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Explain the method scientists use to study how Earth’s atmosphere and climate have changed during the past million years.

Answer:

1. DNA

2. Prokariotic.

3. Crossing over.

4. Maple tree

5. Primary producers.

6. DIAGRAM NOT SHOWN

7. Lipids.

8. A

Explanation:

1. DNA is the macromolecule responsible for carrying the herederitary information of all cells, and even some viruses, with the exception of retroviruses.

2. Prokariotic cells (eubacteria and archeas) are cosmopolite, and lacks a membrane defined nucleus.

3. Crossing over.

During meiosis, homolog chromosomes pair and exchange genetic material, is also known as genetic recombination. This makes the chromosomes inherited not exactly equal to the corresponding from our fathers, or grandfathers.

4. Maple tree belongs to the clade Angiosperms: flowering plants, which produce seeds. Moss is a flowerless plant, this does not produce seeds. Lichen are composed from algae and cyanobacteria (so, not plants). Mushrooms are not plants.

5. Primary producers, such as bacteria and algae, can make organic  molecules from an abiotic source of energy.

6. DIAGRAM NOT SHOWN

7. Lipids are the main component of all biological membranes. In animals, specially cholesterols prevents the membrane from freezing, due its molecular structure. Tryglicerids, for example, provides besides thermal insulation, energy storage, filling space for keeping the organs together, among other functions.

8. The phosphorous is very slow, since it requires the extraction from rocks, starting from metereological processes (rain, erosion), Once in the soil, bacteria, fungi, plants and animals start to absorb it.

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