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in “active and passive euthanasia”, rachels concludes that:

Question 1. 1. Rachels concludes that: (Points : 1)       [removed] active euthanasia is always worse than passive euthanasia.
      [removed] passive euthanasia is always worse than active euthanasia.
      [removed] active euthanasia is always morally permissible.
      [removed] none of the above.

 Question 2. 2. Glaukon begins by claiming that “those who practice justice” do so (Points : 1)       [removed] Because they know it is the right thing to do.
      [removed] Because they are compelled by their conscience.
      [removed] Because they are incapable of doing otherwise.
      [removed] Because all of the parts of their character are harmoniously oriented toward the good.

 Question 3. 3. According to Rachels, the case of Smith and Jones shows that: (Points : 1)       [removed] killing is intrinsically worse than letting die.
      [removed] there is no intrinsic moral difference between killing and letting die.
      [removed] letting die is morally worse than killing.
      [removed] it is never permissible either to let someone die or to kill them.

 Question 4. 4. According to Rachels, many people accept the conventional doctrine because they believe: (Points : 1)       [removed] killing is intrinsically worse than letting die.
      [removed] there is no intrinsic moral difference between killing and letting die.
      [removed] letting die is morally worse than killing.
      [removed] it is never permissible either to let someone die or to kill them.

 Question 5. 5. If the Ring of Gyges really existed, (Points : 1)       [removed] Just people would use it for justice.
      [removed] Just people would not use it at all.
      [removed] Unjust people would use it differently than just people.
      [removed] Everyone would use it the same.

 Question 6. 6. Kass argues that there is an important difference between withdrawing treatment and active, direct mercy killing, and this difference lies in the (Points : 1)       [removed] primary intention of the doctor.
      [removed] ultimate outcome of the actions.
      [removed] Constitution of the United States.
      [removed] sympathy that we feel for the patient’s suffering.

 Question 7. 7. Midgely concludes that (Points : 1)       [removed] If we accept a value in another culture, we can still reject that value in our culture.
      [removed] If we accept a value in another culture, we must accept that value in our culture.
      [removed] If we reject a value in another culture, we must reject that value in our culture.
      [removed] B and C.

 Question 8. 8. According to Rachels, active euthanasia is currently: (Points : 1)       [removed] forbidden by law, and conventionally considered immoral.
      [removed] forbidden by law, but conventionally considered permissible.
      [removed] permitted by law, but conventionally considered immoral.
      [removed] permitted by law, and conventionally considered permissible.

 Question 9. 9. According to the videos, in which is it legal to commit assisted suicide? (Points : 1)       [removed] Canada
      [removed] Mexico
      [removed] Germany
      [removed] Switzerland


 Question 10. 10. The Ring of Gyges gave the shepherd who found it (Points : 1)       [removed] Intelligence
      [removed] Invincibility
      [removed] Invisibility
      [removed] Wisdom

 Question 11. 11. Rachels claims that once it has been decided that euthanasia is desirable in a case: (Points : 1)       [removed] a moral error has already been made.
      [removed] it has been decided that death is no greater an evil than the patient’s continued existence.
      [removed] it has been decided that the patient does not have a right to life.
      [removed] the amount of suffering of the patient becomes irrelevant.

 Question 12. 12. Rachels claims that when infants with Down’s syndrome are denied necessary operations, this is typically because: (Points : 1)       [removed] the infants have Down’s syndrome.
      [removed] the surgery would be too expensive.
      [removed] the surgery would be too risky.
      [removed] all of the above.

 Question 13. 13. Rachels argues that the conventional doctrine: (Points : 1)       [removed] is self-evidently correct.
      [removed] is not what most people believe, but can be supported by strong arguments.
      [removed] leads to decisions concerning life and death made on morally irrelevant grounds.
      [removed] leads to patients being euthanized against their will.

 Question 14. 14. Glaukon thinks that deep in our hearts we all believe that (Points : 1)       [removed] Injustice is more profitable than justice.
      [removed] We will have a clearer conscience if we always stick to the laws of justice.
      [removed] To be unjust is to be a fool.
      [removed] Both B and C.

 Question 15. 15. Midgley thinks that although we can understand or appreciate other societies, (Points : 1)       [removed] We should never judge the values of other societies.
      [removed] We must always respect the values of other societies.
      [removed] We have the right to judge other societies.
      [removed] We cannot understand them well enough to judge them.

 Question 16. 16. In the excerpt from Plato’s Republic, Glaukon suggests that people are good (Points : 1)       [removed] only because they are powerless to commit injustice and get away with it.
      [removed] because their conscience tells them to be.
      [removed] out of reverence for the law.
      [removed] because living justly is objectively the best sort of life.

 Question 17. 17. Why is it hard for physicians to understand palliative care? (Points : 1)       [removed] They do not care about their patients enough.
      [removed] They are well-educated in palliative care.
      [removed] They did not pay attention in medical school.
      [removed] They are focused on healing rather than helping die.

 Question 18. 18. Rachels claims that: (Points : 1)       [removed] there is no moral difference between active and passive euthanasia, considered in themselves.
      [removed] there is always a moral difference between the consequences of active and passive euthanasia.
      [removed] both a and b.
      [removed] neither a nor b.

 Question 19. 19. Rachels claims that most actual cases of killing: (Points : 1)       [removed] are morally worse than most actual cases of letting die.
      [removed] are morally the same most actual cases of letting die.
      [removed] are morally less bad than most actual cases of letting die.
      [removed] are morally required.

 Question 20. 20. James Rachels points out that when passive euthanasia is employed on infants, they typically die of: (Points : 1)       [removed] poisoning.
      [removed] SARS.
      [removed] suffocation.
      [removed] dehydration and infection.
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culearninghouse

B A 6 3 3 : I N F O R M A T I O N S Y S T E M S I N F R A S T R U C T U R E

FALL 2017 (GRAD TERM 3) 10/23/2017 – 12/16/2017

ON-LINE SECTION BA633 G3 17

BASIC INFORMATION

Instructor: Professor Fred Rose Websites: http://cu.learninghouse.com – online class website E-mail: frose@campbellsville.edu – (All official email will be to/from this address) Phone: (847) 778-5386 – Cell – Urgent issues only Please contact me via email for all issues.

TEXT/MATERIALS

Stallings, W., & Case, T. (2013). Business Data Communications: Infrastructure, Networking and Security (7th ed.). Prentice Hall. ISBN: 978-0-13-302389-3.

COURSE DESCRIPTION

This is an advanced course covering information systems infrastructure. The areas covered include architecture, operating platforms, database systems, data storage, networking, wired and wireless transmission, e-commerce, cloud computing, virtual servers, and mobile computing.

COURSE OBJECTIVES:

Upon completion of this course, students should be able to:

 Examine how business utilizes telecommunications networks and information systems architecture.

 Analyze the design and uses of information technology infrastructure.

 Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of competing solutions.

 Examine the knowledge needed to design and implement a comprehensive information system for an organization.

 Illustrate and discuss current advances in IT infrastructure.http://cu.learninghouse.com/mailto:frose@campbellsville.edu

BA633 Information Systems Infrastructure

2

ASSIGNMENT INFORMATION

There will be 12 quizzes, 4 case studies, 6 discussion forums, and 1 research paper:

Quiz (12) 25%

Case Study (4) 25%

Discussion (6) 25%

Research Paper (1) 25%

Total 100%

NOTE: All assignments must be completed by the due time on the due date and are not accepted late.

GRADING SCALE

Grade A B C D F Percentage 100 – 90% 89 – 80% 79 – 70% 69 – 60% Below 60%

COURSE POLICIES

ATTENDANCE POLICY

According to the Office of the Vice President of Academic Affairs, attendance begins for all students on the first day of class. This includes students who register “late”.

The University attendance policy will be followed. The policy states that a student who has missed the equivalent of one week (1) of class periods for any reason receives a warning. Any student who misses equivalent of two weeks of class periods (2) for any reason is automatically withdrawn administratively (WA) from the class and is calculated in the grade point average (GPA) as if it were an F.

Attendance for online classes is figured the same way as the face-to-face classes, using missed assignment due dates as absences. For a graduate term class, which is 8 weeks in length, if a student misses 1 week of assignment due dates, a warning will be sent. Any student who misses 2 assignment due dates will be automatically withdrawn from the class with a grade of WA.

Please see the Student Handbook for a complete explanation of the university policy. There are no excused or unexcused absences according to the policy.

BA633 Information Systems Infrastructure

3

APPEALS POLICY

To appeal a grade on an assignment you must send an e-mail to your instructor’s e-mail address using your official CU student e-mail within five days of the grade having been posted. Overdue appeals will not be considered.

INCOMPLETE POLICY

Students will not be given an incomplete grade in the course without sound reason and documented evidence. In any case, for a student to receive an incomplete he or she must be passing and must have completed a significant portion of the course (at least 70% of the work).

ACADEMIC INTEGRITY POLICY

Students are expected to be academically honest. This is not only a matter of academic integrity, but of Christian principle. Students assume full responsibility for the content and integrity of the academic work they submit. The guiding principle of academic integrity shall be that a student’s submitted assignment must be the student’s own work. A student is guilty of dishonesty when he/she:

1. Represents the work of others as his/her own. 2. Shares his work with another for the purpose of enabling the other student to submit the work as his/her

own. 3. Uses or obtains unauthorized assistance in any academic work. 4. Gives unauthorized assistance to other students. 5. Modifies, without instructor approval, an exam, paper, record, or report for obtaining additional credit. 6. Misrepresents the content of submitted work.

For this class, it is permissible to assist classmates in general discussions of topics. General advice and interaction are encouraged. Each person, however, must develop his or her own solutions to the assigned projects, assignments, and tasks. A student may not use or copy (by any means) another’s work (or portions of it) and represent it as his/her own. If this occurs all concerned parties will receive a grade of zero on the assignment. If you need help on an assignment, contact your instructor.

DISABILITIES POLICY

In compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), all qualified students enrolled in this course are entitled to “reasonable accommodations.” Please notify the instructor during the first week of class. If you have a documented disability, you must provide the instructor with the paper from Disability Services. Campbellsville University is committed to reasonable accommodations for students who have documented physical and learning disabilities, as well as medical and emotional conditions. If you have a documented disability or condition of this nature, you may be eligible for disability services. Documentation must be from a licensed professional and current in terms of assessment. Please contact the Coordinator of Disability Services at 270-789-5192 to inquire about services.

CAMPUS SECURITY AND TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE

Technical: Trevor McWhorter, Distance Learning, 270-789-5352 or tgmcwhorter@campbellsville.edu Security: (270) 403-3611 – Cell (270) 789-5555 – Officemailto:tgmcwhorter@campbellsville.edu

BA633 Information Systems Infrastructure

4

COURSE ASSIGNMENTS

Course Work Due Date

Discussion 1 10/29 Sunday

Quiz 1 10/29 Sunday

Quiz 2 10/29 Sunday

Discussion 2 11/5 Sunday

Quiz 3 11/5 Sunday

Quiz 4 11/5 Sunday

Case Study 1 11/5 Sunday

Discussion 3 11/12 Sunday

Quiz 5 11/12Sunday

Quiz 6 11/12 Sunday

Case Study 2 11/12 Sunday

Discussion 4 11/19 Sunday

Quiz 7 11/19 Sunday

Quiz 8 11/19 Sunday

Case Study 3 11/19 Sunday

Discussion 5 11/26 Sunday

Quiz 9 11/26 Sunday

Quiz 10 11/26 Sunday

Case Study 4 11/26 Sunday

Discussion 6 12/3 Sunday

Quiz 11 12/3 Sunday

Quiz 12 12/3 Sunday

Research Paper 12/10 Sunday

BA633 Information Systems Infrastructure

5

RESEARCH PAPER

Select a topic from the following list on which you would like to conduct an in-depth investigation:

 Information systems infrastructure: evolution and trends

 Strategic importance of cloud computing in business organizations

 Big data and its business impacts

 Managerial issues of a networked organization

 Emerging enterprise network applications

 Mobile computing and its business implications

Note: The above topics are also the basis of the discussion questions. You may use up to three resources found by yourself or your peers as resources for the paper.

Research paper basics:

 8-10 pages in length

 APA formatted

 Minimum six (6) sources – at least two (2) from peer reviewed journals

 Include an abstract, introduction, and conclusion

 See rubric for more detailed grading criteria

 Submitted through Turnitin – must be original work – similarity score of 30 or less to be graded

Some good questions to ask yourself before turning in your research paper:

 Is the paper of optimal length?

 Is the paper well organized?

 Is the paper clear and concise?

 Is the title appropriate?

 Does the abstract summarize well?

 Are individual ideas assimilated well?

 Are wording, punctuation, etc. correct?

 Is the paper well motivated?

 Is interesting problem/issue addressed?

 Is knowledge of the area demonstrated?

 Have all key reference been cited?

 Are conclusions valid and appropriate?

BA633 Information Systems Infrastructure

6

RESEARCH PAPER GRADING RUBRIC

Criteria/Categories Indicators/Levels

Score 5 4 3-2 1

Abstract and

Introduction

_____ x 5 =

/25 Introduction

should be clear

with a preview of

the main points

Good

introductory

statement, but

the preview of

the main points

is lacking

Introductory

statement is

vague and main

points are

unclear

Issue not clear

and preview of

the main points

is incomplete

Main Points and

Sub Points

______ x 20 =

/100 Main points are

clearly stated and

developed;

specific

examples/support

ing points are

appropriate and

clearly

developed;

smooth

transitions and

well organized.

Main points are

clearly stated

but

development of

examples/suppo

rting points are

lacking; smooth

transitions

between points.

Main points are

not clear.

Audience has

difficulty

following

presentation

because student

jumps around.

Examples/supp

orting points are

appropriate but

need

elaboration or

are not well

thought out.

Main points are

not clear,

Audience

cannot

understand

presentation

because there is

no sequence of

information.

Examples/supp

orting points are

inappropriate

for issue.

Conclusion

_____ x 5 =

/25 Well-thought out

concluding

statement that

summarizes main

points well.

Well-thought

out concluding

statement but

does not

summarize

main points

well.

Does not have a

well-thought

out concluding

statement, but

summarizes

main points

well.

Has neither a

well-thought

out concluding

statement nor

summarizes

main points

well.

Spelling,

grammar and

punctuation

_____ x 6 =

/30 No more than

two errors in

any of these

categories

combined

No more than

eight errors in

any of these

categories

combined

Eight to twenty

errors in these

categories

combined.

More than

twenty errors in

these categories

combined.

/30 No more than

two errors in any

of these

categories

combined

No more than

eight errors in

any of these

categories

combined

Eight to twenty

errors in these

categories

combined.

More than

twenty errors in

these categories

combined.

Summary

_____ x 4 =

/20

Very interesting

question.

Evidence that

student has put a

great amount of

thought into the

subject.

A rather

interesting and

challenging

work, but

student doesn’t

show much

excitement in

the subject

matter.

Satisfactory

work, but does

not engage the

reader

Lack of writing

skills seen by

the quality of

work. The

concept was

clearly not well

thought out.

BA633 Information Systems Infrastructure

7

HELPFUL RESOURCES

The Agile Architecture Revolution: How Cloud Computing, REST-Based SOA, and Mobile Computing are Changing Enterprise IT, 2013, Jason Bloomberg, Wiley & Sons, Inc., ISBN: 978-1-118- 40977-0.

The Architecture of Computer Hardware and System Software: An Information Technology Approach, 5th edition, 2013, Irv Englander. Wiley & Sons, Inc., ISBN: 978-1-118-80310-3.

Building a Windows IT Infrastructure in the Cloud, 1st edition, 2012, David K. Rensin, O’Reilly Media, Inc., ISBN: 978-1-449-33358-4.

Business Data Communications and Networking, 11th edition, 2012. Jerry Fitzgerald. Wiley & Sons, Inc., ISBN: 978-1-118-08683-4.

Business Intelligence: A Managerial Perspective on Analytics, 3rd edition, 2014, Ramesh Sharda, Dursun Delen, Efraim Turban, and David King. Pearson Education, Inc., ISBN: 978-0-12-385126-0.

Cloud Computing: Theory and Practice, 2013, Dan C. Marinescu. Elsevier, Inc., ISBN: 978-0-12- 404627-6

Data Architecture, 2011, Charles Tupper, Elsevier, Inc., ISBN: 978-0-12-385126-0.

Green Communications: Principles, Concepts, and Practice, 2015, Konstantinos Samdanis, Peter Rost, Andreas Maeder (Editor), Michela Meo, and Christos Verikoukis (Editors). Wiley& Sons, Inc., ISBN: 978- 1-118-75926-4.

The Executive’s Guide to Information Technology, 2nd edition, 2007, John Baschab, and Jon Plot. Wiley & Sons, Inc., ISBN: 978-0-470-09521-8.

Mobile Design and Development, 1st edition, 2009, Brian Fling. O’Reilly Media, Inc., ISBN: 978-0-596- 15544-5.

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emiliano los zapatos. (quitarse)

fill in the blank withthe correct reflive verb in parentheses.

1. Emiliano (quitarse) los zapatos.

2. Los senores Guzman (preocuparse) por sus hijos.

3. Tu (acordarse) del nombre del profesor.

4. Desputes de banarse, yo (secarse) con la toalla

5. Antes de salir nosotras (maquillarse) la cara.

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potential gdp in the u.s. will be unaffected by ____________________.

ECON201 Homework 3

Question 1 (1 point)

Question 1 Unsaved

 The term ”full employment GDP” is synonymous with which of the following?

Question 1 options:

a)  potential GDP
b)  Keynesian zone
c)  aggregate GDP
d)  macroeconomic equilibrium

Question 2 (1 point)

Question 2 Unsaved

 Whether the economy is in a recession is illustrated in the AD/AS model by how close the _____________________ is to the potential GDP line.

Question 2 options:

a)  AS and AD curve
b)  equilibrium
c)  AD curve
d)  AS curve

Question 3 (1 point)

Question 3 Unsaved

42. The __________________ in an AD/AS diagram is most relevant to Keynes’s Law.

Question 3 options:

a)  AD curve
b)  AS curve
c) steep portion of the AS curve
d)  flat portion of the AS curve

Question 4 (1 point)

Question 4 Unsaved

 Changes in the price level of the different components of aggregate demand are reflected in the AD/ASAD/AS macroeconomic model by a ________________________.

Question 4 options:

a) shorter distance to equilibrium point
b) longer distance to equilibrium point
c)  flatter top portion of AD curve
d) downward sloping AD curve

Question 5 (1 point)

Question 5 Unsaved

 Why is productivity growth considered to be the most important factor in the AD/ASAD/AS model?

Question 5 options:

a) it shifts the AD curve in the short-term
b) it shifts the AS curve in the long-term
c) it shifts the AS curve in the short-term
d)  it shifts the AD curve in the long-term

Question 6 (1 point)

Question 6 Unsaved

 _______________________ are economists who generally emphasize the importance of aggregate supply in determining the size of the macroeconomy over the _____________.

Question 6 options:

a)  Keynesian economists; long run
b)  Neoclassical economists; short run
c)  Keynesian economists; short run
d) Neoclassical economists; long run

Question 7 (1 point)

Question 7 Unsaved

 Potential GDP in the U.S. will be unaffected by ____________________.

Question 7 options:

a)  the unemployment rate
b)  the amount of capital available
c)  government institutions
d)  technology

Question 8 (1 point)

Question 8 Unsaved

 As the aggregate price level in an economy decreases,

Question 8 options:

a)  interest rates decrease.
b)  imports decrease.
c) consumer demand decreases.
d) investment decreases.

Question 9 (1 point)

Question 9 Unsaved

The ____________ describes a situation where sufficient credit is available, but the economy experiences a reduction in consumption and investment.  

Question 9 options:

a)  interest rate effect
b) inflation rate effect
c) price effect
d)  wealth effect

Question 10 (1 point)

Question 10 Unsaved

 The ____________________ in an AD/AS diagram is most relevant to Say’s Law.

Question 10 options:

a)  steep portion of the AS curve
b)  AD curve
c)  AS curve
d)  flat portion of the AS curve
a) an increase in economic growth
b)  an increase in input prices
c)  less inflationary pressures 
d)  a decrease in the natural unemployment rate

Question 12 (1 point)

 Refer to the graph above. A government creating economic policy in these circumstances should be most concerned about: 

Question 12 options:

unemployment but not inflation.
 inflation but not unemployment.
 inflation and unemployment.       
neither inflation nor unemployment.

Question 13 (1 point)

Question 13 Unsaved

 The sum of all the income received for contributing resources to GDP is called ___________________.

Question 13 options:

a) marginal income (X)
b) national revenue (Y)
c) national income (Y)
d)  marginal revenue (X)

Question 14 (1 point)

Question 14 Unsaved

 According to the Keynesian framework, ________________ in __________________ may cause inflation, but not a recession. 

Question 14 options:

a)  decrease; interest rates
b)  an increase; domestic investment
c)   an increase; a major trading partner’s economy
d)  a decrease; a major trading partner’s export prices

Question 15 (1 point)

Question 15 Unsaved

 If a Phillips curve shows that unemployment is high and inflation is low in the economy, then that economy:

Question 15 options:

a)  is producing at its potential GDP.
b)  is producing at its equilibrium point.
c)  is producing at a point where output is less than potential GDP.
d)  is producing at a point where output is more than potential GDP.

Question 16 (1 point)

Question 16 Unsaved

 In a Keynesian cross diagram, what name is given to the distance between an output level that is below potential GDP and the level of potential GDP?

Question 16 options:

a)  national income (Y)
b)  expenditure-output
c)  inflationary gap
d) recessionary gap

Question 17 (1 point)

Question 17 Unsaved

Which of the following will cause the multiplier to be smaller and cause changes in investor confidence to have a smaller effect in an economy?

Question 17 options:

a)  decreased trade
b)  bigger leakages
c)  increased trade
d)  smaller leakages

Question 18 (1 point)

Question 18 Unsaved

Aggregate demand is more likely to _________________ than aggregate supply in the short run.

Question 18 options:

a)  increase slightly
b) . decrease substantially
c)  shift substantially
d)  remain unchanged

Question 19 (1 point)

Question 19 Unsaved

 Keynesian economics focuses on explaining why recessions and depressions occur, as well as offering a ______________________ for minimizing their effects.

Question 19 options:

a)  policy prescription
b)  set of menu costs
c)  pricing strategy
d)  macro-economic model

Question 20 (1 point)

Question 20 Unsaved

 Which of the following is a distinguishing characteristic of a Keynesian cross diagram?

Question 20 options:

a)  45-degree line
b)  real GDP on the horizontal axis
c)  a flat line
d)  several different Phillips curves

Question 21 (1 point)

Question 21 Unsaved

35. Which of the following data would be analyzed to determine whether any shift in the MPI has occurred over the course of the past 5 year period? 

Question 21 options:

a)  interest rates
b)  exchange rates
c) MPS
d)  foreign income

Question 22 (1 point)

Question 22 Unsaved

 According to the _____________________ argument, a market-oriented economy has no obvious way to implement a plan of systematic wage reductions.

Question 22 options:

a)  sticky wage
b)  sticky wage and price
c)  coordination
d)  Keynesian

Question 23 (1 point)

Question 23 Unsaved

 Refer to the graph shown below.  At point B:

https://learn.umuc.edu/content/enforced/68535-002381-01-2155-OL3-7381/37.png?_&d2lSessionVal=U4xIT0sDpLxsraduGAcxhrlRi

Question 23 options:

a) economic growth it low or even negative.
b) unemployment is very low.
c)  output is expanding.
d)  businesses may raise prices.

Question 24 (1 point)

Question 24 Unsaved

When the economy is in a recession, the government will want to increase output. If the multiplier equals 2.5 and the government increases spending by 200, how much will output increase by?

Question 24 options:

a)  500
b)  900
c)  100
d)  300

Question 25 (1 point)

Question 25 Unsaved

 Suppose that out of the original 100 increase in government spending, 33 will be recycled back into purchases of domestically produced goods and services in the second round and 10.89 is spent in the third round. Following this multiplier effect, what value would be recycled in the fourth round of this cycle? 

Question 25 options:

a)  9.89
b)  3.37
c)  5.23
d)  3.59
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delivering single shocks in succession to stimulate the frog heart _______.

Question

Question 1 of 32

3.0/ 3.0 Points

What is the bursting of a blood vessel called?

A.embolus

B.aneurysm

C.thrombus

D.myocardial infarction

E.stroke

Question 2 of 32

3.0/ 3.0 Points

At any one time, where is the majority of the blood found in the body?

A.veins

B.lungs

C.lymphatic vessels

D.capillaries

E.arteries

Question 3 of 32

3.0/ 3.0 Points

Blood pressure ______ with distance from the left ventricle while the total cross-sectional area of the blood vessels __________.

A.decreases, increases

B.increases, decreases

C.stays the same, decreases

D.stays the same, increases

E.decreases, stays the same

Question 4 of 32

3.0/ 3.0 Points

Which of the following blood vessels are small, thin, and porous enough to exchange substances at the tissue level of organization?

A.arterioles

B.capillaries

C.venules

D.small arteries

E.veins

Question 5 of 32

0.0/ 3.0 Points

What is the instrument called that is used to measure blood pressure?

A.stethoscope

B.CPR

C.sphygmomanometer

D.ECG

E.AED

Question 6 of 32

3.0/ 3.0 Points

Which of the following activities is not recommended for prevention of cardiovascular disease?

A.Know your cholesterol level.

B.Take antioxidant vitamins (A, E, and C).

C.Raise the LDL intake.

D.Use olive and canola oil rather than butter/cream.

E.Exercise moderately.

Question 7 of 32

3.0/ 3.0 Points

RBCs are better known as ________ and WBCs are better known as ___________.

A.lymphocytes, monocytes

B.erythrocytes, eosinophils

C.leukocytes, erythrocytes

D.erythrocytes, leukocytes

E.macrophages, neutrophils

Question 8 of 32

3.0/ 3.0 Points

After blood clots, the yellowish fluid that escapes from the clot is called

A.thrombin.

B.fibrinogen.

C.serum.

D.lymph.

E.plasma.

Question 9 of 32

3.0/ 3.0 Points

Hemoglobin that carries carbon dioxide is called

A.oxyhemoglobin.

B.betahemoglobin.

C.carbaminohemoglobin.

D.alphahemoglobin.

E.deoxyhemoglobin.

Question 10 of 32

3.0/ 3.0 Points

How many globin chains are found in hemoglobin?

A.0

B.1

C.2

D.3

E.4

Question 11 of 32

3.0/ 3.0 Points

Which term refers to uncontrolled growth of white blood cells?

A.leukemia

B.infectious mononucleosis

C.thrombocytopenia

D.hemophilia

E.thromboembolism

Question 12 of 32

3.0/ 3.0 Points

Certain complement proteins kill foreign microbes by

A.creating interferon.

B.causing them to burst.

C.inactivating their ribosomes.

D.agglutinating them.

E.destroying their nucleic acids.

Question 13 of 32

3.0/ 3.0 Points

The RhoGAM shot given to Rh negative mothers with an Rh positive fetus is an example of what type of immunity?

A.active

B.passive

C.nonspecific

D.general

E.neutral

Question 14 of 32

3.0/ 3.0 Points

Shaun was in need of a kidney transplant. What is the most important thing that needs to match between him and the kidney donor?

A.TCR

B.MHC

C.PCR

D.HCG

E.EKG

Question 15 of 32

3.0/ 3.0 Points

Which of the following is not a sign of inflammation?

A.redness

B.heat

C.swelling

D.pain

E.difficulty breathing

Question 16 of 32

0.0/ 3.0 Points

Which of the following is not an autoimmune disease?

A.hay fever

B.rheumatic fever

C.rheumatoid arthritis

D.systemic lupus erythematosus

E.myasthenia gravis

Question 17 of 32

0.0/ 3.0 Points

What is the name of the lymphatic vessels located in the small intestines?

A.tonsils

B.nodes

C.polyps

D.adenoids

E.Peyer patches

Question 18 of 32

3.0/ 3.0 Points

Which category of disease classification is described as having more cases than expected in a given period of time?

A.epidemic

B.outbreak

C.pandemic

D.None of these

E.opportunistic infection

Question 19 of 32

3.0/ 3.0 Points

There are normally 1-2 cases of measles per month in a particular city. However, in the month of September, there were 15 cases. Is this an epidemic?

A.YES

B.NO

Question 20 of 32

3.0/ 3.0 Points

In which phase of an HIV infection is the person typically asymptomatic?

A.acute phase (A)

B.chronic phase (B)

C.AIDS (C)

D.AIDS (D)

E.terminal phase

Question 21 of 32

0.0/ 3.0 Points

The HIV virus contains a genome composed of

A.double stranded DNA.

B.single stranded RNA.

C.double stranded RNA.

D.single stranded RNA.

E.one strand of DNA and one strand of RNA.

Question 22 of 32

0.0/ 3.0 Points

How long does the treatment for TB take?

A.1-2 days

B.1-2 weeks

C.1 month

D.2 months

E.6+ months

Question 23 of 32

3.0/ 3.0 Points

Research shows that in the absence of neural and hormonal influences, the sinoatrial (SA) node generates action potentials at a frequency of about 100 times per minute. However, the resting heart rate is about 70 beats per minute. What would the approximate heart rate be if the vagus nerve were

severed?

A.about 70 beats per minute

B.faster than 100 beats per minute

C.slower than 70 beats per minute

D.about 100 beats per minute

Question 24 of 32

0.0/ 3.0 Points

Which of the following types of muscle are capable of autorhythmicity?

A.Cardiac

B.Smooth

C.Skeletal

D.Cardiac and smooth

E.Cardiac and skeletal

Question 25 of 32

3.0/ 3.0 Points

What happens during Phase 3 of cardiac muscle depolarization?

A.Membrane potential falls slightly and then rebounds as potassium flow out of the cell decreases and calcium flows into the cell.

B.“The plateau phase”; when the membrane remains in a depolarized state; potassium channels stay closed and calcium channels stay open.

C.Period of resting potential until the next depolarization.

D.repolarization to reach the resting membrane potential.

Question 26 of 32

0.0/ 3.0 Points

In the simulation, when vagus nerve stimulation was applied to the frog heart, _______.

A.the force of contraction increased and the heart rate slowed and eventually stopped

B.the heart rate slowed and eventually stopped

C.the force of contraction decreased

D.the force of contraction increased

Question 27 of 32

3.0/ 3.0 Points

In the simulation, delivering single shocks in succession to stimulate the frog heart _______.

A.resulted in fused tetanus

B.resulted in wave summation

C.did not increase the height of the ventricular systole wave

D.increased the height of the ventricular systole wave

Question 28 of 32

3.0/ 3.0 Points

The effect of vagus nerve stimulation on the heart is to _______.

A.decrease the heart rate

B.increase the heart rate

C.increase the heart rate and increase the force of contraction

D.decrease the heart rate and decrease the force of contraction

Question 29 of 32

3.0/ 3.0 Points

The repolarization of cardiac muscle is due to _______.

A.sodium exiting the cell

B.potassium exiting the cell

C.potassium entering the cell

D.sodium entering the cell

Part 6 of 7 – 0.0/ 8.0 PointsAnswer the following question in your own words without using any resources. Your answer should be written in complete sentences using correct grammar, spelling, and terminology.

Question 30 of 32

Briefly explain why wave summation and tetany would be deadly in cardiac muscle.

Question 31 of 32

Briefly explain how the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems work together to regulate heart rate.

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incident analysis resources include network diagrams and lists of ____, such as database servers.

1. _ incident responses enables the organization to react to a detected incident quickly and effectively, without confusion or wasted time and effort.

a.Recording
b.Publishing
c.Predefining
d.Discussing

5 points   

QUESTION 2

1. The U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology recommends a set of tools for the CSIRT including incident reporting mechanisms with which users can report suspected incidents. At least one of these mechanisms should permit people to report incidents ____.

a.anonymously
b.directly to the CSO
c.online
d.for a reward

5 points   

QUESTION 3

1. In a(n) ____________________ plan test strategy, each potential participant individually details the performance of each task, though stopping short of the actual physical task required.

5 points   

QUESTION 4

1. A recommended practice for the implementation of the physical IR plan is to select a ____ binder.

a.green
b.red
c.black
d.blue

5 points   

QUESTION 5

1. In ____________________ training, prepackaged software provides training at the trainee’s workstation.

5 points   

QUESTION 6

1. Incident analysis resources include network diagrams and lists of ____, such as database servers.

a.desk checks
b.protocol analyzers
c.critical assets
d.simulation software

5 points   

QUESTION 7

1. The Southeast Collegiate Cyber Defense Competition is unique in that it focuses on the operational aspect of managing and protecting an existing network infrastructure. Unlike “capture-the-flag ” exercises, this competition is exclusively a real-world ____ competition.

a.defensive
b.hacking
c.end-user training
d.offensive

5 points   

QUESTION 8

1. The IR plan is usually ____ when an incident causes minimal damage with little or no disruption to business operations.

a.placed on alert
b.placed on standby
c.activated
d.not activated

5 points   

QUESTION 9

1. A final IR plan should be tested at least ____________________ by performing at least a structured walk-through test and a more realistic type of test, when possible.

5 points   

QUESTION 10

1. ____ is the process of systematically examining information assets for evidentiary material that can provide insight into how an incident transpired.

a.Disaster recovery
b.Incident response
c.War gaming
d.Forensics analysis

5 points   

QUESTION 11

1. Organizing the incident response planning process begins with staffing the disaster recovery committee.

 True

 False

5 points   

QUESTION 12

1. Should an incident begin to escalate, the CSIRT team leader continues to add resources and skill sets as necessary to attempt to contain and terminate the incident. The resulting team is called the ____ for this particular incident.

a.response unit
b.forensic team
c.IR unit
d.reaction force

5 points   

QUESTION 13

1. The responsibility for creating an organization’s IR plan often falls to the ____.

a.chief information security officer
b.database administrator
c.forensic expert
d.project manager

5 points   

QUESTION 14

1. A recommended practice for the implementation of the physical IR plan document is to organize the contents so that the first page contains the ____ actions.

a.“during attack”
b.“before attack”
c.training
d.testing

5 points   

QUESTION 15

1. A favorite pastime of information security professionals is ____, which is a simulation of attack and defense activities using realistic networks and information systems.

a.war gaming
b.parallel testing
c.simulation
d.structured walk-through

5 points   

QUESTION 16

1. The ____ Department of an organization needs to review the procedures of the CSIRT and understand the steps the CSIRT will perform to ensure it is within legal and ethical guidelines for the municipal, state, and federal jurisdictions.

a.Auditing
b.Labor
c.Legal
d.Public Relations

5 points   

QUESTION 17

1. The training delivery method with the lowest cost to the organization is ____.

a.user support group
b.self-study (noncomputerized)
c.on-the-job training
d.one-on-one

5 points   

QUESTION 18

1. In computer-based training settings, trainees receive a seminar presentation at their computers.

 True

 False

5 points   

QUESTION 19

1. General users require training on the technical details of how to do their jobs securely, including good security practices, ____ management, specialized access controls, and violation reporting.

a.password
b.war gaming
c.“before action”
d.organization

5 points   

QUESTION 20

1. There are several national training programs that focus on incident response tools and techniques.

 True

 False

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which sequence is modeled by the graph below?

which sequence is modeled by the graph below?
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mi abuela se jubiló y se mudó (moved) a viña del mar

Practice
5  The stages of life    Identify the stages of life described in these sentences.
1. My grandmother retired and moved ( moved ) to Viña del Mar. 2. My father works for a large company in Santiago. 3. Did you see my new nephew in the hospital? It is beautiful and so small! 4. My grandfather died this year. 5. My sister celebrated her quinceanera. 6. My little sister plays with dolls ( dolls ). 
Top of FormBottom of Form
9 ContextsQuizSelect    Select the correct answer to complete the sentences.1. Do Elena and Monica get along well? Sometimes it seems that they hate each other. Sometimes they relax. 2. Are you married? Yes, he graduated two years ago. He is widower.3. Did Federico pass it well? He was born in summer. Yes, the party was fun.4. Where does your mother work? He already retired. She gave me candies. 5. Did Rosa change as a couple? She celebrated her quinceañera. He broke up with Roberto last year.6. Did Roberto compromise with Susana? Yes, they wish get married on summer. Roberto brought him a bottle of wine. 7. When does Begoña graduate? You still have to take an exam. She likes to pay the bill.Complete    Complete each sentence with a word from the list.we providesweetsChristmassingledivorcefrozenwe are born 8. He is a very cold dessert.9. December 25 is.10. My brother is. He says he does not want to marry.11. They are very bad for the teeth.12. In my house, when a child is born, always with champagne.Complete    Complete the sentences with the correct word.13. A glass object ( glass ) where the wine is a.14. A person who celebrates the day he was born celebrates a holiday of. 15. The stage of life when someone is 80 years old is called the.16. When you go to a birthday, you buy one for the person who celebrates it.17. Miguel celebrated his wedding yesterday. Now he is.18. My uncles no longer live together because they do not get along. They are .19. We went to a restaurant for our anniversary.20. Those who receive an invitation to a party are the.
9.2 Verbs that change meaning in the preteriteCommunicationtwo  Complete    Complete these sentences in a logical manner.one.Yesterday my roommate knew … two.This morning I could not … 3.I met my best friend in … Four.My parents did not want … 5.My best friend could not … 6My boyfriend / and I met in … 7Last week I knew … 8Yesterday my friends wanted … 
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the ugly american sparknotes

The Ugly American by William J. Lederer

Author Biography

Nationality 1: American

Birthdate: 1912

Nationality 1: American

Birthdate: 1918

Deathdate: 1965

William J. Lederer was born on March 31, 1912, in New York City, the son of William Julius and Paula (Franken) Lederer. He attended the United States Naval Academy, from which he graduated with a bachelor of science degree in 1936. Lederer’s main career was in the U.S. Navy, from 1930 to 1958. He retired as captain. During wartime he served in Asia and with the Atlantic Fleet. From 1950 to 1958 he was special assistant to the commander-in-chief, Pacific.

After Lederer retired from the navy, he went into journalism, becoming Far East correspondent for Reader’s Digest, from 1958 to 1963. He was author-in-residence at Harvard University, 1966-1967.

Lederer has written many books, including novels, short stories, and nonfiction on a variety of topics, during his long career. His best known work is The Ugly American (1958; with Burdick). His other novels include Sarkhan (1965; with Burdick) and I, Giorghos (1984). Ensign O’Toole and Me (1957) is a humorous look at life in the navy; A Nation of Sheep (1961) discusses how the United States could be more successful in its foreign aid projects. The Mirages of Marriage (1968; with Don D. Jackson) is an analysis of marriage in the United States. Other works include The Last Cruise (1950), All the Ships at Sea (1950), Timothy’s Song (1965), The Story of Pink Jade (1966), Our Own Worst Enemy (1968; published in England in 1969 as The Anguished American), and A Happy Book of Christmas Stories (1981).

Lederer married Ethel Victoria Hackett in 1940. They were divorced in 1965. In the same year, Lederer married Corinne Edwards Lewis. They divorced in 1976. Lederer has three sons.

Eugene (Leonard) Burdick was born in Sheldon, Iowa, on December 12, 1918. He was the son of Jack Dale, a painter, and Marie (Ellerbroek) Burdick.

Burdick gained a bachelor of arts degree from Stanford University in 1942. During World War II, he served in the U.S. Navy and became lieutenant commander. He was awarded the Navy/Marine Corps Cross. After the war he studied in England and received a Ph.D. from Magdalen College, Oxford University, in 1950.

Burdick became assistant professor and then professor of political theory at the University of California, Berkeley, from 1950 to 1965. In addition to his scholarly writings, which included a book on voting behavior, Burdick wrote novels. His first was The Ninth Wave (1956), about a California politician who exploits fear and hatred. This work was followed in 1958 by The Ugly American, which he co-wrote with William J. Lederer. The book became a bestseller. Burdick wrote several more novels: Fail-Safe (1962; with Harvey Wheeler) is about the accidental triggering of a nuclear war; The 480, about the selection of a Republican presidential candidate, followed in 1964. In 1965, Burdick collaborated again with Lederer on another novel set in southeast Asia, Sarkhan (1965), which was published as The Deceptive American in 1977. Burdick’s final work was the novel Nina’s Book (1965).

Burdick married Carol Warren in 1942; the couple had three children. Burdick died on July 26, 1965.

Summary and Analysis

Chapters 1-4

The Ugly American begins in the fictional Southeast Asian country of Sarkhan, in the office of U.S. ambassador Louis Sears. Sears is upset because a hostile cartoon of him has appeared in the local newspaper.

Meanwhile an American named John Colvin is recovering in the hospital after being beaten up. Colvin has been trying to help the Sarkhanese learn how to use milk and its by-products, and he set up a milk-distribution center outside the capital city, Haidho. But he is betrayed by an old friend named Deong who has turned communist. Deong tells a group of Sarkhanese women that Colvin is trying to put a drug in the milk that would enable him to take advantage of Sarkhanese girls. Colvin denies it, but the women beat him. He is left unconscious on the steps of the U.S. Embassy.

The ambassador complains about the cartoon to Prince Ngong, the head of the Sarkhanese government. Ngong fears that a large U.S. loan may be in jeopardy and instructs the newspaper to print a flattering cartoon and editorial about Sears.

The second story introduces Ambassador Sears’s Russian counterpart, Louis Krupitzyn. Unlike Sears, Krupitzyn has had long preparation for his position. He can read and write Sarkhanese and understands Sarkhanese culture. He is also cunning. During a famine, the Americans send 14,000 tons of rice. However, Krupitzyn arranges for every bag of American rice to have stenciled on it in Sarkhanese that it is a gift from Russia. The Americans protest, but the Sarkhanese continue to believe the Russians were their benefactors.

The next character to be introduced is Father Finian, a Catholic priest from Boston who has been assigned to Burma. A fierce anti-communist, Finian recruits nine local Catholics who also want to fight communism. They publish a small anti-communist newspaper and then trick a Russian expert by secretly recording and then broadcasting disparaging things he has said about the local peasants. It then becomes clear to the local people that the Russians do not have their best interests at heart.

Chapters 4-10

Joe Bing, a flamboyant American public relations officer in the Southeast Asian city of Serkya, gives a presentation in Washington about employment opportunities abroad. He paints a rosy picture of luxury travel, an excellent salary, low expenses, with no need to learn a foreign language. A young American, Marie McIntosh, is recruited. She writes home about the pleasant and luxurious life she now lives in Sarkhan.

Sears makes another diplomatic blunder over a rumor that the United States is about to evict the Sarkhanese Air Force from land lent to them. But Sears soon gets what he wants when he is recalled to the United States to take up a federal judgeship. The new ambassador is Gilbert MacWhite, a professional foreign-service officer. Unlike Sears, MacWhite learns the local language. MacWhite is eager to combat communist influence, but he makes the mistake of trusting his old Chinese servants, Donald and Roger. Li Pang, a visitor and friend of MacWhite, interrogates Donald and tricks him into revealing that he has been passing information to the communists. MacWhite tries to learn from his mistake by traveling in the Philippines and Vietnam so he can understand how to combat communism. In the Philippines, he hears about Colonel Hillandale, an American who embraces local culture and is known as “The Ragtime Kid” because of his love for jazz and his ability to play the harmonica.

Chapters 11-15

Major James Wolchek of the U.S. Army visits Major Monet, a Frenchman, in Hanoi, Vietnam. The French are losing the battle against communist insurgents; at Dien Bien Phu, French forces are encircled. Monet invites Wolchek to parachute with French troops into the besieged fortress as a foreign observer, but before they can do this Dien Bien Phu falls to the communists. In subsequent skirmishes with the enemy, Monet and his legionnaires are defeated again and again. Wolchek explains to Monet and MacWhite that the communists are winning because they are practicing a new kind of warfare. As the communists press their assault on Hanoi, Wolchek and Monet are slightly wounded. MacWhite acquires a pamphlet by Chinese leader Mao Tse-tung that explains his concept of guerilla warfare. Monet uses these new tactics and wins a skirmish with the communists. But then the French evacuate Hanoi and a communist army enters the city.

In Cambodia, Tom Knox, an American, helps the local people improve their chicken and egg yield and is greeted with enthusiasm by villagers wherever he goes. At a conference that appraises the results of U.S. aid to Cambodia, Tom makes practical proposals for further increasing chicken and egg yield, but he is overruled because the Americans want to develop mechanized farms. When French government diplomats and a wealthy Cambodian landowner provide Tom with a series of luxury trips, he forgets all about his good idea.

In Sarkhan, Colonel Hillandale attends a dinner party given by the Philippine ambassador. Hillandale entertains everyone by giving palm readings, which is a respected practice in the country. He is given an opportunity to read the palm of the king, but the appointment is sabotaged by the hostility and incompetence of George Swift, MacWhite’s deputy. The king is insulted, and MacWhite gets Swift transferred.

Chapters 16-18

In Hong Kong, a meeting of the Special Armament section of the Asia conference is discussing the prospect of placing U.S. nuclear weapons on Asian soil. The Asians become suspicious when the Americans refuse to discuss classified material about the safety of the weapons. Solomon Asch, leader of the American delegation, feels let down by Captain Boning, one of his negotiators, who gives the impression he is deliberately holding back information. As a result, the Asians decide to oppose the installation of nuclear weapons on their soil.

In Vietnam, Homer Atkins, a retired engineer, meets with Vietnamese, French, and U.S. officials. He has been asked to give advice on building dams and military roads, but he tells the Vietnamese that they should start with smaller projects they can do for themselves, such as building brick factories and a model canning plant. MacWhite is impressed by Atkins and invites him to Sarkhan, where Atkins teams up with a local man named Jeepo to design a water pump. They go into business together, hiring workers who manufacture the pumps and then sell them.

Chapters 19-21

Atkins’s wife Emma notices that all the old people in the village of Chang ‘Dong have badly bent backs. She realizes this pervasive condition is due to the short-handled brooms they use for sweeping, so she invents a long-handled broom using sturdy reeds as a handle. The local people soon learn to make their own long-handled brooms.

Jonathan Brown, a tough U.S. senator, visits Vietnam to find out for himself what use is made of U.S. aid. He wants to meet local people, but the U.S. Embassy staff tries to control the information he has access to. On a visit to an ammunition depot, Brown questions a Vietnamese man, but Dr. Barre, the interpreter, alters the man’s answer in a way that he thinks will please the senator. The same thing happens when Brown visits Hanoi and tries to find out what the real military situation is there. As he goes home to the United States he realizes that he has talked only to military men and government officials, although later on the Senate floor he claims that he understands the situation in Vietnam because he has been there.

MacWhite is rebuked by the secretary of state for his testimony to a Senate committee about the situation in Southeast Asia. MacWhite replies that he fears the Russians will win the cold war unless the Americans act in the real interests of the countries whose friendship they need, not in the interest of propaganda. He makes many practical suggestions, all of which are rejected. He resigns as ambassador, and the State Department decides to replace him with Joe Bing.

The Ugly American ends with a “Factual Epilogue” in which the authors explain that although their stories are fiction, they are based on fact.

The Ugly American by William J. Lederer

Chapter 1, “Lucky, Lucky Lou #1” Summary

The novel, published in 1958, takes place in the early 1950s at the height of the Cold War between the U.S.S.R. and the United States of America. Set primarily in the fictional Asian country of Sarkhan, the struggle between Russian Communists and American Foreign Service personnel plays out battle by battle through examples of military, political and social events.

In 1953, Louis “Lucky” Sears, previously a three-term United States Senator, accepts the role of Ambassador to Sarkhan as a holding position while he waits for a Federal judgeship to become available in the States. Sears is thoroughly unqualified to be an Ambassador. He has no aptitude or interest in diplomacy and privately refers to the Sarkhanese people as “monkeys”. He does not speak or read more than a few words of Sarkhanese and refuses to learn the language. Though incompetent, he is rewarded with an entertainment allowance almost as large as his salary. He buys liquor tax-free and he lives in the ambassador’s mansion free of charge.

As the story opens, Ambassador Sears is seething over a political cartoon in the Eastern Star newspaper that pictures a fat American leading a Sarkhanese man by a tether to a sign that reads “Coca Cola.” Beneath the cartoon is the name “Lucky”. Sears earned the nickname “Lucky” during his three political campaigns. He won the first because Democrats were in favor. In the second campaign, his opponent died ten days before the election. In the third campaign, the opponent’s wife stirred up a scandal. The political cartoon infuriates Sears: not because it insults America, but because it depicts him in a negative fashion.

The American Embassy’s press attachy, Margaret Johnson, arrives at Sears’ office with news that an American businessman named John Colvin was beaten and left naked on the steps of the Embassy with a note accusing him of molesting local girls. Ambassador Sears dismisses the news as a simple boy meets girl affair. Press Attachy Johnson warns that the news could hurt the embassy politically, so Sears orders her to contact the man in charge of protocol, Prince Ngong.

John Colvin wakes up in the hospital. Through his pain, he recalls his relationship with his attacker to understand why his friend Deong attacked him. Colvin had met Deong ten years earlier in 1943 after Colvin parachuted into the country to fight off the Japanese. Colvin, trained as an OSS agent, spoke Sarkhanese. While he fled the Japanese, he ran into Deong, who hid him until the Japanese patrol left. In the following eight months, Colvin and Deong sabotaged Japanese trains, bridges, and patrol boats. Once they hid in a monastery and one of the priests was killed by a Japanese soldier because he refused to help the Japanese. Deong was in it for the excitement. Meanwhile, Colvin fell in love with the Sarkhanese people and their gentle culture. The last mission Colvin and Deong performed enlisted the help of Sarkhanese cooks to serve the Japanese food laced with ipecac before the American Marines landed. By the time the Marines arrived, the Japanese soldiers were too weak from vomiting to resist.

Three weeks later, Colvin returned to work on the family dairy farm in Wisconsin. In 1952, he read about the rising influence of Communism in Sarkhan. Colvin decided that cows would save the Sarkhanese from Communism because a certain breed of Texas cow could eat the tough thick grass that made the hillsides of Sarkhan unusable for farming. First, Colvin introduces powdered milk to the Sarkhanese. His plan is to bring in cows and teach the Sarkhanese to market the milk and by-products. Colvin is executing the first part of his plan when Deong appears and demands that Colvin put ipecac in the powdered milk machine. Just outside, the village women line up for milk. Deong holds a gun to Colvin’s back and argues that changing the economy of Sarkhan through milk and cattle would make the Sarkhanese believe that America was their savior. Deong is a Communist who sees America as the enemy. Colvin refuses to poison the milk, so he and Deong fight. Deong shoots Colvin in the right arm. They wrestle and Colvin holds Deong in a scissors grip with his legs. Deong shouts to the women outside the door that he shot Colvin because he caught him trying to put Cocol, a powerful aphrodisiac, in the milk. The locals fear the drug because of stories that it changes virgins into prostitutes. Colvin argues that Deong wants him to put ipecac in the milk. In the end, the women believe Deong and turn on Colvin, beating him unconscious.

Prince Ngong meets with Ambassador Sears and listens to his complaint about the political cartoon. Ngong explains that the people are suspicious about the plan to receive foreign aid in trade for allowing the Americans to build air bases in Sarkhan. After Sears leaves, Ngong meets with an advisory committee of the Sarkhanese Cabinet and tells them that the Ambassador may be petty and stupid but he could interfere with the twenty-million-dollar loan from the United States. Cabinet member U Nang offers to ask his brother-in-law, the publisher of the Eastern Star newspaper, to run a flattering cartoon and editorial on the Ambassador. All agree to the plan.

That afternoon Ambassador Sears gets a call from the publisher of the newspaper about an upcoming flattering editorial. Appeased, Sears moves on to other issues. He visits Colvin at the hospital and offers to send him back to the States as soon as possible. Colvin refuses to go.

Chapter 1, “Lucky, Lucky Lou #1” Analysis

Simple dairy farmer Colvin understands the real needs of the people of Sarkhan better than the official ambassador. Whereas Ambassador Sears separates himself from and mocks the people of Sarkhan, Colvin risks his life to help the people. Ironically, it is the failure of the embassy to combat communism that divides Colvin and his native friend Deong, and this division thwarts Colvin’s efforts to improve the lives of the Sarkhanese through dairy farming. Ambassador Sears is more concerned about the insult to his image than the life-threatening attack on an American dairy farmer and its broader, political implications.

Chapter 2, “Lucky, Lucky Lou #2” Summary

The Russian Ambassador to Sarkhan is Louis Krupitzyn, a career diplomat. Krupitzyn embodies Russian loyalty to the state. He was orphaned by the state when he witnessed his parents being shot to death by soldiers. As a child, he decides he wants to be the one holding the gun instead of facing it. In school at the Orphans’ Educational Center at Murmansk, at age 18, he wins the Lenin Prize for Komsomol Literary Achievement for his political essay. The next year he begins training for diplomatic service as a chauffeur in New York. The Russians employ only Russians at their embassies by hiring servants from the Foreign Service Apprentice Corps. The Russians work for the embassy while they study.

While working at the Russian embassy in New York, Krupitzyn studies American unions and takes a course at Columbia University on the Psychology of the American Elite. He serves two years in Prague and then two years in Moscow at the Foreign Institute Academy. He spends three years in China as an observer on the staff of Mao-Tse Tung. He marries Nada Kolosoff, a Foreign Service colleague, and then returns to Moscow in 1949. He and his wife work on a survey ship hired by the Sarkhanese government to chart the Southeast Asian coast near Sarkhan. They study the Sarkhanese language, religion, and culture for two years. Krupitzyn molds himself into the Sarkhanese standard by losing 40 pounds, learning to play a nose flute, taking ballet, studying Sarkhanese literature and drama, and attending Buddhist lectures.

Krupitzyn arrives in Sarkhan a week after the American Ambassador; but when he arrives, he speaks the language and pays his respects to the Chief Abbot with a personal visit. The Chief Abbot and Krupitzyn discuss philosophy for hours.

A typhoon strikes the south of Sarkhan before harvest, and within months, a famine follows. A translator and a chauffeur at the American Embassy tip off Krupitzyn that the United States is shipping 14,000 tons of rice to the area that will arrive in two days. Krupitzyn buys a few tons of rice and brings it immediately to the famine zone. He delivers it on behalf of the Russian government and apologizes that it is so small. He also promises more rice soon and tells the people that it is a gift and that, unlike the Americans, the Russians expect nothing in return.

When the American shipment arrives, the Russians have people in place to mark on the rice sacks in Sarkhanese “This rice is a gift from Russia”. American trucks unload the rice in the south and communists there tell the people that the Russians hired the Americans to bring the rice because the Americans would do nothing without profit. The Americans and Ambassador Sears stand for photos during the distribution. Sears does not understand the loudspeaker announcing in Sarkhanese that the rice is from Russia. Weeks later, Sears realizes he has been fooled and rice shipments that follow are carefully guarded. Sears has flyers distributed that credit America with the rice shipment.

Krupitzyn reports to Moscow that Ambassador Sears is a valuable tool in the effort to convert Sarkhan to Communism because he is stupid, offensive, and unaware of Sarkhanese culture. He urges local newspapers to praise Sears. He urges Pravda to criticize Sears to trick the United States into believing Sears is an effective Ambassador. In a final note of his report, he asks Moscow to send a dossier on a priest named Father Finian who has won favor among the locals.

Chapter 2, “Lucky, Lucky Lou #2” Analysis

In stark contrast to the American Ambassador’s lack of preparation for Foreign Service, the Russian Ambassador receives intensive education and internship. The Russians receive thorough political training on how to promote the policies and programs of Russia abroad. Russian diplomats, like Krupitzyn, have to earn their positions of power and influence and prove their effectiveness to remain there. They seize opportunities to take advantage of the stupidity of Americans and they win many battles for the loyalty of the natives by simply infiltrating society at many levels. The Americans, by contrast, are like fools armed with knives in a gunfight.

Chapter 3, “Nine Friends” Summary

Father Finian holds a doctorate of philosophy from Oxford University, and later serves as a Chaplain in the United States Navy. His fight against communism begins during the war when he encounters a hardened and bitter Marine whose devotion to communism resembles religious devotion. Finian launches himself into the study of communism and the tactics used by the communists to convert people into believers. In Burma, Finian asks the Archbishop for supplies to go into the jungle to do his mission. The Archbishop helps, though he has reservations that Finian will succeed. Father Finian applies his Jesuit training to lead a movement to undermine communism in Burma. He studies the language and customs and enlists the aid of nine local men to form a plan. Father Finian offers to help the men, who are led by U Tien, to establish goals and a plan of action. He warns the men that the Communists demand absolute loyalty over the individual’s soul and will. U Tien says he wants Burma to be as it once was–a safe place to worship as Buddhists or Baptists or even to be non-believers. The Communists, he says, are the enemy because they forbid the worship of anything but Communism. Father Finian challenges the men to answer a question: “Why do we not now have the freedom to worship or live as we please?” The men answer that the communists will not allow it. Finian asks why the Burmese believe what the communists say.

The group agrees that they must study the communist propaganda to reveal the lies in it. They agree to gather intelligence on the extent and types of power used by the communist party. When they return and share their information, they are stunned at the scope of communist influence in every village and organization. For two weeks the men debate about what they can do. They form an eight-point report that outlines the steps to show the Burmese people the true nature and danger of communism. They begin by publishing a newspaper innocuously titled ‘The Communist Farmer.’ The first two issues feature advice on farming interspersed with writings by Karl Marx in which he calls the peasants stupid and backward. Another article quotes Stalin’s speech that justifies the slaughter of farmers to create farming collectives. When the communists try to suppress the paper, they look ineffective and silly.

The Russians send in an expert on Burma named Vinich to squash the rebel paper. Toki, one of the men working with Father Finian, infiltrates the communist network. Toki secretly tapes a private meeting of the communist leaders. The paper invites people to listen to a radio announcement on June 10 at 2 p.m. At the appointed time, the radio announcement names Vladimir Vinich as an official spokesman for Russia and the Communist Party. The radio then plays a recording of Vinich privately addressing the communist leaders in Burma. In the recording, he instructs the Communists to bear down on the peasants and to stop promising them tractors because they will not be given. The Communists’ promises are exposed as lies.

The nine men meet in the jungle to celebrate their first major victory. They vow to spread the effort to nearby Sarkhan before communism gets a foothold there. Father Finian reports in his diary, “The evil of Communism is that it has masked from native peoples the simple fact that it intends to ruin them”.

Chapter 3, “Nine Friends” Analysis

In the larger battle between good and evil, Communism plays the role of evil and freedom (or American ideals) plays the role of good. Father Finian, a man of God, is pitted against the Communist leader Vinich in this symbolic war. Like the Devil, Communism lures people with lies and false promises, but nine good men recognize the evil nature of Communism as a threat to their way of life. They join forces with Father Finian to expose the Communists through their own words. Father Finian and his group show evangelistic devotion in promoting freedom of speech and exposing the evils of Communism through their underground newspaper. In this chapter, Communism is treated as a religion in direct opposition to all other beliefs because it quashes other beliefs. Whereas Communism centralizes governmental power and suppresses the individual, the American way emphasizes that the purpose of government is to support the rights and desires of the individual.

Chapter 4, “Everybody Loves Joe Bing” Summary

Ruth Jyoti, editor and publisher of the Setkya Daily Herald, documents Father Finian’s trip to Burma. Her father is Anglo-Saxon and her mother Cambodian, so she enjoys the unique position of mingling in European and Eurasian cultures. In 1952, she is invited to the United States to learn about the American press. She reads local newspapers for information about the South Asian Bloc meeting, a meeting that will determine the future of Asian-American relations, and finds no news reports. Her State Department escort, Joseph Rivers, arrives and they discuss Father Finian and Joe Bing. Jyoti extols the efforts of Father Finian while Rivers raves about Joe Bing, the fat, six-foot-tall chief of information for the ICS in Setkya. Jyoti describes the offensive behavior of Joe Bing through his parties in which only Europeans are invited and alcohol is served, which is forbidden to Moslems and Buddhists. She also reports that when Father Finian asked Joe Bing for pens to give to the natives for distributing the anti-Communist underground newspaper, Joe Bing refused by citing policy regarding the private use of commissary items.

At a press dinner for Ruth, she is asked to say something about Americans stationed in Asia. She skewers the behavior of the incoming Americans as isolationist, elitist, ineffective, and offensive. They socialize among themselves and rarely venture into the culture or society around them. She then praises Bob Maile of the United States Information Service (USIS) for learning the language and for entering with a servant’s heart. He placed his children in local schools instead of the separate school for Europeans and Americans. Bob Maile, Jyoti reports, also defused a potential disaster when an American was accused of raping a local girl at a temple. Maile asked the editors of the local papers to investigate the accusation. The editors trusted Maile, and when they investigated the accusation, they found that the American had refused to pay a woman at a brothel and got into a fight. Jyoti says that good deeds get reported on the “bamboo telegraph”, or by word of mouth. She admires Maile and says that if more Americans behaved like him the Communists would not have much influence in Asia. In contrast, the chief American public information man in Setkya responded to the rape accusation against the dairy farmer Colvin by hiding in his office and doing nothing.

Chapter 4, “Everybody Loves Joe Bing” Analysis

Clueless, fat, and drunk is Jyoti’s assessment of the average American diplomat. Jyoti symbolically is, like her newspaper, the voice of Asia. She honors the listeners with her frankness and she points to the successful, un-official ambassadors as the model to emulate. She sees the same problem with the American press that she sees in the American Embassies abroad–isolationist superiority that rates all things American as more important than events abroad. The Ambassadors that serve in Asia rarely bother to even learn the language, as if everyone should learn English to earn the attention of America. Joe Bing manifests style without substance; he poses as the great diplomat, but he is so clueless that he does more harm than good.

Chapter 5, “Confidential and Personal” Summary

Ambassador Louis Sears sends a long letter to Dexter Peterson at the State Department in Washington, D.C. about the situation in Sarkhan. In the letter, he brags about how skillfully he handled the Colvin scandal. He includes newspaper clippings that praise his own effectiveness as an Ambassador. He warns that Father Finian is trouble for starting a rebellion in Burma and asks if the Catholic Church supports him. He also brags about how he corrected the misunderstanding about the source of the rice by distributing handbills crediting the USA. He tells the State Department that he has things under control and that the threat of Communism is all bunk. He complains that Maggie Johnson, the press attachy, brings in news reporters too often. He asks for Joe Bing to be reassigned to Setkya and he asks for pretty secretaries to help morale.

Chapter 5, “Confidential and Personal” Analysis

Ambassador Sears is so superficial that he sees and hears only those things that support his own version of reality and he asserts his version both up and down the chain of command. He is like a man who holds a mirror to his face and likes what he sees so much that he never bothers to look around at the rest of the world. Sears and Bing are two of a kind and so they naturally admire one another.

Chapter 6, “Employment Opportunities Abroad” Summary

Lured to a meeting at American University to hear about Foreign Service jobs, candidates hear from Joseph Bing and Hamilton Bridge Upton, a man who served as a consul in seven countries. Upton talks for fifteen minutes, inviting the students to serve their country to fight the spread of a malignant (communist) conspiracy abroad. He then introduces Joseph Bing as an expert at treating natives as equals. Bing describes the first-class lifestyle of living abroad and how little contact with natives is actually required. For twenty minutes, he praises the comforts and benefits of life abroad and adds that no one need be inconvenienced by having to learn the language of other countries. Marie MacIntosh and her friends become enticed by the promise of first-class housing and servants abroad. Immediately after the talk, seventy-seven people apply. A retired engineer, Homer Atkins, and a newspaperman named Kohler also apply for jobs in Asia. Upton observes a week later that the applicants would make more money abroad than they would at home, except for the engineer. They dismiss the engineer’s application as a joke.

Chapter 6, “Employment Opportunities Abroad” Analysis

Out of the seventy-seven applicants, none are expected to bring skills or aptitude to the job in trade for high pay and a luxurious lifestyle. The one qualified applicant, an engineer, is dismissed as an aberration. This chapter describes exactly how ineffective the Foreign Service is from the very beginning, from the way that people are brought into service. This chapter offers a counterpoint to the assessment of Joe Bing by Asian Editor Jyoti in chapter 4. Bing is despised by knowledgeable Asians but praised by his colleagues.

Chapter 7, “The Girl Who Got Recruited” Summary

Marie MacIntosh is a bored 28-year-old woman who believes her future lies in finding a husband abroad. She accepts an assignment in Sarkhan. A month after she arrives, she writes home to her ex-roommates about life in Sarkhan. Bragging about chauffeurs, live-in servants and how the thousand Americans stick together and enjoy parties every night, she lives rent free with a basic salary of $3,400 with a $680 increase because Sarkhan is listed as a hardship post.

Chapter 7, “The Girl Who Got Recruited” Analysis

A young worker at the American Embassy brags to her friends. At the highest and lowest levels of diplomatic service, mediocrity is recruited and rewarded. Ambassador Sears is as unqualified to lead an embassy as MacIntosh is to work in one as a support staffer.

Chapter 8, “The Ambassador and the Working Press” Summary

In 1954, a year into his Sarkhan Ambassadorship, Louis Sears receives news that a federal judgeship in America has opened up for him. Then a scandal spreads in the press that land purchased fifty years earlier by the United States is about to be developed into high-priced housing by American speculators. The land was leased to the Royal Sarkhanese Air Force and developed into a training and flight base. The land is on high, dry ground surrounded by fashionable suburban housing. The Asian press publishes the rumor and raises concerns about the land. An American editor begs Ambassador Sears to deny the rumor. Sears defers responsibility to Joe Bing, the new public affairs officer. Bing is in Hong Kong, so Sears reluctantly agrees to meet with four Asian newspaper editors. When asked about the land, Sears says, “I have no comment to make.” The Asian editors take the statement as confirmation since it is not a denial. In his last few days in Sarkhan, Sears does three things: 1) he refuses protection for Father Finian; 2) he recommends that the Sarkhanese Government refuse a visa to John Colvin (the man who wants to develop dairy farming); and 3) he declares that Sarkhan is firmly on the side of America. His last act in Sarkhan is to throw the biggest boozing party in the history of the city of Haidho.

Chapter 8, “The Ambassador and the Working Press” Analysis

Sears does everything wrong and gets rewarded with a judgeship. It is ironic that someone with such seriously impaired judgment is appointed to judge federal cases in America. He moves from one job in which he is completely unqualified into another. At the time when Sears needs Bing to help, Bing is not there for him. Symbolically, Joe Bing is absent even when he is present because he is as substantial as a vapor or a shadow. He, like Sears, usually makes the wrong decision anyway.

Chapter 9, “Everyone Has Ears” Summary

The new Ambassador to Sarkhan is the Honorable Gilbert MacWhite. Princeton educated, athletic, and red-haired, MacWhite is an expert on Soviet theory and practice. He learns Sarkhanese, and reads every book he can find on Sarkhanese history and politics. He consults experts from many fields about Sarkhan. MacWhite plans a strategic assault on Communism in Sarkhan with native leaders.

In a meeting with the Honorable Li Pang, a representative of Chiang Kai-shek, MacWhite seeks help with the Chinese leaders in Sarkhan. As they discuss communism, two Chinese servants overhear them. Li becomes quiet until the servants leave, then he chastises MacWhite for talking in their presence. MacWhite says that the servants don’t speak or understand English. Li proves otherwise by interrogating the servant named Donald in Chinese. Li accuses him of stealing a watch and whiskey. In English, Li tells MacWhite that he will ask Donald later about the missing briefcase and typewriter.

MacWhite has not had anything stolen but he plays along with Li. Li intimidates Donald with rapid-fire questions. Donald argues that the typewriter and briefcase are in the study, proving that he understands English. Li then gets Donald to confess that he has been giving information to the Communists because they have his children in custody. MacWhite is rattled by the realization that his home and his embassy are so vulnerable to spies. Native servants and workers serve in both.

MacWhite asks for permission from the State Department to go to the Philippines and Vietnam to study how their governments are handling Communism. With the approval of the State Department, MacWhite meets with the Minister of Defense, Ramon Magsaysay, of the Philippines. Magsaysay advises him that Americans would be better Ambassadors if they avoided the cocktail circuit and other bureaucrats and followed their consciences. He praises one such natural ambassador, Colonel Hillandale. He also advises MacWhite to go to Vietnam to watch the battle around Dien Bien Phu to learn the connections between warfare, statesmanship, diplomacy, and economics.

Chapter 9, “Everyone Has Ears” Analysis

Whereas Ambassador Sears was incompetent and ignored problems, Ambassador MacWhite makes mistakes and humbly learns from them. MacWhite’s appointment promises great improvement and positive change.

Chapter 10, “The Ragtime Kid” Summary

Air Force Colonel Edwin Barnum Hillandale comes to Manila in 1952 as a liaison officer. He embraces all things Filipino: the food, the culture, the Tagalog language, and the people. By 1953, he assists Magsaysay’s presidential campaign in the tough Communist-held area north of Manila. In this area, the Communists spread word that the Americans are rich snobs and that anyone who associates with them (such as Magsaysay) is out of touch with the people.

Hillandale drives up to that area and parks his motorcycle in a crowded area. He then sits on the curb and plays Filipino tunes on his harmonica. He asks in Tagalog for others to sing along. After 300 locals join him in song, he finishes by asking them where he can find ‘adobo’ and ‘pancit,’ native dishes. Announcing that he is broke, he says he hopes someone will invite him to lunch. He demonstrates his poverty by opening his wallet to reveal a mere sixty centavos. All his money goes home to feed his family in America where things cost more than they do in the Philippines. The locals are silent, doubting that an American can be poor. Hillandale then says he has never met Filipinos who would turn down a hungry man. Shamed, the locals invite him to their homes. Over the next few weekends, he returns to the province to play music, eat, and talk with the locals. Based on their personal witness of meeting an American Air Force Colonel, the villagers denounce the Communist propaganda. Magsaysay wins ninety-five percent of the province in the election.

Chapter 10, “The Ragtime Kid” Analysis

Hillandale destroys the credibility of the Communist propaganda by being the opposite of the propaganda. He embraces the food, music, and language of the people and they respond by embracing him and shunning Communism. This is skilled diplomacy at its finest–direct and personal, with the common touch. Like Father Finian, this excellent example of fighting communism comes from a civilian instead of an official Embassy staffer.

Chapter 11, “The Iron of War” Summary

Army Major James ‘Tex’ Wolcheck reports to Hanoi, Vietnam, as a military observer. Major Monet, his French commander, laughs at Wolcheck’s orders to parachute into Dien Bien Phu. He suggests that Wolcheck remain on base because Dien Bien Phu has become surrounded by communist troops. Tex calmly says that he has made over a hundred jumps, five into enemy fire. Monet apologizes.

Monet introduces Wolcheck to the French legionnaires under his command. Wolcheck warmly greets a black American, an act unexpected from a white American in the early 1950s. The black soldier named Davis responds with pleasant shock. Monet and Wolcheck prepare for the jump for two days while they discuss warfare strategy. Ambassador MacWhite arrives the day Dien Bien Phu falls and the mission is called off. Monet leads his troops to a new front.

Wolcheck briefs MacWhite on the unpredictable nature of warfare in the jungle. In village after village, the Legionnaires perform flawless deployment and get fired on from unexpected positions. They lose battle after battle for three weeks. Wolcheck, MacWhite, and Monet search for reasons for their failure. Wolcheck describes the battle tactics of Mao Tse-Tung in planting armed agents in villages long before the battle. Monet shrugs off this information. He is frustrated. He has lost half his men in lost battles, and the rest of his men suffer from fever, hookworm, and dysentery. Thanks to recent battles, Wolcheck has a hand-grenade fragment in his butt and Monet suffered a burp gun bullet in his left elbow. They fight for three more weeks using western warfare tactics until the black soldier named Davis and a Vietnamese nicknamed Apache return from a scouting mission mutilated. The Communists gouged out one of Davis’s eyes and cut the vocal cords of Apache as a message. Horrified, Monet changes his mind and agrees to study the war tactics of Mao.

Chapter 11, “The Iron of War” Analysis

The mutilation of the American soldier and the Vietnamese soldier symbolize the demoralizing losses inflicted by the Communists. They silence the Vietnamese and they leave the American half-blind. In truth, the Americans operate half blind because they support the French who do not report the whole truth about the status of the war. Though Monet is honest with Wolcheck, the French generals are not honest with the American government. It is the lower ranking officers and the common soldier who suffer for the mistakes of the commanding authorities. The title of the chapter refers to the shrapnel Wolcheck carries in his body from three different wars from their bloodiest, most decisive battles: the invasion of Normandy, France in World War II, Pork Chop Hill in Korea, and Dien Bien Phu in Vietnam. Wolcheck is symbolically the ultimate soldier.

Chapter 12, “The Lessons of War” Summary

The next day MacWhite obtains a copy of the booklet on war by Mao. MacWhite reads the booklet aloud to Monet and Wolcheck. Though many of the tactics take years to execute, they can employ two tactics to their immediate advantage. First, they can use darkness and mobility to strike the weak points of the enemy. Second, they can identify and neutralize the command position of the enemy using Mao’s writings. The enemy command station is proscribed as being as close to the battle as “a man can trot in half an hour.” They examine a map and locate a bamboo forest two miles from the village as the probable command post. Wolcheck recommends fashioning a weapon used during the Korean War. The weapon is a flatbed truck on which they mount twenty 5-inch rocket launchers in a circle that fire simultaneously. Using the enemy’s tactics, the troops move in darkness and easily cut through the enemy line to the command post. The truck launches rockets, clearing the command post and the surrounding field. The fighting stops as soon as the enemy command post is destroyed. The remaining enemy soldiers retreat.

Back in Hanoi afterward, Tex, MacWhite, and Monet face the combined fury of two French admirals, four French generals, and an American major general. The American major general accuses Tex of violating his observer role and Tex argues that he did not fire a weapon. The admirals and generals rage at the men for abandoning standard, European traditional warfare operations. MacWhite demands to know how many of the admirals and generals have read the warfare tactics of Mao. None have. Monet recommends that the tactics of Mao be used against the communists. He uses his most successful recent win as proof that enemy tactics work in this war in this place. The admirals and generals dismiss them. Tex, MacWhite, and Monet head off to a bar to drink.

Shortly afterward, the French evacuate Hanoi with a parade as if they had won the war. MacWhite, Tex and Monet watch the French leave. On the heels of the French departure, the Communist troops walk into Hanoi. Some are carrying guns made from pipes, and many are barefoot. The Communist officer arrives on a bicycle and halts when he sees MacWhite, Tex, and Monet. Monet shouts to the officer in Vietnamese that they are the rear guard and that they are leaving. The officer waves them off. Tex announces that this is another loss as the Communists enter Hanoi.

Chapter 12, “The Lessons of War” Analysis

The French lose the battle of Dien Bien Phu in May 1954. The lessons of this war are learned by Monet, Wolcheck, and MacWhite, but are lost on the commanding generals and admirals. Wolcheck represents both the common man who sees things the way they really are and the ultimate soldier who has to take orders from authorities who sometimes refuse to see the way things really are. The mistakes of the French foreshadow the same mistakes the Americans make when they enter the war in Vietnam. This proves once again the adage that those who fail to learn the lessons of history are doomed to repeat them.

Chapter 13, “What Would You Do If You Were President?” Summary

Journalist U Maung Swe of Burma is a devout anti-communist who speaks English and had fought beside the Americans in Northern Burma and Southern China. In 1954 at a dinner party for MacWhite in Rangoon, U Maung Swe is asked about British and American prestige in Asia. U Maung Swe answers, “Poor America. It took the British a hundred years to lose their prestige in Asia. America has managed to lose hers in ten years”. He explains that the Americans behave differently in foreign countries than they do at home. In particular, they tend to socialize only among themselves and Europeans, and they act superior toward the locals.

Swe cites a good example of diplomacy in the way the Ford Foundation brought jobs to Indonesia. The Ford people brought their own cars and had to go to Dutch garages for repairs because the Indonesians did not know how to repair cars. The Ford Foundation brought some Indonesians to America and sent back mechanics to train the Indonesians to set up their own repair garages. In another good example, Swe describes a quiet couple named Martin who moved to Burma and spoke Burmese. They lived simply and taught their neighbors how to can fruits and vegetables. The Martins distributed seeds, helping the area to become the canning center for the nation. He describes the Russian effort as being far more effective in reaching the Burmese people because they select visible, desirable projects to fund. The Russians learn the language and the culture and infiltrate it to plant the seeds of communism. U Maung Swe predicts that Americans could quickly beat the Communists if they could learn to live like locals and develop a definite policy for reaching the locals.

MacWhite approaches U Maung Swe and the two go for a walk to talk over American policy. MacWhite asks for advice on Sarkhan. U Maung Swe commends the efforts of Colvin to bring dairy farming to the country. He says that the Communists set up Colvin because his plan could work to keep the Sarkhanese independent. He admonishes MacWhite to start with the little things that are Sarkhanese.

Chapter 13, “What Would You Do If You Were President?” Analysis

Like a song refrain, the policy of starting with little things repeats throughout the book. Small local efforts mean more than building dams or going to war. The Russians understand the concept of doing the little things. They infiltrate society to nudge the people toward Communism in small ways in every village and organization. The Americans blunder over the little local needs and spend fortunes on large useless projects. Without a clear uniform policy on foreign affairs, policy decisions fall on embassy staffers. U Maung Swe echoes the advice of Asian Editor Jyoti on how to improve foreign policy to reach the Asian people. Here the news of the dairy farmer has been passed along the bamboo telegraph to the leaders of other countries, again affirming the concept that the little things are noticed.

Chapter 14, “How to Buy an American Junior Grade” Summary

Thomas Knox is a dedicated chicken farmer who always wanted to visit Asia. In 1953, he moves to Cambodia to consult people about chicken farming. Knox is known for three things: he spends all his salary in Cambodia, he knows more Cambodians than any other Westerner, and he adores Cambodian food. His fame grows as he travels the countryside examining chickens and advising people on how to care for them. As an experienced farmer, he also draws on his knowledge to help Cambodians improve their sugar cane yield and reduce transportation-caused deaths in pigs.

After evaluating the needs of the Cambodians first-hand, Knox takes his knowledge to Phnom Penh to appeal for aid at the American Aid Mission conference. At the conference, other projects are presented first, such as the project to build canals for two million dollars. Another project proposes to renovate an 18-square mile mangrove swamp into a mechanized farm and import 200,000 tons of commercial fertilizer per year for four years. Then the chairman of the conference lets Knox speak. Knox asks to import a few thousand American chickens and roosters to improve the breeding stock and increase egg production. His suggestion is rebuffed in favor of larger projects, which are apparently political rewards. Knox slams his fists on the table and declares that his plan would increase egg production two hundred percent and would improve the quality of life for the average Cambodian dramatically more than building bridges and dams. He appeals to the Chief of the Cambodian Aid Committee, a Cambodian, for support. The Cambodian agrees that the chickens are important, but he is pressured by the Committee to choose between the chickens and the mechanized farm project. The Cambodian government supports the mechanized farm project, so the Chief says the mechanized farm project is most important.

Tom Knox is so furious and embarrassed that he threatens to resign and to go to Congress to appeal his case. The Cambodian Aid Committee accepts his resignation. Outside, a French diplomat approaches him and offers to plan and fund his return trip so that he can visit more Far Eastern countries. The French diplomat feigns sympathy for Tom’s plight and lures him into accepting the offer. The French and the Cambodians wine and dine and delay Tom Knox’s return to Washington by routing him to Jakarta, Indonesian, New Delhi, India, Nice, and Paris. They book him on a luxury cruise from France to New York. By the time Tom Knox returns to his home in Sheldon, Iowa, he has lost his passion for the chicken project in Cambodia.

Later in Haidho, Ambassador MacWhite welcomes a representative from the Midwest Poultry Association. The man proposes that improving the egg production in Sarkhan would save the country two million dollars on food imports in a year. MacWhite checks out the man’s figures and then he writes to the American Aid Mission in Cambodia and asks if they have a chicken expert to send over. Rowe Hendy, the Chief of the Mission, writes back that their chicken expert stirred up trouble and threatened to go to congress when he didn’t get his way. He recommends that MacWhite give up on the idea. MacWhite does.

Chapter 14, “How to Buy an American Junior Grade” Analysis

Big business interests maneuver a knowledgeable chicken expert into abandoning his plan. The politically savvy businessmen essentially ship Knox out of the way on the equivalent of ‘a slow boat to China.’ MacWhite makes the mistake of trusting a self-serving Ambassador, the kind that occupies the majority of American Embassies. MacWhite has been warned to trust his own judgment and he fails by taking the cautious route. MacWhite and Knox both get maneuvered out of their just goals by men of lesser character.

Chapter 15, “The Six-Foot Swami from Savannah” Summary

At MacWhite’s request, Colonel Hillandale, also known as the Ragtime Kid, arrives to assess the political and social situation in Sarkhan. He wanders the city of Haidho playing the Sarkhanese national anthem on his harmonica. He engages the locals by asking them to hum the tune so he can learn it better, and they respond with kindness and laughter. Hillandale observes the vast number of palm reading and astrology shops in town. As a man who holds a diploma from the Chungking School of Occult Science, he deduces that the Sarkhanese revere the occult and astrology. Hillandale is invited to a dinner to be held the next day by his old friend Don Phillippe, the Philippines Ambassador. Hillandale studies dossiers on the guest list.

Don Phillippe’s dinner parties are renowned and his chef is rumored to have been hired away from the Waldorf. When Don Phillippe greets Hillandale, he confesses that the dinner must be delayed for thirty minutes, so he asks Hillandale to entertain the guests with palm reading. After Don Phillippe introduces Hillandale as a distinguished palmist and astrologer, George Swift, the Charge d’affaires for the American Embassy shouts out ‘Fake! Fraud!’ Don Phillippe continues his praise of Hillandale with a story about how he predicted that the 16th of the month would be lucky for Ramon Magsaysay if he went to Barang. In Barang, Magsaysay captured the leaders of the Huks, destroying the Huk insurgency. George Swift mockingly challenges Hillandale to read his palm. Hillandale recites Swift’s life history with embarrassing accuracy. The Sarkhan Prime Minister then asks for a private reading, so Hillandale and the Prime Minister go into the study for half an hour. When they come out, arm in arm, dinner is served.

Three days later, Ambassador MacWhite returns to Haido. George Swift, sporting a black eye, presents MacWhite with a letter of reprimand for Colonel Hillandale. MacWhite invites Hillandale to his office to hear his side of the story. Hillandale explains the Sarkhanese reverence toward the occult and how even the top officials of the country consult astrologists before making key decisions. Hillandale describes how he talked the Prime Minister out of killing General Saugh or General Bhakal by claiming that the stars advise that he should send the men away. The Prime Minister invited him to read the King’s palm.

According to protocol, George Swift is to call Prince Moyang to tell him that Hillandale accepts the honor of meeting with the King. Prince Moyang will then give instructions about the meeting. Swift tells the Prime Minister that he will call at nine the next morning. Swift instructs Hillandale to wait in his room. The next day nothing goes as agreed. Hillandale waits in his room but Swift doesn’t call.

Swift sabotages Hillandale’s meeting with the King through deliberate rudeness. Instead of placing the call at nine as agreed, Swift goes out to buy liquor for an upcoming party. When Hillandale finally catches up with Swift later that day, he demands to know what happened. Swift dismisses the missed appointment as being just as well, because the Prime Minister, the Foreign Minister, and Prince Moyang all declined their invitations to the evening’s party claiming they are ill. These leaders are not ill, but insulted at having been stood up. Hillandale calls Swift a fool, so Swift mocks Hillandale’s palm reading as a party trick and beneath the level of real diplomacy. Infuriated, Hillandale punches Swift in the eye.

MacWhite feels the full force of the loss of this opportunity. He calls George Swift into his office and tells him that he is being transferred. Swift argues that Hillandale’s vaudeville stunt does not merit serious support. MacWhite recommends the transfer on the grounds that Swift deserves a change after working here for two years.

Chapter 15, “The Six-Foot Swami from Savannah” Analysis

Hillandale’s thoughtful plan to reach the King falls apart because of the ineptitude of George Swift, the deputy ambassador put in charge during MacWhite’s absence. Swift represents the arrogant American attitude toward foreign cultures. Swift judges everyone based on Judeo-Christian American standards, practices, and culture as if everything American is superior and that all others, by being different, fall below that standard. Swift’s condemnation of palm reading, after his host has praised it, shows his utter lack of understanding and diplomacy. Swift’s cultural ignorance is the equivalent of shouting English to foreigners to be understood. He is also too stupid to recognize the effect of his actions. Swift is an echo of Sears and Bing and the other career diplomats who completely undermine America’s interests abroad. Swift’s incompetence destroys a valuable opportunity and this foreshadows another greater lost opportunity told in the next chapter.

Chapter 16, “Captain Boning, USN” Summary

Solomon Asch serves as the head of the American Delegation to the Special Armament section of the Asia Conference. He is charged with determining which weapons the United States will share with its Asian allies. Asch assesses his team. He has to rely on men like Navy Captain Boning for specific information on weapons and whether or not certain information is classified. Anderson, the Special Political Officer for Southeastern Pacific Affairs, is more dedicated to cocktail parties than diplomatic progress. Ambassador Dooling is equally useless. Also on his team is Ambassador MacWhite, whom Asch sees as useful. Asch reins them in with specific instructions on when and how to speak during the negotiations. Asch orders the Americans to avoid the cocktail parties and to attend only a few of the dinner parties. Asch arranges for translators so that the Asian delegates can hear the speeches in their own language instead of in French or English. This is a break in tradition that the Asians appreciate. Asch defers political questions to Ambassador MacWhite.

After the first meeting, Asch listens to criticism from the French and the British. He then declares that though they have had more experience with the Asians, they have botched things for generations. He tells the French and the British that he will treat the Asians as equals and that to treat them any other way will lead to disaster. In the second week of the conference, Asch notices that the Asians are balking. They interpret Boning’s sleepiness and slow answers as holding back information. At the end of the day, Asch confronts Boning by asking him if he’s living it up too much. Boning denies going to parties. Boning has, in fact, taken up his evenings with Doctor Ruby Tsung, a professor at Hong Kong University. At first, she serves as a guide to shopping and dining. Later, Boning strays from his marriage and sleeps with Tsung.

On the third week of the conference, the Indian delegation asks about the safety of thermonuclear weapons, specifically about the possibility of an accident in handling the materials. Asch needs Boning to answer quickly and firmly that the weapons will not detonate by fires or even in a plane crash, but Boning is barely awake. He hesitates in his answer, which convinces the Asians that the Americans are not being fully honest with them. Asch concludes the negotiations and, in his report to Washington, he accepts responsibility for the failure of the talks. Because of the conference, American military bases will not be approved in certain Asian countries.

Chapter 16, “Captain Boning, USN” Analysis

Named after the famous wise man of the Bible, Solomon Asch is given authority in negotiating with Asian allies. His expert negotiations are completely undermined by the incompetence of Captain Boning, who did not value his role in the negotiations above his personal interests. Just as great successes can come from little things, great failures can come from the little things. Because of one weak link, the chain breaks. Just as Swift undermined Hillandale’s effort to influence the King, Boning undermines progress with Asian allies. Both men serve not as leaders but as support staff. Both men, through carelessness and stupidity, destroy the plans of their leaders.

Chapter 17, “The Ugly American” Summary

Homer Atkins prides himself on his engineering skills and on the fact that he is worth three million dollars thanks to the work of his hands. Invited to Vietnam to validate the need for large engineering projects, he stands in a room with French, Vietnamese, and American officials who demand to know where to build sturdy roads and dams. Atkins has done thorough research in the countryside and he tells them that Vietnam does not need new roads and dams as much as it needs canning factories and brick and quarry companies. The French have a concession to handle the production of building materials, so they object to Atkins’ advice. Atkins asks how many of the men in the room have been out in the countryside. None have. As proof that the officials are out of touch with their people, he informs them that the Communists have constructed a huge secret road from China through the mountainous jungle terrain to Dien Bien Phu to run military supplies. The meeting turns to chaos. The French denounce the road as impossible. Atkins walks out in disgust.

Ambassador MacWhite, there as an observer, catches up with Atkins. Over drinks, MacWhite invites Atkins to Sarkhan to solve a problem of irrigating the hillside rice paddies. Atkins sketches plans for a pump for fifteen minutes. MacWhite watches silently. When Atkins looks up from his sketch, he asks if he would be allowed to publish his designs in a magazine so the good ideas would not be tied up with trade agreements, patents and royalties and made out of the reach of the people. MacWhite leaves him a note that his orders would be cabled as soon as possible. Atkins resumes his sketching.

Chapter 17, “The Ugly American” Analysis

Atkins is a common man with common sense. Like dairy farmer Colvin, Atkins does thorough research that is refuted by authorities. His words do not reinforce the plans of those in authority, so the authorities dismiss him. MacWhite, however, hears him and invites him to Sarkhan to solve an engineering problem there. Atkins, ever the engineer, sets his mind to the challenge. Atkins fits the mold of the best representative of American values and policies because he shuns the bureaucracy in favor of direct, meaningful action. Atkins is a millionaire who values making a difference over all else.

Chapter 18, “The Ugly American and the Ugly Sarkhanese” Summary

Two weeks after Atkins met with MacWhite, he and his wife, Emma, move into a cottage in the suburbs of Haidho. Their only servant is a boy named Ong who appears every morning at six and spends the day following Emma. Emma learns the language slowly and tends to her own chickens and garden. Homer Atkins designs his pump to use local bamboo for pipes. He adapts an abandoned jeep motor to serve as the pump mechanism, but he is stumped by what to use as a power source to run the pump. He and Emma discuss bringing in a railroad hand pump from the States, but Atkins says, “Whenever you give a man something for nothing the first person he comes to dislike is you. If the pump is going to work at all, it has to be their pump, not mine.” Emma suggests powering the pump with a bicycle. With millions of bicycles in the country, it seems the perfect solution. Atkins holes up at his drawing board for hours where he designs a working model. Emma reminds her husband that it will take diplomacy to get the first pump operating and then she describes her plan.

Atkins drives to the poor village of Chang ‘Dong set on a steep hill where he addresses the village’s headman in halting Sarkhanese. He proposes to develop and patent his pump and he offers to share the profit with a Sarkhanese mechanic willing to help him. Atkins also offers to pay the wages of the mechanic during the construction of the pump. The headman agrees and brings in a short stocky man nicknamed Jeepo because of his skill in repairing jeeps. Jeepo demonstrates an instinctive talent for mechanics. Atkins delivers bamboo pipes, pump, and bicycle parts that Jeepo assembles on his own into the working pump. By the time Jeepo climbs onto the bike and starts pedaling, a few elders arrive to watch. The elders are excited to see water pumped into the terrace, filling it in a few minutes. The elders exclaim that it would have taken men five hours to fill the terrace by traditional bucket brigade.

Jeepo balks about using bicycle parts because they are so expensive. Atkins bites his tongue and asks if they could use salvaged bicycles. Jeepo explains that bicycles get used until they are beyond repair and beyond the point where they would be usable to power such pumps. The elders interpret Jeepo’s lack of enthusiasm as rudeness. The elders see the immediate benefit of the pump so they apologize to Atkins. Atkins and Jeepo ignore the headman and elders because the mechanically minded men are trying to engineer the pump to suit the needs of the nation and not just the needs of the village. Jeepo and Atkins share an unspoken evaluation of the pump system, occasionally pointing to parts and shaking their heads. By nightfall, Jeepo solves the problem. He proposes using a treadmill to mount the bicycle on so that the bicycle can be removed for transportation.

Atkins announces to the headman that Jeepo has made a great discovery. The headman and the elders oppose the partnership because they doubt that a white man will work as hard as Jeepo to earn half of the profits. Jeepo declares that this white man, Atkins, is different from the other white men because he works with his hands. Jeepo and Atkins agree to produce the pump systems and to freely publish the plans for them. Atkins declares that the village of Chang ‘Dong will become famous for its mechanical skills. Within a week, the villagers convert an old warehouse into a production plant. At times, Atkins and Jeepo yell at one another. This behavior entertains the villagers because they see Jeepo and Atkins treating each other as equals, as true business partners.

Meanwhile, Emma Atkins moves into the village and makes friends with the other women of the village.

An advisor from the American Embassy visits the plant and warns Atkins that he should not work alongside the natives on the basis that other colonizers have never allowed the locals to handle machinery. Atkins bluntly rebuffs the advisor and returns to his work. At the end of six weeks, the plant produces twenty-three pumps, and then Jeepo and Atkins host a meeting in which they recruit villagers to take the pumps to other villages to demonstrate and sell them. Twelve men agree to the radical idea of earning a commission for their sales. Contracts are drawn up and signed. The next day the salesmen haul the sample pump systems out of town on oxcarts. Jeepo and Atkins wait four days. On the fifth day, one salesman returns. He apologizes for not bringing back his two sample pumps. He says that buyers demanded his two sample pumps immediately to save their crops. He has orders for eight more pumps. The entire village erupts in celebration.

Chapter 18, “The Ugly American and the Ugly Sarkhanese” Analysis

The Ugly American of the title refers not to the brutish behavior of foreigners abroad but to the beloved engineer, Atkins, who fashioned water pumps with Jeepo. In contrast to the wealthy politically connected Ambassadors who live in luxury and isolation, Atkins represents the hard-working common American who has dirt under his fingernails. The Ugly American is the common man who reaches out his calloused hand to help his foreign neighbor overcome the problems that affect his daily life. The very man turned down by the Foreign Service recruiters as a crackpot is the man who revolutionizes farming practices in Sarkhan.

The villagers understand hard work because they have been laboring the same way for centuries. Atkins understands the free market economy and modern engineering. When Atkins and Jeepo join forces, they accomplish more than establishing a business; they improve the way of life of the nation. They introduce modern engineering concepts and business concepts that liberate the poor villagers from tedious manual labor and poverty. Atkins reaches the true needs of the people and wins their support by treating them as equals instead of as inferiors. He gives the poor hope and the means to improve their lives whereas the Communists offer false promises and suppression. Atkins doesn’t speak Sarkhanese fluently but his actions speak for him eloquently. He is a man who makes a huge positive difference. Atkins succeeds in part because he does not heed the advice of the embassy authorities to maintain a traditional distance and superior mindset over the natives. Atkins demonstrates his passion and his character by doing what he believes is right and by ignoring the bigoted naysayers.

Chapter 19, “The Bent Backs of Chang ‘Dong” Summary

Emma Atkins is as straightforward as her husband. She notices that all the old people of the village walk stooped over so she asks why. The villagers tell her that that’s the way it is. In searching for an answer, Emma notices that the villagers make their own brooms using coconut palm fronds as bristles attached to reeds with two-foot stalks as handles. These makeshift brooms require bending over to sweep. Emma proposes making a longer handle to sweep without hunching over, but wood is scarce, so Emma searches for months for an alternative material to make longer broom handles. Along the side of the road forty miles from the village, Emma finds a reed with a five-foot stalk, a longer reed than the kind the villagers use. Emma plants the longer reeds in her yard. Later when she has some of the village women over for tea, she casually fashions a broom handle from the long reed and ties it to coconut fronds to make a broom. She sweeps her floor, her front porch, and the walkway while the women gape. The villagers have never seen anyone sweep standing up.

In the days that follow, villagers gather to watch Emma sweep. Finally, an old man asks Emma where he can find a broom like hers. Emma offers reeds from her garden, but the old man answers that others would make the same request, leaving her with none. Emma then tells the man where she found the reeds and that one could bring back a year’s supply on the back of one water buffalo. The man immediately rounds up people to go gather the long reeds.

Four years later, when Homer and Emma Atkins live in Pittsburgh, they get a letter from the headman of the village of Chang ‘Dong. In the letter, the headman thanks the ‘wife of the engineer’ for the lucky accident of her long-handled broom and how it has changed the lives of the villagers. He credits her discovery for the few bent backs in the village. He writes that the villagers constructed a small shrine to honor her.

Chapter 19, “The Bent Backs of Chang ‘Dong” Analysis

Emma sweeps away a centuries’ old tradition of suffering when she designs a longer broom handle for the villagers. Much like her husband, Emma employs quiet diplomacy to show the Sarkhanese a better way of life. In her own way, she demonstrates engineering skill by designing a better broom. She graciously converts the villagers from the mindset of the traditional ‘we’ve always done it that way’ to a mindset of accepting change. Though small, this change drastically improves the lives of every villager so they honor Emma in their way by creating a small shrine. Again, the refrain of doing small things to make a difference rings true.

Chapter 20, “Senator, Sir…” Summary

Senator Jonathan Brown’s campaign for the U.S. Senate was funded primarily by an electric company that deposited $150,000 on the agreement that Brown would turn over the entire power output of the Elk Heart Dam to the company. In his second term, Senator Brown grows a conscience and introduces the bill that takes the dam’s output away from the electric company. When he becomes a member of the Senate Foreign Affairs Committee, he does not even know which continent Cambodia is on but he sets up an expensive fact-finding tour of Asia and the Far East and parts of Europe with his entourage and with another Senator. He plans to find out for himself how the receiving countries are using billions in U.S. aid money.

The U.S. Ambassador to Vietnam, Arthur Alexander Gray, receives advance warning of Brown’s visit from a friend at the State Department. The friend warns Gray that Brown will go out of his way to talk to locals and will base his decisions on what he learns from them. Brown, the friend reports, returned from a trip to Ghana and then recommended a ten percent cut on the funding to that country because he said too much of it was going toward administrative overhead. The friend says that Brown studies the countries he visits and strives for honesty, but it would be best to orchestrate his exposure to the country.

Ambassador Gray briefs his staff on Brown’s upcoming visit to Vietnam. The staff schedules the itinerary to show off the agricultural projects funded by the U.S. They also propose to cut and splice a film to show the military needs of the French in fighting the Communists. Gray commands the staff to arrive early and work late to show the Senator how seriously they take their work. He urges them to ride bicycles instead of driving cars. Dr. Hans Barre is charged with translating Vietnamese for the Senator so that the Senator hears only the things that support the Embassy’s policies and positions. The military attachy for the Embassy, Major Ernest Cravath, is charged with touring with the Senator so that he sees what the embassy wants him to see.

Senator Brown is greeted at Ten-San Airport in Saigon by the American Ambassador Gray, the French commissioner-General, Dr. Barre, and Major Cravath. When Gray welcomes Brown, he apologizes that the French generals are busy in the field and unable to appear. The Senator says that the field is where the generals belong. Gray then lies that the embassy has made no specific itinerary because they first want to know the Senator’s wishes. The Senator challenges the Ambassador to help him meet with native political leaders or take him to a downtown hotel to arrange his own itinerary. Gray offers to set up an itinerary to meet the Senator’s desires.

At dinner, the embassy shows a film on the Indo-China situation. The Senator demands to know how much it cost the Americans to produce the film. The information officer states that it was prepared on voluntary time from French and American documentaries. Satisfied, the Senator retires to bed.

The next day Major Cravath and Dr. Barre escort Senator and Mrs. Brown to the French military base using a weapons-carrier in which the shocks were removed. The French stage a rifle training exercise with Vietnamese. The Senator asks one of the trainees how many times he’s fired his rifle. Dr. Barre changes the man’s answer to cover the fact that the man is actually a cook. Dr. Barre reports that the man has worked with the rifle for weeks but has not fired it due to a shortage of shells. The Senator snaps to a judgment that more shells are needed. The French officer pleads that the shells must be saved for killing Communists. The Senator is completely clueless that the type of rifle used in the staged practice is useless in jungle warfare. The group dines on a meager soldier’s rations and Mrs. Brown returns to the ambassador’s residence. The group tours on foot for hours. Senator Brown asks to return to the ambassador’s residence so an American sergeant drives him back through the city. The Senator spots a French officer and an American officer drunk and in uniform at an outdoor cafy. Senator Brown stops the car and upbraids the officers for their conduct.

The officers are Tex Wolcheck and Major Monet, fresh from their disastrous meeting with the high-ranking military commanders. Brown accuses the men of mocking the serious effort of the war. Tex Wolcheck gives the Senator a choice–he has five seconds to either get back in his car or shut up and get drunk with them–or he’ll get his ass kicked back to his car. Brown is so stunned he does not move until Tex stands. Brown returns to his car. At the embassy, he reports the conduct of the officers to the ambassador who assures him that disciplinary action will be taken.

The next day Brown is taken to an outpost bunker. There Major Cravath and a French general convince Brown that the Communists can overtake the bunker by sacrificing masses of soldiers. The Communists, the officers explain, consider their soldiers to be as expendable as cigarette butts. The other weakness in holding the bunker is having the bunker under equipped. That evening, the French invite the Browns for a lavish ‘French family’ dinner that lasts three hours. After much food and wine and the Senator’s favorite sour-mash Whiskey, the Commissioner-General shows the Senator gruesome black and white photos of the battles. The Frenchman then says that they need money because the soldiers cannot fight with their bare hands.

The next day the French fly Senator Brown over the battle of Dien Bien Phu, and then they land outside of Hanoi and take a limousine back toward town. On the way they pass a line of North African troops, and the Senator demands to know why the French have not recruited Vietnamese to fight their war. The French insist that the Vietnamese are undisciplined, unsuitable for being soldiers. The Senator says that if the Vietnamese make poor soldiers, then who are the Communists using as soldiers? Major Cravath and the French general lie that the Communists use Chinese soldiers. The Senator asks to speak with the Communist prisoners to learn the truth but he is redirected from the prisoners’ stockade to a lavish luncheon with military officers who engage the Senator in conversation. After lunch, the French general and Dr. Barre offer to take Senator Brown to the stockade through an arduous muddy path. Walking the other way on the path toward Hanoi are droves of villagers carrying their possessions. Senator Brown insists on talking to one of the villagers, an old woman, so Dr. Barre offers her a cigarette. She stops to smoke it and listens to Dr. Barre ask Brown’s question–why are you running from the Communists? The woman answers that the Communists killed her oldest son six months ago. The French, she says, burned down her village to make a firing range so she is homeless. Dr. Barre translates the woman’s answer for Senator Brown to say that the woman trusts the French to protect her and she fears the Communists would slaughter her. Satisfied he has enough information, Senator Brown says he doesn’t need to go to the stockade. They return to Hanoi and attend a banquet. The next morning they fly back to Saigon where they inspect military facilities and attend a cocktail party and banquet. After another week, the Senator and his entourage fly back to the States. For a moment on the flight, the Senator realizes he has spoken with only two natives and only two men below the rank of general. This causes him to doubt the veracity of his impressions, but he shrugs off his doubt and falls to sleep.

On the floor of the Senate, Senator Corona of New Mexico argues that the war in Vietnam has been a complete waste of the four billion dollars given to the French because they are losing the war. Senator Corona backs up his assessment with statements from Ambassador MacWhite that the Vietnamese hate the French because the French care more about making money in Vietnam than in developing the country. He points out that the French have to bring in troops from North Africa because the Vietnamese refuse to fight under their command. MacWhite’s comments were given in a secret meeting, but Corona reveals them to make his point to congress. Senator Brown then takes the floor and denounces all of Ambassador MacWhite’s statements as untrue. Brown then offers his own assessment of the value of the war in Vietnam based on his brief visit to the country.

Chapter 20, “Senator, Sir…” Analysis

Senator Brown makes a show of getting at the truth; but in essence, he has simply spent a fortune on a lavish vacation at government expense. The embassy staff and the vested interests play him like a cheap violin. Others have elaborately controlled him, yet he believes he is in control.

Though MacWhite gave his comments in secret and in good faith to Senator Corona, they are blurted out to the congress. Congressmen are known for exploiting or leaking secret information when it suits their purpose. Senator Corona has good intentions and true information from a credible source, but none of it matters when weighed against the word of a popular Senator. No one questions that a Senator could learn more in a few weeks than an Ambassador who has spent months in the area. It is the game of politics played for keeps. Impressions mean more than the weight of contrary evidence. Style wins out over substance in this political arena.

Chapter 21, “The Sum of Tiny Things” Summary

Back in Sarkhan, Ambassador MacWhite dreads the onslaught of the foreign news reporters. They challenge him to defend his statements against the statements of Senator Brown. Three weeks after Senator Brown denounced MacWhite’s assessment of the situation in Vietnam, MacWhite receives a letter from the Secretary of State. In the letter, the Secretary of State lists four issues on MacWhite’s record of service: 1) reporting that the embassy staff had been infiltrated by communists, 2) receiving two complaints from other ambassadors about MacWhite’s conduct, 3) a request to remove George Swift because he would not allow an Air Force Colonel to read the King’s palm, and 4) his testimony to the Senate Foreign Affairs Committee about a country to which he is not an official ambassador.

MacWhite writes a letter to the Secretary of State promising himself that if the Secretary of State disagrees with his letter then he will resign. MacWhite’s letter addresses the effectiveness of the tiny battles the Communists win in every part of Asia by winning the hearts of villagers. He describes the multitude of small decisions by the Americans that inadvertently aid the Communists. He contrasts the ineffectiveness of the 300 Americans who have served in the embassy against the amazing results of five civilian Americans (a Catholic priest, an engineer, an Air Force Colonel, a Major from Texas and a dairy farmer) in fighting the Communist influence. MacWhite makes six recommendations based on the success models of the effectiveness of the five men he lists. The recommendations are: 1) train every American serving in the country to write and speak Sarkhanese, 2) require that any American who moves to Sarkhan stay at least two years and live in housing normal to the area and eat food from local stores, 3) remove the American PX and offer only limited supplies that cannot be obtained locally, 4) insist that Americans in Sarkhan travel by official transportation for official business and use local means of transportation for private use, with there being no importation of private cars, 5) require that all Americans serving in Sarkhan read the works of Mao Tse-Tung, Lenin, Chou En-lai, Marx, Engels, and leading Asian Communists before arriving in the country, and 6) recruit workers for Foreign Service with the understanding that workers will not live in luxury or isolation, because current conditions attract mediocre people. In summary, MacWhite writes: “If we cannot get Americans overseas who are trained, self-sacrificing, and dedicated, then we will continue losing in Asia. The Russians will win without firing a shot, and the only choice open to us will be to become the aggressor with thermonuclear weapons.”

MacWhite hears nothing from Washington for three weeks. He spends the time visiting the successful canning and dairy industries, the college, and the military camps set up by the role model Americans. A cablegram from Washington ends MacWhite’s service with the news that his ideas are deemed impractical and that he is to be replaced by the renowned Joe Bing.

Chapter 21, “The Sum of Tiny Things” Analysis

MacWhite recognizes that fools have tarnished his image, but he is helpless to fight the entire system of good old boys who enjoy the Foreign Service perks. The incompetent majority of ambassadors and bureaucrats band together to preserve their lifestyle even if it harms American interests abroad. In a letter to the State Department, MacWhite summarizes the lessons he has learned as a series of recommendations that he knows will make the Foreign Service corps effective. The State Department dismisses his advice and replaces him with the very man identified by a prominent Asian journalist as offensive and useless–Joe Bing. Back to the status quo we go. It is ironic that the Americans strive to change the world to democracy and a free market economy but they refuse to change their own methods even when these methods prove ineffective. Only a fool will perform the same behavior again and again and expect different results. The story has come full circle-from incompetence to heroic effort, and back to incompetence. MacWhite behaves like the ideal role model and he has more authority than people like Father Finian and the engineer Atkins. He is outflanked by men of low character and replaced by the very symbol of incompetence–Joe Bing. This is a resounding condemnation of American foreign policy that illustrates the heart of the message of this novel.

Chapter 22, “A Factual Epilogue” Summary

In the authors’ epilogue, they assert that the fictional characters and events of the story stand for actual characters and actual events that repeat themselves throughout the U.S. Foreign Service. James Reston, reporting in the New York Times in 1858 wrote, “fifty percent of the entire Foreign Service officer corps do not have speaking knowledge of any foreign language”. The authors also point out the problem of millions of servicemen abroad who do not speak the language of the country they are stationed in. They cite the ease and effectiveness of planting spies in our embassies because we staff our embassies with locals: whereas the Russians staff all of their embassies with Russians. The ignorance and arrogance of American representatives in foreign countries aid the spread of communist influence.

Chapter 22, “A Factual Epilogue” Analysis

Sadly, the situation of foreign policy blunders by Americans is as relevant today as it was in 1958 when Lederer and Burdick wrote this novel. Politicians continue to earn assignments as Ambassadors to nations in which they cannot speak or read the language and inadvertently annoy and insult the people of the nations where they serve. They bring their families along, seclude them in private schools, and live in compounds removed from the common man. Spies hired as servants continue to undermine the safety and effectiveness of our embassies. The title-seeking self-serving politicians get placed in roles of authority and decision-making at embassies, and the impressions they make in other countries may do more harm than good for America. Chapter by chapter, the book reinforces the idea that small, low cost efforts made by sincere, hard-working Americans reap the largest benefits to the American image abroad. America continues to fund costly projects, like building roads and dams, to reward political supporters instead of supporting the real needs of the people of foreign nations. Despite billions of American dollars in aid to foreign countries, America is despised by much of Asia and the Middle East.

Since this novel was written, America has lost influence in the countries featured in the story for the many small opportunities missed through lack of training and understanding. This prophetic book has been played out in history exactly as the story describes. Those who fail to learn the lessons of history repeat those mistakes. The reader becomes the common man who sees the whole picture and can only watch in horror as the events unfold exactly as predicted in this novel.

The small things make the biggest difference and such small victories are achieved through genuine selfless concern.

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Characters

Apache

Apache is a Vietnamese man who fights for the French. He is captured by the communists who cut out his vocal cords.

Solomon Asch

Solomon Asch is the head of the American delegation to the Special Armament section of the Asia Conference. He is a tough and experienced negotiator.

Emma Atkins

Emma Atkins, the wife of Homer Atkins, is a simple, straightforward woman who in her own way is as physically ugly as her husband. But also, like her husband, she has a creative and inventive mind and, in fact, supplies him with some of his best ideas. She also develops her own ideas, managing to invent a long-handled broom that the old people in Sarkhan can use in place of their short-handled brooms, which are too hard on their backs.

Homer Atkins

Homer Atkins, the “ugly American” of the book’s title, is ugly in physical appearance, not in character. A tough, blunt-spoken man, he is a highly successful retired engineer who is worth $3 million. The U.S. government consults him about building dams and military roads in Southeast Asia, but he insists that what is really needed are things that the local people can manufacture and use for themselves. His advice is ignored, but Ambassador MacWhite is impressed by him and invites him to Sarkhan. In that country, Atkins, in collaboration with a Sarkhanese man named Jeepo, invents a water pump that proves to be an immense labor-saving device for the local people. Atkins sets himself up in business with Jeepo and twelve local workers, and his enterprise is a big success.

Dr. Hans Barre

Dr. Hans Barre is a naturalized American citizen who specializes in Oriental languages. He is on temporary duty at the U.S. Embassy in Vietnam and acts as interpreter during the visit of Senator Brown.

Joe Bing

Joe Bing, an American information officer living in Burma, is a gregarious, sociable man who is very popular amongst other Americans and Westerners, but he is also the kind of American disliked by Asians, since he is loud and ostentatious in his manner and does not mix with the local people. Asians are not invited to his diplomatic parties, at which there is always plenty of alcohol. He appears to think that representing the United States abroad is more about having a good time than in promoting U.S. national interests. When Gilbert MacWhite resigns as ambassador to Sarkhan, Bing is nominated by the State Department to take his place.

Captain Boning

Captain Boning is a Navy officer who takes part in the negotiations in Hong Kong about the placing of U.S. nuclear weapons on Asian soil. During the time of the conference, Boning has an affair with a local Chinese woman who is also a communist agent, and he spends most of his nights with her. Thus he is not alert during the conference sessions, and he gives hesitant answers to questions from the Asian delegates, which makes them think that the Americans are hiding something.

Senator Jonathan Brown

Senator Jonathan Brown, a tough and experienced U.S. senator, started his career as a corrupt man who granted favors to corporations in exchange for financial contributions to his campaign. But once in the Senate he changed his ways and became a man of integrity. As a member of the Senate Foreign Affairs Committee, he visits many countries in Southeast Asia to see for himself what is being done with U.S. aid. But in Vietnam his desire to meet and talk to the local people is thwarted by the plans of the embassy staff, who ensure that he talks only to military and government officials. The result is that he never does find out the real situation, but he fails to realize this.

John Colvin

John Colvin is an American who was an Office of Strategic Services (OSS) agent in Sarkhan during World War II. After the war he ran his family’s business in Wisconsin, buying bulk milk and drying it into powder. In 1952, he returns to Sarkhan because he hears that the country is leaning towards communism, and he is convinced the situation is being handled badly. He tries to help the local people by selling them milk made from powder. But he runs afoul of a former friend of his named Deong, who has turned communist. Deong tricks some local women into believing that Colvin is trying to put an aphrodisiac in the milk so that he can seduce local girls. The women beat him up, almost killing him. Colvin returns to the United States but later goes back to Sarkhan and succeeds in his milk enterprise.

Jim Davis

Jim Davis, a black man from Los Angeles, is serving in the French Foreign Legion in Vietnam. He is captured by the Vietnamese, who gouge out one of his eyes.

Deong

Deong is a Sarkhanese communist who betrays his old friend John Colvin.

Donald

Donald is an old Chinese servant who has given many years of loyal service to the U.S. Embassy in Sarkhan. He does not read or write and knows almost no English. Ambassador MacWhite trusts Donald completely. However, it transpires that Donald is not quite what he appears. Through interrogation, Li Pang discovers that Donald has been passing along information from the embassy to the communists.

Father Finian

Father Finian is a Catholic priest from Boston who is assigned to Burma. A Jesuit, Father Finian has a fine intellect and is a scholar, but he is also tough-minded and practical, and he relishes the challenge of combating communism in Burma. He regards communism as an evil ideology. Father Finian makes a point of learning the local language and eating the local food, even though at first he finds it very hard to digest. He recruits nine local men who are also anticommunist Catholics and asks them what strategy they want to pursue. He does not make the mistake of imposing his own views but encourages the men to make their own decisions. Eventually, Father Finian establishes a four-year college in Burma, at which the curriculum includes study of the writings of both communist and Western leaders.

Ambassador Arthur Alexander Gray

Arthur Alexander Gray is the U.S. ambassador to Vietnam. When Senator Jonathan Brown visits, Gray makes extensive preparations with his staff to ensure that the senator only has access to the information the embassy thinks he ought to have.

Colonel Edwin B. Hillandale

Edwin B. Hillandale, a U.S. Air Force colonel, was sent to Manila, in the Philippines, in 1952. He is extremely popular with the local people because he embraces their culture. His love of jazz and his skill with the harmonica earn him the nickname The Ragtime Kid. He is not so popular, however, with the officials at the U.S. Embassy in the Philippines. But Ambassador MacWhite recognizes Hillandale’s worth and invites him to Sarkhan. Hillandale’s knowledge of palmistry, which is valued in the local culture, stands him in good stead at a dinner party given by the Philippine ambassador.

Thomas Elmer Knox

Thomas Elmer Knox, an American farmer from Iowa who lives for a while in Cambodia, knows more Cambodians than any other Westerner, and he loves Cambodian food. In Iowa, he raises chickens, and he is full of ideas about how the local people can improve the quality of their chickens and increase the chickens’ egg yield. But when he puts his ideas to American and Cambodian agricultural experts, as well as some French officials, he gets nowhere. The officials are only interested in developing canals and mechanized farms. Tom is angry at their refusal to listen to him, but after some high-level diplomats and businessmen treat him to luxury trips to Paris, Indonesia, and India, he forgets all about his good ideas for Cambodia.

Louis Krupitzyn

Louis Krupitzyn is the Russian ambassador to Sarkhan. Unlike his American counterpart, Ambassador Sears, Krupitzyn is well prepared for his position. He began his diplomatic career in 1935 and has been stationed in the United States and China. When he becomes ambassador to Sarkhan he learns the language, immerses himself in the local culture, and attends lectures on Buddhist religion and practice. He outwits the Americans when he tricks the Sarkhanese into believing that a shipment of U.S. rice, sent to relieve a famine, in fact came from Russia.

Jeepo

Jeepo is a Sarkhanese man who has a talent for working with machinery. He gets on well with Homer Atkins, and the two of them develop a water pump for raising water economically and efficiently. They try various versions of the pump, and it is Jeepo who points out their shortcomings to Atkins. He is not intimidated by working with an American, and the two men argue as equals. It is Jeepo who comes up with the final version of the water pump, solving a problem that had eluded Atkins.

Ruth Jyoti

Ruth Jyoti, editor and publisher of one of the best independent newspapers in Southeast Asia, is invited to the United States, and at a dinner for the press in San Francisco she gives a talk on how and why Americans in Asia are not effective.

Marie MacIntosh

Marie MacIntosh, a twenty-eight-year-old American, is impressed by a talk given by Joe Bing and applies for a position in government service in Sarkhan. She writes back to her friends about her new, rather luxurious and easy life.

Ambassador Gilbert MacWhite

Gilbert MacWhite replaces Louis Sears as U.S. ambassador to Sarkhan in 1954. Quite unlike his predecessor, MacWhite is a professional foreign service officer, and he has a long diplomatic career already behind him, even though he is only in his mid-forties. MacWhite has read the communist writings of Karl Marx and Lenin and is a recognized expert on Soviet theory and practice. He learns Sarkhanese and reads books about Sarkhanese history and politics. He is courageous, efficient, and imaginative, and has an ability to recognize and learn from his mistakes, an ability his predecessor conspicuously lacked. He travels extensively in Southeast Asia because he is determined to learn everything he can about how to defeat communism. He has good judgment and invites some of the best American talent, such as Homer Atkins and Colonel Hillandale, to visit Sarkhan and put their ideas into practice. When he is well established in his job, he writes to the U.S. secretary of state asking permission to make some urgent and practical changes in the U.S. diplomatic mission to Sarkhan. He is turned down, and as a result he resigns as ambassador.

Bob Maile

Bob Maile is an official in the United States Information Service (USIS) stationed in Setkya, a city in Southeast Asia. According to Ruth Jyoti, Maile has done more than anyone else to raise U.S. prestige in the area. He mixes easily with the local people and everyone trusts him. He even sends his children to an Asian school, which is very unusual for an American.

Major Monet

Major Monet is a French soldier in Hanoi, in charge of a company of French foreign legion. He comes from a long line of soldiers in his family, and he understands the art of war, at least in its traditional form. But his legionnaires keep losing their skirmishes with the communists. It is left to Major Wolchek to point out to Monet that he needs to study the works of Mao Tse-tung, since Mao describes a new kind of warfare. As a proud Frenchman, Monet is reluctant at first, but he later realizes the value in Wolchek’s advice.

Prince Ngong

Prince Ngong is a distinguished Sarkhanese poet and drama critic and member of the government. He tells the Sarkhanese cabinet that they must do something to remedy the offense that Ambassador Sears has taken from a hostile cartoon in one of the local newspapers.

Li Pang

Li Pang, a businessman and soldier, is a representative of Chiang Kai-shek, the Chinese nationalist leader. He is also an old friend of Ambassador MacWhite. While visiting MacWhite, Li Pang interrogates Donald, the old Chinese servant, and finds that he has been passing on information to the communists.

Roger

Roger is one of the two old Chinese servants at the U.S. Embassy in Sarkhan.

Ambassador Louis Sears

Louis Sears is the U.S. ambassador to Sarkhan. Known as “Lucky” because of the good fortune he enjoyed during his long political career, he is a former U.S. senator. He is only in Sarkhan for two years while he waits for a vacancy to arise for a federal judgeship. While he is ambassador, Sears does not bother to learn the Sarkhanese language, nor does he make any attempt to mingle with the Sarkhanese people, so he has little idea of what is really going on in the country. He spends too much of his time attending cocktail parties and talking to other diplomats. Sears is presented as an example of all that is wrong with U.S. diplomacy in Southeast Asia. The Russians regard him as so incompetent that they are eager for him to remain in his position, since his presence helps them so much. Sears eventually gets his judgeship and is replaced as ambassador by Gilbert MacWhite.

U Maung Swe

U Maung Swe is the best known journalist in Burma. In 1954, at dinner in honor of Ambassador MacWhite, U Maung Swe explains in detail why U.S. prestige in Southeast Asia is low.

George Swift

George Swift is the deputy chief of mission at the U.S. Embassy in Sarkhan. He is responsible for sabotaging Colonel Hillandale’s appointment to read the palm of the king of Sarkhan. Hillandale is so angry he punches him, and Ambassador MacWhite, sensing that Swift has no understanding of the local culture, arranges for him to be transferred.

Major James Wolchek

Major James Wolchek, whose nickname is “Tex” because he comes from Texas, is a combat veteran of World War II and the Korean War. He was wounded in both wars. In 1954, he is assigned as a foreign observer to the French foreign legion in Hanoi, Vietnam, where he meets Major Monet. After the French suffer a series of defeats at the hands of the communists, Tex realizes that their failure results from their fighting war by the old rules, while the communists follow the new rules of war written by Mao Tse-tung. Tex explains Mao’s battle tactics, and, as a result, Monet and the legionnaires finally win an encounter with the communists, during which Tex is slightly wounded.

Objects/Places

Sarkhan

This fictional Asian country lies near enough to Vietnam, Burma, and China to be affected by their economic and political struggles. Infiltrated by Communists, the country divides itself village by village while the American Embassy gradually becomes aware of the situation. The Sarkhanese live in a centuries-old tradition of farming with oxen and terraced rice farming. They are being left behind socially, technologically, politically, and economically by the modern world. The Sarkhanese are suspicious of foreigners and change because they are predominantly uneducated, hard-working people who live off the land. The terrain is mountainous with villages connected by footpaths and a few muddy roads. The capitol city is Haidho.

Dien Bien Phu, Vietnam

The battle in this village serves as a symbol of the larger struggle between invading Communists and the Western forces that try to protect the natives. The natives are themselves divided in their loyalties, so their allies fight in vain. The Vietnamese hate their French allies more than they fear the Communists. The Communists have already infiltrated the village long before the battle, so the allies are shocked and unprepared for attack from all sides. The French lose the battle because they completely underestimate the intelligence and tactics of their enemy.

Chang ‘Dong, Sarkhan

This poor hillside village represents the Asian peoples. The hard-working, poorly educated farmers struggle against nature to scratch out a living. Their methods are centuries old and though they are ineffective, the villagers have no access to the modern world outside their jungle. They plod on as they always have because they don’t know any other way to live. This place is the setting for one of the great successes of American influence when the engineer Atkins introduces a pump system to lift river water to the hillside rice paddies.

The Home of the American Ambassador to Sarkhan

Both Ambassador Sears and Ambassador MacWhite shared a false sense of security and privacy in the Ambassador’s residence. In their western mindset, home is a safe place. Only MacWhite discovers that spies posing as servants have violated the sanctity of his home. The discovery of the spies alerts MacWhite to the larger danger of infiltration at American Embassies and homes around the world.

The Long-handle Broom

The long-handle broom that Emma Atkins introduces to the people of Chang ‘Dong is one of the little, great things that improves the lives of the natives. The natives break from tradition and suffering when Emma demonstrates a better way to sweep.

The Pump

The Jeepo-Atkins Company, Limited breaks the image of Americans as lazy people out to exploit the Sarkhanese. Homer Atkins and Jeepo are like-minded mechanically skilled men who respect one another as equals. Atkins is a trained engineer and Jeepo is a self-trained mechanic with a strong aptitude for machinery. The pump draws the farming methods of the Sarkhanese into the next century, yet it is not a simple foreign import of technology. It is created out of cheap, readily available materials. The pump design is given freely to others instead of sold to the natives for foreign profit.

Mao Tse-Tung’s booklet on War

The Communists have published their tactics of warfare but the Westerners discount it as inferior to the writings of European military experts. By assuming the Western ways have to be superior, the Westerners doom themselves to frustration and defeat. Two low ranking officers, Major Monet and Tex Wolcheck, study it and use it to defeat the Communists in a single battle. When they report their success and their findings to the commanding admirals and generals, they are scoffed and dismissed. The leaders fail to recognize that they could use this military playbook to their advantage and soon after, they lose the war.

Hillandale’s Harmonica

Through his informal diplomacy, Hillandale uses an American musical instrument to play native tunes. He wins the hearts of the natives because he knows that they love music. He plays their music in a new way, forming a bridge between his way of life and theirs.

Wolcheck’s Weapon

American military observer, Tex Wolcheck, advises the French to use a weapon that worked well in Korea. It is a truck that carried twenty 5-inch rocket launchers mounted in a circle. The launchers fire simultaneously, killing everyone within a hundred yards. American ingenuity is handed over to the French and they use it to great effect. Despite the success in using it, Wolcheck and Major Monet receive strong criticism from the generals and admirals because the weapon strays from traditional military tactics. The weapon is extremely effective, but like the great advice from Monet and Wolcheck, it will not be used again because it breaks Western military traditions and conventions.

Alcohol

Forbidden by Buddhists and Moslems, this drink represents one of the hundreds of things that Americans embrace that offends the Asians. Alcohol consumption also undermines the performance of the diplomats because they get it so cheaply through the PX or commissary.

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Themes

American Arrogance and Failure in Southeast Asia

The purpose of the novel is to point out the ways in which the United States is failing in its attempt to defeat communism in Southeast Asia and to explain the alternative methods that must be adopted in order to succeed. In brief, the United States is in danger of losing the cold war in this part of the world because it relies on a complacent political and bureaucratic establishment that fails to understand the local culture and relies on large-scale foreign aid programs that do not address the real needs of the people. Each story in the book illustrates some aspect of this or related themes, showing an American who is either part of the problem or part of the solution.

First among those who put U.S. enterprise at risk is Ambassador Sears. Sears has no training for his position, which is handed to him by the leader of the Democratic Party merely out of political loyalty. Sears knows nothing about the country to which he is assigned and makes little attempt to find out. He spends his time at social events, entertaining visiting American politicians and military men, and never meets any of the local people. He also forbids any of his staff to go into the local villages. In spite of the fact that he is despised by the locals and outwitted by the Russians, he believes that his relations with the Sarkhanese “couldn’t be better.” He has no grasp of the seriousness of the communist threat in Sarkhan, and there is an unconscious irony in his letter to the U.S. State Department in which he dismisses the prospect of a communist takeover: “I get around at one hell of a lot of social functions, and official dinners out here, and I’ve never met a native Communist yet.”

Similarly Joe Bing, the information officer, thinks the situation is positive. Americans in the region regard him as a charming man who knows everyone in Setkya, but he is viewed very differently by the locals. Ruth Jyoti says of him that far from knowing everyone, he acknowledges only those who are “European, Caucasian, western-educated, and decently dressed.” Her description of him suggests the image of the “ugly American” that since the book’s publication has come to symbolize the worst aspects of American behavior abroad: “He drives a big red convertible, which he slews around corners and over sidewalks. And he’s got exactly the kind of loud silly laugh that every Asian is embarrassed to hear.”

When Bing gives a lecture in Washington, D.C., he reveals a flaw in American recruiting strategies for foreign service. He emphasizes the easiness of the life—the perks of free housing and the availability of servants—not the challenges. Americans are not even required to learn the language of the country to which they are sent. Bing’s statement reveals his ethnocentric view of the world: “Translators are a dime a dozen overseas. And besides, it’s better to make the Asians learn English. Helps them too.” The result of all this is that the Americans attract only mediocre people into foreign service.

Since few Americans bother to learn the local language most Americans end up staying in the cities, talking to others just like them—American and European diplomats, and cultured, English-speaking members of the Asian elite. This language insulation contrasts with the Russian diplomats, who all learn to speak the local language and understand the culture. The Russians go out to the countryside and the villages and work hard to get the local people on their side. They are better at propaganda and “dirty tricks” than the Americans, as is shown when they convince the Sarkhanese that the rice delivered from the United States was in fact from Russia.

How to Win the Cold War in Southeast Asia

The success of the communists and the failure of the bureaucratic Americans is countered by those American characters who understand and respect the local people and their culture. Father Finian, for example, is the inspiration behind a small-scale black propaganda campaign in Burma, in which he helps a group of local men to publish a fake communist newspaper that undermines support for the communists. The key element in Father Finian’s strategy is that he allows the local men themselves to decide what they want to do. He does not impose his views on them; he merely guides their discussions. “It is your country, your souls, your lives,” he says. “I will do what we agree upon.” Thus the authors criticize the prevailing attitude of Americans that they, rather than the people who actually live there, know what is best for southeast Asia.

Just as Father Finian knows how to combat communist propaganda, Major “Tex” Wolchek is an American who understands the military demands of the struggle. Unlike the French and their American supporters, Tex realizes that the war in Indochina is a new kind of conflict that demands knowledge of guerilla warfare, as explained in the writings of Mao Tse-tung. It is no longer enough to rely on the old concepts of war as the French are trying to do. But when Tex and Ambassador MacWhite explain this to a meeting of French and American generals in Hanoi, they are met with ridicule. The words of a French general sum up the sense of cultural superiority and snobbishness that characterize the West’s attitude to the region:

If you are suggesting … that the nation which produced Napoleon now has to go to a primitive Chinese for military instruction, I can tell you that you are not only making a mistake, you’re being insulting.

Another American, Colonel Hillandale, shows the importance of understanding and respecting the local culture. When Hillandale was stationed in the Philippines he “embraced everything Filipino”: the food and drink, the music, the people, and he also learned the language. When he is assigned to Sarkhan he walks the streets of Haidho and takes note of what he sees. He observes that well-qualified astrologers and palmists occupy elegant buildings, and he deduces from this the importance of such practices in the Sarkhanese culture. Had he been one of those Americans who never ventured further than the cocktail-party circuit, he might never have made this key observation. Since he has made a hobby of palmistry, he uses this knowledge to win influential local friends. Hillandale’s opposite is George Swift, a diplomat at the U.S. Embassy, who expresses what in the book is typical American cultural arrogance in dismissing something foreign that he does not understand. “A vaudeville stunt,” he says of palm reading, to which Ambassador MacWhite, who is thoroughly aware of what is really required of Americans in Southeast Asia replies, “[N]othing is fake if people believe in it. Your business is not to judge whether or not things are fakes, but who believes them and why and what it means.”

Other Americans, such as John Colvin and Homer and Emma Atkins, develop strategies for helping the local population with agricultural and technological projects at the grass-roots level. Like Tex, Homer Atkins comes up against the obduracy of U.S. officialdom. They seek him out as an adviser on foreign aid projects, but what they have on their minds are big technological projects such as dams, highways, and irrigation systems. These are of immediate benefit only to local politicians who use them as a means to gain wealth and power. Atkins is more aware of what the people really need, and he uses his skill, ingenuity, and perseverance to bring his idea to fruition. He respects the local people and works with them as equals, showing none of the underlying assumptions of racial superiority shown by many other Americans, such as the technical adviser to the U.S. Embassy who tells Atkins that “for white men to work with their hands, and especially in the countryside, lower[s] the reputation of all white men.”

Struggle between Good (American ideals) and Evil (Communism)

This struggle is played out in every chapter of the novel with each event serving as a battle in the war. The Communists win many battles by luring in the uneducated with lies and promises just as the Devil lures people into sin. The Communists fight their war over the long term by infiltration and spying. The Americans, on the other hand, blunder in with money and great displays of force that turn out to be too little too late. The little things, the strategically planned and executed little things, determine victory.

The Russians come to battle fully armed with information, strategy, and guile. The Americans blunder in alongside the Europeans and discover they are in a battle after it is nearly won. The Communists outmaneuver the Americans, but worse than that, the Americans are undermined by their own State Department. The American foreign policies are so vague and impractical that it leaves the American diplomats disadvantaged and frustrated.

Father Finian clearly identifies Communism as a religion based on the procedures used to indoctrinate followers. The Communists demand absolute loyalty to the extent that they do not allow worship of any kind outside devotion to the State.

Appearance versus Reality

Whereas Joe Bing earns the praise of the State Department, he is the most offensive and ineffective diplomat in Asia. Everything he says ruins the image of America abroad. Bing is style without substance. In reality, the most effective American Ambassador is Gerald MacWhite. He shuns the cocktail parties and isolationist behavior of the typical Ambassador in favor of making a real difference in improving American/Sarkhanese relations. MacWhite does not fit the profile of the party-going, politically connected diplomat. His efforts are destroyed by misinformation that gives the appearance of him as a bungling fool. He wins the admiration of prominent Asian authorities, but the State Department removes him from office.

Americans continue to plan huge expensive projects to impress the Asians when in reality the things that make the most difference are the little things: the pump that Atkins designs, the introduction of dairy products, the long-handled broom, the one-on-one common man making contact with natives and treating them as equals. The Americans continue to follow the ‘more and bigger is better’ philosophy in their foreign policy projects despite hearing from Asians that this approach does not work.

Tradition versus Progress

The poor Asian farmers continue traditional methods of farming that are manual, backbreaking, and slow. They cling to their traditions because they fear change and are out of touch with the rest of the world. Two prime examples of their traditions are the bucket-brigade type of irrigation of the rice paddies and the use of short-handled brooms made from coconut fronds. To their credit, the Sarkhanese accept the improvements when they see the benefits. The villagers of Chang ‘Dong embrace the Jeepo-Atkins pumping system and the women convert their brooms to the longer-handle version introduced by Emma Atkins. Though these simple, uneducated peasants value their traditional way of living, they remain open to new ideas.

The French military commanders, the admirals and generals, utterly refuse to change their tactics of warfare. They continue to use their tanks and jeeps even though they bog down on the narrow muddy roads of Vietnam. They arrogantly presume that the battle tactics devised over decades of European battles have to be superior to all battle tactics. Even in the face of evidence to the contrary, when Major Monet and Tex Wolcheck win a battle using Asian military tactics, the French commanders denounce the win as if it is a fluke. The stakes for failing to adapt and change are life and death, yet the French commanders cling to their European ways all the way to defeat. On their way out of Hanoi, they are defeated and humiliated, but they depart in victorious parade fashion. They maintain their denial to the end.

The American Foreign Service clings to their useless, outdated, and ineffective ways out of tradition. Led by an uninformed State Department, the American Embassies and aid agencies fumble along on their own without clear guidance or training. The Ambassadors by and large apply Western philosophy and culture in their dealings with Asians. This approach fails repeatedly but the State Department insists on doing business the same way. These failures to adapt and to understand the Asians create such a divide that the Communists march into the gap. If only the American Foreign Service trained its personnel with the rigor and intensity of the Russians then they could make such a difference!

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Style

Parables

The Ugly American is an unusual novel in that there is only a loose connection between all the different episodes. The only semblance of a unified plot is in Ambassador Gilbert MacWhite’s gradual accumulation of the knowledge about how to win the struggle against communism. Each story serves as a parable, illustrating either the folly of U.S. behavior and policy or a positive alternative. According to M. H. Abrams, a parable is “a short narrative presented so as to stress the tacit but detailed analogy between its component parts and a thesis or lesson that the narrator is trying to bring home to us.” Thus in the first story, of “Lucky” Lou Sears, every detail contributes to the theme of the book: Americans in foreign service are not performing their jobs in a way that is likely to bring any success, but they are mostly unaware of this fact. In the third story, “Nine Friends,” about Father Finian, every detail contributes to the opposite effect: Father Finian is one of the few men who knows how to act effectively and decisively in American interests. There are no subtle nuances in this black and white approach to story-telling. The meaning of each parable is crystal clear.

Point of View

The story is told in the third person omniscient point of view. The narrative stays crisp and objective with the point of view dipping into the minds of the characters to provide instances of insight into their motives. Largely, the story is demonstrated through action more than from inside the minds of the individual characters. This works well because there are so many characters whose stories intertwine to create a single large impression from the mosaic of small pieces. The story emphasizes the little things that contribute to the whole and the telling of the story matches this effect. There are only rare moments of narrative intrusion, such as at the end of chapter 14 when the narrator declares: “And MacWhite did give up–which was his second major mistake.” The final chapter breaks the style of the rest of the novel. It is a direct address to the reader that this work of fiction is drawn from similar events in real life with the names and places changed enough to protect real people.

Setting

Most of the action takes place in Asia and the Far East where the reader sees the collective failures and successes that come from American foreign policy during the Cold War in the 1950s. The mountain and jungle terrain is as hostile and foreign to the Americans as conditions can get. The setting further emphasizes the disadvantages faced by Americans in understanding the people who live there. The simple farmer peasants of Asia are caught in the power struggle between the crafty Communists and the bungling Americans. Each of the two super powers seeks to control the political, economic, and social future of the third world nations in Asia and the Far East. French and British colonialism has created resentment and suspicion of Westerners in these countries, which gives the Communists an advantage. Fittingly, the story ends in the place where the policies are made–in Congress. On the floor of the Senate, the reader witnesses the battle between truth and misinformation that sets the path for future American foreign policy decisions.

Language and Meaning

Told in a journalistic, lean documentary style; the language is laden with facts but sparse with descriptions. It uses a sampling of dialogue at key points in the narrative. Two organizations are referred to only though their acronyms as if they are common knowledge: USIS and ICS. The USIS is the United States Information Service. The ICA is possibly the International Communications Association because it existed in the 1950s as a link among various representatives in government, media, business law, and commerce. Lederer’s background as a Navy Captain lends a tone of authenticity on the workings of bureaucracy and the differences in perspective between the common man and those in positions of political power shown in the novel.

Structure

The story is presented largely in chronological order from 1953 to 1955. Each chapter is like a piece to the larger puzzle and, though the pieces seem disjointed and unrelated at first, by the end of the story they merge into a sharp, detailed image. Each character featured as the focus of a chapter is introduced with a brief, factual biography that resembles a Who’s Who listing. Ambassador MacWhite appears in more chapters than any other character and so this novel feels like it is mostly his story. A few characters, like Colonel Hillandale, the engineer Homer Atkins, and the incompetent Joe Bing, hop through a few chapters. One key encounter breaks the chronology of the narrative. This is when Senator Brown passes through Hanoi on his fact-finding tour and stops to berate Major Monet and Tex Wolcheck. The two military men are drinking to mourn the loss of the battle with the Communists and the second loss of their private battle with the admirals and generals who refuse to change their losing tactics. Wolcheck threatens to beat up the pompous, misinformed Senator and the Senator backs down. A small victory for the common man, this moment is played for maximum effect by breaking the chronology. The break in time mirrors the action in that the Senator has chosen the wrong time to assert his authority.

Historical Context

The Cold War in the 1950s

During the 1950s, and continuing until the late 1980s, global politics was dominated by the struggle between the West (the United States and its Western European allies) and the communist Soviet Union, its Eastern European allies, and China. This struggle was described as a cold war because it did not lead to direct armed conflict between the two superpowers. Instead, much of the contest was played out in the Third World, in Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. The United States would give economic and military support to emerging nations in these regions as a reward for any government that adopted an anti-communist stance. The Soviet Union lent support to Third-World communist parties and to communist insurgencies, which they described as wars of liberation against the retreating Western colonial powers. The Soviets denounced as imperialism any U.S. attempt to influence public opinion or government in such countries. The United States denounced Soviet aggression and claimed that the Soviets were bent on world domination.

In 1950, cold war rivalry focused on Korea, where Russian-backed North Korea invaded South Korea. The United States entered the war with United Nations support and engaged Chinese forces. After a truce in 1951 and an armistice in 1953, the United States regarded Vietnam as the next Asian country that had to be defended against communism, and it channeled huge military aid to the French, who were already battling Vietnamese communist forces. After the French defeat in 1954 (described so vividly in The Ugly American), the United States tried to halt any further communist advance by creating a viable South Vietnam state. It also sought stability by founding the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO), which in fact included only two Southeast Asian states, Thailand and the Philippines, in addition to Britain, France, New Zealand, Australia, Pakistan, and the United States. SEATO was designed to prevent the invasion of any nation in Southeast Asia by a foreign power. But as Lea Williams points out in Southeast Asia: A History, SEATO ignored the reality of communist advance, which was not by direct invasion but by agitation from within and by guerilla warfare; it was very unlikely that traditional methods such as full-scale invasion would take place. Williams criticizes the limitations of U.S. diplomatic and military thinking at the time that produced such an ineffective treaty as SEATO: “Generals are inclined to be prepared for the last, rather than the next war; and SEATO was proof that diplomats, as exemplified by John Foster Dulles [U.S. secretary of state], can be equally hypnotized by history.” This is essentially the same point made by Burdick and Lederer in their story of the French and U.S. generals who expect to be able to win a war in Indochina using outdated tactics.

The shock of the French defeat in Vietnam in 1954 was taken by the United States as a warning of what the future might hold if it did not exert all its influence in the region. The so-called domino theory which dictated U.S. policy in Southeast Asia held that if one nation went communist the others would soon follow, one by one, like falling dominoes. The theory reflected what was perceived as the reality of the global power game, that smaller nations would be unable to avoid being drawn into the orbit of one or other of the two superpowers. If the United States did not win control, the Soviets would.

The Strategic Importance of Southeast Asia

Southeast Asia was considered to be of great strategic importance for both sides in the cold war, from both an ideological point of view and because the region was rich in natural resources. Writing in 1953, political scientist Amry Vandenbosch, declared:

Control of the oil, rubber, tin, rice, and other commodities of the region would give the Communist bloc a very great advantage and the loss of these strategic materials would constitute a severe blow to the West.

In 1958, the year The Ugly American was published, Southeast Asia consisted of nine independent states: Thailand, Burma, Malaya, North Vietnam, South Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, Indonesia, and the Philippines. Singapore and Borneo were still British colonies, and Timor was a Portuguese colony. In the global struggle between the West and communism, North Vietnam committed itself to Russia and China, while Thailand, the Philippines, and South Vietnam sided with the United States and accepted U.S. military aid. The remaining four nations sought to remain independent, not wanting to commit to either side, and accepted only nonmilitary aid. (This is the position of the Sarkhanese government in The Ugly American, whose main goal is to maintain its independence.) These neutral nations were courted by both the West and by the communists, and they accepted aid from both sides.

The criticisms of U.S. attitudes and policies in Southeast Asia made in The Ugly American were not uncommon at the time. For example, in Southeast Asia and the World Today, which was published a few months before The Ugly American, Claude A. Buss, professor of history at Stanford University, made a number of similar points when he reviewed relations between Southeast Asian countries and the United States. Buss reported that many people in these countries reacted with skepticism to U.S. military aid and also had reservations about economic aid, which was perceived as serving American self-interest. Buss also reported that regarding foreigners who worked in their countries, Asians regarded the Americans as mediocre; they were people who viewed their overseas posting “as an interesting experience or a good deal—as an excellent opportunity to see the world at government expense and to collect cheap, unusual souvenirs.” Buss further states, in another passage that might have come directly from The Ugly American, “Asians decried the waste, the rusting machines, and the useless projects which they also helped pay for. . . . They wished that programs had been more tailored for their own needs and desires.”

Critical Overview

The Ugly American was an immediate success with the American public. It was on the bestseller list for seventy-eight weeks and went on to sell four million copies. The message of the novel seemed to strike a ready chord amongst Americans who feared that their country was not pursuing the wisest policies abroad and that the Soviet Union might be winning a decisive advantage in the cold war.

Critical reaction, however, was mixed. Robert Trumbull, in the New York Times Book Review, praised the “sharp characterizations, frequently humorous incident and perceptive descriptions” in the book. He offered the opinion that it may act as a “source of insight into the actual, day-by-day by-play of [the] present titanic political struggle for Asia that will engage future historians—unless, of course, the Communists win, and suppress all such books.” In contrast to Trumbull, Robert Hatch in The Nation, commented sharply on the book’s “easy, surface characterizations,” but he had some appreciation for it nonetheless: “[A]t once slick and angry; [the authors] have an awkward way of advocating decency and generosity, to say nothing of intelligence, not for their own sake but because that is the way to beat the Russian game.”

In Yale Review, Edward W. Mill commented that his experience as an American diplomat abroad led him to believe that there was much truth in the critique of U.S. policy offered in The Ugly American. He acknowledged the need for more effective training for overseas service but suggested that for such a policy change to be made, there would need to be much more support and understanding of the issue by the American people, Congress, and the nation’s colleges and universities. Mill concluded: “If the American people want to be represented by the MacWhites and the Hillandales instead of ‘Lucky Lou’ and the Joe Bings, they will have to make their wishes clear.”

The Ugly American had a pronounced influence on the politics of the day. It was reportedly read by President Eisenhower, who then ordered an investigation of the U.S. foreign aid program. In 1959, then-Senator John F. Kennedy, who was preparing to run for president, and three other unnamed men prominent in public life, sent a copy of the book to every U.S. senator. It was not well received by all. In September, 1959, Senator William Fulbright denounced the book on the Senate floor. He claimed that there were many successful American aid projects in Southeast Asia and complained that “in the world of Lederer and Burdick, almost everything is reduced to idiot simplicity” (quoted in John Hellman’s American Myth and the Legacy of Vietnam). The following year Vice President Nixon referred to The Ugly American in a speech at the University of San Francisco. He acknowledged that while some of the charges in the book might be partially correct, the real lesson to be absorbed was the need to understand the strategy of world communism.

One result of the popularity of the book was that the title became part of the American language. The “ugly American” was soon in common usage and referred to a certain type of arrogant American who when abroad did not understand or respect the culture he was in and saw everything through ethnocentric eyes.

Critical Essay #1

Aubrey holds a Ph.D. in English and has published many articles on twentieth century literature. In this essay, he discusses the novel in the context of the cold war, the Vietnam war, and the nature of the U.S. national identity and character.

Central to The Ugly American is the historical reality of the cold war. Behind all the individual stories lies the larger picture of a global struggle between two superpowers who embrace competing ideologies and compete ruthlessly for influence and control over smaller countries not only in Southeast Asia but all over the world. Given the fact that both superpowers have the capacity to destroy each other several times over through the use of nuclear weapons, the future of human civilization may depend on the outcome of the struggle.

Since the novel is so rooted in a particular period of history, it is impossible for readers in the early 2000s to respond to it in the same way that the original readers did, in the 1950s. In the early twenty-first century, the outcome of the cold war, far from being in doubt, is known, and that long struggle has receded into the pages of history. In fact, young people of college age in the early 2000s can have little or no direct memory of the cold war, since it wound down during the late-1980s and finally ended with the break-up of the Soviet Union in 1991. Since the United States and its allies won the cold war, and communism has completely lost the worldwide appeal it held for so many people from the 1950s to the 1980s, it is apparent from the perspective of the early 2000s that many of the fears expressed by Burdick and Lederer did not come to pass. The Soviets did not outwit or outlast the Americans. American ideas, the clarion call of freedom and democracy, proved to be more durable than the collectivist ideas of Marx and Lenin.

Tragically, however, that is only part of the story. Some of the fears expressed by the authors in The Ugly American did indeed come true. The United States did not learn its lessons quickly enough to avoid the catastrophe of the Vietnam War, in which over 58,000 Americans were killed from 1964 to 1973, and the nation lost a war for the first time in its history.

In connection with Vietnam, The Ugly American seems prescient indeed, as the two chapters, “The Iron of War” and “The Lessons of War” demonstrate. The French, as they battle the communist insurgency, believe that their well-trained army, equipped with all the most modern weapons of war, will surely triumph over a ragged band of poorly equipped communists. They continue to believe this, according to The Ugly American, even when the evidence proves them wrong, again and again. When the French finally capitulate and withdraw from Hanoi, Major Monet, who has been enlightened by his discussions with Major “Tex” Wolchek and Gilbert MacWhite, expresses the truth as he watches the final French military parade: “No one bothered to tell the tankers that their tanks couldn’t operate in endless mud. And those recoilless rifles never found an enemy disposition big enough to warrant shooting at it with them.”

Less than a decade later, the United States made the same mistake as the French, thinking that a huge army—U.S. troop numbers in Vietnam reached 543,000 in 1969—with the most sophisticated military equipment in the world would defeat an enemy that possessed almost nothing in comparison. The shock of that defeat in Vietnam continued to reverberate in the national psyche for over thirty years.

But The Ugly American is about more than history and the cold war and the forewarnings about Vietnam. Behind the swirl of political events in Southeast Asia, the authors ground their work in a larger issue, the nature of the U.S. national identity and character. They are very careful to draw a distinction between the real American character and the distortions of it that occur when Americans get caught abroad in the twin traps of bureaucracy and shallow conventional wisdom. When Ambassador MacWhite visits the Philippines, for example, he meets the head of the government, Ramon Magsaysay, who makes the following observation:

[A]verage Americans, in their natural state … are the best ambassadors a country can have…. They are not suspicious, they are eager to share their skills, they are generous. But something happens to Americans when they go abroad.

Magsaysay, who, incidentally, was a real historical figure, believes that many Americans abroad are “second-raters” who get carried away by their luxurious style of living and all the cocktail parties they attend. They lose the natural good qualities that are otherwise such a prominent feature of the national character.

The Burmese journalist U Maung Swe expresses the same idea. At a dinner party in Rangoon, he remarks that the Americans he knew in the United States “were wonderfully friendly, unassuming, and interested in the world.” He trusted and respected them. But he continues:

The Americans I meet in my country are not the same as the ones I knew in the United States. A mysterious change seems to come over Americans when they go to a foreign land. They live pretentiously. They’re loud and ostentatious. Perhaps they’re frightened and defensive; or maybe they’re not properly trained and make mistakes out of ignorance.

The characters in the book who accomplish something of value are presented as examples of the true American character, as opposed to the distortion of that character that seems to occur in the foreign service. These “real Americans” are all practical men, not intellectuals. They are adventurous, creative, and ingenious. They are brave, they relish a challenge, and they are hardworking. They are also open and friendly, and not prejudiced. They speak their minds, and a rough exterior often hides a gentle heart. They are always willing to use their talents and knowledge in service of others not because they are especially religious or saintly, but because they are naturally warm and good-hearted, and they like to share what they know.

An example is John Colvin, the man who tries to help the Sarkhanese with his milk and cattle scheme and is betrayed by his former friend turned communist, Deong. Colvin is a tough, confident, battle-hardened World War II veteran. Back home in Wisconsin, he is a successful small-businessman who runs the family milk business. When he hears that Sarkhan is in danger of going communist, he feels a sense of personal responsibility to the Sarkhanese people, whom he had learned to love during his adventures there in World War II. So he returns to start up a business in Sarkhan and puts up the small amount of capital required himself. It should be noted that this is private enterprise in action, not a big government-funded project, and it will rely on local free market forces to prosper.

Colvin again shows what he is made of after Deong gets the better of him, and the mob of women beat him. Ambassador Sears only manages to send Colvin home over his vigorous objections (Colvin says, with great intensity, “I won’t go”). But Gilbert MacWhite sends for him again, and this time Colvin’s persistence pays off. Within a year or so, his project is a success, and the local economy benefits from his innovation. Thus Colvin demonstrates qualities that the authors believe represent core American values: initiative, self-reliance, business acumen, determination, perseverance, and personal and civic responsibility.

The preeminent example of the ideal American character in action is Homer Atkins. Although he is the “ugly American” of the title, his rough outward appearance does not reflect the inner core of the man. As a blunt-spoken inventor and engineer, Atkins has no patience with intellectual theories or with men who dress in nice suits, wear after-shave lotion, and sit around conference tables. Atkins travels to Vietnam and then, at MacWhite’s request, to Sarkhan, as a private individual. He certainly does not need the money, since he has been highly successful in his career and is worth $3 million (a huge fortune in 1958 dollars). He enjoys the challenge of new projects, but he is only interested in things that will be immediately useful for the local people. He is a realist and has no time for grandiose dreams. When it comes to setting up his business in Sarkhan, he presents a textbook example of how foreign aid programs should be conducted. He provides the expertise and the creative mind (in consultation with the local man, Jeepo), but all the materials he uses for the water pump he invents are local: pipes made from bamboo, pistons adapted from the pistons of old jeeps, and power from the drive mechanism of bicycles. Everything is cheap and easily available, and nothing has to be imported. Atkins then employs local labor, and they all work eighteen to twenty-hour days to get the business off the ground. Then those who make the product get the chance to sell it and make money. It is an ideal set-up all round, and its success is due to the sturdy good sense, ingenuity, hard work, and benevolence of Atkins.

Homer’s wife Emma is another example of this sturdy American character. She is happy to live in a simple cottage in Sarkhan with relatively primitive facilities: “pressed earth floors, one spigot of cold water, a charcoal fire, two very comfortable hammocks, a horde of small, harmless insects.” She does not for a moment miss the amenities of a modern American kitchen or the luxuries that are available in an advanced civilization. Indeed, in their simple, self-reliant way of living, Homer and Emma Atkins resemble not so much a modern American couple but a throwback to earlier times, the nineteenth century or even the colonial period. As John Hellmann points out in his book American Myth and the Legacy of Vietnam, the Americans who have the right approach in The Ugly American represent ideas about the American character and about the nation’s role in the world that go back to colonial times. One of these myths is of the frontier hero, with the frontier displaced in the novel from the American West onto the landscape of Southeast Asia.

Seen in this light, The Ugly American is not only an indictment of the ineffectiveness of U.S. policy in Southeast Asia, it is also a wake-up call to Americans to rediscover their own best qualities and values. The authors return to this theme in their “Factual Epilogue,” in which they write:

We have so lost sight of our own past that we are trying to sell guns and money alone, instead of remembering that is was the quest for the dignity of freedom that was responsible for our way of life.

The authors’ conclusion, in which they write, “All over Asia we have found that the basic American ethic is revered and honored and imitated when possible,” sends a very clear message. As long as Americans remain true to themselves and their values, they have nothing to fear from communist aggression; they will surely prevail.

Source: Bryan Aubrey, Critical Essay on The Ugly American, in Novels for Students, Thomson Gale, 2006.

Quotes

“The men calling themselves Communists say that the soul and the State are identical. The price of being a Communist is that you must give them your soul and your will.” Chapter 3, p. 46.

“First, stop talking about Russian tractors and promising we will send some here. We can’t do it. We’ve got all we can do to supply military hardware to Ho Chi Minh in Vietnam. Second, bear down on the owners of property. Don’t talk about ‘social ownership of lands.’ That only scares the peasants. Peasants are backward types. They want private property, not collective farms. Later they’ll see the necessity for common ownership, but not now.” Chapter 3, p. 55.

“How many people do you think we could round up in this country who can speak Cambodian or Japanese or even German? Well, not very many. I don’t parlez vous very well myself, but I’ve always made out pretty well in foreign countries. Fact is, we don’t expect you to know the native language. Translators are a dime a dozen overseas. And besides, it’s better to make the Asians learn English.” Chapter 6, p. 70.

“MacWhite knew that all of his careful work, his spending of millions of dollars, his cunning strategy, were all wasted. He knew that he, the Honorable Gilbert MacWhite, had made a terrible mistake. Somewhere in his carefully trained mind, in his rigorous background, in his missionary zeal, there was a flaw. It hit him very hard. Beneath the humility he had always, consciously, kept on the surface, and which he had always believed in, not only as a requirement of the social human, not only as a prerequisite of the receptive mind, but also as a reality of himself–beneath that humility there had been a rigid core of ego which had permitted him to place a fatal amount of faith in his own, unsupported judgment.” Chapter 9, p. 89.

“Since December of 1956 the French have been fighting a war which has been maneuvered by the Communists precisely along the lines which Mao outlined in this pamphlet. You are a military man–you will please excuse my bluntness–but you made every mistake Mao wanted you to. You ignored his every lesson for fighting on this type of terrain. You neglected to get the political and economic cooperation of the Vietnamese, even though Mao proved long ago that Asians will not fight otherwise.” Chapter 12, p. 117.

“U Maung Swe said, ‘Poor America. It took the British a hundred years to lose their prestige in Asia. America has managed to lose hers in ten years.'” Chapter 13, p. 122.

“‘Now, listen, goddamn it,’ he [Tom Knox] roared. ‘You people have been sitting on your asses here in Phnom Penh and you never get out to see a real person. I’m telling you right now that if we could increase the egg production of this country two hundred per cent we would do as much to help the average Cambodian as we would by building that damn expensive highway or that canal.'” Chapter 14, p. 137.

“When I was asked to read palms at the Philippine Ambassador’s dinner, it was a God-given opportunity. All of the Sarkhanese brass except the King were present. And then that knucklehead of an assistant of yours, instead of helping me, started laughing at me and trying to make a fool out of me. If he had an ounce of brains, he would have noticed how serious the Sarkhanese were. And if those fools in the State Department had briefed him properly, he would have known all about palmistry and astrology before he even came here.” Chapter 15, p. 134.

“And don’t kid yourself, gentlemen; unless you feel they’re equals and act on that feeling, they’ll never respond. I’ve seen it happen too many times. Make someone feel inferior in a negotiating situation, and he’ll be the toughest guy around the table. Gentlemen, that is where I stand, and that is the way I will run my delegation.” Chapter 16, p. 167.

“Emma said softly, ‘You’ve got a good machine there. I’m proud of you. But don’t think that just because it’s good the Sarkhanese are going to start using it right away. Remember that awful time you had getting trade unions in America to accept earth-moving equipment. These people are no different. You have to let them use the machine themselves and in their own way. If you try to ram it down their throats, they’ll never use it.'” Chapter 18, p. 184.

“For many centuries, longer than any can remember, we have always had old people with bent backs in this village. And in every village that we know of the old people have always had bent backs. We had always thought this was a part of growing old, and it was one of the reasons that we dreaded old age. But, wife of the engineer, you have changed all that. By the lucky accident of your long-handled broom you showed us a new way to sweep. It is a small thing, but it has changed the lives of our old people.” Chapter 19, p. 201.

“Dr. Barre, this is the first time you have ever suffered through the visit of a politician, and you’re going to find it a trying time. Politicians aren’t interested in the reality of things; they’re only interested in getting votes and occasionally making some Boy Scout points for themselves by proposing a big cut in our foreign aid budget.” Chapter 20, p. 208.

“If we cannot get Americans overseas who are trained, self-sacrificing, and dedicated, then we will continue losing in Asia. The Russians will win without firing a shot, and the only choice open to us will be to become the aggressor with thermonuclear weapons.” Chapter 21, p. 227.

Media Adaptations

The Ugly American was made into a film in 1962, produced and directed by George Englund and starring Marlon Brando as Ambassador Gilbert MacWhite. For his work on the film, Englund was nominated for a Golden Globe award.

Topics for Further Study

What was the Gulf of Tonkin incident in 1964, and how did it lead to the Vietnam War? What are the lessons to be derived from the Vietnam War? In what ways does the early 2000s conflict in Iraq resemble the Vietnam War and in what ways does it not? Give a classroom presentation in which you compare and contrast the Vietnam War and the conflict in Iraq.

As of 2005, what is the U.S. mission in the world, given that the cold war is over? Does the United States have a right to expect other countries to adopt democracy? Is democracy always the best form of government? Explain your position with examples.

In terms of an enemy that threatens the United States, what is the difference between international terrorism by a group such as Al Qaeda and Soviet communism? How does the fight against terrorism resemble the fight against communism, and how does it differ? What is the best way to defeat international terrorism?

Research the cold war and discuss the various reasons that have been advanced to explain the fact that the United States won and the Soviet Union lost. What were the roles played by President Ronald Reagan and Soviet president Mikhail Gorbachev? Write a compare and contrast paper on Reagan and Gorbachev.

Select any international problem and write a short story, in the style of The Ugly American, illustrating two different ways, one foolish and counter-productive and the other wise and effective, in which the problem might be approached or solved. The problem can be anything from global warming to nuclear proliferation or the AIDS epidemic.

Compare and Contrast

1950s: In 1957, the Russians launch Sputnik 1, the first space satellite, thus inaugurating the space age. This event prompts fears in the United States that the Soviet Union may be leading in military technology and may be able to launch ballistic missiles from Europe that could reach the United States. The Sputnik launch leads directly to the creation of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in 1958. The following decade is dominated by the so-called space race between the two superpowers.

Today: In 2004, President George W. Bush announces a new vision for the nation’s space exploration program. The president commits the United States to a long-term human and robotic program to explore the solar system, starting with a return to the Moon that will ultimately enable future exploration of Mars and other destinations. The return to the Moon is planned for as early as 2015 and no later than 2020.

1950s: The cold war between the United States and the communist Soviet Union dominates global politics. Fear of communist conspiracies in the United States leads to the McCarthy era, named for the role played by Senator Joe McCarthy (R-Wis.). McCarthy uses unscrupulous and demagogic methods to expose alleged communists and their sympathizers, but his methods are so extreme that he is discredited. He is censured by the Senate in 1954.

Today: The cold war is over, and communism survives in only a few states in the world (Vietnam, Cuba, North Korea). Instead of communism, the greatest perceived danger to the United States and the West is international terrorism. Just as during the cold war, politicians did not want to be perceived by voters as being “soft on communism,” so today, politicians like to win votes by presenting themselves as tough on terrorism and their opponents as weak.

1950s: The United States begins its involvement in Vietnam by sending military aid to the French in their struggle with the communists. After the French defeat, U.S. efforts in the region focus on establishing a stable noncommunist government in South Vietnam that will be friendly to U.S. interests.

Today: The Vietnam War, which ended in U.S. defeat, still casts a shadow over the national psyche and national politics. In the presidential election of 2004, Democratic candidate Senator John Kerry relies heavily on his experience as a decorated Vietnam War veteran, while his record in Vietnam is challenged in television advertisements by a conservative group of Vietnam veterans.

What Do I Read Next?

In Sarkhan (1965; published as The Deceptive American in 1977) Burdick and Lederer return to the fictional landscape of The Ugly American. The novel is about the attempts of two Americans, one a businessman and the other a professor, to prevent a communist takeover of the country. As in The Ugly American, the authors are critical of the U.S. government, and the characterization exhibits the same black and white quality of the earlier novel. But unlike The Ugly AmericanSarkhan is a suspense novel that builds to a thrilling climax.

The Quiet American (1955), by British novelist Graham Greene, takes place in Saigon, Vietnam, during the later stages of the French war in Indochina in the 1950s. The “quiet American” is Alden Pyle, who works for an American aid mission in Saigon but is also involved through the Central Intelligence Agency with espionage and terrorism. The novel offers insight into the early U.S. involvement in Vietnam. Greene’s apparent anti-American stance meant that the novel was not initially popular in the United States, but Greene’s warnings about American policies proved prescient.

Dennis Bloodworth’s An Eye for the Dragon: Southeast Asia Observed, 1954-1970 (1970) is a lively journalistic account of Southeast Asia by a veteran Far Eastern correspondent. Bloodworth’s purpose is to describe historical and contemporary events in a way that reveals the beliefs, customs, prejudices, and patterns of thought in the people of Southeast Asia. He also describes the love-hate relationship between these countries and the West.

Eric F. Goldman’s The Crucial Decade and After: America, 1945-1960 (1960) is a classic account of the United States at home and abroad in the years following the end of World War II. Goldman shows how, after much debate and disagreement, the United States continued on the economic and social revolution it had embarked on in the previous two decades. This continuation was achieved by extensions of the welfare state (a system in which government strives to create economic and social benefits for all its citizens) and other policies. Goldman also shows how the United States continued the policies mapped out in the immediate postwar years for containment of the Soviet Union and co-existence with it.

For Further Reading

Allen, Richard, A Short Introduction to the History and Politics of Southeast Asia, Oxford University Press, 1970.

This concise survey of Southeast Asia is very useful for understanding the political situation in that region in the 1950s. Especially interesting is Allen’s discussion of the French involvement in Indochina and their defeat at Dien Bien Phu in 1954, which sheds light on the episodes involving Major Monet and Major Wolchek in The Ugly American.

Christie, Clive, “The Quiet American” and “The Ugly American”: Western Literary Perspectives on Indo-China in a Decade of Transition, 1950-1960, University of Kent at Canterbury, Centre of South-East Asian Studies, Occasional Paper No. 10, 1989.

Christie discusses Graham Greene’s The Quiet AmericanThe Ugly American, the memoirs of Dr. Thomas Dooley, a U.S. Navy doctor who worked in Vietnam and Laos in the 1950s, and French literature about the war in Indochina. Christie analyzes these works in the context of the struggle with communism in Southeast Asia and prevailing Western political attitudes toward Asia.

Kuhn, Delia W., “Bagging Asia,” in Saturday Review, October 4, 1958, pp. 32-33.

In this review of The Ugly American, Kuhn, like some other reviewers, criticized what she regarded as shallow characterization. But she also expressed respect for the authors’ direct experience of their subject while remaining skeptical of any belief that somehow the United States could save Asia.

Steel, Ronald, Pax Americana: The Cold War Empire and the Politics of Counterrevolution, revised edition, Penguin, 1970.

In this widely read book, first published in 1967, Steel discusses the idea of a “Pax Americana” (Latin for “American peace”), which for him was based on a benevolent imperialism with a noble purpose. Steel’s chapter on U.S. foreign aid and how it serves the purposes of imperialism has great relevance for The Ugly American. In the revised edition, published when the United States was heading for defeat in Vietnam, Steel modified his views, arguing that it was not so easy to claim that U.S. foreign policy was designed to promote liberty.

Bibliography

Abrams, M. H., A Glossary of Literary Terms, fourth edition, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1981, p. 6.

Buss, Claude A., Southeast Asia and the World Today, D. Van Nostrand, pp. 92-93.

Hatch, Robert, “Books in Brief,” in The Nation, October 4, 1958, p. 199.

Hellmann, John, American Myth and the Legacy of Vietnam, Columbia University Press, 1986, p. 17.

Lederer, William J., and Eugene Burdick, The Ugly American, Norton, 1958.

Mill, Edward W., “A New Diplomacy for Asia,” in Yale Review, Spring 1959, p. 434.

Trumbull, Robert, “The Ambassador Who Didn’t Read Sarkhanese,” in New York Times Book Review, October 5, 1958, p. 38.

Vandenbosch, Amry, “Our Friends and Antagonists in Southeast Asia,” in Southeast Asia in the Coming World, edited by Philip W. Thayer, Johns Hopkins Press, 1953, p. 47.

Williams, Lea E., Southeast Asia: A History, Oxford University Press, 1976, p. 266.

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all of the following are disadvantages of organizing projects within a matrix arrangement except

1    
Organizational culture is best explained as organizational
    A)
Personality
    B)
Hierarchy
    C)
Reporting relationships
    D)
Background
    E)
Management style
    

 
2    
Which of the following is NOT true of project management structures?
    A)
They provide a framework for launching and implementing projects
    B)
They appropriately balance the needs of both the parent organization and the project
    C)
In selecting a management structure, the culture of the organization is not a huge consideration
    D)
The project itself should be considered when determining which structure is best
    E)
They help determine who has most authority in regard to managing the project
    

 
3    
All of the following are disadvantages of organizing projects within a matrix arrangement EXCEPT
    A)
Dysfunctional conflict between functional managers and project managers
    B)
Expensive
    C)
Infighting
    D)
Stressful
    E)
Longer project duration
    

 
4    
Bill is working on a project involving the upgrading of a management information system. The project is being managed by the information systems department with the coordination of other departments occurring through normal channels. He is working in _________
    A)
Functional
    B)
Balanced matrix
    C)
Weak matrix
    D)
Strong matrix
    E)
Projectized
    

 
5    
Which of the following is a disadvantage of a projectized organization?
    A)
It is expensive
    B)
Longer project duration
    C)
Poor integration
    D)
High complexity
    E)
Lack of focus on the project
    

 
6    
A project team that operates with a full-time project manager as a separate unit from the rest of the organization is structured using ________ organization.
    A)
Functional
    B)
Balanced matrix
    C)
Weak matrix
    D)
Strong matrix
    E)
Projectized
    

 
7    
All of the following are organizational considerations when determining the right project management structure EXCEPT
    A)
How important project management is to the success of the organization?
    B)
What percentage of core work involves projects?
    C)
Resource availability
    D)
Assess current practices and determine any changes that are needed to more effectively manage projects.
    E)
Budget constraints
    

 
8    
Which are the three different matrix systems discussed in the text?
    A)
Functional, Weak, Strong
    B)
Balanced, Functional, Projectized
    C)
Weak, Strong, Balanced
    D)
Neutral, Weak, Strong
    E)
Functional, Neutral, Projectized
    

 
9    
In which of the following is the balance of authority strongly in favor of the functional managers?
    A)
Weak matrix
    B)
Balanced matrix
    C)
Strong matrix
    D)
Matrix
    E)
Neutral matrix
    

 
10    
All of the following are functions culture plays in an organization EXCEPT
    A)
It provides a sense of identity
    B)
It helps legitimize the management system
    C)
It replaces the need for a project selection process
    D)
It helps create social order
    E)
It clarifies and reinforces standards of behavior
    

 
11    
How does someone learn more about an organization’s culture?
    A)
Read about the organization
    B)
Interpret stories about the organization
    C)
Observe how people interact within the organization
    D)
Study the physical characteristics of the organization
    E)
All of these are examples of how someone can learn more about an organization’s culture
    

 
12    
From the list below, which is NOT a primary characteristic of organizational culture?
    A)
Control
    B)
Team emphasis
    C)
Profitability
    D)
Conflict tolerance
    E)
Risk tolerance
    

 
13    
Which of the following cultural characteristic relates to the degree to which rules, policies, and direct supervision are used to oversee and control employee behavior?
    A)
Member identity
    B)
Team emphasis
    C)
Managerial focus
    D)
Unit integration
    E)
Control
    

 
14    
Which of the following cultural characteristics relates to the degree to which groups within the organization are encouraged to operate in a coordinated or independent manner?
    A)
Member identity
    B)
Team emphasis
    C)
Managerial focus
    D)
Unit integration
    E)
Control
    

 
15    
Which of the following cultural characteristics relates to the degree to which management focuses on outcomes rather than on techniques and processes used to achieve those outcomes?
    A)
Risk tolerance
    B)
Reward criteria
    C)
Conflict tolerance
    D)
Means versus end orientation
    E)
Open-systems focus

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what makes the psychoanalytic-social perspective of personality unique?

Psychoanalytic-Social Personality Perspective

Running head: PSYCHOANALYTIC-SOCIAL PERSONALITY PERSPECTIVE1
PSYCHOANALYTIC-SOCIAL PERSONALITY PERSPECTIVE2

Psychoanalytic-Social Personality Perspective

What makes the psychoanalytic-social perspective of personality unique?

A simple breakdown shows that the psychoanalytic social theory was created upon the theory that cultural and social conditions, particularly the various experiences one would have during their childhood, play a big role in shaping a person’s personality. Those who did not have their needs for love and affection fulfilled during their childhood develop some sort of aggression towards their parents. Because of this aggression they could develop some level of anxiety. It could be an understood culture that is not controlled by any sort of cultural values, but this could be a hard task to complete. “Erikson envisioned a psychoanalytic approach that would consider social and cultural realities rather than focusing exclusively on the individual, as Freud had done. James Cote and Charles Levine have developed such a psychoanalytic social psychology in their research and theorizing” (Cloninger, 2013).

What are the main components of each of the psychoanalytic-social personality theories? What are some of the main differences between theories?

According to Freud’s structure of the human mind, there are three main components of each of the psychoanalytic social personality theories. The first one being Id which is the most primitive is concerned with instant gratification of basic needs and urges. “For example, if your id walked past a stranger eating ice cream, it would most likely take the ice cream for itself” (having the “I want it now mentality), according to Boundless (2016). The Superego is more concentrated on rules and morals and related to what many people call their “conscience” or their “moral compass” (Boundless, 2016). For example, having both your id and superego involved in taking the ice cream, you would still take it but feel bad or guilty afterwards. Last is the Ego, which is the rational part of our personality. The ego does not want to take something knowing right from wrong but still wants the ice cream. Instead of frustrating you id, your ego makes a sacrifice as part of compromising (Boundless, 2016).

Some main differences between the theories are the feelings and emotions you have after following or satisfying your mentality at that moment and the actions taken in order to not only get what is wanted but also how to compromise.

Choose one of the psychoanalytic-social personality theories, and apply it to your own life. Explain your own personality and personality development through this theory.

The psychoanalytic social personality I choose is the Ego. When I want something, rather than taking it and making not only the person it belongs to feel horrible but also myself, I try to hit two birds’ with one stone. I either find out where they go it from and get my own or trade and sometimes ask if I can have the item.

My personality through this is more of a kind, warm-hearted, caring person. My personality traits also include sharing and open-mindedness along with willing to try new experiences. The personality development I have gone through is someone stealing from me and the feeling I had afterwards. This made me not want to ever have a person feel like they had been violated or worthless.

References

Boundless (2016). Boundless Psychology. Retrieved from https://www.boundless.com/psychology/textbooks/boundless-psychology-textbook/personality-16/psychodynamic-perspectives-on-personality-77/freudian-psychoanalytic-theory-of-personality-304-12839/

Cloninger, S (2013). Theories of Personality: Understanding Persons. Retrieved from the University of Phoenix eBook Collection database.

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what is the future value of $11,600 invested for 17 years at 7.25 percent compounded annually?

Pennsylvania State University – Abington

Spring 2018

FIN 301 – Mock Exam 2

Please write your first and last name in the space provided:

____________________________________________________________

Note: Formula Sheet is on the last page.

1. Terry is calculating the present value of a bonus he will receive next year. The process he is using is called:

A. Reducing.

B. Compounding.

C. Accumulating.

D. Discounting.

2. Alex invested $10,500 in an account that pays 6 percent simple interest. How much money will he have at the end of four years?

A. $12,650

B. $12,967

C. $13,020

D. $13,256

3. __________ is the process of determining the future value of an investment.

A. Compounding.

B. Simplifying.

C. Aggregation.

D. Discounting.

4. True or False. The amount of compound interest you earn is constant each year, whereas the amount of simple interest gets bigger every year.

A. True

B. False

5. Travis invested $8,250 in an account that pays 4 percent simple interest. How much more could he have earned over a 7-year period if the interest had compounded annually?

A. $341.41

B. $296.44

C. $302.16

D. $266.67

6. What is the future value of $11,600 invested for 17 years at 7.25 percent compounded annually?

A. $32,483.60

B. $27,890.87

C. $38,125.20

D. $41,009.13

7. This morning, DJ’s invested $238,000 to help fund a company expansion project. How much additional money will the firm have three years from now if it can earn 4 percent rather than 3.5 percent on its savings? Assume it’s a compound interest.

A. $3,940.09

B. $3,842.78

C. $4,008.17

D. $4,219.68

8. You would like to give your daughter $75,000 towards her college education 17 years from now. How much money must you set aside today for this purpose if you can earn 8 percent compound interest on your investments?

A. $18,388.19

B. $20,270.17

C. $28,417.67

D. $29,311.13

9. Sixty years ago, your mother invested $4,500. Today, that investment is worth $430,065.11. What is the average annual compound rate of return she earned on this investment?

A. 6.67 percent

B. 11.71 percent

C. 7.90 percent

D. 10.40 percent

10. Interest earned on both the initial principal and the interest reinvested from prior periods is called:

A. Free interest.

B. Dual interest.

C. Simple interest.

D. Compound interest.

11. An annuity is best defined by which one of the following?

A. Increasing payments paid for a definitive period of time.

B. Increasing payments paid at regular intervalsforever.

C. Equal payments paid at regular intervals over a stated time period.

D. Equal payments paid at regular intervals for an unlimited time period.

12. Jane plans on saving $2,000 a year and expects to earn an annual compound rate of 8.8 percent. How much will she have in her account at the end of 43 years?

A. $806,429

B. $838,369

C. $997,407

D. $831,532

13. A loan where the borrower receives money today and repays a single lump sum (total interest and loan principal) on a future date is called a(n) _____ loan.

A. Amortized.

B. Interest-only.

C. Balloon.

D. Pure discount.

14. You are looking at two savings accounts. Bank A pays 17.0 percent compounded monthly. Bank B pays 13.0 percent compounded daily. Which of these is the best if you are thinking of opening a savings account? (i.e. which bank charges a higher effective annual rate)

A. Bank A

B. Bank B

15. Ian will make the following deposits in a bank account that pays 10 percent compound interest: $100 today, $300 in two years from now and $500 in 4 years from now. Draw a timeline for this example.

16. Use information provided in question 15. On the above timeline, demonstrate calculations you would do for each cash flow to know how much Ian will have in his account in 4 years from now.

17. Use information provided in question 15.How much will Ian have in 4 years?

A. $ 689.44

B. $ 999.96

C. $ 1,009.41

D. $ 1,059.41

18. Mortgages are structured as _____ loans.

A. Pure discount

B. Interest-only

C. Amortized

D. Balloon.

19. Suppose you need $300 in one year from now, $400 in two years from now and $600 in three years from now. You can earn 10% compound interest. Draw a timeline for this example.

20. Use information provided in question 19. On the above timeline, demonstrate calculations you would do for each cash flow to find how much do you have to put up today to exactly cover these amounts in the future?

21. Use information provided in question 19. Overall, how much do you have to put up today to exactly cover these amounts in the future?

A. $ 1,054.10

B. $ 1,081.37

C. $ 1,439.30

D. $ 1,499.30

22. Investment X offers to pay you $4,700 per year for 8 years, whereas Investment Y offers to pay you $6,700 per year for 5 years. Assume the discount rate is 5 percent. Which of these cash flow streams has the higher present value?

A. Investment X

B. Investment Y

C. Their present values are the same.

23. If you put up $38,000 today in exchange for a 5.8 percent, 15-year annuity, what will the annual cash flow be?

A. $ 1,450.85

B. $ 3,861.62

C. $ 7,723.23

D. $ 88,525.55

24. Today, Dinero Bank offers you a 5-year $50,000 loan at an annual compound interest of 7.5 percent. What will your annual loan payment be?

A. $ 8,158.04

B. $ 8,608.24

C. $ 12,358.24

D. $ 71.781.47

25. Today, you earn a salary of $28,000. What will be your annual salary 12 years from now if you earn annual raises of 2.6 percent? Assume it’s a compound growth rate.

A. $38,100.12

B. $37,414.06

C. $38,235.24

D. $37,122.08

26. At 6 percent interest, how long would it take to double your money?

A. 11.90 years

B. 16.64 years

C. 18.87 years

D. 23.79 years

27. Allison just received her semiannual payment of $35 on a bond she owns. Which term refers to this payment?

A. Coupon.

B. Face value.

C. Discount.

D. Yield to maturity.

28. A___________ is generally defined as a long-term debt with an initial maturity of 10 years or less, whereas a___________ is a long-term debt with an initial maturity of more than 10 years.

A. Note; bond

B. Bond; note

C. Unfunded debt; note

D. Note; unfunded debt

29. True or False. Compounding during the year can lead to a significant difference between the quoted rate and the effective annual rate.

A. True

B. False

30. Suppose XYZ Corporation wants to issue a $1,000 bond with 20 years to maturity. This bond has an annual coupon rate of 10%. Similar bonds have a yield to maturity of 10%. Draw a timeline to show cash flows associated with this bond for XYZ Corporation,which is the borrower in this transaction.

31. Use information provided in question 30. Draw a timeline to show cash flows associated with this bond for bondholders.

32. Use information provided in question 30. What is the present value of coupons?

A. $ 14.86

B. $ 148.64

C. $ 491.57

D. $ 851.36

33. Use information provided in question 30. What is the present value of face value?

A. $ 83.33

B. $ 148.64

C. $ 851.36

D. $ 909.09

34. In class, we talked about the differences between debt and equity.

True or False: Common shareholders do not have voting power, whereas creditors vote for the board of directors and other issues.

A. True

B. False

35. True or False. When corporations fund their operations by issuing/selling bonds, they promise to make regularly scheduled interest payments and to repay the original amount borrowed at maturity.

A. True

B. False

36. Future Motors is expected to pay a $3.30 a share annual dividend next year. Dividends are expected to increase by 2.75 percent annually. What is one share of this stock worth to you today if your required rate of return is 15 percent?

A. $24.56

B. $25.06

C. $26.60

D. $26.94

37. A______ arranges a transaction between a buyer and a seller of equity securities but does not maintain an inventory, whereas a ______maintains an inventory from which he or she buys and sells securities.

A. dealer, broker

B. broker, dealer

C. capitalist, dealer

D. broker, capitalist

38. You cannot attend the shareholder’s meeting for Alpha United so you authorize another shareholder to vote on your behalf. What is the granting of this authority called?

A. Alternative voting.

B. Cumulative voting.

C. Straight voting.

D. Voting by proxy.

39. Three Corners Markets paid an annual dividend of $1.37 a share last month. Today, the company announced that future dividends will be increasing by 2.8 percent annually. If you require a return of 11.6 percent, how much are you willing to pay to purchase one share of this stock today?

A. $15.56

B. $16.00

C. $16.67

D. $17.68

40. As a common shareholder you will have the following rights except for:

A. Right to elect the corporate directors.

B. Right to attend annual meetings.

C. Right to share in company profits prior to other shareholders.

D. Right to share in company profits after preferred shareholders.

41. True or False. Most dividends on preferred stock are cumulative, which means that any missed preferred dividends must be paid before common dividends can be paid.

A. True

B. False

Formula Sheet:

1. FV = PV*(1 + r)t

2. PV = FV / (1 + r)t

3. = (FV / PV)1/t – 1

4. t = ln(FV / PV) / ln(1 + r)

5. Bond Value = PV of coupons + PV of par value or

6. Coupon payment = face (or par) value * coupon rate

7. Effective Annual Rate (EAR):

· m is the number of compounding periods per year

1

t

t

r)

(1

FV

r

r)

(1

1

1

C

Value

Bond

+

+

ú

ú

ú

ú

û

ù

ê

ê

ê

ê

ë

é

+

=

1

m

Rate

Quoted

1

EAR

m

ú

û

ù

ê

ë

é

+

=

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what is the payback period for the following set of cash flows?

Page 305

Question 1. Calculating Payback[LO2] What is the payback period for the following set of cash flows?

YearCash Flow
0−$7,600
1 1,900
2 2,900
3 2,300
4 1,700

Question 3. Calculating Payback[LO2] Siva, Inc., imposes a payback cutoff of three years for its international investment projects. If the company has the following two projects available, should it accept either of them?.

YearCash Flow (A)Cash Flow (B)
0−$45,000−$ 55,000
1 16,000 13,000
2 21,000 15,000
3 15,000 24,000
4 9,000 255,000

Question 4.  Calculating Discounted Payback[LO3] An investment project has annual cash inflows of $2,800, $3,700, $5,100, and $4,300, for the next four years, respectively. The discount rate is 14 percent. What is the discounted payback period for these cash flows if the initial cost is $5,200? What if the initial cost is $5,400? What if it is $10,400

Page 306

Question6. Calculating AAR[LO4] You’re trying to determine whether to expand your business by building a new manufacturing plant. The plant has an installation cost of $15 million, which will be depreciated straight-line to zero over its four-year life. If the plant has projected net income of $1,754,000, $1,820,500, $1,716,300, and $1,097,400 over these four years, what is the project’s average accounting return (AAR)?

Question 7.  Calculating IRR[LO5] A firm evaluates all of its projects by applying the IRR rule. If the required return is 14 percent, should the firm accept the following project?

YearCash Flow
0−$26,000
1 11,000
2 14,000
3 10,000

Question 8. Calculating NPV[LO1] For the cash flows in the previous problem, suppose the firm uses the NPV decision rule. At a required return of 11 percent, should the firm accept this project? What if the required return is 24 percent?

Page 307

Question 15. Calculating Profitability Index[LO7] What is the profitability index for the following set of cash flows if the relevant discount rate is 10 percent? What if the discount rate is 15 percent? If it is 22 percent?

YearCash Flow
0−$15,300
1 9,400
2 7,600
3 4,300

Question 16.Problems with Profitability Index[LO1,7] The Sloan Corporation is trying to choose between the following two mutually exclusive design projects:

YearCash Flow (I)Cash Flow (II)
0−$51,000−$14,400
1 24,800 7,800
2 24,800 7,800
3 24,800 7,800

1.  If the required return is 10 percent and the company applies the profitability index decision rule, which project should the firm accept?

2.  If the company applies the NPV decision rule, which project should it take?

3.  Explain why your answers in (a) and (b) are different.

Page 308

Question 17.   Comparing Investment Criteria[LO1,2,3,5,7] Consider the following two mutually exclusive projects:

YearCash Flow (A)Cash Flow (B)
0−$455,000−$65,000
1 58,000 31,000
2 85,000 28,000
3 85,000 25,000
4 572,000 19,000

Whichever project you choose, if any, you require a return of 11 percent on your investment.

1.  If you apply the payback criterion, which investment will you choose? Why?

2.  If you apply the discounted payback criterion, which investment will you choose? Why?

3.  If you apply the NPV criterion, which investment will you choose? Why?

4.  If you apply the IRR criterion, which investment will you choose? Why?

5.  If you apply the profitability index criterion, which investment will you choose? Why?

6.  Based on your answers in (a) through (e), which project will you finally choose? Why?

Question 19. MIRR[LO6] RAK Corp. is evaluating a project with the following cash flows:

Year Cash Flow
0−$41,000
1 15,700
2 19,400
3 24,300
4 18,100
5 −9,400

The company uses an interest rate of 10 percent on all of its projects. Calculate the MIRR of the project using all three methods.

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what is the main difference between the equity and exchange philosophies of compensation?

Question 1. 1. What is the main difference between the equity and exchange philosophies of compensation
     The equity philosophy is based on available budget; the exchange philosophy is based on profit margins.
       The equity philosophy is based on fairness; the exchange philosophy is based on employee value.
       The equity philosophy is based on profit margins; the exchange philosophy is based on available budget.
       The equity philosophy is based on employee value; the exchange philosophy is based on fairness.


Question 2. 2. What is unique about staffing practices at the online shoe company Zappos? (Points : 1)
       New hires are trained by employees of other successful shoe companies.
       Employees are trained to do every job in the company.
       Trainees are offered up to $2,000 to quit the company at any time.
       The CEO personally trains every single employee.


Question 3. 3. Which of the following laws give workers the right to join a union without fear of discrimination or retribution? (Points : 1)
       The Norris–LaGuardia Act of 1932
       The Wagner Act of 1935
       The Taft-Hartley Act of 1948
       The Landrum-Griffin/Labor-Management Reporting and Disclosure Act of 1959


Question 4. 4. The Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) requires employers to do all of the following EXCEPT (Points : 1)
       provide protection from at-work hazards
       notify supervisors of hazardous conditions
       monitor employees’ health habits
       enforce the use of safety equipment


Question 5. 5. Internal sourcing and external sourcing are part of the process of __________________. (Points : 1)
       recruiting
       employee orientation
       employee selection
       job design


Question 6. 6. Which of the following methods constitute on-the-job training methods? (Points : 1)
       demonstration; apprenticeship; and sink-or-swim
       simulation; film and classroom; and vestibule
       demonstration; film and classroom; and sink-or-swim
       sink-or-swim; vestibule; and apprenticeship


Question 7. 7. Vanessa starts her new job as a marketing strategist for Orion Food and Beverage today. As part of her orientation, she is told to study the position duties on her own, and she uses an online training manual to familiarize herself with company processes. What kind of employee training method is Vanessa most likely engaged in? (Points : 1)
       film and classroom
       simulation
       vestibule
       demonstration


Question 8. 8. Bonuses, contest prizes, and profit sharing are examples of which type of compensation? (Points : 1)
       incentives
       base pay
       benefits
       exchange


Question 9. 9. Benefit packages typically comprise about _______% of an employee’s base pay. (Points : 1)
       5–10
       10–15
       15–20
       20–30


Question 10. 10. Which of the following scenarios describes the 360-degree assessment technique? (Points : 1)
       David’s performance is evaluated by his work over the last calendar year.
       David’s performance is evaluated using a BARS scale.
       David’s performance is evaluated based on the areas in which he has made the most progress.
       David’s performance is evaluated by peers, subordinates, customers, and himself.

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Unit 2: Module 2 – M2 Assignment 2

 Assignment 2: Attentional BlinkThere are many stimuli in your environment of which you are not aware. You use attention to filter out unimportant stimuli and focus on relevant stimuli. However, there are circumstances under which you cannot perceive stimuli, regardless of how hard you “pay attention.” One situation is when visual stimuli are presented in quick succession. If the interval between the two stimuli is short enough, you do not perceive the second stimulus. This lapse in attention is known as attentional blink. In this assignment, you will experience the attentional blink for yourself and will also read about practical implications of the phenomenon.Access the CogLab demonstrationAttentional Blink. Follow the instructions to complete the demonstration.Read the following article:Livesey, E. J., Harris, I. M., & Harris, J. A. (2009). Attentional changes during implicit learning: Signal validity protects a target stimulus from the attentional blink. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 35(2), 408-408-422. doi:10.1037/a0014525 (ProQuest Document ID: 614494049)Using the experience from the CogLab demonstration and information from the article, write a paper that addresses the following:Explain how the attentional blink relates to attention. Analyze how the variation in time influences the probability of seeing the second target letter. Explain the circumstances under which the attentional blink can be eliminated.In the CogLab demonstration, letters were used as targets. The target used can influence the duration of one’s attentional blink and whether the attentional blink even occurs. Complete the following tasks:Propose at least two other targets that could be used to induce the attentional blink.Predict the effect each of your suggested targets would have on the duration of one’s attentional blink as compared to the CogLab activity you completed.Explain the reasoning behind your predictions.Present and discuss at least three occupations in which workers’ performance could be adversely affected by attentional blink. Identify and explain the types of problems or mistakes that might occur in such occupations due to the attentional blink.Several years ago, some vehicle models came with a heads-up display (HUD). Instead of looking down at a panel on the dashboard, speed, distance traveled, fuel level, and time appeared to be displayed over the hood of the car. Discuss this design in terms of divided attention and attentional blink. Do you think the design was a good idea?Write a 4-page paper in Word format. Apply APA standards to citation of sources. Use the following file naming convention: LastnameFirstInitial_M2_A2.doc.By Wednesday, November 12, 2014, deliver your assignment to the M2: Assignment 2 Dropbox.Assignment 2 Grading CriteriaMaximum PointsExplained the phenomenon of attention, described how time between targets affects the probability of seeing the second target, and analyzed how it can be eliminated or reduced in other conditions showing understanding and application of cognitive psychology concepts.20Applied knowledge of cognitive psychology concepts to propose other targets appropriate for experiment, predict their effects on attentional blink, and provide an explanation for predictions showing understanding and application of cognitive psychology concepts.20Identified three occupations that could adversely be affected by attentional blink and explained the types of problems or mistakes that might occur in such occupations due to attentional blink showing understanding and application of cognitive psychology concepts.24Related the concepts of divided attention and attentional blink to explain the heads-up display (HUD) design.16Wrote in a clear, concise, and organized manner; demonstrated ethical scholarship in accurate representation and attribution of sources; displayed accurate spelling, grammar, and punctuation.20Total:100   

              

               
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assume that the following cost data are for a purely competitive producer:

Assume the following cost data are for a purely competitive producer. Total Product Average Fixed Cost Average Variable Cost Average Total Cost Marginal Cost 0 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 na 1 $60.00 $45.00 $105.00 $45 2 30.00 42.50 72.50 40 3 20.00 40.00 60.00 35 4 15.00 37.50 52.50 30 5 12.00 37.00 49.00 35 6 10.00 37.50 47.50 40 7 8.57 38.57 47.14 45 8 7.50 40.63 48.13 55 9 6.67 43.33 50.00 65 10 6.00 46.50 52.50 75 Answer the questions in the first column in the table below for each of the prices listed at the top of each of the three columns, (a), (b), and (c). Instructions: Round your answers to two decimal places. Select “Not applicable” and enter “0” for output if the firm does not produce. (a) At a product price of $56 (b) At a product price of $41 (c) At a product price of $32 Will this firm produce in the short run? If it is preferable to produce, what will be the profit-maximizing or loss-minimizing output? output = units per firm output = units per firm output = units per firm What economic profit or loss will the firm realize per unit of output? per unit = $ per unit = $ = $ d. In the table below, complete the short-run supply schedule for the firm (columns 1 and 2) and indicate the profit or loss incurred at each output (column 3).

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which of the following are the approximate sizes of the dna fragments for the mother?

NEED HELP WITH BLANK BOX QUESTION

(question 1 and 4 in conclusion part. )

* It would be nice if you can check my answeres too.

NOTES:

Tube Sample Lane

1 1 kb DNA ladder 1

2 Mother’s DNA 2

3 Child’s DNA 3

4 A.F. #1 DNA 4

5 A.F. #2 DNA 5

Record the distance each ladder band moved from the well in mm along with the size of the DNA fragments in that band in bp units, based on the bp given in step 19 , in your Lab Notes.

Lane 1:

1,000 bp 34 mm

900 bp 36 mm

800 bp 38 mm

700 bp 40 mm

600 bp 43 mm

500 bp 47 mm

400 bp 51 mm

300 bp 56 mm

250 bp 60 mm

200 bp 64 mm

150 bp 69 mm

100 bp 77 mm

50 bp 90 mm

Lane 2:

37 mm 850bp

59 mm 265bp

Lane 3:

37 mm 850bp

44 mm 575bp

Lane 4:

41 mm 670bp

43 mm 600bp

Lane 5:

44 mm 575bp

55 mm 320bp

Experiment: Agarose Gel Electrophoresis of DNA Fragments

Lab Results

  1. List the distances traveled in mm for the bands in the DNA ladder in the table below.
    Remember, smaller fragments travel farther than longer ones, so the top-most band will be the 1,000 bp sized DNA fragments whereas the bottom-most band will be the 50 bp sized DNA fragments.DNA LadderBandDistance (mm)50 bp 90 mm100 bp 77 mm150 bp 69 mm200 bp 64 mm250 bp 60 mm300 bp 56 mm400 bp 51 mm500 bp 47 mm600 bp43 mm 700 bp40 mm 800 bp38 mm 900 bp36 mm 1,000 bp34 mm  
  2. Whose sample had the approximately 570 bp and 320 bp sized DNA fragments? A.F. #2
  3. What were the sizes of the DNA fragments for alleged father #1? 41 mm 670bp43 mm 600bp

Data Analysis

  1. Which size DNA fragment did the child inherit from her mother? 37 mm 850bp
  2. Which alleged father, if any, can be definitively ruled out as the child’s biological father? A.F. #2

Conclusions

  1. How are new molecules of DNA synthesized in living cells? 
  2. What is the function of DNA? DNA has genetic information that controls our cells. So, DNA is like a blueprint that shows how to construct components of cells like proteins and ribonucleic acid (RNA). This information is carried down to newer generations through inheritance.
  3. If each individual has such a small amount of DNA in their cells, how do the bands on the gel contain enough DNA to be visible?  In order to make DNA visible. The Gel has to be soaked in a dye (ethidium bromide) to bind with the DNA and rinsed off after. Ethidium bromide helps to make DNA visible by glowing brightly in UV rays.
  4. Humans only have a few eye colors and only four ABO-based blood types. How can DNA tests definitively identify individuals when many people have brown eyes or type A blood? 
  5. Suppose a suspicious hair was found in a victim’s home. A gel is set up with the DNA fragments of two suspected criminals in lanes 4 and 5, the DNA fragments of the suspicious hair in lane 3, and the victim’s DNA fragments, as a negative control, are in lane 2. A DNA ladder is in lane 1. The resulting gel is below. Which suspect, if any, committed the crime? Explain your answer.


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a recommended practice for the implementation of the physical ir plan is to select a ____ binder.

1. _ incident responses enables the organization to react to a detected incident quickly and effectively, without confusion or wasted time and effort.

a.

Recording

b.

Publishing

c.

Predefining

d.

Discussing

5 points   

QUESTION 2

1. The U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology recommends a set of tools for the CSIRT including incident reporting mechanisms with which users can report suspected incidents. At least one of these mechanisms should permit people to report incidents ____.

a.

anonymously

b.

directly to the CSO

c.

online

d.

for a reward

5 points   

QUESTION 3

1. In a(n) ____________________ plan test strategy, each potential participant individually details the performance of each task, though stopping short of the actual physical task required.

5 points   

QUESTION 4

1. A recommended practice for the implementation of the physical IR plan is to select a ____ binder.

a.

green

b.

red

c.

black

d.

blue

5 points   

QUESTION 5

1. In ____________________ training, prepackaged software provides training at the trainee’s workstation.

5 points   

QUESTION 6

1. Incident analysis resources include network diagrams and lists of ____, such as database servers.

a.

desk checks

b.

protocol analyzers

c.

critical assets

d.

simulation software

5 points   

QUESTION 7

1. The Southeast Collegiate Cyber Defense Competition is unique in that it focuses on the operational aspect of managing and protecting an existing network infrastructure. Unlike “capture-the-flag ” exercises, this competition is exclusively a real-world ____ competition.

a.

defensive

b.

hacking

c.

end-user training

d.

offensive

5 points   

QUESTION 8

1. The IR plan is usually ____ when an incident causes minimal damage with little or no disruption to business operations.

a.

placed on alert

b.

placed on standby

c.

activated

d.

not activated

5 points   

QUESTION 9

1. A final IR plan should be tested at least ____________________ by performing at least a structured walk-through test and a more realistic type of test, when possible.

5 points   

QUESTION 10

1. ____ is the process of systematically examining information assets for evidentiary material that can provide insight into how an incident transpired.

a.

Disaster recovery

b.

Incident response

c.

War gaming

d.

Forensics analysis

5 points   

QUESTION 11

1. Organizing the incident response planning process begins with staffing the disaster recovery committee.

True

False

5 points   

QUESTION 12

1. Should an incident begin to escalate, the CSIRT team leader continues to add resources and skill sets as necessary to attempt to contain and terminate the incident. The resulting team is called the ____ for this particular incident.

a.

response unit

b.

forensic team

c.

IR unit

d.

reaction force

5 points   

QUESTION 13

1. The responsibility for creating an organization’s IR plan often falls to the ____.

a.

chief information   security officer

b.

database   administrator

c.

forensic expert

d.

project manager

5 points   

QUESTION 14

1. A recommended practice for the implementation of the physical IR plan document is to organize the contents so that the first page contains the ____ actions.

a.

“during attack”

b.

“before attack”

c.

training

d.

testing

5 points   

QUESTION 15

1. A favorite pastime of information security professionals is ____, which is a simulation of attack and defense activities using realistic networks and information systems.

a.

war gaming

b.

parallel testing

c.

simulation

d.

structured   walk-through

5 points   

QUESTION 16

1. The ____ Department of an organization needs to review the procedures of the CSIRT and understand the steps the CSIRT will perform to ensure it is within legal and ethical guidelines for the municipal, state, and federal jurisdictions.

a.

Auditing

b.

Labor

c.

Legal

d.

Public Relations

5 points   

QUESTION 17

1. The training delivery method with the lowest cost to the organization is ____.

a.

user support group

b.

self-study   (noncomputerized)

c.

on-the-job training

d.

one-on-one

5 points   

QUESTION 18

1. In computer-based training settings, trainees receive a seminar presentation at their computers.

True

False

5 points   

QUESTION 19

1. General users require training on the technical details of how to do their jobs securely, including good security practices, ____ management, specialized access controls, and violation reporting.

a.

password

b.

war gaming

c.

“before action”

d.

organization

5 points   

QUESTION 20

1. There are several national training programs that focus on incident response tools and techniques.

True

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why couldn’t the two elephants go swimming together

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which of these is an example of the line marked “artificial price”?

Question 1 (Multiple Choice Worth 4 points)

(01.07 MC)<object:standard:ss.912.e.1.13>

Which of these illustrate the divisibility of money?


Question 2 (Multiple Choice Worth 4 points)

A supply and demand graph, showing quantity on the x axis and price is on y axis. Red supply line S rises up and to the right from 0,0 in positive x and y directions. Blue demand line D descends from x axis origin and upper range of y axis in positive x, negative y direction. A line marked Artificial Price extends from the y axis, roughly one third of the way up from the x axis and below the equilibrium point where S and D lines intersect. The intersection of the Artificial Price line with the S line is marked Quantity Supplied. The intersection of the Artificial Price line with the D line is marked Quantity Demanded.

(04.02 MC)<object:standard:ss.912.e.2.4>


Public Domain

Which of these is an example of the line marked “Artificial Price”?


Question 3 (Multiple Choice Worth 4 points)

(06.03 MC)<object:standard:ss.912.e.3.4>

Sixty-five nations sign a treaty pledging caps on industrial emissions and the development of renewable resource energy production. Which of the following would be a long-term positive externality for global health?


Question 4 (Multiple Choice Worth 4 points)

(04.02 LC)<object:standard:ss.912.e.2.4>

Which of these keeps prices below equilibrium?


Question 5 (Multiple Choice Worth 4 points)

Bar graph entitled 2010 Budget Projected Deficits and Debt Increases. X axis spans years 2007 through 2015. Y axis labeled Billions of Dollars, spanning o to 3,000, in increments of 500. Blue bars note Budget Deficit. Red bars note National Debt Increases. For 2007, blue is 200 billion dollars, and red is 500 billion dollars. For 2008, blue is 450 billion dollars, and red is 1,250 billion dollars. For 2009, blue is 1,750 billion dollars, and red is 2,750 billion dollars. For 2010, blue is 1,150 billion dollars, and red is 1,400 billion dollars. For 2011, blue is 900 billion dollars, and red is 1,200 billion dollars. For 2012, blue is 600 billion dollars, and red is 900 billion dollars. For 2013, blue is 550 billion dollars, and red is 900 billion dollars. For 2014, blue is 600 billion dollars, and red is 950 billion dollars. For 2015, blue is 650 billion dollars, and red is 975 billion dollars.

(04.05 MC)<object:standard:ss.912.e.2.9>


© Farcaster 2009
Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported

Which of the following statements best describes the data shown for 2012 to 2015?


Question 6 (Multiple Choice Worth 4 points)

(04.02 MC)<object:standard:ss.912.e.2.6>

Why is it in the best interest of the government to regulate natural monopolies?


Question 7 (Multiple Choice Worth 4 points)

(04.03 LC)<object:standard:ss.912.e.2.10>

What is the main function of the Federal Open Market Committee?


Question 8 (Multiple Choice Worth 4 points)

(04.05 MC)<object:standard:ss.912.e.1.10>

Economists warn that the nation is slipping into a recession. Which fiscal policies will the federal government most likely take to help the economy grow?


Question 9 (Multiple Choice Worth 4 points)

(06.02 LC)<object:standard:ss.912.e.2.11>

The city council allocates funds for road repair. Which of the following circumstances would be a positive externality?


Question 10 (Multiple Choice Worth 4 points)

(02.05 MC)<object:standard:ss.912.e.1.14>

Andrew is 17 years old and would like to establish credit history. Which of these would be a good first step for him?


Question 11 (Multiple Choice Worth 4 points)

(04.05 MC)<object:standard:ss.912.e.2.9>

Imagine the federal government has a national debt of $10.2 trillion. Congress’s budget for the coming year includes spending projections of $4.2 billion. Tax revenue projects $3.8 billion. Which will be the most likely consequence?


Question 12 (Multiple Choice Worth 4 points)

(06.03 MC)<object:standard:ss.912.e.2.11>

A livestock ranch decides to expand its operations. Which of the following would be a negative externality for the local environment?


Question 13 (Multiple Choice Worth 4 points)

Map showing Tennessee and bordering states, Alabama, Mississippi, Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas. Region served by Tennessee Valley Authority includes all of Tennessee and parts of Kentucky, Virginia, North Carolina, Georgia, Mississippi, and Alabama. Forty seven dams are spread throughout region, but concentrated in eastern Tennessee. There are three nuclear power plants, two south of Knoxville, Tennessee, and one near Huntsville, Alabama. There are 19 fossil fuel plants throughout region, the majority in western Tennessee, Mississippi, and southwestern Kentucky.

(06.02 MC)<object:standard:ss.912.g.3.3>

Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Sites
Red = water dams
Purple = nuclear power plants
Orange = fossil fuel power plants


Public Domain

Study the map above. Who would object to negative externalities related to the use of renewable and nonrenewable resources in the map?


Question 14 (Multiple Choice Worth 4 points)

(04.01 MC)<object:standard:ss.912.e.1.12>

Following U.S. involvement in the Korean War and the related period of low unemployment and rising prices, the Federal Reserve intervened to curb growth and decrease inflation. At what point in the business cycle did the Federal Reserve take action?


Question 15 (Multiple Choice Worth 4 points)

(04.04 MC)<object:standard:ss.912.e.1.11>

If the United States falls into a recession, which action would the Federal Reserve take to encourage employment?


Question 16 (Multiple Choice Worth 4 points)

(04.01 MC)<object:standard:ss.912.e.1.12>

A period of economic stability began in the 1980s. In 2001, prices began to increase. In 2007, an economic crisis caused prices to fall. Which of these dates would be considered the peak of this cycle?


Question 17 (Multiple Choice Worth 4 points)

Pie chart titled Holly's Hamburgers 2013 Budget. Data are: Rent 30 percent, Supplies 25 percent, Payroll 15 percent, Misc 5 percent, Utilities 10 percent, Repairs 5 percent Training 5 percent Advertising 5 percent.

(02.06 HC)<object:standard:ss.912.e.1.16>


© 2013 FLVS

After creating the 2013 budget for her hamburger restaurant, Holly realizes that she will need to spend 10 percent on training because of a change in food-handling laws. Which of these could represent the numbers in Holly’s new budget?


Question 18 (Multiple Choice Worth 4 points)

(02.04 MC)<object:standard:ss.912.e.1.14>

Tina has $1,500 that she will use to buy a car in four months. In the meantime, she would like to invest it to earn more money. Which of these would yield the greatest return in her time frame?


Question 19 (Multiple Choice Worth 4 points)

(04.04 MC)<object:standard:ss.912.e.1.11>

Economic forecasters predict a long period of job growth and consumer spending. The Federal Reserve is most likely to do which of the following to encourage this expansion?


Question 20 (Multiple Choice Worth 4 points)

(02.04 MC)<object:standard:ss.912.e.1.15>

As an eighth grader, Marliss wins an art competition, and her prize is one thousand dollars. She wants to invest the money for her college fund. Which of these would be a good option?


Question 21 (Multiple Choice Worth 4 points)

Circular flow chart showing connectivity, with blue arrows, from Government to Product Market and Household, from Product Market to Household, Business and Rest of World; from Household to Government and Financial Market, from Business to Factor Market and Product Market, from Factor Market to Rest of World and Household, from Rest of World to Product Market and Factor Market. Letter A marks arrow from Government to Product Market. Letter B marks arrow from Product Market to Business. Letter C marks arrow from Business to Product Market. Letter D marks arrow from Household to Government.

(06.01 MC)<object:standard:ss.912.e.2.12>


© 2013 FLVS

Cardinal Comics produces graphic historical novels and retails them through local shops throughout the United States. The publisher maintains an in-house staff of editors and illustrators but contracts out writing, printing, and distribution. Its printer uses domestically recycled paper but imports ink and much of its printing equipment from overseas. Segment B of the circular flow diagram above reflects which part of this scenario?


Question 22 (Essay Worth 4 points)

Circular flow chart showing connectivity, with blue arrows, from Government to Product Market and Household, from Product Market to Household, Business and Rest of World, from Household to Government and Financial Market; from Business to Factor Market and Product Market, from Factor Market to Rest of World and Household, from Rest of World to Product Market and Factor Market.

(06.05 HC)<object:standard:ss.912.e.2.12>


© 2013 FLVS

Look at the circular flow diagram. Choose and define an environmental issue. Using the diagram as a guide, explain how the environmental issue you chose affects the relationship between product market and rest of world.

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an aspect of the interstate reciprocal arrangement concerns:

1. A federal unemployment tax is levied on:A) employees only.B) both employers and employees.C) employers only.D) government employers only.E) no one.2.For FUTA purposes, an employer can be any one of the following except:A) an individual.B) a partnership.C) a trust.D) a corporation.E) All of these can be employers.3.Included under the definition of employees for FUTA purposes are:A) independent contractors.B) insurance agents paid solely on commission.C) student nurses.D) officers of a corporation.E) members of partnerships.4.Which of the following is not a factor considered in determining coverage of interstate employees?A) Location of base of operationsB) Place where work is localizedC) Location of company’s payroll departmentD) Location of employee’s residenceE) Location of place from which operations are controlled5.An aspect of the interstate reciprocal arrangement concerns:A) the status of Americans working overseas.B) the taxability of dismissal payments.C) the determination of an employer’s experience rating.D) the transfer of an employee from one state to another during the year.E) none of these.6.Which of the following types of payments are not taxable wages for federal unemployment tax?A) Retirement payB) Cash prizes and awards for doing outstanding workC) Dismissal payD) Bonuses as remuneration for servicesE) Payment under a guaranteed annual wage plan7.Which of the following payments are taxable payments for federal unemployment tax?A) Christmas gifts, excluding noncash gifts of nominal valueB) Caddy feesC) Courtesy discounts to employees and their familiesD) Workers’ compensation paymentsE) Value of meals and lodging furnished employees for the convenience of the employer8.If the employer is tardy in paying the state contributions, the credit against the federal tax is limited to what percent of the late payments that would have been allowed as a credit if the contributions had been paid on time?A) 6.2B) 90C) 5.13D) 20E) 09.Which of the following provides for a reduction in the employer’s state unemployment tax rate based on the employer’s experience with the risk of unemployment?A) Voluntary contributionB) Title XII advancesC) Pooled-fund lawsD) Experience-rating planE) None of these10.Voluntary contributions to a state’s unemployment department are:A) allowed in all states.B) designed to increase an employer’s reserve account in order to lower the employer’s contribution rate.C) capable of being paid at any time with no time limit.D) returned to the employer at the end of the following year.E) sent directly to the IRS.11.If the employer has made timely deposits that pay the FUTA tax liability in full, the filing of Form 940 can be delayed until:A) December 31.B) February 15.C) February 10.D) February 1.E) March 31.12.The person who is not an authorized signer of Form 940 is:A) the individual, if a sole proprietorship.B) the accountant from the company’s independent auditing firm.C) the president, if a corporation.D) a fiduciary, if a trust.E) All of these are authorized signers.13.When making a deposit of FUTA taxes, the employer must make the deposit by the:A) end of the month after the quarter.B) 15th of the month after the quarter.C) 10th of the month after the quarter.D) same day of the FICA and FIT deposits.14.An employer must deposit the quarterly FUTA tax liability if the liability is more than:A) $3,000.B) $500.C) $1,000.D) $1.E) $100.15.In order to avoid a credit reduction for Title XII advances, a state must repay the loans by:A) the end of the year of the loans.B) the end of the year the credit reduction is scheduled to take effect.C) the end of the third year after the year of the loans.D) November 10 of the year the credit reduction is scheduled to take effect.E) June 30 of the year after the loans.
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market share simulation

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. Mission Statement: Page 2

2. Marketing Objectives: Page 2

3. SWOT Analysis: Pages 2-4

4. Target Market: Page 4-5

5. Marketing Activities: Pages 5-7

6. Lessons Learned: Pages 7-15

a) Year 1

b) Year 2

c) Year 3

d) Year 4

e) Year 5

f) Year 6

g) Year 7

h) Year 8

i) Year 9

j) Year 10

7. Summary: Pages 16-17

1. MISSION STATEMENT:

To establish Allstar Brands as a market leader of Over-The-Counter multi-symptom cold/allergy relief, while maintaining the highest level of customer satisfaction through product effectiveness, quality and affordability.

2. MARKETING OBJECTIVES:

· To increase the stock price by 3 points every 2 years

· To maintain a combined direct/indirect sales force of no less than 140

· To increase net income to $40 million in the next 2 years

· To increase brand awareness by 5% yearly for all products of Allstar toward a long-term goal of 85%, thereafter any increase is found sufficient

· To maintain advertising budget expenditure above $26 million, minimum $10 million toward Allround, Allround+ and minimum $9 million toward Allright

· Introduce one new product within every 3-year period according to appropriate market trends and characteristics of demand

· To keep promotional allowance at or above 14% for all products

· To increase customer satisfaction to 60% for all Allstar Brand products within the next 2 years

3. SWOT:

Strengths:

· Allstar Brands have a competitive advantage which is based on the lowest price in the cold/allergy market

· Brand awareness for the products of Allstar Brands is one of the highest among the competitors

· Product mix targets variety of ailments (Allround – multi-symptom, Allround+ – cold and allergy, Allright – cough and cold)

· Customer satisfaction for Allstar products ranges from 54% to 61%

· Allround is the second highest brand purchased among the OTC medicine and has the second largest market share of manufacturing sales

· Allround Brand perception of cough and ache medicine is the highest among the competitors

· Steady rise of product contribution for Allright and Allround+

· Allstar offers relief for all of the most frequent symptoms of ailments: aches, coughing, and chest congestion

· Allright attains largest market share based on manufacturing sales of 14.9% in the cough medicine market

Weaknesses:

· Low sales force

· Steep drop off of stock price after year five

· Allround has the lowest net income among the competitors

· Advertising budget for every product is not sufficient for leading a proper advertising campaign to increase brand awareness

· A stronger competitor Besthelp keeps Allround from being the leader of brands purchased

· Low budget allocated to promotional mix of all 3 products

· Current customer’s intentions to buy Allround, Allround+ and Allright are larger than Allstar can produce

· Annual fall of Allround’s total sales and product contribution since year 5

· Constant fall of trade ratings for Allright and Allround+

· Allstar Brands takes third place in retail sales

· Medium quality of advertising due to advertising agency S&R hired

Opportunities:

· Introduction of new products in the future

· Investment in Research and Development to improve composition of existing and new products

· Becoming the highest brand purchased among OTC medicine and reaching the highest marketing share in manufacture sales

· Changing brand formulation of products according to existing market needs

· Population growth rate of 1.6%

· Industry growth rate 5.9%

· Penetrating international markets

Threats:

· Strong competition in cold/allergy market

· Loss in stock price and net income of Allstar brands

· Economic instability

· Unfavorable market fluctuations

· Poor choice of advertising agency to lead advertising campaigns for the Company products

· Inflation rate increase

· Unfavorable Governmental regulations toward OTC products

· Competitor advantage in Research and Development

· Lack of adequate sales force

4. TARGET MARKET:

Providing Over-The-Counter medicine Allstar targets people who have common health problems. The best way to segment Allstar’s customers would be by the following two major categories: illness (cold, cough, allergy) and demographics (young singles, young families, mature families, empty nesters, retired). Allstar Brands invests in marketing research to learn about the ever changing preferences and trends of the market. The information the Company gathers from this research is then used to make according decisions to satisfy each particular category of customer.

5. MARKETING ACTIVITIES:

In order to achieve our first marketing objective, we recommend the following activities: Keep producing high quality, positive image products that satisfy customer’s needs.Secondly, the team must maintain direct and indirect sales force of no less than 140 and plan in advance in order to have the budget to do so. We also recommend offering employee fringe benefits to encourage long term positions in the company.

For the next objective, which is to increase net income to $40 million in the next two years they must choose and maintain the suitable marketing/promotional mix. Offer diversity of products to meet every customer’s need and keep promotional allowance above 14% to encourage stores to carry our product. Give out trial sizes for new and existing products to increase brand awareness by 5% yearly which is objective number four. Also the advertising agency should be chosen carefully to ensure the highest quality of advertising campaign and strategy. The composition of the advertising message must be created according to the stage of the product’s life cycle. The key to achieving all of these advertising goals is to make sure the current and future budget will be great enough to cover these critical needs.

The key to reaching the objective of maintaining an advertising budget expenditure at least or above$26 million, $10 million and $8 million for Allround, Allround+ and Allright respectively is to keep up closely to the designed marketing plan. Spending no less than the minimal of what the plan says. Good quality forecasting is a useful tool to keep away from sudden changes in the market which could put the Allstar out of business. The company should maintain a miscellaneous budget to deal with sudden surprises that will occur.

To be able to introduce a new product within every 3 year period, Allstar Brands has to maintain existing profitable products so that there is an opportunity to put money into the development of new products. Unsuccessful products must be removed from Allstar production lists as well to keep an abundance of disposable income. For successful products already existing, advertising and promotion budget should not be cut as well as the sales force. In fact, while introducing a new product the sales force must be raised in proportion to the planned volume of the new product. It is essential to have a deep knowledge of the market, its characteristics and trends, customer needs and preferences, as well as economic and legal issues that might influence the product’s success. Thus a certain amount of money must be invested into marketing research concerning information about the marketing mix to be created.

From our experience, we can say that the amount of promotional allowance matters greatly to the overall promotional status as well as to the overall success of the product. To encourage the stores to carry out the product, promotional allowance must be maintained at 14% or above among all the products. The Company budget should be balanced in a way to dedicate the amount of money corresponding to the allowance percentage without disturbing regular budget distribution to products and activities of Allstar Brands. Maintaining a favorable cash flow is a key condition to reach the identified objective.

To increase customer satisfaction of the Allstar Brands products by 60%, firstly, the appropriate information should be collected on the product featured and benefit expectations of the current and potential customers. This information will help management make decisions for developing a new product image, features, and benefits to meet the current demand. The last objective implemented is advertising, which should be stressed to attract and inform the customers about the changes made. Trial sizes should play a big role in the improvement process. By receiving free trials, the customers will be more likely to experience the innovated product and see its advantages over other brands.

6. LESSONS LEARNED

image3.emf

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

1st

Qtr

3rd

Qtr

5th

Qtr

7th

Qtr

9th

Qtr

Allround

Allright

Allround +

PrediodRetaiPromoAdvSFIncomUtil%StockShelfAllow
1532.27.020.56.591.196.248.011.3015.0
2539.08.521.18.879.997.843.771.3715.0
3536.99.021.68.971.893.839.121.5215.0

Year 1-3

Coming into the first period of our new company there were many uncertainties. We noticed that the price for Allround before we had acquired Allstar was set at $5.29. We decided to only raise the price by one cent putting it at $5.30, our justification for doing this was that we had seen how good the company was doing prior to our involvement so we left the price close to what it had been. We also kept our distribution relatively the same at 97 for Direct Sales and 40 for Indirect sales compared to 94, 33 respectively. We cut our Promotion allowance from 17% to 15%. We came to this decision due to our product being carried by many distributors for several years. Our product was not new and did not need a Promotion Allowance that was higher than 15%. We kept our consumer promotion at 5.6 and trade promotion at 1.4 and raised advertising from 20 to 20.5 million in hope to get our name out there more, since we were going to introduce a new product relatively soon in the future.

After the first period we were doing great. We were number one in the class for stock price and it looked like we knew what we were doing. Our income was 96.2 million and our sales force was a mere 6.5. We realized that making a few slight changes had made a positive influence on the company. Cutting our Promotion Allowance back 2% did not decrease sales at all and the $500,000 increase in advertising budget must have urged consumers to buy our product. We left our advertising agency at what it had been prior to our ownership, being the middle quality agency we figured it would be directed toward everyone and would also help us keep the MSRP low.

Going into round two we basically had to make the same decisions as round one. We still did not have much freedom to make many choices, so we focused on what we could. We noticed that convenience stores were showing the strongest growth and from this we decided to increase our direct sales from 97 to 118 and our indirect sales from 40 to 55. We left Allround’s product price at $5.30, focusing on making this year a sales growth period. Instead of raising the price, we focused on keeping our current loyal customers and hopefully gaining others through reasonable pricing. We left our Promotion Allowance at 15%. We increased our Trade Promotion from 1.4 to 2. We had also increased our Consumer promotion from 5.6 to 6 and our advertising up from 20.5 to 21.1 million. Once again all of these decisions were based on increasing our market share/sales growth which we hoped to obtain by increasing all promotional aspects.

After putting much money into promotion and waiting to see our income steadily rise we were shocked to see that it had fallen more than 10 million dollars. Our stock price also droped from 48.01 to 43.77. Our sales force had also risen from 6.5 to 8.8. The only change we saw that could be affecting our sales so greatly was the threats of the economy in which purchasing potential had dropped. Inflation had risen and customer’s disposable income had dropped since last year. Another factor that may have affected our decline in income was the increase in Sales Force and the failure to raise our MSRP.

Moving into round 3 we had the freedom to direct exactly how much Sales Force we wanted in each channel. This period forecasted a growth in Independent drugstores so we rasied our old SF of 7 in independent Drugstores to 12. We lowered our chain drugstores from 36 to 30 because we had risen independent drugstores so drastically. Grocery stores seemed to be giving us the biggest return so we increased our SF from 55 to 60. Our wholesale SF we saw as a great potential so we increase it from 25 to 40 in hopes to regain our number one spot in the class. This period we also raised the price of Allround from $5.30 to $5.40 once again in hopes that we could bring in some more income so that we could put it toward our future goal of introducing another product. We have left our sales promotion basically the same as period two which should be sufficient, considering that it worked the first period. This period we had control of what our advertising would be focused on. We left our primary advertising at 10% due to our product having a stable market share already and having been established several years prior. We raised our benefit from 10% to 15% so that we could win over new customers by showing how much better Allround was than our competitors. We lowered our Comparison from 40% to 30% so that we could raise our reminder from 40% to 45%. By raising our reminder we hoped consumers would realize we our still a strong competitor and have been in this business for many years.

Even after we increased our advertising budget from 21.1 million to 21.6 million we still are loosing money. Our sales force had only risen from 8.8 to 8.9. Our income also droped from 79.9 to 71.8 making us loose another nine million dollars. That is not all the bad news. Our stock price dropped from 43.77 to an even lower 39.14. We found our main problem to be our product discount which was not formulated properly. We had a 23% discount for <250, 28% discount for <2500, 33.5% discount for 2500+ and 38% discount for wholesale. We realized that our wholesale discount should have been somewhere around 42%, 2500+ around 39%, <2500 around 35% and <250 around 30%. This would have given us a competitive advantage over our competition for our retailers to carry our product.

image4.png

 Stock Price

Year 4-6

PeriodRetaiPromoAdvSFIncomUtil%StockShelfAllow
4584.613.426.08.562.0103.241.072.1515.0
5609.111.523.19.072.8100.842.052.0512.3
6596.715.931.510.436.397.930.503.0114.1

One of the greatest lessons learned during Year four was to realize the importance of every part of the marketing mix while introducing a new product. The product can be successful when its 4Ps address current market demands and when the possibilities are used to their highest extent. We introduced Allround+ – 12hr Multi Capsule which contained: 1300 mg analgesics, 8 mg antihistamines, and 100 mg decongestant. To increase brand awareness, $9 was given to advertising budget, $5.9million spent on promotion (trial sizes, coupons, co-op ads, product displays). To make sure that the new product would make a positive impression on the market, the most expensive high quality performance advertising agency “Brewster, Maxwell and Wheeler” was chosen to lead the advertising campaign. The composition of our advertising message consisted of: Primary 40%, Benefit – 30%, Comparison 20% and Reminder – 10%. Allround+ was priced cheaply at $3 since it was a brand new product. The stock price for Allstar Brands in Year four rose from 39.12 to 41.07. This was strong evidence that our marketing mix was composed correctly, leading us in the right direction.

The sales force was agreed to be reduced so that a great amount of money could be invested in advertising. Thus number of employees in Chain Drug Stores, Mass Merchandisers and Wholesales was decreased by 5, which brought down our total ratio of Sales Force from 8.9 to 8.5. We learned later that the reduction of our sales force hurted the company more than anticipated.

The decisions must be made in a way to create the balance within the company, between different products and areas of activities. If we decrease price, we should also decrease discounts to receive the same or larger amount of sales depending on elasticity of demand. As the price for Allround was reduced from $5.4 to $5.2 and average discounts were lowered from 32.3% to 28.1%, manufacturing sales grew by 10 points.

Year 5 may be characterized as one of the most successful years in the life cycle of the Allstar brand in relation to net income earned and stock price attained, which accounted for $72.8 million, and 42.05 points respectively. Retail Sales rose from $584.6 to $609.1 million.

These positive results followed after the corrective decisions made concerning the marketing mix of the both products. The major decisions of this period were to increase the prices for both products: Allround ($5.2 to $5.3) and Allround+ ($3.0 to $4.25) along with a slight decrease in discounting.

As the new product was on its growth stage and needed a lot of input, we decided to increase the sales force from 8.5 to 9.0, specifically increasing the number of employees in independent drugstores, mass merchandisers, while decreasing chain drug stores, wholesale, and detailers.

To promote Allround+, a certain amount of money was taken away from promotional and advertising budget of Allround and put into Allround+. That turned out to be a poor decision. By strengthening the new product, we weakened the established Allround. The lesson is to not sacrifice the product that provides the major cash flow in the company for the sake of the newly introduced one.

The largest event during Year 6 was the introduction of another new product of Allstar Brands – Allright. Allright was introduced as the medicine to cure the common cough. The decision was made to set its price at $5.45 due to the product being the most expensive to produce. Having another product required having more personnel available to work on it; thus, the sales force was increased from 9 to 10.4.

The drastic fall of net income for this period from $72.8 to $36.3 million occurred because of the introduction of the new product. A large increase in advertising, a decrease in promotional and sales force expenditures caused this financial regress in the company. The stock price fell from 42.05 to 30.50. The share of retail sales fell by 0.7%, and share of manufacturing sales fell by 0.5%, although share of unit sales stayed the same.

At that point Allright was the weakest product of Allstar Brands, its product contribution consisted of -7.5, while Allround+ had 13.4, and Allround 143.4. A lack of funding caused there to be little room for advertising and promotional growth making a successful development for the three products impossible. The new product of Allright should not have been introduced so early after Allround+ was introduced. The Company needed some time to deal with changes, and to acquire a stable flow of business. Investing into marketing research to learn about the current market situation would have helped the company stay away from unfavorable changes.

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YEAR 7 & 8

PeriodRetaiPromoAdvSFIncomUtil%StockShelfAllow
7573.210.525.010.731.794.228.203.1414.9
8573.57.622.69.341.991.828.953.0213.5

We fell to the bottom, now recovery is the only choice in the years of seven and eight. Our goal was to pull through our slumping stock price and performance. As year 7 began things were getting worse. From year 6 to year 8 our retail price went from 596.7 to 573.5 a drop of 22%. We had changed our promotions from 15.9 to 7.6 which made our retail price drop. We saw that the more promotion is dedicated to the product, the higher the product awareness will rise. During this year we had a small sales force at 10.4% due to the fact that our income was always in the negative. Once we cut our promotion and advertising, our stock price dropped from 30.50 to 28.95. After the 7th decision, we realized that we were not utilizing the full potential of our sales force. By the end of year 8 our sales force got smaller. We learned that our MSRP was low in price, we lacked the number of employees required in distribution channels, had internal financial problems, and poor performance causing the loss of market share. Our market strategy was poor because of the inability to capitalize on product improvements and retain or expand our customer base. In year seven and eight we were cutting more money than we were investing into improvement of our products. We focused more on advertising than on sales force, which we cut every time when we needed money to put to something else. By year seven, we increased our sales force by about 0.3% and wanted to increase it in year 8, but due to negative budgets, we were forced to decrease it.

YEAR 9 & 10

PeriodRetaiPromoAdvSFIncomUtil%StockShelfAllow
9559.66.820.210.132.989.724.593.1213.6
10587.86.917.410.425.197.824.543.0414.0

We changed directions somewhat in the last two years in an attempt to recover our slumping stock price and over-all performance. We restructured our pricing such that there was a greater incentive in purchasing in larger quantities. We also made changes to the incremental increases in discounts to appropriately match the quantities purchased.

For example, in year seven for Allround+ we were giving purchasers of +2500, a 28% discount and for wholesalers an increase of only 2% rising it to 30%. We recognized the potential loss in sales as a result and changed it to 32% and 38% respectively. Had we done this years earlier, we may have been able to significantly increase sales.

We also changed our outlook towards the reminder portion of our advertising. As the years progressed and Allround and Allround+ aged, we thought that putting a greater percentage of the budget into reminder would serve us well and keep the product fresh in the minds of the consumers. We now think that we should have allocated more into benefit and comparison earlier on. Both of these two functions as their names suggest but also are reminders in themselves. Fortunately this was not an extreme problem for Allround+ and Allright because they were implemented later on.

Within the last two or three years we were faced with the task of cost cutting due to low revenues. This recent activity acted as a kind of downward spiral. In efforts to get ourselves out of the red, we felt forced to cut back on promotional allowances and even sales force. In this last year we didn’t have a single element of promotions over one million dollars and our sales force was cut to less than 140 from almost 160 in year seven. We believe, however, that these two areas are crucial in achieving strong sales growth. We hoped that if we could increase the unit price without greatly hurting consumer sales that we could make up a partial portion of our losses from the previously mentioned factors.

Fortunately for the incoming management, our mistakes can be their gains. We strongly recommend maintaining an adequate sales force and paying close attention to the market trends and acquiring the appropriate research.

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Summary

Make decisions carefully based on entering a new market because there may be an overabundance of other competitors already in that product branch. We had introduced two products after the well established Allround name. We introduced Allround+ in year?????

Another major problem that we faced was choosing the right MSRP for each product. Acquire competitor MSRP and price Allstar products appropriately. We priced our products at a minimum hoping to grab distributors attention but we unfortunately did not give enough of a discount to succeed. We lacked in this area where our competitors succeeded. We did price our products at a lower price but did not divide the discounts that the distributors would get accordingly.

We should have increased our MSRP to match our competitors or even a little less. The big concern is in the discount offered which is an incentive for our distributors to carry our brand. The discounts should range from 44% for wholesales and down to 25% for <250 having the percents split evenly over the rest of the distribution market so that the more they buy the cheaper it is for them per product. Also promotion allowance affects our retailers. Allowances are to help you gain retail distribution, shelf facing in retail outlets, and retail support for brand advertisements.

Another way to get your product out to consumers is by concentrating on the sales promotion. Things such as co-op ads which makes money available to retailers to pay for a portion of the retailers advertising when the relevant brand is promoted. We suggest keeping this number in the one and a half to two millions range especially if the product is being newly introduced. Point of purchase discounts are special displays such as retail sale racks.

We also suggest to keep this in the one and a half to two millions range. Point of purchase discounts are focused at the customer which usually gives the extra edge we need for a new customer to try our product. Trial size promotions are a key to get your new product out there and noticed. Trial sizes are smaller packages of our product that are given out to consumers in hope that they will like the result and purchase our brand over the competitors. Trial sizes are not necessary unless you are introducing a new product or you see a lag in brand awareness. We suggest putting two million dollars toward trial sizes when necessary.

The final sale promotion is coupons. Coupons are special discounts off of the retail price of a product which is taken off at time of purchase. You can find coupons in flyers, newspapers and magazines. We suggest keeping this a major focus on well established products as well as newer products. You can plan on putting around five million into this promotion.

Overall, many of our decisions were well thought out and worked towards the progress the company did have. However, the errors we made outweighed, to some extent, the positive decisions. Hopefully from our successes and failures Allstar can have a profitable future under the new incoming team.

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Distribution & Sales Force

0

20

40

60

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# of

Employees

Ind Drugstores Chain Drugstores

Grocery Stores Convenience Stores

Mass Merchandisers Indirect/ Wholesalers

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50

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3rd

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5th

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7th

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Allround

Allright

Allround +

_1130863440.

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from society’s standpoint, cooperation among oligopolists is

A distinguishing feature of an oligopolistic industry is the tension between a. short-run decisions and long-run decisions. b. producing a small amount of output and charging a price above marginal cost. c. cooperation and self interest. d. profit maximization and cost minimization. 2. An agreement among firms in a market about quantities to produce or prices to charge is called a. excess capacity. b. collusion. c. tying. d. a strategic situation. 3. Which of the following statements is correct? a. An oligopoly is an example of monopolistic competition. b. When oligopoly firms collude, they are behaving as a cartel. c. When duopoly firms reach a Nash equilibrium, their combined level of output is the monopoly level of output. d. In an oligopoly, self-interest drives the market to the competitive outcome. 4. Cartels are difficult to maintain because a. cartel agreements are conducive to monopoly outcomes. b. there is always tension between cooperation and self-interest in a cartel. c. firms pay little attention to the decisions made by other firms. d. antitrust laws are difficult to enforce. 5. An oligopoly would tend to restrict output and drive up price if a. firms engage in informative advertising. b. firms produce a standardized product. c. barriers to entering the industry are negligible. d. firms collude and behave like a monopoly. 6. According to the Clayton Act, a. the government was able to incarcerate the CEO of a firm for illegal pricing arrangements. b. lawyers are given an incentive to reduce the number of cases involving cooperative arrangements. c. individuals can sue to recover damages from illegal cooperative agreements. d. private lawsuits are discouraged. 7. In the prisoners’ dilemma game with Bonnie and Clyde as the players, the likely outcome is a. a very good outcome for Bonnie, but a bad outcome for Clyde. b. a very good outcome for Clyde, but a bad outcome for Bonnie. c. a very good outcome for both players. d. a bad outcome for both players. 8. From society’s standpoint, cooperation among oligopolists is a. desirable, because it leads to an outcome closer to the competitive outcome than what would be observed in the absence of cooperation. b. undesirable, because it leads to output levels that are too high and prices that are too high. c. undesirable, because it leads to output levels that are too low and prices that are too high. d. desirable, because it leads to less conflict among firms and a wider variety of products for consumers. 9. The story of the prisoners’ dilemma shows why a. economists are unanimous in condemning resale price maintenance, since it inevitably reduces competition. b. oligopolies can fail to cooperate, even when cooperation is in their best interest. c. oligopolies can fail to act independently, even when independent decision-making is in their best interest. d. predatory pricing is clearly not in society’s best interest. 10. When all firms choose their best strategy given the strategies that all the other firms have chosen, the result is a Nash equilibrium. a. True b. False

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following is a partial process cost summary for mitchell manufacturing’s canning department.

Following is a partial process cost summary for Mitchell Manufacturing’s Canning Department.  

Equivalent Units of ProductionDirect Materials Conversion 
Units Completed and transferred out  56,000    15,000  
Units in Ending Work in Process:          
Direct Materials (15,000 * 100%)  15,000       
Conversion (15,000 * 70%)       10,500  
Equivalent Units of Production  71,000    66,500  
           
Cost per Equivalent Unit          
Costs of beginning work in process $40,800   $60,100  
Costs incurred this period  136,900    184,300  
Total costs $177,700   $244,400  
Cost per equivalent unit $2.50per EUP  $3.68per EUP 
 

If the units completed were transferred to the Labeling Department, what is the appropriate journal entry to transfer the direct materials?

· Finished Goods—Labeling $244,400; Finished Goods—Canning $244,400.

· 

Work in Process—Labeling $177,700; Finished Goods—Canning $177,700.

· 

Work in Process—Labeling $177,700; Work in Process—Canning $177,700.

· 

Work in Process—Labeling $140,000; Work in Process—Canning $140,000.

· 

Finished Goods $140,000; Work in Process $140,000.

2

Sparky Corporation uses the weighted-average method of process costing. The following information is available for February in its Molding Department: Units: Beginning Inventory: 46,000 units, 100% complete as to materials and 60% complete as to conversion. Units started and completed: 150,000. Units completed and transferred out: 196,000. Ending Inventory: 40,000 units, 100% complete as to materials and 25% complete as to conversion. Costs: Costs in beginning Work in Process – Direct Materials: $63,000. Costs in beginning Work in Process – Conversion: $68,850. Costs incurred in February – Direct Materials: $420,600. Costs incurred in February – Conversion: $619,150. Calculate the cost per equivalent unit of materials.

· $2.36

· 

$1.99

· 

$1.63

· 

$2.05

· 

$2.63

3

At the beginning of the month, the Forming Department of Martin Manufacturing had 23,000 units in inventory, 40% complete as to materials, and 20% complete as to conversion. During the month the department started 73,000 units and transferred 81,500 units to the next manufacturing department. At the end of the month, the department had 14,500 units in inventory, 80% complete as to materials and 60% complete as to conversion. If Martin Manufacturing uses the weighted average method of process costing, compute the equivalent units for materials and conversion respectively for the Forming Department.

· 83,900 materials; 85,600 conversion.

· 

93,100 materials; 90,200 conversion.

· 

83,900 materials; 90,200 conversion.

· 

70,100 materials; 67,200 conversion.

· 

68,400 materials; 77,600 conversion.

4

During March, the production department of a process operations system completed and transferred to finished goods 17,000 units that were in process at the beginning of March and 130,000 that were started and completed in March. March’s beginning inventory units were 100% complete with respect to materials and 57% complete with respect to conversion. At the end of March, 32,000 additional units were in process in the production department and were 100% complete with respect to materials and 26% complete with respect to conversion. Compute the number of equivalent units with respect to both materials and conversion respectively for March using the FIFO method. 

· 179,000 materials; 179,000 conversion.

· 

179,000 materials; 155,320 conversion.

· 

147,000 materials; 138,320 conversion.

· 

155,320 materials; 155,320 conversion.

· 

162,000 materials; 145,630 conversion.

5

A production department’s output for the most recent month consisted of 9,900 units completed and transferred to the next stage of production and 6,900 units in ending Work in Process inventory. The units in ending Work in Process inventory were 50% complete with respect to both direct materials and conversion costs. Calculate the equivalent units of production for the month, assuming the company uses the weighted average method.

· 6,450 units.

· 

11,850 units.

· 

16,800 units.

· 

8,400 units.

· 

13,350 units.

6

At the beginning of the month, the Painting Department of Skye Manufacturing had 26,000 units in inventory, 70% complete as to materials, and 25% complete as to conversion. The cost of the beginning inventory, $34,650, consisted of $28,400 of material costs and $6,250 of conversion costs. During the month the department started 121,000 units and transferred 129,000 units to the next manufacturing department. Costs added in the current month consisted of $264,640 of materials costs and $517,130 of conversion costs. At the end of the month, the department had 18,000 units in inventory, 40% complete as to materials and 10% complete as to conversion. If Skye Manufacturing uses the weighted average method of process costing, compute the costs per equivalent unit of materials and conversion respectively for the Painting Department.

· $2.21; $3.95.

· 

$2.48; $4.21.

· 

$1.91; $3.95.

· 

$2.21; $4.10.

· 

$2.15; $4.00.

7.

Wilturner Company incurs $77,000 of labor related directly to the product in the Assembly Department, $26,000 of labor not directly related to the product but related to the Assembly Department as a whole, and $13,000 of labor for services that help production in both the Assembly and Finishing departments. The journal entries to record the labor would include:

· Debit Work in Process Inventory $103,000; debit Factory Overhead $13,000.

· 

Debit Work in Process Inventory $116,000.

· 

Debit Work in Process Inventory $103,000; debit Wages Expense $13,000.

· 

Debit Work in Process Inventory $77,000; debit Factory Overhead $39,000.

· 

Debit Work in Process Inventory $77,000; debit Wages Expense $39,000.

8

A company’s beginning Work in Process inventory consisted of 30,000 units that were 20% complete with respect to direct labor. These beginning units were completed and another 106,000 units were started during the current period. Of those started, 70,000 were finished and the remaining 36,000 were 40% complete at the end of the period. Using the weighted-average method, the equivalent units of production with regard to direct labor were: 

· 118,000.

· 

70,000.

· 

114,400.

· 

94,000.

· 

88,000.

9

At the beginning of the recent period, there were 960 units of product in a department, 35% completed. These units were finished and an additional 5,200 units were started and completed during the period. 880 units were still in process at the end of the period, 25% completed. Using the weighted average method, the equivalent units produced by the department were: 

· 5,740 units.

· 

6,160 units.

· 

5,200 units.

· 

7,040 units.

· 

6,380 units.

10

Sparky Corporation uses the weighted-average method of process costing. The following information is available for February in its Molding Department:   Units: Beginning Inventory: 46,000 units, 100% complete as to materials and 60% complete as to conversion. Units started and completed: 150,000. Units completed and transferred out: 196,000. Ending Inventory: 40,000 units, 100% complete as to materials and 25% complete as to conversion. Costs: Costs in beginning Work in Process – Direct Materials: $63,000. Costs in beginning Work in Process – Conversion: $68,850. Costs incurred in February – Direct Materials: $307,000. Costs incurred in February – Conversion: $619,150. Calculate the equivalent units of materials.

· 150,000

· 

236,000

· 

206,000

· 

110,000

· 

154,800

11

Williams Company computed its cost per equivalent unit for direct materials to be $2.70 and its cost per equivalent unit for conversion to be $3.42. A total of 212,000 units of product were completed and transferred out as finished goods during the month, and 30,000 of equivalent units remained unfinished at the end of the month. The amount that should be reported in Finished Goods Inventory is:

· $572,400.

· 

$183,600.

· 

$1,378,440.

· 

$102,600.

· 

$1,297,440.

12

Sparky Corporation uses the FIFO method of process costing. The following information is available for February in its Molding Department:   Units: Beginning Inventory: 38,000 units, 100% complete as to materials and 55% complete as to conversion. Units started and completed: 123,000. Units completed and transferred out: 161,000. Ending Inventory: 36,500 units, 100% complete as to materials and 25% complete as to conversion.   Costs: Costs in beginning Work in Process – Direct Materials: $56,000. Costs in beginning Work in Process – Conversion: $61,850. Costs incurred in February – Direct Materials: $375,730. Costs incurred in February – Conversion: $612,150.   Calculate the cost per equivalent unit of conversion.

· $3.26

· 

$4.10

· 

$3.39

· 

$5.10

· 

$2.44

13

A company uses the weighted average method for inventory costing. At the beginning of a period the production department had 44,000 units in beginning Work in Process inventory which were 38% complete; the department completed and transferred 173,000 units. At the end of the period, 20,000 units were in the ending Work in Process inventory and are 73% complete. Compute the number of equivalent units produced by the department. 

· 190,220.

· 

173,000.

· 

129,000.

· 

187,600.

· 

193,000.

14

A company’s beginning Work in Process inventory consisted of 35,000 units that were 90% complete with respect to direct labor. A total of 105,000 were finished during the period and 40,000 remaining in Work in Process inventory were 50% complete with respect to direct labor at the end of the period. Using the weighted-average method, the equivalent units of production with regard to direct labor were:

· 105,000.

· 

125,000.

· 

72,500.

· 

156,500

· 

98,000.

15

The following is an account for a production department, showing its costs for one month:  

Work in Process Inventory
Beginning Balance6,800Completed and transferred out53,610
Direct materials23,000  
Direct labor17,600  
Overhead12,200  
Ending Balance5,990  

  Assume that materials are added at the beginning of the production process and that direct labor and overhead are applied uniformly. If the started and completed units cost $43,250, what was the cost of completing the units in the beginning Work in Process inventory?

· $37,260.

· 

$10,360.

· 

$16,350.

· 

$3,560.

· 

$59,600.

16

Richards Corporation uses the FIFO method of process costing. The following information is available for October in its Fabricating Department: Units: Beginning Inventory: 98,000 units, 80% complete as to materials and 20% complete as to conversion. Units started and completed: 268,000. Units completed and transferred out: 366,000. Ending Inventory: 39,000 units, 30% complete as to materials and 15% complete as to conversion. Costs: Costs in beginning Work in Process – Direct Materials: $55,200. Costs in beginning Work in Process – Conversion: $97,700. Costs incurred in October – Direct Materials: $844,050. Costs incurred in October – Conversion: $1,105,390. Calculate the cost per equivalent unit of conversion.

· $2.70

· 

$3.42

· 

$4.12

· 

$3.14

· 

$2.93

17

Andrews Corporation uses the weighted-average method of process costing. The following information is available for February in its Polishing Department:  

    
Equivalent units of production—direct materials 125,000EUP
Equivalent units of production—conversion 107,800EUP
Costs in beginning Work in Process—direct materials$65,700 
Costs in beginning Work in Process—conversion$48,300 
Costs incurred in February—direct materials$555,500 
Costs incurred in February—conversion$697,800 

  The cost per equivalent unit of production for direct materials is:

· $10.03

· 

$4.44

· 

$4.97

· 

$5.58

· 

$5.76

18

Metaline Corp. uses the weighted average method for inventory costs and had the following information available for the year. Calculate the equivalent units of production for the year:  

    
Beginning Work in Process (30% complete, $3,100)400units 
Ending inventory of Work in Process (70% complete)600units 
Total units started during the year5,200units 

· 5,420 units.

· 

5,300 units.

· 

5,620 units.

· 

5,200 units.

· 

6,200 units.

19

A company uses the FIFO method for inventory costing. At the beginning of a period, the production department had 36,000 units in beginning Work in Process inventory which were 48% complete; the department completed and transferred 173,000 units. At the end of the period, 30,000 units were in the ending Work in Process inventory and are 83% complete. Compute the number of equivalent units produced by the department. 

· 173,000.

· 

137,000.

· 

197,900.

· 

180,620.

· 

203,000.

20

During January, the production department of a process operations system completed and transferred to finished goods a total of 65,000 units. At the end of January, 13,000 additional units were in process in the production department and were 45% complete with respect to labor. The beginning inventory included labor cost of $38,700 and the production department incurred direct labor cost of $307,100 during January. Compute the direct labor cost per equivalent unit for the department using the weighted-average method.

Multiple Choice

Top of Form

· 

$4.72.

· 

$4.43.

· 

$4.33.

· 

$4.88.

· 

$5.32.

Bottom of Form

21

Richards Corporation uses the weighted-average method of process costing. The following information is available for October in its Fabricating Department: Units: Beginning Inventory: 93,000 units, 70% complete as to materials and 20% complete as to conversion. Units started and completed: 276,000. Units completed and transferred out: 369,000. Ending Inventory: 36,500 units, 40% complete as to materials and 15% complete as to conversion. Costs: Costs in beginning Work in Process – Direct Materials: $37,200. Costs in beginning Work in Process – Conversion: $79,700. Costs incurred in October – Direct Materials: $646,800. Costs incurred in October – Conversion: $919,300. Calculate the equivalent units of materials.

Multiple Choice

Top of Form

· 

318,500

· 

374,475

· 

355,875

· 

239,500

· 

383,600

Bottom of Form

22

Sparky Corporation uses the weighted-average method of process costing. The following information is available for February in its Molding Department:   Units: Beginning Inventory: 38,000 units, 100% complete as to materials and 55% complete as to conversion. Units started and completed: 136,000. Units completed and transferred out: 174,000. Ending Inventory: 36,500 units, 100% complete as to materials and 25% complete as to conversion.   Costs: Costs in beginning Work in Process – Direct Materials: $56,000. Costs in beginning Work in Process – Conversion: $61,850. Costs incurred in February – Direct Materials: $300,000. Costs incurred in February – Conversion: $612,150.   Calculate the equivalent units of conversion.

Multiple Choice

Top of Form

· 

183,125

· 

141,175

· 

99,500

· 

136,000

· 

210,500

Bottom of Form

23

During March, the production department of a process operations system completed and transferred to finished goods 20,000 units that were in process at the beginning of March and 170,000 units that were started and completed in March. March’s beginning inventory units were 100% complete with respect to materials and 65% complete with respect to labor. At the end of March, 37,000 additional units were in process in the production department and were 100% complete with respect to materials and 40% complete with respect to labor. The production department incurred direct materials cost of $255,000 and its beginning inventory included materials cost of $94,100. Compute the direct materials cost per equivalent unit for the department using the weighted-average method.

Multiple Choice

Top of Form

· 

$2.05.

· 

$1.54.

· 

$1.50.

· 

$1.84.

· 

$1.37.

Bottom of Form

24

During March, the production department of a process operations system completed and transferred to finished goods 17,000 units that were in process at the beginning of March and 150,000 units that were started and completed in March. March’s beginning inventory units were 100% complete with respect to materials and 59% complete with respect to conversion. At the end of March, 34,000 additional units were in process in the production department and were 100% complete with respect to materials and 24% complete with respect to conversion. Compute the number of physical units transferred to finished goods.

Multiple Choice

Top of Form

· 

145,000.

· 

167,000.

· 

201,000.

· 

150,000.

· 

188,000.

Bottom of Form

25

Pitt Enterprises manufactures jeans. All materials are introduced at the beginning of the manufacturing process in the Cutting Department. Conversion costs are incurred uniformly throughout the manufacturing process. As the cutting of material is completed, the pieces are immediately transferred to the Sewing Department. Information for the Cutting Department for the month of May follows. Work in Process, May 1 (26,000 units, 100% complete for direct materials, 80% complete with respect to conversion costs; includes $71,000 of direct material cost; $34,270 of conversion costs).

   
Units started in May180,000 
Units completed in May152,000 

Work in Process, May 31 (54,000 units, 100% complete for direct materials; 70% complete for conversion costs).

Costs incurred in May   
Direct materials$342,500 
Conversion costs$353,450 

  If Pitt Enterprises uses the FIFO method of process costing, compute the equivalent units for direct materials and conversion respectively for May.

Multiple Choice

Top of Form

· 

206,000 materials; 189,800 conversion.

· 

126,000 materials; 126,000 conversion.

· 

180,000 materials; 169,000 conversion.

· 

169,000 materials; 169,000 conversion.

· 

169,000 materials; 180,000 conversion.

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26

During December, the production department of a process operations system completed and transferred to finished goods a total of 58,000 units of product. At the end of March, 15,000 additional units were in process in the production department and were 60% complete with respect to materials. The beginning inventory included materials cost of $60,400 and the production department incurred direct materials cost of $191,700 during December. Compute the direct materials cost per equivalent unit for the department using the weighted-average method.

Multiple Choice

Top of Form

· 

$4.35.

· 

$3.76.

· 

$3.31.

· 

$2.86.

· 

$3.45.

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27

Dazzle, Inc. produces beads for jewelry making use. The following information summarizes production operations for June. The journal entry to record June production activities for overhead allocation is:  

    
Direct materials used$ 107,000 
Direct labor used$180,000 
Predetermined overhead rate (based on direct labor) 163%
Goods transferred to finished goods$452,000 
Cost of goods sold$464,000 
Credit sales$1,010,000 

Multiple Choice

Top of Form

· 

Debit Factory Overhead $293,400; credit Cash $293,400.

· 

Debit Work in Process Inventory $293,400; credit Factory Overhead $293,400.

· 

Debit Work in Process Inventory $180,000; credit Factory Overhead $180,000.

· 

Debit Work in Process Inventory $180,000; credit Cash $180,000.

· 

Debit Work in Process Inventory $180,000; credit Factory Payroll $180,000.

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28

During July, the production department of a process operations system completed and transferred to finished goods 29,000 units that were in process at the beginning of July and 68,000 that were started and completed in July. July’s beginning inventory units were 100% complete with respect to materials and 50% complete with respect to labor. At the end of July, 29,000 additional units were in process in the production department and were 100% complete with respect to materials and 55% complete with respect to labor. The beginning inventory included labor cost of $54,600 and the production department incurred direct labor cost of $453,350 during July. Compute the direct labor cost per equivalent unit for the department using the weighted-average method.

Multiple Choice

Top of Form

· 

$4.01.

· 

$4.50.

· 

$5.24.

· 

$.80.

· 

$1.88.

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29

During November, the production department of a process operations system completed and transferred to finished goods 32,000 units that were in process at the beginning of November and 170,000 units that were started and completed in November. November’s beginning inventory units were 100% complete with respect to materials and 60% complete with respect to conversion. At the end of November, 29,000 additional units were in process in the production department and were 100% complete with respect to materials and 40% complete with respect to conversion. Compute the number of equivalent units with respect to materials for November using the weighted-average method.

Multiple Choice

Top of Form

· 

231,000.

· 

173,000.

· 

29,000.

· 

181,600.

· 

202,000.

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30

Richards Corporation uses the FIFO method of process costing. The following information is available for October in its Fabricating Department: Units: Beginning Inventory: 99,000 units, 75% complete as to materials and 20% complete as to conversion. Units started and completed: 269,000. Units completed and transferred out: 368,000. Ending Inventory: 39,500 units, 40% complete as to materials and 15% complete as to conversion. Costs: Costs in beginning Work in Process – Direct Materials: $37,200. Costs in beginning Work in Process – Conversion: $79,700. Costs incurred in October – Direct Materials: $646,800. Costs incurred in October – Conversion: $919,300.   Calculate the equivalent units of conversion.

Multiple Choice

Top of Form

· 

413,425

· 

354,125

· 

324,400

· 

423,300

· 

269,000

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31

Following is a partial process cost summary for Mitchell Manufacturing’s Canning Department.  

Equivalent Units of ProductionDirect Materials Conversion 
Units Completed and transferred out  72,000    72,000  
Units in Ending Work in Process:          
Direct Materials (12,000 * 100%)  12,000       
Conversion (12,000 * 60%)       7,200  
Equivalent Units of Production  84,000    79,200  
           
Cost per Equivalent Unit          
Costs of beginning work in process $43,200   $63,400  
Costs incurred this period  144,400    194,200  
Total costs $187,600   $257,600  
Cost per equivalent unit $2.23per EUP  $3.25per EUP 
 

The total conversion costs transferred out of the Canning Department equals:

Multiple Choice

Top of Form

· 

$187,600.

· 

$257,400.

· 

$257,600.

· 

$194,200.

· 

$234,000.

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32

A company uses a process costing system. Its Assembly Department’s beginning inventory consisted of 53,200 units, 75% complete with respect to direct labor and overhead. The direct labor beginning inventory costs were $9,700. The department completed and transferred out 119,500 units this period. The ending inventory consists of 43,200 units that are 25% complete with respect to direct labor and overhead. All direct materials are added at the beginning of the process. The department incurred direct labor costs of $32,000 and overhead costs of $40,000 for the period. Assuming the weighted average method, the direct labor cost per equivalent unit (rounded to the nearest cent) is: 

· $0.32.

· 

$0.44.

· 

$0.20.

· 

$0.37.

· 

$0.22.

33

Dazzle, Inc. produces beads for jewelry making use. The following information summarizes production operations and sales activities for June. The journal entry to record June sales is:  

    
Direct materials used$90,000 
Direct labor used$165,600 
Predetermined overhead rate (based on direct labor) 100%
Goods transferred to finished goods$434,000 
Cost of goods sold$446,000 
Credit sales$813,600 

Multiple Choice

Top of Form

· 

Debit Accounts Receivable $813,600; credit Cost of Goods Sold $813,600.

· 

Debit Finished Goods Inventory $446,000; debit Sales $813,600; credit Accounts Receivable $813,600; credit Cost of Goods Sold $446,000.

· 

Debit Accounts Receivable $813,600; credit Sales $367,600; credit Finished Goods Inventory $446,000.

· 

Debit Accounts Receivable $813,600; credit Sales $813,600; debit Cost of Goods Sold $446,000; credit Finished Goods Inventory $446,000.

· 

Debit Cost of Goods Sold $446,000; credit Sales $446,000.

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34

Metaline Corp. uses the weighted average method for inventory costs and had the following information available for the year. The number of units transferred to finished goods during the year is:  

    
Beginning Work in Process (30% complete, $1,300)220units 
Ending inventory of Work in Process (70% complete)420units 
Total units started during the year3,400units 
 

Multiple Choice

Top of Form

· 

3,848 units.

· 

3,200 units.

· 

3,392 units.

· 

3,400 units.

· 

3,600 units.

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35

Andrews Corporation uses the weighted-average method of process costing. The following information is available for February in its Polishing Department:  

    
Equivalent units of production—direct materials 113,000EUP
Equivalent units of production—conversion 97,600EUP
Costs in beginning Work in Process—direct materials$55,100 
Costs in beginning Work in Process—conversion$40,500 
Costs incurred in February—direct materials$465,800 
Costs incurred in February—conversion$585,100 

  The cost per equivalent unit of production for conversion is:

Multiple Choice

Top of Form

· 

$5.54

· 

$5.34

· 

$10.77

· 

$5.99

· 

$6.41

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36

Wyman Corporation uses a process costing system. The company manufactured certain goods at a cost of $960 and sold them on credit to Percy Corporation for $1,395. The complete journal entry to be made by Wyman at the time of this sale is:

Multiple Choice

Top of Form

· 

Debit Cost of Goods Sold $1,395; credit Sales $1,395.

· 

Debit Accounts Receivable $1,395; debit Selling expense $960; credit Sales $1,395; credit Cost of Goods Sold $960.

· 

Debit Accounts Receivable $1,395; credit Sales $1,395; debit Cost of Goods Sold $960; credit Finished Goods Inventory $960.

· 

Debit Accounts Receivable $1,395; credit Sales $435; credit Finished Goods Inventory $960.

· 

Debit Finished Goods Inventory $960; debit Sales $1,395; credit Accounts Receivable $1,395; credit Cost of Goods Sold $960.

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37

A company uses the weighted average method for inventory costing. At the start of a period the production department had 40,000 units in beginning Work in Process inventory which were 30% complete; the department completed and transferred 165,000 units. At the end of the period, 12,000 units were in the ending Work in Process inventory and are 65% complete. The production department had conversion costs in the beginning goods is process inventory of $87,000 and total conversion costs added during the period are $726,550. Compute the conversion cost per equivalent unit. 

Multiple Choice

Top of Form

· 

$4.92.

· 

$4.35.

· 

$4.71.

· 

$4.56.

· 

$4.77.

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38

Luker Corporation uses a process costing system. The company had $167,500 of beginning Finished Goods Inventory on October 1. It transferred in $844,000. of units completed during the period. The ending Finished Goods Inventory balance on October 31 was $165,200. The entry to account for the cost of goods sold in October is:

Multiple Choice

Top of Form

· 

Debit Cost of Goods Sold $844,000; credit Finished Goods Inventory $844,000.

· 

Debit Finished Goods Inventory $165,200; credit Cost of Goods Sold $165,200.

· 

Debit Cost of Goods Sold $846,300; credit Work in Process Inventory $846,300.

· 

Debit Cost of Goods Sold $846,300; credit Finished Goods Inventory $846,300.

· 

Debit Finished Goods Inventory $844,000; credit Work in Process Inventory $844,000.

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39

At the beginning of the month, the Painting Department of Skye Manufacturing had 25,000 units in inventory, 70% complete as to materials, and 20% complete as to conversion. During the month the department started 120,000 units and transferred 127,500 units to the next manufacturing department. At the end of the month, the department had 17,500 units in inventory, 40% complete as to materials and 15% complete as to conversion. If Skye Manufacturing uses the weighted average method of process costing, compute the equivalent units for materials and conversion respectively for the Painting Department.

Multiple Choice

Top of Form

· 

117,000 materials; 125,125 conversion.

· 

117,000 materials; 130,125 conversion.

· 

130,125 materials; 134,500 conversion.

· 

134,500 materials; 130,125 conversion.

· 

134,500 materials; 125,125 conversion.

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40

A company uses the weighted average method for inventory costing. During a period, Department B finished and transferred 64,000 units to Department C. Also in Department B during the period, 17,000 units were started but brought only to a stage of being 60% completed. The number of equivalent units produced by Department B during the period was: 

Multiple Choice

Top of Form

· 

81,000 units.

· 

70,800 units.

· 

53,800 units.

· 

74,200 units.

· 

64,000 units.

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41

A company uses the weighted-average method for inventory costing. At the end of the period, 28,000 units were in the ending Work in Process inventory and are 100% complete for materials and 81% complete for conversion. The equivalent costs per unit are materials, $2.71, and conversion $2.35. Compute the cost that would be assigned to the ending Work in Process inventory for the period. 

Multiple Choice

Top of Form

· 

$205,156.

· 

$129,178.

· 

$190,739.

· 

$128,726.

· 

$235,480.

Bottom of Form

42

Richards Corporation uses the FIFO method of process costing. The following information is available for October in its Fabricating Department: Units: Beginning Inventory: 83,000 units, 70% complete as to materials and 25% complete as to conversion. Units started and completed: 253,000. Units completed and transferred out: 336,000. Ending Inventory: 31,500 units, 40% complete as to materials and 10% complete as to conversion. Costs: Costs in beginning Work in Process – Direct Materials: $37,200. Costs in beginning Work in Process – Conversion: $79,700. Costs incurred in October – Direct Materials: $646,800. Costs incurred in October – Conversion: $919,300. Calculate the equivalent units of materials.

Multiple Choice

Top of Form

· 

349,900

· 

380,100

· 

253,000

· 

370,650

· 

290,500

Bottom of Form

43

During March, the production department of a process operations system completed and transferred to finished goods 30,000 units that were in process at the beginning of March and 120,000 that were started and completed in March. March’s beginning inventory units were 100% complete with respect to materials and 70% complete with respect to labor. At the end of March, 31,000 additional units were in process in the production department and were 100% complete with respect to materials and 70% complete with respect to labor. The production department incurred direct labor cost of $580,600 and its beginning inventory included labor cost of $56,200. Compute the direct labor cost per equivalent unit for the department using the weighted-average method.

Multiple Choice

Top of Form

· 

$4.84.

· 

$3.38.

· 

$3.87.

· 

$3.71.

· 

$4.25.

Bottom of Form

44

Dazzle, Inc. produces beads for jewelry making use. The following information summarizes production operations for June. The journal entry to record June production activities for direct labor usage is:  

    
Direct materials used$88,000 
Direct labor used 161,000 
Predetermined overhead rate (based on direct labor) 150%
Goods transferred to finished goods 433,000 
Cost of goods sold 445,000 
Credit sales 811,000 

Multiple Choice

Top of Form

· 

Debit Work in Process Inventory $161,000; credit Factory Payroll Payable $161,000.

· 

Debit Cost of Goods Sold $161,000; credit Factory Payroll Payable $161,000.

· 

Debit Work in Process Inventory $161,000; credit Raw Materials Inventory $161,000.

· 

Debit Work in Process Inventory $161,000; credit Cash $161,000.

· 

Debit Factory Payroll Payable $161,000; credit Cash $161,000.

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45

Following is a partial process cost summary for Mitchell Manufacturing’s Canning Department.  

Equivalent Units of ProductionDirect Materials Conversion 
Units Completed and transferred out  72,000    72,000  
Units in Ending Work in Process:          
Direct Materials (15,000 * 100%)  15,000       
Conversion (15,000 * 80%)       12,000  
Equivalent Units of Production  87,000    84,000  
           
Cost per Equivalent Unit          
Costs of beginning work in process $43,500   $63,800  
Costs incurred this period  145,300    195,400  
Total costs $188,800   $259,200  
Cost per equivalent unit $2.17per EUP  $3.09per EUP 
 

The total materials costs transferred out of the Canning Department equals:

Multiple Choice

Top of Form

· 

$156,240.

· 

$188,800.

· 

$188,790.

· 

$222,480.

· 

$182,280.

Bottom of Form

46

Richards Corporation uses the weighted-average method of process costing. The following information is available for October in its Fabricating Department: Units: Beginning Inventory: 90,000 units, 70% complete as to materials and 20% complete as to conversion. Units started and completed: 270,000. Units completed and transferred out: 360,000. Ending Inventory: 35,000 units, 40% complete as to materials and 15% complete as to conversion. Costs: Costs in beginning Work in Process – Direct Materials: $37,200. Costs in beginning Work in Process – Conversion: $79,700. Costs incurred in October – Direct Materials: $646,800. Costs incurred in October – Conversion: $919,300. Calculate the equivalent units of conversion.

Multiple Choice

Top of Form

· 

374,000

· 

235,000

· 

347,250

· 

365,250

· 

311,000

Bottom of Form

47

Richards Corporation uses the weighted-average method of process costing. The following information is available for October in its Fabricating Department: Units: Beginning Inventory: 95,000 units, 70% complete as to materials and 20% complete as to conversion. Units started and completed: 280,000. Units completed and transferred out: 375,000. Ending Inventory: 37,500 units, 30% complete as to materials and 10% complete as to conversion. Costs: Costs in beginning Work in Process – Direct Materials: $52,200. Costs in beginning Work in Process – Conversion: $94,700. Costs incurred in October – Direct Materials: $802,800. Costs incurred in October – Conversion: $1,091,050. Calculate the cost per equivalent unit of conversion.

Multiple Choice

Top of Form

· 

$3.13

· 

$3.40

· 

$3.03

· 

$2.95

· 

$2.94

Bottom of Form

48

Dazzle, Inc. produces beads for jewelry making use. The following information summarizes production operations for June. The journal entry to record June production activities for direct material usage is:  

    
Direct materials used$104,000 
Direct labor used 177,000 
Predetermined overhead rate (based on direct labor) 155%
Goods transferred to finished goods 449,000 
Cost of goods sold 461,000 
Credit sales 827,000 

Multiple Choice

Top of Form

· 

Debit Work in Process Inventory $104,000; credit Raw Materials Inventory $104,000.

· 

Debit Cost of Goods Sold $104,000; credit Finished Goods Inventory $104,000.

· 

Debit Raw Materials Inventory $104,000; credit Finished Goods Inventory $104,000.

· 

Debit Work in Process Inventory $104,000; credit Cost of Goods Sold $104,000.

· 

Debit Raw Materials Inventory $104,000; credit Accounts Payable $104,000.

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49

Williams Company computed its cost per equivalent unit for direct materials to be $2.70 and its cost per equivalent unit for conversion to be $3.42. A total of 212,000 units of product were completed and transferred out as finished goods during the month. The ending Work in Process inventory consists of 30,000 equivalent units of direct materials and 30,000 equivalent units of conversion costs. The amount that should be reported in ending Work in Process Inventory is:

Multiple Choice

Top of Form

· 

$1,378,440.

· 

$1,297,440.

· 

$102,600.

· 

$183,600.

· 

$81,000.

Bottom of Form

50

Sparky Corporation uses the FIFO method of process costing. The following information is available for February in its Molding Department: Units: Beginning Inventory: 41,000 units, 100% complete as to materials and 60% complete as to conversion. Units started and completed: 126,000. Units completed and transferred out: 167,000. Ending Inventory: 38,000 units, 100% complete as to materials and 30% complete as to conversion. Costs: Costs in beginning Work in Process – Direct Materials: $59,000. Costs in beginning Work in Process – Conversion: $64,850. Costs incurred in February – Direct Materials: $394,600. Costs incurred in February – Conversion: $615,150. Calculate the cost per equivalent unit of materials.

Multiple Choice

Top of Form

· 

$2.81

· 

$1.59

· 

$3.13

· 

$2.41

· 

$1.92

Bottom of Form