2. What advantages the European posses that enable them to dominate the rest of the world after 1492?
The era after the 1492 was considered as the golden era or the era of the discovery in the entire history of the Europe. The significant factors that the Europeans have after the 1492 from the system of the colonization is that they were able to know the socio-economic benefits, which are the necessary factors for the civilized nations of that time such as the British, Spanish, France, Greek and other colonies.
The Europe was the centre or hub of the global trade network in all over the world. The trade in the entire world was gateway from the Europe after the 1492. The sea route in this perspective played the great role in achieving the great advantage than the rest of the world. The sea route provides the channel of trade that was considered the most suitable at that time. The markets of Asia, North America and the South America were tapped by the Europe through the sea route (Kennedy, 2012).
The Europe was truly the riches of the world as compared to the other countries. Not only the economic benefits by the Europe but also many social or health benefits were achieved in possessing the water resources. For an instance, the water was sued by the inhabitants for their physiological needs and the daily routine tasks. The water resources in the contemporary settings have many advantages for the Europe. The resources of the water are maintained by the many areas of the Europe through which the trade, agriculture and the transportation system is used from the resources of the water.
The precious metals especially by the Portuguese were the main source of the profit generation of the Europeans nation after the 1492. The land was also the source of the revenue in a great way, which was sold at the highest prices to the rest of the world. The trade took place at that time was in the form of the solve labor. The huge amounts of the slaves were captured by the Europeans from the American and other colonial societies at that time.
The next important advantage the Europeans gains were in the form of the agriculture, the agriculture was the dominating source of the economic resource. The fields, crops of the textiles, corn, edible oil, tea and the other useful crops that were the necessary part of the livelihood were captured. The Manchester is considered as the hub of the agricultural crop, which is the cotton, nylon and other substances especially in the textile sector (Crosby, 2003).
While discussing the industrial advantage, the Europeans were among the top list after the 1492. The industrial era was in control of the Europeans and they started to produce the textiles and the food products at the highest pace. The production skills in the food, textile, furniture, material and cottage industry were the specialty of the people of the Europe. the food industry is the rapidly growing industry in today’s world in the regions of the Europe. the foods and beverages have the enormous advantage for the people of the Europe.
The concept of the corporate sector is derived from those golden eras of the European divisions. The industry in the Europe in the contemporary world is the biggest growing industry in the world. The automobile industry, the retail industry and the telecommunication industry are the main components of the industrial advantages that the Europe gained after the 1492.
The technological advancement ultimately was another advantage possessed by the Europe at those times, which until now are the source of the competitive advantage for the Europeans groups. Especially in the medical sciences, the great innovation was took place for the benefit for the social cause of the people and the benefit of the source that is possessed by many country. There were diseases among the people of the Europe, therefore many cure or medicines were invented by the Europe in order to make their people health and live the active or healthy lifestyle (Blaut, 1992).
The next important advantage the Europeans possessed at that time after the 1492 was the political leadership style. The Europeans were able to know how to effective managing of the things and the people in the most remarkable way. The administration skills were the core advantage gained by the Europeans in the 15th, 16th and the 17th centuries. Therefore, the Europe is the world’s best government running states as compared to the rest of the world. The political issues are managed in the Europe in the most professional and the transparent way.
5. What did the Stanford prison experiment reveal about the human nature? In your opinion did the conditions of the experiment effectively replicate the real world situation, or was its artificial nature responsible for the deviant behavior.
The Stanford prison experiment was conducted by the Philip ZIMBARDO a psychology professor in the Stanford University to testify the behavior of the prisoners in the jail while imposing the authoritarian positions to the prisons of the guard. The experiment has the relation with the human nature, as this experiment is associated to the authority styles implanted by the navy, military officials and the government officials in the state. The nature of the human or the cognitive dissonance theory is directly linked with this experiment.
The human nature depicts that the stress mentally bear by the human beings through the continuous abuse or harassment is due to the contradictory in the core beliefs of the human from the beliefs, which are imposed on the human nature. If the authority style is harsh for treating the human beings it leads towards the various demerits in the psychological conditions of the human nature, which are at sometimes very difficult to recover.
The extreme conditions due to the authoritative style, which abuse to the human beings, mental pressure and the harassment, can cause the ultimate hazardous outcomes to the life of the normal human being. The human beings if face the inconsistency which is the part of this experiment is also not according to the main if ideology of the human nature that we study in the psychology (Hergenhahn, 2013).
In my opinion, the Stanford prison experiment cannot implemented in the practical conditions. The first reason is that the unethical behavior or the action that were the core part of this experiment cannot imply to the real or the practical life. The second major reason or the criticism in the experiment is the extreme behaviors such as the mental torture , abusing actions from their authority, cases of harassment, physical violence and the physiologically damaging actions were more than the certain boundaries.
The restrictions, which have crossed all the boundaries, were also accepted by the professor Philip ZIMBARDO who was the main originator of this experiment (Hergenhahn, 2013). The professor admitted himself that the actions or the behaviors were out of his control too at many stages of the experiment. The guards were judged in the experiment that they have the natural tendency to show the hard behavior or one can say that the strict authoritative powers.
The prisoners were judged in the experiment based on the traumatized them emotionally or affection ally. The experiment has one stage in which the five prisoners were moved out of the jail in order to prevent their death, which is the extreme case in this experiment. The professor committed that he allowed all the unethical behaviors in the experiment.
He also admitted the fact the guard in the experiment were so absorbed in the experiment according to their desired roles. Similarly the prisoners and the professor himself was engaged to the role assigned to them in the experiment abut it was becomes very difficult to conclude the right findings of the experiment (KONNIKOVA, 2012).
By looking all these facts mentioned in the above discussion and the important aspects of the cognitive dissonance theory or the authoritative measures are against the practical implications of the Stanford prison experiment. In the real world or the practical life, the human beings are not being treated in this harsh way according to the choice of the authority.
The nature of the experiment as well as the unethical concerns of the experiment makes one able to think with the clear frame of mind that the scientific control is not the elementary condition of the situations. Like in the government controlling the public matters, the management controlling the staff or the employees in the corporate world and the military officials controlling the enemies are not valid in this case. The observations in the real life are objective in nature and the subjective in nature.
However, this factor is clearly defining that the subjective nature of the framework in the experiment is the critical point in the entire experiment. When we analyze the practical implications or the real life examples, the objective thinking abilities and the conceptual framework in the behaviors and actions are the main things that must be considered (Workman, 2014).
Therefore looking at the above mentioned factors the Stanford prison experiment it is proved that the conditions of the experiment are not effectively replicate the real world situation, or was its artificial nature responsible for the deviant behavior in the entire experiment.
There is lot of apprehension right now about China rising to become America’s main strategic rival. How realistic do you think this challenge is?
The United States of America has been in the limelight for many years due to its technology advancements, strong economic condition, and huge financial resources. The super power is having different business operations in all over the word, and dominating with its products and services due to quality and differentiation. However, there are many countries, which are doing international trade with each other and even with the United States of America. Interestingly, the United States of America is prominent regarding its business and technology success, which makes it different from other countries. (Johnson, 2016)
On the other hand, China is prominent due to its low cost of production, which is the main reason to become a prominent rival of the United States of America. This is a fact that different countries are conducting diversification in the China to have cheaper labor, distribution and supply chain cost to come up with the lower process. In result, this is observed that the investment in China has been increased I recent years, which is good for this country to come up as a strong strategic rival due to stronger economic condition and higher financial resources.
Apart with business, there are many consequences regarding this rivalry. For instance, The China is containing developments in different aspects such as technology, military, economic, society, and diplomacy. This is a big thing to worry for the United States of America, as Asian giant is looking to beat the power in next few decades. (Reynolds, 2015)
This is a fact that relation between these two countries is ambiguous due to culture differences and intentions regarding making relations with other countries. This is observed that China is considering much investment on its military. This is the result of big financial resources due to economic stability in this country, which has let this country spend more money on its military operations. This is all about to make the county safe like the United States, which is the base of the success of both, the business and protection. (Smith, 2016)
The big advantage that this country has as compared to the United States of America is the production of different products and services in low marginal cost. This is a fact that cost of production in the United States of America much higher than China, which compels the country to come up with the high process in the international market. Regarding China, the world is looking forwards to start the business with the United States of America to have low-cost products. (Tweed, 2015)
This is the key aspect, which is realistic and needs to be considered by the United States of America and other countries are well. Furthermore, an interesting aspect is that China has covered all Asia with different trade agreements with different countries. Few years back, the United States of America was in the limelight in this region due to diversification. This is a fact that China is becoming a big rival of the United States of America due to different economic corridors with neighbor countries. (Johnson, 2016)
These economic corridors and collaborative military operations are hindering the success of the United States of America in Asia. This has to be considered the China is becoming a big and main rival of the United States of America due to its potential and key resources that the United States of America do not have. This is also to consider making this challenge realistic that China is less dependent on other countries regarding different industries such as oil, Gas, and textile.
The challenge seems realistic due to strong economic position in this country. For instance, due to strong economic position, it has expanded its investments in different countries and came up with low-cost products to beat the big giant, which is the United States of America. China is looking to expand inst international trade and investments to meet with its strategic interests due to its potential, which is making it the big rival of the United States of America. (Reynolds, 2015)
Interestingly, the global role of China has been changed due to its intentions regarding the military, business, and strategic relations. For Instance, China is a nuclear power in this world, which makes this challenge more realistic. The role of China in the world will be directive in next few decades due to sustained economic and strategic developments.
In addition, this will be tough for China to beat the United States of America early, as it contains monopoly in many business aspects and markets. This is a fact that the United States of America is losing its faith in different Islamic countries due to its wrong strategic decisions. The diplomacy of this country has not been up to the market in previous years as compared to China. Comparatively, the China has a good potential to come up as a great diplomatic country to retain and sustain long-term relationships with other countries. (Smith, 2016)
These were all aspects and possible reason, which make this challenge more realistic. The word has been changed, as technology advancements have let different countries reduce the cost of production and invest money on defense. China is increasing its power due to huge financial and economic resources. This is a big thing to worry for the United States of America, as it is also losing its strategic relations with different countries. China is the only country, which can come up with greater credibility as compared to other companies. (Tweed, 2015)
14. What are potential dangers socially, economically military, that mankind faces from overdependence on technology
The paper specifically associated with the description of overdependence on the technology that reveals the potential dangers of military, economically and socially as well.
The over dependence on the technology, the man kind faced certain challenges in the socially economically and military as well. The overdependence on the technology reveals challenges in the socially. The technology and society provides the indication how the values and cultural sustenance changes with the passage of time. The synergic relationship has been identified when the society attach with the technological developments. The technology and human life cannot be separated and recognized as co dependence on the technology. The advance in the technology changes life of the community. The genetic engineering in the society also prevails the challenges in the society. (Thefulcrum.ca, 2011)
The human uses technology in the form of business accumulations, learning and development and communication to live comfort in the society. There are certain impacts created towards the impact of technology that increases the environmental pollution with the advancement in machinery at production houses. Due to increase in number of production, the companies face challenges in the increase in number of demand of goods and services; in this regard the company utilizes the formation of technology by entailing high machinery of production. Such machinery of production reveals wastages and emission of CO2 gases in the environment. This shows that increase in the environmental challenges also indicates the issues for the society as well. (Thefulcrum.ca, 2011)
Lack of sustainability solutions is due to increase in technology poses challenges for the environment as well as society, when the mankind face sever disease due to environmental impacts. Therefore overdependence on the technology people focus on utilizing the social media wither by physical activities where the society involves in the major disease by lack of physical games.
The advancement in computer technology revolutionized workplace and reveals innumerable advances in education system. The invention of new technology reduced the mental capability of the individual to generate their outcome in essential and adequate manner. The knowledge destruction also posed the major issues towards the over dependence on the technology. (Jackson, 2007)
One of the most important and significant impact of overdependence on the technology are issue of jobs and unemployment as well. Due to increase in utilization of machinery for the reduction of labor force derives potential danger over the unemployment for the association of economically stability. Heavy machinery in the production houses eliminates the work force. Modern technology like computers and micro chips reduce the use of mental abilities of human.
Towards the utilization of high machinery in the production reduce number of production jobs in the agriculture sector. In addition to such machinery also increase the values of the economic but increasing exports for positive GDP. But reduction in employment rate due to advancement in technology has severe impact on the economic stability.
The overdependence on the technology also poses certain potential dangers on the military for the execution of warfare and other purpose as well. The application of militant arguable and overdependence on the technology creates negative impact like manufacturing of atomic bombs as well as destruction of mass weapons.
The production of such weapons for the military purpose enhances the credibility of the country bust reveals bad impact on the society towards the warfare’s. The overdependence on the technology is more powerful social forces towards the consolidations of aspiration of freedom as well. The impact of technology indicates the complete destruction of possibility of humanity. There is growing continuity in capacity of militants indicates for the development of nuclear technology as well as nuclear warheads proliferation among the society.
This reveals the major challenges in the potential danger of overdependence on the technology of execution of nuclear technology. In addition to this, science postulates the major developments of accurate destruction of targets of enemy and lessened the damages of unintended towards the population of civilization. Cruise missiles as well as smart bombs reduced the components of human war for some degree. The overdependence on the technology reveals the major danger over the military by increase in number of weapons where the criminal cases in the society.
Thus to sum up all discussion about the potential danger of overdependence on the technology has severe impact over the militants for the execution of warfare’s and other development of nuclear developments as well. The potential danger towards the dependence on the technology of militant reveals the characters of hands of terrorist organizations or a military as well. The overall study reveals the major consolidations of overdependence on the technology and its disadvantages that are prevailing in the society, economically and militant as well. (Jackson, 2007)
Bensi, L., Giusberti, F., Raffaella Nori, R., & Gambetti, E. (2010). Individual differences and reasoning: A study on personality traits. British Journal of Psychology , 101 (3), 545-562.
Blaut, J. M. (1992). 1492: The Debate on Colonialism, Eurocentrism, and History. Africa World Press.
Crosby, l. W. (2003). The Columbian Exchange. Greenwood Publishing Group.
Hergenhahn, B. R. (2013). An Introduction to the History of Psychology. Cengage Learning.
Kennedy, D. (2012). Cengage Advantage Books. Cengage Learning.
KONNIKOVA, M. (2012). The Real Lesson of the Stanford Prison Experiment. Retrieved May 4, 2016, from newyorker.com: http://www.newyorker.com/science/maria-konnikova/the-real-lesson-of-the-stanford-prison-experiment
Workman, L. (2014). Evolutionary Psychology. Cambridge University Press.
Conerly, B. (2014). The Danger Of A Big Customer: G T Advanced Technology’s Bankruptcy. Retrieved May 4, 2016, from http://www.forbes.com/sites/billconerly/2014/11/25/the-danger-of-a-big-customer-g-t-advanced-technologys-bankruptcy/#91b16f551caa
Jackson, B. A. (2007). Breaching the Fortress Wall: Understanding Terrorist Efforts to Overcome Defensive Technologies. Rand Corporation.
Thefulcrum.ca. (2011). The dangers of technology. Retrieved May 4, 2016, from http://thefulcrum.ca/features/the-dangers-of-technology/
Johnson, S. (2016, April 19). China’s ‘Bants’ set to rival America’s ‘Fang’ tech stocks. Retrieved May 4, 2016, from FT.Com: http://www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/3/d1ba5940-057e-11e6-9b51-0fb5e65703ce.html#axzz47gaJW9MI
Reynolds, B. (2015, September 1). The Economics of U.S.-China Rivalry. Retrieved May 4, 2016, from China US Focus: http://www.chinausfocus.com/foreign-policy/the-economics-of-u-s-china-rivalry/
Smith, D. (2016, April 19). Next US president faces fraying ties with China amid anxieties over country’s rise. Retrieved May 4, 2016, from The Guardian: http://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2016/apr/19/china-military-economy-chinapower-website
Tweed, D. (2015, October 27). U.S. Rivalry With China Heats Up Over Key Asia Shipping Lane. Retrieved May 4, 2016, from Bloomberg: http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2015-10-27/u-s-steps-up-china-rivalry-in-asia-shipping-lane-with-patrol