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Conflict Management: Mediation and Negotiations

Introduction

            I have many expectations from this subject of “Conflict Management: Mediation and Negotiations” being a graduate international student of the business school. The negotiation in conflict management is a proper area of academic and practical considerations. Therefore, the conflict management tools using the negotiation techniques always a great tactic in human resource management in which the practices of mediation are applied in day-to-day activities along with the professional life such as in the organizational behaviors.

            For instance, while interaction with the family or friends about going to the restaurant while making choices from whether to go to a Chinese restaurant or try a pizza this time, discussing with friends about going to a vacation at the Florida state or the Las Vegas, we make choices for resolving disagreements. Similarly while making decisions in the organization such as purchasing the new equipment or making modifications to the existing one also include the choices to settle down or come to an agreement. These all are the examples of the negotiation that are going into our lives whether we are aware or not.

            As I am an international student studying here this class of “Conflict Management: Mediation and Negotiations” would provide a great opportunity for me to learn from a different aspect or point of view about the core concepts of the conflict management using the negotiation techniques. The basics bout conflict-management in which the opposition or usually the term of disagreement is used as a conflict occurs between the two rival parties wants an entirely different result. There is a chance of learning about various levels of conflicts such as the intrapersonal conflict or conflict within oneself such if I want to eat an ice cream but a conflict exist in my mind that ice cream could make obesity in me.

            The interpersonal conflict and the intergroup conflict are most important as far as conflict management in the professional or practical life. I am also hoping to understand the positive or the functional side of the conflict in which the positive outcome would accomplish through the ‘integrative negotiation or win-win or expanding the pie” strategy of conflict management. The awareness about the interests and the core problems are an integral part of the negotiation process that would be an interesting a phenomenon to occur in the disagreement process.

            There is also an aspect of the dysfunctional conflict or the “distributive bargain” or “fixed pie” in which the negative outcome is achieved most of the times. The importance of the need or desires of both the parties as the cause of the conflict in which both the parties try to reach a better position than existing one. The role of the mutual adjustments from both parties is also in the list of learning outcomes from this course, the proactive part of the “give and take” approach in every sought of the negotiation process and the mutual adjustments are the most important tool for the conflict management along with the flexible types of concessions. The intangible values that the negotiators perceive from the phase of the agreements are also significant in this regard.

            The expectations of mine from this subject most important style of negotiation using the dual dimension approach in which the cooperativeness in which the concerns for the others are mostly illustrated and the assertiveness in which the personal concerns or interests are put into the primary focus. The other significant tactic used as a mediating or the negotiation style as an importance of the collaborating style that would provide the high level of the benefits of mutual interest of goals would achieve.

Journal Entries

  • COMPARATIVE ADVERTISING strategy

In this negotiation, the trust is one of the game, as every one wants to win but in the same time we could both lose, the best goal is not to beat the other company its when you both lose. The ethics is more important

Don’t burn bridges. As we were a group I learn that people were not as ethical as I thought when it comes to money, people can do what ever to get it even thought its gonna hurt the person reputation, we were truthful with the people we are negotiating with as there was 3 round so we did get there trust for the first 2 rounds and then we backed up one our words in the last round and won.

            From the dual concern model, I have learned that the position of my group was ‘Competing’ while looking the unethical behaviors, interests, intentions. We have managed to manipulate the trust factor as an important intangible value factor in the negotiation process. Since the rival party tried to outperform us, we eventually using the trust, concession factor makes the ‘win-lose’ or distributing bargain for us in which the zero-sum situation was created in the 3rd or final round from total three rounds of the negotiation.

In the first journal entry of the comparative advertising strategy, using ethical standards in advertisement the primary goal, negotiation is about keeping ethics prior than money. The key elements that happened in the activity are the role of the trust and the ethical considerations one put into the negotiation process. The significant thing I learned about negotiation from the simulation was knowledge about our strength and knowing the other actor’s weakness while using the power-oriented approach in which the maximum attention is toward the assertiveness while ignoring the cooperativeness. We have used our interest factor for getting our track to hard bargain while in the third round for winning the negotiation process at the expense of the rival party’s expense while creating the dominant position of our group eventually.

            The element that surprised me about my behavior was the process that leads me to avoid the competitive attitude in which I learned that there is another way of accomplishing my goal while avoiding the escalation of the specific means of commitment. The element that surprised about my opponents behavior for beating the rival party using inefficient negotiation skills exploiting the interest of others, such as that proved to be winner’s curse’ for our group.

            The thing that I learn about myself was that I could become a god negotiator with a little more effort in identifying the core concepts of the conflict management, in which both the parties to accomplish the various outcomes or results. The knowing of my ability that the aspirations according to my interest require a lot of patience, flexible position and balance power is analyzed. The thing, which I learned about others, was that people could go at each stage or even the rigid positions or commitment level to achieve the self-interest designed goals.

            If I had the chance to do this negotiation over, I would you do few things differently such as try to exploring the fact that the divergence of the mindset of both parties for achieving individual goals would not be a good strategy. Whereas it is also possible, that disagreement could lead towards the positive outcome for both the parties as well.

            This experience compares to others that I have had in similar in a way that my group had to manage the innovations or bringing the improvements in the negotiation style or approach or comparable in a way that I found the psychological growth in my personality. I was unaware of the real issues that both parties had in the conflict circumstances.

            The concepts in the lectures or readings enrich my understanding of the processes of negotiation in a way that I realized that the conflicts sometimes make us powerful enough in developing the self-control in our lives. I learned about the outcomes of the conflict as a concession as the dynamic process of haggling in which both parties must give and take to reach towards the position of compromise. There was great learning about the negotiation styles using the two horizon or dimensional model as assertiveness or cooperativeness in which we put five factors according to the situation ahead like competing in which just to focus on self-interests and accommodating in which care about others interest or concerns as well.

  • COFFEE CONTRACT NEGOTIATION

IN THIS NEGOTIATION was all about slicing the pie like what is said by reading chapter 3 in the book by (slicing the pie strategy) strategy 1: assess your BATNA and improve it. And Strategy 2: Determine your reservation point, but do not reveal it.

            The key elements happened in the activity were the how to engaged in the negotiation process from both the parties in getting the largest pie. For this, the firsts stage was the preparation was developed in which offers were made from parties, receiving counter offers, devising the best alternative opportunities in the negotiation and finally making concessions or shifting from the initial position. Then the most important element in that activity was the BATNA (Best Alternative to the Negotiated Agreement) in which the Best Alternative to the Negotiated Agreement was developed in which both the parties established the lowest level of the acceptable price in the negotiation agreement.

            In the second journal entry of the coffee contract negotiation, knowing BATNA is the focal point in which reservation or target points occur in order to achieve the contract of coffee between two rival parties. The keys that I had learned about negotiation from the simulation were the importance of developing the alternatives in the negotiation process in which the party can know at what point we need to place a full stop or finishing the negotiation deal. The other key that I had to learn was that the power is essential in the deal making for walking far away from the deal id the opponent party does not want to come even near to our terms.

            The thing that surprised me about my behavior was that I got the knowledge about my bargaining range including the minimum level that I would ready to pay and the maximum range or amount that I would bear in the process of deal making. In the case of minimum range, I would shift from the position for giving something extra in that specific deal and similarly in the maximum range that I can afford to pay in which I could shift while shaving off from a rigid stance.  The thing that surprised about the behavior of my opponent was the way he sued the concession techniques such as the target range or amount as well as the reservation range while making an initiative in offering a concession in a deal to create a positive impact.

            The most important thing that I learned about myself was that how to reach a point where we accept the terms of the negotiation agreement using the principles of the negotiation as the integrative negotiation strategy while using the magnitudes of the discounts or concession in useful ways. The thing I learned from the others was that people usually prefer the fixed pie or the distributive bargain strategy of the negotiation.

            If I had the chance to do this negotiation over, I would you adopt the negotiation strategy differently in a  manner to make a ‘compromise situation’ choosing the middle ground in which the splitting the key differences are essential in this specific case which is a better approach for deal making rather avoiding the negotiation process of deal making.

            This experience compare to others that I have had in similar was there was a negotiation case in which only one core issues was involved in the deal making like financing. Therefore the distributive bargaining occurred as a result of the fixed pie circumstances. This situation would be comparable as integrative negotiation in which the resources that were available could easily be divided, having a situation I had won along with the opponent party.

            The concepts in the lectures or readings enrich my understanding of the processes of negotiation in which the long-term  sustainable relationship would maintain through the win-win situation for both the parties, the primary focus of the parties are the interest of each other while ignoring the positions. In the negotiation, the process for achieving the satisfaction that would make the complete value for the parties is analyzed as an outcome of the integrative negotiation. The negotiation style would be collaborative in this regard, in which the goals of both parties would meet in a value identification process.

  • New Recruit NEGOTIATION

IN THIS NEGOTIATION my goal as the recruiter is to reach an agreement with the candidate on all eight issues, IN THIS NEGOTIATION I learned to make more than one offer with the same value and let the person choose, and (sharing the reservation point you do not tell them what is your target, what surprised me about my behavior is that we both want to get the same thing but in the same time we have to give up something, I learned about my self in this negation that I could be better if I have another chance to do it again, by reading chapter 4 in the book( win-win negation: expanding the pie) by taking extra time to negotiate and focusing on a long-term relationship.

            The key elements that happened in the activity are the list of the multiple eight issues in which the integrative bargaining occur between me as a recruiter and the candidates who have applied for the job at a specific position in accompany. The resolution was created in a way that both the parties would take the key advantage of the negotiation agreement, in which the research would make from my side to develop satisfactory situation for both the parties in a win-win situation. The objectiveness in the achievements of the standard was the primary goal in which the multiple ranges of the options were created that would provide a suitable gain for both the parties.

            In the third journal entry of the ‘new recruit negotiation’ expanding the pie or integrative or win-win negotiation is studied in which the negotiation between employer and the job candidates. The lessons I learn about negotiation from the simulation were while attaching the same value I chose the various range of offers while leaving the ball in the court of the opponent party from that various sought of offer I had given to them. Therefore, I did not let them guess my target point while sharing the reservation points with them. In this strategy, I made the value appropriately to all my primary interests in the process of valuation in the deal making.

            The thing that surprised me about my behavior was that there was an existence of the mutual goal in the recruitment process negotiation, while it was very necessary from both the parties point of views would be to involve in a give or take along with the concessions strategy to reach a mutual satisfaction long-term relationship. The surprising fact about the opponents behavior was that they had the issues like the salary or other benefits where they could make the healthy debate in the form of the integrative bargain style apart from the few differences in the agreement.

 The thing I learned about myself was that for maintaining the long-term sustainable relationship it is very necessary that do not always involved in the blame game whereas the most important strategy in this regard was that confronting the core issues or the problems were necessary rather than just confronting the people for that. The thing I learned about the about others was that people conceive both the disagreements along with the negotiation process as the same thing which is sometimes wrong. Therefore, it is important to have a reminder that communication in an appropriate manner would be helpful in the future interaction with the same party. 

            If I had the chance to do this negotiation over, the thing I would do differently is making a winning environment for both parties in a way that would establish the smooth relationship between both the parties. There should be rejection or the acceptance of the viewpoints not the individual persons in the negotiation process. In any position, one must follow the interest as a primary focus.

This experience compares to others that I have had in similar include the negotiation is all about the identifying the solution be agreeable for both the parties in a given framework of the problem. Therefore making the excuses is not the ultimate option or offer while undermining the interests of the others in the comparable circumstances.

            The concepts in the lectures or readings enrich my understanding of the processes of negotiation that issues are the core objective that must be a target from the negotiator in the disagreements rather than focusing the people as a core problem in the disagreement process. This is an important outcome for developing the sustainable or strong relationship between the two parties. The negotiation style is, therefore, would be used as a collaborative or compromise in some cases would apply as an approach in which the primary focus would be on the interest which are underlying in the negotiation process. The understanding of the opponents fear or desires at such points in which they maintain a strong stance is important.

  • TKI

      In the fourth journal entry, Thomas Kilmann instrument for negotiation handling is studied in terms of its importance in negotiation and conflict management from dual approach model. The aspects I feel about this survey that there are no one specific answers or responses to the situation of the conflict handling in the different behaviors. For example, there is no concept of the objectivity of the responses since each behavior or approach to the conflict management style has its unique characteristics and more than one approach could apply in one specific scenario. The most common example in this regard would be as people usually thinks that opt for more as the outcome rather than less which is a collaborating approach, simultaneously the people also say that slow poison is always a recommended strategy in negotiation which is accommodating approach. That is why there is the great debate that we can apply all five of the approach of conflict management style in one scenario, all it requires is the nature of the situation and the level of skills that one possesses in solving the conflict situation with a negotiation expertise.

      The things I learned about negotiation from this survey were that the flexible approach is always a perfect strategy in using that dual dimensional model of conflict resolution. The recognition of the effective use of all the five approaches is essential while dealing with a certain conflict scenario in personal or professional lifestyle.

      The surprising thing about the results or findings of a survey that impact behavior while using the modes of conflict management such as accommodation, compromising are depended on how effectively negotiator use while developing the skills in advance or always anticipate so that they have the advantage in conflict situation from the opponents. The behavior of the opponents sometimes rely only on one rigid skills mind frame and use them repetitively on the various sought of conflict situations such as they believe that compromising would be the best solution in every case.

      I learned about myself from the survey that there is no favorite approach or tool. However, the focus would be on identifying the conflict scenario in terms or requirements of which strategy would implement best and the self executed abilities in the execution of these approaches. The others people is always judging us regarding which of the five approaches to the negotiation style would best fit into the dual dimensional negotiation style model.

      If I had the chance to involve or indulge the negotiation, the thing I would do differently is using the competing style when a significant decision is a need to made immediately. The yes man culture would be suited for this strategy if I am more tilted towards competing style, and if not I might have the lack of power in controlling situations effectively.

      The experience from the survey was similar to one situation I faced in a way that I used more than one styles or approaches like collaboration in finding the integrative outcomes of the situations of conflict and collaborating when I found that objectives of the deal are not as significant that it requires a lot of effort. The comparable case was also occurring to me when I used the avoiding style in the circumstances when I foresee not all issues are important.

      The concepts in the survey are integrated to our course understanding of the processes of negotiation in a way that five approaches of the conflict management are the intelligent modes or tools in which we have to learn that the extent to consider interests or concerns for others are as important as our concerns or extent to interests. The outcome of this dual model conflict management would be essential if all five modes would apply the maximum level of skills of negotiation like power dominating approach of competing, using collaborating in which larger outcome is required for us, compromising when the expedient outcome is objective. My negotiation style has changed from analyzing deeply this survey as I learn to implement collaborating or highest outcome for both parties, accommodating defeating enemies with slow poison, competing use power oriented approach and so on.

  • EAZY’S GARAGE NEGOTIATION

I will start by saying relationship did important to me in this exercise,I cant belive the person stole the car out of my parking lot even its her car but its illegal before she pays her bills, but I didn’t want to take her to court because the court fees goanna is more than the bill and the legal fees, I tried to settle in the middle because I value there business since we opened the shop even thought we don’t have a good relationship together, but at the same time we all live in a small town, so reputation is everything, we have miscommunication in this situation,  also from the book in chapter 6 (Establishing trust and building a relationship) about the steps repairing broken trust, step 2: put the focus on the relationship which what I did.   Step3: apologize which she did apologias to me.

            The key elements happened in the activity include the trust in the relationship include the deterrence based or nature of the relationship while protecting the reputations. In this case, the deliberate types of mechanism would apply in building the trust in a relationship in which the major focus was on the future relationship in a manner that capitalization on the different terms of network. The focus on the relationship which what I did was that the psychological approaches used to maintaining the trusts include the exposure strategy, the physical existence, reciprocity of the values, and flattery of the situations and self-approach of disclosure. The situations that lead to the level of the mistrust includes the defections of one or both parties apologize which she did apologies to me, the total miscommunication, and the attribution of the dispositional style. The last thing is the concentration on the Apple, which is bad. 

            In the fifth journal entry of the Eazy’s garage negotiation, the importance of the trust and relationship while maintaining reputation are analyzed in the negotiation process between two rival parties, in which car accident is occurred. I learn about negotiation from the simulation the whole process for dealing in an effective manner about the relationship, which had broken. The personal interactive session or meeting is essential in this regard. The focus on the relationship is also included while making the apology at the demanding situation, using the situations as venting is important while getting offensive is not an important tool.

 The thing that surprised me about my behavior was that relationships as part of the negotiation always require some special adjustments especially dealing with the embedded types of the relationship. The rational approach would be a preferable one since it is a very important phase in protecting the reputation while using the halo effect or sometimes the forked-tail effect as well. The thing that surprised about the opponents includes the relationships, which becomes the embedded from the material goods would usually rate as the concrete in one way or the other.

            I learned about myself that how repairing the lost reputation sometimes becomes significant in the negotiation process, the person oriented relationship building in which the factor of the trust also involve the negotiation factors as the counterpart strategy in which the person must show a high level of emotional intelligence in achieving the desired outcomes. The thing I leaned about others that people usually does not associate the relevant values along with the principles that are necessary for regaining the trust factor between the parties.

            If I had, the chance to do this negotiation over what would I do differently is compromised of identification along with the feelings of others that would apply a strategy of having the common goals or objectives to maintain the healthy relationships in future. The psychological strategy would include the similarity-attraction approach and the strategy of the self-disclosure to build the high level of trust.

            This experience compares to others that I have had in similar are comprised of avoiding the situations of the defections along with the breaches that would certainly lead to the situation of the mistrust between the parties. There must be focusing on the positive side of the picture rather relying or focusing only on the bad side of the apple as per the comparable circumstances?

            The concepts in the lectures or readings enrich my understanding of the processes of negotiation is comprised of the concentration completely onto the building the sustainable relationship, apologizing if we are at the wrong side, not indulge in the defensive frame of mind at once while letting the things venting smoothly. The outcome, for developing the reputation again regarding the relationship includes the ways that would suit both parties in the future. The supportive nature of the negotiation style at this point is essential which includes the accommodating in which the concerns for others would take into account along with the compromise style of negotiation.

Conclusion

            In the end, it is concluded that I am very fortunate to learn a lot from this class of the “Conflict Management: Mediation and Negotiations.” The most important aspect of conflict management that I have learned include the dual model of the conflict resolution in which the two approach or variables in the form of “assertiveness and cooperativeness” along with the five factors such as avoiding, competing, compromising, accommodating and collaborating are used.

            The assertiveness approach focuses on the self-interest or the concerns while ignoring the concerns of the others, while the dominant factor in this approach is the competing. The approach of the collaborating focusing on the concerns of the others while ignoring the interests of the others, the most dominant part of this approach is the accommodating. The best approach in my view would be the collaborating in which the win-win situation for both the parties would accomplish in which the maximum interest of multiple actors are accomplished. The integrative negotiation as the most useful style of the negotiation or conflict management technique is then analyzed in which the mutual goals are accomplished from the various or different core issues while long-term sustainable relationships are maintained from focusing on the interests not the positions of the problems. The people are not the focus in the process of the disagreements; the core objective would be on the issues of the disagreements not the people as the primary focus of the disagreements.

            The next important learning from the conflict management includes the BATNA that is the best alternative to the negotiated agreement, which is the lowest level of the range that the person is willing to pay in the deal making. The concepts related to that such as the target points, the point at which we want the agreement to be completed, the reservation point or the point at which we would not accept the agreement or the deal in any case and prefer to walk away from the situation. The other key concepts in this process include the surplus of the negotiator, which is calculated as a positive zone of the bargain in the negotiation process. The differences in the opposite point of views of the both the parties must be entertained in a manner that the most effective pattern would be the close the mutual point if still the deal would not make then there would be a certain deadlock.

            The conflict management teaches us that the change in the organizational actions must be according to the dynamic adaptability practices from the various challenges; the functional conflict would make the relationships between the parties more stable as well as strong in a way that problem-solving techniques become the easier. The conflict management theories help us to understand or identify the awareness of our self as well as about the others. The people usually become the realistic in their approach while having the egocentric approach is ignored from the negotiation skills.

            The other core concepts of the conflict management from the mediation and negotiation techniques, I have able to understand in this class are the reputation regarding the relationship with the others are analyzed. The rapport as a strong relationship with the embedded nature of relationship with the friends, business mates, and colleagues are analyzed through the focusing on the relationship for the future in the approach of the similarity-attraction as a tool of the psychological framework, making the communication level strong and focusing on the positive side of the picture. The arrangement of a personal meeting along with the apologizing to the others is included in the process of repairing the relationship as per the negotiation process for the trust, which is broken.

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