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Fighting women abuse


Introduction. 3

Research questions. 5

Analysis. 5

Law examples. 7

Discussion. 8

Conclusion. 10

References. 12

Fighting women abuse


It can be seen in the past and in the present world that there is Women abuse all over the world. Looking in the past, we have seen there are many cultures that are practicing or in the past, they were practicing the part that the women belong to the lower level and she should not be respected or given respect at all. Here now if we look at the present scenario we come to know that in many developing countries or different regions of the world, it can be seen that abusing women’s through different ways are seen commonly still in different areas. There is much kind of abuses if we talk in detail.

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At the point further explored by Jonathan Culler 1986 when research demonstrates that women submit as much private accomplice viciousness as men, the following inquiry is about inspiration and result. Presently inspiration, would men like to overwhelm due to a patriarchal rationale that lets them know they are the supervisor and women must submit? This has however turned into a worldview, an irrefutable beginning stage. The outcome is unquestionable: women are left with significantly more genuine injuries much more frequently (Stevens, 2016)


In the above pictures, we can see that the women abuse at its peak and the women are refusing it in this case.

For quite a long time society has pumped cash into scholastic women’s liberation, into foundations intended to enhance the correspondence of women and men, into national and European projects against viciousness against women. Ladies show improvement over ever some time recently, the compensation hole is gradually shutting, more callings are interested in women, and they are achieving the top in business and in governmental issues. Has everything been without any result? Joyfully there are numerous regions in which extraordinary advance has been made (Baba & Kataoka, 2014).

Not yet, completely, there are still boundaries and unreasonable impediments, it is valid; however, would we be able to claim that the patriarchy still stands unchallenged? No. On the other hand to put it in an unexpected way: why does the FRA just explore viciousness against women in their exploration? Ought to social researchers does not question such ideal models? For to what extent would you be able to keep up that structure as a clarification for everything, including brutality against women?

Viciousness against women and young women is an across the board and precise infringement of crucial human rights infringement and a persisting type of sex-based segregation. Each legislature particularly through political, authoritative, and equity structures, components and procedures are responsible for ending society’s resilience of and states’ absence of responsiveness to this unavoidable scourge on society. It happens in each nation of the world, rich and poor, stable and in a struggle, and influences most women and young women, paying little heed to their age or financial status (Flanagan & Jaquier, 2014).

This extraordinary articulation of male control and control over women frequently starts at earliest stages and may go with a woman for the duration of her life to seniority, through different connections as the girl, sister, simply accomplice, spouse, and mother. Around the world, ladies are helpless and at hazard continuing enthusiastic and mental injury through provocation, fear and dangers, terrorizing, embarrassment, debasement, misuse and physical, particularly sexual, damage, mangling and incapacity, all with incessant wellbeing results even passing.

All types of brutality against ladies and young ladies happen around us once a day, in our homes, families, groups, establishments, working environments and in the tunes, movies, and pictures of famous media. It is not just the ‘regular man’, the grassroots, uneducated or poor man, who confers savagery against women. The establishments of Government, culture, religion, common society and trade are not susceptible from sex-based brutality inside their own particular structures and associations, among their individuals and voting public (Jangama & Muralidharan, 2015).

In their own and expert lives, frequently selling out their trusted parts as accomplices and as suppliers of administration’s proposed to lead, direct, solace, bolster and ensure. Whom can women swing to? Whom can women trust? Specialists, legal counselors, judges, parliamentarians, cops, security watches, senior open workers, boss, ministers and ministers, instructors and medical attendants perpetrate wrongdoings of viciousness against women.

Savagery against women denies women their most essential rights and opportunities, including flexibility of assessment, uniformity and equity under the steady gaze of the law, to wed as indicated by their own choice, to portability, support, to vote, to have entry data and instruction, to work, to be utilized. We are all are responsible for joining to end brutality against women. The privilege to carry on with an existence free from brutality is a right that all women must request a right that all men must accord them (Leeners & Görres, 2016).

Research questions

There are many questions that actually raises in the mind, some of them, which we will address in the paper, are

  • What is the cause behind the women abuse
  • What are the reasons the women do not speak for themselves
  • What are the steps that can be taken to reduce the violence
  • How men and women can combine to reduce the women abuse all over the world


Here it is seen that the sexual abuse is there, physical abuse is common, Emotional abuse, torture, fighting, beating, Abuse at work, and Domestic partner violence and others are commonly seen in the society. We can see there are many cases of abuse that are seen in the world. However, the thing which is seen the women do not speak for their right. It can be seen that they do not express any feelings or they do not like to go to court against the person. The reason is that she will be exposed in front of the world.,fl_progressive,q_80,w_800/18lx7sntd0n3ijpg.jpg

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Here we can see that the picture in which all is visible. The women are hurt in here, however, she does not want to show it to the world. On the other hand, she also does not want to go in courts for her rights as well.

            If we talk about the picture of the women that is in the veil, we can see there are many aspects that can be discussed in here. The eye of the women that is shown in the picture is not normal. It is beaten up by someone from her family or outside. The point here to discuss is that what the reasons that the women was quite and did not call for help. Another thing, which needs to be considered, is that women are trying to cover the beaten part; however, she is unable to do so even in the veil.

This is the major thing, which needs to be known. There could be many reasons and the different circumstances besides that.  However, it needs to be known that what were the main effect and the reasons this is happening all over the world.  

Law examples

The Criminal Code (Sexual Offenses and Crimes against Children) Act came into constraining in 2003. The enactment obviously characterizes sexual offenses against kids; grows the meaning of interbreeding to cover more classifications of connections; enhances court methods to ensure survivors’ security and respect; expands the meaning of assault; and makes conjugal assault an offense (, 2010).

Not very many instances of sexual orientation based brutality are accounted for to police. Female sex specialists say their grievances to police of sexual viciousness are frequently not recorded in light of the fact that numerous police consider that sex laborers “can’t be assaulted” or decline to make a move without sexual supports consequently. Even more, largely, a long history of receptive and ruthless policing strategies and following human rights infringement has driven numerous parts of the group to dread and question police. Ladies are especially hesitant to report situations where there is stand out the culprit (as opposed to a gathering of men) as they are more averse to be trusted that the sex was non-consensual.

Police are much of the time culprits of sexual orientation based savagery, including abusive behavior at home and pack assault. Police are likewise frequently answered to be culprits of tyke sexual manhandle, e.g. reports of police taking young women in police guardianship out in police vehicles and undermining them with long jail sentences on the off chance that they do not submit to sex. Numerous women say they fear to report wrongdoings to police since they fear being requested that do sexual supports before their grumblings will be followed up on or being assaulted (, 2010).

Police do not regard aggressive behavior at home as a wrongdoing, aside from in the most extraordinary cases. Alternatively, maybe, women are sent home and told their issues are “family matters” or ought to be managed by the town court. Neglected to manage the cost of women protection or affect ability when recording their announcements; neglected to consider the continuous well-being worry of casualties, and set weight on women to settle on the choice on whether and what charges ought to be laid. Absolution International found that most police: neglected to elude women to bolster administrations; neglected to illuminate women about their rights and the advance of examinations.

Ladies’ associations report that securing police reaction can require a solid association with a specific officer or installment for fuel and different costs. An absence of assets, both gear and staff, adds to police inadequacy.

An obstruction to a fruitful indictment of sexual orientation viciousness cases is that casualties and witnesses frequently pull back their collaboration. Facilitate, the formal court framework is troublesome for women to access because of an absence of learning of law and rights, male predominance inside the legal and the urban way of administrations. This may happen because the casualty is scared or debilitated into dropping the grievance or there is overpowering weight to determine the matter outside of the criminal equity framework through the installment of pay. While access to open specialists is actually free, as a rule, there is insignificant access to such administrations because of asset constraints (, 2010).

There are likewise less formal equity instruments set up e.g. therapeutic equity, group based equity, group policing, peace intercession and strife counteractive action/determination. Nevertheless, they additionally can possibly victimize women and dig in their subordinate status. Customary equity systems can undermine uniformity objectives as women’s rights to equity/assurance might be subordinated to the objective of reestablishing congruous relations between gatherings. “Crossbreed” town courts can possibly offer women insurance from sex-based savagery, as they are the broadest government organize in the nation.

There are some positive improvements in the region of access to equity, for example, the notice issued by the Police Commissioner guiding police to regard residential attack as a wrongdoing and not a family matter, and the presence of Sexual Offenses Squads (, 2010).


A study by University of New Hampshire analyst Murray Straus, “Away from public scrutiny: Violence in the American Family,” expresses that one out of 26 American Wives-more than 1.8 million a year get beaten by their spouses every year, except that number, runs considerably higher in instances of husband-beating. Christine Hoff Somers, in her book entitled “Who Stole Feminism?” 1994, refers to measurements guaranteeing that of all ladies who have been included in instances of abusive behavior at home, between 33% and one-half are rehash guilty parties (Rasha & Burki, 2016).

Ladies focuses spread deluding myths that all abusers are male, help women get ready to fill in the clear Court archives, and regularly urge women to misrepresent cases of manhandling to guarantee they can get a defensive request against a spouse. With no hearing or any target evidence of risk to the lady, the man is denied of his home, his property and access to his kids! A large portion of these cases is displayed to Judges as a crisis circumstance so that the spouse has no notice so he can be in court to protect himself against the false assertions (Matthews, 2014).

The activist women’s activists have even prevailed about having laws passed that permit police to appropriate property (weapons) from spouses with a defensive request against them, notwithstanding when the husband had no hearing before the defensive request was issued. Presently, with the flavors of the Clinton Administration, Block Grant Funds (Responsible Fatherhood Project DHHS and The Domestic Violence Against Women Act), were piece conceded to ladies focuses on supporting recording of criminal battery bodies of evidence against spouses. Plainly, the taking of property from a man without him having any hearing is unlawful yet appears not to stress feeble willed state officials who are threatened by activist women’s activists (Sooda & Novotny, 2016).

Presently, States Attorney’s document criminal battery charges construct exclusively in light of the expression of a woman, even with no confirmation of physical mischief. The lawful framework is helping women in rationally manhandling their kids through dissent of associations with their fathers. Kids shout out in the depression brought on by pernicious and misinformed people. In the meantime, the spouse is hit with the pitiless defensive request that denies him of access to his kids or property conceded by a judge without a hearing. The risk has been increased. Presently, spouses wishing to battle for care confronts false, remorseless and criminal cases, enormously expanding the husband’s legitimate costs and lessening the assets accessible to battle for care. (Sartor & Grant, 2016)


Here we can see that women abuse is basic all over the place, we have seen that a considerable measure of writing has been talked about in such manner. We cannot and ought not to acknowledge brutality as given, something that has happens in all societies and through the ages. Brutality is not satisfactory neither in the lanes nor at home, Keeping in mind the end goal to manage brutality, you require all individuals, everybody. In any case, it can be seen that the photos likewise portrays the viciousness done to the people in here. Not on the off chance, that it is finished by men, nor on the off chance that it is finished by women. Not towards accomplices, and unquestionably not towards the elderly or youngsters everybody is qualified for wellbeing and opportunity, those are basic human rights.

Counteracting viciousness starts in your own circles, starts at home, and starts with yourself. Keeping in mind the end goal to maintain a strategic distance from cliché sexual orientation parts being converted into savagery at home, you need to work with the men. To avoid guardians passing all alone enduring to their kids, you need to work with women and men. These discoveries are urgent while working with women in clinical settings where an investigation into adolescence manhandle is done occasionally. The study has demonstrated that youth manhandle is relatively higher, and it is accounted for by a bigger number of women with a serious mental issue than solid women are, especially psychological mistreatment, which is known to incline people to psychiatric issue (Steiger & Thaler, 2016).

History of adolescence mishandle can have the noteworthy impact on the recuperation and backslides of women with the mental issue. Referral and treatment could decrease the bleakness connected with this psychiatric issue in women who have encountered adolescence manhandle. Our discovering highlights the significance of surveying the nearness and seriousness of physical, enthusiastic and sexual mishandle when directing routine emotional wellness assessment confinement setting.

The examination discoveries that have been exhibited in this article uncover a marvel whereby a developing number of mishandled women are denounced, or undermined to be blamed, of “parental distance”. Inattention to that, the idea of “parental estrangement” constitutes a procedure, among numerous others, to dominate male’s viciousness against people and kids in the public arena. Now, it is unrealistic to completely comprehend the mind-boggling instruments that position mishandled ladies as “taking part in the parental distance”, and this is the reason assist inquire about should be directed around there. The way that it saturates proficient practices in frameworks that should guarantee both women’s and kids’ security and prosperity makes the issue significantly even more concerning.


Baba, K., & Kataoka, Y. (2014). Identifying child abuse and neglect risk among postpartum women in Japan using the Japanese version of the Kempe Family Stress Checklist. Child Abuse & Neglect , 38, 1813–1821.

Flanagan, J. C., & Jaquier, V. (2014). The mediating role of avoidance coping between intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization, mental health, and substance abuse among women experiencing bidirectional IPV. Psychiatry Research , 220, 391–396.

Jangama, K., & Muralidharan, K. (2015). The incidence of childhood abuse among women with psychiatric disorders compared with healthy women: Data from a tertiary care center in India. Child Abuse & Neglect , 50, 67–75.

Lapierre, S., & Côté, I. (2016). Abused women and the threat of parental alienation: Shelter workers’ perspectives. Children and Youth Services Review , 120–126.

Leeners, B., & Görres, G. (2016). Birth experiences in adult women with a history of childhood sexual abuse. Journal of Psychosomatic Research , 83, 27–32.

Matthews, K. A. (2014). Child abuse is related to inflammation in mid-life women: Role of obesity. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity , 36, 29–34.

Rasha, C. J., & Burki, M. (2016). A retrospective and prospective analysis of trading sex for drugs or money in women substance abuse treatment patients. Drug and Alcohol Dependence , 162, 182–189.

Sartor, C. E., & Grant, J. D. (2016). Childhood sexual abuse and two stages of cigarette smoking in African-American and European-American young women. Addictive Behaviors , 60, 131–136.

Sooda, R., & Novotny, P. (2016). Self-reported verbal abuse in 1300+ older women within a private, Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics , 66, 62–65.

Steiger, H., & Thaler, L. (2016). Epistatic interactions involving DRD2, DRD4, and COMT polymorphisms and risk of substance abuse in women with binge-purge eating disturbances. Journal of Psychiatric Research , 77, 8-14.

Stevens-Watkins, D. (2016). John Henryism Active Coping as a Cultural Correlate of Substance Abuse Treatment Participation Among African American Women. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment , 63, 54–60. (2010). Ending violence against women and girls Evidence, Data and Knowledge in the Pacific Island Countries. Retrieved October 22, 2016, from

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2009 ap microeconomics free response answers


Gabriel Rauterberg*

Morality, Competition, and the Firm: The Market Failures Approach to Business Ethics. By Joseph Heath. New York: Ox- ford University Press. 2014. Pp. ix, 372. $65.

The social responsibility of business is to increase its profits.

—Milton Friedman1

Economic justice is concerned with the fairness with which benefits and bur- dens . . . are distributed . . . among organizational stakeholders.

—Newman S. Peery, Jr.2

The vast majority of economic activity is now organized through corpo- rations. The public corporation is usurping the state’s role as the most im- portant institution of wealthy capitalist societies. Across the developed world, there is increasing convergence on the shareholder-owned corpora- tion as the primary vehicle for creating wealth.3 Yet nothing like this degree of convergence has occurred in answering the fundamental questions of cor- porate capitalism: What role do corporations serve? What is the goal of cor- porate law? What should corporate managers do? Discussion of these questions is as old as the institutions involved.

Contemporary reflection on these questions takes the form of two starkly different and estranged orthodoxies.4 Both are now decades old, but neither shows any sign of either subsiding or emerging victorious. In corpo- rate finance, economics, and most of corporate law, the orthodoxy is that a corporation should aim exclusively to maximize shareholder value within

* Post-Doctoral Research Scholar, Program in the Law & Economics of Capital Markets, Columbia Law School.

1. Milton Friedman, The Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, N.Y. Times, Sept. 13, 1970 (Magazine), at 32.

2. Newman S. Peery, Jr., Business, Government, and Society 12 (1995) (emphasis omitted).

3. Henry Hansmann & Reinier Kraakman, The End of History for Corporate Law, 89 Geo. L.J. 439, 439–41 (2001).

4. Usha Rodrigues, From Loyalty to Conflict: Addressing Fiduciary Duty at the Officer Level, 61 Fla. L. Rev. 1, 10 (2009) (“What is striking is that two different disciplines [of corporate law and business ethics] have apparently settled on two completely different answers to the central question in their fields—for whom should a corporation be governed? Even more striking has been the general lack of interest from either side in bridging the gulf be- tween business ethics and corporate law.” (footnote omitted)).


914 Michigan Law Review [Vol. 114:913

the constraints established by law (“shareholder theory”).5 In business eth- ics, the leading view is that corporate managers should balance the interests of all the constituencies affected by a firm’s actions, including employees, suppliers, consumers, owners, and the broader society (“stakeholder theory”).6

Joseph Heath’s new book, Morality, Competition, and the Firm,7 revisits these questions. Heath criticizes the two standard views and develops an alternative, which he calls a “market failures” approach (p. 1). Heath en- dorses much of the shareholder view, but offers a powerful critique of its application. In essence, he suggests that it is managers’ ethical responsibility to pursue shareholder wealth maximization if, and only if, doing so is con- ducive to aggregate social efficiency.8 Often this will be the case, but under

5. Academically, the shareholder value view is reflected in the leading treatises of corpo- rate finance, economics, and corporate law. See, e.g., Richard A. Brealey et al., Fundamen- tals of Corporate Finance 12 (8th ed. 2015) (“[T]here is a natural financial objective on which almost all shareholders can agree: Maximize the current market value of shareholders’ investment in the firm.”); Michael C. Jensen, Value Maximization, Stakeholder Theory, and the Corporate Objective Function, J. Applied Corp. Fin., Fall 2001, at 8, 8 (“Most economists would answer simply that managers must have a criterion for evaluating performance and deciding between alternative courses of action, and that the criterion should be maximization of the long-term market value of the firm.”); Eric W. Orts, The Complexity and Legitimacy of Corporate Law, 50 Wash. & Lee L. Rev. 1565, 1588 (1993) (“A favorite claim by law-and- economics reformers is that the principles of corporate law reduce to a single goal: maximize profit and shareholder wealth.”). Nor is this view merely an academic conceit. See Dodge v. Ford Motor Co., 170 N.W. 668, 684 (Mich. 1919), for what is certainly the most famous judi- cial articulation of this view: “[I]t is not within the lawful powers of a board of directors to shape and conduct the affairs of a corporation for the merely incidental benefit of sharehold- ers and for the primary purpose of benefiting others . . . .” See also Reinier Kraakman et al., The Anatomy of Corporate Law 28 (2d ed. 2009) (“[I]t is sometimes said that the appropri- ate role of corporate law is simply to assure that the corporation serves the best interests of its shareholders or, more specifically, to maximize financial returns to shareholders . . . .”); Busi- nesses’ Tax Dodges Are Burden to All, Morning Call (Mar. 1, 2000), 2000-03-01/news/3292412_1_tax-shelters-tax-loopholes-federal-income-taxes [http://] (“The business of a corporation is to maximize its earnings for its shareholders[.]” (quoting then-House Majority Leader Dick Armey)).

6. Lumen N. Mulligan, What’s Good for the Goose Is Not Good for the Gander: Sarbanes- Oxley-Style Nonprofit Reforms, 105 Mich. L. Rev. 1981, 2004 (2007) (“By most accounts, stakeholder theory is the preeminent contemporary normative theory of business ethics, espe- cially among business practitioners.”); Robert Phillips et al., What Stakeholder Theory Is Not, 13 Bus. Ethics Q. 479, 489 (2003). See generally R. Edward Freeman, Strategic Manage- ment: A Stakeholder Approach (1984) (discussing stakeholder theory as a practical tool for business management); Robert Phillips, Stakeholder Theory and Organizational Eth- ics (2003) (discussing stakeholder theory as a dominant theory of organizational ethics).

7. Joseph Heath is a Professor in the Department of Philosophy and the School of Pub- lic Policy and Governance at the University of Toronto.

8. There are two principal conceptions of efficiency in welfare economics, termed Pareto efficiency and Kaldor-Hicks efficiency. One state of the world is a Pareto improvement over another if no one is worse off in the new state and at least one person is better off. A Pareto optimum exists when there could be no change to the state of the world that would make one person better off without making anyone worse off. Because of its extremely de- manding conditions, major social policies are unlikely to ever constitute strict Pareto improve- ments. Even a law against fraud, for example, makes con artists worse off. As a result, the

April 2016] The Corporation’s Place in Society 915

conditions of market failure—when the allocation of goods and services in a market is inefficient for some reason—it is possible to increase shareholder wealth without contributing to social efficiency. Heath’s approach forbids corporate managers from pursuing shareholders’ interests when doing so exploits a market failure. This simple ideal of corporate managers as custodi- ans of social efficiency turns out to have dramatic implications for business ethics.

The scholarship addressing what corporate managers should aim to achieve is extensive.9 What sets Heath’s book apart is the remarkable breadth of legal, economic, and political analyses that he brings to bear and the bril- liance with which he synthesizes them.10 This book is one of the new cen- tury’s most important contributions to addressing capitalism’s fundamental questions.

This Review begins with the foundations of the market failures ap- proach and a critique of the shareholder and stakeholder views. Heath’s crit- ical project is largely successful and surely one of the most important contributions of the book. I then turn to the viability of the market failures approach. While sympathetic to the insights driving it, I ultimately find the market failures view to be far more exacting than Heath imagines it to be. Heath’s book aspires to offer both compelling and realistic ethics for corpo- rate managers, and it is in his second aspiration that I think he fails. This is, in itself, rather striking. Heath explicitly takes his vision of corporate pur- pose and managerial ethics to consist solely of the pursuit of efficiency, which he calls a kind of “implicit morality of the market.”11 Yet even the naked goal of social efficiency imposes a set of moral requirements so de- manding as to be plainly utopian.

I then turn to what I take to be a clear-eyed—some might say pessimis- tic—assessment of the prospects for any demanding business ethic within the specific institutional environment of today’s corporate marketplace. Spe- cifically, I argue that features of that marketplace effectively punish any form of ethical conduct that cuts into corporate profits. In the current configura- tion, business ethics with bite is thus in a very real sense unsustainable. I

Kaldor-Hicks criterion of efficiency was developed. A change in the world is Kaldor-Hicks efficient if those who are better off as a result of the change could compensate those who are worse off, so that no individual was worse off, and at least one person was still better off. Jules L. Coleman, Economics and the Law: A Critical Review of the Foundations of the Economic Approach to Law, 94 Ethics 649, 649–51 (1984); see also J.R. Hicks, The Foundations of Welfare Economics, 49 Econ. J. 696, 700–01, 706 (1939); Nicholas Kaldor, Welfare Propositions of Eco- nomics and Interpersonal Comparisons of Utility, 49 Econ. J. 549 (1939).

9. See supra notes 4–6; infra Section I.A.

10. This Review cannot hope to cover the vast number of topics that Heath discusses in his provocative, nearly 400-page book, but students of applied ethics, sociology, political phi- losophy, corporate law, and economics will all find much of interest.

11. P. 173. Heath borrows this phrase from Christopher McMahon. See Christopher McMahon, Public Capitalism: The Political Authority of Corporate Executives 117 (2012).

916 Michigan Law Review [Vol. 114:913

suggest how we might imagine alternative environments in which corpora- tions can aspire to more than profit.

I. What Are Corporations For?

There is nothing intrinsically valuable about the interests of sharehold- ers. So how did a single-minded emphasis on pursuing their interests be- come the dominant view of corporate purpose across economics, corporate law, and finance? Few slogans have put down as deep roots in the academic, popular, and political imaginations as Milton Friedman’s famous declara- tion that “The Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits.”12

Seeing the appeal of this view is thus important. Surprisingly, the easiest way to do so is through sketching the case for Heath’s own approach.

The basic architecture of the market failures approach is to focus on the normative goal of a system of private, market-based competition among producers and consumers, and then to elaborate a set of ethical principles based on promoting that goal. The goal is a simple one—social efficiency. The simplest way to see this is that the law actually prohibits forms of coop- eration that are promoted by everyday morality, effectively demanding that firms compete with one another. In particular, antitrust laws generally pro- hibit agreements among businesses in the same area to stop competing with each other.13 Corporate managers who agree, for instance, to charge the same price—and thus to “defect” from market competition—can go to prison as a result.14 This is despite the fact—or rather because of it—that price competition is a kind of prisoner’s dilemma for the firms involved, in which the outcome is suboptimal for all of them, but conducive to economic efficiency at a social level.15

Thus, the highly competitive markets that are characteristic of devel- oped economies do not simply appear by happenstance. They arise within a well-structured legal environment, which clearly defines and enforces con- tract and property rights16—and as mentioned, firms compete within a legal environment that expressly prohibits cartelization.17 A well-functioning market is thus a kind of staged competition or institutionalized collective- action problem designed to achieve the benefits of specific forms of compe- tition and avoid the pathologies associated with monopolies or price-fixing (pp. 5, 33).

The reason for seeking competitive markets is explained on the first day of Economics 101. A competitive market leads to an efficient allocation of

12. See Friedman, supra note 1, at 32.

13. Sherman Antitrust Act, 15 U.S.C. § 1 (2012) (making contracts, combinations, and conspiracies in restraint of trade potential felonies).

14. Id.

15. See p. 33.

16. Hernando de Soto, The Mystery of Capital: Why Capitalism Triumphs in the West and Fails Everywhere Else 6–10 (2000).

17. Sherman Antitrust Act § 1.

April 2016] The Corporation’s Place in Society 917

resources.18 Goods and services are directed toward those who express the greatest willingness to pay for them, and informative prices arise from the equalization of supply and demand.19 Heath thus takes efficiency to be the ultimate justification for market-based capitalism and the appropriate goal of corporate managers (p. 10). Markets are “essentially special-purpose in- stitutions designed to promote efficiency” (p. 10).

It would be more accurate to call the “market failures” approach to bus- iness ethics an “efficiency” account, as its guiding idea is that the ethic of business managers is to operate corporations to promote social efficiency. It bears emphasizing that this does not mean corporate managers are supposed to have social efficiency in mind whenever they make business decisions. In any adversarial context, participants can generate social benefits by compet- ing against each other—benefits that they need not personally have in mind (p. 28). For example, lawyers contribute to the justice of the adversarial sys- tem by zealously pursuing their clients’ cases, and athletes contribute to great athletic spectacles by pursuing their own victories.20

Indeed, managers’ usual contribution to competitive markets is compet- ing well, which means maximizing the value of the firm’s net product. This is equivalent to maximizing the value of the residual claim, that is, the re- turn to owners. Because most firms are owned by equity shareholders, max- imization of the residual claim means maximizing profits (profit is the revenue of a firm leftover after all of a firm’s contractual obligations have been satisfied).21 Thus, the typical way in which managers promote social efficiency is by pursuing shareholder wealth maximization. Heath thus walks us through the basic insights that lead quite naturally to the shareholder wealth maximization view of corporate ethics. That view boils down to the thesis that markets in which profit-seeking firms compete against each other generate benefits for all of society, and that the way to best ensure that firms are maximally profit-seeking are for managers to maximize the profits of a firm’s owners (pp. 28–33).

18. This well-known idea is formalized in the First Fundamental Theorem of Welfare Economics, which states that under certain general assumptions, a competitive equilibrium leads to a Pareto-efficient allocation of resources, which is a condition in which no one can be made better off without someone else being made worse off. This general conception of a competitive equilibrium is a foundation for welfare economics in general. See Hal R. Varian, Intermediate Microeconomics: A Modern Approach 522 (5th ed. 1999).

19. See, e.g., Paul Anthony Samuelson, Foundations of Economic Analysis 238–39 (photo. reprint 1971) (1947).

20. See p. 28.

21. See p. 31. The people best suited to ensuring that firms are competitive are their owners, for the simple reason that the owners of a business are its residual claimants—the group entitled to all of the profits of a firm, but only its profits. Other individuals involved with a firm, such as employees, bondholders, suppliers, and consumers, are fixed claimants— they have a specific contractual agreement with the firm, which grants them some fixed sum. Not so with owners, who are entitled only to any firm revenue that is leftover once everyone with a fixed contractual claim has been paid—that is, to profit. See Frank H. Easterbrook & Daniel R. Fischel, The Corporate Contract, 89 Colum. L. Rev. 1416, 1446–47 (1989).

918 Michigan Law Review [Vol. 114:913

A. The Market Failures Approach

So how does the market failures approach differ from the shareholder view? The key idea of the market failures approach is that, while pursuing shareholder wealth maximization will promote social efficiency under many circumstances, there are a wide variety of situations in which this is not the case. Under those circumstances, corporate managers are obliged to not maximize shareholder value because doing so does not promote social efficiency.

There are two important and distinct claims here. The first is identifying the conditions under which pursuit of firm profitability does not promote economic efficiency. These conditions are referred to as market failures.22 For market competition to generate Pareto efficiency, a number of restrictive conditions known as the Pareto conditions must be in place. When one or more of these conditions is not satisfied, a market will not reach a Pareto optimal condition—it will, put plainly, fail to be efficient.23 Well-known market failures include information asymmetries, externalities, and public goods.24 These market failures are unfortunately common.25 The simplest example of a market failure may be pollution, which is a negative externality. A negative externality is a situation in which one party imposes the costs of a decision he makes on another party without fully compensating that party. So, while it is comparatively easy to protect individuals’ property rights against trespass over their land, it is very difficult to enforce an individual’s right to clean air over her house. As a result, industrial firms can produce harmful toxins that permeate the atmosphere and go unpunished, allowing them to effectively externalize the costs of their firms’ business on the local citizens.26

When it is difficult to enforce property rights, say over air, a negative externality may occur. In that case, the market could fail because the pollut- ing business does not need to price the cost of its pollution into its activity.

22. See Paul A. Samuelson & William D. Nordhaus, Economics 677 (19th ed. 2010) (defining market failure as “[a]n imperfection in a price system that prevents an efficient allocation of resources”); Joshua D. Wright, The Antitrust/Consumer Protection Paradox: Two Policies at War with Each Other, 121 Yale L.J. 2216, 2222 (2012) (“A market failure occurs when functioning markets fail to realize full gains from trade through efficient production.”); see also Bernard Salanié, Microeconomics of Market Failures 1 (MIT Press 2000) (1998) (defining market failures as “circumstances where market equilibrium is not optimal”).

23. See Christopher R. Leslie, Achieving Efficiency Through Collusion: A Market Failure Defense to Horizontal Price-Fixing, 81 Calif. L. Rev. 243, 267–69 (1993).

24. Harvey S. Rosen, Public Finance 47–48 (7th ed. 2005); Maxwell A. Miller & Mark A. Glick, The Resurgence of Federalism: The Case for Tax-Exempt Bonds, 1 Tex. Rev. L. & Pol. 25, 29 (1997).

25. See generally Ryan Bubb & Richard H. Pildes, How Behavioral Economics Trims Its Sails and Why, 127 Harv. L. Rev. 1593, 1602 (2014) (“Familiar types of market failure include externalities, asymmetric information, and market power.”); Benjamin K. Sovacool, Placing a Glove on the Invisible Hand: How Intellectual Property Rights May Impede Innovation in Energy Research and Development (R&D), 18 Alb. L.J. Sci. & Tech. 381, 383 (2008).

26. See Miller & Glick, supra note 24, at 29–30.

April 2016] The Corporation’s Place in Society 919

Under such circumstances, pursuing shareholder profit by polluting maxi- mizes the firm’s value, but rather than promoting social efficiency, it en- riches shareholders at the expense of society.

Heath’s prescription is simple: in such cases, managers must not engi- neer or exploit the market failure. The “set of permissible profit-maximizing strategies is limited to those strategies that would be permissible under con- ditions of perfect competition” (p. 34). Corporate managers should not pol- lute (beyond what is socially desirable), seek monopolies, seek to deceive their customers about the quality of their products, erect barriers to entry, or otherwise bring about or exploit a market failure (pp. 36–37).

Instead, it is the duty of corporate managers to avoid adopting any busi- ness strategy that increases firm profitability by exploiting some market fail- ure (p. 37). Corporate managers may not pursue shareholders’ interests when they come at society’s expense (pp. 38–39). The approach’s major claim is as follows:

[T]he market is essentially a staged competition, designed to promote Pareto efficiency, and in cases where the explicit rules governing the com- petition are insufficient to secure the class of favored outcomes, economic actors should respect the spirit of these rules and refrain from pursuing strategies that run contrary to the point of the competition. (p. 5)

The market failures approach diverges from the shareholder view by insist- ing that when the justificatory link between shareholder wealth maximiza- tion and social efficiency breaks down, managers not only cease to have an obligation to maximize shareholder value, but they are obligated to avoid pursuing it when doing so exploits some market failure (pp. 31, 36–37). As Heath puts it, “[a] competitive market only serves to promote efficiency under certain conditions, and there are various ways of acting that subvert it. Such actions are not just unethical, but egregiously so, because they fail to satisfy even the artificially low standard that is set for the evaluation of mar- ketplace behavior” (p. 10).

I consider concerns about implementation in Part II, but putting those aside, it is difficult to disagree with Heath’s revision of the standard corpo- rate finance view. After all, few in economics, corporate finance, or corpo- rate law think there is something intrinsically valuable about serving shareholders’ interests; rather, serving those interests makes sense in a broader picture in which doing so serves society’s interests. The link between those two, however, is contingent. It requires an absence of market failure, and when markets fail, so may the link between shareholder value and social efficiency.

Two naı̈ve illusions may nonetheless fuel the position that the pursuit of shareholder value within the constraints of law exhausts managers’ moral obligations. One is that markets never fail in important ways. Given the experience of the last few decades with important market failures—includ- ing negative externalities like pollution, underproduction of public goods,

920 Michigan Law Review [Vol. 114:913

information asymmetries, and market power—this position seems remarka- bly Pollyannaish. One need only recall the fairy-tale conditions under which the Coase theorem or First Fundamental Welfare theorem hold.27

The second illusion is that when markets fail, the government should resolve those failures, and if it does not do so, it is not managers’ obligation to do the right thing. This view cannot survive scrutiny either. First, even in principle, legal interventions are extremely costly and intrusive and face con- siderable difficulties in detecting and punishing all incidences of wrongdo- ing (p. 34). Even more importantly, the process of passing legislation is subject to a widely documented set of pathologies that make it difficult even for responsive democratic governments to pass desirable laws.28

Lest Heath’s account sound like that of a philosophical radical, it is worth examining precisely how close his view is to the mainstream of corpo- rate law. A leading treatise on the subject, The Anatomy of Corporate Law,29

provides a brief account of the normative foundations of the authors’ theory of corporate law. Authors Henry Hansmann, Reinier Kraakman, and others ask, “[w]hat is the goal of corporate law?” and answer that “[a]s a normative matter, the overall objective of corporate law—as of any branch of law—is presumably to serve the interests of society as a whole[,]” and in particular, “the aggregate welfare of all who are affected by a firm’s activities, including the firm’s shareholders, employees, suppliers, and customers, as well as third parties such as local communities and beneficiaries of the natural environment.”30

They then turn to the narrower proposition that the goal of corpora- tions should be to serve the interests of shareholders or maximize the firm’s value for them. It is a claim Hansmann and Kraakman have endorsed else- where,31 but Hansmann and Kraakman’s service in The Anatomy of Corpo- rate Law is to disambiguate two distinct interpretations of that claim. One interpretation is to take the assertion at face value as saying that the sole

27. See pp. 3, 34.

28. See, e.g., Mancur Olson, The Logic of Collective Action: Public Goods and the Theory of Groups 22–57 (1971).

29. Kraakman et al., supra note 5. Heath is clearly familiar with the seminal treatises on corporate law. See, e.g., p. 123.

30. Kraakman et al., supra note 5, at 28. Kraakman and his coauthors equate “the aggregate welfare” with “overall social efficiency” and Kaldor-Hicks efficiency, and I use these terms interchangeably here as well. Id. More precisely, they equate social welfare with “Kaldor- Hicks efficiency within acceptable patterns of distribution”—an important caveat. Id. at 28 n.79; see also William T. Allen et al., Commentaries and Cases on the Law of Business Organization 7 (3d ed. 2009) (urging the use of Kaldor-Hicks efficiency as the criterion for evaluating corporate law and corporate governance arrangements).

31. See, e.g., Henry Hansmann & Reinier Kraakman, Reflections on the End of History for Corporate Law, in The Convergence of Corporate Governance: Promise and Prospects 32, 32–33 (Abdul A. Rasheed & Toru Yoshikawa eds., 2012) (“The strongest and clearest claim we make is . . . that what we term the ‘standard shareholder oriented model’ (SSM) . . . is the most attractive social ideal for the organization of large-scale enterprise.”); Hansmann & Kraakman, supra note 3, at 439 (“There is no longer any serious competitor to the view that corporate law should principally strive to increase long-term shareholder value.”).

April 2016] The Corporation’s Place in Society 921

interest of corporate law is maximizing value for shareholders. They dismiss this interpretation, noting that “[t]here would be little to recommend” a system in which creditors or employees lost $2 for every $1 shareholders gained.32 Instead, they endorse a second interpretation, which is that “focus- ing principally on the maximization of shareholder returns is, in general, the best means by which corporate law can serve the broader goal of advancing overall social welfare.”33

In essence, the market failures approach claims that corporate managers should seek to maximize shareholder value when and only when it promotes aggregate efficiency, serving the interests of society as a whole.34 Generally, pursuing shareholder wealth does promote social efficiency, but under cer- tain identifiable circumstances, this is clearly not the case. In those situa- tions, Heath insists, the very foundations of a view like Hansmann and Kraakman’s require that corporate managers not pursue shareholders’ profits.

B. Stakeholder Theory

The most important alternative to the corporate finance view is stake- holder theory, which Heath subjects to exacting criticism. Stakeholder the- ory claims that corporations should treat their many constituents— shareholders, employees, creditors, consumers, neighborhoods—equally, carefully balancing their interests when they conflict.35 Heath’s objections to stakeholder theory generally fall into two broad camps. The first set of criti- cisms aims to deflate motivations for the theory by showing that ordinary adversarial marketplace behavior is neither principally about self-interest nor immoral, contrary to certain commonsense intuitions that motivate some stakeholder theorists. The second set of criticisms aims to show that a firm that genuinely catered equally to the interests of all of its patrons or constituents, as desired by stakeholder theory, would be significantly ineffi- cient. This matters because stakeholder theory does not present itself as an alternative to capitalism, like socialism. Instead, it presents itself as a concep- tion of business ethics to be taught to corporate managers. As a result, it would be a very curious feature of such a view if it was foundationally in- compatible with a competitive corporate marketplace.

32. Kraakman et al., supra note 5, at 28.

33. Id.

34. Heath refers to his own view as “Paretian,” p. 5, but given the near-impossibility of genuine Pareto improvements when a policy dramatically alters a business’s strategy, it seems more accurate to conceptualize his account as aiming at Kaldor-Hicks efficiency. It is worth noting that while Heath’s view is a novel entrant to the current debate in business ethics, his general position that the structures of a market economy are justified where (and only where) they serve the interests of society as a whole is at least as ancient as Aquinas.

35. See Margaret M. Blair & Lynn A. Stout, A Team Production Theory of Corporate Law, 85 Va. L. Rev. 247, 253 (1999); Kevin Gibson, The Moral Basis of Stakeholder Theory, 26 J. Bus. Ethics 245, 245–46 (2000); see also Julia Sferlazzo, Learning Legal Ethics from MBAs: How a Comparison of Legal and Business Ethics Could Promote Ethical Professional Behavior, 25 Geo. J. Legal Ethics 769, 773 (2012).

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A preliminary confusion, while not especially sophisticated, is suffi- ciently widespread to merit attention. In substance, this position posits that shareholder wealth maximization merely glorifies the self-interest of share- holders and that the exclusive pursuit of self-interest is a bad thing. Equating self-interest with shareholder wealth maximization is confused, however, at least if treated as a criticism of shareholder value as a goal of corporate law or corporate managers. After all, shareholder wealth maximization is typi- cally not the self-interested goal of corporate managers. The natural goal of corporate managers is to enrich themselves, rather than shareholders. Indeed, this problem of corporate managers’ interests not being aligned with that of a firm’s owners is widely considered the chief problem for corporate law to ameliorate.36

Heath persuasively demonstrates that stakeholder theory dramatically exacerbates the principal-agent problem between shareholders and corpo- rate managers. He points out that the developed world actually has ample experience in the operation of stakeholder-oriented firms (pp. 55–58). After all, in the mid-twentieth century, it was common for the governments of wealthy nations to operate major corporations that were expected not only to turn a profit, but also to serve other social responsibilities (pp. 55–57). Heath surveys the ample social-scientific evidence on the difficulties these state-owned enterprises faced in accomplishing their goals. The bottom line is that these firms failed not only to be profitable, but also to produce many of the social benefits they were supposed to achieve. They became instead havens for unprofitability and for opposition—within the government- owned enterprise—to state regulation of market failures (pp. 57–58).

A different line of criticism of stakeholder theory builds on Henry Hansmann’s enormously influential work on corporate ownership.37 One of Hansmann’s most interesting contributions is showing that while most firms are owned by shareholders—contributors of equity capital—every one of the firm’s constituents sometimes owns a firm.38 So, in a dairy cooperative, suppliers jointly own the business; in a mutual insurance company, the cus- tomers own it; in a law firm, the partners collectively own it, and so on.39

Hansmann’s analysis of when a given constituent will own a firm—and of why shareholders are such prevalent owners—centers on the political costs of ownership.40 In general, the most efficient owners of the firm tend to be the stakeholders who share homogenous interests in the firm’s perform- ance.41 The more heterogeneous the desires of the owners, the more conflict

36. See, e.g., Kraakman et al., supra note 5, at 35–53.

37. See chapter 5.

38. Henry Hansmann, The Ownership of Enterprise 12–16 (1996); see also Henry Hansmann, Ownership of the Firm, 4 J.L. Econ. & Org. 267 (1988).

39. Hansmann, The Ownership of Enterprise, supra note 38, at 13–16.

40. Hansmann, Ownership of the Firm, supra note 38, at 277–78.

41. Id. at 278.

April 2016] The Corporation’s Place in Society 923

there is among owners, and the harder it becomes to assess whether manage- ment is performing well.42 From this perspective, stakeholder theory poses an enormous problem for efficiently run businesses because it requires man- agers to attempt to equally balance the interests of all constituents, effec- tively importing into every firm the defects of extremely heterogeneous owner interests. The problem is that no firm is owned by all of its patrons and almost no businesses are even owned by multiple groups of patrons.43 The total absence of such firms is powerful evidence that there are deep ineffi- ciencies introduced by management that must cater to heterogeneous stakeholders.

II. The Prospects for Business Ethics: A Critical Assessment

“[T]he point of philosophy is not just to understand the world, but to change it.”44 Heath laudably thinks the point of business ethics is to improve the quality of corporate management. He notes that while “[m]any business ethicists . . . deny that they have any ambition to make people behave more ethically[,]” he “actually consider[s] that objective to be central to [his] task” (p. 12). Indeed, Heath is emphatic in his belief that:

[T]he central role of business ethics is to . . . correct the self-understanding of participants in the market economy, who are being bombarded—both by the business press and a certain segment of the academy, who appear not to have recovered from the epiphany they experienced in their first- year economics class—by a seductive but ultimately false suggestion that the institutions of the market free them from all forms of moral constraint. (p. 19)

Thus, while Heath’s theory may have implications for a variety of domains, its central ambition is to offer realistic prescriptions for the business ethics that managers should be taught.

Unfortunately, the market failures approach faces some debilitating and potentially fatal problems. In fact, these problems generalize across the en- tire class of theories in business ethics that ask more of corporate managers than the shareholder approach does. This diagnosis is rather grim, but it is necessary to understand the obstacles that business ethics faces to make progress.

A. The Problem of Competition

The most immediate problem is the competitive structure of the econ- omy itself—a “staged competition” (p. 5) in which we deliberately pit busi- nesses against each other in an adversarial contest designed to produce

42. Id. at 279.

43. But see p. 130.

44. P. 12. This is, of course, an echo of Marx’s famous declaration that “The philoso- phers have only interpreted the world in various ways; the point is to change it.” Karl Marx, Theses on Feuerbach, in The German Ideology 571 (1998).

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certain efficiency benefits. In this competitive environment, any firm willing to substantially reduce its profits to act more ethically will see its market share progressively diminish until it goes out of business. Deliberately rais- ing prices to act ethically is unsustainable unless every other competitor also does so (p. 85). This is because the character of market competition selects out unprofitable firms and makes no exceptions for unprofitability driven by ethical conduct. Thus, in highly competitive industries, firms opting to es- chew profitable, legal, but unethical business strategies are unlikely to sur- vive. The very structured competition that makes the market effective in establishing useful incentives and generating informative prices will punish conduct designed to unilaterally serve the ends of the broader society.

Heath’s book hints at a response to this objection,45 which is that busi- ness ethics should strive to facilitate multilateral action by corporate manag- ers to stop exploiting some market failure or avoid engineering or exploiting new market failures. This is not as far-fetched as it may seem. There are other areas of the economy that are highly competitive but in which ethical behavior is widely observed—ethical behavior that eats into profits. We do not generally think that doctors prescribe the most expensive drugs and treatments possible simply because they can. The medical profession, we think, instills in its members norms that have at least some ethical bite.46

Heath suggests that through iterative interactions, managers in the same in- dustry may build up sufficient trust with one another so as to enter agree- ments to each avoid taking advantage of some market failure (p. 38).

Agreements among corporate managers to jointly engage in unprofita- ble ethical conduct, however, will suffer from the same powerful temptation to “defect,” which makes agreements to fix prices so unstable, even in the absence of antitrust enforcement.47 Because a member of a cartel can always make more money by unilaterally defecting and lowering prices, cartels are inherently unstable.48 Agreements sacrificing profit would also be unstable because such industries would attract new and less scrupulous entrants.49

These problems do not suggest that agreements among managers to act un- profitably but ethically are impossible—only that they are difficult.

45. See p. 38.

46. See p. 71 (noting the medical profession’s “stringent” code of conduct enforced by mechanisms such as medical licensing boards). There are legitimate questions as to whether the ethical professionalization of corporate managers is a plausible goal. Management certainly lacks the historical pedigree and accrued norms of other professions, such as law, medicine, or engineering, but there are some hints that MBA students are beginning to take the idea of ethical norms seriously. See, e.g., Robert Rhee et al., Ethical Issues in Business and the Lawyer’s Role, 12 Transactions: Tenn. J. Bus. L., no. 3, 2011, at 37, 37 (discussing Harvard and Columbia business schools’ requirement that MBA students make pledges to act ethically and responsibly).

47. See Christopher R. Leslie, Trust, Distrust, and Antitrust, 82 Tex. L. Rev. 515, 524–25 (2004).

48. See id. at 526.

49. See id. at 565.

April 2016] The Corporation’s Place in Society 925

To recap, the first distinct problem facing business ethics is the competi- tive structure of the corporate marketplace. Firms run by ethical managers willing to sacrifice profit for society’s interests will likely be eliminated by competitors in the long run. Let us assume, however, that because of manag- ers’ professionalization, business ethics avoids this obstacle.

B. The Problem of External Control

A second distinct problem will still arise to bar business ethics with bite from surviving. This is the fact that corporate managers ultimately answer to a corporation’s shareholders.50 Even if business ethicists succeeded in instil- ling in corporate managers a sense of their high ethical vocation, ethical managers would soon be weeded out by less ethical owners, unless the latter were also converted. If profits began to decline at a firm or even across an entire industry, shareholders would quickly assemble at the next board of directors meeting and select a new board. This board would promptly fire the ethical officers and replace them with less scrupulous successors. Unlike the partners of a law firm, who must answer solely to each other, the manag- ers of a public corporation must answer to the unprofessionalized share- holders of the firm. There is, of course, some room for slack, even in competitive product markets with competition for corporate control as well. Managers are able to extract some private benefits—and create some public benefits—without repercussions, but the competitiveness of both markets will impose important limits.

It seems to be a curious myopia of business ethics—in which, unfortu- nately, Heath is also guilty—that it has largely sought to reimagine the ethics of managers without revisiting the ethics of owners or consumers as well. We are left groping for a reason why business ethics has left our broader understanding of capitalism and its central regulatory institutions un- touched. Perhaps it is that in everyday life we do not expect there to be a class of controlling persons who oversee and systematically punish the altru- istic for their sacrificial conduct. But this is exactly the situation that will face socially minded managers in a world in which nothing has changed the perspective or control of shareholders over firms’ management. Unlike, per- haps, personal ethics, you simply cannot formulate viable business ethics for corporate managers without paying careful attention to the corporate environment.

Even a publicly traded firm both owned and managed by individuals who subscribed to a market failures philosophy would be dynamically unstable. The share price of that company’s stock would be depressed relative to what its value would have been if the company acted less ethically. The price of a public company’s shares reflects the discounted value of the future cash flows associated with that company.51 If that company had made an ethically

50. See, e.g., Edward B. Rock, The General Counsel of a Nonprofit Enterprise: Some Ques- tions, 46 Hous. L. Rev. 17, 19 (2009).

51. Lawrence A. Hamermesh & Michael L. Wachter, The Short and Puzzling Life of the “Implicit Minority Discount” in Delaware Appraisal Law, 156 U. Pa. L. Rev. 1, 47 (2007) (“In

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driven decision to be less profitable, then the share price would reflect that long-term drop in profitability. This depression of the share price, however, creates an automatic profit opportunity for a prospective purchaser willing to take control of the firm and reverse course. As a result, for the very reason of their ethical conduct, ethical firms would be perennial takeover targets.52

We should expect business ethics that target solely corporate managers to suffer greatly at the hands of an ownership class if the owners remained indifferent to those ethical values.

If this seems extreme, consider the effects of adopting a market failures approach on some of the largest corporations. Assume that the scientific majority is correct that adverse global climate change is driven by current human levels of carbon use. If so, the carbon used in fossil fuels is enor- mously underpriced because of a market failure that prevents the price of carbon products from reflecting environmental harms caused by carbon use.53 Part of the profit of major oil companies, such as ExxonMobil, is driven by the fact that they sell products that are hugely underpriced—as opposed to how they would be priced in a complete market—since they benefit from market failure. Imagine, if you can, that the senior manage- ment of ExxonMobil decided to begin pricing their products at a level that reflected the actual cost of those products to society. That is, they decided to stop exploiting the market failure. According to current estimates, they would have to voluntarily pay $85 per CO-2 ton.54 Adopting this policy would not only cause Exxon’s share price to drop, it would cause it to plum- met. Even if the owners did not sue management,55 either their own share- holders or new owners would soon fire them. The new owners would

both finance theory and the appraisal remedy, the value of a shareholder’s stock is the pro rata value of the discounted future free cash flows . . . .”).

52. The shareholder approach does not face this obstacle. Agency costs are overwhelm- ingly more likely to make a corporation unprofitable than profitable, so corporations that are better at controlling agency costs should be more likely to survive in the long run. Id. at 36.

53. Cf. Timothy J. Brennan, Prizes Versus Patents: A Comment on Jonathan Adler’s Eyes on a Climate Prize: Rewarding Energy Innovation to Achieve Climate Stabilization, 42 Envtl. L. Rep. 10719, 10719 n.7 (2012) (“The primary virtue is that if carbon used in fossil fuels is underpriced because environmental harms, particularly from climate change, are not incorpo- rated in the price, then a carbon tax comes closer to getting prices right in the economy rather than force a gap between prices and marginal cost.”).

54. Nicholas Stern, Executive Summary of Stern Review: The Economics of Cli- mate Change xvi (2007), [].

55. It is unclear whether a firm’s owners could have a viable suit against their managers for breach of fiduciary duty if management were to avoid a profitable business strategy for ethical reasons. The substantial discretion provided to corporate managers by the business judgment rule may protect them from such a suit, and the case law of many states suggests that their highest courts do not share the view of many corporate scholars that the duty of corporate managers is solely to maximize shareholder value within the constraints of law. See generally Einer Elhauge, Sacrificing Corporate Profits in the Public Interest, 80 N.Y.U. L. Rev. 733, 738 (2005) (“Corporate managers . . . have always had some legal discretion (implicit or explicit) to sacrifice corporate profits in the public interest. . . . None of the fifty states has a statute that imposes a duty to profit-maximize or that makes profit-maximization the sole

April 2016] The Corporation’s Place in Society 927

acquire shares at low prices, intending to quickly increase shareholder value (at society’s expense) by reversing corporate policy. This example is not cho- sen at random. The Stern Report, probably the best known government re- port on the subject, notes that “[c]limate change presents a unique challenge for economics: it is the greatest and widest-ranging market failure ever seen.”56

This is a point worth emphasizing. Any approach to business ethics that bites into the profits of a firm but ignores the market for corporate control is going to suffer enormous problems in achieving any acceptance. Realizing a market failures or “efficiency” approach to business ethics thus faces con- siderable obstacles, which is something to reflect on. Market efficiency on its own implies a set of moral demands that are so startling in their scope as to seem almost utopian.

So, what is to be done? I propose a brief suggestion, not as an actual candidate for reform (it is too radical for my taste), but rather as an illustra- tion of the kind of dramatic change to the corporate control environment that might ease some of the tensions facing business ethics. There has been an increasing trend over the last fifteen years for U.S. financial legislation to include substantive corporate governance requirements.57 There has also been a recent rethinking of what exactly the status of being a “public” cor- poration should entail.58 At the intersection of these two developments is a candidate for the kind of structural reform that is likely necessary for a vi- sion of business ethics like Heath’s to become feasible. The idea is to have a “market failures” independent director on the board of each public com- pany. This director would ensure that the firm did not exploit any market failure, or more modestly, ensure that a firm did not try to engineer any new

purpose of the corporation. . . . [T]he influential Principles of Corporate Governance by the American Law Institute (ALI) explicitly state that common law fiduciary duties do not pro- hibit managers from sacrificing profits to further the public interest . . . .”). But see Kent Greenfield, Using Behavioral Economics to Show the Power and Efficiency of Corporate Law as Regulatory Tool, 35 U.C. Davis L. Rev. 581, 605 (2002) (“Since the early-twentieth century case of Dodge v Ford, corporations have been deemed to have an ‘unyielding’ duty to look after the interests of the shareholders, which has been translated into a duty to maximize profits.” (footnotes omitted)).

56. Stern, supra note 54, at i.

57. See, e.g., Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, Pub. L. No. 111-203, 124 Stat. 1376 (2010); Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, Pub. L. No. 107-204, 116 Stat. 745. This trend has not been without its able and trenchant critics. See, e.g., Roberta Romano, The Sarbanes-Oxley Act and the Making of Quack Corporate Governance, 114 Yale L.J. 1521, 1528 (2005); Stephen M. Bainbridge, The Creeping Federalization of Corporate Law, Reg., Spring 2003, at 26, 31.

58. See, e.g., Donald C. Langevoort & Robert B. Thompson, “Publicness” in Contempo- rary Securities Regulation After the JOBS Act, 101 Geo. L.J. 337, 338 (2013); Hillary A. Sale, The New “Public” Corporation, 74 Law & Contemp. Probs. 137, 141 (2011); Hillary A. Sale, Public Governance, 81 Geo. Wash. L. Rev. 1012, 1013–14 (2013).

928 Michigan Law Review [Vol. 114:913

market failure. So, for instance, such a director might oversee a firm’s lobby- ing activities to check whether the firm was inappropriately seeking to dis- suade government officials from trying to regulate some market failure.59

These market failures directors might also be part of organizations within industries devoted to reaching consensus on how that industry might stop exploiting a given market failure.


The obstacles of competition and owner control, while significant, should not cause us to despair. For inspiration, just look to the ingenuity that scholars have devoted to the central quest of corporate law—aligning the interests of managers with shareholders to overcome the agency problem created by the separation of ownership and control. Boards of directors, in- dependent directors, the market for corporate control, shareholder empow- erment, incentive contracts—the list of devices heralded at one time or another as the silver bullet for agency costs goes on and on.60 Heath’s book is a clarion call for scholars of corporate law and corporate finance to start taking seriously how the corporate environment could be altered to make it easier for corporations—as well as the government—to take steps to elimi- nate market failure. Imagining a more robust ethics for corporations re- quires carefully and comprehensively rethinking the institutional and social environment in which they function. Perhaps the greatest contribution of Joseph Heath’s wonderful book is to have clarified this task ahead.

59. Cf. Leo E. Strine, Jr. & Nicholas Walter, Conservative Collision Course?: The Tension Between Conservative Corporate Law Theory and Citizens United, 100 Cornell L. Rev. 335, 385 (2015) (noting that the ultimate shareholders of for-profit corporations are humans with concerns about the negative externalities that a profit-seeking motive alone may cause). An- other possible response—which I owe to Heath—is the use of “other constituency” statutes, which explicitly permit managers to consider nonshareholder interests. See A.A. Sommer, Jr., Whom Should the Corporation Serve? The Berle-Dodd Debate Revisited Sixty Years Later, 16 Del. J. Corp. L. 33, 41 (1991).

60. See, e.g., Ronald J. Gilson & Charles K. Whitehead, Deconstructing Equity: Public Ownership, Agency Costs, and Complete Capital Markets, 108 Colum. L. Rev. 231, 232 (2008).

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i L A B A C C E S S

Accessing the Linux Environment

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7/27/2014 Operating Systems with Lab… 2/3

Assume that the memory is 256 KB and is divided into units of 2 KB each. A process may request between 3 and 10 units of memory.

Your simulation consists of three components: a Memory component that implements a specific allocation/deallocation technique, a

request generation component that generates allocation/deallocation requests, and a statistics reporting component that prints out the

relevant statistics. The Memory component exports the following functions:

1. int allocate_mem(int process_id, int num_units): allocates num_units units of memory to a process whose id is

process_id. If successful, it returns the number of nodes traversed in the linked list. Otherwise, it returns -1.

2. int deallocate_mem(int process_id): deallocates the memory allocated to the process whose ID is process_id. It returns 1,

if successful, otherwise “1.

3. int fragment_count( ): returns the number of holes (fragments of sizes 1 or 2 units).

The request generation component generates allocation and deallocation requests. For allocation requests, the component specifies the

process ID of the process for which memory is requested as well as the number of memory units being requested. For this simulation,

assume that memory is requested for each process only once. For deallocation requests, the component specifies the process ID of the

process whose memory has to be deallocated. For this simulation, assume that the entire memory allocated to a process is deallocated on

a deallocation request. You may generate these requests based on some specific criteria, e.g., at random or from a memory

allocation/deallocation trace obtained from some source.

There are three performance parameters that your simulation should calculate for the chosen two techniques: average number of external

fragments, average allocation time in terms of the average number of nodes traversed in allocation, and the percentage of times an

allocation request is denied.

Generate 10,000 requests using the request generation component, and for each request, invoke the appropriate function of the Memory

component for each of the memory allocation/deallocation techniques. After every request, update the three performance parameters for

each of the techniques. The statistics reporting component prints the value of the three parameters for the two techniques at the end.

You will submit four separate files to the dropbox for Week 4:

1. C or C++ program (source code)

2. Executable file (object)


7/27/2014 Operating Systems with Lab… 3/3

3. Instructions to execute the program

4. Analysis of the results for the chosen allocation/deallocation technique

The program for the main memory allocation/deallocation for the first chosen technique is due this week. This program is to be written in

C or C++ programming language on a Linux environment. The second technique is due on Week 5.

IMPORTANT: Please make sure that any questions or clarification about these labs are addressed early.

i L A B S T E P S

Main Memory Allocation – Technique 1 (50 points) Back to Top

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the complete portfolio refers to the investment in _________.


A- MULTIPLE CHOICE – Answer any 60 of the following (60 points -1 point each)

1– An exchange traded fund that invests in the stocks of large corporations is an example of

A) direct investment.

B) indirect investment.

C) derivative investment.

D) tangible investment.

2- On a net basis, funds in the financial markets are generally supplied by

A) individuals.

B) both individuals and business firms.

C) business firms.

D) the government.

3- Which of the following is an example of a tangible asset.

A) Bonds

B) mutual funds

C) real estate

D) stocks

4. Sarah purchased a stock one year ago at a price of $32 a share. In the past year, she has received four quarterly dividends of $0.75 each. Today she sold the stock for $38 a share. Her capital gain per share is

A) $3.00.

B) $6.00.

C) $(6.00).

D) $9.00.

5. Investment bankers who join together to share the financial risk associated with buying an entire issue of new securities and reselling them to the public is called a(n)

A) selling group.

B) tombstone group.

C) underwriting syndicate.

D) primary market group.

6. Which one of the following statements about the NYSE is correct?

A) Each member of the exchange owns a trading post.

B) Any listed stock may be traded at any of 20 trading posts.

C) Brokerage firms are only permitted to have one individual trading on the floor of the exchange.

D) Buy orders are filled at the lowest price and sell orders are filled at the highest price.

7. The price an individual investor will pay to purchase a stock in the OTC market is the

A) spread.

B) ask price.

C) bid price.

D) broker price.

8. Kayla invested $3,000 and purchased shares of a German corporation when the exchange rate was $1.00 = .70 euro. After six months, she sold all of the shares for 3,180 euros, when the exchange rate was $1.00 = .68 euro. No dividends were paid during the time Heidi owned the shares of stock. What is the amount of Kayla’s gain or loss on this investment?

A) $129.60 gain

B) $1676 gain

C) $1676 loss

D) $250 loss

9. The purchase of stock with cash in the hope of earning a capital gain is known as taking a

A) long position in the stock.

B) short position in the stock.

C) long, margined position in the stock.

D) short, margined position in the stock.

10. Megan bought 200 shares of stock at a price of $10 a share. She used her 70% margin account to make the purchase. Megan sold her stock after a year for $12 a share. Ignoring margin interest and trading costs, what is Megan’s return on investor’s equity for this investment?

A) 67%

B) 29%

C) 14%

D) 10%

11. Emily bought 200 shares of ABC Co. stock for $29.00 per share on 60% margin. Assume she holds the stock for one year and that her interest costs will be $80 over the holding period. Ignoring commissions, what is her percentage return (loss) on invested capital if the stock price went down 10%?

A) -32%

B) -21%

C) -16%

D) -10%

12. Which of the following types of information will NOT be found in major urban newspapers?

A) price quotations for stocks of local interest

B) stories concerning local business leaders

C) interest rates offered by local and national banks

D) real time price quotes for widely held stocks and exchange traded funds

13. Kelly bought a stock at a price of $22.50. She received a $1.75 dividend and sold the stock for $24.75. What is Kelly’s capital gain on this investment?

A) $4.00

B) $3.75

C) $2.25

D) $1.75

14. Inflation tends to have a favorable impact on

A) real estate.

B) common stock.

C) preferred stock.

D) bonds.

15. When calculating the present value of either a future single sum or a future annuity, the applicable interest rate is usually called the

A) yield to maturity.

B) compound interest rate.

C) internal rate of return.

D) discount rate.

16. The closest approximation to the real, risk-free rate of interest is

A) The short-term Treasury bill rate plus the inflation rate.

B) The short-term Treasury bill rate minus the inflation rate.

C) The 10 year Treasury bond rate minus the inflation rate.

D) The 10 year Treasury bond rate minus the 1 year Treasury bill rate.

 17. The markets in general are paying a 2% real rate of return. Inflation is expected to be 3%. ABC stock commands a 6% risk premium. What is the expected rate of return on ABC stock?

A) 2%

B) 5%

C) 8%

D) 11%

18. The required return on Beta stock is 14%. The risk-free rate of return is 4% and the real rate of return is 2%. How much are investors requiring as compensation for risk?

A) 8%

B) 10%

C) 12%

D) 14%

19. You find that the bid and ask prices for a stock are $10.25 and $10.30 respectively. If you purchase or sell the stock you must pay a flat commission of $25. If you buy 100 shares of the stock and immediately sell them, what is your total implied and actual transaction cost in dollars?  A. $50 B. $25 C. $30 D. $55

20. Systematic risks

A) can be eliminated by investing in a variety of economic sectors.

B) are forces that affect all investment categories.

C) result from random firm-specific events.

D) are unique to certain types of investment.

21. When the stock market has bottomed out and is beginning to recover, the best portfolio to own is the one with a beta of

A) 0.0.

B) +0.5.

C) +1.5.

D) +2.0.

22. Which one of the following statements about common stock is true?

A) Common stock can provide attractive capital appreciation opportunities.

B) Dividends generally provide the greatest rate of return on common stocks.

C) Common stocks generally have a negative rate of return over a ten-year period.

D) The DJIA is the best indicator of the overall performance of common stocks.

23. Substituting EBITDA for EBIT when computing the times interest earned ratio will make the company appear

A) more leveraged.

B) less leveraged.

C) more profitable.

D) less efficient.

24. Nadine Enterprises has total assets of $240,000, a debt-equity ratio of 0.60, and a return on assets of 9%. What is the return on equity?

A) 5.4%

B) 5.6%

C) 14.4%

D) 15.0%

25.  Which one of the following is a leverage measure?

A) times interest earned

B) net working capital

C) return on equity

D) net profit margin

26. Assume that you have recently purchased 100 shares in an investment company. Upon examining the balance sheet, you note the firm is reporting $225 million in assets, $30 million in liabilities, and 10 million shares outstanding. What is the Net Asset Value (NAV) of these shares?  A. $25.50 B. $22.50 C. $19.50 D. $1.95

27. The offer price of an open-end fund is $18.00 and the fund is sold with a front-end load of 5%? What is the fund’s NAV?  A. $18.74 B. $17.10 C. $15.40 D. $16.57

28. Whisper numbers are

A) officially published forecast numbers provided by company management.

B) the official released estimates prepared by financial analysts.

C) generally less accurate than the released estimates by analysts.

D) generally higher than the released analysts’ forecasts.

29. You invest in a mutual fund that charges a 3% front end load, 1% total annual fees, and a 0% back end load on Class A shares. The same fund charges 0% front end load, 1% total annual fees, and a 2% back end load on Class B shares. What are the total fees in year one on a Class A investment of $20,000 with no growth in value?  A. 658 B. 794 C. 885 D. 902

30. You invest in a mutual fund that charges a 3% front end load, 1% total annual fees, and a 0% back end load on Class A shares. The same fund charges 0% front end load, 1% total annual fees, and a 2% back end load on Class B shares. What are the total fees in year one on a Class B investment of $20,000 if you redeem shares with no growth in value?  A. 596 B. 794 C. 885 D. 902

31. You put up $50 at the beginning of the year for an investment. The value of the investment grows 4% and you earn a dividend of $3.50. Your HPR was ____.  A. 4.00% B. 3.50% C. 7.00% D. 11.00%

32. The complete portfolio refers to the investment in _________.  A. the risk-free asset B. the risky portfolio C. the risk-free asset and the risky portfolio combined D. the risky portfolio and the index

33. An investment earns 10% the first year, 15% the second year and loses 12% the third year. Your total compound return over the three years was ______.  A. 41.68% B. 11.32% C. 3.64% D. 13.00%

34. Suppose you pay $9,700 for a $10,000 par Treasury bill maturing in three months. What is the holding period return for this investment?  A. 3.01% B. 3.09% C. 12.42% D. 16.71%

35. The rate of return on _____ is known at the beginning of the holding period while the rate of return on ____ is not known until the end of the holding period.  A. risky assets, Treasury bills B. Treasury bills, risky assets C. excess returns, risky assets D. index assets, bonds

36. Most studies indicate that investors’ risk aversion is in the range _____.  A. 1-3 B. 2-4 C. 3-5 D. 4-6  

37. A measure of the riskiness of an asset held in isolation is ____________.  A. beta B. standard deviation C. covariance D. semi-variance

38.  If enough investors decide to purchase stocks they are likely to drive up stock prices thereby causing _____________ and ___________.  A. expected returns to fall; risk premiums to fall B. expected returns to rise; risk premiums to fall C. expected returns to rise; risk premiums to rise D. expected returns to fall; risk premiums to rise

39. Building a zero-investment portfolio will always involve _____________.  A. an unknown mixture of short and long positions B. only short positions C. only long positions D. equal investments in a short and a long position

40. Liquidity is a risk factor that __________.  A. has yet to be accurately measured and incorporated into portfolio management B. is unaffected by trading mechanisms on various stock exchanges C. has no effect on the market value of an asset D. affects bond prices but not stock prices

41. A stock’s alpha measures the stock’s ____________________.  A. expected return B. abnormal return C. excess return D. residual return

42. The measure of risk used in the Capital Asset Pricing Model is ___________.  A. specific risk B. the standard deviation of returns C. reinvestment risk D. beta

43. Random price movements indicate ________.  A. irrational markets B. that prices cannot equal fundamental values C. that technical analysis to uncover trends can be quite useful D. that markets are functioning efficiently

44. Stock prices that are stable over time _______.  A. indicate that prices are useful indicators of true economic value B. indicate that the market is not incorporating new information into current stock prices C. ensure that an economy allocates its resources efficiently D. indicates that returns follow a random walk process

45. If you believe in the __________ form of the EMH, you believe that stock prices reflect all relevant information including information that is available only to insiders.  A. semi-strong B. strong C. weak D. perfect

46. __________ is the return on a stock beyond what would be predicted from market movements alone.  A. A normal return B. A subliminal return C. An abnormal return D. An excess return 

47. A market anomaly refers to _______.  A. an exogenous shock to the market that is sharp but not persistent B. a price or volume event that is inconsistent with historical price or volume trends C. a trading or pricing structure that interferes with efficient buying and selling of securities D. price behavior that differs from the behavior predicted by the efficient market hypothesis

 48. The semi-strong form of the efficient market hypothesis implies that ____________ generate abnormal returns and ____________ generate abnormal returns.  A. Technical analysis cannot; fundamental analysis can B. Technical analysis can; fundamental analysis can C. Technical analysis can; fundamental analysis cannot D. Technical analysis cannot; fundamental analysis cannot

 49. Insiders are able to profitably trade and earn abnormal returns prior to the announcement of positive news. This is a violation of which form of efficiency?  A. Weak form efficiency B. Semi-strong form efficiency C. Strong form efficiency D. Technical analysis

50. In an efficient market and for an investor that believes in a passive approach to investing, what is the primary duty of a portfolio manager?  A. Accounting for results B. Diversification C. Identifying undervalued stocks D. No need for a portfolio manager

51. The lack of adequate trading volume in stock that may ultimately lead to its ability to produce excess returns is referred to as the ____________________.  A. January effect B. liquidity effect C. neglected firm effect D. P/E effect

52. The put/call ratio is a ______ indicator.  A. sentiment B. flow of funds C. market structure D. fundamental

53. Consider two bonds, A and B. Both bonds presently are selling at their par value of $1,000. Each pay interest of $120 annually. Bond A will mature in 5 years while bond B will mature in 6 years. If the yields to maturity on the two bonds change from 12% to 14%, _________.  A. both bonds will increase in value but bond A will increase more than bond B B. both bonds will increase in value but bond B will increase more than bond A C. both bonds will decrease in value but bond A will decrease more than bond B D. both bonds will decrease in value but bond B will decrease more than bond A

54. A high amount of short interest is typically considered as a __________ signal and contrarians may consider it as a _________ signal.  A. bearish; bullish B. bullish; bearish C. bearish; false D. bullish; false

55. An investor holds a very conservative portfolio invested for retirement but she takes some extra cash she earned from her year-end bonus and buys gold futures. She appears to be engaging in ___________.  A. overconfidence B. representativeness C. forecast errors D. mental accounting

56. If mutual fund portfolios are heavy in cash, market contrarians may interpret this as what kind of signal?  A. Buy signal B. Sell signal C. Hold signal D. This is not interpreted as a signal

57. Bonds rated _____ or better by Standard and Poor’s are considered investment grade.  A. AA B. BBB C. BB D. CCC

58. The __________ of a bond is computed as the ratio of coupon payments to market price.  A. nominal yield B. current yield C. yield to maturity D. yield to call

59. Which of the following bonds would most likely sell at the lowest yield?  A. A callable debenture B. A putable mortgage bond C. A callable mortgage bond D. A putable debenture

60. A 1% decline in yield will have the least effect on the price of the bond with a _________.  A. 10-year maturity, selling at 80 B. 10-year maturity, selling at 100 C. 20-year maturity, selling at 80 D. 20-year maturity, selling at 100

61. Yields on municipal bonds are generally lower than yields on similar corporate bonds because of differences in _________.  A. marketability B. risk C. taxation D. call protection

62. If interest rates are expected to rise, then Joe Hill should ____.  A. prefer the Wildwood bond to the Asbury bond B. prefer the Asbury bond to the Wildwood bond C. be indifferent between the Wildwood bond and the Asbury bond D. there is not enough information given to tell

63. The price of a bond at the beginning of a period is $980.00 and $975.00 at the end of the period. What is the holding period return if the annual coupon rate is 4.5%?  A. 4.08% B. 4.50% C. 5.10% D. 5.6%

64. All other things equal, which of the following has the longest duration?  A. A 20 year bond with a 10% coupon yielding 10% B. A 20 year bond with a 10% coupon yielding 11% C. A 20 year zero coupon bond yielding 10% D. A 20 year zero coupon bond yielding 11%

65. As a result of bond convexity an increase in a bond’s price when yield to maturity falls is ________ the price decrease resulting from an increase in yield of equal magnitude.  A. greater than B. equivalent to C. smaller than D. The answer is indeterminate.

66. The duration of a 5-year zero coupon bond is ____ years.  A. 4.5 B. 5.0 C. 5.5 D. 3.. 

67. Pension fund managers can generally best bring about an effective reduction in their interest rate risk by holding ___________________.  A. long maturity bonds B. long duration bonds C. short maturity bonds D. short duration bonds

68. The use of leverage is practiced in the futures markets due to the existence of _________.  A. banks B. brokers C. clearinghouse D. margin

69. Perfect timing ability is equivalent to having __________ on the market portfolio.  A. a call option B. a futures contract C. a put option D. a forward contract

70. Active portfolio managers try to construct a risky portfolio with _______.  A. a higher Sharpe measure than a passive strategy B. a lower Sharpe measure than a passive strategy C. the same Sharpe measure as a passive strategy D. very few securities

B- TRUE/FALSE- Answer any 15 out of the following (15 points-1 point each)

1-In the financial markets, individuals are net demanders of funds.

2-Under current tax laws, most taxpayers will pay a lower tax rate on capital gains than on income from wages.

3-Capital markets deal exclusively in stock. Money markets deal exclusively in debt instruments.

4-Securities that trade in the over-the-counter market are called unlisted securities.

5- Diversification is the inclusion of a number of different investments in a portfolio with the goal of increasing returns or reducing risk.

6-On-line trading has greatly lowered greatly lowered the cost of buying and selling stock as well as greatly increasing the speed of transactions.

7-Descriptive information might include the company’s lines of business, a list of major competitors, and recent changes in management.

8- An investor who requires a 7% rate of return should be willing to pay $934.58 now to receive $1,000 at the end of one year.

9- Sydney invested $10,000 for an indefinite period at 5% per year. At the end of each year, she receives a a $500 check for interest earned. This type of account pays simple interest.

10-$10,000 invested in the NASDAQ Composite at the beginning of 1995 would have increased in value to over $50,000 by the end of 1999.

11– High dividend payout ratios are more of a concern to analysts than low payout ratios.

12-The dividend valuation model (DVM) is very sensitive to the growth rate (g) being used, because it affects both the model’s numerator and its denominator.

13– Advocates of the weak-form efficient market hypothesis claim that past price movements are the best predictors of future price movements.

14- For technical analysts, the forces of supply and demand have an important effect on the prices of securities.

15- Bonds are typically a good investment choice for an individual who is seeking long-term preservation of capital.

16-The risk premium component of a bond’s market interest rate is related to the characteristics of the particular bond and its issuer.

17– According to the expectations hypothesis, if investors anticipate higher rates of inflation in the future, the yield curve will be down sloping.

18- If a bond’s yield to maturity is lower than its coupon rate, the bond will sell at a discount.

19- When developing an asset allocation scheme, it is best to weight each type of asset equally.

20– Investors need to monitor economic and market activity to assess the potential impact these factors can have on their investment portfolios.

C- QUESTIONS/ANSWERS- Answer any 5 of the following ( 25 points- 5 points each)

1) Discuss the relationship between stock prices and investors’ beliefs about the business cycle.

2) What is the advantage of charting the price of a security over a period of time?

3) Zachary has purchased an investment that he expects to produce income of $3,000 at the end of the first year and $4,000 at the end of the second year. If he requires an 8% rate of return compounded annually, what is the maximum amount that he can pay and still earn the required rate of return?

4) Over the past 4 years, the annual rates of return on stock of Brown & Warren Inc. have been -2%, 4%, 14% and 6%, respectively, over the past four years. Compute the standard deviation of these returns.

5) Dr. Zweibel’s portfolio consists of four stocks: AZMN, 35%, beta 2.4; MKR, 20%, beta 1.6; ABDE, 25%, beta 1.8; and SBUK, 20%, beta 2.1. Compute Dr. Z’s portfolio beta. Does he seem to be a conservative or aggressive investor?

6) Why do some companies split their stock?

7) ROE = (net profit margin)(total asset turnover)(equity multiplier). What is the advantage of using this expanded version of the ROE formula versus using the simplified version which is net income divided by total equity?

8) The common stock of Peachtree Paper, Inc., is currently selling for $40 a share. A dividend of $2.00 per share was just paid. You are estimating that this dividend will grow at a constant rate of 10%.

(a) Using the constant growth DVM model, what is your required rate of return if $40 is a reasonable trading price? (Show all work.)

(b) If Peachtree Papers is a new company that produces a relatively unknown product, is the constant growth model a good valuation method for a potential investor to use? Justify your answer.

9) Explain the concept of bond immunization and the benefits derived from using this technique.

10) Explain why closed-end funds can sell at prices other than the fund’s NAV.

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  • Demonstrate compliance with healthcare data sets (Blooms 3)


Part I: Review the information on Data Sets from your lesson. Study the Table 1 provided in the lesson. Create your own table with 3 columns and copy the information from the table in the lesson for the first 2 columns for DEEDS, MDS, OASIS, UACDS, and UHDDS.

Part II: Research each of these online and/or in the Peden textbook

 – In the 3rd column, show 4 data elements that are required for each of the data sets.

Part III: Open the inpatient record provided as an attachment below

– Analyze the documentation in the record to see if it would meet the requirement for the UHDDS data elements you included in your table.

– Type a Yes or a No after each of the data elements to indicate if you were able to find the data element in the chart.

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the exacting organizational culture is interested in

Question 1

Both individual ethics and organizational ethics have an impact on an employee’s


[removed]personal happiness.
[removed]fitness level.
[removed]ethical intention.

Question 2

Which of the following is not a form of retaliation commonly experienced by whistle-blowers?


[removed]Relocation or reassignment
[removed]No promotion or raises
[removed]The cold shoulder by coworkers
[removed]Exclusion from work activities
[removed]Praise by supervisors for their honesty

Question 3

Motivation is defined as


[removed]a person’s incentive or drive to work.
[removed]a force within the individual that focuses his or her behavior on achieving a goal.
[removed]personal ambition without regard to the impact on others.
[removed]a desire to be finished with a project.
[removed]individual goals.

Question 4

The ability to influence the behavior of others by offering them something desirable is best described as


[removed]coercive power.
[removed]reward power.
[removed]expert power.
[removed]legitimate power.
[removed]referent power.

Question 5

The exacting organizational culture is interested in


[removed]performance but has little concern for employees.
[removed]investors’ impressions of profitability.
[removed]maintaining a strong corporate culture.
[removed]employees and performance.
[removed]employees’ impressions

Question 6

The ________ leader demands instantaneous obedience and focuses on punishing wrong behavior, achievement, initiative, and self-control.



Question 7

To motivate employees, an organization offers ________ to ________ employees to work toward organizational objectives.


[removed]punishment; force
[removed]peer pressure; guilt
[removed]incentives; encourage
[removed]rewards; bribe
[removed]threats; frighten

Question 8

A cultural audit may be used to identify


[removed]how cultured a firm’s employees are.
[removed]unethical employees.
[removed]unethical organizations.
[removed]an organization’s culture.
[removed]organizational structure.

Question 9

The ultimate “stick” associated with the FSGO is fines or probation, which involves on-site observation by consultants, monitoring of the company’s ethical compliance efforts, and


[removed]reporting to the U.S. Sentencing Commission on the company’s progress in avoiding misconduct.
[removed]installation of an ethics hotline.
[removed]payment of any penalties levied.
[removed]appointment of an appropriate high-level manager to oversee the company’s program.
[removed]divestiture of all assets.

Question 10

Organizational ________ can contribute to diminished employee trust and increased employee turnover.


[removed]leadership succession
[removed]compensation policies
[removed]ethics programs

Question 11

Which of the following strives to create order by requiring that employees identify with and commit to specific required conduct?


[removed]Conduct orientation
[removed]Values orientation
[removed]Coercive orientation
[removed]Obedience orientation
[removed]Compliance orientation

Question 12

In the absence of ethics programs, employees are likely to make decisions based on


[removed]their observations of how their coworkers and superiors behave.
[removed]how they and their family members behave at home.
[removed]their conscience.
[removed]their religious values.
[removed]their family values

Question 13

A strong ethics program includes all of the following elements except


[removed]a clause promising good stock market performance.
[removed]a written code of conduct or ethics.
[removed]formal ethics training.
[removed]auditing, monitoring, enforcement, and revision of standards.
[removed]an ethics officer to oversee the program

Question 14

For an ethical compliance program to properly function,


[removed]consistent enforcement and disciplinary action are essential.
[removed]employees must be monitored using any means necessary.
[removed]it is not necessary to set measurable program objectives.
[removed]the same program should be used in all countries of operation, regardless of cultural differences.
[removed]the company must wait until after misconduct occurs to develop a means of preventing

Question 15

In the long run, a(n) ________ orientation may be better for companies, perhaps because it increases employees’ awareness of ethics issues at work.



Question 16

A(n) ________ orientation creates order by requiring that employees identify with and commit to specific required conduct, whereas a(n) ________ orientation strives to develop shared standards.


[removed]obedience; values
[removed]compliance; values
[removed]legal; values
[removed]values; compliance
[removed]values; obedience

Question 17

Which of the following is probably the best way for a manager to provide good ethics leadership?


[removed]Hire an ethics officer
[removed]Write a code of conduct
[removed]Conduct ethics audits
[removed]Set a good example
[removed]Only hire good employees

Question 18

________ is an independent assessment of the quality, accuracy, and completeness of a company’s social or ethics report.



Question 19

Which of the following does not have a significant impact on the success of an ethics program?


[removed]Senior management’s ability to successfully incorporate ethics into the organization
[removed]The quality of communication
[removed]The size of the company
[removed]The content of the company’s code of ethics
[removed]The frequency of communication regarding the ethical code and program

Question 20

Retaliation against employees that report misconduct is a problem in ________ cultures.


[removed]weak ethical
[removed]strong ethical
[removed]high power distance

Question 21

Ethics audits can help companies identify potential ________ so they can implement plans to eliminate or reduce them before they reach crisis dimensions.


[removed]competitive advantages
[removed]risks and liabilities
[removed]productivity issues
[removed]technological glitches
[removed]market opportunities

Question 22

Which of the following is not a benefit of ethics auditing?


[removed]It can improve a firm’s performance and effectiveness.
[removed]It can increase a firm’s attractiveness to investors.
[removed]It can identify potential risks.
[removed]It can harm relationships with stakeholders.
[removed]It can reduce the risks associated with misconduct.

Question 23

Which of the following is not a step in the ethics auditing process?


[removed]Secure commitment of top executives and directors.
[removed]Review organizational mission, goals, values and policies, and define ethical priorities.
[removed]Report the results to the U.S. Sentencing Commission.
[removed]Collect and analyze relevant information.
[removed]Verify the results.

Question 24

What should be the first step in the auditing process?


[removed]Secure the commitment of top executives and directors
[removed]Define the scope of the audit
[removed]Establish a committee to oversee the audit
[removed]Collect and analyze data
[removed]Review organizational mission, goals, values, and policies

Question 25

________ are a primary stakeholder group and should be included in the ethics auditing process because their loyalty determines an organization’s success.


[removed]Special interest groups
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valdosta blazeview

Introduction to Public Administration POLS 3600 – IC1

Spring 2017: Short Session 1 Professor: Nandan Kumar Jha, PhD Office: West Hall 237 E-mail: (Email is the best way to reach me and I will try to respond within 24 hours on working days and within 24-72 hours to email received during weekends) Phone: 229.293.6058 Office Hours: by email and by appointment only Class Meeting Times: Online Classroom: Desire2Learn Credit Hours: 3 CRN: 22955 Please Note: You are required to read the entire syllabus. This course syllabus provides a general plan for the course; deviations may be necessary. If a change does occur, sufficient notice will be given in class and via e-mail. Course Description This course will focus on the study of public administration processes and underlying theories within American government structures. Emphasis is on the pragmatic aspects of current government leadership and public agency management. This course provides a survey of national public administration with emphasis on the political processes within the surrounding administrative agencies. Topics include development of the administrative function, policy formulation and budgeting, the relations of administrators to Congress, interest groups, courts and the public. Course Objective This course is designed for students to learn about general public administration. Public administration is a field that studies how public policies are implemented through the public and nonprofit sectors, as well as through partnerships and contracts with the private sector. Course Goals:

 Gain understanding on how public policies are administered

 Gain understanding about organizational theories as they pertain to the public and nonprofit sectors

 Comprehend the impact of the “iron triangle” and other influences on the bureaucracy

 Build understanding on the internal processes that support the bureaucracy such as human resource management and financial management


 Build the capability to critically determine solutions to common bureaucratic problems and improve decision-making skills

 Will be skilled in inquiry, logical reasoning, and critical analysis, enabling arguments, synthesize facts and information, and offer logical arguments leading to creative solutions to problems

Required Textbook/Readings The Politics of the Administrative Process, 6th Edition, Donald F. Kettl. ISBN: 978-1- 4833-3293-2 Required Technology

This course uses Desire2Learn as a course management system. If you have problems accessing any of the materials, The IT Help Desk provides support Monday – Thursday, 8:00 AM– 6:00 PM, Friday: 8:00 AM – 5:00 PM, Saturday: 12:00 PM – 5:00 PM, and Sunday: 1:00 PM – 6:00 PM Contact the IT Helpdesk at (229) 245-4357. You can also get assistance by contacting the USG D2L Help Center at or the BlazeVIEW Help Center TOLL FREE – 1-855-772- 0423 for help at any time, day or night. Technology issues may not be used as an excuse for not submitting or completing assignments, so be sure to plan ahead. Considerations will be allowed when there are system-wide errors or issues that affect the entire class. Attendance Policy Class attendance is mandatory. If you are not able to complete class requirements on a regular basis, you must drop the course and re-take it in a future semester. If a student is irregular and missing more than two assignments during the semester without any valid excuse, she/he will lose 5 points for each such absence. Exams & Assignments Assignments Assignment Points Quizzes (6) 138 Readings Discussions (7) 42 Final Exam 100 Total 280

Grading Scale 252– 280 A 224 – 251 B 196 – 223 C 168 – 195 D


Below 168 F

Discussions about Readings- 7 worth 6 points each = 42 points (due by Midnight Sunday of the week assigned)

There will be seven (7) weekly discussion questions about the assigned readings. The questions can be answered when the student completes the readings, but the student will not post the discussion response until the assigned week. For each question, the student will answer the assigned question, support his/her answer incorporating the readings, and respond to the posted responses of at least two classmates. Rubric for Discussion Questions about Readings 6 points 4 Points 2 point Responses are posted by deadline; the question is answered thoroughly incorporating the readings into the answer. The student uses the “Reply” button to keep answers in threads and replies to at least two other students’ responses with something more substantial than a basic “I agree” or “I disagree” type of comment.

Responses are posted by deadline; the question is answered thoroughly incorporating the readings into the answer.

Responses are posted by deadline

Weekly Quizzes – 6 worth 23 points= 138 points (due by Midnight Sunday of the week assigned)

There will be six (6) weekly quizzes of 25 questions that will count toward your grade. Each will cover the assigned readings for that week and will have a time limit of 45 minutes to complete. You will have one attempt at completing the quiz so each students needs to make sure to schedule time to complete the quiz before he/she starts the quiz. Each quiz will be available to take from Wednesday-Sunday of the assigned week and students may take the quiz anytime during that period. There is a great deal of material in the chapters, so it is imperative that students read the material before taking the quiz.

Final- 100 points

There will a 50 questions final at the end of the course. The questions will come from the material provided in the text.


Major Academic Dates This is an eight week course and it is important that students understand that the

certain deadlines will be different than those for full semester (16-week) courses. For example, withdrawals will have to be done before the midterm of the 8-week session and not the midterm of the 16-week semester. The following is a table with important dates for this course.

Spring Semester 2017 (Short Session I)

Classes Begin/End January 09 – March 09

Last Day to Add January 12

Last Day to Drop January 12

Login Deadline / Attendance Verification

January 20 by midnight

Midpoint Date – Last Day to withdraw with a “W”

February 10

Holidays/Breaks NA

Final Exam Day March 03

Class Schedule Schedule is tentative and may be subject to change.

Date Reading Assignments Assignments 01/09- 01/15 Wk. 1

Kettl Chapters 1 & 2: Chapter 1: Accountability Chapter 2: What Is Public Administration?

Discussion Question: Discussion 1: Introduce yourself to the class. Include in your response your experience with online classes and state how you would define public administration. Quiz 1 (Open 01/11 thru 01/15; Due NLT Midnight 01/15)

01/16- 01/22 Wk. 2

Kettl Chapters 3 & 4 Chapter 3: What Government Does And How It Does It Chapter 4: Organizational Theory

Discussion Question: Discussion 2: The text discusses the functions of government at the federal, state, and local levels. Which level do you feel has the greatest impact on the lives of American citizens? Why do you feel this way? QUIZ 2 (Open 01/18 thru 01/22; Due NLT Midnight 01/22)


01/23- 01/29 Wk. 3

Kettl Chapters 5 & 6 Chapter 5: The Executive Branch Chapter 6: Organization Problems

Discussion Question: Discussion 3: What is “government by proxy” and how do you feel about it? In your opinion, does it increase or hinder government transparency and accountability? QUIZ 3 (Open 01/25 thru 01/29; Due NLT Midnight 01/29)

01/30- 02/05 Wk. 4

Kettl Chapters 7 & 8 Chapter 7: Administrative Reform Chapter 8: The Civil Service

Discussion Question: Discussion 4: Which of the three major administrative reform strategies—downsizing, reengineering, or continuous improvement—do you find to be the most compelling and why? QUIZ 4 (Open 02/01 thru 02/05; Due NLT Midnight 02/05)

02/06- 02/12 Wk. 5

Kettl Chapters 9 & 10 Chapter 9: Human Capital Chapter 10: Decision Making

Discussion Question: Discussion 5: Comment on the Deborah Stone quote reprinted in the text: “Because politics is driven by how people interpret information, much political activity is an effort to control interpretations.” What do you think of this idea that even information is political in the way that interpretations are controlled and perpetuated? QUIZ 5 (Open 02/08 thru 02/12; Due NLT Midnight 02/12)

02/13- 02/19 Wk. 6

Kettl Chapters 11 & 12 Chapter 11: Budgeting Chapter 12: Implementation

Discussion Question: Discussion 6: Within congressional budgeting, there were traditionally two main processes: authorizations and appropriations. Which do you think is more important and why? QUIZ 6 (Open 02/15 thru 02/19; Due NLT Midnight 02/19)

02/20- 02/26 Wk. 7

Kettl Chapters 13 & 14 Chapter 13: Regulation and the Courts Chapter 14: Executive Power and Political Accountability

Discussion Question: Discussion 7: Since many consider Congress to be the “most democratic” of all the branches because its leaders are elected by district and there are so many congressional leaders who have to act together for something to happen, how does American democracy benefit and/or suffer from congressional oversight? Quiz 7 (Open 02/22 thru 02/26; Due NLT Midnight 02/26)

02/27- 03/03 Wk. 8

FINAL EXAM WEEK Final Exam- Students will be able to take the exam any time beginning 12:00 A.M. 03/01 through Midnight 03/03.

Classroom Policies: Make-Up Work


Make up work or alternative assignments will be determined by the

instructor and at the sole discretion of the instructor. These assignments may or may not exactly duplicate the original and will not entitle other students to the same alternatives since they may not have experienced the same situations. Communications regarding assignments:

Students are responsible for communicating with the instructor if they need

clarification on assignment instructions and grading. Students should initiate such

communication well before the due date of submission of an assignment. Students

should not seek clarity about assignment instructions after receiving grade for a

particular assignment.


Students are required to submit assignments online. Students are also

responsible for their access to internet to meet course responsibilities in a timely

manner. Students must keep track of all updates via VSU email and Blazeview. If an

update is scheduled at the same time as the due date for an assignment, students must

submit their assignments beforehand or inform the instructor at the earliest.

If students experience any technical difficulties, then they will need to contact the

BlazeView help desk available through D2L. Any student who does not follow this

procedure will have his/her assignment counted as “late.” Students should keep copies

of all communications with Blazeview helpdesk, VSU IT help desk and use them later to

justify late submission to the instructor.

Policies for missed assignments, make-up assignments, late assignments:

Missed Assignments: If a student misses an assignment or submits an assignment late,

he/she need to submit acceptable documentation to the instructor.

Make-Up Work: After satisfactory review of the documentation provided in support of

the excuse, make up work or alternative assignments will be determined by the sole

discretion of the professor. These assignments may or may not exactly duplicate the

original and will not entitle other students to the same alternatives since they may not

have experienced the same situations.


Students should check Blazeview course page and their Blazeview email account

regularly. I will communicate with you via your Blazeview email. I will post

announcements, readings, and exam grades on Blazeview. You are responsible for

downloading course materials from Blazeview. If you are unable to view or download


course materials, it is your responsibility to email the instructor in a timely manner.

Lack of disk space in personal computers or similar types of reasons are not acceptable

reasons for not downloading course materials.

Contacting the Instructor

E-Mail Protocol: Most of the communications in this course will be via e-mail.

Generally, e-mails to the instructor will be answered within 24-72 hours. All e-mail

communication must:

 Be through the VSU email system and not personal e-mail accounts;

 Be properly addressed and follow appropriate Netiquette;

 Include the student’s name and section number for the class; in addition any attachment sent to the instructor must include the sender’s name, course number, and project title as part of the file name, e.g., Smith_POLS_3600IC1_Assign1.doc.

Telephonic Conversation Protocol: If you would like to talk with your instructor,

schedule an appointment one week in advance for phone conversation.


The instructor will grade assignments within a reasonable period of time. Grades

will be made available to students within a week from the due date of submission of any

assignment. Instructor will provide feedback to each student. However, feedback will

not be given on the final exam as there is no time for students to incorporate such



Students must use professional language in communication in class and via email

and phone. After two warnings, the instructor reserves the right to drop a student from

class due to unprofessional behavior.


The instructor reserves the privilege of making changes to the syllabus –

including changes to the reading schedule, assignment expectations, and even grading

structure. Students will be given fair warning of any changes.


At the end of the term, all students will be expected to complete Student Opinion

of Instruction survey (SOI). Students will receive an email notification through their

VSU email address when the SOI is available (generally at least one week before the end


of the term). SOI responses are anonymous to instructors/administrators. Instructors

will be able to view only a summary of all responses after they have submitted final

grades. While instructors will not be able to view individual responses or to access any of

the data until after final grade submission, they will be able to see which students have

or have not completed their SOIs. These compliance and non-compliance reports will

not be available once instructors are able to access the results. Complete information

about the SOIs, including how to access the survey and a timetable for this term is

available at SOI Procedures and Timelines (located at


Don’t. This class has zero-tolerance for academic misconduct. Sustained

violations will result in a grade of “F” for the class as well as any other action permitted

by the University. Review the Student Handbook at if you need further clarification. In addition,

by taking this course, you agree that all required course work may be subject to

submission for textual similarity review to SafeAssign, a tool within BlazeVIEW. For

more information on the use of SafeAssign at VSU see SafeAssign for Students at

From VSU’s Academic Integrity Code (the full code is available at Academic Honesty

Policies and Procedures): “Academic integrity is the responsibility of all VSU faculty and

students. Faculty members should promote academic integrity by including clear

instruction on the components of academic integrity and clearly defining the penalties

for cheating and plagiarism in their course syllabi. Students are responsible for knowing

and abiding by the Academic Integrity Policy as set forth in the Student Code of Conduct

and the faculty members’ syllabi. All students are expected to do their own work and to

uphold a high standard of academic ethics.”

Turnitin, a plagiarism prevention tool, is available to all faculty through BlazeVIEW,

VSU’s online course management system. All faculty should include the following

announcement in their syllabi: “By taking this course, you agree that all required course

work may be subject to submission for textual similarity review to Turnitin, a tool within

BlazeVIEW. For more information on the use of Turnitin at VSU see Turnitin for

Students at



Valdosta State University (VSU) is committed to creating a diverse and inclusive work and learning environment free from discrimination and harassment. VSU is


dedicated to creating an environment where all campus community members feel valued, respected, and included. Valdosta State University prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, ethnicity, national origin, sex (including pregnancy status, sexual harassment and sexual violence), sexual orientation, gender identity, religion, age, national origin, disability, genetic information, or veteran status, in the University’s programs and activities as required by applicable laws and regulations such as Title IX. The individual designated with responsibility for coordination of compliance efforts and receipt of inquiries concerning nondiscrimination policies is the University’s Title IX Coordinator: Maggie Viverette, Director of the Office of Social Equity,, 1208 N. Patterson St., Valdosta State University, Valdosta, Georgia 31608, 229-333- 5463.


Students with disabilities who are experiencing barriers in this course may contact the Access Office for assistance in determining and implementing reasonable accommodations. The Access Office is located in Farbar Hall. The phone numbers are 229-245-2498 (V), 229-375-5871 (VP) and 229-219-1348 (TTY). For more information, please visit VSU’s Access Office or email:


 Written work has to submitted in a word or pdf file;

 Students need to have access to a working computer and access to the

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oregonstate instructure

Assignment #3 ‐ Financial Statement Geography and Ra�os Started: Jan 30 at 6:48pm

Quiz Instruc�ons

WHAT:  Use the PDFs and spreadsheet below to answer the questions.  You will need to use the “Quick Guide” often as a reference so I would recommend printing it.

Financial Statement Quick Guide.pdf         Ratio Grid.pdf          GoPro Income Statement and Balance Sheet.xlsx

WHY: Accounting information is critical for making business decisions.  Without an understanding of where this information is located (i.e. “geography”) and how to analyze this information (i.e. ratios, common sizing, etc.) it is very difficult to be an effective decision maker.  This assignment is designed to give you a basic understanding of where the information is, how to analyze it, and how to use it in decisions. 

  1 pts

HTML Editor

Question 1

Use the attached PDF “Ratio Grid” – name the company and the ratio used to answer the question

Which company(ies) are financing the majority of their assets with debt?

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1 pts

HTML Editor

Question 2

Use the attached PDF “Ratio Grid” – name the company and the ratio used to answer the question

Which company appears to be the most overvalued?

Font Sizes Paragraph

1/30/2017 Quiz: Assignment #3 – Financial Statement Geography and Ratios 2/7


  1 pts

HTML Editor

Question 3

Use the data from the GoPro Income Statement and Balance Sheet file to answer the question.  Round to the hundredths place (i.e. 5.63):

What was GoPro’s receivables turnover ratio in 2015?  What was it for 2012?  In which year were they turning receivables into cash more quickly?

Font Sizes Paragraph


1 pts

HTML Editor

Question 4

Use the data from the GoPro Income Statement and Balance Sheet file to answer the question.  Round to the hundredths place (i.e. 2.86):

What was GoPro’s current ratio as of 12/31/2015?  What was it as of 12/31/2012?  When were they more liquid?

Font Sizes Paragraph


2 ptsQuestion 5

1/30/2017 Quiz: Assignment #3 – Financial Statement Geography and Ratios 3/7

HTML Editor

Use the data from the GoPro Income Statement and Balance Sheet file to answer the question. 

A) What was GoPro’s Market Cap on 12/31/2015 based on 140,570,000 shares outstanding and a share price of $9.15?  B) What was GoPro’s Earnings Per Share for 2015 based on 140,570,000 shares outstanding (format as currency e.g. $1.59)?  C) Based on the calculations in A and B ­ what is GoPro’s P/E Ratio?  D) Is this P/E ratio high or low relative to the average for Fortune 500 companies?

Font Sizes Paragraph


1 pts

HTML Editor

Question 6

Use the data from the GoPro Income Statement and Balance Sheet file to answer the question. Format as a % rounded to the tenths (i.e. 12.3%).

What was GoPro’s gross margin in 2015? What was it in 2012?  In which year were they more efficient at producing their product?

Font Sizes Paragraph


1 pts

HTML Editor

Question 7

  Use the data from the GoPro Income Statement and Balance Sheet file to answer the question.

How much did they pay in taxes in 2013?

1/30/2017 Quiz: Assignment #3 – Financial Statement Geography and Ratios 4/7

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1 pts

HTML Editor

Question 8

Use the data from the GoPro Income Statement and Balance Sheet file to answer the question.

A) How much did revenue increase/decrease from 2012 to 2015 in dollars?  B) What percentage increase/decrease is


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1 ptsQuestion 9





  If you were a vendor/supplier extending credit to a potential client for 30 days, which type of ratio would be most important to look at?

1/30/2017 Quiz: Assignment #3 – Financial Statement Geography and Ratios 5/7

  1 ptsQuestion 10

Determine what trends are increasing or decreasing profits.

Make comparisons to the past and peers

Determine a company’s cash position.

Determine the company’s liquidity

If you were analyzing a company through income statement common sizing, what would this analysis let you do (check all those that apply)?

1 pts

HTML Editor

Question 11

In the common sized income statement found below you will note XYZ Company’s revenue increased from 2015 to 2016, but net profits decreased.  Based on what you see, what was the primary cause?

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1/30/2017 Quiz: Assignment #3 – Financial Statement Geography and Ratios 6/7

1 ptsQuestion 12

The increase in revenue between 2013 and 2014.

The increase in cash and short term investments between 2013 and 2014

The increase in total equity between 2013 and 2014

The increase in liabilities between 2013 and 2014.

Use the data from the GoPro Income Statement and Balance Sheet file to answer the question.

Go Pro had an initial public offering on June 24, 2014.  Where does one see evidence of this in the financial statements

(check all those that apply)?

1 pts

How much did a company do in sales last year? [ Choose ]

How much debt does a company have?  [ Choose ]

How much money did a company “make” last

year? [ Choose ]

How much cash operations is generating?  [ Choose ]

How much a company owes its vendors?  [ Choose ]

Question 13

Which financial statement would be used to answer the following questions.

1 ptsQuestion 14

Look at the balance sheets for ABC, Inc. and XYZ, Inc below. Which company has a “stronger” balance sheet and why is it

stronger (points are based on your explanation for why it is stronger).

1/30/2017 Quiz: Assignment #3 – Financial Statement Geography and Ratios 7/7

Not saved  

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Submit Quiz

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the default accounting number format adds dollar signs and ____ decimal places to the data.

with Microsoft®

Office 2010 V O L U M E 1


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Office 2010 V O L U M E


Prentice Hall Boston Columbus Indianapolis New York San Francisco Upper Saddle River

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Townsend, Kris. Skills for success with Office 2010 / by Kris Townsend.

p. cm. ISBN 978-0-13-703257-0 (alk. paper) 1. Microsoft Office. 2. Business—Computer programs. I, Title.

HF5548.4.M525T692 201 I 005.5—dc22 2010016531

Editor in Chief: Michael Payne AVP/Executive Acquisitions Editor: Stephanie Wall Product Development Manager: Eileen Bien Calabro Editorial Project Manager: Virginia Gitariglia Development Editor: Nancy Lamm Editorial Assistant: Nicole Sam AVP/Director of Online Programs, Media: Richard Keaveny AVP/Dircctor of Product Development, Media: Lisa Strife Editor—Digital Learning & Assessment: Paul Gentile Product Development Manager, Media: Calhi Projitko Media Project Manager, Editorial: Alana Coles Media Project Manager, Production: John Cassar Director of Marketing: Kate Valentine Senior Marketing Manager: Tori Olscn Alves Marketing Coordinator SI/<<I« Osterlitz

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Credits and acknowledgments borrowed from other sources and reproduced, with permission, in this textbook appear on appropriate page within text. Microsoft’ and Windows* are registered trademarks of the Microsoft Corporation in the U.S.A. and other countries. Screen shots and icons reprinted with permission from the Microsoft Corporation. This book is not sponsored or endorsed by or affiliated with the Microsoft Corporation. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall. All lights reserved. Manufactured in the United States of America. This publication is protected by Copyright, and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. To obtain permission(s) to use material from this work, please submit a written request to Pearson Education, Inc., Permissions Department, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, 07458 Many of the designations by manufacturers and seller to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this book, and the publisher was aware of a trademark claim, the designations have been printed in initial caps or all caps.

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1 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2

1 S B N – I 0 : 0 – 1 3 – 7 0 3 2 5 7 – 9

I S B N – 1 3 : 9 7 8 – 0 – 1 3 – 7 0 3 2 5 7 – 0

Contents in Brief

Common Features Chapter 1 Common Features ot Office 2010 2

More Skills 26

Word Chapter 1 Create Documents with Word 2010 30

More Skills 54 Chapter 2 Format and Organize Text 64

More Skills 88 Chapter 3 Work with Graphics, Tabs, and Tables 98

More Skills 122 Chapter 4 Apply Special Text, Paragraph and

Document Formats 132 More Skills 156

Excel Chapter 1 Create Workbooks with Excel 2010 166

More Skills 190

Chapter 2 Create Charts 200 More Skills 224

Chapter 3 Manage Multiple Worksheets 234 More Skills 258

Chapter 4 Use Excel Functions and Tables 268 More Skills 292

Access Chapter 1 Work with Databases and

Create Tables 302 More Skills 326

Chapter 2 M a n a g e Datasheets and Create Queries 336 More Skills 360

Chapter 3 Create Forms 370 More Skills 394

Chapter 4 Create Reports 404 More Skills 428

PowerPoint Chapter 1 Getting Started with PowerPoint 2010 438

More Skills 462 Chapter 2 Format a Presentation 472

More Skills 496 Chapter 3 Enhance Presentations with Graphics 506

More Skills 530 Chapter 4 Present Data Using Tables, Charts,

and Animation 540 More Skills 564

Integrated Projects Chapter 1 Integrating Word, Excel, A c c e s s ,

and PowerPoint 574 More Skills 598

Chapter 2 More Integrated Projects for Word, Excel, A c c e s s , and PowerPoint 610 More Skills 634

Glossary 646

Index 654

Contents in Brief iii

Table of Contents

C o m m o n Fea tu res C h a p t e r 1 C o m m o n F e a t u r e s of Office 2 0 1 0 2

Skill 1 Start Word and Navigate the Word Window 6 Skill 2 Start Excel and PowerPoint and Work with

Multiple Windows 8 Skill 3 Save Files in New Folders 10 Skill 4 Print and Save Documents 12 Skill 5 Open Student Data Files and Save Copies

Using Save As 14 Skill 6 Type and Edit Text 16 Skill 7 Cut, Copy, and Paste Text 18 Skill 8 Format Text and Paragraphs 20 Skill 9 Use the Ribbon 22

Skill 10 Use Shortcut Menus and Dialog Boxes 24

More Skills More Skills 11 Capture Screens with the Snipping

Tool 26 More Skills 12 Use Microsoft Office Help 26 More Skills 13 Organize Files 26 More Skills 14 Save Documents to Windows Live 26

W o r d C h a p t e r 1 C r e a t e D o c u m e n t s with Word 2 0 1 0 3 0

Skill 1 Create New Documents and Enter Text 34 Skill 2 Edit Text and Use Keyboard Shortcuts 36 Skill 3 Select Text 38 Skill 4 Insert Text from Other Documents 40 Skill 5 Change Fonts, Font Sizes, and Font Styles 42 Skill 6 Insert and Work with Graphics 44 Skill 7 Check Spelling and Grammar 46 Skill 8 Use the Thesaurus and Set Proofing Options 48 Skill 9 Create Document Footers 50

Skill 10 Work with the Print Page and Save Documents in Other Formats 52

More Skills More Skills 11 Split and Arrange Windows 54 More Skills 12 Insert Symbols 54 More Skills 13 Use Collect and Paste to Create a

Document 54 More Skills 14 Insert Screen Shots into Documents 54

C h a p t e r 2 Format a n d O r g a n i z e Text 6 4 Skill 1 Set Document Margins 68 Skill 2 Align Text and Set Indents 70 Skill 3 Modify Line and Paragraph Spacing 72 Skill 4 Format Text Using Format Painter 74 Skill 5 Find and Replace Text 76 Skill 6 Create Bulleted and Numbered Lists 78 Skill 7 Insert and Format Headers and Footers 80 Skill 8 Insert and Modify Footnotes 82 Skill 9 Add Citations 84

Skill 10 Create Bibliographies 86

More Skills More Skills 11 Record AutoCorrect Entries 88 More Skills 12 Use AutoFormat to Create

Numbered Lists 88 More Skills 13 Format and Customize Lists 88 More Skills 14 Manage Document Properties 88

C h a p t e r 3 Work with G r a p h i c s , Tabs , a n d T a b l e s 9 8

Skill 1 Insert Pictures from Files 102 Skill 2 Resize and Move Pictures 104 Skill 3 Format Pictures Using Styles and

Artistic Effects 106 Skill 4 Set Tab Stops 108 Skill 5 Enter Text with Tab Stops 110 Skill 6 Apply Table Styles 112 Skill 7 Create Tables 114 Skill 8 Add Rows and Columns to Tables H6 Skill 9 Format Text in Table Cells 118

Skill 10 Format Tables 120

iv Table of Contents

More Skills More Skills 11 Insert Text Boxes 122 More Skills 12 Format with WordArt 122 More Skills 13 Create Tables from Existing Lists 122 More Skills 14 Insert Drop Caps 122

C h a p t e r 4 A p p l y S p e c i a l T e x t , P a r a g r a p h , a n d D o c u m e n t F o r m a t s 1 3 2

Skill 1 Create Multiple-Column Text 136 Skill 2 Insert a Column Break 138 Skill 3 Apply and Format Text Effects 140 Skill 4 Use and Create Quick Styles 142 Skill 5 Add Borders and Shading to Paragraphs

and Pages 144 Skill 6 Insert and Format Clip Art Graphics 146 Skill 7 Insert SmartArt Graphics 148 Skill 8 Format SmartArt Graphics 150 Skill 9 Create Labels Using Mail Merge 152

Skill 10 Preview and Print Mail Merge Documents 154

More Skil ls More Skills 11 More Skills 12 More Skills 13 More Skills 14

Create Resumes from Templates 156 Create Outlines 156 Prepare Documents for Distribution 156 Preview and Save Documents as Web Pages 156

Exce l C h a p t e r 1 C r e a t e W o r k b o o k s w i t h

Exce l 2 0 1 0 Skill 1 Create and Save New Workbooks Skill 2 Enter Worksheet Data and Merge and

Center Titles Skill 3 Construct Addition and

Subtraction Formulas Skill 4 Construct Multiplication and

Division Formulas Skill 5 Adjust Column Widths and Apply Cell Styles Skill 6 Use the SUM Function Skill 7 Copy Formulas and Functions

Using the Fill Handle

1 6 6 170

Skill 8 Format, Edit, and Check the Spelling of Data 184 Skill 9 Create Footers and Change Page Settings 186

Skill 10 Display and Print Formulas and Scale Worksheets for Printing

More Skil ls More Skills 11

More Skills 12 More Skills 13 More Skills 14

Create New Workbooks from Templates Use Range Names in Formulas Change Themes Manage Document Properties

C h a p t e r 2 Skill 1 Skill 2

Skill 3 Skill 4 Skill 5 Skill 6 Skill 7

Skill 8

Skill 9 Skill 10

C r e a t e C h a r t s Open Existing Workbooks and Align Text Construct and Copy Formulas Containing Absolute Cell References Format Numbers Create Column Charts Format Column Charts Create Pie Charts and Chart Sheets Apply 3-D Effects and Rotate Pie Chart Slices Explode and Color Pie Slices, and Insert Text Boxes Update Charts and Insert WordArt Prepare Chart Sheets for Printing

More Ski l ls More Skills 11 More Skills 12 More Skills 13

Insert and Edit Comments Change Chart Types Copy Excel Data to Word Documents

More Skills 14 Fill Series Data into Worksheet Cells


190 190 190 190

2 0 0 204

206 208 210 212 214


218 220 222

224 224



172 C h a p t e r 3 M a n a g e M u l t i p l e W o r k s h e e t s 2 3 4

172 Skill 1 Work with Sheet Tabs 238

174 Skill 2 Enter and Format Dates 240 174 Skill 3 Clear Cell Contents and Formats 242

176 Skill 4 Move, Copy, Paste, and Paste Options 244

178 Skill 5 Work with Grouped Worksheets 246

180 Skill 6 Use Multiple Math Operators in a Formula 248 Skill 7 Format Grouped Worksheets 250

182 Skill 8 Insert and Move Worksheets 252

Table of Contents v

Skill 9 Construct Formulas That Refer to Cells in Other Worksheets 254

Skill 10 Create Clustered Bar Charts 256

More Skills More Skills 11 Create Organization Charts 258 More Skills 12 Create Line Charts 258 More Skills 13 Set and Clear Print Areas 258 More Skills 14 Insert Hyperlinks 258

C h a p t e r 4 U s e Exce l F u n c t i o n s a n d T a b l e s 2 6 8 Skill 1 Use the SUM and AVERAGE Functions 272 Skill 2 Use the MIN and MAX Functions 274 Skill 3 Move Ranges with Functions,

Add Borders, and Rotate Text 276 Skill 4 Use the IF Function 278 Skill 5 Apply Conditional Formatting with

Custom Formats, Data Bars, and Sparklines 280 Skill 6 Use Find and Replace and Insert

the NOW Function 282 Skill 7 Freeze and Unfreeze Panes 284 Skill 8 Create and Sort Excel Tables 286 Skill 9 Use the Search Filter in Excel Tables 288

Skill 10 Convert Tables to Ranges, Hide Rows and Columns, and Format Large Worksheets 290

More Skills More Skills 11 Apply Conditional Color Scales

with Top and Bottom Rules 292 More Skills 12 Use the Payment (PMT) Function 292 More Skills 13 Create PivotTable Reports 292 More Skills 14 Use Goal Seek 292

A c c e s s C h a p t e r 1 Work with D a t a b a s e s

a n d C r e a t e T a b l e s 3 0 2 Skill 1 Open and Organize Existing Databases 306 Skill 2 Enter and Edit Table Data 308 Skill 3 Create Forms and Enter Data 310 Skill 4 Filter Data in Queries 312 Skill 5 Create, Preview, and Print Reports 314 Skill 6 Create Databases and Tables 316

vi Table of Contents

Skill 7 Change Data Types and Other Field Properties 318

Skill 8 Create Tables in Design View 320 Skill 9 Relate Tables 322

Skill 10 Enter Data in Related Tables 324

More Skills More Skills 11 Compact and Repair Databases 326 More Skills 12 Import Data from Excel 326 More Skills 13 Work with the Attachment Data

Type 326 More Skills 14 Work with the Hyperlink

and Yes/No Data Types 326

C h a p t e r 2 M a n a g e D a t a s h e e t s a n d C r e a t e Q u e r i e s 3 3 6

Skill 1 Find and Replace Data 340 Skill 2 Filter and Sort Datasheets 342 Skill 3 Use the Simple Query Wizard 344 Skill 4 Format Datasheets 346 Skill 5 Add Date and Time Criteria 348 Skill 6 Create Queries in Design View 350 Skill 7 Add Calculated Fields to Queries 352 Skill 8 Work with Logical Criteria 354 Skill 9 Add Wildcards to Query Criteria 356

Skill 10 Group and Total Queries 358

More Skills More Skills 11 Export Queries to Other Fie Formats 360 More Skills 12 Find Duplicate Records 360 More Skills 13 Find Unmatched Records 360 More Skills 14 Create Crosstab Queries 360

C h a p t e r 3 C r e a t e Forms 3 7 0 Skill 1 Use the Form Wizard 374 Skill 2 Format Forms in Layout View 376 Skill 3 Use Forms to Modify Data 378 Skill 4 Use the Blank Form Tool 380 Skill 5 Customize Form Layouts 382 Skill 6 Add Input Masks 384 Skill 7 Apply Conditional Formatting 386 Skill 8 Create One-to-Many Forms 388 Skill 9 Enter Data Using One-to-Many Forms 390

Skill 10 Create Forms from Queries 392

More Skills More Skills 11 Validate Fields 394 More Skills 12 Add Combo Boxes to Forms 394 More Skills 13 Create Multiple Item Forms 394 More Skills 14 Create Macros 394

C h a p t e r 4 C r e a t e R e p o r t s 4 0 4 Skill 1 Create Reports and Apply Themes 408 Skill 2 Modify Report Layouts 410 Skill 3 Prepare Reports for Printing 412 Skill 4 Use the Blank Report Tool 414 Skill 5 Group and Sort Reports 416 Skill 6 Format and Filter Reports 418 Skill 7 Create Label Reports 420 Skill 8 Use the Report Wizard 422 Skill 9 Modify Layouts in Design View 424

Skill 10 Add Totals and Labels to Reports 426

More Skills More Skills 11 Export Reports to Word 428 More Skills 12 Export Reports to HTML Documents 428 More Skills 13 Create Parameter Queries 428 More Skills 14 Create Reports for Parameter Queries 428

PowerPo in t C h a p t e r 1 G e t t i n g S t a r t e d w i t h

P o w e r P o i n t 2 0 1 0 4 3 8 Skill 1 Open, View, and Save Presentations 442 Skill 2 Edit and Replace Text in Normal View 444 Skill 3 Format Slide Text 446 Skill 4 Check Spelling and Use the Thesaurus 448 Skill 5 Insert Slides and Modify Slide Layouts 450 Skill 6 Insert and Format Pictures 452 Skill 7 Organize Slides Using Slide Sorter View 454 Skill 8 Apply Slide Transitions and View Slide Shows 456 Skill 9 Insert Headers and Footers

and Print Presentation Handouts 458 Skill 10 Add Notes Pages and Print Notes 460

More Skil ls More Skills 11 Type Text in the Outline Tab 462 More Skills 12 Use Keyboard Shortcuts 462

More Skills 13 Move and Delete Slides in Normal View 462

More Skills 14 Design Presentations for Audience and Location 462

C h a p t e r 2 F o r m a t a P r e s e n t a t i o n 4 7 2 Skill 1 Create New Presentations 476 Skill 2 Change Presentation Themes 478 Skill 3 Apply Font and Color Themes 480 Skill 4 Format Slide Backgrounds with Styles 482 Skill 5 Format Slide Backgrounds with Pictures

and Textures 484 Skill 6 Format Text with WordArt 486 Skill 7 Change Character Spacing and Font Color 488 Skill 8 Modify Bulleted and Numbered Lists 490 Skill 9 Move and Copy Text and Objects 492

Skill 10 Use Format Painter and Clear All Formatting Commands 494

More Skil ls More Skills 11 Edit Slide Master 496 More Skills 12 Save and Apply Presentation

Template 496 More Skills 13 Create Slides from Microsoft Word

Outline 496 More Skills 14 Design Presentations with Contrast 496

C h a p t e r 3 E n h a n c e P r e s e n t a t i o n s w i t h G r a p h i c s 5 0 6

Skill 1 Insert Slides from Other Presentations 510 Skill 2 Insert, Size, and Move Clip Art 512 Skill 3 Modify Picture Shapes, Borders, and Effects 514 Skill 4 Insert, Size, and Move Shapes 516 Ski l l5 Add Text to Shapes and Insert Text Boxes 518 Skill 6 Apply Gradient Fills and Group

and Align Graphics 520 Skill 7 Convert Text to SmartArt Graphics

and Add Shapes 522 Skill 8 Modify SmartArt Layouts, Colors, and Styles 524 Skill 9 Insert Video Files 526

Skill 10 Apply Video Styles and Adjust Videos 528

More Skil ls More Skills 11 Compress Pictures 530

Table of Contents vii

More Skills 12 Save Groups as Picture Files 530 More Skills 13 Change Object Order 530 More Skills 14 Design Presentations Using

Appropriate Graphics 530

C h a p t e r 4 P r e s e n t D a t a U s i n g T a b l e s , C h a r t s , a n d A n i m a t i o n 5 4 0

Skill 1 Insert Tables 544 Skill 2 Modify Table Layouts 546 Skill 3 Apply Table Styles 548 Skill 4 Insert Column Charts 550 Skill 5 Edit and Format Charts 552 Skill 6 Insert Pie Charts 554 Skill 7 Apply Animation Entrance

and Emphasis Effects 556 Skill 8 Modify Animation Timing

and Use Animation Painter 558 Skill 9 Remove Animation and Modify Duration 560

Skill 10 Navigate Slide Shows 562

More Ski l ls More Skills 11 Prepare Presentations to be Viewed

Using Office PowerPoint Viewer 564 More Skills 12 Insert Hyperlinks in a Presentation 564 More Skills 13 Create Photo Albums 564 More Skills 14 Design Presentations with

Appropriate Animation 564

I n t e g r a t e d Pro jec ts C h a p t e r 1 I n t e g r a t i n g W o r d , E x c e l , A c c e s s ,

a n d P o w e r P o i n t 5 7 4 Skill 1 Move Text between Word Documents 578 Skill 2 Apply Heading Styles in Word 580 Skill 3 Create a PowerPoint Presentation

from a Word Document 582 Skill 4 Insert and Modify a Shape in PowerPoint 584 Skill 5 Import a Word Table into

an Excel Workbook 586 Skill 6 Insert a Shape from PowerPoint into Word

and Excel 588 Skill 7 Create and Work with an Excel Table 590

viii Table of Contents

Skill 8 Link Data between Office Applications Using O L E

Skill 9 Create Envelopes Using Data from Access Skill 10 Create Name Tags Using Data in Excel

More Ski l ls More Skills 11 Insert Subtotals in Excel and

Link Data to a Word Document More Skills 12 Insert Slides from Another

Presentation More Skills 13 Move and Copy Excel Worksheets

and Consolidate Data More Skills 14 Compare Shared Excel Workbooks

C h a p t e r 2

Skill 1 Skill 2 Skill 3 Skill 4

Skill 5

Skill 6 Skill 7

Skill 8 Skill 9

M o r e I n t e g r a t e d P r o j e c t s f o r W o r d , E x c e l , A c c e s s , a n d P o w e r P o i n t Create an Access Append Query Export Data from Access into Excel Create an Excel PivotTable Report Create External References between Excel Workbooks Insert a SmartArt Organization Chart into PowerPoint Insert an Excel PivotTable into PowerPoint Insert a PowerPoint Outline in Word and Create a Cover Page and Table of Contents Link and Embed Data from Excel into Word Export Data from Access to an R T F File and Insert the File into Word Insert Objects from PowerPoint into Word Skill 10

kills More Skills 11 Create an Excel PivotChart

and Link the PivotChart to Word More Skills 12 Create a Hyperlink between

PowerPoint, Word, and Excel Files More Skills 13 Insert a Total Row in an Excel Table

and Link the Table to PowerPoint More Skills 14 Compare Word Documents


592 594 596



598 598

6 1 0 614 616 618


622 624

626 628

630 632



634 634


Index 654

About the Authors Kris Townsend is an Information Systems instructor at Spokane Falls Community College in Spokane, Washington. Kris earned a bachelor’s degree in both Education and Business, and a master’s degree in Education. He has also worked as a public school teacher and as a systems analyst. Kris enjoys working with wood, snowboarding, and camping. He commutes to work by bike and enjoys long road rides in the Palouse country south of Spokane.


Robert L. Ferrett recently retired as the Director of the Center for Instructional Computing at Eastern Michigan University, where he provided computer training and support to faculty. He has authored or co-authored more than 70 books on Access, PowerPoint, Excel, Publisher, WordPerfect, Windows, and Word. He has been designing, developing, and delivering computer workshops for more than two decades.

Catherine Hain is an instructor at Central New Mexico Community College in Albuquerque, New Mexico. She teaches computer applications classes in the Business and Information Technology School, both in the classroom and through the distance learning office. Catherine holds a bachelor’s degree in Management and Marketing and a master’s degree in Business Administration.

f t Alicia Vargas is an Associate Professor of Business Information Technology at Pasadena City College in California. She holds a bachelor’s and a master’s degree in Business Education from California State University, Los Angeles and has authored numerous textbooks and training materials on Microsoft Word, Microsoft Excel, and Microsoft PowerPoint.

A Special Thank You Pearson Prentice Hall gratefully acknowledges the contribution made by Shelley Gaskin to the first edition publication of this series—Skills for Success with Office 2007. The series has truly benefited from her dedication toward developing a textbook that aims to help students and instructors.We thank her for her continued support of this series.

About the Authors ix

Contributors We’d like to thank the following people for their work on Skills for Success:

Instructor Resource Authors Erich Adickes Parkland College Sharon Behrens Northeast Wisconsin Technical College Julie Boyles Portland Community College Barbara Edington St. Francis College Ranida Harris Indiana University Southeast Beth Hendrick Lake Sumter Community College Susan Holland Southeast Community College—Nebraska Andrea Leinbach Harrisburg Area Community College Yvonne Leonard Coastal Carolina Community College

Technical Editors Lisa Bucki Kelly Carling Hilda W i r t h Federico Jacksonville University Tom Lightner Missouri State University Elizabeth Lockley Joyce Nielsen

Reviewers Darrell Abbey Cascadia Community College Bridget I . Archer Oakton Community College Laura Aagard Sierra College John Alcorcha MTI College Barry Andrews Miami Dade College Natalie Andrews Miami Dade College Wilma Andrews Virginia Commonwealth University School

of Business Bridget Archer Oakton Community College Tahir Aziz J. Sargeant Reynolds Greg Balinger Miami Dade College Terry Bass University of Massachusetts, Lowell Lisa Beach Santa Rosa Junior College Rocky Belcher Sinclair Community College Nannette Biby Miami Dade College David Billings Guilford Technical Community College Brenda K. Br i t t Fayetteville Technical Community College Alisa Brown Pulaski Technical College Eric Cameron Passaic Community College

x Contributors

Trina Maurer Anthony Nowakowski Ernest Gines Stacey Gee Hollins John Purcell Ann Rowlette Amanda Shelton Steve St. John Joyce Thompson Karen Wisniewski

Georgia Virtual Technical College Buffalo State College Tarrant County College—Southeast St. Louis Community College—Meramec Castleton State College Liberty University J. Sargeant Reynolds Tulsa Community College Lehigh Carbon Community College County College of Morris

Janet Pickard Linda Pogue Steve Rubin Eric Sabbah Jan Snyder Mara Zebest

Chattanooga State Tech Community College Northwest Arkansas Community College California State University—Monterey Bay

Gene Carbonaro Trey Cherry Kim Childs Pualine Chohonis Lennie Coper Tara Cipriano Paulette Comet

Gail W . Cope Susana Contreras de Finch Chris Corbin Janis Cox Tomi Crawford Martin Cronlund Jennifer Day Ralph DeArazoza Carol Decker Loorna DeDuluc Caroline Delcourt

Long Beach City College Edgecombe Community College Bethany University Miami Dade College Miami Dade College Gateway Technical College Community College of Baltimore

Coun ty—Ca to nsville Sinclair Community College College of Southern Nevada Miami Dade College Tri-County Technical College Miami Dade College Anne Arundel Community College Sinclair Community College Miami Dade College Montgomery College Miami Dade College Black Hawk College

Contributors continued

Michael Discello Kevin Duggan Barbara Edington Donna Ehrhart Hilda Wirth Federico Tushnelda Fernandez Arlene Flerchinger Hedy Fossenkemper Kent Foster Penny Foster-Shiver Arlene Franklin George Gabb Barbara Garrell Deb Geoghan Jessica Gilmore Victor Giol Melinda Glander Linda Glassburn Deb Gross Rachelle Hall Marie Hartlein Diane Hartman Betsy Headrick Patrick Healy

Lindsay Henning Kermelle Hensley Diana Hill Rachel Hinton Mary Carole Hollingsworth Stacey Gee Hollins Bill Holmes Steve Holtz Margaret M. Hvatum Joan Ivey Dr. Dianna D. Johnson Kay Johnston Warren T. Jones, Sr. Sally Kaskocsak Renuka Kumar Kathy McKee Hazel Kates Gerald Kearns

Pittsburgh Technical Institute Midlands Technical Community College St. Francis College Genesee Community College Jacksonville University Miami Dade College Chattanooga State Tech Community College Paradise Valley Community College Withrop University Anne Arundel Community College Bucks County Community College Miami Dade College Delaware County Community College Bucks County Community College Highline Community College Miami Dade College Northmetro Technical College Cuyahoga Community College, West Ohio State University Glendale Community College Montgomery County Community College Utah Valley State College Chattanooga State Northern Virginia Community

College—Woodbridge Yavapai College Columbus Technical College Chesapeake College Broome Community College GA Perimeter St. Louis Community College—Meramec Chandler-Gilbert Community College University of Minnesota Duluth St. Louis Community College Lanier Technical College North Metro Technical College Columbia Basin College University of Alabama at Birmingham Sinclair Community College Community College of Baltimore County North Metro Technical College Miami Dade College Forsyth Technical Community College

Charles Kellermann

John Kidd Chris Kinnard Kelli Kleindorfer Kurt Kominek Dianne Kotokoff Cynthia Krebs Jean Lacoste Gene Laugh rey David LeBron Kaiyang Liang Linda Lindaman Felix Lopez Nicki Maines Cindy Manning Patri Mays Norma McKenzie Lee McKinley Sandy McCormack Eric Meyer Kathryn Miller

Gloria A. Morgan Kathy Morris Linda Moulton Ryan Murphy Stephanie Murre Wolf Jackie Myers Dell Najera

Scott Nason Paula Neal Bethanne Newman Eloise Newsome

Karen Nunan Ellen Orr Carol Ottaway Denise Passero Americus Pavese James Gordon Patterson Cindra Phillips

Northern Virginia Community College—Woodbridge

Tarrant County Community College Miami Dade College American Institute of Business NE State Tech Community College Lanier Technical College Utah Valley University Virginia Tech Northern Oklahoma College Miami Dade College Miami Dade College Black Hawk College Miami Dade College Mesa Community College Big Sandy Community and Technical College Paradise Valley Community College El Paso Community College GA Perimeter Monroe Community College Miami Dade College Big Sandy Community and Technical College,

Pike Ville Campus Monroe Community College University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa Montgomery County Community College Sinclair Community College Moraine Park Technical College Sinclair Community College El Paso Community College, Valle Verde

Campus Rowan Cabarrus Community College Sinclair Community College Paradise Valley Community College Northern Virginia Community

College—Woodbridge Northeast State Technical Community College Seminole Community College Chemeketa Community College Fulton-Montgomery Community College Community College of Baltimore County Paradise Valley Community College Clark State CC


Contributors continued

Janet Pickard Chattanooga State Tech Community College Diane Stark Phoenix College Floyd Pittman Miami Dade College Neil Stenlund Northern Virginia Community College Melissa Prinzing Sierra College Linda Stoudemayer Lamar Institute of Technology Pat Rahmlow Montgomery County Community College Pamela Stovall Forsyth Technical Community College Mary Rasley Lehigh Carbon Community College Linda Switzer Highline Community College Scott Rosen Santa Rosa Junior College Margaret Taylor College of Southern Nevada Ann Rowlette Liberty University Martha Taylor Sinclair Community College Kamaljeet Sanghera George Mason University Michael M. Taylor Seattle Central Community College June Scott County College of Morris Roseann Thomas Fayetteville Tech Community College Janet Sebesy Cuyahoga Community College Ingrid Thompson-Sellers GA Perimeter Jennifer Sedelmeyer Broome Community College Daniel Thomson Keiser University Kelly SellAnne Arundel Community College Astrid Hoy Todd Guilford Technical Community College Teresa Sept College of Southern Idaho Barb Tollinger Sinclair Community College Pat Serrano Scottsdale Community College Cathy Urbanski Chandler Gilbert Community College Amanda Shelton J. Sargeant Reynolds Sue Van Boven Paradise Valley Community College Gary Sibbits St. Louis Community College—Meramec Philip Vavalides Guildford Technical Community College Janet Siert Ellsworth Community College Pete Vetere Montgomery County Community College— Robert Sindt Johnson County Community College West Campus Karen Smith Technical College of the Lowcountry Asteria Villegas Monroe College Robert Smolenski Delaware County Community College Michael Walton Miami Dade College Robert Sindt Johnson County Community College Teri Weston Harford Community College Gary R. Smith Paradise Valley Community College Julie Wheeler Sinclair Community College Patricia Snyder Midlands Technical College Debbie Wood Western Piedmont Community College Pamela Sorensen Santa Rosa Junior College Thomas Yip Passaic Community College Eric Stadnik Santa Rosa Junior College Lindy Young Sierra Community College Mark Stanchfield Rochester Community and Technical College Matt Zullo Wake Technical Community College

xii Contributors

I n s t r u c t o r s – Y o u a s k e d for it s o h e r e it is!

A M i c r o s o f t ® O f f i c e t e x t b o o k t h a t r e c o g n i z e s h o w s t u d e n t s l e a r n t o d a y –

Skills for Success with Microsoft

1 Office 2010 Volume 1

10 X 8.5 F o r m a t – Easy for students to read and type at the same time by simply propping the book up on the desk in front of their monitor

Clear ly Out l ined Sk i l l s – Each skill is presented in a single two-page spread so that students can easily follow along

Numbered S t e p s and Bul le ted Tex t – Students don’t read long paragraphs or text, but they will read information presented concisely

Easy-to-Find S t u d e n t Da ta Fi les – Visual key shows students how to locate and interact with their data files

S t a r t H e r e – Students know exactly where to start and what their starting file will look like


G e t t i n g S t a r t e d w i t h W i n d o w s 7 » YOU BK WINDOW 7 ro «CRK M I »F-JF IOM?«L« LOF RUINR-V.*™ PFLNJMN MO»»T*N>WN

MDAU mi mm • J- : >O-L


Your ilartlng » c r e « n will look Ilk* this: S K I L L !

chapter, you will be

S k i l l s L is t – A visual snapshot of what skills they will complete in the chapter

O u t c o m e – Shows students up front what their completed project will look like

You will tdvo your filoi a t :

T J H N M I M H7_S«II| ‘ ‘

S e q u e n t i a l P a g i n a t i o n – Saves you and your students time in locating topics and assignments I


Skills for Success l ock – Tells how much time students

need to complete the chapter

Introduct ion

• KM US TUNTNW *IR*I fie, 01 FGWRN INTO 4 «IR J .: -I—. IT…. I AIULT :;I N..I..: .:


t Written for T o d a y ‘ s S t u d e n t s – skills are taught with numbered steps and bulleted text so students are less likely to skip valuable information T w o – P a g e S p r e a d s – Each skill is

presented on a two-page spread to help students keep up their momentum

* TITTR.TI bim irii mug], TU L>«

_ J

D a t a Files Are a S n a p – Students can now find their files easier than ever before with this visual map

C o l o r e d Text – Clearly shows what a student types

Hands-On – Students start actually working on their skills from Step 1

D o n e ! – Students always know when they’ve completed a skill


Skills for S u c c e s s

UorsSkJh © U M l d t o m i o C k g c n n f M

End-o f -Chapte r M a t e r i a l – Several levels of assessment so you can assign the material that best fits your students’ needs

M o r e S k i l l s – Additional skills included online

K e y T e r m s O n l i n e H e l p Sk i l ls

Midi .. – .! -.. I – :T.

O n l i n e P r o j e c t – Students practice using Microsoft Help online to help prepare them for using the applications on their own

H > u » i « i i HI

•.m • m •

Visual Walk-Through xv

Skills for S u c c e s s

Al l V i d e o s

a n d I n s t r u c t o r m a t e r i a l s

a v a i l a b l e o n t h e I R C D

Instructor Mater ia ls

I n s t r u c t o r ‘ s M a n u a l – Teaching tips and additional resources for each chapter

A s s i g n m e n t S h e e t s – Lists all the assignments for the chapter, you just add in the course information, due dates and points. Providing these to students ensures they will know what is due and when

S c r i p t e d L e c t u r e s – Classroom lectures prepared for you

A n n o t a t e d S o l u t i o n F i l e s – Coupled with the scoring rubrics, these create a grading and scoring system that makes grading so much easier for you

P o w e r P o i n t L e c t u r e s – PowerPoint presentations for each chapter

P r e p a r e d E x a m s – Exams for each chapter and for each application

S c o r i n g R u b r i c s – Can be used either by students to check their work or by you as a quick check-off for the items that need to be corrected

S y l l a b u s T e m p l a t e s – for 8-week, 12-week, and 16-week courses

T e s t B a n k – Includes a variety of test questions for each chapter

C o m p a n i o n W e b S i t e – Online content such as the More Skills Projects, Online Study Guide, Glossary, and Student Data Files are all at

xvi Visual Walk-Through

with M ic roso f t

Office 2010 V O L U M E 1

C H A P T E R J Common Features of Office 2010 • The programs in Microsoft Office 2010—Word, Excel, PowerPoint, and Access—share common

tools that you use in a consistent, easy-to-learn manner.

• Common tasks include opening and saving files, entering and formatting text, and printing your work.

Your starting screen will look like this: SKILLS SKILLS 1 – 1 0 TRAINING Umt Insert Pjgt 1

C M M mailt – 1 1 – * 41 IT



‘ Items’ “Mo:ca; . rtfacmgl H*jding2 ChtDQt

Past 1 ol I Wmdi 0

A t t h e e n d o f t h i s chapter , y o u w i l l be a b l e t o :

Skill 1 Start Word and Navigate the Word Window Skill 2 Start Excel and PowerPoint and Work with

Multiple Windows Skill 3 Save Files in New Folders Skill 4 Print and Save Documents Skill 5 Open Student Data Files and Save Copies

Using Save As Skill 6 Type and Edit Text Skill 7 Cut, Copy, and Paste Text Skill 8 Format Text and Paragraphs Skill 9 Use the Ribbon Skill 10 Use Shortcut Menus and Dialog Boxes


More Skills 11 Capture Screens with the Snipping Tool More Skills 12 Use Microsoft Office Help More Skills 13 Organize Files More Skills 14 Save Documents to Windows Live


Outcome Using the skills listed to the left will enable you to create documents similar to this:

Visit Aspen Falls! A s p e n F a l l s o v e r l o o k s t h e P a c i f i c O c e a n

a n d is s u r r o u n d e d b y m a n y v i n e y a r d s a n d

w i n e r i e s . O c e a n r e c r e a t i o n is a c c e s s e d

p r i m a r i l y a t D u r a n g o C o u n t y P a r k . T h e

A s p e n L a k e R e c r e a t i o n A r e a p r o v i d e s y e a r

r o u n d f r e s h w a t e r r e c r e a t i o n a n d is t h e

c i t y ‘ s l a r g e s t p a r k .

Local Attractions • W i n e C o u n t r y

o W i n e Tas t ing Tou rs

o Winer ies

• W o r d s w o r t h Fel lowship Museum of A r t

• Du rango C o u n t y M u s e u m of H is to ry

• Conven t ion Center

• A r t Galleries

• Gl ider T o u r s

Aspen Fallc Annual Events • Annua l Starving Artists Sidewalk Sale

• A n n u a l W i n e Festival

• C inco de Mayo

• Vintage Car S h o w

• Her i tage D a y Parade

• Harvest Days

• A m a t e u r Bike Races

• Farmer ‘s Market

• Aspen Lake Nature Cruises

• Aspen Falls T r ia th lon

• Tas te of Aspen Falls

• W i n t e r Blues Festival

Contact Y o u r N a m e for more informat ion.

Common Features of Office 2010

You will save your files as: Lastname_Firstname_cfO 1 _Visit 1 Lastname_Firstname_cfO l_Visit2 Lastname_Firstname_cf01_Visit3

Common Features Chapter 1 | Common Features of Office 2010 3

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C o m m o n Features of Of f ice 2 0 1 0 • Microsoft Office is the most common software used to create and share

personal and business documents.

• Microsoft Office is a suite o f several programs—Word, PowerPoint, Excel, Access, and others—that each have a special purpose.

• Because of the consistent design and layout o f Microsoft Office, when you learn to use one Microsoft Office program, you can use most o f those skil ls when working wi th the other Microsoft Office programs.

• T h e files you create w i t h Microsoft Office need to be named and saved in locations where they can be easily found when you need them.

C o m m o n F e a t u r e s o f O f f i c e 2 0 1 0 | C o m m o n F e a t u r e s C h a p t e r 1

Time to complete all 10 skills – 50 to 90 minutes

Find your student data files here:

Student data files needed for this chapter:

« cf01_Visit

• cf01_Visit_Events

cfOl Visit River


• The Word 2010 program can be launched by clicking the Start button, and then locating and clicking the Microsoft Word 2010 command.

• When you start Word, a new blank document displays in which you can type text.

1. In the lower left corner of the desktop, click the Start button © .

2 . In the lower left corner of the Start menu, click the All Programs command, and then compare your screen with Figure 1 . –

The Microsoft Office folder is located in the All Programs folder. If you have several programs installed on your computer, you may need to scroll to see the Microsoft Office folder.

3 . Click the Microsoft Office folder, and then compare your screen with Figure 2. –

Below the Microsoft Office folder, commands that open various Office 2010 programs display.

4 . From the Start menu, under the Microsoft Office folder, click Microsoft Word 2010, and then wait a few moments for the Microsoft Word window to display.

5 . If necessary, in the upper right corner of the Microsoft Word window, click the Maximize button B| .

• C o n t i n u e t o t h e n e x t p a g e t o c o m p l e t e t h e s

6 Common Features of Office 2010 | Common Features Chapter 1


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SKILL 1: Start Word and Navigate the Word Window

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On the Ribbon’s Home tab, in the Paragraph group, click the Show/Hide button H until it displays in gold indicating that it is active. Compare your screen with Figure 3 .

Above the blank Word document, the Quick Access Toolbar and Ribbon display. At the top of the Ribbon, a row of tab names display. Each Ribbon tab has buttons that you click to perform actions. The buttons are organized into groups that display their names along the bottom of the Ribbon.

In the document, the insertion point— a vertical line that indicates where text will be inserted when you start typing—flashes near the top left corner.

The Show/Hide button is a toggle button— a button used to turn a feature both on and off. The paragraph mark (f) indicates the end of a paragraph and will not print.

In the document, type your first and last names. As you type, notice that the insertion point and paragraph mark move to the right.

On the Home tab, in the Styles group, point to—but do not click—the Heading 1 thumbnail to show the Live Preview—a feature that displays the result of a formatting change if you select it.

Click the Heading 1 thumbnail to apply the formatting change as shown in Figure 4. If the Word Navigation Pane displays on the left side of the Word window, click its Close [*] button.

You have completed Skill 1 of 10

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Common Features Chapter 1 | Common Features of Office 2010 7

• When you open more than one Office program, each program displays in its own window.

• When you want to work with a program in a different window, you need to make it the active window.

1 . Click the Start button © , and then compare your screen with F i g u r e 1.

Your computer may be configured in such a way that you can open Office programs without opening the All Programs folder. The Office 2010 program commands may display as shortcuts in the Start menu’s pinned programs area or the recently used programs area. Your computer’s taskbar or desktop may also display icons that start each program.

2 . From the Start menu, locate and then click Microsoft Excel 2010. Depending on your computer, you may need to double-click—not single click—to launch Excel. Compare your screen with F i g u r e 2 . If necessary, click the Maximize – button mm\<

A new blank worksheet displays in a new window. The first cell—the box formed by the intersection of a row and column—is active as indicated by the thick, black border surrounding the cell. When you type in Excel, the text is entered into the active cell.

The Quick Access Toolbar displays above the spreadsheet. The Excel Ribbon has its own tabs and groups that you use to work with an Excel spreadsheet. Many of these tabs, groups, and buttons are similar to those found in Word.

On the taskbar, two buttons display—one for Word and one for Excel.

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SKILL 2: Start Excel and PowerPoint and Work with Multiple Windows

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3 . From the Start menu <PJ, locate and then click Microsoft PowerPoint 2010.

— Compare your screen with F i g u r e 3 . If necessary, Maximize N = M the Presentation 1 – Microsoft PowerPoint window.

A new, blank presentation opens in a new window. The PowerPoint window contains a slide in which you can type text. PowerPoint slides are designed to be displayed as you talk in front of a group of people.

4. In the upper right corner of the PowerPoint window, click the Close button fcgaj.

5. On the taskbar, click the Word button to make it the active window. With the insertion point flashing to the right of your name, press [Enter], and then type Skills for Success Common Features Chapter

6 . In the upper right corner of the Document 1 – Microsoft Word window, click the Minimize button

The Word window no longer displays, but its button is still available on the taskbar.

7 . With the Excel window active, in the first cell—cell A l — t y p e your first name. Press [Tab], and then type your last name.

Press (Enter), type =TODAY() and then press (Enter) to calculate the current date and to display it in the cell.

In the Excel window, click the Restore Down button |jSU and then compare your screen with F i g u r e 4.

The window remains open, but it no longer fills the entire screen. The Maximize button replaced the Restore Down button.

Y o u h a v e c o m p l e t e d S k i l l 2 o f 1 0

8 .

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• SKILL 3: Sav<

• A new document or spreadsheet is stored in the computer ‘s temporary memory (RAM) until you save it to your hard drive or USB flash drive.

1 . If you are saving your work on a USB flash drive, insert the USB flash drive into the computer now. If the Windows Explorer button [3 flashes on the taskbar, right-click the button, and then on the Jump List, click Close window.

2 . On the taskbar, click the Word button to make it the active window. On the Quick Access Toolbar, click the Save button [y].

For new documents, the first time you click the Save button, the Save As dialog box opens so that you can name the file.

3 . If you are to save your work on a USB drive, in the Navigation pane scroll down to display the list of drives, and then click your USB flash drive as shown in F i g u r e 1 . If you are saving your work to another location, in the Navigation pane, locate and then click that folder or drive.

4. On the Save As dialog box toolbar, click the New folder button, and then immedi­ ately type Common Features Chapter 1

5 . Press [En te r ] to accept the folder name, and then press [En te r ] again to open the new folder as shown in F i g u r e 2 .

The new folder is created and then opened in the Save As dialog box file list.

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6. In the Save As dialog box, click in the File name box one time to highlight all of the existing text.

7. With the text in the File name box still highlighted, type Lastname_Firstname_ cfOl_Visitl

– 8 . Compare your screen with F i g u r e 3 , and then click Save.

After the document is saved, the name of the file displays on the title bar at the top of the window.

9 . On the taskbar, click the Windows Explorer button \^\. In the folder window Navigation pane, open [ft] the drive on which you are saving your work, and then click the Common Features Chapter 1 folder. Verify that Lastname_Firstname_ cpl_Visitl displays in file list.

1 0 . On the taskbar, click the Excel button to make it the active window. On the Excel Quick Access Toolbar, click the Save button § ] .

1 1 . In the Save As dialog box Navigation pane, open 0 the drive where you are saving your work, and then click the Common Features Chapter 1 folder to display its file list.

The Word file may not display because the Save As box typically displays only files created by the program you are using. Here, only Excel files will typically display.

1 2 . Click in the File name box, replace the existing value with Lastname_Firstname_ cf01_Visit2 and then click the Save button.

1 3 . On the taskbar, click the Windows Explorer button, and then compare your screen with F i g u r e 4.

Y o u h a v e c o m p l e t e d S k i l l 3 o f 1 0

F i g u r e 4

C o m m o n F e a t u r e s C h a p t e r 1 | C o m m o n F e a t u r e s o f O f f i c e 2 0 1 0 1 1

• SKILL 4: Print an.

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1 . O n t h e t a s k b a r , c l i c k t h e Excel b u t t o n , a n d t h e n c l i c k t h e Maximize |Uey b u t t o n .

2 . O n t h e R i b b o n , c l i c k t h e View tab, a n d t h e n i n t h e Workbook Views group, c l i c k t h e Page Layout b u t t o n . C o m p a r e y o u r s c r e e n w i t h F i g u r e 1 .

The worksheet displays the cells, the margins, and the edges of the paper as they will be positioned when you print. The cell references—the numbers on the left side and the letters across the top of a spreadsheet that address each cell—will not print.

O n t h e R i b b o n , c l i c k t h e Page Layout tab. I n t h e Page Setup group, c l i c k t h e Margins b u t t o n , a n d t h e n i n t h e Margins g a l l e r y , c l i c k Wide.

C l i c k t h e File tab, a n d t h e n o n t h e l e f t s i d e o f t h e B a c k s t a g e , c l i c k Print. C o m p a r e y o u r s c r e e n w i t h F i g u r e 2.

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The Print tab has commands that affect your print job and a preview of the printed page. Here, the cell references and grid- lines—lines between the cells in a table or spreadsheet—do not display because they will not be printed.

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6. Check with your Course Assignment Sheet or Course Syllabus, or consult with your instructor to determine whether you are to print your work for this chapter. If you are to print your work, at the top left corner of the Print Settings section, click the Print button. If you printed the spreadsheet, retrieve the printout from the printer.

7. On the File tab, click Save.

Because you have already named the file, the Save As dialog box does not display.

O n the File tab, click Exit to close the spreadsheet and exit Excel.

In the Word document, verify that the insertion point is in the second line of text. If not, on the taskbar, click the Word button to make it the active window.

10. On the Home tab, in the Styles group, click the Heading 2 thumbnail. Compare your screen with Figure 3.

11. On the File tab, click Print to display the Print tab. If you are printing your work for this chapter, click the Print button, and then retrieve your printout from the printer.

12. On the File tab, click Exit, and then com- pare your screen with Figure 4.

When you close a window with changes that have not yet been saved, a message will remind you to save your work.

13. Read the displayed message, and then click Save.

• You hove completed Skill 4 of 10

Figure 4 C o m m o n F e a t u r e s C h a p t e r 1 | C o m m o n F e a t u r e s o f O f f i c e 2010 1 3

• This book often instructs you to open a student data file so that you do not need to start the project with a blank document.

• The student data files are located on the student CD that came with this book. Your instructor may have provided an alternate location.

• You use Save As to create a copy of the stu­ dent data file onto your own storage device.

1 . If necessary, insert the student CD that came with this text. If the AutoPlay dialog box displays, click Close U a 4 .

2 . Using the skills practiced earlier, start Microsoft Word 2010.

3 . In the Documentl – Microsoft Word window, click the File tab, and then click Open.

4 . In the Open dialog box Navigation pane, scroll down and then, if necessary, open \V\ Computer. In the list of drives, click the CD/DVD drive to display the contents of the student CD. If your instructor has provided a different location, navigate to that location instead of using the student CD.

5. In the file list, double-click the 01_ student_data_files folder, double-click the 01_common_features folder, and then double-click the chapter_01 folder. Compare your screen with F i g u r e 1 . –

6. In the file list, click cf01_Visit, and then click the Open button. Compare your screen with F i g u r e 2 .

If you opened the file from the student CD, the title bar indicates that the document is in read-only mode—a mode where you cannot save your changes.

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how many major ideas should be present on each presentation aid?

Consider the Audience

• Analyzing the audience is central to the speechmaking process; consider your audience at every step of the way in preparing and presenting your speech. • Gather information about your audience by asking questions or surveying them more formally. • Summarize and analyze the information you have gathered.

Select and Narrow Your Topic

• Consider the audience: Who are your listeners and what do they expect? • Consider the occasion: What is the reason for the speech? • Consider your own interests and skills: What are your strengths?

Determine Your Purpose

• Decide whether your general speech purpose is to inform, to persuade, or

to entertain, or a combination of these goals. • Decide on your specific purpose:

What do you want your listeners to be able to do after you finish your speech? • Use your specific purpose to guide

you in connecting your message to your audience.

Develop Your Central Idea

• State your central idea for your speech in one sentence. • Your central idea should be a single idea

presented in clear, specific language. • Relate your central idea to your audience.

Generate Main Ideas

• Determine whether your central idea can be supported with logical divisions using a topical arrangement. • Determine whether your central idea can be supported with reasons the idea is true. • Determine whether your central idea can be supported with a series of steps.

Gather Supporting Material

• Remember that most of what you say consists of supporting material such

as stories, descriptions, definitions, analogies, statistics, and opinions.

• The best supporting material both clarifies your major ideas and holds your listeners’ attention. • Supporting material that is personal, concrete, and appealing to the listeners’

senses is often the most interesting.

Organize Your Speech

• Remember the maxim: Tell us what you’re going to tell us (introduction); tell us (body); and tell us what you told us (conclusion). • Outline your main ideas by topic, chronologically, spatially, by cause and effect, or by problem and solution. • Use signposts to clarify the overall structure of your message.

Rehearse Your Speech

• Prepare speaking notes and practice using them well in advance of your speaking date. • Rehearse your speech out loud, standing as you would stand while delivering your speech. • Practice with well-chosen visual aids that are big, simple, and appropriate for your audience.

Deliver Your Speech

• Look at individual listeners. • Use movement and gestures that fit your natural style of speaking.

Why Do You Need This New Edition? If you’re wondering why you should buy this new edition of Public Speaking: An Audience- Centered Approach, here are eight good reasons!

1. We’ve kept the best and improved the rest. The eighth edition of Public Speaking: An Audience-Centered Approach continues its unique focus on the importance of analyzing and considering the audience at every point in the speech- making process, but is now an easier-to-use and more effec- tive learning tool than ever.

2. We’ve streamlined the book to 16 chapters, so that every chapter can be covered during a standard semester. Chapter 1 now combines an introduction to public speaking with an overview of the audience-centered model. Chapter 6 now combines information on gathering supporting mate- rial with advice on how to integrate supporting material into a speech.

3. New end-of-chapter Study Guides are designed to help you retain and apply chapter concepts. Study Guides feature chapter summaries; “Using What You’ve Learned” questions posing realistic scenarios; “A Question of Ethics” to reinforce the importance of ethical speaking; and referrals to selected online resources that help you find resources to use in your own speeches.

4. More tables and Recap boxes summarize the content of nearly every major section in each chapter. These frequent reviews help you check understanding, study for exams, and rehearse material to aid retention.

5. The eighth edition continues our popular focus on control- ling speaking anxiety, developed through expanded and updated coverage of communication apprehension in Chapter 1 and reinforced with tips and reminders in “Confidently Connecting with Your Audience” features in the margins of every chapter.

6. New and expanded coverage of key communication theories and current research, including studies of anxiety styles in Chapter 1, introductions to social judgment theory in Chapter 14, and emotional response theory in Chapter 15, help you apply recent theories and findings.

7. Every chapter of the eighth edition boasts engaging fresh examples to help you connect concepts to your own life and interests, including new references to contemporary technology such as social media sites in Chapter 4 and iPads in Chapter 12.

8. New speeches, including Barack Obama’s inaugural speech, contribute to an impressive sample speech appendix that will inspire and instruct you as you work with your own material.

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Public Speaking

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8 Public SpeakingAN AUDIENCE-CENTERED APPROACH Steven A. Beebe Texas State University—San Marcos

Susan J. Beebe Texas State University—San Marcos




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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Beebe, Steven A.

Public speaking : an audience-centered approach / Steven A. Beebe, Susan J. Beebe. — 8th ed. p. cm.

Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-205-78462-2 (alk. paper)

1. Public speaking. 2. Oral communication. I. Beebe, Susan J. II. Title. PN4129.15.B43 2012 808.5’1—dc22


Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States. To obtain permission to use material from this work, please submit a written request to Pearson Education, Inc., Permissions Department, 501 Boylston Street, Suite 900, Boston, MA 02116, fax: (617) 671-2290. For information regarding permissions, call (617) 671-2295 or e-mail:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10—QGD—14 13 12 11

ISBN-13: 978-0-205-78462-2 ISBN-10: 0-205-78462-3

Dedicated to our parents, Russell and Muriel Beebe and Herb and Jane Dye

And to our children, Mark, Matthew, and Brittany Beebe

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1 Speaking with Confidence 3 2 Speaking Freely and Ethically 35 3 Listening to Speeches 49 4 Analyzing Your Audience 77 5 Developing Your Speech 111 6 Gathering and Using Supporting Material 133 7 Organizing Your Speech 161 8 Introducing and Concluding Your Speech 183 9 Outlining and Revising Your Speech 203

10 Using Words Well: Speaker Language and Style 217 11 Delivering Your Speech 235 12 Using Presentation Aids 265 13 Speaking to Inform 289 14 Understanding Principles of Persuasive Speaking 315 15 Using Persuasive Strategies 337 16 Speaking for Special Occasions and Purposes 373

Epilogue 390

Appendix A Speaking in Small Groups 392

Appendix B Speeches for Analysis and Discussion 400

Brief Contents

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Preface xxiii

Speaking with Confidence 3 Why Study Public Speaking? 4

Empowerment 4 ● Employment 4

The Communication Process 5 Communication as Action 5 ● Communication as Interaction 6 ● Communication as Transaction 7

The Rich Heritage of Public Speaking 7 LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS Martin Luther King Jr. 8

Improving Your Confidence as a Speaker 9






Gather Visual Supporting Material 25

Organize Your Speech 25

Select and Narrow Your Topic 20 Determine Your Purpose 21

Determine Your General Purpose 21 ● Determine Your Specific Purpose 21

Develop Your Central Idea 22 Generate the Main Ideas 22 Gather Supporting Material 23

Gather Interesting Supporting Material 23

Understand Your Nervousness 10 ● How to Build Your Confidence 13


An Overview of Audience-Centered Public Speaking 17 Consider Your Audience 19

Gather and Analyze Information about Your Audience 19 ● Consider the Culturally Diverse Backgrounds of Your Audience 19

Rehearse Your Speech 27

Deliver Your Speech 27



SPEECH WORKSHOP Improving Your Confidence as a Public Speaker 33

Speaking Freely and Ethically 35 Speaking Freely 37

Free Speech and the U.S. Constitution 37 ● Free Speech in the Twentieth Century 37 ● Free Speech in the Twenty-first Century 38

Speaking Ethically 39 Have a Clear, Responsible Goal 39


Use Sound Evidence and Reasoning 40 ● Be Sensitive to and Tolerant of Differences 41 ● Be Honest 41 ● Don’t Plagiarize 42

CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Remember That You Will Look More Confident Than You May Feel 42


Speaking Credibly 44


SPEECH WORKSHOP Avoiding Plagiarism 47

Listening to Speeches 49 Overcoming Barriers to Effective Listening 51

Managing Information Overload 52 ● Overcoming Personal Concerns 53 ● Reducing Outside Distractions 53 ● Overcoming Prejudice 54 ● Using Differences between Speech Rate and Thought Rate 54 ● Managing Receiver Apprehension 55

How to Become a Better Listener 55 Listen with Your Eyes as Well as Your Ears 56 ● Listen Mindfully 57


Listen Skillfully 59 ● Listen Ethically 62

xii Contents









Improving Listening and Critical Thinking Skills 63 Separate Facts from Inferences 63 ● Evaluate the Quality of Evidence 64 ● Evaluate the Underlying Logic and Reasoning 65

Analyzing and Evaluating Speeches 65 Understanding Criteria for Evaluating Speeches 66 ● Identifying and Analyzing Rhetorical Strategies 68 ● Giving Feedback to Others 69 ● Giving Feedback to Yourself 70



SPEECH WORKSHOP Evaluating a Speaker’s Rhetorical Effectiveness 74

Analyzing Your Audience 77 Gathering Information about Your Audience 79 Analyzing Information about Your Audience 80

Look for Audience Member Similarities 81 ● Look for Audience Member Differences 82 ● Establish Common Ground with Your Audience 82

Adapting to Your Audience 82


CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Learn as Much as You Can about Your Audience 83

Analyzing Your Audience before You Speak 84 Demographic Audience Analysis 84 ● Psychological Audience Analysis 94 ● Situational Audience Analysis 96

Adapting to Your Audience as You Speak 99


Identifying Nonverbal Audience Cues 100 ● Responding to Nonverbal Cues 101 ● Strategies for Customizing Your Message to Your Audience 101

Analyzing Your Audience after You Speak 103 Nonverbal Responses 104 ● Verbal Responses 104 ● Survey Responses 104 ● Behavioral Responses 105


SPEECH WORKSHOP Developing Communication Strategies to Adapt to Your Audience 108

Contents xiii





Developing Your Speech 111 Select and Narrow Your Topic 112

Guidelines for Selecting a Topic 113



Strategies for Selecting a Topic 115 ● Narrowing the Topic 117

DEVELOPING YOUR SPEECH STEP BY STEP Select and Narrow Your Topic 117

Determine Your Purpose 118 General Purpose 118 ● Specific Purpose 119


Develop Your Central Idea 121 A Complete Declarative Sentence 122 ● Direct, Specific Language 122

DEVELOPING YOUR SPEECH STEP BY STEP Develop Your Central Idea 123 ● A Single Idea 123 ● An Audience-Centered Idea 123

Generate and Preview Your Main Ideas 124 Generating Your Main Ideas 124 ● Previewing Your Main Ideas 125

Meanwhile, Back at the Computer . . . 126



SPEECH WORKSHOP Strategies for Selecting a Speech Topic 130

Gathering and Using Supporting Material 133 Sources of Supporting Material 134

Personal Knowledge and Experience 134 ● The Internet 134 ● Online Databases 135 ● Traditional Library Holdings 137 ● Interviews 139

Research Strategies 141 Develop a Preliminary Bibliography 141 ● Locate Resources 142 ● Assess the Usefulness of Resources 142 ● Take Notes 143

DEVELOPING YOUR SPEECH STEP BY STEP Gather Supporting Material 143

Identify Possible Presentation Aids 144

xiv Contents









Types of Supporting Material 144 Illustrations 145


Descriptions and Explanations 147 ● Definitions 148 ● Analogies 149 ● Statistics 150 ● Opinions 152


The Best Supporting Material 154


SPEECH WORKSHOP Identifying a Variety of Supporting Material for Your Speech 158

Organizing Your Speech 161 Organizing Your Main Ideas 163


Organizing Ideas Topically 163 ● Ordering Ideas Chronologically 164 ● Arranging Ideas Spatially 166 ● Organizing Ideas to Show Cause and Effect 166


Organizing Ideas by Problem-Solution 167 ● Acknowledging Cultural Differences in Organization 169

Subdividing Your Main Ideas 170 Integrating Your Supporting Material 170

Prepare Your Supporting Material 170 ● Organize Your Supporting Material 171


Incorporate Your Supporting Material into Your Speech 173

Developing Signposts 173


Transitions 174 ● Previews 175 ● Summaries 176

Supplementing Signposts with Presentation Aids 177


SPEECH WORKSHOP Organizing Your Ideas 180

Contents xv





Introducing and Concluding Your Speech 183 CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Be Familiar with Your

Introduction and Conclusion 184

Purposes of Introductions 184 Get the Audience’s Attention 184 ● Give the Audience a Reason to Listen 185 ● Introduce the Subject 185 ● Establish Your Credibility 186 ● Preview Your Main Ideas 186

Effective Introductions 187 Illustrations or Anecdotes 187 ● Startling Facts or Statistics 188 ● Quotations 188 ● Humor 189 ● Questions 190 ● References to Historical Events 191 ● References to Recent Events 192 ● Personal References 192 ● References to the Occasion 192 ● References to Preceding Speeches 193

Purposes of Conclusions 193 Summarize the Speech 193 ● Provide Closure 194

Effective Conclusions 195 Methods Also Used for Introductions 196 ● References to the Introduction 196 ● Inspirational Appeals or Challenges 196



SPEECH WORKSHOP Developing the Introduction and Conclusion to Your Speech 200

Outlining and Revising Your Speech 203 Developing Your Preparation Outline 204

The Preparation Outline 204 ● Sample Preparation Outline 206

Revising Your Speech 207


Developing Your Delivery Outline and Speaking Notes 209 The Delivery Outline 210


Sample Delivery Outline 211 ● Speaking Notes 212

CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Use Your Well-Prepared Speaking Notes When You Rehearse 212



SPEECH WORKSHOP Outlining Your Speech 215

xvi Contents









Using Words Well: Speaker Language and Style 217 Differentiating Oral and Written Language Styles 218 Using Words Effectively 219

Use Specific, Concrete Words 219 ● Use Simple Words 220 ● Use Words Correctly 220 ● Use Words Concisely 221

Adapting Your Language Style to Diverse Listeners 221 Use Language That Your Audience Can Understand 222 ● Use Appropriate Language 222 ● Use Unbiased Language 222

Crafting Memorable Word Structures 223 Creating Figurative Images 224 ● Creating Drama 225 ● Creating Cadence 225


Analyzing an Example of Memorable Word Structure 228

Using Memorable Word Structures Effectively 229



SPEECH WORKSHOP Conducting a “Language Style Audit” of Your Speech 232

Delivering Your Speech 235 The Power of Speech Delivery 236

Listeners Expect Effective Delivery 236 ● Listeners Make Emotional Connections with You through Delivery 237 ● Listeners Believe What They See 238

Methods of Delivery 238 Manuscript Speaking 238 ● Memorized Speaking 239 ● Impromptu Speaking 240 ● Extemporaneous Speaking 241

Characteristics of Effective Delivery 242


Eye Contact 243 ● Gestures 243 ● Movement 246 ● Posture 247 ● Facial Expression 248 ● Vocal Delivery 248 ● Personal Appearance 253

Audience Diversity and Delivery 253


Rehearsing Your Speech: Some Final Tips 256 CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Re-create the Speech Environment When You Rehearse 257

Contents xvii

10 C









Delivering Your Speech 257


Responding to Questions 258


SPEECH WORKSHOP Improving Your Speech Delivery 263

Using Presentation Aids 265 The Value of Presentation Aids 266


Types of Presentation Aids 268 Three-Dimensional Presentation Aids 268 ● Two-Dimensional Presentation Aids 269 ● PowerPoint™ Presentation Aids 274 ● Tips for Using PowerPoint™ 275 ● Audiovisual Aids 277

CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Practice with Your Presentation Aids to Boost Your Confidence 277

Guidelines for Developing Presentation Aids 279 Make Them Easy to See 279 ● Keep Them Simple 279 ● Select the Right Presentation Aid 280 ● Do Not Use Dangerous or Illegal Presentation Aids 280

Guidelines for Using Presentation Aids 280 Rehearse with Your Presentation Aids 281 ● Make Eye Contact with Your Audience, Not with Your Presentation Aids 281 ● Explain Your Presentation Aids 281 ● Do Not Pass Objects among Members of Your Audience 282 ● Use Animals with Caution 282 ● Use Handouts Effectively 282 ● Time the Use of Visuals to Control Your Audience’s Attention 283 ● Use Technology Effectively 284 ● Remember Murphy’s Law 284


SPEECH WORKSHOP A Checklist for Using Effective Presentation Aids 287

Speaking to Inform 289 Types of Informative Speeches 290


Speeches about Objects 292 ● Speeches about Procedures 293 ● Speeches about People 294 ● Speeches about Events 295 ● Speeches about Ideas 295

Strategies to Enhance Audience Understanding 296 Speak with Clarity 296 ● Use Principles and Techniques of Adult Learning 297 ● Clarify Unfamiliar Ideas or Complex Processes 298 ● Appeal to a Variety of Learning Styles 299

xviii Contents









Strategies to Maintain Audience Interest 300 Motivate Your Audience to Listen to You 300 ● Tell a Story 301 ● Present Information That Relates to Your Listeners 301 ● Use the Unexpected 301


Strategies to Enhance Audience Recall 303 Build In Redundancy 303 ● Make Your Key Ideas Short and Simple 304 ● Pace Your Information Flow 304 ● Reinforce Key Ideas 304

Developing an Audience-Centered Informative Speech 305 Consider Your Audience 305 ● Select and Narrow Your Informational Topic 305 ● Determine Your Informative Purpose 306 ● Develop Your Central Idea 306 ● Generate Your Main Ideas 306

CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Focus on Your Information Rather Than on Your Fear 307

Gather Your Supporting Materials 307 ● Organize Your Speech 307 ● Rehearse Your Presentation 307 ● Deliver Your Speech 307


SPEECH WORKSHOP Developing a Vivid Word Picture 311

Understanding Principles of Persuasive Speaking 315 Persuasion Defined 314

Changing or Reinforcing Audience Attitudes 314 ● Changing or Reinforcing Audience Beliefs 315 ● Changing or Reinforcing Audience Values 315 ● Changing or Reinforcing Audience Behaviors 316

How Persuasion Works 316 Aristotle’s Traditional Approach: Using Ethos, Logos, and Pathos to Persuade 316 ● ELM’S Contemporary Approach: Using a Direct or Indirect Path to Persuade 317

How to Motivate Listeners 319 Use Cognitive Dissonance 319 ● Use Listener Needs 322 ● Use Positive Motivation 324 ● Use Negative Motivation 324

How to Develop Your Persuasive Speech 326 Consider the Audience 326 ● Select and Narrow Your Persuasive Topic 327


Determine Your Persuasive Purpose 328 ● Develop Your Central Idea and Main Ideas 328 ● Gather Supporting Material 331


Organize Your Persuasive Speech 332 ● Rehearse and Deliver Your Speech 332


SPEECH WORKSHOP Developing a Persuasive Speech 335

Contents xix





Using Persuasive Strategies 337 Enhancing Your Credibility 338

Elements of Your Credibility 338 ● Phases of Your Credibility 339

Using Logic and Evidence to Persuade 340 Understanding Types of Reasoning 341 ● Persuading the Culturally Diverse Audience 345 ● Supporting Your Reasoning with Evidence 347 ● Using Evidence Effectively 348 ● Avoiding Faulty Reasoning 349

Using Emotion to Persuade 351

LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS Franklin Delano Roosevelt 351

Tips for Using Emotion to Persuade 352 ● Using Emotional Appeals: Ethical Issues 355

Strategies for Adapting Ideas to People and People to Ideas 356 Persuading the Receptive Audience 356 ● Persuading the Neutral Audience 357 ● Persuading the Unreceptive Audience 357


Strategies for Organizing Persuasive Messages 359 Problem–Solution 360 ● Refutation 361 ● Cause and Effect 362 ● The Motivated Sequence 363



SPEECH WORKSHOP Adapting Ideas to People and People to Ideas 371

Speaking for Special Occasions and Purposes 373 Public Speaking in the Workplace 374

Group Presentations 374 ● Public-Relations Speeches 377

CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Seek a Variety of Speaking Opportunities 378

Ceremonial Speaking 378 Introductions 378 ● Toasts 379 ● Award Presentations 379 ● Nominations 380 ● Acceptances 380 ● Keynote Addresses 381 ● Commencement Addresses 382 ● Commemorative Addresses and Tributes 382 ● Eulogies 383

After-Dinner Speaking: Using Humor Effectively 383

xx Contents





15 C





Humorous Topics 384 ● Humorous Stories 385 ● Humorous Verbal Strategies 386 ● Humorous Nonverbal Strategies 387


SPEECH WORKSHOP Introducing a Speaker 389

Epilogue 390

Speaking in Small Groups 392 Solving Problems in Groups and Teams 393

1. Identify and Define the Problem 393 ● 2. Analyze the Problem 394 ● 3. Generate Possible Solutions 394 ● 4. Select the Best Solution 395 ● 5. Test and Implement the Solution 395

Participating in Small Groups 395 Come Prepared for Group Discussions 395 ● Do Not Suggest Solutions before Analyzing the Problem 396 ● Evaluate Evidence 396 ● Help Summarize the Group’s Progress 396 ● Listen and Respond Courteously to Others 396 ● Help Manage Conflict 396

Leading Small Groups 397 Leadership Responsibilities 397 ● Leadership Styles 398

Speeches for Analysis and Discussion 400 I Have a Dream, Martin Luther King Jr. 400 Delivering the Gift of Freedom to Future Generations (Inaugural Address), Barack Obama 402 Find Your Passion, and Find a Way to Get Paid to Follow It, Anne Lynam Goddard 406 Sticky Ideas: Low-Tech Solutions to a High-Tech Problem, Richard L. Weaver, II 410

Land of the Free Because of the Homeless, Shaunna Miller 414

Endnotes 417 Index 431

Contents xxi









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The eighth edition of Public Speaking: An Audience-Centered Approach is writ-ten to be the primary text in a course intended to help students become bet-ter public speakers. We are delighted that since the first edition of the book was published two decades ago, educators and students of public speaking have found our book a distinctively useful resource to enhance public-speaking skills. We’ve worked to make our latest edition a preeminent resource for helping students enhance their speaking skills by adding new features and retaining the most success- ful elements of previous editions.

New to the Eighth Edition We’ve refined and updated the book you are holding in your hands to create a pow- erful and contemporary resource for helping speakers connect to their audience. We’ve added several new features and revised features that both instructors and stu- dents have praised.

Streamlined Organization In response to suggestions from instructors who use the book, we’ve consolidated re- lated topics to reduce the book to a total of 16 chapters, allowing instructors to in- clude every chapter during a standard semester. Chapter 1 now offers a preview of the audience-centered speaking model as well as introducing students to the history and value of public speaking and starting the process of building their confidence as public speakers. Chapter 6 now not only shows stu- dents how to gather sup- porting material, but also immediately provides them advice and examples for ef- fective ways to integrate their supporting materials into a speech.


Learn, compare,

collect the

facts! . . . Always

have the courage to

say to yourself—

I am ignorant.



Sources of Supporting Material Personal Knowledge and

Experience The Internet Online Databases Traditional Library Holdings Interviews

Research Strategies Develop a Preliminary Bibliography Locate Resources Assess the Usefulness of Resources

Take Notes Identify Possible Presentation Aids

Types of Supporting Material Illustrations Descriptions and Explanations Definitions Analogies Statistics Opinions

The Best Supporting Material




6 Gathering and UsingSupporting Material

A pple pie is your specialty. Your family and friends relish your flaky crust,spicy filling, and crunchy crumb topping. Fortunately, not only do you havea never-fail recipe and technique, but you also know where to go for the best ingredients. Fette’s Orchard has the tangiest pie apples in town. For your crust,

you use only Premier shortening, which you buy at Meyer’s Specialty Market. Your

crumb topping requires both stone-ground whole-wheat flour and fresh creamery

butter, available on Tuesdays at the farmer’s market on the courthouse square.

Chapter 6 covers the speech-development step highlighted in Figure 6.1 on

page 134: Gather Supporting Material. Just as making your apple pie requires

that you know where to find specific ingredients, creating a successful speech re-

quires a knowledge of the sources, research strategies, and types of supporting

material that speechmakers typically use.

After studying this chapter you should be able to do the following:

1. List five potential sources of supporting material for a speech.

2. Explain five strategies for a logical research process.

3. List and describe six types of supporting material.

4. List and explain six criteria for determining the best supporting material to use in a speech.






Alexandra Exter (1882–1949), Sketch for a Scenic Design, ca. 1924, gouache on paper. Photo: M. E. Smith/Private Collection. © DeA Picture Library/Art Resource, N. Y.


xxiv Preface

Updated Features In the eighth edition, we have added more marginal Recap boxes and tables to summarize the content of nearly every major section in each chapter. Students can use the Recaps and tables to check their understanding, review for exams, and to reference key advice as they prepare their speeches.

New End-of-Chapter Study Guides We’ve provided a new, consolidated Study Guide at the end of each chapter. This practical feature helps students to review and check their understanding of chapter topics. The Study Guide summarizes the content of each major section of the chapter; restates the chapter’s best ideas for being an audience-centered speaker; poses discussion- sparking scenarios that show how chapter concepts might apply in real speaking and ethical situations; and points readers in the direction of relevant online resources that they can use as speakers.

Purposes of Introductions It is important to begin and end your speech in a way that is memorable and that also provides the repetition audiences need. A good introduction gets the audience’s attention, gives the audience a reason to listen, intro- duces your subject, establishes your credibility, and pre- views your main ideas.

Introducing your subject and previewing the body of your speech can be accomplished by includ- ing your central idea and preview statement in the introduction.

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Note from student: can you rewrite this lab report for me please no plagiarizing. Material and method must remain the same, because it was shown in my visual but please write in a paragraph or in a different way. This is not my paper so no plagiarizing.

April 19, 2018

DNA Biology and Technology Lab Report

Microbiology: BIO 299


Biotechnology is considered to be the science of using living systems and substances derived from them, most commonly referred to as DNA, to produce applications that benefit mankind. During this lab you will learn about both DNA isolation along with gel electrophoresis and how they relate to biotechnology. As more research is done, the subject of biotechnology grows. We can see the massive feats overcome when looking at things like forensics and parental testing. This lab teaches how both Isolation of DNA and Gel Electrophoresis are performed and give you an idea of how they can be useful in the real world.

Materials and Methods

When performing DNA isolation, you will need the following:

· Meat tenderizer

· Sodium chloride

· Water solution

· Strawberry filtrate

· Pipette

· Test Tube

· Glass Rod

· Bucket of Ice

· Ethanol

· Graduated Cylinder

Start by placing your strawberry filtrate and your ethanol into the bucket of ice to ensure it stays cold. Then place your test tube into the ice and transfer some of the strawberry filtrate into the tube. In the graduated cylinder combine the meat tenderizer and water. Transfer a few mL into the test tube and let it react for 10 minutes. Once this time has passed, add 95% ethanol into the test tube. This should case the DNA to precipitate. Now, turning in a clockwise motion, spool the DNA precipitate onto the glass rod. When removed you should see a stringy, gelatinous material on the glass rod. This indicates this part of the lab was done correctly.

In order to perform the second section of this lab, gel electrophoresis, you will need:

· Hot Liquid Agar

· A power supply

· Electrophoresis buffer

· Ethidium Bromide

· Micro Pipette

· DNA Samples

· Masking Tape

· Gel Comb

· Gel Casting Tray

· Electrophoresis Chamber

· Pipette Microtips

To begin the second half of this lab you must first assemble the gel tray. Start by placing masking tape on both ends and adding the comb to create wells for the DNA you will add later. Next, add Ethidium Bromide to the hot liquid agar and gentle pour into the gel tray. Wait a minimum of 10 minutes in order to let the gel cool before moving forward. Once the gel has solidified, carefully remove the tape and comb.

Next you must prepare the electrophoresis chamber and load the DNA samples. To begin this start by placing the gel into the electrophoresis chamber and fill the chamber with the electrophoresis buffer. Add your DNA samples into the gel using the pipette, each of them going into their own well. Be sure to use a new pipette tip with each sample to avoid cross-contamination. Place your control samples (TNF1 and TNF2) into their own well also. Cover your electrophoresis chamber and turn on the power source and set the voltage to 70V. Press play and let run into the DNA bands have sufficiently separated. Feel free to check as time passes. Once the gel has ran for the necessary time, plate under a UV table and turn on the light. You then must identify the genotypes of the three test samples by matching them with the controls.


When performing the DNA isolation correctly we are able to collect a sample using a technique called spooling. Temperature is a very important part of this lab and you will not be able to see results if everything is not kept cold. The coolness allows for stabilization of the hydrogen bonds.

When completing the gel electrophoresis, you are able to see which DNA sample matches with which control sample. It is also possible to see that one of the DNA samples is a combination of the two controls. The electrophoresis chamber properly separated the DNA.


This lab allowed for a better understanding of how DNA works and how it can be used in the real world. We separate DNA by way of DNA isolation. This allows for a pure DNA sample to be retrieved. By using gel electrophoresis, we are able to determine if DNA is similar or related. Gel Electrophoresis isolates DNA based on the size. Both methods are regularly used for forensics and are quite helpful in solving crimes.

Works Cited:

Cowan, M. K. (2018). Microbiology: A Systems Approach. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education.

(n.d.). Retrieved April 19, 2018, from 03:59:00&studentExtensionDate=&isBlackBoardUrl=false&

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in activity-based costing, nonmanufacturing costs are not assigned to products.

True / False Questions  

1.Activity-based management seeks to eliminate waste by allocating costs to products that waste resources.    True    False
2.Direct labor-hours or direct labor cost should not be used as a measure of activity in an activity-based costing system.    True    False
3.In activity-based costing, nonmanufacturing costs are not assigned to products.    True    False
4.In traditional costing, some manufacturing costs may be excluded from product costs.    True    False
5.Organization-sustaining overhead costs should be allocated to products just like unit-level and product-level activities.    True    False
6.Activity-based costing uses a number of activity cost pools, each of which may have a different allocation base.    True    False
7.In activity-based costing, organization-sustaining costs should be included in product costs for internal management reports that are used for decision-making.    True    False
8.The practice of assigning the costs of idle capacity to products results in more stable unit product costs.    True    False
9.In general, duration drivers are more accurate measures of the consumption of resources than transaction drivers.    True    False
10.Activity-based costing is a costing method that is designed to provide managers with cost information for strategic and other decisions that potentially affect only variable costs.    True    False
11.In traditional costing systems, manufacturing costs that are not caused by products are not assigned to products.    True    False
12.When a company shifts from a traditional cost system in which manufacturing overhead is applied based on direct labor-hours to an activity-based costing system with batch-level and product-level costs, the unit product costs of low volume products typically decrease whereas the unit product costs of high volume products typically increase.    True    False
13.The costs of idle capacity should be assigned to products in activity-based costing.    True    False
14.In activity-based costing, some manufacturing costs can be excluded from product costs.    True    False
 15.Batch-level activities are performed each time a unit is produced.    True    False
Multiple Choice16.An activity-based costing system that is designed for internal decision-making will not conform to generally accepted accounting principles because:   A. under activity-based costing the sum of all product costs does not equal the total costs of the company.B. under activity-based costing manufacturing costs are assigned to products.C. activity-based costing has not been approved by the United Nation’s International Accounting Board.D. activity-based costing results in less accurate costs than more traditional costing methods based on direct labor-hours or machine-hours.
17.Assembling a product is an example of a(n):    A. Unit-level activity.B. Batch-level activity.C. Product-level activity.D. Organization-sustaining.
18.If substantial batch-level or product-level costs exist, then overhead allocation based on a measure of volume such as direct labor-hours alone:   A. is a key aspect of the activity-based costing model.B. will systematically overcost high-volume products and undercost low-volume products.C. will systematically overcost low-volume products and undercost high-volume products.D. must be used for external financial reporting since activity-based costing cannot be used for external reporting purposes.
19.Which terms would make the following sentence true? Manufacturing companies that benefit the most from activity-based costing are those where overhead costs are a _________ percentage of total product cost and where there is ___________ diversity among the various products that they produce.   A. low, littleB. low, considerableC. high, littleD. high, considerable
20.Which of the following costs should not be included in product costs for internal management reports that are used for decision-making?   A. Costs of unit-level activities.B. Costs of batch-level activities.C. Costs of product-level activities.D. Costs of organization-sustaining activities.
21.The plant manager’s salary is an example of a(n):    A. Unit-level activity.B. Batch-level activity.C. Product-level activity.D. Organization-sustaining activity.
22.Setting up a machine to change from producing one product to another is an example of a(n):    A. Unit-level activity.B. Batch-level activity.C. Product-level activity.D. Organization-sustaining activity.
23.Which of the following would probably be the most accurate measure of activity to use for allocating the costs associated with a factory’s purchasing department?   A. Machine-hoursB. Direct labor-hoursC. Number of orders processedD. Cost of materials purchased
24.The labor time required to assemble a product is an example of a(n):    A. Unit-level activity.B. Batch-level activity.C. Product-level activity.D. Organization-sustaining activity.
25.Which of the following levels of costs should not be allocated to products for decision-making purposes?    A. Unit-level activities.B. Batch-level activities.C. Product-level activities.D. Organization-sustaining activities.
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wafa house

Students will be required to write a final paper (approx. 2,500 words, double-spaced, Times New Roman font size 12). The final paper must include a reflection on what the Wafa House provides for the community and how it relates to readings and themes covered in the course. The paper must include the following: Overview of Wafa House’s community engagement: In this section, you will give an overview of the activities and tasks that Wafa House has done for their communities. In addition, you will tell the reader about the mission and objectives of the organization. In other words, you will describe the rationale that informs the services and/or programs offered by the organization and indicate the individuals whom the services and/or programs are tailored to. Critical analysis of the community engagement: In this section, you will perform an evaluation of Wafa House’s community engagement. The components of your evaluation must include: (a) constructive evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of the program(s) of the organization, and (b) sharing any eventful moments that you think may have transpired during these community engagement experiences. Lessons learned through community engagement: In this section, you will explain how Wafa House’s community engagement experiences helped you develop a better understanding of gender, agency, and women’s activism. Do you think your research about the the organization would contribute to dispelling or did it reinforce some of the myths associated with the figure of the “Middle Eastern women”? And finally how does Wafa House’s community engagement enrich your commitment to gender equality and cultural understanding?

 Grading Scheme  Critical Analysis and Reflection: /25  Clarity of Organization, Grammar/Writing Quality: /5  Citations and Bibliography: /5  Total Grade: /35 

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after a scrum team has committed to a sprint goal, what authority does it have?

If a Team member is consistently late for the Daily Scrum, what is usually the first thing a Team should do?

A)Meet with the Team member to determine a solution.

B)Have the Team member do the testing.

C)Ask the ScrumMaster to move the Team member off the Team.

D)Report the Team member to his or her manager.

What should usually happen if, during a Sprint, the Product Owner identifies a new, important Product Backlog Item (PBI)?

A)The ScrumMaster encourages the Team to include the extra item.

B)The Team works overtime to finish the PBI in the current Sprint.

C)The Product Owner adds the new PBI to the Product Backlog.

D)The Team extends the Sprint duration to include the new item.

Which role is MOST LIKELY to communicate an impediment during a Daily Scrum?

A) Team


C) ScrumMaster

D)Product Owner

Who is primarily responsible for facilitation, when required, in Scrum meetings?

A)Product Owner


C)Development Team

D)No one

The Agile Manifesto says that “[we] value responding to change over following a plan.” Which of the following statements best illustrates this?

A)Changes are accepted at any time at the discretion of the Product Owner.

B)Changes are accepted up until the point that the first Sprint begins. Then, changes are deferred to a future release.

C)Changes are accepted only if other Product Backlog Items are removed from the Product Backlog so that a fixed end-date is maintained.

D)Changes are accepted up until about halfway through the project, then all changes are deferred to a future release.

In a 30-day Sprint, how long is the Sprint Review Meeting?

A)Four hours maximum

B)Four to eight hours

C)At least eight hours

 D)As long as required

How does the Agile Manifesto address planning?

A)Sign-off on the detail of Product Backlog items is mandatory before any item can be planned into an iteration.

B) Responding to change is more important than following a plan

C)Planning is not required in an agile project, as the project is focused on current status.

D)Upfront planning and design is an integral stage before development can begin.

Which statement accurately reflects the role of the Product Owner during the Daily Scrum?

A)The Product Owner ensures the burndown rate is maintained so the Development Team can satisfy the Sprint goals.

B)The Product Owner outlines the additional changes that the Development Team must add to the Sprint.

C)The Product Owner provides instructions to the Development Team on how to implement a workable solution.

D)The Product Owner’s participation is defined by the Development Team.

What is the approach that Scrum encourages when a Team determines it will be difficult to deliver any value by the end of a Sprint?

A)Extend the Sprint by a few days to accommodate the extra work.

B)Suggest the Product Owner abnormally terminate the Sprint.

C)Immediately escalate to Senior Management.

D)Together with the Product Owner, focus on what can be done and identify a way to deliver something valuable at the end of each Sprint.

How are development Teams guided during a Sprint?

A)By the ScrumMaster who ensures they are not wasting time

B)By their collective knowledge and experience

C)By the Product Owner who attends the Daily Stand-up

D)By project documentation and the Scrum process

Who is primarily responsible for ensuring that everyone follows Scrum rules and practices?

A)The ScrumMaster

B)Each individual team member

C)The Product Owner

D) All Team members collectively

Which of the following is true concerning impediments?

A)It is the Product Owner’s job to remove impediments.

B)It is the ScrumMaster’s top priority to remove impediments.

C)The Team should not use daily Scrum meetings to report impediments.

 D)A slow running server is not considered an impediment.

For what type of work is Scrum MOST suitable?





If a Development Team determines that it has over-committed itself for a Sprint, who should be present when reviewing and adjusting the Sprint goal and work?

A)Product Owner, ScrumMaster and Development Team

B)ScrumMaster, Project Manager, Development Team

C)Development Team

D)Product Owner and Stakeholders

What is the main purpose of a Sprint Review?

 A)For the Product Manager to be able to show progress to the Stakeholders

B)For the Scrum Team and stakeholders to review what the Scrum Team has built, and to collaborate on what could be done next to create value.

C)For Stakeholders to “hold the Scrum Team’s feet to the fire” – to make sure something is produced during the Sprint

D)For the Scrum Team to review their work and to determine what is needed to complete the next set of backlog items

Who is responsible for the business value delivered by a Scrum Team?

A)Product Owner

B)Project Manager

C)Program Sponsor


Who is primarily responsible for maintaining the Product Backlog?



C)Scrum Development Team

D)Product Owner

Which of the following is a MAIN purpose of a Sprint Backlog?

A)For the Product Owner to understand what the Development Team has committed to for a Sprint

B)For the ScrumMaster to manage the Development Team’s progress during the Sprint

C)For the Development Team to organize themselves during the Sprint

D)For the Development Team to manage the number of hours spent on tasks in the Sprint

What are the desirable qualities of a Product Vision?

A)Provides a complete breakdown structure of the ROI formula

B)Outlines traceability back to overall corporate governance in IT investment

C)Features a detailed overview that enlightens and inspires 

D) Describes why the project is pursued and the product desired end state

During a Daily Scrum meeting, Olivia mentions she has found an available solution and she thinks that will solve one of the problems she has been working on. She wants to implement it immediately. What is the best next step?  

A)All members of the Team are told to evaluate Olivia’s solution and report back to the team at the next Daily Scrum meeting.

B)The Product Owner notes the impediment and solves the problem after the meeting.

C)The ScrumMaster tells Olivia to prepare an example and presentation for the Team so they can consider using the code.

D)After the Daily Scrum a separate meeting is conducted to discuss the proposed solution.

Which of the following is a characteristic of a good Scrum Team?

What does the Team do during the first Sprint?
 A)Accomplishes the Sprint goal  
 B)Predetermines the complete architecture and infrastructure  
 C)Delivers design documents  
 D)Develops a plan for the rest of the Sprints


What is the approach that Scrum encourages when a Team determines it will be difficult to deliver any value by the end of a Sprint?

A)Extend the Sprint by a few days to accommodate the extra work.

B)Suggest the Product Owner abnormally terminate the Sprint.

C)Immediately escalate to Senior Management.

D)Together with the Product Owner, focus on what can be done and identify a way to deliver something valuable at the end of each Sprint.

How are development Teams guided during a Sprint?

A)By the ScrumMaster who ensures they are not wasting time

B)By their collective knowledge and experience

C)By the Product Owner who attends the Daily Stand-up

D)By project documentation and the Scrum process

Who is primarily responsible for ensuring that everyone follows Scrum rules and practices?

A)The ScrumMaster

B)Each individual team member

C)The Product Owner

D) All Team members collectively

Which of the following is true concerning impediments?

A)It is the Product Owner’s job to remove impediments.

B)It is the ScrumMaster’s top priority to remove impediments.

C)The Team should not use daily Scrum meetings to report impediments.

 D)A slow running server is not considered an impediment.

For what type of work is Scrum MOST suitable?





If a Development Team determines that it has over-committed itself for a Sprint, who should be present when reviewing and adjusting the Sprint goal and work?

A)Product Owner, ScrumMaster and Development Team

B)ScrumMaster, Project Manager, Development Team

C)Development Team

D)Product Owner and Stakeholders

What is the main purpose of a Sprint Review?

 A)For the Product Manager to be able to show progress to the Stakeholders

B)For the Scrum Team and stakeholders to review what the Scrum Team has built, and to collaborate on what could be done next to create value.

C)For Stakeholders to “hold the Scrum Team’s feet to the fire” – to make sure something is produced during the Sprint

D)For the Scrum Team to review their work and to determine what is needed to complete the next set of backlog items

Who is responsible for the business value delivered by a Scrum Team?

A)Product Owner

B)Project Manager

C)Program Sponsor


Who is primarily responsible for maintaining the Product Backlog?



C)Scrum Development Team

D)Product Owner

Which of the following is a MAIN purpose of a Sprint Backlog?

A)For the Product Owner to understand what the Development Team has committed to for a Sprint

B)For the ScrumMaster to manage the Development Team’s progress during the Sprint

C)For the Development Team to organize themselves during the Sprint

D)For the Development Team to manage the number of hours spent on tasks in the Sprint

What are the desirable qualities of a Product Vision?

A)Provides a complete breakdown structure of the ROI formula

B)Outlines traceability back to overall corporate governance in IT investment

C)Features a detailed overview that enlightens and inspires 

D) Describes why the project is pursued and the product desired end state

During a Daily Scrum meeting, Olivia mentions she has found an available solution and she thinks that will solve one of the problems she has been working on. She wants to implement it immediately. What is the best next step?  

A)All members of the Team are told to evaluate Olivia’s solution and report back to the team at the next Daily Scrum meeting.

B)The Product Owner notes the impediment and solves the problem after the meeting.

C)The ScrumMaster tells Olivia to prepare an example and presentation for the Team so they can consider using the code.

D)After the Daily Scrum a separate meeting is conducted to discuss the proposed solution.

What does the Team do during the first Sprint?

A)Accomplishes the Sprint goal

B)Predetermines the complete architecture and infrastructure

C)Delivers design documents

D)Develops a plan for the rest of the Sprints

25)What is MOST likely to result if the Product Owner is not available during a Sprint?

A)The Sprint is abnormally terminated.

B)The product increment may not meet expectations.

C)The Team extends the length of the Sprint until the Product Owner returns.

D)The ScrumMaster assumes the responsibilities of the Product Owner.

Which role is responsible for turning the Product Backlog into incremental pieces of functionality?

A)Development Team

 B)Everyone within the Project

 C)Product Owner


The ScrumMaster…

A)is the Team’s Scrum expert and focuses on continual improvement.

B )controls the priority order of items in the team’s backlog.

C)is the keeper of the product vision.

D)creates, refines and communicates customer requirements to the Development Team.

Which of the following BEST represents the Product Owner’s responsibility?

A)Optimizing the business value of the work

B)Holding the team responsible for commitments made to stakeholders

C)Keeping stakeholders from distracting the Development Team

D)Directing the Development Team’s daily activities

Which of the following is a responsibility of the Product Owner?

A)Determine the Team composition necessary for success.

B)Determine the appropriate solution or approach for the product.

C)Determine the length of the Sprints.

D)Determine the appropriate release dates.

30)When is the Sprint finished?

A)When the timebox expires

B)When tasks are complete

C)As determined by the size of the Team

D)When committed items have met their definition of done

Which of the following is a good option when a Product Owner is overworked?

A)Split the Product Owner role and distribute the duties among more people.

B)Free the Product Owner from other responsibilities.

C)Limit the amount of time the Product Owner spends with the Scrum Team.

D)Ask the Project Manager to pick up some of the Product Owner’s responsibilities.

In Scrum, what does a team attempt to produce every Sprint?

A)Functionality that has been designed and analyzed

B)Functionality that has been deployed to the users and delivers real business value

C)A potentially shippable product increment

D)A Product Backlog item that is ready to be tested

When should the Release Burndown Chart be updated?

A)After every week

B)After every day

C)After every Sprint

D)After every release

Why should the Product Owner attend the Daily Scrum?  

A)To make sure the Development Team is still on target to meet its Sprint goals

B)To help clarify requirements

C)To comment on the Development Team’s progress

D)To tell the Development Team members which tasks to work on next

Can the Product Owner and the ScrumMaster be the same person?

A)Yes, if the person has the authority and empowerment to do both things.

B)Yes, as long as the person can balance both responsibilities with care.

C)No. It would take too much of one person’s time.

D)No. The role responsibilities are in conflict.

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dc network gcu login

How to Use SPSS from the GCU Server

SPSS is software used for statistical analysis. You will find this software on the DC Network. To access the SPSS program, follow these directions:

1. Access the DC Network at

2. Enter the username and password used for accessing Loudcloud.

3. Click the Research/Dissertation tab.

4. On the left side of the page, you will see the heading, Research Resources. Click on the SPSS Statistical Analysis Software link.

5. Click the SPSS Server (access without download) link.

6. Click the SPSS Server Documentation_PC link.

7. Follow the directions given in this document.

© 2011. Grand Canyon University. All Rights Reserved.

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 Reviewing Assignment

Week #1 Assignment

Started: Feb 16, 2015 10:31 PM Finished: Feb 19, 2015 4:24 PM

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 Week #1 Assignment     (worth 10 points)

Students are to go to the following website:

Enter the following into the search engine: Martin Luther King Jr. ­The Man and the Dream.

This video is approximately 59 minutes in length. Please watch this video in its’ entirety. There will be 4 questions to answer.

Question 1 of 4     (worth 2.5 points)

1. When and where was MLK Jr. born?


MKL Jr. was born on January 15, 1929 in Atlanta, Georgia to a Baptist minister.

Question 2 of 4     (worth 2.5 points)

2. From what socio­economic class did MLK Jr. stem? How did this contrast to his parents upbringing?


MKL Jr. was born from a family of a Baptist ministers, and his father was the pastor of Ebenezer Baptist Church in Atlanta. Being a son of a pastor growing up in among the black middle class, King was able to afford education and experience not available to children in poorer rural and urban areas. This did not contrast much to the socio-economic class of his parents as they were also from the middle-class.

Question 3 of 4     (worth 2.5 points)

3. How productive were MLK Jr methods of nonviolent protests?


As a method of activism nonviolence guarantees no automatic and unfailing success; no method of conflict resolution does. His nonviolent, legal, and moral methods showed many white Americans that black Americans were not inferior to them based solely on their skin coloration. King showed how all of the problems concerning racism could be solved through peaceful demonstrations and not through violence, which only succeeded in making some white Americans dislike black Americans more.

Question 4 of 4     (worth 2.5 points)

4. In your opinion, does MLK Jr being a womanizer, tarnish his image? Is this a contradiction to being a Nobel Prize Winner Receipient?


Being a womanizer does not tarnish the image of MLK Jr. because it is human nature to love women. This does not affect him being a Nobel Prize Winner Recipient.

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9/27/2015 Etudes : LAHC POL 001 4922 PRODR SP15 : Assignments, Tests and Surveys 2/2

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according to glaukon from the “ring of gyges” excerpt from plato’s republic, people are:

Question 1. 1. Rachels concludes that: (Points : 1)       [removed] active euthanasia is always worse than passive euthanasia.
      [removed] passive euthanasia is always worse than active euthanasia.
      [removed] active euthanasia is always morally permissible.
      [removed] none of the above.

Question 2. 2. Glaukon begins by claiming that “those who practice justice” do so (Points : 1)       [removed] Because they know it is the right thing to do.
      [removed] Because they are compelled by their conscience.
      [removed] Because they are incapable of doing otherwise.
      [removed] Because all of the parts of their character are harmoniously oriented toward the good.

Question 3. 3. According to Rachels, the case of Smith and Jones shows that: (Points : 1)       [removed] killing is intrinsically worse than letting die.
      [removed] there is no intrinsic moral difference between killing and letting die.
      [removed] letting die is morally worse than killing.
      [removed] it is never permissible either to let someone die or to kill them.

Question 4. 4. According to Rachels, many people accept the conventional doctrine because they believe: (Points : 1)       [removed] killing is intrinsically worse than letting die.
      [removed] there is no intrinsic moral difference between killing and letting die.
      [removed] letting die is morally worse than killing.
      [removed] it is never permissible either to let someone die or to kill them.

Question 5. 5. If the Ring of Gyges really existed, (Points : 1)       [removed] Just people would use it for justice.
      [removed] Just people would not use it at all.
      [removed] Unjust people would use it differently than just people.
      [removed] Everyone would use it the same.

Question 6. 6. Kass argues that there is an important difference between withdrawing treatment and active, direct mercy killing, and this difference lies in the (Points : 1)       [removed] primary intention of the doctor.
      [removed] ultimate outcome of the actions.
      [removed] Constitution of the United States.
      [removed] sympathy that we feel for the patient’s suffering.

Question 7. 7. Midgely concludes that (Points : 1)       [removed] If we accept a value in another culture, we can still reject that value in our culture.
      [removed] If we accept a value in another culture, we must accept that value in our culture.
      [removed] If we reject a value in another culture, we must reject that value in our culture.
      [removed] B and C.

Question 8. 8. According to Rachels, active euthanasia is currently: (Points : 1)       [removed] forbidden by law, and conventionally considered immoral.
      [removed] forbidden by law, but conventionally considered permissible.
      [removed] permitted by law, but conventionally considered immoral.
      [removed] permitted by law, and conventionally considered permissible.

Question 9. 9. According to the videos, in which is it legal to commit assisted suicide? (Points : 1)       [removed] Canada
      [removed] Mexico
      [removed] Germany
      [removed] Switzerland

Question 10. 10. The Ring of Gyges gave the shepherd who found it (Points : 1)       [removed] Intelligence
      [removed] Invincibility
      [removed] Invisibility
      [removed] Wisdom

Question 11. 11. Rachels claims that once it has been decided that euthanasia is desirable in a case: (Points : 1)       [removed] a moral error has already been made.
      [removed] it has been decided that death is no greater an evil than the patient’s continued existence.
      [removed] it has been decided that the patient does not have a right to life.
      [removed] the amount of suffering of the patient becomes irrelevant.

Question 12. 12. Rachels claims that when infants with Down’s syndrome are denied necessary operations, this is typically because: (Points : 1)       [removed] the infants have Down’s syndrome.
      [removed] the surgery would be too expensive.
      [removed] the surgery would be too risky.
      [removed] all of the above.

Question 13. 13. Rachels argues that the conventional doctrine: (Points : 1)       [removed] is self-evidently correct.
      [removed] is not what most people believe, but can be supported by strong arguments.
      [removed] leads to decisions concerning life and death made on morally irrelevant grounds.
      [removed] leads to patients being euthanized against their will.

Question 14. 14. Glaukon thinks that deep in our hearts we all believe that (Points : 1)       [removed] Injustice is more profitable than justice.
      [removed] We will have a clearer conscience if we always stick to the laws of justice.
      [removed] To be unjust is to be a fool.
      [removed] Both B and C.

Question 15. 15. Midgley thinks that although we can understand or appreciate other societies, (Points : 1)       [removed] We should never judge the values of other societies.
      [removed] We must always respect the values of other societies.
      [removed] We have the right to judge other societies.
      [removed] We cannot understand them well enough to judge them.

Question 16. 16. In the excerpt from Plato’s Republic, Glaukon suggests that people are good (Points : 1)       [removed] only because they are powerless to commit injustice and get away with it.
      [removed] because their conscience tells them to be.
      [removed] out of reverence for the law.
      [removed] because living justly is objectively the best sort of life.

Question 17. 17. Why is it hard for physicians to understand palliative care? (Points : 1)       [removed] They do not care about their patients enough.
      [removed] They are well-educated in palliative care.
      [removed] They did not pay attention in medical school.
      [removed] They are focused on healing rather than helping die.

Question 18. 18. Rachels claims that: (Points : 1)       [removed] there is no moral difference between active and passive euthanasia, considered in themselves.
      [removed] there is always a moral difference between the consequences of active and passive euthanasia.
      [removed] both a and b.
      [removed] neither a nor b.

Question 19. 19. Rachels claims that most actual cases of killing: (Points : 1)       [removed] are morally worse than most actual cases of letting die.
      [removed] are morally the same most actual cases of letting die.
      [removed] are morally less bad than most actual cases of letting die.
      [removed] are morally required.

Question 20. 20. James Rachels points out that when passive euthanasia is employed on infants, they typically die of: (Points : 1)       [removed] poisoning.
      [removed] SARS.
      [removed] suffocation.
      [removed] dehydration and infection.
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moodle campbellsville

Graded Assignments may be found at the end of each chapter of the required textbook under the title “Real-World Exercises”. Each assignment is due between Monday to Sunday evening by 11:00 p.m. EST. of the respective week. Each student is to select one exercise (per module exercise) from the grouping as identified below. Provide documented evidence, in Moodle, of completion of the chosen exercise (i.e. provide answers to each of the stated questions). Detailed and significant scholarly answers will be allotted full point value. Incomplete, inaccurate, or inadequate answers will receive less than full credit depending on the answers provided. All submissions need to directed to the appropriate area within Moodle. Late submissions, hardcopy, or email submissions will not be accepted. 

Module 2 Graded Assignment

From Chapter 2, page 81, Real World Exercise 2.2 

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1. Explain what a ‘sting operation’ is.


1. Describe the functions of a school resource officer.


1. Explain what a ‘power shift’ is, and why police agencies use them.


1. What did the Kansas City patrol experiment discover?

Path: pWords:0
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the hawaiian island-emperor seamount chain formed as a result of ________.

Plate Tectonics Lab Assignment After reading the introduction to the Plate tectonic exercises in the manual, complete the questions on a hard copy of this Lab Assignment. When finished, transfer your answers to the lab assessment in BB Vista, save each answer individually if you feel that you are not to going to complete the whole assignment in one sitting. Do not press the “FINISH” button until you have filled all the answers and are ready to get it graded. Before the submission deadline, you can open the incomplete lab assignment for modifications as many times as you wish, but you will only be able to submit it once for a grade. Part 1- Lab Manual The exercises that follow are adaptations of the Plate Tectonics exercises contained in the lab manual. Note that the number that precedes the text of the question corresponds to the identifying number of that question in the lab manual. Lab Manual (Busch 9th Edition) Activity 2.8: The Origin of Magma 1. (Question A1, Figure 2.7) According to the continental geothermal gradient, rocks buried 80 km beneath a continent would normally be heated to what temperature? At 80 km depth, rocks will be heated to about _______ degrees Celsius 1. 1500 2. 1000 3. 750 4. 200 2. (Question A2, Figure 2.7) According to the oceanic geothermal gradient, rocks buried 80 km beneath an ocean basin would normally be heated to what temperature? At 80 km depth, rocks will be heated to about _______ degrees Celsius 1. 1500 2. 1000 3. 750 4. 200 3. (Question A3, Figure 2.7) What is the physical state of the peridotite at point X? 1. 100% liquid 2. a mixture of solids and liquid 3. 100% solid 4. (Question A4, Figure 2.7) What happens when the peridotite in point X is heated to 1750 °C? 1. no change 2. partial melting 3. complete melting 5. (Question A5, Figure 2.7) What happens when the peridotite in point X is heated to 2250 °C? 1. no change 2. partial melting 3. complete melting 6. (Question B1, Figure 2.7) At what depth and pressure will peridotite at point X begin to melt if it is uplifted closer to Earth’s surface and its temperature remains the same? 1. 75 km, 24,000 atm 2. 65 km 20,000 atm 3. 40 km 13,000 atm 4. 20 km 8,000 atm 7. (Question B2 and B3) When mantle peridotite melts as a result of being uplifted in the way described in the previous question, the process is called__________ and is likely to happen at ____________. 1. solidus crystallization, divergent boundaries 2. solution, convergent boundaries and hot spots 3. recrystallization melting, hot spots 4. decompression melting, divergent boundaries and hot spots 8. (Question C, Figure 2.7) According to your answers to the previous four questions related to the peridotite at point X being subjected to changes in pressure and temperature, which two processes would lead to melting? 1. decrease in pressure and temperature 2. increase in pressure and temperature 3. decrease in pressure and increase in temperature. 4. increase in pressure and decrease in temperature Lab manual (Busch, 9th Edition) Activity 2.8 part D: A few modifications will allow you to run the experiment described in this section using materials readily available in your home. The hot plate can be replaced by a foil lined frying pan on the stove burner. The two sugar cubes can also be replaced by two teaspoonfuls of sugar; the secret is not to add excessive water to the sample that needs to be wet. Extra water will dissolve the sugar and obscure the interpretation of your results. Prepare all the experiment materials directly on the cool burner to avoid mixing of the two samples when you move the foil. Place on the stove burner the foil lined pan, the two separate heaps of sugar and add the drops of water on one of the heaps. Then turn the stove on at medium heat, and observe. 9. (Question D1) Which sample melted first? 1. the dry sample 2. the wet sample 10. (Question D2) The rapid melting that you observed in the sample that melted first is called “flux melting,” because flux is an added component the speeds up a process. What was the flux? 1. sugar 2. water 3. silicates 11. (Question D3, Figure 2.8) The effect of water on peridotite is similar to its effect on the sugar experiment, therefore when peridotite is heated in “wet” conditions, the line of the “wet solidus” would be located to the _____________ of the “dry solidus” in Figure 2.8. 1. right, to higher temperatures 2. left, to lower temperatures 12. (Question D4) Looking at Figure 2.1 for a hint, indicate in what tectonic setting may water enter the mantle and produce flux melting of peridotite? 1. hot spots 2. subduction zones 3. mid-oceanic ridges 4. transform faults 13. (Question E3, Figure part E). Which choice best describes the sequence of processes leading to the formation of mid-oceanic ridge volcanoes? 1. “ wet” seafloor basalt subducts and dehydrates, water induces flux melting of mantle peridotite above, basaltic magma ascends and forms volcanoes. 2. flux melting, magma ascends to the surface forming volcanoes, peridotite rises, subduction 3. magma ascends, decompression melting of peridotite, peridotite pushes the basalt open and forms volcanoes. 4. peridotite ascends, decompression melting forms basaltic magma, magma pushes and cracks the ocean floor basalt open, and erupts forming volcanoes 14. (Question F3, Figure part F). Which choice best describes, the processes leading to the formation of a continental volcanic arc, in chronological order? (Beware of error in F3: the words between brackets “oceanic ridge” should be replaced with “continental volcanic arc”). 1. “ wet” seafloor basalt subducts and dehydrates, water induces flux melting of mantle peridotite above, basaltic magma ascends and forms volcanoes. 2. flux melting, magma ascends to the surface forming volcanoes, peridotite rises to shallow depth and melts, subduction. 3. magma ascends, decompression melting of peridotite, peridotite pushes the ocean floor basalt open and forms volcanoes. 4. peridotite ascends, decompression melting forms basaltic magma, magma pushes and cracks the ocean floor basalt open, and erupts forming volcanoes Lab manual (Busch, 9th Edition) Activity 2.3: Using Earthquakes to identify Plate boundaries 15. Refer to the figure in activity 2.3. Which of the following places represent a Benioff Zone? (Hint: refer back to the notes for unit 3) 1. 10°S, 110°W 2. 0°, 90°W 3. 0°, 80°W 4. 20°S, 100°W 16. The Benioff zone is associated with which type of plate boundary? 1. Divergent 2. Convergent (Continent-Continent) 3. Convergent (Continent-Ocean) 4. Transform Lab manual (Busch, 9th Edition) Activity 2.4: Analysis of Atlantic Seafloor Spreading To solve questions in this section, review how to work with graphic scales and the metric system in Unit 2. Use a ruler to measure the distance between features and determine the equivalent distance in the ground using the graphic scale. (A ruler is contained in the GEOTOOLS Sheet 1, at the end of your lab manual). The distance you determine will be in kilometers (km). Convert the distance to centimeters (cm), remember 1000 meters = 1 kilometer. Remember that the rate of movement is equivalent to the plate velocity. Velocity can be calculated dividing the distance the plate traveled by the time it took to cover that distance: velocity = distance/time. Choose the answers that best approximate to your calculated values, make sure you use the required units. 17. (Question B, Figure page 49). Notice that points B and C were together 145 million years ago, but did the sea floor spread apart at the same rate on both sides of the mid-ocean ridge? 1. Same Rate 2. Faster on the East 3. Faster on the West 18. (Question C, Figure page 49). How far apart are points B and C, today in kilometers? 1. ~3,250 km 2. ~3,850 km 3. ~4,250 km 4. ~4,550 km 19. (Question C.1, Figure page 49). Calculate the average rate, in km per million years, at which points B and C have moved apart over the past 145 million years. 1. 8 km/my 2. 16.4 km/my 3. 27.6 km/my 4. 31.8 km/my 20. (Question C.2, Figure page 49). Convert your answer above from km per million years to mm per year. The result is ________ in mm per year. 1. 10 times less than the previous answer 2. Same as the previous answer 3. 10 times more than the previous answer 4. 100 times more than the previous answer 21. (Question D, Figure page 49). Based on your answer in question 19, how many millions of years ago were Africa and North America part of the same continent? (Hint use points D and E). 1. ~150 million years 2. ~165 million years 3. ~180 million years 4. ~200 million years 22. (Question E, Figure page 49). Based on your answer in question 20, how far in meters have Africa and North America moved apart since the United States was formed in 1776 to 2011? 1. ~0.6 meters 2. ~6 meters 3. ~15 meters 3. ~25 meters Lab manual (Busch, 9th Edition) Activity 2.5: Plate motion along the San Andres Fault Part A. The two bodies of Late Miocene rocks (~25 million years old) located along either side of the San Andres Fault (map- page 51) resulted from a single body of rock being separated by motions along the fault. Note the arrows show the relative motion. 23. (Question A1, Figure page 51). Estimate the average annual rate of movement along the San Andres Fault by measuring how much the Late Miocene rocks have been offset by the fault and by assuming that these rocks began separating soon after they formed. What is the average rate of fault movement in centimeters per year (cm/yr)? 1. ~0.1 cm/year 2. ~1.3 cm/year 3. ~13 cm/year 4. ~25 cm/year 24. (Question A2, Figure page 51). Most of the movement along the San Andres Fault occurs during earthquakes. An average movement of about 5 m (16ft) along the San Andres Fault was associated with the devastating 1906 San Francisco earthquake that killed people and destroyed property. Assuming that all displacement along the fault was produced by earthquakes of this magnitude, how many Earthquakes are needed to produce the displacement observed in the previous question? 1. ~1,000 2. ~10,000 3. ~65,000 4. ~100,000 Lab manual (Busch, 9th Edition) Activity 2.7: Plate tectonics of the Northwest United States Notice the ages of seafloor rocks in Figure 2.6. The modern seafloor rocks of this region are forming along a divergent plate boundary called the Juan de Fuca Ridge. The farther one moves away from the plate boundary, the older the seafloor rocks. 25. (Question B2, Figure 2.6). Notice the seafloor rocks older than 8 million years are present west of the Juan de Fuca Ridge but not east of the ridge. What could cause their absence from the map? They are absent because ______________. 1. a strike slip fault along the ridge has moved older rocks further north. 2. older rocks have been subducted underneath the North American Plate 3. rifting has produced metamorphism, which obliterated the old age of the seafloor 4. erosion of the sea floor destroyed rocks older than 12 million years 26. (Question B3, Figure 2.6) The type of plate boundary represented by the red line on the figure is a/n __________________ boundary. 1. transform 2. convergent 3. divergent 4. unconformity 27. (Question B4, Figure 2.6) Which of the following best explains the origin of magma that builds Cascade Range volcanoes? 1. As the North American Plate and the Juan de Fuca Plate slide past each other on a horizontal plane, friction produces the heat to generate magma. 2. As the Juan de Fuca plate is rifted apart, lower pressure at the rift produces magma that feeds the volcanoes at the Cascade Range. 3. Subduction of the Juan de Fuca Plate under the North American Plate brings rocks from the ocean floor and marine sediment to depths where partial melting ensues due to the increased temperature and the influence of water. 4. Migration of the North American Plate over a hot spot is responsible for the Cascade Range volcanoes. Part 2- Google Earth The exercises that follow use Google Earth. For each question (or set of questions) paste the location that is given into the “fly to” box. Examine each location at multiple eye altitudes and differing amounts of tilt. For any measurements use the ruler tool, this can be accessed by clicking on the ruler icon above the image. Google Earth: Hawaiian Islands Fly to Hawaii. Please review the section on Hotspots and the Hawaiian Islands in the Lab manual and in the unit notes. Rocks have been dated on each of the Hawaiian Islands and their ages are as follows: Big Island- 0 (active), Maui – 1.1 million, Kauai- 4.7 million, Nihoa (23 03 32.79N 161 55 11.94W)- 7.2 million years 28. Consider the ages and positions of the islands listed above along with what you know about plate tectonics and hotspots. In what general direction is the Pacific Plate moving? 1. Northwest 2. Southeast 3. Northeast 4. Southwest 29. How fast was the Pacific plate moving during the last 1.1 million years between the formation of the Big Island and Maui in cm/year? 1. ~5 cm/year 2. ~10 cm/year 3. ~15 cm/year 4. ~20 cm/year 30. How fast was the Pacific plate moving from 7.2 million years ago to 4.7 million years ago between the formation of Kauai and Nihao in cm/year? 1. ~5 cm/year 2. ~10 cm/year 3. ~15 cm/year 4. ~20 cm/year 31) Examine the headings of the measurements that you took for the previous two questions. The headings indicate the direction the Pacific Plate is moving over the hot spot. How does the direction of motion of the Pacific Plate during the last 1.1 million years differ from direction of movement between 4.7 and 7.2 million years ago? The direction of plate movement in the last 1.1 million years________. 1. shows no change 2. has become more northerly 3. has become more southerly 32) Zoom out and examine the dozens of sunken volcanoes out past Nihoa, named the Emperor Seamounts. As one of these volcanic islands on the Pacific Plate moves off the hotspot it becomes inactive, or extinct, and the island begins to sink as it and the surrounding tectonic plate cool down. The speed the islands are sinking can be estimated by measuring the difference in elevation (tilting the image helps to find the highest elevation) between two islands and dividing by the difference in their ages (this method assumes the islands were a similar size when they were active). Using Maui and Nihoa, how fast are the Hawaiian Islands sinking? 1. ~0.05 cm/year 2. ~0.5 cm/year 3. ~5 cm/year 4. ~10 cm/year 33) Using the speed you calculated in the previous question (and ignoring possible changes in sea level), when will the Big Island of Hawaii sink below the surface of the ocean? 1. ~650,000 years 2. ~1.2 million years 3. ~8 million years 4. ~13 million years 34) Examine the Emperor Seamounts and notice that it is a continuous chain that reaches far north to the Aleutian Islands of Alaska. Using a speed halfway between that which you calculated in questions 29 and 30, calculate the age of the oldest (furthest North) seamount in the Emperor Seamounts? (Hint 1- using the line mode of the ruler tool will not work since the Pacific Plate had a drastic change in direction, try using the path mode of the ruler tool to give a more accurate distance; Hint 2- Since you know the plate does not move at the same speed over time, the age you estimated will differ from the real age based on radiometric dating, therefore your answer will be different from the one given in the lab manual!). 1. ~30 million years 2. ~45 million years 3. ~60 million years 4. ~75 million years Google Earth: Identifying Plate Boundaries 35. Fly to 15 19 48.78 S 75 12 03.41 W. What type of tectonic plates are present? 1. Ocean- Ocean 2. Ocean- Continent 3. Continent- Continent. 36. What type of plate tectonic boundary is present? 1. Transform 2. Convergent 3. Divergent 37. Fly to 6 21 49.68 S 29 35 37.87 E. What type of process is going on at this location? 1. Seafloor spreading 2. Continental rifting 3. Subduction 38. What type of plate tectonic boundary is present? 1. Transform 2. Convergent 3. Divergent 39. Fly to 28 04 27.04N 86 55 26.84E. What type of tectonic plates are present? 1. Ocean- Ocean 2. Ocean- Continent 3. Continent- Continent. 40. What type of plate tectonic boundary is present? 1. Transform 2. Convergent 3. Divergent

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the main melody of a fugue is called the

Exam Number: 350701RR Lesson Name: The Baroque Era

1.   When might an audience expect to hear an overture?      A. At the end of an opera  B. After the first movement of a large-scale vocal work  C. At the beginning of an oratorio  D. In between movements of a cantata
2.   The greatest baroque church musician (composer) was      A. Claudio Monteverdi.  B. Henry Purcell.  C. Johann Sebastian Bach.  D. Jacopo Peri.
3.   The most famous castrato was
      A. Farinelli.  B. Caccini.  C. Peri.  D. Monteverdi.
4.   A fugue is based on the _______ development of a melody.
      A. monodic  B. episodic  C. polyphonic  D. improvised
5.   The main melody of a fugue is called the
      A. prelude.  B. subject.  C. episode.  D. exposition.
6.   The gospels are biblical books that tell the story of the birth, life, and death of Jesus Christ. A gospel set to music is called a/an
      A. overture.  B. aria.  C. opera.  D. passion.
7.   Italian baroque opera reached its height with:
      A. George Frideric Handel.  B. Claudio Monteverdi.  C. Jacopo Peri.  D. Jean-Baptiste Lully.
8.   Which of the following is a multimovement instrumental work?
      A. Opera  B. Oratorio  C. Cantata  D. Sonata9.   The Latin word concertare, meaning to fight or contend, is the basis for the word concerto. This concept is demonstrated through      A. woodwinds alternating with drums.  B. music played loudly enough to drown out noisy crowds.  C. alternating ensembles of contrasting size.  D. music that was forbidden by the government10.   The _______ is the text of an opera.      A. libretto  B. recitative  C. chorus  D. aria 
11.   Which composer was part of the group that developed French opera?
      A. Carlo Broschi  B. George Frideric Handel  C. Henry Purcell  D. Jean-Baptiste Lully
12.   Barbara Strozzi is most famous for her compositions of
      A. orchestral music.  B. lute songs.  C. vocal music.  D. chorales.
13.   A work frequently composed for solo instrument and consisting of a series of movements based on dance rhythms is called a
      A. sonata.  B. prelude.  C. suite.  D. fugue.
14.   Which of the following characteristics was least important to Baroque composers?
      A. Contrast  B. Stillness  C. Movement  D. Ornamentation
15.   The Protestant Martin Luther wrote many melodies for
      A. recitatives.  B. oratorios.  C. arias.  D. chorales
16.   Transitional sections that occur between statements of the subject in a fugue are called
      A. episodes.  B. toccatas.  C. countersubjects.  D. expositions.
17.   Bach lived and worked in
      A. Italy.  B. Germany.  C. England.  D. France.
18.   The _______ is often called the “king” of instruments.
      A. piano  B. organ  C. harpsichord  D. violin
19.   Instrumental ensemble music that normally requires only one player per part is called
      A. theater music.  B. chamber music.  C. sonata music.  D. orchestral music.
20.   A four-movement work with the movement structure slow-fast-slow-fast and that was supposedly intended for performance in church is called a
      A. sonata da camera.  B. sonata da chiesa.  C. solo sonata.  D. trio sonata.

Exam Number: 350701RR

Lesson Name: The Baroque Era


When might

an audience expect to hear an overture?


At the end of an opera


After the first movement of a large

scale vocal work


At the beginning of an oratorio


In between movements of a cantata


The greates

t baroque church musician (composer) was


Claudio Monteverdi.


Henry Purcell.


Johann Sebastian Bach.


Jacopo Peri.


The most fa

mous castrato was










A fugue is based on the _______ development of a melody.










The main melody of a fugue is called the







Exam Number: 350701RR

Lesson Name: The Baroque Era

1. When might an audience expect to hear an overture?

A. At the end of an opera

B. After the first movement of a large-scale vocal work

C. At the beginning of an oratorio

D. In between movements of a cantata

2. The greatest baroque church musician (composer) was

A. Claudio Monteverdi.

B. Henry Purcell.

C. Johann Sebastian Bach.

D. Jacopo Peri.

3. The most famous castrato was

A. Farinelli.

B. Caccini.

C. Peri.

D. Monteverdi.

4. A fugue is based on the _______ development of a melody.

A. monodic

B. episodic

C. polyphonic

D. improvised

5. The main melody of a fugue is called the

A. prelude.

B. subject.

C. episode.

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waldenu blackboard

8/11/13 Blackboard Learn 1/4

Ap Application 2

Slightly Taxing

You are a programmer for the software development group of a large retailer. Your company has grown

dissatisfied with its current point-of-sale software, because it has historically struggled with the correct

application and calculation of sales tax on an order. Your business deals primarily with storefront business

and its customers are primarily on foot in the store when they buy, so it is of the utmost importance that

sales tax be calculated quickly and accurately. This may sound like a simple task, but remember that sales

tax varies by state and maybe even by item within that state.

Your supervisor has asked you to pull apart the initial version of a possible new sales system, which he

has colorfully but aptly named SaleBad for the sake of illustration (and perhaps his love of Tarzan

movies). After a quick analysis, you sketch out the following UML diagram to describe it.

It is clear that the program does, indeed, need some work. To demonstrate the problems within the

project, you prepare a brief demonstration of its weaknesses.

Task 1: Highlight the Problems. Unzip and open the project SaleBad. Create some Item objects,

a Saleobject, and some SaleLines objects (via the addItem method in SaleBad). Determine how

the total(from the SaleBad object) is calculated and explain why the class needs to be redesigned. In

one or two paragraphs, explain why the current design will not suffice. For the moment, do not worry

about how, exactly, that redesign will happen.

It occurs to you that the code needs to be more loosely coupled. Changes in tax policy on various items,

8/11/13 Blackboard Learn 2/4

or on the tax rate itself, should affect as few classes and methods as possible. As you begin to

conceptualize the new design, your supervisor pops his head around the corner again. Evidently, the

store has been errantly charging sales tax on food items that are specifically supposed to be tax-free in

some states.

You decide that the Item class is the best place to implement sales tax, because the tax on each item

could vary. The state in which the Item is purchased may also affect the tax, so with these thoughts in

mind, you sketch out a new-and-improved UML class diagram, illustrated below.

This diagram is implemented in the project SaleBetter. Despite the improvements, however,

something is bothering you.

Task 2: What’s Bothering You? You had good reasons to implement tax calculations within the Item class

—it makes much more sense than placing it in the other current classes. However, it simply makes more

sense to introduce an entirely new Tax class. In 1 or 2 paragraphs, explain why, citing principles of good

program design.

Now that you have decided that the taxation policies on items should be handled in a completely

separate class, you proudly craft the UML diagram below. Feeling more and more confident, you

implement it in a project called SaleEvenBetter.

8/11/13 Blackboard Learn 3/4

Task 3: Taxation With Class Representation. Open the SaleEvenBetter project and explore how sales

are calculated. In one or two paragraphs, explain how this design improves upon its predecessor.

One final hurdle needs to be cleared before you can mark this project complete: You still need to account

for Items that are not taxed. You sketch the UML diagram below, splitting the Tax class into two

subclasses, PercentageTax and NoTax. You have a plan in place, and your supervisor approves, so it is

time to implement it.

8/11/13 Blackboard Learn 4/4

Task 4: Let Them Eat (Untaxed) Cake. Using the project SaleEvenBetter as a starting point,

implement the new design, as described in the UML diagram above. Verify that the tax method

withinPercentageTax returns the same value as the getPriceWithTax method in the current version

ofSaleEvenBetter for taxed items, whereas the tax method in NoTax returns a value of zero. To

complete Task 4, submit the new version of SaleEvenBetter.

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if a nonbinding price ceiling is imposed on a market, then the

ECO 2003

Multiple Choice

Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

____ 1. A surplus results when a

a. nonbinding price floor is imposed on a market.

b. nonbinding price floor is removed from a market.

c. binding price floor is imposed on a market.

d. binding price floor is removed from a market.

Figure 6-3

Panel (a) Panel (b)


quantity quantity

____ 2. Refer to Figure 6-3. A nonbinding price floor is shown in

a. both panel (a) and panel (b).

b. panel (a) only.

c. panel (b) only.

d. neither panel (a) nor panel (b).

Figure 6-6


____ 3. Refer to Figure 6-6. If the government imposes a price ceiling of $12 on this market, then there will be a. no shortage.

b. a shortage of 10 units.

c. a shortage of 20 units.

d. a shortage of 40 units.

Figure 6-9


____ 4. Refer to Figure 6-9. At which price would a price ceiling be binding? a. $4

b. $5

c. $6

d. $7

Figure 6-11

____5. Refer to Figure 6-11. Which of the following statements is not correct?a. A government-imposed price of $9 would be a binding price floor if market demand is Demand A and a binding price ceiling if market demand is Demand B.b. A government-imposed price of $15 would be a binding price ceiling if market demand is either Demand A or Demand B.c. A government-imposed price of $3 would be a binding price ceiling if market demand is either Demand A or Demand B.d. A government-imposed price of $12 would be a binding price floor if market demand is Demand A and a non-binding price ceiling if market demand is Demand B.
____6. When a tax is imposed on the sellers of a good, the supply curve shifts

a. upward by the amount of the tax.

b. downward by the amount of the tax.

c. upward by less than the amount of the tax.

d. downward by less than the amount of the tax.

Figure 6-25

Panel (a) Panel (b)


quantity quantity

Panel (c)


____ 7. Refer to Figure 6-25. In which market will the majority of the tax burden fall on buyers? a. market (a)

b. market (b)

c. market (c)

d. All of the above are correct.

Table 7-6

BuyerWillingness to Pay
____8. Refer to Table 7-6. You have four essentially identical extra tickets to the Midwest Regional Sweet 16 game in the men’s NCAA basketball tournament. The table shows the willingness to pay of the four potential buyers in the market for a ticket to the game. You offer to sell the tickets for $400. How many tickets do you sell, and what is the total consumer surplus in the market? a. one ticket; $100b. two tickets; $100c. two tickets; $0d. three tickets; $0
____9. Suppose there is an early freeze in California that reduces the size of the lemon crop. What happens to consumer surplus in the market for lemons? a. Consumer surplus increases.b. Consumer surplus decreases.c. Consumer surplus is not affected by this change in market forces.d. We would have to know whether the demand for lemons is elastic or inelastic to make this determination.
____ 10. All else equal, what happens to consumer surplus if the price of a good increases?

a. Consumer surplus increases.

b. Consumer surplus decreases.

c. Consumer surplus is unchanged.

d. Consumer surplus may increase, decrease, or remain unchanged.

Figure 7-5

____11. Refer to Figure 7-5. If the government imposes a price floor of $120 in this market, then consumer surplus will decrease by (Remember, area of a triangle is 1/2 * b * h) a. $75.b. $125.c. $225.d. $300.
____12. Producer surplus isa. measured using the demand curve for a good.b. always a negative number for sellers in a competitive market.c. the amount a seller is paid minus the cost of production.d. the opportunity cost of production minus the cost of producing goods that go unsold.
____13. If Gina sells a shirt for $40, and her producer surplus from the sale is $32, her cost must have been

a. $72.

b. $32.

c. $8.

d. We would have to know the consumer surplus in order to make this determination.

Table 7-10


____ 14. Refer to Table 7-10. You want to hire a professional photographer to take pictures of your family. The table shows the costs of the four potential sellers in the local photography market. You take bids from the sellers. Who offers the winning bid, and what does he offer to charge for the photography session? a. Steve; more than $400 but less than $450

b. Steve; $399

c. LeBron; more than $700

d. LeBron; more than $600 but less than $700

Figure 7-15

____15. Refer to Figure 7-15. If the government imposes a price floor of $60 in this market, then total surplus will be a. $110.50.b. $125.00.c. $187.50.d. $225.25..
____16. A tax on a gooda. raises the price that buyers effectively pay and raises the price that sellers effectively receive.b. raises the price that buyers effectively pay and lowers the price that sellers effectively receive.c. lowers the price that buyers effectively pay and raises the price that sellers effectively receive.d. lowers the price that buyers effectively pay and lowers the price that sellers effectively


____ 17. Suppose a tax is imposed on the sellers of fast-food French fries. The burden of the tax will

a. fall entirely on the buyers of fast-food French fries.

b. fall entirely on the sellers of fast-food French fries.

c. be shared equally by the buyers and sellers of fast-food French fries.

d. be shared by the buyers and sellers of fast-food French fries but not necessarily equally.

Figure 8-6

The vertical distance between points A and B represents a tax in the market.


____ 18. Refer to Figure 8-6. When the tax is imposed in this market, producer surplus is a. $450.

b. $600.

c. $900.

d. $1,500.

Figure 8-7

The vertical distance between points A and B represents a tax in the market.


____ 19. Refer to Figure 8-7. The deadweight loss associated with this tax amounts to

a. $60, and this figure represents the amount by which tax revenue to the government exceeds the combined loss of producer and consumer surpluses.

b. $60, and this figure represents the surplus that is lost because the tax discourages mutually advantageous trades between buyers and sellers.

c. $40, and this figure represents the amount by which tax revenue to the government exceeds the combined loss of producer and consumer surpluses.

d. $40, and this figure represents the surplus that is lost because the tax discourages mutually advantageous trades between buyers and sellers.

____ 20. The deadweight loss from a tax of $8 per unit will be smallest in a market with

a. elastic demand and elastic supply.

b. elastic demand and inelastic supply.

c. inelastic demand and elastic supply.

d. inelastic demand and inelastic supply.

____ 21. For any country, if the world price of zinc is higher than the domestic price of zinc without trade, that country should

a. export zinc, since that country has a comparative advantage in zinc.

b. import zinc, since that country has a comparative advantage in zinc.

c. neither export nor import zinc, since that country cannot gain from trade.

d. neither export nor import zinc, since that country already produces zinc at a low cost compared to other countries.

Figure 9-1

The figure illustrates the market for wool in Scotland.


____ 22. Refer to Figure 9-1. With trade, Scotland will

a. export 11 units of wool.

b. export 5 units of wool.

c. import 15 units of wool.

d. import 6 units of wool.

Figure 9-4. The domestic country is Nicaragua.


____ 23. Refer to Figure 9-4. Consumer surplus in Nicaragua without trade is

a. $375.

b. $2,000.

c. $2,250.

d. $8,700.

Figure 9-9


____ 24. Refer to Figure 9-9. Consumer surplus in this market before trade is

a. A.

b. A + B.

c. A + B + D.

d. C.

Figure 9-10. The figure applies to Mexico and the good is rifles.


____ 25. Refer to Figure 9-10. The price and quantity of rifles in Mexico before trade is

a. P0 and Q0.

b. P1 and Q1.

c. P2 and Q2.

d. P1 and Q0.

Figure 9-11


____ 26. Refer to Figure 9-11. Consumer surplus in this market after trade is

a. A.

b. C + B.

c. A + B + D.

d. B + C + D.

____ 27. Refer to Figure 9-11. Producer surplus in this market before trade is

a. C.

b. B + C.

c. A + B + D.

d. B + C + D.

Figure 9-17


4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 100 Quantity

____28. Refer to Figure 9-17. Without trade, total surplus isa. $600.b. $1,200.c. $1,800.d. $2,250.
____29. When a country allows trade and becomes an importer of a good,a. domestic producers become better off, and domestic consumers become worse off.b. domestic producers become worse off, and domestic consumers become better off.c. domestic consumers become better off, but the effect on the well-being of domestic producers is ambiguous.d. domestic producers become worse off, but the effect on the well-being of domestic consumers is ambiguous.
____30. Which of the following is an example of an implicit cost?

(i) the owner of a firm forgoing an opportunity to earn a large salary working for a Wall Street brokerage firm

(ii) interest paid on the firm’s debt

(iii) rent paid by the firm to lease office space

a. (ii) and (iii) only

b. (i) and (iii) only

c. (i) only

d. (iii) only

____ 31. When the marginal product of an input declines as the quantity of that input increases, the production function exhibits

a. increasing marginal product.

b. diminishing marginal product.

c. diminishing total product.

d. Both b and c are correct.

____ 32. Variable cost divided by the change in quantity produced is

a. average variable cost.

b. marginal cost.

c. average total cost.

d. None of the above is correct.

Table 13-10

Eileen’s Elegant Earrings produces pairs of earrings for its mail order catalogue business. Each pair is shipped in a separate box. She rents a small room for $150 a week in the downtown business district that serves as her factory. She can hire workers for $275 a week. There are no implicit costs.

Number ofWorkersBoxes ofEarringsProduced per WeekMarginalProduct of LaborCost ofFactoryCost ofWorkersTotal Cost ofInputs

____ 33. Refer to Table 13-10. What is the total cost associated with making 890 boxes of earrings per week? a. $1,250

b. $1,325

c. $1,400

d. $1,575

____ 34. When average cost is greater than marginal cost, marginal cost must be a. rising.

b. falling.

c. constant.

d. The direction of change in marginal cost cannot be determined from this information.

Figure 13-9

The figure below depicts average total cost functions for a firm that produces automobiles.


____ 35. Refer to Figure 13-9. The firm experiences economies of scale at which output levels? a. output levels less than M

b. output levels between M and N

c. output levels greater than N

d. All of the above are correct as long as the firm is operating in the long run.


Starting in fall 2014, an introductory economics (ECO 2003, 2013, or 2023) will no longer be a required Core course for all students. Instead it will be one choice among several social and behavioral science courses. Suppose that choice had been given to you this year before you signed up for ECO 2003. What would your choice likely have been?

A. I would likely have chosen another course.

B. I would likely still have taken this economics class.

C. It would greatly depend on the other course choices.




Table 3

Assume that Aruba and Iceland can switch between producing coolers and producing radios at a constant rate.

Labor Hours Needed to Make 1

Refer to Table 3-2

1. Draw Aruba’s production possibilities frontier when 100 labor hours are available.

2. Draw Iceland’s production possibilities frontier when 100 labor hours are available.

3. What is the slope of Aruba’s PPF? Of Iceland’s?

4. Assuming that Aruba and Iceland each has 80 labor hours available, if each country divides its time equally between the production of coolers and radios, then total production is how many coolers and radios?


The only two countries in the world, Alpha and Omega, face the following production possibilities.

Alpha’s Production Possibilities Frontier Omega’s Production Possibilities Frontier


25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 peanuts 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 peanuts

1. Assume that each country decides to use half of its resources in the production of each good. Show these points on the graphs for each country as point A.

2. If these countries choose not to trade, what would be the total world production of popcorn and peanuts?

3. Now suppose that each country decides to specialize in the good in which each has a comparative advantage. By specializing, what is the total world production of each product now?

4. If each country decides to trade 100 units of popcorn for 100 units of peanuts, show on the graphs the gain each country would receive from trade. Label these points B.


1. Explain the difference between absolute advantage and comparative advantage. Which is more important in determining trade patterns, absolute advantage or comparative advantage? Why?



price floor

price of wheat



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Domestic Supply

Domestic Demand

World price + tariff

World Price