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## spider eaters

Rae Yang, Spider Eaters: A Memoir (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2013).

Due date: Wednesday, April 18, 2018 (must be submitted by 11:59 pm on 4/17)

Instructions:    This essay is based on Rae Yang’s memoir about coming of age during the Maoist years in China and living through the Cultural Revolution. Born in 1950 in the PRC, Yang later came to the United States for graduate study and pursued a college teaching career. This memoir is an account of her experiences and those of her family during some of China’s most turbulent years. Further instructions and guidelines regarding the essay can be found on the next page.

Prompt: Based on the evidence gathered from Spider Eaters, what were the purposes and methods of the Cultural Revolution? How did it turn out in reality? What impact did it have on the lives of the participants? Some additional questions to consider and possibly incorporate into your essay include: How did the Cultural Revolution affect family dynamics, and how does Spider Eaters show this? What does Yang’s individual experience of the Cultural Revolution tell us about large-scale events and perhaps mass hysteria?

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## apu redshelf

End of Program Assessment Manual for

American Public University System Charles Town, West Virginia, January 2018 Edition

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Contents

Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 1

EOP Assessment Alternatives …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 1

Important Notes ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 2

Chapter I: Master of Arts Comprehensive Final Examination …………………………………………………… 4

Beginning the Comprehensive Exam …………………………………………………………………………………… 4

Comprehensive Exam Course …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 4

Taking the Exam ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 5

Notes: ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 6

Proctoring ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 7

Chapter II: Master’s Capstone: Thesis Option ……………………………………………………………………….. 9

Beginning the Thesis Project ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 9

Thesis Proposal …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 10

Preparing the Thesis ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 11

Notes: ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 11

Approval of Thesis ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 12

Submission of Final Thesis ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 12

Unsuccessful Capstone Attempts ……………………………………………………………………………………… 13

Chapter III: Master’s Capstone: Creative/Applied Project ……………………………………………………… 14

Beginning the Creative/Applied Project ……………………………………………………………………………… 14

Creative/Applied Project Proposal …………………………………………………………………………………. 14

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Completing the Creative/Applied Project ……………………………………………………………………………. 15

Notes: ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 15

Approval of Creative/Applied Project ……………………………………………………………………………… 16

Submission of Creative/Applied Project Report ……………………………………………………………….. 16

Unsuccessful Capstone Attempts ……………………………………………………………………………………… 17

Chapter IV: Master’s Capstone: Practicum and Critical Reflection Paper ………………………………… 19

Beginning the Practicum and Critical Reflection Paper ………………………………………………………… 19

Practicum Proposal ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 19

Completing the Practicum………………………………………………………………………………………………… 20

Notes: ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 20

Approval of the Practicum and Critical Reflection Paper …………………………………………………… 21

Submission of Critical Reflection Paper ………………………………………………………………………….. 22

Unsuccessful Capstone Attempts ……………………………………………………………………………………… 22

Chapter V: Master’s Capstone: Portfolio and Critical Reflection Paper Option …………………………. 24

Beginning the Portfolio Option ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 24

Portfolio and Critical Reflection Paper ……………………………………………………………………………. 24

Completing the Capstone ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 25

Notes: ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 25

Approval of the Portfolio and Critical Reflection Paper ……………………………………………………… 26

Submission of Critical Reflection Paper ………………………………………………………………………….. 26

Unsuccessful Capstone Attempts ……………………………………………………………………………………… 27

Chapter VI: The Responsible Conduct of Research ………………………………………………………………. 29

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For Comprehensive Exam Assessments …………………………………………………………………………. 29

For Capstone and Portfolio Assessments………………………………………………………………………… 29

Institutional Review Board ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 30

Failure to Secure IRB approval ………………………………………………………………………………………. 30

Chapter VII: University Declarations and APUS Library Registration ……………………………………….. 31

1. Declarations……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 31

2. Textual Components ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 32

Academic Style Manual Conformity ………………………………………………………………………………… 32

3. Images and Tables………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 33

Image Insert/Formats ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 33

4. Video or Audio …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 34

6. Submission to the APUS Library ……………………………………………………………………………………. 34

7. Passed with Distinction (a.k.a. PWD) ……………………………………………………………………………… 35

Chapter VIII: Scholarly Research/Copyright Conduct ……………………………………………………………. 36

Fair Use Exemptions and Citation Responsibility ……………………………………………………………… 37

2. University Research Policies …………………………………………………………………………………………. 38

3. Institutional Review Board ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 38

Appendices …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 40

Appendix 1: Master’s Theses ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 40

Appendix 2: Master’s Creative/Applied Projects …………………………………………………………………. 42

Appendix 3: Master’s Practicum and Critical Reflection Papers…………………………………………….. 44

Appendix 4: Title Page (Required format for all capstone projects.) ………………………………………. 46

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Appendix 5: Sample of Copyright Page (Required format for all capstone projects.) ………………… 47

Appendix 6: Sample of Dedication Page (Optional) ……………………………………………………………… 48

Appendix 7: Sample of Acknowledgments Page (Optional) …………………………………………………… 49

Appendix 8: Sample of Abstract of the Thesis (Required format for all capstone projects.) ………. 50

Appendix 10: Sample of List of Tables ………………………………………………………………………………. 53

Appendix 11: Sample of List of Figures ……………………………………………………………………………… 54

Appendix 12: Sample of Permission to Quote or Reproduce Copyrighted Material Letter …………. 55

Appendix 13: Sample of Practicum Organizational Consent Form …………………………………………. 56

Appendix 14: Critical Reflection Method Suggested for Completion of Practicum Paper ………….. 57

Appendix 15: Sample of IRB Approval Letter ………………………………………………………………………. 58

Appendix 16: Portfolio and Critical Reflection Paper ……………………………………………………………. 59

1

Introduction

This manual establishes the guidelines for completion of all master’s-level end of program (EOP) graduation requirements. The intended audience for this manual is all members of the American Public University System (APUS) academic community, including students and faculty. While it is intended to be a comprehensive overview of the general EOP requirements for APUS, students and faculty must follow any additional specific guidelines within their schools. Information regarding school-specific guidelines should be available from your supervisory professor or your program’s director.

APUS, including American Military University (AMU) and American Public University (APU), offers several options for assessing master’s program learning outcomes. These end of program assessments are designed to ensure APUS students have successfully met their program objectives, and each is designed to serve a different purpose.

EOP Assessment Alternatives

EOP assessment alternatives vary by degree program and include the following:

• Comprehensive Exam

• Capstone, which includes the following variations (availability varies by degree program):

o Research thesis

o Creative/applied project

o Practicum with critical reflection/integration paper

o Portfolio option with critical reflection paper

The Programs offer the comprehensive exam to provide a formal assessment of the program content; this type of assessment is best suited for students who finish their formal academic training with the completion of the Master of Arts/Master of Science program.

In programs offering the capstone thesis option, this type of research study best suits students who anticipate seeking further professional training, such as a doctorate or a Ph.D.

Many programs in the humanities, social sciences, and STEM fields offer the creative/applied project as a way to integrate theory with professional practice and demonstrate mastery in the field. Some professional disciplines, such as business, may consider the practicum as the best option to integrate experiential learning into the curriculum. Finally, various programs will find the portfolio option appropriate as a way of

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showcasing learning for future employers and synthesizing skills learned in the degree program.

Note: Master’s students in some fields with specialty accreditations may have a different set of requirements regarding end of program assessment. Students should adhere to the requirements outlined in their programs.

Students are advised to work with their academic advisors to ensure that they take the correct courses during their degree and to enroll in the correct program version for their assessment preference, if available. Please be advised that some programs have only one EOP assessment option.

Grades Students must receive a B- (80%) or better on their comprehensive exam or their capstone paper/project in order to graduate. Any capstone project/paper awarded a Passed with distinction must be reviewed and approved by the Program Director, Dean, and the Office of Graduate Studies before being included in the APUS ePress Repository.

Important Notes

• The EOP assessment is meant to be a culminating experience, and as such, each student should expect to demonstrate not only that they possess a thorough knowledge of their discipline’s literature, but also that they have achieved all of the program’s learning outcomes. The EOP is a unique exercise. A student’s GPA in earlier coursework does not determine how well they will perform in their end of program assessment. Success depends on the student entering the experience fully prepared and dedicated to completing the EOP in the allotted timeframe.

• All students are expected to adhere to the conventions of standard English grammar and/or formal academic writing. Students who are struggling with their ability to communicate clearly in writing are strongly encouraged to complete COLL501 or the ClearPath Graduate Writing modules early in their graduate studies. See also the graduate resources in the APUS Library at Writing@APUS.

• After being checked with a plagiarism detection tool and graded by the faculty supervising the project and upon being approved by the program directors and school dean, all capstone projects must be submitted to the APUS Library for archiving by the program director. The capstone and critical reflection papers submitted must be a “clean” version of the paper. All spelling, grammar, citations, etc. must be correct and appropriate. Instructor feedback comments should not appear in the final version submitted to the library.

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• Capstones that receive a grade of Passed with distinction may be eligible for inclusion in the APUS ePress Repository. For more on the APUS ePress Repository, see https://apus.libguides.com/APUS_ePress/about.

• Critical reflection papers, while eligible for the grade of Passed with distinction, may not be eligible to be placed in the APUS ePress Repository due to the personalized information that may be contained within the papers.

APUS takes academic dishonesty very seriously. Any evidence of plagiarism will result in the student’s work being rejected, and the student will fail the EOP assessment. Engaging in academic dishonesty and/or plagiarism will directly threaten the ability of the student to graduate from APUS.https://apus.libguides.com/APUS_ePress/abouthttps://apus.libguides.com/APUS_ePress/theses

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Chapter I: Master of Arts Comprehensive Final Examination

The master’s comprehensive examination provides an opportunity for students to

• demonstrate they have mastered the research skills and substantive content expected in their field of study;

• demonstrate they have familiarity with major schools of thought and principal published works in the field; and

• culminate their master’s degree experience as they complete their master’s program and either continue or begin work in their chosen profession.

Beginning the Comprehensive Exam The examination is tailored specifically to each graduate program and must be the last course master’s degree students take from APUS. Thus, it can only be taken after the student has completed all of their course work. It cannot be taken concurrently with course work. Students must successfully complete this requirement before the award of a degree. Students must apply for graduation and have a minimum GPA of 3.0 in order to be able to register for the course.

Comprehensive Exam Course The separate comprehensive examination course (eight or sixteen weeks depending upon the program) prepares graduate students for the comprehensive examination in their area of study. The purpose of the course is to provide a review of key concepts, theories and knowledge, and skill sets. Some classes provide weekly assignments and discussions, while others provide pointers regarding which materials to review and how to prepare for the exam.

As part of the course, students may be asked to consult texts, journal articles, print and media reports, and documentaries used in their classes. Collaboration with other students enrolled in the course is also an essential component. Comprehensive exam courses require students to submit answers to practice exam questions in order to become familiar with the types of questions that may be asked during the exam. Regardless of which approach the course takes, students are expected to participate fully in all course activities and must meet all assigned deadlines.

Students who do not complete required course activities leading up to the exam will not be allowed to take the exam. Students who fail the comprehensive exam and who have submitted all course practice questions may be eligible to re-register for a second attempt at passing the comprehensive exam. Any new registration requires the student re-enroll in and

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pay for a new course. Those who do not submit all practice questions may be denied a second attempt at the exam or may be required to take the capstone course if available.

Taking the Exam Instructors will provide students with the exam protocols at the beginning of the course. These protocols will provide guidance for the exam (e.g., if the exam requires a proctor, whether it will be open or closed book, etc.). If a proctor is required, the proctor must be approved as indicated in the course. The exam must take place during the last week of the course. However, to ensure confirmation of the test date and coordination of the password (if one is required), the exam should be scheduled no later than the seventh week of an eight-week course or the fifteenth week of a sixteen-week course.

Exams cannot be taken prior to the final week of the course. Faculty may not arrange with the student to grade the exam prior to the official course end date. Students will not have their degree conferred prior to the official end of their last course, including any extensions given. The final grade will not be awarded until after the course ends.

The instructor will grade the exam using the exam grading rubric (found under the Resources tab in the course classroom). Students must complete the entire exam in order to receive a Pass or Passed with distinction. Students should review the rubric prior to taking the exam. Students will answer a minimum of four essay questions that will be graded as follows:

1. Passed with distinction: This grade is rare and is only given to a student who passes three questions with distinction and the fourth with at least a Pass. With distinction (PWD) means the answers clearly demonstrate deep synthesis and analysis of the issue beyond what is typically expected of graduate students and are written using accepted academic writing conventions. The numeric indicator for this classification may differ by schools, but a Passed with distinction should mean the answer is the equivalent of an A+ or 96 percent or above.

2. Pass: This grade is assigned for essays that meet the requirements for a graduate- level essay. The answers must demonstrate effective analysis of the issue and must be written using accepted academic writing conventions. Students who pass three questions with at least a Pass will pass the examination. One Fail grade on the four examination questions is allowed. A minimum of 80 percent is required to pass the exam.

3. Fail: This grade is assigned for essays that do not meet the requirements for a graduate-level essay. This occurs when the answers fail to demonstrate a clear understanding of the issues and/or have not been written using accepted academic

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writing conventions. Students who fail two or more questions will fail the examination.

Notes:

• Self-plagiarism. The student must be careful not to self-plagiarize in their exam. Self-plagiarism is “the presentation of one’s own previously published work as new scholarship.”1 Thus, using material from previous courses in your exam answers equals self-plagiarism. Evidence of academic dishonesty found in a comprehensive exam or capstone paper will result in a grade of an F for the exam/course.

• A student who fails the examination the first time cannot receive a grade of Passed with distinction on the second examination. The highest grade possible is a Pass. The second examination is to be graded by a faculty member different from the first round of testing and will include different exam questions.

• Each new attempt at a comprehensive exam or capstone requires the student register and pay for the new course. o If a student fails the comprehensive exam on the first attempt, and no

plagiarism is reported nor any evidence found that the student failed to adhere to standard English academic writing protocols, the student will have the option of registering again for a second attempt at the comprehensive exam, or may opt to take the capstone course, if available, in lieu of their second attempt at the comprehensive exam.

o If a student fails the comprehensive exam on the first attempt and is allowed to retake the exam, rather than being required to take the capstone course, the exam questions will be different, the instructor will be different, and the student must pay for a second comprehensive exam course. The student is expected to fully participate in all course activities in the new course.

o If the student fails the comprehensive exam on their first attempt because they have not adhered to the conventions of standard English grammar and/or formal academic writing, they may be required by the Dean of Graduate Studies and the dean of the student’s school to complete COLL501 or the Graduate Writing Modules in ClearPath, prior to being allowed to register again for the comprehensive exam course, or may opt to take the capstone course if available, in lieu of a second attempt at the comprehensive

1 Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. 2010. 6th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, pg. 16. Section 1.10 Plagiarism and Self-Plagiarism elaborates on the matter.

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exam. However, the student may still be required to complete COLL501 or the ClearPath Graduate Writing module prior to being allowed to take the capstone course. See also the graduate resources in the APUS Library at Writing@APUS.

o If the student fails the exam because of plagiarism, the student may be allowed to re-take the exam at a designated exam site with a proctor. All related expenses must be paid by the student.

o If a student has twice failed the comprehensive exam, they may be permitted, under special circumstances, to enroll in the capstone project course for their discipline, if available. Students who have failed the comprehensive exam twice may appeal for this option by submitting a written appeal (which should include the student’s plan for completing the project and that addresses all comments from the previous two instructors) to the Dean of Graduate Studies at academicappeals@apus.edu. In order for the appeal to be considered, the student must be prepared to enroll in the capstone course within 180 days of the appeal approval. A student will not be given the opportunity to take a comprehensive exam a third time.

o The student has the right to appeal issues related to the comprehensive examination in line with the standard APUS appeals process. To appeal issues with regard to the comprehensive examination, contact academicappeals@apus.edu.

Proctoring Comprehensive exams may be proctored pursuant to school and program requirements. The comprehensive exam course may provide information on a proctoring service required by that program. Otherwise, faculty members will provide the following link to the APUS Web form during the first week of class: http://www.apus.edu/proctor/select-proctor.

APUS is not responsible for finding proctors for individual students. It is the student’s responsibility to do this and to complete the Web form process. If a student indicates on the Web form that they cannot find a proctor, proctor monitoring staff will contact the student to discuss possible options.

• Once the Web form is completed, the proctor monitor will be able to reach out to assist with proctor identification and the rest of the process.

• Note: Proctor monitors have no way to contact a student who has not completed the Web form.mailto:academicappeals@apus.edumailto:academicappeals@apus.eduhttp://www.apus.edu/proctor/select-proctor

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The following are the requirements for proctors:

Your proctor will have overall responsibility for the security of the test administration. Your proctor must hold either a minimum of a bachelor’s degree OR one of the following professional positions:

• administrator or faculty member of any accredited institution of higher education; • school teacher, counselor, local or regional librarian, or administrator; • human resources manager, training manager, supervisor, or manager of higher rank; • for military personnel: DANTES test control officer, educational services officer, base

librarian, or officer; or • member of the clergy.

Note: Family members are not eligible to proctor your exam. Family members are defined as:

• spouse and their parents; • sons and daughters and their spouses; • parents and their spouses; • brothers and sisters and their spouses; • grandparents and grandchildren and their spouses; or • domestic partner and their parents.

Students with questions about the process should direct them to the assigned faculty member. If the faculty member is unable to assist, students may also contact proctor@apus.edu.mailto:proctor@apus.edu

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Chapter II: Master’s Capstone: Thesis Option

The master’s thesis provides an opportunity for students to • Contextualize the thesis/research question by claiming its significance or centrality to

the discipline. • Provide a persuasive rationale for pursuing the thesis by demonstrating a research

need or gap. • Articulate how the paper will address the key question or issue and why the approach

is novel. • Synthesize relevant, appropriate scholarly literature to establish a theoretical

framework or central methodology. • Create an argument that builds logically upon the thesis/hypothesis with research-

based, discipline-appropriate supporting facts, evidence, and/or data. • Explain the chosen methodology or theory and demonstrate mastery in implementing

this method/theory to produce original research. • Analyze data (whether textual, statistical, qualitative, or other) and demonstrate

maturity and sophistication in interpreting, analyzing, and synthesizing information to advance the argument.

• Provide a conclusion that summarizes findings, discusses limitations, and addresses unanswered questions/future research directions.

Beginning the Thesis Project The master’s capstone thesis option, must have a substantial research component, present an original argument, use proper academic writing conventions, including carefully documented primary and/or secondary sources, and should be at least fifty pages in length. This page count does NOT include the front and back matter (e.g., table of contents, lists of figures, illustrations and tables, acknowledgment and dedication pages, abstract, end notes pages, bibliography, appendices, etc.).

Students electing this option will have three fewer graduate elective credits than those students enrolled in a comprehensive exam program. Students enrolling in a capstone option program will already have this difference reflected in their online academic plan. This option is desirable for those students who wish to focus on specific subject matter or who would like to continue their education at a higher level. Students enroll in the course available in the given session and work with the professor on defining a thesis. Programs often encourage or require students to gain approval for their thesis topic prior to the capstone thesis course in order to begin preliminary research for the thesis. Students are encouraged to reach out to program faculty or their program director to discuss thesis topics throughout the program.

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During thesis proposal process, the supervising professor may determine that the proposal requires a human subject review by the APUS Institutional Review Board (IRB). If IRB review is needed, the student will be advised by the professor to complete this process during the initial weeks of the class. The IRB process can take up to one month to complete. Note: All theses involving human subjects must receive IRB approval. More information about the APUS IRB can be found at http://www.apus.edu/community-scholars/institutional-review- board/.

The course is tailored specifically to each graduate program and must be the last course master’s degree students take from APUS. The capstone course may be taken only after the completion of all coursework. That is, no concurrent coursework is permitted. Students must successfully complete this requirement before the award of a degree. Students must also apply for graduation and have a minimum GPA of 3.0 in order to be able to register for the course. A passing grade for this course requires a B- (80%) or better on the thesis itself and in the thesis course overall.

Thesis Proposal A formal thesis proposal is required and shall be prepared in accordance with the standards of the academic discipline. The formal proposal must provide a clear and lucid description of a question or problem and a proposed method for answering it. Capstone thesis faculty must approve the proposal before students move on to the next stage of the process.

The proposal should explain the question or problem to be investigated and convince the thesis professor that the question or problem merits investigation. It should show that the student has read the relevant and recent literature on the subject, and it should contain citations for academically appropriate resources consulted during the preliminary stages of research. In general, the thesis proposal should include background information related to the research topic, purpose of the research, methodology, and analytic procedures to be used.

Proposal drafting is considered a learning process and helps students avoid oversights and possible mistakes. The length of the formal proposal varies by discipline and is often 5-10 pages in length (title page not included). For an overview of the required components a thesis should contain, see Appendix 1. For further guidance on the format of the proposal, see the requirements within the classroom.

Students are expected to work with their professors and must follow all guidance provided in the course, including submitting all required components of the research process. Students should not expect to submit a final product at the end of the course without having completed each stage of the research process as outlined. Professors are not required to accept theses that have not undergone this review process.http://www.apus.edu/community-scholars/institutional-review-board/http://www.apus.edu/community-scholars/institutional-review-board/

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Preparing the Thesis Thesis preparation entails a partnership between the student and professor. The student and professor shall coordinate the process for the student to submit and receive feedback on drafts of thesis sections. The student is also encouraged to ask other APUS faculty and professionals and leaders in their field of study to volunteer as thesis readers and provide feedback on drafts of thesis sections where these faculty members and professionals may have special expertise. For example, a student’s graduate research methods instructor may be asked for feedback on the thesis research design.

Notes:

• Self-plagiarism. The student must be careful not to self-plagiarize in their thesis. Self- plagiarism is “the presentation of one’s own previously published work as new scholarship.”2 Evidence of academic dishonesty found in a comprehensive exam or capstone paper will result in a grade of an F for the exam/course.

• Thesis formatting shall be in strict accordance with the End of Program Assessment Manual for Graduate Studies (EOP Manual) to ensure uniformity across the university.

• The citation approach and manuscript formatting is established by the program or school’s officially designated style manual; however, the following are required to follow the formats shown in Appendixes 4-8.

o Title page (required; Appendix 4) 3 o University publication license /Copyright Page (required; Appendix 5) o Dedication page (optional; Appendix 6) o Acknowledgements page (optional; Appendix 7) o Abstract of the thesis (required; Appendix 8)

according to the program’s or school’s designated style manual with the following exceptions (see Appendixes 9-11 for examples).

o Dot leaders (periods between words and pages) are required. o Pages should be left justified. o Double space between entries. o Note: Hyperlinking to sections within the thesis can add ease to navigation.

2 Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. 2010. 6th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, pg. 16. Section 1.10 Plagiarism and Self-Plagiarism elaborates on the matter.

3 Papers using APA formatting should not include the running head on the title page.

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• Style manuals are located in the APUS Library in the Writing@APUS website. • The thesis must also follow appropriate APUS Library declarations (see

Chapter VII). • Appropriate stylistic formatting and documentation are the student’s responsibility.

Student papers that do not follow the prescribed style rules will not be accepted and may delay course grading as well as degree conferral.

Approval of Thesis Once a final thesis manuscript is approved by the thesis professor, it will be graded based on the standards in the program’s grading rubric on a categorical scale of A+ through F. A grade of an A+ (or 96 percent and above) is the equivalent of the comprehensive exam designation of Passed with distinction (PWD). Thus, an A+ is only given to those papers that demonstrate excellence in originality, research, argument, and expression. Any thesis that receives this grade must be of such high quality that it is potentially publishable in a discipline-appropriate scholarly academic journal. Any capstone project/paper awarded a Passed with distinction must be reviewed and approved by the professor, second reader (if applicable), program director, school dean, and the Office of Graduate Studies before being included in the APUS ePress Repository.

Submission of Final Thesis The last step in the thesis project is to submit the final manuscript to the APUS Library. This is done by the program director and NOT the student.

All thesis capstone papers are retained by the APUS Library. The program director must submit the student’s paper within one month of the course completion date. The student is responsible for ensuring that all spelling, grammar, citations, etc. are correct and appropriate. Instructor feedback comments should not appear in the final version submitted to the library. The student’s paper will be checked using plagiarism detection software before submission. See also the graduate writing resources in the APUS Library at Writing@APUS.

Exceptional works, those that received a grade of an A+, will be considered for publication in the APUS ePress Repository as examples of capstone projects that meet the highest level of distinction.

In order to have your paper considered for inclusion, the paper must:

• have received a grade of A+ (i.e., equivalent of a Passed with distinction); • have been recommended and approved by the professor, the program director, the

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• include the Institutional Review Board (IRB) authorization documentation, if appropriate.

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Chapter III: Master’s Capstone: Creative/Applied Project

The master’s creative/applied project provides an opportunity for students to • Create a discrete project, paper, exhibit, performance or other appropriate task

reflecting integration of knowledge acquired in academic and professional activities. • Identify an appropriate problem, issue, or question within the practice or application

of the discipline. • Analyze current tools available to solve the problem or improve professional practice,

comparing and contrasting to identify benefits and issues. • Justify the tool or process selected to address the problem, with support from the

academic and professional literature. • Contextualize and apply the chosen tool or process within professional practice. • Analyze the effectiveness and efficiency of the chosen tool or technique, and discuss

other possible ways the problem could have been solved. • Evaluate how this method of solving the problem will benefit others.

Beginning the Creative/Applied Project The course is tailored specifically to each graduate program and must be the last course master’s degree students take from APUS. The capstone course may be taken only after the completion of all coursework. That is, no concurrent coursework is permitted. Students must successfully complete this requirement before the award of a degree. Students must apply for graduation and have a minimum GPA of 3.0 in order to be able to register for the course.

Creative/Applied Project Proposal A formal creative/applied project proposal is required and shall be prepared in accordance with the standards of the academic discipline. The formal proposal must provide a clear and lucid description of a creative/applied project and must include a discussion of how that project is situated within the discipline. The proposal should explain the goal and intent of the project and convince the professor that the project fits within the discipline, can be completed in the allotted time, and comports with discipline standards. Please see the specific guidelines provided in your capstone course.

Proposal drafting is considered a learning process and helps the student avoid oversights and possible mistakes. It should show that the student has read the relevant and recent literature on the subject, and it should contain a list of materials consulted during the preliminary stages of research.

In general, the creative/applied project proposal should include background information related to the project topic, the purpose of the project, and investigatory procedures to be used. The formal proposal varies by the discipline and is often 5-10 pages (title page not

15

included). For further guidance on the format of the proposal see requirements within the classroom. An overview of the required components of master’s creative/applied project can be found in Appendix 2. Professors are not required to accept work that has not undergone this review process.

Completing the Creative/Applied Project Creative/applied project preparation entails a partnership between the student and the professor who is responsible for directing the intellectual content and activities of the project. The student and professor shall coordinate the process for the student to submit and receive feedback on project activities. The student also is encouraged to ask other APUS faculty and professionals and leaders in their field of study to volunteer to observe and provide feedback on project activities where these faculty members and professionals may have special expertise.

Notes:

• Self-plagiarism. The student must be careful not to self-plagiarize in their project. Self-plagiarism is “the presentation of one’s own previously published work as new scholarship.”4 Evidence of academic dishonesty found in a comprehensive exam or capstone paper will result in a grade of an F for the exam/course.

• Creative/applied project length and depth shall be in accordance with disciplinary standards and should demonstrate high-level synthesis and evaluation of program content.

• Formatting shall be in strict accordance with the End of Program Assessment Manual for Graduate Studies (EOP Manual) to ensure uniformity across the university.

• The citation approach and manuscript formatting is established by the program or school’s officially designated style manual; however, the following are required to follow the formats shown in Appendixes 4-8.

o Title page (required; Appendix 4) 5 o University publication license /Copyright Page (required; Appendix 5) o Dedication page (optional; Appendix 6) o Acknowledgements page (optional; Appendix 7) o Abstract of the capstone (required; Appendix 8)

4 Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. 2010. 6th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, pg. 16. Section 1.10 Plagiarism and Self-Plagiarism elaborates on the matter.

5 Papers using APA formatting should not include the running head on the title page.

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• The Table of Contents, List of Tables, and List of Figures should be formatted according to the program’s or school’s designated style manual with the following exceptions (see Appendixes 9-11 for examples).

o Dot leaders (periods between words and pages) are required. o Pages should be left justified. o Double space between entries. o Note: Hyperlinking to sections within the project can add ease to navigation.

• Style manuals are located in the APUS Library in the Writing@APUS website. • The project must also follow appropriate APUS Library declarations (see Chapter VII). • Appropriate stylistic formatting and documentation are the student’s responsibility.

Student papers that do not follow the prescribed style rules will not be accepted.

Approval of Creative/Applied Project Once a final project manuscript is approved by the capstone professor, the creative/applied project will be graded based on the standards in the creative/applied project rubric on a categorical scale of grades A+ through F. A grade of an A+ (or 96 percent) is the equivalent of the comprehensive exam designation of Passed with distinction (PWD). Thus, an A+ is only given to those works that demonstrate excellence in originality, research, argument, and/or expression. The creative/applied project that receives this grade must be of such high quality that it is potentially publishable in a discipline-appropriate academic or professional journal. All PWD papers must be reviewed and approved by the professor, second reader (if applicable), program director, school dean, and the Office of Graduate Studies. A passing grade for this course requires a B (80%) or better on the capstone project itself as well as in the capstone course.

Submission of Creative/Applied Project Report The last step in the project is to submit the final manuscript to the APUS Library. This is done by the program director and NOT the student.

All capstone papers are retained by the APUS Library. The program director must submit the student’s paper within one month of the course completion date. The student is responsible for ensuring that all spelling, grammar, citations, etc. are correct and appropriate. Instructor feedback comments should not appear in the final version submitted to the APUS Library. The student’s paper will be checked using a plagiarism detection tool before submission. See also the graduate writing resources in the APUS Library at Writing@APUS.

Exceptional works, those that received a grade of an A+, will be considered for publication in the APUS ePress Repository as examples of capstone projects that meet the highest level of distinction.http://apus.libanswers.com/writing/faq/126691http://apus.libanswers.com/writing/faq/126691https://apus.libguides.com/APUS_ePress/theses

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In order to have your project considered for inclusion, the project must: • have received a grade of A+ (i.e., equivalent of a Passed with distinction); • have been recommended and approved by the instructor, the program director, the

school dean, and the Office of Graduate Studies; and • include the Institutional Review Board (IRB) authorization documentation, if

appropriate.

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the work. Once the second reader has received the capstone, they have one week to review and respond to the capstone advisor. If the second reader’s evaluation does not concur with the capstone advisor, the paper will go to the appropriate program director or school dean to issue a decision about the final grade.

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Chapter IV: Master’s Capstone: Practicum and Critical Reflection Paper Note: Please check your academic plan to see if this option is available in your program.

The master’s practicum and critical reflection paper provide an opportunity for students to

• obtain professional experience in a focused area or discipline; • critically reflect on work experience in light of theory learned in class; • demonstrate mastery of the skills required of professionals in their discipline; and • culminate their master’s degree experience as they complete their master’s program

and either continue or begin working in their chosen profession.

Beginning the Practicum and Critical Reflection Paper The course is tailored specifically to each graduate program and must be the last course master’s degree students take from APUS. The capstone course may be taken only after the completion of all coursework. That is, no concurrent coursework is permitted. Students must successfully complete this requirement before the award of a degree. Students must apply for graduation and have a minimum GPA of 3.0 in order to be able to register for the course.

Practicum Proposal A formal practicum proposal is required and shall be prepared in accordance with the standards of the academic discipline. The formal proposal must provide a clear and lucid description of the practicum including the location or organization in which the practicum will be completed, a description of the 160 hours of work required to complete the practicum, the schedule and objectives for the work to be completed, and the name and title of the supervising staff member at the organization. In addition, the students will need to describe how completing this practicum is consistent with their course of study and articulate the objectives they hope to achieve through the completion of this practicum.

The proposal should explain the objectives to be learned and convince the practicum professor that the proposed practicum merits application and integration of learning for the student and specified degree. It should show that the student has read the relevant and recent literature related to the practicum selection, and it should contain a list of materials consulted during the preliminary stages as part of the rationale for doing the practicum in the identified organization.

In general, the practicum proposal should include background information related to the learning objectives, identification, selection, and background of the organization and work to be completed, purpose of the practicum, and critical reflection process procedures to be used during it. The formal proposal varies by discipline and is often 5-10 pages (title page not included). Proposal drafting is considered a learning process and helps the students

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avoid oversights and possible mistakes. For further guidance on the format of the proposal see requirements within the classroom. An overview of the required components of a master’s practicum paper can be found in Appendix 3.

Completing the Practicum Practicum preparation entails a partnership between the student, an outside organization, and a supervising professor who is responsible for directing the intellectual content and activities of the practicum. One hundred sixty on-site hours are required for successful completion of the practicum. The practicum may not be completed in the student’s current reporting structure at work, and it is preferred that it be completed at an organization other than the student’s current place of employment.

Selecting an appropriate mentor in the workplace who will support the learning of the student in this process is critical to the successful completion of the practicum. The professor will provide guidelines for selecting a mentor and the mentor’s role in the practicum.

Students are required to keep a log or journal during the practicum and to write a critical reflection paper on this experience. The integration paper is generally between 25 and 30 pages and follows a method similar to David Kolb’s experiential learning style as the basis and method for writing the paper. Please see the specific guidelines in your practicum course. Completion of the reflection paper and formatting shall be directed by the professor. The student and professor shall coordinate the process for the student to submit and receive feedback on practicum activities and the critical reflection paper. The student also is required to obtain the mentor (see above) who will provide feedback on practicum activities. Outside faculty and other professionals’ opinions and feedback also may be sought, especially where faculty members and professionals have special expertise. Before consulting outside sources, be sure to consult your course instructor.

Notes:

• Self-plagiarism. The student must be careful not to self-plagiarize in their paper. Self- plagiarism is “the presentation of one’s own previously published work as new scholarship.”6 Evidence of academic dishonesty found in a comprehensive exam or capstone paper will result in a grade of an F for the exam/course.

6 Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. 2010. 6th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, pg. 16. Section 1.10 Plagiarism and Self-Plagiarism elaborates on the matter.

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• The paper’s length and depth shall be in accordance with disciplinary standards; please see specific guidelines in your program.

• Formatting shall be in strict accordance with the End of Program Assessment Manual for Graduate Studies to ensure uniformity across the university.

• The citation approach and manuscript formatting is established by the program or school’s officially designated style manual; however, the following are required to follow the formats shown in Appendixes 4-8.

o Title page (required; Appendix 4) 7 o University publication license /Copyright Page (required; Appendix 5) o Dedication page (optional; Appendix 6) o Acknowledgements page (optional; Appendix 7) o Abstract of the thesis (required; Appendix 8)

according to the program’s or school’s designated style manual with the following exceptions (see Appendixes 9-11 for examples).

o Dot leaders (periods between words and pages) are required. o Pages should be left justified. o Double space between entries. o Note: Hyperlinking to sections within the thesis can add ease to navigation.

• Style manuals are located in the APUS Library in the Writing@APUS website. • The capstone must also follow appropriate APUS Library declarations (see

Chapter VII). • Appropriate stylistic formatting and documentation are the student’s responsibility.

Student papers that do not follow the prescribed style rules will not be accepted.

Approval of the Practicum and Critical Reflection Paper Once a final critical reflection paper is approved by the professor, final grading for the practicums and the critical reflection paper will be based on the standards in the APUS practicum and critical reflection rubric on a categorical scale of A+ through F. A grade of an A+ is the equivalent of the comprehensive exam designation of Passed with distinction (PWD). Thus, a grade of an A+ is only given to those projects that demonstrate excellence and are of the highest quality. The project that receives this grade must be of such high quality that it is potentially publishable in a discipline-appropriate scholarly academic or professional journal. A passing grade for this course requires a B- (80%) or better on the capstone paper itself as well as in the capstone course.

7 Papers using APA formatting should not include the running head on the title page.http://apus.libanswers.com/writing/faq/126691

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The following signatures are required for approval on the APUS Library Capstone Submission/Approval Form: capstone professor, second reader (if applicable), program director, and academic dean.

Submission of Critical Reflection Paper The final step in the project is to submit the final manuscript to the APUS Library, which is done by the program director and NOT the student.

All capstone papers are retained by the APUS Library. The program director must submit the student’s paper within one month of the course completion date. All spelling, grammar, citations, etc. must be correct and appropriate. Instructor feedback comments should not appear in the final version submitted to the library. The student’s paper must be checked by the plagiarism detection tool before submission.

Exceptional works, those that received a grade of an A+, will be considered for publication in the APUS ePress Repository as examples of capstone projects that meet the highest level of distinction.

Critical reflection papers, while eligible for the grade of Passed with distinction may not be eligible to be placed in the APUS ePress Repository due to the personalized information that may be contained within the papers. The final decision for placement in the APUS ePress Repository will be made by the program director, school dean, and Office of Graduate Studies. In order to have your paper considered for inclusion, the paper must:

• have received a grade of A+ (i.e., equivalent of a Passed with distinction); • have been recommended and approved by the instructor, the program director the

school dean and the Office of Graduate Studies; and • include the Institutional Review Board (IRB) authorization documentation, if

appropriate.

Unsuccessful Capstone Attempts Students who have not successfully completed their capstone project during the period allowed for the capstone course may be allowed one extension opportunity to complete the requirement. However, significant progress must have been made on the capstone paper in order for the extension to be granted. Students who are permitted this opportunity will temporarily be issued an incomplete for the course and be allowed a 30-day extension to meet the requirements as outlined by the advisor. In order for students to be permitted any additional extensions on their original capstone course the faculty member must forward all second extension requests in the capstonehttps://apus.libguides.com/APUS_ePress/theseshttps://apus.libguides.com/APUS_ePress/theseshttps://apus.libguides.com/APUS_ePress/theseshttps://apus.libguides.com/APUS_ePress/theses

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Chapter V: Master’s Capstone: Portfolio and Critical Reflection Paper Option

The master’s portfolio option provides an opportunity for students to

• demonstrate a mastery of the area or discipline of their study; • critically reflect on the learning that has occurred during their study; • apply theory learned in class to real world situations and scenarios; • demonstrate mastery of the skills required of professionals in their discipline; and • culminate their graduate student experience as they complete their master’s program

and either continue or begin working in their chosen profession.

Beginning the Portfolio Option The course is tailored specifically to each graduate program and must be the last course master’s degree students take from APUS. The capstone course may be taken only after the completion of all coursework. That is, no concurrent coursework is permitted. Students must successfully complete this requirement before the award of a degree. Students must apply for graduation and have a minimum GPA of 3.0 in order to be able to register for the course.

Portfolio and Critical Reflection Paper Each program specifies the artifacts that make up the portfolio. Students are expected to retain these artifacts as they progress through their program and may be asked to submit these artifacts into a portfolio portal throughout the program. The portfolio contains a substantive analysis that contextualizes each artifact, articulates how the artifact demonstrates mastery of the learning outcome, and evaluates the student’s intellectual growth through the program.

Students are encouraged to keep a log or journal and to retain all forums and assignments submitted during their course of study at APUS. This will help the student when they have to write a critical reflection paper on their learning experience.

The final capstone course provides the opportunity for students to demonstrate through their critical reflection paper that they have met the program learning outcomes and to showcase skills for future employers. This process will entail critique of the various artifacts as well as application of critical discipline theory. The capstone course may also ask students to revise, update, or modify previously-submitted artifacts to show intellectual growth throughout the program. The critical reflection paper should also show that the student can apply relevant and recent literature to the artifacts and program objectives, and it should contain a bibliography of sources consulted. It should be roughly 50 pages (not

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including front and back matter). An overview of the required components of a Master Critical Reflection paper can be found in Appendix 16.

Completing the Capstone Portfolio preparation entails a partnership between the student and the supervising professor who is responsible for directing the intellectual content and activities of the portfolio.

Completion of the reflection paper and formatting shall be directed by the professor. The student and professor shall coordinate the process for the student to submit and receive feedback on practicum activities and the critical reflection paper.

Notes:

• Self-plagiarism. The student must be careful not to self-plagiarize in their paper. Self- plagiarism is “the presentation of one’s own previously published work as new scholarship.”8 Evidence of academic dishonesty found in a comprehensive exam or capstone paper will result in a grade of an F for the exam/course.

• The paper’s length and depth shall be in accordance with disciplinary standards. • Formatting shall be in strict accordance with the End of Program Assessment Manual

for Graduate Studies to ensure uniformity across the university. • The citation approach and manuscript formatting is established by the program or

school’s officially designated style manual; however, the following are required to follow the formats shown in Appendixes 4-8.

o Title page (required; Appendix 4) 9 o University publication license /Copyright Page (required; Appendix 5) o Dedication page (optional;; Appendix 6) o Acknowledgements page (optional; Appendix 7) o Abstract of the thesis (required; Appendix 8)

according to the program’s or school’s designated style manual with the following exceptions (see Appendixes 9-11 for examples).

o Dot leaders (periods between words and pages) are required. o Pages should be left justified.

8 Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. 2010. 6th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, pg. 16. Section 1.10 Plagiarism and Self-Plagiarism elaborates on the matter.

9 Papers using APA formatting should not include the running head on the title page.

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o Double space between entries. • Note: Hyperlinking to sections within the paper can add ease to navigation. • Style manuals are located in the APUS Library in the Writing@APUS website. • The paper must also follow appropriate APUS Library declarations (see

Chapter VII). • Appropriate stylistic formatting and documentation are the student’s responsibility.

Student papers that do not follow the prescribed style rules will not be accepted.

Approval of the Portfolio and Critical Reflection Paper Once a final critical reflection paper is approved by the professor, final grading for the portfolio and the critical reflection paper will be based on the standards in the APUS portfolio and critical reflection rubric on a categorical scale of A+ through F. A grade of an A+ is the equivalent of the comprehensive exam designation of Passed with distinction (PWD). Thus, a grade of an A+ is only given to those projects that demonstrate excellence and are of the highest quality. The project that receives this grade must be of high quality. Because of the potential sensitive personal information contained in the critical reflection paper for the portfolio, PWD papers may not be eligible for inclusion in the APUS ePress Repository. A passing grade for this course requires a B- (80%) or better on the capstone paper as well as the capstone course itself.

The following signatures are required for approval on the APUS Library Capstone Submission/Approval Form: capstone professor, second reader (if applicable), program director, and school dean.

Submission of Critical Reflection Paper The final step in the project is to submit the final manuscript to the APUS Library, which is done by the program director and NOT the student.

All capstone papers are retained by the APUS Library. Program directors must submit the student’s paper within one month of the course completion date. The student is responsible for ensuring that all spelling, grammar, citations, etc. are correct and appropriate. Instructor feedback comments should not appear in the final version submitted to the library. The student’s paper will be checked using a plagiarism detection tool before submission. See also the graduate resources in the APUS Library at Writing@APUS.

Exceptional works, those that received a grade of an A+, will be considered for publication in the APUS ePress Repository as examples of capstone projects that meet the highest level of distinction.

Critical reflection papers, while eligible for the grade of Passed with distinction, may not be eligible to be placed in the APUS ePress Repository due to the personalized information thathttp://apus.libanswers.com/writing/faq/126691https://apus.libguides.com/APUS_ePress/theseshttp://apus.libanswers.com/writing/faq/126691https://apus.libguides.com/APUS_ePress/theseshttps://apus.libguides.com/APUS_ePress/theses

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may be contained within the papers. The final decision for placement in the APUS ePress Repository will be made by the program director, school dean and the Office of Graduate Studies. In order to have your paper considered for inclusion, the paper must:

• have received a grade of A+ (i.e., equivalent of a Passed with distinction); • have been recommended and approved by the instructor, the program director, the

school dean, and the Office of Graduate Studies; and • include the Institutional Review Board (IRB) authorization documentation, if

appropriate.

Unsuccessful Capstone Attempts Students who have not successfully completed their capstone project during the period allowed for the capstone course may be allowed one extension opportunity to complete the requirement. However, the student must have made significant progress on the paper in order to be granted the extension. Students who are permitted this opportunity will temporarily be issued an incomplete for the course and be allowed a 30-day extension to meet the requirements as outlined by the advisor.

In order for students to be permitted any additional extensions on their original capstone course the faculty member must forward all second extension requests in the capstone course to academicappeals@apus.edu. The extension request will be reviewed by a committee of two that includes the dean of the student’s school and the Dean of Graduate Studies. In the event the students fails to meet the extension deadlines, the original capstone course grade will either remain as a failing grade, or as a withdrawal, depending upon the documentation a student is able to submit.

If a student has failed the capstone, and it is determined to be caused by the student’s inability to use proper academic writing conventions, the student may be required to complete COLL501 or the ClearPath Graduate Writing modules prior to enrolling in a final attempt at the capstone course. See also the graduate resources in the APUS Library at Writing@APUS.

Note: Each new attempt at a comprehensive exam or capstone requires the student register and pay for the new course.

The student has the right to appeal issues related to the capstone in line with the standard APUS appeals process by contacting academicappeals@apus.edu.https://apus.libguides.com/APUS_ePress/theseshttps://apus.libguides.com/APUS_ePress/thesesmailto:academicappeals@apus.eduhttp://apus.libanswers.com/writing/faq/126691mailto:academicappeals@apus.edu

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In the event of a failing grade, the rubric must be provided to the program director who will appoint a second reader to review the work.

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Chapter VI: The Responsible Conduct of Research

Evidence of academic dishonesty found in a comprehensive exam or capstone paper will result in a grade of an F for the exam/course. If evidence of academic dishonesty is present, options for the student include:

For Comprehensive Exam Assessments

• Accepting the grade and not receiving the degree. A letter of academic completion may be provided, but a degree will not be conferred.

• Upon approval of the Dean of Graduate Studies, retaking the exam at an APUS site (Charles Town, West Virginia, Manassas, Virginia, or location where an education coordinator is assigned; the student will be supervised by an advisor, program manager or Marketing site representative) on an APUS laptop computer disconnected from the Internet. The exam questions will be different from those on the previous exam and this exam will be graded by a different professor from the first exam attempt. The student must pass this second exam to have their degree conferred. The student will not be eligible for a Passed with distinction grade on any second attempt, and will not be eligible for Honors at graduation, regardless of GPA. The student must pay to retake the exam.

For Capstone and Portfolio Assessments

• Accepting the grade and not receiving the degree. A letter of academic completion may be provided, but a degree will not be conferred.

• The student may be given the option (program dependent) to take the comprehensive exam instead; however, the retake is subject to the same rules as noted above.

• Upon appeal approval by the Dean of Graduate Studies, the student may be allowed, at their own expense, to retake the entire capstone course. However, the plagiarism incident will still be recorded by the Registrar and the student will not be eligible for honors at graduation regardless of GPA.

Any additional incidents of academic dishonesty on the EOP requirement will result in the student being expelled.

For appeals to retake a comprehensive exam or capstone after a reported incident of academic dishonesty, contact the Dean of Graduate Studies at academicappeals@apus.edu.mailto:academicappeals@apus.edu

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Note: Any evidence of academic dishonesty found in work produced in a student’s end of program comprehensive exam or capstone may prompt a review of all of the student’s work at APUS. Evidence of repeated violations of academic integrity may result in disciplinary actions.

Institutional Review Board APUS requires all research using human subjects undergo an IRB review, including capstone projects or papers. More information on the IRB process can be found here: http://www.apus.edu/community-scholars/institutional-review-board/.

Failure to Secure IRB approval APUS is committed to the Responsible Conduct of Research (RCR). All human subjects research conducted under the aegis of APUS must undergo review by the APUS Institutional Review Board (IRB). All such research must follow the guidelines outlined in the IRB Manual. Failure to follow proper IRB protocols constitutes a violation of the RCR policy. Any breach of the APUS RCR policy is a serious violation of professional standards and will result in sanctions. Sanctions may vary depending upon the severity of the infraction, but may include written warning, termination, expulsion, termination of research, and/or the destruction of research data. Actions taken by the IRB and the University also will be subject to Federal reporting guidelines.http://www.apus.edu/community-scholars/institutional-review-board/

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Chapter VII: University Declarations and APUS Library Registration

This section of the manual addresses those factors, along with assistance, for the use of Microsoft Word, the university’s designated word processing software. The APUS Library is acting in its capacity as publisher of record and regulator for scholarly publication along with the maintenance of current Web standards. In addition to the faculty’s responsibility for subject area competence, the APUS Library retains approval rights for featuring capstone writing projects. Only projects that have met the standard of Passed with distinction and have been approved are eligible for inclusion in the University’s online publication database, the APUS ePress Repository. All successful capstone projects must be submitted to the APUS Library following the guidance in this chapter. In keeping with scholarly standards, the university demands that all textual materials be warranted and constructed in good order, which implies writing in standard English, checking spelling and grammar, and conforming with stylistic rules from the student’s academic or professional program and its designated style manual (APA, Bluebook, Chicago/Turabian, or MLA). Style manuals are located in the APUS Library in the Writing@APUS website. Because APUS is an online university, student work products also must be designed with Web publication in mind. Graduate students are expected to demonstrate word-processing skills. The resulting paper must align with Internet delivery and search engine discovery, as well as with the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) criteria for a semantic network and disabled student access under Section 508.

Note: The APUS Library is committed to open access, ADA accessibility methods, and long-term maintenance of all accepted submissions. While the library encourages the use of images, diagrams, media files, and datasets, it does not engage in long-term formal normalization and preservation methods for images, datasets, or media files.

1. Declarations The author must agree to and include the following statements at the bottom of the manuscript’s copyright page:https://apus.libguides.com/APUS_ePress/theseshttp://apus.libanswers.com/writing/faq/126691

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• University Publication License: The applicant must grant the university a nonexclusive license to publish the submission on its website and/or in the APUS Library. Use the following language:

The author hereby grants the American Public University System the right to display these contents for educational purposes.

• Copyright Warrant: The applicant assumes responsibility for meeting the

requirements set by United States copyright law (http://www.copyright.gov/eco/). Use the following language: The author assumes total responsibility for meeting the requirements set by United States copyright law for the inclusion of any materials that are not the author’s creation or in the public domain. See Appendix 5 for the required, correct page format for both statements.

2. Textual Components

Academic Style Manual Conformity The citation approach and manuscript formatting is established by the program or school’s officially designated style manual; however, the following are required to follow the formats shown in Appendixes 4-8.

• Title page (required; Appendix 4) 10 • University publication license /Copyright Page (required; Appendix 5) • Dedication page (optional; Appendix 6) • Acknowledgements page (optional; Appendix 7) • Abstract of the thesis (required; Appendix 8)

The Table of Contents, List of Tables, and List of Figures should be formatted according to the program’s or school’s designated style manual with the following exceptions (see Appendixes 9-11 for examples).

• Dot leaders (periods between words and pages) are required • Pages should be left justified. • Double space between entries.

10 Papers using APA formatting should not include the running head on the title page.http://www.copyright.gov/eco/

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Check the Styles Guides at the Writing@APUS website for help where the style manual is ambiguous or clashes with Web publication methods. You may also consult with a librarian: librarian@apus.edu.

• The APA guide, a.k.a. the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, is currently available in print (hardcover, softcover, spiral bound, and softcover (Spanish)). One may also rent or buy via Vital Source or RedShelf. See the Writing@APUS-APAresource in Writing@APUS for APA style guidance.

• The complete, official Chicago Manual of Style Online and The Bluebook Online are provided by the APUS Library to APUS students, faculty, and staff.

• The MLA guide, a.k.a. the MLA Handbook, is currently available in print format only. See the Writing@APUS-MLA resource in Writing@APUS for MLA style guidance.

• The Turabian guide, a.k.a. A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations), is based on the Chicago Manual of Style. It is currently available in print or Kindle and Nook format only. See the Writing@APUS-Turabian resource in Writing@APUS for Turabian style guidance.

3. Images and Tables All images and tables must be numbered and clearly labeled according to style manual dictates. In addition to clarity and publication demands, this requirement helps to address the World Wide Web Consortium’s (W3C) demands for universal access and parallel federal requirements under Section 508 to ensure access for those with disabilities.

Image Insert/Formats Images are normally placed within the text using the Picture command, which is found under the Insert tab on the main toolbar. (When placed on a webpage, such materials are normally enhanced with a description using the alt tag.) Please use common sense to describe images (i.e., fire rescue, maps, Philadelphia). If in doubt, consult a librarian at librarian@apus.edu for specifics and added background. Acceptable digital formats include:

• .gif, especially appropriate for line drawings and graphs; • .jpg/.jpeg, the overall default format and the dominant style for mounting pictures on

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• .tif/.tiff, the archival standard for preservation purposes that also produces extremely large files.

4. Video or Audio Those seeking to submit digital audio or video files may utilize MP3 (audio) or MP4 (video) formats. File-size considerations should be kept in mind, and if the file is prohibitively large, a version without video inserts should be provided with the video and audio files provided as external files and references. These areas contain rapidly changing archival standards and normally require specialized formatting with Codecs (compression schemes) for presentation on the Web. In general, the applicant should expect to

• include identifying metadata within the file(s); and • include a textual equivalent (transcript) to meet universal access/Section 504

compliance.

With respect to submission to the APUS Library, if there are questions regarding the proper submission of supplemental digital audio or video files, contact ThesisInfo@apus.edu.

5. URLs/Web Addresses When noting a URL or Web address, the default format should be that of the style manual of your program. Note: Word will automatically embed the codes to link directly to the resources. Citations to permanent or persistent links are preferred (i.e., DOI: Digital Object Identifier). Do not use link-abbreviating tools (i.e., TinyURL, etc.).

6. Submission to the APUS Library The final step in the project is to submit the final manuscript to the APUS Library, which is done by the program director and NOT the student. The APUS Library serves as the repository for all thesis/capstone papers. Without exception, all passing graduate capstone papers must be submitted to the APUS Library where they will be retained in the University’s digital archive. Papers submitted to the APUS Library by the student will not be accepted. The student should contact their capstone advisor concerning submission on their behalf. The program director or school dean is to submit the capstone documents.mailto:ThesisInfo@apus.edu

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7. Passed with Distinction (a.k.a. PWD) The student’s capstone professor and program director are responsible for determining if the capstone project meets the criteria for Passed with distinction and is therefore eligible for consideration to be published in the APUS ePress Repository. Only projects that have met the standard of Passed with distinction and have been approved by the Dean of Graduate Studies are eligible for inclusion. Papers accepted for publication will be posted publicly in the APUS ePress Repository with an active link to a PDF version of the paper.https://apus.libguides.com/APUS_ePress/theseshttps://apus.libguides.com/APUS_ePress/theses

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For quality assurance and approval, a condition of publication is that the capstone advisor agrees to have their name displayed next to the master’s capstone student-author. There will be no exceptions. All capstone projects awarded an A+ will be considered for inclusion in the APUS ePress Repository as an example of a capstone project that meets the highest level of distinction.

Note: Critical reflection papers, while eligible for the grade of Passed with distinction, may not be eligible to be placed in the APUS ePress Repository due to the personalized information that may be contained within the papers. The final decision for placement in the APUS ePress Repository will be made by the Dean of Graduate Studies.

1. Copyright Copyright concerns focus primarily on copyright law both for registering intellectual property and keeping to scholarly standards, especially the avoidance of plagiarism. In legal terms, the United States is a signatory of the international Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works (http://www.wipo.int/treaties/en/ip/berne/index.html). More importantly, internal enforcement is codified under Title 17 of the 1976 Copyright Act as amended. The Librarian of Congress is the officially designated interpreter of the act, which also is subject to decisions in the federal court system (See U.S. Copyright Office, http://www.copyright.gov).

Note: Foreign copyrights are valid in the U.S. Material published outside the U.S. and may not have clear-cut rules. Some authorities advise that it is not safe to assume a foreign work copyrighted in the last two hundred years is in the public domain.

Copyrighting Your Research Under the Berne Convention, original intellectual contributions are automatically copyrighted when captured in a fixed medium, such as in print or a video. Under U.S. copyright law, copyright for works created after January 1, 1978 normally extend for the life of the author plus 70 years. The creator also may choose to formally register copyright status. Registration is a legal formality that makes a public record of the exact details of a copyright claim. It is necessary in order to bring suit against an infringer for damages. Registration can be done online through the Electronic Copyright Office (http://www.copyright.gov/eco), as well as by mail and in person. It requires three elements:

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• nonreturnable deposit copy

Copyright Permission Although rarely needed, students may be responsible for securing copyright releases for substantial use of a copyrighted item. Permission also may be required as a courtesy for the use of materials from certain private collections and museums without respect to copyright. Any letter(s) of permission become part of the appendices in the submission (see Appendix 12 for a sample permission letter). Information about obtaining permission can be found http://www.copyright.gov/help/faq/faq-fairuse.html#permission.mailto:librarian@apus.eduhttps://apus.libguides.com/APUS_ePress/thesesmailto:copyright@apus.eduhttp://www.copyright.gov/help/faq/faq-fairuse.html#permission

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2. University Research Policies Misconduct in research implies the intent to deceive or defraud; it extends to the mistreatment of animals and human subjects. Misconduct includes, but is not limited to, fabrication of or employment of spurious data, purposeful omission of any conflicting data, deceptively selective reporting, misappropriation of intellectual property, and cases of frivolous accusations. It does not include honest error or honest differences in interpretation or judgments of data. Student research misconduct resulting from regular course assignments that are not published for public scrutiny remains under the purview of the instructor and is not subject to these protocols. Other common forms of misconduct covered by these protocols are defined as follows.

• Falsification of data is deliberately changing any form of evidence in such a way that it substantially affects its usefulness.

• Plagiarism is deliberately appropriating the writing or recorded work of another without their consent or improperly documenting for one’s own benefit.

• Conflict of interest occurs when an individual serves or represents two distinct entities and neglects or breaches a duty to one entity to benefit the other or when a person uses their position with one entity to advance a personal gain or the gain of another entity.

• Fraud and misrepresentation are deliberate attempts to deceive others to secure unlawful or unfair advantage. This category of misconduct includes providing false or misleading information to or intentionally deceiving coauthors, granting agencies, editors, or other interested parties regarding the results or the status of a research project.

• Noncompliance is failing to comply with the published regulations of federal agencies, state agencies, the university, or granting agencies that support an individual’s research.

• Misappropriation of research funds is any deliberate act or omission in the handling of research funds that violates university policy, or the policies of granting agencies either state or federal.

These policies apply to individuals (other than students involved in regular classroom assignments) engaged in any form of research and scholarship, funded or otherwise, in every discipline throughout the university.

3. Institutional Review Board Students engaged in research that involves human subjects and whose research is systematic and generalizable are required to complete an Institutional Review Board (IRB)

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application, which includes Collaborative Institutional Training Initiative (CITI) program courses. Failure to receive IRB approval for human subjects research will result in failing the Capstone project and a Responsible Conduct of Research (RCR) violation. Students who plan to engage in human subject research should discuss it with the course instructor at the very beginning of the course. The IRB process can take at least one month.

For a brief overview of the IRB, visit http://apus.adobeconnect.com/p1jpa3w9nwj/. For detailed information on the APUS Institutional Review Board, visit, http://www.apus.edu/community-scholars/institutional-review-board/.

Note: APUS takes academic dishonesty very seriously. Any evidence of plagiarism will result in the student’s work being rejected and the student will fail the EOP course. Engaging in academic dishonesty and/or plagiarism will directly threaten the ability of the student to graduate from APUS.http://apus.adobeconnect.com/p1jpa3w9nwj/http://www.apus.edu/community-scholars/institutional-review-board/

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Appendices

Appendix 1: Master’s Theses Master’s theses are generally expected to contain the following elements but vary somewhat due to disciplinary standards. Please follow the specific guidelines provided in your Capstone course: Abstract: Includes the following components: purpose of the research, methodology, findings, and conclusion. The body of the abstract is limited to 150-200 words.11 Introduction: Identifies student’s specific research question and sets the general context for the study. This section should include

• a statement of the problem or general research question and context leading to a clear statement of the specific research question;

• background and contextual material justifying why this case or topic should be studied; and

• a purpose statement.

Literature Review: Reviews the literature on a specific research question. The literature review focuses on discussing how other researchers have addressed the same or similar research questions. It introduces the study and places it in larger context that includes a discussion of why it is important to study this case. It provides the current state of accumulated knowledge as it relates to the student’s specific research question.

• Summarize the general state of the literature (cumulative knowledge base) on the specific research question by synthesizing themes, methods, results, and/or theoretical frameworks used in current literature.

• Include a short conclusion and transition to the next section.

Theoretical Framework/Approach: The theoretical framework section develops the theories or models to be used in the study and shows how the student has developed testable research hypotheses or viable arguments. This section should include the following:

11 The APUS Center for Graduate Studies and the APUS Library have created an instructional module on Writing the Abstract for Your Graduate Capstone Thesis at AMU/APU. It will take you through the entire process. You can access it here: http://apus.libguides.com/research_methods_guide/writingcapstoneabstracthttp://apus.libguides.com/research_methods_guide/writingcapstoneabstract

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• an introduction discussing gaps in the literature, how this study will help fill some of those gaps, and justification for the theory or model to be used in study;

• a summary of the theory or model to be used in the study, including a diagram of the model if appropriate; and

• a statement of hypotheses to be tested or argument.

Research Design/Methodology: Describes how the student will test the hypothesis and carry out their analysis. This section describes the data to be used to test the hypothesis, how the student will operationalize and collect data on their variables, and the analytic methods that to be used, noting potential biases and limitations to the research approach. It should include

• identification and operationalization (measurement) of variables; • a sampling plan (i.e., study population and sampling procedures, if appropriate); • justification of case studies used; • data collection/sources (secondary literature, archives, interviews, surveys, etc.); • a summary of analysis procedures (pattern-matching, etc.); and • the limitations of study and bias discussion.

Findings/Results/Discussion: This section describes the results of the study. Keep in mind that the “results” are the direct observations of the research (data), while the “discussion” is the interpretation and analysis of the results and research. The Results and Discussion may be presented as separate sections. The Results and Discussion should include, as appropriate:

• results, including tables, graphs, statistics; • significance and interpretation of the results; • discussion of results as they relate to thesis statement/research question; • discussion of results as it relates to the theoretical framework/approach; and • directions for future research.

Reference List: References the works the student has cited (direct quotes or paraphrases) in the text. This list must be formatted according to the school’s prescribed style guide.

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Appendix 2: Master’s Creative/Applied Projects Master’s creative/applied projects are generally expected to contain the following elements, but vary somewhat due to disciplinary standards. Please see the specific guidelines in your Capstone course: Abstract: Includes the following components: purpose of the research, methodology, findings, and conclusion. The body of the abstract is limited to 150-200 words.12 Introduction: This section identifies the student’s specific creative/applied project and sets the general context for it.

• Provide a clear and lucid description of the creative/applied project including the goal and intent of the project.

• Discuss the schedule and objectives for the work to be completed.

Literature Review: The literature review focuses on how the creative/applied project experience fits into the discipline. Specifically, it introduces the project and places it in a larger context that includes a discussion of how this experience helps the student meet the program objectives. It provides the current state of accumulated knowledge as it relates to the project.

• Describe how completing this project is consistent with the course of study. • Articulate the objectives the student hopes to achieve through the completion of this

project. • Provide a short conclusion and transition to the next section.

Project Design: This section describes the design of the applied/creative project and situates the project within an issue, question, or problem within the discipline.

• Discuss how the project questions, contradicts, or reinforces existing theoretical knowledge relative to the student’s professional practice and/or discipline.

• Introduces a critical lens or theoretical framework that informs the project, including appropriate citations and context for this framework.

• Describes the expected contribution of the project to knowledge or professional practice within the discipline.

• Discuss the limitations of the project’s scope and generalizability.

12 The APUS Center for Graduate Studies and the APUS Library have created an instructional module on Writing the Abstract for Your Graduate Capstone Thesis at AMU/APU. It will take you through the entire process. You can access it here: http://apus.libguides.com/research_methods_guide/writingcapstoneabstracthttp://apus.libguides.com/research_methods_guide/writingcapstoneabstract

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The Project: This section is where the student includes their project, which must comport with discipline standards for rigor, original contributions to the practice or knowledge of the field, creative expression within a specific theoretical lens, or application of theory to a specific context. The project often includes the following elements:

• Identification of an appropriate problem, issue, or question within the practice or application of the discipline.

• Analysis of current tools available to solve the problem or improve professional practice, comparing and contrasting to identify benefits and issues.

• Rigorous justification of the tool or process selected to address the problem, with support from the academic and professional literature.

• Contextualization and application of the chosen tool or process within professional practice.

• Analysis of the effectiveness and efficiency of the chosen tool or technique, and discussion of other possible ways the problem could have been solved.

• Rigorous discussion of how this method of solving the problem will benefit others. Reference List: This section should reference the works cited (direct quotes or paraphrases) in the text. This list must be formatted according to the school’s prescribed style guide.

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Appendix 3: Master’s Practicum and Critical Reflection Papers The master’s practicum and critical reflection paper generally contain the following elements but may vary according to disciplinary standards. Please see your Capstone course for specific guidelines: Abstract: Includes the following components: purpose of the research, methodology, findings, and conclusion. The body of the abstract is limited to 150-200 words.13 Introduction: Identifies the student’s specific practicum experience and sets the general context for the study.

• Provide a clear and lucid description of the practicum, including the location or organization in which the practicum will be completed.

• Describe the 160 hours of work required to complete the practicum. • Include the schedule and objectives for the work to be completed. • List the name and title of the supervising staff member at the organization.

Literature Review: This section reviews the literature on the specific practicum. The literature review focuses on how the practicum experience fits into the discipline. Specifically, it introduces the practicum and places it in a larger context that includes a discussion of how this experience helps the student meet the program objectives. It provides the current state of accumulated knowledge as it relates to the student’s specific practicum experience.

• Describe how completing this practicum is consistent with the student’s course of study.

• Articulate the objectives the student hopes to achieve through the completion of this practicum.

• Provide a short conclusion and transition to the next section.

Findings—Log/Journal: This section is where the student includes their log/journal and where they describe how the overall practicum experience is situated within the discipline.

• Include the log/journal kept for the duration of the practicum. • Discuss how the student’s experiences mirror, contradict, or reinforce existing

theoretical knowledge relative to their experience and discipline.

13 The APUS Center for Graduate Studies and the APUS Library have created an instructional module on Writing the Abstract for Your Graduate Capstone Thesis at AMU/APU. It will take you through the entire process. You can access it here: http://apus.libguides.com/research_methods_guide/writingcapstoneabstracthttp://apus.libguides.com/research_methods_guide/writingcapstoneabstract

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• Provide a summary of ways in which the experience helped the student meet the program objectives.

• Discuss the limitations of the student’s experience and bias.

Reference List: Reference the works cited (direct quotes or paraphrases) in the text. This list must be formatted according to the school’s prescribed style guide.

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Appendix 4: Title Page (Required format for all capstone projects.)

DRONES AS WEAPON OF WAR IN AF/PAK REGION

A Master Thesis

Submitted to the Faculty

of

American Public University

by

Richard James Smith

In Partial Fulfillment of the

Requirements for the Degree

of

Master of Arts

December 2011

American Public University

Charles Town, WV

Top margin: 2 inches

Do not capitalize “by” or “of”

Right margin: 1 inch

Spacing must be consistent and double-spaced.

Left margin: 1.5 inches

Month of submission

Bottom margin: 1.25 inches

NOTE:

Use the formatting instructions in the EOP Manual appendices for the title page, abstract, and other front matter. Use the disciplinary style guide for your program for the body of the document.

See Footnote 3 on page 11 for information on how to handle the APA Running Head requirement.

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Appendix 5: Sample of Copyright Page (Required format for all capstone projects.)

The author hereby grants the American Public University System the right to display these contents for educational purposes.

The author assumes total responsibility for meeting the requirements set by United States copyright law for the inclusion of any materials that are not the author’s creation or in the public domain.

NOTES: • Text should begin just after halfway down the page. • This sample includes the exact language that must be used.

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Appendix 6: Sample of Dedication Page (Optional)

DEDICATION

I dedicate this thesis to my parents. Without their patience, understanding, support,

and, most of all, love, the completion of this work would not have been possible.

NOTES: • Text should begin just after halfway down the page. • Text should be double-spaced.

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Appendix 7: Sample of Acknowledgments Page (Optional)

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I wish to thank the members of my committee for their support, patience, and good

humor. Their gentle but firm direction has been most appreciated. Dr. Betty Morrow was

particularly helpful in guiding me toward a qualitative methodology. Dr. Judith Slater’s

interest in a sense of competence was the impetus for my proposal. Finally, I would like to

thank my major professor, Dr. Stephen Fain. From the beginning, he had confidence in my

abilities to not only complete a degree, but to complete it with excellence.

I have found my course work throughout the national security program to be

stimulating and thoughtful, providing me with the tools with which to explore both past and

present ideas and issues.

NOTES: • Text should begin just after halfway down the page. • Text should be double-spaced.

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Appendix 8: Sample of Abstract of the Thesis (Required format for all capstone projects.)

ABSTRACT OF THE THESIS

DRONES IN NATO LED EFFORTS IN AF/PAK

by

Richard James Smith

American Public University System, July 1, 2007

Charles Town, West Virginia

Professor John Doe, Thesis Professor

Begin typing the abstract here, double-spaced. The abstract must include the

following components: purpose of the research, methodology, findings, and conclusion. The

body of the abstract is limited to 150-200 words (no less than 150 and no more than 200).

The abstract may continue on to the next page.

NOTE: The abstract is a required component of the thesis/capstone paper. If you are not sure of what an abstract is or of how to write one, the APUS Center for Graduate Studies and the APUS Library have created an instructional module on Writing the Abstract for Your Graduate Capstone Thesis at AMU/APU, viewable at http://apus.libguides.com/research_methods_guide/writingcapstoneabstract.

Top margin: 2 inches

Left margin: 1.5 inches

Right margin: 1 inch

Bottom margin: 1.25 inches

This is the required format. NOTE: It is permissible for the text of the abstract itself to continue on to another page.http://apus.libguides.com/research_methods_guide/writingcapstoneabstract

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CHAPTER PAGE

I. INTRODUCTION …………………………………………………………………………… ……… 1

II. LITERATURE REVIEW ……………………………………………………………………………. 5

Competing Perceptions of National Security ……………………………………………. 5

Drones as a Weapon of War ………………………………………………………………….. 8

Afghanistan Security…………………………………………………………………………… 12

Pakistan Security ……………………………………………………………………………….. 15

III. METHODOLOGY …………………………………………………………………………………. 24

Subjects and Setting ………………………………………………………………………….. 24

Data Collection Technique ………………………………………………………………….. 25

Statistical Analysis ……………………………………………………………………………… 27

Limitations of the Study ……………………………………………………………………… 30

IV. RESULTS …………………………………………………………………………………………… 34

Legal Framework ……………………………………………………………………………….. 34

Impact of Drone Strikes on War Effort ………………………………………………….. 38

Impact of Drone Strikes on U.S.-Pakistani Relations ………………………………. 40

Impact of Drone Strikes on U.S. Regional Interests ………………………………… 48

Refer to the notes on the following page for formatting information.

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V. DISCUSSION ……………………………………………………………………………………… 49

Ethics and Legality of Using Drones ……………………………………………………… 49

Competing Conceptions of Self-Defense and National Security ……………….. 50

Controversy about Use of Drones in Warfare …………………………………………. 52

Summary ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 54

Recommendations …………………………………………………………………………….. 56

LIST OF REFERENCES ……………………………………………………………………………………. 60

APPENDICES …………………………. ……………………………………………………………………… 66

NOTES: • Follow your style guide for exact formatting requirements. • Dot leaders (periods between words and pages) are required. • Pages should be left justified. • Double space between entries. • Hyperlinking to sections within the thesis can add ease to navigation.

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Appendix 10: Sample of List of Tables

LIST OF TABLES

TABLE PAGE

1. Physical Education Teacher Demographic Data ……………………………………… ……. 15

2. Current University Student Demographic Data………………………………………………. 17

3. Number of High or Low Value Orientations for Respondents …………………………… 25

4. Teacher Value Orientation Profile by Gender…………………………………………………. 28

5. Teacher Value Orientation Profile by Academic Rank …………………………………….. 33

6. Teacher Value Orientation Profile by Teaching Experience ……………………………… 39

7. Student Value Orientation Profile by Gender …………………………………………………. 41

8. Student Value Orientation Profile by Academic Major …………………………………….. 45

9. Student Value Orientation Profile in Different Year at University ……………………… 51

NOTES: • Follow your style guide for exact formatting requirements. • Dot leaders (periods between words and pages) are required. • Pages should be left justified. • Double space between entries. • Hyperlinking to sections within the thesis can add ease to navigation.

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Appendix 11: Sample of List of Figures

LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE PAGE

1. Physical Education Teacher Demographic Data ……………………………………… ……. 15

2. Current University Student Demographic Data………………………………………………. 17

3. Number of High or Low Value Orientations for Respondents …………………………… 25

4. Teacher Value Orientation Profile by Gender…………………………………………………. 28

5. Teacher Value Orientation Profile by Academic Rank …………………………………….. 33

6. Teacher Value Orientation Profile by Teaching Experience ……………………………… 39

7. Student Value Orientation Profile by Gender …………………………………………………. 41

NOTES: • Follow your style guide for exact formatting requirements. • Dot leaders (periods between words and pages) are required. • Pages should be left justified. • Double space between entries. • Hyperlinking to sections within the thesis can add ease to navigation.

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Appendix 12: Sample of Permission to Quote or Reproduce Copyrighted Material Letter

Date___________________________

I (we) _______________________________________________________________ owner(s) of

the copyright to the work known as ______________________________

_____________________________________________________________________ hereby

authorize _______________________________________________________ to use the

following material as part of their thesis to be submitted to American Public University

System.

Page Line Numbers or Other Identification

_____________________

Signature

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Appendix 13: Sample of Practicum Organizational Consent Form

Date___________________________

Name of organization _________________________________________________

Program _________________________________________________________

Work to be completed_________________________________________________

Dates of practicum/schedule ____________________________________________

I (we) _______________________________________________________________ as (state position title) ______________________________ attest to the fact that (student’s name) will be completing the above described practicum in our organization. We hereby authorize (name of student) to work with us in completion of their master’s degree at American Public University System. It is our understanding that they will write a critical reflection paper on this experience. The student may use/identify our name in the paper/the student is required to keep our name anonymous in completing the reflection paper. (Name of person) will serve as the mentor for this student in our organization throughout their work with us.

________________________________________________________________________

Signature Title Date

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Appendix 14: Critical Reflection Method Suggested for Completion of Practicum Paper

1. Description of the experience. (5 – 7 pages)

2. Critical reflection on this experience and the related discipline practices experienced and observed during the practicum in light of theory and literature relative to the work of the practicum. (8 – 10 pages)

3. Discussion of ways the theory and literature challenges/affirms the experience and ways the experience challenges/affirms the literature and theory. (5 – 7 pages)

4. Recommendations for future practice and/or theory. (5 – 6 pages)

I (we) _______________________________________________________________ owner(s) of

the copyright to the work known as ______________________________

_____________________________________________________________________ hereby

authorize _______________________________________________________ to use the

following material as part of their thesis to be submitted to American Public University

System.

Page Line Numbers or Other Identification

_____________________

Signature

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Appendix 15: Sample of IRB Approval Letter

Institutional Review Board (IRB)

Application Number: Application Title: Dear The APUS IRB has reviewed and approved the above application. Date of IRB approval: Date of IRB approval expiration: The approval is valid for one calendar year from the date of approval. Should your research using human subjects extend beyond the time covered by this approval, you will need to submit an extension request form to the IRB. Changes in the research (e.g., recruitment process, advertisements) or informed consent process must be approved by the IRB before they are implemented. Please submit a protocol amendment form to do so. It is the responsibility of the investigators to report to the IRB any serious, unexpected, and related adverse events and potential unanticipated problems related to risks to subjects and others using the unanticipated problems notification. Please direct any question to apus-irb@apus.edu. The forms mentioned above are available at http://www.apus.edu/community-scholars/institutional-review- board/apply.htm. Sincerely, Jennifer Douglas, PhD IRB Chair

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Appendix 16: Portfolio and Critical Reflection Paper The master’s critical reflection paper for the Portfolio option generally contains the following elements but may vary according to disciplinary standards. Please see the guidelines in your capstone course. Abstract: Includes the following components: a brief overview of what your paper will cover and a short explanation of how you will use the paper to demonstrate you have met the learning objectives of the program. The body of the abstract is limited to 150-200 words.14 Introduction: Provides the reader with an overview of the purpose of the paper and details regarding how the paper will articulate how all of the program objectives have been met. The Body: This section of the paper should include the following elements:

1. Philosophy of Learning. This section provides a reflective narrative on the student’s learning process.

2. Achievements in Learning. Here the student should discuss elements that demonstrate key learning achievement. This could include, transcripts, course descriptions, résumés, honors, awards, internships, tutoring, or mentoring.

3. Evidence of Learning. Here the student should contextualize artifacts from the portfolio within disciplinary theoretical frameworks. These artifacts may include research papers, critical essays, field experience logs, creative displays/ performances, data/spreadsheet analyses, course electronic listserv entries, reports for projects.

4. Assessment of Learning. In this section, the student should discuss how their learning was assessed. For example, include a discussion of their trajectory of professional growth based on instructor feedback, course test scores, exit/board exams, lab/data reviews, research project results, practicum reports, etc.

5. Relevance of Learning. The focus here is on demonstrating mastery of the programmatic learning objectives. The student can also discuss the practical applications of their learning, and how the learning related to personal and professional domains or to their ethical/moral growth. In addition, the student could discuss how the learning impacted their ability to lead or their ability to transfer what was learned to external environments such as professional affiliations, hobbies, or volunteering.

14 The APUS Center for Graduate Studies and the APUS Library have created an instructional module on Writing the Abstract for Your Graduate Capstone Thesis at AMU/APU. It will take you through the entire process. You can access it here: http://apus.libguides.com/writing/thesiscapstone/abstracthttp://apus.libguides.com/writing/thesiscapstone/abstract

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6. Learning Goals. Finally, the student can use this section to discuss how they plan to enhance, connect, and apply their learning.

Other elements that may be included in the portfolio include the following:

• job documents (e.g., cover letter, resume) aimed at employers for promotions or new positions; and

• an executive summary that offers a professional profile of the student with key skills and knowledge from the master’s program.

Appendix: This section should contain am example or two of the learning artifacts along with the log/journal that was kept during the student’s course of study. Reference List: Reference the works cited (direct quotes or paraphrases) in the text. This list must be formatted according to the school’s prescribed style guide.

• Introduction
• EOP Assessment Alternatives
• Important Notes
• Chapter I: Master of Arts Comprehensive Final Examination
• Beginning the Comprehensive Exam
• Comprehensive Exam Course
• Taking the Exam
• Notes:
• Proctoring
• Chapter II: Master’s Capstone: Thesis Option
• Beginning the Thesis Project
• Thesis Proposal
• Preparing the Thesis
• Notes:
• Approval of Thesis
• Submission of Final Thesis
• Unsuccessful Capstone Attempts
• Chapter III: Master’s Capstone: Creative/Applied Project
• Beginning the Creative/Applied Project
• Creative/Applied Project Proposal
• Completing the Creative/Applied Project
• Notes:
• Approval of Creative/Applied Project
• Submission of Creative/Applied Project Report
• Unsuccessful Capstone Attempts
• Chapter IV: Master’s Capstone: Practicum and Critical Reflection Paper Note: Please check your academic plan to see if this option is available in your program.
• Beginning the Practicum and Critical Reflection Paper
• Practicum Proposal
• Completing the Practicum
• Notes:
• Approval of the Practicum and Critical Reflection Paper
• Submission of Critical Reflection Paper
• Unsuccessful Capstone Attempts
• Chapter V: Master’s Capstone: Portfolio and Critical Reflection Paper Option
• Beginning the Portfolio Option
• Portfolio and Critical Reflection Paper
• Completing the Capstone
• Notes:
• Approval of the Portfolio and Critical Reflection Paper
• Submission of Critical Reflection Paper
• Unsuccessful Capstone Attempts
• Chapter VI: The Responsible Conduct of Research
• For Comprehensive Exam Assessments
• For Capstone and Portfolio Assessments
• Institutional Review Board
• Failure to Secure IRB approval
• Chapter VII: University Declarations and APUS Library Registration
• 1. Declarations
• 2. Textual Components
• 3. Images and Tables
• Image Insert/Formats
• 4. Video or Audio
• 6. Submission to the APUS Library
• 7. Passed with Distinction (a.k.a. PWD)
• Chapter VIII: Scholarly Research/Copyright Conduct
• Fair Use Exemptions and Citation Responsibility
• 2. University Research Policies
• 3. Institutional Review Board
• Appendices
• Appendix 1: Master’s Theses
• Appendix 2: Master’s Creative/Applied Projects
• Appendix 3: Master’s Practicum and Critical Reflection Papers
• Appendix 4: Title Page (Required format for all capstone projects.)
• Appendix 5: Sample of Copyright Page (Required format for all capstone projects.)
• Appendix 6: Sample of Dedication Page (Optional)
• Appendix 7: Sample of Acknowledgments Page (Optional)
• Appendix 8: Sample of Abstract of the Thesis (Required format for all capstone projects.)
• Appendix 10: Sample of List of Tables
• Appendix 11: Sample of List of Figures
• Appendix 12: Sample of Permission to Quote or Reproduce Copyrighted Material Letter
• Appendix 13: Sample of Practicum Organizational Consent Form
• Appendix 14: Critical Reflection Method Suggested for Completion of Practicum Paper
• Appendix 15: Sample of IRB Approval Letter
• Appendix 16: Portfolio and Critical Reflection Paper
Categories

## oregonstate.instructure

Assignment #3 ‐ Financial Statement Geography and Ra�os Started: Jan 30 at 6:48pm

Quiz Instruc�ons

WHAT:  Use the PDFs and spreadsheet below to answer the questions.  You will need to use the “Quick Guide” often as a reference so I would recommend printing it.

Financial Statement Quick Guide.pdf         Ratio Grid.pdf          GoPro Income Statement and Balance Sheet.xlsx

WHY: Accounting information is critical for making business decisions.  Without an understanding of where this information is located (i.e. “geography”) and how to analyze this information (i.e. ratios, common sizing, etc.) it is very difficult to be an effective decision maker.  This assignment is designed to give you a basic understanding of where the information is, how to analyze it, and how to use it in decisions.

1 pts

HTML Editor

Question 1

Use the attached PDF “Ratio Grid” – name the company and the ratio used to answer the question

Which company(ies) are financing the majority of their assets with debt?

Font Sizes Paragraph

p

1 pts

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Question 2

Use the attached PDF “Ratio Grid” – name the company and the ratio used to answer the question

Which company appears to be the most overvalued?

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Question 3

Use the data from the GoPro Income Statement and Balance Sheet file to answer the question.  Round to the hundredths place (i.e. 5.63):

What was GoPro’s receivables turnover ratio in 2015?  What was it for 2012?  In which year were they turning receivables into cash more quickly?

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Question 4

Use the data from the GoPro Income Statement and Balance Sheet file to answer the question.  Round to the hundredths place (i.e. 2.86):

What was GoPro’s current ratio as of 12/31/2015?  What was it as of 12/31/2012?  When were they more liquid?

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2 ptsQuestion 5

1/30/2017 Quiz: Assignment #3 – Financial Statement Geography and Ratios

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Use the data from the GoPro Income Statement and Balance Sheet file to answer the question.

A) What was GoPro’s Market Cap on 12/31/2015 based on 140,570,000 shares outstanding and a share price of $9.15? B) What was GoPro’s Earnings Per Share for 2015 based on 140,570,000 shares outstanding (format as currency e.g.$1.59)?  C) Based on the calculations in A and B ­ what is GoPro’s P/E Ratio?  D) Is this P/E ratio high or low relative to the average for Fortune 500 companies?

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Question 6

Use the data from the GoPro Income Statement and Balance Sheet file to answer the question. Format as a % rounded to the tenths (i.e. 12.3%).

What was GoPro’s gross margin in 2015? What was it in 2012?  In which year were they more efficient at producing their product?

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Question 7

Use the data from the GoPro Income Statement and Balance Sheet file to answer the question.

How much did they pay in taxes in 2013?

1/30/2017 Quiz: Assignment #3 – Financial Statement Geography and Ratios

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Question 8

Use the data from the GoPro Income Statement and Balance Sheet file to answer the question.

A) How much did revenue increase/decrease from 2012 to 2015 in dollars?  B) What percentage increase/decrease is

that?

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1 ptsQuestion 9

Activity

Profitability

Liquidity

Leverage

If you were a vendor/supplier extending credit to a potential client for 30 days, which type of ratio would be most important to look at?

1/30/2017 Quiz: Assignment #3 – Financial Statement Geography and Ratios

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1 ptsQuestion 10

Determine what trends are increasing or decreasing profits.

Make comparisons to the past and peers

Determine a company’s cash position.

Determine the company’s liquidity

If you were analyzing a company through income statement common sizing, what would this analysis let you do (check all those that apply)?

1 pts

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Question 11

In the common sized income statement found below you will note XYZ Company’s revenue increased from 2015 to 2016, but net profits decreased.  Based on what you see, what was the primary cause?

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1 ptsQuestion 12

The increase in revenue between 2013 and 2014.

The increase in cash and short term investments between 2013 and 2014

The increase in total equity between 2013 and 2014

The increase in liabilities between 2013 and 2014.

Use the data from the GoPro Income Statement and Balance Sheet file to answer the question.

Go Pro had an initial public offering on June 24, 2014.  Where does one see evidence of this in the financial statements

(check all those that apply)?

1 pts

How much did a company do in sales last year? [ Choose ]

How much debt does a company have?  [ Choose ]

How much money did a company “make” last

year? [ Choose ]

How much cash operations is generating?  [ Choose ]

How much a company owes its vendors?  [ Choose ]

Question 13

Which financial statement would be used to answer the following questions.

1 ptsQuestion 14

Look at the balance sheets for ABC, Inc. and XYZ, Inc below. Which company has a “stronger” balance sheet and why is it

stronger (points are based on your explanation for why it is stronger).

1/30/2017 Quiz: Assignment #3 – Financial Statement Geography and Ratios

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## ethical standards in the human services field

Feedback from professor below:

Now, keep moving in this direction. The synthesis and flow of your posts need to be improved upon. All references need to be clearly integrated into your personal perspective. I need to see you use the references as an integrative piece of your posts instead of a standalone piece. We are still working on that analytical piece as discussed in previous dialogue work.

I still need to see more of the application piece I continue to reflect about. Your reference use should be more about how you are analytically reflecting about the research. You are continuing to improve in this area. I encourage you to just continue to work on the application piece of how you are expanding on the authoritative voice used in your posts or your classmates posts.

Topic: Search the web for ethical standards in the Human Services field, then find at least 5 Scriptures describing how we should treat others and care for them. Compare and contrast the Human Service ethics standards with biblical standards. How are they alike? How are they different?  Reply to 3 of your classmates’ threads from the last module/week. Each reply must be at least 150 words and meaningfully expand the discussion. I have 4 below, reply to 3 of the 4. With references!! Thank you.

Ethical standards are used as guidelines between the social worker and client.  The guidelines are use to help the client get the most out of their meeting with their social worker. With looking at ethical standards, God is at the center point of putting these in places because He wants to protect His children.  As we go deeper into ethical standards we need to look at them the way God wants us to look at them through scripture.  As we look at the scripture we need to see how different or similar the standards are with the scriptures.

The first ethical standard that needs to be discussed is confidentiality.  Proverbs 26:20-22 states that as a social worker we need to keep things clients tell us to ourselves to keep from having altercations.  As a social worker keeping confidentiality will help your client open up to you more when things that occur in their life are terrible.  Having the trust will help the fire from burning between you and your client.  As in the bible, we do not want to gossip, and this plays a role in being a social worker because no social worker should tell another social worker anything about a client, unless the client

allows the information to be said to other social workers, otherwise harm will come to the client or a person a client knows.  As a social worker, having an understanding of your client is knowing when to be quiet and not gossip about their client (Proverbs 11:12-13).  One thing that is different with confidentiality based on the scriptures is that gossip does happen within the Christian community, and as a social worker it cannot, because of the rules set in the ethics of confidentiality (Psalms 41:6).

The ethical standard that needs to be discussed is to provide services to the client having the right boundaries.  While not following the boundaries within the scope of practice for social work is not counting the cost of what could happen to the social worker going outside of their boundaries (Luke 14:28).  As a social worker you need to look at what you can offer and not be foolish and go outside your scope of practice (Luke 12:28-32).  One difference is God can go outside His scope of practice to do anything, because he is perfect, and as a social worker you cannot go outside your scope because you can lose your job, due to because of the boundaries set in place to protect clients within the standards of ethics (Psalm 18:30).

The ethical standard that needs to be discussed is to treat everyone with worth no matter what culture they have come from or where they are in life. Everyone has a purpose and a reason to be here because they are made in Gods image (1 Corinthians 12:12-14).  There are no small parts; everyone needs be seen as one in humanity.  As social workers we need to look at our clients through God’s eye instead of looking at our out clients through the eyes of a man, because everyone in this world has a purpose (1 Corinthians 12:15-26).  The difference between scripture and the standards of ethics is that people will look through the eye of man to judge people that come from different cultures.

The ethical standard that needs to be discussed is that the social worker and client should not have any sexual contact. (1 Thessalonians 4:3-4), God wants you to away from having sex unless it with your married partner.  As a social worker you should not lust about your client, or want to have any sexual relations with that client (1 Thessalonians 4:5).  That means you should never take advantage of your client in any possible way (1 Thessalonians 4:6).  A social worker who has a relationship with Jesus and does not want to stay clean is rejecting God “who has given us His Holy Spirit” (1 Thessalonians 4:7-8).  There is not real difference between scripture and ethical standards when it comes to sexual contact.

The ethical standard that needs to be discussed with a client is when it is time to terminate the services for the client. It states that in the presence of the social worker, the client is doing the work.  When not in the presence of the social worker they are still working on their goals outside of the office in their daily life (Philippians 2:12-13).  Then the social worker states, you have come as far as you can and you are ready to be done with working with me.  You are ready to keep continuing with God at your side. The difference in the standards of ethics with termination is that when the client is done working with the social worker, God will keep guiding them in the right direction for their future.

References

Code of Ethics of the National Association of Social Workers.  (2014).  Retrieved

September 18, 2014, from, http://www.socialworkers. org/pubs/code/code.

asp

The Life Application Study Bible is an edition of the Holy Bible, New Living

Translation.  (2nd ed.).  (2004).  Carol Stream, IL: Tyndale House Publishers, Inc.

Ter Y The Human Service field is one that requires contact with a wide variety of people with a vast array of problems.  Handling each and every situation/client requires the human service worker to be able to provide proper treatment in regards to dignity, respect and have the client’s welfare top priority.  The human service worker should also hold themselves in the same manner as his/her client, “And just as you want men to do to you, you also do to them like-wise” (Luke 6:31).  They should hold the upmost dignity, and respect while maintaining their integrity in each situation.

Providing a professional relationship should be the only relationship a human service worker is engaged in with each client.  Protecting each client’s right to his/her privacy and confidentiality should also be adhered too.  However, in the instance that withholding information might cause the client or someone else harm, that privacy and confidentiality should be handled in an appropriate manner to ensure the safety of all involved.  The files of the client should also be handled in a confidential manner, with respect to the integrity and safety of the client.

The client should be informed of his/her rights to receive or refuse service, “For each one shall bear his own load” (Galatians 6:5), and understand those rights will be protected. They should also be made aware of the nature of the worker-client relationship with the limits of that relationship and the goals.  The limits of confidentiality and the reason to break confidentiality should also be discussed in the beginning of the worker-client relationship. The human service worker should understand recognize the strengths of the client and use those strengths in a manner to reach the goals set, “Let no corrupt word proceed out of your mouth, but what is good for necessary edification, that it may impart grace to the hearers(Ephesians 4:29).  They should work to not put down the client, but to build them up in order for them to be able to succeed and rise above their current life predicament.

These guidelines that have been outlined by the National Organization of Human Services (2014), are standards that should be upheld to the highest by each human service worker.  Each client is unique in his/her own way and by offering him/her with the highest degree of professionalism with regards to these ethical standards it the right each one holds.

Galatians 3:28 tells us that we are all children of God, and should not be discriminated against because of race, life predicament, or sex.  Just as a worker for a human service agency should view each client as an individual and allow them the freedom of discrimination, as “God shows no partiality” (Acts 10:34), neither should they.  Just as a client should be treated with dignity and respect, Titus 2:7 talks about how we should act as a model of integrity and dignity.

Confidentiality and Privacy not only protects the client’s information and safety, it shows the client that they can trust the human service worker and not have to worry about their situation being thrown out in the open for all to know.  Proverbs 11:12-14 is similar to this in telling us to be understanding of one’s privacy and not break that confidentiality.  This gains respect for the human service worker as well. The ethical code of confidentiality is a very important aspect of the human service-client relationship.  It is not only demanded of the relationship, it gives the client the security to know that his/her situation can be dealt with privately and the fear of their situation being heard on the streets is diminished.

As important as it is to uphold the dignity and integrity of the client, the human service worker must also be concerned with their own integrity.  If they are not a trustworthy person and cannot uphold the code of ethics for the client, then how can the client trust them to help them out of their situation? “Confidence in an unfaithful man in time of trouble Is like a bad tooth and a foot out of joint” (Proverbs 25:19). This verse sums it all up pretty well, if a human service worker is supposed to be a helpful link to a way out of a problem and they cannot be trusted, then the client is only going to be handed more problems.

The Bible and the Human Service Ethics both focus on how to treat human beings with the respect, dignity, upholding his/her integrity and providing the freedom of receiving services without being discriminated against.  Helping people in their time of trouble is not only the job of a human service worker, but can also be a rewarding experience, “Therefore comfort each other and edify one another, just as you also are doing” (1 Thessalonians 5:11), Working with people in need can be as uplifting and inspiring to the human service worker as it is to the client. Having ethical standards that are set in place to protect the client as well as the human service worker allows both parties to be insured that the dignity, integrity and respect of both parties will be protected.

When working in the human service field, we all have our own beliefs and values and desire to help those in immediate need. Working in the human service field requires a person to not only follow the code of ethics, but to also understand how having their own religious values and beliefs plays a huge role in how they view those they are helping.  I feel that the Bible works hand in hand with the code of ethics, and the only difference I found was that when it talked about relationships, it did not mention professional relationships.  Whether it is mentioned in the Bible about a professional relationship, or normal relationship, I still feel the Bible is compatible with the code of ethics.  I know from experience it has been my faith that has carried me through many days of working with those in need.

References

Ethical Standards for Human Service Professionals (2014). Retrieved September 15, 2014, from http://www.nationalhumanservices.org/ethical-standards-for-hs-professionals

New King James Version (1982). Thomas Nelson, Inc.

P.A.

Today in the Human Services field many secular professionals should uphold a high standards with their clients. Likewise, Christians should uphold an even higher standards with their clients. Rather, a Christian or a secular professional it is imperative to treat each client with the upmost respect. There are many job requirements to follow as a secular professional, but if the secular professionals do not have Christian values they will not fully follow them.

There are several ethical statements that Human Services Professional should follow.  One statement states “human service professionals negotiate with clients the purpose, goals, and nature of the helping relationship prior to its onset.” (National, 2014)  As a human service professional it is mandated to obtain information for the clients that in order to better assist them with their progression. Similar, Christian professionals will do the same thing, but they will perform at the best of their abilities and do it unto the Lord. The scripture says, “Whatever you do, work heartily, as for the Lord and not for men, Colossians 3:23.” This ethical statement is similar to the biblical standard because they both are going to be diligent in getting all information needed to do their job effectively and help better assist their client.

Another statement states “human service professionals respect the integrity and welfare of the client at all times.”(National, 2014) This statement requires that the professional be honest and have the client’s best interest at heart. It is vital that as a human services professional their actions speak louder than their words, so that, a client can trust the professional. 1 John 3:18 ESV says “Little children, let us not love in word or talk but in deed and in truth.” Similar, feign love is when a human service professional can pretend to have the client’s best interest at heart, and not really love nor respect them.

Thirdly, “human service professionals protects the client’s right to privacy and confidentiality.” (National, 2014) Professionals in the human services field are tasked with a great responsibility of making sure information that is given by a client is kept between the two of them. No matter who tries to get the information, it is against the policy of most companies to ensure the client’s confidentiality. The comparison between a Christian professional and a regular professional is a Christian professional is more willing to honor his or her word, such as, a vow made to God. The professional may tend to give out information to a co-worker without thinking.  In fact, both the secular professional and the Christian is governed by law to never freely give out any information concerning a client without the client’s permission. Proverbs 11:13 (NIV) says “A gossip betrays a confidence, but a trustworthy person keeps a secret.”

The fourth statement states “the human service professional acts in an appropriate and professional manner to protect the safety of those individuals.” (National, 2014) A human service professional has been given the authority to protect their clients from all bad counsel same as the Christian.  Proverbs 11: 14 (NKJV) says, “Where there is no counsel, the people fall; But in the multitude of counselors there is safety.” If a counselor gives a client useful information that clients is more susceptible to take the right path and recover from a major trauma in their life.

Lastly, the seventeenth statement states, “Human service professionals provide services without discrimination or preference.”(National, 2014) Similar, the Christian professional belief is that his God rains on the just as well as the unjust, Matthew 5:25, thus clarifying that his services are without discrimination or preference. It is important to note that there are several ethical statements that Human Services Professionals should follow. Even though one maybe a secular professional or a Christian professional because Christ died for all, this is the most important statement.

Reference

National Organization for Human Services (2014). Ethical Standards for Human Service Professionals. Retrieved from http://www.nationalhumanservices.org/ethical-standards-for-hs-professionals

Br P

Working in the Human Services field is for those who wish to help others live better lives. In order to do this, those who work in this field must have some ethical standards to follow and these standards can also be applied biblically in how to treat others. Luke 6:31 (ESV) says, “And as you wish that others would do to you, do so to them.” This verse can be applied to the ethical standards set forth by the National Organization for Human Services regarding the professional’s responsibility to clients. Specifically, it can be applied to statement number 2 that says, “Human service professionals respect the integrity and welfare of the client at all times. Each client is treated with respect, acceptance and dignity,” (National Organization for Human Services, n.d.). This can be a problem if by some strange chance someone in this profession does not want to be treated with something like acceptance, thus not treating the client with acceptance, respect, etc. Another verse that may be applied to this statement of ethical standards is John 15:12; “This is my commandment, that you love one another as I have loved you,” (ESV). While this is a wonderful verse to keep in mind and apply when dealing with others, Human Services professionals still need to maintain some kind of boundaries with clients as to not cross over the professional/client relationship. This issue is addressed in Statement 6 of the ethical standards which mentions the unequal roles of the client and the helping professional.

I think one verse that is crucial to remember when working with others is Philippians 2:4 which states, “Let each of you look not only to his own interests, but also to the interests of others,” (ESV). This is probably one of the most applicable Bible verses to remember in the Human Services profession – particularly Statement 9 of the ethical standards that suggests building on a client’s strengths and not our own. Philippians 2:3 is also a good verse to apply here; “Do nothing from rivalry or conceit, but in humility count others more significant than yourselves,” (ESV). It is important to remember you are responsible for helping someone else in dealing with something they feel they are not capable of on their own. If you are more concerned with your lunch break or something at home than the person you are helping, then you may not be doing your job.

Statement number 14 says, “Human service professionals represent their qualifications to the public accurately,” (National Organization for Human Services, n.d.). Being honest is not only an ethical standard to uphold in the Human Services profession, but also as a child of Christ. “Truthful lips endure forever, but a lying tongue is but for a moment,” (Proverbs 12:19, ESV). Someone may want to make themselves look better by lying about their credentials, and it may make someone feel more comfortable about using you as help for the time-being, but it is more harmful in the end because the person who has lied does not have the training or knowledge to truly help those that come to them.

References

Holy Bible, ESV

Unknown. (n.d.). Ethical Standards for Human Services Professionals. National    Organization   of Human Services Professionals. Retrieved September 21, 2014, from             http://www.nationalhumanservices.org/ethical-standards-for-hs-professionals.

Categories

## two waves on one string are described by the wave functions

Two waves in one string are described by the wave functions
y1 = 2.90 cos (3.80x – 1.50t)
y2 = 3.90 sin (4.80x – 2.10t)
a) where y and x are in centimeters and t is in seconds. Calculate the superposition of the waves y1 + y2 at the points x = 1.50, t = 1.40. (Remember that the arguments of the trigonometric functions are in radians.)

0 0 151
Nov 16, 2012
This question requires you to enter the given values into the equation, and add y1 and y2 together.

y1 = 2.90 cos (3.80(1.50) – 1.50(1.40))
y2 = 3.90 sin (4.80(1.50) – 2.10(1.40))

y1 + y2 = -6.12 cm

0 0
posted by Han
Nov 15, 2017

Categories

## given the arithmetic sequence an = 4 âˆ’ 3(n âˆ’ 1), what is the domain for n?

True or False 1. – 5, – 5, – 5, – 5, – 5, … is an arithmetic sequence. 2. In an arithmetic sequence, it is possible that the 13th term is equal to its 53rd term. 3. In an arithmetic sequence, the common difference is computed by subtracting the

asked by Ruby on September 9, 2014
math
Determine whether each sequence is arithmetic or geometric. Find the next three terms. 1. 14, 19, 24, 29, . . . (1 point) geometric, 34, 39, 44 arithmetic, 32, 36, 41 arithmetic, 34, 39, 44 *** The sequence is neither geometric nor arithmetic. 2. –4, 8,

asked by TTR+S<3 on May 2, 2014
Math Help!!!
determine whether each sequence is arithmetic or geometric. find the next three terms. 1. 14,19,24,29…. geometric, 34,39,44 arithmetic,32,36,41 arithmetic 34,39,44**** the sequence is nether geometric nor arithmetic 2. -4,8,-16,32…. arithmetic.

asked by help asap on March 24, 2015
algebra
can you check my answers please? What are the first three terms of the sequence: a1 = 3 and an = 2(an1)2? 2, 8, 18 3, 18, 648 –3, 32, 50 2, 6, 12, 24 What is the 14th term in the sequence: an = 4n + 13? -43 43 __> -69 69 What is the recursive rule for the

asked by Jennifer on March 22, 2012
math

1. Use the given arithmetic sequence to answer the following problems. Arithmetic sequence: 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, …. a. Use the formula to find the 75th Term of the given Arithmetic Sequence I. Formula: II. Work: b. Use the formula to find the nth Term of

asked by angell on March 20, 2009

7th Grade Math for Steve.. or Ms. Sue
Determine whether each sequence is arithmetic or geometric. Find the next three terms. 1. 14, 19, 24, 29, . . . (1 point) geometric, 34, 39, 44 arithmetic, 32, 36, 41 arithmetic, 34, 39, 44 ** The sequence is neither geometric nor arithmetic. 2. –4, 8,

asked by Gabby on April 28, 2013
Math

1. What are the next two terms of the following sequence? -3, 1, 5, 9… 2. What are the next two terms of the following sequence? -2, 4, -8, 16… 3. What is the common difference of the following arithmetic sequence? 13, -7, -27, -47… 4. What is the

asked by Melanie on January 15, 2011
Algebra
Determine whether each sequence is arithmetic or geometric. Find the next three terms. 14, 19, 24, 29, . . . A.geometric, 34, 39, 44 B.arithmetic, 32, 36, 41 C.arithmetic, 34, 39, 44 D.The sequence is neither geometric nor arithmetic. I think this is C…?

asked by Cassie on March 19, 2013
math
in an arithmetic sequence the common difference is equal to 2.the first term is also the first term of a geometric sequence. the sum of the first 3 terms of an arithmetic sequence and the sum of the first 9 terms of an arithmetic sequence form the 2nd and

asked by Brainblocked on January 30, 2015
Math
A sequence is formed by adding together the corresponding terms of a geometric sequence and and an arithmetic sequence.The common ratio of the geometric sequence is 2 and the common difference of the arithmetic sequence is 2.The first term of the new

asked by Piwo on April 12, 2012
Calculus
Wouldn’t this sequence be neither geometric and neither arithmetic? 0.0005, 0.005, 0.05, 0.5 I can’f find a pattern. And also this sequence, it doesnt look arithmetic or geometric 1/5, 1/4, 1/3, 1/2, 1,… And also this other question: The first three

asked by Anonymous on September 20, 2011
algebra
Determine whether each sequence is arithmetic or geometric. Find the next three terms. 4, 8, –16, 32, . . . A.arithmetic, 64, 128, 256 B.geometric, –64, 128, –256 C.geometric, –48, 64, –80 .DThe sequence is neither geometric nor arithmetic. I

asked by Cassie on March 19, 2013
Algebra

1. What are the next two terms of the following sequence? 1, 5, 9… A. 27, 211 B. 10,11 C.12,15 D.13,17 2. Which of the following are examples of arithmetic sequences? Choose all that apply. A. -2,2,6,10 B. 1,3,9,27 C. 5,10,20,40 D. 5,1,-3,-7 3. What is

asked by Danielle on November 19, 2015
Maths
Eric thinks of 2 sequences.One is geometric and the other arithmetic.Both sequences start with the number 3.The common ratio of the geometric sequence is the same as the common difference of the arithmetic sequence.If the 6-th term of the geometric

asked by Lucas on February 3, 2013
Can someone help me?!
The 1st, 5th and 13th terms of an arithmetic sequence are the first three terms of a geometric sequence with a common ratio 2. If the 21st term of the arithmetic sequence is 72, calculate the sum of the first 10 terms of the geometric sequence.

asked by Jm on January 3, 2013

Mathematics : Arithmetic Sequence
The 5th term and the 8th term of an arithmetic sequence are 18 and 27 respctively. a)Find the 1st term and the common difference of the arithmetic sequence. b)Find the general term of the arithmetic sequence.

asked by Charmian on September 7, 2008
math
The 3rd term in an arithmetic sequence is 12, the 7th term is 24, a) How many common differences are there between a_3 and a_7? b) What is the common difference of the sequence? c) What is the first term in the sequence? a_1 d) What is the expression for

asked by edwin on May 21, 2014
math
in an arithmetic sequence whose first term is 4, the 1st, 3rd and 7th terms form consecutive terms of geometric sequence, find the sum of the first three terms of the arithmetic sequence

asked by selina on December 20, 2015
math
what are the similarities and differences between an arithmetic sequence and a linear equation? ok i know that arithmetic sequence is a sequence of real numbers for which each term is the previous term plus a constant (called the common difference). For

asked by Claudia on October 19, 2008
Math
Tell whether each sequence is arithmetic. Justify your answer. If the sequence is arithmetic, write a function rule to represent it. 15. 128, 64, 32, 16… 16. 3, 3.25, 3.5, 3.75..

asked by Macie on January 8, 2014
Algebra
Arithmetic Sequence : Determine whether f(n) is an arithmetic sequence, circle yes or no . Identify the common difference . ______ 1. N 1 2 3 4 5 F(n). 2 4 6 8 10 _______

asked by Anonymous on April 28, 2016
math
term given by x+2,3x-1,and 4x-1 form an arithmetic sequence. find the value of x. i didn’t get it how to start this question and how it forms arithmetic sequence?

asked by Riana on January 9, 2013
math
The 1st,5th,13th term of an arithmetic sequence are the first 3 terms of geometric sequence with a common ratio of 2. If the 21st term of the arithmetic sequence is 72, calculate the sum of the first 10 terms of the geometric sequence.

asked by zack on April 9, 2015
Math
1.) In the following problem, write the first five of the terms of the arithmetic sequence. a1=16.5 d=0.25 2.) Find a the correct formula for the an for the arithmetic sequence. a1=-1 d=5

asked by Lala on April 16, 2015
math
find the rule for the Nth term of the arithmetic sequence. 11/2, 25/6, 17/6, 3/2, 1/6….. If you change the denomators to 6, you should notice the numerators follow the sequence: 33,25,17,9,1,…which is an arithmetic sequence with a common difference of

asked by brandon on April 1, 2007

Math
Determine whether each sequence is arithmetic of geometric. Find the next three terms. 14,19,24,29…. A. Geometric,34,39,44 B. Arithmetic,32,36,41 C. Arithmetic, 34,39,44 D. This sequence is neither arithmetic or geometric. Is the answer C? Thank you

asked by Morgan on April 16, 2015
1) Given the arithmetic sequence an = 4 – 3(n – 1), what is the domain for n? All integers where n ≥ 1 All integers where n > 1 All integers where n ≤ 4 All integers where n ≥ 4 2) What is the 6th term of the geometric sequence where a1 = 1,024 and

asked by AMK on May 14, 2014
Math
1) Given the arithmetic sequence an = 4 – 3(n – 1), what is the domain for n? All integers where n ≥ 1 All integers where n > 1 All integers where n ≤ 4 All integers where n ≥ 4 2) What is the 6th term of the geometric sequence where a1 = 1,024 and

asked by AMK on May 14, 2014
Algebra
1) Given the arithmetic sequence an = 4 – 3(n – 1), what is the domain for n? All integers where n ≥ 1 All integers where n > 1 All integers where n ≤ 4 All integers where n ≥ 4 2) What is the 6th term of the geometric sequence where a1 = 1,024 and

asked by Anonymous on May 14, 2014
Math
Please help. 51. Solve: 125=(x3)/0.3^-3 a.7 b.14 c.15 d.9 53. 49x-2 = 7Ö 7 a.-5/4 b.5/4 c.11/4 d.-11/4 60. Simplify: 2log^3 6 – log^3 4 a.3 b.6 c.4 d.2 61. Solve the equation: logb (x^2 + 7) = 2/3logb 64 a.9 b.3 c. √23 d. ±3 62. Solve: (The fifth root

asked by Holly on May 21, 2013

1. Write a rule for the sequence. 8, -1, -10, -19… A. Start with 8 and add -9 repeatedly B. star with -9 and add 8 repeatedly C. start with 8 and add 9 repeatedly D. start with 8 and subtract -9 repeatedly— 3. What is the 7th term in the following

asked by Rose on March 9, 2018
Maths
1..The first 2 terms of a geometric progression are the same as the first two terms of an arithmetic progression.The first term is 12 and is greater than the second term.The sum of the first 3 terms od the arithmetic progression is 4/3 less than the sum of

asked by Lucas on February 3, 2013
math
suppose an arithmetic sequence and a geometric sequence with common ration r have the same first two terms. show that the third term of the geometric series is r^2/(2r-1) tomes the third term of the arithmetic sequence

asked by isa on February 17, 2009
The first term in an arithmetic sequence is -1. The fourth term in the sequence is -4. The tenth term in the sequence is -10. Which function can be used to find the nth term of the arithmetic sequence?

asked by khole on November 2, 2018
Foundation aLGEBRA
Tell whether the sequence is arithmetic. If the sequence is arithmetic, write a function rule to represent it. –3, –1, 1, 3,…

asked by queen sipp on November 5, 2015

arithmetic
Tell whether the sequence is arithmetic. If the sequence is arithmetic, write a function rule to represent it. 12, –9, 6, –3, …

asked by saul on January 30, 2012
algebra 1
Tell whether the sequence is arithmetic. If the sequence is arithmetic, write a function rule to represent it. 12, –9, 6, –3, …

asked by bobby on September 24, 2013
Sequence and series
Do you know the difference between a sequence and a series? Graph the terms of an arithmetic series. Remember the domain is the set of natural numbers, not the set of real numbers. What type function do you see? Graph the terms of a geometric series.

asked by Tony on April 21, 2007
arithmetic
State whether the following sequence is arithmetic, geometric, or neither. 10, 10.25, 10.50625, 10.76890625, …. (Points : 1) arithmetic sequence geometric sequence neither

asked by catherine on October 2, 2011
algebra
I’m pretty sure these are right but I just want to check. 1)Find the 20th term of the arithmetic sequence in which a1=3 and d=7 a.143 b.136 c.140 d.133 answer=b 2)Write an equation for the nth term of the arithmetic sequence -3,3,9,15… a.an=n+6 b.an=6n+9

asked by Marissa on August 23, 2007
algebra(check)
I’m pretty sure these are right but I just want to check. 1)Find the 20th term of the arithmetic sequence in which a1=3 and d=7 a.143 b.136 c.140 d.133 answer=b 2)Write an equation for the nth term of the arithmetic sequence -3,3,9,15… a.an=n+6 b.an=6n+9

asked by Marissa on August 24, 2007
algebra
I’m pretty sure these are right but I just want to check. 1)Find the 20th term of the arithmetic sequence in which a1=3 and d=7 a.143 b.136 c.140 d.133 answer=b 2)Write an equation for the nth term of the arithmetic sequence -3,3,9,15… a.an=n+6 b.an=6n+9

asked by Marissa on August 24, 2007
algebra
I’m pretty sure these are right but I just want to check. 1)Find the 20th term of the arithmetic sequence in which a1=3 and d=7 a.143 b.136 c.140 d.133 answer=b 2)Write an equation for the nth term of the arithmetic sequence -3,3,9,15… a.an=n+6 b.an=6n+9

asked by Marissa on August 26, 2007
Math
Which explains why the sequence 81, 3, 1/9,… is arithmetic or geometric? A)The sequence is arithmetic because it decreases by a factor of 1/27 B)The sequence is geometric because it decreases by a factor of 1/27 C)The sequence is arithmetic because it

asked by Loomin on April 3, 2018
trigonometry
Hint: The total of angle measurements inside any pentagon is the same. Hint: Look up the mathematical definition of an arithmetic sequence. IF THE MEASURES OF THE ANGLES OF A PENTAGON FORM AN ARITHMETIC SEQUENCE, WHAT ARE THE GREATEST AND LEAST MEASURES

asked by Leo on January 10, 2007

Math

1. You are having a discussion about sequences with your classmate. She insists that the sequence 2,3,5,8,12 must be either arithmetic or geometric. Is she correct or incorrect? Explain. Can you help please 2. Determine whether the sequence is arithmetic,

asked by May on October 9, 2015
math

asked by rhydian morris on March 31, 2016
math
determine whether each sequence is arithmetic or geometric. Find the next three terms. 1. 14,19,24,29 a. Geometric, 34, 39, 44 b. arithmetic, 32, 36, 41 c. arithmetic, 34, 39, 44 d. the sequence is neither geometric or arithmetic

asked by grannypannys on March 6, 2019
Algebra
Determine whether each sequence is arithmetic or geometric. Find the next three items. 1. 14,19,24,29, . . . a. geometric; 34, 39, 44 b. arithmetic; 32, 36, 41 c. arithmetic; 34, 39, 44 d. The sequence is neither geometric nor arithmetic.

asked by Shelin on May 18, 2014
The common difference of an arithmetic sequence is 4. The 13th term is 103. Find the general term of the arithmetic sequence.

asked by Charmian on September 7, 2008
Algebra
I am so lost on these problems. Write a geometric sequence that starts with 3 and has a common ratio of 5. What is the 23rd term in the sequence. Write an arithmetic sequence that has a common difference of 4 and the eighth term is 13. What is the first

asked by Randy on June 17, 2016
arithmetic
The initial term of an arithmetic sequence is 5. The eleventh term is 125. what is the common difference of the arithmetic sequence?

asked by Jane on October 25, 2011
algebra
1)Find the 20th term of the arithmetic sequence in which a1=3 and d=7 a.143 b.136 c.140 d.133 an=a1+(n-1)d a20=3+(20-1)7 a20=3+(19)7 a20=3+133 answer=b 2)Write an equation for the nth term of the arithmetic sequence -3,3,9,15… a.an=n+6 b.an=6n+9

asked by Marissa on August 26, 2007
Math
Determine whether this sequence is arithmetic or geometric. Find the next three terms. 81, 27, 9, 3, . . . A. arithmetic, 0, –3, –6 B. geometric, 0, –3, –6 C. geometric, 1,1/3 , 1/9 D. The sequence is neither geometric nor arithmetic. Is the answer

asked by Morgan on April 16, 2015
Math

1. Find all values of p so that 6p, 4p-1, p^2 – 1 will be an arithmetic sequence. 2. The common ration of a geometric sequence is -3. IF the terms of this sequence are 3y, y+6, z+1, ….. respectively, what is the value of z?

asked by Lily on March 13, 2015

math
In how many positive four-digit integers that are not multiples of 1111 do the digits form an arithmetic sequence? (The digits must form an arithmetic sequence, in order. For example, the number 5137 does not count.)

asked by Lola on May 26, 2018
Algebra 1 Honors
Write an equation for the nth term of the arithmetic sequence. Then graph the first five terms in the Sequence. -3,-8,-13,-18 I got 5n-8 as my formula. Then plugged 5 in for n and got 17 for the 5th number in the sequence. Is this correct?

asked by Anonymous on January 9, 2016
Determine whether each sequence is arithmetic or geometric. Find the next three terms. 1. 14, 19, 24, 29, . . . (1 point) geometric, 34, 39, 44 arithmetic, 32, 36, 41 arithmetic, 34, 39, 44 The sequence is neither geometric nor arithmetic. 2. –4, 8,

asked by jessie on April 11, 2013
Algebra

1. Find the general rule for each arithmetic or geometric sequence. 2. Calculate the 10th term for each sequence. a) a=a sub n-1n a sub one=9 b) a sub n=a sub n-1 + 8 a sub 1=-17 c) a sub n=a sub n-1 + 2 a sub 1=9 d) a=na sub n-1 a sub one=1 I don’t

asked by John Brown on May 3, 2016
Algebra 1
The first term of an arithmetic sequence is 5. The eleventh term is 125. What is the common difference of the arithmetic sequence?

asked by Amari on October 17, 2018
Algebra
Use the arithmetic sequence nth term formula to solve the following problem: The first, second, and the nth terms of an arithmetic sequence are 2, 6, and 58 respectively: find the value of n and For that value of n, what is the exact value of the sum of n

pre algebra
solve whether the sequence is arithmetic or geometric if it is arithmetic or geometric,state the common difference or common ratio and write the next three terms of the sequence 10,18,26,34

asked by keith on May 3, 2012
math…
how can I tell if a sequences is airthmetic, geometric or neither? determine the first three terms of each and determine if each are airthmetic, geometric or neither. 1) tn=5t n-1+ 3 wheret 1=2 first three terms: 3,13,23 airthmetic 2)t(n)= -3(4)^n first

asked by GEORGE! on October 18, 2006
Math Concepts
What is the difference between an arithmetic sequence and a geometric sequence? In an arithmetic sequence, the difference between successive numbers is the same. Example: 1, 3, 5, 7, 9.. In a geometric sequence, the ratio of successive numbers is the same.

asked by Amy on April 9, 2007
Math
Determine whether each sequence is arithmetic or geometric. Find the next three terms. -4,8,-16,32… A. Arithmetic, 64,128,256 B. Geometric, -64,128,-256 C. Geometric, -48,64,-80 D. The sequence is neither arithmetic nor geometric sequence. B? Thank you

asked by Morgan on April 16, 2015

Algebra
How do you tell if a sequence is arithmetic?? Then I will answer my questions below: 1. Tell whether the sequence is arithmetic. If it is, Identify the common difference. -7, -3, 1, 5 A. Not arithmetic B. Arithmetic, common difference is 4 C. Arithmetic,

asked by Carryyourtorches on October 26, 2017
math
NUMBER SEQUENCES identify the sequence as arithmetic, geometric, both, or neither. 1. 7, 9, 11, 13,… arithmetic* geometric both neither 2. 2, 1, 1/2, 1/4,… arithmetic geometric* both neither write a rule for the sequence 3. 1, 2, 4, 8,… start

asked by mjc_177 on March 5, 2019
Precalculus
Find d of an arithmetic sequence if a(subscript 4)=14 and a (subscript 11)=35 I assume d is the difference between successive terms, since you have said this is an ‘arithmetic’ sequence. Increasing the subscript by 5 increases the value of the term by 35.

asked by Laura on June 16, 2007
I need help answering these questions 1. State the Common Ratio of the following Geometric sequence 3/4 , 3/10 , 3/25 , 6/125 2. In the Arithmetic Sequence below, X = _ 100 , , _X , 64 3. For the Geometric Sequence below, X = _ X , 48 , _ ,

asked by Temour on March 23, 2009
Math
Which explains why the sequence 64, 4, 1/4,… is arithmetic or geometric? A. The sequence is geometric because it decreases by a factor of 1/16. B. The sequence is arithmetic because it decreases by a factor of 1/16. C. The sequence is geometric because

asked by Angel on March 24, 2015
mathematics
1.1 the third term of an arithmetic sequence is 8 and the 15 term is 44 . Calculate: 1.1 the common difference and first term. 1.2 the sum of the first 50 terms. 1.2 1;4;7;10…. Is an arithmetic sequence .find: 1.2.1 the 30 term.

asked by tankiso on May 19, 2015
Math
Penn writes a 2013-term arithmetic sequence of positive integers, and Teller writes a different 2013-term arithmetic sequence of integers. Teller’s first term is the negative of Penn’s first term. Each then finds the sum of terms in his sequence. If their

asked by Matt on December 15, 2014
Math
Penn writes a 2013-term arithmetic sequence of positive integers, and Teller writes a different 2013-term arithmetic sequence of integers. Teller’s first term is the negative of Penn’s first term. Each then finds the sum of terms in his sequence. If their

asked by Matt on December 14, 2014
math
Hi I need someone to check my answers I’ll show whatever work I have but for time purposes I’ll just post my answers because I think I have most of them correct. Thanks! 1)Find the 20th term of the arithmetic sequence in which a1=3 and d=7. A)143 B)136

asked by Jon on December 12, 2007
Math
Geometric And Arithmetic Sequences a store manager plans to offer discounts on some sweater acording to this sequence: $48,$36, $27,$20.255,… What would be the price of a sweater after 8 discounts? Is this an arithmetic or geometric sequence?

asked by Chris on April 23, 2018

Quick Math Help
Find the tenth term of the sequence: -6,1,8… Is it 57? For the sequence:2,4,8,16 the value of s4 is____. Is it 8? Find the 7th term of the sequence: 1,2,4,… Is it 64? Which term of this sequence is 275? 5,10,15,… Is it 1357? Find the 7thterm of an.

asked by Anonymous on October 11, 2016
Quick math help
Find the tenth term of the sequence: -6,1,8… Is it 57? For the sequence:2,4,8,16 the value of s4 is____. Is it 8? Find the 7th term of the sequence: 1,2,4,… Is it 64? Which term of this sequence is 275? 5,10,15,… Is it 1357? Find the 7thterm of an.

asked by Anonymous on October 12, 2016
Quick math help
Find the tenth term of the sequence: -6,1,8… Is it 57? For the sequence:2,4,8,16 the value of s4 is____. Is it 8? Find the 7th term of the sequence: 1,2,4,… Is it 64? Which term of this sequence is 275? 5,10,15,… Is it 1357? Find the 7thterm of an.

asked by Anonymous on October 10, 2016
Maths
An arithmetic and a geometric sequence have the same first terms.(2)….and the same second term say X..The sum of the first 3 terms of the arithmetic sequence equals to the third term of the geometric sequence.Calculate the first 3 terms of each sequences

asked by Lucas on February 3, 2013
math
I need a few examples of Arithmetic sequences in our daily lives. I also need the general formula of an arithmetic sequence. Can anybody help?

asked by Howler on October 5, 2011
precalculus no clue
Identify if the given sequence is arithmetic, geometric, or neither. If the sequence is arithmetic or geometric, then find the next term. and write the nth term. . t-3,t-2, t-1, t… . 1,-3/2,2,-5/2….

asked by Anonymous on May 9, 2015
precalculus
Identify if the given sequence is arithmetic, geometric, or neither. If the sequence is arithmetic or geometric, then find the next term. and write the nth term. . t-3,t-2, t-1, t… . 1,-3/2,2,-5/2….

asked by Anonymous on May 9, 2015
college precalculus
Identify if the given sequence is arithmetic, geometric, or neither. If the sequence is arithmetic or geometric, then find the next term. and write the nth term. 1. t-3,t-2, t-1, t… 2. 3/4,1/2,1/3,2/9… 3. 1,-3/2,2,-5/2….

asked by Kendrick on May 9, 2015
college precalculus I still dont get it
Identify if the given sequence is arithmetic, geometric, or neither. If the sequence is arithmetic or geometric, then find the next term. and write the nth term. 1. t-3,t-2, t-1, t… 2. 3/4,1/2,1/3,2/9… 3. 1,-3/2,2,-5/2….

asked by kendrick on May 9, 2015
Math
Tell whether the sequence is arithmetic. If it is, write a function rule to represent it. 0.2, -0.6, -1.4, -2.2 This is an arithmetic sequence, but I do not understand the function rule of A(n) = 0.2 – 0.8(n-1), which is the given answer.

asked by Anonymous on November 17, 2013

Algebra
Determine the explicit formula for each arithmetic. The 9th and 10th yerm of an arithmetic sequence are -24 and -30 respectively. What is the 30th term?

asked by Kimmy on January 18, 2016
Math ( Can You check my Work?)
1.an = 3n – 1 2. an = 2(2n – 3) 3.an = 4^n 4.an = (2/3)^n 5. an = (-1)^n(n + 5) 6. an = (-1)^n + 1(n + 6) 7. an= n+3/2n-1 8. a1 = -5 and an = an-1 – 3 for n ≥ 2 9. a1 = -6 and an = -2an-1 for n ≥ 2 10.a1 = 4 and an = 3an-1 + 2 for n ≥ 2 11. Find a8

asked by Tony on August 1, 2012
Urgent math
how do I do this can any body show me how? An arithmetic sequence begins 4, 9, 14, 19, 24, . . . . (a) Find the common difference d for this sequence. d = (b) Find a formula for the nth term an of the sequence. an = (c) Find the 35th term of the sequence.

asked by Aileen on August 15, 2015
math
the ninth term of an arithmetic sequence is 23 and the 33rd term of the sequence is -241 , calculate the sume of the first 15 terms of the sequence , using the formula s=n(2a+(n-1)d)/2

asked by Poppy on December 18, 2011
Math

1. Which explains why the sequence 81, 3, 1/9,… is arithmetic or geometric? A)The sequence is arithmetic because it decreases by a factor of 1/27 B)The sequence is geometric because it decreases by a factor of 1/27 C)The sequence is arithmetic because it

asked by Jeff the Killer Hates Math on March 31, 2015
arithmetic geometric
Determine whether each sequence is arithmetic geometric or neither if the sequence is arithmetic give the common difference if geometric give the common ratio 1. 6,18,54,162, 2. 4,10,16,22 3. 1,1,2,3,5,8 4. 625,125,25,5 5. 5,8,13,21,34

asked by Emily on July 15, 2018
pre cal 11
hi so i am stuck at this question that is asking about arithmetic sequence . Five fence posts are equally spaced between two corner posts that are 42 meter apart. how far apart are the five fence posts. i know the answer is 7m but i don’t know how plus i

asked by jessica on February 13, 2015
Sequences
A = {a1, a1 + d1, a1 + 2d1, …}, B = {a2, a2 + d2, a2 +2d2, …}. Investigate whether A + B and A x B are arithmetic or geometric sequences. If an arithmetic sequence is identified, state its common difference. If a geometric sequence is identified, state

asked by Nelson on September 30, 2007
Math
Determine whether the sequence is arithmetic, geometric, both or neither. 16, 8, 4, 2 A. arithmetic B. Goemetric C. Neither D. Both

asked by Darkdream on January 30, 2018
math 213 #18
A student claims that every prime greater than 3 is a term in the arithmetic sequence whose nth term is 6n + 1 or in the arithmetic sequence whose nth term is 6n – 1. Is this true? If so why?

asked by dan on April 13, 2010

math
A student claims that every prime greater than 3 is a term in the arithmetic sequence whose nth term is 6n + 1 or in the arithmetic sequence whose nth term is 6n – 1. Is this true? if so, why?

asked by Andy on December 23, 2010
Algebra 2
The deposits Ginny makes at her bank each month form an arithmetic sequence. The deposit for month 3 is $150, and the deposit for month 5 is$180. Answer these questions 1.what is common differences for each month? $15 2.write explicit formula for asked by Ke$ha on March 31, 2016
Mathematics : Arithmetic Sequence
Consider the arithmetic sequence x+2, 18-x, 14+x,… a) Find the value of x. b) Find the general term of the arithmetic sequence.

asked by Charmian on September 7, 2008
algebra
the seventh term of a arithmetic sequence is 72 and the tenth term of the sequence is 90. if the sequence is defined by a formula f(n), then find f(2). How would you do this?

asked by danielle on January 11, 2016
Math *URGENT
Please give the answers and solutions for each. 1.If the second term is 2 and the seventh term of a geometric sequence is 64, find the 12th term. 2. Which term if the geometric sequence 18,54,162,486,… is 3,188,646? 3. Determine the geometric mean of 8

asked by Aliza on December 20, 2012

Categories

Categories

## arrange these elements according to atomic radius.

Rank these elements in terms of increasing atomic radius AI, F, Sr, N, Cs
26,843 results
chemistry
Rank these elements in terms of increasing atomic radius AI, F, Sr, N, Cs

asked by liz on March 10, 2010
CHEM

asked by Jay on January 24, 2010
Chemistry
Can someone please help me with these chemistry questions…I just don’t get it! 1. Using the following elements, rank them in order of increasing melting points, based on the periodic trend for melting point: Sr, Mg, Be, Ba? Would it be Be, Mg, Sr, Ba or

asked by Taylor on September 16, 2009
Chemistry
Rank the elements B, Al, Na, Mg from largest to smallest atomic radius. Would it be: Al, Mg, Na, B?

asked by Meg on March 31, 2010
Chem
Rank thefollowing elements in order of decreasing atomic radius. N, B, Be, Li? I thought it was N, B, Be, Li

asked by Anna on November 14, 2011

Chemistry
Rank the following atoms in terms of decreasing atomic radius. 1. Na, N, O, Mg, F 2. F, O, N, Mg, Na 3. F, Mg, Na, O, N 4. Na, Mg, N, O, F 5. F, O, N, Na, Mg

asked by Bob on November 18, 2011
Chemistry
Which trends are observed when the elements in Period 3 on the Periodic Table are considered in order of increasing atomic number? (1) The atomic radius decreases, and the first ionization energy generally increases. (2) The atomic radius decreases, and

asked by John on November 6, 2007
Chem
Order the elements S, Cl, and F in terms of increasing atomic radii. I thought the answer was F, S, Cl, but the answer key said it was S, F, CL Why? AR decreases from left to right. Sulfur has one more energy level, so shouldn’t its atomic radii be greater

asked by Matt on June 6, 2008
Physical Science
Rank from largest to smallest atomic radius. To rank items as equivalent, overlap them. O, S, Se, Po, Te

asked by Hannah on January 24, 2017
Chemistry
Arrange the following ions in terms of increasing atomic radius (arrange the increasing from left [lowest] to right [largest]): P3-, Cl-, K+, S2-

asked by Anon on April 17, 2017
science

1. When Mendeleyev arranged the elements into the periodic table, he found that elements with fell into groups on the table A. the same mass B. similar size C. Similar properties D. The same color 2. Every element has its own atomic number. The atomic

asked by Help me on February 22, 2017
chemistry
Examine the elements listed below. nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), arsenic (As) Which of the answer choices accurately describes a common property of these elements? they have the same amount of atomic mass they have the same amount of reactivity they have

asked by Anonymous on September 1, 2017
chemistry
Which of the following properties increase with increasing atomic number for fluorine and chlorine? I. melting point of the elements (yes) II. boiling point of the hydrogen halides i’m not sure about II because HF has the highest boiling point but fluorine

asked by d on December 31, 2010
chemistry
Which of the following properties increase with increasing atomic number for fluorine and chlorine? I. melting point of the elements (yes) II. boiling point of the hydrogen halides i’m not sure about II because HF has the highest boiling point but fluorine

asked by d on December 31, 2010
Gps
Arrange in order of increasing atomic size use appropriate < > -= symbol to separate substances in the list 1. The period 2 elements Be,B and N The group 4A elements Sn,Si, and Pb

asked by Sherri on March 28, 2016

chemistry
Rank the following 3 compounds in terms of increasing boiling point: CCl4, CH4, CH2Cl2 – Rank the following 3 compounds in terms of increasing boiling point: CF4, CH4, CH2F2 – Water, H2O, is a liquid at room temperature. Hydrogen selenide, H2Se, is a

Math please check and thank you very much
Elements are arranged in the periodic table based on various patterns. For example, elements found in the rows near the top A. have higher atomic numbers than the elements in the rows near the bottom. B. all have the same atomic number. C. have lower

asked by Oliver Queen on February 1, 2019
Chemistry
Of the 3 elements fluorine, nitrogen, and carbon, what is the atomic number of the one that has the largest atomic radius?

asked by Austin on February 8, 2018
Chemistry
Of the 3 elements nitrogen , oxygen , and aluminum, what is the atomic number of the one that has the smallest atomic radius?

asked by Austin on February 8, 2018
Chemistry
As you go across the period of the periodic table, you are increasing the atomic number while decreasing the atomic radius, but what causes this trend?

asked by Mike on December 4, 2008
Chemistry
Rank the following three elements in order of increasing Young’sModulus: Ge, Sn, Si. My answer is as follows: Sn

asked by Hil on December 20, 2013
CHEM

asked by Jay on January 24, 2010
chemistry
Given the following Unknown atoms with their respective atomic numbers, X; Atomic number 19, Y; Atomic number 15, a. Deduce the identities of the elements X and Y. b. What are the mass numbers of the two elements X and Y? c. Calculate the number of

asked by bliss on March 9, 2016
Integrated Science
How did Mendeleev organize the elements in the periodic table? A) By decreasing atomic mass from left to right and top to bottom B) By decreasing atomic # from left to right and top to bottom C) By increasing atomic # from left to right and top to bottom

asked by Kaylee on January 23, 2019
chemistry
arrange the following elements in order of increasing atomic mass; Cu, C, K, H, F, Cl, Xe, Cr, Pb, Na

asked by renee on September 5, 2018

chem help
Arrange the following elements in order of increasing atomic radii. Sr, Rb, Sb, I, In

asked by sarah on October 8, 2008
Chemistry
Rank the following in terms of increasing ﬁrst ionization energy. 1. Na, Mg, N, O, F 2. F, N, O, Mg, N 3. F, O, N, Mg, Na 4. O, N, F, Na, Mg 5. Na, Mg, O, N, F

asked by Meg on November 20, 2013
CHEM Periodic Trends
Each of the statements below attempts to explain why some periodic property varies predictably among elements in the periodic table. Determine if each statement is true or false. Within a family, elements with higher atomic numbers have higher

asked by Stacey on November 1, 2012
Chemistry
Which of the following elements has an ionic radius greater than its atomic radius a) Ca c) Fe b) Li d) N

asked by Jessica on October 21, 2010
Chemistry
Rank the following 3 atoms in terms of increasing average valence electron energy (AVEE): Rb, Cl, Se… Pls try and help me 🙁 x

asked by Anonymous on November 18, 2012
science,physics,chemistry
According to our theory atomic size should increase in groups from top to bottom but in group 13 Aluminium has atomic radius 143 pm and Gallium has atomic radius 135 pm which is less WHY??????

asked by Neh on July 7, 2016
chem
Rank the following elements by electron affinity, from most positive to most negative EA value. Rank from most positive to most negative. To rank items as equivalent, overlap them. argon,sodium,iodine,oxygen,phosphorus

asked by rabia ugucu on November 16, 2015
chem
Rank the following elements by electron affinity, from most positive to most negative EA value. Rank from most positive to most negative. To rank items as equivalent, overlap them. argon,sodium,iodine,oxygen,phosphorus

asked by rabia on November 16, 2015
CHEM
Arrange the following in order of increasing atomic radius : Co, Mo, S, Ge, Cs

asked by MAX on October 30, 2010
chemistry
order Se, S, As, by increasing atomic radius? explain why?

asked by alex on September 26, 2012

chemistry
which of the following is true regarding the transition elements? A. Multiple oxidation states resulting from the involvement of d electrons in bonding is a characteristic of transition elements. B. Most transition elements have lower melting and boiling

asked by Emiko on September 11, 2014
physical science
Thanks got through all but one Element P has an atomic number of 92 and atomic mass of 238. Element s has 92 protons and 143 neutrons. atomic number and protons are the same would htese two elements be an isotope or different elements

asked by liz on November 2, 2007
science
arrange Li, Cl, and Al in increasing atomic radius. is the correct answer Cl

asked by Anna on October 5, 2018
Chemistry
Why, in terms of atomic structure, is the radius of an Na atom larger than the radius of an Na+ ion?

asked by danny123 on November 20, 2010
Chemistry
Rank the following solutions in order of increasing acidity. 1 M phenol 1 M boric acid 1 M cyanic acid 1 M formic acid 1 M hydrochloric acid 2. Rank the following solutions in order of increasing basicity. 1 M C3H5O3Na 1 M KF 1 M KOCN 1 M KOCl All I know

asked by Neha on October 23, 2011
Science
Elements are arranged in terms of increasing __ in the periodic table.

asked by Krishna on November 4, 2018
chemistry
Arrange the following groups of atoms in order of their increasing atomic radius: K,Rb,F,B,Be I think its F

asked by lo on July 1, 2016
science
Which of the following properties increase with increasing atomic number for fluorine and chlorine? I. melting point of the elements (yes) II. boiling point of the hydrogen halides A) I only B) II only C) Both I and II D) neither I nor II I think it’s A –

asked by i love chem on January 1, 2011
Chemistry
rank the following atoms and ions in the order of expected increasing radius: Ca, Ca2+, Ar Pls pls help me kindly… Anyone?

asked by Anonymous on November 18, 2012
chemistry
please help!!! im confused… can you explain to me how period and group trends in atomic radii are related to electron configuration? is it because as you move down the table the atomic radius increases and as you move across the table from left to right,

asked by Anonymous on January 25, 2010

Science
What conclusion can be drawn about the relationship between the arrangement of elements on the periodic table and the patterns observed in their priorities? A. Properties of elements are related to atomic numbers. B. Properties of elements are related to

asked by blue on October 17, 2014
CHEMISTRY
Rank these elements according to first ionization energy.. I ranked them like this Ar Cl S P Si Al Mg Na but then it tells me that two elements should move up one spot in the ranking because of stable electrons configurations. Which ones would be moved up

asked by TYLER CHIRECE on March 14, 2011
Final Exam- Honors Physical Science
how can you determine the number of protons, electrons,neutrons, atomic number, and the atomic mass of an element using the periodic table? Atomic mass is given in the table, as well as the atomic number and atomic mass number. Atomic number is the number

asked by Kate on June 4, 2007
chemistry
1) Rank the elements, aluminum, sodium and phosphorus, in order of decreasing conductivity. 2) Rank the elements aluminum, gallium, and boron in order of decreasing conductivity

science
1) What conclusions can be drawn about the relationship between the arrangement of elements on the periodic table and the patterns observed in their properties? :Properties of elements are related to atomic numbers.*** :Properties of elements are related

asked by Oscar on March 9, 2015
chemistry
Helpful steps? Calculate the predicted atomic radius for potassium, K, given the atomic radius of rubidium, Rb, (0.247 nm) and cesium, Cs, (0.265 nm).

asked by Ally on April 23, 2014
chemistry
After he finished his work, Mendeleev predicted _. the atomic numbers of all the known elements the discovery of the radioactive elements the properties of three undiscovered elements the properties of sodium, lithium, and potassium

asked by Bleaktuber on February 6, 2019
Chemistry
We did a flame test today to see what substances produce what colors when burned. Can you please explain… Why each of the different elements have a different atomic emission spectrum? Would the flame tests be useful for detecting individual elements

asked by Sarah on September 17, 2013
Chemistry
The standard atom for the atomic masses of all the elements is the atom of carbon which has 6 protons and 6 neutrons (12C) and is assigned the atomic mass of exactly 12. Under this standard, the atomic mass of iron, atomic number 26, is 55.845 u and the

asked by Anonymous on September 19, 2008
AP Chemistry
Titanium metal has a body-centered cubic unit cell. The density of Titanium is 4.50 g/cm^3. Calculate the edge length of the unit cell and a value for the atomic radius of titanium. Ok, I know how to find the density using the atomic radius, but I’m having

asked by Nick on January 1, 2008

chem1 WORD PROBLEM!!
lead has an atomic number of 82;iron has an atomic number of 26; and copper has an atomic number of 29.how do the charges of the nuclei of these 3 elements compare?

asked by tyneisha on October 12, 2012
Chemistry
(a)What is the bond order of the diatomic molecule BN? (b) Is BN paramagnetic? (c) Rank the following compounds in order of increasing bond energy: B2, N2, BN. (d) Rank the following compounds in order of increasing bond length: B2, N2, BN.

asked by b on November 18, 2012
Chemistry
When you look up the atomic masses of Si and Sn and then find the average and then look up the atomic mass of Ge, what is discovered? does it lend supporting evidence to the periodicity of elements?

asked by Ash on March 23, 2010
Chem
Order the elements carbon, oxygen and chlorine from the ff: 1) greatest to least according to atomic radius 2) greatest to least according to ionization energy

asked by Marie Ashley on December 16, 2013
The transuranium elements A. are the elements with atomic numbers above 92. *** B. occur in nature. C. are sometimes radioactive. D. all of the above

asked by Cherry on September 9, 2016
Please Check 1. How does nanotechnology help engineers make products for the future? a. By changing a materials atomic structure, it can be made from elements that are easier to obtain.*** b. By changing a material’s atomic structure, its physical

asked by Blair on March 18, 2016
Science
Please Check! 1. How does nanotechnology help engineers make products for the future? a. By changing a materials atomic structure, it can be made from elements that are easier to obtain.*** b. By changing a material’s atomic structure, its physical

science
Mercury is a heavy metal. Using atomic models and the periodic table of elements, explain why it belongs to this category of elements

asked by Matt on October 10, 2011
Science

1. 3 elements are listed by atomic number, #19, 20, and 21. Which property do all of these elements have in common? They are all brittle. They all have 4 valence electrons. They are all malleable. * They shatter easily.

asked by ThatGirl on January 31, 2018
Science
The Periodic Table 1) What conclusions can be drawn about the relationship between the arrangement of elements on the periodic table and the patterns observed in their properties? :Properties of elements are related to atomic numbers.*** :Properties of

asked by TheLOUDEST_0430 on March 9, 2015

chemistry
using data in table 6.5, calculate the densities of (spherical) atoms of potassium and calcium and compare to the listed densitites of these metals K=39.10 amu, .231 nm (atomic radius) Ca= 40.08 amu, .197nm (atomic radius)

asked by trish on October 27, 2011
Science

1. How does nanotechnology how engineers make products for the future? A. By changing a materials atomic structure, it can be made from elements that are easier to obtain. B. By changing a materials atomic structure, it’s physical properties can also be

asked by Rhyleigh on February 27, 2016
Calculus
In increasing order, rank: 3^ln 2, 2^3, 2^ln 3 *do not use a calculator, and explain your choices Obviously, 2^3=8 So, instinctively, I entered the other values into my calculator just to rank the quantities using decimal places. However, in my calculator,

asked by Jon on October 3, 2010
So I would like to check some of my answers. I really appreciate any help 1. Which of the following atoms or ions is diamagnetic; Cr Br Mn2+ B C4+ – I said C4+ 2. Which of the following atoms or ions is paramagnetic? C4- S^4+ V^4+ Se2- Ge4+I said V^4+

asked by Josh on November 12, 2017
Chemistry 106
What are the elements used to make the ingrediants of each category (the same element may be listed in several categories, but a maximum of once in each of the 6 categories, no matter how many different ingrediants it may be in)? **name of the element with

asked by samantha on October 26, 2010
Chemistry
Predict the answer to each question according to trends in the periodic table. Justify each answer based on the locations of the elements on the periodic table and/or the shell model. a. Which has a greater atomic radius, Al or Cl? b. Which has a greater

Chemistry 130
Can someone please help me with these questions? 1 (7). Rank the following in order of increasing radius based on their positions on the periodic table: S, S-2, Cl a. S, S-2, Cl b. S-2, Cl, S c. Cl, S, S-2 d. Cl, S-2, S e. S, Cl, S-2 6 (16). Methane burns

asked by Jessie on September 8, 2009
space/astronomy
Rank the objects based on the strength of the gravitational force that would be felt by a spacecraft traveling at a distance of 10 AU from the center of each of the objects, from weakest to strongest. 1)red giant mass: 1Msun radius: 100Rsun 2)sun 3)white

asked by zack on November 30, 2009
Chemistry
Without referring to a periodic table, pick the electron configuration of elements with the following atomic numbers and classify the elements. (Type your answer in noble gas notation using the format [Ar] 4s2 3d10 4p2 for [Ar]4s23d104p2.) (a) 17 (b) 20

asked by jamie on October 6, 2008
Chemistry
Shown below are several options for the box notations of the ground state electron configuration of the following gas-phase species. Identify the correct electronic configuration. i. Al2− ii. Mn (a)Select the reason that best explains why the first

asked by c on January 11, 2013

Chemistry
Element X has a face-centered cubic unit cell structure. If the density of the element is measured to be 12.4 g/cm^3, what is the atomic radius of X? units are in pm (picometers) I can’t seem to find how to get the atomic radius with only the density given

asked by Amanda on February 11, 2017
calculus
The radius of the base of a right circular cylinder is r com and the height is 2r cm. Find the rate at which the surface area of the cylinder is increasing when the radius is 5 cm and the volume is increasing at 5pi cm/sec. Thank you!

asked by Krystal on May 6, 2012
Calc
Oil spilled from a ruptured tanker spreads in a circle whose area increases at a constant rate of 6.5 {\rm mi}^2{\rm /hr}. How rapidly is radius of the spill increasing when the area is 10 {\rm mi}^2? The radius is increasing at

asked by Smith on November 3, 2015
math
Oil spilled from a ruptured tanker spreads in a circle whose area increases at a constant rate of 6.5 {\rm mi}^2{\rm /hr}. How rapidly is radius of the spill increasing when the area is 10 {\rm mi}^2? The radius is increasing at

asked by PAT on November 3, 2015
math
Oil spilled from a ruptured tanker spreads in a circle whose area increases at a constant rate of 6.5 {\rm mi}^2{\rm /hr}. How rapidly is radius of the spill increasing when the area is 10 {\rm mi}^2? The radius is increasing at

asked by PAT on November 3, 2015
relaited rates
A spherical balloon is being inflated so that its volume is increasing at the rate of 5 cubic meter per minute.At what rate is the radius increasing when the radius is 6 meters?

asked by 🙂 on May 15, 2012
Calculus- Related rates
A spherical balloon is inflated at the rate of 1 cm^3 per minuter. At the instant when the radius r=1.5, (a.) how fast is the radius increasing? (b.) how fast is the surface area increasing?

asked by Lance on March 1, 2017
Calculus
Let V be the volume of a right circular cone having height h and radius r and assume that h and r vary with time. a. Express the time rate of change of the cylinder in terms of h, r and their rates of change. b. At a certain instant, the height is 10 in

asked by Jay on August 4, 2012
science chem
give one example of two elements that would be placed incorrecty if they were in order of their relative atomic masses. and explain why placing these two elements like this would not be correct. Pleasw could someone help me. Co/Ni is one. Ar/K is a second

asked by sam on May 1, 2007
Science/math
BCC crystal structure, atomic radius of .1363, and an atomic weight of 95.94g/mol. How would you compute the theoretical density?

asked by Z32 on September 15, 2009

calculus
A spherical balloon is being inflated so that its volume is increasing at the rate of 200 cm3/min. At what rate is the radius increasing when the radius is 15 cm.

asked by Jeffrey on July 31, 2011
Math
A spherical balloon is being inflated so that its volume is increasing at the rate of 200 cm3/min. At what rate is the radius increasing when the radius is 15 cm.

asked by Maya on July 31, 2011
What elements results if one of the neutrons is in a nitrogen neucleus is converted by radioactive decay into a proton? The atomic number goes from 7 to 8, while the atomic weight stays the same. An electron (beta-) is emitted from the nucleus. Actually,

Phyiscal science test monday
The following is a periodic table below All the letters are in squares The S = an empty square 13 Colums in total Questions: 1. Which pair of eleemtns has the same number of valence electrons? clueless 2. What pair of elements is in the same period? D and

asked by liz on November 4, 2007
science
Some hypothetical metal has the simple cubic crystal structure. If its atomic weight is 70.4 g/mol and the atomic radius is 0.126 nm, compute its density in g/cc.

asked by Cam on January 22, 2015
Chemistry
the density of an unknown metal is 2.64 g/cm^3 and its atomic radius is 0.215 nm. It has a face-centered cubic lattice. What is the atomic weight. Answer: 89.4 g/mol how?

asked by ChemGeek on May 15, 2011
Chemistry 130
Will someone let me know if I did these correct? 1. Rank the following in order of increasing radius based on their positions on the periodic table: S, S-2, Cl a. S, S-2, Cl b. S-2, Cl, S c. Cl, S, S-2 d. Cl, S-2, S e. S, Cl, S-2 I believe it’s C. Cl, S,

asked by Jessie on September 8, 2009
Chemistry
Rank the following in order of increasing bond polarity: H-F, H-Br, F-F, Na-Cl. Is it this….? F-F, H-Br, H-F, Na-Cl

asked by Christina on November 22, 2015
chemistry
Answer the following for a primitive cubic unit cell. Answers should be numerical, set r = 7.0. edge in terms of r, the lattice pt radius=? face diagonal in terms of r, the lattice pt radius=? body diagonal in terms of r, the lattice pt radius=?

asked by leah on February 16, 2009
CHEM
Arrange the following elements in order of decreasing atomic radius: Cs, Sb, S, Pb, Se *(list from largest to smallest…or…”the correct ranking cannot be determined”) ***I think the answer ‘should be’, from largest to smallest: ***Cs, Pb, Sb, Se,

asked by K on November 13, 2007

chem
of cesium, Cs, hafnium, Hf, and gold, Au, which element has the smallest atomic radius? explain in terms of trends in periodic table? also which element is most electronegative among C, N, O, Br and S? Which group does it belong to?

asked by jerson on May 21, 2008
chemistry 2
Which property of group 2 elements ( magnesium to barium) and their compounds increases with an increasing proton (atomic) number? A)the magnitude of the enthalpy change of hydration of the metal ion B)the pH of the aqueous chloride C)the solubility of the

asked by areebah on August 31, 2017
chemistry 2
Which property of group 2 elements ( magnesium to barium) and their compounds increases with an increasing proton (atomic) number? A)the magnitude of the enthalpy change of hydration of the metal ion B)the pH of the aqueous chloride C)the solubility of the

asked by areebah on August 31, 2017
Chemistry
Rank Na, Mg and K in order of increasing 2nd ionization energy a. Na < K < Mg b. Mg < K < Na c. K < Na < Mg d. K < Mg < Na e. Mg < Na < K

asked by Zacky on April 23, 2010
Calculus
A spherical balloon is being inflated and the radius of the balloon is increasing at a rate of 2cm/min. At what rates are the volume and surface area of the balloon increasing when the radius is 5cm?

asked by ChrismB on April 26, 2016

Categories

## locates mnemonic

Episodic/Focused SOAP Note Template

Patient Information:

Initials, Age, Sex, Race

S.

CC (chief complaint) a BRIEF statement identifying why the patient is here – in the patient’s own words – for instance “headache”, NOT “bad headache for 3 days”.

HPI: This is the symptom analysis section of your note. Thorough documentation in this section is essential for patient care, coding, and billing analysis. Paint a picture of what is wrong with the patient. Use LOCATES Mnemonic to complete your HPI. You need to start EVERY HPI with age, race, and gender (e.g., 34-year-old AA male). You must include the seven attributes of each principal symptom in paragraph form not a list. If the CC was “headache”, the LOCATES for the HPI might look like the following example:

Onset: 3 days ago

Character: pounding, pressure around the eyes and temples

Associated signs and symptoms: nausea, vomiting, photophobia, phonophobia

Timing: after being on the computer all day at work

Exacerbating/ relieving factors: light bothers eyes, Aleve makes it tolerable but not completely better

Severity: 7/10 pain scale

Current Medications: include dosage, frequency, length of time used and reason for use; also include OTC or homeopathic products.

Allergies: include medication, food, and environmental allergies separately (a description of what the allergy is ie angioedema, anaphylaxis, etc. This will help determine a true reaction vs intolerance).

PMHx: include immunization status (note date of last tetanus for all adults), past major illnesses and surgeries. Depending on the CC, more info is sometimes needed Soc Hx: include occupation and major hobbies, family status, tobacco & alcohol use (previous and current use), any other pertinent data. Always add some health promo question here – such as whether they use seat belts all the time or whether they have working smoke detectors in the house, living environment, text/cell phone use while driving, and support system.

Fam Hx: illnesses with possible genetic predisposition, contagious or chronic illnesses. Reason for death of any deceased first degree relatives should be included. Include parents, grandparents, siblings, and children. Include grandchildren if pertinent.

ROS: cover all body systems that may help you include or rule out a differential diagnosis You should list each system as follows: General: Head: EENT: etc. You should list these in bullet format and document the systems in order from head to toe.

Example of Complete ROS:

GENERAL:  No weight loss, fever, chills, weakness or fatigue.

HEENT:  Eyes:  No visual loss, blurred vision, double vision or yellow sclerae. Ears, Nose, Throat:  No hearing loss, sneezing, congestion, runny nose or sore throat.

SKIN:  No rash or itching.

CARDIOVASCULAR:  No chest pain, chest pressure or chest discomfort. No palpitations or edema.

RESPIRATORY:  No shortness of breath, cough or sputum.

GASTROINTESTINAL:  No anorexia, nausea, vomiting or diarrhea. No abdominal pain or blood.

GENITOURINARY:  Burning on urination. Pregnancy. Last menstrual period, MM/DD/YYYY.

NEUROLOGICAL:  No headache, dizziness, syncope, paralysis, ataxia, numbness or tingling in the extremities. No change in bowel or bladder control.

MUSCULOSKELETAL:  No muscle, back pain, joint pain or stiffness.

HEMATOLOGIC:  No anemia, bleeding or bruising.

LYMPHATICS:  No enlarged nodes. No history of splenectomy.

PSYCHIATRIC:  No history of depression or anxiety.

ENDOCRINOLOGIC:  No reports of sweating, cold or heat intolerance. No polyuria or polydipsia.

ALLERGIES:  No history of asthma, hives, eczema or rhinitis.

O.

Physical exam: From head-to-toe, include what you see, hear, and feel when doing your physical exam. You only need to examine the systems that are pertinent to the CC, HPI, and History. Do not use “WNL” or “normal.” You must describe what you see. Always document in head to toe format i.e. General: Head: EENT: etc.

Diagnostic results: Include any labs, x-rays, or other diagnostics that are needed to develop the differential diagnoses (support with evidenced and guidelines)

A.

Differential Diagnoses (list a minimum of 3 differential diagnoses).Your primary or presumptive diagnosis should be at the top of the list. For each diagnosis, provide supportive documentation with evidence based guidelines.

P.

This section is not required for the assignments in this course (NURS 6512) but will be required for future courses.

References

You are required to include at least three evidence based peer-reviewed journal articles or evidenced based guidelines which relates to this case to support your diagnostics and differentials diagnoses. Be sure to use correct APA 6th edition formatting.

Categories

## al + hcl

HCL+Al=AlCl3+H2
What is the ionic equation,the spectator ions and the overall or net ionic equations?

0 0 756
Aug 18, 2012
I assume you means HCl(aq) and AlCl3(aq).
The balanced equation is
6HCl + 2Al ==> 2AlCl3 + 3H2

6H^+ + 6Cl^- + 2Al ==> 2Al^3+ + 6Cl^- + 3H2 is overall(total) ionic. Your post implies that that overall and net ionic equation are the same but the overall equation is the total. The net is the total minus spectator ions.

The net ionic equation is
6H^+ + 2Al ==> 2Al^3+ + 3H2

The spectator ions are those that appear in the overall ionic equation but not in the net ionic equation.

1 0
posted by DrBob222
Aug 18, 2012

Categories

## what is the approximate volume of the sphere 10m

I really need some help, I don’t fully understand. Exspecially with fractions, don’t know how to enter them on calculator.

1. What is the approximate volume of the sphere?

524 m³ (my choice)
1,000 m³
1,256 m³
1,570 m³

1. What is the approximate surface area of the sphere?

225 yd2
707 yd2
1,767 yd2 (my choice)
5,301 yd2

1. What is the approximate volume of the sphere if the surface area is 482.8 mm²?

998 mm³
1,126 mm³
2,042 mm ³
2,993 mm³
I don’t understand this one.

1. What is the approximate surface area of the sphere?

342.3 km2
451.9 km2
903.4 km2
2,713 km2
Don’t understand.

1. What is the approximate radius of a sphere whose volume is 1,349 cm³?

5.7 cm
6.9 cm
11 cm
14.7 cm
Don’t understand.

0 0 487
Apr 29, 2012
you are dealing with two equations

1. surface area of sphere = 4π r^2
2. volume of sphere = (4/3)π r^3

notice all you need is the radius.
Since we cannot see your diagrams, #1, and #2 cannot be checked

1. given 4πr^2 = 482.8
r^2 = 482.8/(4π) = 38.42
r= √38.42 = 6.198
volume = (4/3)πr^3 = 997.53 , looks like a)
2. you must have the radius given to you, just plug into the formula

5.
(4/3)πr^3 = 1349
r^3 = 1349/((4/3)π) = 322.05
r= (322.05)^(1/3) , the cube root of 322.05
= 6.85 (looks like b) )

fractions are really just divisions
e.g. 3/4 = 3 ÷ 4 = .75
you calculator should have a key for π

for powers look for key such as yx or a variation of that

to do 322.05^(1/3) I entered

322.05
yx

# (1/3)

to get 6.85447…

0 0
posted by Reiny
Apr 29, 2012
number 2 is wrong its b. 707 yd^2.

0 0
posted by Hannah
Apr 28, 2014

1. 524 m^3 (A)
2. 707 yd^2 (B)
3. 998 mm^3 (A)
4. 451.9 km^2 (B)
5. 6.9 cm (B) 0 0
posted by Hannah is right
Apr 27, 2015
I got a 5/5. Go Mariners! 0 0
posted by The Grinch
May 6, 2016

“Hannah is right” was correct!

0 0
posted by anon
May 14, 2016
“Hannah is right” Is 100% right!

0 0
posted by School
Jan 29, 2017
god bless “hannah is right”
100 percent correct 😉

0 0
posted by ya boi
May 1, 2017
thanks hannah you’re 100% correct i got a 5/5 100%

0 0
posted by jay
May 16, 2017
You is real Hannah

0 0
posted by Tom
May 26, 2017

Hannah is awesome she was right!

0 0
posted by Kat
Jan 20, 2018
Thank you Hanna!!!

0 0
posted by Klynn
Mar 21, 2018
“Hannah is right” answers are 100% correct.

0 0
posted by A
Apr 23, 2018

Categories

## what is the factored form of 4x^2+12x+5

1. What is the factored form of 4x
2 + 12x + 5? (1 point)
(2x + 4)(2x + 3)
(4x + 5)(x + 1)
(2x + 1)(2x + 5)
(4x + 1)(x + 5)
2. What is the factored form of 2x
2 + x – 3? (1 point)
(2x + 3)(x – 1)
(2x + 1)(x – 3)
(2x – 3)(x + 1)
(2x – 1)(x + 3)
3. The area of a rectangular swimming pool is 10x
2 – 19x – 15. The length of the pool is 5x + 3. What is the width
of the pool? (1 point)
2x – 18
2x – 5
5x – 5
5x – 22
4. What is the factored form of 16x
2 – 16x – 12? (1 point)
4(2x – 2)(2x + 2)
4(4x – 6)(x + 2)
4(2x – 2)(2x + 3)
4(2x – 3)(2x + 1)
5. What is the factored form of 3x
2 + 21x – 24? (1 point)
3(x + 8)(x – 1)
3(x + 6)(x – 3)
3(x + 5)(x – 3)
3(x + 7)(x – 3)

check my work
1.a
2.c
3.b
4.c
5.d

2 4 3,315
Feb 4, 2014
In this forum we type powers using the ^ to show exponents

e.g 4x^2 , not 4×2

anyway

1. 4x^2 + 12x + 5 = (2x+1)(2x+5)
2. 2x^2 + x – 3 = (x-1)(2x+3)
3. ok
4. 16x^2 – 16x – 12
= 4(4x^2 – 4x -3)
= 4(2x+1)(2x – 3) which is D)

5.
= 3(x^2 + 7x – 8)
= 3(x+8)(x-1) which is A)

looks like some serious review is needed

3 0
posted by Reiny
Feb 4, 2014
thanks

1 0
posted by fluffy
Feb 4, 2014
thank you 🙂

1 1
posted by tbh
Mar 18, 2016

1. Is (2x+3)(x-1) 1 1
posted by Matt
Sep 22, 2016

Full answers are C A B D A

8 1
posted by I am right
Mar 4, 2017
FULL ANSWER ARE C, A, B, D, A

11 1
posted by Yuh
Mar 6, 2017
I can confirm it is

C
A
B
D
A

25 1
posted by Polynomials and Factoring
Mar 6, 2017
They are 100%%% CABDA

8 0
posted by Jack
Mar 8, 2017
CABABI just took it, thanks a lot

3 2
posted by Anonymous
Mar 9, 2017

cabda

4 0
posted by niigga
Mar 21, 2017
5/5 (100%). Thanks. CABAB is correct.

2 2
Mar 30, 2017
c,a,b,d,a

3 0
posted by :*
Mar 31, 2017
You are absolutely correct.

1 0
posted by HYW
Nov 1, 2017
yeppers 100% thanks yall

1 0
posted by raychelz
Feb 12, 2018

C
A
B
D
A
5/5 yay
I suck at math.

4 0
posted by B!TC)-(
Feb 20, 2018
1)C
2)A
3)B
4)D
5)A

2 0
posted by 🙂
Mar 1, 2018
just took it! answers are c a b d a connections academy suck it

4 0
posted by Yves
Mar 2, 2018
can someone help me on this?

complete the equation: -6x^2+15x-6=-3(2x-1)(x+__)

a. 2
b. -2
c. -3
d. 6

I think I know I just want to make sure. Thank you sooo much!

1 0
posted by (:
Mar 19, 2018
Доброго времени суток!
Днем нашел через поисковик по запросу “проектирование устройств на avr” prom-electric.ru/articles/2/26/
Всем рекомендую!
Пока!

1 0
posted by electronikspbrwap
Apr 29, 2018

C
A
B
D
A
100%! Thank you!!

2 0
posted by Rebecca
May 6, 2018
Wow it’s 2019 so a year later…. it’s still right!
C
A
B
D
A

6 0
posted by Anonymous
Feb 8, 2019
oh nvm this question was asked in 2014 so…. 5 years later. sorry i’m a little late lol!

3 0
posted by Anonymous
Feb 8, 2019

# CABDA

2 0
posted by Tragic Beauty
Mar 5, 2019
can confirm..
1) C or (2x+1)(2x+5)
2) A or (2x+3)(x-1)
3) B or 2x-5
4) D or 4(2x-3)(2x+1)
5) A or 3(x+8)(x-1)

4 0
posted by connections student
Mar 6, 2019

@I am right is correct! & so is everyone else with the same answers!

1 0
posted by
Mar 7, 2019
I have 6 questions HELP

0 0
posted by Satisdy
Mar 11, 2019
c
a
b
d
a
b

1 0
posted by shhh…
Mar 15, 2019
Sill
1.C(2x+1)(2x+5)
2.A(2x+3)(x-1)
3.B 2x-5
4.D 4(2x-3)(2x+1)
5.A 3(x+8)(x-1)

1 0
Mar 18, 2019

Categories

## total cell style in excel

Office 2016 – myitlab:grader – Instructions Excel Project

Unit 4 Excel Exam-Day Spa

Project Description: Unit 4 Excel Exam

Updated: 10/10/2016 1 Current_Instruction.docx

Categories

## given that z is a standard normal random variable

1. Given that Z is a standard normal random variable, compute the following probabilities.
a. P( 1.86 ≤ Z≤ 2.46)
b. P( Z > -1.45)

2. Given that Z is a standard normal random variable, find Z for each situation.
a. The area to the right of Z is 0.1736
b. The area between – Z and Z is 0.9678.

3. For borrowers with good credit scores, the mean debt for revolving and installment
accounts is $15,015 (BusinessWeek, March 20, 2006). Assume the standard deviation is$3540 and that debt amounts are normally distributed.
a. What is the probability that the debt for a borrower with good credit is less than
$12,000? b. What is the probability that the debt for a borrower with good credit is between$11,000
and $19,000? 4. In an article about the cost of health care, Money magazine reported that a visit to a hospi- tal emergency room for something as simple as a sore throat has a mean cost of$328
(Money, January 2009). Assume that the cost for this type of hospital emergency room visit
is normally distributed with a standard deviation of $92. Answer the following questions about the cost of a hospital emergency room visit for this medical service. a. What is the probability that the cost will be more than$550?
b. What is the probability that the cost will be less than $275? c. What is the probability that the cost will be between$300 and $450? d. If the cost to a patient is in the lower 6% of charges for this medical service, what was the cost of this patient’s emergency room visit? 5. Trading volume on the New York Stock Exchange is heaviest during the first half hour (early morning) and last half hour (late afternoon) of the trading day. The early morning trading volumes (millions of shares) for 13 days in January and February are shown here (Barron’s, January 23, 2006; February 13, 2006; and February 27, 2006). 214 163 265 194 180 202 198 212 201 174 171 211 211 The probability distribution of trading volume is approximately normal. a. Compute the mean and standard deviation to use as estimates of the population mean and standard deviation. b. What is the probability that, on a randomly selected day, the early morning trading volume will be less than 180 million shares? Categories ## marie simulator Project 2 MARIE Start code at bottom of document ## 1. Introduction The objective of this project is to reinforce your understanding of computer organization, instruction set architectures, and assembly language. You will accomplish this by writing, analyzing, and debugging an assembly language program for the MARIE processor. You must: (i) design and write an assembly language program for the MARIE processor that inputs, transforms, stores, and then outputs a sequence of characters from the set A-Z; (ii) debug and test your program by simulating it using the MARIE simulator; (iii) document your work in a short report; and (iv) submit the report file (*.pdf), assembler source file (*.mas), assembler listing file (*.lst), and assembler executable file (*.mex). ## 2. The MARIE Simulator The MARIE simulator is provided as a zip file containing Java archives (*.jar) files, documentation, and example source files. Unzip the file to a directory for use. Do the following to become familiar with the MARIE simulator ## 3. Design Specification You are to design, write, test, and debug a MARIE assembly language program that inputs a sequence of characters from the set A-Z (capital letters only), stores each character in memory after it is transformed by the trivial ROT13 cipher, and then, after character input completes, outputs the transformed characters. A template source code file (Project-2_Start.mas) is provided with this assignment. Edit this file to create a program that meets the program specifications. Note that the template includes instructions to initialize some working values that your program can use. The template also defines memory locations. You may add data memory locations. The program can be designed without additional data locations, but it may be necessary to do so for your design. For full credit, your solution must perform the functions and satisfy the requirements specified below. a) The first instruction of the program must be placed at location (address) 0x100 (100 hexadecimal) in MARIE’s memory. This is accomplished by following the program template that is provided. b) The constant data values (One, ChA, ChZ, ChPer, Val13, Start) should not be changed by the program. The program can load from these memory locations, but should not store to them. c) Transformed input characters must be stored in successive memory locations beginning at location 0x200 (200 hexadecimal) as indicated in the program template. The program should store all transformed input characters before any characters are output. d) The program should always initialize the values for Ptr in the working data memory and not rely on the values for these locations that are defined in the assembly source file. This initialization is done by the provided template file. e) The program should work for any inputs ‘A’ through ‘Z’ and ‘.’ (a period terminates input). In the interest of keeping the program simple, the program does not need to validate inputs. f) When transformed characters are stored and when transformed characters are output, the program must use a loop and indirect addressing to access the values in the array of words. Note that variable Ptr is initialized in the template code and should be used in the loop. You may also define a Count variable to count the number of characters, but there are also correct designs that do not require a Count variable. g) The program should operate as follows. Input Phase: 1. A character (A-Z or ‘.’) is input. MarieSim allows the user to input a single character that is read into the accumulator (AC) with an Input instruction. 2. If character ‘.’ (period) is input, then the input phase ends and the output phase begins (step 5 below). (The period may be stored in memory to mark the end of the characters or the characters can be counted to determine how many transformed characters to output during the output phase.) 3. The character that is input is transformed using the trivial ROT13 cipher (see Section 5.1). 4. The transformed character is stored in the next location in the block of memory beginning at location Start. (Variable Ptr must be updated and indirect memory addressing must be used.) Output Phase: 5. All transformed characters are output, beginning with the first character that was transformed. The ‘.’ character is not to be output. (This will require a loop using variable Ptr and indirect addressing. Note that the number of characters to output will vary and the program must know when to stop the output by relying on a ‘.’ or other special character in memory, counting the number of input characters during the input phase, or some other method.) 6. After all characters are output, the program halts by executing the HALT instruction. ## 4. Testing Test and debug the program using the MARIE simulator (MarieSim.jar). Debug the program using the “Step” and “Breakpoint” features of the simulator. You must test your program with the following two test cases. Test 1: Input the eight-character sequence “VIRGINIA” followed by a ‘.’ to terminate the input. Note that you need to input one character at a time into MarieSim’s ASCII Input area, with each character followed by pressing the “Enter” key. The ROT13 value of each character (“IVETVAVN”) should be displayed after the ‘.’ character is input. Test 2: Reload the program in MarieSim, without reassembling, input the four-character sequence “GRPU” followed by a ‘.’ To terminate the input. Note the output. When you create your source file within MarieSim (using the File > Edit menu pick), use file name lastname_firstname_P2.mas, where “lastname” is your last or family name and “firstname” is your first or given name. You can assemble your source file in the editor program. The assembly process creates a listing file (lastname_firstname_P2.lst) and an executable file (lastname_firstname_P2.mex). Load the executables file into the simulator for execution. ## 5. Design Notes #### 5.1. he ROT13 Cipher The ROT13 cipher (see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ROT13) is an old, but trivial cipher that simply rotates the characters by 13 positions. For example, ‘A’ is transformed to ‘N’ and ‘Z’ is transformed to ‘M’. The Project-2_Start.mas source file includes a ROT13 subroutine that almost performs this transformation. You need to fix one bug in the subroutine. / ***** / This is starting code for Project 2 for ECE 5484, Fall 2016 / Remove this header and identify your project name and your name. / ***** ORG 100 / Start the program at location 100 hexadecimal / —– / Input characters, transform, and store in memory until ‘.’ is input / —– Load Start / Initialize character pointer to start of block Store Ptr />>>>> Add code to accomplish the input and output phases. <<<<< Input InVal />>>>> Here’s an example of how subroutine ROT13 is called. <<<<< />>>>> We’ll just transform ‘A’ in this example then halt. <<<<< Load ChA / Put ‘A’ in AC Store InVal / Store value to be transformed into InVal Jns ROT13 / Jump to the ROT13 subroutine / Upon return, the transformed character is in AC Halt / —– / Rotate-13 subroutine: Apply ROT13 to input character in location InVal and return in AC / —– />>>>> WARNING: This subroutine *almost* works. You need to fix a bug. ROT13, HEX 0 Load InVal / Get character Add Val13 / Add 13 Store Hold / Save it Subt ChZ / Check if modulo adjust is needed (past ‘Z’) Skipcond 800 / No adjust needed if past ‘Z’ Jump NoAdj Add ChA / Add ‘A’ back to difference to perform modulo Jump Done / Result is in AC NoAdj, Load Hold / No adjust needed, get result Done, JumpI ROT13 / Return with result in AC / —– / Constants (the program should not write to these locations) / —– ChA, HEX 0041 / Constant value ‘A’ for modulo adjust in subroutine ChZ, HEX 005A / Constant value ‘Z’ for modulo check in subroutine ChPe, HEX 2E / Constant period character that marks end of input Val13, DEC 13 / Constant rotate value of 13 for subroutine One, HEX 1 / Constant value 1 Start, HEX 200 / Constant address for start of character block / —– / Data area (these locations are for reading and writing) / —– InVal, HEX 0 / Reserved for subroutine input value Hold, HEX 0 / Reserved for temporary variable for subroutine Ptr, HEX 0 / Reserved for character pointer Categories ## eunice kallarackal 11/15/2017 section 7.4 http://www.webassign.net/web/Student/Assignment­Responses/last?dep=17350884 1/2 Current Score : – / 12 Due : Tuesday, November 21 2017 11:59 PM CST 1. –/3 pointsLarCalc10 7.4.012. Find the arc length of the graph of the function over the indicated interval. (Round your answer to three decimal places.) 2. –/3 pointsLarCalc10 7.4.006. Find the arc length of the graph of the function over the indicated interval. (Round your answer to three decimal places.) section 7.4 (Homework) Joshua Thompson Math2414, section 38251, Fall 2017 Instructor: Eunice Kallarackal WebAssign y = ln cos(x) , 0, π 4 11/15/2017 section 7.4 http://www.webassign.net/web/Student/Assignment­Responses/last?dep=17350884 2/2 3. –/3 pointsLarCalc10 7.4.038. Set up and evaluate the definite integral for the area of the surface generated by revolving the curve about the x­axis. (Round your answer to three decimal places.) 4. –/3 pointsLarCalc10 7.4.055. A right circular cone is generated by revolving the region bounded by and about the y­axis. Find the lateral surface area of the cone. y = 2 x 2π dx 4 11/15/2017 Section 7.3 http://www.webassign.net/web/Student/Assignment­Responses/last?dep=17350883 2/5 2. –/1 pointsLarCalc10 7.3.003. Use the shell method to set up and evaluate the integral that gives the volume of the solid generated by revolving the plane region about the y­axis. 3. –/1 pointsLarCalc10 7.3.501.XP. Use the shell method to set up and evaluate the integral that gives the volume of the solid generated by revolving the plane region about the y­axis. y = x 11/15/2017 Section 7.2 http://www.webassign.net/web/Student/Assignment­Responses/last?dep=17350882 1/5 Current Score : – / 11 Due : Tuesday, November 21 2017 11:59 PM CST 1. –/1 pointsLarCalc10 7.2.004. Set up and evaluate the integral that gives the volume of the solid formed by revolving the region about the x­axis. Section 7.2 (Homework) Joshua Thompson Math2414, section 38251, Fall 2017 Instructor: Eunice Kallarackal WebAssign 11/15/2017 Section 7.2 http://www.webassign.net/web/Student/Assignment­Responses/last?dep=17350882 2/5 2. –/4 pointsLarCalc10 7.2.011. Find the volumes of the solids generated by revolving the regions bounded by the graphs of the equations about the given lines. (a) the x­axis (b) the y­axis (c) the line x = 6 (d) the line x = 9 y = y = 0 x = 6 11/15/2017 Section 7.2 http://www.webassign.net/web/Student/Assignment­Responses/last?dep=17350882 3/5 3. –/1 pointsLarCalc10 7.2.502.XP.MI. Find the volume of the solid generated by revolving the region bounded by the graphs of the equations about the line x = 9. (Round your answer to three decimal places.) 4. –/1 pointsLarCalc10 7.2.032. Find the volume of the solid generated by revolving the region bounded by the graphs of the equations about the y­axis. xy = 9 y = 4 y = 9 x = 9 11/15/2017 Section 7.2 http://www.webassign.net/web/Student/Assignment­Responses/last?dep=17350882 4/5 5. –/1 pointsLarCalc10 7.2.005. Set up and evaluate the integral that gives the volume of the solid formed by revolving the region about the x­axis. y = x4, y = x7 6. –/1 pointsLarCalc10 7.2.015.MI. Find the volume of the solid generated by revolving the region bounded by the graphs of the equations about the line y = 5. 11/15/2017 Section 7.2 http://www.webassign.net/web/Student/Assignment­Responses/last?dep=17350882 5/5 7. –/1 pointsLarCalc10 7.2.025. Find the volume of the solid generated by revolving the region bounded by the graphs of the equations about the x­axis. 8. –/1 pointsLarCalc10 7.2.027. Find the volume of the solid generated by revolving the region bounded by the graphs of the equations about the x­axis. (Round your answer to three decimal places.) y = y = 0 x = 2 x = 8 1 x Categories ## which set of quantum numbers cannot occur together to specify an orbital? Exercise 7.40: Problems by Topic – Electromagnetic Radiation Part A List the following types of electromagnetic radiation in order of increasing frequency. ANSWER:  [removed]radio waves, microwaves, visible light, gamma rays [removed]radio waves, visible light, microwaves, gamma rays [removed]visible light, radio waves, microwaves, gamma rays [removed]visible light, radio waves, gamma rays, microwaves Correct Part B List the following types of electromagnetic radiation in order of decreasing energy per photon. ANSWER:  [removed]microwaves, visible light, gamma rays, radio waves [removed]microwaves, gamma rays, visible light, radio waves [removed]gamma rays, visible light, microwaves, radio waves [removed]gamma rays, microwaves, visible light, radio waves Correct Exercise 7.56: Problems by Topic – Orbitals and Quantum Numbers Part A Which electron is, on average, further from the nucleus: an electron in a 3p orbital or an electron in a 4p orbital? ANSWER:  [removed]3p [removed]4p Correct Exercise 7.59: Problems by Topic – Orbitals and Quantum Numbers Part A Which set of quantum numbers cannot occur together to specify an orbital? ANSWER:  [removed]n=2,l=0,ml=0 [removed]n=3,l=3,ml=2 [removed]n=4,l=2,ml=0 [removed]n=3,l=1,ml=−1 Correct Exercise 7.60: Problems by Topic – Orbitals and Quantum Numbers Part A Which of the following combinations of n and l represent real orbitals and which are impossible? Drag the appropriate items to their respective bins. ANSWER: Exercise 7.64: Problems by Topic – Atomic Spectroscopy Determine whether each of the following transitions in the hydrogen atom corresponds to absorption or emission of energy. Part A n=3→n=1 ANSWER:  [removed]absorption of energy [removed]emission of energy Correct Part B n=2→n=4 ANSWER:  [removed]absorption of energy [removed]emission of energy Correct Part C n=4→n=3 ANSWER:  [removed]absorption of energy [removed]emission of energy Correct Exercise 7.79: Cumulative Problems Suppose that in an alternate universe, the possible values of l were the integer values from 0 to n (instead of 0 to n−1). Assuming no other differences from this universe, how many orbitals would exist in each of the following levels? Part A n = 1 ANSWER: Part B n = 2 ANSWER: Part C n = 4 ANSWER: Exercise 7.65: Problems by Topic – Atomic Spectroscopy Part A According to the quantum-mechanical model for the hydrogen atom, which of the following electron transitions would produce light with the longer wavelength: 2p→1s or 3p→1s? ANSWER:  [removed]2p→1s [removed]3p→1s Correct Exercise 7.55: Problems by Topic – Orbitals and Quantum Numbers Part A Which electron is, on average, closer to the nucleus: an electron in a 2s orbital or an electron in a 3s orbital? ANSWER:  [removed]an electron in a 2s orbital [removed]an electron in a 3s orbital Correct Exercise 7.41: Problems by Topic – Electromagnetic Radiation Calculate the frequency of each of the following wave lengths of electromagnetic radiation. Part A 488.0 nm (wavelength of argon laser) Express your answer using four significant figures. ANSWER: Part B 503.0 nm (wavelength of maximum solar radiation) Express your answer using four significant figures. ANSWER: Part C 337.1 nm (wavelength of nitrogen laser) Express your answer using four significant figures. ANSWER: Categories ## connections academy test answers Can someone post the answer that goes to connections academy please? 0 0 546 asked by Hello Feb 10, 2017 Is this the way you think you become educated? You’re banned from posting here. 1 0 👩‍🏫 Ms. Sue Feb 10, 2017 hahahahaha it is homework help not help me cheat. 0 0 posted by REKT Feb 10, 2017 Good one, REKT!! 🙂 0 0 👩‍🏫 Ms. Sue Feb 10, 2017 are you like an admin here Ms.Sue? 0 0 posted by REKT Feb 10, 2017 Yes, I’m a volunteer tutor and admin for Jiskha. 0 0 👩‍🏫 Ms. Sue Feb 10, 2017 Well you are the BEST!!!!! (: 0 0 posted by REKT Feb 10, 2017 Thank you! 0 0 👩‍🏫 Ms. Sue Feb 10, 2017 Well I hope you have a good day Ms.Sue I need to go do my work now lol. 0 0 posted by Daniel (REKT) Feb 10, 2017 Thanks, and same to you, Daniel. 0 0 👩‍🏫 Ms. Sue Feb 10, 2017 These cheaters never seem to learn, even when they’re warned. Full moon tonight! Get ready! 0 0 👩‍🏫 Writeacher Feb 10, 2017 does any one know the answers for the unit 1 lesson 13 quize for cathalena ward 0 0 posted by jake Feb 21, 2017 D A C B C 0 0 posted by Anonymous Feb 23, 2017 jake did you cheat when learning how to spell too 0 0 posted by … Mar 24, 2017 He wasn’t cheating retards. Maybe, he just didn’t know what to do AT ALL. You didn’t need to ban him, you could have just helped him out. You are a supposed “tutor” after all. Use common sense. “Ms. Sue” instead of jumping to conclusions. 0 0 posted by DeEzHoEsArEsTaNkY Jan 9, 2018 True, I needed help one time and god forbid they kicked me for a while because I asked for help. They are kicking people because they can. 0 0 posted by David Jan 9, 2018 SAME BRUH THO. THEY KICK ME BECASE I JUST ASKED FOR SOME ASNWERS OR HELP AND THEN ONE KICK ME. 0 0 posted by LMAO Jan 9, 2018 i only get on this site if i need a question answered about a topic and no one is home i do not use this site to cheat . if i need some one to proof read then i might put my answer on the site to proof read. 0 0 posted by stop Jan 24, 2018 look y’all need to grow up learn how to spell and quit whining and crying because you got bad grade i have an f in math right now and i have worked my butt off trying to get me self out of this platue and not i have a C 1 0 posted by stop Feb 5, 2018 I have straight As…. thats without cheating… I get on this site to help others….. so good luck Y’all 0 0 posted by Anonymous Feb 12, 2018 Ain’t nobody care about your grades. Rest in peace, Hello, you will be missed. 0 0 posted by |-/ Apr 25, 2018 Diese Lehrer und Tutoren stören sich ständig 0 0 posted by german May 4, 2018 I rlly need help w the lesson 13 unit test 1 0 posted by Addy Sep 6, 2018 Categories ## detrital sedimentary rocks are classified (named) based on the ________. Always pick the BEST answer. Please indicate your answer clearly. 1) Catastrophists held that A) all of Earth’s history would fit into 6,000 years. B) all rocks had condensed from a global ocean. C) the landscape had been shaped by a small number of catastrophes. D) volcanoes and other indications of change were the result of minerals like coal burning underground. E) All of the above were tenants of Catastrophism. 2) ________ was an important 18th-century English geologist and proponent of uniformitarianism. A) Charles Lyell B) Isaac Newton C) James Hutton D) James Ussher E) All of the above were co-authors of the initial proposal and of uniformitarianism. 3) The peer reviewed best estimate for the age of Earth is ________ years. A) 4.6 thousand B) 6.4 trillion C) 4.6 billion D) 6.4 million E) 4.6 billion plus or minus 4 billion 4) Which of the following best describes the fundamental concept of superposition? A) Strata with fossils are generally deposited on strata with no fossils. B) Older strata generally are deposited on younger strata without intervening, intermediate age strata. C) Older fossils in younger strata indicate a locally inverted geologic time scale. D) Any sedimentary deposit accumulates on top of older rock or sediment layers. E) A black cat released from a closed box onto strata will always move toward the younger rocks. 5) A Theory A) has undergone rigorous peer reviewed testing. B) is an explanation of certain scientific observations that remains after the elimination of most other potential explanations. C) will always be subjected to continued scrutiny by the scientific community. D) is a definitive and final explanation of certain scientific observations. E) All of the above describe a Theory F) Only A), B) and C) can be used to describe a Theory. 6) All of the following are possible steps of scientific investigation except for ________. A) the collection of scientific facts through observation and measurement B) assumptionand acceptance of conclusions without prior experimentation or observation C) the development of one or more working hypotheses or models to explain facts D) development of observations and experiments to test the hypotheses E) All of the above are routine steps of scientific investigations. 7) ________ rocks always originate at the surface of lithospheric plates. A) Secondary B) Igneous C) Metamorphic D) Sedimentary E) All of the above 8) Which one of the following statements is not correct? A) Metamorphic rocks may melt to magma. B) Sedimentary rocks may weather to igneous rocks. C) Magmas crystallize to form igneous rocks. D) Igneous rocks can undergo metamorphism. E) All of the above are correct. 9) The ________________________ states that fossil organisms succeed one another in a definite and determinable order. 10) The convective flow of liquid, metallic iron in the _____________________ is thought to generate Earth’s magnetic field. 11) All other factors being equal (geothermal gradient, pressure, composition, and heat from other sources such as friction), why is magma generally produced in association with subduction zones as opposed to areas away from subduction zones? A) Subduction zones are inherently unstable areas where volcanoes form. B) Descending plates carry sea floor coal deposits down into rock that is hot enough to cause it to burst into flame and melt the surrounding rock. C) Descending plates carry water and other volatiles down the geothermal gradient and the volatiles cause flux melting to occur. D) All of the above are true. E) Only A) and B) are true. 12) Which of the following best defines a mineral and a rock? A) A rock has an orderly, repetitive, geometrical, internal arrangement of minerals; a mineral is a lithified or consolidated aggregate of rocks. B) A mineral consists of its constituent atoms arranged in a geometrically repetitive structure; in a rock, the atoms are randomly bonded without any geometric pattern. C) In a mineral the constituent atoms are bonded in a regular, repetitive, internal structure; a rock is a lithified or consolidated aggregate of different mineral grains. D) A rock consists of atoms bonded in a regular, geometrically predictable arrangement; a mineral is a consolidated aggregate of different rock particles. 13) Atoms of the same element, zinc for example, have the same number of ________. A) electrons in the nucleus B) protons in the nucleus C) neutrons in the outer nuclear shell D) electrons in the valence bond level 14) Which carbonate mineral reacts readily with cool, dilute hydrochloric acid to produce visible bubbles of carbon dioxide gas? A) calcite B) quartz C) dolomite D) plagioclase 15) A cubic centimeter of quartz, olivine, and gold weigh 2.5, 3.0, and 19.8 grams respectively. This indicates that ________. A) gold is 6 to 7 times harder than olivine and quartz B) gold has a higher density and specific gravity than quartz and olivine C) gold and olivine are silicates, quartz is elemental silicon D) olivine and quartz powders are harder than metallic gold 16) Which of the following best characterizes ferromagnesian silicates? A) They contain iron and magnetite, are black in color, and they have metallic lusters. B) They are black to dark-green, silicate minerals containing iron and magnesium. C) They contain magnetite and ferroite and they are clear to light green. D) They are mostly clear, colorless, and rich in the elements magnesium and ferrium. 17) The ion at the center of a silicate tetrahedron is surrounded by ________. A) 4 oxygen ions B) 6 oxygen ions C) 4 sodium ions D) 4 silicone ions 18) What is the name given to an atom that gains or loses electrons in a chemical reaction? A) molecule B) ion C) isotope D) nucleon 19) In which type of chemical bonding are electrons shared between adjacent atoms? A) ionic B) subatomic C) covalent D) isotopic 20) What are the lightest or least massive of the basic atomic particles? A) uranium nuclei B) protons C) electrons D) neutrons 21) The physical property denoting a mineral’s tendency to crack along parallel, planar surfaces is known as __________________ 22) Most glasses and some minerals exhibit a type of fracture characterized by nested, curved, spoon-shaped, crack surfaces. What term describes this property? ___________________________ 23) Sketch a Carbon Atom and Label the various parts. 24) What type of chemical bonding is shown in the diagram below? a) covalent b) ionic c) metallic d) hybrid 25) Lava flows are typically finer grained than intrusive igneous rocks. Why? A) Intrusive magma is cooler because it is well insulated by the surrounding rock and lithostatic pressure prevents large grains from growing. B) Intrusive magma flows onto the Earth’s surface and cools very slowly, allowing many small mineral grains to grow. C) The extrusive magma cools quickly so ions do not have time to migrate and crystals do not have time to grow large. D) The extrusive magma, because it is deep below the surface, cools very slowly producing very small mineral grains. 26) ________ magma cools and consolidates without growth of mineral grains A. aphanitic B. porphyritic C. phaneritic D. glassy 27) ________ mineral grains are of roughly equal size and coarse enough to be seen without a microscope or magnifying glass. A. aphanitic B. porphyritic C. phaneritic D. glassy 28) A ________ is an open cavity in a volcanic rock that was filled by a gas bubble when the lava was still mainly liquid. A) porphyrocryst B) vesicle C) phenocryst D) xenocryst 29) In a porphyritic volcanic rock, which mineral grains are the last to crystallize? A) phenocrysts B) vesicles C) pegmatites D) matrix or groundmass 30) The last minerals to crystallize on Bowen’s Reaction Series result in igneous rocks with a ________ composition. A) felsic B) intermediate C) mafic D) ultramafic 31) Changing the composition of magma by incorporating surrounding host rock is known as ________. A) magma mixing B) partial melting C) differentiation D) assimilation 32) What type of magma, commonly erupted along oceanic ridge systems, originates by partial melting of mantle peridotite? ____________________ 33) Igneous rocks are classified on the basis of what two main characteristics? ________________________ ___________________________ 34) What portion of an angular, fracture-bounded granitic block shows the highest rate of weathering? A) theunfractured interior B) the edges and corners C) the crack surfaces not including edges and corners D) All of the above show equal rates. 35) Which one of the following statements concerning mechanical weathering is not true? A) reduces grain sizes of rock particles B) allows for faster rates of chemical weathering C) is important in the formation of talus slopes D) involves major changes in the mineral composition of the weathered material 36) Assume that water filling a crack in a rock undergoes cycles of freezing and melting. Which of the following statement is true? A) Water expands as it melts, causing the crack walls to be pushed apart. B) Water shrinks as it freezes, causing the crack walls to be drawn closer together. C) Water expands as it freezes, causing the crack walls to be pushed apart. D) Water shrinks as it melts, causing the crack walls to be pulled closer together. 37) Half Dome in Yosemite National Park, California, and Stone Mountain in Georgia, are shaped mainly by what mechanical weathering process? _____________________ 38) ________, a common mineral found in igneous rocks, is the most abundant mineral in detrital sedimentary rocks. A) Calcite B) Orthoclase C) Quartz D) Biotite 39) Which major component of detrital sedimentary rocks only rarely occurs as a primary mineral in igneous rocks? A) clays B) carbonates C) quartz D) ferromagnesian minerals 40) Which of the following best describes bedded gypsum and halite? A) detrital sedimentary rocks B) varieties of dolostone C) varieties of coal and peat D) evaporates; chemical, sedimentary rocks 41) What is the main difference between a conglomerate and a sedimentary breccia? A) Breccia clasts are angular; conglomerate clasts are rounded. B) A breccia is well stratified; a conglomerate is poorly stratified. C) Breccia clasts are the size of baseballs; conglomerate clasts are larger. D) Breccia has a compacted, clay-rich matrix; conglomerate has no matrix. 42) Which of the following describes the correct order for relative solubility of minerals in sedimentary rocks? A) Evaporate minerals are more soluble than quartz and less soluble than calcite. B) Evaporate minerals are less soluble than quartz and calcite. C) Evaporate minerals aremore soluble than calcite and quartz. D) Evaporate minerals, quartz, and calcite all have the same relative solubility. 43) Detrital sedimentary rocks are classified (named) based on the ________. A) colors of the cementing minerals B) grain sizes of the detrital particles C) compositions of soluble minerals D) degree of compaction and lithification 44) Flint, chert, and jasper are microcrystalline forms of ________. A) quartz (SiO2) B) hematite (Fe2 O3) C) halite (NaCl) D) calcite (CaCO3) 45) Which type of sediment undergoes the most compaction as it lithifies to sedimentary rocks? A) marine mud B) desert dune sand C) reef limestone D) coarse gravel 46) What is the chemical formula for dolomite, the major mineral in dolostones? A) NaCl B) CaSO4 2H20 C) SiO2 D) CaMg(CO3)2 47) Coal beds originate in ________. A) shallow lakes in a dry, desert region B) channels of fast-moving streams C) deep, marine basins below wave action D) freshwater coastal swamps and bogs 48) What are the three, most common, cementing agents for sandstones? _________________________ ________________________ _____________________- Essay Questions — Your Essay Answers should be concise and neat. Label diagrams clearly. Answer ONLY TWO of the following four questions. Your answers must fit on the remainder of this page and the back of this page. Essay Option 1– Describe and discuss turbidity currents and their relationship to ‘graded beds’. Essay Option 2—Compare and contrast Basic Science and Applied Science. Essay Option 3: Sketch, label, and describe the Rock Cycle. Essay Option 4: Describe the Peer Review Process. Categories ## consider the resonance structures for the carbonate ion. Consider the resonance structures for the carbonate ion. O–C-O(-) l O(-) (-)O-C–O l O(-) (-)O-C-O(-) l l O How much negative charge is on each oxygen of the carbonate ion? A)0, B) -.33, C)-.50, D) -.67, E)-1.00, F)-1.33, G)-1.50, H)-1.67, I)-2.00 What is the bond order of each carbon oxygen bond in the carbonate ion? A)0, B).33, C).50, D).67, E)1.00, F)1.33, G)1.50, H)1.67, I)2.00, J)4.00 0 0 395 asked by arcos15 Jul 2, 2012 for the second one it’s F) 1.33 1 0 posted by Corinna Dec 2, 2012 First one is D) -0.67 1 0 posted by Darlene Oct 25, 2014 Categories ## most economists use the aggregate demand and aggregate supply model primarily to analyze Fiscal Policy Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. ____ 1. Other things the same, automatic stabilizers tend to a. lower expenditures during expansions and recessions. b. raise expenditures during recessions and lower expenditures during expansions. c. raise expenditures during expansions and recessions. d. raise expenditures during expansions and lower expenditures during recessions. ____ 2. Other things the same, a fall in the economy’s overall level of prices tends to a. lower the quantity demanded of goods and services, but raise the quantity supplied. b. lower both the quantity demanded and the quantity supplied of goods and services. c. raise both the quantity demanded and supplied of goods and services. d. raise the quantity demanded of goods and services, but lower the quantity supplied. ____ 3. When the dollar appreciates, U.S. a. exports and imports decrease. b. exports and imports increase. c. exports decrease, while imports increase. d. exports increase, while imports decrease. ____ 4. The wealth effect, interest rate effect, and exchange rate effect are all explanations for a. the slope of the aggregate demand curve. b. everything that makes the aggregate demand curve shift. c. the slope of short-run aggregate supply. d. the slope of long-run aggregate supply. ____ 5. In the short run an increase in government expenditures a. raises neither real GDP nor the price level. b. raises the price level, but not real GDP. c. raises real GDP, but not the price level. d. raises real GDP and the price level. ____ 6. Tax cuts a. and increases in government expenditures shift aggregate demand right. b. shift aggregate demand right while increases in government expenditures shift aggregate demand left. c. shift aggregate demand left while increases in government expenditures shift aggregate demand right. d. and increases in government expenditures shift aggregate demand left. ____ 7. Which of the following correctly explains the crowding-out effect? a. An increase in government expenditures increases the interest rate and so reduces investment spending. b. A decrease in government expenditures decreases the interest rate and so reduces investment spending. c. A decrease in government expenditures increases the interest rate and so increases investment spending. d. An increase in government expenditures decreases the interest rate and so increases investment spending. ____ 8. Other things the same, when the price level falls, interest rates a. rise, so firms decrease investment. b. rise, so firms increase investment. c. fall, so firms increase investment. d. fall, so firms decrease investment. ____ 9. Which of the following tends to make aggregate demand shift right farther than the amount government expenditures increase? a. the wealth effect b. the interest-rate effect c. the crowding-out effect d. the multiplier effect ____ 10. Most economists use the aggregate demand and aggregate supply model primarily to analyze a. short-run fluctuations in the economy. b. productivity and economic growth. c. the effects of macroeconomic policy on the prices of individual goods. d. the long-run effects of international trade policies. ____ 11. Other things the same, an increase in the price level makes consumers feel a. less wealthy, so the quantity of goods and services demanded rises. b. more wealthy, so the quantity of goods and services demanded falls. c. less wealthy, so the quantity of goods and services demanded falls. d. more wealthy, so the quantity of goods and services demanded rises. ____ 12. Which of the following items is counted as part of government purchases? a. The state of Nevada pays a private firm to repair a Nevada state highway. b. The federal government pays the salary of a Navy officer. c. The city of Las Vegas, Nevada pays a private firm to collect garbage in that city. d. All of the above are correct. ____ 13. Which of the following would cause prices to fall and output to rise in the short run? a. Short-run aggregate supply shifts left. b. Short-run aggregate supply shifts right. c. Aggregate demand shifts right. d. Aggregate demand shifts left. ____ 14. If households view a tax cut as temporary, the tax cut a. has no affect on aggregate demand. b. has more of an affect on aggregate demand than if households view it as permanent. c. has less of an affect on aggregate demand than if households view it as permanent. d. has the same affect as when households view the cut as permanent. ____ 15. The government buys a bridge. The owner of the company that builds the bridge pays her workers. The workers increase their spending. Firms that the workers buy goods from increase their output. This type of effect on spending illustrates a. the Fisher effect. b. the crowding-out effect. c. the multiplier effect. d. None of the above is correct. ____ 16. The aggregate demand curve a. has a slope that is explained in the same way as the slope of the demand curve for a particular product. b. shows an inverse relation between the price level and the quantity of all goods and services demanded. c. is vertical in the long run. d. All of the above are correct. ____ 17. Fiscal policy refers to the idea that aggregate demand is changed by changes in a. trade policy. b. the money supply. c. government spending and taxes. d. All of the above are correct. ____ 18. The government purchases multiplier is defined as a. (1 – MPC)/MPC. b. 1/MPC. c. 1/(1 – MPC). d. MPC/(1 – MPC). ____ 19. The aggregate supply curve is upward sloping in a. the long run, but not the short run. b. neither the short nor long run. c. the short and long run. d. the short run, but not the long run. ____ 20. Fiscal policy affects the economy a. in both the short and long run. b. in neither the short nor long run. c. only in the long run. d. only in the short run. ____ 21. After the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, governments within the United States raised expenditures to increase security at airports. These purchases of goods and services are a. not included in GDP since the government will have to raise taxes to pay for them. b. not included in GDP since they do not represent production. c. included in GDP since government expenditures are included in GDP. d. included in GDP only to the extent that the federal government, rather than state or local governments, paid for them. ____ 22. Most economists believe that fiscal policy a. primarily effects aggregate supply. b. only affects aggregate supply and not aggregate demand. c. primarily affects aggregate demand. d. only affects aggregate demand and not aggregate supply. ____ 23. As the price level rises a. people will want to buy fewer bonds, so the interest rate falls. b. people will want to buy fewer bonds, so the interest rate rises. c. people will want to buy more bonds, so the interest rate falls. d. people will want to buy more bonds, so the interest rate rises. ____ 24. During recessions, automatic stabilizers tend to make the government’s budget a. move toward surplus. b. move toward deficit. c. move toward balance. d. not necessarily move the budget in any particular direction. Categories ## the cost flow method that often parallels the actual physical flow of merchandise is the Question 1 The cost flow method that often parallels the actual physical flow of merchandise is the average-cost method. gross profit method. LIFO method. FIFO method. Question 2 Inventoriable costs may be thought of as a pool of costs consisting of which two elements? the cost of ending inventory and the cost of goods purchased during the year the difference between the costs of goods purchased and the cost of goods sold during the year the cost of beginning inventory and the cost of goods purchased during the year the cost of beginning inventory and the cost of ending inventory Question 3 The selection of an appropriate inventory cost flow assumption for an individual company is made by the internal auditors. management. the external auditors. Question 4 Fetherston Company’s goods in transit at December 31 include: sales made purchases made (1) FOB destination (3) FOB destination (2) FOB shipping point(4) FOB shipping point Which items should be included in Fetherston’s inventory at December 31? (1) and (4) (2) and (4) (2) and (3) Question 5 Under the lower-of-cost-or-market basis in valuing inventory, market is defined as historical cost plus 10%. current replacement cost. selling price. selling price less markup. Question 6 Switzer, Inc. has 8 computers which have been part of the inventory for over two years. Each computer cost$600 and originally retailed for $900. At the statement date, each computer has a current replacement cost of$400.What value should Switzer, Inc., have for the computers at the end of the year?

$3,200.$4,800.

$7,200.$2,400.

Question 7

Romanoff Industries had the following inventory transactions occur during 2014:

UnitsCost/unit

2/1/14Purchase54$45 3/14/14Purchase93$47

5/1/14Purchase66$49 The company sold 150 units at$70 each and has a tax rate of 30%. Assuming that a periodic inventory system is used, what is the company’s gross profit using LIFO? (rounded to whole dollars)

$6,948$7,182

$3,318$3,552

Question 8

Eneri Company’s inventory records show the following data:

UnitsUnit Cost

InventoryJanuary 110,000$9.20 Purchases:June 189,0008.00 November 86,0007.00 A physical inventory on December 31 shows 4,000 units on hand. Eneri sells the units for$13 each. The company has an effective tax rate of 20%. Eneri uses the periodic inventory method. Under the LIFO method, cost of goods sold is

$169,200.$173,040.

$178,000.$28,000.

Question 9

Indrisano’s Used Cars uses the specific identification method of costing inventory. During March, Indrisano purchased three cars for $12,000,$14,400,and $19,200, respectively. During March, two cars are sold for a total of$34,600. Indrisano determines that at March 31, the $14,400 car is still on hand. What is Indrisano’s gross profit for March?$8,200.

$3,400.$1000.

$4,200. Question 10 Moroni Industries has the following inventory information. July 1Beginning Inventory40 units at$120

5Purchases              240 units at $112 14Sale 160 units 21Purchases 120 units at$115

30Sale                      140 units

Assuming that a periodic inventory system is used, what is the amount allocated to ending inventory on a FIFO basis?

$33,960$33,980

$11,500$11,520

Categories

## in his farewell address, president washington spoke for a “unified body politic” and against

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Black Youth in the Union Army, undated photo

Th is young African American soldier sits proudly in his Civil War uniform.  Black Americans advocated for both freedom and equality from the beginning of the war.  With emancipation, they achieved part of that promise.

FIFTH EDITION

James L. Roark Emory University

Michael P. Johnson Johns Hopkins University

Patricia Cline Cohen University of California, Santa Barbara

Sarah Stage Arizona State University

Susan M. Hartmann The Ohio State University

BEDFORD/ST. MARTIN’S Boston ◆ New York

The American Promise A Concise History

FOR BEDFORD/ST. MARTIN’S Publisher for History: Mary V. Dougherty Executive Editor for History: William J. Lombardo Director of Development for History: Jane Knetzger Senior Developmental Editor: Heidi L. Hood Production Editor: Kendra LeFleur Assistant Production Manager: Joe Ford Editorial Assistant: Arrin Kaplan Production Assistant: Elise Keller Copy Editor: Susan Moore Indexer: Melanie Belkin Photo Researchers: Picture Research by Pembroke Herbert and Sandi Rygiel, Picture Research Consultants, Inc. Permissions Manager: Kalina K. Ingham Senior Art Director: Anna Palchik Text Designer: Jerilyn Bockorick Cover Designer: Marine Miller Cover Photo: Black Youth in the Union Army in undated photo. AP Photo. Cartography: Mapping Specialists Limited Composition: Cenveo® Publisher Services Printing and Binding: RR Donnelley and Sons

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ISBN: 978–0–312–66676–7 (Combined Edition) ISBN: 978–1–4576–4813–7 (Loose-leaf Format, Combined Volume) ISBN: 978–1–4576–3145–0 (Volume 1) ISBN: 978–1–4576–4814–4 (Loose-leaf Format, Volume 1) ISBN: 978–1–4576–3146–7 (Volume 2) ISBN: 978–1–4576–4815–1 (Loose-leaf Format, Volume 2)

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Getting students to engage with their history survey course is one of the toughest challenges instructors face. From the beginning, The American Promise has been shaped by our firsthand knowledge that the survey course is one of the most difficult to teach and, for many, also the most difficult to take. With this edition we have entirely rethought how the textbook can best capture students’ interest and support instructors in their classes, whether face-to-face or online. We have undertaken a major overhaul of this edition to bring a new option never before available — a truly concise narrative in a smaller format that is more accessible and affordable than ever. We also strove to offer more of what instructors asked to use in their classes — additional primary sources to foster historical skills and critical think- ing as well as features that consider the relationship of the United States to the rest of the world to give students the global perspective they need more than ever today. In addition, this concise edition comes with LearningCurve, an automatically graded, adaptive learning tool that helps students remember what they have read and tells instructors which topics students are having trouble with. Finally, this edition intro- duces a robust new interactive e-book built into its own course space that makes customizing and assigning the book and its resources simpler than ever. We are pleased this new edition packs in so much in such a concise and affordable format.

The Story of The American Promise Our experience as teachers and our frustrations with available textbooks inspired us to create a book that we could use effectively in our own classrooms. Our knowledge of classroom realities has informed every aspect of each edition and version of The American Promise. We began with a clear framework. We have found that students need both the structure a political narrative provides and the insights gained from examining social and cultural experience. To write a comprehensive, balanced account of American history, we focus on the public arena — the place where politics intersects social and cultural developments — to show how Americans confronted the major issues of their day and created far-reaching historical change.

Our title, The American Promise, reflects our emphasis on human agency and our conviction that the essence of America has been its promise. For millions, the nation has held out the promise of a better life, unfettered worship, equality before the law, representative government, democratic politics, and other freedoms seldom found elsewhere. But none of these promises has come with guarantees. As we see it, much of American history is a continuing struggle over the definition and realiza- tion of the nation’s promise.

v

Preface

Why This Book This Way

vi PREFACE

To engage students in this American story and to portray fully the diversity of the American experience, we stitch into our narrative the voices of hundreds of contemporaries, provide a vivid art and map program, and situate American history in the global world in which students live. To help students understand American history, we provide the best in pedagogical aids. While this edition rests solidly on our original goals and premises, it has taken on a new role to address the specific needs of brief book users.

The Birth of the Concise Edition Not long after we published the first full-length edition of The American Promise, we realized that many colleagues were seeking a text with all the features of a full- length book but in a briefer, more affordable version. We soon produced such a text in the first Compact Edition, which offered the richness of a full text with multiple special features, a rich art and map program, and ample pedagogy. But in time, the needs of instructors for a still more streamlined text became more acute. Students now entering the classroom are juggling more than ever before, and brief books represent more manageable reading, especially when instructors assign readings beyond the core text. We recognized that a truly concise book would be more attractive to many students and thus would be a version more students would likely read. With those thoughts in mind, we carefully crafted the new Concise Edition, which is shorter in narrative length, still affordable, less intimidating, and also smaller in size to allow students to more easily carry it to class and to their favorite places to read.

The Concise Edition is more than just another brief book, however. As authors, we continue to do our own abridgment to make a narrative that is both brief and rich with memorable details. To engage students more fully, we’ve given the book a new look and have reorganized some of its pedagogical tools so students who are pressed for time can see at a glance what they need to learn. The Concise Edition also offers more of what instructors tell us they really want — primary sources. To give students more direct engagement with the past and more opportunities for instructors to prompt historical thinking, we have expanded the number of document primary sources and added visual sources to the special features program as well. With today’s increasingly interconnected world and the increasing diversity of students, we felt it was essential to convey global connections, so we retained the popular international essays in the special features.

Because, like other instructors, we are eager to ensure students do read this rich material, we are proud to announce the Concise Edition comes with LearningCurve — a game-like online learning tool that can be assigned with each chapter and is automatically graded and scored. LearningCurve provides detailed reports on what students do and do not understand, which allows instructors to adapt lectures and class activities as needed. We are confident instructors will enjoy this feature because their students will come to class far better prepared than ever before. And so, like America itself over the centuries, the fifth edition of The American Promise: A Con- cise History is both recognizable and new.

PREFACE vii

Features We know that a history survey textbook is often challenging for many students. The benefit of this concise text is that we have made room for all of the essentials busy students need to succeed. Our book is designed to pique students’ interest while helping them with their reading and comprehension. We believe that three aspects of this new Concise Edition make it stand out from the crowd — the special features, visual program, and pedagogical support.

Special Features. We have designed the special features of this Concise Edition as interesting and informative in-depth examinations of key topics that can be used in class discussion or as homework. Each boxed feature concentrates on a historical thinking skill or models historical inquiry, the curiosity at the heart of our discipline. In addition to the questions that probe the substance of each spe- cial feature, we have added a new Connect to the Big Idea question to each fea- ture to help students understand the significance of the featured topic to the chapter as a whole.

Primary sources form the heart of the feature program in this edition. We are pleased to offer more Documenting the American Promise features than ever before — now doubled since the last edition. Each of these features juxtaposes three or four primary documents to show varying perspectives on a topic or an issue and to provide students with opportunities to build and practice their skills of historical interpretation. Feature introductions and document headnotes con- textualize the sources, and Questions for Analysis and Debate promote critical thinking about primary sources. In addition to bringing back some favorites enjoyed in the past, new topics have been added that are rich with human drama and include “Hunting Witches in Salem, Massachusetts,” “Families Divide over the Revolution,” “Mill Girls Stand Up to Factory Owners,” and “The Press and the Pullman Strike.”

Because students are so attuned to visuals and instructors have told us they want a variety of primary sources in this brief text, we have added a new Visualizing History feature to many chapters. Early Native American artifacts, nineteenth- century paintings, photographs by progressive reformers, early-twentieth-century advertisements, and twenty-first-century political cartoons are all presented as sources for examination. By stressing the importance of historical context and asking critical questions, each of these new features shows students how to mine visual documents for evidence about the past.

To demonstrate American history’s relevance in today’s increasingly global world, we felt it was essential to convey global connections in the feature program. Beyond America’s Borders considers the reciprocal relationships between the United States and the wider world and challenges students to think about the effects of transnational connections over time. With the goal of widening students’ perspec- tives and helping students see that this country did not develop in isolation, these features are enhanced by new America in Global Context questions at the end of the essay. New essays in this edition include “Fascism: Adolf Hitler and National Socialism” and “1968: A Year of Protest.”

viii PREFACE

Visuals. From the beginning, readers have proclaimed this textbook a visual feast, richly illustrated in ways that extend and reinforce the narrative. The fifth Concise Edition offers more than 400 contemporaneous illustrations — one-third of them new — along with innovative techniques for increasing visual literacy. In addition to the new Visualizing History special features that emphasize the use of images for historical analysis, one picture in each chapter includes a special visual activ- ity caption that reinforces this critical skill. More than 200 artifacts — from dolls and political buttons to spy cameras and sewing machines — emphasize the importance of material culture in the study of the past and make the historical account tangible.

Our highly regarded map program, with 165 maps in all, rests on the old truth that “History is not intelligible without geography.” Each chapter typically offers three to four full-size maps showing major developments in the narrative and two or three spot maps embedded in the narrative that emphasize an area of detail from the discussion. To help students think critically about the role of geography in American history, we include two critical-thinking map exercises per chapter. Revised maps in the fifth edition illustrate new scholarship on topics such as the Comanche empire in the American Southwest and events such as the 2012 election.

Pedagogy. The most exciting news about the pedagogy in this Concise Edition is the integration of a new adaptive learning tool — LearningCurve. When instructors assign it, LearningCurve ensures students come to class prepared. LearningCurve offers a game-like interface in which students earn quick points for what they under- stand but are given repeated practice on material — both factual and conceptual —that they still need to master. LearningCurve questions are linked to the corresponding sec- tions in the book so students can read and review the pertinent information they need to master. Prompts in the book remind students to log in and check their understand- ing of the chapter they have just read. Instructors benefit too because they can instantly see who has done the assigned reading and which pieces of information students strug- gle with most. With these detailed reports in hand, instructors can adjust lectures and class activities to address topics students are having trouble with and help them suc- ceed. Every new book comes with a code that unlocks LearningCurve; if students have bought a used book, they can purchase LearningCurve access separately online.

As part of our ongoing efforts to make The American Promise: A Concise His- tory the most teachable and readable survey text available, we paid renewed atten- tion to what would make the most effective pedagogy for a brief text. We started by reimagining our chapter openers with the needs of busy students in mind. Each chapter begins with new Quick Start instructions, a brief chapter outline, a chro- nology, and a concise but colorful opening vignette that invites students into the narrative with lively accounts of individuals or groups who embody the central themes of the chapter. New vignettes in this edition include the Grimké sisters speaking out against slavery, Frederick Jackson Turner proclaiming his frontier hypothesis, migrant mother Frances Owens struggling to survive in the Great Depression, and the experience of Vietnam War veteran Frederick Downs Jr.

We’ve enhanced the pedagogy within the chapters as well. Every major section now begins with an Essential Question that guides students toward comprehension

PREFACE ix

of main ideas. In addition, key terms, set in boldface type with new marginal glos- sary definitions, highlight important people, events, and concepts.

The Chapter Review section at the end of each chapter provides a thorough guide to ensure student success. A cross-reference to LearningCurve reminds stu- dents to use this adaptive quizzing tool to make what they’ve read stick. A list of Key Terms reminds students to reflect on items in the marginal glossary, while Essential Questions, repeated from within the narrative, focus on specific topics or events. Culminating Making Connections questions ask students to think about broad developments within the chapter. Student Center prompts at the bottom of the review page remind students to visit this site, where they will find free self- assessment quizzes, study aids, and other resources.

Updated Scholarship In our ongoing effort to offer a comprehensive text that braids all Americans into the national narrative and to frame that national narrative in a more global perspective, we updated the fifth Concise Edition in many ways. We have paid particular attention to the most recent scholarship and, as always, appreciated and applied many sugges- tions from our users that keep the book fresh, accurate, and organized in a way that works best for students.

Volume One draws on exciting new scholarship on Native Americans, leading to enhanced coverage of Pontiac’s Rebellion in chapter 6 and more attention to Indi- ans and their roles in the conflict between the British and the colonists in chapter 7. Chapter 9 expands the coverage of American interactions with Indians in the South- west, adding new material on Creek chief Alexander McGillivray. Chapter 10 greatly increases the coverage of Indians in the West, with a new section devoted to the Osage territory and the impressive Comanche empire known as Comanchería. In addition, several new Visualizing History features — on ancient tools used in Chaco Canyon, on Aztec weaponry and its weaknesses in the face of Spanish steel, on Mohawk clothing and accessories, and on gifts exchanged between Anglos and Indians on the Lewis and Clark trail — highlight the significance of Native American material culture over the centuries.

Volume Two also includes expanded attention to Native Americans — particularly in chapter 17, where we improved our coverage of Indian schools, assimilation techniques used by whites, and Indian resistance strategies — but our main effort for the fifth Concise Edition in the second half of the book has been to do more of what we already do best, and that is to give even more attention to women, African Americans, and the global context of U.S. history. In the narrative, we consider the ways in which the GI Bill disproportionately benefited white men after World War II. New features and opening vignettes focus on widely recognized as well as less well-known women who both shaped and were shaped by the Ameri- can experience: the depression-era struggle of Florence Owens (the face of the famous Dorothea Lange photograph Migrant Mother), the workplace reforms set in motion by progressive activist Alice Hamilton, and the World War I service of over- seas volunteer Nora Saltonstall. Chapter 16 includes new coverage of the Colfax massacre, arguably the single worst incidence of brutality against African Americans

x PREFACE

during the Reconstruction era. Chapter 27 provides new coverage of civil rights activism in northern states.

Because students live in an increasingly global world and need help making connections with the world outside the United States, we have continued our efforts to incorporate the global context of American history throughout the fifth edition. This is particularly evident in Volume Two, where we have expanded coverage of transnational issues in recent decades, such as the U.S. bombing campaign in Vietnam and U.S. involvement in Afghanistan.

In addition to the many changes noted above, in both volumes we have updated, revised, and improved this fifth Concise Edition in response to both new scholar- ship and requests from instructors. New and expanded coverage areas include, among others, taxation in the pre-Revolutionary period and the early Republic, the Newburgh Conspiracy of the 1780s, the overbuilding of railroads in the West during the Gilded Age, the 1918–1919 global influenza epidemic, finance reform in the 1930s, post–World War II considerations of universal health care, Latino activism, the economic downturn of the late 2000s, the most recent developments in the Mid- dle East, and the Obama presidency.

Acknowledgments We gratefully acknowledge all of the helpful suggestions from those who have read and taught from previous editions of The American Promise, and we hope that our many classroom collaborators will be pleased to see their influence in the fifth edition. In particular, we wish to thank the talented scholars and teachers who gave generously of their time and knowledge to review this book: Kirk R. Abendroth, Vincennes University; Donna J. Benson, Winston-Salem State University; Edward Black, Jefferson State Community College; David Burleson, Doña Ana Community College; Brian Casserly, Bellevue College; John W. Catron, Santa Fe College; William J. Cuddihy, Long Beach City College; Andy DeRoche, Front Range Community College; Kimberly DesRoches, Western Nevada College; David Driscoll, University of Massachusetts – Lowell; Amy Drumb, Polk State College; Robert Elder, Valparaiso University; Mary Frederickson, Miami University of Ohio; Kirsten Gardner, The University of Texas at San Antonio; George Gerdow, Northeastern Illinois University; Nicki Gonzales, Regis University; Brian L. Hackett, Northern Kentucky University; Lindsey Hinds-Brown, Middle Tennessee State University; Antoinnette Hudson, Jacksonville State University; Clifton Huffmaster, Middle Tennessee State University; Carey Kelley, Missouri State University; William J. Lipkin, Union County College; Matthew Loayza, Minnesota State University, Mankato; Stephanie A. L. Molholt, The Community College of Baltimore County – Catonsville; Johnny S. Moore, Radford University; Steven Noll, University of Florida; Ellen Holmes Pearson, University of North Carolina Asheville; Robert D. Pittman, Lindenwood University/St. Louis Community College; Emily Rader, El Camino College; David B. Raymond, Northern Maine Community College; Daniel Rezny, St. Charles Community College; Tom Robertson, The Community College of Baltimore County; Thomas J. Rowland, University of Wisconsin – Oshkosh; Christopher Staaf, Georgia Gwinnett College; Richard Trimble, Ocean County College; James H. Tuten, Juniata College; Christina

PREFACE xi

A. Wilbur, Lamar University; Louis Williams, St. Louis Community College – Forest Park; and John Ralph Wilson, Lone Star College North Harris.

A project as complex as this requires the talents of many individuals. First, we would like to acknowledge our families for their support, forbearance, and toleration of our textbook responsibilities. Pembroke Herbert and Sandi Rygiel of Picture Research Consultants, Inc., contributed their unparalleled knowledge, soaring imagination, and diligent research to make possible the extraordinary illustration program.

We would also like to thank the many people at Bedford/St. Martin’s who have been crucial to this project. No one has done more than our friend, senior editor Heidi Hood, who managed the entire revision and supplements program. Heidi’s intelligence, knowledge of U.S. history, commitment to excellence, and unfailing good judgment saved us from many a misstep. Thanks also go to editorial assistant Arrin Kaplan for her assistance coordinating the pre-revision review, preparing the manuscript, and for working on the supplements, along with associate editor Jack Cashman. We are also grateful to Jane Knetzger, director of development for history; William J. Lombardo, executive editor for history; and Mary Dougherty, publisher for history, for their support and guidance. For their imaginative and tireless efforts to promote the book, we want to thank Amy Whitaker, John Hunger, Sean Blest, and Alex Kaufman. With great skill and professionalism, production editors Katherine Caruana and Kendra LeFleur pulled together the many pieces related to copyediting, design, and composition, with the able assistance of Elise Keller and the guidance of managing editor Elizabeth Schaaf and assistant managing editor John Amburg. Senior production supervisor Joe Ford oversaw the manufacturing of the book. Designer Jerilyn Bockorick, copyeditor Susan Moore, and proofreaders Linda McLatchie and Angela Morrison attended to the myriad details that help make the book shine. Melanie Belkin provided an outstanding index. The book’s gorgeous covers were designed by Marine Miller. New media editor Marissa Zanetti and media producer Michelle Camisa made sure that The American Promise remains at the forefront of technological support for students and instructors. President of Bedford/St. Martin’s Denise Wydra provided helpful advice throughout the course of the project. Finally, Charles H. Christensen, former president, took a personal interest in The American Promise from the start, and Joan E. Feinberg, co-president of Macmillan Higher Education, encouraged us through each edition.

PREFACE xiii

Adopters of The American Promise: A Concise History and their students have access to abundant extra resources, including documents, presentation and testing materials, the acclaimed Bedford Series in History and Culture volumes, and much more. See below for more information, visit the book’s catalog site at bedfordstmartins.com/roarkconcise/catalog, or contact your local Bedford/St. Martin’s sales representative.

Get the Right Version for Your Class To accommodate different course lengths and course budgets, The American Promise is available in several different formats, including three-hole punched loose-leaf Budget Books versions and e-books, which are available at a substantial discount.

• Combined edition (Chapters 1–31) — available in paperback, loose-leaf, and e-book formats

• Volume 1: To 1877 (Chapters 1–16) — available in paperback, loose-leaf, and e-book formats

• Volume 2: From 1865 (Chapters 16–31) — available in paperback, loose-leaf, and e-book formats

Any of these volumes can be packaged with additional books for a discount. To get ISBNs for discount packages, see the online catalog at bedfordstmartins.com /roarkconcise/catalog or contact your Bedford/St. Martin’s representative.

Versions and Supplements

xiv VERSIONS AND SUPPLEMENTS

Let students choose their e-book format. In addition to the LaunchPad e-book, students can purchase the downloadable Bedford e-Book to Go for The American Promise: A Concise History from our Web site or find other PDF versions of the e-book at our publishing partners’ sites: CourseSmart, Barnes & Noble NookStudy; Kno; CafeScribe; or Chegg.

NEW Assign LearningCurve So You Know What Your Students Know and They Come to Class Prepared As described in the preface and on the inside front cover, students purchasing new books receive access to LearningCurve for The American Promise: A Concise History. Assigning LearningCurve in place of reading quizzes is easy for instructors, and the reporting features help instructors track overall class trends and spot topics that are giving students trouble so they can adjust their lectures and class activities. This online learning tool is popular with students because it was designed to help them rehearse content at their own pace in a nonthreatening, game-like environment. The feedback for wrong answers provides instructional coaching and sends students back to the book for review. Students answer as many questions as necessary to reach a target score, with repeated chances to revisit material they haven’t mastered. When LearningCurve is assigned, students come to class better prepared.

Send Students to Free Online Resources The book’s Student Site at bedfordstmartins.com/roarkconcise gives students a way to read, write, and study by providing plentiful quizzes and activities, study aids, and history research and writing help.

FREE Online Study Guide. Available at the Student Site, this popular resource pro- vides students with quizzes and activities for each chapter, including multiple-choice self-tests that focus on important concepts; flashcards that test students’ knowledge of key terms; timeline activities that emphasize causal relationships; and map quiz- zes intended to strengthen students’ geography skills. Instructors can monitor stu- dents’ progress through an online Quiz Gradebook or receive e-mail updates.

FREE Research, Writing, and Anti-plagiarism Advice. Available at the Student Site, Bedford’s History Research and Writing Help includes the textbook authors’ Suggested References organized by chapter; History Research and Reference Sources, with links to history-related databases, indexes, and journals; Build a Bib- liography, a simple Web-based tool known as The Bedford Bibliographer that gen- erates bibliographies in four commonly used documentation styles; and Tips on Avoiding Plagiarism, an online tutorial that reviews the consequences of plagiarism and features exercises to help students practice integrating sources and recognize acceptable summaries.http://bedfordstmartins.com/roarkconcise

VERSIONS AND SUPPLEMENTS xv

Take Advantage of Instructor Resources Bedford/St. Martin’s has developed a rich array of teaching resources for this book and for this course. They range from lecture and presentation materials and assess- ment tools to course management options. Most can be downloaded or ordered at bedfordstmartins.com/roarkconcise/catalog.

Bedford Coursepack for Blackboard, Desire2Learn, Canvas, Angel, Sakai, or MoodIe. We have free content to help you integrate our rich content into your course management system. Registered instructors can download coursepacks with no hassle and no strings attached. Content includes our most po pular free resources and book-specific content for The American Promise: A Concise History. Visit bedfordstmartins.com/coursepacks to see a demo, find your version, or down- load your coursepack.

Instructor’s Resource Manual. The instructor’s manual offers both experienced and first-time instructors tools for preparing lectures and running discussions. It includes chapter-review material, teaching strategies, and a guide to chapter-specific supplements available for the text, plus suggestions on how to get the most out of LearningCurve and a survival guide for first-time teaching assistants.

Guide to Changing Editions. Designed to facilitate an instructor’s transition from the previous edition of The American Promise: A Concise History to the current edition, this guide presents an overview of major changes as well as of changes in each chapter.

Computerized Test Bank. The test bank includes a mix of fresh, carefully crafted multiple-choice, short-answer, and essay questions for each chapter. It also contains volume-wide essay questions. All questions appear in Microsoft Word format and in easy-to-use test bank software that allows instructors to add, edit, re-sequence, and print questions and answers. Instructors can also export questions into a variety of formats, including Blackboard, Desire2Learn, and Moodle.

The Bedford Lecture Kit: PowerPoint Maps, Images, Lecture Outlines, and i>clicker Content. Look good and save time with The Bedford Lecture Kit. These presentation materials are downloadable individually from the Instructor Resources tab at bedfordstmartins.com/roarkconcise/catalog and are availa- ble on The Bedford Lecture Kit Instructor’s Resource CD-ROM. They provide ready-made and fully customizable PowerPoint multimedia presentations that include lecture outlines with embedded maps, figures, and selected images from the textbook and extra background for instructors. Also available are maps and selected images in JPEG and PowerPoint formats; content for i>clicker, a class- room response system, in Microsoft Word and PowerPoint formats; the Instruc- tor’s Resource Manual in Microsoft Word format; and outline maps in PDF for- mat for quizzing or handing out. All files are suitable for copying onto transparency acetates.http://bedfordstmartins.com/coursepackshttp://bedfordstmartins.com/roarkconcise/cataloghttp://bedfordstmartins.com/roarkconcise/catalog

xvi VERSIONS AND SUPPLEMENTS

Reel Teaching: Film Clips for the U.S. History Survey. This DVD provides a large collection of short video clips for classroom presentation. Designed as engaging “lecture launchers” varying in length from one to fifteen or more minutes, the fifty- nine documentary clips were carefully chosen for use in both semesters of the U.S. survey course. The clips feature compelling images, archival footage, personal narra- tives, and commentary by noted historians.

America in Motion: Video Clips for U.S. History. Set history in motion with Amer- ica in Motion, an instructor DVD containing dozens of short digital movie files of events in twentieth-century American history. From the wreckage of the battleship Maine, to FDR’s fireside chats, to Oliver North testifying before Congress, America in Motion engages students with dynamic scenes from key events and challenges them to think critically. All files are classroom-ready, edited for brevity, and easily inte- grated with PowerPoint or other presentation software for electronic lectures or assignments. An accompanying guide provides each clip’s historical context, ideas for use, and suggested questions.

Videos and Multimedia. A wide assortment of videos and multimedia CD-ROMs on various topics in U.S. history is available to qualified adopters through your Bedford/St. Martin’s sales representative.

Package and Save Your Students Money For information on free packages and discounts up to 50%, visit bedfordstmartins .com/roarkconcise/catalog, or contact your local Bedford/St. Martin’s sales repre- sentative. The products that follow all qualify for discount packaging.

Reading the American Past, Fifth Edition. Edited by Michael P. Johnson, one of the authors of The American Promise, and designed to complement the textbook, Read- ing the American Past provides a broad selection of over 150 primary-source documents, as well as editorial apparatus to help students understand the sources. Available free when packaged with the print text and included in the LaunchPad e-book. Also available as a downloadable PDF e-book or with the main text’s e-Book to Go.

NEW Bedford Digital Collections @ bedfordstmartins.com/bdc/catalog. This source collection provides a flexible and affordable online repository of discovery- oriented primary-source projects and single primary sources that you can easily cus- tomize and link to from your course management system or Web site. Package discounts are available.

The Bedford Series in History and Culture. More than 120 titles in this highly praised series combine first-rate scholarship, historical narrative, and important primary doc- uments for undergraduate courses. Each book is brief, inexpensive, and focused on a specific topic or period. For a complete list of titles, visit bedfordstmartins.com /history/series. Package discounts are available.http://bedfordstmartins.com/roarkconcise/cataloghttp://bedfordstmartins.com/roarkconcise/cataloghttp://bedfordstmartins.com/bdc/cataloghttp://bedfordstmartins.com/history/serieshttp://bedfordstmartins.com/history/series

VERSIONS AND SUPPLEMENTS xvii

Rand McNally Atlas of American History. This collection of more than eighty full- color maps illustrates key events and eras from early exploration, settlement, expansion, and immigration to U.S. involvement in wars abroad and on U.S. soil. Introductory pages for each section include a brief overview, timelines, graphs, and photos to quickly establish a historical context. Available for \$5.00 when packaged with the print text.

Maps in Context: A Workbook for American History. Written by historical cartography expert Gerald A. Danzer (University of Illinois at Chicago), this skill-building workbook helps students comprehend essential connections between geographic literacy and historical understanding. Organized to corre- spond to the typical U.S. history survey course, Maps in Context presents a wealth of map-centered projects and convenient pop quizzes that give students hands-on experience working with maps. Available free when packaged with the print text.

The Bedford Glossary for U.S. History. This handy supplement for the survey course gives students historically contextualized definitions for hundreds of terms — from abolitionism to zoot suit — that they will encounter in lectures, reading, and exams. Available free when packaged with the print text.

U.S. History Matters: A Student Guide to World History Online. This resource, written by Alan Gevinson, Kelly Schrum, and the late Roy Rosenzweig (all of George Mason University), provides an illustrated and annotated guide to 250 of the most useful Web sites for student research in U.S. history as well as advice on evaluating and using Internet sources. This essential guide is based on the acclaimed “History Matters” Web site developed by the American Social History Project and the Center for History and New Media. Available free when packaged with the print text.

Trade Books. Titles published by sister companies Hill and Wang; Farrar, Straus and Giroux; Henry Holt and Company; St. Martin’s Press; Picador; and Palgrave Macmillan are available at a 50% discount when packaged with Bedford/St. Martin’s textbooks. For more information, visit bedfordstmartins.com/tradeup.

A Pocket Guide to Writing in History. This portable and affordable reference tool by Mary Lynn Rampolla provides reading, writing, and research advice useful to students in all history courses. Concise yet comprehensive advice on approach- ing typical history assignments, developing critical reading skills, writing effective history papers, conducting research, using and documenting sources, and avoid- ing plagiarism — enhanced with practical tips and examples throughout — have made this slim reference a best seller. Package discounts are available.

A Student’s Guide to History. This complete guide to success in any history course provides the practical help students need to be effective. In addition to introducing students to the nature of the discipline, author Jules Benjamin teaches a wide range of skills from preparing for exams to approaching common writing assignments, and explains the research and documentation process with plentiful examples. Package discounts are available.http://bedfordstmartins.com/tradeup

xviii VERSIONS AND SUPPLEMENTS

Going to the Source: The Bedford Reader in American History. Developed by Victoria Bissell Brown and Timothy J. Shannon, this reader’s strong pedagogical framework helps students learn how to ask fruitful questions in order to evaluate documents effectively and develop critical reading skills. The reader’s wide variety of chapter topics that complement the survey course and its rich diversity of sources — from personal letters to political cartoons — provoke students’ interest as it teaches them the skills they need to successfully interrogate historical sources. Package discounts are available.

America Firsthand. With its distinctive focus on ordinary people, this primary documents reader, by Anthony Marcus, John M. Giggie, and David Burner, offers a remarkable range of perspectives on America’s history from those who lived it. Popular Points of View sections expose students to different perspectives on a specific event or topic, and Visual Portfolios invite analysis of the visual record. Package discounts are available.

VERSIONS AND SUPPLEMENTS xix

Brief Contents

About the Cover Art i Preface: Why This Book This Way v Versions and Supplements xiii Contents xx Maps, Figures, and Tables xxix Special Features xxxii

1 Ancient America: Before 1492 2 2 Europeans Encounter the New World, 1492–1600 26 3 The Southern Colonies in the Seventeenth Century, 1601–1700 50 4 The Northern Colonies in the Seventeenth Century, 1601–1700 76 5 Colonial America in the Eighteenth Century, 1701–1770 102 6 The British Empire and the Colonial Crisis, 1754–1775 130 7 The War for America, 1775–1783 158

8 Building a Republic, 1775–1789 188 9 The New Nation Takes Form, 1789–1800 216 10 Republicans in Power, 1800–1824 242 11 The Expanding Republic, 1815–1840 272 12 The New West and the Free North, 1840–1860 302 13 The Slave South, 1820–1860 332 14 The House Divided, 1846–1861 358 15 The Crucible of War, 1861–1865 386 16 Reconstruction, 1863–1877 418 Appendices A-1 Glossary G-1

Spot Artifact Credits CR-1 Index I-1 U.S. Political/Geographic and World Maps M-1 About the Authors last book page

LearningCurve Make it stick. bedfordstmartins.com/roarkconcise

About the Cover Art i Preface: Why This Book This Way v Versions and Supplements xiii Brief Contents xix Maps, Figures, and Tables xxix Special Features xxxii

CHAPTER 1

Ancient America, Before 1492 2

OPENING VIGNETTE: An archaeological dig helps uncover ancient North American traditions 2

Archaeology and History 4 The First Americans 5

African and Asian Origins 5 Paleo-Indian Hunters 7

Archaic Hunters and Gatherers 8 Great Plains Bison Hunters 9 Great Basin Cultures 10 Pacific Coast Cultures 10 Eastern Woodland Cultures 11

Agricultural Settlements and Chiefdoms 12 Southwestern Cultures 12 VISUALIZING HISTORY: “Daily Life in Chaco Canyon” 14 Woodland Burial Mounds and Chiefdoms 16

Native Americans in the 1490s 17 Eastern and Great Plains Peoples 18 Southwestern and Western Peoples 20 Cultural Similarities 20

The Mexica: A Mesoamerican Culture 21 Conclusion: The World of Ancient

Americans 23

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Contents

CONTENTS xxi

CHAPTER 3

The Southern Colonies in the Seventeenth Century,

1601–1700 50 OPENING VIGNETTE: Pocahontas “rescues” John Smith 50

An English Colony on Chesapeake Bay 52 The Fragile Jamestown Settlement 53 Cooperation and Conflict between Natives and

Newcomers 54 From Private Company to Royal Government 55

A Tobacco Society 56 Tobacco Agriculture 56 A Servant Labor System 57 BEYOND AMERICA’S BORDERS: “American Tobacco and European Consumers” 60 The Rigors of Servitude 63 Cultivating Land and Faith 63

Hierarchy and Inequality in the Chesapeake 64 Social and Economic Polarization 65 Government Policies and Political Conflict 65 Bacon’s Rebellion 66

Toward a Slave Labor System 68 Religion and Revolt in the Spanish Borderland 68 The West Indies: Sugar and Slavery 69 Carolina: A West Indian Frontier 70 Slave Labor Emerges in the Chesapeake 72

Conclusion: The Growth of English Colonies Based on Export Crops and Slave Labor 73

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CHAPTER 2

Europeans Encounter the New World, 1492–1600 26

OPENING VIGNETTE: Queen Isabella of Spain supports Christopher Columbus’s risky plan to sail west across the Atlantic 26

Europe in the Age of Exploration 28 Mediterranean Trade and European Expansion 28 A Century of Portuguese Exploration 30

A Surprising New World in the Western Atlantic 31 The Explorations of Columbus 31 The Geographic Revolution and the Columbian

Exchange 33 Spanish Exploration and Conquest 35

The Conquest of Mexico 35 The Search for Other Mexicos 37 Spanish Outposts in Florida and New Mexico 38 New Spain in the Sixteenth Century 39 DOCUMENTING THE AMERICAN PROMISE: “Justifying Conquest” 42 The Toll of Spanish Conquest and

Colonization 45 The New World and Sixteenth-

Century Europe 45 The Protestant Reformation and the Spanish

Response 45 Europe and the Spanish Example 46

Conclusion: The Promise of the New World for Europeans 48

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xxii CONTENTS

CHAPTER 4

The Northern Colonies in the Seventeenth Century,

1601–1700 76 OPENING VIGNETTE: Roger Williams is banished from Puritan Massachusetts 76

Puritans and the Settlement of New England 78 Puritan Origins: The English Reformation 78 The Pilgrims and Plymouth Colony 80 The Founding of Massachusetts Bay

Colony 80 The Evolution of New England

Society 82 Church, Covenant, and Conformity 83 Government by Puritans for Puritanism 84 The Splintering of Puritanism 85 Religious Controversies and Economic

Changes 87 The Founding of the Middle Colonies 91

From New Netherland to New York 91 DOCUMENTING THE AMERICAN PROMISE: “Hunting Witches in Salem, Massachusetts” 92 New Jersey and Pennsylvania 95 Toleration and Diversity in Pennsylvania 95

The Colonies and the English Empire 96 Royal Regulation of Colonial Trade 96 King Philip’s War and the Consolidation of Royal

Authority 98 Conclusion: An English Model of

Colonization in North America 100

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CHAPTER 5

Colonial America in the Eighteenth Century,

1701–1770 102 OPENING VIGNETTE: The Robin Johns experience horrific turns of fortune in the Atlantic slave trade 102

A Growing Population and Expanding Economy in British North America 104

New England: From Puritan Settlers to Yankee Traders 106 Natural Increase and Land Distribution 106 Farms, Fish, and Atlantic Trade 106

The Middle Colonies: Immigrants, Wheat, and Work 109 German and Scots-Irish Immigrants 109 “God Gives All Things to Industry”: Urban and

Rural Labor 110 The Southern Colonies: Land of Slavery 113

The Atlantic Slave Trade and the Growth of Slavery 113

Slave Labor and African American Culture 116 Tobacco, Rice, and Prosperity 118

Unifying Experiences 119 Commerce and Consumption 119 Religion, Enlightenment, and Revival 120 Trade and Conflict in the North American

Borderlands 122 Colonial Politics in the British Empire 125 DOCUMENTING THE AMERICAN PROMISE: “Spanish Priests Report on California Missions” 126

Conclusion: The Dual Identity of British North American Colonists 128

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CONTENTS xxiii

CHAPTER 7

The War for America, 1775–1783 158

OPENING VIGNETTE: Deborah Sampson masquer- ades as a man to join the Continental army 158

The Second Continental Congress 160 Assuming Political and Military Authority 160 Pursuing Both War and Peace 161 Thomas Paine, Abigail Adams, and the Case for

Independence 163 The Declaration of Independence 164

The First Year of War, 1775–1776 165 The American Military Forces 165 The British Strategy 166 Quebec, New York, and New Jersey 166

The Home Front 168 Patriotism at the Local Level 169 The Loyalists 169 Who Is a Traitor? 171 DOCUMENTING THE AMERICAN PROMISE: “Families Divide over the Revolution” 172 Prisoners of War 174 Financial Instability and Corruption 175

The Campaigns of 1777–1779: The North and West 175 Burgoyne’s Army and the Battle of Saratoga 176 The War in the West: Indian Country 177 The French Alliance 178

The Southern Strategy and the End of the War 181 Georgia and South Carolina 181 Treason and Guerrilla Warfare 182 Surrender at Yorktown 184 The Losers and the Winners 184

Conclusion: Why the British Lost 186

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CHAPTER 6

The British Empire and the Colonial Crisis, 1754–1775 130

OPENING VIGNETTE: Loyalist governor Thomas Hutchinson stands his ground in radical Massachusetts 130

The Seven Years’ War, 1754–1763 132 French-British Rivalry in the Ohio Country 132 The Albany Congress 134 The War and Its Consequences 135 VISUALIZING HISTORY: “Cultural Cross-Dressing in Eighteenth-Century Portraits” 136 Pontiac’s Rebellion and the Proclamation of

1763 138 The Sugar and Stamp Acts, 1763–1765 140

Grenville’s Sugar Act 140 The Stamp Act 141 Resistance Strategies and Crowd Politics 142 Liberty and Property 144

The Townshend Acts and Economic Retaliation, 1767–1770 145 The Townshend Duties 145 Nonconsumption and the Daughters of Liberty 146 Military Occupation and “Massacre” in Boston 147

The Destruction of the Tea and the Coercive Acts, 1770–1774 149 The Calm before the Storm 149 Tea in Boston Harbor 150 The Coercive Acts 151 Beyond Boston: Rural New England 152 The First Continental Congress 152

Domestic Insurrections, 1774–1775 153 Lexington and Concord 153 Rebelling against Slavery 155

Conclusion: The Long Road to Revolution 156

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xxiv CONTENTS

CHAPTER 9

The New Nation Takes Form, 1789–1800 216

OPENING VIGNETTE: Brilliant and brash, Alexander Hamilton becomes a polarizing figure in the 1790s 216

The Search for Stability 218 Washington Inaugurates the

Government 219 The Bill of Rights 220 The Republican Wife and Mother 221

Hamilton’s Economic Policies 222 Agriculture, Transportation,

and Banking 222 The Public Debt and Taxes 223 The First Bank of the United States and the

Report on Manufactures 225 The Whiskey Rebellion 226

Conflict on America’s Borders and Beyond 227 Creeks in the Southwest 228 Ohio Indians in the Northwest 229 France and Britain 231 The Haitian Revolution 233 BEYOND AMERICA’S BORDERS: “France, Britain, and Woman’s Rights in the 1790s” 234

Federalists and Republicans 236 The Election of 1796 236 The XYZ Affair 237 The Alien and Sedition Acts 238

Conclusion: Parties Nonetheless 240

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CHAPTER 8

Building a Republic, 1775–1789 188

OPENING VIGNETTE: James Madison comes of age in the midst of revolution 188

The Articles of Confederation 190 Confederation and Taxation 190 The Problem of Western Lands 191 Running the New Government 192

The Sovereign States 193 The State Constitutions 193 Who Are “the People”? 194 Equality and Slavery 195 DOCUMENTING THE AMERICAN PROMISE: “Massachusetts Blacks Petition for Freedom and Rights” 196

The Confederation’s Problems 199 The War Debt and the Newburgh Conspiracy 199 The Treaty of Fort Stanwix 200 Land Ordinances and the Northwest Territory 202 The Requisition of 1785 and Shays’s Rebellion,

1786–1787 205 The United States Constitution 206

From Annapolis to Philadelphia 207 The Virginia and New Jersey Plans 208 Democracy versus Republicanism 209

Ratification of the Constitution 210 The Federalists 210 The Antifederalists 212 The Big Holdouts: Virginia and New York 213

Conclusion: The “Republican Remedy” 214

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CONTENTS xxv

CHAPTER 11

The Expanding Republic, 1815–1840 272

OPENING VIGNETTE: The Grimké sisters speak out against slavery 272

The Market Revolution 274 Improvements in Transportation 275 Factories, Workingwomen, and Wage Labor 277 Bankers and Lawyers 279 Booms and Busts 279 DOCUMENTING THE AMERICAN PROMISE: “Mill Girls Stand Up to Factory Owners, 1834” 280

The Spread of Democracy 282 Popular Politics and Partisan Identity 282 The Election of 1828 and the Character

Issue 283 Jackson’s Democratic Agenda 284

Jackson Defines the Democratic Party 285 Indian Policy and the Trail of Tears 285 The Tariff of Abominations and Nullification 288 The Bank War and Economic Boom 289

Cultural Shifts, Religion, and Reform 290 The Family and Separate Spheres 291 The Education and Training of Youths 292 The Second Great Awakening 292 The Temperance Movement and the Campaign for

Moral Reform 294 Organizing against Slavery 294

Van Buren’s One-Term Presidency 296 The Politics of Slavery 297 Elections and Panics 297

Conclusion: The Age of Jackson or the Era of Reform? 299

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CHAPTER 10

Republicans in Power, 1800–1824 242

OPENING VIGNETTE: The Shawnee chief Tecumseh attempts to forge a pan-Indian confederacy 242

Jefferson’s Presidency 244 Turbulent Times: Election and Rebellion 245 The Jeffersonian Vision of Republican Simplicity 245 Dangers Overseas: The Barbary Wars 247

Opportunities and Challenges in the West 248 The Louisiana Purchase 248 The Lewis and Clark Expedition 249 Osage and Comanche Indians 251 VISUALIZING HISTORY: “Cultural Exchange on the Lewis and Clark Trail” 252

Jefferson, the Madisons, and the War of 1812 254 Impressment and Embargo 254 Dolley Madison and Social Politics 255 Tecumseh and Tippecanoe 255 The War of 1812 256 Washington City Burns: The British Offensive 258

Women’s Status in the Early Republic 259 Women and the Law 260 Women and Church Governance 260 Female Education 261

Monroe and Adams 262 From Property to Democracy 263 The Missouri Compromise 264 The Monroe Doctrine 265 The Election of 1824 267 The Adams Administration 268

Conclusion: Republican Simplicity Becomes Complex 269

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xxvi CONTENTS

CHAPTER 13

The Slave South, 1820–1860 332

OPENING VIGNETTE: Slave Nat Turner leads a revolt to end slavery 332

The Growing Distinctiveness of the South 334 Cotton Kingdom, Slave Empire 334 The South in Black and White 336 The Plantation Economy 337 DOCUMENTING THE AMERICAN PROMISE: “Defending Slavery” 338

Masters and Mistresses in the Big House 342 Paternalism and Male Honor 342 The Southern Lady and Feminine Virtues 344

Slaves in the Quarter 346 Work 346 Family and Religion 347 Resistance and Rebellion 348

The Plain Folk 349 Plantation-Belt Yeomen 350 Upcountry Yeomen 350 Poor Whites 351 The Culture of the Plain Folk 352

Black and Free: On the Middle Ground 353 Precarious Freedom 353 Achievement despite Restrictions 354

The Politics of Slavery 354 The Democratization of the Political Arena 355 Planter Power 355

Conclusion: A Slave Society 356

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CHAPTER 12

The New West and the Free North, 1840–1860 302

OPENING VIGNETTE: With the support of his wife, Abraham Lincoln struggles to survive in antebellum America 302

Economic and Industrial Evolution 304 Agriculture and Land Policy 305 Manufacturing and Mechanization 305 Railroads: Breaking the Bonds of Nature 306 VISUALIZING HISTORY: “The Path of Progress” 308

Free Labor: Promise and Reality 309 The Free-Labor Ideal 310 Economic Inequality 310 Immigrants and the Free-Labor Ladder 311

The Westward Movement 312 Manifest Destiny 312 Oregon and the Overland Trail 313 The Mormon Exodus 315 The Mexican Borderlands 317

Expansion and the Mexican- American War 319 The Politics of Expansion 319 The Mexican-American War, 1846–1848 320 Victory in Mexico 323 Golden California 324

Reforming Self and Society 326 The Pursuit of Perfection: Transcendentalists and

Utopians 326 Woman’s Rights Activists 327 Abolitionists and the American Ideal 328

Conclusion: Free Labor, Free Men 330

CHAPTER REVIEW 331 LearningCurve bedfordstmartins.com/roarkconcisehttp://bedfordstmartins.com/roarkconcisehttp://bedfordstmartins.com/roarkconcise

CONTENTS xxvii

CHAPTER 15

The Crucible of War, 1861–1865 386

OPENING VIGNETTE: Runaway slave William Gould enlists in the U.S. Navy 386

“And the War Came” 388 Attack on Fort Sumter 389 The Upper South Chooses Sides 389

The Combatants 391 How They Expected to Win 391 Lincoln and Davis Mobilize 392

Battling It Out, 1861–1862 394 Stalemate in the Eastern Theater 394 Union Victories in the Western Theater 397 The Atlantic Theater 398 International Diplomacy 399

Union and Freedom 400 From Slaves to Contraband 400 From Contraband to Free People 401 The War of Black Liberation 402

The South at War 403 Revolution from Above 403 Hardship Below 405 The Disintegration of Slavery 405 DOCUMENTING THE AMERICAN PROMISE: “Home and Country” 406

The North at War 408 The Government and the Economy 409 Women and Work at Home and at War 409 Politics and Dissent 410

Grinding Out Victory, 1863–1865 411 Vicksburg and Gettysburg 411 Grant Takes Command 412 The Election of 1864 414 The Confederacy Collapses 415

Conclusion: The Second American Revolution 416

CHAPTER REVIEW 417 LearningCurve bedfordstmartins.com/roarkconcise

CHAPTER 14

The House Divided, 1846–1861 358

OPENING VIGNETTE: Abolitionist John Brown takes his war against slavery to Harpers Ferry, Virginia 358

The Bitter Fruits of War 360 The Wilmot Proviso and the Expansion of

Slavery 360 The Election of 1848 362 Debate and Compromise 362

The Sectional Balance Undone 365 The Fugitive Slave Act 365 Uncle Tom’s Cabin 366 The Kansas-Nebraska Act 366 BEYOND AMERICA’S BORDERS: “Filibusters: The Underside of Manifest Destiny” 368

Realignment of the Party System 370 The Old Parties: Whigs and

Democrats 371 The New Parties: Know-Nothings and

Republicans 371 The Election of 1856 373

Freedom under Siege 374 “Bleeding Kansas” 374 The Dred Scott Decision 376 Prairie Republican: Abraham

Lincoln 377 The Lincoln-Douglas Debates 378

The Union Collapses 379 The Aftermath of John Brown’s

Raid 379 Republican Victory in 1860 380 Secession Winter 382

Conclusion: Slavery, Free Labor, and the Failure of Political Compromise 383

CHAPTER REVIEW 385 LearningCurve bedfordstmartins.com/roarkconcisehttp://bedfordstmartins.com/roarkconcisehttp://bedfordstmartins.com/roarkconcise

xxviii CONTENTS

CHAPTER 16

Reconstruction, 1863–1877 418

OPENING VIGNETTE: James T. Rapier emerges in the early 1870s as Alabama’s most prominent black leader 418

Wartime Reconstruction 420 “To Bind Up the Nation’s Wounds” 420 Land and Labor 422 The African American Quest for Autonomy 423 DOCUMENTING THE AMERICAN PROMISE: “The Meaning of Freedom“ 424

Presidential Reconstruction 426 Johnson’s Program of Reconciliation 427 White Southern Resistance and Black Codes 427 Expansion of Federal Authority and Black Rights 428

Congressional Reconstruction 429 The Fourteenth Amendment and Escalating

Violence 430 Radical Reconstruction and Military Rule 431 Impeaching a President 432 The Fifteenth Amendment and Women’s

Demands 433 The Struggle in the South 434

Freedmen, Yankees, and Yeomen 434 Republican Rule 435 White Landlords, Black Sharecroppers 438

Reconstruction Collapses 440 Grant’s Troubled Presidency 440 Northern Resolve Withers 441 White Supremacy Triumphs 442 An Election and a Compromise 445

Conclusion: “A Revolution But Half Accomplished” 446

CHAPTER REVIEW 447 LearningCurve bedfordstmartins.com/roarkconcise

APPENDIX I

Suggested References A-1

APPENDIX II

Documents A-7 The Declaration of Independence A-7 The Constitution of the United States A-9 Amendments to the Constitution with Annotations

(including the six unratified amendments) A-16

APPENDIX III

Facts and Figures: Government, Economy, and Demographics A-32

Presidential Elections A-32 Presidents, Vice Presidents, and Secretaries of State A-37 Supreme Court Justices A-39 Federal Spending and the Economy,

1790–2009 A-41 Population Growth, 1630–2010 A-42 Birthrate, 1820–2007 A-42 Life Expectancy, 1900–2007 A-43 Major Trends in Immigration,

1820–2010 A-44

Glossary G-1

Spot Artifact Credits CR-1 Index I-1 U.S. Political/Geographic and World Maps M-1 About the Authors last book pagehttp://bedfordstmartins.com/roarkconcise

Maps, Figures, and Tables

CHAPTER 1 Map 1.1 Continental Drift 6 Spot Map Beringia 6 Map 1.2 Native North American Cultures 9 Spot Map Ancient California Peoples 11 Figure 1.1 Native American Population in North America, about 1492 (Estimated) 18 Map 1.3 Native North Americans about 1500 19

CHAPTER 2 Map 2.1 European Trade Routes and Portuguese Exploration in the Fifteenth

Century 29 Spot Map Columbus’s First Voyage to the New World, 1492–1493 31 Map 2.2 European Exploration in Sixteenth-Century America 33 Spot Map Cortés’s Invasion of Tenochtitlán, 1519–1521 36 Map 2.3 Sixteenth-Century European Colonies in the New World 40 Spot Map Roanoke Settlement, 1587–1590 47

CHAPTER 3 Map 3.1 Chesapeake Colonies in the Seventeenth Century 58 Spot Map Settlement Patterns along the James River 64 Map 3.2 The West Indies and Carolina in the Seventeenth Century 71

CHAPTER 4 Map 4.1 New England Colonies in the Seventeenth Century 81 Figure 4.1 Population of the English North American Colonies in the Seventeenth

Century 88 Map 4.2 Middle Colonies in the Seventeenth Century 91 Map 4.3 American Colonies at the End of the Seventeenth Century 97 Spot Map King Philip’s War, 1675 98

CHAPTER 5 Map 5.1 Europeans and Africans in the Eighteenth Century 105 Map 5.2 Atlantic Trade in the Eighteenth Century 107 Spot Map Patterns of Settlement, 1700–1770 111 Table 5.1 Slave Imports, 1451–1870 113 Map 5.3 The Atlantic Slave Trade 114 Map 5.4 Zones of Empire in Eastern North America 123 Spot Map Spanish Missions in California 124

xxix

xxx MAPS, FIGURES, AND TABLES

CHAPTER 6 Map 6.1 European Areas of Influence and the Seven Years’ War, 1754–1763 133 Spot Map Ohio River Valley, 1753 134 Map 6.2 Europe Redraws the Map of North America, 1763 138 Spot Map Pontiac’s Uprising, 1763 139 Map 6.3 Lexington and Concord, April 1775 154

CHAPTER 7 Spot Map Battle of Bunker Hill, 1775 161 Map 7.1 The War in the North, 1775–1778 167 Map 7.2 Loyalist Strength and Rebel Support 170 Spot Map Battle of Saratoga, 1777 176 Map 7.3 The Indian War in the West, 1777–1782 179 Map 7.4 The War in the South, 1780–1781 182 Spot Map Siege of Yorktown, 1781 184

CHAPTER 8 Map 8.1 Cession of Western Lands, 1782–1802 192 Spot Map Legal Changes to Slavery, 1777–1804 199 Spot Map Treaty of Fort Stanwix, 1784 202 Spot Map Shays’s Rebellion, 1786–1787 206 Map 8.2 Ratification of the Constitution, 1788–1790 211

CHAPTER 9 Spot Map Major Roads in the 1790s 222 Map 9.1 Travel Times from New York City in 1800 223 Map 9.2 Western Expansion and Indian Land Cessions to 1810 230 Spot Map Haitian Revolution, 1791–1804 233

CHAPTER 10 Map 10.1 Jefferson’s Expeditions in the West, 1804–1806 250 Spot Map The Chesapeake Incident, June 22, 1807 254 Spot Map Battle of Tippecanoe, 1811 256 Map 10.2 The War of 1812 257 Map 10.3 The Missouri Compromise, 1820 266 Map 10.4 The Election of 1824 268

CHAPTER 11 Map 11.1 Routes of Transportation in 1840 275 Spot Map Cotton Textile Industry, ca. 1840 277 Table 11.1 The Growth of Newspapers, 1820–1840 283 Map 11.2 The Election of 1828 284 Map 11.3 Indian Removal and the Trail of Tears 287 Figure 11.1 Western Land Sales, 1810–1860 290

MAPS, FIGURES, AND TABLES xxxi

CHAPTER 12 Map 12.1 Railroads in 1860 307 Figure 12.1 Antebellum Immigration, 1840–1860 311 Spot Map Plains Indians and Trails West in the 1840s and 1850s 313 Map 12.2 Major Trails West 314 Map 12.3 Texas and Mexico in the 1830s 317 Map 12.4 The Mexican-American War, 1846–1848 321 Map 12.5 Territorial Expansion by 1860 324

CHAPTER 13 Spot Map The Upper and Lower South 335 Map 13.1 Cotton Kingdom, Slave Empire: 1820 and 1860 335 Map 13.2 The Agricultural Economy of the South, 1860 340 Spot Map Immigrants as a Percentage of State Populations, 1860 341 Spot Map The Cotton Belt 350 Spot Map Upcountry of the South 350

CHAPTER 14 Spot Map Mexican Cession, 1848 361 Map 14.1 The Election of 1848 362 Map 14.2 The Compromise of 1850 364 Spot Map Gadsden Purchase, 1853 367 Map 14.3 The Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854 370 Map 14.4 Political Realignment, 1848–1860 372 Spot Map “Bleeding Kansas,” 1850s 375 Map 14.5 The Election of 1860 382 Spot Map Secession of the Lower South, December 1860–February 1861 383

CHAPTER 15 Map 15.1 Secession, 1860–1861 390 Figure 15.1 Resources of the Union and Confederacy 392 Map 15.2 The Civil War, 1861–1862 395 Spot Map Peninsula Campaign, 1862 396 Spot Map Battle of Glorieta Pass, 1862 397 Table 15.1 Major Battles of the Civil War, 1861–1862 399 Spot Map Vicksburg Campaign, 1863 411 Spot Map Battle of Gettysburg, July 1–3, 1863 412 Map 15.3 The Civil War, 1863–1865 413 Table 15.2 Major Battles of the Civil War, 1863–1865 415

CHAPTER 16 Spot Map Reconstruction Military Districts 432 Figure 16.1 Southern Congressional Delegations, 1865–1877 436 Map 16.1 A Southern Plantation in 1860 and 1881 439 Map 16.2 The Election of 1868 440 Map 16.3 The Reconstruction of the South 444 Map 16.4 The Election of 1876 445

American Tobacco and European Consumers 60 France, Britain, and Woman’s Rights in the 1790s 234 Filibusters: The Underside of Manifest Destiny 368

Special Features

Justifying Conquest 42 Hunting Witches in Salem, Massachusetts 92 Spanish Priests Report on California Missions 126 Families Divide over the Revolution 172 Massachusetts Blacks Petition for Freedom and Rights 196 Mill Girls Stand Up to Factory Owners, 1834 280 Defending Slavery 338 Home and Country 406 The Meaning of Freedom 424

Daily Life in Chaco Canyon 14 Cultural Cross-Dressing in Eighteenth-Century Portraits 136 Cultural Exchange on the Lewis and Clark Trail 252 The Path of Progress 308

Visualizing History

Documenting the American Promise

Beyond America’s Borders

xxxii

The American Promise A Concise History

Volume 1: To 1877

Nobody today knows his name. But almost a thousand years ago, more than four hundred years before Europeans arrived in the Western Hemisphere, many ancient Americans celebrated this man — let’s call him Sun Falcon. They buried Sun Falcon during elaborate rituals at Cahokia, the largest residential and ceremonial site in ancient North America, the giant landmass north of present-day Mexico. Located near the eastern shore of the Mississippi River in what is now southwestern Illinois, Cahokia stood at the spiritual and political center of the world of more than

20,000 ancient Americans who lived there and nearby. The way Cahokians buried Sun Falcon suggests that he was a very important person who represented spiritual and political authority.

Categories

## in oceania most towns began as

1. With respect to global connections, association with _______ offers the brightest immediate future for
many African countries.
A. India
B. the European Union.
C. China
D. the United States.
2. Slum areas called shantytowns occur in _________ major African cities, housing over _________
percent of urban populations.
A. five major; 50
B. all; 70
C. some; 40
D. nearly all; 60
3. Tourism is the _______ industry in the world.
A. second-largest
B. third-largest
C. fourth-largest
D. largest
4. As of 2008, the population of Australia was 21.3 million, and the population of New Zealand was closer
to ________ million.
A. 8
B. 12
C. 4
D. 10
5. With respect to Australia’s aboriginal peoples, animistic religious beliefs are characterized by _______
worship.
A. ancestor
B. sky-god
C. nature
D. sun
6. The natural vegetation regions of sub-Saharan Africa
A. only correspond to climatic conditions in areas of West Africa.
B. are heavily impacted by human activity.
C. are all characteristic of equatorial latitudes.
D. don’t correspond closely to climatic regions.
7. What are the “many islands” people also called?
A. Melanesians
B. Polynesians
C. Micronesians
D. Aborigines
8. Which South African city is a regional hub of commerce and has South Africa’s premier international
airport?
A. Pretoria
B. Durban
C. Cape Town
D. Johannesburg
9. The zone along the southern margins of the Sahara is called the
A. Laterite.
B. Veldt.
C. Sahel.
D. Savannah.
10. At independence, the most prosperous country of former French Western Africa was
A. Côte d’Ivoire.
B. Senegal.
D. Benin.
11. The Great _______ Range, running just inland along Australia’s eastern coast, is that continent’s only
significant mountain chain.
A. Barrier
B. Dividing
C. Australian
D. Eastern
12. In Oceania, most towns began as
A. plantations.
B. capital cities.
C. colonial ports.
D. tribal ritual centers.
13. The lowlands west of Australia’s eastern mountain range are drained by the Murray-Darling River
system, with its main headwaters in the Great _______ Basin.
A. Barrier
B. Darling
C. Artesian
D. Dividing
14. In Australia, most cattle ranching is found in
A. New South Wales.
B. Victoria.
C. Queensland.
D. South Australia.
15. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), AIDS is listed as the _______ main cause of
global deaths.
A. third
B. fourth
C. second
D. eighth
16. In the context of European colonization, Portugal controlled Mozambique and
A. Congo.
B. Kenya.
D. Angola.
17. When the Australian economy was based on import-substitution manufacturing,
A. protectionist policies were emphasized.
B. domestic manufacturing was discouraged.
C. expansionist policies were emphasized.
D. domestic production assured national prosperity.
18. Mensa Musa was the famed emperor of
A. Mali.
B. Ghana.
C. Fulani.
D. Songhai.
19. Sudan is omitted from inclusion in the sub-Saharan region because it
A. is linked to Egypt by the Nile.
End of exam
B. doesn’t border the Sahara Desert.
C. contains most of the evidence of humanity’s African origins.
D. is politically distinct from other regional countries.
20. When Australia became the federated Commonwealth of Australia in 1901, Sydney and Melbourne
competed to be the capital city. A compromise was reached and _______ became the federal capital in
1928.
A. Canberra
B. Sydney