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Discuss one ethical dilemma as it relates to family caregiving and aging.

When working in a field, especially, as social worker, from time to time, individuals face different challenges. These challenges are part of work, and most of the times, agencies’ code, which is usually very comprehensive, guides the individuals, when they have to take such difficult decisions. The code is devised, after studying numerous such cases, where individuals had to take hard decisions. Therefore, in case of difficulty, it is indispensible to visit code. However, there are certain occasions, when code conflicts with the possible remedy and it becomes enormously difficult for individual to take decision.

The competing duties could baffle an individual and in this confusion, that individual may take a decision, which may reduce the ability, of individual, of taking a better decision.

In such situation, an individual has many options, and one the most valid option, is to consult with colleague and superiors. This helps a person to understand situation easily and provide various options to him.

Ethical dilemmas force the individual to take decisions. It is a situation, where decision is enforced upon individual and of the party, either agency or patient, would face the consequence of decision. Therefore, it is an established perceptive, in social-work realm, that never go alone, in such situations; consult peers and trusted colleagues. The primary responsibility, of an individual is to protect the interests, of client, agency and his own.

The number of perceptions increase options and refine the thinking process, by making it more systematic. However, it is the responsibility, of an individual to take a decision, which could reduce or mitigate the consequences, of particular decision.

  1. Describe how cultural differences can play a role in family caregiving (beliefs, levels of support, and physical and emotional outcomes among caregivers of different ethnic backgrounds). 

It is apparent from studies that culture strongly affect and shape behavior and attitude, of individuals. A person takes his values and morals from society, and his notions and percepts are shaped by culture. Therefore, we see that people from different parts of the world, belonging to different cultures, depict different behavior and attitude, in different situations.

It is not just culture, but also various factors, which contribute to build a certain character and this character distinguishes from other characters, based on its response, preferences and choices.

Caregivers, which profess different religion and belong to different cultures, would react to a situation, in a very different way. Their attitude, towards a person, who needs care, would vary, as their personal belief and cultural reality varies.

People, who are more devoted to religion and have spiritual outlook on life would be more responsive to a situation, where a family member needs medical or other such attention.

This is because individuals consider such opportunity a salvation and a mean to come close to God. Therefore, they are not merely moved by emotions, but it is also religious obligation for them to help these individuals. Therefore, when we study such cases, it becomes apparent to us that most of family-caregivers are also religiously motivated.

In some cultures, there exists a strong family structure, which makes an individual obligatory to family responsibilities. These individuals are bound by family tradition and values, which make subtly compel them to provide care to individuals, who need such care.  Therefore, it can be concluded that different ethnic backgrounds, cultures and religious beliefs do affect the attitude and behavior, of individual, towards a particular person.

  • What is the role of spirituality and/or religion in the lives of many family caregivers?

The studies reveal the religious people are more devoted such obligations than other individuals. This is because religious people consider helping others their religious and moral obligation. Actually, their moral obligations are defined by their moral obligations are intertwined with their religious obligations and they act for the blessing, of Almighty. This is also to be understood that religious people consider such challenges a mean to acquire salvation.  For instance, an individual, who is spiritual or religious, will be more dedicated or devoted to an individual, who require, care, as that person is being consider a mean to fulfill religious and spiritual obligations.

From the study it not hard to deduce that religious people, who are guided and driven by their religious theology, act more devotedly and care about an individual, who needs help, more than those, who are not much religious and not bounded by such spiritual and moral code. 

4) Briefly discuss the challenges of care transitions for both family caregivers and care recipients.

It is difficult for family member, to devout completely to a cause, which is difficult as such. This is because, neither a family caregiver has expertise, not apposite knowledge to apply in difficult situations. Therefore, because of such poor knowledge, and because of such lack of understanding the challenges compound and the transaction cost increases, for both caregiver and care recipient.

Because of the emotional and biological connection, with care recipient, the caregiver, if a family caregiver, is not in position to take critical decisions. Therefore, the ability, to take more precise and better decisions, reduces significantly and it negatively effects both the caregiver and care recipient.



Restatement of the case

In this case, the assessment manager of the CAFÉ D POWND observed and analyzed the problems facing the management of the Cambridge student hall cafeteria. He noted that CAFÉ management and staff was taking exceedingly long to serve the students, which resulted in students having to wait for too long to their liking. While waiting for his friend, Jason Mah, resident manager and a student at the University noticed this growing problem, concluded that  that it has become chaotic for students especially duringpeak hours between 5 to 6:30 pm to get served on time.  Having witnessed such acrimonious situation and he decided to make the management aware of this problem and planned to present a report to the senior management explaining the problems facing the CAFE. In addition, to overcome this inefficiency, and to solve this problem, Jason decided to present some recommendation to the management.

In addition, he observed the 35 students at the CAFÉ and collected their entrance arrival times, service times and categorized them in to three categories: Cashier, Precooked and Interactive, and then analyzed the data. He concluded from observing the behavior of the students that , if CAFÉ management did not take early initiative to solve this issue and odes not tackle the problem on urgent basis, there is a probability and risk that in the near future, students might order deliveries from nearby local restaurants or start using other cafeterias.In addition, the only Cashier working of the two is too slow and there are untrained people working as a cashier who take 30 seconds to read the price on the bill. Besides, most of the people visit line and it has one serving point not working, which makes it worse.

Besides, he also noted that there was only one managing supervisor for both Nottingham and Cambridge student halls. Though, both RA and ARM meet twice a week to discuss issues facing the students but so far have yet to deal with this problem. However, crucially, he concluded that, 25% of the students coming to cafeteria who only eat non-conventional food had made the problem as they only entered the CAFÉ to eat non-conventional food. Also, overall, CAFÉ had become overloaded with students and there was an apparent confusion which was evident between lines and students. Very often, students had to switch the line realizing after spending considerable time that they were in the long queue.

Problem Statement

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