagram to find how many students are not in any of these courses. Mathematics-280 Science-200 Technology-230 Mathematics and Technology-110

asked by Angie on June 9, 2009
computer science
ineed help with c++. i am using code blocks and i have a problem with the compiler. when I run this code ¡é # include using namespace std; int main() { cout

asked by lj on March 7, 2010
Child Care
An inappropriate science activity for a toddler would be A.reporting on the weather B.caring for pets of the facility C.planting a flower D.watching a science show on T.V. I PICK THE LETTER D

asked by Brenna on February 21, 2009
English
Which of the following publications are both listed under the “Magazines” results? A. Astronomy and Science B. Odyssey and Natural History C. Science News and Earth Island D. The Economist and American Scientist

asked by Leo on November 29, 2011
science
How does earth science overlap with life science?

asked by HEY:)) on September 15, 2017
European History
Explain the role of science and empiricism in reshaping Europen cities in the nineteenth century. How did advancements in science and technology improve the lives of the working class in Europe? These sites may be of help.

asked by Ashley on December 5, 2006
Literacy
Which of the following publications are both listed under the “Magazines” results? A. Science News and Earth Island B. Astronomy and Science C. Odyssey and Natural History D. The Economist and American Scientist my answer is D

asked by Heather on January 17, 2012
Literacy

1. Which of the following publications are both listed under the “Magazines” results? A. Science News and Earth Island B. The Economist and American Scientist C. Odyssey and Natural History D. Astronomy and Science ANSWER IS A

asked by Mrs. Jane on March 10, 2012
OK, here’s a list of the subjects I think I want to take: English 1 Refresher Math Life Science, Biology, or Environmental Science…not sure which one would be the best?? I want to take Sociology for Social Sciences Health And Fine Arts is mandatory Sound

asked by mysterychicken on May 26, 2009

science
I am SOOOO stuck on this science question!! It’s not that hard but, science isn’t my forte….. here it is….” If the mass of the brick is 50 grams and it’s volume is 9cm cubed, calculate the density of the block using the formula D = m/v.” HELP

asked by Rachel Bond on December 13, 2010
Algebra
I am so confused with some word problems math is not my strong point here is the problem if you know how to solve it please tell me how to solve but just don’t give me the answer Austin has 42 paperback books that are either Mysteries or science fiction.

asked by danielle on August 23, 2005
science
Any topic (writer’s choice) Research paper Science 3 pages / 825 words Discipline: Science Type of service: Writing from scratch Format or citation style: APA

asked by mark on November 5, 2013
AED
I know I posted this but AI wanted to pose what i have so far and need more info. I have this so far: The hands-on learning in a science classroom when few resources are provided by the school can be the discovery bottles that the teacher can make, sensory

asked by troyer0269 on November 26, 2008
Science
1.How is science & society related? i have no idea what the answer to this question is 2. What is a scientist’s usual next step if data supports a hypothesis? can you tell me if i’m right?… i think that they either published or the experiment is

asked by Leslie on August 21, 2006

Categories

## a company resource weakness or competitive deficiency

page 82

CHAPTER 4

Evaluating a Company’s Resources, Capabilities, and Competitiveness

© Ikon Images/Alamy Stock Photo

PRINTED BY: Aaron Reagan <reaganap@me.com>. Printing is for personal, private use only. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted without publisher’s prior permission. Violators will be prosecuted.

11/7/2017http://e.pub/lc7027taixs89fglf6e8.vbk/OEBPS/chapter04-print-1510071469.xhtml

page 83

Learning Objectives THIS CHAPTER WILL HELP YOU UNDERSTAND:

LO 1 How to take stock of how well a company’s strategy is working.

LO 2 Why a company’s resources and capabilities are centrally important in giving the company a competitive edge over rivals.

LO 3 How to assess the company’s strengths and weaknesses in light of market opportunities and external threats.

LO 4 How a company’s value chain activities can affect the company’s cost structure and customer value proposition.

LO 5 How a comprehensive evaluation of a company’s competitive situation can assist managers in making critical decisions about their next strategic moves.

Crucial, of course, is having a difference that matters in the industry.

Cynthia Montgomery—Professor and author

If you don’t have a competitive advantage, don’t compete

Jack Welch—Former CEO of General Electric

Organizations succeed in a competitive marketplace over the long run because they can do certain things their customers value better than can their competitors.

Robert Hayes, Gary Pisano, and David Upton—-Professors and consultants

Chapter 3 described how to use the tools of industry and competitor analysis to assess a company’s external environment and lay the groundwork for matching a company’s strategy to its external situation. This chapter discusses techniques for evaluating a company’s internal situation, including its collection of resources and capabilities and the activities it performs along its value chain. Internal analysis enables managers to determine whether their strategy is likely to give the company a significant competitive edge over rival firms. Combined with external analysis, it facilitates an understanding of how to reposition a firm to take advantage of new opportunities and to cope with emerging competitive threats. The analytic spotlight will be trained on six questions:

1. How well is the company’s present strategy working? 2. What are the company’s most important resources and capabilities, and will they give the company a

lasting competitive advantage over rival companies? 3. What are the company’s strengths and weaknesses in relation to the market opportunities and

external threats? 4. How do a company’s value chain activities impact its cost structure and customer value proposition? 5. Is the company competitively stronger or weaker than key rivals? 6. What strategic issues and problems merit front-burner managerial attention?

PRINTED BY: Aaron Reagan <reaganap@me.com>. Printing is for personal, private use only. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted without publisher’s prior permission. Violators will be prosecuted.

11/7/2017http://e.pub/lc7027taixs89fglf6e8.vbk/OEBPS/chapter04-print-1510071469.xhtml

page 84

In probing for answers to these questions, five analytic tools—resource and capability analysis, SWOT analysis, value chain analysis, benchmarking, and competitive strength assessment—will be used. All five are valuable techniques for revealing a company’s competitiveness and for helping company managers match their strategy to the company’s particular circumstances.

QUESTION 1: HOW WELL IS THE COMPANY’S PRESENT STRATEGY WORKING?

LO 1 How to take stock of how well a company’s strategy is working.

In evaluating how well a company’s present strategy is working, the best way to start is with a clear view of what the strategy entails. Figure 4.1 shows the key components of a single-business company’s strategy. The first thing to examine is the company’s competitive approach. What moves has the company made recently to attract customers and improve its market position—for instance, has it cut prices, improved the design of its product, added new features, stepped up advertising, entered a new geographic market, or merged with a competitor? Is it striving for a competitive advantage based on low costs or a better product offering? Is it concentrating on serving a broad spectrum of customers or a narrow market niche? The company’s functional strategies in R&D, production, marketing, finance, human resources, information technology, and so on further characterize company strategy, as do any efforts to establish alliances with other enterprises.

FIGURE 4.1 Identifying the Components of a Single-Business Company’s Strategy

PRINTED BY: Aaron Reagan <reaganap@me.com>. Printing is for personal, private use only. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted without publisher’s prior permission. Violators will be prosecuted.

11/7/2017http://e.pub/lc7027taixs89fglf6e8.vbk/OEBPS/chapter04-print-1510071469.xhtml

page 85

The three best indicators of how well a company’s strategy is working are (1) whether the company is achieving its stated financial and strategic objectives, (2) whether its financial performance is above the industry average, and (3) whether it is gaining customers and gaining market share. Persistent shortfalls in meeting company performance targets and weak marketplace performance relative to rivals are reliable warning signs that the company has a weak strategy, suffers from poor strategy execution, or both. Specific indicators of how well a company’s strategy is working include:

• Trends in the company’s sales and earnings growth. • Trends in the company’s stock price. • The company’s overall financial strength. • The company’s customer retention rate. • The rate at which new customers are acquired. • Evidence of improvement in internal processes such as defect rate, order fulfillment,

delivery times, days of inventory, and employee productivity.

Sluggish financial performance and second-rate market accomplishments almost always signal weak strategy, weak execution, or both.

The stronger a company’s current overall performance, the more likely it has a well-conceived, well- executed strategy. The weaker a company’s financial performance and market standing, the more its current strategy must be questioned and the more likely the need for radical changes. Table 4.1 provides

PRINTED BY: Aaron Reagan <reaganap@me.com>. Printing is for personal, private use only. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted without publisher’s prior permission. Violators will be prosecuted.

11/7/2017http://e.pub/lc7027taixs89fglf6e8.vbk/OEBPS/chapter04-print-1510071469.xhtml

a compilation of the financial ratios most commonly used to evaluate a company’s financial performance and balance sheet strength.

TABLE 4.1 Key Financial Ratios: How to Calculate Them and What They Mean

Ratio How Calculated What It Shows

Profitability ratios

1.  Gross profit margin Shows the percentage of

revenues available to cover operating expenses and yield a profit.

2.  Operating profit margin (or return on sales)

Shows the profitability of current operations without regard to interest charges and income taxes. Earnings before interest and taxes is known as EBIT in financial and business accounting.

3.  Net profit margin (or net return on sales)

Shows after-tax profits per dollar of sales.

4.  Total return on assets A measure of the return on

total investment in the enterprise. Interest is added to after-tax profits to form the numerator, since total assets are

PRINTED BY: Aaron Reagan <reaganap@me.com>. Printing is for personal, private use only. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted without publisher’s prior permission. Violators will be prosecuted.

11/7/2017http://e.pub/lc7027taixs89fglf6e8.vbk/OEBPS/chapter04-print-1510071469.xhtml

Ratio How Calculated What It Shows

financed by creditors as well as by stockholders.

5.  Net return on total assets (ROA)

A measure of the return earned by stockholders on the firm’s total assets.

6.  Return on stockholders’ equity (ROE)

The return stockholders are earning on their capital investment in the enterprise. A return in the 12%–15% range is average.

7.  Return on invested capital (ROIC) —sometimes referred to as return on capital employed (ROCE)

A measure of the return that shareholders are earning on the monetary capital invested in the enterprise. A higher return reflects greater bottom-line effectiveness in the use of long- term capital.

Liquidity ratios

1.  Current ratio Shows a firm’s ability to pay

current liabilities using assets that can be converted to

PRINTED BY: Aaron Reagan <reaganap@me.com>. Printing is for personal, private use only. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted without publisher’s prior permission. Violators will be prosecuted.

11/7/2017http://e.pub/lc7027taixs89fglf6e8.vbk/OEBPS/chapter04-print-1510071469.xhtml

page 86

Ratio How Calculated What It Shows

cash in the near term. Ratio should be higher than 1.0.

2.  Working capital

Current assets – Current liabilities The cash available for a firm’s day-to-day operations. Larger amounts mean the company has more internal funds to (1) pay its current liabilities on a timely basis and (2) finance inventory expansion, additional accounts receivable, and a larger base of operations without resorting to borrowing or raising more equity capital.

Leverage ratios

1.  Total debt- to-assets ratio

Measures the extent to which borrowed funds (both short-term loans and long- term debt) have been used to finance the firm’s operations. A low ratio is better—a high fraction indicates overuse of debt

PRINTED BY: Aaron Reagan <reaganap@me.com>. Printing is for personal, private use only. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted without publisher’s prior permission. Violators will be prosecuted.

11/7/2017http://e.pub/lc7027taixs89fglf6e8.vbk/OEBPS/chapter04-print-1510071469.xhtml

Ratio How Calculated What It Shows

and greater risk of bankruptcy.

2.  Long-term debt-to- capital ratio

A measure of creditworthiness and balance sheet strength. It indicates the percentage of capital investment that has been financed by both long-term lenders and stockholders. A ratio below 0.25 is preferable since the lower the ratio, the greater the capacity to borrow additional funds. Debt-to-capital ratios above 0.50 indicate an excessive reliance on long- term borrowing, lower creditworthiness, and weak balance sheet strength.

3.  Debt-to- equity ratio Shows the balance

between debt (funds borrowed both short term and long term) and the amount that stockholders have invested in the enterprise. The further the ratio is below 1.0, the greater

PRINTED BY: Aaron Reagan <reaganap@me.com>. Printing is for personal, private use only. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted without publisher’s prior permission. Violators will be prosecuted.

11/7/2017http://e.pub/lc7027taixs89fglf6e8.vbk/OEBPS/chapter04-print-1510071469.xhtml

Ratio How Calculated What It Shows

the firm’s ability to borrow additional funds. Ratios above 1.0 put creditors at greater risk, signal weaker balance sheet strength, and often result in lower credit ratings.

4.  Long-term debt-to- equity ratio

Shows the balance between long- term debt and stockholders’ equity in the firm’s long-term capital structure. Low ratios indicate a greater capacity to borrow additional funds if needed.

5.  Times- interest- earned (or coverage) ratio

Measures the ability to pay annual interest charges. Lenders usually insist on a minimum ratio of 2.0, but ratios above 3.0 signal progressively better creditworthiness.

Activity ratios

1.  Days of inventory Measures inventory

management efficiency. Fewer

PRINTED BY: Aaron Reagan <reaganap@me.com>. Printing is for personal, private use only. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted without publisher’s prior permission. Violators will be prosecuted.

11/7/2017http://e.pub/lc7027taixs89fglf6e8.vbk/OEBPS/chapter04-print-1510071469.xhtml

page 87

Ratio How Calculated What It Shows

days of inventory are better.

2.  Inventory turnover Measures the number of

inventory turns per year. Higher is better.

3.  Average collection period

Indicates the average length of time the firm must wait after making a sale to receive cash payment. A shorter collection time is better.

Other important measures of financial performance

1.  Dividend yield on common stock

A measure of the return that shareholders receive in the form of dividends. A “typical” dividend yield is 2%–3%. The dividend yield for fast-growth companies is often below 1%; the dividend yield for slow- growth companies can run 4%–5%.

2.  Price-to- earnings (P/E) ratio

P/E ratios above 20 indicate strong investor confidence in a firm’s outlook

PRINTED BY: Aaron Reagan <reaganap@me.com>. Printing is for personal, private use only. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted without publisher’s prior permission. Violators will be prosecuted.

11/7/2017http://e.pub/lc7027taixs89fglf6e8.vbk/OEBPS/chapter04-print-1510071469.xhtml

Ratio How Calculated What It Shows

and earnings growth; firms whose future earnings are at risk or likely to grow slowly typically have ratios below 12.

3.  Dividend payout ratio Indicates the percentage of

after-tax profits paid out as dividends.

4.  Internal cash flow

After-tax profits + Depreciation A rough estimate of the cash a company’s business is generating after payment of operating expenses, interest, and taxes. Such amounts can be used for dividend payments or funding capital expenditures.

5.  Free cash flow

After- tax profits + Depreciation – Capital expenditures – Dividends A rough

estimate of the cash a company’s business is generating after payment of operating expenses, interest, taxes, dividends, and desirable reinvestments in the business. The larger a company’s free

PRINTED BY: Aaron Reagan <reaganap@me.com>. Printing is for personal, private use only. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted without publisher’s prior permission. Violators will be prosecuted.

11/7/2017http://e.pub/lc7027taixs89fglf6e8.vbk/OEBPS/chapter04-print-1510071469.xhtml

page 88

Ratio How Calculated What It Shows

cash flow, the greater its ability to internally fund new strategic initiatives, repay debt, make new acquisitions, repurchase shares of stock, or increase dividend payments.

QUESTION 2: WHAT ARE THE COMPANY’S MOST IMPORTANT RESOURCES AND CAPABILITIES, AND WILL THEY GIVE THE COMPANY A LASTING COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE OVER RIVAL COMPANIES?

An essential element of deciding whether a company’s overall situation is fundamentally healthy or unhealthy entails examining the attractiveness of its resources and capabilities. A company’s resources and capabilities are its competitive assets and determine whether its competitive power in the marketplace will be impressively strong or disappointingly weak. Companies with second-rate competitive assets nearly always are relegated to a trailing position in the industry.

CORE CONCEPT A company’s resources and capabilities represent its competitive assets and are determinants of its competitiveness and ability to succeed in the marketplace.

Resource and capability analysis provides managers with a powerful tool for sizing up the company’s competitive assets and determining whether they can provide the foundation necessary for competitive success in the marketplace. This is a two-step process. The first step is to identify the company’s resources and capabilities. The second step is to examine them more closely to ascertain which are the most competitively important and whether they can support a sustainable competitive advantage over rival firms.1 This second step involves applying the four tests of a resource’s competitive power.

Resource and capability analysis is a powerful tool for sizing up a company’s competitive assets and determining whether the assets can support a sustainable competitive advantage over market rivals.

Identifying the Company’s Resources and Capabilities

PRINTED BY: Aaron Reagan <reaganap@me.com>. Printing is for personal, private use only. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted without publisher’s prior permission. Violators will be prosecuted.

11/7/2017http://e.pub/lc7027taixs89fglf6e8.vbk/OEBPS/chapter04-print-1510071469.xhtml

page 89

A firm’s resources and capabilities are the fundamental building blocks of its competitive strategy. In crafting strategy, it is essential for managers to know how to take stock of the company’s full complement of resources and capabilities. But before they can do so, managers and strategists need a more precise definition of these terms.

LO 2 Why a company’s resources and capabilities are centrally important in giving the company a competitive edge over rivals.

In brief, a resource is a productive input or competitive asset that is owned or controlled by the firm. Firms have many different types of resources at their disposal that vary not only in kind but in quality as well. Some are of a higher quality than others, and some are more competitively valuable, having greater potential to give a firm a competitive advantage over its rivals. For example, a company’s brand is a resource, as is an R&D team—yet some brands such as Coca-Cola and Xerox are well known, with enduring value, while others have little more name recognition than generic products. In similar fashion, some R&D teams are far more innovative and productive than others due to the outstanding talents of the individual team members, the team’s composition, its experience, and its chemistry.

A capability (or competence) is the capacity of a firm to perform some internal activity competently. Capabilities or competences also vary in form, quality, and competitive importance, with some being more competitively valuable than others. American Express displays superior capabilities in brand management and marketing; Starbucks’s employee management, training, and real estate capabilities are the drivers behind its rapid growth; LinkedIn relies on superior software innovation capabilities to increase new user memberships. Organizational capabilities are developed and enabled through the deployment of a company’s resources.2 For example, Nestlé’s brand management capabilities for its 2,000+ food, beverage, and pet care brands draw on the knowledge of the company’s brand managers, the expertise of its marketing department, and the company’s relationships with retailers in nearly 200 countries. W. L. Gore’s product innovation capabilities in its fabrics and medical and industrial product businesses result from the personal initiative, creative talents, and technological expertise of its associates and the company’s culture that encourages accountability and creative thinking.

CORE CONCEPT A resource is a competitive asset that is owned or controlled by a company; a capability (or competence) is the capacity of a firm to perform some internal activity competently. Capabilities are developed and enabled through the deployment of a company’s resources.

Types of Company Resources A useful way to identify a company’s resources is to look for them within categories, as shown in Table 4.2. Broadly speaking, resources can be divided into two main categories: tangible and intangible resources. Although human resources make up one of the most important parts of a company’s resource base, we include them in the intangible category to emphasize the role played by the skills, talents, and knowledge of a company’s human resources.

Table 4.2 Types of Company Resources

Tangible resources

• Physical resources: land and real estate; manufacturing plants, equipment, and/or distribution facilities; the locations of stores, plants, or distribution centers, including the overall pattern of

PRINTED BY: Aaron Reagan <reaganap@me.com>. Printing is for personal, private use only. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted without publisher’s prior permission. Violators will be prosecuted.

11/7/2017http://e.pub/lc7027taixs89fglf6e8.vbk/OEBPS/chapter04-print-1510071469.xhtml

Tangible resources

their physical locations; ownership of or access rights to natural resources (such as mineral deposits)

• Financial resources: cash and cash equivalents; marketable securities; other financial assets such as a company’s credit rating and borrowing capacity

• Technological assets: patents, copyrights, production technology, innovation technologies, technological processes

• Organizational resources: IT and communication systems (satellites, servers, workstations, etc.); other planning, coordination, and control systems; the company’s organizational design and reporting structure

Intangible resources

• Human assets and intellectual capital: the education, experience, knowledge, and talent of the workforce, cumulative learning, and tacit knowledge of employees; collective learning embedded in the organization, the intellectual capital and know-how of specialized teams and work groups; the knowledge of key personnel concerning important business functions; managerial talent and leadership skill; the creativity and innovativeness of certain personnel

• Brands, company image, and reputational assets: brand names, trademarks, product or company image, buyer loyalty and goodwill; company reputation for quality, service, and reliability; reputation with suppliers and partners for fair dealing

• Relationships: alliances, joint ventures, or partnerships that provide access to technologies, specialized know-how, or geographic markets; networks of dealers or distributors; the trust established with various partners

• Company culture and incentive system: the norms of behavior, business principles, and ingrained beliefs within the company; the attachment of personnel to the company’s ideals; the compensation system and the motivation level of company personnel

Tangible resources are the most easily identified, since tangible resources are those that can be touched or quantified readily. Obviously, they include various types of physical resources such as manufacturing facilities and mineral resources, but they also include a company’s financial resources, technological resources, and organizational resources such as the company’s communication and control systems. Note that technological resources are included among tangible resources, by convention, even though some types, such as copyrights and trade secrets, might be more logically categorized as intangible.

Intangible resources are harder to discern, but they are often among the most important of a firm’s competitive assets. They include various sorts of human assets and intellectual capital, as well as a

PRINTED BY: Aaron Reagan <reaganap@me.com>. Printing is for personal, private use only. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted without publisher’s prior permission. Violators will be prosecuted.

11/7/2017http://e.pub/lc7027taixs89fglf6e8.vbk/OEBPS/chapter04-print-1510071469.xhtml

page 90

company’s brands, image, and reputational assets. While intangible resources have no material existence on their own, they are often embodied in something material. Thus, the skills and knowledge resources of a firm are embodied in its managers and employees; a company’s brand name is embodied in the company logo or product labels. Other important kinds of intangible resources include a company’s relationships with suppliers, buyers, or partners of various sorts, and the company’s culture and incentive system. A more detailed listing of the various types of tangible and intangible resources is provided in Table 4.2.

Listing a company’s resources category by category can prevent managers from inadvertently overlooking some company resources that might be competitively important. At times, it can be difficult to decide exactly how to categorize certain types of resources. For example, resources such as a work group’s specialized expertise in developing innovative products can be considered to be technological assets or human assets or intellectual capital and knowledge assets; the work ethic and drive of a company’s workforce could be included under the company’s human assets or its culture and incentive system. In this regard, it is important to remember that it is not exactly how a resource is categorized that matters but, rather, that all of the company’s different types of resources are included in the inventory. The real purpose of using categories in identifying a company’s resources is to ensure that none of a company’s resources go unnoticed when sizing up the company’s competitive assets.

Identifying Capabilities Organizational capabilities are more complex entities than resources; indeed, they are built up through the use of resources and draw on some combination of the firm’s resources as they are exercised. Virtually all organizational capabilities are knowledge-based, residing in people and in a company’s intellectual capital, or in organizational processes and systems, which embody tacit knowledge. For example, Amazon’s speedy delivery capabilities rely on the knowledge of its fulfillment center managers, its relationship with the United Postal Service, and the experience of its merchandisers to correctly predict inventory flow. Bose’s capabilities in auditory system design arise from the talented engineers that form the R&D team as well as the company’s strong culture, which celebrates innovation and beautiful design.

Because of their complexity, capabilities are harder to categorize than resources and more challenging to search for as a result. There are, however, two approaches that can make the process of uncovering and identifying a firm’s capabilities more systematic. The first method takes the completed listing of a firm’s resources as its starting point. Since capabilities are built from resources and utilize resources as they are exercised, a firm’s resources can provide a strong set of clues about the types of capabilities the firm is likely to have accumulated. This approach simply involves looking over the firm’s resources and considering whether (and to what extent) the firm has built up any related capabilities. So, for example, a fleet of trucks, the latest RFID tracking technology, and a set of large automated distribution centers may be indicative of sophisticated capabilities in logistics and distribution. R&D teams composed of top scientists with expertise in genomics may suggest organizational capabilities in developing new gene therapies or in biotechnology more generally.

The second method of identifying a firm’s capabilities takes a functional approach. Many capabilities relate to fairly specific functions; these draw on a limited set of resources and typically involve a single department or organizational unit. Capabilities in injection molding or continuous casting or metal stamping are manufacturing-related; capabilities in direct selling, promotional pricing, or database marketing all connect to the sales and marketing functions; capabilities in basic research, strategic innovation, or new product development link to a company’s R&D function. This approach requires managers to survey the various functions a firm performs to find the different capabilities associated with each function.

A problem with this second method is that many of the most important capabilities of firms are inherently cross-functional. Cross-functional capabilities draw on a number of different kinds of resources and are multidimensional in nature—they spring from the effective collaboration among people with different types of expertise working in different organizational units. Warby Parker draws from its cross- functional design process to create its popular eyewear. Its design capabilities are not just due to its creative designers, but are the product of their capabilities in market research and engineering as well as their relations with suppliers and manufacturing companies. Cross-functional capabilities and other complex capabilities involving numerous linked and closely integrated competitive assets are sometimes referred to as resource bundles.

PRINTED BY: Aaron Reagan <reaganap@me.com>. Printing is for personal, private use only. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted without publisher’s prior permission. Violators will be prosecuted.

11/7/2017http://e.pub/lc7027taixs89fglf6e8.vbk/OEBPS/chapter04-print-1510071469.xhtml

page 91

CORE CONCEPT A resource bundle is a linked and closely integrated set of competitive assets centered around one or more cross-functional capabilities.

It is important not to miss identifying a company’s resource bundles, since they can be the most competitively important of a firm’s competitive assets. Resource bundles can sometimes pass the four tests of a resource’s competitive power (described below) even when the individual components of the resource bundle cannot. Although PetSmart’s supply chain and marketing capabilities are matched well by rival Petco, the company has and continues to outperform competitors through its customer service capabilities (including animal grooming and veterinary and day care services). Nike’s bundle of styling expertise, marketing research skills, professional endorsements, brand name, and managerial know-how has allowed it to remain number one in the athletic footwear and apparel industry for more than 20 years.

Assessing the Competitive Power of a Company’s Resources and Capabilities To assess a company’s competitive power, one must go beyond merely identifying its resources and capabilities to probe its caliber.3 Thus, the second step in resource and capability analysis is designed to ascertain which of a company’s resources and capabilities are competitively superior and to what extent they can support a company’s quest for a sustainable competitive advantage over market rivals. When a company has competitive assets that are central to its strategy and superior to those of rival firms, they can support a competitive advantage, as defined in Chapter 1. If this advantage proves durable despite the best efforts of competitors to overcome it, then the company is said to have a sustainable competitive advantage. While it may be difficult for a company to achieve a sustainable competitive advantage, it is an important strategic objective because it imparts a potential for attractive and long- lived profitability.

The Four Tests of a Resource’s Competitive Power The competitive power of a resource or capability is measured by how many of four specific tests it can pass.4 These tests are referred to as the VRIN tests for sustainable competitive advantage—VRIN is a shorthand reminder standing for Valuable, Rare, Inimitable, and Nonsubstitutable. The first two tests determine whether a resource or capability can support a competitive advantage. The last two determine whether the competitive advantage can be sustained.

CORE CONCEPT The VRIN tests for sustainable competitive advantage ask whether a resource is valuable, rare, inimitable, and nonsubstitutable.

1. Is the resource or capability competitively Valuable? To be competitively valuable, a resource or capability must be directly relevant to the company’s strategy, making the company a more effective competitor. Unless the resource or capability contributes to the effectiveness of the company’s strategy, it cannot pass this first test. An indicator of its effectiveness is whether the resource enables the company to strengthen its business model by improving its customer value proposition and/or profit formula (see Chapter 1). Companies have to guard against contending that something they do well is necessarily competitively valuable. Apple’s OS X operating system for its personal computers

PRINTED BY: Aaron Reagan <reaganap@me.com>. Printing is for personal, private use only. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted without publisher’s prior permission. Violators will be prosecuted.

11/7/2017http://e.pub/lc7027taixs89fglf6e8.vbk/OEBPS/chapter04-print-1510071469.xhtml

page 92

by some accounts is superior to Microsoft’s Windows 10, but Apple has failed in converting its resources devoted to operating system design into anything more than moderate competitive success in the global PC market.

2. Is the resource or capability Rare—is it something rivals lack? Resources and capabilities that are common among firms and widely available cannot be a source of competitive advantage. All makers of branded cereals have valuable marketing capabilities and brands, since the key success factors in the ready-to-eat cereal industry demand this. They are not rare. However, the brand strength of Oreo cookies is uncommon and has provided Kraft Foods with greater market share as well as the opportunity to benefit from brand extensions such as Double Stuf Oreos and Mini Oreos. A resource or capability is considered rare if it is held by only a small number of firms in an industry or specific competitive domain. Thus, while general management capabilities are not rare in an absolute sense, they are relatively rare in some of the less developed regions of the world and in some business domains.

3. Is the resource or capability Inimitable—is it hard to copy? The more difficult and more costly it is for competitors to imitate a company’s resource or capability, the more likely that it can also provide a sustainable competitive advantage. Resources and capabilities tend to be difficult to copy when they are unique (a fantastic real estate location, patent-protected technology, an unusually talented and motivated labor force), when they must be built over time in ways that are difficult to imitate (a well- known brand name, mastery of a complex process technology, years of cumulative experience and learning), and when they entail financial outlays or large-scale operations that few industry members can undertake (a global network of dealers and distributors). Imitation is also difficult for resources and capabilities that reflect a high level of social complexity (company culture, interpersonal relationships among the managers or R&D teams, trust-based relations with customers or suppliers) and causal ambiguity, a term that signifies the hard-to-disentangle nature of the complex resources, such as a web of intricate processes enabling new drug discovery. Hard-to-copy resources and capabilities are important competitive assets, contributing to the longevity of a company’s market position and offering the potential for sustained profitability.

4. Is the resource or capability Nonsubstitutable—is it invulnerable to the threat of substitution from different types of resources and capabilities? Even resources that are competitively valuable, rare, and costly to imitate may lose much of their ability to offer competitive advantage if rivals possess equivalent substitute resources. For example, manufacturers relying on automation to gain a cost- based advantage in production activities may find their technology-based advantage nullified by rivals’ use of low-wage offshore manufacturing. Resources can contribute to a sustainable competitive advantage only when resource substitutes aren’t on the horizon.

CORE CONCEPT Social complexity and causal ambiguity are two factors that inhibit the ability of rivals to imitate a firm’s most valuable resources and capabilities. Causal ambiguity makes it very hard to figure out how a complex resource contributes to competitive advantage and therefore exactly what to imitate.

Categories

## which of the following statements about the formation of cross beds is correct?

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 1/41

Homework 5 Geologic Time Due: 11:59pm on Sunday, February 28, 2016

You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy

Interactive Animation: Relative Geologic Dating

When you have finished, answer the questions.

Part A

Which of the following statements about relative and absolute age dating is most accurate?

Correct

Part B

What is the principle of original horizontality?

Relative age dating places rocks and events in chronological order and can provide information about absolute age.

Relative age dating provides information about absolute ages but does not place rocks and events in chronological order.

Relative age dating places rocks and events in chronological order but does not provide information about absolute age.

Relative age dating does not provide information about absolute ages, nor does it place rocks and events in chronological order.

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 2/41

Correct

Part C

What is the principle of superposition?

Correct

Part D

What is the principle of cross­cutting relationships?

Correct

Part E

Five layers of rock are cut by two faults. Both faults cut through all five layers of rock. Fault A breaks through to the surface, whereas fault B does not. Which of the following statements about faults A and B is most accurate?

Metamorphic rocks are close to horizontal when deposited.

Sedimentary rocks are close to horizontal when deposited.

Sedimentary rocks are close to horizontal when eroded.

Metamorphic rocks are close to horizontal when eroded.

Within a sequence of rock layers formed at Earth’s surface, rock layers in the middle of a sequence are older.

Within a sequence of rock layers formed at Earth’s surface, rock layers higher in the sequence are older.

Within a sequence of rock layers formed at Earth’s surface, rock layers lower in the sequence are older.

Geologic features that cut through rocks must form at roughly the same time as the rocks that they cut through.

Geologic features that cut through rocks must form before the rocks that they cut through.

Geologic features that cut through rocks must form after the rocks that they cut through.

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 3/41

Correct

Part F

Which principle of relative age dating is important for determining the relative age of igneous rock that has intruded into overlying rock?

Correct

Part G

A fault (F) breaks three layers of sedimentary rock (S). An igneous intrusion (I1) has broken through the bottommost layer of rock. A second igneous intrusion (I2) has moved up the fault and pooled on top of the uppermost layer of rock. Which event would be considered the youngest?

Correct

Faults A and B are about the same age, and both are older than the five layers of rock.

Fault A is younger than fault B, and both are older than the five layers of rock.

Faults A and B are about the same age, and both are younger than the five layers of rock.

Fault A is younger than fault B, and both are younger than the five layers of rock.

the principle of original horizontality

the principle of cross­cutting relationships

the principle of intrusive relationships

the principle of superposition

Faulting of rock along F is the youngest event. We know this because all three layers of sedimentary rock have been broken.

The intrusion of I2 is the youngest event. We can know this because I2 sits on top of all other rocks.

Deposition of the three sedimentary layers, S, is the youngest event. We know this because the fault underlies the igneous rocks.

The intrusion of I1 or I2 is the youngest event. Without more information, we cannot know which igneous rock is youngest.

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 4/41

SmartFigure: Relative Dating

Launch the SmartFigure Video

When you have finished, answer the questions.

Part A

A sandstone contains inclusions of metamorphic rock. An igneous dike cuts both the sandstone and inclusions. List the rocks from youngest to oldest.

Hint 1.

Use your knowledge regarding the principles of cross­cutting relationships and dating by inclusions to answer this question.

Correct

Part B

metamorphic rock, igneous dike, sandstone

igneous dike, sandstone, metamorphic rock

metamorphic rock, sandstone, igneous dike

sandstone, metamorphic rock, igneous dike

igneous dike, metamorphic rock, sandstone

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 5/41

If a sequence of sedimentary units is cut by a fault, what does the principle of cross­cutting relationships tell a geologist?

Hint 1.

Recall what the principle cross­cutting relationships states and how it is used for relative age dating.

Correct

Part C

Which of the following describes the principle of original horizontality?

Hint 1.

The video showed a sequence of folded sedimentary rocks. What had to occur to form this feature?

Correct

Part D

The sedimentary units on the left side of the fault are the same as those on the right side.

All of the sedimentary units must have been deposited and lithified before being cut by the fault.

The fault is older than the sedimentary sequence.

Sedimentary layers are laid down horizontally.

The oldest sedimentary unit is located at the base of the sequence, while the youngest is at the top.

Inclusions within a sedimentary rock are older than the sedimentary rock itself.

Folded sedimentary layers were originally laid down flat and later deformed.

A fault or dike that cut a sedimentary sequence is younger than the sedimentary rocks it breaks through.

Undeformed sedimentary layers present on one side of a river­cut canyon are the same as those on the opposite side.

The oldest sedimentary unit is located at the base of the sequence, while the youngest is at the top.

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 6/41

An undeformed sequence of sedimentary rocks is exposed in a large river canyon. Which two principles would be demonstrated by the rocks?

Hint 1.

Think back to the five principles you learned about in the video. Which two would be the most applicable to an undeformed rock sequence that has been eroded by a large stream?

Correct

Part E

An igneous dike cuts through limestone, but not through the overlying sandstone. Which of the following statements is most accurate?

Hint 1.

Think about how the principles of superposition and cross­cutting relationships are used for this question.

Correct

principles of lateral continuity and inclusions

principles of superposition and lateral continuity

principles of cross­cutting relationships and superposition

principles of superposition and dating by inclusions

principles of lateral continuity and cross­cutting relationships

First, the sandstone was laid down, next the limestone was deposited, and finally was cut by the igneous dike.

The limestone and sandstone were deposited and then cut by the igneous dike.

First, the limestone was laid down, then intruded by the igneous dike, and lastly the sandstone was deposited.

The igneous dike represents the oldest rock, while the sedimentary rocks are relatively younger.

First, the limestone was laid down, folded and cut by an igneous dike, and finally the sandstone was deposited.

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 7/41

GeoTutor: Constructing an Order of Sequence of Geologic Events ­ Geologic Time Scale

Geologists have divided the whole of history into units of increasing magnitude. This is called the geologic time scale. The entire time scale was originally based on relative dating, since radiometric dating was not available at the time. Absolute dating techniques determine a numerical age of strata given in number of years. Relative dating techniques, on the other hand, determine the age of a stratum relative to other strata (i.e., if it is younger or older), without providing any numerical data. Geologists have been able to determine the relative ages of rocks and any fossils they contain to reconstruct a history that reveals the evolution of Earth’s continents and living organisms using four laws of stratigraphy:

1. Law of Superposition: Younger strata are deposited on top of older strata. 2. Law of Original Horizontality: Strata are deposited horizontally. Tilted strata had been tilted by some geologic event after the time of deposition. 3. Law of Lateral Continuity: Layers of sediment initially extend laterally in all directions. As a result, rocks that are otherwise similar, but are now separated by a valley or other erosional feature, can be assumed to be originally continuous.

4. Law of Cross­Cutting Relationships: Magma intrudes and crystallizes (forming features such as faults and dikes). These features are younger than the strata they cut through.

The geologic time scale subdivides the 4.6­billion­year history of Earth into several units, outlining the time frames of several events of the geologic past. See below for the geologic time scale chart.

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 8/41

Part A ­ Laws of stratigraphy

In the figure below, a series of geologic events, A­J, shows the configuration of rocks as seen from a road. Some strata have been tilted, and a volcanic dike has intruded some

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 9/41

of the rocks. Use the laws of stratigraphy to rank these strata.

Rank the strata from oldest to youngest.

Hint 1. The Law of Cross­Cutting Relationships

The volcanic dike (H) must be older than any strata it does not cut through and younger than any strata it does cut through, because the strata it cuts through must have been there before the intrusion of magma.

Hint 2. The Law of Original Horizontality

Pretend the tilted strata are horizontal. That is, “D” is above “A,” “C” is above “A,” and so on. The Law of Original Horizontality states that strata are deposited horizontally in their original states. Tilted strata had been tilted by some geologic event after the time of deposition, but still retain their relative order.

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 10/41

All attempts used; correct answer displayed

Notice that the tilted strata are immediately overlain by horizontal strata. This can only occur if erosion has partially removed the tilted strata so they all terminate at the same depth.

Part B ­ The geologic time scale and unconformities

Gaps in the rock record are called unconformities. Unconformities are caused by periods of erosion that have occurred between periods of deposition, which have erased a portion of the rock record. There are three types of unconformities: (1) angular unconformities occur when tilted strata are overlain by horizontal strata—Click here to see an angular unconformity; (2) disconformities occur when strata are separated by an erosional surface—Click here to see a disconformity); (3) nonconformities occur when strata overlay igneous or metamorphic rocks that are resistant to erosion—Click here to see a nonconformity.

Now use the figure below, which has labeled each of the rock strata/layers from Part A with their respective geologic time periods, to fill in the gaps in the following sentences.

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 11/41

Match the words in the left column to the appropriate blanks in the sentences on the right. Make certain each sentence is complete before submitting your answer.

Hint 1. How to determine the missing time period

Identify the youngest and oldest strata in the diagram, and use the geologic time scale provided above to find all of the geologic periods between these ages.

Hint 2. The types of unconformities

The volcanic dike terminating abruptly at a stratigraphic boundary would indicate that erosion has occurred.

Hint 3. The age of unconformities

An unconformity must be at least the age of the strata overlying it and can be as old as the strata below it.

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 12/41

Correct

The tilting of the Triassic rocks could have occurred in the Triassic, Jurassic, or Cretaceous periods. This amounts to an uncertainty of at least 55 million years.

Interactive Animation: Angular Uncomformities, Noncomformities, and Discomformities

When you have finished, answer the questions.

Help

1. The Quaternary and Tertiary rocks are separated by this type of unconformity:

a disconformity .

2. Due to an unconformity, the  Jurassic  period is missing from the rock record.

3. The Triassic rocks must have been most likely tilted during or after the  Triassic  period

4. The dike dates at least to the  Quarternary  period.

5. The Triassic and Cretaceous rocks are separated by this type of unconformity:

an angular unconformity .

Reset

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 13/41

Part A

Which image is an example of an angular unconformity?

SEE IMAGES BELOW FOR ANSWER SELECTIONS.

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 14/41

Correct

Part B

In the images below, which contains a disconformity?

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 15/41

Correct

Part C

What does the term unconformity mean?

Hint 1.

un = NOT; conform = go along with

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 16/41

Correct

Part D

In the following rock sequence, how much erosion might have occurred between rock layer A and rock layer B?

Correct

Part E

What characteristic most directly DISTINGUISHES an angular unconformity from a nonconformity?

Hint 1.

The word angular is the key hint.

a missing rock layer in a sequence that represents a period of deposition

an extra rock layer that represents a period of deposition

a missing rock layer in a sequence that represents a period of erosion or nondeposition

an extra rock layer that represents a period of erosion

at least 10,000 years

none or only a very small amount (Time does not equate to erosion.)

more time than it took to deposit rock layer B

at least 1 million years

more time than it took to deposit rock layer A

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 17/41

Correct

Part F

Which list best describes the events that would lead to the layering of sedimentary rocks in this diagram?

Correct

GeoTutor: Constructing an Order of Sequence of Geologic Events – Relative Dating

The ordering of events in geological history has long been a difficult task, but once simple principles were determined observation and logic could be used to determine the order of events. With these principles, one cannot calculate the exact number of years ago an event occurred, but instead the sequence of events can be determined. This is referred to as relative dating. The principles are as follows:

1. The law of superposition: In sedimentary rocks, the rock bed on the bottom must be older than the rock bed on the top. 2. The principle of original horizontality: Sedimentary rocks were originally deposited as flat­lying, horizontal layers.

Angular unconformities represent missing time, whereas nonconformities do not.

Conformities represent missing rock layers.

Nonconformities separate parallel rock layers of the same rock type.

Nonconformities separate two different rock types, whereas angular unconformities form only between strata of the same rock type.

Angular unconformities separate rock layers along nonparallel surfaces.

deposition, erosion, deposition, erosion, deposition

erosion, deformation, erosion, deformation, erosion

deposition, deformation, deposition, deformation, deposition

erosion, deposition, erosion, deposition, erosion, deposition, erosion

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 18/41

3. The principle of cross­cutting relationships: Any rock or feature, cutting through another rock or feature, must be younger than the material through which it cuts. (For example, with faults, igneous intrusions such as dikes, or fractures, the first rock must be there for these secondary features to cut through.)

4. Inclusions: Any rock fragments included within another rock must be older than the rock in which they are included. (For example, if eroded fragments of one rock layer become part of another sedimentary rock layer, the rock with the included fragments must be younger than the fragments themselves.)

Part A ­ Basic Principles for Relative Geologic Dating

Below is a geologic structure that illustrates the various principles of relative dating. You will identify the basic principles used in relative geologic dating by dragging labels to their corresponding targets in the image below.

Drag the appropriate labels to their respective targets.

Hint 1. Inclusions in sedimentary rock layers

According to the principle of inclusions, the layer of rock that has inclusions from another rock layer must be younger.

Hint 2. A dike cutting through sedimentary rock layers

The rock layers that the dike cut through must have been there first. This is the principle of cross­cutting relationships.

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 19/41

Correct

As you can see from above, using the logic of these principles when observing sedimentary rock, we can determine a sequence of events.

Now that we have investigated the principles of relative dating, we can use these principles to determine how to read the sequence of geologic events in a location.

Part B ­ Ordering of Geologic Events

The principles of relative dating can be used to understand the order of geologic events. A geologic event can be anything: the deposition of horizontal layers of sedimentary rock, the faulting or folding of rock layers, the tilting of rock layers, the erosion (or wearing away) of rock, the intrusion of volcanic rock within existing rock layers, and so on. Refer to these relative dating principles:

1. Inclusions: Any rock fragments included within another rock must be older than the rock in which they are included. (For example, if eroded fragments of one rock

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 20/41

layer become part of another sedimentary rock layer, the rock with the included fragments must be younger than the fragments themselves.) 2. The principle of cross­cutting relationships: Any rock or feature, cutting through another rock or feature, must be younger than the material through which it cuts. (For example, with faults, igneous intrusions such as dikes, or fractures, the first rock must be there for these secondary features to cut through.)

3. Angular Unconformity: It consists of tilted or folded sedimentary rocks that are overlain by younger, more flat­lying strata. An angular unconformity indicates that during the pause in deposition, a period of deformation (folding or tilting) and erosion occurred.

4. Tilting or deformation could occur to an otherwise horizontally layered sedimentary rocks. Most layers of sediment are deposited in a nearly horizontal position. Thus, when we see rock layers that are folded or tilted, we can assume that they must have been moved into that position by crustal disturbances after their deposition. In such an instance, the tilted structure will be younger than the orginal horizontal layers.

Order the five images below along the timeline based on the sequence of geologic events. To find the oldest, look for the image that shows the least geologic changes. To find the youngest, look for the picture that has the most geologic changes.

Rank from oldest to youngest.

Hint 1. Inclusions from rock layers above and below

In the picture where the gray layer first appears, the layer must be younger than the layers above and below because it has inclusions of both layers of rock within it according to the principle of inclusions. Therefore, this event must have happened after the picture without the gray layer. This can occur when igneous rock intrudes between layers of sedimentary rock and incorporates pieces of the rock layers above and below into the cooling magma.

Hint 2. The oldest and the youngest geologic features/events

The oldest geologic feature should have the least geologic changes and the youngest should have all features from the previous events.

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 21/41

All attempts used; correct answer displayed

As you can see, you can apply the logic of the principles of relative dating to successfully sequence the order of geologic events in a scene. The principles allow you to tell the geologic story of a landscape.

Lab Activity 8.2.1 ­ Relative Dating

Now that you have practiced ordering geologic events that occurred within a scene or outcrop, you will relate the five geologic laws to this process. First, apply geologic laws to an outcrop in the order that they are invoked by events within said outcrop. Then examine a second scene, where you will identify the geologic laws that explain the relative orders of pairs of events.

Part A ­ Applying Geologic Laws in Order

Please rank from first to last the geologic laws that are used to determine the relative order of the four events that are labeled (but not ordered) in the drawing of the outcrop below.

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 22/41

Please rank the geologic laws used for the history of this outcrop from first to last.

You did not open hints for this part.

Part B ­ Supporting an Outcrop’s History with Geologic Laws

For each rectangle associated with a pair of geologic structures or events, please identify the name of the geologic law that determines which of the two events within the pair

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 23/41

occurred first.

Drag the appropriate labels to their respective targets.

You did not open hints for this part.

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 24/41

Gigapan: Virtual Fieldwork—Relative Dating and Unconformities

Geologists can determine the geologic history of an area by describing rock outcrops and analyzing the layers of rock. Today you will be a geologist visiting a rock outcrop virtually. You will be able to zoom in and out of the Gigapan image to explore the outcrop and determine the relative ages of rock layers and the geologic history of the area by applying your knowledge of the principles of geology and unconformities.

The principles of geology that you will use in this example are:

The law of superposition: A sedimentary rock bed on the bottom must be older than the rock bed on the top. The principle of original horizontality: Sedimentary rocks were originally deposited as flat­lying, horizontal layers. The principle of lateral continuity: Sedimentary layers, when formed, extended horizontally in all directions.

You will also use your knowledge of unconformities, features created when deposition stopped, uplifting and erosion occurred, and, after a period of time, sedimentation began anew above the eroded layer. There are three main types of unconformities:

A nonconformity is found where igneous or metamorphic rocks have eroded and then sedimentary rock layers are deposited above. A disconformity is a break between parallel sedimentary rock layers above and below. Disconformities represent times when sediments were not deposited or were eroded. An angular unconformity is found where sedimentary layers were tilted and eroded and younger and more flat­laying sedimentary layers were deposited above.

In this exercise, you will use Gigapan technology to:

become familiar with interpreting rock outcrops, understand the sequence of events that occurred as these rocks formed and changed over time, and identify the location of an unconformity in this outcrop and provide evidence for its type.

Gigapan technology mosaics thousands of photos together into a single image, allowing you to zoom in and see the tiniest of details. Imagine zooming in on a grain of sand on a photo of a beach!

Instructions for all Parts:

1. Launch the Gigapan image http://www.gigapan.com/galleries/10030/gigapans/129421 2. You can zoom into the image to take a close look at the angular unconformity.

Instructions for Part A:

1. Scroll down and click on the  Google Earth link   on the Gigapan site to launch the Gigapan image  in Google Earth. 2. Close the photo by clicking on Exit Photo to see your field site location in Google Earth. 3. Zoom in or out to determine your location. Also, on the upper right side, your will find the north arrow. If “N” is not aligned with “North” move it to North. This will ensure that the alignment of your field site is directly facing you in an east­west direction.

4. You can reopen the Gigapan image by clicking on Angular Unconformity, west of El Paso, Texas on the left pane of Google Earth. 5. Do not close Google Earth.

Part A ­ Locating your field site

As a geologist, you always want to first locate your field site on a map. It helps other geologists to locate the field site for future studies and helps you look for relationships with data from other nearby field sites. Now, determine where you are (your field site) in the world. Choose the map that best locates your field site.http://www.gigapan.com/galleries/10030/gigapans/129421

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 25/41

You did not open hints for this part.

Instructions for Part B:

1. Go back to the Gigapan image for the Angular Unconformity, west of El Paso, Texas. 2. Examine the outcrop carefully. Make note of any features that would show up on a map (e.g., roads, trees, etc.). 3. Now switch back to Google Earth and zoom in or out to determine how the outcrop is oriented (runs north to south, runs northeast to southwest, etc.) compared to where you are standing and viewing the outcrop. If “N” is not aligned with “North” move it to North.

Part B ­ The orientation of the outcrop

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 26/41

Rock units tell us about Earth’s past, so if we find evidence of geologic processes that have directional components (direction of plate movement, folds and faults, mineral foliation, wind and water currents, etc.), we need to be able to accurately reconstruct those directions. Also, in terms of the scientific method, it helps other geologists to be able to recreate the field investigation step­by­step to confirm or refute any previous findings.

Imagine visiting this outcrop, standing at the location where the Gigapan image was taken, and observing the natural and built features around you. Choose the most accurate representation of the outcrop’s orientation and your vantage point (where you are standing in relation to the outcrop). The representations below depict you and the outcrop as viewed from above. Similar to how you identified the location of this outcrop in the previous part, use Google Earth at a multiple zoom levels. The yellow dot is the point where the Gigapan image was taken.

You did not open hints for this part.

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 27/41

Instructions for Parts C and D:

1. Exit Google Earth and go back to the Gigapan image for Angular Unconformity, west of El Paso, Texas. 2. Examine the outcrop carefully, and make note of the orientation of the layers of sedimentation in this image. Are all of the rock layers running in the same direction? Does the formation contain layers running at different angles?

3. Recall that angular unconformities refer to the junction between sedimentary rocks at an angle and rocks that are more horizontal and represent a time when the rocks were uplifted and eroded. Can you see the evidence of uplift and erosion in the image?

Part C ­ Analysis of an outcrop sketch

Where you see layers of sedimentary rock at an angle in contact with rocks that are horizontal, they are separated by a surface called an angular unconformity. This erosion surface represents a time when rocks were eroded before new layers of rock were formed. This can also occur during a pause in deposition, when a period of deformation (such as folding or tilting) has occurred.

Choose the sketch that best represents the rock outcrop.

You did not open hints for this part.

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 28/41

Part D ­ Making observations I

Simple yet thoughtful observation exposes the history of an outcrop. The sedimentary rocks in the Gigapan image were formed as sediment accumulated as layers that stacked atop older layers. As layers became lower in the stack sequence and covered by newer layers, they became rocks.

If this area had been under water, the shells of organisms would have become limestone, a rock that can’t be identified visually but can be identified using field­based tests. Underwater movement of sediment may also create mixes of fine and coarse grains. This sediment becomes conglomerate, a rock clearly identifiable given its combined

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 29/41

coarse and fine grains. Over time, some layers would have become exposed as the water retreated and the rock layers above them were eroded. Additionally, some layers would have been tilted by tectonic forces.

Classify the observations according to the rock that they describe, or choose “Not enough information to tell.”

Drag the appropriate items to their respective bins. Each item may be used only once.

You did not open hints for this part.

Part E ­ Making observations II

Choose the location of the unconformity.

You did not open hints for this part.

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 30/41

Part F ­ Making observations III

Now that you have identified the unconformity in this outcrop, can you explain why it is an angular unconformity? Review the statements below, and indicate which are correct.

Select all that apply.

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 31/41

You did not open hints for this part.

Part G ­ Drawing conclusions from the timing of events

Review the outcrop again. Order the specific locations identified in the outcrop by their age. Note where the arrow, square, and circles are located.

Rank the areas identified in the cross section from oldest to youngest.

You did not open hints for this part.

It is an angular unconformity because layers of sedimentary rock are above and below the unconformity and the layers above and below are not parallel.

It is an angular unconformity because it is at an angle to the ground surface instead of parallel.

The tilting of the layers of rock occurred before erosion of the unconformity surface.

It is an angular unconformity because the layers of sedimentary rock above and below the unconformity are at the same angle.

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 32/41

Part H ­ Forming a conclusion: Determining the geologic history of an area from an outcrop

Geologists collect observations from field sites and then summarize their interpretations. It’s your turn to take everything you learned while exploring the rocks in this formation near El Paso, Texas, into a coherent story. Arrange the following geologic events in the order that they occurred.

Rank from oldest to youngest.

You did not open hints for this part.

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 33/41

Interactive Animation: Radioactive Decay

When you have finished, answer the questions.

Part A

What happens during radioactive decay?

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 34/41

Part B

What is the scientific definition of half­life?

Part C

Two containers hold the same radioactive isotope. Container A contains 1000 atoms, and container B contains 500 atoms. Which of the following statements about containers A and B is true?

Part D

A container holds 100 atoms of an isotope. This isotope has a half­life of 1.5 months. How many total atoms will be in the container after 3 months?

Daughter isotopes turn into energy.

Parent isotopes turn into energy.

Energy turns into daughter isotopes.

Parent isotopes turn into daughter isotopes.

Daughter isotopes turn into parent isotopes.

the number of parent isotopes that will be lost during a single radioactive decay event

the number of daughter isotopes that will be gained during a single radioactive decay event

the amount of time over which the number of daughter isotopes increases by half

the amount of time over which the number of parent isotopes decreases by half

The rate of decay of atoms in container B is the same as the rate of decay of atoms in container A.

The rate of decay of atoms in container B is greater than the rate of decay of atoms in container A.

The rate of decay of atoms in container A is greater than the rate of decay of atoms in container B.

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 35/41

Part E

A container holds 100 atoms of an isotope. This isotope has a half­life of 1.5 months. How many atoms of the radioactive isotope will be in the container after 3 months?

Part F

A rock sample contains 75 atoms of a parent isotope and 25 atoms of a daughter isotope. The half­life of the parent isotope is 100 years. How old is this rock?

GeoTutor: Constructing an Order of Sequence of Geologic Events ­ Dating with Radioactivity ­ 2

You probably have read or seen stories about archeological findings that include organic remains of a 1000­year­old mummy or an ancient weapon made from stone, which is an inorganic material. Geologists and paleontologists calculate the age of these organic (contain carbon) and inorganic (do not contain carbon) materials by radiometric dating using the isotopes C­14 and U­235, respectively.

1. C­14 dating: This process is often known as radiocarbon dating. It is used to determine both historical and recent events of archeological artifacts of biological origin such as bone, cloth, wood, and plant fibers.

2. U­235 dating: This is used to determine the age of inorganic substances such as ancient rocks and minerals.

100 atoms

50 atoms

33 atoms

25 atoms

25 atoms

33 atoms

50 atoms

100 atoms

25 years old

50 years old

75 years old

100 years old

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 36/41

Part A ­ Calculating the Age of a Fossil Based on the Number of Half­lives Elapsed

Each isotope has a unique half­life. The half­life of an isotope is the time taken for half of the starting quantity to decay (with a ratio of 1:1). After two half­lives, there will be one­ fourth of the original parent sample and three­quarters would have decayed to the daughter product (with a ratio of 1:3). After three half­lives, the ratio becomes 1:7, and so forth.

The graph, for instance, shows that assuming the half­life of a sample is 4 months, then in 4 months, there will be 0.5 gram of the parent element and 0.5 gram of the daughter element will be produced. In month 8 (which is two­half­lives), there will be only 0.25 gram of parent element left and 0.75 gram of daughter element; that is, one­fourth of the parent sample (in red) is left, and in month 12, there is only one­eighth of the parent element.

You attend a geology lab where you are asked to estimate the age of a fossil. The ratio of parent to daughter elements in the fossil sample is 1:7. You know that fossils are the remains of living organisms, which have some amount of C­14 isotope. The C­14 isotope, which has a half­life of 5730 years, begins to decay as the organism dies.

What would be your estimation of the fossil’s age?

You did not open hints for this part.

22,920

5730

2865

11,460

40,110

17,190

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 37/41

Part B ­ Radiometric Dating of Organic and Inorganic materials

John is assisting a geologist who has traveled across the world and collected a few samples. He asks John to classify the samples that can be dated using carbon­14 and uranium­235 (or U­235). All organic materials contain carbon and are dated using C­14; inorganic materials are dated using any radioactive element, such as uranium, rubidium, potassium, and thorium, except carbon. Now, help John group the samples.

Drag the appropriate items to their respective bins. Each item may be used only once.

You did not open hints for this part.

Chapter 18 Reading Quiz Question 2

Part A

Which geological principle states that even if most sedimentary rock layers are presently folded, they were deformed after deposition?

You did not open hints for this part.

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 38/41

Chapter 18 Problem 1 Multiple Choice

Part A

An unconformity is a buried ________.

Chapter 18 Problem 2 Multiple Choice

Part A

Which of the following best characterizes an angular unconformity?

principle of original horizontality

law of superposition

principle of cross­cutting relationships

principle of unconformities

principle of inclusions

surface of erosion separating younger strata above from older strata below

surface of erosion with older strata above and younger strata below

fault or fracture with older rocks above and younger rocks below

fault or fracture with younger strata above and older strata below

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 39/41

Chapter 18 Problem 6 Multiple Choice

Part A

By applying the law of superposition ________ dates can be determined.

Chapter 18 Problem 9 Multiple Choice

Part A

Sandstone strata and a mass of granite are observed to be in contact. Which of the following statements is correct geologically?

Tilted strata lie below the unconformity, and bedding in younger strata above is parallel to the unconformity.

Horizontal lava flows lie below the unconformity, and horizontal, sedimentary strata lie above.

It is the discordant boundary between older strata and an intrusive body of granite.

Tilted strata lie below the unconformity with loose, unconsolidated soil above.

conventional

relative

both relative and radiometric

The sandstone is younger if the granite contains sandstone inclusions.

The granite is older if the sandstone contains pebbles of the granite.

The granite is older if it contains inclusions of sandstone.

The sandstone is younger if it shows evidence of contact metamorphism.

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 40/41

Chapter 18 Problem 28 True/False

Part A

A disconformity is an erosional unconformity with parallel beds or strata above and below.

Chapter 18 Problem 12 Multiple Choice

Part A

A worm would stand a poor chance of being fossilized because ________.

Chapter 18 Problem 51 Short Answer

Part A

The remains or traces of prehistoric life are called ________.

True

False

worms have been rare during the geologic past

worms have no hard parts

worms contain no carbon­14

all of these

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 41/41

Chapter 18 Problem 16 Multiple Choice

Part A

Which of the following is not a very long­lived, radioactive isotope?

Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 47.1%. You received 7.06 out of a possible total of 15 points, plus 0 points of extra credit.

C­14

K­40

U­238

Rb­87

Categories

## jetblue 794

This week, you will work on the JetBlue case within your text.

• Integrating concepts and theories from the text, analyze the company’s general and industry environment, internal resources and intellectual assets. Specifically, what are key forces in the general and industry environments that affect JetBlue’s choice of strategy? What internal resources and assets does JetBlue have that may give it a competitive advantage?
• Integrating concepts and theories form the text, analyze the company’s business-level and corporate-level strategies. Consider what are the components of JetBlue’s competitive advantage and whether JetBlue’s competitive advantage is sustainable.
• Conduct financial analysis and develop implications on a firm’s strategy. Specifically, 1) What trends do you see in the expenses of JetBlue, and how does this cost impact JetBlue’s pretax income, 2) During the years 2012 through 2016, one year stands out as particularly successful for JetBlue. Identify the year and describe the factors that played the largest role in making it an exceptional year for the company, and 3) What major year-to-year changes do you see in JetBlue’s financial statement (Exhibit 4)? Given what you know about JetBlue from the case, how would you explain these changes?
• Develop recommendations(s) for a 3-5 year strategy. Provide an overview of the timetable and required resources.
• Construct a document in APA 6th edition format effectively demonstrating mastery of written communication with a targeted audience. Your analysis should be based solely on the information in the case. Other than the text, external sources should not be included. Your paper should be between 10-15 pages in length.

Other than the text, external sources should not be included. Your paper should be between 10-15 pages in length.

Categories

## prime factorization of 189

what is the prime factorization of 189 in exponential form?

Categories

## middle passage hayden

Part 1: Identify and analyze the following textual elements briefly in one of the three parts of Robert Hayden’s “Middle Passage” 3-5 sentences each

1. Speaker

2. Title

3. Setting and situation

4. Diction and Tone

5. Symbolism

6. Theme

7. Images

8. Figures of Speech

9. Irony

10. Sound and rhyme

11. Rhythm and meter

12. Form and Structure

Part II: Drawing on your responses to the respective critical questions above, write a minimum of 350 words in response. It should include an introductory paragraph and a statement of thesis for a prospective essay.  Your response should demonstrate the ways in which the poem’s technical elements (above) work to develop and reinforce a dominant theme (irony) Be sure to identify the theme in a single thesis statement of your introductory paragraph.

Categories

## myitlabs

Office 2013 – myitlab:grader – Instructions GO! – Excel Chapter 3: Assessment Project 3

Department Expenses

Project Description: In the following project, you will edit a worksheet that will be used to summarize the departmental administration expenses for the City of Orange Blossom Beach.

Updated: 01/07/2013 1 E_CH03_GOV1_A3_Instructions.docx

Categories

## Description

##### Earth Science, 14e (Tarbuck/Lutgens)

Chapter 1   Introduction to Earth Science

1) What are the basic differences between the disciplines of physical and historical geology?

1. A) Physical geology is the study of fossils and sequences of rock strata; historical geology is the study of how rocks and minerals were used in the past.
2. B) Historical geology involves the study of rock strata, fossils, and geologic events, utilizing the geologic time scale as a reference; physical geology includes the study of how rocks form and of how erosion shapes the land surface.
3. C) Physical geology involves the study of rock strata, fossils, and deposition in relation to plate movements in the geologic past; historical geology charts how and where the plates were moving in the past.
4. D) none of the above—physical geology and historical geology are essentially the same.

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.1 What Is Earth Science

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

2) The study of Earth’s atmosphere is known as ________.

1. A) astronomy
2. B) oceanography
3. C) meteorology
4. D) cosmology

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.1 What Is Earth Science

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

3) Which science is not used within the Earth sciences?

1. A) Chemistry
2. B) Physics
3. C) Biology
4. D) Mathematics
5. E) None of the above; Earth Science makes use of all of these sciences.

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.1 What Is Earth Science

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

4) Oceanography is the study of the oceans and geology is the study of the earth, so what is meteorology?

1. A) the study of meteors
2. B) the study of the Sun’s impact on the upper atmosphere
3. C) the study of the atmosphere
4. D) the study of how to be a TV newscaster

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.1 What Is Earth Science

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

5) Sedimentary rocks with marine fossils are exposed at the top of Mt. Everest.  Which scientists would make most use of this observation in their study?

1. A) Meteorologists, because they could use the fossils as a guide to ancient climates
2. B) Geologists, because their elevation is related to physical geology and fossils are related to Earth history
3. C) Oceanographers, because the fossils can tell us about periods when the earth was covered with water to the height of Mt. Everest
4. D) Astronomers, because they can study how life came from outer space to Earth

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.1 What Is Earth Science

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

6) Hurricanes and tornados are natural disasters.  What branch of the Earth sciences studies the origin of these phenomena?

1. A) Meteorology
2. B) Geology
3. C) Oceanography
4. D) Astronomy

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.1 What Is Earth Science

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

7) Hurricanes are natural disasters.  Which branch of the Earth sciences studies the impact of this phenomenon on coastal environments?

1. A) Meteorology
2. B) Geology
3. C) Oceanography
4. D) Astronomy

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.1 What Is Earth Science

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

8) Tsunamis and earthquakes have killed millions of people during human history.  What branch of the Earth sciences is the main group that studies these phenomena?

1. A) Meteorology
2. B) Geology
3. C) Oceanography
4. D) Astronomy

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.1 What Is Earth Science

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

9) If you want to buy a house in an area and you are worried there may be an earthquake hazard, who would be the best person to ask for advice on this hazard?

1. A) a civil engineer
2. B) a geologist
3. C) a physicist
4. D) an astrologer

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.1 What Is Earth Science

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

10) The earth is estimated to be approximately 4.6 billion years old.  Life appeared early in the history of Earth, but metazoans (multicelled organisms) did not appear until about 600 million years ago.  If the history of Earth were compressed into a single year, when would metazoans appear?

1. A) late September
2. B) late November
3. C) mid-December
4. D) late January

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.1 What Is Earth Science

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

11) Which of the following would not typically be considered an Earth Science study?

1. A) studies of volcanic eruptions
2. B) studies of impact craters on the moon
3. C) studies of acid mine waters and the bacteria that live in those waters
4. D) chemical refining of petroleum

Diff: 2

Topic:  1.1 What Is Earth Science

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension; Application/Analysis

12) Climate change is a well-known human problem and remains controversial despite widespread scientific agreement on the issue.  Although most scientists are familiar with the issues, if you were a congressman and wanted an informed analysis of the problem, which of the following would be most likely to give you the most complete analysis?

1. A) an astronomer
2. B) a meteorologist with knowledge of oceanography
3. C) a geologist with knowledge of astronomy
4. D) a physicist

Diff: 2

Topic:  1.1 What Is Earth Science

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

13) A ________ is a well-tested and widely accepted view that best explains certain scientific observations.

1. A) hypothesis
2. B) generalization
3. C) law
4. D) theory

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.2 The Nature of Scientific Inquiry

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

14) The primary goal of Earth Science is ________.

1. A) to develop things that will benefit mankind
2. B) to identify the patterns in nature and use that information to predict the future
3. C) to locate resources
4. D) to protect the environment

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.2 The Nature of Scientific Inquiry

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

15) All of the following are possible steps of scientific investigation except for ________.

1. A) the collection of scientific facts through observation and measurement
2. B) assumption of conclusions without prior experimentation or observation
3. C) the development of one or more working hypotheses or models to explain facts
4. D) development of observations and experiments to test the hypotheses

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.2 The Nature of Scientific Inquiry

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

16) Which of the following is not necessary for a hypothesis to be accepted by the scientific community?

1. A) It must be testable.
2. B) It must predict something other than the observations it was based on.
3. C) There must be alternative hypotheses proposed.
4. D) It must be based on observations or facts.

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.2 The Nature of Scientific Inquiry

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

17) The ________ explains how our solar system probably formed from a giant cloud of gases and dispersed solid particles.

1. A) protogalactic theory
2. B) nebular theory
3. C) extrastellar solar hypothesis
4. D) planetary compression theory

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.3 Early Evolution of Earth

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

18) Which of the following is not a planet?

1. A) Europa
2. B) Venus
3. C) Saturn
4. D) Neptune

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.3 Early Evolution of Earth

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

19) In the television series “Cosmos” the astronomer Carl Sagan used to say, “We are all made of star stuff.”  What did he mean by that?

1. A) All of the chemical elements were formed during the big bang when the universe began, so we are like the stars.
2. B) We all have to potential to be stars.
3. C) All of the chemical elements in our solar system were forged in an ancient star that went supernova.
4. D) The earth has incorporated large amounts of chemical material from the solar wind, so our bodies carry this material.

Diff: 2

Topic:  1.3 Early Evolution of Earth

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

20) In the proto-solar system nebula, gravity pulled matter together to form larger bodies. As they collided, what happened to these bodies?

1. A) Oblique collisions caused individual bodies to spin.
2. B) The objects broke apart to form asteroids, much like a neutron colliding with a heavy atom produces fission.
3. C) The objects temporarily broke apart and then reformed into large objects, cooling rapidly during the breakup period.
4. D) Immense heat was released within the colliding bodies as gravitational potential energy was converted to heat.

Diff: 2

Topic:  1.3 Early Evolution of Earth

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

21) Light elements like hydrogen and helium form a large percentage of the outer planets and Sun is made up primarily of hydrogen.  Why are these elements nearly absent from the inner planets?

1. A) The Sun captured all of the hydrogen during its formation.
2. B) These light elements are blown away from the inner planets by the solar wind.
3. C) It is a mystery that has never been solved by science.
4. D) Hydrogen and helium have all been bound up by chemical reactions on the inner planets and are held in rock.

Diff: 2

Topic:  1.3 Early Evolution of Earth

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

22) Comets are made up primarily of ________.

1. A) iron-nickel alloys
2. B) silicate minerals, like rocks on Earth
3. C) frozen hydrogen
4. D) frozen water, carbon dioxide, and methane

Diff: 2

Topic:  1.3 Early Evolution of Earth

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

23) The Oort cloud is ________.

1. A) an unusual type of cloud formed when meteorites strike the earth
2. B) another name for the inner solar system, just before the Sun became hot enough for nuclear fusion
3. C) the outer solar system where planetesimals, rocky debris and comets orbit outside beyond the outer planets but cross into the inner solar system at times
4. D) the asteroid belt

Diff: 2

Topic:  1.3 Early Evolution of Earth

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

24) The ________ refers to the sum total of all life on Earth.

1. A) hydrosphere
2. B) atmosphere
3. C) biosphere
4. D) geosphere

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.4 Earth’s Spheres

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

25) The ________ refers to the water-dominated parts of the earth.

1. A) hydrosphere
2. B) atmosphere
3. C) biosphere
4. D) geosphere

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.4 Earth’s Spheres

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

26) The largest of Earth’s spheres is the ________.

1. A) hydrosphere
2. B) atmosphere
3. C) geosphere
4. D) biosphere

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.4 Earth’s Spheres

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

27) Soil belongs to the ________.

1. A) hydrosphere
2. B) atmosphere
3. C) geosphere
4. D) biosphere
5. E) All of the above

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.4 Earth’s Spheres

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

28) The exchange of energy between the surface of the earth, the atmosphere, and space causes ________.

1. A) topography
2. B) temperature
3. C) weather
4. D) glaciers

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.4 Earth’s Spheres

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

29) In correct order from the center outward, Earth includes which units?

1. A) core, inner mantle, outer mantle, crust
2. B) inner core, outer core, mantle, crust
3. C) inner core, crust, mantle, hydrosphere
4. D) core, crust, mantle, hydrosphere

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.5 A Closer Look at the Geosphere

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

30) The composition of the earth’s inner core is thought to be ________.

1. A) basalt
2. B) granite
3. C) peridotite
4. D) solid iron-nickel alloy

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.5 A Closer Look at the Geosphere

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

31) The asthenosphere is actually a part of the ________ of the earth.

1. A) outer core
2. B) crust
3. C) inner core
4. D) mantle

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.5 A Closer Look at the Geosphere

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

32) The ________ is thought to be a liquid, metallic region in the earth’s interior.

1. A) inner core
2. B) lithosphere
3. C) mantle
4. D) outer core

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.5 A Closer Look at the Geosphere

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

33) The ________ is the thinnest layer of the earth.

1. A) crust
2. B) outer core
3. C) mantle
4. D) inner core

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.5 A Closer Look at the Geosphere

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

34) The ________ forms the relatively cool, brittle tectonic plates.

1. A) asthenosphere
2. B) lithosphere
3. C) astrosphere
4. D) eosphere

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.5 A Closer Look at the Geosphere

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

35) Which of the following energy sources is thought to drive the lateral motions of Earth’s lithospheric plates?

1. A) gravitational attractive forces of the Sun and Moon
2. B) electrical and magnetic fields localized in the inner core
3. C) heat transfer between the earth’s interior and the surface of the earth
4. D) swirling movements of the molten iron particles in the outer core

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.5 A Closer Look at the Geosphere

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

36) Convergent plate boundaries are ________.

1. A) sites where cold, downgoing convective cells, the plates, descent into the mantle
2. B) sites where heat from the earth’s interior is vented to the surface as volcanos
3. C) areas where two plates slide laterally past one another, generating earthquakes, like the San Andrea fault
4. D) sites of supervolcanos like Yellowstone

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.5 A Closer Look at the Geosphere

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

37) Oceanic crust is generated at ________.

1. A) hot spots on the sea floor, like Iceland
2. B) spreading ridges
3. C) convergent plate margins
4. D) transform plate margins

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.5 A Closer Look at the Geosphere

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

38) Continental shields and platforms represent ________.

1. A) sites where continents collide, analogous to warriors clashing shields
2. B) names given to Paleozoic mountain belts
3. C) sedimentary basins with inland seas shaped like a shield, like Hudson’s bay
4. D) areas in the interior of continents that have not experienced mountain building for billions of years

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.5 A Closer Look at the Geosphere; Fig. 1.21

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

39) Which of the following layers in the earth has the highest density?

1. A) Lithosphere
2. B) Asthenosphere
3. C) Lower mantle
4. D) Outer Core

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.5 A Closer Look at the Geosphere

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

40) The Andes Mountains in South America are formed by ________.

1. A) subduction
2. B) sea floor spreading
3. C) back-arc contraction
4. D) continental collision

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.5 A Closer Look at the Geosphere

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

41) The Himalayan Mountains and adjacent Tibet are a mountain system formed by ________.

1. A) subduction
2. B) sea floor spreading
3. C) back-arc contraction
4. D) continental collision

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.5 A Closer Look at the Geosphere

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

42) Which of the following is a reasonable approximation of the rate that plates move?

1. A) the rate of growth of human hair or fingernails
2. B) the speed a turtle walks
3. C) the speed of a mountain glacier
4. D) the speed of deep ocean currents

Diff: 2

Topic:  1.5 A Closer Look at the Geosphere

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

43) What two chemical elements are most abundant in the deep interior of the earth?

1. A) iron and magnesium
2. B) magnesium and oxygen
3. C) hydrogen and helium
4. D) silicon and oxygen

Diff: 2

Topic:  1.5 A Closer Look at the Geosphere

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

44) A major cause of the differences in elevation between ocean basins and continents is ________.

1. A) viscosity
2. B) temperature
3. C) density
4. D) mass

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.6 The Face of Earth

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

45) Ocean floor averages about ________ km depth below sea level.

1. A) 2
2. B) 4
3. C) 6
4. D) 8

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.6 The Face of Earth

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

46) Ocean crust is denser than continental crust because ocean crust is ________.

1. A) composed primarily of basalt
2. B) composed primarily of granite
3. C) thicker than continental crust
4. D) thinner than continental crust

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.6 The Face of Earth

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

47) Flat, stable areas of continental crust tend to be located ________.

1. A) along coastlines
2. B) near desert regions
3. C) in the interior of continents
4. D) in areas that receive large amounts of rainfall

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.6 The Face of Earth

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

48) Major mountain belts on the earth are ________.

1. A) older than smaller mountain belts because they have had enough time to grow large
2. B) located around the Pacific Ocean
3. C) over 10 km high
4. D) made of granite because it is low density and allows for maximum growth

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.6 The Face of Earth

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

49) Shield areas in continental interiors are characterized by ________.

1. A) linear chains of mountains less than 100 million years old
2. B) flat areas that include rocks older than 1 billion years old
3. C) flat river valleys that cut through older mountain ranges
4. D) ancient coastal regions that have become abandoned and eroded

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.6 The Face of Earth

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

50) Which of the following is not considered to be part of a typical ocean basin?

1. A) a linear chain of volcanoes
2. B) large expanses of flat plains
3. C) granitic intrusions
4. D) deep canyons

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.6 The Face of Earth

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

51) Deep ocean trenches typically are not located adjacent to ________.

1. A) transform plate boundaries
2. B) volcanic island arc chains
3. C) young continental mountains
4. D) abyssal plains

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.6 The Face of Earth

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

52) Long oceanic mountain chains typically are characterized by ________.

1. A) highly deformed sedimentary rocks
2. B) granitic plutons and batholiths
3. C) layers of igneous rocks
4. D) rocks older than 1 billion years old

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.6 The Face of Earth

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

53) Active mountain belts are most likely to be found ________.

1. A) along the margins of continents
2. B) in the interior regions of continents
3. C) scattered throughout continents
4. D) along only the eastern margins of continents

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.6 The Face of Earth

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

54) The continental shelf is located ________.

1. A) between the continental slope and continental rise
2. B) between the continental rise and the abyssal plains
3. C) seaward of the continental slope
4. D) landward of the continental slope

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.6 The Face of Earth

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

55) The most prominent features on the ocean floor are the ________.

1. A) deep-ocean trenches
2. B) oceanic ridges
3. C) seamounts
4. D) lava plateaus

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.6 The Face of Earth

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

56) A(n) ________ system is one in which energy moves freely in and out, but no matter enters or leaves the system.

1. A) closed
2. B) open
3. C) feedback
4. D) equilibrated

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.7 Earth as a System

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

57) Mechanisms that enhance or drive change are known as ________.

1. A) negative feedback mechanisms
2. B) positive feedback mechanisms
3. C) closed feedback mechanisms
4. D) open feedback mechanisms

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.7 Earth as a System

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

58) What is the source of the energy that powers the Earth system?

1. A) the Sun
2. B) heat from Earth’s interior
3. C) both A and B
4. D) none of the above

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.7 Earth as a System

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

59) Which of the following is not a system?

1. A) the biosphere
2. B) soil, plants, rock, soil organisms, and animals
3. C) the study of minerals
4. D) the Pacific Ocean and the west coast of North America

Diff: 2

Topic:  1.7 Earth as a System

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

60) A mineralogist studies minerals and their origins. A mineralogist studying the Earth system would ________.

Categories

## group potency and collective efficacy

Part 1: Group Potency and Collective Efficacy

Review at least four (4) academically reviewed articles on Group Potency and Collective Efficacy. Develop power presentation of the 4 articles. Support your presentation with appropriate references. Use APA format throughout.

Part 2: Group Cohesiveness:

Review at least four (4) academically reviewed articles on Group Cohesiveness. Develop power presentation of the 4 articles. Support your presentation with appropriate references. Use APA format throughout.

Specific Instructions:

1. Discuss requirements for Parts 1 and 2 above.

2. Develop power points. You power points should contain a minimum of 20 slides (excluding the cover page and reference page.

3. Use APA format throughout.

Categories

## which one of the following statements concerning cinder cones is false?

QUESTION 1 – Of the following, which problem would a geologist NOT study?

A. The chemical pathway that facilitates drug absorption into the blood.

B. The interaction of organic acids produced in soil on soil chemistry.

C. The geology of layered deposits found at the South Pole of Mars.

D. The presence of seismic discontinuities at the core-mantle boundary.

Question 2 – Geologists often use the scientific method and supporting data to propose new ideas and test the validity of these ideas. These new ideas are called:

A. theories

B. ideas

C. methods

D. hypotheses

Question 3 – The current idea that governs our understanding of planetary systems is called:

A. Collision Theory

B. Nebular Theory

C. Planetesimal Theory

D. Differentiation Theory

Question 4 – Largely due to information gathered by the Apollo missions, the moon is thought to be:

A. Made of cheese

B. a captured comet

C. a portion of the Earth sucked out by a close meteor encounter.

D. A portion of the Earth blasted into space by a large protoplanetary collision.

Question 5 – A lithospheric plate can be composed of which of the following:

A. Oceanic crust

B. Continental crust

C. Upper mantle

D. All of the above

Question 6 – In the quest for scientific exploration, Alfred Wegener attempted to explain geologic evidence he found in the Hypothesis of Continental Drift. The scientific community rejected Alfred Wegner’s hypothesis because he failed to explain the ____________________________________.

A. The mechanism for moving continents

B. The fit of the continents

C. The distribution of fossilized organisms

D. The distribution of glacial deposits

Question 7 – Crystal form is a physical property of mineral used in their identification. Which phrase best describes the concept of crystal form?

A. The way in which a mineral break

B. The external expression of a mineral’s internal structure

C. The color of the powdered mineral

D. The appearance of reflected light from a mineral’s surface

Question 8 – Quartz and calcite often are found in the same colors. Although these minerals can be discriminated from one another by cleavage and fracture, hardness is often used, as it is an easier property to utilize. Which of the following statements correctly describes the properties of calcite and quartz.

A. Calcite will not scratch glass and has fracture, whereas quartz will scratch glass and has good cleavage.

B. Calcite with scratch glass and has fracture, whereas quartz will scratch glass and has a good cleavage.

C. Calcite will not scratch glass and has cleavage, whereas quartz will scratch glass and has fracture.

D. Calcite will scratch glass and has good cleavage, whereas quartz will scratch glass and has fracture.

Question 9 – Many minerals belong to the large class of mineral called silicates. Pyrozene group mineral are on such group that happens to belong to what subclass of silicates?

A. Isolated tetrahedra silicates

B. Single Chain silicates

C. Double Chain silicates

D. Framework silicates

Question 10 – The Feldspar group of mineral (plagioclase feldspar and orthoclase feldspar) belong to what subclass of silicate minerals?

A. Isolated tetrahedra silicates

B. Single Chain silicates

C. Double Chain silicates

D. Framework silicates

Question 11 – A rock that crystallizes from __________ must be _______________________.

A. Magma; intrusive

B. Magma; extrusive

C. Magma; clastic

D. Lava; intrusive

Question 12 – Rocks with aphanitic textures are typically formed by ____________________ processes.

A. Extrusive

B. Pyroclastic

C. Intrusive

D. Porphyritic

Question 13 – An intrusive igneous rock formation that forms a tabular feature that cross cuts pre-existing strata is known as a:

A. Sill

B. Dike

C. Stock

D. Volcanic neck

Question 14 – A mafic igneous rock is likely to be ______________, in color.

A. Light (tan, light gray, pink)

B. Intermediate (medium gray or speckled black and white)

C. Dark (dark gray, black)

D. Bright green

Question 15 – An igneous rock that cools slowly typically has visible crystals. The resultant texture is known as:

A. Aphanitic

B. Porphyritic

C. Pyroclastic

D. Phaneritic

Question 16 – What volcano shape is built by successive lava flows, which accumulate to form a dome-shaped structure?

A. Cinder cone

B. Composite cone

C. Shield volcano

D. Stratovolcano

Question 17 – A rhyolitic lave would likely form which of the following volcanic features?

A. Lava tubes

B. Pillows

C. Columnar joints

D. Short, thick lava flows

Question 18 – Tephra is an important volcanic product, best described by which of the following descriptions?

A. Solidified lava flows

B. Pyroclastic materials that solidify while flying through the air

C. Pyroclastic materials that rushes down the flanks of the volcano

D. Chunks of igneous rock ripped from the volcanic vent and ejected during an eruption

Question 19 – Rocks strata are subjected to various stresses causing them to deform in various ways. _______________ is the term used to describe a temporary change in the rocks’ original shape and volume.

A. Brittle deformation (failure)

B. Plastic deformation

C. Elastic deformation

D. Metasomatism

Question 20 – which of the following statements about rock deformation is NOT true?

A. Plastic deformation is likely to occur in rocks under high-temperature and high-pressure degree.

B. Elastic deformation is likely to occur if rocks are stressed to only a very minor degree

C. Plastic deformation is likely to occur rocks under low-temperature and low-pressure conditions

D. Brittle failure is likely to occur in rocks under low-temperature and low-pressure conditions

Question 21 – The strike and dip of a rock refer to:

A. The orientation of a rock unit in relation to the surface of the Earth

B. The orientation of a rock unit in relation to neighboring rock units

C. The directions in which a rock points

D. The orientation of the exposed surface of a rock

Question 22 – Resistant sandstone in the trough of a syncline would eventually form which topographic feature?

A. An anticlinal valley

B. A synclinal valley

C. A deep canyon

D. Topographic ridges

Question 23 – The Mercalli intensity scale is ineffective in providing information about tall of the following earthquakes effects EXCEPT:

A. Location of the earthquake epicenter

B. Determination of damage to actual ground motion

C. Utilization in uninhabited parts of the world

D. Characterization of historical earthquakes

Question 24 – Which of the following terms is NOT described correctly?

A. A seismic wave is the way earthquake energy is transmitted through the Earth

B. A seismograph is an instrument that measures the magnitude of an earthquake

C. A seismometer is the scale used for measuring seismic waves

D. A seismogram is a visual record of seismic waves and their amplitudes

Question 25 – Which of the following statements concerning liquefaction is NOT true?

A. It is caused when a substantial quantity of groundwater is forced into unconsolidated sediment

B. Previously cohesive sediment is caused to flow like a slurry of mud

C. Water pressure between sediment grains removes frictional contact between them

D. Liquefaction can cause virtual geysers of sand

Question 26 – When Benioff-Wadati zones are plotted on a map, they show:

A. Elastic modulus values in rocks within a subduction zone

B. Semiconcentric zones of varying degrees of earthquake damage

C. Earthquake numbers decreasing away from areas of oceanic rifting

D. Earthquakes foci becoming progressively deeper inland from ocean trenches

Question 27 – Major earthquakes are most likely to occur in all of the following tectonic setting EXCEPT:

A. Transform boundaries

B. Divergent boundaries

C. Subduction zones

D. Continental collision boundaries

Question 28 – Which type of rock is most likely to contain fossils?

A. Igneous rocks

B. Metamorphic rocks

C. Sedimentary rocks

D. All of the above

Question 29 – Of the following organisms, the best index fossils would be:

A. Cockroaches, because they have existed in widespread geographic areas almost since the first appearance of insects.

B. Bacteria, because they have existed in widespread geographic areas since life first began

C. A specific type of bryzoa that existed for only a short geologic time in very limited geographic areas

D. A specific type of trilobite that existed for only a short geologic time in widespread geographic areas

Question 30 – All of the following radiometric dating methods are useful for rocks older than 100,000 years EXCEPT:

A. Uranium lead dating

B. Potassium-argon dating

C. Rubidium-strontium dating

D. Carbon-14 dating

Question 31 – A rock or mineral becomes a closed system when it completely cols and crystallizes. Which of the following rocks would become a closed system most rapidly?

A. Granite

B. Basalt

C. Gneiss

D. Schist

Question 32 – The chain of volcanoes along the west coast of South America (the Andes Mountains) exist because:

A. The Pacific Plate is sliding past the South American Plate and heading toward the northwest

B. The Pacific Plate is rifting apart from the South American Plate

C. An oceanic plate is subducting under the western edge of the South America

D. Basalt is pushing up through the trench that parallels the west coast of South America

Question 33 – Pick out the FALSE statement. According to present plate tectonics theory:

A. Plates move at speeds of a few centimeters per year

B. A continental plate will subduct under an oceanic plate when the two converge

C. Plates are composed of the crust and the uppermost part of the mantle

D. Plates diverge at mid-ocean ridges

Question 34 – The huge trough down the center of the mid-ocean ridge is where:

A. The Hawaiian Island chain formed

B. Two continental plates converge

C. Molten basalt subducts back into the Earth

D. The actual divergent plate boundary is located

Question 35 – The portion of the Earth’s interior that flows and is partially responsible for the motion of tectonic plates is known as the:

A. Lithosphere

B. Asthenosphere

C. Mesosphere

D. Inner core

Question 36 – Old, cold lithosphere is more dense than which of the following?

A. The underlying ware asthenosphere

B. The continental lithosphere

C. Younger oceanic lithosphere

D. All of the above

Question 37 – Of the following orogenic belts, which is still forming and growing today?

A. Appalachian

B. Urals

C. Caledonides

D. Himalaya

Question 38 – What evidence suggests that the Rocky Mountains were formed by plate convergence?

A. Strike slip faults are common

B. Continental basalts are common

C. Giant thrusts of sedimentary rock are common

D. Ophiolites are common

Question 39 – Which of the following statements concerning the most recent ice age is NOT true?

A. We now live in a warm interglacial period of an ice age

B. In some places in North America, ice was 2.5 miles during the last major ice advance

C. The last glacial advance occurred during the Pleistocene Epoch that ended about 10,000 years ago.

D. About 20,000 years ago, ice covered roughly 50% of the Earth’s land surface

Question 40 – Which of the following are reasons glacial ice forms?

A. Most precipitation in glacial areas consists of hard-packed snow pellets called firm

B. Water produced by pressure melting migrates to open spaces in the snowpack and refreezes

C. Winter low temperatures probably contribute less to glacial growth than cool, cloudy, brief summers

D. All of the above

Question 41 – Of the many contributing factors, the salinity-driven ocean currents are being studied as a major factor in ice-age glacial expansions because:

A. Salt lowers the freezing point of water

B. Dense saline water has a higher albedo than less saline water

C. Their heat-carrying capacity during nonglacial times transports heat from the lower latitudes to the higher latitudes

D. Dense saline currents are more able to transport large blocks of ice

Question 42 – The primary difference between resources and reserves is that:

A. Resources are materials currently available to the public, while reserves remain in the ground for future use

B. Resources exist but recovery is not currently profitable; reserves can be extracted for profit

C. Resources refer to all available useful materials, while reserves refer only to available fossil fuels

D. Resources still remain in the ground, while reserves have been mined and are in storage

Question 43 – Oil shale contains kerogen rather than oil because:

A. It was never buried deeply enough to raise its temperature to that required to produce oil

B. Shale is not permeable enough to allow the kerogen to move freely through the rock

C. The organisms required to produced oil were never deposited within the shale

D. There has not been sufficient time for further breakdown of the large kerogen molecules

Question 44 – The main drawback of geothermal energy is that:

A. Heat-resistant pipe materials through which magma can be circulated are extremely expensive

B. Utilization of this energy is limited to currently or recently active plate margins and hot spots

C. Utilization of this energy is limited to current or recently active plate margins and hot spots

D. Geothermal heat sources are buried beneath nearly impenetrable rock

Question 45 – Which of the following statements correctly differentiates between passive and active solar energy?

A. Passive solar energy heats areas by natural radiation, conduction, and convection, while active solar energy heats areas by the circulation of solar-heated water

B. Passive solar energy is used for stationary purposes, such as the heating of a building, while active solar energy is used for transportable purposes, such as running an electric car

C. Passive solar energy is used to generate heat, while active solar energy is used to generate electricity

D. Passive solar energy can be used in areas where there is abundant sunshine, while active solar energy is transported from sunnier regions to regions receiving very little sunshine

Question 46 – By the standard definition of a mineral, under what conditions can Ice (H20) be considered a mineral?

Need to write a paragraph essay and cited when necessary – no plagiarism

Question 47 – The sustainability of out civilization relies heavily upon providing the necessary mineral resources for future advances in technology, medicine, and electronics. Describe three methods by which we will meet tomorrow’s needs form mineral resources.

Need to write a paragraph essay and cited when necessary – no plagiarism

Question 48 – Describe the formation and thus subsequent breakup of the supercontinent Pangea, paying attention to the timing of events

Need to write a paragraph essay and cited when necessary – no plagiarism

Categories

## tubeted

Leadership Resources and Motivators

 REQUIREMENTS: POSSIBLE ACTUAL INSTRUCTORFEEDBACK Identifies a list of ten 3 resources relating to coaching, mentoring, and leadership. There is no more than oOne quote , one used in the list of resources. There are no more than two movies or video clip and one article from You tube – TED Talk Speakers vidoess used in the list of resources. 35 Describes the resources and explains how the resource can be used in a personal experience or work environment. 35 Includes proper APA guidelines to cite each resource. 20 Submits the list of resources to the forum location to share with peers. 10 Mechanics of Writing:· Student is clearly in control of standard, written American English.· All work includes correct spelling, punctuation, and grammar. 10 Language Use and Audience Awareness:· Student uses correct sentence construction, word choice, etc.· Student uses language in a manner that is appropriate to the purpose, discipline, and scope of the assignment. 10 TOTAL 120

Categories

## what law of stratigraphy did we apply to determine the relative ages of the rocks here?

Homework 5 Geologic Time Due: 11:59pm on Sunday, February 28, 2016

You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy

Interactive Animation: Relative Geologic Dating

When you have finished, answer the questions.

Part A

Which of the following statements about relative and absolute age dating is most accurate?

Correct

Part B

What is the principle of original horizontality?

Relative age dating places rocks and events in chronological order and can provide information about absolute age.

Relative age dating provides information about absolute ages but does not place rocks and events in chronological order.

Relative age dating places rocks and events in chronological order but does not provide information about absolute age.

Relative age dating does not provide information about absolute ages, nor does it place rocks and events in chronological order.

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 2/41

Correct

Part C

What is the principle of superposition?

Correct

Part D

What is the principle of cross­cutting relationships?

Correct

Part E

Five layers of rock are cut by two faults. Both faults cut through all five layers of rock. Fault A breaks through to the surface, whereas fault B does not. Which of the following statements about faults A and B is most accurate?

Metamorphic rocks are close to horizontal when deposited.

Sedimentary rocks are close to horizontal when deposited.

Sedimentary rocks are close to horizontal when eroded.

Metamorphic rocks are close to horizontal when eroded.

Within a sequence of rock layers formed at Earth’s surface, rock layers in the middle of a sequence are older.

Within a sequence of rock layers formed at Earth’s surface, rock layers higher in the sequence are older.

Within a sequence of rock layers formed at Earth’s surface, rock layers lower in the sequence are older.

Geologic features that cut through rocks must form at roughly the same time as the rocks that they cut through.

Geologic features that cut through rocks must form before the rocks that they cut through.

Geologic features that cut through rocks must form after the rocks that they cut through.

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 3/41

Correct

Part F

Which principle of relative age dating is important for determining the relative age of igneous rock that has intruded into overlying rock?

Correct

Part G

A fault (F) breaks three layers of sedimentary rock (S). An igneous intrusion (I1) has broken through the bottommost layer of rock. A second igneous intrusion (I2) has moved up the fault and pooled on top of the uppermost layer of rock. Which event would be considered the youngest?

Correct

Faults A and B are about the same age, and both are older than the five layers of rock.

Fault A is younger than fault B, and both are older than the five layers of rock.

Faults A and B are about the same age, and both are younger than the five layers of rock.

Fault A is younger than fault B, and both are younger than the five layers of rock.

the principle of original horizontality

the principle of cross­cutting relationships

the principle of intrusive relationships

the principle of superposition

Faulting of rock along F is the youngest event. We know this because all three layers of sedimentary rock have been broken.

The intrusion of I2 is the youngest event. We can know this because I2 sits on top of all other rocks.

Deposition of the three sedimentary layers, S, is the youngest event. We know this because the fault underlies the igneous rocks.

The intrusion of I1 or I2 is the youngest event. Without more information, we cannot know which igneous rock is youngest.

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 4/41

SmartFigure: Relative Dating

Launch the SmartFigure Video

When you have finished, answer the questions.

Part A

A sandstone contains inclusions of metamorphic rock. An igneous dike cuts both the sandstone and inclusions. List the rocks from youngest to oldest.

Hint 1.

Use your knowledge regarding the principles of cross­cutting relationships and dating by inclusions to answer this question.

Correct

Part B

metamorphic rock, igneous dike, sandstone

igneous dike, sandstone, metamorphic rock

metamorphic rock, sandstone, igneous dike

sandstone, metamorphic rock, igneous dike

igneous dike, metamorphic rock, sandstone

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 5/41

If a sequence of sedimentary units is cut by a fault, what does the principle of cross­cutting relationships tell a geologist?

Hint 1.

Recall what the principle cross­cutting relationships states and how it is used for relative age dating.

Correct

Part C

Which of the following describes the principle of original horizontality?

Hint 1.

The video showed a sequence of folded sedimentary rocks. What had to occur to form this feature?

Correct

Part D

The sedimentary units on the left side of the fault are the same as those on the right side.

All of the sedimentary units must have been deposited and lithified before being cut by the fault.

The fault is older than the sedimentary sequence.

Sedimentary layers are laid down horizontally.

The oldest sedimentary unit is located at the base of the sequence, while the youngest is at the top.

Inclusions within a sedimentary rock are older than the sedimentary rock itself.

Folded sedimentary layers were originally laid down flat and later deformed.

A fault or dike that cut a sedimentary sequence is younger than the sedimentary rocks it breaks through.

Undeformed sedimentary layers present on one side of a river­cut canyon are the same as those on the opposite side.

The oldest sedimentary unit is located at the base of the sequence, while the youngest is at the top.

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 6/41

An undeformed sequence of sedimentary rocks is exposed in a large river canyon. Which two principles would be demonstrated by the rocks?

Hint 1.

Think back to the five principles you learned about in the video. Which two would be the most applicable to an undeformed rock sequence that has been eroded by a large stream?

Correct

Part E

An igneous dike cuts through limestone, but not through the overlying sandstone. Which of the following statements is most accurate?

Hint 1.

Think about how the principles of superposition and cross­cutting relationships are used for this question.

Correct

principles of lateral continuity and inclusions

principles of superposition and lateral continuity

principles of cross­cutting relationships and superposition

principles of superposition and dating by inclusions

principles of lateral continuity and cross­cutting relationships

First, the sandstone was laid down, next the limestone was deposited, and finally was cut by the igneous dike.

The limestone and sandstone were deposited and then cut by the igneous dike.

First, the limestone was laid down, then intruded by the igneous dike, and lastly the sandstone was deposited.

The igneous dike represents the oldest rock, while the sedimentary rocks are relatively younger.

First, the limestone was laid down, folded and cut by an igneous dike, and finally the sandstone was deposited.

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 7/41

GeoTutor: Constructing an Order of Sequence of Geologic Events ­ Geologic Time Scale

Geologists have divided the whole of history into units of increasing magnitude. This is called the geologic time scale. The entire time scale was originally based on relative dating, since radiometric dating was not available at the time. Absolute dating techniques determine a numerical age of strata given in number of years. Relative dating techniques, on the other hand, determine the age of a stratum relative to other strata (i.e., if it is younger or older), without providing any numerical data. Geologists have been able to determine the relative ages of rocks and any fossils they contain to reconstruct a history that reveals the evolution of Earth’s continents and living organisms using four laws of stratigraphy:

1. Law of Superposition: Younger strata are deposited on top of older strata. 2. Law of Original Horizontality: Strata are deposited horizontally. Tilted strata had been tilted by some geologic event after the time of deposition. 3. Law of Lateral Continuity: Layers of sediment initially extend laterally in all directions. As a result, rocks that are otherwise similar, but are now separated by a valley or other erosional feature, can be assumed to be originally continuous.

4. Law of Cross­Cutting Relationships: Magma intrudes and crystallizes (forming features such as faults and dikes). These features are younger than the strata they cut through.

The geologic time scale subdivides the 4.6­billion­year history of Earth into several units, outlining the time frames of several events of the geologic past. See below for the geologic time scale chart.

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 8/41

Part A ­ Laws of stratigraphy

In the figure below, a series of geologic events, A­J, shows the configuration of rocks as seen from a road. Some strata have been tilted, and a volcanic dike has intruded some

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 9/41

of the rocks. Use the laws of stratigraphy to rank these strata.

Rank the strata from oldest to youngest.

Hint 1. The Law of Cross­Cutting Relationships

The volcanic dike (H) must be older than any strata it does not cut through and younger than any strata it does cut through, because the strata it cuts through must have been there before the intrusion of magma.

Hint 2. The Law of Original Horizontality

Pretend the tilted strata are horizontal. That is, “D” is above “A,” “C” is above “A,” and so on. The Law of Original Horizontality states that strata are deposited horizontally in their original states. Tilted strata had been tilted by some geologic event after the time of deposition, but still retain their relative order.

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 10/41

All attempts used; correct answer displayed

Notice that the tilted strata are immediately overlain by horizontal strata. This can only occur if erosion has partially removed the tilted strata so they all terminate at the same depth.

Part B ­ The geologic time scale and unconformities

Gaps in the rock record are called unconformities. Unconformities are caused by periods of erosion that have occurred between periods of deposition, which have erased a portion of the rock record. There are three types of unconformities: (1) angular unconformities occur when tilted strata are overlain by horizontal strata—Click here to see an angular unconformity; (2) disconformities occur when strata are separated by an erosional surface—Click here to see a disconformity); (3) nonconformities occur when strata overlay igneous or metamorphic rocks that are resistant to erosion—Click here to see a nonconformity.

Now use the figure below, which has labeled each of the rock strata/layers from Part A with their respective geologic time periods, to fill in the gaps in the following sentences.

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 11/41

Match the words in the left column to the appropriate blanks in the sentences on the right. Make certain each sentence is complete before submitting your answer.

Hint 1. How to determine the missing time period

Identify the youngest and oldest strata in the diagram, and use the geologic time scale provided above to find all of the geologic periods between these ages.

Hint 2. The types of unconformities

The volcanic dike terminating abruptly at a stratigraphic boundary would indicate that erosion has occurred.

Hint 3. The age of unconformities

An unconformity must be at least the age of the strata overlying it and can be as old as the strata below it.

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 12/41

Correct

The tilting of the Triassic rocks could have occurred in the Triassic, Jurassic, or Cretaceous periods. This amounts to an uncertainty of at least 55 million years.

Interactive Animation: Angular Uncomformities, Noncomformities, and Discomformities

When you have finished, answer the questions.

Help

1. The Quaternary and Tertiary rocks are separated by this type of unconformity:

a disconformity .

2. Due to an unconformity, the  Jurassic  period is missing from the rock record.

3. The Triassic rocks must have been most likely tilted during or after the  Triassic  period

4. The dike dates at least to the  Quarternary  period.

5. The Triassic and Cretaceous rocks are separated by this type of unconformity:

an angular unconformity .

Reset

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 13/41

Part A

Which image is an example of an angular unconformity?

SEE IMAGES BELOW FOR ANSWER SELECTIONS.

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 14/41

Correct

Part B

In the images below, which contains a disconformity?

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 15/41

Correct

Part C

What does the term unconformity mean?

Hint 1.

un = NOT; conform = go along with

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 16/41

Correct

Part D

In the following rock sequence, how much erosion might have occurred between rock layer A and rock layer B?

Correct

Part E

What characteristic most directly DISTINGUISHES an angular unconformity from a nonconformity?

Hint 1.

The word angular is the key hint.

a missing rock layer in a sequence that represents a period of deposition

an extra rock layer that represents a period of deposition

a missing rock layer in a sequence that represents a period of erosion or nondeposition

an extra rock layer that represents a period of erosion

at least 10,000 years

none or only a very small amount (Time does not equate to erosion.)

more time than it took to deposit rock layer B

at least 1 million years

more time than it took to deposit rock layer A

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 17/41

Correct

Part F

Which list best describes the events that would lead to the layering of sedimentary rocks in this diagram?

Correct

GeoTutor: Constructing an Order of Sequence of Geologic Events – Relative Dating

The ordering of events in geological history has long been a difficult task, but once simple principles were determined observation and logic could be used to determine the order of events. With these principles, one cannot calculate the exact number of years ago an event occurred, but instead the sequence of events can be determined. This is referred to as relative dating. The principles are as follows:

1. The law of superposition: In sedimentary rocks, the rock bed on the bottom must be older than the rock bed on the top. 2. The principle of original horizontality: Sedimentary rocks were originally deposited as flat­lying, horizontal layers.

Angular unconformities represent missing time, whereas nonconformities do not.

Conformities represent missing rock layers.

Nonconformities separate parallel rock layers of the same rock type.

Nonconformities separate two different rock types, whereas angular unconformities form only between strata of the same rock type.

Angular unconformities separate rock layers along nonparallel surfaces.

deposition, erosion, deposition, erosion, deposition

erosion, deformation, erosion, deformation, erosion

deposition, deformation, deposition, deformation, deposition

erosion, deposition, erosion, deposition, erosion, deposition, erosion

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 18/41

3. The principle of cross­cutting relationships: Any rock or feature, cutting through another rock or feature, must be younger than the material through which it cuts. (For example, with faults, igneous intrusions such as dikes, or fractures, the first rock must be there for these secondary features to cut through.)

4. Inclusions: Any rock fragments included within another rock must be older than the rock in which they are included. (For example, if eroded fragments of one rock layer become part of another sedimentary rock layer, the rock with the included fragments must be younger than the fragments themselves.)

Part A ­ Basic Principles for Relative Geologic Dating

Below is a geologic structure that illustrates the various principles of relative dating. You will identify the basic principles used in relative geologic dating by dragging labels to their corresponding targets in the image below.

Drag the appropriate labels to their respective targets.

Hint 1. Inclusions in sedimentary rock layers

According to the principle of inclusions, the layer of rock that has inclusions from another rock layer must be younger.

Hint 2. A dike cutting through sedimentary rock layers

The rock layers that the dike cut through must have been there first. This is the principle of cross­cutting relationships.

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 19/41

Correct

As you can see from above, using the logic of these principles when observing sedimentary rock, we can determine a sequence of events.

Now that we have investigated the principles of relative dating, we can use these principles to determine how to read the sequence of geologic events in a location.

Part B ­ Ordering of Geologic Events

The principles of relative dating can be used to understand the order of geologic events. A geologic event can be anything: the deposition of horizontal layers of sedimentary rock, the faulting or folding of rock layers, the tilting of rock layers, the erosion (or wearing away) of rock, the intrusion of volcanic rock within existing rock layers, and so on. Refer to these relative dating principles:

1. Inclusions: Any rock fragments included within another rock must be older than the rock in which they are included. (For example, if eroded fragments of one rock

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 20/41

layer become part of another sedimentary rock layer, the rock with the included fragments must be younger than the fragments themselves.) 2. The principle of cross­cutting relationships: Any rock or feature, cutting through another rock or feature, must be younger than the material through which it cuts. (For example, with faults, igneous intrusions such as dikes, or fractures, the first rock must be there for these secondary features to cut through.)

3. Angular Unconformity: It consists of tilted or folded sedimentary rocks that are overlain by younger, more flat­lying strata. An angular unconformity indicates that during the pause in deposition, a period of deformation (folding or tilting) and erosion occurred.

4. Tilting or deformation could occur to an otherwise horizontally layered sedimentary rocks. Most layers of sediment are deposited in a nearly horizontal position. Thus, when we see rock layers that are folded or tilted, we can assume that they must have been moved into that position by crustal disturbances after their deposition. In such an instance, the tilted structure will be younger than the orginal horizontal layers.

Order the five images below along the timeline based on the sequence of geologic events. To find the oldest, look for the image that shows the least geologic changes. To find the youngest, look for the picture that has the most geologic changes.

Rank from oldest to youngest.

Hint 1. Inclusions from rock layers above and below

In the picture where the gray layer first appears, the layer must be younger than the layers above and below because it has inclusions of both layers of rock within it according to the principle of inclusions. Therefore, this event must have happened after the picture without the gray layer. This can occur when igneous rock intrudes between layers of sedimentary rock and incorporates pieces of the rock layers above and below into the cooling magma.

Hint 2. The oldest and the youngest geologic features/events

The oldest geologic feature should have the least geologic changes and the youngest should have all features from the previous events.

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 21/41

All attempts used; correct answer displayed

As you can see, you can apply the logic of the principles of relative dating to successfully sequence the order of geologic events in a scene. The principles allow you to tell the geologic story of a landscape.

Lab Activity 8.2.1 ­ Relative Dating

Now that you have practiced ordering geologic events that occurred within a scene or outcrop, you will relate the five geologic laws to this process. First, apply geologic laws to an outcrop in the order that they are invoked by events within said outcrop. Then examine a second scene, where you will identify the geologic laws that explain the relative orders of pairs of events.

Part A ­ Applying Geologic Laws in Order

Please rank from first to last the geologic laws that are used to determine the relative order of the four events that are labeled (but not ordered) in the drawing of the outcrop below.

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 22/41

Please rank the geologic laws used for the history of this outcrop from first to last.

You did not open hints for this part.

Part B ­ Supporting an Outcrop’s History with Geologic Laws

For each rectangle associated with a pair of geologic structures or events, please identify the name of the geologic law that determines which of the two events within the pair

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 23/41

occurred first.

Drag the appropriate labels to their respective targets.

You did not open hints for this part.

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 24/41

Gigapan: Virtual Fieldwork—Relative Dating and Unconformities

Geologists can determine the geologic history of an area by describing rock outcrops and analyzing the layers of rock. Today you will be a geologist visiting a rock outcrop virtually. You will be able to zoom in and out of the Gigapan image to explore the outcrop and determine the relative ages of rock layers and the geologic history of the area by applying your knowledge of the principles of geology and unconformities.

The principles of geology that you will use in this example are:

The law of superposition: A sedimentary rock bed on the bottom must be older than the rock bed on the top. The principle of original horizontality: Sedimentary rocks were originally deposited as flat­lying, horizontal layers. The principle of lateral continuity: Sedimentary layers, when formed, extended horizontally in all directions.

You will also use your knowledge of unconformities, features created when deposition stopped, uplifting and erosion occurred, and, after a period of time, sedimentation began anew above the eroded layer. There are three main types of unconformities:

A nonconformity is found where igneous or metamorphic rocks have eroded and then sedimentary rock layers are deposited above. A disconformity is a break between parallel sedimentary rock layers above and below. Disconformities represent times when sediments were not deposited or were eroded. An angular unconformity is found where sedimentary layers were tilted and eroded and younger and more flat­laying sedimentary layers were deposited above.

In this exercise, you will use Gigapan technology to:

become familiar with interpreting rock outcrops, understand the sequence of events that occurred as these rocks formed and changed over time, and identify the location of an unconformity in this outcrop and provide evidence for its type.

Gigapan technology mosaics thousands of photos together into a single image, allowing you to zoom in and see the tiniest of details. Imagine zooming in on a grain of sand on a photo of a beach!

Instructions for all Parts:

1. Launch the Gigapan image http://www.gigapan.com/galleries/10030/gigapans/129421 2. You can zoom into the image to take a close look at the angular unconformity.

Instructions for Part A:

1. Scroll down and click on the  Google Earth link   on the Gigapan site to launch the Gigapan image  in Google Earth. 2. Close the photo by clicking on Exit Photo to see your field site location in Google Earth. 3. Zoom in or out to determine your location. Also, on the upper right side, your will find the north arrow. If “N” is not aligned with “North” move it to North. This will ensure that the alignment of your field site is directly facing you in an east­west direction.

4. You can reopen the Gigapan image by clicking on Angular Unconformity, west of El Paso, Texas on the left pane of Google Earth. 5. Do not close Google Earth.

Part A ­ Locating your field site

As a geologist, you always want to first locate your field site on a map. It helps other geologists to locate the field site for future studies and helps you look for relationships with data from other nearby field sites. Now, determine where you are (your field site) in the world. Choose the map that best locates your field site.http://www.gigapan.com/galleries/10030/gigapans/129421

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 25/41

You did not open hints for this part.

Instructions for Part B:

1. Go back to the Gigapan image for the Angular Unconformity, west of El Paso, Texas. 2. Examine the outcrop carefully. Make note of any features that would show up on a map (e.g., roads, trees, etc.). 3. Now switch back to Google Earth and zoom in or out to determine how the outcrop is oriented (runs north to south, runs northeast to southwest, etc.) compared to where you are standing and viewing the outcrop. If “N” is not aligned with “North” move it to North.

Part B ­ The orientation of the outcrop

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 26/41

Rock units tell us about Earth’s past, so if we find evidence of geologic processes that have directional components (direction of plate movement, folds and faults, mineral foliation, wind and water currents, etc.), we need to be able to accurately reconstruct those directions. Also, in terms of the scientific method, it helps other geologists to be able to recreate the field investigation step­by­step to confirm or refute any previous findings.

Imagine visiting this outcrop, standing at the location where the Gigapan image was taken, and observing the natural and built features around you. Choose the most accurate representation of the outcrop’s orientation and your vantage point (where you are standing in relation to the outcrop). The representations below depict you and the outcrop as viewed from above. Similar to how you identified the location of this outcrop in the previous part, use Google Earth at a multiple zoom levels. The yellow dot is the point where the Gigapan image was taken.

You did not open hints for this part.

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 27/41

Instructions for Parts C and D:

1. Exit Google Earth and go back to the Gigapan image for Angular Unconformity, west of El Paso, Texas. 2. Examine the outcrop carefully, and make note of the orientation of the layers of sedimentation in this image. Are all of the rock layers running in the same direction? Does the formation contain layers running at different angles?

3. Recall that angular unconformities refer to the junction between sedimentary rocks at an angle and rocks that are more horizontal and represent a time when the rocks were uplifted and eroded. Can you see the evidence of uplift and erosion in the image?

Part C ­ Analysis of an outcrop sketch

Where you see layers of sedimentary rock at an angle in contact with rocks that are horizontal, they are separated by a surface called an angular unconformity. This erosion surface represents a time when rocks were eroded before new layers of rock were formed. This can also occur during a pause in deposition, when a period of deformation (such as folding or tilting) has occurred.

Choose the sketch that best represents the rock outcrop.

You did not open hints for this part.

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 28/41

Part D ­ Making observations I

Simple yet thoughtful observation exposes the history of an outcrop. The sedimentary rocks in the Gigapan image were formed as sediment accumulated as layers that stacked atop older layers. As layers became lower in the stack sequence and covered by newer layers, they became rocks.

If this area had been under water, the shells of organisms would have become limestone, a rock that can’t be identified visually but can be identified using field­based tests. Underwater movement of sediment may also create mixes of fine and coarse grains. This sediment becomes conglomerate, a rock clearly identifiable given its combined

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 29/41

coarse and fine grains. Over time, some layers would have become exposed as the water retreated and the rock layers above them were eroded. Additionally, some layers would have been tilted by tectonic forces.

Classify the observations according to the rock that they describe, or choose “Not enough information to tell.”

Drag the appropriate items to their respective bins. Each item may be used only once.

You did not open hints for this part.

Part E ­ Making observations II

Choose the location of the unconformity.

You did not open hints for this part.

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 30/41

Part F ­ Making observations III

Now that you have identified the unconformity in this outcrop, can you explain why it is an angular unconformity? Review the statements below, and indicate which are correct.

Select all that apply.

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 31/41

You did not open hints for this part.

Part G ­ Drawing conclusions from the timing of events

Review the outcrop again. Order the specific locations identified in the outcrop by their age. Note where the arrow, square, and circles are located.

Rank the areas identified in the cross section from oldest to youngest.

You did not open hints for this part.

It is an angular unconformity because layers of sedimentary rock are above and below the unconformity and the layers above and below are not parallel.

It is an angular unconformity because it is at an angle to the ground surface instead of parallel.

The tilting of the layers of rock occurred before erosion of the unconformity surface.

It is an angular unconformity because the layers of sedimentary rock above and below the unconformity are at the same angle.

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 32/41

Part H ­ Forming a conclusion: Determining the geologic history of an area from an outcrop

Geologists collect observations from field sites and then summarize their interpretations. It’s your turn to take everything you learned while exploring the rocks in this formation near El Paso, Texas, into a coherent story. Arrange the following geologic events in the order that they occurred.

Rank from oldest to youngest.

You did not open hints for this part.

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 33/41

Interactive Animation: Radioactive Decay

When you have finished, answer the questions.

Part A

What happens during radioactive decay?

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 34/41

Part B

What is the scientific definition of half­life?

Part C

Two containers hold the same radioactive isotope. Container A contains 1000 atoms, and container B contains 500 atoms. Which of the following statements about containers A and B is true?

Part D

A container holds 100 atoms of an isotope. This isotope has a half­life of 1.5 months. How many total atoms will be in the container after 3 months?

Daughter isotopes turn into energy.

Parent isotopes turn into energy.

Energy turns into daughter isotopes.

Parent isotopes turn into daughter isotopes.

Daughter isotopes turn into parent isotopes.

the number of parent isotopes that will be lost during a single radioactive decay event

the number of daughter isotopes that will be gained during a single radioactive decay event

the amount of time over which the number of daughter isotopes increases by half

the amount of time over which the number of parent isotopes decreases by half

The rate of decay of atoms in container B is the same as the rate of decay of atoms in container A.

The rate of decay of atoms in container B is greater than the rate of decay of atoms in container A.

The rate of decay of atoms in container A is greater than the rate of decay of atoms in container B.

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 35/41

Part E

A container holds 100 atoms of an isotope. This isotope has a half­life of 1.5 months. How many atoms of the radioactive isotope will be in the container after 3 months?

Part F

A rock sample contains 75 atoms of a parent isotope and 25 atoms of a daughter isotope. The half­life of the parent isotope is 100 years. How old is this rock?

GeoTutor: Constructing an Order of Sequence of Geologic Events ­ Dating with Radioactivity ­ 2

You probably have read or seen stories about archeological findings that include organic remains of a 1000­year­old mummy or an ancient weapon made from stone, which is an inorganic material. Geologists and paleontologists calculate the age of these organic (contain carbon) and inorganic (do not contain carbon) materials by radiometric dating using the isotopes C­14 and U­235, respectively.

1. C­14 dating: This process is often known as radiocarbon dating. It is used to determine both historical and recent events of archeological artifacts of biological origin such as bone, cloth, wood, and plant fibers.

2. U­235 dating: This is used to determine the age of inorganic substances such as ancient rocks and minerals.

100 atoms

50 atoms

33 atoms

25 atoms

25 atoms

33 atoms

50 atoms

100 atoms

25 years old

50 years old

75 years old

100 years old

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 36/41

Part A ­ Calculating the Age of a Fossil Based on the Number of Half­lives Elapsed

Each isotope has a unique half­life. The half­life of an isotope is the time taken for half of the starting quantity to decay (with a ratio of 1:1). After two half­lives, there will be one­ fourth of the original parent sample and three­quarters would have decayed to the daughter product (with a ratio of 1:3). After three half­lives, the ratio becomes 1:7, and so forth.

The graph, for instance, shows that assuming the half­life of a sample is 4 months, then in 4 months, there will be 0.5 gram of the parent element and 0.5 gram of the daughter element will be produced. In month 8 (which is two­half­lives), there will be only 0.25 gram of parent element left and 0.75 gram of daughter element; that is, one­fourth of the parent sample (in red) is left, and in month 12, there is only one­eighth of the parent element.

You attend a geology lab where you are asked to estimate the age of a fossil. The ratio of parent to daughter elements in the fossil sample is 1:7. You know that fossils are the remains of living organisms, which have some amount of C­14 isotope. The C­14 isotope, which has a half­life of 5730 years, begins to decay as the organism dies.

What would be your estimation of the fossil’s age?

You did not open hints for this part.

22,920

5730

2865

11,460

40,110

17,190

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 37/41

Part B ­ Radiometric Dating of Organic and Inorganic materials

John is assisting a geologist who has traveled across the world and collected a few samples. He asks John to classify the samples that can be dated using carbon­14 and uranium­235 (or U­235). All organic materials contain carbon and are dated using C­14; inorganic materials are dated using any radioactive element, such as uranium, rubidium, potassium, and thorium, except carbon. Now, help John group the samples.

Drag the appropriate items to their respective bins. Each item may be used only once.

You did not open hints for this part.

Chapter 18 Reading Quiz Question 2

Part A

Which geological principle states that even if most sedimentary rock layers are presently folded, they were deformed after deposition?

You did not open hints for this part.

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 38/41

Chapter 18 Problem 1 Multiple Choice

Part A

An unconformity is a buried ________.

Chapter 18 Problem 2 Multiple Choice

Part A

Which of the following best characterizes an angular unconformity?

principle of original horizontality

law of superposition

principle of cross­cutting relationships

principle of unconformities

principle of inclusions

surface of erosion separating younger strata above from older strata below

surface of erosion with older strata above and younger strata below

fault or fracture with older rocks above and younger rocks below

fault or fracture with younger strata above and older strata below

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 39/41

Chapter 18 Problem 6 Multiple Choice

Part A

By applying the law of superposition ________ dates can be determined.

Chapter 18 Problem 9 Multiple Choice

Part A

Sandstone strata and a mass of granite are observed to be in contact. Which of the following statements is correct geologically?

Tilted strata lie below the unconformity, and bedding in younger strata above is parallel to the unconformity.

Horizontal lava flows lie below the unconformity, and horizontal, sedimentary strata lie above.

It is the discordant boundary between older strata and an intrusive body of granite.

Tilted strata lie below the unconformity with loose, unconsolidated soil above.

conventional

relative

both relative and radiometric

The sandstone is younger if the granite contains sandstone inclusions.

The granite is older if the sandstone contains pebbles of the granite.

The granite is older if it contains inclusions of sandstone.

The sandstone is younger if it shows evidence of contact metamorphism.

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 40/41

Chapter 18 Problem 28 True/False

Part A

A disconformity is an erosional unconformity with parallel beds or strata above and below.

Chapter 18 Problem 12 Multiple Choice

Part A

A worm would stand a poor chance of being fossilized because ________.

Chapter 18 Problem 51 Short Answer

Part A

The remains or traces of prehistoric life are called ________.

True

False

worms have been rare during the geologic past

worms have no hard parts

worms contain no carbon­14

all of these

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 41/41

Chapter 18 Problem 16 Multiple Choice

Part A

Which of the following is not a very long­lived, radioactive isotope?

Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 47.1%. You received 7.06 out of a possible total of 15 points, plus 0 points of extra credit.

C­14

K­40

U­238

Rb­87