Categories

## Fighting women abuse

Contents

Introduction. 3

Research questions. 5

Analysis. 5

Law examples. 7

Discussion. 8

Conclusion. 10

Fighting women abuse

# Introduction

It can be seen in the past and in the present world that there is Women abuse all over the world. Looking in the past, we have seen there are many cultures that are practicing or in the past, they were practicing the part that the women belong to the lower level and she should not be respected or given respect at all. Here now if we look at the present scenario we come to know that in many developing countries or different regions of the world, it can be seen that abusing women’s through different ways are seen commonly still in different areas. There is much kind of abuses if we talk in detail.

At the point further explored by Jonathan Culler 1986 when research demonstrates that women submit as much private accomplice viciousness as men, the following inquiry is about inspiration and result. Presently inspiration, would men like to overwhelm due to a patriarchal rationale that lets them know they are the supervisor and women must submit? This has however turned into a worldview, an irrefutable beginning stage. The outcome is unquestionable: women are left with significantly more genuine injuries much more frequently (Stevens, 2016)

Source: http://bcfw.org.pg/un-expert-calls-for-legally-binding-global-standard-to-end-violence-against-women/

In the above pictures, we can see that the women abuse at its peak and the women are refusing it in this case.

For quite a long time society has pumped cash into scholastic women’s liberation, into foundations intended to enhance the correspondence of women and men, into national and European projects against viciousness against women. Ladies show improvement over ever some time recently, the compensation hole is gradually shutting, more callings are interested in women, and they are achieving the top in business and in governmental issues. Has everything been without any result? Joyfully there are numerous regions in which extraordinary advance has been made (Baba & Kataoka, 2014).

Not yet, completely, there are still boundaries and unreasonable impediments, it is valid; however, would we be able to claim that the patriarchy still stands unchallenged? No. On the other hand to put it in an unexpected way: why does the FRA just explore viciousness against women in their exploration? Ought to social researchers does not question such ideal models? For to what extent would you be able to keep up that structure as a clarification for everything, including brutality against women?

Viciousness against women and young women is an across the board and precise infringement of crucial human rights infringement and a persisting type of sex-based segregation. Each legislature particularly through political, authoritative, and equity structures, components and procedures are responsible for ending society’s resilience of and states’ absence of responsiveness to this unavoidable scourge on society. It happens in each nation of the world, rich and poor, stable and in a struggle, and influences most women and young women, paying little heed to their age or financial status (Flanagan & Jaquier, 2014).

This extraordinary articulation of male control and control over women frequently starts at earliest stages and may go with a woman for the duration of her life to seniority, through different connections as the girl, sister, simply accomplice, spouse, and mother. Around the world, ladies are helpless and at hazard continuing enthusiastic and mental injury through provocation, fear and dangers, terrorizing, embarrassment, debasement, misuse and physical, particularly sexual, damage, mangling and incapacity, all with incessant wellbeing results even passing.

All types of brutality against ladies and young ladies happen around us once a day, in our homes, families, groups, establishments, working environments and in the tunes, movies, and pictures of famous media. It is not just the ‘regular man’, the grassroots, uneducated or poor man, who confers savagery against women. The establishments of Government, culture, religion, common society and trade are not susceptible from sex-based brutality inside their own particular structures and associations, among their individuals and voting public (Jangama & Muralidharan, 2015).

In their own and expert lives, frequently selling out their trusted parts as accomplices and as suppliers of administration’s proposed to lead, direct, solace, bolster and ensure. Whom can women swing to? Whom can women trust? Specialists, legal counselors, judges, parliamentarians, cops, security watches, senior open workers, boss, ministers and ministers, instructors and medical attendants perpetrate wrongdoings of viciousness against women.

Savagery against women denies women their most essential rights and opportunities, including flexibility of assessment, uniformity and equity under the steady gaze of the law, to wed as indicated by their own choice, to portability, support, to vote, to have entry data and instruction, to work, to be utilized. We are all are responsible for joining to end brutality against women. The privilege to carry on with an existence free from brutality is a right that all women must request a right that all men must accord them (Leeners & Görres, 2016).

# Research questions

There are many questions that actually raises in the mind, some of them, which we will address in the paper, are

• What is the cause behind the women abuse
• What are the reasons the women do not speak for themselves
• What are the steps that can be taken to reduce the violence
• How men and women can combine to reduce the women abuse all over the world

# Analysis

Here it is seen that the sexual abuse is there, physical abuse is common, Emotional abuse, torture, fighting, beating, Abuse at work, and Domestic partner violence and others are commonly seen in the society. We can see there are many cases of abuse that are seen in the world. However, the thing which is seen the women do not speak for their right. It can be seen that they do not express any feelings or they do not like to go to court against the person. The reason is that she will be exposed in front of the world.

Source:           https://i.kinja-img.com/gawker-media/image/upload/s–tJiSh_eN–/c_scale,fl_ progressive, q_80,w_800/18lx7sntd0n3ijpg.jpg

Here we can see that the picture in which all is visible. The women are hurt in here, however, she does not want to show it to the world. On the other hand, she also does not want to go in courts for her rights as well.

If we talk about the picture of the women that is in the veil, we can see there are many aspects that can be discussed in here. The eye of the women that is shown in the picture is not normal. It is beaten up by someone from her family or outside. The point here to discuss is that what the reasons that the women was quite and did not call for help. Another thing, which needs to be considered, is that women are trying to cover the beaten part; however, she is unable to do so even in the veil.

This is the major thing, which needs to be known. There could be many reasons and the different circumstances besides that.  However, it needs to be known that what were the main effect and the reasons this is happening all over the world.

## Law examples

The Criminal Code (Sexual Offenses and Crimes against Children) Act came into constraining in 2003. The enactment obviously characterizes sexual offenses against kids; grows the meaning of interbreeding to cover more classifications of connections; enhances court methods to ensure survivors’ security and respect; expands the meaning of assault; and makes conjugal assault an offense (Unicef.org, 2010).

Not very many instances of sexual orientation based brutality are accounted for to police. Female sex specialists say their grievances to police of sexual viciousness are frequently not recorded in light of the fact that numerous police consider that sex laborers “can’t be assaulted” or decline to make a move without sexual supports consequently. Even more, largely, a long history of receptive and ruthless policing strategies and following human rights infringement has driven numerous parts of the group to dread and question police. Ladies are especially hesitant to report situations where there is stand out the culprit (as opposed to a gathering of men) as they are more averse to be trusted that the sex was non-consensual.

Police are much of the time culprits of sexual orientation based savagery, including abusive behavior at home and pack assault. Police are likewise frequently answered to be culprits of tyke sexual manhandle, e.g. reports of police taking young women in police guardianship out in police vehicles and undermining them with long jail sentences on the off chance that they do not submit to sex. Numerous women say they fear to report wrongdoings to police since they fear being requested that do sexual supports before their grumblings will be followed up on or being assaulted (Unicef.org, 2010).

Police do not regard aggressive behavior at home as a wrongdoing, aside from in the most extraordinary cases. Alternatively, maybe, women are sent home and told their issues are “family matters” or ought to be managed by the town court. Neglected to manage the cost of women protection or affect ability when recording their announcements; neglected to consider the continuous well-being worry of casualties, and set weight on women to settle on the choice on whether and what charges ought to be laid. Absolution International found that most police: neglected to elude women to bolster administrations; neglected to illuminate women about their rights and the advance of examinations.

Ladies’ associations report that securing police reaction can require a solid association with a specific officer or installment for fuel and different costs. An absence of assets, both gear and staff, adds to police inadequacy.

An obstruction to a fruitful indictment of sexual orientation viciousness cases is that casualties and witnesses frequently pull back their collaboration. Facilitate, the formal court framework is troublesome for women to access because of an absence of learning of law and rights, male predominance inside the legal and the urban way of administrations. This may happen because the casualty is scared or debilitated into dropping the grievance or there is overpowering weight to determine the matter outside of the criminal equity framework through the installment of pay. While access to open specialists is actually free, as a rule, there is insignificant access to such administrations because of asset constraints (Unicef.org, 2010).

There are likewise less formal equity instruments set up e.g. therapeutic equity, group based equity, group policing, peace intercession and strife counteractive action/determination. Nevertheless, they additionally can possibly victimize women and dig in their subordinate status. Customary equity systems can undermine uniformity objectives as women’s rights to equity/assurance might be subordinated to the objective of reestablishing congruous relations between gatherings. “Crossbreed” town courts can possibly offer women insurance from sex-based savagery, as they are the broadest government organize in the nation.

There are some positive improvements in the region of access to equity, for example, the notice issued by the Police Commissioner guiding police to regard residential attack as a wrongdoing and not a family matter, and the presence of Sexual Offenses Squads (Unicef.org, 2010).

# Discussion

A study by University of New Hampshire analyst Murray Straus, “Away from public scrutiny: Violence in the American Family,” expresses that one out of 26 American Wives-more than 1.8 million a year get beaten by their spouses every year, except that number, runs considerably higher in instances of husband-beating. Christine Hoff Somers, in her book entitled “Who Stole Feminism?” 1994, refers to measurements guaranteeing that of all ladies who have been included in instances of abusive behavior at home, between 33% and one-half are rehash guilty parties (Rasha & Burki, 2016).

Ladies focuses spread deluding myths that all abusers are male, help women get ready to fill in the clear Court archives, and regularly urge women to misrepresent cases of manhandling to guarantee they can get a defensive request against a spouse. With no hearing or any target evidence of risk to the lady, the man is denied of his home, his property and access to his kids! A large portion of these cases is displayed to Judges as a crisis circumstance so that the spouse has no notice so he can be in court to protect himself against the false assertions (Matthews, 2014).

The activist women’s activists have even prevailed about having laws passed that permit police to appropriate property (weapons) from spouses with a defensive request against them, notwithstanding when the husband had no hearing before the defensive request was issued. Presently, with the flavors of the Clinton Administration, Block Grant Funds (Responsible Fatherhood Project DHHS and The Domestic Violence Against Women Act), were piece conceded to ladies focuses on supporting recording of criminal battery bodies of evidence against spouses. Plainly, the taking of property from a man without him having any hearing is unlawful yet appears not to stress feeble willed state officials who are threatened by activist women’s activists (Sooda & Novotny, 2016).

Presently, States Attorney’s document criminal battery charges construct exclusively in light of the expression of a woman, even with no confirmation of physical mischief. The lawful framework is helping women in rationally manhandling their kids through dissent of associations with their fathers. Kids shout out in the depression brought on by pernicious and misinformed people. In the meantime, the spouse is hit with the pitiless defensive request that denies him of access to his kids or property conceded by a judge without a hearing. The risk has been increased. Presently, spouses wishing to battle for care confronts false, remorseless and criminal cases, enormously expanding the husband’s legitimate costs and lessening the assets accessible to battle for care. (Sartor & Grant, 2016)

# Conclusion

Here we can see that women abuse is basic all over the place, we have seen that a considerable measure of writing has been talked about in such manner. We cannot and ought not to acknowledge brutality as given, something that has happens in all societies and through the ages. Brutality is not satisfactory neither in the lanes nor at home, Keeping in mind the end goal to manage brutality, you require all individuals, everybody. In any case, it can be seen that the photos likewise portrays the viciousness done to the people in here. Not on the off chance, that it is finished by men, nor on the off chance that it is finished by women. Not towards accomplices, and unquestionably not towards the elderly or youngsters everybody is qualified for wellbeing and opportunity, those are basic human rights.

Counteracting viciousness starts in your own circles, starts at home, and starts with yourself. Keeping in mind the end goal to maintain a strategic distance from cliché sexual orientation parts being converted into savagery at home, you need to work with the men. To avoid guardians passing all alone enduring to their kids, you need to work with women and men. These discoveries are urgent while working with women in clinical settings where an investigation into adolescence manhandle is done occasionally. The study has demonstrated that youth manhandle is relatively higher, and it is accounted for by a bigger number of women with a serious mental issue than solid women are, especially psychological mistreatment, which is known to incline people to psychiatric issue (Steiger & Thaler, 2016).

History of adolescence mishandle can have the noteworthy impact on the recuperation and backslides of women with the mental issue. Referral and treatment could decrease the bleakness connected with this psychiatric issue in women who have encountered adolescence manhandle. Our discovering highlights the significance of surveying the nearness and seriousness of physical, enthusiastic and sexual mishandle when directing routine emotional wellness assessment confinement setting.

The examination discoveries that have been exhibited in this article uncover a marvel whereby a developing number of mishandled women are denounced, or undermined to be blamed, of “parental distance”. Inattention to that, the idea of “parental estrangement” constitutes a procedure, among numerous others, to dominate male’s viciousness against people and kids in the public arena. Now, it is unrealistic to completely comprehend the mind-boggling instruments that position mishandled ladies as “taking part in the parental distance”, and this is the reason assist inquire about should be directed around there. The way that it saturates proficient practices in frameworks that should guarantee both women’s and kids’ security and prosperity makes the issue significantly even more concerning.

# References

Baba, K., & Kataoka, Y. (2014). Identifying child abuse and neglect risk among postpartum women in Japan using the Japanese version of the Kempe Family Stress Checklist. Child Abuse & Neglect , 38, 1813–1821.

Flanagan, J. C., & Jaquier, V. (2014). The mediating role of avoidance coping between intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization, mental health, and substance abuse among women experiencing bidirectional IPV. Psychiatry Research , 220, 391–396.

Jangama, K., & Muralidharan, K. (2015). The incidence of childhood abuse among women with psychiatric disorders compared with healthy women: Data from a tertiary care center in India. Child Abuse & Neglect , 50, 67–75.

Lapierre, S., & Côté, I. (2016). Abused women and the threat of parental alienation: Shelter workers’ perspectives. Children and Youth Services Review , 120–126.

Leeners, B., & Görres, G. (2016). Birth experiences in adult women with a history of childhood sexual abuse. Journal of Psychosomatic Research , 83, 27–32.

Matthews, K. A. (2014). Child abuse is related to inflammation in mid-life women: Role of obesity. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity , 36, 29–34.

Rasha, C. J., & Burki, M. (2016). A retrospective and prospective analysis of trading sex for drugs or money in women substance abuse treatment patients. Drug and Alcohol Dependence , 162, 182–189.

Sartor, C. E., & Grant, J. D. (2016). Childhood sexual abuse and two stages of cigarette smoking in African-American and European-American young women. Addictive Behaviors , 60, 131–136.

Sooda, R., & Novotny, P. (2016). Self-reported verbal abuse in 1300+ older women within a private, Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics , 66, 62–65.

Steiger, H., & Thaler, L. (2016). Epistatic interactions involving DRD2, DRD4, and COMT polymorphisms and risk of substance abuse in women with binge-purge eating disturbances. Journal of Psychiatric Research , 77, 8-14.

Stevens-Watkins, D. (2016). John Henryism Active Coping as a Cultural Correlate of Substance Abuse Treatment Participation Among African American Women. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment , 63, 54–60.

Unicef.org. (2010). Ending violence against women and girls Evidence, Data and Knowledge in the Pacific Island Countries. Retrieved October 22, 2016, from http://www.unicef.org: http://www.unicef.org/pacificislands/evaw.pdf

Categories

## what is the enthalpy for the following reaction? overall: c2h4 + h2oâ†’c2h5oh

What is the enthalpy for the following reaction? C2H4 H2O—
17,023 results
Chem
What is the enthalpy for the following reaction? C2H4+H2O—>C2H5OH

asked by Kay on November 4, 2010
Chem
What is the enthalpy for the following reaction? overall: C2H4+H2O—>C2H5OH is -1411kJ correct??

asked by Angel on November 4, 2010
chemistry
If you need to multiply the following reaction by 2 to be an intermediate reaction in a Hess’s law problem, what would be the final value for the enthalpy of reaction you use for this intermediate reaction? C2H4 + 3 O2 2 CO2 + 2 H2O, H = -1410 kJ

asked by Anonymous on November 24, 2014
chemistry
For the reaction shown below complete the following calculations. H2(g) + C2H4(g) –> C2H6(g) (a) Estimate the enthalpy of reaction using the bond energy values in Table 9.4. (b) Calculate the enthalpy of reaction, using standard enthalpies of formation.

asked by hannah on October 27, 2008
Chemistry
Calculate the enthalpy change for: C2H4(g) + H2 –> C2H6(g) delta Hrxn: H2(g) + 1/2O2 –> H2O (l) C2H4(g) + 3O2 –> 2H20(l) + 2CO2(g) C2H6(g) + 7/2O2(g) –> 3H20(l) + 2CO2(g) I know I have to flip the third reaction but I don’t know what to do next

asked by Jessica on October 29, 2014

chemistry

1. Calculate the enthalpy change of combustion for ethene gas (C2H4) given the following enthalpy changes of formation: ΔHºf(C2H4)(g) = +52 kJ mol^-1 ΔHºf(CO2)(g) = -394 kJ mol^-1 ΔHºf(H2O)(g) = -286 kJ mol^-1

asked by John on July 19, 2014
Chemistry
Calculate the work involved if a reaction with an enthalpy change of -2418 kJ is carried out in a vessel with a mobile, frictionless piston. Other details: the reaction is H2(g) + 1/2Oxygen2(g) yields H2O(g) with enthalpy change of -241.8 kJ/mol. The

asked by Mark on November 22, 2008
chemistry
Calculate the ΔH of reaction for: C2H4(g) + H2O(l) = C2H5OH(l) if the ΔH of formation for C2H4(g), H2O(l) and C2H5OH are +52, -286 and -278 kJ/mol, respectively? Enter a numerical value below and be sure to include a minus sign if needed. The error

asked by danny 16 on January 31, 2015
Chemistry
I know I posted this question before, but can you clarify it?? MY QUESTION IS AFTER YOU SWITCHED THE DELTA H1 THE CHANGE IN THE ENTHALPY IS NEGATIVE…. BUT THAT DOES NOT MAKE SENSE BECAUSE THE CHANGE IN ENTHALPY OF THE ORIGINAL DELTA H1 IS

asked by Anonymous on November 14, 2013
CHEMISTRY
I know I posted this question before, but can you clarify it?? MY QUESTION IS AFTER YOU SWITCHED THE DELTA H1 THE CHANGE IN THE ENTHALPY IS NEGATIVE…. BUT THAT DOES NOT MAKE SENSE BECAUSE THE CHANGE IN ENTHALPY OF THE ORIGINAL DELTA H1 IS

asked by Anonymous on November 14, 2013
chemistry

1. Calculate the standard enthalpy change for the reaction: C2H4(g) + H2(g) → C2H6(g) given that the enthalpy of combustion for the reactants and products are: ΔHºc(C2H4)(g) = -1411 kJ mol^-1 ΔHºc(C2H6)(g) = -1560 kJ mol^-1 ΔHºc(H2)(g) = -286 kJ

asked by John on July 19, 2014
Chemistry
Calculate enthalpy of reaction C2H4 + H2 gives C2H6.enthalpy of combustion of ethene, H2,and ethane are -1410,-286,-15.60kj/mol respectively

asked by Shaika on November 7, 2016
Chemistry
Ethanol (C2H5OH) is synthesized for industrial use by the following reaction, carried out at very high pressure. C2H4(g) + H2O(g) → C2H5OH(l) What is the maximum amount, in kg, of ethanol that can be produced when 1.65 kg of ethylene (C2H4) and 0.0610 kg

asked by Brittney on October 6, 2013
Chemistry
Ethanol (C2H5OH) is synthesized for industrial use by the following reaction, carried out at very high pressure. C2H4(g) + H2O(g) C2H5OH(l) What is the maximum amount of ethanol (in grams) that can be produced when 1.0 kg of ethylene (C2H4) and 0.014 kg of

asked by Jack on November 1, 2011
chemistry
What is the maximum amount of ethanol (in grams) that can be produced when 1.0 kg of ethylene (C2H4) and 0.014 kg of steam are placed into the reaction vessel? Ethanol (C2H5OH) is synthesized for industrial use by the following reaction, carried out at

asked by Amanda on November 1, 2011

NEED HELP WITH CHEM HW
Ethanol (C2H5OH) is synthesized for industrial use by the following reaction, carried out at very high pressure. C2H4(g) + H2O(g) C2H5OH(l) What is the maximum amount of ethanol (in grams) that can be produced when 2.2 kg of ethylene (C2H4) and 0.014 kg of

asked by Anonymous on October 1, 2011
Chemistry 2!
consider the following reaction, equilibrium concentrations, and equilibrium constant at a particular temperature. Determine the equilibrium concentration of H2O(g) C2H4(g) + H2O(g) C2H5OH(g) kc= 7.0* 10^3 [C2H4]= 0.010M [C2H5OH]= 1.99M

asked by anonymous. on December 10, 2014
Chemistry
Consider the following reaction, equilibrium concentrations, and equilibrium constant at a particular temperature. Determine the equilibrium concentration of H2O(g). C2H4(g) + H2O(g) C2H5OH(g) Kc = 9.0 × 103 [C2H4]eq = 0.015 M [C2H5OH]eq = 1.69 M

asked by Jane on December 2, 2014
Chemistry
CONTINUE>>>>>>>>>>> The enthalpy changes for two different hydrogenation reactions of C2H2 are: C2H2+H2—->C2H4 Delta H 1 (there is a degree sign….standard enthalpy of formation??) *WAIT A SECOND, IF I USE THE HEAT OF FORMATION VALUES TO CALCULATE

asked by Anonymous on November 14, 2013
Chemistry
Calculate the standard entropy, ΔS°rxn, of the following reaction at 25.0 °C using the data in this table. The standard enthalpy of the reaction, ΔH°rxn, is –44.2 kJ·mol–1. C2H4(G)+H20 —> C5H5OH ΔS°rxn= __ JK^-1mol^-1 Then, calculate

asked by Patrick Panasko on November 30, 2014
CHEMISTRY
Please explain. The enthalpy changes for two different hydrogenation reactions of C2H2 are: C2H2+H2—->C2H4 Delta H 1 C2H2+2H2—->C2H6 Delta H 2 Which expression represents the enthalpy change for the reaction below? C2H4+H2—->C2H6 Delta H = ? A. Delta

asked by Anonymous on November 11, 2013
Chemistry
Please explain. The enthalpy changes for two different hydrogenation reactions of C2H2 are: C2H2+H2—->C2H4 Delta H 1 C2H2+2H2—->C2H6 Delta H 2 Which expression represents the enthalpy change for the reaction below? C2H4+H2—->C2H6 Delta H = ? A. Delta

asked by Anonymous on November 11, 2013
Science
The enthalpy change for the reaction 2 H2 + O2 > 2 H20 is -571.6 kJ. Determine the enthalpy change for the decomposition of 24.0g H2O. My Process -571.6 is the enthalpy of 2 mols of H2O. So the enthalpy of 1 mol of H2O will be -285.8. Since it’s

asked by Mike on July 9, 2015
Chemistry
Calculate the work involved if a reaction with an enthalpy change of -2418 kJ is carried out in a vessel with a mobile, frictionless piston. Other details: the reaction is H2(g) + 1/2Oxygen2(g) yields H2O(g) with enthalpy change of -241.8 kJ/mol. The

asked by Mark on November 23, 2008
Chemistry
Ethylene glycol, HOCH2CH2OH, is used as antifreeze. It is produced from ethylene oxide, C2H4O, by the following reaction. C2H4O(g) + H2O(l) → HOCH2CH2OH(l) Use Hess’s law to obtain the enthalpy change for this reaction from the following enthalpy

asked by Mariam on December 13, 2009

chemistry
Ethylene glycol, HOCH2CH2OH, is used as antifreeze. It is produced from ethylene oxide, C2H4O, by the following reaction. C2H4O(g) + H2O(l) → HOCH2CH2OH(l) Use Hess’s law to obtain the enthalpy change for this reaction from the following enthalpy

asked by caroline on October 29, 2010
chemistry-Thermochemistry (grade 12)
calculate enthalpy of H for the reaction N2H4(l) + 2H2O(l) -> N2(g) + 4H2)(l) Given the reactions N2H4(l) + O2(g) -> N2(g) + 2H2O(l) Enthalpy of H = -6.22.2 kJ H2(g) + (1/2)O2(g) -> H2O(l) enthalpy of H = -285.8 kJ/mol H2(g) + O2(g) -> H2O2(l) enthalpy of

asked by Rose Bud on February 16, 2012
chemistry-Thermochemistry (grade 12)
calculate enthalpy of H for the reaction N2H4(l) + 2H2O(l) -> N2(g) + 4H2)(l) Given the reactions N2H4(l) + O2(g) -> N2(g) + 2H2O(l) Enthalpy of H = -6.22.2 kJ H2(g) + (1/2)O2(g) -> H2O(l) enthalpy of H = -285.8 kJ/mol H2(g) + O2(g) -> H2O2(l) enthalpy of

asked by Rose Bud on February 16, 2012
Chemistry!
Calculate the work involved if a reaction with an enthalpy change of -2418 kJ is carried out in a vessel with a mobile, frictionless piston. Other details: the reaction is H2(g) + 1/2Oxygen2(g) yields H2O(g) with enthalpy change of -241.8 kJ/mol. The

asked by Elizabeth on November 23, 2008
Chemistry due soon
What is enthalpy? A. Enthalpy is the kinetic energy of a system. B. Enthalpy is the heat involved in a reaction. C. Enthalpy is the temperature of a reaction. D. Enthalpy is the mass involved in a reaction. I think the answer is a or b

asked by Morgan on November 6, 2014
chemistry
Given the following equations: 2 H2O2 (aq) → 2 H2O (l) + O2 (g) and C2H4 (g) + 3 O2 (g) → 2 CO2 (g) + 2 H2O (l) The first reaction is the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen gas. The oxygen gas generated in the first reaction is

asked by april on July 1, 2018
CHEMISTRY
calculate the delta h for the reaction 2C+2H–> C2H4 C+O2–> Co2 delta h= -393.5 C2H4+ 3O2–> 2CO2+ 2H2O delta h= 1410.9 H2+ 1/2 O2–> H2O delta h= -285.8 2CO+ O2–> 2CO2 delta h= -566.0 do you flip the first two equations and times the first and third one

asked by Anonymous on June 6, 2010
chemistry
A scientist measures the standard enthalpy change for the following reaction to be -53.4 kJ : Ca(OH)2(aq) + 2 HCl(aq) CaCl2(s) + 2 H2O(l) Based on this value and the standard enthalpies of formation for the other substances, the standard enthalpy of

asked by Austin on March 18, 2012
chemistry
A scientist measures the standard enthalpy change for the following reaction to be -53.4 kJ : Ca(OH)2(aq) + 2 HCl(aq) CaCl2(s) + 2 H2O(l) Based on this value and the standard enthalpies of formation for the other substances, the standard enthalpy of

asked by Austin on March 18, 2012
chemistry
Calculate enthalpy change of reaction for the combustion of gaseous ethanol. C2H5OH + 3O2 >> CO2 + 3H2O. Using standard molar enthalpies of formation. C2H5OH -235.3 ( it’s negative sign) CO2 -393.5 H2O -241.8 (1) Calculate the enthalpy change of reaction

asked by Alex on April 20, 2010

Chemistry
C2H4(g) + H2O(l) → C2H5O(l) what is the rendition percentage if 4.50g of C2H4 produce 4.7g of ethyl alcohol?

asked by Alex on September 11, 2012
Chemistry
Calculate the enthalpy change for the reaction 2C (s) + H2 (g) yield C2H2 (g) given the following reactions and their respective enthalpy changes: C2H2(g) + 5/2 O2(g) yield 2CO2(g) + H2O (l) = -1299.6kJ C(s) + O2(g) yield CO2 (g) -393.5 H2(g) + 1/2 O2(g)

asked by Lucy on December 29, 2007
Chemistry
Calculate the enthalpy change for the reaction 2C + H2 yield C2H2 given the following reactions and their respective enthalpy changes: C2H2 + 5/2 O2 yield 2CO + H2O -1299.6 C + O yield CO2 -393.5 H2 + 1/2 O2 yield H2O -285.9 I don’t even know how to start

asked by Lucy on December 24, 2007
chemistry
Calculate the enthalpy of reaction for the combustion of ethene. Express the enthalpy of reaction calculated in question above as a molar enthalpy of reaction per mole of carbon dioxide.

asked by shyanne on January 8, 2013
chemistry
c2h4(g) + 3O2(g) -> 2 CO2 (g) + 2 H2O (g) What volume of oxygen will react with 18 ml of ehtylene, c2h4, assuming that the gases are present at the same temperature and pressure?

asked by Monica on April 19, 2010
Chemistry
The standard enthalpy of formation of H2O (l) is -285.8 kJ/mol. Calculate ∆E° for the following reaction. H2O (l) → H2 (g) + 1/2 O2 (g)

asked by Mahnoor on November 15, 2014
Chemistry
The standard enthalpy of formation of H2O (l) is -285.8 kJ/mol. Calculate DEO for the following reaction. H2O (l) → H2 (g) + 1/2 O2 (g)

asked by Mahnoor on November 15, 2014
CHemistry
Given the following information calculate the heat of formation of C2H4. C2H4 + 3 O2 ¡æ 2 CO2 + 2 H2O ¥ÄH¡Æ = -414 kJ/mol C + O2 ¡æ CO2 ¥ÄH¡Æ = -393.5 kJ/mol H2 + ¨ö O2 ¡æ H2O ¥ÄH¡Æ = -241.8 kJ/mol

asked by sam on April 26, 2015
Chemistry
Reposted: Use Hess’s law to calculate the enthalpy change for the reaction: 3C(s) + 3H2(g) yield C3H6(g) Given the following thermochemical equations: 2C3H6(g) + 9O2(g) yield 6CO2(g) + 6H2O(l) enthalpy change= -4116.0 kJ/mol C(s) + O2(g) yield CO2(g)

asked by Hailee on March 17, 2012
Chemisty
I need a recap of how to do the question below. I just need the basic guidelines: The enthalpy change for the reaction 2H2(g)+O2 > 2H2O is -571.6kJ. Determine the enthalpy change for the decomposition of 24.0g H2O.

asked by Todd on June 26, 2015

chemistry
Consider the reaction, C2H4(g) + H2(g) ® C2H6(g), where DH = – 137 kJ. How many kilojoules are released when 55.3 g of C2H4 reacts?

asked by Cooper on October 21, 2011
Chemistry
Find the enthalpy for : 4Fe + 3O2 = 2Fe2O3 I got the following informations: Fe + 3H2O = Fe(OH)3 + 3/2H2 – Enthalpy is 160.9 kj H2 + 1/2O2 = H2O – Enthalpy is -285.8 kj Fe2O3 + 3H2O = 2Fe(OH)3 – Enthalpy is 288.6 I try using Hess Law but cannot solve it.

asked by Shadow on May 13, 2013
Chemistry
Which of the following is the best definition of Hess’ Law? A. Heat is always released by the decomposition of 1 mole of a compound into its constitute elements. B. The enthalpy of a process is the difference between the enthalpy of the products and the

asked by Anonymous on February 20, 2008
please check my answer
Consider the following equations. N2H4(l) + O2(g) N2(g) + 2 H2O(l) ÄH = -622.2 kJ H2(g) + 1/2 O2(g) H2O(l) ÄH = -258.5 kJ H2(g) + O2(g) H2O2(l) ÄH = -187.8 kJ Use this information to calculate the enthalpy change for the reaction shown below. N2H4(l) +

asked by hannah on November 6, 2012
chem- i reallyneed help
Consider the following equations. N2H4(l) + O2(g) N2(g) + 2 H2O(l) ÄH = -622.2 kJ H2(g) + 1/2 O2(g) H2O(l) ÄH = -258.5 kJ H2(g) + O2(g) H2O2(l) ÄH = -187.8 kJ Use this information to calculate the enthalpy change for the reaction shown below. N2H4(l) +

asked by hannah on November 6, 2012
chemistry- stoichiometry problems
C2H4+3 O2->2 co2+2 H2O If you start wit 45 grams of C2H4 how many grams of carbon dioxide will be produced?

asked by anon on April 22, 2009
Chemistry
Which of the following is the best definition of Hess’ Law? A. Heat evolved in a given process can be expressed as the sum of the heats of several processes that, when added, yield the process of interest. B. The enthalpy of a process is the difference

asked by Jared on May 7, 2007
Hess’ law
Which of the following is the best definition of Hess’ Law? A. Heat is always released by the decomposition of 1 mole of a compound into its constitute elements. B. Since enthalpy is a state function, it will be different if a reaction takes place in one

asked by christine on February 9, 2007
college chem
Calculate the molar enthalpy of reaction standard enthalpy of formation below. H20 = -285.8 kj/mole H+ = 0.0 kj/mole OH- = -229.9 kj/mol H+(aq) + OH-(aq)→H2O(l) For this, don’t you do the summation of products x stoichemtry + the sum of reactants x

asked by sam on November 20, 2014
Enthalypy Reaction
What is the standard enthalpy of reaction for the following chemical reaction? CO2(g) + 2KOH(s) –> H2O(g) + K2CO3 (s) Express your answers numerically in kJ.

asked by Sarah on September 23, 2008

Chemistry
Please write the chemical equation and calculate the reaction enthalpy (or energy) for the total chlorination (addition of chlorine gas to all double bonds) of cyclopentadiene (if you do not know what cyclopentadiene is, assume C2H4).

asked by Eddie on December 6, 2010
chemistry
Please write the chemical equation and calculate the reaction enthalpy (or energy) for the total bromination (addition of bromine gas to all double bonds) of 2,3-dimethylbutadiene (if you do not know what 2,3-dimethylbutadiene is, assume C2H4).

asked by Eddie on December 7, 2010
Chemistry-Thermochemistry (grade 12)
Thermochemistry determine the final temperature if 45.67 kJ of heat energy is removed from 18.5 g of H2O (g) at 122 degrees Celsius useful information sp. heat H2O (s) = 2.03 J/g(degree C) sp heat H2O (l) = 4.18 J/g(degree C) Sp heat H2O (g) = 2.01

asked by Rose Bud on February 15, 2012
Chemistry
Which of the following is the best definition of Hess’ Law? A. Since enthalpy is a state function, it will be different if a reaction takes place in one step or a series of steps. B. Heat is always released by the decomposition of 1 mole of a compound into

asked by Anonymous on February 24, 2008
Chemistry
Consider the reaction of Lithium with water: 2 Li(s) + 2H2O(l) —-> 2 LiOH(aq) + H2(g) The delta H of the reaction is -160 KJ The enthalpy of fusion of H2O is 6.0 kJ/mol The specific heat capacity of H2O(l) is 4.18 J/gC When 10 grams of Li(s) is dropped

asked by Vinit on October 27, 2015
Chemistry
With a platinum catalyst, ammonia will burn in oxygen to give nitric oxide, NO. 4 NH3(g) + 5 O2(g) 4 NO(g) + 6 H2O(g) ÄH = -906 kJ What is the enthalpy change for the following reaction? NO(g) + 3/2 H2O(g) NH3(g) + 5/4 O2(g)

asked by Glenna on October 18, 2008
Chemistry
What is the standard enthalpy of reaction for the following reaction: H2 + 1/2 O2 –> H2O(g)

asked by Lauren on March 11, 2011
Chemistry
Calculate the enthalpy of the reaction 2B2H6 + 6O2=2B2O3 +6H2O given the following pertinent information: A. B2O3(s) + 2H2) )g) = 3O2 (g) + B2H6 (g), delta H= +2035kJ B. 2B (s) + 3H2 (g) =B2H6 (g), delta H= +36 kJ C. H2 (g) + 1/2)2 (g) =H2O (l), delta

asked by B on April 22, 2012
Chemistry
The enthalpy of formation for a substance corresponds to the enthalpy change for a reaction. Write the specific chemical reaction defining the enthalpy of formation of butane: Just checking to make sure this is correct: 4C + 5H2 —> C4H10

asked by AJ on March 26, 2017
chemistry
A scientist measures the standard enthalpy change for the following reaction to be -2923.0 kJ : 2C2H6(g) + 7 O2(g) 4CO2(g) + 6 H2O(g) Based on this value and the standard enthalpies of formation for the other substances, the standard enthalpy of formation

asked by Anonymous on October 24, 2012

Chemistry
A calorimeter contains 30.0 mL of water at 15.0 C. When 1.50 g of X (a substance with a molar mas of 46.0g/ mol is added, it dissolves via the reaction X (s) + H2O (l) —-> X (aq) and the temperature of the solution increases to 26.5 C. Calculate the

asked by Student on March 11, 2016
chemistry
The reaction SO2 + H2O =H2SO4 Is the last step in the commercial production of sulfuric acid . the enthalpy change for this reaction is -227 KJ . In designing a sulfuric acid plant is it necessary to provide for heating or cooling of the reaction mixture ?

asked by mathew on November 12, 2014
Chemistry
Table sugar consists mostly of sucrose, C12H22O11. The standard enthalpy of combustion for sucrose is the standard state delta H for the reaction: C12H22O11 + 12 O 2 —> 12 CO2 + 11 H2O Calculate this standard state delta H. Give answer in units of kJ to

asked by Eli on December 3, 2016
chemistry
Consider the reaction, C2H4 (g) + H2 (g)- C2H6 (g) where -137kJ of heat is released. How many kilojoules are released when 55.3g of C2H4 reacts?

asked by Sandy on July 10, 2011
Chemistry
Estimate the enthalpy change for the following reaction OH(g)+CH4(g)==>CH3(g)+H2O(g)

asked by West on April 19, 2011
College Chemistry
Estimate the enthalpy change for the following reaction OH(g)+CH4(g)==>CH3(g)+H2O(g)

asked by West on April 21, 2011
chemistry
Calculate the standard enthalpy change for the following reaction at 25 °C. H2O+C(graphite)(s) –> H2(g) +CO(g)

asked by anon on October 28, 2016
chemistry
estimate the enthalpy change for the following reaction: OF2 + H2O = O2 + 2HF

asked by small on November 27, 2016
Chemistry
how many C2H4 molecules are contained in 45.8 mg C2H4 when the molar mass of C2H4 is 28.05g/mol

asked by Thomissa on September 5, 2011
chemistry please help!
Calculate the enthalpy of the reaction of boron trioxide with steam: B2O3(s) + 3H2O(g) → 3O2(g) + B2H6(g) Given: H2O(l) H2(g) + 1⁄2 O2(g) 2B(s) + 3H2(g) 2B(s) + 3/2 O2(g) → B2O3(s) → H2O(g) → H2O(l) → B2H6(g) 44 kJ/mol -286 kJ/mol 36 kJ/mol

asked by Lay on October 19, 2015

college chemistry
The chemical reaction representing production of water gas is as follows: C(s)+H2O(l)=CO(g)+H2(g) calculate the enthalpy change in the production of 200L(at 500mmHg and 65degree celcius) of hydrogen by this reaction.

asked by bennett on November 3, 2008
chemistry URGENT (2)
Label each of the following reactions as exothermic or endothermic (“exo” or “endo”), and according to whether work is done on or by the system (“on” or “by”)? Note that no “en-on” cases appear here, as these are always thermodynamically unfavourable.

asked by Anonymous on November 16, 2008
chemistry
Label each of the following reactions as exothermic or endothermic (“exo” or “endo”), and according to whether work is done on or by the system (“on” or “by”)? Note that no “en-on” cases appear here, as these are always thermodynamically unfavourable.

asked by Anonymous on November 16, 2008
Chemistry
The equation for the complete combustion of ethene (C2H4) is C2H4(g) + 3 O2(g) ==> 2CO2(g) + 2H2O(g) If 2.70 mol C2H4 is reacted with 6.30 mole O2, identify the limiting reagent. show all work.

asked by Danny on March 27, 2010
Chemistry
The reaction between 0.045 g of calcium with an excess of water was carried out in an ice calorimeter as used in this lab. The volume of water in the calorimeter decreased by 0.18 mL during the reaction a) Write the equation for the reaction which occurs.

asked by Sean on June 3, 2009
chemistry
When NH3 is treated with oxygen gas, the products obtained are N2(g) and H2O(l). If standard enthalpies of formation at 298 K for NH3(g) and H2O(l) are –46.00 kJ/mol and –286.0 kJ/mol respectively, calculate the enthalpy change of the reaction.

asked by Shana on January 27, 2015
chem
When NH3 is treated with oxygen gas, the products obtained are N2(g) and H2O(l). If standard enthalpies of formation at 298 K for NH3(g) and H2O(l) are –46.00 kJ/mol and –286.0 kJ/mol respectively, calculate the enthalpy change of the reaction.

asked by shana on January 27, 2015
Chemistry
Question 9 Unsaved What is the rate law for the following reaction, if the order of the reaction is m, an unknown? H2O2(aq) → H2O(l) + ½O2(g) a. k [H2O2]m b.k [H2O]m [O2]1/2 c.k [H2O] m /[H2O][O2 d.k[H2O] m [O2]m Thanks in advance. The k and m are meant

asked by Ramon on March 23, 2018
Chemistry
‘At 600.0 K, the equilibrium constant based on pressure is Kp = 1.83 x 10^2. Gaseous C2H4 and H2O are placed in a 1.2 L closed flask at 600.0 K. At equilibrium, the flask contains 0.0062 mol of C2H4 and 0.041 mol of H2O. Determine the equilibrium

asked by SaraF275 on January 30, 2018
Chemistry practice
Using the form of energy diagram,make a concept map of the two different methods of calculation of reaction enthalpy(via the bond enthalpy and via the enthalpy of formation)

asked by Gift on July 31, 2011

Chemistry
When a chemist burns ammonia according to the reaction below she finds that the reaction releases heat. (It is exothermic.) 4NH3(g) + 3O2(g) 2N2(g) + 6H2O(g) The enthalpy of the reaction DH = -1267 kJ. What is the enthalpy change (in kJ) when 7 grams of

asked by Devin on January 12, 2015
Chemisty
Calculate the standard enthalpy change for the following reaction at 25 °C. MgCl2(s)+H2O(l)–>MgO(s)+2HCl

asked by Orton on April 1, 2013
Chemistry
Calculate the standard enthalpy change for the following reaction at 25 °C. MgCl2(s) + H2o(l) —> MgO(s) + 2HCl(g)

asked by Matt on June 19, 2013
Chemistry
In the dehydrogenation of ethane two reactions take place: C2H6 => C2H4 + H2 C2H6 + H2 => 2CH4 The mass distribution of the product is: 27% C2H6; 33% C2H4; 13% H2; 27% CH4. 1. What was the conversion of C2H6 to CH4? 2. What was the yield of C2H4 expressed

asked by Hoang on November 24, 2016
Chemistry
O3 + NO –> O2 + NO2 (all in gas state) Calculate the change in enthalpy for the reaction at room temp. using the following data ^Hf: O3 = 143 NO = 90 NO2 = 33 So, I have 143+90–> X + 33. I don’t know what the enthalpy of O2 is. I assume you simply

asked by Anonymous on February 18, 2008
Chemistry
Calculate the enthalpy of formation if 78.5 g of carbon dioxide in the following reaction: C(s) + H2O(g) –> CO2(g) Use the following equations: a) H2O(l) –> H2(g) + (1/2)O2(g): Δ°f = +285.8 kJ/mol b) C2H6(g) –> 2C(s) + 3H2(g): Δ°f = +84.7 kJ/mol c)

asked by anon on March 23, 2017
Chemistry
Using standard enthalpies information, calculate the standard enthalpy change for this reaction. a)(thermite reaction) 2Al(s) + Fe2O3(s) = Al2O3(s) + 2Fe(s) b)Mg(OH)2(s) = MgO(s) + H2O(I) c)N2O4(g) + 4H2(g) = N2(g) + 4H2O(g) d)SiCl4(I) + 2H2O(I) = SiO2(s)

asked by Dan on July 3, 2014
Chemistry
Using standard enthalpies information, calculate the standard enthalpy change for this reaction: a) (thermite reaction) 2Al(s) + Fe2O3(s) = Al2O3(s) + 2Fe(s) b) Mg(OH)2(s) = MgO(s) + H2O(I) c) N2O4(g) + 4H2(g) = N2(g) + 4H2O(g) d) SiCl4(I) + 2H2O(I) =

asked by Brett on July 3, 2014
chemistry
Calculate the molar enthalpy change for this reaction: HCl(aq 1.00M) + NaOH -> NaCl(aq,.500M)+ H2O Initial temp: 22.15 degrees Celsius Extrapolated temp: 25.87 degrees Celsius DT: 3.72 degrees Celsius Notes: Calculate the enthalpy change for this reaction.

asked by Failure on November 10, 2015
chemistry
The reaction between 0.045 g of calcium with an excess of water was carried out in an ice calorimeter as used in this lab. The volume of water in the calorimeter decreased by 0.18 mL during the reaction a) Write the equation for the reaction which occurs.

asked by Anonymous on November 10, 2008

chem
Are bond energies (single and multiple bonds) applicable only to gas phase?? For instance, I can use the bond energy data to calculate for enthalpy of reaction for the formation of water: 2 H2(g) + O2(g) -> H2O(g) But I can’t directly use it to calculate

asked by Namie on September 19, 2012
chemistry
Are bond energies (single and multiple bonds) applicable only to gas phase?? For instance, I can use the bond energy data to calculate for enthalpy of reaction for the formation of water: 2 H2(g) + O2(g) -> H2O(g) But I can’t directly use it to calculate

asked by Namie on September 19, 2012
Chemistry
Calculate the enthalpy change, ΔrH, for the following reaction, 4 NH3 (g) + 5 O2(g) → 4 NO (g) + 6 H2O (g) given the thermochemical equations below. N2 (g) + O2 (g) → 2 NO (g) ΔrH° = +181 kJ N2 (g) + 3 H2 (g) → 2 NH3 (g) ΔrH° = 91.8 kJ 2 H2

asked by Hannah on October 2, 2011
physics 30
Given the reaction 3 NO2(g) + H2O(l) ¨ 2 HNO3(l) + NO(g) ƒ¢rH = -72.0 kJ, calculate the molar enthalpy of reaction, rH for: 1) NO2(g) 2) H20 (l) 3) HNO3 (l) 4) NO (g) Express you answer in Kj/mol

asked by ?????halp on February 10, 2015
Chemistry
The homework question is : Calculate the Delta H for the following reaction: C6H6 + O2 -> C + H2O(l) State whether the reaction is exothermic or endothermic. I’m not sure where to go with this but so far I balanced out the formula to this C6H6 + (3/2)O2 ->

asked by Alexa on December 1, 2014

Categories

## 2009 ap microeconomics free response answers

THE CORPORATION’S PLACE IN SOCIETY

Gabriel Rauterberg*

Morality, Competition, and the Firm: The Market Failures Approach to Business Ethics. By Joseph Heath. New York: Ox- ford University Press. 2014. Pp. ix, 372. $65. The social responsibility of business is to increase its profits. —Milton Friedman1 Economic justice is concerned with the fairness with which benefits and bur- dens . . . are distributed . . . among organizational stakeholders. —Newman S. Peery, Jr.2 The vast majority of economic activity is now organized through corpo- rations. The public corporation is usurping the state’s role as the most im- portant institution of wealthy capitalist societies. Across the developed world, there is increasing convergence on the shareholder-owned corpora- tion as the primary vehicle for creating wealth.3 Yet nothing like this degree of convergence has occurred in answering the fundamental questions of cor- porate capitalism: What role do corporations serve? What is the goal of cor- porate law? What should corporate managers do? Discussion of these questions is as old as the institutions involved. Contemporary reflection on these questions takes the form of two starkly different and estranged orthodoxies.4 Both are now decades old, but neither shows any sign of either subsiding or emerging victorious. In corpo- rate finance, economics, and most of corporate law, the orthodoxy is that a corporation should aim exclusively to maximize shareholder value within * Post-Doctoral Research Scholar, Program in the Law & Economics of Capital Markets, Columbia Law School. 1. Milton Friedman, The Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, N.Y. Times, Sept. 13, 1970 (Magazine), at 32. 2. Newman S. Peery, Jr., Business, Government, and Society 12 (1995) (emphasis omitted). 3. Henry Hansmann & Reinier Kraakman, The End of History for Corporate Law, 89 Geo. L.J. 439, 439–41 (2001). 4. Usha Rodrigues, From Loyalty to Conflict: Addressing Fiduciary Duty at the Officer Level, 61 Fla. L. Rev. 1, 10 (2009) (“What is striking is that two different disciplines [of corporate law and business ethics] have apparently settled on two completely different answers to the central question in their fields—for whom should a corporation be governed? Even more striking has been the general lack of interest from either side in bridging the gulf be- tween business ethics and corporate law.” (footnote omitted)). 913 914 Michigan Law Review [Vol. 114:913 the constraints established by law (“shareholder theory”).5 In business eth- ics, the leading view is that corporate managers should balance the interests of all the constituencies affected by a firm’s actions, including employees, suppliers, consumers, owners, and the broader society (“stakeholder theory”).6 Joseph Heath’s new book, Morality, Competition, and the Firm,7 revisits these questions. Heath criticizes the two standard views and develops an alternative, which he calls a “market failures” approach (p. 1). Heath en- dorses much of the shareholder view, but offers a powerful critique of its application. In essence, he suggests that it is managers’ ethical responsibility to pursue shareholder wealth maximization if, and only if, doing so is con- ducive to aggregate social efficiency.8 Often this will be the case, but under 5. Academically, the shareholder value view is reflected in the leading treatises of corpo- rate finance, economics, and corporate law. See, e.g., Richard A. Brealey et al., Fundamen- tals of Corporate Finance 12 (8th ed. 2015) (“[T]here is a natural financial objective on which almost all shareholders can agree: Maximize the current market value of shareholders’ investment in the firm.”); Michael C. Jensen, Value Maximization, Stakeholder Theory, and the Corporate Objective Function, J. Applied Corp. Fin., Fall 2001, at 8, 8 (“Most economists would answer simply that managers must have a criterion for evaluating performance and deciding between alternative courses of action, and that the criterion should be maximization of the long-term market value of the firm.”); Eric W. Orts, The Complexity and Legitimacy of Corporate Law, 50 Wash. & Lee L. Rev. 1565, 1588 (1993) (“A favorite claim by law-and- economics reformers is that the principles of corporate law reduce to a single goal: maximize profit and shareholder wealth.”). Nor is this view merely an academic conceit. See Dodge v. Ford Motor Co., 170 N.W. 668, 684 (Mich. 1919), for what is certainly the most famous judi- cial articulation of this view: “[I]t is not within the lawful powers of a board of directors to shape and conduct the affairs of a corporation for the merely incidental benefit of sharehold- ers and for the primary purpose of benefiting others . . . .” See also Reinier Kraakman et al., The Anatomy of Corporate Law 28 (2d ed. 2009) (“[I]t is sometimes said that the appropri- ate role of corporate law is simply to assure that the corporation serves the best interests of its shareholders or, more specifically, to maximize financial returns to shareholders . . . .”); Busi- nesses’ Tax Dodges Are Burden to All, Morning Call (Mar. 1, 2000), http://articles.mcall.com/ 2000-03-01/news/3292412_1_tax-shelters-tax-loopholes-federal-income-taxes [http:// perma.cc/R4S8-8ZMR] (“The business of a corporation is to maximize its earnings for its shareholders[.]” (quoting then-House Majority Leader Dick Armey)). 6. Lumen N. Mulligan, What’s Good for the Goose Is Not Good for the Gander: Sarbanes- Oxley-Style Nonprofit Reforms, 105 Mich. L. Rev. 1981, 2004 (2007) (“By most accounts, stakeholder theory is the preeminent contemporary normative theory of business ethics, espe- cially among business practitioners.”); Robert Phillips et al., What Stakeholder Theory Is Not, 13 Bus. Ethics Q. 479, 489 (2003). See generally R. Edward Freeman, Strategic Manage- ment: A Stakeholder Approach (1984) (discussing stakeholder theory as a practical tool for business management); Robert Phillips, Stakeholder Theory and Organizational Eth- ics (2003) (discussing stakeholder theory as a dominant theory of organizational ethics). 7. Joseph Heath is a Professor in the Department of Philosophy and the School of Pub- lic Policy and Governance at the University of Toronto. 8. There are two principal conceptions of efficiency in welfare economics, termed Pareto efficiency and Kaldor-Hicks efficiency. One state of the world is a Pareto improvement over another if no one is worse off in the new state and at least one person is better off. A Pareto optimum exists when there could be no change to the state of the world that would make one person better off without making anyone worse off. Because of its extremely de- manding conditions, major social policies are unlikely to ever constitute strict Pareto improve- ments. Even a law against fraud, for example, makes con artists worse off. As a result, the April 2016] The Corporation’s Place in Society 915 conditions of market failure—when the allocation of goods and services in a market is inefficient for some reason—it is possible to increase shareholder wealth without contributing to social efficiency. Heath’s approach forbids corporate managers from pursuing shareholders’ interests when doing so exploits a market failure. This simple ideal of corporate managers as custodi- ans of social efficiency turns out to have dramatic implications for business ethics. The scholarship addressing what corporate managers should aim to achieve is extensive.9 What sets Heath’s book apart is the remarkable breadth of legal, economic, and political analyses that he brings to bear and the bril- liance with which he synthesizes them.10 This book is one of the new cen- tury’s most important contributions to addressing capitalism’s fundamental questions. This Review begins with the foundations of the market failures ap- proach and a critique of the shareholder and stakeholder views. Heath’s crit- ical project is largely successful and surely one of the most important contributions of the book. I then turn to the viability of the market failures approach. While sympathetic to the insights driving it, I ultimately find the market failures view to be far more exacting than Heath imagines it to be. Heath’s book aspires to offer both compelling and realistic ethics for corpo- rate managers, and it is in his second aspiration that I think he fails. This is, in itself, rather striking. Heath explicitly takes his vision of corporate pur- pose and managerial ethics to consist solely of the pursuit of efficiency, which he calls a kind of “implicit morality of the market.”11 Yet even the naked goal of social efficiency imposes a set of moral requirements so de- manding as to be plainly utopian. I then turn to what I take to be a clear-eyed—some might say pessimis- tic—assessment of the prospects for any demanding business ethic within the specific institutional environment of today’s corporate marketplace. Spe- cifically, I argue that features of that marketplace effectively punish any form of ethical conduct that cuts into corporate profits. In the current configura- tion, business ethics with bite is thus in a very real sense unsustainable. I Kaldor-Hicks criterion of efficiency was developed. A change in the world is Kaldor-Hicks efficient if those who are better off as a result of the change could compensate those who are worse off, so that no individual was worse off, and at least one person was still better off. Jules L. Coleman, Economics and the Law: A Critical Review of the Foundations of the Economic Approach to Law, 94 Ethics 649, 649–51 (1984); see also J.R. Hicks, The Foundations of Welfare Economics, 49 Econ. J. 696, 700–01, 706 (1939); Nicholas Kaldor, Welfare Propositions of Eco- nomics and Interpersonal Comparisons of Utility, 49 Econ. J. 549 (1939). 9. See supra notes 4–6; infra Section I.A. 10. This Review cannot hope to cover the vast number of topics that Heath discusses in his provocative, nearly 400-page book, but students of applied ethics, sociology, political phi- losophy, corporate law, and economics will all find much of interest. 11. P. 173. Heath borrows this phrase from Christopher McMahon. See Christopher McMahon, Public Capitalism: The Political Authority of Corporate Executives 117 (2012). 916 Michigan Law Review [Vol. 114:913 suggest how we might imagine alternative environments in which corpora- tions can aspire to more than profit. I. What Are Corporations For? There is nothing intrinsically valuable about the interests of sharehold- ers. So how did a single-minded emphasis on pursuing their interests be- come the dominant view of corporate purpose across economics, corporate law, and finance? Few slogans have put down as deep roots in the academic, popular, and political imaginations as Milton Friedman’s famous declara- tion that “The Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits.”12 Seeing the appeal of this view is thus important. Surprisingly, the easiest way to do so is through sketching the case for Heath’s own approach. The basic architecture of the market failures approach is to focus on the normative goal of a system of private, market-based competition among producers and consumers, and then to elaborate a set of ethical principles based on promoting that goal. The goal is a simple one—social efficiency. The simplest way to see this is that the law actually prohibits forms of coop- eration that are promoted by everyday morality, effectively demanding that firms compete with one another. In particular, antitrust laws generally pro- hibit agreements among businesses in the same area to stop competing with each other.13 Corporate managers who agree, for instance, to charge the same price—and thus to “defect” from market competition—can go to prison as a result.14 This is despite the fact—or rather because of it—that price competition is a kind of prisoner’s dilemma for the firms involved, in which the outcome is suboptimal for all of them, but conducive to economic efficiency at a social level.15 Thus, the highly competitive markets that are characteristic of devel- oped economies do not simply appear by happenstance. They arise within a well-structured legal environment, which clearly defines and enforces con- tract and property rights16—and as mentioned, firms compete within a legal environment that expressly prohibits cartelization.17 A well-functioning market is thus a kind of staged competition or institutionalized collective- action problem designed to achieve the benefits of specific forms of compe- tition and avoid the pathologies associated with monopolies or price-fixing (pp. 5, 33). The reason for seeking competitive markets is explained on the first day of Economics 101. A competitive market leads to an efficient allocation of 12. See Friedman, supra note 1, at 32. 13. Sherman Antitrust Act, 15 U.S.C. § 1 (2012) (making contracts, combinations, and conspiracies in restraint of trade potential felonies). 14. Id. 15. See p. 33. 16. Hernando de Soto, The Mystery of Capital: Why Capitalism Triumphs in the West and Fails Everywhere Else 6–10 (2000). 17. Sherman Antitrust Act § 1. April 2016] The Corporation’s Place in Society 917 resources.18 Goods and services are directed toward those who express the greatest willingness to pay for them, and informative prices arise from the equalization of supply and demand.19 Heath thus takes efficiency to be the ultimate justification for market-based capitalism and the appropriate goal of corporate managers (p. 10). Markets are “essentially special-purpose in- stitutions designed to promote efficiency” (p. 10). It would be more accurate to call the “market failures” approach to bus- iness ethics an “efficiency” account, as its guiding idea is that the ethic of business managers is to operate corporations to promote social efficiency. It bears emphasizing that this does not mean corporate managers are supposed to have social efficiency in mind whenever they make business decisions. In any adversarial context, participants can generate social benefits by compet- ing against each other—benefits that they need not personally have in mind (p. 28). For example, lawyers contribute to the justice of the adversarial sys- tem by zealously pursuing their clients’ cases, and athletes contribute to great athletic spectacles by pursuing their own victories.20 Indeed, managers’ usual contribution to competitive markets is compet- ing well, which means maximizing the value of the firm’s net product. This is equivalent to maximizing the value of the residual claim, that is, the re- turn to owners. Because most firms are owned by equity shareholders, max- imization of the residual claim means maximizing profits (profit is the revenue of a firm leftover after all of a firm’s contractual obligations have been satisfied).21 Thus, the typical way in which managers promote social efficiency is by pursuing shareholder wealth maximization. Heath thus walks us through the basic insights that lead quite naturally to the shareholder wealth maximization view of corporate ethics. That view boils down to the thesis that markets in which profit-seeking firms compete against each other generate benefits for all of society, and that the way to best ensure that firms are maximally profit-seeking are for managers to maximize the profits of a firm’s owners (pp. 28–33). 18. This well-known idea is formalized in the First Fundamental Theorem of Welfare Economics, which states that under certain general assumptions, a competitive equilibrium leads to a Pareto-efficient allocation of resources, which is a condition in which no one can be made better off without someone else being made worse off. This general conception of a competitive equilibrium is a foundation for welfare economics in general. See Hal R. Varian, Intermediate Microeconomics: A Modern Approach 522 (5th ed. 1999). 19. See, e.g., Paul Anthony Samuelson, Foundations of Economic Analysis 238–39 (photo. reprint 1971) (1947). 20. See p. 28. 21. See p. 31. The people best suited to ensuring that firms are competitive are their owners, for the simple reason that the owners of a business are its residual claimants—the group entitled to all of the profits of a firm, but only its profits. Other individuals involved with a firm, such as employees, bondholders, suppliers, and consumers, are fixed claimants— they have a specific contractual agreement with the firm, which grants them some fixed sum. Not so with owners, who are entitled only to any firm revenue that is leftover once everyone with a fixed contractual claim has been paid—that is, to profit. See Frank H. Easterbrook & Daniel R. Fischel, The Corporate Contract, 89 Colum. L. Rev. 1416, 1446–47 (1989). 918 Michigan Law Review [Vol. 114:913 A. The Market Failures Approach So how does the market failures approach differ from the shareholder view? The key idea of the market failures approach is that, while pursuing shareholder wealth maximization will promote social efficiency under many circumstances, there are a wide variety of situations in which this is not the case. Under those circumstances, corporate managers are obliged to not maximize shareholder value because doing so does not promote social efficiency. There are two important and distinct claims here. The first is identifying the conditions under which pursuit of firm profitability does not promote economic efficiency. These conditions are referred to as market failures.22 For market competition to generate Pareto efficiency, a number of restrictive conditions known as the Pareto conditions must be in place. When one or more of these conditions is not satisfied, a market will not reach a Pareto optimal condition—it will, put plainly, fail to be efficient.23 Well-known market failures include information asymmetries, externalities, and public goods.24 These market failures are unfortunately common.25 The simplest example of a market failure may be pollution, which is a negative externality. A negative externality is a situation in which one party imposes the costs of a decision he makes on another party without fully compensating that party. So, while it is comparatively easy to protect individuals’ property rights against trespass over their land, it is very difficult to enforce an individual’s right to clean air over her house. As a result, industrial firms can produce harmful toxins that permeate the atmosphere and go unpunished, allowing them to effectively externalize the costs of their firms’ business on the local citizens.26 When it is difficult to enforce property rights, say over air, a negative externality may occur. In that case, the market could fail because the pollut- ing business does not need to price the cost of its pollution into its activity. 22. See Paul A. Samuelson & William D. Nordhaus, Economics 677 (19th ed. 2010) (defining market failure as “[a]n imperfection in a price system that prevents an efficient allocation of resources”); Joshua D. Wright, The Antitrust/Consumer Protection Paradox: Two Policies at War with Each Other, 121 Yale L.J. 2216, 2222 (2012) (“A market failure occurs when functioning markets fail to realize full gains from trade through efficient production.”); see also Bernard Salanié, Microeconomics of Market Failures 1 (MIT Press 2000) (1998) (defining market failures as “circumstances where market equilibrium is not optimal”). 23. See Christopher R. Leslie, Achieving Efficiency Through Collusion: A Market Failure Defense to Horizontal Price-Fixing, 81 Calif. L. Rev. 243, 267–69 (1993). 24. Harvey S. Rosen, Public Finance 47–48 (7th ed. 2005); Maxwell A. Miller & Mark A. Glick, The Resurgence of Federalism: The Case for Tax-Exempt Bonds, 1 Tex. Rev. L. & Pol. 25, 29 (1997). 25. See generally Ryan Bubb & Richard H. Pildes, How Behavioral Economics Trims Its Sails and Why, 127 Harv. L. Rev. 1593, 1602 (2014) (“Familiar types of market failure include externalities, asymmetric information, and market power.”); Benjamin K. Sovacool, Placing a Glove on the Invisible Hand: How Intellectual Property Rights May Impede Innovation in Energy Research and Development (R&D), 18 Alb. L.J. Sci. & Tech. 381, 383 (2008). 26. See Miller & Glick, supra note 24, at 29–30. April 2016] The Corporation’s Place in Society 919 Under such circumstances, pursuing shareholder profit by polluting maxi- mizes the firm’s value, but rather than promoting social efficiency, it en- riches shareholders at the expense of society. Heath’s prescription is simple: in such cases, managers must not engi- neer or exploit the market failure. The “set of permissible profit-maximizing strategies is limited to those strategies that would be permissible under con- ditions of perfect competition” (p. 34). Corporate managers should not pol- lute (beyond what is socially desirable), seek monopolies, seek to deceive their customers about the quality of their products, erect barriers to entry, or otherwise bring about or exploit a market failure (pp. 36–37). Instead, it is the duty of corporate managers to avoid adopting any busi- ness strategy that increases firm profitability by exploiting some market fail- ure (p. 37). Corporate managers may not pursue shareholders’ interests when they come at society’s expense (pp. 38–39). The approach’s major claim is as follows: [T]he market is essentially a staged competition, designed to promote Pareto efficiency, and in cases where the explicit rules governing the com- petition are insufficient to secure the class of favored outcomes, economic actors should respect the spirit of these rules and refrain from pursuing strategies that run contrary to the point of the competition. (p. 5) The market failures approach diverges from the shareholder view by insist- ing that when the justificatory link between shareholder wealth maximiza- tion and social efficiency breaks down, managers not only cease to have an obligation to maximize shareholder value, but they are obligated to avoid pursuing it when doing so exploits some market failure (pp. 31, 36–37). As Heath puts it, “[a] competitive market only serves to promote efficiency under certain conditions, and there are various ways of acting that subvert it. Such actions are not just unethical, but egregiously so, because they fail to satisfy even the artificially low standard that is set for the evaluation of mar- ketplace behavior” (p. 10). I consider concerns about implementation in Part II, but putting those aside, it is difficult to disagree with Heath’s revision of the standard corpo- rate finance view. After all, few in economics, corporate finance, or corpo- rate law think there is something intrinsically valuable about serving shareholders’ interests; rather, serving those interests makes sense in a broader picture in which doing so serves society’s interests. The link between those two, however, is contingent. It requires an absence of market failure, and when markets fail, so may the link between shareholder value and social efficiency. Two naı̈ve illusions may nonetheless fuel the position that the pursuit of shareholder value within the constraints of law exhausts managers’ moral obligations. One is that markets never fail in important ways. Given the experience of the last few decades with important market failures—includ- ing negative externalities like pollution, underproduction of public goods, 920 Michigan Law Review [Vol. 114:913 information asymmetries, and market power—this position seems remarka- bly Pollyannaish. One need only recall the fairy-tale conditions under which the Coase theorem or First Fundamental Welfare theorem hold.27 The second illusion is that when markets fail, the government should resolve those failures, and if it does not do so, it is not managers’ obligation to do the right thing. This view cannot survive scrutiny either. First, even in principle, legal interventions are extremely costly and intrusive and face con- siderable difficulties in detecting and punishing all incidences of wrongdo- ing (p. 34). Even more importantly, the process of passing legislation is subject to a widely documented set of pathologies that make it difficult even for responsive democratic governments to pass desirable laws.28 Lest Heath’s account sound like that of a philosophical radical, it is worth examining precisely how close his view is to the mainstream of corpo- rate law. A leading treatise on the subject, The Anatomy of Corporate Law,29 provides a brief account of the normative foundations of the authors’ theory of corporate law. Authors Henry Hansmann, Reinier Kraakman, and others ask, “[w]hat is the goal of corporate law?” and answer that “[a]s a normative matter, the overall objective of corporate law—as of any branch of law—is presumably to serve the interests of society as a whole[,]” and in particular, “the aggregate welfare of all who are affected by a firm’s activities, including the firm’s shareholders, employees, suppliers, and customers, as well as third parties such as local communities and beneficiaries of the natural environment.”30 They then turn to the narrower proposition that the goal of corpora- tions should be to serve the interests of shareholders or maximize the firm’s value for them. It is a claim Hansmann and Kraakman have endorsed else- where,31 but Hansmann and Kraakman’s service in The Anatomy of Corpo- rate Law is to disambiguate two distinct interpretations of that claim. One interpretation is to take the assertion at face value as saying that the sole 27. See pp. 3, 34. 28. See, e.g., Mancur Olson, The Logic of Collective Action: Public Goods and the Theory of Groups 22–57 (1971). 29. Kraakman et al., supra note 5. Heath is clearly familiar with the seminal treatises on corporate law. See, e.g., p. 123. 30. Kraakman et al., supra note 5, at 28. Kraakman and his coauthors equate “the aggregate welfare” with “overall social efficiency” and Kaldor-Hicks efficiency, and I use these terms interchangeably here as well. Id. More precisely, they equate social welfare with “Kaldor- Hicks efficiency within acceptable patterns of distribution”—an important caveat. Id. at 28 n.79; see also William T. Allen et al., Commentaries and Cases on the Law of Business Organization 7 (3d ed. 2009) (urging the use of Kaldor-Hicks efficiency as the criterion for evaluating corporate law and corporate governance arrangements). 31. See, e.g., Henry Hansmann & Reinier Kraakman, Reflections on the End of History for Corporate Law, in The Convergence of Corporate Governance: Promise and Prospects 32, 32–33 (Abdul A. Rasheed & Toru Yoshikawa eds., 2012) (“The strongest and clearest claim we make is . . . that what we term the ‘standard shareholder oriented model’ (SSM) . . . is the most attractive social ideal for the organization of large-scale enterprise.”); Hansmann & Kraakman, supra note 3, at 439 (“There is no longer any serious competitor to the view that corporate law should principally strive to increase long-term shareholder value.”). April 2016] The Corporation’s Place in Society 921 interest of corporate law is maximizing value for shareholders. They dismiss this interpretation, noting that “[t]here would be little to recommend” a system in which creditors or employees lost$2 for every 1 shareholders gained.32 Instead, they endorse a second interpretation, which is that “focus- ing principally on the maximization of shareholder returns is, in general, the best means by which corporate law can serve the broader goal of advancing overall social welfare.”33 In essence, the market failures approach claims that corporate managers should seek to maximize shareholder value when and only when it promotes aggregate efficiency, serving the interests of society as a whole.34 Generally, pursuing shareholder wealth does promote social efficiency, but under cer- tain identifiable circumstances, this is clearly not the case. In those situa- tions, Heath insists, the very foundations of a view like Hansmann and Kraakman’s require that corporate managers not pursue shareholders’ profits. B. Stakeholder Theory The most important alternative to the corporate finance view is stake- holder theory, which Heath subjects to exacting criticism. Stakeholder the- ory claims that corporations should treat their many constituents— shareholders, employees, creditors, consumers, neighborhoods—equally, carefully balancing their interests when they conflict.35 Heath’s objections to stakeholder theory generally fall into two broad camps. The first set of criti- cisms aims to deflate motivations for the theory by showing that ordinary adversarial marketplace behavior is neither principally about self-interest nor immoral, contrary to certain commonsense intuitions that motivate some stakeholder theorists. The second set of criticisms aims to show that a firm that genuinely catered equally to the interests of all of its patrons or constituents, as desired by stakeholder theory, would be significantly ineffi- cient. This matters because stakeholder theory does not present itself as an alternative to capitalism, like socialism. Instead, it presents itself as a concep- tion of business ethics to be taught to corporate managers. As a result, it would be a very curious feature of such a view if it was foundationally in- compatible with a competitive corporate marketplace. 32. Kraakman et al., supra note 5, at 28. 33. Id. 34. Heath refers to his own view as “Paretian,” p. 5, but given the near-impossibility of genuine Pareto improvements when a policy dramatically alters a business’s strategy, it seems more accurate to conceptualize his account as aiming at Kaldor-Hicks efficiency. It is worth noting that while Heath’s view is a novel entrant to the current debate in business ethics, his general position that the structures of a market economy are justified where (and only where) they serve the interests of society as a whole is at least as ancient as Aquinas. 35. See Margaret M. Blair & Lynn A. Stout, A Team Production Theory of Corporate Law, 85 Va. L. Rev. 247, 253 (1999); Kevin Gibson, The Moral Basis of Stakeholder Theory, 26 J. Bus. Ethics 245, 245–46 (2000); see also Julia Sferlazzo, Learning Legal Ethics from MBAs: How a Comparison of Legal and Business Ethics Could Promote Ethical Professional Behavior, 25 Geo. J. Legal Ethics 769, 773 (2012). 922 Michigan Law Review [Vol. 114:913 A preliminary confusion, while not especially sophisticated, is suffi- ciently widespread to merit attention. In substance, this position posits that shareholder wealth maximization merely glorifies the self-interest of share- holders and that the exclusive pursuit of self-interest is a bad thing. Equating self-interest with shareholder wealth maximization is confused, however, at least if treated as a criticism of shareholder value as a goal of corporate law or corporate managers. After all, shareholder wealth maximization is typi- cally not the self-interested goal of corporate managers. The natural goal of corporate managers is to enrich themselves, rather than shareholders. Indeed, this problem of corporate managers’ interests not being aligned with that of a firm’s owners is widely considered the chief problem for corporate law to ameliorate.36 Heath persuasively demonstrates that stakeholder theory dramatically exacerbates the principal-agent problem between shareholders and corpo- rate managers. He points out that the developed world actually has ample experience in the operation of stakeholder-oriented firms (pp. 55–58). After all, in the mid-twentieth century, it was common for the governments of wealthy nations to operate major corporations that were expected not only to turn a profit, but also to serve other social responsibilities (pp. 55–57). Heath surveys the ample social-scientific evidence on the difficulties these state-owned enterprises faced in accomplishing their goals. The bottom line is that these firms failed not only to be profitable, but also to produce many of the social benefits they were supposed to achieve. They became instead havens for unprofitability and for opposition—within the government- owned enterprise—to state regulation of market failures (pp. 57–58). A different line of criticism of stakeholder theory builds on Henry Hansmann’s enormously influential work on corporate ownership.37 One of Hansmann’s most interesting contributions is showing that while most firms are owned by shareholders—contributors of equity capital—every one of the firm’s constituents sometimes owns a firm.38 So, in a dairy cooperative, suppliers jointly own the business; in a mutual insurance company, the cus- tomers own it; in a law firm, the partners collectively own it, and so on.39 Hansmann’s analysis of when a given constituent will own a firm—and of why shareholders are such prevalent owners—centers on the political costs of ownership.40 In general, the most efficient owners of the firm tend to be the stakeholders who share homogenous interests in the firm’s perform- ance.41 The more heterogeneous the desires of the owners, the more conflict 36. See, e.g., Kraakman et al., supra note 5, at 35–53. 37. See chapter 5. 38. Henry Hansmann, The Ownership of Enterprise 12–16 (1996); see also Henry Hansmann, Ownership of the Firm, 4 J.L. Econ. & Org. 267 (1988). 39. Hansmann, The Ownership of Enterprise, supra note 38, at 13–16. 40. Hansmann, Ownership of the Firm, supra note 38, at 277–78. 41. Id. at 278. April 2016] The Corporation’s Place in Society 923 there is among owners, and the harder it becomes to assess whether manage- ment is performing well.42 From this perspective, stakeholder theory poses an enormous problem for efficiently run businesses because it requires man- agers to attempt to equally balance the interests of all constituents, effec- tively importing into every firm the defects of extremely heterogeneous owner interests. The problem is that no firm is owned by all of its patrons and almost no businesses are even owned by multiple groups of patrons.43 The total absence of such firms is powerful evidence that there are deep ineffi- ciencies introduced by management that must cater to heterogeneous stakeholders. II. The Prospects for Business Ethics: A Critical Assessment “[T]he point of philosophy is not just to understand the world, but to change it.”44 Heath laudably thinks the point of business ethics is to improve the quality of corporate management. He notes that while “[m]any business ethicists . . . deny that they have any ambition to make people behave more ethically[,]” he “actually consider[s] that objective to be central to [his] task” (p. 12). Indeed, Heath is emphatic in his belief that: [T]he central role of business ethics is to . . . correct the self-understanding of participants in the market economy, who are being bombarded—both by the business press and a certain segment of the academy, who appear not to have recovered from the epiphany they experienced in their first- year economics class—by a seductive but ultimately false suggestion that the institutions of the market free them from all forms of moral constraint. (p. 19) Thus, while Heath’s theory may have implications for a variety of domains, its central ambition is to offer realistic prescriptions for the business ethics that managers should be taught. Unfortunately, the market failures approach faces some debilitating and potentially fatal problems. In fact, these problems generalize across the en- tire class of theories in business ethics that ask more of corporate managers than the shareholder approach does. This diagnosis is rather grim, but it is necessary to understand the obstacles that business ethics faces to make progress. A. The Problem of Competition The most immediate problem is the competitive structure of the econ- omy itself—a “staged competition” (p. 5) in which we deliberately pit busi- nesses against each other in an adversarial contest designed to produce 42. Id. at 279. 43. But see p. 130. 44. P. 12. This is, of course, an echo of Marx’s famous declaration that “The philoso- phers have only interpreted the world in various ways; the point is to change it.” Karl Marx, Theses on Feuerbach, in The German Ideology 571 (1998). 924 Michigan Law Review [Vol. 114:913 certain efficiency benefits. In this competitive environment, any firm willing to substantially reduce its profits to act more ethically will see its market share progressively diminish until it goes out of business. Deliberately rais- ing prices to act ethically is unsustainable unless every other competitor also does so (p. 85). This is because the character of market competition selects out unprofitable firms and makes no exceptions for unprofitability driven by ethical conduct. Thus, in highly competitive industries, firms opting to es- chew profitable, legal, but unethical business strategies are unlikely to sur- vive. The very structured competition that makes the market effective in establishing useful incentives and generating informative prices will punish conduct designed to unilaterally serve the ends of the broader society. Heath’s book hints at a response to this objection,45 which is that busi- ness ethics should strive to facilitate multilateral action by corporate manag- ers to stop exploiting some market failure or avoid engineering or exploiting new market failures. This is not as far-fetched as it may seem. There are other areas of the economy that are highly competitive but in which ethical behavior is widely observed—ethical behavior that eats into profits. We do not generally think that doctors prescribe the most expensive drugs and treatments possible simply because they can. The medical profession, we think, instills in its members norms that have at least some ethical bite.46 Heath suggests that through iterative interactions, managers in the same in- dustry may build up sufficient trust with one another so as to enter agree- ments to each avoid taking advantage of some market failure (p. 38). Agreements among corporate managers to jointly engage in unprofita- ble ethical conduct, however, will suffer from the same powerful temptation to “defect,” which makes agreements to fix prices so unstable, even in the absence of antitrust enforcement.47 Because a member of a cartel can always make more money by unilaterally defecting and lowering prices, cartels are inherently unstable.48 Agreements sacrificing profit would also be unstable because such industries would attract new and less scrupulous entrants.49 These problems do not suggest that agreements among managers to act un- profitably but ethically are impossible—only that they are difficult. 45. See p. 38. 46. See p. 71 (noting the medical profession’s “stringent” code of conduct enforced by mechanisms such as medical licensing boards). There are legitimate questions as to whether the ethical professionalization of corporate managers is a plausible goal. Management certainly lacks the historical pedigree and accrued norms of other professions, such as law, medicine, or engineering, but there are some hints that MBA students are beginning to take the idea of ethical norms seriously. See, e.g., Robert Rhee et al., Ethical Issues in Business and the Lawyer’s Role, 12 Transactions: Tenn. J. Bus. L., no. 3, 2011, at 37, 37 (discussing Harvard and Columbia business schools’ requirement that MBA students make pledges to act ethically and responsibly). 47. See Christopher R. Leslie, Trust, Distrust, and Antitrust, 82 Tex. L. Rev. 515, 524–25 (2004). 48. See id. at 526. 49. See id. at 565. April 2016] The Corporation’s Place in Society 925 To recap, the first distinct problem facing business ethics is the competi- tive structure of the corporate marketplace. Firms run by ethical managers willing to sacrifice profit for society’s interests will likely be eliminated by competitors in the long run. Let us assume, however, that because of manag- ers’ professionalization, business ethics avoids this obstacle. B. The Problem of External Control A second distinct problem will still arise to bar business ethics with bite from surviving. This is the fact that corporate managers ultimately answer to a corporation’s shareholders.50 Even if business ethicists succeeded in instil- ling in corporate managers a sense of their high ethical vocation, ethical managers would soon be weeded out by less ethical owners, unless the latter were also converted. If profits began to decline at a firm or even across an entire industry, shareholders would quickly assemble at the next board of directors meeting and select a new board. This board would promptly fire the ethical officers and replace them with less scrupulous successors. Unlike the partners of a law firm, who must answer solely to each other, the manag- ers of a public corporation must answer to the unprofessionalized share- holders of the firm. There is, of course, some room for slack, even in competitive product markets with competition for corporate control as well. Managers are able to extract some private benefits—and create some public benefits—without repercussions, but the competitiveness of both markets will impose important limits. It seems to be a curious myopia of business ethics—in which, unfortu- nately, Heath is also guilty—that it has largely sought to reimagine the ethics of managers without revisiting the ethics of owners or consumers as well. We are left groping for a reason why business ethics has left our broader understanding of capitalism and its central regulatory institutions un- touched. Perhaps it is that in everyday life we do not expect there to be a class of controlling persons who oversee and systematically punish the altru- istic for their sacrificial conduct. But this is exactly the situation that will face socially minded managers in a world in which nothing has changed the perspective or control of shareholders over firms’ management. Unlike, per- haps, personal ethics, you simply cannot formulate viable business ethics for corporate managers without paying careful attention to the corporate environment. Even a publicly traded firm both owned and managed by individuals who subscribed to a market failures philosophy would be dynamically unstable. The share price of that company’s stock would be depressed relative to what its value would have been if the company acted less ethically. The price of a public company’s shares reflects the discounted value of the future cash flows associated with that company.51 If that company had made an ethically 50. See, e.g., Edward B. Rock, The General Counsel of a Nonprofit Enterprise: Some Ques- tions, 46 Hous. L. Rev. 17, 19 (2009). 51. Lawrence A. Hamermesh & Michael L. Wachter, The Short and Puzzling Life of the “Implicit Minority Discount” in Delaware Appraisal Law, 156 U. Pa. L. Rev. 1, 47 (2007) (“In 926 Michigan Law Review [Vol. 114:913 driven decision to be less profitable, then the share price would reflect that long-term drop in profitability. This depression of the share price, however, creates an automatic profit opportunity for a prospective purchaser willing to take control of the firm and reverse course. As a result, for the very reason of their ethical conduct, ethical firms would be perennial takeover targets.52 We should expect business ethics that target solely corporate managers to suffer greatly at the hands of an ownership class if the owners remained indifferent to those ethical values. If this seems extreme, consider the effects of adopting a market failures approach on some of the largest corporations. Assume that the scientific majority is correct that adverse global climate change is driven by current human levels of carbon use. If so, the carbon used in fossil fuels is enor- mously underpriced because of a market failure that prevents the price of carbon products from reflecting environmental harms caused by carbon use.53 Part of the profit of major oil companies, such as ExxonMobil, is driven by the fact that they sell products that are hugely underpriced—as opposed to how they would be priced in a complete market—since they benefit from market failure. Imagine, if you can, that the senior manage- ment of ExxonMobil decided to begin pricing their products at a level that reflected the actual cost of those products to society. That is, they decided to stop exploiting the market failure. According to current estimates, they would have to voluntarily pay85 per CO-2 ton.54 Adopting this policy would not only cause Exxon’s share price to drop, it would cause it to plum- met. Even if the owners did not sue management,55 either their own share- holders or new owners would soon fire them. The new owners would

both finance theory and the appraisal remedy, the value of a shareholder’s stock is the pro rata value of the discounted future free cash flows . . . .”).

52. The shareholder approach does not face this obstacle. Agency costs are overwhelm- ingly more likely to make a corporation unprofitable than profitable, so corporations that are better at controlling agency costs should be more likely to survive in the long run. Id. at 36.

53. Cf. Timothy J. Brennan, Prizes Versus Patents: A Comment on Jonathan Adler’s Eyes on a Climate Prize: Rewarding Energy Innovation to Achieve Climate Stabilization, 42 Envtl. L. Rep. 10719, 10719 n.7 (2012) (“The primary virtue is that if carbon used in fossil fuels is underpriced because environmental harms, particularly from climate change, are not incorpo- rated in the price, then a carbon tax comes closer to getting prices right in the economy rather than force a gap between prices and marginal cost.”).

54. Nicholas Stern, Executive Summary of Stern Review: The Economics of Cli- mate Change xvi (2007), http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20130129110402/http:// www.hm-treasury.gov.uk/d/Executive_Summary.pdf [http://perma.cc/8XT2-837S].

55. It is unclear whether a firm’s owners could have a viable suit against their managers for breach of fiduciary duty if management were to avoid a profitable business strategy for ethical reasons. The substantial discretion provided to corporate managers by the business judgment rule may protect them from such a suit, and the case law of many states suggests that their highest courts do not share the view of many corporate scholars that the duty of corporate managers is solely to maximize shareholder value within the constraints of law. See generally Einer Elhauge, Sacrificing Corporate Profits in the Public Interest, 80 N.Y.U. L. Rev. 733, 738 (2005) (“Corporate managers . . . have always had some legal discretion (implicit or explicit) to sacrifice corporate profits in the public interest. . . . None of the fifty states has a statute that imposes a duty to profit-maximize or that makes profit-maximization the sole

April 2016] The Corporation’s Place in Society 927

acquire shares at low prices, intending to quickly increase shareholder value (at society’s expense) by reversing corporate policy. This example is not cho- sen at random. The Stern Report, probably the best known government re- port on the subject, notes that “[c]limate change presents a unique challenge for economics: it is the greatest and widest-ranging market failure ever seen.”56

This is a point worth emphasizing. Any approach to business ethics that bites into the profits of a firm but ignores the market for corporate control is going to suffer enormous problems in achieving any acceptance. Realizing a market failures or “efficiency” approach to business ethics thus faces con- siderable obstacles, which is something to reflect on. Market efficiency on its own implies a set of moral demands that are so startling in their scope as to seem almost utopian.

So, what is to be done? I propose a brief suggestion, not as an actual candidate for reform (it is too radical for my taste), but rather as an illustra- tion of the kind of dramatic change to the corporate control environment that might ease some of the tensions facing business ethics. There has been an increasing trend over the last fifteen years for U.S. financial legislation to include substantive corporate governance requirements.57 There has also been a recent rethinking of what exactly the status of being a “public” cor- poration should entail.58 At the intersection of these two developments is a candidate for the kind of structural reform that is likely necessary for a vi- sion of business ethics like Heath’s to become feasible. The idea is to have a “market failures” independent director on the board of each public com- pany. This director would ensure that the firm did not exploit any market failure, or more modestly, ensure that a firm did not try to engineer any new

purpose of the corporation. . . . [T]he influential Principles of Corporate Governance by the American Law Institute (ALI) explicitly state that common law fiduciary duties do not pro- hibit managers from sacrificing profits to further the public interest . . . .”). But see Kent Greenfield, Using Behavioral Economics to Show the Power and Efficiency of Corporate Law as Regulatory Tool, 35 U.C. Davis L. Rev. 581, 605 (2002) (“Since the early-twentieth century case of Dodge v Ford, corporations have been deemed to have an ‘unyielding’ duty to look after the interests of the shareholders, which has been translated into a duty to maximize profits.” (footnotes omitted)).

56. Stern, supra note 54, at i.

57. See, e.g., Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, Pub. L. No. 111-203, 124 Stat. 1376 (2010); Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, Pub. L. No. 107-204, 116 Stat. 745. This trend has not been without its able and trenchant critics. See, e.g., Roberta Romano, The Sarbanes-Oxley Act and the Making of Quack Corporate Governance, 114 Yale L.J. 1521, 1528 (2005); Stephen M. Bainbridge, The Creeping Federalization of Corporate Law, Reg., Spring 2003, at 26, 31.

58. See, e.g., Donald C. Langevoort & Robert B. Thompson, “Publicness” in Contempo- rary Securities Regulation After the JOBS Act, 101 Geo. L.J. 337, 338 (2013); Hillary A. Sale, The New “Public” Corporation, 74 Law & Contemp. Probs. 137, 141 (2011); Hillary A. Sale, Public Governance, 81 Geo. Wash. L. Rev. 1012, 1013–14 (2013).

928 Michigan Law Review [Vol. 114:913

market failure. So, for instance, such a director might oversee a firm’s lobby- ing activities to check whether the firm was inappropriately seeking to dis- suade government officials from trying to regulate some market failure.59

These market failures directors might also be part of organizations within industries devoted to reaching consensus on how that industry might stop exploiting a given market failure.

Conclusion

The obstacles of competition and owner control, while significant, should not cause us to despair. For inspiration, just look to the ingenuity that scholars have devoted to the central quest of corporate law—aligning the interests of managers with shareholders to overcome the agency problem created by the separation of ownership and control. Boards of directors, in- dependent directors, the market for corporate control, shareholder empow- erment, incentive contracts—the list of devices heralded at one time or another as the silver bullet for agency costs goes on and on.60 Heath’s book is a clarion call for scholars of corporate law and corporate finance to start taking seriously how the corporate environment could be altered to make it easier for corporations—as well as the government—to take steps to elimi- nate market failure. Imagining a more robust ethics for corporations re- quires carefully and comprehensively rethinking the institutional and social environment in which they function. Perhaps the greatest contribution of Joseph Heath’s wonderful book is to have clarified this task ahead.

59. Cf. Leo E. Strine, Jr. & Nicholas Walter, Conservative Collision Course?: The Tension Between Conservative Corporate Law Theory and Citizens United, 100 Cornell L. Rev. 335, 385 (2015) (noting that the ultimate shareholders of for-profit corporations are humans with concerns about the negative externalities that a profit-seeking motive alone may cause). An- other possible response—which I owe to Heath—is the use of “other constituency” statutes, which explicitly permit managers to consider nonshareholder interests. See A.A. Sommer, Jr., Whom Should the Corporation Serve? The Berle-Dodd Debate Revisited Sixty Years Later, 16 Del. J. Corp. L. 33, 41 (1991).

60. See, e.g., Ronald J. Gilson & Charles K. Whitehead, Deconstructing Equity: Public Ownership, Agency Costs, and Complete Capital Markets, 108 Colum. L. Rev. 231, 232 (2008).

Copyright of Michigan Law Review is the property of Michigan Law Review Association and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder’s express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use.

Categories

## devryu edu

7/27/2014 Operating Systems with Lab

http://www.devryu.net/re/DotNextLaunch.asp?courseid=9941870&userid=12233696&sessionid=dbc13b274a&tabid=Byw+Gpyv9Fc4t79+z0nw2UgHFsHnpXE5WPZx0XNBiVo7mxdUutJr3h8ER84OTUru&sessionFirst… 1/3

Lab 4 of 7: Main Memory Allocation – Part 1 of 2 (50 Points)

Click here to open the instructions to access the Linux environment.

Main Memory Allocation – Part 1 of 2

The objective of this week’s lab is to simulate and evaluate different memory allocation/deallocation techniques (first fit, next fit, best fit,

and worst fit)when a linked list is used to keep track of memory usage. You will implement a separate Memory component for TWO

of the four memory allocation/deallocation techniques. This lab is designed to be completed in two weeks. One

allocation/deallocation technique is due on Week 4, and the second technique is due on Week 5.

Print

Submit your assignment to the Dropbox located on the silver tab at the top of this page.

(See the Syllabus section “Due Dates for Assignments & Exams” for due dates.)

Remember This

Connect to the iLab

here .

i L A B A C C E S S

Accessing the Linux Environment

i L A B O V E R V I E W

7/27/2014 Operating Systems with Lab

http://www.devryu.net/re/DotNextLaunch.asp?courseid=9941870&userid=12233696&sessionid=dbc13b274a&tabid=Byw+Gpyv9Fc4t79+z0nw2UgHFsHnpXE5WPZx0XNBiVo7mxdUutJr3h8ER84OTUru&sessionFirst… 2/3

Assume that the memory is 256 KB and is divided into units of 2 KB each. A process may request between 3 and 10 units of memory.

Your simulation consists of three components: a Memory component that implements a specific allocation/deallocation technique, a

request generation component that generates allocation/deallocation requests, and a statistics reporting component that prints out the

relevant statistics. The Memory component exports the following functions:

1. int allocate_mem(int process_id, int num_units): allocates num_units units of memory to a process whose id is

process_id. If successful, it returns the number of nodes traversed in the linked list. Otherwise, it returns -1.

2. int deallocate_mem(int process_id): deallocates the memory allocated to the process whose ID is process_id. It returns 1,

if successful, otherwise “1.

3. int fragment_count( ): returns the number of holes (fragments of sizes 1 or 2 units).

The request generation component generates allocation and deallocation requests. For allocation requests, the component specifies the

process ID of the process for which memory is requested as well as the number of memory units being requested. For this simulation,

assume that memory is requested for each process only once. For deallocation requests, the component specifies the process ID of the

process whose memory has to be deallocated. For this simulation, assume that the entire memory allocated to a process is deallocated on

a deallocation request. You may generate these requests based on some specific criteria, e.g., at random or from a memory

allocation/deallocation trace obtained from some source.

There are three performance parameters that your simulation should calculate for the chosen two techniques: average number of external

fragments, average allocation time in terms of the average number of nodes traversed in allocation, and the percentage of times an

allocation request is denied.

Generate 10,000 requests using the request generation component, and for each request, invoke the appropriate function of the Memory

component for each of the memory allocation/deallocation techniques. After every request, update the three performance parameters for

each of the techniques. The statistics reporting component prints the value of the three parameters for the two techniques at the end.

You will submit four separate files to the dropbox for Week 4:

1. C or C++ program (source code)

2. Executable file (object)

Deliverables

7/27/2014 Operating Systems with Lab

http://www.devryu.net/re/DotNextLaunch.asp?courseid=9941870&userid=12233696&sessionid=dbc13b274a&tabid=Byw+Gpyv9Fc4t79+z0nw2UgHFsHnpXE5WPZx0XNBiVo7mxdUutJr3h8ER84OTUru&sessionFirst… 3/3

3. Instructions to execute the program

4. Analysis of the results for the chosen allocation/deallocation technique

The program for the main memory allocation/deallocation for the first chosen technique is due this week. This program is to be written in

C or C++ programming language on a Linux environment. The second technique is due on Week 5.

IMPORTANT: Please make sure that any questions or clarification about these labs are addressed early.

i L A B S T E P S

Main Memory Allocation – Technique 1 (50 points) Back to Top

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## drag the appropriate labels to their respective targets. quizlet

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 1/41

Homework 5 Geologic Time Due: 11:59pm on Sunday, February 28, 2016

You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy

Interactive Animation: Relative Geologic Dating

When you have finished, answer the questions.

Part A

Which of the following statements about relative and absolute age dating is most accurate?

ANSWER:

Correct

Part B

What is the principle of original horizontality?

ANSWER:

Relative age dating places rocks and events in chronological order and can provide information about absolute age.

Relative age dating provides information about absolute ages but does not place rocks and events in chronological order.

Relative age dating places rocks and events in chronological order but does not provide information about absolute age.

Relative age dating does not provide information about absolute ages, nor does it place rocks and events in chronological order.

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 2/41

Correct

Part C

What is the principle of superposition?

ANSWER:

Correct

Part D

What is the principle of cross­cutting relationships?

ANSWER:

Correct

Part E

Five layers of rock are cut by two faults. Both faults cut through all five layers of rock. Fault A breaks through to the surface, whereas fault B does not. Which of the following statements about faults A and B is most accurate?

Metamorphic rocks are close to horizontal when deposited.

Sedimentary rocks are close to horizontal when deposited.

Sedimentary rocks are close to horizontal when eroded.

Metamorphic rocks are close to horizontal when eroded.

Within a sequence of rock layers formed at Earth’s surface, rock layers in the middle of a sequence are older.

Within a sequence of rock layers formed at Earth’s surface, rock layers higher in the sequence are older.

Within a sequence of rock layers formed at Earth’s surface, rock layers lower in the sequence are older.

Geologic features that cut through rocks must form at roughly the same time as the rocks that they cut through.

Geologic features that cut through rocks must form before the rocks that they cut through.

Geologic features that cut through rocks must form after the rocks that they cut through.

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 3/41

ANSWER:

Correct

Part F

Which principle of relative age dating is important for determining the relative age of igneous rock that has intruded into overlying rock?

ANSWER:

Correct

Part G

A fault (F) breaks three layers of sedimentary rock (S). An igneous intrusion (I1) has broken through the bottommost layer of rock. A second igneous intrusion (I2) has moved up the fault and pooled on top of the uppermost layer of rock. Which event would be considered the youngest?

ANSWER:

Correct

Faults A and B are about the same age, and both are older than the five layers of rock.

Fault A is younger than fault B, and both are older than the five layers of rock.

Faults A and B are about the same age, and both are younger than the five layers of rock.

Fault A is younger than fault B, and both are younger than the five layers of rock.

the principle of original horizontality

the principle of cross­cutting relationships

the principle of intrusive relationships

the principle of superposition

Faulting of rock along F is the youngest event. We know this because all three layers of sedimentary rock have been broken.

The intrusion of I2 is the youngest event. We can know this because I2 sits on top of all other rocks.

Deposition of the three sedimentary layers, S, is the youngest event. We know this because the fault underlies the igneous rocks.

The intrusion of I1 or I2 is the youngest event. Without more information, we cannot know which igneous rock is youngest.

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 4/41

SmartFigure: Relative Dating

Launch the SmartFigure Video

When you have finished, answer the questions.

Part A

A sandstone contains inclusions of metamorphic rock. An igneous dike cuts both the sandstone and inclusions. List the rocks from youngest to oldest.

Hint 1.

Use your knowledge regarding the principles of cross­cutting relationships and dating by inclusions to answer this question.

ANSWER:

Correct

Part B

metamorphic rock, igneous dike, sandstone

igneous dike, sandstone, metamorphic rock

metamorphic rock, sandstone, igneous dike

sandstone, metamorphic rock, igneous dike

igneous dike, metamorphic rock, sandstone

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 5/41

If a sequence of sedimentary units is cut by a fault, what does the principle of cross­cutting relationships tell a geologist?

Hint 1.

Recall what the principle cross­cutting relationships states and how it is used for relative age dating.

ANSWER:

Correct

Part C

Which of the following describes the principle of original horizontality?

Hint 1.

The video showed a sequence of folded sedimentary rocks. What had to occur to form this feature?

ANSWER:

Correct

Part D

The sedimentary units on the left side of the fault are the same as those on the right side.

All of the sedimentary units must have been deposited and lithified before being cut by the fault.

The fault is older than the sedimentary sequence.

Sedimentary layers are laid down horizontally.

The oldest sedimentary unit is located at the base of the sequence, while the youngest is at the top.

Inclusions within a sedimentary rock are older than the sedimentary rock itself.

Folded sedimentary layers were originally laid down flat and later deformed.

A fault or dike that cut a sedimentary sequence is younger than the sedimentary rocks it breaks through.

Undeformed sedimentary layers present on one side of a river­cut canyon are the same as those on the opposite side.

The oldest sedimentary unit is located at the base of the sequence, while the youngest is at the top.

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 6/41

An undeformed sequence of sedimentary rocks is exposed in a large river canyon. Which two principles would be demonstrated by the rocks?

Hint 1.

Think back to the five principles you learned about in the video. Which two would be the most applicable to an undeformed rock sequence that has been eroded by a large stream?

ANSWER:

Correct

Part E

An igneous dike cuts through limestone, but not through the overlying sandstone. Which of the following statements is most accurate?

Hint 1.

Think about how the principles of superposition and cross­cutting relationships are used for this question.

ANSWER:

Correct

principles of lateral continuity and inclusions

principles of superposition and lateral continuity

principles of cross­cutting relationships and superposition

principles of superposition and dating by inclusions

principles of lateral continuity and cross­cutting relationships

First, the sandstone was laid down, next the limestone was deposited, and finally was cut by the igneous dike.

The limestone and sandstone were deposited and then cut by the igneous dike.

First, the limestone was laid down, then intruded by the igneous dike, and lastly the sandstone was deposited.

The igneous dike represents the oldest rock, while the sedimentary rocks are relatively younger.

First, the limestone was laid down, folded and cut by an igneous dike, and finally the sandstone was deposited.

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 7/41

GeoTutor: Constructing an Order of Sequence of Geologic Events ­ Geologic Time Scale

Geologists have divided the whole of history into units of increasing magnitude. This is called the geologic time scale. The entire time scale was originally based on relative dating, since radiometric dating was not available at the time. Absolute dating techniques determine a numerical age of strata given in number of years. Relative dating techniques, on the other hand, determine the age of a stratum relative to other strata (i.e., if it is younger or older), without providing any numerical data. Geologists have been able to determine the relative ages of rocks and any fossils they contain to reconstruct a history that reveals the evolution of Earth’s continents and living organisms using four laws of stratigraphy:

1. Law of Superposition: Younger strata are deposited on top of older strata. 2. Law of Original Horizontality: Strata are deposited horizontally. Tilted strata had been tilted by some geologic event after the time of deposition. 3. Law of Lateral Continuity: Layers of sediment initially extend laterally in all directions. As a result, rocks that are otherwise similar, but are now separated by a valley or other erosional feature, can be assumed to be originally continuous.

4. Law of Cross­Cutting Relationships: Magma intrudes and crystallizes (forming features such as faults and dikes). These features are younger than the strata they cut through.

The geologic time scale subdivides the 4.6­billion­year history of Earth into several units, outlining the time frames of several events of the geologic past. See below for the geologic time scale chart.

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 8/41

Part A ­ Laws of stratigraphy

In the figure below, a series of geologic events, A­J, shows the configuration of rocks as seen from a road. Some strata have been tilted, and a volcanic dike has intruded some

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 9/41

of the rocks. Use the laws of stratigraphy to rank these strata.

Rank the strata from oldest to youngest.

Hint 1. The Law of Cross­Cutting Relationships

The volcanic dike (H) must be older than any strata it does not cut through and younger than any strata it does cut through, because the strata it cuts through must have been there before the intrusion of magma.

Hint 2. The Law of Original Horizontality

Pretend the tilted strata are horizontal. That is, “D” is above “A,” “C” is above “A,” and so on. The Law of Original Horizontality states that strata are deposited horizontally in their original states. Tilted strata had been tilted by some geologic event after the time of deposition, but still retain their relative order.

ANSWER:

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 10/41

All attempts used; correct answer displayed

Notice that the tilted strata are immediately overlain by horizontal strata. This can only occur if erosion has partially removed the tilted strata so they all terminate at the same depth.

Part B ­ The geologic time scale and unconformities

Gaps in the rock record are called unconformities. Unconformities are caused by periods of erosion that have occurred between periods of deposition, which have erased a portion of the rock record. There are three types of unconformities: (1) angular unconformities occur when tilted strata are overlain by horizontal strata—Click here to see an angular unconformity; (2) disconformities occur when strata are separated by an erosional surface—Click here to see a disconformity); (3) nonconformities occur when strata overlay igneous or metamorphic rocks that are resistant to erosion—Click here to see a nonconformity.

Now use the figure below, which has labeled each of the rock strata/layers from Part A with their respective geologic time periods, to fill in the gaps in the following sentences.

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 11/41

Match the words in the left column to the appropriate blanks in the sentences on the right. Make certain each sentence is complete before submitting your answer.

Hint 1. How to determine the missing time period

Identify the youngest and oldest strata in the diagram, and use the geologic time scale provided above to find all of the geologic periods between these ages.

Hint 2. The types of unconformities

The volcanic dike terminating abruptly at a stratigraphic boundary would indicate that erosion has occurred.

Hint 3. The age of unconformities

An unconformity must be at least the age of the strata overlying it and can be as old as the strata below it.

ANSWER:

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 12/41

Correct

The tilting of the Triassic rocks could have occurred in the Triassic, Jurassic, or Cretaceous periods. This amounts to an uncertainty of at least 55 million years.

Interactive Animation: Angular Uncomformities, Noncomformities, and Discomformities

When you have finished, answer the questions.

Help

1. The Quaternary and Tertiary rocks are separated by this type of unconformity:

a disconformity .

2. Due to an unconformity, the  Jurassic  period is missing from the rock record.

3. The Triassic rocks must have been most likely tilted during or after the  Triassic  period

4. The dike dates at least to the  Quarternary  period.

5. The Triassic and Cretaceous rocks are separated by this type of unconformity:

an angular unconformity .

Reset

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 13/41

Part A

Which image is an example of an angular unconformity?

SEE IMAGES BELOW FOR ANSWER SELECTIONS.

ANSWER:

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 14/41

Correct

Part B

In the images below, which contains a disconformity?

ANSWER:

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 15/41

Correct

Part C

What does the term unconformity mean?

Hint 1.

un = NOT; conform = go along with

ANSWER:

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 16/41

Correct

Part D

In the following rock sequence, how much erosion might have occurred between rock layer A and rock layer B?

ANSWER:

Correct

Part E

What characteristic most directly DISTINGUISHES an angular unconformity from a nonconformity?

Hint 1.

The word angular is the key hint.

ANSWER:

a missing rock layer in a sequence that represents a period of deposition

an extra rock layer that represents a period of deposition

a missing rock layer in a sequence that represents a period of erosion or nondeposition

an extra rock layer that represents a period of erosion

at least 10,000 years

none or only a very small amount (Time does not equate to erosion.)

more time than it took to deposit rock layer B

at least 1 million years

more time than it took to deposit rock layer A

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 17/41

Correct

Part F

Which list best describes the events that would lead to the layering of sedimentary rocks in this diagram?

ANSWER:

Correct

GeoTutor: Constructing an Order of Sequence of Geologic Events – Relative Dating

The ordering of events in geological history has long been a difficult task, but once simple principles were determined observation and logic could be used to determine the order of events. With these principles, one cannot calculate the exact number of years ago an event occurred, but instead the sequence of events can be determined. This is referred to as relative dating. The principles are as follows:

1. The law of superposition: In sedimentary rocks, the rock bed on the bottom must be older than the rock bed on the top. 2. The principle of original horizontality: Sedimentary rocks were originally deposited as flat­lying, horizontal layers.

Angular unconformities represent missing time, whereas nonconformities do not.

Conformities represent missing rock layers.

Nonconformities separate parallel rock layers of the same rock type.

Nonconformities separate two different rock types, whereas angular unconformities form only between strata of the same rock type.

Angular unconformities separate rock layers along nonparallel surfaces.

deposition, erosion, deposition, erosion, deposition

erosion, deformation, erosion, deformation, erosion

deposition, deformation, deposition, deformation, deposition

erosion, deposition, erosion, deposition, erosion, deposition, erosion

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 18/41

3. The principle of cross­cutting relationships: Any rock or feature, cutting through another rock or feature, must be younger than the material through which it cuts. (For example, with faults, igneous intrusions such as dikes, or fractures, the first rock must be there for these secondary features to cut through.)

4. Inclusions: Any rock fragments included within another rock must be older than the rock in which they are included. (For example, if eroded fragments of one rock layer become part of another sedimentary rock layer, the rock with the included fragments must be younger than the fragments themselves.)

Part A ­ Basic Principles for Relative Geologic Dating

Below is a geologic structure that illustrates the various principles of relative dating. You will identify the basic principles used in relative geologic dating by dragging labels to their corresponding targets in the image below.

Drag the appropriate labels to their respective targets.

Hint 1. Inclusions in sedimentary rock layers

According to the principle of inclusions, the layer of rock that has inclusions from another rock layer must be younger.

Hint 2. A dike cutting through sedimentary rock layers

The rock layers that the dike cut through must have been there first. This is the principle of cross­cutting relationships.

ANSWER:

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 19/41

Correct

As you can see from above, using the logic of these principles when observing sedimentary rock, we can determine a sequence of events.

Now that we have investigated the principles of relative dating, we can use these principles to determine how to read the sequence of geologic events in a location.

Part B ­ Ordering of Geologic Events

The principles of relative dating can be used to understand the order of geologic events. A geologic event can be anything: the deposition of horizontal layers of sedimentary rock, the faulting or folding of rock layers, the tilting of rock layers, the erosion (or wearing away) of rock, the intrusion of volcanic rock within existing rock layers, and so on. Refer to these relative dating principles:

1. Inclusions: Any rock fragments included within another rock must be older than the rock in which they are included. (For example, if eroded fragments of one rock

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 20/41

layer become part of another sedimentary rock layer, the rock with the included fragments must be younger than the fragments themselves.) 2. The principle of cross­cutting relationships: Any rock or feature, cutting through another rock or feature, must be younger than the material through which it cuts. (For example, with faults, igneous intrusions such as dikes, or fractures, the first rock must be there for these secondary features to cut through.)

3. Angular Unconformity: It consists of tilted or folded sedimentary rocks that are overlain by younger, more flat­lying strata. An angular unconformity indicates that during the pause in deposition, a period of deformation (folding or tilting) and erosion occurred.

4. Tilting or deformation could occur to an otherwise horizontally layered sedimentary rocks. Most layers of sediment are deposited in a nearly horizontal position. Thus, when we see rock layers that are folded or tilted, we can assume that they must have been moved into that position by crustal disturbances after their deposition. In such an instance, the tilted structure will be younger than the orginal horizontal layers.

Order the five images below along the timeline based on the sequence of geologic events. To find the oldest, look for the image that shows the least geologic changes. To find the youngest, look for the picture that has the most geologic changes.

Rank from oldest to youngest.

Hint 1. Inclusions from rock layers above and below

In the picture where the gray layer first appears, the layer must be younger than the layers above and below because it has inclusions of both layers of rock within it according to the principle of inclusions. Therefore, this event must have happened after the picture without the gray layer. This can occur when igneous rock intrudes between layers of sedimentary rock and incorporates pieces of the rock layers above and below into the cooling magma.

Hint 2. The oldest and the youngest geologic features/events

The oldest geologic feature should have the least geologic changes and the youngest should have all features from the previous events.

ANSWER:

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 21/41

All attempts used; correct answer displayed

As you can see, you can apply the logic of the principles of relative dating to successfully sequence the order of geologic events in a scene. The principles allow you to tell the geologic story of a landscape.

Lab Activity 8.2.1 ­ Relative Dating

Now that you have practiced ordering geologic events that occurred within a scene or outcrop, you will relate the five geologic laws to this process. First, apply geologic laws to an outcrop in the order that they are invoked by events within said outcrop. Then examine a second scene, where you will identify the geologic laws that explain the relative orders of pairs of events.

Part A ­ Applying Geologic Laws in Order

Please rank from first to last the geologic laws that are used to determine the relative order of the four events that are labeled (but not ordered) in the drawing of the outcrop below.

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 22/41

Please rank the geologic laws used for the history of this outcrop from first to last.

You did not open hints for this part.

ANSWER:

Part B ­ Supporting an Outcrop’s History with Geologic Laws

For each rectangle associated with a pair of geologic structures or events, please identify the name of the geologic law that determines which of the two events within the pair

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 23/41

occurred first.

Drag the appropriate labels to their respective targets.

You did not open hints for this part.

ANSWER:

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 24/41

Gigapan: Virtual Fieldwork—Relative Dating and Unconformities

Geologists can determine the geologic history of an area by describing rock outcrops and analyzing the layers of rock. Today you will be a geologist visiting a rock outcrop virtually. You will be able to zoom in and out of the Gigapan image to explore the outcrop and determine the relative ages of rock layers and the geologic history of the area by applying your knowledge of the principles of geology and unconformities.

The principles of geology that you will use in this example are:

The law of superposition: A sedimentary rock bed on the bottom must be older than the rock bed on the top. The principle of original horizontality: Sedimentary rocks were originally deposited as flat­lying, horizontal layers. The principle of lateral continuity: Sedimentary layers, when formed, extended horizontally in all directions.

You will also use your knowledge of unconformities, features created when deposition stopped, uplifting and erosion occurred, and, after a period of time, sedimentation began anew above the eroded layer. There are three main types of unconformities:

A nonconformity is found where igneous or metamorphic rocks have eroded and then sedimentary rock layers are deposited above. A disconformity is a break between parallel sedimentary rock layers above and below. Disconformities represent times when sediments were not deposited or were eroded. An angular unconformity is found where sedimentary layers were tilted and eroded and younger and more flat­laying sedimentary layers were deposited above.

In this exercise, you will use Gigapan technology to:

become familiar with interpreting rock outcrops, understand the sequence of events that occurred as these rocks formed and changed over time, and identify the location of an unconformity in this outcrop and provide evidence for its type.

Gigapan technology mosaics thousands of photos together into a single image, allowing you to zoom in and see the tiniest of details. Imagine zooming in on a grain of sand on a photo of a beach!

Instructions for all Parts:

1. Launch the Gigapan image http://www.gigapan.com/galleries/10030/gigapans/129421 2. You can zoom into the image to take a close look at the angular unconformity.

Instructions for Part A:

1. Scroll down and click on the  Google Earth link   on the Gigapan site to launch the Gigapan image  in Google Earth. 2. Close the photo by clicking on Exit Photo to see your field site location in Google Earth. 3. Zoom in or out to determine your location. Also, on the upper right side, your will find the north arrow. If “N” is not aligned with “North” move it to North. This will ensure that the alignment of your field site is directly facing you in an east­west direction.

4. You can reopen the Gigapan image by clicking on Angular Unconformity, west of El Paso, Texas on the left pane of Google Earth. 5. Do not close Google Earth.

Part A ­ Locating your field site

As a geologist, you always want to first locate your field site on a map. It helps other geologists to locate the field site for future studies and helps you look for relationships with data from other nearby field sites. Now, determine where you are (your field site) in the world. Choose the map that best locates your field site.http://www.gigapan.com/galleries/10030/gigapans/129421

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 25/41

You did not open hints for this part.

ANSWER:

Instructions for Part B:

1. Go back to the Gigapan image for the Angular Unconformity, west of El Paso, Texas. 2. Examine the outcrop carefully. Make note of any features that would show up on a map (e.g., roads, trees, etc.). 3. Now switch back to Google Earth and zoom in or out to determine how the outcrop is oriented (runs north to south, runs northeast to southwest, etc.) compared to where you are standing and viewing the outcrop. If “N” is not aligned with “North” move it to North.

Part B ­ The orientation of the outcrop

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 26/41

Rock units tell us about Earth’s past, so if we find evidence of geologic processes that have directional components (direction of plate movement, folds and faults, mineral foliation, wind and water currents, etc.), we need to be able to accurately reconstruct those directions. Also, in terms of the scientific method, it helps other geologists to be able to recreate the field investigation step­by­step to confirm or refute any previous findings.

Imagine visiting this outcrop, standing at the location where the Gigapan image was taken, and observing the natural and built features around you. Choose the most accurate representation of the outcrop’s orientation and your vantage point (where you are standing in relation to the outcrop). The representations below depict you and the outcrop as viewed from above. Similar to how you identified the location of this outcrop in the previous part, use Google Earth at a multiple zoom levels. The yellow dot is the point where the Gigapan image was taken.

You did not open hints for this part.

ANSWER:

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 27/41

Instructions for Parts C and D:

1. Exit Google Earth and go back to the Gigapan image for Angular Unconformity, west of El Paso, Texas. 2. Examine the outcrop carefully, and make note of the orientation of the layers of sedimentation in this image. Are all of the rock layers running in the same direction? Does the formation contain layers running at different angles?

3. Recall that angular unconformities refer to the junction between sedimentary rocks at an angle and rocks that are more horizontal and represent a time when the rocks were uplifted and eroded. Can you see the evidence of uplift and erosion in the image?

Part C ­ Analysis of an outcrop sketch

Where you see layers of sedimentary rock at an angle in contact with rocks that are horizontal, they are separated by a surface called an angular unconformity. This erosion surface represents a time when rocks were eroded before new layers of rock were formed. This can also occur during a pause in deposition, when a period of deformation (such as folding or tilting) has occurred.

Choose the sketch that best represents the rock outcrop.

You did not open hints for this part.

ANSWER:

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 28/41

Part D ­ Making observations I

Simple yet thoughtful observation exposes the history of an outcrop. The sedimentary rocks in the Gigapan image were formed as sediment accumulated as layers that stacked atop older layers. As layers became lower in the stack sequence and covered by newer layers, they became rocks.

If this area had been under water, the shells of organisms would have become limestone, a rock that can’t be identified visually but can be identified using field­based tests. Underwater movement of sediment may also create mixes of fine and coarse grains. This sediment becomes conglomerate, a rock clearly identifiable given its combined

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 29/41

coarse and fine grains. Over time, some layers would have become exposed as the water retreated and the rock layers above them were eroded. Additionally, some layers would have been tilted by tectonic forces.

Classify the observations according to the rock that they describe, or choose “Not enough information to tell.”

Drag the appropriate items to their respective bins. Each item may be used only once.

You did not open hints for this part.

ANSWER:

Part E ­ Making observations II

Choose the location of the unconformity.

You did not open hints for this part.

ANSWER:

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 30/41

Part F ­ Making observations III

Now that you have identified the unconformity in this outcrop, can you explain why it is an angular unconformity? Review the statements below, and indicate which are correct.

Select all that apply.

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 31/41

You did not open hints for this part.

ANSWER:

Part G ­ Drawing conclusions from the timing of events

Review the outcrop again. Order the specific locations identified in the outcrop by their age. Note where the arrow, square, and circles are located.

Rank the areas identified in the cross section from oldest to youngest.

You did not open hints for this part.

ANSWER:

It is an angular unconformity because layers of sedimentary rock are above and below the unconformity and the layers above and below are not parallel.

It is an angular unconformity because it is at an angle to the ground surface instead of parallel.

The tilting of the layers of rock occurred before erosion of the unconformity surface.

It is an angular unconformity because the layers of sedimentary rock above and below the unconformity are at the same angle.

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 32/41

Part H ­ Forming a conclusion: Determining the geologic history of an area from an outcrop

Geologists collect observations from field sites and then summarize their interpretations. It’s your turn to take everything you learned while exploring the rocks in this formation near El Paso, Texas, into a coherent story. Arrange the following geologic events in the order that they occurred.

Rank from oldest to youngest.

You did not open hints for this part.

ANSWER:

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 33/41

Interactive Animation: Radioactive Decay

When you have finished, answer the questions.

Part A

What happens during radioactive decay?

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 34/41

ANSWER:

Part B

What is the scientific definition of half­life?

ANSWER:

Part C

Two containers hold the same radioactive isotope. Container A contains 1000 atoms, and container B contains 500 atoms. Which of the following statements about containers A and B is true?

ANSWER:

Part D

A container holds 100 atoms of an isotope. This isotope has a half­life of 1.5 months. How many total atoms will be in the container after 3 months?

ANSWER:

Daughter isotopes turn into energy.

Parent isotopes turn into energy.

Energy turns into daughter isotopes.

Parent isotopes turn into daughter isotopes.

Daughter isotopes turn into parent isotopes.

the number of parent isotopes that will be lost during a single radioactive decay event

the number of daughter isotopes that will be gained during a single radioactive decay event

the amount of time over which the number of daughter isotopes increases by half

the amount of time over which the number of parent isotopes decreases by half

The rate of decay of atoms in container B is the same as the rate of decay of atoms in container A.

The rate of decay of atoms in container B is greater than the rate of decay of atoms in container A.

The rate of decay of atoms in container A is greater than the rate of decay of atoms in container B.

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 35/41

Part E

A container holds 100 atoms of an isotope. This isotope has a half­life of 1.5 months. How many atoms of the radioactive isotope will be in the container after 3 months?

ANSWER:

Part F

A rock sample contains 75 atoms of a parent isotope and 25 atoms of a daughter isotope. The half­life of the parent isotope is 100 years. How old is this rock?

ANSWER:

GeoTutor: Constructing an Order of Sequence of Geologic Events ­ Dating with Radioactivity ­ 2

You probably have read or seen stories about archeological findings that include organic remains of a 1000­year­old mummy or an ancient weapon made from stone, which is an inorganic material. Geologists and paleontologists calculate the age of these organic (contain carbon) and inorganic (do not contain carbon) materials by radiometric dating using the isotopes C­14 and U­235, respectively.

1. C­14 dating: This process is often known as radiocarbon dating. It is used to determine both historical and recent events of archeological artifacts of biological origin such as bone, cloth, wood, and plant fibers.

2. U­235 dating: This is used to determine the age of inorganic substances such as ancient rocks and minerals.

100 atoms

50 atoms

33 atoms

25 atoms

25 atoms

33 atoms

50 atoms

100 atoms

25 years old

50 years old

75 years old

100 years old

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 36/41

Part A ­ Calculating the Age of a Fossil Based on the Number of Half­lives Elapsed

Each isotope has a unique half­life. The half­life of an isotope is the time taken for half of the starting quantity to decay (with a ratio of 1:1). After two half­lives, there will be one­ fourth of the original parent sample and three­quarters would have decayed to the daughter product (with a ratio of 1:3). After three half­lives, the ratio becomes 1:7, and so forth.

The graph, for instance, shows that assuming the half­life of a sample is 4 months, then in 4 months, there will be 0.5 gram of the parent element and 0.5 gram of the daughter element will be produced. In month 8 (which is two­half­lives), there will be only 0.25 gram of parent element left and 0.75 gram of daughter element; that is, one­fourth of the parent sample (in red) is left, and in month 12, there is only one­eighth of the parent element.

You attend a geology lab where you are asked to estimate the age of a fossil. The ratio of parent to daughter elements in the fossil sample is 1:7. You know that fossils are the remains of living organisms, which have some amount of C­14 isotope. The C­14 isotope, which has a half­life of 5730 years, begins to decay as the organism dies.

What would be your estimation of the fossil’s age?

You did not open hints for this part.

ANSWER:

22,920

5730

2865

11,460

40,110

17,190

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 37/41

Part B ­ Radiometric Dating of Organic and Inorganic materials

John is assisting a geologist who has traveled across the world and collected a few samples. He asks John to classify the samples that can be dated using carbon­14 and uranium­235 (or U­235). All organic materials contain carbon and are dated using C­14; inorganic materials are dated using any radioactive element, such as uranium, rubidium, potassium, and thorium, except carbon. Now, help John group the samples.

Drag the appropriate items to their respective bins. Each item may be used only once.

You did not open hints for this part.

ANSWER:

Chapter 18 Reading Quiz Question 2

Part A

Which geological principle states that even if most sedimentary rock layers are presently folded, they were deformed after deposition?

You did not open hints for this part.

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 38/41

ANSWER:

Chapter 18 Problem 1 Multiple Choice

Part A

An unconformity is a buried ________.

ANSWER:

Chapter 18 Problem 2 Multiple Choice

Part A

Which of the following best characterizes an angular unconformity?

ANSWER:

principle of original horizontality

law of superposition

principle of cross­cutting relationships

principle of unconformities

principle of inclusions

surface of erosion separating younger strata above from older strata below

surface of erosion with older strata above and younger strata below

fault or fracture with older rocks above and younger rocks below

fault or fracture with younger strata above and older strata below

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 39/41

Chapter 18 Problem 6 Multiple Choice

Part A

By applying the law of superposition ________ dates can be determined.

ANSWER:

Chapter 18 Problem 9 Multiple Choice

Part A

Sandstone strata and a mass of granite are observed to be in contact. Which of the following statements is correct geologically?

ANSWER:

Tilted strata lie below the unconformity, and bedding in younger strata above is parallel to the unconformity.

Horizontal lava flows lie below the unconformity, and horizontal, sedimentary strata lie above.

It is the discordant boundary between older strata and an intrusive body of granite.

Tilted strata lie below the unconformity with loose, unconsolidated soil above.

conventional

radiometric

relative

both relative and radiometric

The sandstone is younger if the granite contains sandstone inclusions.

The granite is older if the sandstone contains pebbles of the granite.

The granite is older if it contains inclusions of sandstone.

The sandstone is younger if it shows evidence of contact metamorphism.

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 40/41

Chapter 18 Problem 28 True/False

Part A

A disconformity is an erosional unconformity with parallel beds or strata above and below.

ANSWER:

Chapter 18 Problem 12 Multiple Choice

Part A

A worm would stand a poor chance of being fossilized because ________.

ANSWER:

Chapter 18 Problem 51 Short Answer

Part A

The remains or traces of prehistoric life are called ________.

ANSWER:

True

False

worms have been rare during the geologic past

worms have no hard parts

worms contain no carbon­14

all of these

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 41/41

Chapter 18 Problem 16 Multiple Choice

Part A

Which of the following is not a very long­lived, radioactive isotope?

ANSWER:

Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 47.1%. You received 7.06 out of a possible total of 15 points, plus 0 points of extra credit.

C­14

K­40

U­238

Rb­87

Categories

## trans-dichlorobis(ethylenediamine)platinum(iv)

Give the chemical formula for trans-dichlorobis(ethylenediamine)platinum(IV). Use (en) as the symbol for ethylenediamine.

0 0 407
asked by Katie
Mar 30, 2012
[Pt(en)2Cl2]

0 0
posted by DrBob222
Mar 30, 2012
[PtCl2(en)2]2+

1 0
posted by Kelci
Apr 6, 2012

Categories

## what is the strength of the electric field at the position indicated by the dot in

What are the strength and direction of the electric field at the position indicated by the dot in the diagram below, in which d = 4.9 cm, q = 11
22,904 results
Physics
3 There are two charges +Q and –Q/2 that locate at two positions with a separation of d as shown in Fig. 1. We may put +Q at the origin of the x-axis to facilitate the calculation. (a) Find the electric field for +Q and –Q/2 at the position P. (5

asked by David on September 5, 2010
Physics
An electron moving to the right at 3.0% the speed of light enters a uniform electric field parallel to its direction of motion. If the electron is to be brought to rest in the space of 4.5 cm, determine the following. What direction is required for the

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Physics
As you travel through space, you find yourself moving into regions of ever-higher voltage. You are traveling . . . A) perpendicularly to the electric field. B) in exactly the same direction as the electric field. C) in a region with no electric field. D)

asked by O on January 21, 2018
Physics
As you travel through space, you find yourself moving into regions of ever-higher voltage. You are traveling . . . A) perpendicularly to the electric field. B) in exactly the same direction as the electric field. C) in a region with no electric field. D)

asked by O on January 21, 2018
Physics
A charge of 1nC is added to a spherical soap bubble with a radius of 3.0cm. What is the electric field strength just outside of the bubble? What is the electric field strength just inside of the bubble? The field experienced by each charge in the skin of

asked by Winter on October 11, 2013

physics

1. What is the magnitude of the electric field strength E such that an electron, when placed in the field, would experience an electrical force equal to its weight? What electric field strength E is required if the electron is replaced by a proton

asked by lol on March 13, 2011
physics
An electron has an initial velocity of 2.00 ✕ 10 6 m/s in a uniform 6.00 ✕ 10 5 N/C strength electric field. The field accelerates the electron in the direction opposite to its initial velocity. (a) What is the direction of the electric field? (b) How

asked by mathew on March 19, 2015
physics
A proton is acted on by an uniform electric field of magnitude 233 N/C pointing in the positive x direction. The particle is initially at rest. (a) In what direction will the charge move? (b) Determine the work done by the electric field when the particle

asked by mathew on March 29, 2015
PHYSICS URGENT

1. A point charge of +1.0 µC is moved in the direction of an electric field, and it has a change in electric potential difference energy of 10.0 J. What was the change in electric potential difference? 1 µC = 10-6 C (Points : 1) -1.0 × 10^8 V -1.0 ×

asked by Hannah on May 1, 2014
physics
Three point charges, A=2.00 uC, B=7.00 uC, C=-4.00 uC, are located at the corners of an equilateral triangle. a) Find the magnitude and direction of the electric field position of the 2.00 uC charge. b) How would the eletric field be affected if the charge

asked by Ella on November 7, 2012
physics
A 30.0 cm diameter loop is rotated in a uniform electric field until the position of maximum electric flux is found. The flux in this position is 5.60 multiplied by 105 N·m2/C. What is the magnitude of the electric field? MN/C

asked by suhani on September 13, 2013
physics
A 30.0 cm diameter loop is rotated in a uniform electric field until the position of maximum electric flux is found. The flux in this position is 5.60 multiplied by 105 N·m2/C. What is the magnitude of the electric field? MN/C

asked by gita on September 8, 2013
physics

1. Suppose that the strength of the electric field about an isolated point charge has a certain value at a distance of 1 m. How will the electric field strength compare at a distance of 2 m from the point charge? I know it’s At twice the distance the field

asked by anonymous on July 14, 2010
Physics
An electric dipole is formed from two charges, ±q, spaced 1.00cm apart. The dipole is at the origin, oriented along the y-axis. The electric field strength at the point (x,y)=(0cm,10cm) is 320N/C . What is the charge q? Give your answer in nC. What is the

asked by Allison on February 21, 2014
Physics
The electric field strength at a particular distance from an electric charge is 2.0 N/C. What is the electric field strength if you are 2 times closer to the same charge?

asked by Anon on January 18, 2018

physics
Any dielectric material other than vacuum has a maximum electric field that can be produced in the dielectric material before it physically or chemically breaks down and begins to conduct. This maximum electric field is called dielectric strength. The

asked by lauren on March 7, 2010
Physics
I don’t know how to approach this question… Any dielectric material other than vacuum has a maximum electric field that can be produced in the dielectric material before it physically or chemically breaks down and begins to conduct. This maximum electric

asked by Sandra on March 4, 2010
Physics
Any dielectric material other than vacuum has a maximum electric field that can be produced in the dielectric material before it physically or chemically breaks down and begins to conduct. This maximum electric field is called dielectric strength. The

asked by Susie on March 6, 2010
Physics
(a) Find the electric field at x = 5.00 cm in Figure 18.52(a), given that q = 1.00X10^-6;C . (b) At what position between 3.00 and 8.00 cm is the total electric field the same as that for –2q alone? (c) Can the electric field be zero anywhere between

asked by Elizabeth on August 8, 2016
physics!
An electric dipole consists of 2.0 g spheres charged to 5.0 nC (positive and negative) at the ends of a 12 cm long massless rod. The dipole rotates on a frictionless pivot at its center. The dipole is held perpendicular to a uniform electric field with

asked by cha on February 8, 2012
college physics
An electric dipole consists of 2.0 g spheres charged to 5.0 nC (positive and negative) at the ends of a 12 cm long massless rod. The dipole rotates on a frictionless pivot at its center. The dipole is held perpendicular to a uniform electric field with

asked by cha on February 8, 2012
College Physics
An electric dipole consists of 2.0 g spheres charged to 5.0 nC (positive and negative) at the ends of a 12 cm long massless rod. The dipole rotates on a frictionless pivot at its center. The dipole is held perpendicular to a uniform electric field with

asked by Collin on February 8, 2012
math/physics
An electron moving through an electric field experiences an acceleration of 6.1 multiplied by 103 m/s2. (a) Find the electric force acting on the electron. (b) What is the strength of the electric field?

asked by jake on January 11, 2010
physics
a positive point charge q sits at the center of a hollow spherical shell. The shell, with radius R and negligible thickness, has net charge -2q. find an expression for the for the electric field strength (a) inside the sphere, rR. in what direction does

asked by jerry on September 16, 2009
physics
An electron moving to the right at 4.0% the speed of light enters a uniform electric field parallel to its direction of motion. If the electron is to be brought to rest in the space of 5.0 cm, determine what the strength of the field is.

asked by Mercedes on July 17, 2012

Physics
When an electron moves 2.5 m in the direction of an electric field, the change in electrical potential energy of the electron is 8×10-17J. What is the strength of the electric field that causes the change in potential energy? 320 N/C 200 N/C 20 N/C 3.2 N/C

asked by Blah on October 19, 2012
Physics II
An electron with an initial speed of 5.0 ✕ 105 m/s enters a region in which there is an electric field directed along its direction of motion. If the electron travels 9.0 cm in the field before being stopped, what are the magnitude and direction of the

asked by Beat on January 24, 2016
physics
An east-west oriented conducting bar 2.0 m long moves north at 20 m/s through a magnetic field of 0.017 T, directed downward. What is the strength and direction of the electric field generated in the bar?

asked by angela on October 24, 2010
11th grade physics
Two point charges q and q’ are placed respectively at two points A and B. Let O be the midpoint of [AB]. Charge q placed at A creates at O an electric field of strength E=9×10^6 V/m. Determine the resultant electric field at O when: a) q’=q b) q’=-q

asked by vicky on March 15, 2016
11th grade physics
Two point charges q and q’ are placed respectively at two points A and B. Let O be the midpoint of [AB]. Charge q placed at A creates at O an electric field of strength E=9×10^6 V/m. Determine the resultant electric field at O when: a) q’=q b)

asked by vicky on March 15, 2016
11th grade physics
Two point charges q and q’ are placed respectively at two points A and B. Let O be the midpoint of [AB]. Charge q placed at A creates at O an electric field of strength E=9×10^6 V/m. Determine the resultant electric field at O when: a) q’=q b) q’=-q

asked by vicky on March 15, 2016
Physics
I know this is so simple but for some reason I am having a brain fart… A 20 C charge experiences a 2 N force in an electric field. What is the strength of the electric field? Please help and laugh later thank you lol

asked by Trevor on May 1, 2015
Physics
An electrostastic force of 20.0 newtons is exerted on a charge of 8.00 x 10^/2 C at point P in an electric field. The magnitude of the electric field strength at P is Given: Fe = 20 B q = 8.00 x 10^/2 C

asked by Priscilla on February 5, 2010
Physics
When an electron moves 2.5 m in the direction of an electric field, the change in electrical potential energy of the electron is 8×10-17J. What is the strength of the electric field that causes the change in potential energy? 320 N/C 200 N/C 20 N/C 3.2 N/C

asked by La La on October 19, 2012
PHYSICS
The electron gun in a television tube uses a uniform electric field to accelerate electrons from rest to 5.0×107 m/s in a distance of 1.2 cm. What is the electric field strength?

asked by Lucas on February 24, 2010

Physics
A uniform electric field exists everywhere in the x, y plane. This electric field has a magnitude of 5600 N/C and is directed in the positive x direction. A point charge -9.6 × 10-9 C is placed at the origin. Find the magnitude of the net electric field

asked by Anonymous on September 27, 2015
physics
A uniform electric field exists everywhere in the x, y plane. This electric field has a magnitude of 5700 N/C and is directed in the positive x direction. A point charge -5.4 × 10-9 C is placed at the origin. Find the magnitude of the net electric field

asked by namabia on November 19, 2014
physics
The electric field strength 6.0 cm from a very long charged wire is 1700 N/C. What is the electric field strength 10.0 cm from the wire?

asked by David D. on September 3, 2010
physics
Background pertinent to this problem is available in Interactive LearningWare 18.3. A uniform electric field exists everywhere in the x, y plane. This electric field has a magnitude of 5700 N/C and is directed in the positive x direction. A point charge

asked by namabia on November 18, 2014
PHYSICS
A proton, initially traveling in the +x-direction with a speed of 5.30×105m/s , enters a uniform electric field directed vertically upward. After traveling in this field for 4.38×10−7s , the proton’s velocity is directed 45 ∘ above the +x-axis.

asked by Mary on January 28, 2014
Physics
A beam of unknown charged particles passes at right angle to the direction of magnetic field of 9.0 10-2 T. If the speed of the particles is 3.0 104 m/s and force experienced by a particle is 8.64 10-16 N, how many electric charges are carried by one

asked by Landon on May 26, 2009
Physics
There is a very large horizontal conducting plate in the plane (consider it infinitely large). Its thickness is . The charge densities on the upper and the lower surfaces are both equal to . The goal of this problem is to find the electric field (magnitude

asked by P on February 24, 2013
Physics – important
An electron is accelerated through a uniform electric field of magnitude 2.5×10^2 N/C with an initial speed of 1.2×10^6 m/s parallel to the electric field. a) Calculate the work done on the electron by the field when the electron has travelled 2.5 cm in

asked by Linn on April 21, 2009
Physics
An electron is accelerated through a uniform electric field of magnitude 2.5×10^2 N/C with an initial speed of 1.2×10^6 m/s parallel to the electric field. a) Calculate the work done on the electron by the field when the electron has travelled 2.5 cm in

asked by Linn on April 21, 2009
physics
please check my answers and help me with the first one. how can you charge an object negatively with only the help of a positively charged object? -This one I am not too sure, when one material is rubbed against another electrons jump readily from one to

asked by Soly on November 6, 2007

physics
A 0.035 kg spherical oil droplet has charge of +1×10-7C. A uniform electric field is acting upwards as shown below. What strength of electric field is required to make the sphere float in the air without moving?

asked by mable on December 12, 2016
physics
There is a very large horizontal conducting plate in the x-y plane (consider it infinitely large). Its thickness is h . The charge densities on the upper and the lower surfaces are both equal to +σ. The goal of this problem is to find the electric field

asked by Anonymous on February 27, 2013
Science- Electric and Magnetic Potential Energy

1. At which position will the bar magnets most likely experience the least magnetic potential energy between them? D – position 4 2. A positively charged test object is moving toward the positive source charge in an electric field. B – It’s potential

asked by ImLegit on April 19, 2016
physics
An electromagnetic wave has an electric field strength of 145 V/m at a point P in space at time t. (a) What is the electric field energy density at P? (b) A parallel-plate capacitor whose plates have area 0.110 m2 has a uniform electric field between its

asked by Beth on March 8, 2013
Physics
An electron experiences a force of 12 mN in the positive x-direction in an electric field. What is the magnitude and direction of the electric field?

asked by Sam on February 8, 2011
Physics
There is a very large horizontal conducting plate in the x-y plane (consider it infinitely large). Its thickness is h . The charge densities on the upper and the lower surfaces are both equal to +σ. The goal of this problem is to find the electric field

asked by P on February 25, 2013
Physics
A 20 C charge experiences a 2 N force in an electric field. What is the strength of the electric field?

asked by Jennifer on April 27, 2015
Science
before you say “The answers are in your text” I don’t have one this is based on memory and guessing. Welcome to the 2017 school system. 1. Objects with like charges each other while opposite charges ___ each other. 2. The direction

asked by Senpai on December 4, 2017
Math
Question: An electron is released from rest in a uniform electric field and accelerates to the north at a rate of 249 m/s^2 . Part A: What is the magnitude of the electric field? Answer: E=_ N/C Part B: What is the direction of the electric field?

asked by Ashley on March 15, 2017
Physics
The electric field strength @ distance = 1.0 m from a point charge is 4.0 x 10^4 N/C. What is the Electric field strength @ 2.0 m from the same charge?

asked by Anna on February 27, 2013

Physics
I don’t know if my other post went through or not, so I’m reposting it here. The first question I didn’t know the answer to and the second one was worded in a way that I couldn’t understand. 1. With respect to an electric and a magnetic field, how does the

asked by Emily on March 29, 2008
Physics
A proton is released from rest in a uniform electric field. After the proton has traveled a distance of 10.0 cm, its speed is 1.4 x 106 m/s in the positive x direction. Find the magnitude and direction of the electric field.

asked by Chloe on July 17, 2011
phsics multiple choice
1)A coil of length 1cm has N turns and carries an electric current I. It creates at a point M a magnetic field of intensity B. -If a current 3I is sent in the coil the field strength at M becomes: a. 3B b. B/3 c. B -If the number of turns per unit length

asked by angy on May 17, 2016
physics multiple choice
1)A coil of length 1cm has N turns and carries an electric current I. It creates at a point M a magnetic field of intensity B. -If a current 3I is sent in the coil the field strength at M becomes: a. 3B b. B/3 c. B -If the number of turns per unit length

asked by angy on May 17, 2016
electric force/field
Three point charges, A = 2.2 µC, B = 7.5 µC, and C = -3.9 µC, are located at the corners of an equilateral triangle . Find the magnitude and direction of the electric field at the position of the 2.2 µC charge. magnitude = . N/C direction =

asked by physics on January 23, 2012
College Physics
A doubly charged ion is accelerated to an energy of 33.0 keV by the electric field between two parallel conducting plates separated by 1.70 cm. What is the electric field strength between the plates?

asked by Bill on March 24, 2014
PHYSICS
A doubly charged ion is accelerated to an energy of 34.0 keV by the electric field between two parallel conducting plates separated by 2.00 cm. What is the electric field strength between the plates?

asked by Kg on September 30, 2012
Physics
A doubly charged ion is accelerated to an energy of 33.0 keV by the electric field between two parallel conducting plates separated by 1.70 cm. What is the electric field strength between the plates?

asked by Sam on March 23, 2014
Physics
A particle with mass m = 1.20g and charge q = 345ìC is traveling in the x-direction with an initial velocity of v0 = 68.0m/s. The particle passes through a constant electric field in the y-direction with magnitude |E| = 263N/C over a distance of d =

asked by Nick on January 17, 2013
Chemistry
Two fixed charges, -4μC and -5μC, are separated by a certain distance. If the charges are separated by 20cm, what is the magnitude of the electric field halfway between the charges? My textbook says that the formula for electric field is (kq)/r^2. But

asked by Emma on February 9, 2016

Physics
The electric flux through the surface shown in Figure Ex27.10 is 15.0 Nm2/C, and the electric field makes an angle α = 70° with the surface. What is the electric field strength? The surface is a 10cm by 10cm square.

asked by David D. on September 13, 2010
Physics Flux
The electric flux through the surface shown in Figure Ex27.10 is 15.0 Nm2/C, and the electric field makes an angle á = 70° with the surface. What is the electric field strength? The surface is a 10cm by 10cm square.

asked by David on September 13, 2010
College Physics 2
Estimate the magnitude of the electric field strength due to the proton in a hydrogen atom at a distance of 5.29×10^-11 m, the expected position of the electron in the atom.

asked by Mayga on August 29, 2012
Vectors Math
The magnetic force (Vector FM)on a particle in a magnetic field is found by Vector FM = Vector I × Vector B, Vector I is the charge multiplied by the velocity of a charged particle and Vector B the strength of the magnetic field, in Tesla (T). An electron

asked by Amy on February 23, 2015
Physics
1.) a charge of -2×10^-9 C in an electric field between two metal plates 4cm apart is acted upon by a force of 10^-4 N. a.) what is the strength of the field? b.) what is the potential difference between the plates? my question: how will going to solve

asked by konan on February 8, 2009
Vectors
The magnetic force (Vector FM)on a particle in a magnetic field is found by Vector FM = Vector I × Vector B, Vector I is the charge multiplied by the velocity of a charged particle and Vector B the strength of the magnetic field, in Tesla (T). An electron

asked by Amy on February 22, 2015
Vectors Math
The magnetic force (Vector FM)on a particle in a magnetic field is found by Vector FM = Vector I × Vector B, Vector I is the charge multiplied by the velocity of a charged particle and Vector B the strength of the magnetic field, in Tesla (T). An electron

asked by Zaynab on February 22, 2015
College physics
150 pJ of energy is stored in a 1.0 cm times 1.0 cm times 1.0 cm region of uniform electric field. What is the electric field strength?

asked by Emoni on July 14, 2010
physics
explain the relationship between contours of constant potential and the electric field direction. why is the electric field a vector quantity while the electric potential is a scalar?

asked by jake on February 1, 2010
physics
A laser emits 1.42 1018 photons per second in a beam of light that has a diameter of 1.82 mm and a wavelength of 524.0 nm. Determine each of the following for the electromagnetic wave that constitutes the beam. (a) the average electric field strength (b)

asked by Anonymous on April 17, 2014

physics
Which of the following statements about electric field lines due to static charges are true? (Select all that apply.) Electric field lines can never cross each other. Static charges can create closed loop electric field lines that do not begin or end on a

asked by mathew on March 16, 2015
physics
Gold ions (Au+) are accelerate to high speeds using electric fields. These ions are then passed through a region where uniform electric E and magnetic B fields are present. If the ions are traveling to the right, which configuration of E and B will serve

asked by lauren on March 13, 2010
Physics
What are the strength and direction of the electric field at the position indicated by the dot in the diagram below, in which d = 4.9 cm, q = 11 nC, the positive x-axis points to the right, and the positive y-axis points up? Give your answer in each of the

asked by help! on February 28, 2012
physics

1. Three particles with charges of +11 mC each are placed at the vertices of an equilateral triangle with sides of 15.0 cm. What is the magnitude and direction of the net force on each particle? 2. A proton is released in an uniform electric field and it

asked by Sasha on January 4, 2010
PHYSICS

1. Why is an electric field considered to be a vector quantity? 2. Draw the electric field around an electric dipole of +1 µC and -1 µC 3. How many electrons have been removed from a positively charged object if it has a charge of 1.5 x 1011 C? 4. A

asked by Hayden on December 21, 2012
physics
I need help confirming my answers: 1) The work done on an electric charge equals a) IR b)q/t c)Vq d) It I think it’s C.(Vq) 2) The direction of an electric field is the direction that a _ test charge will move when placed in the field. a)negative b)

asked by Katie on April 7, 2011
physics help
I need help confirming my answers: 1) The work done on an electric charge equals a) IR b)q/t c)Vq d) It I think it’s C.(Vq) 2) The direction of an electric field is the direction that a _ test charge will move when placed in the field. a)negative b)

asked by Katie on April 10, 2011
Physics
What happens when an electron travels through an electric field? Will its speed remain constant or will it accelerate? The initial velocity is in the same direction as the electric field.

asked by Ichi on January 26, 2019
physics
An electron is released from rest in a uniform electric field and accelerates to the north at a rate of 115 m/s2. What are the magnitude and direction of the electric field.

asked by electric field on March 1, 2010
physics
A proton is placed in uniform electric field”E” what must be the magnitude and direction of electric field when electrostatic force is balanced by weight

asked by Anonymous on February 13, 2016

Physics
A small object of mass 3.00 g and charge -13 µC “floats” in a uniform electric field. What is the magnitude and direction of the electric field?

asked by Nate on October 4, 2010
Physics
A small object of mass 3.50 g and charge -22 µC “floats” in a uniform electric field. What is the magnitude and direction of the electric field?

asked by Jan on February 6, 2010
Physics
A small object of mass 2.60 g and charge -17 µC “floats” in a uniform electric field. What is the magnitude and direction of the electric field?

asked by Phil on February 17, 2013
Physics
A circular surface with a radius of 0.058 m is exposed to a uniform external electric field of magnitude 1.49 104 N/C. The electric flux through the surface is 74 N · m2/C. What is the angle between the direction of the electric field and the normal to

asked by Sarah on September 6, 2013
physics
A circular surface with a radius of 0.053 m is exposed to a uniform external electric field of magnitude 1.48 104 N/C. The electric flux through the surface is 72 N · m2/C. What is the angle between the direction of the electric field and the normal to

asked by amber on September 8, 2009
Physics
A circular surface with a radius of 0.058 m is exposed to a uniform external electric field of magnitude 1.49 104 N/C. The electric flux through the surface is 74 N · m2/C. What is the angle between the direction of the electric field and the normal to

asked by Sarah on September 6, 2013
Physics
A circular surface with a radius of 0.058 m is exposed to a uniform external electric field of magnitude 1.49 104 N/C. The electric flux through the surface is 74 N · m2/C. What is the angle between the direction of the electric field and the normal to

asked by Sarah on September 6, 2013
Physics
A circular surface with a radius of 0.058 m is exposed to a uniform external electric field of magnitude 1.49 104 N/C. The electric flux through the surface is 74 N · m2/C. What is the angle between the direction of the electric field and the normal to

asked by Sarah on September 8, 2013
Physic
An electron is released from rest in a uniform electric field and accelerates to the north at a rate of 115 m/s^2.Determine the magnitude and direction of electric field.

asked by Syam on December 16, 2014
Physics
What would happen when a dipole is placed in uniform electric field making an angle theta with the direction of electric field ?

asked by Sneha on June 8, 2013

Physics
What would happen when a dipole is placed in uniform electric field making an angle theta with the direction of electric field ?

asked by Aman on June 8, 2013
physics
A 0.10 g plastic bead is charged by the addition of 1.0 x 1010 excess electrons. What electric field (strength and direction) will cause the bead to hang suspended in the air?

asked by Jessika on July 21, 2011
Physics
An object with a charge of -4.4 uC and a mass of 1.4×10^−2 kg experiences an upward electric force, due to a uniform electric field, equal in magnitude to its weight. Find the magnitude of the electric field. Find the direction of the electric field. If

asked by Cooper on January 23, 2012
Physics
Gold ions (Au+) are accelerate to high speeds using electric fields. These ions are then passed through a region where uniform electric E and magnetic B fields are present. If the ions are traveling to the right, which configuration of E and B will serve

asked by mm. on March 15, 2010
Physics
Gold ions (Au+) are accelerate to high speeds using electric fields. These ions are then passed through a region where uniform electric E and magnetic B fields are present. If the ions are traveling to the right, which configuration of E and B will serve

asked by Sandra on March 13, 2010

Categories

## how did the designer of this german folk dress use the principles of art

This painting is called “Girl in a Southern German Folk Costume”

1. How did the designers of this German folk dress use the principles of art?
A. The designer repeats colors throughout the apron to create unity
B. The designer uses different colors to create complicated patterns
C. The designer uses different colors to create contrast**
D. The designer uses contrasting colors to show unity 0 0 3,270
asked by Anonymous
Apr 3, 2015
Someone here will be happy to check what you think the correct answer is. 0 0
👩‍🏫
Writeacher
Apr 3, 2015
Was it C?? 0 0
posted by Anonymous
Apr 7, 2015
Yes, the answer is C. 0 0
posted by Anon
Apr 12, 2015
1)c
2)d
3)b 1 21
posted by Jake
Mar 4, 2016

Hey Jake your completely wrong.

1. C (so you were correct on that)
2.B
3.C 48 0
posted by That Girl
Mar 7, 2016
That Girl is correct 100% 3 0
posted by Mr.Doctor
Mar 10, 2016
1.C
2.B
3.C 11 0
posted by corect ansers
Mar 16, 2016
Thank you That Girl and corect ansers!

1) C
2) B
3) C
100%

10 0
posted by Iris
Apr 5, 2016
That Girl was totally correct

0 0
posted by Damnnnn Daniellll
Apr 12, 2016

3/3 Thank you

0 0
posted by The Grinch Is The Best Villain EVAR!
Apr 19, 2016
Thx everyone!!!

0 0
posted by fox girl
Apr 22, 2016
C
B
C
Connections these are correct..

4 0
posted by Connections Academy whiz
Feb 19, 2017
Thanks so much academy whiz the connections answers are these
C
B
C
only for connections

3 0
posted by flubnuggets
Mar 9, 2017
Thank you that girl

0 0
posted by Barry Allan
Apr 7, 2017

FOR ANYONE WHO WANTS TO KNOW
ANSWERS:
C
B
C

4 0
posted by liliannahalls
Apr 20, 2017
I believe that you are all right! Thank you for checking answers!

1 0
posted by Hi!!!
Mar 22, 2018
^stop being so damm happy

2 6
posted by Dat Guy
Mar 26, 2018
^stop being dat guy

5 0
posted by dem memez
Apr 12, 2018
@Dat Guy

hey, not everyone is a depressed emo like you : )

3 0
posted by |-/
Apr 17, 2018

@ |-/ I’m a repressed emo

0 2
posted by ^~^
Apr 23, 2018
@^~^

Did I ask?

2 0
posted by |-/
Apr 24, 2018
thx to that girl i got 3/3 100% thank you

2 0
posted by the one who can’t lie
Apr 24, 2018
its cbc for connexus

1 0
posted by cant say
May 4, 2018

1. C
2. B
3. C 3 0
posted by rip
May 30, 2018
4. C
5. B
6. C 1 0
posted by Hal
Feb 25, 2019
@|-/ “not everyone is a depressed emo like you”

you literally have twenty one pilot’s old symbol as your name but okay. i support the fellow clikkies, but don’t lie, we’re all depressed and emo

3 0
posted by hm
Feb 26, 2019
@hm u right

0 0
posted by |-/
Mar 12, 2019
Our brains are sick but that’s okay.

2 1
posted by ||-//
Apr 1, 2019
@hm, Truth you speak!!!!

0 0
posted by Night-Shade
Apr 17, 2019

@Dat Guy, That what i was thinking

0 0
posted by Night-Shade
Apr 17, 2019

Categories

# FINC 340- FINAL EXAMINATION

A- MULTIPLE CHOICE – Answer any 60 of the following (60 points -1 point each)

1– An exchange traded fund that invests in the stocks of large corporations is an example of

A) direct investment.

B) indirect investment.

C) derivative investment.

D) tangible investment.

2- On a net basis, funds in the financial markets are generally supplied by

A) individuals.

B) both individuals and business firms.

C) business firms.

D) the government.

3- Which of the following is an example of a tangible asset.

A) Bonds

B) mutual funds

C) real estate

D) stocks

4. Sarah purchased a stock one year ago at a price of $32 a share. In the past year, she has received four quarterly dividends of$0.75 each. Today she sold the stock for $38 a share. Her capital gain per share is A)$3.00.

B) $6.00. C)$(6.00).

D) $9.00. 5. Investment bankers who join together to share the financial risk associated with buying an entire issue of new securities and reselling them to the public is called a(n) A) selling group. B) tombstone group. C) underwriting syndicate. D) primary market group. 6. Which one of the following statements about the NYSE is correct? A) Each member of the exchange owns a trading post. B) Any listed stock may be traded at any of 20 trading posts. C) Brokerage firms are only permitted to have one individual trading on the floor of the exchange. D) Buy orders are filled at the lowest price and sell orders are filled at the highest price. 7. The price an individual investor will pay to purchase a stock in the OTC market is the A) spread. B) ask price. C) bid price. D) broker price. 8. Kayla invested$3,000 and purchased shares of a German corporation when the exchange rate was $1.00 = .70 euro. After six months, she sold all of the shares for 3,180 euros, when the exchange rate was$1.00 = .68 euro. No dividends were paid during the time Heidi owned the shares of stock. What is the amount of Kayla’s gain or loss on this investment?

A) $129.60 gain B)$1676 gain

C) $1676 loss D)$250 loss

9. The purchase of stock with cash in the hope of earning a capital gain is known as taking a

A) long position in the stock.

B) short position in the stock.

C) long, margined position in the stock.

D) short, margined position in the stock.

10. Megan bought 200 shares of stock at a price of $10 a share. She used her 70% margin account to make the purchase. Megan sold her stock after a year for$12 a share. Ignoring margin interest and trading costs, what is Megan’s return on investor’s equity for this investment?

A) 67%

B) 29%

C) 14%

D) 10%

11. Emily bought 200 shares of ABC Co. stock for $29.00 per share on 60% margin. Assume she holds the stock for one year and that her interest costs will be$80 over the holding period. Ignoring commissions, what is her percentage return (loss) on invested capital if the stock price went down 10%?

A) -32%

B) -21%

C) -16%

D) -10%

12. Which of the following types of information will NOT be found in major urban newspapers?

A) price quotations for stocks of local interest

B) stories concerning local business leaders

C) interest rates offered by local and national banks

D) real time price quotes for widely held stocks and exchange traded funds

13. Kelly bought a stock at a price of $22.50. She received a$1.75 dividend and sold the stock for $24.75. What is Kelly’s capital gain on this investment? A)$4.00

B) $3.75 C)$2.25

D) $1.75 14. Inflation tends to have a favorable impact on A) real estate. B) common stock. C) preferred stock. D) bonds. 15. When calculating the present value of either a future single sum or a future annuity, the applicable interest rate is usually called the A) yield to maturity. B) compound interest rate. C) internal rate of return. D) discount rate. 16. The closest approximation to the real, risk-free rate of interest is A) The short-term Treasury bill rate plus the inflation rate. B) The short-term Treasury bill rate minus the inflation rate. C) The 10 year Treasury bond rate minus the inflation rate. D) The 10 year Treasury bond rate minus the 1 year Treasury bill rate. 17. The markets in general are paying a 2% real rate of return. Inflation is expected to be 3%. ABC stock commands a 6% risk premium. What is the expected rate of return on ABC stock? A) 2% B) 5% C) 8% D) 11% 18. The required return on Beta stock is 14%. The risk-free rate of return is 4% and the real rate of return is 2%. How much are investors requiring as compensation for risk? A) 8% B) 10% C) 12% D) 14% 19. You find that the bid and ask prices for a stock are$10.25 and $10.30 respectively. If you purchase or sell the stock you must pay a flat commission of$25. If you buy 100 shares of the stock and immediately sell them, what is your total implied and actual transaction cost in dollars?  A. $50 B.$25 C. $30 D.$55

20. Systematic risks

A) can be eliminated by investing in a variety of economic sectors.

B) are forces that affect all investment categories.

C) result from random firm-specific events.

D) are unique to certain types of investment.

21. When the stock market has bottomed out and is beginning to recover, the best portfolio to own is the one with a beta of

A) 0.0.

B) +0.5.

C) +1.5.

D) +2.0.

22. Which one of the following statements about common stock is true?

A) Common stock can provide attractive capital appreciation opportunities.

B) Dividends generally provide the greatest rate of return on common stocks.

C) Common stocks generally have a negative rate of return over a ten-year period.

D) The DJIA is the best indicator of the overall performance of common stocks.

23. Substituting EBITDA for EBIT when computing the times interest earned ratio will make the company appear

A) more leveraged.

B) less leveraged.

C) more profitable.

D) less efficient.

24. Nadine Enterprises has total assets of $240,000, a debt-equity ratio of 0.60, and a return on assets of 9%. What is the return on equity? A) 5.4% B) 5.6% C) 14.4% D) 15.0% 25. Which one of the following is a leverage measure? A) times interest earned B) net working capital C) return on equity D) net profit margin 26. Assume that you have recently purchased 100 shares in an investment company. Upon examining the balance sheet, you note the firm is reporting$225 million in assets, $30 million in liabilities, and 10 million shares outstanding. What is the Net Asset Value (NAV) of these shares? A.$25.50 B. $22.50 C.$19.50 D. $1.95 27. The offer price of an open-end fund is$18.00 and the fund is sold with a front-end load of 5%? What is the fund’s NAV?  A. $18.74 B.$17.10 C. $15.40 D.$16.57

28. Whisper numbers are

A) officially published forecast numbers provided by company management.

B) the official released estimates prepared by financial analysts.

C) generally less accurate than the released estimates by analysts.

D) generally higher than the released analysts’ forecasts.

29. You invest in a mutual fund that charges a 3% front end load, 1% total annual fees, and a 0% back end load on Class A shares. The same fund charges 0% front end load, 1% total annual fees, and a 2% back end load on Class B shares. What are the total fees in year one on a Class A investment of $20,000 with no growth in value? A. 658 B. 794 C. 885 D. 902 30. You invest in a mutual fund that charges a 3% front end load, 1% total annual fees, and a 0% back end load on Class A shares. The same fund charges 0% front end load, 1% total annual fees, and a 2% back end load on Class B shares. What are the total fees in year one on a Class B investment of$20,000 if you redeem shares with no growth in value?  A. 596 B. 794 C. 885 D. 902

31. You put up $50 at the beginning of the year for an investment. The value of the investment grows 4% and you earn a dividend of$3.50. Your HPR was ____.  A. 4.00% B. 3.50% C. 7.00% D. 11.00%

32. The complete portfolio refers to the investment in _________.  A. the risk-free asset B. the risky portfolio C. the risk-free asset and the risky portfolio combined D. the risky portfolio and the index

33. An investment earns 10% the first year, 15% the second year and loses 12% the third year. Your total compound return over the three years was ______.  A. 41.68% B. 11.32% C. 3.64% D. 13.00%

34. Suppose you pay $9,700 for a$10,000 par Treasury bill maturing in three months. What is the holding period return for this investment?  A. 3.01% B. 3.09% C. 12.42% D. 16.71%

35. The rate of return on _____ is known at the beginning of the holding period while the rate of return on ____ is not known until the end of the holding period.  A. risky assets, Treasury bills B. Treasury bills, risky assets C. excess returns, risky assets D. index assets, bonds

36. Most studies indicate that investors’ risk aversion is in the range _____.  A. 1-3 B. 2-4 C. 3-5 D. 4-6

37. A measure of the riskiness of an asset held in isolation is ____________.  A. beta B. standard deviation C. covariance D. semi-variance

38.  If enough investors decide to purchase stocks they are likely to drive up stock prices thereby causing _____________ and ___________.  A. expected returns to fall; risk premiums to fall B. expected returns to rise; risk premiums to fall C. expected returns to rise; risk premiums to rise D. expected returns to fall; risk premiums to rise

39. Building a zero-investment portfolio will always involve _____________.  A. an unknown mixture of short and long positions B. only short positions C. only long positions D. equal investments in a short and a long position

40. Liquidity is a risk factor that __________.  A. has yet to be accurately measured and incorporated into portfolio management B. is unaffected by trading mechanisms on various stock exchanges C. has no effect on the market value of an asset D. affects bond prices but not stock prices

41. A stock’s alpha measures the stock’s ____________________.  A. expected return B. abnormal return C. excess return D. residual return

42. The measure of risk used in the Capital Asset Pricing Model is ___________.  A. specific risk B. the standard deviation of returns C. reinvestment risk D. beta

43. Random price movements indicate ________.  A. irrational markets B. that prices cannot equal fundamental values C. that technical analysis to uncover trends can be quite useful D. that markets are functioning efficiently

44. Stock prices that are stable over time _______.  A. indicate that prices are useful indicators of true economic value B. indicate that the market is not incorporating new information into current stock prices C. ensure that an economy allocates its resources efficiently D. indicates that returns follow a random walk process

45. If you believe in the __________ form of the EMH, you believe that stock prices reflect all relevant information including information that is available only to insiders.  A. semi-strong B. strong C. weak D. perfect

46. __________ is the return on a stock beyond what would be predicted from market movements alone.  A. A normal return B. A subliminal return C. An abnormal return D. An excess return

47. A market anomaly refers to _______.  A. an exogenous shock to the market that is sharp but not persistent B. a price or volume event that is inconsistent with historical price or volume trends C. a trading or pricing structure that interferes with efficient buying and selling of securities D. price behavior that differs from the behavior predicted by the efficient market hypothesis

48. The semi-strong form of the efficient market hypothesis implies that ____________ generate abnormal returns and ____________ generate abnormal returns.  A. Technical analysis cannot; fundamental analysis can B. Technical analysis can; fundamental analysis can C. Technical analysis can; fundamental analysis cannot D. Technical analysis cannot; fundamental analysis cannot

49. Insiders are able to profitably trade and earn abnormal returns prior to the announcement of positive news. This is a violation of which form of efficiency?  A. Weak form efficiency B. Semi-strong form efficiency C. Strong form efficiency D. Technical analysis

50. In an efficient market and for an investor that believes in a passive approach to investing, what is the primary duty of a portfolio manager?  A. Accounting for results B. Diversification C. Identifying undervalued stocks D. No need for a portfolio manager

51. The lack of adequate trading volume in stock that may ultimately lead to its ability to produce excess returns is referred to as the ____________________.  A. January effect B. liquidity effect C. neglected firm effect D. P/E effect

52. The put/call ratio is a ______ indicator.  A. sentiment B. flow of funds C. market structure D. fundamental

53. Consider two bonds, A and B. Both bonds presently are selling at their par value of $1,000. Each pay interest of$120 annually. Bond A will mature in 5 years while bond B will mature in 6 years. If the yields to maturity on the two bonds change from 12% to 14%, _________.  A. both bonds will increase in value but bond A will increase more than bond B B. both bonds will increase in value but bond B will increase more than bond A C. both bonds will decrease in value but bond A will decrease more than bond B D. both bonds will decrease in value but bond B will decrease more than bond A

54. A high amount of short interest is typically considered as a __________ signal and contrarians may consider it as a _________ signal.  A. bearish; bullish B. bullish; bearish C. bearish; false D. bullish; false

55. An investor holds a very conservative portfolio invested for retirement but she takes some extra cash she earned from her year-end bonus and buys gold futures. She appears to be engaging in ___________.  A. overconfidence B. representativeness C. forecast errors D. mental accounting

56. If mutual fund portfolios are heavy in cash, market contrarians may interpret this as what kind of signal?  A. Buy signal B. Sell signal C. Hold signal D. This is not interpreted as a signal

57. Bonds rated _____ or better by Standard and Poor’s are considered investment grade.  A. AA B. BBB C. BB D. CCC

58. The __________ of a bond is computed as the ratio of coupon payments to market price.  A. nominal yield B. current yield C. yield to maturity D. yield to call

59. Which of the following bonds would most likely sell at the lowest yield?  A. A callable debenture B. A putable mortgage bond C. A callable mortgage bond D. A putable debenture

60. A 1% decline in yield will have the least effect on the price of the bond with a _________.  A. 10-year maturity, selling at 80 B. 10-year maturity, selling at 100 C. 20-year maturity, selling at 80 D. 20-year maturity, selling at 100

61. Yields on municipal bonds are generally lower than yields on similar corporate bonds because of differences in _________.  A. marketability B. risk C. taxation D. call protection

62. If interest rates are expected to rise, then Joe Hill should ____.  A. prefer the Wildwood bond to the Asbury bond B. prefer the Asbury bond to the Wildwood bond C. be indifferent between the Wildwood bond and the Asbury bond D. there is not enough information given to tell

63. The price of a bond at the beginning of a period is $980.00 and$975.00 at the end of the period. What is the holding period return if the annual coupon rate is 4.5%?  A. 4.08% B. 4.50% C. 5.10% D. 5.6%

64. All other things equal, which of the following has the longest duration?  A. A 20 year bond with a 10% coupon yielding 10% B. A 20 year bond with a 10% coupon yielding 11% C. A 20 year zero coupon bond yielding 10% D. A 20 year zero coupon bond yielding 11%

65. As a result of bond convexity an increase in a bond’s price when yield to maturity falls is ________ the price decrease resulting from an increase in yield of equal magnitude.  A. greater than B. equivalent to C. smaller than D. The answer is indeterminate.

66. The duration of a 5-year zero coupon bond is ____ years.  A. 4.5 B. 5.0 C. 5.5 D. 3..

67. Pension fund managers can generally best bring about an effective reduction in their interest rate risk by holding ___________________.  A. long maturity bonds B. long duration bonds C. short maturity bonds D. short duration bonds

68. The use of leverage is practiced in the futures markets due to the existence of _________.  A. banks B. brokers C. clearinghouse D. margin

69. Perfect timing ability is equivalent to having __________ on the market portfolio.  A. a call option B. a futures contract C. a put option D. a forward contract

70. Active portfolio managers try to construct a risky portfolio with _______.  A. a higher Sharpe measure than a passive strategy B. a lower Sharpe measure than a passive strategy C. the same Sharpe measure as a passive strategy D. very few securities

B- TRUE/FALSE- Answer any 15 out of the following (15 points-1 point each)

1-In the financial markets, individuals are net demanders of funds.

2-Under current tax laws, most taxpayers will pay a lower tax rate on capital gains than on income from wages.

3-Capital markets deal exclusively in stock. Money markets deal exclusively in debt instruments.

4-Securities that trade in the over-the-counter market are called unlisted securities.

5- Diversification is the inclusion of a number of different investments in a portfolio with the goal of increasing returns or reducing risk.

6-On-line trading has greatly lowered greatly lowered the cost of buying and selling stock as well as greatly increasing the speed of transactions.

7-Descriptive information might include the company’s lines of business, a list of major competitors, and recent changes in management.

8- An investor who requires a 7% rate of return should be willing to pay $934.58 now to receive$1,000 at the end of one year.

9- Sydney invested $10,000 for an indefinite period at 5% per year. At the end of each year, she receives a a$500 check for interest earned. This type of account pays simple interest.

10-$10,000 invested in the NASDAQ Composite at the beginning of 1995 would have increased in value to over$50,000 by the end of 1999.

11– High dividend payout ratios are more of a concern to analysts than low payout ratios.

12-The dividend valuation model (DVM) is very sensitive to the growth rate (g) being used, because it affects both the model’s numerator and its denominator.

13– Advocates of the weak-form efficient market hypothesis claim that past price movements are the best predictors of future price movements.

14- For technical analysts, the forces of supply and demand have an important effect on the prices of securities.

15- Bonds are typically a good investment choice for an individual who is seeking long-term preservation of capital.

16-The risk premium component of a bond’s market interest rate is related to the characteristics of the particular bond and its issuer.

17– According to the expectations hypothesis, if investors anticipate higher rates of inflation in the future, the yield curve will be down sloping.

18- If a bond’s yield to maturity is lower than its coupon rate, the bond will sell at a discount.

19- When developing an asset allocation scheme, it is best to weight each type of asset equally.

20– Investors need to monitor economic and market activity to assess the potential impact these factors can have on their investment portfolios.

C- QUESTIONS/ANSWERS- Answer any 5 of the following ( 25 points- 5 points each)

1) Discuss the relationship between stock prices and investors’ beliefs about the business cycle.

2) What is the advantage of charting the price of a security over a period of time?

3) Zachary has purchased an investment that he expects to produce income of $3,000 at the end of the first year and$4,000 at the end of the second year. If he requires an 8% rate of return compounded annually, what is the maximum amount that he can pay and still earn the required rate of return?

4) Over the past 4 years, the annual rates of return on stock of Brown & Warren Inc. have been -2%, 4%, 14% and 6%, respectively, over the past four years. Compute the standard deviation of these returns.

5) Dr. Zweibel’s portfolio consists of four stocks: AZMN, 35%, beta 2.4; MKR, 20%, beta 1.6; ABDE, 25%, beta 1.8; and SBUK, 20%, beta 2.1. Compute Dr. Z’s portfolio beta. Does he seem to be a conservative or aggressive investor?

6) Why do some companies split their stock?

7) ROE = (net profit margin)(total asset turnover)(equity multiplier). What is the advantage of using this expanded version of the ROE formula versus using the simplified version which is net income divided by total equity?

8) The common stock of Peachtree Paper, Inc., is currently selling for $40 a share. A dividend of$2.00 per share was just paid. You are estimating that this dividend will grow at a constant rate of 10%.

(a) Using the constant growth DVM model, what is your required rate of return if $40 is a reasonable trading price? (Show all work.) (b) If Peachtree Papers is a new company that produces a relatively unknown product, is the constant growth model a good valuation method for a potential investor to use? Justify your answer. 9) Explain the concept of bond immunization and the benefits derived from using this technique. 10) Explain why closed-end funds can sell at prices other than the fund’s NAV. Categories ## mgt 312 final exam Question1 The interdisciplinary field dedicated to understanding and managing people at work is called: Management dynamics Management theory Organizational dynamics Organizational behavior 2. The distinction between flexible and fixed individual differences: Is that managers have little or no impact on flexible differences Is that managers should hire people based on their attitudes and emotions Is that managers have little or no impact on fixed differences Has no practical value for managers 3. Regarding using personality testing as part of the hiring process, experts have concluded that: The typical personality test is not a valid predictor of job performance Only the Big Five should be used as predictors of job performance The effects of personality on job performance are so large it cannot be ignored by managers There are many valid instruments available to managers to test for personality types 4. In Ajzen’s theory of planned behavior, ___________ is (are) the key link between _________. Intentions; attidtudes and planned behavior Norms; intentions and planned behavior Intentions; norms and attitudes Attitudes; intentions and planned behavior 5. According to the Ajzen model, the strongest predictor of an employee’s behavior is (are): The employee’s intentions The employee’s attitudes Social norms The employee’s values 6. The steps in the process of stereotype formation and maintenance in order are: Expectations, categorization, inferences, maintenance. Categorization, inferences, expectations, maintenance. Inferences, categorization, expectations, maintenance. Categorization, expectations, inferences, maintenance. 7. Janelle, one of Abdul’s employees, has performed poorly on many aspects of her job since she was hired four months ago. This is likely to be attributed to: External causes Fundamental bias Internal causes Self-serving bias 8. The potential to understand and regulate oneself is known as: Naturalist intelligence Intrapersonal intelligence Kinesthetic intelligence Interpersonal intelligence 9. Self-enhancement and self-transcendence are: Personal attitudes Endpoints of one of the dimensions of values Workplace attitudes Cognitions 10. Organizations with adhocracy cultures are described as: Externally focused and valuing stability and control Internally focused and valuing stability and control Externally focused and valuing flexibility Internally focused and valuing flexibility 11. Which of the following is the least fixed of a person’s individual differences? Cognitive abilities Attitudes Emotions Intelligence 12. Camilla, a manager, notes that while Wilhelm’s written reports are very thorough and accurate, his oral presentations are not effective. Camilla is looking at: Explicit factors Implicit factors Distinctiveness Consistency 13. Stimulation is in the ____________ part of Schwartz’s model. Conservation Openness to change Self-enhancement Self-transcendence 14. The contingency approach suggests that: A manager needs to learn a set of hard-and-fast rules. There is one best way to manage. OB theories apply to all situations. The best answer depends on the situation. 15. Research shows that, in general: Social capital increases group conflict. Social capital decreases work group integration. Social capital decreases organizational performance. Social capital can improve operations. 16. The corporate staff in the accounting department at ABC Corporation went on 12-hour days during the holiday season, just like the regular retail employees do during that season. This is an example of a(n) _________ change. Product Radically innovative Adaptive Innovative 17. The extent to which an individual identifies with an organization and commits to its goals is called: Organizational satisfaction Organizational commitment Job involvement Perceived organizational support 18. Joyce finds that the members of the project team to which she has been assigned in her management class are all athletes on the college’s football and basketball teams. She immediately considers dropping the class because she thinks her experience with that team will be negative. Joyce is likely to be reacting to a: Self-serving bias Semantic memory Negativity bias Stereotype 19. The productive potential of an individual’s knowledge, skills, and experiences is known as: Soft skills Ethical capital Human capital Social capital 20. Chris, a manager, knows that one of his employees values achievement and power. Chris should assign the employee to a job that includes: High self-direction High security High influence over others High social value 21. When something is _______, it stands out from its context. Semantic Salient A schema Stereotypical 22. A person can build his/her social capital by: Being trained in new skills Shadowing a higher-level manager Getting a mentor Learning a new language 23. Performance on tests like the Scholastic Aptitude Test and the Graduate Management Admissions Test is likely to be most closely related to: Logical-mathematical intelligence Interpersonal intelligence Intrapersonal intelligence Naturalist intelligence 24. Acme Movers is a company that ships goods and cargo to all locations in the United States. The employees understand that the company’s primary vision of timeliness, efficiency and low-cost services is important to maintain the competitive edge over other movers in the business. They constantly work to ensure that all deliveries reach their destinations on schedule, and the company, in turn, rewards the employees with performance-based awards and profit sharing. Which function of organizational culture is exemplified here? Facilitating collective commitment Giving members an organizational identity Promoting social system stability Shaping behavior by helping members make sense of their surroundings 25. The process that enables us to interpret and understand our surroundings is called: Stereotyping Perception Selection Suppression 26. Sustainable businesses tend to be run by CEOs who are: Intelligent Controlling Target-driven People-centered 27 ___________ is associated with success for managers and salespeople. Introversion Emotional stability Agreeableness Extraversion 28. Keyshawn is a player on a professional football team. Because of this, his play every week is scrutinized by fans and media, as well as his own coaches. Sometimes, their comments are very negative and even personal. Keyshawn will handle this better if he has a high level of _________ intelligence. Bodily-kinesthetic Intrapersonal Spatial Interpersonal 29. The two dimensions of the competing values framework are: Internal-external and group-individual Internal-external and anticipatory-retrospective Group-individual and stable-flexible Internal-external and stable-flexible 30. Which of the following mechanisms for changing organizational culture addresses all three levels of culture? Deliberate role modeling, training, and coaching Workflow and organizational structure Rites and rituals Organizational goals Categories ## uacds ### ASSIGNMENT: Data Sets • Demonstrate compliance with healthcare data sets (Blooms 3) Instructions: Part I: Review the information on Data Sets from your lesson. Study the Table 1 provided in the lesson. Create your own table with 3 columns and copy the information from the table in the lesson for the first 2 columns for DEEDS, MDS, OASIS, UACDS, and UHDDS. Part II: Research each of these online and/or in the Peden textbook – In the 3rd column, show 4 data elements that are required for each of the data sets. Part III: Open the inpatient record provided as an attachment below – Analyze the documentation in the record to see if it would meet the requirement for the UHDDS data elements you included in your table. – Type a Yes or a No after each of the data elements to indicate if you were able to find the data element in the chart. Categories ## qnt 275 PLEASE FOLLOW INSTRUCTIONS…READ ALL INSTRUCTION….COMPLETE EXCEL SPREAD SHEET THAT I HAVE UP LOADED….MUST BE DONE IN 5HRS….ALL ORGINAL WORK… Part 1 Three hundred consumers between 21 and 49 years old were randomly selected. After sampling a new wine cooler, each was asked to rate the appeal of the phrase: “Not sweet like wine coolers, not filling like beer, and more refreshing than wine or mixed drinks” as it relates to the new wine cooler. The rating was made on a scale from 1 to 5, with 5 representing “extremely appealing” and with 1 representing “not at all appealing”. As a manager overseeing the development of the concept, you bottle the wine cooler and placed it into distribution in one test store. Your manager has asked you to assess the data and determine the most likely customer based on the ratings. Additionally, your manager would like you to review sales in the test store. Use the Week 3 Data Set to create and calculate the following in Excel®: 1. Estimate the probability that a randomly selected 21 to 49 year old consumer: • Would give the phrase a rating of 5 • Would give the phrase a rating of 3 or higher • Is in the 21-24 age group • Is a male who gives the phrase a rating of 4 • Is a 35 to 49 year old who gives the phrase a rating of 1 • Based on the probabilities for the ratings of 4 and 5, which age/gender demographic would be the best target audience for the new concept? 2. Create a probability distribution using the data which shows how many cartons of the wine cooler were bought per customer in a month. • Calculate the mean and the standard deviation of your probability distribution. • Calculate the probability that exactly 3 six packs will be bought in a month. • Calculate the probability that between 4 and 8 six packs will be bought in a month. • Calculate the probability that at least 5 six packs will be bought in a month. • Calculate the probability that no more than 5 six packs will be bought in a month. 3. Create a relative frequency distribution based on the wine cooler drinking temperatures. • Create 6 bins with the same interval in each. • Create a histogram 4. Considering the mean and standard deviation for the ideal drinking temperature: • Calculate z values then refer to Table 6.1 – Cumulative Areas Under the Standard Normal Curve • Calculate the probability of the wine cooler being less than 45 degrees. • Calculate the probability of the wine cooler being greater than 60 degrees. • Calculate the percentage of wine coolers served at the ideal temperature, between 49 and 55 degrees. Part 2 Reference your Excel® spreadsheet from Part 1. Complete the Week 3 Case in Connect. Note: You have only 1 attempt available to complete assignments. Categories ## the exacting organizational culture is interested in Question 1 Both individual ethics and organizational ethics have an impact on an employee’s Answer  [removed] productivity. [removed] personal happiness. [removed] compensation. [removed] fitness level. [removed] ethical intention. Question 2 Which of the following is not a form of retaliation commonly experienced by whistle-blowers? Answer  [removed] Relocation or reassignment [removed] No promotion or raises [removed] The cold shoulder by coworkers [removed] Exclusion from work activities [removed] Praise by supervisors for their honesty Question 3 Motivation is defined as Answer  [removed] a person’s incentive or drive to work. [removed] a force within the individual that focuses his or her behavior on achieving a goal. [removed] personal ambition without regard to the impact on others. [removed] a desire to be finished with a project. [removed] individual goals. Question 4 The ability to influence the behavior of others by offering them something desirable is best described as Answer  [removed] coercive power. [removed] reward power. [removed] expert power. [removed] legitimate power. [removed] referent power. Question 5 The exacting organizational culture is interested in Answer  [removed] performance but has little concern for employees. [removed] investors’ impressions of profitability. [removed] maintaining a strong corporate culture. [removed] employees and performance. [removed] employees’ impressions Question 6 The ________ leader demands instantaneous obedience and focuses on punishing wrong behavior, achievement, initiative, and self-control. Answer  [removed] democratic [removed] coaching [removed] affiliative [removed] coercive [removed] pacesetting Question 7 To motivate employees, an organization offers ________ to ________ employees to work toward organizational objectives. Answer  [removed] punishment; force [removed] peer pressure; guilt [removed] incentives; encourage [removed] rewards; bribe [removed] threats; frighten Question 8 A cultural audit may be used to identify Answer  [removed] how cultured a firm’s employees are. [removed] unethical employees. [removed] unethical organizations. [removed] an organization’s culture. [removed] organizational structure. Question 9 The ultimate “stick” associated with the FSGO is fines or probation, which involves on-site observation by consultants, monitoring of the company’s ethical compliance efforts, and Answer  [removed] reporting to the U.S. Sentencing Commission on the company’s progress in avoiding misconduct. [removed] installation of an ethics hotline. [removed] payment of any penalties levied. [removed] appointment of an appropriate high-level manager to oversee the company’s program. [removed] divestiture of all assets. Question 10 Organizational ________ can contribute to diminished employee trust and increased employee turnover. Answer  [removed] leadership succession [removed] compensation policies [removed] ethics programs [removed] rules [removed] misconduct Question 11 Which of the following strives to create order by requiring that employees identify with and commit to specific required conduct? Answer  [removed] Conduct orientation [removed] Values orientation [removed] Coercive orientation [removed] Obedience orientation [removed] Compliance orientation Question 12 In the absence of ethics programs, employees are likely to make decisions based on Answer  [removed] their observations of how their coworkers and superiors behave. [removed] how they and their family members behave at home. [removed] their conscience. [removed] their religious values. [removed] their family values Question 13 A strong ethics program includes all of the following elements except Answer  [removed] a clause promising good stock market performance. [removed] a written code of conduct or ethics. [removed] formal ethics training. [removed] auditing, monitoring, enforcement, and revision of standards. [removed] an ethics officer to oversee the program Question 14 For an ethical compliance program to properly function, Answer  [removed] consistent enforcement and disciplinary action are essential. [removed] employees must be monitored using any means necessary. [removed] it is not necessary to set measurable program objectives. [removed] the same program should be used in all countries of operation, regardless of cultural differences. [removed] the company must wait until after misconduct occurs to develop a means of preventing Question 15 In the long run, a(n) ________ orientation may be better for companies, perhaps because it increases employees’ awareness of ethics issues at work. Answer  [removed] code [removed] obedience [removed] compliance [removed] values [removed] individual Question 16 A(n) ________ orientation creates order by requiring that employees identify with and commit to specific required conduct, whereas a(n) ________ orientation strives to develop shared standards. Answer  [removed] obedience; values [removed] compliance; values [removed] legal; values [removed] values; compliance [removed] values; obedience Question 17 Which of the following is probably the best way for a manager to provide good ethics leadership? Answer  [removed] Hire an ethics officer [removed] Write a code of conduct [removed] Conduct ethics audits [removed] Set a good example [removed] Only hire good employees Question 18 ________ is an independent assessment of the quality, accuracy, and completeness of a company’s social or ethics report. Answer  [removed] Publication [removed] Verification [removed] Auditing [removed] Analysis [removed] Validation Question 19 Which of the following does not have a significant impact on the success of an ethics program? Answer  [removed] Senior management’s ability to successfully incorporate ethics into the organization [removed] The quality of communication [removed] The size of the company [removed] The content of the company’s code of ethics [removed] The frequency of communication regarding the ethical code and program Question 20 Retaliation against employees that report misconduct is a problem in ________ cultures. Answer  [removed] weak ethical [removed] strong ethical [removed] high power distance [removed] diverse [removed] international Question 21 Ethics audits can help companies identify potential ________ so they can implement plans to eliminate or reduce them before they reach crisis dimensions. Answer  [removed] competitive advantages [removed] risks and liabilities [removed] productivity issues [removed] technological glitches [removed] market opportunities Question 22 Which of the following is not a benefit of ethics auditing? Answer  [removed] It can improve a firm’s performance and effectiveness. [removed] It can increase a firm’s attractiveness to investors. [removed] It can identify potential risks. [removed] It can harm relationships with stakeholders. [removed] It can reduce the risks associated with misconduct. Question 23 Which of the following is not a step in the ethics auditing process? Answer  [removed] Secure commitment of top executives and directors. [removed] Review organizational mission, goals, values and policies, and define ethical priorities. [removed] Report the results to the U.S. Sentencing Commission. [removed] Collect and analyze relevant information. [removed] Verify the results. Question 24 What should be the first step in the auditing process? Answer  [removed] Secure the commitment of top executives and directors [removed] Define the scope of the audit [removed] Establish a committee to oversee the audit [removed] Collect and analyze data [removed] Review organizational mission, goals, values, and policies Question 25 ________ are a primary stakeholder group and should be included in the ethics auditing process because their loyalty determines an organization’s success. Answer  [removed] Customers [removed] Employees [removed] Special interest groups [removed] Competitors [removed] Legislators Categories ## valdosta blazeview Introduction to Public Administration POLS 3600 – IC1 Spring 2017: Short Session 1 Professor: Nandan Kumar Jha, PhD Office: West Hall 237 E-mail: nkjha@valdosta.edu (Email is the best way to reach me and I will try to respond within 24 hours on working days and within 24-72 hours to email received during weekends) Phone: 229.293.6058 Office Hours: by email and by appointment only Class Meeting Times: Online Classroom: Desire2Learn Credit Hours: 3 CRN: 22955 Please Note: You are required to read the entire syllabus. This course syllabus provides a general plan for the course; deviations may be necessary. If a change does occur, sufficient notice will be given in class and via e-mail. Course Description This course will focus on the study of public administration processes and underlying theories within American government structures. Emphasis is on the pragmatic aspects of current government leadership and public agency management. This course provides a survey of national public administration with emphasis on the political processes within the surrounding administrative agencies. Topics include development of the administrative function, policy formulation and budgeting, the relations of administrators to Congress, interest groups, courts and the public. Course Objective This course is designed for students to learn about general public administration. Public administration is a field that studies how public policies are implemented through the public and nonprofit sectors, as well as through partnerships and contracts with the private sector. Course Goals:  Gain understanding on how public policies are administered  Gain understanding about organizational theories as they pertain to the public and nonprofit sectors  Comprehend the impact of the “iron triangle” and other influences on the bureaucracy  Build understanding on the internal processes that support the bureaucracy such as human resource management and financial management 2  Build the capability to critically determine solutions to common bureaucratic problems and improve decision-making skills  Will be skilled in inquiry, logical reasoning, and critical analysis, enabling arguments, synthesize facts and information, and offer logical arguments leading to creative solutions to problems Required Textbook/Readings The Politics of the Administrative Process, 6th Edition, Donald F. Kettl. ISBN: 978-1- 4833-3293-2 Required Technology This course uses Desire2Learn as a course management system. If you have problems accessing any of the materials, The IT Help Desk provides support Monday – Thursday, 8:00 AM– 6:00 PM, Friday: 8:00 AM – 5:00 PM, Saturday: 12:00 PM – 5:00 PM, and Sunday: 1:00 PM – 6:00 PM Contact the IT Helpdesk at (229) 245-4357. You can also get assistance by contacting the USG D2L Help Center at https://d2lhelp.view.usg.edu or the BlazeVIEW Help Center TOLL FREE – 1-855-772- 0423 for help at any time, day or night. Technology issues may not be used as an excuse for not submitting or completing assignments, so be sure to plan ahead. Considerations will be allowed when there are system-wide errors or issues that affect the entire class. Attendance Policy Class attendance is mandatory. If you are not able to complete class requirements on a regular basis, you must drop the course and re-take it in a future semester. If a student is irregular and missing more than two assignments during the semester without any valid excuse, she/he will lose 5 points for each such absence. Exams & Assignments Assignments Assignment Points Quizzes (6) 138 Readings Discussions (7) 42 Final Exam 100 Total 280 Grading Scale 252– 280 A 224 – 251 B 196 – 223 C 168 – 195 Dhttps://d2lhelp.view.usg.edu/ 3 Below 168 F Discussions about Readings- 7 worth 6 points each = 42 points (due by Midnight Sunday of the week assigned) There will be seven (7) weekly discussion questions about the assigned readings. The questions can be answered when the student completes the readings, but the student will not post the discussion response until the assigned week. For each question, the student will answer the assigned question, support his/her answer incorporating the readings, and respond to the posted responses of at least two classmates. Rubric for Discussion Questions about Readings 6 points 4 Points 2 point Responses are posted by deadline; the question is answered thoroughly incorporating the readings into the answer. The student uses the “Reply” button to keep answers in threads and replies to at least two other students’ responses with something more substantial than a basic “I agree” or “I disagree” type of comment. Responses are posted by deadline; the question is answered thoroughly incorporating the readings into the answer. Responses are posted by deadline Weekly Quizzes – 6 worth 23 points= 138 points (due by Midnight Sunday of the week assigned) There will be six (6) weekly quizzes of 25 questions that will count toward your grade. Each will cover the assigned readings for that week and will have a time limit of 45 minutes to complete. You will have one attempt at completing the quiz so each students needs to make sure to schedule time to complete the quiz before he/she starts the quiz. Each quiz will be available to take from Wednesday-Sunday of the assigned week and students may take the quiz anytime during that period. There is a great deal of material in the chapters, so it is imperative that students read the material before taking the quiz. Final- 100 points There will a 50 questions final at the end of the course. The questions will come from the material provided in the text. 4 Major Academic Dates This is an eight week course and it is important that students understand that the certain deadlines will be different than those for full semester (16-week) courses. For example, withdrawals will have to be done before the midterm of the 8-week session and not the midterm of the 16-week semester. The following is a table with important dates for this course. Spring Semester 2017 (Short Session I) Classes Begin/End January 09 – March 09 Last Day to Add January 12 Last Day to Drop January 12 Login Deadline / Attendance Verification January 20 by midnight Midpoint Date – Last Day to withdraw with a “W” February 10 Holidays/Breaks NA Final Exam Day March 03 Class Schedule Schedule is tentative and may be subject to change. Date Reading Assignments Assignments 01/09- 01/15 Wk. 1 Kettl Chapters 1 & 2: Chapter 1: Accountability Chapter 2: What Is Public Administration? Discussion Question: Discussion 1: Introduce yourself to the class. Include in your response your experience with online classes and state how you would define public administration. Quiz 1 (Open 01/11 thru 01/15; Due NLT Midnight 01/15) 01/16- 01/22 Wk. 2 Kettl Chapters 3 & 4 Chapter 3: What Government Does And How It Does It Chapter 4: Organizational Theory Discussion Question: Discussion 2: The text discusses the functions of government at the federal, state, and local levels. Which level do you feel has the greatest impact on the lives of American citizens? Why do you feel this way? QUIZ 2 (Open 01/18 thru 01/22; Due NLT Midnight 01/22) 5 01/23- 01/29 Wk. 3 Kettl Chapters 5 & 6 Chapter 5: The Executive Branch Chapter 6: Organization Problems Discussion Question: Discussion 3: What is “government by proxy” and how do you feel about it? In your opinion, does it increase or hinder government transparency and accountability? QUIZ 3 (Open 01/25 thru 01/29; Due NLT Midnight 01/29) 01/30- 02/05 Wk. 4 Kettl Chapters 7 & 8 Chapter 7: Administrative Reform Chapter 8: The Civil Service Discussion Question: Discussion 4: Which of the three major administrative reform strategies—downsizing, reengineering, or continuous improvement—do you find to be the most compelling and why? QUIZ 4 (Open 02/01 thru 02/05; Due NLT Midnight 02/05) 02/06- 02/12 Wk. 5 Kettl Chapters 9 & 10 Chapter 9: Human Capital Chapter 10: Decision Making Discussion Question: Discussion 5: Comment on the Deborah Stone quote reprinted in the text: “Because politics is driven by how people interpret information, much political activity is an effort to control interpretations.” What do you think of this idea that even information is political in the way that interpretations are controlled and perpetuated? QUIZ 5 (Open 02/08 thru 02/12; Due NLT Midnight 02/12) 02/13- 02/19 Wk. 6 Kettl Chapters 11 & 12 Chapter 11: Budgeting Chapter 12: Implementation Discussion Question: Discussion 6: Within congressional budgeting, there were traditionally two main processes: authorizations and appropriations. Which do you think is more important and why? QUIZ 6 (Open 02/15 thru 02/19; Due NLT Midnight 02/19) 02/20- 02/26 Wk. 7 Kettl Chapters 13 & 14 Chapter 13: Regulation and the Courts Chapter 14: Executive Power and Political Accountability Discussion Question: Discussion 7: Since many consider Congress to be the “most democratic” of all the branches because its leaders are elected by district and there are so many congressional leaders who have to act together for something to happen, how does American democracy benefit and/or suffer from congressional oversight? Quiz 7 (Open 02/22 thru 02/26; Due NLT Midnight 02/26) 02/27- 03/03 Wk. 8 FINAL EXAM WEEK Final Exam- Students will be able to take the exam any time beginning 12:00 A.M. 03/01 through Midnight 03/03. Classroom Policies: Make-Up Work 6 Make up work or alternative assignments will be determined by the instructor and at the sole discretion of the instructor. These assignments may or may not exactly duplicate the original and will not entitle other students to the same alternatives since they may not have experienced the same situations. Communications regarding assignments: Students are responsible for communicating with the instructor if they need clarification on assignment instructions and grading. Students should initiate such communication well before the due date of submission of an assignment. Students should not seek clarity about assignment instructions after receiving grade for a particular assignment. POLICIES FOR SUBMISSION OF ASSIGNMENTS: Students are required to submit assignments online. Students are also responsible for their access to internet to meet course responsibilities in a timely manner. Students must keep track of all updates via VSU email and Blazeview. If an update is scheduled at the same time as the due date for an assignment, students must submit their assignments beforehand or inform the instructor at the earliest. If students experience any technical difficulties, then they will need to contact the BlazeView help desk available through D2L. Any student who does not follow this procedure will have his/her assignment counted as “late.” Students should keep copies of all communications with Blazeview helpdesk, VSU IT help desk and use them later to justify late submission to the instructor. Policies for missed assignments, make-up assignments, late assignments: Missed Assignments: If a student misses an assignment or submits an assignment late, he/she need to submit acceptable documentation to the instructor. Make-Up Work: After satisfactory review of the documentation provided in support of the excuse, make up work or alternative assignments will be determined by the sole discretion of the professor. These assignments may or may not exactly duplicate the original and will not entitle other students to the same alternatives since they may not have experienced the same situations. COURSE COMMUNICATION POLICIES: Students should check Blazeview course page and their Blazeview email account regularly. I will communicate with you via your Blazeview email. I will post announcements, readings, and exam grades on Blazeview. You are responsible for downloading course materials from Blazeview. If you are unable to view or download 7 course materials, it is your responsibility to email the instructor in a timely manner. Lack of disk space in personal computers or similar types of reasons are not acceptable reasons for not downloading course materials. Contacting the Instructor E-Mail Protocol: Most of the communications in this course will be via e-mail. Generally, e-mails to the instructor will be answered within 24-72 hours. All e-mail communication must:  Be through the VSU email system and not personal e-mail accounts;  Be properly addressed and follow appropriate Netiquette;  Include the student’s name and section number for the class; in addition any attachment sent to the instructor must include the sender’s name, course number, and project title as part of the file name, e.g., Smith_POLS_3600IC1_Assign1.doc. Telephonic Conversation Protocol: If you would like to talk with your instructor, schedule an appointment one week in advance for phone conversation. GRADING AND FEEDBACK TIMELINE: The instructor will grade assignments within a reasonable period of time. Grades will be made available to students within a week from the due date of submission of any assignment. Instructor will provide feedback to each student. However, feedback will not be given on the final exam as there is no time for students to incorporate such feedback. STUDENT CONDUCT Students must use professional language in communication in class and via email and phone. After two warnings, the instructor reserves the right to drop a student from class due to unprofessional behavior. CHANGES TO THE SYALLABUS The instructor reserves the privilege of making changes to the syllabus – including changes to the reading schedule, assignment expectations, and even grading structure. Students will be given fair warning of any changes. STUDENT OPINION OF INSTRUCTION (SOI): At the end of the term, all students will be expected to complete Student Opinion of Instruction survey (SOI). Students will receive an email notification through their VSU email address when the SOI is available (generally at least one week before the end 8 of the term). SOI responses are anonymous to instructors/administrators. Instructors will be able to view only a summary of all responses after they have submitted final grades. While instructors will not be able to view individual responses or to access any of the data until after final grade submission, they will be able to see which students have or have not completed their SOIs. These compliance and non-compliance reports will not be available once instructors are able to access the results. Complete information about the SOIs, including how to access the survey and a timetable for this term is available at SOI Procedures and Timelines (located at CHEATING AND PLAGIARISM: Don’t. This class has zero-tolerance for academic misconduct. Sustained violations will result in a grade of “F” for the class as well as any other action permitted by the University. Review the Student Handbook at http://www.valdosta.edu/studentaffairs/ if you need further clarification. In addition, by taking this course, you agree that all required course work may be subject to submission for textual similarity review to SafeAssign, a tool within BlazeVIEW. For more information on the use of SafeAssign at VSU see SafeAssign for Students at From VSU’s Academic Integrity Code (the full code is available at Academic Honesty Policies and Procedures): “Academic integrity is the responsibility of all VSU faculty and students. Faculty members should promote academic integrity by including clear instruction on the components of academic integrity and clearly defining the penalties for cheating and plagiarism in their course syllabi. Students are responsible for knowing and abiding by the Academic Integrity Policy as set forth in the Student Code of Conduct and the faculty members’ syllabi. All students are expected to do their own work and to uphold a high standard of academic ethics.” Turnitin, a plagiarism prevention tool, is available to all faculty through BlazeVIEW, VSU’s online course management system. All faculty should include the following announcement in their syllabi: “By taking this course, you agree that all required course work may be subject to submission for textual similarity review to Turnitin, a tool within BlazeVIEW. For more information on the use of Turnitin at VSU see Turnitin for Students athttp://www.valdosta.edu/academics/academic-affairs/vp-office/using- turnitin-at-vsu.php TITLE IX STATEMENT: Valdosta State University (VSU) is committed to creating a diverse and inclusive work and learning environment free from discrimination and harassment. VSU ishttp://www.valdosta.edu/academics/academic-affairs/sois/welcome.phphttp://www.valdosta.edu/academic/SafeAssignforStudents.shtmlhttp://www.valdosta.edu/academics/academic-affairs/vp-office/academic-honesty-policies-and-procedures.phphttp://www.valdosta.edu/academics/academic-affairs/vp-office/academic-honesty-policies-and-procedures.phphttp://www.valdosta.edu/academics/academic-affairs/vp-office/using-turnitin-at-vsu.phphttp://www.valdosta.edu/academics/academic-affairs/vp-office/using-turnitin-at-vsu.php 9 dedicated to creating an environment where all campus community members feel valued, respected, and included. Valdosta State University prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, ethnicity, national origin, sex (including pregnancy status, sexual harassment and sexual violence), sexual orientation, gender identity, religion, age, national origin, disability, genetic information, or veteran status, in the University’s programs and activities as required by applicable laws and regulations such as Title IX. The individual designated with responsibility for coordination of compliance efforts and receipt of inquiries concerning nondiscrimination policies is the University’s Title IX Coordinator: Maggie Viverette, Director of the Office of Social Equity, titleix@valosta.edu, 1208 N. Patterson St., Valdosta State University, Valdosta, Georgia 31608, 229-333- 5463. ACCESS STATEMENT: Students with disabilities who are experiencing barriers in this course may contact the Access Office for assistance in determining and implementing reasonable accommodations. The Access Office is located in Farbar Hall. The phone numbers are 229-245-2498 (V), 229-375-5871 (VP) and 229-219-1348 (TTY). For more information, please visit VSU’s Access Office or email: access@valdosta.edu. OTHER THINGS YOU NEED TO KNOW:  Written work has to submitted in a word or pdf file;  Students need to have access to a working computer and access to the Internetmailto:titleix@valosta.edumailto:access@valdosta.edu Categories ## fin 370 final exam 1. Which one of the following statements is correct concerning the cash cycle? Accepting a supplier’s discount for early payment decreases the cash cycle. Increasing the accounts payable period increases the cash cycle. The longer the cash cycle, the more likely a firm will need external financing. The cash cycle can exceed the operating cycle if the payables period is equal to zero. Offering early payment discounts to customers will tend to increase the cash cycle. 2. Precise Machinery is analyzing a proposed project. The company expects to sell 2100 units give or take 5 percent. The expected variable cost per unit is$260 and the expected fixed costs are $589,000. Cost estimates are considered accurate within a plus or minus 4 percent range. The depreciation expense is$129,000. The sales price is estimated at $750 per unit, give or take 2 percent. The tax rate is 35 percent. The company is conducting a sensitivity analysis on the sales price using a sales price estimate of$755. What is the operating cash flow based on this analysis?

$86,675$354,874

$368,015$293,089

$337,975 3. You are doing some comparison shopping. Five stores offer the product you want at basically the same price but with differing credit terms. Which one of these terms is best-suited to you if you plan to forgo the discount? 2/10, net 30 2/5, net 30 2/5, net 20 1/10, net 45 1/5, net 15 4. The plowback ratio is: The dollar increase in net income divided by the dollar increase in sales. Equal to net income divided by the change in total equity. Equal to one minus the retention ratio. The change in retained earnings divided by the dividends paid. The percentage of net income available to the firm to fund future growth. 5. Which one of the following is the financial statement that summarizes a firm’s revenue and expenses over a period of time? Statement of cash flows Market value report Tax reconciliation statement Balance sheet Income statement 6. Kelly’s Corner Bakery purchased a lot in Oil City six years ago at a cost of$278000. Today, that lot has a market value of $264,000. At the time of the purchase, the company spent$6,000 to level the lot and another $8,000 to install storm drains. The company now wants to build a new facility on that site. The building cost is estimated at$1.03 million. What amount should be used as the initial cash flow for this project?

-$1,294,000 -$1,322,000

-$1,045,000 -$1,308,000

-$1,308,000 7. Al invested$7200 in an account that pays 4 percent simple interest. How much money will he have at the end of five years?

$8,678$8,710

$8,299$8,056

$8,640 8. All of the following represent potential gains from an acquisition except the: Use of surplus funds. Tax loss carryovers acquired in the acquisition. Obtainment of a beachhead. Diseconomies of scale related to increased labor demand. Lower costs per unit realized. 9. Fresno Salads has current sales of$6000 and a profit margin of 6.5 percent. The firm estimates that sales will increase by 4 percent next year and that all costs will vary in direct relationship to sales. What is the pro forma net income?

$438.70$327.18

$405.60$303.33

$441.10 10. A news flash just appeared that caused about a dozen stocks to suddenly drop in value by 20 percent. What type of risk does this news flash best represent? Market Unsystematic Portfolio Total Non-diversifiable 11. Which one of the following terms is defined as the mixture of a firm’s debt and equity financing? Cash management Cost analysis Working Capital Management Capital Structure Capital budgeting 12. George and Pat just made an agreement to exchange currencies based on today’s exchange rate. Settlement will occur tomorrow. Which one of the following is the exchange rate that applies to this agreement? Forward exchange rate Triangle rate Cross rate Current rate Spot exchange rate 13. Webster United is paying a dividend of$1.32 per share today. There are 350,000 shares outstanding with a market price of $22.40 per share prior to the dividend payment. Ignore taxes. Before the dividend, the company had earnings per share of$1.68. As a result of this dividend, the:

Retained earnings will decrease by $350,000. Earnings per share will increase to$3.

Total firm value will not change.

Price-earnings ratio will be 12.55.

Retained earnings will increase by $462,000. 14. The common stock of Dayton Repair sells for$43.19 a share. The stock is expected to pay $2.28 per share next year when the annual dividend is distributed. The firm has established a pattern of increasing its dividends by 2.15 percent annually and expects to continue doing so. What is the market rate of return on this stock? 7.67 percent 7.59 percent 7.43 percent 7.14 percent 7.28 percent 15. Which one of the following should earn the most risk premium based on CAPM? Diversified portfolio with returns similar to the overall market. Stock with a beta of 1.38. Portfolio with a beta of 1.01. U.S. Treasury bill. Stock with a beta of 0.74. 16. Which one of these actions will increase the operating cycle? Assume all else held constant. Decreasing the receivables turnover rate. Decreasing the payables period. Decreasing the average inventory level. Increasing the payables period. Increasing the inventory turnover rate. 17. Oil Wells offers 6.5 percent coupon bonds with semiannual payments and a yield to maturity of 6.94 percent. The bonds mature in seven years. What is the market price per bond if the face value is$1,000?

$902.60$996.48

$913.48$989.70

$975.93 18. Three Corners Markets paid an annual dividend of$1.37 a share last month. Today, the company announced that future dividends will be increasing by 2.8 percent annually. If you require a return of 11.6 percent, how much are you willing to pay to purchase one share of this stock today?

$16.67$16.00

$18.23$17.68

$15.57$53.60

19. Which one of the following is a source of cash?

Granting credit to a customer

Purchase of inventory

Acquisition of debt

Payment to a supplier

Repurchase of common stock

20. Nadine’s Home Fashions has $2.12 million in net working capital. The firm has fixed assets with a book value of$31.64 million and a market value of $33.9 million. The firm has no long-term debt. The Home Centre is buying Nadine’s for$37.5 million in cash. The acquisition will be recorded using the purchase accounting method. What is the amount of goodwill that The Home Centre will record on its balance sheet as a result of this acquisition?

$5.86 million$3.34 million

$4.14 million$1.48 million

$3.74 million 21. Chelsea Fashions is expected to pay an annual dividend of$1.10 a share next year. The market price of the stock is $21.80 and the growth rate is 4.5 percent. What is the firm’s cost of equity? 9.55 percent 10.54 percent 9.24 percent 7.91 percent 9.77 percent 22. Operating leverage is the degree of dependence a firm places on its: Depreciation tax shield. Variable costs. Fixed costs. Operating cash flows. Sales. 23. Phillips Equipment has 75,000 bonds outstanding that are selling at par. Bonds with similar characteristics are yielding 7.5 percent. The company also has 750,000 shares of 6 percent preferred stock and 2.5 million shares of common stock outstanding. The preferred stock sells for$64 a share. The common stock has a beta of 1.21 and sells for $44 a share. The U.S. Treasury bill is yielding 2.3 percent and the return on the market is 11.2 percent. The corporate tax rate is 34 percent. What is the firm’s weighted average cost of capital? 11.56 percent 11.30 percent 11.18 percent 10.64 percent 9.69 percent 24. Andy deposited$3,000 this morning into an account that pays 5 percent interest, compounded annually. Barb also deposited $3,000 this morning into an account that pays 5 percent interest, compounded annually. Andy will withdraw his interest earnings and spend it as soon as possible. Barb will reinvest her interest earnings into her account. Given this, which one of the following statements is true? Barb will earn more interest the second year than Andy. Barb will earn more interest the first year than Andy will. Andy will earn compound interest. Andy will earn more interest in year three than Barb will. After five years, Andy and Barb will both have earned the same amount of interest. 25. When utilizing the percentage of sales approach, managers: I. Estimate company sales based on a desired level of net income and the current profit margin. II. Consider only those assets that vary directly with sales. III. Consider the current production capacity level. IV. Can project both net income and net cash flows. III and IV only I, III, and IV only II and III only II, III, and IV only I and II only 26. You are comparing two investment options that each pay 6 percent interest, compounded annually. Both options will provide you with$12,000 of income. Option A pays $2,000 the first year followed by two annual payments of$5,000 each. Option B pays three annual payments of $4,000 each. Which one of the following statements is correct given these two investment options? Assume a positive discount rate. Option B is a perpetuity. Option B has a higher present value at time zero. Both options are of equal value since they both provide$12,000 of income.

Option A has the higher future value at the end of year three.

Option A is an annuity.

27. The condition stating that the interest rate differential between two countries is equal to the percentage difference between the forward exchange rate and the spot exchange rate is called:

Uncovered interest rate parity.

The unbiased forward rates condition.

Purchasing power parity.

Interest rate parity.

The international Fisher effect.

28. The Dry Dock is considering a project with an initial cost of $118,400. The project’s cash inflows for years 1 through 3 are$37,200, $54,600, and$46,900, respectively. What is the IRR of this project?

8.42 percent

7.48 percent

8.56 percent

8.04 percent

8.22 percent

29. The 7 percent bonds issued by Modern Kitchens pay interest semiannually, mature in eight years, and have a $1,000 face value. Currently, the bonds sell for$1,032. What is the yield to maturity?

7.20 percent

6.87 percent

6.48 percent

6.92 percent

6.08 percent

30.  Isaac has analyzed two mutually exclusive projects that have 3-year lives. Project A has an NPV of $81,406, a payback period of 2.48 years, and an AAR of 9.31 percent. Project B has an NPV of$82,909, a payback period of 2.57 years, and an AAR of 9.22 percent. The required return for Project A is 11.5 percent while it is 12 percent for Project B. Both projects have a required AAR of 9.25 percent. Isaac must make a recommendation and justify it in 15 words or less. What should his recommendation be?

Accept both projects because both NPVs are positive.
Accept Project A because it has the shortest payback period.
Accept Project B and reject Project A based on the NPVs.
Accept Project A and reject Project B based on their AARs.
Accept Project A because it has the lower required return.

Categories

## which of these keeps prices below equilibrium?

#### Question 1 (Multiple Choice Worth 4 points)

(01.07 MC)<object:standard:ss.912.e.1.13>

Which of these illustrate the divisibility of money?

#### Question 2 (Multiple Choice Worth 4 points)

(04.02 MC)<object:standard:ss.912.e.2.4>

Public Domain

Which of these is an example of the line marked “Artificial Price”?

#### Question 3 (Multiple Choice Worth 4 points)

(06.03 MC)<object:standard:ss.912.e.3.4>

Sixty-five nations sign a treaty pledging caps on industrial emissions and the development of renewable resource energy production. Which of the following would be a long-term positive externality for global health?

#### Question 4 (Multiple Choice Worth 4 points)

(04.02 LC)<object:standard:ss.912.e.2.4>

Which of these keeps prices below equilibrium?

#### Question 5 (Multiple Choice Worth 4 points)

(04.05 MC)<object:standard:ss.912.e.2.9>

© Farcaster 2009
Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported

Which of the following statements best describes the data shown for 2012 to 2015?

#### Question 6 (Multiple Choice Worth 4 points)

(04.02 MC)<object:standard:ss.912.e.2.6>

Why is it in the best interest of the government to regulate natural monopolies?

#### Question 7 (Multiple Choice Worth 4 points)

(04.03 LC)<object:standard:ss.912.e.2.10>

What is the main function of the Federal Open Market Committee?

#### Question 8 (Multiple Choice Worth 4 points)

(04.05 MC)<object:standard:ss.912.e.1.10>

Economists warn that the nation is slipping into a recession. Which fiscal policies will the federal government most likely take to help the economy grow?

#### Question 9 (Multiple Choice Worth 4 points)

(06.02 LC)<object:standard:ss.912.e.2.11>

The city council allocates funds for road repair. Which of the following circumstances would be a positive externality?

#### Question 10 (Multiple Choice Worth 4 points)

(02.05 MC)<object:standard:ss.912.e.1.14>

Andrew is 17 years old and would like to establish credit history. Which of these would be a good first step for him?

#### Question 11 (Multiple Choice Worth 4 points)

(04.05 MC)<object:standard:ss.912.e.2.9>

#### Question 19 (Multiple Choice Worth 4 points)

(04.04 MC)<object:standard:ss.912.e.1.11>

Economic forecasters predict a long period of job growth and consumer spending. The Federal Reserve is most likely to do which of the following to encourage this expansion?

#### Question 20 (Multiple Choice Worth 4 points)

(02.04 MC)<object:standard:ss.912.e.1.15>

As an eighth grader, Marliss wins an art competition, and her prize is one thousand dollars. She wants to invest the money for her college fund. Which of these would be a good option?

#### Question 21 (Multiple Choice Worth 4 points)

(06.01 MC)<object:standard:ss.912.e.2.12>

© 2013 FLVS

Cardinal Comics produces graphic historical novels and retails them through local shops throughout the United States. The publisher maintains an in-house staff of editors and illustrators but contracts out writing, printing, and distribution. Its printer uses domestically recycled paper but imports ink and much of its printing equipment from overseas. Segment B of the circular flow diagram above reflects which part of this scenario?

#### Question 22 (Essay Worth 4 points)

(06.05 HC)<object:standard:ss.912.e.2.12>

© 2013 FLVS

Look at the circular flow diagram. Choose and define an environmental issue. Using the diagram as a guide, explain how the environmental issue you chose affects the relationship between product market and rest of world.

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## oregonstate instructure

Assignment #3 ‐ Financial Statement Geography and Ra�os Started: Jan 30 at 6:48pm

Quiz Instruc�ons

WHAT:  Use the PDFs and spreadsheet below to answer the questions.  You will need to use the “Quick Guide” often as a reference so I would recommend printing it.

Financial Statement Quick Guide.pdf         Ratio Grid.pdf          GoPro Income Statement and Balance Sheet.xlsx

WHY: Accounting information is critical for making business decisions.  Without an understanding of where this information is located (i.e. “geography”) and how to analyze this information (i.e. ratios, common sizing, etc.) it is very difficult to be an effective decision maker.  This assignment is designed to give you a basic understanding of where the information is, how to analyze it, and how to use it in decisions.

1 pts

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Question 1

Use the attached PDF “Ratio Grid” – name the company and the ratio used to answer the question

Which company(ies) are financing the majority of their assets with debt?

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Question 2

Use the attached PDF “Ratio Grid” – name the company and the ratio used to answer the question

Which company appears to be the most overvalued?

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1/30/2017 Quiz: Assignment #3 – Financial Statement Geography and Ratios

https://oregonstate.instructure.com/courses/1624130/quizzes/2362465/take 2/7

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1 pts

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Question 3

Use the data from the GoPro Income Statement and Balance Sheet file to answer the question.  Round to the hundredths place (i.e. 5.63):

What was GoPro’s receivables turnover ratio in 2015?  What was it for 2012?  In which year were they turning receivables into cash more quickly?

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1 pts

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Question 4

Use the data from the GoPro Income Statement and Balance Sheet file to answer the question.  Round to the hundredths place (i.e. 2.86):

What was GoPro’s current ratio as of 12/31/2015?  What was it as of 12/31/2012?  When were they more liquid?

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2 ptsQuestion 5

1/30/2017 Quiz: Assignment #3 – Financial Statement Geography and Ratios

https://oregonstate.instructure.com/courses/1624130/quizzes/2362465/take 3/7

HTML Editor

Use the data from the GoPro Income Statement and Balance Sheet file to answer the question.

A) What was GoPro’s Market Cap on 12/31/2015 based on 140,570,000 shares outstanding and a share price of $9.15? B) What was GoPro’s Earnings Per Share for 2015 based on 140,570,000 shares outstanding (format as currency e.g.$1.59)?  C) Based on the calculations in A and B ­ what is GoPro’s P/E Ratio?  D) Is this P/E ratio high or low relative to the average for Fortune 500 companies?

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Question 6

Use the data from the GoPro Income Statement and Balance Sheet file to answer the question. Format as a % rounded to the tenths (i.e. 12.3%).

What was GoPro’s gross margin in 2015? What was it in 2012?  In which year were they more efficient at producing their product?

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1 pts

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Question 7

Use the data from the GoPro Income Statement and Balance Sheet file to answer the question.

How much did they pay in taxes in 2013?

1/30/2017 Quiz: Assignment #3 – Financial Statement Geography and Ratios

https://oregonstate.instructure.com/courses/1624130/quizzes/2362465/take 4/7

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Question 8

Use the data from the GoPro Income Statement and Balance Sheet file to answer the question.

A) How much did revenue increase/decrease from 2012 to 2015 in dollars?  B) What percentage increase/decrease is

that?

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1 ptsQuestion 9

Activity

Profitability

Liquidity

Leverage

If you were a vendor/supplier extending credit to a potential client for 30 days, which type of ratio would be most important to look at?

1/30/2017 Quiz: Assignment #3 – Financial Statement Geography and Ratios

https://oregonstate.instructure.com/courses/1624130/quizzes/2362465/take 5/7

1 ptsQuestion 10

Determine what trends are increasing or decreasing profits.

Make comparisons to the past and peers

Determine a company’s cash position.

Determine the company’s liquidity

If you were analyzing a company through income statement common sizing, what would this analysis let you do (check all those that apply)?

1 pts

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Question 11

In the common sized income statement found below you will note XYZ Company’s revenue increased from 2015 to 2016, but net profits decreased.  Based on what you see, what was the primary cause?

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1/30/2017 Quiz: Assignment #3 – Financial Statement Geography and Ratios

https://oregonstate.instructure.com/courses/1624130/quizzes/2362465/take 6/7

1 ptsQuestion 12

The increase in revenue between 2013 and 2014.

The increase in cash and short term investments between 2013 and 2014

The increase in total equity between 2013 and 2014

The increase in liabilities between 2013 and 2014.

Use the data from the GoPro Income Statement and Balance Sheet file to answer the question.

Go Pro had an initial public offering on June 24, 2014.  Where does one see evidence of this in the financial statements

(check all those that apply)?

1 pts

How much did a company do in sales last year? [ Choose ]

How much debt does a company have?  [ Choose ]

How much money did a company “make” last

year? [ Choose ]

How much cash operations is generating?  [ Choose ]

How much a company owes its vendors?  [ Choose ]

Question 13

Which financial statement would be used to answer the following questions.

1 ptsQuestion 14

Look at the balance sheets for ABC, Inc. and XYZ, Inc below. Which company has a “stronger” balance sheet and why is it

stronger (points are based on your explanation for why it is stronger).

1/30/2017 Quiz: Assignment #3 – Financial Statement Geography and Ratios

https://oregonstate.instructure.com/courses/1624130/quizzes/2362465/take 7/7

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## artisan republicanism

In what ways did the emerging industrial economy conflict with artisan republicanism? How did wage laborers respond to the new economy?

In United States, industrialization started in 1760s to 1820s when manufacturers and merchants increased their product output through building factories and re-organizing work. Through these expansion strategies, the price of goods was lowered, and division of labor became more efficient. However, the workers control over conditions and pace of work was eroded. For the tasks that were unsuited to outwork, there was the creation of factories characterized by specialization of responsibilities and tasks (Ilic, 2004).

The manufacturers relied on steam engines to drive the mills and machines that used power in production. Britons feared that the American manufacturers could become involved in exports. As a result, Britain prevented export of textile machinery any exports as well as immigration of the mechanics. However, the introduction of the cotton spinner in America by Samuel Slater marked the beginning of Industrial Revolution. Britain formulated protective legislation that resulted to reduced production rates than in America. As a result, Americans started to improve their machines and embarked on technological innovation (Hodges, 1992).

Industrial revolution changed lives of the workers and the nature of their work. Most craftsmen in America developed an ideology of artisan republican that depended on principles of equality and liberty. They considered themselves equal and free from forced labor. The increased republicanism saw many workers taking more wage earning jobs. Some employees formed unions and their bargaining power with the employers heightened. Most of the artisans facing threats from industrialization started specialized shops. The American and English law illegalized workers from organizing themselves with the aim of getting their wages raised. Nevertheless, the formation of the labor theory of value by union leaders as a mutual benefits society sought for better work conditions and better pay (Hodges, 1992).

References

Hodges, G. (1992). The Decline and Fall of Artisan Republicanism in Antebellum New York City: Views from the Street and Workshop. Journal of Urban History 18(2), 211-21.

Ilic, B. (2004). The Transition from Industrial (traditional) to New (information) Economy. Ekonomski Anali 49(162) , 99-126.

Categories

## the default accounting number format adds dollar signs and ____ decimal places to the data.

with Microsoft®

Office 2010 V O L U M E 1

PEARSON T O W N S E N D FERRETT HAIN VARGAS

with M ic roso f t

Office 2010 V O L U M E

T O W N S E N D I FERRETT I H A I N I VARGAS

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Townsend, Kris. Skills for success with Office 2010 / by Kris Townsend.

p. cm. ISBN 978-0-13-703257-0 (alk. paper) 1. Microsoft Office. 2. Business—Computer programs. I, Title.

HF5548.4.M525T692 201 I 005.5—dc22 2010016531

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Contents in Brief

Common Features Chapter 1 Common Features ot Office 2010 2

More Skills 26

Word Chapter 1 Create Documents with Word 2010 30

More Skills 54 Chapter 2 Format and Organize Text 64

More Skills 88 Chapter 3 Work with Graphics, Tabs, and Tables 98

More Skills 122 Chapter 4 Apply Special Text, Paragraph and

Document Formats 132 More Skills 156

Excel Chapter 1 Create Workbooks with Excel 2010 166

More Skills 190

Chapter 2 Create Charts 200 More Skills 224

Chapter 3 Manage Multiple Worksheets 234 More Skills 258

Chapter 4 Use Excel Functions and Tables 268 More Skills 292

Access Chapter 1 Work with Databases and

Create Tables 302 More Skills 326

Chapter 2 M a n a g e Datasheets and Create Queries 336 More Skills 360

Chapter 3 Create Forms 370 More Skills 394

Chapter 4 Create Reports 404 More Skills 428

PowerPoint Chapter 1 Getting Started with PowerPoint 2010 438

More Skills 462 Chapter 2 Format a Presentation 472

More Skills 496 Chapter 3 Enhance Presentations with Graphics 506

More Skills 530 Chapter 4 Present Data Using Tables, Charts,

and Animation 540 More Skills 564

Integrated Projects Chapter 1 Integrating Word, Excel, A c c e s s ,

and PowerPoint 574 More Skills 598

Chapter 2 More Integrated Projects for Word, Excel, A c c e s s , and PowerPoint 610 More Skills 634

Glossary 646

Index 654

Contents in Brief iii

Table of Contents

C o m m o n Fea tu res C h a p t e r 1 C o m m o n F e a t u r e s of Office 2 0 1 0 2

Skill 1 Start Word and Navigate the Word Window 6 Skill 2 Start Excel and PowerPoint and Work with

Multiple Windows 8 Skill 3 Save Files in New Folders 10 Skill 4 Print and Save Documents 12 Skill 5 Open Student Data Files and Save Copies

Using Save As 14 Skill 6 Type and Edit Text 16 Skill 7 Cut, Copy, and Paste Text 18 Skill 8 Format Text and Paragraphs 20 Skill 9 Use the Ribbon 22

Skill 10 Use Shortcut Menus and Dialog Boxes 24

More Skills More Skills 11 Capture Screens with the Snipping

Tool 26 More Skills 12 Use Microsoft Office Help 26 More Skills 13 Organize Files 26 More Skills 14 Save Documents to Windows Live 26

W o r d C h a p t e r 1 C r e a t e D o c u m e n t s with Word 2 0 1 0 3 0

Skill 1 Create New Documents and Enter Text 34 Skill 2 Edit Text and Use Keyboard Shortcuts 36 Skill 3 Select Text 38 Skill 4 Insert Text from Other Documents 40 Skill 5 Change Fonts, Font Sizes, and Font Styles 42 Skill 6 Insert and Work with Graphics 44 Skill 7 Check Spelling and Grammar 46 Skill 8 Use the Thesaurus and Set Proofing Options 48 Skill 9 Create Document Footers 50

Skill 10 Work with the Print Page and Save Documents in Other Formats 52

More Skills More Skills 11 Split and Arrange Windows 54 More Skills 12 Insert Symbols 54 More Skills 13 Use Collect and Paste to Create a

Document 54 More Skills 14 Insert Screen Shots into Documents 54

C h a p t e r 2 Format a n d O r g a n i z e Text 6 4 Skill 1 Set Document Margins 68 Skill 2 Align Text and Set Indents 70 Skill 3 Modify Line and Paragraph Spacing 72 Skill 4 Format Text Using Format Painter 74 Skill 5 Find and Replace Text 76 Skill 6 Create Bulleted and Numbered Lists 78 Skill 7 Insert and Format Headers and Footers 80 Skill 8 Insert and Modify Footnotes 82 Skill 9 Add Citations 84

Skill 10 Create Bibliographies 86

More Skills More Skills 11 Record AutoCorrect Entries 88 More Skills 12 Use AutoFormat to Create

Numbered Lists 88 More Skills 13 Format and Customize Lists 88 More Skills 14 Manage Document Properties 88

C h a p t e r 3 Work with G r a p h i c s , Tabs , a n d T a b l e s 9 8

Skill 1 Insert Pictures from Files 102 Skill 2 Resize and Move Pictures 104 Skill 3 Format Pictures Using Styles and

Artistic Effects 106 Skill 4 Set Tab Stops 108 Skill 5 Enter Text with Tab Stops 110 Skill 6 Apply Table Styles 112 Skill 7 Create Tables 114 Skill 8 Add Rows and Columns to Tables H6 Skill 9 Format Text in Table Cells 118

Skill 10 Format Tables 120

iv Table of Contents

More Skills More Skills 11 Insert Text Boxes 122 More Skills 12 Format with WordArt 122 More Skills 13 Create Tables from Existing Lists 122 More Skills 14 Insert Drop Caps 122

C h a p t e r 4 A p p l y S p e c i a l T e x t , P a r a g r a p h , a n d D o c u m e n t F o r m a t s 1 3 2

Skill 1 Create Multiple-Column Text 136 Skill 2 Insert a Column Break 138 Skill 3 Apply and Format Text Effects 140 Skill 4 Use and Create Quick Styles 142 Skill 5 Add Borders and Shading to Paragraphs

and Pages 144 Skill 6 Insert and Format Clip Art Graphics 146 Skill 7 Insert SmartArt Graphics 148 Skill 8 Format SmartArt Graphics 150 Skill 9 Create Labels Using Mail Merge 152

Skill 10 Preview and Print Mail Merge Documents 154

More Skil ls More Skills 11 More Skills 12 More Skills 13 More Skills 14

Create Resumes from Templates 156 Create Outlines 156 Prepare Documents for Distribution 156 Preview and Save Documents as Web Pages 156

Exce l C h a p t e r 1 C r e a t e W o r k b o o k s w i t h

Exce l 2 0 1 0 Skill 1 Create and Save New Workbooks Skill 2 Enter Worksheet Data and Merge and

Center Titles Skill 3 Construct Addition and

Subtraction Formulas Skill 4 Construct Multiplication and

Division Formulas Skill 5 Adjust Column Widths and Apply Cell Styles Skill 6 Use the SUM Function Skill 7 Copy Formulas and Functions

Using the Fill Handle

1 6 6 170

Skill 8 Format, Edit, and Check the Spelling of Data 184 Skill 9 Create Footers and Change Page Settings 186

Skill 10 Display and Print Formulas and Scale Worksheets for Printing

More Skil ls More Skills 11

More Skills 12 More Skills 13 More Skills 14

Create New Workbooks from Templates Use Range Names in Formulas Change Themes Manage Document Properties

C h a p t e r 2 Skill 1 Skill 2

Skill 3 Skill 4 Skill 5 Skill 6 Skill 7

Skill 8

Skill 9 Skill 10

C r e a t e C h a r t s Open Existing Workbooks and Align Text Construct and Copy Formulas Containing Absolute Cell References Format Numbers Create Column Charts Format Column Charts Create Pie Charts and Chart Sheets Apply 3-D Effects and Rotate Pie Chart Slices Explode and Color Pie Slices, and Insert Text Boxes Update Charts and Insert WordArt Prepare Chart Sheets for Printing

More Ski l ls More Skills 11 More Skills 12 More Skills 13

Insert and Edit Comments Change Chart Types Copy Excel Data to Word Documents

More Skills 14 Fill Series Data into Worksheet Cells

188

190 190 190 190

2 0 0 204

206 208 210 212 214

216

218 220 222

224 224

224

224

172 C h a p t e r 3 M a n a g e M u l t i p l e W o r k s h e e t s 2 3 4

172 Skill 1 Work with Sheet Tabs 238

174 Skill 2 Enter and Format Dates 240 174 Skill 3 Clear Cell Contents and Formats 242

176 Skill 4 Move, Copy, Paste, and Paste Options 244

178 Skill 5 Work with Grouped Worksheets 246

180 Skill 6 Use Multiple Math Operators in a Formula 248 Skill 7 Format Grouped Worksheets 250

182 Skill 8 Insert and Move Worksheets 252

Table of Contents v

Skill 9 Construct Formulas That Refer to Cells in Other Worksheets 254

Skill 10 Create Clustered Bar Charts 256

More Skills More Skills 11 Create Organization Charts 258 More Skills 12 Create Line Charts 258 More Skills 13 Set and Clear Print Areas 258 More Skills 14 Insert Hyperlinks 258

C h a p t e r 4 U s e Exce l F u n c t i o n s a n d T a b l e s 2 6 8 Skill 1 Use the SUM and AVERAGE Functions 272 Skill 2 Use the MIN and MAX Functions 274 Skill 3 Move Ranges with Functions,

Add Borders, and Rotate Text 276 Skill 4 Use the IF Function 278 Skill 5 Apply Conditional Formatting with

Custom Formats, Data Bars, and Sparklines 280 Skill 6 Use Find and Replace and Insert

the NOW Function 282 Skill 7 Freeze and Unfreeze Panes 284 Skill 8 Create and Sort Excel Tables 286 Skill 9 Use the Search Filter in Excel Tables 288

Skill 10 Convert Tables to Ranges, Hide Rows and Columns, and Format Large Worksheets 290

More Skills More Skills 11 Apply Conditional Color Scales

with Top and Bottom Rules 292 More Skills 12 Use the Payment (PMT) Function 292 More Skills 13 Create PivotTable Reports 292 More Skills 14 Use Goal Seek 292

A c c e s s C h a p t e r 1 Work with D a t a b a s e s

a n d C r e a t e T a b l e s 3 0 2 Skill 1 Open and Organize Existing Databases 306 Skill 2 Enter and Edit Table Data 308 Skill 3 Create Forms and Enter Data 310 Skill 4 Filter Data in Queries 312 Skill 5 Create, Preview, and Print Reports 314 Skill 6 Create Databases and Tables 316

vi Table of Contents

Skill 7 Change Data Types and Other Field Properties 318

Skill 8 Create Tables in Design View 320 Skill 9 Relate Tables 322

Skill 10 Enter Data in Related Tables 324

More Skills More Skills 11 Compact and Repair Databases 326 More Skills 12 Import Data from Excel 326 More Skills 13 Work with the Attachment Data

Type 326 More Skills 14 Work with the Hyperlink

and Yes/No Data Types 326

C h a p t e r 2 M a n a g e D a t a s h e e t s a n d C r e a t e Q u e r i e s 3 3 6

Skill 1 Find and Replace Data 340 Skill 2 Filter and Sort Datasheets 342 Skill 3 Use the Simple Query Wizard 344 Skill 4 Format Datasheets 346 Skill 5 Add Date and Time Criteria 348 Skill 6 Create Queries in Design View 350 Skill 7 Add Calculated Fields to Queries 352 Skill 8 Work with Logical Criteria 354 Skill 9 Add Wildcards to Query Criteria 356

Skill 10 Group and Total Queries 358

More Skills More Skills 11 Export Queries to Other Fie Formats 360 More Skills 12 Find Duplicate Records 360 More Skills 13 Find Unmatched Records 360 More Skills 14 Create Crosstab Queries 360

C h a p t e r 3 C r e a t e Forms 3 7 0 Skill 1 Use the Form Wizard 374 Skill 2 Format Forms in Layout View 376 Skill 3 Use Forms to Modify Data 378 Skill 4 Use the Blank Form Tool 380 Skill 5 Customize Form Layouts 382 Skill 6 Add Input Masks 384 Skill 7 Apply Conditional Formatting 386 Skill 8 Create One-to-Many Forms 388 Skill 9 Enter Data Using One-to-Many Forms 390

Skill 10 Create Forms from Queries 392

More Skills More Skills 11 Validate Fields 394 More Skills 12 Add Combo Boxes to Forms 394 More Skills 13 Create Multiple Item Forms 394 More Skills 14 Create Macros 394

C h a p t e r 4 C r e a t e R e p o r t s 4 0 4 Skill 1 Create Reports and Apply Themes 408 Skill 2 Modify Report Layouts 410 Skill 3 Prepare Reports for Printing 412 Skill 4 Use the Blank Report Tool 414 Skill 5 Group and Sort Reports 416 Skill 6 Format and Filter Reports 418 Skill 7 Create Label Reports 420 Skill 8 Use the Report Wizard 422 Skill 9 Modify Layouts in Design View 424

Skill 10 Add Totals and Labels to Reports 426

More Skills More Skills 11 Export Reports to Word 428 More Skills 12 Export Reports to HTML Documents 428 More Skills 13 Create Parameter Queries 428 More Skills 14 Create Reports for Parameter Queries 428

PowerPo in t C h a p t e r 1 G e t t i n g S t a r t e d w i t h

P o w e r P o i n t 2 0 1 0 4 3 8 Skill 1 Open, View, and Save Presentations 442 Skill 2 Edit and Replace Text in Normal View 444 Skill 3 Format Slide Text 446 Skill 4 Check Spelling and Use the Thesaurus 448 Skill 5 Insert Slides and Modify Slide Layouts 450 Skill 6 Insert and Format Pictures 452 Skill 7 Organize Slides Using Slide Sorter View 454 Skill 8 Apply Slide Transitions and View Slide Shows 456 Skill 9 Insert Headers and Footers

and Print Presentation Handouts 458 Skill 10 Add Notes Pages and Print Notes 460

More Skil ls More Skills 11 Type Text in the Outline Tab 462 More Skills 12 Use Keyboard Shortcuts 462

More Skills 13 Move and Delete Slides in Normal View 462

More Skills 14 Design Presentations for Audience and Location 462

C h a p t e r 2 F o r m a t a P r e s e n t a t i o n 4 7 2 Skill 1 Create New Presentations 476 Skill 2 Change Presentation Themes 478 Skill 3 Apply Font and Color Themes 480 Skill 4 Format Slide Backgrounds with Styles 482 Skill 5 Format Slide Backgrounds with Pictures

and Textures 484 Skill 6 Format Text with WordArt 486 Skill 7 Change Character Spacing and Font Color 488 Skill 8 Modify Bulleted and Numbered Lists 490 Skill 9 Move and Copy Text and Objects 492

Skill 10 Use Format Painter and Clear All Formatting Commands 494

More Skil ls More Skills 11 Edit Slide Master 496 More Skills 12 Save and Apply Presentation

Template 496 More Skills 13 Create Slides from Microsoft Word

Outline 496 More Skills 14 Design Presentations with Contrast 496

C h a p t e r 3 E n h a n c e P r e s e n t a t i o n s w i t h G r a p h i c s 5 0 6

Skill 1 Insert Slides from Other Presentations 510 Skill 2 Insert, Size, and Move Clip Art 512 Skill 3 Modify Picture Shapes, Borders, and Effects 514 Skill 4 Insert, Size, and Move Shapes 516 Ski l l5 Add Text to Shapes and Insert Text Boxes 518 Skill 6 Apply Gradient Fills and Group

and Align Graphics 520 Skill 7 Convert Text to SmartArt Graphics

and Add Shapes 522 Skill 8 Modify SmartArt Layouts, Colors, and Styles 524 Skill 9 Insert Video Files 526

Skill 10 Apply Video Styles and Adjust Videos 528

More Skil ls More Skills 11 Compress Pictures 530

Table of Contents vii

More Skills 12 Save Groups as Picture Files 530 More Skills 13 Change Object Order 530 More Skills 14 Design Presentations Using

Appropriate Graphics 530

C h a p t e r 4 P r e s e n t D a t a U s i n g T a b l e s , C h a r t s , a n d A n i m a t i o n 5 4 0

Skill 1 Insert Tables 544 Skill 2 Modify Table Layouts 546 Skill 3 Apply Table Styles 548 Skill 4 Insert Column Charts 550 Skill 5 Edit and Format Charts 552 Skill 6 Insert Pie Charts 554 Skill 7 Apply Animation Entrance

and Emphasis Effects 556 Skill 8 Modify Animation Timing

and Use Animation Painter 558 Skill 9 Remove Animation and Modify Duration 560

Skill 10 Navigate Slide Shows 562

More Ski l ls More Skills 11 Prepare Presentations to be Viewed

Using Office PowerPoint Viewer 564 More Skills 12 Insert Hyperlinks in a Presentation 564 More Skills 13 Create Photo Albums 564 More Skills 14 Design Presentations with

Appropriate Animation 564

I n t e g r a t e d Pro jec ts C h a p t e r 1 I n t e g r a t i n g W o r d , E x c e l , A c c e s s ,

a n d P o w e r P o i n t 5 7 4 Skill 1 Move Text between Word Documents 578 Skill 2 Apply Heading Styles in Word 580 Skill 3 Create a PowerPoint Presentation

from a Word Document 582 Skill 4 Insert and Modify a Shape in PowerPoint 584 Skill 5 Import a Word Table into

an Excel Workbook 586 Skill 6 Insert a Shape from PowerPoint into Word

and Excel 588 Skill 7 Create and Work with an Excel Table 590

viii Table of Contents

Skill 8 Link Data between Office Applications Using O L E

Skill 9 Create Envelopes Using Data from Access Skill 10 Create Name Tags Using Data in Excel

More Ski l ls More Skills 11 Insert Subtotals in Excel and

Link Data to a Word Document More Skills 12 Insert Slides from Another

Presentation More Skills 13 Move and Copy Excel Worksheets

and Consolidate Data More Skills 14 Compare Shared Excel Workbooks

C h a p t e r 2

Skill 1 Skill 2 Skill 3 Skill 4

Skill 5

Skill 6 Skill 7

Skill 8 Skill 9

M o r e I n t e g r a t e d P r o j e c t s f o r W o r d , E x c e l , A c c e s s , a n d P o w e r P o i n t Create an Access Append Query Export Data from Access into Excel Create an Excel PivotTable Report Create External References between Excel Workbooks Insert a SmartArt Organization Chart into PowerPoint Insert an Excel PivotTable into PowerPoint Insert a PowerPoint Outline in Word and Create a Cover Page and Table of Contents Link and Embed Data from Excel into Word Export Data from Access to an R T F File and Insert the File into Word Insert Objects from PowerPoint into Word Skill 10

kills More Skills 11 Create an Excel PivotChart

and Link the PivotChart to Word More Skills 12 Create a Hyperlink between

PowerPoint, Word, and Excel Files More Skills 13 Insert a Total Row in an Excel Table

and Link the Table to PowerPoint More Skills 14 Compare Word Documents

Glossary

592 594 596

598

598

598 598

6 1 0 614 616 618

620

622 624

626 628

630 632

634

634

634 634

646

Index 654

About the Authors Kris Townsend is an Information Systems instructor at Spokane Falls Community College in Spokane, Washington. Kris earned a bachelor’s degree in both Education and Business, and a master’s degree in Education. He has also worked as a public school teacher and as a systems analyst. Kris enjoys working with wood, snowboarding, and camping. He commutes to work by bike and enjoys long road rides in the Palouse country south of Spokane.

1

Robert L. Ferrett recently retired as the Director of the Center for Instructional Computing at Eastern Michigan University, where he provided computer training and support to faculty. He has authored or co-authored more than 70 books on Access, PowerPoint, Excel, Publisher, WordPerfect, Windows, and Word. He has been designing, developing, and delivering computer workshops for more than two decades.

Catherine Hain is an instructor at Central New Mexico Community College in Albuquerque, New Mexico. She teaches computer applications classes in the Business and Information Technology School, both in the classroom and through the distance learning office. Catherine holds a bachelor’s degree in Management and Marketing and a master’s degree in Business Administration.

f t Alicia Vargas is an Associate Professor of Business Information Technology at Pasadena City College in California. She holds a bachelor’s and a master’s degree in Business Education from California State University, Los Angeles and has authored numerous textbooks and training materials on Microsoft Word, Microsoft Excel, and Microsoft PowerPoint.

A Special Thank You Pearson Prentice Hall gratefully acknowledges the contribution made by Shelley Gaskin to the first edition publication of this series—Skills for Success with Office 2007. The series has truly benefited from her dedication toward developing a textbook that aims to help students and instructors.We thank her for her continued support of this series.

About the Authors ix

Contributors We’d like to thank the following people for their work on Skills for Success:

Instructor Resource Authors Erich Adickes Parkland College Sharon Behrens Northeast Wisconsin Technical College Julie Boyles Portland Community College Barbara Edington St. Francis College Ranida Harris Indiana University Southeast Beth Hendrick Lake Sumter Community College Susan Holland Southeast Community College—Nebraska Andrea Leinbach Harrisburg Area Community College Yvonne Leonard Coastal Carolina Community College

Technical Editors Lisa Bucki Kelly Carling Hilda W i r t h Federico Jacksonville University Tom Lightner Missouri State University Elizabeth Lockley Joyce Nielsen

Reviewers Darrell Abbey Cascadia Community College Bridget I . Archer Oakton Community College Laura Aagard Sierra College John Alcorcha MTI College Barry Andrews Miami Dade College Natalie Andrews Miami Dade College Wilma Andrews Virginia Commonwealth University School

of Business Bridget Archer Oakton Community College Tahir Aziz J. Sargeant Reynolds Greg Balinger Miami Dade College Terry Bass University of Massachusetts, Lowell Lisa Beach Santa Rosa Junior College Rocky Belcher Sinclair Community College Nannette Biby Miami Dade College David Billings Guilford Technical Community College Brenda K. Br i t t Fayetteville Technical Community College Alisa Brown Pulaski Technical College Eric Cameron Passaic Community College

x Contributors

Trina Maurer Anthony Nowakowski Ernest Gines Stacey Gee Hollins John Purcell Ann Rowlette Amanda Shelton Steve St. John Joyce Thompson Karen Wisniewski

Georgia Virtual Technical College Buffalo State College Tarrant County College—Southeast St. Louis Community College—Meramec Castleton State College Liberty University J. Sargeant Reynolds Tulsa Community College Lehigh Carbon Community College County College of Morris

Janet Pickard Linda Pogue Steve Rubin Eric Sabbah Jan Snyder Mara Zebest

Chattanooga State Tech Community College Northwest Arkansas Community College California State University—Monterey Bay

Gene Carbonaro Trey Cherry Kim Childs Pualine Chohonis Lennie Coper Tara Cipriano Paulette Comet

Gail W . Cope Susana Contreras de Finch Chris Corbin Janis Cox Tomi Crawford Martin Cronlund Jennifer Day Ralph DeArazoza Carol Decker Loorna DeDuluc Caroline Delcourt

Long Beach City College Edgecombe Community College Bethany University Miami Dade College Miami Dade College Gateway Technical College Community College of Baltimore

Coun ty—Ca to nsville Sinclair Community College College of Southern Nevada Miami Dade College Tri-County Technical College Miami Dade College Anne Arundel Community College Sinclair Community College Miami Dade College Montgomery College Miami Dade College Black Hawk College

Contributors continued

Michael Discello Kevin Duggan Barbara Edington Donna Ehrhart Hilda Wirth Federico Tushnelda Fernandez Arlene Flerchinger Hedy Fossenkemper Kent Foster Penny Foster-Shiver Arlene Franklin George Gabb Barbara Garrell Deb Geoghan Jessica Gilmore Victor Giol Melinda Glander Linda Glassburn Deb Gross Rachelle Hall Marie Hartlein Diane Hartman Betsy Headrick Patrick Healy

Lindsay Henning Kermelle Hensley Diana Hill Rachel Hinton Mary Carole Hollingsworth Stacey Gee Hollins Bill Holmes Steve Holtz Margaret M. Hvatum Joan Ivey Dr. Dianna D. Johnson Kay Johnston Warren T. Jones, Sr. Sally Kaskocsak Renuka Kumar Kathy McKee Hazel Kates Gerald Kearns

Pittsburgh Technical Institute Midlands Technical Community College St. Francis College Genesee Community College Jacksonville University Miami Dade College Chattanooga State Tech Community College Paradise Valley Community College Withrop University Anne Arundel Community College Bucks County Community College Miami Dade College Delaware County Community College Bucks County Community College Highline Community College Miami Dade College Northmetro Technical College Cuyahoga Community College, West Ohio State University Glendale Community College Montgomery County Community College Utah Valley State College Chattanooga State Northern Virginia Community

College—Woodbridge Yavapai College Columbus Technical College Chesapeake College Broome Community College GA Perimeter St. Louis Community College—Meramec Chandler-Gilbert Community College University of Minnesota Duluth St. Louis Community College Lanier Technical College North Metro Technical College Columbia Basin College University of Alabama at Birmingham Sinclair Community College Community College of Baltimore County North Metro Technical College Miami Dade College Forsyth Technical Community College

Charles Kellermann

John Kidd Chris Kinnard Kelli Kleindorfer Kurt Kominek Dianne Kotokoff Cynthia Krebs Jean Lacoste Gene Laugh rey David LeBron Kaiyang Liang Linda Lindaman Felix Lopez Nicki Maines Cindy Manning Patri Mays Norma McKenzie Lee McKinley Sandy McCormack Eric Meyer Kathryn Miller

Gloria A. Morgan Kathy Morris Linda Moulton Ryan Murphy Stephanie Murre Wolf Jackie Myers Dell Najera

Scott Nason Paula Neal Bethanne Newman Eloise Newsome

Karen Nunan Ellen Orr Carol Ottaway Denise Passero Americus Pavese James Gordon Patterson Cindra Phillips

Northern Virginia Community College—Woodbridge

Tarrant County Community College Miami Dade College American Institute of Business NE State Tech Community College Lanier Technical College Utah Valley University Virginia Tech Northern Oklahoma College Miami Dade College Miami Dade College Black Hawk College Miami Dade College Mesa Community College Big Sandy Community and Technical College Paradise Valley Community College El Paso Community College GA Perimeter Monroe Community College Miami Dade College Big Sandy Community and Technical College,

Pike Ville Campus Monroe Community College University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa Montgomery County Community College Sinclair Community College Moraine Park Technical College Sinclair Community College El Paso Community College, Valle Verde

Campus Rowan Cabarrus Community College Sinclair Community College Paradise Valley Community College Northern Virginia Community

College—Woodbridge Northeast State Technical Community College Seminole Community College Chemeketa Community College Fulton-Montgomery Community College Community College of Baltimore County Paradise Valley Community College Clark State CC

Contributors

Contributors continued

Janet Pickard Chattanooga State Tech Community College Diane Stark Phoenix College Floyd Pittman Miami Dade College Neil Stenlund Northern Virginia Community College Melissa Prinzing Sierra College Linda Stoudemayer Lamar Institute of Technology Pat Rahmlow Montgomery County Community College Pamela Stovall Forsyth Technical Community College Mary Rasley Lehigh Carbon Community College Linda Switzer Highline Community College Scott Rosen Santa Rosa Junior College Margaret Taylor College of Southern Nevada Ann Rowlette Liberty University Martha Taylor Sinclair Community College Kamaljeet Sanghera George Mason University Michael M. Taylor Seattle Central Community College June Scott County College of Morris Roseann Thomas Fayetteville Tech Community College Janet Sebesy Cuyahoga Community College Ingrid Thompson-Sellers GA Perimeter Jennifer Sedelmeyer Broome Community College Daniel Thomson Keiser University Kelly SellAnne Arundel Community College Astrid Hoy Todd Guilford Technical Community College Teresa Sept College of Southern Idaho Barb Tollinger Sinclair Community College Pat Serrano Scottsdale Community College Cathy Urbanski Chandler Gilbert Community College Amanda Shelton J. Sargeant Reynolds Sue Van Boven Paradise Valley Community College Gary Sibbits St. Louis Community College—Meramec Philip Vavalides Guildford Technical Community College Janet Siert Ellsworth Community College Pete Vetere Montgomery County Community College— Robert Sindt Johnson County Community College West Campus Karen Smith Technical College of the Lowcountry Asteria Villegas Monroe College Robert Smolenski Delaware County Community College Michael Walton Miami Dade College Robert Sindt Johnson County Community College Teri Weston Harford Community College Gary R. Smith Paradise Valley Community College Julie Wheeler Sinclair Community College Patricia Snyder Midlands Technical College Debbie Wood Western Piedmont Community College Pamela Sorensen Santa Rosa Junior College Thomas Yip Passaic Community College Eric Stadnik Santa Rosa Junior College Lindy Young Sierra Community College Mark Stanchfield Rochester Community and Technical College Matt Zullo Wake Technical Community College

xii Contributors

I n s t r u c t o r s – Y o u a s k e d for it s o h e r e it is!

A M i c r o s o f t ® O f f i c e t e x t b o o k t h a t r e c o g n i z e s h o w s t u d e n t s l e a r n t o d a y –

Skills for Success with Microsoft

1 Office 2010 Volume 1

10 X 8.5 F o r m a t – Easy for students to read and type at the same time by simply propping the book up on the desk in front of their monitor

Clear ly Out l ined Sk i l l s – Each skill is presented in a single two-page spread so that students can easily follow along

Numbered S t e p s and Bul le ted Tex t – Students don’t read long paragraphs or text, but they will read information presented concisely

Easy-to-Find S t u d e n t Da ta Fi les – Visual key shows students how to locate and interact with their data files

S t a r t H e r e – Students know exactly where to start and what their starting file will look like

C H A P T E R

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chapter, you will be

S k i l l s L is t – A visual snapshot of what skills they will complete in the chapter

O u t c o m e – Shows students up front what their completed project will look like

You will tdvo your filoi a t :

T J H N M I M H7_S«II| ‘ ‘

S e q u e n t i a l P a g i n a t i o n – Saves you and your students time in locating topics and assignments I

VISUAL WALK-THROUGH XIII

Skills for Success l ock – Tells how much time students

need to complete the chapter

Introduct ion

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t Written for T o d a y ‘ s S t u d e n t s – skills are taught with numbered steps and bulleted text so students are less likely to skip valuable information T w o – P a g e S p r e a d s – Each skill is

presented on a two-page spread to help students keep up their momentum

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D a t a Files Are a S n a p – Students can now find their files easier than ever before with this visual map

C o l o r e d Text – Clearly shows what a student types

Hands-On – Students start actually working on their skills from Step 1

D o n e ! – Students always know when they’ve completed a skill

XIV VISUAL WALK-THROUGH

Skills for S u c c e s s

UorsSkJh © U M l d t o m i o C k g c n n f M

End-o f -Chapte r M a t e r i a l – Several levels of assessment so you can assign the material that best fits your students’ needs

M o r e S k i l l s – Additional skills included online

K e y T e r m s O n l i n e H e l p Sk i l ls

Midi .. – .! -.. I – :T.

O n l i n e P r o j e c t – Students practice using Microsoft Help online to help prepare them for using the applications on their own

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Visual Walk-Through xv

Skills for S u c c e s s

Al l V i d e o s

a n d I n s t r u c t o r m a t e r i a l s

a v a i l a b l e o n t h e I R C D

Instructor Mater ia ls

I n s t r u c t o r ‘ s M a n u a l – Teaching tips and additional resources for each chapter

A s s i g n m e n t S h e e t s – Lists all the assignments for the chapter, you just add in the course information, due dates and points. Providing these to students ensures they will know what is due and when

S c r i p t e d L e c t u r e s – Classroom lectures prepared for you

A n n o t a t e d S o l u t i o n F i l e s – Coupled with the scoring rubrics, these create a grading and scoring system that makes grading so much easier for you

P o w e r P o i n t L e c t u r e s – PowerPoint presentations for each chapter

P r e p a r e d E x a m s – Exams for each chapter and for each application

S c o r i n g R u b r i c s – Can be used either by students to check their work or by you as a quick check-off for the items that need to be corrected

S y l l a b u s T e m p l a t e s – for 8-week, 12-week, and 16-week courses

T e s t B a n k – Includes a variety of test questions for each chapter

C o m p a n i o n W e b S i t e – Online content such as the More Skills Projects, Online Study Guide, Glossary, and Student Data Files are all at www.pearsonhighered.com/skills

xvi Visual Walk-Throughhttp://www.pearsonhighered.com/skills

with M ic roso f t

Office 2010 V O L U M E 1

C H A P T E R J Common Features of Office 2010 • The programs in Microsoft Office 2010—Word, Excel, PowerPoint, and Access—share common

tools that you use in a consistent, easy-to-learn manner.

• Common tasks include opening and saving files, entering and formatting text, and printing your work.

Your starting screen will look like this: SKILLS SKILLS 1 – 1 0 TRAINING Umt Insert Pjgt 1

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A t t h e e n d o f t h i s chapter , y o u w i l l be a b l e t o :

Skill 1 Start Word and Navigate the Word Window Skill 2 Start Excel and PowerPoint and Work with

Multiple Windows Skill 3 Save Files in New Folders Skill 4 Print and Save Documents Skill 5 Open Student Data Files and Save Copies

Using Save As Skill 6 Type and Edit Text Skill 7 Cut, Copy, and Paste Text Skill 8 Format Text and Paragraphs Skill 9 Use the Ribbon Skill 10 Use Shortcut Menus and Dialog Boxes

MORE SKILLS

More Skills 11 Capture Screens with the Snipping Tool More Skills 12 Use Microsoft Office Help More Skills 13 Organize Files More Skills 14 Save Documents to Windows Live

2 C O M M O N FEATURES OF OFFICE 2 0 1 0 | C O M M O N FEATURES C H A P T E R 1

Outcome Using the skills listed to the left will enable you to create documents similar to this:

Visit Aspen Falls! A s p e n F a l l s o v e r l o o k s t h e P a c i f i c O c e a n

a n d is s u r r o u n d e d b y m a n y v i n e y a r d s a n d

w i n e r i e s . O c e a n r e c r e a t i o n is a c c e s s e d

p r i m a r i l y a t D u r a n g o C o u n t y P a r k . T h e

A s p e n L a k e R e c r e a t i o n A r e a p r o v i d e s y e a r

r o u n d f r e s h w a t e r r e c r e a t i o n a n d is t h e

c i t y ‘ s l a r g e s t p a r k .

Local Attractions • W i n e C o u n t r y

o W i n e Tas t ing Tou rs

o Winer ies

• W o r d s w o r t h Fel lowship Museum of A r t

• Du rango C o u n t y M u s e u m of H is to ry

• Conven t ion Center

• A r t Galleries

• Gl ider T o u r s

Aspen Fallc Annual Events • Annua l Starving Artists Sidewalk Sale

• A n n u a l W i n e Festival

• C inco de Mayo

• Vintage Car S h o w

• Her i tage D a y Parade

• Harvest Days

• A m a t e u r Bike Races

• Farmer ‘s Market

• Aspen Lake Nature Cruises

• Aspen Falls T r ia th lon

• Tas te of Aspen Falls

• W i n t e r Blues Festival

Contact Y o u r N a m e for more informat ion.

Common Features of Office 2010

You will save your files as: Lastname_Firstname_cfO 1 _Visit 1 Lastname_Firstname_cfO l_Visit2 Lastname_Firstname_cf01_Visit3

Common Features Chapter 1 | Common Features of Office 2010 3

In t h i s c h a p t e r , y o u w i l l c r e a t e d o c u m e n t s f o r t h e A s p e n F a l l s C i t y

H a l l , w h i c h p r o v i d e s e s s e n t i a l s e r v i c e s f o r t h e c i t i z e n s a n d v i s i t o r s o f

A s p e n F a l l s , C a l i f o r n i a .

C o m m o n Features of Of f ice 2 0 1 0 • Microsoft Office is the most common software used to create and share

personal and business documents.

• Microsoft Office is a suite o f several programs—Word, PowerPoint, Excel, Access, and others—that each have a special purpose.

• Because of the consistent design and layout o f Microsoft Office, when you learn to use one Microsoft Office program, you can use most o f those skil ls when working wi th the other Microsoft Office programs.

• T h e files you create w i t h Microsoft Office need to be named and saved in locations where they can be easily found when you need them.

C o m m o n F e a t u r e s o f O f f i c e 2 0 1 0 | C o m m o n F e a t u r e s C h a p t e r 1

Time to complete all 10 skills – 50 to 90 minutes

Find your student data files here:

Student data files needed for this chapter:

« cf01_Visit

• cf01_Visit_Events

cfOl Visit River

C O M M O N FEATURES C H A P T E R 1 | C O M M O N FEATURES OF OFFICE 2 0 1 0 5

• The Word 2010 program can be launched by clicking the Start button, and then locating and clicking the Microsoft Word 2010 command.

• When you start Word, a new blank document displays in which you can type text.

1. In the lower left corner of the desktop, click the Start button © .

2 . In the lower left corner of the Start menu, click the All Programs command, and then compare your screen with Figure 1 . –

The Microsoft Office folder is located in the All Programs folder. If you have several programs installed on your computer, you may need to scroll to see the Microsoft Office folder.

3 . Click the Microsoft Office folder, and then compare your screen with Figure 2. –

Below the Microsoft Office folder, commands that open various Office 2010 programs display.

4 . From the Start menu, under the Microsoft Office folder, click Microsoft Word 2010, and then wait a few moments for the Microsoft Word window to display.

5 . If necessary, in the upper right corner of the Microsoft Word window, click the Maximize button B| .

• C o n t i n u e t o t h e n e x t p a g e t o c o m p l e t e t h e s

6 Common Features of Office 2010 | Common Features Chapter 1

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SKILL 1: Start Word and Navigate the Word Window

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On the Ribbon’s Home tab, in the Paragraph group, click the Show/Hide button H until it displays in gold indicating that it is active. Compare your screen with Figure 3 .

Above the blank Word document, the Quick Access Toolbar and Ribbon display. At the top of the Ribbon, a row of tab names display. Each Ribbon tab has buttons that you click to perform actions. The buttons are organized into groups that display their names along the bottom of the Ribbon.

In the document, the insertion point— a vertical line that indicates where text will be inserted when you start typing—flashes near the top left corner.

The Show/Hide button is a toggle button— a button used to turn a feature both on and off. The paragraph mark (f) indicates the end of a paragraph and will not print.

In the document, type your first and last names. As you type, notice that the insertion point and paragraph mark move to the right.

On the Home tab, in the Styles group, point to—but do not click—the Heading 1 thumbnail to show the Live Preview—a feature that displays the result of a formatting change if you select it.

Click the Heading 1 thumbnail to apply the formatting change as shown in Figure 4. If the Word Navigation Pane displays on the left side of the Word window, click its Close [*] button.

You have completed Skill 1 of 10

Figure 4 6 J 6 P M

C Z 3 / 2 3 1 2

Common Features Chapter 1 | Common Features of Office 2010 7

• When you open more than one Office program, each program displays in its own window.

• When you want to work with a program in a different window, you need to make it the active window.

1 . Click the Start button © , and then compare your screen with F i g u r e 1.

Your computer may be configured in such a way that you can open Office programs without opening the All Programs folder. The Office 2010 program commands may display as shortcuts in the Start menu’s pinned programs area or the recently used programs area. Your computer’s taskbar or desktop may also display icons that start each program.

2 . From the Start menu, locate and then click Microsoft Excel 2010. Depending on your computer, you may need to double-click—not single click—to launch Excel. Compare your screen with F i g u r e 2 . If necessary, click the Maximize – button mm\<

A new blank worksheet displays in a new window. The first cell—the box formed by the intersection of a row and column—is active as indicated by the thick, black border surrounding the cell. When you type in Excel, the text is entered into the active cell.

The Quick Access Toolbar displays above the spreadsheet. The Excel Ribbon has its own tabs and groups that you use to work with an Excel spreadsheet. Many of these tabs, groups, and buttons are similar to those found in Word.

On the taskbar, two buttons display—one for Word and one for Excel.

• C o n t i n u e t o t h e n e x t p a g e t o c o m p l e t e t h e s k i l l

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SKILL 2: Start Excel and PowerPoint and Work with Multiple Windows

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r e p l a c e d t h e R e s t o r e

D o w n b u t t o n

T e x t i n s e r t e d i n t o

E x c e l c e l l s

C u r r e n t d a t e

c a l c u l a t e d a n d

d i s p l a y e d

W i n d o w r e s t o r e d

d o w n ( y o u r s i z e

a n d l o c a t i o n m a y

b e d i f f e r e n t )

3 . From the Start menu <PJ, locate and then click Microsoft PowerPoint 2010.

— Compare your screen with F i g u r e 3 . If necessary, Maximize N = M the Presentation 1 – Microsoft PowerPoint window.

A new, blank presentation opens in a new window. The PowerPoint window contains a slide in which you can type text. PowerPoint slides are designed to be displayed as you talk in front of a group of people.

4. In the upper right corner of the PowerPoint window, click the Close button fcgaj.

5. On the taskbar, click the Word button to make it the active window. With the insertion point flashing to the right of your name, press [Enter], and then type Skills for Success Common Features Chapter

6 . In the upper right corner of the Document 1 – Microsoft Word window, click the Minimize button

The Word window no longer displays, but its button is still available on the taskbar.

7 . With the Excel window active, in the first cell—cell A l — t y p e your first name. Press [Tab], and then type your last name.

Press (Enter), type =TODAY() and then press (Enter) to calculate the current date and to display it in the cell.

In the Excel window, click the Restore Down button |jSU and then compare your screen with F i g u r e 4.

The window remains open, but it no longer fills the entire screen. The Maximize button replaced the Restore Down button.

Y o u h a v e c o m p l e t e d S k i l l 2 o f 1 0

8 .

9 .

F i g u r e 4

C o m m o n F e a t u r e s C h a p t e r 1 | C o m m o n F e a t u r e s o f O f f i c e 2 0 1 0 9http://Sn1p.Hnw.9e

• SKILL 3: Sav<

• A new document or spreadsheet is stored in the computer ‘s temporary memory (RAM) until you save it to your hard drive or USB flash drive.

1 . If you are saving your work on a USB flash drive, insert the USB flash drive into the computer now. If the Windows Explorer button [3 flashes on the taskbar, right-click the button, and then on the Jump List, click Close window.

2 . On the taskbar, click the Word button to make it the active window. On the Quick Access Toolbar, click the Save button [y].

For new documents, the first time you click the Save button, the Save As dialog box opens so that you can name the file.

3 . If you are to save your work on a USB drive, in the Navigation pane scroll down to display the list of drives, and then click your USB flash drive as shown in F i g u r e 1 . If you are saving your work to another location, in the Navigation pane, locate and then click that folder or drive.

4. On the Save As dialog box toolbar, click the New folder button, and then immedi­ ately type Common Features Chapter 1

5 . Press [En te r ] to accept the folder name, and then press [En te r ] again to open the new folder as shown in F i g u r e 2 .

The new folder is created and then opened in the Save As dialog box file list.

• C o n t i n u e t o t h e n e x t p a g e t o c o m p l e t e t h e s k i l l

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F i l e n a m e s d i s p l a y

o n t i t l e b a r s

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d o c u m e n t s

W i n d o w s E x p l o r e r

b u t t o n Common Features Chapter 1 f o l d e r s e l e c t e d

6. In the Save As dialog box, click in the File name box one time to highlight all of the existing text.

7. With the text in the File name box still highlighted, type Lastname_Firstname_ cfOl_Visitl

– 8 . Compare your screen with F i g u r e 3 , and then click Save.

After the document is saved, the name of the file displays on the title bar at the top of the window.

9 . On the taskbar, click the Windows Explorer button \^\. In the folder window Navigation pane, open [ft] the drive on which you are saving your work, and then click the Common Features Chapter 1 folder. Verify that Lastname_Firstname_ cpl_Visitl displays in file list.

1 0 . On the taskbar, click the Excel button to make it the active window. On the Excel Quick Access Toolbar, click the Save button § ] .

1 1 . In the Save As dialog box Navigation pane, open 0 the drive where you are saving your work, and then click the Common Features Chapter 1 folder to display its file list.

The Word file may not display because the Save As box typically displays only files created by the program you are using. Here, only Excel files will typically display.

1 2 . Click in the File name box, replace the existing value with Lastname_Firstname_ cf01_Visit2 and then click the Save button.

1 3 . On the taskbar, click the Windows Explorer button, and then compare your screen with F i g u r e 4.

Y o u h a v e c o m p l e t e d S k i l l 3 o f 1 0

F i g u r e 4

C o m m o n F e a t u r e s C h a p t e r 1 | C o m m o n F e a t u r e s o f O f f i c e 2 0 1 0 1 1

• SKILL 4: Print an.

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f o r p r i n t i n g .

1 . O n t h e t a s k b a r , c l i c k t h e Excel b u t t o n , a n d t h e n c l i c k t h e Maximize |Uey b u t t o n .

2 . O n t h e R i b b o n , c l i c k t h e View tab, a n d t h e n i n t h e Workbook Views group, c l i c k t h e Page Layout b u t t o n . C o m p a r e y o u r s c r e e n w i t h F i g u r e 1 .

The worksheet displays the cells, the margins, and the edges of the paper as they will be positioned when you print. The cell references—the numbers on the left side and the letters across the top of a spreadsheet that address each cell—will not print.

O n t h e R i b b o n , c l i c k t h e Page Layout tab. I n t h e Page Setup group, c l i c k t h e Margins b u t t o n , a n d t h e n i n t h e Margins g a l l e r y , c l i c k Wide.

C l i c k t h e File tab, a n d t h e n o n t h e l e f t s i d e o f t h e B a c k s t a g e , c l i c k Print. C o m p a r e y o u r s c r e e n w i t h F i g u r e 2.

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Categories

## feelings of hunger accompany ________ levels of blood glucose and ________ levels of ghrelin.

REFRENCE This Course text book in the assignment many citations thank you

Pinel, J. P. (10/2010). Biopsychology, 8th Edition [VitalSource Bookshelf version]. Retrieved from http://online.vitalsource.com/books/9781269533744

12 Hunger, Eating, and Health Why Do Many People Eat Too Much?

12.1 Digestion, Energy Storage, and Energy Utilization

12.2 Theories of Hunger and Eating: Set Points versus Positive Incentives

12.3 Factors That Determine What, When, and How Much We Eat

12.4 Physiological Research on Hunger and Satiety

12.5 Body Weight Regulation: Set Points versus Settling Points

12.6 Human Obesity: Causes, Mechanisms, and Treatments

12.7 Anorexia and Bulimia Nervosa

Eating is a behavior that is of interest to virtually everyone. We all do it, and most of us derive great pleasure from it. But for many of us, it becomes a source of serious personal and health problems.

Watch

You Are What You Eat

www.mypsychlab.com

Most eating-related health problems in industrialized nations are associated with eating too much—the average American consumes 3,800 calories per day, about twice the average daily requirement (see Kopelman, 2000). For example, it is estimated that 65% of the adult U.S. population is either overweight or clinically obese, qualifying this problem for epidemic status (see Abelson & Kennedy, 2004; Arnold, 2009). The resulting financial and personal costs are huge. Each year in the United States, about $100 billion is spent treating obesity-related disorders (see Olshansky et al., 2005). Moreover, each year, an estimated 300,000 U.S. citizens die from disorders caused by their excessive eating (e.g., diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, and some cancers). Although the United States is the trend-setter when it comes to overeating and obesity, many other countries are not far behind (Sofsian, 2007). Ironically, as overeating and obesity have reached epidemic proportions, there has been a related increase in disorders associated with eating too little (see Polivy & Herman, 2002). For example, almost 3% of American adolescents currently suffer from anorexia or bulimia, which can be life-threatening in extreme cases. Watch Thinking about Hunger www.mypsychlab.com The massive increases in obesity and other eating-related disorders that have occurred over the last few decades in many countries stand in direct opposition to most people’s thinking about hunger and eating. Many people—and I assume that this includes you—believe that hunger and eating are normally triggered when the body’s energy resources fall below a prescribed optimal level, or set point. They appreciate that many factors influence hunger and eating, but they assume that the hunger and eating system has evolved to supply the body with just the right amount of energy. Thinking Creatively This chapter explores the incompatibility of the set-point assumption with the current epidemic of eating disorders. If we all have hunger and eating systems whose primary function is to maintain energy resources at optimal levels, then eating disorders should be rare. The fact that they are so prevalent suggests that hunger and eating are regulated in some other way. This chapter will repeatedly challenge you to think in new ways about issues that impact your health and longevity and will provide new insights of great personal relevance—I guarantee it. Before you move on to the body of the chapter, I would like you to pause to consider a case study. What would a severely amnesic patient do if offered a meal shortly after finishing one? If his hunger and eating were controlled by energy set points, he would refuse the second meal. Did he? The Case of the Man Who Forgot Not to Eat Clinical Implications R.H. was a 48-year-old male whose progress in graduate school was interrupted by the development of severe amnesia for long-term explicit memory. His amnesia was similar in pattern and severity to that of H.M., whom you met in Chapter 11, and an MRI examination revealed bilateral damage to the medial temporal lobes. The meals offered to R.H. were selected on the basis of interviews with him about the foods he liked: veal parmigiana (about 750 calories) plus all the apple juice he wanted. On one occasion, he was offered a second meal about 15 minutes after he had eaten the first, and he ate it. When offered a third meal 15 minutes later, he ate that, too. When offered a fourth meal he rejected it, claiming that his “stomach was a little tight.” Then, a few minutes later, R.H. announced that he was going out for a good walk and a meal. When asked what he was going to eat, his answer was “veal parmigiana.” Clearly, R.H.’s hunger (i.e., motivation to eat) did not result from an energy deficit (Rozin et al., 1998). Other cases like that of R.H. have been reported by Higgs and colleagues (2008). 12.1 Digestion, Energy Storage, and Energy Utilization The primary purpose of hunger is to increase the probability of eating, and the primary purpose of eating is to supply the body with the molecular building blocks and energy it needs to survive and function (see Blackburn, 2001). This section provides the foundation for our consideration of hunger and eating by providing a brief overview of the processes by which food is digested, stored, and converted to energy. Digestion The gastrointestinal tract and the process of digestion are illustrated in Figure 12.1 on page 300. Digestion is the gastrointestinal process of breaking down food and absorbing its constituents into the body. In order to appreciate the basics of digestion, it is useful to consider the body without its protuberances, as a simple living tube with a hole at each end. To supply itself with energy and other nutrients, the tube puts food into one of its two holes—the one with teeth—and passes the food along its internal canal so that the food can be broken down and partially absorbed from the canal into the body. The leftovers are jettisoned from the other end. Although this is not a particularly appetizing description of eating, it does serve to illustrate that, strictly speaking, food has not been consumed until it has been digested. FIGURE 12.1 The gastrointestinal tract and the process of digestion. Energy Storage in the Body As a consequence of digestion, energy is delivered to the body in three forms: (1) lipids (fats), (2) amino acids (the breakdown products of proteins), and (3) glucose (a simple sugar that is the breakdown product of complex carbohydrates, that is, starches and sugars). The body uses energy continuously, but its consumption is intermittent; therefore, it must store energy for use in the intervals between meals. Energy is stored in three forms: fats, glycogen, and proteins. Most of the body’s energy reserves are stored as fats, relatively little as glycogen and proteins (see Figure 12.2). Thus, changes in the body weights of adult humans are largely a consequence of changes in the amount of their stored body fat. Why is fat the body’s preferred way of storing energy? Glycogen, which is largely stored in the liver and muscles, might be expected to be the body’s preferred mode of energy storage because it is so readily converted to glucose—the body’s main directly utilizable source of energy. But there are two reasons why fat, rather than glycogen, is the primary mode of energy storage: One is that a gram of fat can store almost twice as much energy as a gram of glycogen; the other is that glycogen, unlike fat, attracts and holds substantial quantities of water. Consequently, if all your fat calories were stored as glycogen, you would likely weigh well over 275 kilograms (600 pounds). FIGURE 12.2 Distribution of stored energy in an average person. Three Phases of Energy Metabolism There are three phases of energy metabolism (the chemical changes by which energy is made available for an organism’s use): the cephalic phase, the absorptive phase, and the fasting phase. The cephalic phase is the preparatory phase; it often begins with the sight, smell, or even just the thought of food, and it ends when the food starts to be absorbed into the bloodstream. The absorptive phase is the period during which the energy absorbed into the bloodstream from the meal is meeting the body’s immediate energy needs. The fasting phase is the period during which all of the unstored energy from the previous meal has been used and the body is withdrawing energy from its reserves to meet its immediate energy requirements; it ends with the beginning of the next cephalic phase. During periods of rapid weight gain, people often go directly from one absorptive phase into the next cephalic phase, without experiencing an intervening fasting phase. The flow of energy during the three phases of energy metabolism is controlled by two pancreatic hormones: insulin and glucagon. During the cephalic and absorptive phases, the pancreas releases a great deal of insulin into the bloodstream and very little glucagon. Insulin does three things: (1) It promotes the use of glucose as the primary source of energy by the body. (2) It promotes the conversion of bloodborne fuels to forms that can be stored: glucose to glycogen and fat, and amino acids to proteins. (3) It promotes the storage of glycogen in liver and muscle, fat in adipose tissue, and proteins in muscle. In short, the function of insulin during the cephalic phase is to lower the levels of bloodborne fuels, primarily glucose, in anticipation of the impending influx; and its function during the absorptive phase is to minimize the increasing levels of bloodborne fuels by utilizing and storing them. In contrast to the cephalic and absorptive phases, the fasting phase is characterized by high blood levels of glucagon and low levels of insulin. Without high levels of insulin, glucose has difficulty entering most body cells; thus, glucose stops being the body’s primary fuel. In effect, this saves the body’s glucose for the brain, because insulin is not required for glucose to enter most brain cells. The low levels of insulin also promote the conversion of glycogen and protein to glucose. (The conversion of protein to glucose is called gluconeogenesis.) On the other hand, the high levels of fasting-phase glucagon promote the release of free fatty acids from adipose tissue and their use as the body’s primary fuel. The high glucagon levels also stimulate the conversion of free fatty acids to ketones, which are used by muscles as a source of energy during the fasting phase. After a prolonged period without food, however, the brain also starts to use ketones, thus further conserving the body’s resources of glucose. Figure 12.3 summarizes the major metabolic events associated with the three phases of energy metabolism. FIGURE 12.3 The major events associated with the three phases of energy metabolism: the cephalic, absorptive, and fasting phases. 12.2 Theories of Hunger and Eating: Set Points versus Positive Incentives One of the main difficulties I have in teaching the fundamentals of hunger, eating, and body weight regulation is the set-point assumption. Although it dominates most people’s thinking about hunger and eating (Assanand, Pinel, & Lehman, 1998a, 1998b), whether they realize it or not, it is inconsistent with the bulk of the evidence. What exactly is the set-point assumption? Set-Point Assumption Most people attribute hunger (the motivation to eat) to the presence of an energy deficit, and they view eating as the means by which the energy resources of the body are returned to their optimal level—that is, to the energy set point. Figure 12.4 summarizes this set-point assumption. After a meal (a bout of eating), a person’s energy resources are assumed to be near their set point and to decline thereafter as the body uses energy to fuel its physiological processes. When the level of the body’s energy resources falls far enough below the set point, a person becomes motivated by hunger to initiate another meal. The meal continues, according to the set-point assumption, until the energy level returns to its set point and the person feels satiated (no longer hungry). FIGURE 12.4 The energy set-point view that is the basis of many people’s thinking about hunger and eating. Set-point models assume that hunger and eating work in much the same way as a thermostat-regulated heating system in a cool climate. The heater increases the house temperature until it reaches its set point (the thermostat setting). The heater then shuts off, and the temperature of the house gradually declines until it becomes low enough to turn the heater back on. All set-point systems have three components: a set-point mechanism, a detector mechanism, and an effector mechanism. The set-point mechanism defines the set point, the detector mechanism detects deviations from the set point, and the effector mechanism acts to eliminate the deviations. For example, the set-point, detector, and effector mechanisms of a heating system are the thermostat, the thermometer, and the heater, respectively. All set-point systems are negative feedback systems—systems in which feedback from changes in one direction elicit compensatory effects in the opposite direction. Negative feedback systems are common in mammals because they act to maintain homeostasis—a stable internal environment—which is critical for mammals’ survival (see Wenning, 1999). Set-point systems combine negative feedback with a set point to keep an internal environment fixed at the prescribed point. Set-point systems seemed necessary when the adult human brain was assumed to be immutable: Because the brain couldn’t change, energy resources had to be highly regulated. However, we now know that the adult human brain is plastic and capable of considerable adaptation. Thus, there is no longer a logical imperative for the set-point regulation of eating. Throughout this chapter, you will need to put aside your preconceptions and base your thinking about hunger and eating entirely on the empirical evidence. Glucostatic and Lipostatic Set-Point Theories of Hunger and Eating In the 1940s and 1950s, researchers working under the assumption that eating is regulated by some type of set-point system speculated about the nature of the regulation. Several researchers suggested that eating is regulated by a system that is designed to maintain a blood glucose set point—the idea being that we become hungry when our blood glucose levels drop significantly below their set point and that we become satiated when eating returns our blood glucose levels to their set point. The various versions of this theory are collectively referred to as the glucostatic theory. It seemed to make good sense that the main purpose of eating is to defend a blood glucose set point, because glucose is the brain’s primary fuel. The lipostatic theory is another set-point theory that was proposed in various forms in the 1940s and 1950s. According to this theory, every person has a set point for body fat, and deviations from this set point produce compensatory adjustments in the level of eating that return levels of body fat to their set point. The most frequently cited support for the theory is the fact that the body weights of adults stay relatively constant. The glucostatic and lipostatic theories were viewed as complementary, not mutually exclusive. The glucostatic theory was thought to account for meal initiation and termination, whereas the lipostatic theory was thought to account for long-term regulation. Thus, the dominant view in the 1950s was that eating is regulated by the interaction between two set-point systems: a short-term glucostatic system and a long-term lipostatic system. The simplicity of these 1950s theories is appealing. Remarkably, they are still being presented as the latest word in some textbooks; perhaps you have encountered them. Problems with Set-Point Theories of Hunger and Eating Thinking Creatively Set-point theories of hunger and eating have several serious weaknesses (see de Castro & Plunkett, 2002). You have already learned one fact that undermines these theories: There is an epidemic of obesity and overweight, which should not occur if eating is regulated by a set point. Let’s look at three more major weaknesses of set-point theories of hunger and eating. Evolutionary Perspective • First, set-point theories of hunger and eating are inconsistent with basic eating-related evolutionary pressures as we understand them. The major eating-related problem faced by our ancestors was the inconsistency and unpredictability of the food supply. Thus, in order to survive, it was important for them to eat large quantities of good food when it was available so that calories could be banked in the form of body fat. Any ancestor—human or otherwise—that stopped feeling hungry as soon as immediate energy needs were met would not have survived the first hard winter or prolonged drought. For any warm-blooded species to survive under natural conditions, it needs a hunger and eating system that prevents energy deficits, rather than one that merely responds to them once they have developed. From this perspective, it is difficult to imagine how a set-point hunger and feeding system could have evolved in mammals (see Pinel, Assanand, & Lehman, 2000). • Second, major predictions of the set-point theories of hunger and eating have not been confirmed. Early studies seemed to support the set-point theories by showing that large reductions in body fat, produced by starvation, or large reductions in blood glucose, produced by insulin injections, induce increases in eating in laboratory animals. The problem is that reductions in blood glucose of the magnitude needed to reliably induce eating rarely occur naturally. Indeed, as you have already learned in this chapter, about 65% of U.S. adults have a significant excess of fat deposits when they begin a meal. Conversely, efforts to reduce meal size by having subjects consume a high-calorie drink before eating have been largely unsuccessful; indeed, beliefs about the caloric content of a premeal drink often influence the size of a subsequent meal more than does its actual caloric content (see Lowe, 1993). • Third, set-point theories of hunger and eating are deficient because they fail to recognize the major influences on hunger and eating of such important factors as taste, learning, and social influences. To convince yourself of the importance of these factors, pause for a minute and imagine the sight, smell, and taste of your favorite food. Perhaps it is a succulent morsel of lobster meat covered with melted garlic butter, a piece of chocolate cheesecake, or a plate of sizzling homemade french fries. Are you starting to feel a bit hungry? If the homemade french fries—my personal weakness—were sitting in front of you right now, wouldn’t you reach out and have one, or maybe the whole plateful? Have you not on occasion felt discomfort after a large main course, only to polish off a substantial dessert? The usual positive answers to these questions lead unavoidably to the conclusion that hunger and eating are not rigidly controlled by deviations from energy set points. Positive-Incentive Perspective The inability of set-point theories to account for the basic phenomena of eating and hunger led to the development of an alternative theoretical perspective (see Berridge, 2004). The central assertion of this perspective, commonly referred to as positive-incentive theory, is that humans and other animals are not normally driven to eat by internal energy deficits but are drawn to eat by the anticipated pleasure of eating—the anticipated pleasure of a behavior is called its positive-incentive value (see Bolles, 1980; Booth, 1981; Collier, 1980; Rolls, 1981; Toates, 1981). There are several different positive-incentive theories, and I refer generally to all of them as the positive-incentive perspective. Evolutionary Perspective The major tenet of the positive-incentive perspective on eating is that eating is controlled in much the same way as sexual behavior: We engage in sexual behavior not because we have an internal deficit, but because we have evolved to crave it. The evolutionary pressures of unexpected food shortages have shaped us and all other warm-blooded animals, who need a continuous supply of energy to maintain their body temperatures, to take advantage of good food when it is present and eat it. According to the positive-incentive perspective, it is the presence of good food, or the anticipation of it, that normally makes us hungry, not an energy deficit. According to the positive-incentive perspective, the degree of hunger you feel at any particular time depends on the interaction of all the factors that influence the positive-incentive value of eating (see Palmiter, 2007). These include the following: the flavor of the food you are likely to consume, what you have learned about the effects of this food either from eating it previously or from other people, the amount of time since you last ate, the type and quantity of food in your gut, whether or not other people are present and eating, whether or not your blood glucose levels are within the normal range. This partial list illustrates one strength of the positive-incentive perspective. Unlike set-point theories, positive-incentive theories do not single out one factor as the major determinant of hunger and ignore the others. Instead, they acknowledge that many factors interact to determine a person’s hunger at any time, and they suggest that this interaction occurs through the influence of these various factors on the positive-incentive value of eating (see Cabanac, 1971). In this section, you learned that most people think about hunger and eating in terms of energy set points and were introduced to an alternative way of thinking—the positive-incentive perspective. Which way is correct? If you are like most people, you have an attachment to familiar ways of thinking and a resistance to new ones. Try to put this tendency aside and base your views about this important issue entirely on the evidence. You have already learned about some of the major weaknesses of strict set-point theories of hunger and eating. The next section describes some of the things that biopsychological research has taught us about hunger and eating. As you progress through the section, notice the superiority of the positive-incentive theories over set-point theories in accounting for the basic facts. 12.3 Factors That Determine What, When, and How Much We Eat This section describes major factors that commonly determine what we eat, when we eat, and how much we eat. Notice that energy deficits are not included among these factors. Although major energy deficits clearly increase hunger and eating, they are not a common factor in the eating behavior of people like us, who live in food-replete societies. Although you may believe that your body is short of energy just before a meal, it is not. This misconception is one that is addressed in this section. Also, notice how research on nonhumans has played an important role in furthering understanding of human eating. Factors That Determine What We Eat Certain tastes have a high positive-incentive value for virtually all members of a species. For example, most humans have a special fondness for sweet, fatty, and salty tastes. This species-typical pattern of human taste preferences is adaptive because in nature sweet and fatty tastes are typically characteristic of high-energy foods that are rich in vitamins and minerals, and salty tastes are characteristic of sodium-rich foods. In contrast, bitter tastes, for which most humans have an aversion, are often associated with toxins. Superimposed on our species-typical taste preferences and aversions, each of us has the ability to learn specific taste preferences and aversions (see Rozin & Shulkin, 1990). Evolutionary Perspective Learned Taste Preferences and Aversions Animals learn to prefer tastes that are followed by an infusion of calories, and they learn to avoid tastes that are followed by illness (e.g., Baker & Booth, 1989; Lucas & Sclafani, 1989; Sclafani, 1990). In addition, humans and other animals learn what to eat from their conspecifics. For example, rats learn to prefer flavors that they experience in mother’s milk and those that they smell on the breath of other rats (see Galef, 1995, 1996; Galef, Whishkin, & Bielavska, 1997). Similarly, in humans, many food preferences are culturally specific—for example, in some cultures, various nontoxic insects are considered to be a delicacy. Galef and Wright (1995) have shown that rats reared in groups, rather than in isolation, are more likely to learn to eat a healthy diet. Learning to Eat Vitamins and Minerals How do animals select a diet that provides all of the vitamins and minerals they need? To answer this question, researchers have studied how dietary deficiencies influence diet selection. Two patterns of results have emerged: one for sodium and one for the other essential vitamins and minerals. When an animal is deficient in sodium, it develops an immediate and compelling preference for the taste of sodium salt (see Rowland, 1990). In contrast, an animal that is deficient in some vitamin or mineral other than sodium must learn to consume foods that are rich in the missing nutrient by experiencing their positive effects; this is because vitamins and minerals other than sodium normally have no detectable taste in food. For example, rats maintained on a diet deficient in thiamine (vitamin B1) develop an aversion to the taste of that diet; and if they are offered two new diets, one deficient in thiamine and one rich in thiamine, they often develop a preference for the taste of the thiamine-rich diet over the ensuing days, as it becomes associated with improved health. If we, like rats, are capable of learning to select diets that are rich in the vitamins and minerals we need, why are dietary deficiencies so prevalent in our society? One reason is that, in order to maximize profits, manufacturers produce foods that have the tastes we prefer but lack many of the nutrients we need to maintain our health. (Even rats prefer chocolate chip cookies to nutritionally complete rat chow.) The second reason is illustrated by the classic study of Harris and associates (1933). When thiamine-deficient rats were offered two new diets, one with thiamine and one without, almost all of them learned to eat the complete diet and avoid the deficient one. However, when they were offered ten new diets, only one of which contained the badly needed thiamine, few developed a preference for the complete diet. The number of different substances, both nutritious and not, consumed each day by most people in industrialized societies is immense, and this makes it difficult, if not impossible, for their bodies to learn which foods are beneficial and which are not. Thinking Creatively There is not much about nutrition in this chapter: Although it is critically important to eat a nutritious diet, nutrition seems to have little direct effect on our feelings of hunger. However, while I am on the topic, I would like to direct you to a good source of information about nutrition that could have a positive effect on your health: Some popular books on nutrition are dangerous, and even governments, inordinately influenced by economic considerations and special-interest groups, often do not provide the best nutritional advice (see Nestle, 2003). For sound research-based advice on nutrition, check out an article by Willett and Stampfer (2003) and the book on which it is based, Eat, Drink, and Be Healthy by Willett, Skerrett, and Giovannucci (2001). Factors That Influence When We Eat Evolutionary Perspective Collier and his colleagues (see Collier, 1986) found that most mammals choose to eat many small meals (snacks) each day if they have ready access to a continuous supply of food. Only when there are physical costs involved in initiating meals—for example, having to travel a considerable distance—does an animal opt for a few large meals. The number of times humans eat each day is influenced by cultural norms, work schedules, family routines, personal preferences, wealth, and a variety of other factors. However, in contrast to the usual mammalian preference, most people, particularly those living in family groups, tend to eat a few large meals each day at regular times. Interestingly, each person’s regular mealtimes are the very same times at which that person is likely to feel most hungry; in fact, many people experience attacks of malaise (headache, nausea, and an inability to concentrate) when they miss a regularly scheduled meal. Premeal Hunger I am sure that you have experienced attacks of premeal hunger. Subjectively, they seem to provide compelling support for set-point theories. Your body seems to be crying out: “I need more energy. I cannot function without it. Please feed me.” But things are not always the way they seem. Woods has straightened out the confusion (see Woods, 1991; Woods & Ramsay, 2000; Woods & Strubbe, 1994). According to Woods, the key to understanding hunger is to appreciate that eating meals stresses the body. Before a meal, the body’s energy reserves are in reasonable homeostatic balance; then, as a meal is consumed, there is a homeostasis-disturbing influx of fuels into the bloodstream. The body does what it can to defend its homeostasis. At the first indication that a person will soon be eating—for example, when the usual mealtime approaches—the body enters the cephalic phase and takes steps to soften the impact of the impending homeostasis-disturbing influx by releasing insulin into the blood and thus reducing blood glucose. Woods’s message is that the strong, unpleasant feelings of hunger that you may experience at mealtimes are not cries from your body for food; they are the sensations of your body’s preparations for the expected homeostasis-disturbing meal. Mealtime hunger is caused by the expectation of food, not by an energy deficit. Thinking Creatively As a high school student, I ate lunch at exactly 12:05 every day and was overwhelmed by hunger as the time approached. Now, my eating schedule is different, and I never experience noontime hunger pangs; I now get hungry just before the time at which I usually eat. Have you had a similar experience? Pavlovian Conditioning of Hunger In a classic series of Pavlovian conditioning experiments on laboratory rats, Weingarten (1983, 1984, 1985) provided strong support for the view that hunger is often caused by the expectation of food, not by an energy deficit. During the conditioning phase of one of his experiments, Weingarten presented rats with six meals per day at irregular intervals, and he signaled the impending delivery of each meal with a buzzer-and-light conditional stimulus. This conditioning procedure was continued for 11 days. Throughout the ensuing test phase of the experiment, the food was continuously available. Despite the fact that the subjects were never deprived during the test phase, the rats started to eat each time the buzzer and light were presented—even if they had recently completed a meal. Factors That Influence How Much We Eat The motivational state that causes us to stop eating a meal when there is food remaining is satiety. Satiety mechanisms play a major role in determining how much we eat. Satiety Signals As you will learn in the next section of the chapter, food in the gut and glucose entering the blood can induce satiety signals, which inhibit subsequent consumption. These signals depend on both the volume and the nutritive density (calories per unit volume) of the food. Evolutionary Perspective The effects of nutritive density have been demonstrated in studies in which laboratory rats have been maintained on a single diet. Once a stable baseline of consumption has been established, the nutritive density of the diet is changed. Some rats learn to adjust the volume of food they consume to keep their caloric intake and body weights relatively stable. However, there are major limits to this adjustment: Rats rarely increase their intake sufficiently to maintain their body weights if the nutritive density of their conventional laboratory feed is reduced by more than 50% or if there are major changes in the diet’s palatability. Sham Eating The study of sham eating indicates that satiety signals from the gut or blood are not necessary to terminate a meal. In sham-eating experiments, food is chewed and swallowed by the subject; but rather than passing down the subject’s esophagus into the stomach, it passes out of the body through an implanted tube (see Figure 12.5). FIGURE 12.5 The sham-eating preparation. Because sham eating adds no energy to the body, set-point theories predict that all sham-eaten meals should be huge. But this is not the case. Weingarten and Kulikovsky (1989) sham fed rats one of two differently flavored diets: one that the rats had naturally eaten many times before and one that they had never eaten before. The first sham meal of the rats that had previously eaten the diet was the same size as the previously eaten meals of that diet; then, on ensuing days they began to sham eat more and more (see Figure 12.6). In contrast, the rats that were presented with the unfamiliar diet sham ate large quantities right from the start. Weingarten and Kulikovsky concluded that the amount we eat is influenced largely by our previous experience with the particular food’s physiological effects, not by the immediate effect of the food on the body. FIGURE 12.6 Change in the magnitude of sham eating over repeated sham-eating trials. The rats in one group sham ate the same diet they had eaten before the sham-eating phase; the rats in another group sham ate a diet different from the one they had previously eaten. (Based on Weingarten, 1990.) Appetizer Effect and Satiety The next time you attend a dinner party, you may experience a major weakness of the set-point theory of satiety. Thinking Creatively If appetizers are served, you will notice that small amounts of food consumed before a meal actually increase hunger rather than reducing it. This is the appetizer effect. Presumably, it occurs because the consumption of a small amount of food is particularly effective in eliciting cephalic-phase responses. Serving Size and Satiety Many experiments have shown that the amount of consumption is influenced by serving size (Geier, Rozin, & Doros, 2006). The larger the servings, the more we tend to eat. There is even evidence that we tend to eat more when we eat with larger spoons. Social Influences and Satiety Feelings of satiety may also depend on whether we are eating alone or with others. Redd and de Castro (1992) found that their subjects consumed 60% more when eating with others. Laboratory rats also eat substantially more when fed in groups. In humans, social factors have also been shown to reduce consumption. Many people eat less than they would like in order to achieve their society’s ideal of slenderness, and others refrain from eating large amounts in front of others so as not to appear gluttonous. Unfortunately, in our culture, females are influenced by such pressures more than males are, and, as you will learn later in the chapter, some develop serious eating disorders as a result. Sensory-Specific Satiety The number of different tastes available at each meal has a major effect on meal size. For example, the effect of offering a laboratory rat a varied diet of highly palatable foods—a cafeteria diet—is dramatic. Adults rats that were offered bread and chocolate in addition to their usual laboratory diet increased their average intake of calories by 84%, and after 120 days they had increased their average body weights by 49% (Rogers & Blundell, 1980). The spectacular effects of cafeteria diets on consumption and body weight clearly run counter to the idea that satiety is rigidly controlled by internal energy set points. The effect on meal size of cafeteria diets results from the fact that satiety is to a large degree sensory-specific. As you eat one food, the positive-incentive value of all foods declines slightly, but the positive-incentive value of that particular food plummets. As a result, you soon become satiated on that food and stop eating it. However, if another food is offered to you, you will often begin eating again. In one study of sensory-specific satiety (Rolls et al., 1981), human subjects were asked to rate the palatability of eight different foods, and then they ate a meal of one of them. After the meal, they were asked to rate the palatability of the eight foods once again, and it was found that their rating of the food they had just eaten had declined substantially more than had their ratings of the other seven foods. Moreover, when the subjects were offered an unexpected second meal, they consumed most of it unless it was the same as the first. Booth (1981) asked subjects to rate the momentary pleasure produced by the flavor, the smell, the sight, or just the thought of various foods at different times after consuming a large, high-calorie, high-carbohydrate liquid meal. There was an immediate sensory-specific decrease in the palatability of foods of the same or similar flavor as soon as the liquid meal was consumed. This was followed by a general decrease in the palatability of all substances about 30 minutes later. Thus, it appears that signals from taste receptors produce an immediate decline in the positive-incentive value of similar tastes and that signals associated with the postingestive consequences of eating produce a general decrease in the positive-incentive value of all foods. Rolls (1990) suggested that sensory-specific satiety has two kinds of effects: relatively brief effects that influence the selection of foods within a single meal, and relatively enduring effects that influence the selection of foods from meal to meal. Some foods seem to be relatively immune to long-lasting sensory-specific satiety; foods such as rice, bread, potatoes, sweets, and green salads can be eaten almost every day with only a slight decline in their palatability (Rolls, 1986). Evolutionary Perspective The phenomenon of sensory-specific satiety has two adaptive consequences. First, it encourages the consumption of a varied diet. If there were no sensory-specific satiety, a person would tend to eat her or his preferred food and nothing else, and the result would be malnutrition. Second, sensory-specific satiety encourages animals that have access to a variety of foods to eat a lot; an animal that has eaten its fill of one food will often begin eating again if it encounters a different one (Raynor & Epstein, 2001). This encourages animals to take full advantage of times of abundance, which are all too rare in nature. Thinking Creatively This section has introduced you to several important properties of hunger and eating. How many support the set-point assumption, and how many are inconsistent with it? Scan Your Brain Are you ready to move on to the discussion of the physiology of hunger and satiety in the following section? Find out by completing the following sentences with the most appropriate terms. The correct answers are provided at the end of the exercise. Before proceeding, review material related to your incorrect answers and omissions. 1. The primary function of the ______ is to serve as a storage reservoir for undigested food. 2. Most of the absorption of nutrients into the body takes place through the wall of the ______, or upper intestine. 3. The phase of energy metabolism that is triggered by the expectation of food is the ______ phase. 4. During the absorptive phase, the pancreas releases a great deal of ______ into the bloodstream. 5. During the fasting phase, the primary fuels of the body are ______. 6. During the fasting phase, the primary fuel of the brain is ______. 7. The three components of a set-point system are a set-point mechanism, a detector, and an ______. 8. The theory that hunger and satiety are regulated by a blood glucose set point is the ______ theory. 9. Evidence suggests that hunger is greatly influenced by the current ______ value of food. 10. Most humans have a preference for sweet, fatty, and ______ tastes. 11. There are two mechanisms by which we learn to eat diets containing essential vitamins and minerals: one mechanism for ______ and another mechanism for the rest. 12. Satiety that is specific to the particular foods that produce it is called ______ satiety. Scan Your Brain answers: (1) stomach, (2) duodenum, (3) cephalic, (4) insulin, (5) free fatty acids, (6) glucose, (7) effector, (8) glucostatic, (9) positiveincentive, (10) salty, (11) sodium, (12) sensory-specific. 12.4 Physiological Research on Hunger and Satiety Now that you have been introduced to set-point theories, the positive-incentive perspective, and some basic factors that affect why, when, and how much we eat, this section introduces you to five prominent lines of research on the physiology of hunger and satiety. Role of Blood Glucose Levels in Hunger and Satiety As I have already explained, efforts to link blood glucose levels to eating have been largely unsuccessful. However, there was a renewed interest in the role of glucose in the regulation of eating in the 1990s, following the development of methods of continually monitoring blood glucose levels. In the classic experiment of Campfield and Smith (1990), rats were housed individually, with free access to a mixed diet and water, and their blood glucose levels were continually monitored via a chronic intravenous catheter (i.e., a hypodermic needle located in a vein). In this situation, baseline blood glucose levels rarely fluctuated more than 2%. However, about 10 minutes before a meal was initiated, the levels suddenly dropped about 8% (see Figure 12.7). FIGURE 12.7 The meal-related changes in blood glucose levels observed by Campfield and Smith (1990). Do the observed reductions in blood glucose before a meal lend support to the glucostatic theory of hunger? I think not, for five reasons: • It is a simple matter to construct a situation in which drops in blood glucose levels do not precede eating (e.g., Strubbe & Steffens, 1977)—for example, by unexpectedly serving a food with a high positive-incentive value. • The usual premeal decreases in blood glucose seem to be a response to the intention to start eating, not the other way round. The premeal decreases in blood glucose are typically preceded by increases in blood insulin levels, which indicates that the decreases do not reflect gradually declining energy reserves but are actively produced by an increase in blood levels of insulin (see Figure 12.7). • If an expected meal is not served, blood glucose levels soon return to their previous homeostatic level. • The glucose levels in the extracellular fluids that surround CNS neurons stay relatively constant, even when blood glucose levels drop (see Seeley & Woods, 2003). • Injections of insulin do not reliably induce eating unless the injections are sufficiently great to reduce blood glucose levels by 50% (see Rowland, 1981), and large premeal infusions of glucose do not suppress eating (see Geiselman, 1987). Myth of Hypothalamic Hunger and Satiety Centers In the 1950s, experiments on rats seemed to suggest that eating behavior is controlled by two different regions of the hypothalamus: satiety by the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) and feeding by the lateral hypothalamus (LH)—see Figure 12.8. This theory turned out to be wrong, but it stimulated several important discoveries. FIGURE 12.8 The locations in the rat brain of the ventromedial hypothalamus and the lateral hypothalamus. VMH Satiety Center In 1940, it was discovered that large bilateral electrolytic lesions to the ventromedial hypothalamus produce hyperphagia (excessive eating) and extreme obesity in rats (Hetherington & Ranson, 1940). This VMH syndrome has two different phases: dynamic and static. The dynamic phase, which begins as soon as the subject regains consciousness after the operation, is characterized by several weeks of grossly excessive eating and rapid weight gain. However, after that, consumption gradually declines to a level that is just sufficient to maintain a stable level of obesity; this marks the beginning of the static phase. Figure 12.9 illustrates the weight gain and food intake of an adult rat with bilateral VMH lesions. The most important feature of the static phase of the VMH syndrome is that the animal maintains its new body weight. If a rat in the static phase is deprived of food until it has lost a substantial amount of weight, it will regain the lost weight once the deprivation ends; conversely, if it is made to gain weight by forced feeding, it will lose the excess weight once the forced feeding is curtailed. Paradoxically, despite their prodigious levels of consumption, VMH-lesioned rats in some ways seem less hungry than unlesioned controls. Although VMH-lesioned rats eat much more than normal rats when palatable food is readily available, they are less willing to work for it (Teitelbaum, 1957) or to consume it if it is slightly unpalatable (Miller, Bailey, & Stevenson, 1950). Weingarten, Chang, and Jarvie (1983) showed that the finicky eating of VMH-lesioned rats is a consequence of their obesity, not a primary effect of their lesion; they are no less likely to consume unpalatable food than are unlesioned rats of equal obesity. LH Feeding Center In 1951, Anand and Brobeck reported that bilateral electrolytic lesions to the lateral hypothalamus produce aphagia—a complete cessation of eating. Even rats that were first made hyperphagic by VMH lesions were rendered aphagic by the addition of LH lesions. Anand and Brobeck concluded that the lateral region of the hypothalamus is a feeding center. Teitelbaum and Epstein (1962) subsequently discovered two important features of the LH syndrome. First, they found that the aphagia was accompanied by adipsia—a complete cessation of drinking. Second, they found that LH-lesioned rats partially recover if they are kept alive by tube feeding. First, they begin to eat wet, palatable foods, such as chocolate chip cookies soaked in milk, and eventually they will eat dry food pellets if water is concurrently available. Reinterpretation of the Effects of VMH and LH Lesions Thinking Creatively The theory that the VMH is a satiety center crumbled in the face of two lines of evidence. One of these lines showed that the primary role of the hypothalamus is the regulation of energy metabolism, not the regulation of eating. The initial interpretation was that VMH-lesioned animals become obese because they overeat; however, the evidence suggests the converse—that they overeat because they become obese. Bilateral VMH lesions increase blood insulin levels, which increases lipogenesis (the production of body fat) and decreases lipolysis (the breakdown of body fat to utilizable forms of energy)—see Powley et al. (1980). Both are likely to be the result of the increases in insulin levels that occur following the lesion. Because the calories ingested by VMH-lesioned rats are converted to fat at a high rate, the rats must keep eating to ensure that they have enough calories in their blood to meet their immediate energy requirements (e.g., Hustvedt & Løvø, 1972); they are like misers who run to the bank each time they make a bit of money and deposit it in a savings account from which withdrawals cannot be made. FIGURE 12.9 Postoperative hyper-phagia and obesity in a rat with bilateral VMH lesions. (Based on Teitelbaum, 1961.) The second line of evidence that undermined the theory of a VMH satiety center has shown that many of the effects of VMH lesions are not attributable to VMH damage. A large fiber bundle, the ventral noradrenergic bundle, courses past the VMH and is thus inevitably damaged by large electrolytic VMH lesions; in particular, fibers that project from the nearby paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus are damaged (see Figure 12.10). Bilateral lesions of the noradrenergic bundle (e.g., Gold et al., 1977) or the paraventricular nuclei (Leibowitz, Hammer, & Chang, 1981) produce hyperphagia and obesity, just as VMH lesions do. Most of the evidence against the notion that the LH is a feeding center has come from a thorough analysis of the effects of bilateral LH lesions. Early research focused exclusively on the aphagia and adipsia that are produced by LH lesions, but subsequent research has shown that LH lesions produce a wide range of severe motor disturbances and a general lack of responsiveness to sensory input (of which food and drink are but two examples). Consequently, the idea that the LH is a center specifically dedicated to feeding no longer warrants serious consideration. FIGURE 12.10 Location of the paraventricular nucleus in the rat hypothalamus. Note that the section through the hypothalamus is slightly different than the one in Figure 12.8. Role of the Gastrointestinal Tract in Satiety One of the most influential early studies of hunger was published by Cannon and Washburn in 1912. It was a perfect collaboration: Cannon had the ideas, and Washburn had the ability to swallow a balloon. First, Washburn swallowed an empty balloon tied to the end of a thin tube. Then, Cannon pumped some air into the balloon and connected the end of the tube to a water-filled glass U-tube so that Washburn’s stomach contractions produced a momentary increase in the level of the water at the other end of the U-tube. Washburn reported a “pang” of hunger each time that a large stomach contraction was recorded (see Figure 12.11). FIGURE 12.11 The system developed by Cannon and Washburn in 1912 for measuring stomach contractions. They found that large stomach contractions were related to pangs of hunger. Cannon and Washburn’s finding led to the theory that hunger is the feeling of contractions caused by an empty stomach, whereas satiety is the feeling of stomach distention. However, support for this theory and interest in the role of the gastrointestinal tract in hunger and satiety quickly waned with the discovery that human patients whose stomach had been surgically removed and whose esophagus had been hooked up directly to their duodenum (the first segment of the small intestine, which normally carries food away from the stomach) continued to report feelings of hunger and satiety and continued to maintain their normal body weight by eating more meals of smaller size. In the 1980s, there was a resurgence of interest in the role of the gastrointestinal tract in eating. It was stimulated by a series of experiments that indicated that the gastrointestinal tract is the source of satiety signals. For example, Koopmans (1981) transplanted an extra stomach and length of intestine into rats and then joined the major arteries and veins of the implants to the recipients’ circulatory systems (see Figure 12.12). Koopmans found that food injected into the transplanted stomach and kept there by a noose around the pyloric sphincter decreased eating in proportion to both its caloric content and volume. Because the transplanted stomach had no functional nerves, the gastrointestinal satiety signal had to be reaching the brain through the blood. And because nutrients are not absorbed from the stomach, the bloodborne satiety signal could not have been a nutrient. It had to be some chemical or chemicals that were released from the stomach in response to the caloric value and volume of the food—which leads us nicely into the next subsection. Hunger and Satiety Peptides Evolutionary Perspective Soon after the discovery that the stomach and other parts of the gastrointestinal tract release chemical signals to the brain, evidence began to accumulate that these chemicals were peptides, short chains of amino acids that can function as hormones and neurotransmitters (see Fukuhara et al., 2005). Ingested food interacts with receptors in the gastrointestinal tract and in so doing causes the tract to release peptides into the bloodstream. In 1973, Gibbs, Young, and Smith injected one of these gut peptides, cholecystokinin (CCK), into hungry rats and found that they ate smaller meals. This led to the hypothesis that circulating gut peptides provide the brain with information about the quantity and nature of food in the gastrointestinal tract and that this information plays a role in satiety (see Badman & Flier, 2005; Flier, 2006). There has been considerable support for the hypothesis that peptides can function as satiety signals (see Gao & Horvath, 2007; Ritter, 2004). Several gut peptides have been shown to bind to receptors in the brain, particularly in areas of the hypothalamus involved in energy metabolism, and a dozen or so (e.g., CCK, bombesin, glucagon, alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, and somatostatin) have been reported to reduce food intake (see Batterham et al., 2006; Zhang et al., 2005). These have become known as satiety peptides (peptides that decrease appetite). FIGURE 12.12 Transplantation of an extra stomach and length of intestine in a rat. Koopmans (1981) implanted an extra stomach and length of intestine in each of his experimental subjects. He then connected the major blood vessels of the implanted stomachs to the circulatory systems of the recipients. Food injected into the extra stomach and kept there by a noose around the pyloric sphincter decreased eating in proportion to its volume and caloric value. In studying the appetite-reducing effects of peptides, researchers had to rule out the possibility that these effects are not merely the consequence of illness (see Moran, 2004). Indeed, there is evidence that one peptide in particular, CCK, induces illness: CCK administered to rats after they have eaten an unfamiliar substance induces a conditioned taste aversion for that substance, and CCK induces nausea in human subjects. However, CCK reduces appetite and eating at doses substantially below those that are required to induce taste aversion in rats, and thus it qualifies as a legitimate satiety peptide. Several hunger peptides (peptides that increase appetite) have also been discovered. These peptides tend to be synthesized in the brain, particularly in the hypothalamus. The most widely studied of these are neuropeptide Y, galanin, orexin-A, and ghrelin (e.g., Baird, Gray, & Fischer, 2006; Olszewski, Schiöth & Levine, 2008; Williams et al., 2004). The discovery of the hunger and satiety peptides has had two major effects on the search for the neural mechanisms of hunger and satiety. First, the sheer number of these hunger and satiety peptides indicates that the neural system that controls eating likely reacts to many different signals (Nogueiras & Tschöp, 2005; Schwartz & Azzara, 2004), not just to one or two (e.g., not just to glucose and fat). Second, the discovery that many of the hunger and satiety peptides have receptors in the hypothalamus has renewed interest in the role of the hypothalamus in hunger and eating (Gao & Horvath, 2007; Lam, Schwartz, & Rossetti, 2006; Luquet et al., 2005). This interest was further stimulated by the discovery that microinjection of gut peptides into some sites in the hypothalamus can have major effects on eating. Still, there is a general acceptance that hypothalamic circuits are only one part of a much larger system (see Berthoud & Morrison, 2008; Cone, 2005). Serotonin and Satiety Evolutionary Perspective The monoaminergic neurotransmitter serotonin is another chemical that plays a role in satiety. The initial evidence for this role came from a line of research in rats. In these studies, serotonin-produced satiety was found to have three major properties (see Blundell & Halford, 1998): • It caused the rats to resist the powerful attraction of highly palatable cafeteria diets. • It reduced the amount of food that was consumed during each meal rather than reducing the number of meals (see Clifton, 2000). • It was associated with a shift in food preferences away from fatty foods. This profile of effects suggested that serotonin might be useful in combating obesity in humans. Indeed, serotonin agonists (e.g., fenfluramine, dexfenfluramine, fluoxetine) have been shown to reduce hunger, eating, and body weight under some conditions (see Blundell & Halford, 1998). Later in this chapter, you will learn about the use of serotonin to treat human obesity (see De Vry & Schreiber, 2000). Prader-Willi Syndrome: Patients with Insatiable Hunger Prader-Willi syndrome could prove critical in the discovery of the neural mechanisms of hunger and satiety (Goldstone, 2004). Individuals with Prader-Willi syndrome, which results from an accident of chromosomal replication, experience insatiable hunger, little or no satiety, and an exceptionally slow metabolism. In short, the Prader-Willi patient acts as though he or she is starving. Other common physical and neurological symptoms include weak muscles, small hands and feet, feeding difficulties in infancy, tantrums, compulsivity, and skin picking. If untreated, most patients become extremely obese, and they often die in early adulthood from diabetes, heart disease, or other obesity-related disorders. Some have even died from gorging until their stomachs split open. Fortunately, Miss A. was diagnosed in infancy and received excellent care, which kept her from becoming obese (Martin et al., 1998). Prader-Willi Syndrome: The Case of Miss A. Clinical Implications Miss A. was born with little muscle tone. Because her sucking reflex was so weak, she was tube fed. By the time she was 2 years old, her hypotonia (below-normal muscle tone) had resolved itself, but a number of characteristic deformities and developmental delays began to appear. At 31/2 years of age, Miss A. suddenly began to display a voracious appetite and quickly gained weight. Fortunately, her family maintained her on a low-calorie diet and kept all food locked away. Miss A. is moderately retarded, and she suffers from psychiatric problems. Her major problem is her tendency to have tantrums any time anything changes in her environment (e.g., a substitute teacher at school). Thanks largely to her family and pediatrician, she has received excellent care, which has minimized the complications that arise with Prader-Willi syndrome—most notably those related to obesity and its pathological effects. Although the study of Prader-Willi syndrome has yet to provide any direct evidence about the neural mechanisms of hunger and eating, there has been a marked surge in its investigation. This increase has been stimulated by the recent identification of the genetic cause of the condition: an accident of reproduction that deletes or disrupts a section of chromosome 15 coming from the father. This information has provided clues about genetic factors in appetite. 12.5 Body Weight Regulation: Set Points versus Settling Points One strength of set-point theories of eating is that they explain body weight regulation. You have already learned that set-point theories are largely inconsistent with the facts of eating, but how well do they account for the regulation of body weight? Certainly, many people in our culture believe that body weight is regulated by a body-fat set point (Assanand, Pinel, & Lehman, 1998a, 1998b). They believe that when fat deposits are below a person’s set point, a person becomes hungrier and eats more, which results in a return of body-fat levels to that person’s set point; and, conversely, they believe that when fat deposits are above a person’s set point, a person becomes less hungry and eats less, which results in a return of body-fat levels to their set point. Set-Point Assumptions about Body Weight and Eating You have already learned that set-point theories do a poor job of explaining the characteristics of hunger and eating. Do they do a better job of accounting for the facts of body weight regulation? Let’s begin by looking at three lines of evidence that challenge fundamental aspects of many set-point theories of body weight regulation. Variability of Body Weight The set-point model was expressly designed to explain why adult body weights remain constant. Indeed, a set-point mechanism should make it virtually impossible for an adult to gain or lose large amounts of weight. Yet, many adults experience large and lasting changes in body weight (see Booth, 2004). Moreover, set-point thinking crumbles in the face of the epidemic of obesity that is currently sweeping fast-food societies (Rosenheck, 2008). Set-point theories of body weight regulation suggest that the best method of maintaining a constant body weight is to eat each time there is a motivation to eat, because, according to the theory, the main function of hunger is to defend the set point. However, many people avoid obesity only by resisting their urges to eat. Set Points and Health One implication of set-point theories of body weight regulation is that each person’s set point is optimal for that person’s health—or at least not incompatible with good health. This is why popular psychologists commonly advise people to “listen to the wisdom of their bodies” and eat as much as they need to satisfy their hunger. Experimental results indicate that this common prescription for good health could not be further from the truth. Two kinds of evidence suggest that typical ad libitum (free-feeding) levels of consumption are unhealthy (see Brownell & Rodin, 1994). First are the results of studies of humans who consume fewer calories than others. For example, people living on the Japanese island of Okinawa seemed to eat so few calories that their eating habits became a concern of health officials. When the health officials took a closer look, here is what they found (see Kagawa, 1978). Adult Okinawans were found to consume, on average, 20% fewer calories than other adult Japanese, and Okinawan school children were found to consume 38% fewer calories than recommended by public health officials. It was somewhat surprising then that rates of morbidity and mortality and of all aging-related diseases were found to be substantially lower in Okinawa than in other parts of Japan, a country in which overall levels of caloric intake and obesity are far below Western norms. For example, the death rates from stroke, cancer, and heart disease in Okinawa were only 59%, 69%, and 59%, respectively, of those in the rest of Japan. Indeed, the proportion of Okinawans living to be over 100 years of age was up to 40 times greater than that of inhabitants of various other regions of Japan. Thinking Creatively The Okinawan study and the other studies that have reported major health benefits in humans who eat less (e.g., Manson et al., 1995; Meyer et al., 2006; Walford & Walford, 1994) are not controlled experiments; therefore, they must be interpreted with caution. For example, perhaps it is not simply the consumption of fewer calories that leads to health and longevity; perhaps in some cultures people who eat less tend to eat healthier diets. Evolutionary Perspective Evolutionary Perspective Controlled experimental demonstrations in over a dozen different mammalian species, including monkeys (see Coleman et al., 2009), of the beneficial effects of calorie restriction constitute the second kind of evidence that ad libitum levels of consumption are unhealthy. Fortunately, the results of such controlled experiments do not present the same problems of interpretation as do the findings of the Okinawa study and other similar correlational studies in humans. In typical calorie-restriction experiments, one group of subjects is allowed to eat as much as they choose, while other groups of subjects have their caloric intake of the same diets substantially reduced (by between 25% and 65% in various studies). Results of such experiments have been remarkably consistent (see Bucci, 1992; Masoro, 1988; Weindruch, 1996; Weindruch & Walford, 1988): In experiment after experiment, substantial reductions in the caloric intake of balanced diets have improved numerous indices of health and increased longevity. For example, in one experiment (Weindruch et al., 1986), groups of mice had their caloric intake of a well-balanced commercial diet reduced by either 25%, 55%, or 65% after weaning. All levels of dietary restriction substantially improved health and increased longevity, but the benefits were greatest in the mice whose intake was reduced the most. Those mice that consumed the least had the lowest incidence of cancer, the best immune responses, and the greatest maximum life span—they lived 67% longer than mice that ate as much as they liked. Evidence suggests that dietary restriction can have beneficial effects even if it is not initiated until later in life (Mair et al., 2003; Vaupel, Carey, & Christensen, 2003). One important point about the results of the calorie-restriction experiments is that the health benefits of the restricted diets may not be entirely attributable to loss of body fat (see Weindruch, 1996). In some dietary restriction studies, the health of subjects has improved even if they did not reduce their body fat, and there are often no significant correlations between amount of weight loss and improvements in health. This suggests excessive energy consumption, independent of fat accumulation, may accelerate aging with all its attendant health problems (Lane, Ingram, & Roth, 2002; Prolla & Mattson, 2001). Thinking Creatively Remarkably, there is evidence that dietary restriction can be used to treat some neurological conditions. Caloric restriction has been shown to reduce seizure susceptibility in human epileptics (see Maalouf, Rho, & Mattson, 2008) and to improve memory in the elderly (Witte et al., 2009). Please stop and think about the implications of all these findings about calorie restriction. How much do you eat? Regulation of Body Weight by Changes in the Efficiency of Energy Utilization Implicit in many set-point theories is the premise that body weight is largely a function of how much a person eats. Of course, how much someone eats plays a role in his or her body weight, but it is now clear that the body controls its fat levels, to a large degree, by changing the efficiency with which it uses energy. As a person’s level of body fat declines, that person starts to use energy resources more efficiently, which limits further weight loss (see Martin, White, & Hulsey, 1991); conversely, weight gain is limited by a progressive decrease in the efficiency of energy utilization. Rothwell and Stock (1982) created a group of obese rats by maintaining them on a cafeteria diet, and they found that the resting level of energy expenditure in these obese rats was 45% greater than in control rats. This point is illustrated by the progressively declining effectiveness of weight-loss programs. Initially, low-calorie diets produce substantial weight loss. But the rate of weight loss diminishes with each successive week on the diet, until an equilibrium is achieved and little or no further weight loss occurs. Most dieters are familiar with this disappointing trend. A similar effect occurs with weight-gain programs (see Figure 12.13 on page 316). The mechanism by which the body adjusts the efficiency of its energy utilization in response to its levels of body fat has been termed diet-induced thermogenesis. Increases in the levels of body fat produce increases in body temperature, which require additional energy to maintain them—and decreases in the level of body fat have the opposite effects (see Lazar, 2008). There are major differences among humans both in basal metabolic rate (the rate at which energy is utilized to maintain bodily processes when resting) and in the ability to adjust the metabolic rate in response to changes in the levels of body fat. We all know people who remain slim even though they eat gluttonously. However, the research on calorie-restricted diets suggests that these people may not eat with impunity: There may be a health cost to pay for overeating even in the absence of obesity. Set Points and Settling Points in Weight Control The theory that eating is part of a system designed to defend a body-fat set point has long had its critics (see FIGURE 12.13 The diminishing effects on body weight of a low-calorie diet and a high-calorie diet. Booth, Fuller, & Lewis, 1981; Wirtshafter & Davis, 1977), but for many years their arguments were largely ignored and the set-point assumption ruled. This situation has been changing: Several prominent reviews of research on hunger and weight regulation generally acknowledge that a strict set-point model cannot account for the facts of weight regulation, and they argue for a more flexible model (see Berthoud, 2002; Mercer & Speakman, 2001; Woods et al., 2000). Because the body-fat set-point model still dominates the thinking of many people, I want to review the main advantages of an alternative and more flexible regulatory model: the settling-point model. Can you change your thinking? Thinking Creatively According to the settling-point model, body weight tends to drift around a natural settling point—the level at which the various factors that influence body weight achieve an equilibrium. The idea is that as body-fat levels increase, changes occur that tend to limit further increases until a balance is achieved between all factors that encourage weight gain and all those that discourage it. The settling-point model provides a loose kind of homeostatic regulation, without a set-point mechanism or mechanisms to return body weight to a set point. According to the settling-point model, body weight remains stable as long as there are no long-term changes in the factors that influence it; and if there are such changes, their impact is limited by negative feedback. In the settling-point model, the negative feedback merely limits further changes in the same direction, whereas in the set-point model, negative feedback triggers a return to the set point. A neuron’s resting potential is a well-known biological settling point—see Chapter 4. Simulate Leaky Barrel www.mypsychlab.com The seductiveness of the set-point mechanism is attributable in no small part to the existence of the thermostat model, which provides a vivid means of thinking about it. Figure 12.14 presents an analogy I like to use to think about the settling-point mechanism. I call it the leaky-barrel model: (1) The amount of water entering the hose is analogous to the amount of food available to the subject; (2) the water pressure at the nozzle is analogous to the positive-incentive value of the available food; (3) the amount of water entering the barrel is analogous to the amount of energy consumed; (4) the water level in the barrel is analogous to the level of body fat; (5) the amount of water leaking from the barrel is analogous to the amount of energy being expended; and (6) the weight of the barrel on the hose is analogous to the strength of the satiety signal. The main advantage of the settling-point model of body weight regulation over the body-fat set-point model is that it is more consistent with the data. Another advantage is that in those cases in which both models make the same prediction, the settling-point model does so more parsimoniously—that is, with a simpler mechanism that requires fewer assumptions. Let’s use the leaky-barrel analogy to see how the two models account for four key facts of weight regulation. • Body weight remains relatively constant in many adult animals. On the basis of this fact, it has been argued that body fat must be regulated around a set point. However, constant body weight does not require, or even imply, a set point. Consider the leaky-barrel model. As water from the tap begins to fill the barrel, the weight of the water in the barrel increases. This increases the amount of water leaking out of the barrel and decreases the amount of water entering the barrel by increasing the pressure of the barrel on the hose. Eventually, this system settles into an equilibrium where the water level stays constant; but because this level is neither predetermined nor actively defended, it is a settling point, not a set point. Categories ## which of the following statements regarding genetic testing is false? Categories ## the ammonia molecule in the diagram has the observed bond orientation because Art-based Question Chapter 2 Question 1 Part A What is the mass number of this atom? ANSWER:  4 6 12 18 Get Ready for A&P Video Tutor: Atomic Structure Watch the Video Tutor on Atomic Structure and then answer the questions below. Part A Which type(s) of subatomic particles can be located within the nucleus of an atom? You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER:  neutrons only electrons only protons and electrons protons and neutrons Part B Which subatomic particles contribute to an atom’s mass number but not its atomic number? You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER:  neutrons None of them—atomic number and atomic mass number are essentially the same thing. protons electrons Part C An atom of oxygen has an atomic number of 8 and a mass number of 18. How many of each type of subatomic particle does it contain? You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER:  8 protons, 8 electrons, and 10 neutrons 8 protons, 8 neutrons, and 8 electrons The atomic number and the mass number do not provide enough information to determine how many of each subatomic particle is present. 26 total subatomic particles True/False Question 2.108 Part A Energy is released when ATP is broken down into ADP. ANSWER:  True False Chemistry Review – Atoms & Molecules: Covalent Bonds NOTE: We will be updating the activity in this item to be screen-reader accessible in supported browsers and mobile devices. In the meantime, if the browser you’re using no longer supports Shockwave, try a different browser and download the Shockwave plug-in for this content. Review the Covalent Bonds tutorial. Then answer the questions. Part A Covalent bonds hold atoms together because they … ANSWER:  (a) fill shells without giving atoms much charge. (b) bring electrons closer to protons. (c) use forces between nuclei as well as forces between electrons. do all of the above. do both (a) and (b). Part B In molecules, C, H, O, and N atoms usually make __, __, __, and __ bonds respectively. ANSWER  3, 2, 1, 4 3, 2, 4, 2 4, 1, 2, 3 4, 1, 3, 2 2, 1, 3, 4 Part C An atom’s atomic number is 7. Its valence is most likely … ANSWER:  7 2 5 1 3 Part D By making two covalent bonds, an O atom (with 8 protons) fills its valence shell. Why does the atom’s charge stay close to zero? ANSWER:  The atom lost electrons from other shells. The valence shell has 6 electrons. Shared electrons aren’t always near oxygen. The atom has 8 electrons. The charge isn’t near zero; it’s -2. Part E In a double covalent bond, a carbon atom shares … ANSWER:  electrons in two orbitals. electrons in two of its shells. two electrons. both valence and nonvalence electrons. None of the above. Part F The ammonia molecule in the diagram has the observed bond orientation because … ANSWER:  N has four pairs of electrons in the valence shell. N has 7 protons in its nucleus. electrons repel one another. All of the above. None of the above. Part G Without making or breaking bonds, the pictured molecule can change its shape because … ANSWER:  some atoms make longer bonds than others. proximity of other atoms alters bond angles. rotation can occur around single bonds. electrons can move from one bond to another. None of the above. Part H Two C atoms form a double bond. Each C is bound to two H atoms. Which statement is true? ANSWER:  The bonds orient in a tetrahedral fashion. All the atoms lie in a line. The bonds orient like tripods or pyramids. The groups rotate around the C=C bond. All the atoms lie in a plane. Part I Partial charges occur when … ANSWER:  (a) a covalent bond links atoms of two kinds. (b) atoms share electrons unequally. (c) two ions are close together. any of the above occur. both (a) and (b). Part J To fill the valence shell, an electrically neutral, unbonded atom with atomic number 8 must add … ANSWER:  8 electrons. 1 electron. 3 electrons. 2 electrons. Can’t tell without knowing which element it is. Part K Which answer helps to explain why carbon atoms tend to make 4 covalent bonds? ANSWER:  The first electron shell has 4 orbitals. The carbon nucleus has 4 protons. The valence shell needs 8 electrons. All of the above. None of the above; carbon makes 3 covalent bonds. Part L An electrically neutral molecule has the formula C3H4O2N. If the carbon atoms form the usual number of bonds, how many covalent bonds will each hydrogen atom have with other atoms in the molecule? ANSWER:  1 5 4 3 2 Concept Boost Reading Questions Chapter 2 Question 1 Part A C2H8 is a(n) __________. ANSWER:  nonpolar covalent molecule nonpolar ionic molecule ionic compound polar covalent molecule Get ready for A&P Video Tutor: Chemical Bonding Part 2: Ionic Bonds Watch the Video Tutor on Ionic bonds and then answer the questions below. Part A What is an ion? You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER:  an atom that has either gained or lost electron(s) an atom that is sharing electrons with another atom an atom that has lost one or more neutrons an atom that loses all of its protons Part B When an ionic bond forms, which part(s) of the atoms are directly involved? You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER:  the neutrons the outermost electrons the protons both the protons and the electrons Part C How do ions form ionic bonds? You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER  One atom swaps all of its negative electrons for all of the other atom’s positive protons. Ions of opposite electrical charges are attracted to each other to balance the charges. Two atoms come together to share their electrons. Ions of the same type are drawn together because they are attracted to their own kind. Part D Calcium’s atomic number is 20. It forms ions with 18 electrons. What is the electrical charge of a calcium ion? You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER:  –1 –2 +2 +1 Multiple Choice Question 2.18 Part A Two or more atoms of different elements that are chemically bonded together are known as: ANSWER:  molecules. compounds. macromolecules. ions. True/False Question 2.97 Part A Hydrogen bonds are strong attractions between nonpolar covalent molecules. ANSWER:  True False Art-based Question Chapter 2 Question 5 Part A Which of the following is the appropriate label for the area with the question mark? ANSWER  Substrate Activation energy Energy released Enzyme Chapter 2 Chapter Test Question 6 Part A A reaction in which the energy of the reactants exceeds the amount of energy required for the reaction to proceed is called __________. ANSWER:  exchange exergonic endergonic anabolic Chemistry Review – Enzymes & Pathways: Controlling Enzymes NOTE: The activity in this item uses Shockwave, and is therefore not screen-reader accessible, and may not work on a mobile device. If the browser you’re using no longer supports Shockwave, try a different browser and download the Shockwave plug-in for this content. Review the Controlling Enzymes tutorial. Then answer the questions. Part A Which type of control agent never speeds an enzyme’s action? ANSWER:  Protein kinase Regulatory protein Substrate analog Allosteric effector None of the above. Part B Which type of control agent exerts noncompetitive inhibition? ANSWER:  (a) Substrate analog (b) Protein kinase (c) Allosteric effector Both (b) and (c). (a), (b), and (c). Part C In cooperativity, … ANSWER  two or more enzymes are needed to bind one control agent. if one substrate is bound, the next binds more easily. two enzymes cooperate to produce a control agent. two control agents must bind to affect enzyme action. two enzymes share a binding site for a control agent. Part D Which statement is characteristic of allosteric effectors? ANSWER:  (a) They bind to the active site. (b) Covalent bonds attach them to the enzyme. (c) They may not resemble the enzyme’s substrates. Both (b) and (c). (a), (b), and (c). Part E When allosteric effector X binds to enzyme #1, the enzyme stops working. Nevertheless, the speed of the reaction can be altered by adjusting the concentration of X. How? ANSWER:  There are many copies of the enzyme. When X detaches from an enzyme, the enzyme regains full activity. X easily escapes from the allosteric site. All of the above. None of the above. Part F When a pathway is subject to allosteric feedback inhibition, … ANSWER:  the last enzyme in the pathway is allosteric. an increase in effector concentration speeds the pathway. the effector is made by another pathway. an accumulation of effectors slows the pathway. the concentration of effectors does not change with time. Part G Which statement is true of the control mechanism shown in the animation below? ANSWER  It involves substrate analogs. This is a case of protein kinase action. It’s a case of competitive inhibition. It’s often used in feedback control. The enzyme is an allosteric effector. Multiple Choice Question 2.28 Part A In the following chemical reaction, what is NaCl? NaOH + HCl NaCl + H2O ANSWER:  reactant product water acid MyReadinessTest for A&P Video Tutor: Chemical Reactions Watch the video tutor about chemical reactions, and then answer the questions. Part A Which of the following is a product in the following reaction? glucose + fructose $$\rightarrow$$ sucrose + H2O ANSWER:  fructose glucose sucrose oxygen (O2) Part B Examine the following reactions. Which of the following is true about compound C?  Reaction 1 Reaction 2 Reaction 3 Reaction 4 A + B $$\rightarrow$$ C + D $$\rightarrow$$ E + F $$\rightarrow$$ G + H ANSWER:  Reaction 1 Reaction 2 Reaction 3 Reaction 4 A + B C + D E + F G + H  C is a product for reaction 2 only. C is the product of reaction 1 and a reactant for reaction 2. C is a reactant for reaction 1 only. C is the reactant of reaction 1 and a product for reaction 2. True/False Question 2.100 Part A The digestion of food is exergonic since chemical bonds are broken and energy is released. ANSWER:  True False Art-based Question Chapter 2 Question 6 Part A The most acidic substance in the figure is __________. ANSWER:  lemon juice milk pure water bleach Chemistry Review – Acids, Bases, & pH: Acids NOTE: The activity in this item uses Shockwave, and is therefore not screen-reader accessible, and may not work on a mobile device. If the browser you’re using no longer supports Shockwave, try a different browser and download the Shockwave plug-in for this content. Review the Acids tutorial. Then answer the questions. Part A A compound is an acid if it … ANSWER:  contains H. releases ions into water. takes H+ from water. donates H+ to water. breaks up water molecules. Part B In water, every sulfuric acid molecule transfers H+ to water and becomes an HSO4 – ion. Some HSO4 – ions give off another H+ to form SO4 -2 ions. Which statement is true? $${\rm H_{2}SO_{4}}\;\rightarrow\;{\rm H^{+}}\;+\;{\rm HSO_{4}^{-}}\;\rightleftharpoons\;{\rm H^{+}}\;+\;{\rm SO_{4}^{2-}}$$ ANSWER:  H2SO4 is a strong acid and HSO4 – is a weak acid. H2SO4 and HSO4 – are strong acids. Both H2SO4 and HSO4 – are weak acids. H2SO4 is an acid; HSO4 – is not an acid. Part C In water, phosphoric acid dissociates according to the chemical reactions written below. Which of the following statements about the dissociation of phosphoric acid is true? $${\rm H_{3}PO_{4}}\;\rightleftharpoons\;{\rm H_{2}PO_{4}^{-}}\;+\;{\rm H^{+}}$$ $${\rm H_{2}PO_{4}^{-}}\;\rightleftharpoons\;{\rm HPO_{4}^{2-}}\;+\;{\rm H^{+}}$$ $${\rm HPO_{4}^{2-}}\;\rightleftharpoons\;{\rm PO_{4}^{3-}}\;+\;{\rm H^{+}}$$ ANSWER: In water, phosphoric acid dissociates according to the chemical reactions written below. Which of the following statements about the dissociation of phosphoric acid is true?  H3PO4 is a strong acid and H2PO4 – and HPO4 2- are weak acids. H3PO4, H2PO4 – and HPO4 2- are all strong acids. HPO4 2- is a strong acid and H3PO4 and H2PO4 – are weak acids. H3PO4, H2PO4 – and HPO4 2- are all weak acids. H2PO4 – is a strong acid and H3PO4 and HPO4 2- are weak acids. Chemistry Review – Water: The Water Molecule NOTE: The activity in this item uses Shockwave, and is therefore not screen-reader accessible, and may not work on a mobile device. If the browser you’re using no longer supports Shockwave, try a different browser and download the Shockwave plug-in for this content. Review the The Water Molecule tutorial. Then answer the questions. Part A The water molecule has a bent shape because … ANSWER:  hydrogen atoms attract one another. covalent bonds are never straight. oxygen has two unbonded pairs of valence electrons. hydrogen atoms have a partial negative charge. None of the above; water molecules are linear. Part B Which statement is true of water? ANSWER:  (a) The O atom in water has a partial positive charge. (b) The H atoms in water have partial positive charges. (c) Its polarity results from hydrogen’s high electronegativity. (d) About 50% of the average cell’s mass consists of water. All of the above except for (a). Concept Boost Reading Questions Chapter 2 Question 2 Part A A solution with a hydrogen concentration of 0.0000001 molar has a pH of _____. ANSWER:  5 6 7 8 Multiple Choice Question 2.39 Part A Water is most likely to dissolve a solute that is: ANSWER:  hydrophilic. hydrophobic. a lipid. nonpolar. Art-based Question Chapter 2 Question 7 Part A This reaction is an example of __________. ANSWER: This reaction is an example of __________.  catabolic reaction dehydration synthesis hydrolysis exchange reaction Chapter 2 Chapter Test Question 13 Part A Which of the following is NOT a component of amino acids? ANSWER:  central oxygen atom amino group R group carboxylic acid group Chemistry Review – Carbohydrates: Functions of Carbohydrates NOTE: We will be updating the activity in this item to be screen-reader accessible in supported browsers and mobile devices. In the meantime, if the browser you’re using no longer supports Shockwave, try a different browser and download the Shockwave plug-in for this content. Review the Functions of Carbohydrates tutorial. Then answer the question. Part A Polymers that contain sugars … ANSWER  (a) may store hereditary information. (b) may store energy. (c) may protect cells. Both (b) and (c). (a), (b), and (c). Chemistry Review – Lipids: Functions of Lipids NOTE: We will be updating the activity in this item to be screen-reader accessible in supported browsers and mobile devices. In the meantime, if the browser you’re using no longer supports Shockwave, try a different browser and download the Shockwave plug-in for this content. Review the Functions of Lipids tutorial. Then answer the questions. Part A What do fats, steroids, and waxes have in common? ANSWER:  (a) Moderate polarity. (b) Low solubility in water. (c) They occur in membranes. Both (a) and (c). Both (b) and (c). Part B Dr. Haxton told one of his students, “To move in the bloodstream, fats need the help of phospholipids.” What would a good student say? ANSWER:  Not so. Fats are small enough to travel easily without help. Sorry, Dr. Haxton! Help comes from cholesterol, not phospholipids. Right. Fats are too polar to travel alone in water. You have it backwards. Fats help phospholipids to travel. Yes. Nonpolar molecules aren’t compatible with water. Chemistry Review – Proteins: Functions of Proteins NOTE: The activity in this item uses Shockwave, and is therefore not screen-reader accessible, and may not work on a mobile device. If the browser you’re using no longer supports Shockwave, try a different browser and download the Shockwave plug-in for this content. Review the Functions of Proteins tutorial. Then answer the question. Part A Which biological activity does NOT directly involve proteins? ANSWER:  Breaking food polymers into smaller molecules. Defending cells against viruses. Changing the shape of a cell. Sensing light. None of the above; proteins are involved in all of them. Multiple Choice Question 2.57 Part A Building blocks of organic molecules are known as: ANSWER:  enzymes. electrolytes. polymers. monomers. True/False Question 2.107 Part A Polypeptide chains that contribute to a protein’s quaternary structure each have their own primary, secondary, and tertiary structures. ANSWER:  True False Get Ready for A&P Video Tutor: Chemical Reactions Launch the video below. Part A Which of the following is an exchange reaction? You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER  $$\rm HCl+NaOH\rightarrow NaCl+H_2O$$ $$\rm C_6H_{12}O_6+C_6H_{12}O_6\rightarrow C_{12}H_{22}O_{11}$$ hydrolysis dehydration Part B Hydrolysis is an example of which type of reaction? You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER:  exchange decomposition dehydration synthesis synthesis Part C In a chemical equation, what are the chemicals on the left side of the arrow called? You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER:  reactants products water disaccharide Part D Which of the following are especially important for growth and repair processes? You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER:  exchange reactions synthesis reactions hydrolysis Part E Which of the following best describes dehydration synthesis? You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER:  A large molecule is broken down, or splits, to produce salt and water. Two smaller molecules join together after a water molecule is added to split them apart. Two smaller molecules separate and reorganize into two new molecules after a water molecule is added to them. Two smaller molecules join together after a water molecule is removed from between them. Multiple Choice Question 2.1 Part A Which subatomic particle carries a negative charge? ANSWER  proton nucleus electron neutron Art-based Question Chapter 2 Question 2 Part A This is an example of __________. ANSWER:  nonpolar covalent bond hydrogen bond polar covalent bond ionic bond Chemistry Review – Acids, Bases, & pH: Bases NOTE: The activity in this item uses Shockwave, and is therefore not screen-reader accessible, and may not work on a mobile device. If the browser you’re using no longer supports Shockwave, try a different browser and download the Shockwave plug-in for this content. Review the Bases tutorial. Then answer the questions. Part A Ammonia reacts with water as shown below. Which statement best explains why ammonia is considered to be a base?  $${\rm NH_{3}}$$ $$+$$ $${\rm H_{2}O}$$ $$\rightleftharpoons$$ $${\rm NH_{4}^{+}}$$ $$+$$ $${\rm OH^{-}}$$ Ammonia Water Ammonium Ion Hydroxide Ion ANSWER:  Ammonia Water Ammonium Ion Hydroxide Ion  NH4 + can donate H+ to hydronium. Bases are defined as compounds that add OH- to the solution. Bases are compounds that remove H+ from solutions. The reaction decreases the amount of water in the solution. None of the above. Ammonia is not a base. Part B Which of the following can be considered bases? ANSWER:  (a) Na2CO3 (b) KOH (c) NaCl Both (a) and (b). All of the above. Part C Compounds that release OH- are bases because … ANSWER:  (a) OH- combines with H+ and removes it from solution. (b) bases are defined as compounds that release OH-. (c) OH- makes solutions more acidic. Both (a) and (b). None of the above. Part D To determine whether a base is weak or strong, … ANSWER:  look for undissociated molecules of base. examine the H+ concentration of the solution. check the OH- concentration of the solution. look at the acidity of the solution. All the above. Part E Which of the following can be considered strong bases? ANSWER:  NaOCl NH3 NaHCO3 NaOH All of the above. True/False Question 2.102 Part A Due to the low heat capacity of water, the human body is resistant to overheating and cooling down quickly. ANSWER:.  True False Categories ## blackboard irsc edu Categories ## the ____ dialog box provides options for moving charts between worksheets and chart sheets. with Microsoft® Office 2010 V O L U M E 1 PEARSON T O W N S E N D FERRETT HAIN VARGAS with M ic roso f t Office 2010 V O L U M E T O W N S E N D I FERRETT I H A I N I VARGAS Prentice Hall Boston Columbus Indianapolis New York San Francisco Upper Saddle River Amsterdam Cape Town Dubai London Madrid Milan Munich Paris Montreal Toronto Delhi Mexico City Sao Paulo Sydney Hong Kong Seoul Singapore Taipei Tokyo Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Townsend, Kris. Skills for success with Office 2010 / by Kris Townsend. p. cm. ISBN 978-0-13-703257-0 (alk. paper) 1. Microsoft Office. 2. Business—Computer programs. I, Title. HF5548.4.M525T692 201 I 005.5—dc22 2010016531 Editor in Chief: Michael Payne AVP/Executive Acquisitions Editor: Stephanie Wall Product Development Manager: Eileen Bien Calabro Editorial Project Manager: Virginia Gitariglia Development Editor: Nancy Lamm Editorial Assistant: Nicole Sam AVP/Director of Online Programs, Media: Richard Keaveny AVP/Dircctor of Product Development, Media: Lisa Strife Editor—Digital Learning & Assessment: Paul Gentile Product Development Manager, Media: Calhi Projitko Media Project Manager, Editorial: Alana Coles Media Project Manager, Production: John Cassar Director of Marketing: Kate Valentine Senior Marketing Manager: Tori Olscn Alves Marketing Coordinator SI/<<I« Osterlitz Marketing Assistant: Darshika Vyas Senior Managing Editor: Cynthia /.onneveld Associate Managing Editor: Camille Trentacoste Production Project Manager: Camille Trentacoste Senior Operations Supervisor: Natacha Moore Senior Art Director: Jonathan Boylan Art Director: Anthony Gemmellaro Text and Cover Designer: Anthony Gemmellaro Manager, Rights and Permissions: Ilessa Albader Supplements Development Editor: Vonda Keator Full-Service Project Management: MPS Content Services, a Macmiilan Company Composition: MPS Content Services, a Macmiilan Company Printer/Binder: Quad/Graphics Taunton Cover Printer: Lchigli/Phocnix Typeface: Minion 10.5/12.5 Credits and acknowledgments borrowed from other sources and reproduced, with permission, in this textbook appear on appropriate page within text. Microsoft’ and Windows* are registered trademarks of the Microsoft Corporation in the U.S.A. and other countries. Screen shots and icons reprinted with permission from the Microsoft Corporation. This book is not sponsored or endorsed by or affiliated with the Microsoft Corporation. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall. All lights reserved. Manufactured in the United States of America. This publication is protected by Copyright, and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. To obtain permission(s) to use material from this work, please submit a written request to Pearson Education, Inc., Permissions Department, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, 07458 Many of the designations by manufacturers and seller to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this book, and the publisher was aware of a trademark claim, the designations have been printed in initial caps or all caps. Prentice Hall is an imprint of P E A R S O N www.pearsonhighered.com 1 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 S B N – I 0 : 0 – 1 3 – 7 0 3 2 5 7 – 9 I S B N – 1 3 : 9 7 8 – 0 – 1 3 – 7 0 3 2 5 7 – 0http://www.pearsonhighered.com Contents in Brief Common Features Chapter 1 Common Features ot Office 2010 2 More Skills 26 Word Chapter 1 Create Documents with Word 2010 30 More Skills 54 Chapter 2 Format and Organize Text 64 More Skills 88 Chapter 3 Work with Graphics, Tabs, and Tables 98 More Skills 122 Chapter 4 Apply Special Text, Paragraph and Document Formats 132 More Skills 156 Excel Chapter 1 Create Workbooks with Excel 2010 166 More Skills 190 Chapter 2 Create Charts 200 More Skills 224 Chapter 3 Manage Multiple Worksheets 234 More Skills 258 Chapter 4 Use Excel Functions and Tables 268 More Skills 292 Access Chapter 1 Work with Databases and Create Tables 302 More Skills 326 Chapter 2 M a n a g e Datasheets and Create Queries 336 More Skills 360 Chapter 3 Create Forms 370 More Skills 394 Chapter 4 Create Reports 404 More Skills 428 PowerPoint Chapter 1 Getting Started with PowerPoint 2010 438 More Skills 462 Chapter 2 Format a Presentation 472 More Skills 496 Chapter 3 Enhance Presentations with Graphics 506 More Skills 530 Chapter 4 Present Data Using Tables, Charts, and Animation 540 More Skills 564 Integrated Projects Chapter 1 Integrating Word, Excel, A c c e s s , and PowerPoint 574 More Skills 598 Chapter 2 More Integrated Projects for Word, Excel, A c c e s s , and PowerPoint 610 More Skills 634 Glossary 646 Index 654 Contents in Brief iii Table of Contents C o m m o n Fea tu res C h a p t e r 1 C o m m o n F e a t u r e s of Office 2 0 1 0 2 Skill 1 Start Word and Navigate the Word Window 6 Skill 2 Start Excel and PowerPoint and Work with Multiple Windows 8 Skill 3 Save Files in New Folders 10 Skill 4 Print and Save Documents 12 Skill 5 Open Student Data Files and Save Copies Using Save As 14 Skill 6 Type and Edit Text 16 Skill 7 Cut, Copy, and Paste Text 18 Skill 8 Format Text and Paragraphs 20 Skill 9 Use the Ribbon 22 Skill 10 Use Shortcut Menus and Dialog Boxes 24 More Skills More Skills 11 Capture Screens with the Snipping Tool 26 More Skills 12 Use Microsoft Office Help 26 More Skills 13 Organize Files 26 More Skills 14 Save Documents to Windows Live 26 W o r d C h a p t e r 1 C r e a t e D o c u m e n t s with Word 2 0 1 0 3 0 Skill 1 Create New Documents and Enter Text 34 Skill 2 Edit Text and Use Keyboard Shortcuts 36 Skill 3 Select Text 38 Skill 4 Insert Text from Other Documents 40 Skill 5 Change Fonts, Font Sizes, and Font Styles 42 Skill 6 Insert and Work with Graphics 44 Skill 7 Check Spelling and Grammar 46 Skill 8 Use the Thesaurus and Set Proofing Options 48 Skill 9 Create Document Footers 50 Skill 10 Work with the Print Page and Save Documents in Other Formats 52 More Skills More Skills 11 Split and Arrange Windows 54 More Skills 12 Insert Symbols 54 More Skills 13 Use Collect and Paste to Create a Document 54 More Skills 14 Insert Screen Shots into Documents 54 C h a p t e r 2 Format a n d O r g a n i z e Text 6 4 Skill 1 Set Document Margins 68 Skill 2 Align Text and Set Indents 70 Skill 3 Modify Line and Paragraph Spacing 72 Skill 4 Format Text Using Format Painter 74 Skill 5 Find and Replace Text 76 Skill 6 Create Bulleted and Numbered Lists 78 Skill 7 Insert and Format Headers and Footers 80 Skill 8 Insert and Modify Footnotes 82 Skill 9 Add Citations 84 Skill 10 Create Bibliographies 86 More Skills More Skills 11 Record AutoCorrect Entries 88 More Skills 12 Use AutoFormat to Create Numbered Lists 88 More Skills 13 Format and Customize Lists 88 More Skills 14 Manage Document Properties 88 C h a p t e r 3 Work with G r a p h i c s , Tabs , a n d T a b l e s 9 8 Skill 1 Insert Pictures from Files 102 Skill 2 Resize and Move Pictures 104 Skill 3 Format Pictures Using Styles and Artistic Effects 106 Skill 4 Set Tab Stops 108 Skill 5 Enter Text with Tab Stops 110 Skill 6 Apply Table Styles 112 Skill 7 Create Tables 114 Skill 8 Add Rows and Columns to Tables H6 Skill 9 Format Text in Table Cells 118 Skill 10 Format Tables 120 iv Table of Contents More Skills More Skills 11 Insert Text Boxes 122 More Skills 12 Format with WordArt 122 More Skills 13 Create Tables from Existing Lists 122 More Skills 14 Insert Drop Caps 122 C h a p t e r 4 A p p l y S p e c i a l T e x t , P a r a g r a p h , a n d D o c u m e n t F o r m a t s 1 3 2 Skill 1 Create Multiple-Column Text 136 Skill 2 Insert a Column Break 138 Skill 3 Apply and Format Text Effects 140 Skill 4 Use and Create Quick Styles 142 Skill 5 Add Borders and Shading to Paragraphs and Pages 144 Skill 6 Insert and Format Clip Art Graphics 146 Skill 7 Insert SmartArt Graphics 148 Skill 8 Format SmartArt Graphics 150 Skill 9 Create Labels Using Mail Merge 152 Skill 10 Preview and Print Mail Merge Documents 154 More Skil ls More Skills 11 More Skills 12 More Skills 13 More Skills 14 Create Resumes from Templates 156 Create Outlines 156 Prepare Documents for Distribution 156 Preview and Save Documents as Web Pages 156 Exce l C h a p t e r 1 C r e a t e W o r k b o o k s w i t h Exce l 2 0 1 0 Skill 1 Create and Save New Workbooks Skill 2 Enter Worksheet Data and Merge and Center Titles Skill 3 Construct Addition and Subtraction Formulas Skill 4 Construct Multiplication and Division Formulas Skill 5 Adjust Column Widths and Apply Cell Styles Skill 6 Use the SUM Function Skill 7 Copy Formulas and Functions Using the Fill Handle 1 6 6 170 Skill 8 Format, Edit, and Check the Spelling of Data 184 Skill 9 Create Footers and Change Page Settings 186 Skill 10 Display and Print Formulas and Scale Worksheets for Printing More Skil ls More Skills 11 More Skills 12 More Skills 13 More Skills 14 Create New Workbooks from Templates Use Range Names in Formulas Change Themes Manage Document Properties C h a p t e r 2 Skill 1 Skill 2 Skill 3 Skill 4 Skill 5 Skill 6 Skill 7 Skill 8 Skill 9 Skill 10 C r e a t e C h a r t s Open Existing Workbooks and Align Text Construct and Copy Formulas Containing Absolute Cell References Format Numbers Create Column Charts Format Column Charts Create Pie Charts and Chart Sheets Apply 3-D Effects and Rotate Pie Chart Slices Explode and Color Pie Slices, and Insert Text Boxes Update Charts and Insert WordArt Prepare Chart Sheets for Printing More Ski l ls More Skills 11 More Skills 12 More Skills 13 Insert and Edit Comments Change Chart Types Copy Excel Data to Word Documents More Skills 14 Fill Series Data into Worksheet Cells 188 190 190 190 190 2 0 0 204 206 208 210 212 214 216 218 220 222 224 224 224 224 172 C h a p t e r 3 M a n a g e M u l t i p l e W o r k s h e e t s 2 3 4 172 Skill 1 Work with Sheet Tabs 238 174 Skill 2 Enter and Format Dates 240 174 Skill 3 Clear Cell Contents and Formats 242 176 Skill 4 Move, Copy, Paste, and Paste Options 244 178 Skill 5 Work with Grouped Worksheets 246 180 Skill 6 Use Multiple Math Operators in a Formula 248 Skill 7 Format Grouped Worksheets 250 182 Skill 8 Insert and Move Worksheets 252 Table of Contents v Skill 9 Construct Formulas That Refer to Cells in Other Worksheets 254 Skill 10 Create Clustered Bar Charts 256 More Skills More Skills 11 Create Organization Charts 258 More Skills 12 Create Line Charts 258 More Skills 13 Set and Clear Print Areas 258 More Skills 14 Insert Hyperlinks 258 C h a p t e r 4 U s e Exce l F u n c t i o n s a n d T a b l e s 2 6 8 Skill 1 Use the SUM and AVERAGE Functions 272 Skill 2 Use the MIN and MAX Functions 274 Skill 3 Move Ranges with Functions, Add Borders, and Rotate Text 276 Skill 4 Use the IF Function 278 Skill 5 Apply Conditional Formatting with Custom Formats, Data Bars, and Sparklines 280 Skill 6 Use Find and Replace and Insert the NOW Function 282 Skill 7 Freeze and Unfreeze Panes 284 Skill 8 Create and Sort Excel Tables 286 Skill 9 Use the Search Filter in Excel Tables 288 Skill 10 Convert Tables to Ranges, Hide Rows and Columns, and Format Large Worksheets 290 More Skills More Skills 11 Apply Conditional Color Scales with Top and Bottom Rules 292 More Skills 12 Use the Payment (PMT) Function 292 More Skills 13 Create PivotTable Reports 292 More Skills 14 Use Goal Seek 292 A c c e s s C h a p t e r 1 Work with D a t a b a s e s a n d C r e a t e T a b l e s 3 0 2 Skill 1 Open and Organize Existing Databases 306 Skill 2 Enter and Edit Table Data 308 Skill 3 Create Forms and Enter Data 310 Skill 4 Filter Data in Queries 312 Skill 5 Create, Preview, and Print Reports 314 Skill 6 Create Databases and Tables 316 vi Table of Contents Skill 7 Change Data Types and Other Field Properties 318 Skill 8 Create Tables in Design View 320 Skill 9 Relate Tables 322 Skill 10 Enter Data in Related Tables 324 More Skills More Skills 11 Compact and Repair Databases 326 More Skills 12 Import Data from Excel 326 More Skills 13 Work with the Attachment Data Type 326 More Skills 14 Work with the Hyperlink and Yes/No Data Types 326 C h a p t e r 2 M a n a g e D a t a s h e e t s a n d C r e a t e Q u e r i e s 3 3 6 Skill 1 Find and Replace Data 340 Skill 2 Filter and Sort Datasheets 342 Skill 3 Use the Simple Query Wizard 344 Skill 4 Format Datasheets 346 Skill 5 Add Date and Time Criteria 348 Skill 6 Create Queries in Design View 350 Skill 7 Add Calculated Fields to Queries 352 Skill 8 Work with Logical Criteria 354 Skill 9 Add Wildcards to Query Criteria 356 Skill 10 Group and Total Queries 358 More Skills More Skills 11 Export Queries to Other Fie Formats 360 More Skills 12 Find Duplicate Records 360 More Skills 13 Find Unmatched Records 360 More Skills 14 Create Crosstab Queries 360 C h a p t e r 3 C r e a t e Forms 3 7 0 Skill 1 Use the Form Wizard 374 Skill 2 Format Forms in Layout View 376 Skill 3 Use Forms to Modify Data 378 Skill 4 Use the Blank Form Tool 380 Skill 5 Customize Form Layouts 382 Skill 6 Add Input Masks 384 Skill 7 Apply Conditional Formatting 386 Skill 8 Create One-to-Many Forms 388 Skill 9 Enter Data Using One-to-Many Forms 390 Skill 10 Create Forms from Queries 392 More Skills More Skills 11 Validate Fields 394 More Skills 12 Add Combo Boxes to Forms 394 More Skills 13 Create Multiple Item Forms 394 More Skills 14 Create Macros 394 C h a p t e r 4 C r e a t e R e p o r t s 4 0 4 Skill 1 Create Reports and Apply Themes 408 Skill 2 Modify Report Layouts 410 Skill 3 Prepare Reports for Printing 412 Skill 4 Use the Blank Report Tool 414 Skill 5 Group and Sort Reports 416 Skill 6 Format and Filter Reports 418 Skill 7 Create Label Reports 420 Skill 8 Use the Report Wizard 422 Skill 9 Modify Layouts in Design View 424 Skill 10 Add Totals and Labels to Reports 426 More Skills More Skills 11 Export Reports to Word 428 More Skills 12 Export Reports to HTML Documents 428 More Skills 13 Create Parameter Queries 428 More Skills 14 Create Reports for Parameter Queries 428 PowerPo in t C h a p t e r 1 G e t t i n g S t a r t e d w i t h P o w e r P o i n t 2 0 1 0 4 3 8 Skill 1 Open, View, and Save Presentations 442 Skill 2 Edit and Replace Text in Normal View 444 Skill 3 Format Slide Text 446 Skill 4 Check Spelling and Use the Thesaurus 448 Skill 5 Insert Slides and Modify Slide Layouts 450 Skill 6 Insert and Format Pictures 452 Skill 7 Organize Slides Using Slide Sorter View 454 Skill 8 Apply Slide Transitions and View Slide Shows 456 Skill 9 Insert Headers and Footers and Print Presentation Handouts 458 Skill 10 Add Notes Pages and Print Notes 460 More Skil ls More Skills 11 Type Text in the Outline Tab 462 More Skills 12 Use Keyboard Shortcuts 462 More Skills 13 Move and Delete Slides in Normal View 462 More Skills 14 Design Presentations for Audience and Location 462 C h a p t e r 2 F o r m a t a P r e s e n t a t i o n 4 7 2 Skill 1 Create New Presentations 476 Skill 2 Change Presentation Themes 478 Skill 3 Apply Font and Color Themes 480 Skill 4 Format Slide Backgrounds with Styles 482 Skill 5 Format Slide Backgrounds with Pictures and Textures 484 Skill 6 Format Text with WordArt 486 Skill 7 Change Character Spacing and Font Color 488 Skill 8 Modify Bulleted and Numbered Lists 490 Skill 9 Move and Copy Text and Objects 492 Skill 10 Use Format Painter and Clear All Formatting Commands 494 More Skil ls More Skills 11 Edit Slide Master 496 More Skills 12 Save and Apply Presentation Template 496 More Skills 13 Create Slides from Microsoft Word Outline 496 More Skills 14 Design Presentations with Contrast 496 C h a p t e r 3 E n h a n c e P r e s e n t a t i o n s w i t h G r a p h i c s 5 0 6 Skill 1 Insert Slides from Other Presentations 510 Skill 2 Insert, Size, and Move Clip Art 512 Skill 3 Modify Picture Shapes, Borders, and Effects 514 Skill 4 Insert, Size, and Move Shapes 516 Ski l l5 Add Text to Shapes and Insert Text Boxes 518 Skill 6 Apply Gradient Fills and Group and Align Graphics 520 Skill 7 Convert Text to SmartArt Graphics and Add Shapes 522 Skill 8 Modify SmartArt Layouts, Colors, and Styles 524 Skill 9 Insert Video Files 526 Skill 10 Apply Video Styles and Adjust Videos 528 More Skil ls More Skills 11 Compress Pictures 530 Table of Contents vii More Skills 12 Save Groups as Picture Files 530 More Skills 13 Change Object Order 530 More Skills 14 Design Presentations Using Appropriate Graphics 530 C h a p t e r 4 P r e s e n t D a t a U s i n g T a b l e s , C h a r t s , a n d A n i m a t i o n 5 4 0 Skill 1 Insert Tables 544 Skill 2 Modify Table Layouts 546 Skill 3 Apply Table Styles 548 Skill 4 Insert Column Charts 550 Skill 5 Edit and Format Charts 552 Skill 6 Insert Pie Charts 554 Skill 7 Apply Animation Entrance and Emphasis Effects 556 Skill 8 Modify Animation Timing and Use Animation Painter 558 Skill 9 Remove Animation and Modify Duration 560 Skill 10 Navigate Slide Shows 562 More Ski l ls More Skills 11 Prepare Presentations to be Viewed Using Office PowerPoint Viewer 564 More Skills 12 Insert Hyperlinks in a Presentation 564 More Skills 13 Create Photo Albums 564 More Skills 14 Design Presentations with Appropriate Animation 564 I n t e g r a t e d Pro jec ts C h a p t e r 1 I n t e g r a t i n g W o r d , E x c e l , A c c e s s , a n d P o w e r P o i n t 5 7 4 Skill 1 Move Text between Word Documents 578 Skill 2 Apply Heading Styles in Word 580 Skill 3 Create a PowerPoint Presentation from a Word Document 582 Skill 4 Insert and Modify a Shape in PowerPoint 584 Skill 5 Import a Word Table into an Excel Workbook 586 Skill 6 Insert a Shape from PowerPoint into Word and Excel 588 Skill 7 Create and Work with an Excel Table 590 viii Table of Contents Skill 8 Link Data between Office Applications Using O L E Skill 9 Create Envelopes Using Data from Access Skill 10 Create Name Tags Using Data in Excel More Ski l ls More Skills 11 Insert Subtotals in Excel and Link Data to a Word Document More Skills 12 Insert Slides from Another Presentation More Skills 13 Move and Copy Excel Worksheets and Consolidate Data More Skills 14 Compare Shared Excel Workbooks C h a p t e r 2 Skill 1 Skill 2 Skill 3 Skill 4 Skill 5 Skill 6 Skill 7 Skill 8 Skill 9 M o r e I n t e g r a t e d P r o j e c t s f o r W o r d , E x c e l , A c c e s s , a n d P o w e r P o i n t Create an Access Append Query Export Data from Access into Excel Create an Excel PivotTable Report Create External References between Excel Workbooks Insert a SmartArt Organization Chart into PowerPoint Insert an Excel PivotTable into PowerPoint Insert a PowerPoint Outline in Word and Create a Cover Page and Table of Contents Link and Embed Data from Excel into Word Export Data from Access to an R T F File and Insert the File into Word Insert Objects from PowerPoint into Word Skill 10 kills More Skills 11 Create an Excel PivotChart and Link the PivotChart to Word More Skills 12 Create a Hyperlink between PowerPoint, Word, and Excel Files More Skills 13 Insert a Total Row in an Excel Table and Link the Table to PowerPoint More Skills 14 Compare Word Documents Glossary 592 594 596 598 598 598 598 6 1 0 614 616 618 620 622 624 626 628 630 632 634 634 634 634 646 Index 654 About the Authors Kris Townsend is an Information Systems instructor at Spokane Falls Community College in Spokane, Washington. Kris earned a bachelor’s degree in both Education and Business, and a master’s degree in Education. He has also worked as a public school teacher and as a systems analyst. Kris enjoys working with wood, snowboarding, and camping. He commutes to work by bike and enjoys long road rides in the Palouse country south of Spokane. 1 Robert L. Ferrett recently retired as the Director of the Center for Instructional Computing at Eastern Michigan University, where he provided computer training and support to faculty. He has authored or co-authored more than 70 books on Access, PowerPoint, Excel, Publisher, WordPerfect, Windows, and Word. He has been designing, developing, and delivering computer workshops for more than two decades. Catherine Hain is an instructor at Central New Mexico Community College in Albuquerque, New Mexico. She teaches computer applications classes in the Business and Information Technology School, both in the classroom and through the distance learning office. Catherine holds a bachelor’s degree in Management and Marketing and a master’s degree in Business Administration. f t Alicia Vargas is an Associate Professor of Business Information Technology at Pasadena City College in California. She holds a bachelor’s and a master’s degree in Business Education from California State University, Los Angeles and has authored numerous textbooks and training materials on Microsoft Word, Microsoft Excel, and Microsoft PowerPoint. A Special Thank You Pearson Prentice Hall gratefully acknowledges the contribution made by Shelley Gaskin to the first edition publication of this series—Skills for Success with Office 2007. The series has truly benefited from her dedication toward developing a textbook that aims to help students and instructors.We thank her for her continued support of this series. About the Authors ix Contributors We’d like to thank the following people for their work on Skills for Success: Instructor Resource Authors Erich Adickes Parkland College Sharon Behrens Northeast Wisconsin Technical College Julie Boyles Portland Community College Barbara Edington St. Francis College Ranida Harris Indiana University Southeast Beth Hendrick Lake Sumter Community College Susan Holland Southeast Community College—Nebraska Andrea Leinbach Harrisburg Area Community College Yvonne Leonard Coastal Carolina Community College Technical Editors Lisa Bucki Kelly Carling Hilda W i r t h Federico Jacksonville University Tom Lightner Missouri State University Elizabeth Lockley Joyce Nielsen Reviewers Darrell Abbey Cascadia Community College Bridget I . Archer Oakton Community College Laura Aagard Sierra College John Alcorcha MTI College Barry Andrews Miami Dade College Natalie Andrews Miami Dade College Wilma Andrews Virginia Commonwealth University School of Business Bridget Archer Oakton Community College Tahir Aziz J. Sargeant Reynolds Greg Balinger Miami Dade College Terry Bass University of Massachusetts, Lowell Lisa Beach Santa Rosa Junior College Rocky Belcher Sinclair Community College Nannette Biby Miami Dade College David Billings Guilford Technical Community College Brenda K. Br i t t Fayetteville Technical Community College Alisa Brown Pulaski Technical College Eric Cameron Passaic Community College x Contributors Trina Maurer Anthony Nowakowski Ernest Gines Stacey Gee Hollins John Purcell Ann Rowlette Amanda Shelton Steve St. John Joyce Thompson Karen Wisniewski Georgia Virtual Technical College Buffalo State College Tarrant County College—Southeast St. Louis Community College—Meramec Castleton State College Liberty University J. Sargeant Reynolds Tulsa Community College Lehigh Carbon Community College County College of Morris Janet Pickard Linda Pogue Steve Rubin Eric Sabbah Jan Snyder Mara Zebest Chattanooga State Tech Community College Northwest Arkansas Community College California State University—Monterey Bay Gene Carbonaro Trey Cherry Kim Childs Pualine Chohonis Lennie Coper Tara Cipriano Paulette Comet Gail W . Cope Susana Contreras de Finch Chris Corbin Janis Cox Tomi Crawford Martin Cronlund Jennifer Day Ralph DeArazoza Carol Decker Loorna DeDuluc Caroline Delcourt Long Beach City College Edgecombe Community College Bethany University Miami Dade College Miami Dade College Gateway Technical College Community College of Baltimore Coun ty—Ca to nsville Sinclair Community College College of Southern Nevada Miami Dade College Tri-County Technical College Miami Dade College Anne Arundel Community College Sinclair Community College Miami Dade College Montgomery College Miami Dade College Black Hawk College Contributors continued Michael Discello Kevin Duggan Barbara Edington Donna Ehrhart Hilda Wirth Federico Tushnelda Fernandez Arlene Flerchinger Hedy Fossenkemper Kent Foster Penny Foster-Shiver Arlene Franklin George Gabb Barbara Garrell Deb Geoghan Jessica Gilmore Victor Giol Melinda Glander Linda Glassburn Deb Gross Rachelle Hall Marie Hartlein Diane Hartman Betsy Headrick Patrick Healy Lindsay Henning Kermelle Hensley Diana Hill Rachel Hinton Mary Carole Hollingsworth Stacey Gee Hollins Bill Holmes Steve Holtz Margaret M. Hvatum Joan Ivey Dr. Dianna D. Johnson Kay Johnston Warren T. Jones, Sr. Sally Kaskocsak Renuka Kumar Kathy McKee Hazel Kates Gerald Kearns Pittsburgh Technical Institute Midlands Technical Community College St. Francis College Genesee Community College Jacksonville University Miami Dade College Chattanooga State Tech Community College Paradise Valley Community College Withrop University Anne Arundel Community College Bucks County Community College Miami Dade College Delaware County Community College Bucks County Community College Highline Community College Miami Dade College Northmetro Technical College Cuyahoga Community College, West Ohio State University Glendale Community College Montgomery County Community College Utah Valley State College Chattanooga State Northern Virginia Community College—Woodbridge Yavapai College Columbus Technical College Chesapeake College Broome Community College GA Perimeter St. Louis Community College—Meramec Chandler-Gilbert Community College University of Minnesota Duluth St. Louis Community College Lanier Technical College North Metro Technical College Columbia Basin College University of Alabama at Birmingham Sinclair Community College Community College of Baltimore County North Metro Technical College Miami Dade College Forsyth Technical Community College Charles Kellermann John Kidd Chris Kinnard Kelli Kleindorfer Kurt Kominek Dianne Kotokoff Cynthia Krebs Jean Lacoste Gene Laugh rey David LeBron Kaiyang Liang Linda Lindaman Felix Lopez Nicki Maines Cindy Manning Patri Mays Norma McKenzie Lee McKinley Sandy McCormack Eric Meyer Kathryn Miller Gloria A. Morgan Kathy Morris Linda Moulton Ryan Murphy Stephanie Murre Wolf Jackie Myers Dell Najera Scott Nason Paula Neal Bethanne Newman Eloise Newsome Karen Nunan Ellen Orr Carol Ottaway Denise Passero Americus Pavese James Gordon Patterson Cindra Phillips Northern Virginia Community College—Woodbridge Tarrant County Community College Miami Dade College American Institute of Business NE State Tech Community College Lanier Technical College Utah Valley University Virginia Tech Northern Oklahoma College Miami Dade College Miami Dade College Black Hawk College Miami Dade College Mesa Community College Big Sandy Community and Technical College Paradise Valley Community College El Paso Community College GA Perimeter Monroe Community College Miami Dade College Big Sandy Community and Technical College, Pike Ville Campus Monroe Community College University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa Montgomery County Community College Sinclair Community College Moraine Park Technical College Sinclair Community College El Paso Community College, Valle Verde Campus Rowan Cabarrus Community College Sinclair Community College Paradise Valley Community College Northern Virginia Community College—Woodbridge Northeast State Technical Community College Seminole Community College Chemeketa Community College Fulton-Montgomery Community College Community College of Baltimore County Paradise Valley Community College Clark State CC Contributors Contributors continued Janet Pickard Chattanooga State Tech Community College Diane Stark Phoenix College Floyd Pittman Miami Dade College Neil Stenlund Northern Virginia Community College Melissa Prinzing Sierra College Linda Stoudemayer Lamar Institute of Technology Pat Rahmlow Montgomery County Community College Pamela Stovall Forsyth Technical Community College Mary Rasley Lehigh Carbon Community College Linda Switzer Highline Community College Scott Rosen Santa Rosa Junior College Margaret Taylor College of Southern Nevada Ann Rowlette Liberty University Martha Taylor Sinclair Community College Kamaljeet Sanghera George Mason University Michael M. Taylor Seattle Central Community College June Scott County College of Morris Roseann Thomas Fayetteville Tech Community College Janet Sebesy Cuyahoga Community College Ingrid Thompson-Sellers GA Perimeter Jennifer Sedelmeyer Broome Community College Daniel Thomson Keiser University Kelly SellAnne Arundel Community College Astrid Hoy Todd Guilford Technical Community College Teresa Sept College of Southern Idaho Barb Tollinger Sinclair Community College Pat Serrano Scottsdale Community College Cathy Urbanski Chandler Gilbert Community College Amanda Shelton J. Sargeant Reynolds Sue Van Boven Paradise Valley Community College Gary Sibbits St. Louis Community College—Meramec Philip Vavalides Guildford Technical Community College Janet Siert Ellsworth Community College Pete Vetere Montgomery County Community College— Robert Sindt Johnson County Community College West Campus Karen Smith Technical College of the Lowcountry Asteria Villegas Monroe College Robert Smolenski Delaware County Community College Michael Walton Miami Dade College Robert Sindt Johnson County Community College Teri Weston Harford Community College Gary R. Smith Paradise Valley Community College Julie Wheeler Sinclair Community College Patricia Snyder Midlands Technical College Debbie Wood Western Piedmont Community College Pamela Sorensen Santa Rosa Junior College Thomas Yip Passaic Community College Eric Stadnik Santa Rosa Junior College Lindy Young Sierra Community College Mark Stanchfield Rochester Community and Technical College Matt Zullo Wake Technical Community College xii Contributors I n s t r u c t o r s – Y o u a s k e d for it s o h e r e it is! A M i c r o s o f t ® O f f i c e t e x t b o o k t h a t r e c o g n i z e s h o w s t u d e n t s l e a r n t o d a y – Skills for Success with Microsoft 1 Office 2010 Volume 1 10 X 8.5 F o r m a t – Easy for students to read and type at the same time by simply propping the book up on the desk in front of their monitor Clear ly Out l ined Sk i l l s – Each skill is presented in a single two-page spread so that students can easily follow along Numbered S t e p s and Bul le ted Tex t – Students don’t read long paragraphs or text, but they will read information presented concisely Easy-to-Find S t u d e n t Da ta Fi les – Visual key shows students how to locate and interact with their data files S t a r t H e r e – Students know exactly where to start and what their starting file will look like C H A P T E R G e t t i n g S t a r t e d w i t h W i n d o w s 7 » YOU BK WINDOW 7 ro «CRK M I »F-JF IOM?«L« LOF RUINR-V.*™ PFLNJMN MO»»T*N>WN MDAU mi mm • J- : >O-L » IR WIND H I • >\XI OIJJAIZ* TOUR *»RK BV CNUR-J FILCI ir\i PUNNJ THOW tU« WIS FOLDCRI IHJIYAU Your ilartlng » c r e « n will look Ilk* this: S K I L L ! chapter, you will be S k i l l s L is t – A visual snapshot of what skills they will complete in the chapter O u t c o m e – Shows students up front what their completed project will look like You will tdvo your filoi a t : T J H N M I M H7_S«II| ‘ ‘ S e q u e n t i a l P a g i n a t i o n – Saves you and your students time in locating topics and assignments I VISUAL WALK-THROUGH XIII Skills for Success l ock – Tells how much time students need to complete the chapter Introduct ion • KM US TUNTNW *IR*I fie, 01 FGWRN INTO 4 «IR J .: -I—. IT…. I AIULT :;I N..I..: .: • MIMIJ-»TT*IIHDR»«U««IJI;UIF.:M*NJFOU« |*:R-P<TKF* T > ffirt IN NUJX ITXFFL R»»I« IN RI«J t Written for T o d a y ‘ s S t u d e n t s – skills are taught with numbered steps and bulleted text so students are less likely to skip valuable information T w o – P a g e S p r e a d s – Each skill is presented on a two-page spread to help students keep up their momentum * TITTR.TI bim irii mug], TU L>« _ J D a t a Files Are a S n a p – Students can now find their files easier than ever before with this visual map C o l o r e d Text – Clearly shows what a student types Hands-On – Students start actually working on their skills from Step 1 D o n e ! – Students always know when they’ve completed a skill XIV VISUAL WALK-THROUGH Skills for S u c c e s s UorsSkJh © U M l d t o m i o C k g c n n f M End-o f -Chapte r M a t e r i a l – Several levels of assessment so you can assign the material that best fits your students’ needs M o r e S k i l l s – Additional skills included online K e y T e r m s O n l i n e H e l p Sk i l ls Midi .. – .! -.. I – :T. O n l i n e P r o j e c t – Students practice using Microsoft Help online to help prepare them for using the applications on their own H > u » i « i i HI •.m • m • Visual Walk-Through xv Skills for S u c c e s s Al l V i d e o s a n d I n s t r u c t o r m a t e r i a l s a v a i l a b l e o n t h e I R C D Instructor Mater ia ls I n s t r u c t o r ‘ s M a n u a l – Teaching tips and additional resources for each chapter A s s i g n m e n t S h e e t s – Lists all the assignments for the chapter, you just add in the course information, due dates and points. Providing these to students ensures they will know what is due and when S c r i p t e d L e c t u r e s – Classroom lectures prepared for you A n n o t a t e d S o l u t i o n F i l e s – Coupled with the scoring rubrics, these create a grading and scoring system that makes grading so much easier for you P o w e r P o i n t L e c t u r e s – PowerPoint presentations for each chapter P r e p a r e d E x a m s – Exams for each chapter and for each application S c o r i n g R u b r i c s – Can be used either by students to check their work or by you as a quick check-off for the items that need to be corrected S y l l a b u s T e m p l a t e s – for 8-week, 12-week, and 16-week courses T e s t B a n k – Includes a variety of test questions for each chapter C o m p a n i o n W e b S i t e – Online content such as the More Skills Projects, Online Study Guide, Glossary, and Student Data Files are all at www.pearsonhighered.com/skills xvi Visual Walk-Throughhttp://www.pearsonhighered.com/skills with M ic roso f t Office 2010 V O L U M E 1 C H A P T E R J Common Features of Office 2010 • The programs in Microsoft Office 2010—Word, Excel, PowerPoint, and Access—share common tools that you use in a consistent, easy-to-learn manner. • Common tasks include opening and saving files, entering and formatting text, and printing your work. Your starting screen will look like this: SKILLS SKILLS 1 – 1 0 TRAINING Umt Insert Pjgt 1 C M M mailt – 1 1 – * 41 IT «3f»or> AaBtccJK AaBbCcIK A A B B G .-YABBCC ‘ Items’ “Mo:ca; . rtfacmgl H*jding2 ChtDQt Past 1 ol I Wmdi 0 A t t h e e n d o f t h i s chapter , y o u w i l l be a b l e t o : Skill 1 Start Word and Navigate the Word Window Skill 2 Start Excel and PowerPoint and Work with Multiple Windows Skill 3 Save Files in New Folders Skill 4 Print and Save Documents Skill 5 Open Student Data Files and Save Copies Using Save As Skill 6 Type and Edit Text Skill 7 Cut, Copy, and Paste Text Skill 8 Format Text and Paragraphs Skill 9 Use the Ribbon Skill 10 Use Shortcut Menus and Dialog Boxes MORE SKILLS More Skills 11 Capture Screens with the Snipping Tool More Skills 12 Use Microsoft Office Help More Skills 13 Organize Files More Skills 14 Save Documents to Windows Live 2 C O M M O N FEATURES OF OFFICE 2 0 1 0 | C O M M O N FEATURES C H A P T E R 1 Outcome Using the skills listed to the left will enable you to create documents similar to this: Visit Aspen Falls! A s p e n F a l l s o v e r l o o k s t h e P a c i f i c O c e a n a n d is s u r r o u n d e d b y m a n y v i n e y a r d s a n d w i n e r i e s . O c e a n r e c r e a t i o n is a c c e s s e d p r i m a r i l y a t D u r a n g o C o u n t y P a r k . T h e A s p e n L a k e R e c r e a t i o n A r e a p r o v i d e s y e a r r o u n d f r e s h w a t e r r e c r e a t i o n a n d is t h e c i t y ‘ s l a r g e s t p a r k . Local Attractions • W i n e C o u n t r y o W i n e Tas t ing Tou rs o Winer ies • W o r d s w o r t h Fel lowship Museum of A r t • Du rango C o u n t y M u s e u m of H is to ry • Conven t ion Center • A r t Galleries • Gl ider T o u r s Aspen Fallc Annual Events • Annua l Starving Artists Sidewalk Sale • A n n u a l W i n e Festival • C inco de Mayo • Vintage Car S h o w • Her i tage D a y Parade • Harvest Days • A m a t e u r Bike Races • Farmer ‘s Market • Aspen Lake Nature Cruises • Aspen Falls T r ia th lon • Tas te of Aspen Falls • W i n t e r Blues Festival Contact Y o u r N a m e for more informat ion. Common Features of Office 2010 You will save your files as: Lastname_Firstname_cfO 1 _Visit 1 Lastname_Firstname_cfO l_Visit2 Lastname_Firstname_cf01_Visit3 Common Features Chapter 1 | Common Features of Office 2010 3 In t h i s c h a p t e r , y o u w i l l c r e a t e d o c u m e n t s f o r t h e A s p e n F a l l s C i t y H a l l , w h i c h p r o v i d e s e s s e n t i a l s e r v i c e s f o r t h e c i t i z e n s a n d v i s i t o r s o f A s p e n F a l l s , C a l i f o r n i a . C o m m o n Features of Of f ice 2 0 1 0 • Microsoft Office is the most common software used to create and share personal and business documents. • Microsoft Office is a suite o f several programs—Word, PowerPoint, Excel, Access, and others—that each have a special purpose. • Because of the consistent design and layout o f Microsoft Office, when you learn to use one Microsoft Office program, you can use most o f those skil ls when working wi th the other Microsoft Office programs. • T h e files you create w i t h Microsoft Office need to be named and saved in locations where they can be easily found when you need them. C o m m o n F e a t u r e s o f O f f i c e 2 0 1 0 | C o m m o n F e a t u r e s C h a p t e r 1 Time to complete all 10 skills – 50 to 90 minutes Find your student data files here: Student data files needed for this chapter: « cf01_Visit • cf01_Visit_Events cfOl Visit River C O M M O N FEATURES C H A P T E R 1 | C O M M O N FEATURES OF OFFICE 2 0 1 0 5 • The Word 2010 program can be launched by clicking the Start button, and then locating and clicking the Microsoft Word 2010 command. • When you start Word, a new blank document displays in which you can type text. 1. In the lower left corner of the desktop, click the Start button © . 2 . In the lower left corner of the Start menu, click the All Programs command, and then compare your screen with Figure 1 . – The Microsoft Office folder is located in the All Programs folder. If you have several programs installed on your computer, you may need to scroll to see the Microsoft Office folder. 3 . Click the Microsoft Office folder, and then compare your screen with Figure 2. – Below the Microsoft Office folder, commands that open various Office 2010 programs display. 4 . From the Start menu, under the Microsoft Office folder, click Microsoft Word 2010, and then wait a few moments for the Microsoft Word window to display. 5 . If necessary, in the upper right corner of the Microsoft Word window, click the Maximize button B| . • C o n t i n u e t o t h e n e x t p a g e t o c o m p l e t e t h e s 6 Common Features of Office 2010 | Common Features Chapter 1 OotxMvtntx Ptttuin All Programs folder list (your list will be different) Microsoft Office folder Start button Figure 1 Adobe Acrobat 70 Professional Q Adcbe Designer 7.0 C Dtftuft Program; 9. DesHoe Gadget Gallery tr Internet Eiplorer Cj Window; Anytime Upgrade | | Window! DVD 1 M B . i Window, Fu ind Son Window, Media Center Q Window! Media Pla/cr ‘ : Window! Update — XPSVI | Accn Gamei MOMSR Cflic SharePoi Startup Microsoft Office folder Office 2 0 1 0 programs (your list may be different) «•# Window! f a> and Sun • » Window, Media Center B Window! Media Player Window! Update •4 XPS Viewer l l l l l l l l l l Game! Maintenance Microsoft Office Aj Microsoft Access 2 0 1 0 • M.crcscfl tjcel 2 0 1 0 J3 • ‘ . – WoPath Dowgne. 2 0 1 0 X i r.l;rcsofl Inf cPaal FtCti M 0 N Microsoft OneNcle 2 0 1 0 0 MKicMfl Outlook 2 0 1 0 i_ Mjcroioft PowerPoint 2 3 1 0 _tj Microsoft Publnher 2 0 1 0 1 Microsoft SharePomt Workspace 21 4 lAcrcsoft Wort 2 0 1 0 Mcrosft Olf.ce 2 0 1 0 Tool! SKILL 1: Start Word and Navigate the Word Window ^ — — — i i !ni(rt fsgcUrrcut RefcuoM! M*!ingl P*.,f.> \ – CWtmlBon,. • u • A” A ‘ A.- ;=•!=•••> 51 “I V • A • c AaBbCcOc AaBbCcCX AaBbCi A a B b C c r tioimil ‘ I no Sp»cl… Htadlng I Hf a&ng ? Cnarige Ribbon tab E – 6 . St)M» • -< * « ‘ « « • J – names h Home tab – * fewer! F>g*l»>©ul Rfffmnol ru . i – 3 : vuw f C . r . » m ( H , . » , – » – A” A – A.- * • E – 1= ‘ * * )l U A a B b C c O < A»BbCcD( AaBbC. A . l B I . C l . ^A. t mi a • * • x. x ‘ •normal I Mo Saxi-. Mraamg 1 ; Hsasing: – Chlnga * J f ir.3 – Rsplacf SlyH.”- < S « » a ‘ .7 f jar. j Youi-Namejfi • Group names Paragraph mark and insertion point Quick Access Toolbar New blank Word document Figure 3 Heading 1 thumbnail Styles group Show/Hide button selected Insertion point and paragraph mark Heading 1 formatting applied Home tab is active 7 . 8 . 9 . On the Ribbon’s Home tab, in the Paragraph group, click the Show/Hide button H until it displays in gold indicating that it is active. Compare your screen with Figure 3 . Above the blank Word document, the Quick Access Toolbar and Ribbon display. At the top of the Ribbon, a row of tab names display. Each Ribbon tab has buttons that you click to perform actions. The buttons are organized into groups that display their names along the bottom of the Ribbon. In the document, the insertion point— a vertical line that indicates where text will be inserted when you start typing—flashes near the top left corner. The Show/Hide button is a toggle button— a button used to turn a feature both on and off. The paragraph mark (f) indicates the end of a paragraph and will not print. In the document, type your first and last names. As you type, notice that the insertion point and paragraph mark move to the right. On the Home tab, in the Styles group, point to—but do not click—the Heading 1 thumbnail to show the Live Preview—a feature that displays the result of a formatting change if you select it. Click the Heading 1 thumbnail to apply the formatting change as shown in Figure 4. If the Word Navigation Pane displays on the left side of the Word window, click its Close [*] button. You have completed Skill 1 of 10 Figure 4 6 J 6 P M C Z 3 / 2 3 1 2 Common Features Chapter 1 | Common Features of Office 2010 7 • When you open more than one Office program, each program displays in its own window. • When you want to work with a program in a different window, you need to make it the active window. 1 . Click the Start button © , and then compare your screen with F i g u r e 1. Your computer may be configured in such a way that you can open Office programs without opening the All Programs folder. The Office 2010 program commands may display as shortcuts in the Start menu’s pinned programs area or the recently used programs area. Your computer’s taskbar or desktop may also display icons that start each program. 2 . From the Start menu, locate and then click Microsoft Excel 2010. Depending on your computer, you may need to double-click—not single click—to launch Excel. Compare your screen with F i g u r e 2 . If necessary, click the Maximize – button mm\< A new blank worksheet displays in a new window. The first cell—the box formed by the intersection of a row and column—is active as indicated by the thick, black border surrounding the cell. When you type in Excel, the text is entered into the active cell. The Quick Access Toolbar displays above the spreadsheet. The Excel Ribbon has its own tabs and groups that you use to work with an Excel spreadsheet. Many of these tabs, groups, and buttons are similar to those found in Word. On the taskbar, two buttons display—one for Word and one for Excel. • C o n t i n u e t o t h e n e x t p a g e t o c o m p l e t e t h e s k i l l 8 C o m m o n F e a t u r e s o f O f f i c e 2 0 1 0 | C o m m o n F e a t u r e s C h a p t e r 1 Iciert * » c r l » – M l fttffrtrKci » * * » * • l « • A* A” A J – • i • • x . tt C o m m a n d s p i n n e d t o — | S t a r t m e n u ^ SnwpngTccI R e c e n t l y o p e n e d A _ ; 1 r A _ Wcrosefl Accra 3)10 O f f i c e p r o g r a m P r o g r a m s p i n n e d t o t a s k b a r jVw^ MKracftWecdJOlO S S l.lacxH fact) 3)10 Ptf LtuvxltfotitontaiO • All Prejrjrm F i g u r e 1 } l i AjBbCcOc A iSbCdx A a B b G A a B b C r \ fa ^B^L, I i W ‘ i ‘ Book! – Mkrasc^fccceT A c t i v e c e l l N e w , b l a n k E x c e l s p r e a d s h e e t E x c e l b u t t o n W o r d b u t t o n F i g u r e 2 ciatxi • 11 • A » – J • j a i a• B « > • A • • • i * 5 6 t n – • IS atf :=4 % ^ t . a ‘ & ft | 3 – 2 ( j -il – < – V . | -A H Ccnitocn*! FomjC CfH Sort & pmd i – 1 FonuSmg ” Ji Tietf • St,’c. • i J f o n W • ^ – f « » – S « « ! – jri^nwcftt V Huntm \ Se>*ci Cfta T”R>op4j H N SKILL 2: Start Excel and PowerPoint and Work with Multiple Windows Pm*nt«iC*J – •Acrowft PovrtfPein* lnwrt C*i>gn Tr •niftier.; inxubero SM«SftM> P*Mn Vtew F-‘If , « t – – . . . B y t A . « A . A f i l l M Sn1p.Hnw.9e d t u M i * . / Shoe* jSecnsn’ – » » • ; If leiefl – O n ™ n C J U i e u t • tanmo SJita Ouliv Click to add title C l i c k t o a d d s u b t i t l e P r e s e n t a t i o n s l i d e P o w e r P o i n t b u t t o n F i g u r e 3 M a x i m i z e b u t t o n r e p l a c e d t h e R e s t o r e D o w n b u t t o n T e x t i n s e r t e d i n t o E x c e l c e l l s C u r r e n t d a t e c a l c u l a t e d a n d d i s p l a y e d W i n d o w r e s t o r e d d o w n ( y o u r s i z e a n d l o c a t i o n m a y b e d i f f e r e n t ) 3 . From the Start menu <PJ, locate and then click Microsoft PowerPoint 2010. — Compare your screen with F i g u r e 3 . If necessary, Maximize N = M the Presentation 1 – Microsoft PowerPoint window. A new, blank presentation opens in a new window. The PowerPoint window contains a slide in which you can type text. PowerPoint slides are designed to be displayed as you talk in front of a group of people. 4. In the upper right corner of the PowerPoint window, click the Close button fcgaj. 5. On the taskbar, click the Word button to make it the active window. With the insertion point flashing to the right of your name, press [Enter], and then type Skills for Success Common Features Chapter 6 . In the upper right corner of the Document 1 – Microsoft Word window, click the Minimize button The Word window no longer displays, but its button is still available on the taskbar. 7 . With the Excel window active, in the first cell—cell A l — t y p e your first name. Press [Tab], and then type your last name. Press (Enter), type =TODAY() and then press (Enter) to calculate the current date and to display it in the cell. In the Excel window, click the Restore Down button |jSU and then compare your screen with F i g u r e 4. The window remains open, but it no longer fills the entire screen. The Maximize button replaced the Restore Down button. Y o u h a v e c o m p l e t e d S k i l l 2 o f 1 0 8 . 9 . F i g u r e 4 C o m m o n F e a t u r e s C h a p t e r 1 | C o m m o n F e a t u r e s o f O f f i c e 2 0 1 0 9http://Sn1p.Hnw.9e • SKILL 3: Sav< • A new document or spreadsheet is stored in the computer ‘s temporary memory (RAM) until you save it to your hard drive or USB flash drive. 1 . If you are saving your work on a USB flash drive, insert the USB flash drive into the computer now. If the Windows Explorer button [3 flashes on the taskbar, right-click the button, and then on the Jump List, click Close window. 2 . On the taskbar, click the Word button to make it the active window. On the Quick Access Toolbar, click the Save button [y]. For new documents, the first time you click the Save button, the Save As dialog box opens so that you can name the file. 3 . If you are to save your work on a USB drive, in the Navigation pane scroll down to display the list of drives, and then click your USB flash drive as shown in F i g u r e 1 . If you are saving your work to another location, in the Navigation pane, locate and then click that folder or drive. 4. On the Save As dialog box toolbar, click the New folder button, and then immedi­ ately type Common Features Chapter 1 5 . Press [En te r ] to accept the folder name, and then press [En te r ] again to open the new folder as shown in F i g u r e 2 . The new folder is created and then opened in the Save As dialog box file list. • C o n t i n u e t o t h e n e x t p a g e t o c o m p l e t e t h e s k i l l 0 C o m m o n F e a t u r e s o f O f f i c e 2 0 1 0 | C o m m o n F e a t u r e s C h a p t e r S a v e A s d i a l o g b o x U S B d r i v e s e l e c t e d i n N a v i g a t i o n p a n e ( y o u r s t o r a g e d e v i c e m a y b e d i f f e r e n t ) — -SI Ccmpu-er > USB ORJVE (Ft) Organic ** New ‘elder H Videoi – Manx Homegroup » Computer – Local Dirt ( C I . Backup Drr-e (D:; . « DVDRWOmt(fc| _ USB DRIVE (FJ • Tyco S*ve .u type Word Document Autfcct. Slift for Screen T i g i – d J 11*9 – MidfFclden r> Aaaaccoc A a B b G A a B b C | f t l * d ‘ F i g u r e 1 Common Features Chapter 1 f o l d e r d i s p l a y s i n a d d r e s s b a r F i l e l i s t Homegroup Computer £ M Local Ditk (C:) — Backup Drive [0:1 t « OVDRWDnve(E: E j AaBbCcOc A a B b C . A a B b C c SHOSTHCI… Hiadingl Heading 2 – Change ft had – * M Raplati It Sthd • Cal.ng SavtMlypc |WocODocument Authors SVLJIS lor Sue c m ~ S h e Thumbnail – Hide Fold m F i g u r e 2 I Page l o l l ivcroia | _v Organize * NewJclder £ j Videos * Nime •4 Horn eg roup PP Computet £ , Local Disk (O) , – Backup Drive [D;;j ‘. 0 DVORWDrrve(d £ : A USB DRNE (*) | Qite modified Mo farm metcn j sui reirch. DC AaBbCcDc A a B b G A a i i b C r . No Spiu… Heading 1 Heading 2 — M f M < Repiaie -f Select – Save «s type I Word Document Authors SkJI; tci Success f_j St.-e Thumbnail * HideFcyer; Pigeii of l : Wotdta ? f- rW’~B 101 SKILL 3: S a v e F i l e s i n N e w F o l d e r s F i l e n a m e t y p e d i n F i l e n a m e b o x F i g u r e 3 F i l e n a m e s d i s p l a y o n t i t l e b a r s T w o s a v e d O f f i c e d o c u m e n t s W i n d o w s E x p l o r e r b u t t o n Common Features Chapter 1 f o l d e r s e l e c t e d 6. In the Save As dialog box, click in the File name box one time to highlight all of the existing text. 7. With the text in the File name box still highlighted, type Lastname_Firstname_ cfOl_Visitl – 8 . Compare your screen with F i g u r e 3 , and then click Save. After the document is saved, the name of the file displays on the title bar at the top of the window. 9 . On the taskbar, click the Windows Explorer button \^\. In the folder window Navigation pane, open [ft] the drive on which you are saving your work, and then click the Common Features Chapter 1 folder. Verify that Lastname_Firstname_ cpl_Visitl displays in file list. 1 0 . On the taskbar, click the Excel button to make it the active window. On the Excel Quick Access Toolbar, click the Save button § ] . 1 1 . In the Save As dialog box Navigation pane, open 0 the drive where you are saving your work, and then click the Common Features Chapter 1 folder to display its file list. The Word file may not display because the Save As box typically displays only files created by the program you are using. Here, only Excel files will typically display. 1 2 . Click in the File name box, replace the existing value with Lastname_Firstname_ cf01_Visit2 and then click the Save button. 1 3 . On the taskbar, click the Windows Explorer button, and then compare your screen with F i g u r e 4. Y o u h a v e c o m p l e t e d S k i l l 3 o f 1 0 F i g u r e 4 C o m m o n F e a t u r e s C h a p t e r 1 | C o m m o n F e a t u r e s o f O f f i c e 2 0 1 0 1 1 • SKILL 4: Print an. • B e f o r e p r i n t i n g , i t i s a g o o d i d e a t o w o r k i n P a g e L a y o u t v i e w — a v i e w w h e r e y o u p r e p a r e y o u r d o c u m e n t o r s p r e a d s h e e t f o r p r i n t i n g . 1 . O n t h e t a s k b a r , c l i c k t h e Excel b u t t o n , a n d t h e n c l i c k t h e Maximize |Uey b u t t o n . 2 . O n t h e R i b b o n , c l i c k t h e View tab, a n d t h e n i n t h e Workbook Views group, c l i c k t h e Page Layout b u t t o n . C o m p a r e y o u r s c r e e n w i t h F i g u r e 1 . The worksheet displays the cells, the margins, and the edges of the paper as they will be positioned when you print. The cell references—the numbers on the left side and the letters across the top of a spreadsheet that address each cell—will not print. O n t h e R i b b o n , c l i c k t h e Page Layout tab. I n t h e Page Setup group, c l i c k t h e Margins b u t t o n , a n d t h e n i n t h e Margins g a l l e r y , c l i c k Wide. C l i c k t h e File tab, a n d t h e n o n t h e l e f t s i d e o f t h e B a c k s t a g e , c l i c k Print. C o m p a r e y o u r s c r e e n w i t h F i g u r e 2. * j ; A *>’ 3 . 4. P a g e L a y o u t b u t t o n P a p e r e d g e s a n d m a r g i n s W o r k b o o k V i e w s g r o u p V i e w t a b i s a c t i v e F i g u r e 1 P r i n t t a b The Print tab has commands that affect your print job and a preview of the printed page. Here, the cell references and grid- lines—lines between the cells in a table or spreadsheet—do not display because they will not be printed. 5. I n t h e Print Settings, u n d e r Printer, n o t i c e t h e n a m e o f t h e p r i n t e r . Y o u w i l l n e e d t o r e t r i e v e y o u r p r i n t o u t f r o m t h i s p r i n t e r . I f y o u r i n s t r u c t o r h a s d i r e c t e d y o u t o p r i n t t o a d i f f e r e n t p r i n t e r , c l i c k t h e P r i n t e r a r r o w , a n d c h o o s e t h e a s s i g n e d p r i n t e r . • C o n t i n u e t o t h e n e x t p a g e t o c o m p l e t e t h e s k i l l ^ 1 2 C o m m o n F e a t u r e s o f O f f i c e 2 0 1 0 | C o m m o n F e a t u r e s C h a p t e r 1 P r i n t s e t t i n g s P r e v i e w o f p r i n t e d p a g e F i g u r e 2 fcl7 _ ‘ ; Q Custom v«ws ^^^^^^^^La r tn im fF i ranam* dDl_Vi5it2 – Microsoft tico Pig* Lij-oui Foinuisi C*ta Renew « Jf- m ^ iiiinge Zoom to ieltnion MM a m it Swe Stvitch Mttioi wcifc-.psce V’.inoows • – 13 L 14 C l i c H Ha&f i Pigr. 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Check with your Course Assignment Sheet or Course Syllabus, or consult with your instructor to determine whether you are to print your work for this chapter. If you are to print your work, at the top left corner of the Print Settings section, click the Print button. If you printed the spreadsheet, retrieve the printout from the printer. 7. On the File tab, click Save. Because you have already named the file, the Save As dialog box does not display. O n the File tab, click Exit to close the spreadsheet and exit Excel. In the Word document, verify that the insertion point is in the second line of text. If not, on the taskbar, click the Word button to make it the active window. 10. On the Home tab, in the Styles group, click the Heading 2 thumbnail. Compare your screen with Figure 3. 11. On the File tab, click Print to display the Print tab. If you are printing your work for this chapter, click the Print button, and then retrieve your printout from the printer. 12. On the File tab, click Exit, and then com- pare your screen with Figure 4. When you close a window with changes that have not yet been saved, a message will remind you to save your work. 13. Read the displayed message, and then click Save. • You hove completed Skill 4 of 10 Figure 4 C o m m o n F e a t u r e s C h a p t e r 1 | C o m m o n F e a t u r e s o f O f f i c e 2010 1 3 • This book often instructs you to open a student data file so that you do not need to start the project with a blank document. • The student data files are located on the student CD that came with this book. Your instructor may have provided an alternate location. • You use Save As to create a copy of the stu­ dent data file onto your own storage device. 1 . If necessary, insert the student CD that came with this text. If the AutoPlay dialog box displays, click Close U a 4 . 2 . Using the skills practiced earlier, start Microsoft Word 2010. 3 . In the Documentl – Microsoft Word window, click the File tab, and then click Open. 4 . In the Open dialog box Navigation pane, scroll down and then, if necessary, open \V\ Computer. In the list of drives, click the CD/DVD drive to display the contents of the student CD. If your instructor has provided a different location, navigate to that location instead of using the student CD. 5. In the file list, double-click the 01_ student_data_files folder, double-click the 01_common_features folder, and then double-click the chapter_01 folder. Compare your screen with F i g u r e 1 . – 6. In the file list, click cf01_Visit, and then click the Open button. Compare your screen with F i g u r e 2 . If you opened the file from the student CD, the title bar indicates that the document is in read-only mode—a mode where you cannot save your changes. C o n t i n u e t o t h e n e x t p a g e t o c o m p l e t e t h e s k i l l • O p e n d i a l o g b o x — – r w r c p . * 01_common_ features f o l d e r o p e n e d chapter J)) f o l d e r f i l e l i s t C D / D V D d r i v e o p e n e d a – * Picture; Homegroup F i * « Currently on the Disc U ) *SJ d01_VtM_t<«n« i s .TOO tii: pi.i • U t M H M t t f M ” Computer 4 i Local Duk (CD. • ^ Backup Drive ID:) M • DVD RW Drive I t ) rfsofficcJC A t BntJ • | x A a B b G f U B b C c . 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H Videos • #4 Homegroup • » ; * Compute* £r, Lecal Dhfc (CI < B.tcl.up Drue (0 I I DVD RW Dn\t (Ej ‘ _ USB DRIVE IF.) ; Common Fejti *if N-twnrt Shift **h » Bum * Nime Urtr\«mrJifCn»mt.cf3I.V««TL £ ] Lartwme^rfljutfn^dOl.VBiU = ] L*sJn«me_F>rrtn»m*-C*0I.Vrtrt3 • 3 * » J 212)12 7-33 Pt.l MierMeftWeniD- !*KB W S O O U ” J 7 Hal Mwroteft Excel v.-… 10 K9 U S O O U T a W f t t Mi-rotcl Wotd 0 . 13 KB Pile. 1 01 WeiaH. i LI ‘3 ; S LOOS -) Save Copies Using Save As S a v e A s d i a l o g b o x Common Features Chapter 7 o n U S B d r i v e ( y o u r l o c a t i o n m a y b e d i f f e r e n t ) N e w f i l e n a m e F i g u r e 3 Common Features Chapter 7 f o l d e r T h r e e f i l e s s a v e d i n t h i s p r o j e c t 7. If the document opens in Protected View, click the Enable Editing button. Protected View is a view applied to documents downloaded from the Internet that allows you to decide if the content is safe before working with the document. 8 . Click the File tab, and then click Save As. Because this file has already been saved with a name in a specific location, you need to use Save As to create a copy with a new name and location. 9. In the Save As dialog box Navigation pane, navigate to the C o m m o n Features Chapter 1 folder that you created previ­ ously—open 0 the drive on which you are saving your work, and then click the C o m m o n Features Chapter 1 folder. 1 0 . In the File n a m e box, replace the existing value with Lastname_Firstname_cf01_ Visit3 Be sure to use your own first and last names. 1 1 . Compare your screen with F i g u r e 3, and then click the Save button. 1 2 . On the title bar, notice the new file name displays and [Read-Only] no longer displays. 1 3 . On the taskbar, click the Windows Explorer button. Verify that the three files you have saved in this chapter display as shown in F i g u r e 4. 1 4 . In the Windows Explorer window, navigate to the s tudent CD, and then display the chapter_01 file list. 1 5 . Notice that the original student data file—cf01_Visit—is still located in the chapter_01 folder, and then Close the Windows Explorer window. Y o u h o v e c o m p l e t e d S k i l l 5 o f 1 0 F i g u r e 4 C o m m o n F e a t u r e s C h a p t e r 1 | C o m m o n F e a t u r e s o f O f f i c e 2 0 1 0 1 5 • To edit is to insert text, delete text, or replace text in an Office document, spreadsheet, or presentation. • To edit text, you need to position the insertion point at the desired location or select the text you want to replace. 1 . With the W o r d document as the active window, in the first line, click to the left of the word Aspen. Press (Bksp) 12 times to delete the words the City of. Be sure there is one space between each word as shown in F i g u r e 1 . The Backspace key deletes one letter at a time moving from right to left. 2 . In the second line of the document, click to the left of the words The City of Aspen Falls. Press [ D e l e t e ] 12 times to delete the phrase The City of. The Delete key deletes one letter at a time moving from left to right. 3 . In the line Area Attractions, double-click the word Area to select it. Type l o c a l and then compare your screen with F i g u r e 2 . — When a word is selected, it is replaced by whatever you type next. • Continue to the next page to complete the skill ̂ T e x t d e l e t e d ibft iflectit / U • AiBbCcCK AiBbCcDi A a B b G U B b C i . fa ^ RtVjaMl i» StMd • VtsrtAspenfallsl’J TrieCrty-olAspenfairsover’.ociu-thePacnVOceanend-h^surroun^ Ocean’Tcr f j tonuaccessf dp^Tijr .v * t O u r a n g o < o u ” t v p * ‘ « T h e A?pt nijkjftecrcalicnAff » p^ovKJ«sv«»r <ound < r »$ n « « t r e » i « « t K j n « n d ^ t n t o Y , 4 » r j e s l o « A . « J

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Fast l o l l – ::;<a: il . > F i g u r e 2 16 C o m m o n F e a t u r e s o f O f f i c e 2 0 1 0 | Common Features Chapter 1

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SKILL 6: Type and Edit Text

4. Place the pointer approximately 1 inch to the left of the line Convention Center. When the [21 pointer displays as shown in

— F i g u r e 3, click one time.

Placing the pointer in the Selection bar and then clicking is a way to select an entire line with a single click. After selecting text, the Mini toolbar—a toolbar with common formatting buttons—may display briefly as you move the mouse.

5. With the entire line still selected, press [Delete) to delete the line.

6. On the Quick Access Toolbar, click the Undo button @ one time. Notice the Convention Center line displays again.

When you perform an incorrect action, clicking the Undo button often returns your document to its previous state.

7. At the end of the last line—Glider Tours— click between the last word and the para­ graph formatting mark (If). Press [Enter] to insert a new line.

8 . With the insertion point in the new line, type Contact Your Name for more information. Be sure to use your first and last names in place of Your and Name.

M Compare your screen with F i g u r e 4. 9. On the Quick Access Toolbar, click

Save Q .

When a document has already been saved with the desired name, click the Save button—the Save As dialog box is not needed.

M I N I T O O L B A R ( T H I S

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• Y o u h a v e c o m p l e t e d S k i l l 6 o f 1 0

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F I G U R E 4

C o m m o n F e a t u r e s C h a p t e r 1 | C O M M O N F E A T U R E S O F O F F I C E 2 0 1 0 1 7

»• The copy command places a copy of the selected text or object in the Clipboard— a temporary storage area that holds text or an object that has been cut or copied.

• You can move text by moving it to and from the Clipboard or by dragging the text.

1 . Click the File tab, and then click Open. In the Open dialog box, if necessary, navigate to the student files and display the contents of the chapter_01 folder. Click cft)l_Visit_Events, and then click Open.

2. On the right side of the Ribbon’s Home tab, in the Editing group, click the Select button, and then click Select All. Compare your screen with F i g u r e 1.

3 . With all of the document text selected, on the left side of the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click the Copy button 0.

4 . In the upper right corner of the Word window, click Close l U o j . You do not need to save changes—you will not turn in this student data file.

5. In Lastname_Firstname_cf01_Visit3, click to place the insertion point to the left of the line that starts Contact Your Name.

6. On the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, point to—but do not click—the Paste button. Compare your screen with F i g u r e 2 .

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The Paste button has two parts—the upper half is the Paste button, and the lower half is the Paste button arrow. When you click the Paste button arrow, a list of paste options display.

Continue to the next page to complete the skill ^

18 C o m m o n F e a t u r e s o f O f f i c e 2 0 1 0 | C o m m o n F e a t u r e s C h a p t e r 1

I n s e r t i o n p o i n t

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2 0 C o m m o n F e a t u r e s o f O f f i c e 2 0 1 0 | C o m m o n F e a t u r e s C h a p t e r 1

SKILL 8: F< and Paragraphs

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I n d e n t e d b u l l e t s

F i g u r e 4

5. On the Mini toolbar, click the Font Size arrow I” •[, and then from the list, click 28 to increase the size of the selected text.

6. Place the pointer approximately 1 inch to the left of the line Wine Country. When the SQ pointer displays, drag straight down. When all the lines between and including Wine Country and Glider Tours are selected, release the left mouse button.

7. On the Ribbon, in the Paragraph group, click the Bullets button IB-I and then compare your screen with F i g u r e 3.

8 . Click to the left of Annual Starving Artists Sidewalk Sale. Scroll down to display the bottom of the page. Press and hold [ S h i f t ] while clicking to the right of Winter Blues Festival to select all of the text between and including Annual Starving Artists Sidewalk Sale and Winter Blues Festival.

9. In the Paragraph group, click the Bullets button |B’L

1 0 . Scroll to the top of the document. Use either technique just practiced to select Wine Tasting Tours and Wineries.

1 1 . In the Paragraph group, click the Increase Indent button [*] one time. Compare your screen with F i g u r e 4.

1 2 . On the Quick Access Toolbar, click Save [H].

• Y o u h o v e c o m p l e t e d S k i l l 8 o f 1 0

C o m m o n F e a t u r e s C h a p t e r 1 | C o m m o n F e a t u r e s o f O f f i c e 2 0 1 0 2 1http://Visit-Aspen-Falls.ilhttp://An-Geaer.il*http://vvmar.eshttp://ao-cv.eehttp://e-aAnnuaiWini-Ftitlva.lt

• SKILL 9: Use the Ribbon

• Each Ribbon tab contains commands organized into groups. Some tabs display only when a certain type of object is selected—a graphic, for example.

1. Press and hold [ C t r l ] , and then press [Homel to place the insertion point at the begin­ ning of the document.

2 . On the Ribbon, to the right of the Home tab, click the Insert tab. In the Illustrations group, click the Picture button.

3. In the Insert Picture dialog box, navigate as needed to display the contents of the student files in the chapter_01 folder. Click cf01_Visit_River, and then click the Insert button. Compare your screen with F i g u r e 1.

When a picture is selected, the Format tab displays below Picture Tools. On the Format tab, in the Picture Styles group, a gallery— a visual display of choices from which you can choose—displays thumbnails. The entire gallery can be seen by clicking the More button to the right and below the first row of thumbnails.

4. On the Format tab, in the Picture Styles group, click the More button 0 to display the Picture Styles gallery. In the gallery, point to the fourth thumbnail in the first row—Drop Shadow Rectangle—to display the ScreenTip as shown in F i g u r e 2 .

Categories

## how many major ideas should be present on each presentation aid?

Consider the Audience

• Analyzing the audience is central to the speechmaking process; consider your audience at every step of the way in preparing and presenting your speech. • Gather information about your audience by asking questions or surveying them more formally. • Summarize and analyze the information you have gathered.

Select and Narrow Your Topic

• Consider the audience: Who are your listeners and what do they expect? • Consider the occasion: What is the reason for the speech? • Consider your own interests and skills: What are your strengths?

Determine Your Purpose

• Decide whether your general speech purpose is to inform, to persuade, or

to entertain, or a combination of these goals. • Decide on your specific purpose:

What do you want your listeners to be able to do after you finish your speech? • Use your specific purpose to guide

you in connecting your message to your audience.

Develop Your Central Idea

• State your central idea for your speech in one sentence. • Your central idea should be a single idea

presented in clear, specific language. • Relate your central idea to your audience.

Generate Main Ideas

• Determine whether your central idea can be supported with logical divisions using a topical arrangement. • Determine whether your central idea can be supported with reasons the idea is true. • Determine whether your central idea can be supported with a series of steps.

Gather Supporting Material

• Remember that most of what you say consists of supporting material such

as stories, descriptions, definitions, analogies, statistics, and opinions.

• The best supporting material both clarifies your major ideas and holds your listeners’ attention. • Supporting material that is personal, concrete, and appealing to the listeners’

senses is often the most interesting.

Organize Your Speech

• Remember the maxim: Tell us what you’re going to tell us (introduction); tell us (body); and tell us what you told us (conclusion). • Outline your main ideas by topic, chronologically, spatially, by cause and effect, or by problem and solution. • Use signposts to clarify the overall structure of your message.

Rehearse Your Speech

• Prepare speaking notes and practice using them well in advance of your speaking date. • Rehearse your speech out loud, standing as you would stand while delivering your speech. • Practice with well-chosen visual aids that are big, simple, and appropriate for your audience.

Deliver Your Speech

• Look at individual listeners. • Use movement and gestures that fit your natural style of speaking.

Why Do You Need This New Edition? If you’re wondering why you should buy this new edition of Public Speaking: An Audience- Centered Approach, here are eight good reasons!

1. We’ve kept the best and improved the rest. The eighth edition of Public Speaking: An Audience-Centered Approach continues its unique focus on the importance of analyzing and considering the audience at every point in the speech- making process, but is now an easier-to-use and more effec- tive learning tool than ever.

2. We’ve streamlined the book to 16 chapters, so that every chapter can be covered during a standard semester. Chapter 1 now combines an introduction to public speaking with an overview of the audience-centered model. Chapter 6 now combines information on gathering supporting mate- rial with advice on how to integrate supporting material into a speech.

3. New end-of-chapter Study Guides are designed to help you retain and apply chapter concepts. Study Guides feature chapter summaries; “Using What You’ve Learned” questions posing realistic scenarios; “A Question of Ethics” to reinforce the importance of ethical speaking; and referrals to selected online resources that help you find resources to use in your own speeches.

4. More tables and Recap boxes summarize the content of nearly every major section in each chapter. These frequent reviews help you check understanding, study for exams, and rehearse material to aid retention.

5. The eighth edition continues our popular focus on control- ling speaking anxiety, developed through expanded and updated coverage of communication apprehension in Chapter 1 and reinforced with tips and reminders in “Confidently Connecting with Your Audience” features in the margins of every chapter.

6. New and expanded coverage of key communication theories and current research, including studies of anxiety styles in Chapter 1, introductions to social judgment theory in Chapter 14, and emotional response theory in Chapter 15, help you apply recent theories and findings.

7. Every chapter of the eighth edition boasts engaging fresh examples to help you connect concepts to your own life and interests, including new references to contemporary technology such as social media sites in Chapter 4 and iPads in Chapter 12.

8. New speeches, including Barack Obama’s inaugural speech, contribute to an impressive sample speech appendix that will inspire and instruct you as you work with your own material.

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Public Speaking

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8 Public SpeakingAN AUDIENCE-CENTERED APPROACH Steven A. Beebe Texas State University—San Marcos

Susan J. Beebe Texas State University—San Marcos

E D

IT IO

N

Allyn & Bacon Boston Columbus Indianapolis New York San Francisco Upper Saddle River

Amsterdam Cape Town Dubai London Madrid Milan Munich Paris Montreal Toronto

Delhi Mexico City São Paulo Sydney Hong Kong Seoul Singapore Taipei Tokyo

Editor-in-Chief, Communication: Karon Bowers Development Editor: Sheralee Connors Editorial Assistant: Megan Sweeney Marketing Manager: Blair Tuckman Media Producer: Megan Higginbotham Project Manager: Anne Ricigliano Project Coordination, Text Design, and Electronic Page Makeup: Nesbitt Graphics, Inc. Cover Design Manager: Anne Nieglos Cover Designer: Joseph DePinho Cover Art: William Low Manufacturing Buyer: Mary Ann Gloriande Printer and Binder: Quad Graphics/Dubuque Cover Printer: Lehigh-Phoenix Color/Hagerstown

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Beebe, Steven A.

Public speaking : an audience-centered approach / Steven A. Beebe, Susan J. Beebe. — 8th ed. p. cm.

Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-205-78462-2 (alk. paper)

1. Public speaking. 2. Oral communication. I. Beebe, Susan J. II. Title. PN4129.15.B43 2012 808.5’1—dc22

2010054152

Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States. To obtain permission to use material from this work, please submit a written request to Pearson Education, Inc., Permissions Department, 501 Boylston Street, Suite 900, Boston, MA 02116, fax: (617) 671-2290. For information regarding permissions, call (617) 671-2295 or e-mail: permissionsus@pearson.com.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10—QGD—14 13 12 11

ISBN-13: 978-0-205-78462-2 www.pearsonhighered.com ISBN-10: 0-205-78462-3

Dedicated to our parents, Russell and Muriel Beebe and Herb and Jane Dye

And to our children, Mark, Matthew, and Brittany Beebe

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ix

1 Speaking with Confidence 3 2 Speaking Freely and Ethically 35 3 Listening to Speeches 49 4 Analyzing Your Audience 77 5 Developing Your Speech 111 6 Gathering and Using Supporting Material 133 7 Organizing Your Speech 161 8 Introducing and Concluding Your Speech 183 9 Outlining and Revising Your Speech 203

10 Using Words Well: Speaker Language and Style 217 11 Delivering Your Speech 235 12 Using Presentation Aids 265 13 Speaking to Inform 289 14 Understanding Principles of Persuasive Speaking 315 15 Using Persuasive Strategies 337 16 Speaking for Special Occasions and Purposes 373

Epilogue 390

Appendix A Speaking in Small Groups 392

Appendix B Speeches for Analysis and Discussion 400

Brief Contents

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xi

Contents

Preface xxiii

Speaking with Confidence 3 Why Study Public Speaking? 4

Empowerment 4 ● Employment 4

The Communication Process 5 Communication as Action 5 ● Communication as Interaction 6 ● Communication as Transaction 7

The Rich Heritage of Public Speaking 7 LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS Martin Luther King Jr. 8

Improving Your Confidence as a Speaker 9

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SAMPLE OUTLINE 24

Gather Visual Supporting Material 25

Organize Your Speech 25

Select and Narrow Your Topic 20 Determine Your Purpose 21

Determine Your General Purpose 21 ● Determine Your Specific Purpose 21

Develop Your Central Idea 22 Generate the Main Ideas 22 Gather Supporting Material 23

Gather Interesting Supporting Material 23

Understand Your Nervousness 10 ● How to Build Your Confidence 13

CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Begin with the End in Mind 17

An Overview of Audience-Centered Public Speaking 17 Consider Your Audience 19

Gather and Analyze Information about Your Audience 19 ● Consider the Culturally Diverse Backgrounds of Your Audience 19

Rehearse Your Speech 27

Deliver Your Speech 27

SAMPLE SPEECH 29

STUDY GUIDE 30

SPEECH WORKSHOP Improving Your Confidence as a Public Speaker 33

Speaking Freely and Ethically 35 Speaking Freely 37

Free Speech and the U.S. Constitution 37 ● Free Speech in the Twentieth Century 37 ● Free Speech in the Twenty-first Century 38

Speaking Ethically 39 Have a Clear, Responsible Goal 39

LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS Mohandas Gandhi 40

Use Sound Evidence and Reasoning 40 ● Be Sensitive to and Tolerant of Differences 41 ● Be Honest 41 ● Don’t Plagiarize 42

CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Remember That You Will Look More Confident Than You May Feel 42

SAMPLE ORAL CITATION 44

Speaking Credibly 44

STUDY GUIDE 46

SPEECH WORKSHOP Avoiding Plagiarism 47

Listening to Speeches 49 Overcoming Barriers to Effective Listening 51

Managing Information Overload 52 ● Overcoming Personal Concerns 53 ● Reducing Outside Distractions 53 ● Overcoming Prejudice 54 ● Using Differences between Speech Rate and Thought Rate 54 ● Managing Receiver Apprehension 55

How to Become a Better Listener 55 Listen with Your Eyes as Well as Your Ears 56 ● Listen Mindfully 57

LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS César Chávez 58

Listen Skillfully 59 ● Listen Ethically 62

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Improving Listening and Critical Thinking Skills 63 Separate Facts from Inferences 63 ● Evaluate the Quality of Evidence 64 ● Evaluate the Underlying Logic and Reasoning 65

Analyzing and Evaluating Speeches 65 Understanding Criteria for Evaluating Speeches 66 ● Identifying and Analyzing Rhetorical Strategies 68 ● Giving Feedback to Others 69 ● Giving Feedback to Yourself 70

CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Look for Positive Listener Support 71

STUDY GUIDE 72

SPEECH WORKSHOP Evaluating a Speaker’s Rhetorical Effectiveness 74

Analyzing Your Audience 77 Gathering Information about Your Audience 79 Analyzing Information about Your Audience 80

Look for Audience Member Similarities 81 ● Look for Audience Member Differences 82 ● Establish Common Ground with Your Audience 82

Adapting to Your Audience 82

LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS Winston Churchill 83

CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Learn as Much as You Can about Your Audience 83

Analyzing Your Audience before You Speak 84 Demographic Audience Analysis 84 ● Psychological Audience Analysis 94 ● Situational Audience Analysis 96

Adapting to Your Audience as You Speak 99

DEVELOPING YOUR SPEECH STEP BY STEP Consider Your Audience 99

Identifying Nonverbal Audience Cues 100 ● Responding to Nonverbal Cues 101 ● Strategies for Customizing Your Message to Your Audience 101

Analyzing Your Audience after You Speak 103 Nonverbal Responses 104 ● Verbal Responses 104 ● Survey Responses 104 ● Behavioral Responses 105

STUDY GUIDE 106

SPEECH WORKSHOP Developing Communication Strategies to Adapt to Your Audience 108

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Developing Your Speech 111 Select and Narrow Your Topic 112

Guidelines for Selecting a Topic 113

CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Select an Interesting Topic 113

LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS Frederick Douglass 115

Strategies for Selecting a Topic 115 ● Narrowing the Topic 117

DEVELOPING YOUR SPEECH STEP BY STEP Select and Narrow Your Topic 117

Determine Your Purpose 118 General Purpose 118 ● Specific Purpose 119

DEVELOPING YOUR SPEECH STEP BY STEP Determine Your Purpose 121

Develop Your Central Idea 121 A Complete Declarative Sentence 122 ● Direct, Specific Language 122

DEVELOPING YOUR SPEECH STEP BY STEP Develop Your Central Idea 123 ● A Single Idea 123 ● An Audience-Centered Idea 123

Generate and Preview Your Main Ideas 124 Generating Your Main Ideas 124 ● Previewing Your Main Ideas 125

Meanwhile, Back at the Computer . . . 126

DEVELOPING YOUR SPEECH STEP BY STEP Generate Your Main Ideas 127

STUDY GUIDE 128

SPEECH WORKSHOP Strategies for Selecting a Speech Topic 130

Gathering and Using Supporting Material 133 Sources of Supporting Material 134

Personal Knowledge and Experience 134 ● The Internet 134 ● Online Databases 135 ● Traditional Library Holdings 137 ● Interviews 139

Research Strategies 141 Develop a Preliminary Bibliography 141 ● Locate Resources 142 ● Assess the Usefulness of Resources 142 ● Take Notes 143

DEVELOPING YOUR SPEECH STEP BY STEP Gather Supporting Material 143

Identify Possible Presentation Aids 144

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Types of Supporting Material 144 Illustrations 145

LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS Eleanor Roosevelt 146

Descriptions and Explanations 147 ● Definitions 148 ● Analogies 149 ● Statistics 150 ● Opinions 152

CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Prepare Early 153

The Best Supporting Material 154

STUDY GUIDE 156

SPEECH WORKSHOP Identifying a Variety of Supporting Material for Your Speech 158

Organizing Your Speech 161 Organizing Your Main Ideas 163

CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Organize Your Message 163

Organizing Ideas Topically 163 ● Ordering Ideas Chronologically 164 ● Arranging Ideas Spatially 166 ● Organizing Ideas to Show Cause and Effect 166

LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS Desmond Tutu 166

Organizing Ideas by Problem-Solution 167 ● Acknowledging Cultural Differences in Organization 169

Subdividing Your Main Ideas 170 Integrating Your Supporting Material 170

Prepare Your Supporting Material 170 ● Organize Your Supporting Material 171

DEVELOPING YOUR SPEECH STEP BY STEP Organize Your Speech 172

Incorporate Your Supporting Material into Your Speech 173

Developing Signposts 173

SAMPLE INTEGRATION OF SUPPORTING MATERIAL 173

Transitions 174 ● Previews 175 ● Summaries 176

Supplementing Signposts with Presentation Aids 177

STUDY GUIDE 178

SPEECH WORKSHOP Organizing Your Ideas 180

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Introducing and Concluding Your Speech 183 CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Be Familiar with Your

Introduction and Conclusion 184

Purposes of Introductions 184 Get the Audience’s Attention 184 ● Give the Audience a Reason to Listen 185 ● Introduce the Subject 185 ● Establish Your Credibility 186 ● Preview Your Main Ideas 186

Effective Introductions 187 Illustrations or Anecdotes 187 ● Startling Facts or Statistics 188 ● Quotations 188 ● Humor 189 ● Questions 190 ● References to Historical Events 191 ● References to Recent Events 192 ● Personal References 192 ● References to the Occasion 192 ● References to Preceding Speeches 193

Purposes of Conclusions 193 Summarize the Speech 193 ● Provide Closure 194

Effective Conclusions 195 Methods Also Used for Introductions 196 ● References to the Introduction 196 ● Inspirational Appeals or Challenges 196

LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS Patrick Henry 197

STUDY GUIDE 198

SPEECH WORKSHOP Developing the Introduction and Conclusion to Your Speech 200

Outlining and Revising Your Speech 203 Developing Your Preparation Outline 204

The Preparation Outline 204 ● Sample Preparation Outline 206

Revising Your Speech 207

SAMPLE PREPARATION OUTLINE 208

Developing Your Delivery Outline and Speaking Notes 209 The Delivery Outline 210

SAMPLE DELIVERY OUTLINE 210

Sample Delivery Outline 211 ● Speaking Notes 212

CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Use Your Well-Prepared Speaking Notes When You Rehearse 212

LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS Mark Twain 213

STUDY GUIDE 214

SPEECH WORKSHOP Outlining Your Speech 215

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Using Words Well: Speaker Language and Style 217 Differentiating Oral and Written Language Styles 218 Using Words Effectively 219

Use Specific, Concrete Words 219 ● Use Simple Words 220 ● Use Words Correctly 220 ● Use Words Concisely 221

Adapting Your Language Style to Diverse Listeners 221 Use Language That Your Audience Can Understand 222 ● Use Appropriate Language 222 ● Use Unbiased Language 222

Crafting Memorable Word Structures 223 Creating Figurative Images 224 ● Creating Drama 225 ● Creating Cadence 225

LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS John F. Kennedy 228

Analyzing an Example of Memorable Word Structure 228

Using Memorable Word Structures Effectively 229

CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Use Words to Manage Your Anxiety 229

STUDY GUIDE 230

SPEECH WORKSHOP Conducting a “Language Style Audit” of Your Speech 232

Delivering Your Speech 235 The Power of Speech Delivery 236

Listeners Expect Effective Delivery 236 ● Listeners Make Emotional Connections with You through Delivery 237 ● Listeners Believe What They See 238

Methods of Delivery 238 Manuscript Speaking 238 ● Memorized Speaking 239 ● Impromptu Speaking 240 ● Extemporaneous Speaking 241

Characteristics of Effective Delivery 242

LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS Marcus Tullius Cicero 242

Eye Contact 243 ● Gestures 243 ● Movement 246 ● Posture 247 ● Facial Expression 248 ● Vocal Delivery 248 ● Personal Appearance 253

Audience Diversity and Delivery 253

DON’T GET LOST IN TRANSLATION 255

Rehearsing Your Speech: Some Final Tips 256 CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Re-create the Speech Environment When You Rehearse 257

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DEVELOPING YOUR SPEECH STEP BY STEP Rehearse Your Speech 257

Delivering Your Speech 257

DEVELOPING YOUR SPEECH STEP BY STEP Deliver Your Speech 257

Responding to Questions 258

STUDY GUIDE 261

SPEECH WORKSHOP Improving Your Speech Delivery 263

Using Presentation Aids 265 The Value of Presentation Aids 266

LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS Ronald Reagan 267

Types of Presentation Aids 268 Three-Dimensional Presentation Aids 268 ● Two-Dimensional Presentation Aids 269 ● PowerPoint™ Presentation Aids 274 ● Tips for Using PowerPoint™ 275 ● Audiovisual Aids 277

CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Practice with Your Presentation Aids to Boost Your Confidence 277

Guidelines for Developing Presentation Aids 279 Make Them Easy to See 279 ● Keep Them Simple 279 ● Select the Right Presentation Aid 280 ● Do Not Use Dangerous or Illegal Presentation Aids 280

Guidelines for Using Presentation Aids 280 Rehearse with Your Presentation Aids 281 ● Make Eye Contact with Your Audience, Not with Your Presentation Aids 281 ● Explain Your Presentation Aids 281 ● Do Not Pass Objects among Members of Your Audience 282 ● Use Animals with Caution 282 ● Use Handouts Effectively 282 ● Time the Use of Visuals to Control Your Audience’s Attention 283 ● Use Technology Effectively 284 ● Remember Murphy’s Law 284

STUDY GUIDE 285

SPEECH WORKSHOP A Checklist for Using Effective Presentation Aids 287

Speaking to Inform 289 Types of Informative Speeches 290

LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS Oprah Winfrey 291

Speeches about Objects 292 ● Speeches about Procedures 293 ● Speeches about People 294 ● Speeches about Events 295 ● Speeches about Ideas 295

Strategies to Enhance Audience Understanding 296 Speak with Clarity 296 ● Use Principles and Techniques of Adult Learning 297 ● Clarify Unfamiliar Ideas or Complex Processes 298 ● Appeal to a Variety of Learning Styles 299

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Strategies to Maintain Audience Interest 300 Motivate Your Audience to Listen to You 300 ● Tell a Story 301 ● Present Information That Relates to Your Listeners 301 ● Use the Unexpected 301

SAMPLE INFORMATIVE SPEECH 302

Strategies to Enhance Audience Recall 303 Build In Redundancy 303 ● Make Your Key Ideas Short and Simple 304 ● Pace Your Information Flow 304 ● Reinforce Key Ideas 304

Developing an Audience-Centered Informative Speech 305 Consider Your Audience 305 ● Select and Narrow Your Informational Topic 305 ● Determine Your Informative Purpose 306 ● Develop Your Central Idea 306 ● Generate Your Main Ideas 306

CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Focus on Your Information Rather Than on Your Fear 307

Gather Your Supporting Materials 307 ● Organize Your Speech 307 ● Rehearse Your Presentation 307 ● Deliver Your Speech 307

STUDY GUIDE 309

SPEECH WORKSHOP Developing a Vivid Word Picture 311

Understanding Principles of Persuasive Speaking 315 Persuasion Defined 314

Changing or Reinforcing Audience Attitudes 314 ● Changing or Reinforcing Audience Beliefs 315 ● Changing or Reinforcing Audience Values 315 ● Changing or Reinforcing Audience Behaviors 316

How Persuasion Works 316 Aristotle’s Traditional Approach: Using Ethos, Logos, and Pathos to Persuade 316 ● ELM’S Contemporary Approach: Using a Direct or Indirect Path to Persuade 317

How to Motivate Listeners 319 Use Cognitive Dissonance 319 ● Use Listener Needs 322 ● Use Positive Motivation 324 ● Use Negative Motivation 324

How to Develop Your Persuasive Speech 326 Consider the Audience 326 ● Select and Narrow Your Persuasive Topic 327

LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS Elizabeth Cady Stanton 327

Determine Your Persuasive Purpose 328 ● Develop Your Central Idea and Main Ideas 328 ● Gather Supporting Material 331

CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Breathe to Relax 332

Organize Your Persuasive Speech 332 ● Rehearse and Deliver Your Speech 332

STUDY GUIDE 333

SPEECH WORKSHOP Developing a Persuasive Speech 335

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Using Persuasive Strategies 337 Enhancing Your Credibility 338

Elements of Your Credibility 338 ● Phases of Your Credibility 339

Using Logic and Evidence to Persuade 340 Understanding Types of Reasoning 341 ● Persuading the Culturally Diverse Audience 345 ● Supporting Your Reasoning with Evidence 347 ● Using Evidence Effectively 348 ● Avoiding Faulty Reasoning 349

Using Emotion to Persuade 351

LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS Franklin Delano Roosevelt 351

Tips for Using Emotion to Persuade 352 ● Using Emotional Appeals: Ethical Issues 355

Strategies for Adapting Ideas to People and People to Ideas 356 Persuading the Receptive Audience 356 ● Persuading the Neutral Audience 357 ● Persuading the Unreceptive Audience 357

CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Enhance Your Initial Credibility 358

Strategies for Organizing Persuasive Messages 359 Problem–Solution 360 ● Refutation 361 ● Cause and Effect 362 ● The Motivated Sequence 363

SAMPLE PERSUASIVE SPEECH 366

STUDY GUIDE 369

SPEECH WORKSHOP Adapting Ideas to People and People to Ideas 371

Speaking for Special Occasions and Purposes 373 Public Speaking in the Workplace 374

Group Presentations 374 ● Public-Relations Speeches 377

CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Seek a Variety of Speaking Opportunities 378

Ceremonial Speaking 378 Introductions 378 ● Toasts 379 ● Award Presentations 379 ● Nominations 380 ● Acceptances 380 ● Keynote Addresses 381 ● Commencement Addresses 382 ● Commemorative Addresses and Tributes 382 ● Eulogies 383

After-Dinner Speaking: Using Humor Effectively 383

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LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS Dave Barry 384

Humorous Topics 384 ● Humorous Stories 385 ● Humorous Verbal Strategies 386 ● Humorous Nonverbal Strategies 387

STUDY GUIDE 388

SPEECH WORKSHOP Introducing a Speaker 389

Epilogue 390

Speaking in Small Groups 392 Solving Problems in Groups and Teams 393

1. Identify and Define the Problem 393 ● 2. Analyze the Problem 394 ● 3. Generate Possible Solutions 394 ● 4. Select the Best Solution 395 ● 5. Test and Implement the Solution 395

Participating in Small Groups 395 Come Prepared for Group Discussions 395 ● Do Not Suggest Solutions before Analyzing the Problem 396 ● Evaluate Evidence 396 ● Help Summarize the Group’s Progress 396 ● Listen and Respond Courteously to Others 396 ● Help Manage Conflict 396

Leading Small Groups 397 Leadership Responsibilities 397 ● Leadership Styles 398

Speeches for Analysis and Discussion 400 I Have a Dream, Martin Luther King Jr. 400 Delivering the Gift of Freedom to Future Generations (Inaugural Address), Barack Obama 402 Find Your Passion, and Find a Way to Get Paid to Follow It, Anne Lynam Goddard 406 Sticky Ideas: Low-Tech Solutions to a High-Tech Problem, Richard L. Weaver, II 410

Land of the Free Because of the Homeless, Shaunna Miller 414

Endnotes 417 Index 431

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The eighth edition of Public Speaking: An Audience-Centered Approach is writ-ten to be the primary text in a course intended to help students become bet-ter public speakers. We are delighted that since the first edition of the book was published two decades ago, educators and students of public speaking have found our book a distinctively useful resource to enhance public-speaking skills. We’ve worked to make our latest edition a preeminent resource for helping students enhance their speaking skills by adding new features and retaining the most success- ful elements of previous editions.

New to the Eighth Edition We’ve refined and updated the book you are holding in your hands to create a pow- erful and contemporary resource for helping speakers connect to their audience. We’ve added several new features and revised features that both instructors and stu- dents have praised.

Streamlined Organization In response to suggestions from instructors who use the book, we’ve consolidated re- lated topics to reduce the book to a total of 16 chapters, allowing instructors to in- clude every chapter during a standard semester. Chapter 1 now offers a preview of the audience-centered speaking model as well as introducing students to the history and value of public speaking and starting the process of building their confidence as public speakers. Chapter 6 now not only shows stu- dents how to gather sup- porting material, but also immediately provides them advice and examples for ef- fective ways to integrate their supporting materials into a speech.

Preface

Learn, compare,

collect the

facts! . . . Always

have the courage to

say to yourself—

I am ignorant.

—IVAN PETROVICH PAVLOV

132

Sources of Supporting Material Personal Knowledge and

Experience The Internet Online Databases Traditional Library Holdings Interviews

Research Strategies Develop a Preliminary Bibliography Locate Resources Assess the Usefulness of Resources

Take Notes Identify Possible Presentation Aids

Types of Supporting Material Illustrations Descriptions and Explanations Definitions Analogies Statistics Opinions

The Best Supporting Material

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6 Gathering and UsingSupporting Material

A pple pie is your specialty. Your family and friends relish your flaky crust,spicy filling, and crunchy crumb topping. Fortunately, not only do you havea never-fail recipe and technique, but you also know where to go for the best ingredients. Fette’s Orchard has the tangiest pie apples in town. For your crust,

you use only Premier shortening, which you buy at Meyer’s Specialty Market. Your

crumb topping requires both stone-ground whole-wheat flour and fresh creamery

butter, available on Tuesdays at the farmer’s market on the courthouse square.

Chapter 6 covers the speech-development step highlighted in Figure 6.1 on

page 134: Gather Supporting Material. Just as making your apple pie requires

that you know where to find specific ingredients, creating a successful speech re-

quires a knowledge of the sources, research strategies, and types of supporting

material that speechmakers typically use.

After studying this chapter you should be able to do the following:

1. List five potential sources of supporting material for a speech.

2. Explain five strategies for a logical research process.

3. List and describe six types of supporting material.

4. List and explain six criteria for determining the best supporting material to use in a speech.

O B

JE C

T IV

E S

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Alexandra Exter (1882–1949), Sketch for a Scenic Design, ca. 1924, gouache on paper. Photo: M. E. Smith/Private Collection. © DeA Picture Library/Art Resource, N. Y.

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xxiv Preface

Updated Features In the eighth edition, we have added more marginal Recap boxes and tables to summarize the content of nearly every major section in each chapter. Students can use the Recaps and tables to check their understanding, review for exams, and to reference key advice as they prepare their speeches.

New End-of-Chapter Study Guides We’ve provided a new, consolidated Study Guide at the end of each chapter. This practical feature helps students to review and check their understanding of chapter topics. The Study Guide summarizes the content of each major section of the chapter; restates the chapter’s best ideas for being an audience-centered speaker; poses discussion- sparking scenarios that show how chapter concepts might apply in real speaking and ethical situations; and points readers in the direction of relevant online resources that they can use as speakers.

Purposes of Introductions It is important to begin and end your speech in a way that is memorable and that also provides the repetition audiences need. A good introduction gets the audience’s attention, gives the audience a reason to listen, intro- duces your subject, establishes your credibility, and pre- views your main ideas.

Introducing your subject and previewing the body of your speech can be accomplished by includ- ing your central idea and preview statement in the introduction.