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a capacity cushion is the amount of capacity less than expected demand.

Capacity Planning

Chapter outline

12.1 Facilities decisions

12.2 Facilities strategy

12.3 Sales and operations planning definition

12.4 Cross-functional nature of S&OP

12.5 Planning options

12.6 Basic aggregate planning strategies

12.7 Aggregate planning costs

12.8 Aggregate planning example

12.9 Key points and terms

In this chapter, we discuss capacity decisions related to carrying out the produc- tion of goods and services. Firms make capacity planning decisions that are long range, medium range, and short range in nature. These decisions follow naturally from supply chain decisions that already have been made and forecasting infor- mation as an input.

Capacity decisions must be aligned with the operations strategy of a firm. The operations strategy provides a road map that is used in making supply chain deci- sions to create a network of organizations whose work and output are used to satisfy customers’ product and service needs. Capacity decisions are based on forecasted estimates of future demand. For example, operations and marketing collaborate to develop a forecast for demand for resort spa services before the re- sort makes capacity planning decisions regarding the appropriate facility and staff sizes for the spa.

As was discussed in the previous chapter, long-range decisions are concerned with facilities and process selection, which typically extend about one or more years into the future. The first part of this chapter describes facilities decisions and a strategic approach to making them. In this chapter we also deal with medium- range aggregate planning, which extends from six months to a year or two into the future. The next chapter discusses short-range capacity decisions of less than six months regarding the scheduling of available resources to meet demand.

Facilities, aggregate planning, and scheduling form a hierarchy of capacity deci- sions about the planning of operations extending from long, to medium, to short range in nature. First, facility planning decisions are long term in nature, made to


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FIGURE 12.1 Hierarchy of capacity decisions.



.. 6 12

Months Planning Horizon

18 24

obtain physical capacity that must be planned, developed, and constructed bef011! its intended use. Then, aggregate planning determines the workforce level and p:ro– duction output level for the medium term within the facility capacity available Finally, scheduling consists of short-term decisions that are constrained by aggregall! planning and allocates the available capacity by assigning it to specific activities.

This hierarchy of capacity decisions is shown in Figure 12.1. Notice that the deci- sions proceed from the top down and that there are feedback loops from the b~ tom up. Thus, scheduling decisions often indicate a need for revised aggrega~ planning, and aggregate planning also may uncover facility needs.

We define capacity (sometimes referred to as peak capacity) as the maximum output that can be produced over a specific period of time, such as a day, week, or year. Capacity can be measured in terms of output measures such as number ot units produced, tons produced, and number of customers served over a specified period. It also can be measured by physical asset availability, such as the number of hotel rooms available, or labor availability, for example, the labor available fO£ consulting or accounting services.

Estimating capacity depends on reasonable assumptions about facilities, equip- ment, and workforce availability for one, two, or three shifts as well as the operat- ing days per week or per year. If we assume two eight-hour shifts are available for five days per week all year, the capacity of a facility is 16 X 5 = 80 hours per week and 80 X 52 = 4160 hours per year. However, if the facility is staffed for only one shift, these capacity estimates must be halved. Facility capacity is not available un- less there is a workforce in place to operate it.

Utilization is the relationship between actual output and capacity and is de- fined by the following formula:

Actual output Utilization = C . X 100%


The utilization of capacity is a useful measure for estimating how busy a facility is or the proportion of total capacity being used . It is almost never reasonable to plan for 100 percent utilization since spare (slack) capacity is needed for planned and unplanned events. Planned events may include required maintenance or equipment replacement, and unpla1med events could be a late delivery from a supplier or unexpected demand.

Chapter 12 Capacity Planning 287

Operations Leader Bridge Collapse Illustrates Need for Emergency Capacity

The I-35W Mississippi River bridge near downtown Mi nneapolis and the University of Minnesota col- lapsed during the evening rush hour on August 1, 2007. Seventy-five city, county, state, and federal agencies were involved in the rescue effort. Such cata- strophic events illustrate the necessity for capacity availability in emergency services.

The Minneapolis police and fire departments were among the first responders to the disaster, and while they generally have excess capacity, utilization of

those services was temporarily pushed to the maxi- mum. Suburban police and fire units, with their own available capacity, were brought in to handle other demands for those services that were unre- lated to the bridge collapse.

While a majority of injured victims were treated at Hennepin County Medical Center, nine other area hospitals also treated victims. Such collaboration among hospital emergency departments is necessary during large disasters as no single hospital has enough capacity to absorb these demand spikes.

The excellent working relationships among agencies that had developed through joint train- ing, planning, and previous emergency incidents were cited as one of the primary reasons that re- sponse and recovery operations went smoothly. As one rescue leader commented, “We didn’t view it as a Minneapolis incident; it was a city/county/state incident.”

Source: Adapted from information compiled from several sources, including “I-35W Mississippi River Bridge,”, 2009.

Utilization rates vary widely by industry and firm. Continuous flow processes may have utilization near 100 percent. Facilities with assembly-line processes may set planned utilization at 80 percent to allow for flexibility to meet unexpected demand. Batch and job shop processes generally have even lower utilization. Emergency services such as police, fire, and emergency medical care often have fairly low utilization, in part so that they can meet the demands placed on them during catastrophic events. The Operations Leader box tells the story of the Inter- state 35W bridge collapse in Minneapolis, Minnesota, as an example of the need for capacity from a variety of organizations during emergencies.

It is possible in the short term for a firm to operate above 100 percent utilization. Overtime or an increased work-flow rate can be used in the short term to meet highly variable or seasonal demand. Mail and package delivery services often use these means to increase work output before major holidays. However, firms cannot sustain this rapid rate of work for more than a short period. Worker burnout, de- layed equipment maintenance, and increased costs make it undesirable to operate at very high utilization over the medium or long term for most firms.

In addition to the theoretical peak capacity, there is an effective capacity that is obtained by subtracting downtime for maintenance, shift breaks, schedule changes, absenteeism, and other activities that decrease the capacity available. The effective capacity, then, is the amount of capacity that can be used in planning for actual facility output over a period of time. To estimate effective capacity for the previously described two-shift facility, we must subtract hours for planned and unforeseen events.

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288 Part Four Capacity and Scheduling


“OM: Featuring St. Alexius

Medical Center,” Vol. X

Facilities decisions, the longest-term capacity planning decisions, are of gm1 importance to a firm. These decisions place physical constraints on the amo.- that can be produced, and they often require significant capital investm~ Therefore, facilities decisions involve all organizational functions and often made at the highest corporate level, including top management and the b~ of directors.

Firms must decide whether to expand existing facilities or build new ones. _ we discuss the facilities strategy below, we will see there are trade-offs that mm be considered. Expanding current facilities may provide location conveniences current employees but may not be the best location in the long-run. Alternativell new facilities can be located near a larger potential workforce but require duplial- tion of activities such as maintenance and training.

When construction is required, the lead time for many facilities decisions r~ from one to five years. The one-year time frame generally involves buildings – equipment that can be constructed quickly or leased. The five-year time frame volves large and complex facilities such as oil refineries, paper mills, steel millll and electricity generating plants.

In facilities decisions, there are five crucial questions:

1. How much capacity is needed? 2. How large should each facility be? 3. When is the capacity needed? 4. Where should the facilities be located?

5. What types of facilities/ capacity are needed?

The questions of how much, how large, when, where, and what type can be s~ rated conceptually but are often intertwined in practice. As a result, facilities deci- sions are exceedingly complex and difficult to analyze.

In the next section, these five types of facilities decisions are considered in de- tail. We stress the notion of a facilities strategy, cross-functional decision ma:king and the relationship of facilities strategy to business strategy.


In Chapter 2 it was noted that a facilities strategy is one of the major parts of – operations strategy. Since major facilities decisions affect competitive success they need to be considered as part of the total operations strategy, not simply as a series of incremental capital-budgeting decisions. Supporting the operatioot strategy also applies to other major strategic decisions in operations regardind process design, the supply chain, and quality management, as we have already noted.

A facilities strategy considers the amount of capacity, the size of facilities, the timing of capacity changes, facilities locations, and the types of facilities needed for the long run. It must be coordinated with other functional areas due to the necessary investments (finance), market sizes that determine the amount ot capacity needed (marketing), workforce issues related to staffing new facilities (human resources), estimating costs in new facilities (accounting), and technology decisions regarding equipment investments (engineering). The facilities strategy

Amount of Capacity

FACILITIES STRATEGY. This Bacardi Rum factory supplies the entire North American market from a single modern automated distillery in Puerto Rico.

Chapter 12 Capacity Planning 289

needs to be considered in an integrated fashion with these functional areas and will be affected by the following factors:

1. Predicted demand. Formulating a facility strategy requires a forecast of de- mand; ·techniques for making these forecasts were considered in the previous chap- ter. Marketing often is involved in forecasting future demand.

2. Cost of facilities. Cost is driven by the amount of capacity added at one time, the timing, and the location of capacity. Accounting and finance are involved in estimating future costs and cash flows from facility strategies.

3. Likely behavior of competitors. An expected slow competitive response may lead the firm to add capacity to grab the market before competitors become strong. In contrast, an expected fast competitive response may cause the firm to be more cautious in expanding capacity.

4. Business strategy. The business strategy may dictate that a company put more emphasis on cost, service, or flexibility in facilities choices. For exam- ple, a business strategy to provide the best service can lead to facilities with some excess capacity or several market locations for fast service. Other busi- ness strategies can lead to cost minimization or attempts to maximize future flexibility.

5. International considerations. As markets and supply chains continue to be- come more global in nature, facilities often are located globally. This involves not merely chasing cheap labor but locating facilities for the best strategic ad- vantage, sometimes to access new markets or to obtain desired expertise in the workforce.

One part of a facilities strategy is the amount of capacity needed. This is deter- min~d both by forecasted demand and by a strategic decision by the firm about how much capacity to provide in relation to expected demand. This can best be described by the notion of a capacity cushion, which is defined as follows:

Capacity cushion = 100% – Utilization

The capacity cushion is the difference between the output that a firm could achieve and the real output that it produces to meet demand. Since capacity utilization reflects the output required to satisfy demand, a positive cushion means that there is more capacity available than is required to satisfy demand. Zero cushion means that the average demand equals the capacity available.

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Size of Facilities

The decision regarding a planned amount of cushion is strategic in na~ The capacity cushion should be planned into capacity decisions, as the cushiOIIC will affect service levels as well as the firm’s ability to respond to unexpectel situations.

Three strategies can be adopted with respect to the amount of capacity cushi• 1. Large cushion. In this strategy, a large positive capacity cushion, with ca-

pacity in excess of average demand, is planned. The firm intentionally has more capacity than the average demand forecast. This type of strategy is ap- propriate when there is an expanding market or when the cost of buildinfl and operating capacity is inexpensive relative to the cost of running out capacity. Electric utilities adopt this approach, since blackouts and brown– outs are generally not acceptable. Firms in growing markets may adopt a positive capacity cushion to enable them to capture market share ahead 01 their competitors. Also, a large cushion can help a firm meet unpredictabll customer demand, for example, for new technologies that very quickly be- come popular. Firms using a make-to-order process usually have a signifiJ cant capacity cushion.

2. Moderate cushion. In this strategy, the firm is more conservative with respect to capacity. Capacity is built to meet the average forecasted demand comfort- ably, with enough excess capacity to satisfy unexpected changes in demand as long as the changes are not hugely different from the forecast. This strategy is used when the cost (or consequences) of running out is approximately in bal- ance with the cost of excess capacity. •

3. Small cushion. In this strategy, a small or nearly zero capacity cushion is planned to maximize utilization. This strategy is appropriate when capacity is very expensive, relative to stockouts, as in the case of oil refineries, paper mills, and other capital-intensive industries. These facilities operate profitably only at very high utilization rates between 90 and 100 percent. While this strategy tends to maximize short-run earnings, it can be a disadvantage if competitors adopt larger capacity cushions. Competitors will be able to meet any demand in excess of a firm’s capacity. Make-to-stock processes are likely to plan a small capacity cushion using this strategy.

When planning the capacity cushion, firms assess the probability of various levels of demand and then use those estimates to make decisions about planned increases or decreases in capacity. For example, suppose a firm has capacity to produce 1200 units, SO percent probability of 1000 units of demand, and SO percent probability of 800 units of demand. Then average demand is estimated to be (.S X 1000) + (.S X 800) = 900 units. Producing 900 units results in a (900/ 1200) X 100% = 7S% utilization rate. Based on existing capacity, the cushion is (100% – 7S%) = 2S%.

The solved problems section at the end of the chapter provides an example of how to compute the capacity cushion by using probabilities of demand, existing levels of capacity, and costs of building capacity. This method provides a quantita- tive basis for estimating the amount of capacity cushion that may be required.

After deciding on the amount of capacity to be provided, a facilities strategy must address how large each unit of capacity should be. This is a question involving economies of scale, based on the notion that large facilities are generally more economical because fixed costs can be spread over more units of production.

FIGURE 12.2 Optimum facility size.

Timing of Facility Decisions

Unit Cost

Economies of scale

Facility Size (units produced per year)

Chapter 12 Capacity Planning 291

Economies of scale occur for two reasons. First, the cost of building and operating large production equipment does not increase linearly with volume. A machine with twice the output rate gener- ally costs less than twice as much to buy and operate. Also, in larger facilities the overhead related to manag- ers and staff can be spread

over more units of production. As a result, the unit cost of production falls as facil- ity size increases when scale economies are present, as shown in Figure 12.2.

This is a good news-bad news story, for along with economies of scale come diseconomies of scale. As a facility gets larger, diseconomies can occur for several reasons. First, logistics diseconomies are present. For example, in a manufacturing firm, one large facility incurs more transportation costs to deliver goods to mar- kets than do two smaller facilities that are closer to their markets. In a service firm, a larger facility may require more movement of customers or materials, for exam- ple, moving patients around a large hospital or moving mail through a regional sorting center. Diseconomies of scale also occur because coordination costs in- crease in large facilities. As more layers of staff and management are added to manage large facilities, costs can increase faster than output. Furthermore, costs related to complexity and confusion rise as more products or services are added to a single facility. For these reasons, the curve in Figure 12.2 rises on the right-hand side due to diseconomies of scale.

As Figure 12.2 indicates, there is a minimum unit cost for a certain facility size. This optimal facility size will depend on how high the fixed costs are and how rapidly diseconomies of scale occur. As an example, Hewlett-Packard tends to op- erate small plants of fewer than 300 workers, with relatively low fixed costs. This plant size helps Hewlett-Packard encourage innovation in its many small product lines. By contrast, IBM operates very large plants of 5000 to 10,000 workers. IBM plants tend to be highly automated, and they use a decentralized management ap- proach to minimize diseconomies of scale. Each firm seems to have an optimal facility size, depending on its cost structure, product/ service mix, and particular operations strategy, which may emphasize cost, delivery flexibility, or service. Cost is, after all, not the only factor that affects facility size.

Another element of facilities strategy is the timing of capacity additions. There are basically two opposite strategies here.

1. Preempt the competition. In this strategy, the firm leads by building capacity in advance of the needs· of the market. This strategy provides a positive capacity cushion and may actually stimulate the market while at the same time prevent- ing competition from coming in for a while. Apple Inc. used this strategy in the early days of the personal computer market. Apple built capacity in advance of demand and had a lion’s share of the market before competitors moved in. Apple still uses this strategy today in building massive capacity and invento- ries in advance of new product launches for the iPad and iPhone.

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Facility Location

“Wind Farm Capacity,” Vol. XVII

Types of Facilities

2. Wait and see. In this strategy, the firm waits to add capacity until demand develops and the need for more capacity is clear. As a result, the company lags market demand, using a lower-

·risk strategy. A small or negative capaci cushion can develop, and a loss of poten · market share may result. However, this stra~ egy can be effective because superior market- ing channels or technology can allow the follower to capture market share. For examplE;. in the 1980s, IBM followed the leader (Apple in the personal computer market but was able to take away market share because of its supe- rior brand image, size, and market presence. In

contrast, U.S. automobile companies followed the wait-and-see strategy, to their chagrin, for small autos. While U.S. automakers waited to see how demand for small cars would develop, Japanese manufacturers grabbed a dom- inant position in the U.S. small-car market.

Facility location decisions have become more complex as globalization has ex- panded the options for locating capacity and developing new markets. For example. Starbucks may choose to build facilities in regions with heavy coffee drinkers, com- peting for customers there. Alternatively, it may choose to locate facilities in regions where people typically do not consume coffee and attempt to create demand foc their product and service. Starbucks’s U.S. competitor Caribou Coffee goes to great lengths to find facilities locations on the right-hand side of the road of morning traf- fic, because customers are more likely to stop frequently when they can pull over on the right but are less willing to make cumbersome left-hand turns in heavy traffic!

Location decisions are made by considering both quantitative and qualitative fac- tors. Quantitative factors that affect the location decision may include return on in- vestment, net present value, transportation costs, taxes, and lead times for delivering goods and services. Qualitative factors can include language and norms, attitudes among workers and customers, and proximity to customers, suppliers, and competi- tors. Front office services in particular must often locate near customers for the customers’ convenience, and so this factor may trump most others in deciding where to locate new facilities. Examples include banks, grocery stores, and restaurants.

Firms often compare potential locations by weighting the importance of each factor that is relevant to the decision and then scoring each potential location on those factors. Then, multiplying the factor weight by the location score allows cal- culation of a weighted-average score for each site. This score provides insight on how well each potential site meets the needs of the firm and may be used to make the final facility location decision.

The final element in facility strategy considers the question of what the firm plans to accomplish in each facility. There are four different types of facilities:

1. Product-focused (55 percent)

2. Market-focused (30 p ercent) 3. Process-focused (10 percent) 4. General-purpose (5 p ercent)

Chapter 12 Capacity Planning 293

The figures in parentheses indicate the approximate percentages of companies in the Fortune 500 using each type of facility.

Product-focused facilities produce one family or type of product or service, usually for a large market. An example is the Andersen Window plant, which pro- duces various types of windows for the entire United States from a single product- focused plant. Product-focused plants often are used when transportation costs are low or economies of scale are high. This tends to centralize facilities into one location or a few locations. Other examples of product-focused facilities are large bank credit card processing operations and auto leasing companies that process leases for cars throughout the United States from a single site.

Market-focused facilities are located in the markets they serve. Many service facilities fall into this category since services generally cannot be transported. Plants that require quick customer response or customized products or that have high transportation costs tend to be market focused. For example, due to the bulky nature and high shipping costs of mattresses, most production plants are located in regional markets. International facilities also tend to be market focused because of tariffs, trade barriers, and potential currency fluctuations.

Process-focused facilities have one technology or at most two. These facilities frequently produce components or subassemblies that are supplied to other facili- ties for further processing. This is common in the auto industry, in which en- gine plants and transmission plants feed the final assembly plants. Process-focused plants such as oil refineries can make a wide variety of products within the given process technology.

Operations Leader Strategic Capacity Planning at BMW ‘

Mathematical optimization models (e.g., mixed linear programming) can be helpful in evaluating various ca- pacity strategies. Given a forecast of demand over the next several years, the models will determine the min- imum cost plan for meeting the demand.

An example from BMW helps explain this process. BMW used a 12-year future planning horizon to rep- resent the typical development and production life

cycle for new BMW designs. The mathematical model calculated the supply of finished products that should be produced by each plant to meet the forecasts in all global markets.

As a result, the model determined how much of each product should be produced in each plant over the next 12 years. All possible locations, amounts, and types of BMWs were considered by the mathe- matical model in arriving at the minimum cost plan.

This type of analysis is very helpful in setting overall capacity strategies for how much, how large, where, when, and what type. For example, the resulting strat- egy might be to use distributed production to pro- duce in each national market the amount sold there or a more centralized production and export strategy. Due to the many assumptions made, the models do not determine the final capacity strategy; however, they are very helpful in evaluating many different possibilities.

Source: Fleischmann B., Ferber S. and Henrich P., “Strategic planning of BMW’s Global Production Network,” Interfaces, 2006, 36(3): 194-208 ..

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General-purpose facilities may produce several types of products and sel’- vices, using several different processes. For example, general-purpose facilities a.rr used to manufacture furniture and to provide consumer banking and investmenll services. General-purpose facilities usually offer a great deal of flexibility in terms of the mix of products or services that are produced there. They sometimes are used by firms that do not have sufficient volume to justify more than one facili~ Larger firms often focus their faCilities according to product, market, or procesa using the focused factory approach described in Chapter 4.

We have shown how the facilities strategy can be developed by considerind questions of capacity, size of facilities, timing, location, and types of facilities. Mathematical optimization models can often be helpful in answering these five strategic questions as shown in the BMW Operations Leader box. We now shift from long-term facilities decisions to medium-term decisions regarding how capacity, once built, is used.


Sales and operations planning (S&OP) is a term used by many firms to describe the aggregate planning process. Aggregate planning is the activity of matching supply of output with demand over the medium time range. The time frame is between six months and two years into the future, or an average of about one year. The term ag- gregate implies that the planning is done for a single overall measure of output or at most a few aggregated product categories. The aim of S&OP is to set overall output levels in the medium-term future in the face of fluctuating or uncertain demand.

We use a broad definition of S&OP with the following characteristics:

1. A time horizon of about 12 months, with updating of the plan on a periodic basis, perhaps monthly.

2. An aggregate level of demand for one or a few categories of product. The de- mand is assumed to be fluctuating, unc~rtain, or seasonal.

3. The possibility of changing both supply and demand variables. 4. A variety of management objectives, which might include low inventories,

good labor relations, low costs, flexibility to increase future output levels, and good customer service.

5. Facilities that are considered fixed and cannot be expanded or reduced.

As a result of S&OP, decisions related to the workforce are made concerning hir- ing, laying off, overtime, and subcontracting. Decisions regarding production out- put and inventory levels are also made. S&OP is used not only to plan production output levels but also to determine the appropriate resource input mix to use. Since facilities are assumed to be fixed and cannot be expanded or contracted, manage- ment must consider how to use facilities and resources to best match market demand.

S&OP can involve plans to influence demand as well as supply. Factors such as pricing, advertising, and product mix may be considered in planning for the me- dium term. We will discuss these tactics more later in this chapter.

S&OP generally is done by product family, that is, a set of similar products or services that more or less share a production process, including the equipment and workforce needed to produce output. Usually no more than a few product

Chapter 12 Capacity Planning 295

Operations Leader S&OP for Household Cleaning Products

Reckitt Benckiser, with £9 billion in sales in 180 coun- tries, has some of the world’s most famous brands, in- cluding Vanish, Lysol, Calgon, and Airwick. In rapidly changing retail markets, rapid adjustments in produc- tion and sales are needed. Because Reckitt has over

500 products in its portfolio, an S&OP system was needed to coordinate its supply chain.

The S&OP system has been successful, allowing Reckitt Benckiser to capture 70 percent of grocery store sales from products that rank first or second in their categories. Its S&OP team consists of managers from marketing, sales, production, distribution, and R&D. Before S&OP, Reckitt Benckiser often used dif- ferent forecast numbers in different parts of the or- ganization. It is now able to manage its brands by “using one set of numbers,” says Ariston Banaag. The team meets regularly to review forecasts and update plans. The team uses software from Demand Solutions to track sales, forecasts, and plans for all its brands and products.

Source: Adapted from, 2009 and, 2012.

families are used for S&OP to limit the complexity of the planning process. Inconsistencies between supply and demand are resolved by revising the plan as conditions change.

S&OP matches supply and demand by using a cross-functional team ap- proach. The cross-functional team consisting of marketing, sales, engineering, human resources, operations, and finance meets with the general manager to agree on the sales forecast, the supply plan, and any steps needed to modify supply or demand. During the S&OP process, demand is decoupled from sup- ply. For each product family, the cross-functional team must decide whether to produce inventory, manage customer lead time, provide additional capacity (internal or external), or restrict demand. Once plans to manage demand and supply are in balance, however, the current plan may not agree with previous financial plans or human resources plans or budgets, which also may need to be modified.

The resulting sales and operations plan is updated approximately monthly, us- ing a 12-month or longer rolling planning horizon. At its best, S&OP reduces mis- alignment among functions by requiring a common plan to be implemented by all parties. Strong general manager leadership may be required to resolve any con- flicts that arise. Read the Operations Leader box to learn how S&OP is done for household cleaning products at Reckitt Benckiser.

Syngenta is a world leader in agribusiness products, with 19,000 employees in 90 countries. The highly seasonal agricultural market is difficult to forecast and experiences large demand shifts. Syngenta uses S&OP to create collaboration across functions and with its supply chain partners. Managers across several countries use the S&OP process and the supporting software to gain better agree- ment on forecasts, sales promotions, inventory levels, sales plans, and aggregate

296 Part Four Capacity and Scheduling

production plans. Real-time Web collaboration allows each business unit to y~ ticipate in the S&OP process to achieve targeted business goals.1

Since S&OP is a form of aggregate planning, it precedes detailed schedulioj which is covered in the next chapter. Scheduling serves to allocate the capa<4 made available by aggregate planning to specific jobs, activities, or orders.


Aggregate planning for how capacity will be used in the medium-term future the primary responsibility of the operations function. However, it requires cross- functional coordination and cooperation with all functions in the firm, includiolll accounting, finance, human resources, and marketing.

S&OP or aggregate planning is closely related to other business decisions in- volving, for example, budgeting, personnel, and marketing. The relationship budgeting is particularly strong. Most budgets are based on assumptions aboul aggregate output, personnel levels, inventory levels, purchasing levels, and forth. An aggregate plan thus should be the basis for initial budget developm~ and for budget revisions as conditions warrant.

Personnel, or human resource planning, is also greatly affected by S&OP be- cause such planning for future production can result in hiring, lay of, and overti:md decisions. In service industries, which cannot use inventory as a buffer againsl changing demand, aggregate planning is sometimes synonymous with budgetinG and personnel planning, particularly in labor-intensive services that rely heavily on the workforce to deliver services. •

Marketing must always be closely involved in S&OP because the future supplJI of output, and thus customer service, is being determined. Furthermore, coopera– tion between marketing and operations is required when both supply and de- mand variables are used to determine the best business approach to aggregate planning. The next section contains a detailed discussion of the options available to modify demand and supply for aggregate planning. This is followed by the development of specific strategies that can be used to plan aggregate output foc both manufacturing and service industries.

S&OP is not a stand-alone system. It is a key input into the enterprise resource planning (ERP) system, which is discussed in Chapter 16. ERP tracks all detailed transactions from orders to shipments to payments, but requires a high-level ag- gregate plan for future sales and operations as an input. When the S&OP process is used, various scenarios and assumptions can be tested by simulation to arrive at an agreed-upon plan that all functions will implement. The ERP system then ac- cepts as input the S&OP plan and projects the detailed transactions (shop orders, purchase orders, inventories, and payments) that are required to support the agreed plan. Figure 12.3 captures these inputs and outputs from an S&OP process.

In some firms, the S&OP process is broken or missing. Top management does not actively support or participate in the process. Accountability for S&OP is in- adequate or in conflict across functions. The firm’s information system may not support S&OP, and so the firm is not able to conduct important “what if” analy- sis. Also, S&OP plans may not be executed by all organizational functions as has been agreed. Therefore, to be successful, the S&OP system may require changes in the organization, reporting and accountability, and the information systems.

1 Herrin (2004).

FIGURE 12.3 lelationship of S&OP with other lanctions.

Accounting -Cost analysis


Operations – Forecast

– Inventory levels -Capacity

-Current orders

– Investment

Marketing -Forecast

-Sales plan


S&OP “) , Process 1

1 “-…. /// ” …….. —- .,.

Chapter 12 Capacity Planning 297

Human Resources – Personnel planning


Operations and marketing must work closely to plan for matching supply and demand over the medium-term time frame. They do this during aggregate plan- ning when they coordinate their decisions to develop enough demand for prod- ucts and services without overshooting available facility capacity.

The S&OP process can be clarified by a discussion of the various decision op- tions available. These include two categories of decisions: (1) those modifying de- mand and (2) those modifying supply.

Demand management entails modifying or influencing demand in several ways:

1. Pricing. Differential pricing often is used to reduce peak demand or to build up demand in off-peak periods. Some examples are matinee movie prices, off- season hotel rates, factory discounts for early- or late-season purchases, and off-peak specials at restaurants. The purpose of these pricing schemes is to level demand through the day, week, month, or year.

2. Advertising and promotion. These methods are used to stimulate or in some cases smooth out demand. Advertising can be timed to promote demand dur- ing slack periods and shift demand from peak periods to slack times. For ex- ample, ski resorts advertise to lengthen their season and turkey growers advertise to stimulate demand outside the peak holiday seasons.

3. Backlogs or reservations. In some cases, demand is influenced by asking cus- tomers to wait for their orders (backlog) or by reserving capacity in advance (reservations). Generally, this has the effect of shifting demand from peak

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“Service Design at Hotel Monaco,”

Vol. IX

periods to periods with slack capacity. However, the waiting time may resu a loss of business. This loss can be tolerated when the aim is to maximize~ although most operations are extremely reluctant to tum away customers.

4. Development of complementary offerings. Firms with highly seasonal mands may try to develop products that have countercyclic seasonal trends. example, Taro produces both lawn mowers and snow blowers, seasonally ~ plementary products that can share production facilities. In fast-food reslil rants, breakfast has been added in many cases to utilize previously idle capaq

The service industries, using all the mechanisms described above, have .: much further than most of their manufacturing counterparts in influencing mand. Because they are unable to inventory their output-their services—til use these mechanisms to improve their utilization of fixed facility capacity.

Supply management includes a variety of factors that can be used to increase decrease supply through aggregate planning. These factors include the followinll

1. Hiring and laying off employees. Some firms will do almost anything ~ reducing the size of the workforce through layoffs. Other companies routinll increase and decrease the workforce as demand changes. These practices, “‘ vary widely by firm and industry, affect not only costs but also labor relatiollll productivity, and worker morale. As a result, company hiring and layoff p~ tices may be restricted by union contracts or company policies. These effedll must be factored into decisions about whether to change the size of the w0111 force to match demand more closely.

2. Using overtime and undertime. Overtime sometimes is used for short- medium-range labor adjustments in lieu of hiring and layoffs, especially if change in demand is considered temporary. Overtime labor usually costs 1

percent of regular time, with double time on weekends and holidays. BecaU!IIIII of its high cost, managers are sometimes reluctant to use overtime. F~ more, workers may be reluctant to work more than 20 percent weekly overt:ioll for an extended period. Undertime refers to planned underutilization of ~ workforce rather than layoffs, perhaps by using a shortened workweek. Undefll time, in the form of furloughs, was common in many industries, includillllll manufacturing, education, and government, during the recessionary months 2008-2009.

3. Using part-time or temporary labor. In some cases, it is possible to hire pan< time or temporary employees to meet peak or seasonal demand. This option particularly attractive when part-time employees are paid significantly less wages and benefits. Unions frequently frown on the use of part-time employe~!~ because those employees often do not pay union dues and may weaken uni~ influence. Temporary labor is more likely to be used to satisfy seasonal or shod-· to medium-term demand. Part-time labor and temporary labor are used exten- sively in many service operations, such as restaurants, hospitals, supermarkel!i and department stores. Temporary labor is also common in agriculture-relatel industries.

4. Carrying inventory. In manufacturing firms, inventory can be used as a buffer- between supply and demand. Inventories for later use can be built up during periods of slack demand. Inventory thus decouples supply from demand in manufacturing operations, allowing for smoother operations with more even use of capacity throughout a time period. Inventory is a way to store expended

Chapter 12 Capacity Planning 299

capacity and labor for future consumption. This option is generally not avail- able for service operations; this results in greater challenges for service indus- tries in matching supply and demand.

5. Subcontracting. Subcontracting is the outsourcing of work (either manufactur- ing or service activities) to other firms. This option can be very effective for in- creasing or decreasing supply. The subcontractor may supply the entire product or service or only some of the components. For example, a manufacturer of toys may utilize subcontractors to make plastic parts during periods of high de- mand. Service operations may subcontract secretarial assistance, call center op- erations, catering services, or facilities during peak periods.

6. Cooperative arrangements. These arrangements are similar to subcontracting in that other sources of supply are used, but cooperative arrangements often in- volve partner firms that are typically competitors. The firms choose to share their capacity, thus preventing either firm from building capacity that would be used only during brief periods. Examples include electric utilities that link their capac- ity through power-sharing networks, hospitals that send patients to other hospi- tals either for certain specialized services or during demand peaks, and hotels or airlines that shift customers among one another when they are fully booked.

In considering all these options, it is clear that S&OP and the aggregate plan- ning problem are extremely broad and affect most parts of the firm. The decisions that are made are therefore strategic and cross-functional, reflecting all the firm’s objectives. If aggregate planning is considered narrowly, inappropriate decisions result and suboptimization may occur. Some of the multiple trade-offs that should be considered are customer service level (through back orders or lost demand), inventory levels, stability of the labor force, and costs. The conflicting objectives and trade-offs among these elements sometimes are combined into a single cost function. A method for evaluating costs is described later in this chapter.


When demand slumped, the Parker Hannifin plastic parts manufacturing plant in Spartanburg, South Carolina, kept its workforce but reduced work hours where

Using a level strategy often results in holding inventory during low demand periods.

possible. In contrast, the investment firm Goldman Sachs laid off 10 percent of its workforce in late 2008 and another 10 percent in early 2009. In this section, we discuss the aggregate planning strate- gies used in each of these instances and explain how firms decide which strategy is best for them.

Two basic planning strategies can be used, as well as combinations of them, to meet medium- term aggregate demand. One strategy is to main- tain a level workforce; the other is to chase demand with the workforce.

With a perfectly level strategy, the size of the workforce and the rate of regular-time output are constant. Any variations in demand must be absorbed by using inventories, overtime, temporary workers, subcontracting, cooperative

300 Part Four Capacity and Scheduling

Operations Leader Travelers’ Level Strategy Meets Demand Variation

Travelers offers a wide variety of insurance products and services, covering customers in more than 90 countries. It sells insurance for auto owners, renters,

home owners,

TRAVELER 5 ‘f , ~;a~~~~~n~:s:~ example of a

service firm that uses a level strategy to manage its workforce and capacity.

Before Hurricane Ike slammed the Texas coast in September 2008, Travelers claims employees from around the United States were moving toward the af- fected areas so that they would be immediately avail- able to serve affected customers. Even before the storm made landfall, teams of trained and equipped claims professionals were ready. The company’s Na- tional Catastrophe Response Center had plans in place

to quickly deploy thousands of cross-trained employ- ees from other regions to help customers rather than, as is customary in the industry, relying on out- side contractors.

Travelers uses a level strategy, with workers from many regions pitching in during large-scale disasters and workers being diverted to training and catch-up activities during slow times when it might appear to be overstaffed. The strategy seems to pay off in terms of maintaining high levels of customer service during a peak demand period. Travelers was able to contact most of its Hurricane Ike-affected customers within 48 hours of their reporting a claim and to in- spect, provide payment, and close the majority of claims within 30 days.

Source: Adapted from annual report,, 2009.

arrangements, or any of the demand-influencing options discussed above. The level strategy essentially holds the regular workforce at a fixed number, and so the rate of workforce output is fixed over the aggregate planning period. However, a firm using a level strategy can respond to fluctuations in demand by using the demand and supply planning options discussed in the previous section.

With the chase strategy, the size of the workforce is changed to meet, or chase, demand. With this strategy, it is not necessary to carry inventory or use the de- mand and supply planning options available for aggregate planning; the work- force absorbs all the changes in demand. The chase strategy generally results in a fair amount of hiring and laying off of workers as demand is chased.

These two strategies are extremes; one strategy makes no change in the work- force, and the other varies the workforce directly with demand changes. In prac- tice, many firms use a combination of these two strategies. Read the Operations Leader box to see how Travelers Insurance successfully uses a level strategy even though demand for its service can vary significantly.

Consider, for example, a brokerage firm that utilizes both strategies. The data processing department maintains the capacity to process 17,000 transactions per day, far in excess of the average load of 12,000. This capacity allows the depart- ment to keep a level workforce of programmers, systems analysts, and computer operators even though capacity exceeds demand on many days. Because of the skilled workforce, the high capital investment, and the difficulty and expense of hiring replacements, the data processing department chooses to follow a level strategy.

Meanwhile, in the cashiering department, a chase strategy is used. As the transaction level varies, part-time workers, hiring, and layoffs are used. This de- partment is very labor-intensive, with high worker turnover and low skill levels

TABLE 12.1 ,.Comparison of

Chase and Level Strategies

Level of labor skill required Job discretion Compensation rate Training required per employee Labor turnover Hire-layoff costs per employee Amount of supervision required Type of budgeting and forecasting required

Chapter 12 Capacity Planning 301

Chase Strategy

Low Low Low Low High Low High Short run

Level Strategy

High High High High Low High Low Long run

required. The manager of the department commented that the high turnover rate is an advantage, facilitating the reduction of the workforce in periods of low demand.

From this scenario, we see that the characteristics of the operation seem to influ- ence the type of strategy followed. This observation can be generalized to the fac- tors shown in Table 12.1. While the chase strategy may be more appropriate for low-skilled labor and routine jobs, the level strategy seems better for highly skilled labor and complex jobs.

These strategies can be compared in terms of their costs to provide insight into the better choice, depending on the particular situation a firm faces. The relevant factors in this decision are represented by their cost, allowing us to develop mod- els to compare the two strategies, as described in the next section.

12.7 AGGREGATE PLANNING COSTS . Most aggregate planning methods include a plan that minimizes costs. These methods assume that demand is given (based on forecasts) but varies over time; therefore, strategies for modifying demand are not considered. If both demand and supply are modified simultaneously, it may be more appropriate to develop a model to maximize profit rather than minimize costs, since demand changes affect revenues along with costs.

When demand is given, the following costs should be included:

1. Hiring and layoff costs. Hiring costs consist of the recruiting, screening, and training costs required to bring a new employee up to full productive skill. For some jobs, this cost may be only a few hundred dollars; for more highly skilled jobs, it may be thousands of dollars. Layoff costs include employee benefits, severance pay, and other associated costs. This cost also may range from a few hundred to several thousand dollars per worker. When an entire shift of work- ers is hired or laid off, a shift cost must be accounted for.

2. Overtime and undertime costs. Overtime costs consist of regular wages plus an overtime premium, typically an additional 50 to 100 percent. Undertime costs reflect the use of employees at less than full productivity.

3. Inventory-carrying costs. Inventory-carrying costs are associated with main- taining goods in inventory, including the cost of capital, the variable cost of stor- age, obsolescence, and deterioration. These costs often are expressed as a percentage of the dollar value of inventory, ranging from 15 to 35 percent per year.

302 Part Four Capacity and Scheduling

This cost can be thought of as an interest charge assessed against the dolW value of inventory held in stock. Thus, if the carrying cost is 20 percent and each unit costs $10 to produce, it will cost $2 to carry one unit in invent0111 for a year.

4. Subcontracting costs. The cost of subcontracting is the price paid to anot:hfti firm to produce the units. Subcontracting costs can be either greater or less t:ru. the cost of producing units in-house. .

5. Part-time labor costs. Due to differences in benefits and hourly rates, the ced of part-time or temporary labor is often less than that of regular labor. Al- though part-time workers often receive no benefits, a maximum percentagtt of part-time labor may be specified by operational considerations or by uni«mm contract. Otherwise, there might be a tendency to use all part-time or tempo-~ rary labor. However, the regular labor force is generally essential for opera- tions continuity as well as to utilize and train part-time and temporaiJI workers effectively.

6. Cost of stockout or back order. The cost of taking a back order or the cost ot a stockout should reflect the effect of reduced customer service. This cost is extremely difficult to estimate, but it should capture the loss of custom~ goodwill, the loss of profit from the order, and the possible loss of future sales.

Some or all of these costs may be relevant in any aggregate planning problem. The applicable costs can be used to “price out” alternative decisions and strate- gies. In the example below, the total costs related to three alternative strategies are estimated. When this type of analysis is conducted o~ a spreadsheet, a very large number of alternative strategies can be considered.


FIGURE 12.4 Hefty Beer Company- demand forecast.

The Hefty Beer Company is constructing an aggregate plan for the next 12 months. Although several types of beers are brewed at the Hefty plant and several con- tainer sizes are bottled, management has decided to use gallons of beer as the ag- gregate measure of capacity.

The demand for beer over the next 12 months is forecast to follow the pattern shown in Figure 12.4. Notice that demand peaks during the summer months and is decidedly lower in the winter.


600 8 0

3 500 “‘ c:< 0 ~ 400 0



I ~

v \ ,/ -/ ~

lL v

J F M A M J p A S 0 N D Month

Chapter 12 Capacity Planning 303

The management of the Hefty brewery would like to consider three aggregate plans:

1. Level workforce. Use inventory to meet peak demands. 2. Level workforce plus overtime. Use 20 percent overtime along with inventory

in June, July, and August to meet peak demands. 3. Chase strategy. Hire and lay off workers each month as necessary to meet


To evaluate these strategies, management has collected the following cost and resource data:

• Assume the starting workforce is 40 workers. Each worker can produce 10,000 gallons of beer per month on regular time. On overtime, the same production rate is assumed, but overtime can be used for only three months during the year.

• Each worker is paid $2000 per month on regular time. Overtime is paid at 150 percent of regular time. A maximum of 20 percent overtime can be used.

• Hiring a worker costs $1000, including screening, paperwork, and training costs. Laying off a worker costs $2000, including all severance and benefit costs.

• For inventory valuation purposes, beer costs $2 a gallon to produce. The cost of carrying inventory is estimated to be 3 percent per month (or 6 cents per gallon of beer per month).

• Assume the starting inventory is 50,000 gallons. The desired ending inventory a year from now is also 50,000 gallons. All forecast demand must be met; no stockouts are allowed.

The next task is to evaluate each of the three strategies in terms of the costs given. The first step in this process is to construct spreadsheets like those shown in Tables 12.2 through 12.4, which show all the relevant costs: regular workforce, overtime, hiring/layoff, and inventory. Notice that subcontracting, part-time labor, and back orders/ stockouts have not been used as variables in this case.

To evaluate the level strategy, we calculate the size of the workforce required to meet the demand and inventory goals. Since ending and beginning inventories are assumed to be equal, the workforce must be just large enough to meet total de- mand during the year. When the monthly demands from Figure 12.4 are summed, the annual demand is 5,400,000 gallons. Since each worker can produce 10,000(12) = 120,000 gallons per year, a level workforce of 5,400,000–:- 120,000 = 45 workers is needed to meet the total demand. This means that five new workers must be hired. The inventories for each month and the resulting costs have been calculated in Table 12.2.

Consider the calculations for January. With 45 regular workers entered at the top of the table, 450,000 gallons of beer can be produced, since each worker pro- duces 10,000 gallons in a month. The production exceeds the sales forecast by 150,000 (450,000- 300,000) gallons, which is added to the beginning inventory of 50,000 gallons to yield an inventory level of 200,000 gallons at the end of January.

Next the costs in Table 12.2 are calculated as follows: Regular time costs are $90,000 in January (45 workers X $2000 each). There is no overtime cost, but 5 workers have been hired, since the starting workforce level was 40 workers. The cost of hiring these five workers is $5000. Finally, it cost 6 cents to carry a gallon of beer in inventory for a month, and Hefty is carrying 200,000 gallons at the end of

w 0


TABLE 12.2 Aggregate Planning Costs-Strategy 1, Level Workforce*

Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug.


Regular workers 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45

Overtime(%) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Units produced 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450

Sales forecast 300 300 350 400 450 500 650 600

Inventory (end of month) 200 350 450 500 500 450 250 100


Regular time $90.0 $90.0 $90.0 $90.0 $90.0 $90.0 $90.0 $90.0

Overtime 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

Hire/layoff 5.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

Inventory carrying 12.0 2 1.0 27.0 30.0 30.0 27.0 15.0 6.0

Total cost $107.0 $111.0 $11 7.0 $120.0 $120.0 $1l 7.0 $105.0 $96.0

• All costs are expressed in thousands of dollars. All production and inventory figures are in thousands of gallons. Starting inventory is 50,000 gallons.

Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Total

45 45 45 45

0 0 0 0

450 450 450 450 5400

475 475 450 450 5400

75 50 50 50

$90 .0 $90.0 $90.0 $90.0 $1080.0

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 5.0

4 .5 3.0 3.0 3.0 181.5

$94.5 $93.0 $93.0 $93.0 $1266.5

w 0 U1

TABLE. 12.3 Aggregate Planning Costs-Strategy 2, Level with Overtime*

Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept.


Regular workers 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43

Overtime(%) 0 0 0 0 0 20 20 20 0

Units produced 430 430 430 430 430 516 516 516 430

Sales forecast 300 300 350 400 450 500 650 600 475

Inventory (end of month) 180 310 390 420 400 416 282 198 153 ~


Regular time $86.0 $86.0 $86.0 $86.0 $86.0 $86.0 $86.0 $86.0 $86.0

Overtime 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 25.8 25.8 25.8 0.0

Hire/layoff 3.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

Inventory carrying 10.8 18.6 23.4 25.2 24.0 25.0 16.9 11.9 9.2

Total cost $99.8 $104.6 $109.4 $111.2 $110.0 $136.8 $128.7 $123.7 $95.2

‘All costs are expressed in thousands of dollars. All production and inventory figures are in thousands of gallons. Starting inventory is 50,000 gallons.

TABLE 12.4 Aggregate Planning Costs-Strategy 3, Chase Demand*

Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept.


Regular workers 30 30 35 40 45 50 65 60 48

Overtime (%) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Units produced 300 300 350 400 450 500 650 600 480

Sales forecast 300 300 350 400 450 500 650 600 475

Inventory (end of month) 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 55


Regular time $60.0 $60.0 $70.0 $80.0 $90.0 $100.0 $130.0 $120.0 $96.0

Overtime 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0 .0 0.0

Hire/layoff 20.0 0.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 15.0 10 .0 24.0

Inventory carrying 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.3

Total cost $83.0 $63 .0 $78.0 $88.0 $198.0 $108.0 $148.0 $133.0 $1 23.3

• All costs are expressed in thousands of dollars. All production and inventory figures are in thousands of gallons. Starting inventory is 50,000 gallons.

Oct. Nov. Dec. Total

43 43 43

0 0 0

430 430 430 5418

475 450 450 5400

108 88 68

$86.0 $86.0 $86.0 $1032.0

0.0 0.0 0.0 77.4

0.0 0.0 0.0 3 .0

6.5 5.3 4.1 180.8

$92 .5 $91.3 $90.1 $1293.2

Oct. Nov. Dec. Total

47 45 45

0 0 0

470 450 450 5400

475 450 450 5400

50 50 50

$94.0 $90.0 $90.0 $1080.0

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

2.0 4.0 0.0 95.0

3.0 3.0 3.0 36.3

$99.0 $97.0 $93.0 $1211.3

306 Part Four Capacity and Scheduling

TABLE 12.5 Cost Summary

Strategy 1-Level Regular-time payroll Hire/layoff Inventory carrying


Strategy 2-Level with overtime Regular-time payroll Hire/layoff Overtime Inventory carrying


Strategy 3-Chase Regular-time payroll Hire/layoff Inventory carrying


$1 ,080,000 5,000

181,500 $1,266,500

$1 ,032,000 3,000

77,400 180,800


$1 ,080,000 95,000 36,300

$1,211 ,300

the month, which costs $12,000.2 These costs total $107,000 for January. The calcu- lations are continued for each month and then summed for ti;.e year to yield the total cost of $1,266,500 for the level strategy.

The second strategy, level workforce plus overtime, is a bit more complicated. If X is the workforce size for option 2, we must have

9(10,000X) + 3[(1.2)(10,000X)] = 5,400,000 gallons

For nine months Hefty will produce 10,000X gallons per month, and for three months it will produce 120 percent of 10,000X, including overtime. When the above equation is solved for X, we find X = 43 workers. In Table 12.3 we have calculated the inventories and resulting costs for this option.

The third strategy, the chase strategy, varies the workforce each month by hir- ing and laying off workers to meet monthly demand exactly. When this strategy is used, a constant level of 50,000 gallons in inventory is maintained as the minimum inventory level, as shown in Table 12.4.

The annual costs of the three strategies are summarized in Table 12.5. On the ba- sis of the given costs and assumptions, the chase strategy is the lowest-cost strategy. However, cost is not the only consideration. For example, the chase strategy requires building from a minimum workforce of 30 to a peak of 65 workers, and then layoffs are used to reduce the number back to 45 workers. Will the labor climate permit this amount of hiring and laying off each year, or will this lead to unionization and po- tentially higher labor costs? Maybe a two-shift policy or the use of part-time or tem- porary workers should be considered for peak demand portions of the year. These alternatives, along with others, should be considered in attempting to evaluate and possibly improve on the chase strategy, as we have done in the chapter supplement

We have shown how to compare costs in a very simple case of aggregate planning by using three potential strategies. Advanced methods have been developed to con- sider many more strategies and more complex aggregate planning problems. These methods, which can be quite complex, include linear programming, simulation, and various decision rules.

2 For convenience, we use the end-of-month inventory to calculate inventory-carrying costs rather than the average monthly inventory.

Chapter 12 Capacity Planning 307


The following key points are discussed in the chapter:

• Facilities decisions consider the amount of capacity, the size of units, the timing of capacity changes, facility location, and the types of facilities needed. These are long-range decisions in the hierarchy of capacity decisions. Facilities deci- sions are crucial because they determine the future availability of output and require the organization’s scarce capital.

• A facility strategy should be implemented rather than a series of incremental facility decisions. A facilities strategy answers the questions of how much, how large, where, when, and what type.

• The amount of capacity planned should be based on the desired risk of meeting forecast demand. The capacity cushion is a decision that firms must consider, determining whether they will use a large cushion and not run short of capacity or a small cushion with the possibility of a capacity shortage.

• When it is timing capacity expansion, a firm can choose to preempt the com- petition by building capacity sooner or wait and see how much capacity is needed.

• Both economies and diseconomies of scale should be considered in setting an optimum facility size. Facility location is determined by considering relevant factors in this decision and then weighing contrasting factors against one an- other. The type of facility selected is focused on product, market, process, or general-purpose needs.

• Facilities. decisions often are made by the chief executive and the board of direc- tors . Because these decisions are strategic in nature, they require the input of all functional areas in the firm.

• Sales and operations planning (S&OP), or aggregate planning, serves as the link between facilities decisions and scheduling. S&OP decisions set output levels for the medium time range. As a result, decisions regarding workforce size, subcontracting, hiring, and inventory levels are also made. These decisions must fit within the facilities capacity available and are constrained by the re- sources available.

• Aggregate planning is concerned with matching supply and demand over the medium time range. There are many options for managing supply and demand. Because human resources, capital, and demand are affected, all functions must be involved in aggregate planning decisions.

• Supply factors that can be changed by aggregate planning are hiring, layoffs, overtime, under time, inventory, subcontracting, part-time labor, and coopera- tive arrangements. Factors that influence demand are pricing, promotion, back- log or reservations, and complementary products.

• There are two basic.strategies for adjusting supply: the chase strategy and the level strategy. Firms can also use a combination of these two main strategies. A choice of strategy can be analyzed by estimating the total cost of each of the available strategies. Factors, other than costs, to consider are cu stomer service levels, d emand shifts, the labor force, and forecasting accuracy.

308 Part Four Capacity and Scheduling

Key Terms


~ •

Hierarchy of capacity decisions 285

Capacity 286 Utilization 286 Effective capacity 287 Facilities decisions 288 Facilities strategy 288 Capacity cushion 289 Economies of scale 290 Diseconomies of scale 291

1. Course site:

Preempt the competition 291

Wait-and-see strategy 292

Product-focused facilities 293

Market-focused facilities 293

Process-focused facilities 293!aggregat.htm

General-purpose facilities 293

Sales and operations planning 294

Aggregate planning 294 Demand

management 297 Supply management 298 Level strategy 299 Chase strategy 300

Read this synopsis of aggregate planning from Professor Dave Sparling’s course in Canada.

2. Spreadsheet example from Georgia Southern University

Work through the details of this example to gain a deeper understanding of ag- gregate planning.

3. Sales and Operations Planning

Read about S&OP on this site and come to class prepared for a discussion.

4. Demand Solutions

Read about S&OP and come to class with insights gained from the reading.


Problem 1. Probabilistic Capacity Planning The XYZ Chemical Company estimates the annual demand for a certain product as follows:

Thousands of Gallons 140

Probability .10

a. If capacity is 130,000 gallons, how much of a capacity cushion is there?

b . What is the probability of idle capacity? c. If capacity is 130,000 gallons, what is the average utilization of the plant? d. If lost business (stockout) costs $100,000 per thousand gallons and it costs

$5000 to build 1000 gallons of capacity, how much capacity should be built to minimize total costs?

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ece 311

Ashford 2: – Week 1 – Discussion 1

Your initial discussion thread is due on Day 3 (Thursday) and you have until Day 7 (Monday) to respond to your classmates. Your grade will reflect both the quality of your initial post and the depth of your responses. Reference the Discussion Forum Grading Rubric for guidance on how your discussion will be evaluated.

Teaching   Philosophy and Curriculum

 Review the major curriculum models and approaches discussed in the chapters this week (e.g. Montessori, Reggio Emilia, Creative Curriculum, etc.).  Which model/approach most closely matches your own teaching philosophy?  Explain why.  Then, suppose that you have started a new teaching position and the curriculum you have been asked to use differs significantly from your teaching philosophy.  Explain how you will address this difference.  Your initial discussion post should be at least 200 words in length.

Guided Response: Review several of your classmates’ posts.  Respond to at least two of your classmates with advice on how to address the differences between their teaching philosophy and the required curriculum. 

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a 12-bar blues chorus normally consists of what formal scheme?

Experiencing Jazz

Experiencing Jazz, Second Edition, is an integrated textbook with online resources for jazz appreciation and history courses. Through readings, illustrations, timelines, listening guides, and a streaming audio library, it immerses the reader in a journey through the history of jazz, while placing the music within a larger cultural and historical context. Designed to introduce the novice to jazz, Experiencing Jazz describes the elements of music, and the characteristics and roles of different instruments. Prominent artists and styles from the roots of jazz to present day are relayed in a story-telling prose. This new edition features expanded coverage of women in jazz, the rise of jazz as a world music, the influence of Afro-Cuban and Latin jazz, and streaming audio.

Features: • Important musical trends are placed within a broad cultural, social, political, and economic

context • Music fundamentals are treated as integral to the understanding of jazz, and concepts are

explained easily with graphic representations and audio examples • Comprehensive treatment chronicles the roots of jazz in African music to present day • Commonly overlooked styles, such as orchestral jazz, Cubop, and third-stream jazz are

included • Expanded and up-to-date coverage of women in jazz.

The media-rich companion website presents a comprehensive streaming audio library of key jazz recordings by leading artists integrated with interactive listening guides. Illustrated musical concepts with web-based tutorials and audio interviews of prominent musicians acquaint new listeners to the sounds, styles, and figures of jazz.

Richard J. Lawn recently retired as Dean of the College of Performing Arts at the University of the Arts in Philadelphia. You can see and hear him as saxophonist, composer, and bandleader for Power of Ten, playing in local clubs and on recordings.

Experiencing Jazz Second Edition

Richard J. Lawn Professor Emeritus, College of Performing Arts at the University of the Arts

Second edition published 2013 by Routledge 711 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10017

Simultaneously published in the UK by Routledge 2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RN

Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business

© 2013 Taylor & Francis

The right of Richard J. Lawn to be identified as author of this work has been asserted by him in accordance with sections 77 and 78 of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers.

Trademark notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe.

First edition published 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies

Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Lawn, Richard, author.

Experiencing jazz/Richard J. Lawn.—Second edition. pages cm Includes bibliographical references, discography, and videography. 1. Jazz—History and criticism. 2. Jazz—Analysis, appreciation. I. Title. ML3506.L39 2013 781.65—dc23 2012024753

ISBN: 978-0-415-65935-2 (pbk and online access card) ISBN: 978-0-415-69960-0 (pbk) ISBN: 978-0-415-83735-4 (online access card) ISBN: 978-0-203-37981-3 (ebk and online access card) ISBN: 978-0-203-37985-1 (ebk)

Typeset in Bembo, Helvetica Neue and Kabel by Florence Production Ltd, Stoodleigh, Devon, UK

Please visit the companion website at

I am deeply indebted to my wife, Susan Lawn, for “putting her life on hold,” not once but twice, while helping immeasurably to make this book become a reality. In addition, thanks to the many students who served as its inspiration.


List of Photos xiv List of Examples xix List of Figures xxii Preface xxiii Acknowledgments xxviii


1 The Nature of Jazz 3

Experiencing Music . . . Experiencing Jazz 4 That Four-Letter Word 4 Defining Jazz 6 Chapter Summary 8 Study Questions 9

2 The Elements of Jazz 13

Rhythm 14 Meter and Tempo 15 Rhythmic Devices Important to Jazz 16 Swing as an Aspect of Jazz Rhythm 18

Melody 18 Harmony 20 Texture 21 Form 22 Improvisation 23

Something Borrowed—The European Tradition 23 Something New, Something Blue—The Jazz Tradition 24 Blues 24 Improvisation in Jazz 26

Chapter Summary 29 Key Terms 30 Study Questions 31

3 Listening to Jazz 33

Performance Practice 33 The Instruments of Jazz 34 The Drum Set and Swing 34 Orchestration and Instrumentation 36 Instrumental Techniques and Special Effects 37

Understanding the Whole Performance 39 Describing the Performance 41

Video Blues 42 Chapter Summary 43 Key Terms 43 Study Questions 44

4 The Roots of Jazz 45

Jazz in Perspective 45 The Significance of African Music to Jazz 46 African Musical Aesthetic 46 Elements of African Music 47 African Music as a Means of Communication 49

The Afro-Latin and Caribbean Tinge 49 Background 50 Early Fusions 52

Early American Vocal Music 54 The Innovators: Getting the Blues 56

Robert Johnson (1911–1938) 57 Bessie Smith (1894–1937) 59 W.C. Handy—“Father of the Blues” (1873–1958) 61

Ragtime 62 Brass and Military Bands 67 Milestones: Chronicle of Historic Events 68 Chapter Summary 70 Key Terms 70 Study Questions 71


5 Jazz Takes Root 75

Jazz in Perspective 75 The Reception of Early Jazz 78 New Orleans—The Birthplace of Jazz 80

Dixieland Jazz Band Instrumentation 81 The Innovators: Early Jazz 83

Original Dixieland Jazz Band 83 Kid Ory (1890–1973) 86 Joe “King” Oliver (1885–1938) 86 Lilian Hardin 86


Jelly Roll Morton (1890–1941) 89 Louis Armstrong (1901–1971) 91 Sidney Bechet (1897–1959) 94

Milestones: Chronicle of Historic Events 95 Chapter Summary 97 Key Terms 97 Study Questions 98

6 The Jazz Age: From Chicago to New York 99

Jazz in Perspective 99 South Side of Chicago 100 On the Other Side of Town 102 The Chicago Sound 103 The Innovators: A Few of the Many 104

New Orleans Rhythm Kings (NORK) 104 Bix Beiderbecke (1903–1931) 105 Frankie “Tram” Trumbauer (1901–1956) 106 Paul Whiteman (1890–1967) and Symphonic Jazz 108

Boogie-Woogie, Eight to the Bar 110 The Decline of the Chicago Era 111 Chicago Jazz in Retrospect 113 New York and the Harlem Renaissance 114

James P. Johnson (1891–1955) 115 Marketing Jazz 118 Milestones: Chronicle of Historic Events 120 Chapter Summary 121 Key Terms 122 Study Questions 122

7 The Swing Era: Jazz at Its Peak 125

Jazz in Perspective: The Depths of the Depression 126 The Country Recovers 127 The Anatomy of the Swing Era Jazz Band 127

Instrumentation 128 Repertoire and Arrangement 131

The Innovators: Swing on the East Coast 132 Fletcher Henderson (1897–1952) 133 Coleman Hawkins—“The Father of Jazz Tenor Saxophone” (1904–1969) 135 Duke Ellington (1899–1974): Music Was His Mistress 137 Benny Goodman—The “King of Swing” (1909–1986) 147

Popular White Swing Bands 151 Artie Shaw (Arthur Arshawsky) (1910–2005) 151

The Vocalists’ Rise to Fame 153 Ongoing Latin Influences 155 Chapter Summary 155 Key Terms 156 Study Questions 157


8 Swinging Across the Country: The Bands, Singers, and Pianists 159

Jazz in Perspective 160 The Innovators: A Unique Kaycee Style 161

Benny Moten 161 William “Count” Basie (1904–1984) 162 Lester Young (1909–1959) 164

Territory Bands 167 Mary Lou Williams (1910–1981) 168

The Innovators: A Few of the Swing Era Singers and Pianists 170 Billie Holiday (1915–1959): “Lady Day” 170 Ella Fitzgerald (1918–1996): The “First Lady of Song” 172 Art Tatum (1909–1956) 174

Traditional Jazz Revival 177 Swing Era Success 177 Milestones: Chronicle of Historic Events 181 Chapter Summary 184 Key Terms 185 Study Questions 185


9 The Bebop Revolution 189

Jazz in Perspective 189 The Lifestyle and Musical Characteristics 192 The Birth of Bebop: The First Recordings 194

Characteristics of the Style 196 Bebop Performance Practice and Instrumental Roles Redefined 197

The Innovators: Bop Stylists 199 John Birks “Dizzy” Gillespie (1917–1993) 199 Charlie Parker (1920–1955) 201 Bud Powell (1924–1966) 203 Dexter Gordon (1923–1990) 205 J.J. Johnson (1924–2001) 206

The Innovators: Bebop Rhythm-Section Players 207 Thelonious Sphere Monk (1917–1982) 207 Oscar Pettiford (1922–1960) 209 Kenny Clarke (1914–1985) 209 Max Roach (1924–2007) 210 Sarah Vaughan: “The Divine One” (1924–1990) 211

Modern Jazz Embraces the Afro-Cuban Spirit 213 Dizzy Gillespie and the Birth of Cubop 213

The Decline of Bebop 217 Milestones: Chronicle of Historic Events 217 Chapter Summary 219 Key Terms 220


Appendix 220 Study Questions 223

10 The 1950s and Early 1960s: Cool, Intellectual, and Abstract Jazz 225

Jazz in Perspective 225 Characteristics of Cool Jazz 228 The Innovators: The Cool Sound on the East and West Coasts 231

Miles Davis and Gil Evans: The Birth of the Cool 231 Modern Jazz Quartet 233 Gerry Mulligan (1927–1996) and Chet Baker (1929–1988) 233 Dave Brubeck (1920–2012) 235 Bill Evans (1929–1980) 238

The Brazilian Bossa Nova 241 Stan Getz (1927–1991) 243

Third-Stream Jazz 245 Lennie Tristano (1919–1978) 247

Who Was Popular 248 Milestones: Chronicle of Historic Events 249 Chapter Summary 250 Key Terms 251 Study Questions 252


11 Tradition Meets the Avant-Garde: Moderns and Early Postmoderns Coexist 255

Jazz in Perspective 256 The Innovators: The Characteristics and Artists of Mainstream Hard Bop 256

Art Blakey (1919–1990) Carries the Message 258 Other Hard-Bop Messengers 260

More About Funky, Soul Jazz and the 1950s and 1960s 264 Organ Trios and the Guitar 265

Wes Montgomery (1923–1968) 265 Jimmy Smith (1925–2005) 266

Everlasting Big Bands 268 Defining Postmodernism 270

Ornette Coleman (1930–) and His Disciples 271 The Innovators: Postmodern Jazz Comes of Age 276

Charles Mingus (1922–1979)—The Underdog 276 The End of Modern Jazz Heralded by the Beginning of the Postmoderns 278 Milestones: Chronicle of Historic Events 280 Chapter Summary 282 Key Terms 283 Study Questions 283


12 Miles and Miles of Miles: Miles Davis and His Sidemen Redefine Postmodern Jazz 285

Jazz in Perspective 286 The Music 287 The Early Miles 287 The First Great Quintet 289 Modal Jazz 290

Miles and Gil 294 The Second Great Quintet 296 The Electronic Jazz–Rock Fusion Period 300 Davis Sidemen Become Major Forces 305

John Coltrane (1926–1967) 306 Wayne Shorter (1933–) 312 Herbie Hancock (1940–) 313

Milestones: Chronicle of Historic Events 314 Chapter Summary 317 Key Terms 318 Study Questions 318

13 The Electric 1970s and 1980s 321

Jazz in Perspective 321 The Music 322 Jazz and Rock: The Two-Way Connection 323 The Innovators: Living Electric in the Shadow of Miles Davis 325

Weather Report 325 Herbie Hancock and the Head Hunters 329 John McLaughlin (1942–) and the Mahavishnu Orchestra 331 Chick Corea (1941–) 333

Soul and Pop Instrumental Jazz 336 David Sanborn (1945–) 336 The Brecker Brothers 336 Grover Washington, Jr. (1943–1999) 337 Chuck Mangione (1940–) 337

The Signs of the Times: New Technologies and Changing Business Models 338 Milestones: Chronicle of Historic Events 339 Chapter Summary 340 Key Terms 341 Study Questions 342

14 The Unplugged, Eclectic 1970s and 1980s 343

Long Live Acoustic Jazz 343 The ECM Sound 344 The Innovators: The Rebirth of Acoustic Jazz 345

Keith Jarrett (1945–) 345 Return of Expatriates Unleashes a Rebirth of Acoustic Jazz 349


Wynton Marsalis (1961–) and the Young Lions 350 The Freedom Fighters Take Risks 352

Cecil Taylor (1929–) 354 Old Bottles, New Wines—Long Live Big Bands 356 The Changing Jazz Landscape as the Millennium Comes to a Close 357 Milestones: Chronicle of Historic Events 358 Chapter Summary 360 Key Terms 361 Study Questions 361

15 Jazz for a New Century 363

Jazz in Perspective 364 Trends in Contemporary Jazz 365 Established Artists Offer Seasoned Jazz 367

John Scofield (1951–) and Joe Lovano (1952) 367 Michael Brecker (1949–2007) and Pat Metheny (1954–) 367

Popular Music Influences 371 Tim Hagans (1954–) 372

Vocal Renaissance 374 Esperanza Spalding (1984–) 375

Contemporary Women Emerging as Innovators 377 Maria Schneider (1960–) 378

Jazz as a Global Music 382 Afro-Cuban and Latin Jazz 382 Danilo Pérez (1965–) 382

Jazz as an International Language 384 Rudresh Mahanthappa and Vijay Iyer 387

The New Innovators: 21st-Century Emerging Artists 389 Jason Moran (1975–) 390

Closing Thoughts 391 Milestones: Chronicle of Historic Events 392 Chapter Summary 396 Key Terms 397 Study Questions 397

Appendix I: Glossary of Terms 399 Appendix II: Suggested Jazz DVDs and Videos 411

Biographical 409 Historical Documentaries 410 Performance/Instructional 410 Important Feature Films 411

Appendix III: Chapter Notes and Additional Sources 415

Index 429



August Wilson Theatre (formerly Virginia Theatre)/Neil Simon Theatre 52nd Street, Manhattan, New York City. May 2007 xxiv

American bandleader James Reese Europe (1881–1919) poses (center, with baton) with members of his Clef Club Band, New York, 1914 3

Original Dixieland Jass Band promotional photo 5

Jazz singer Joe Williams 7

The World Saxophone Quartet performing in 1992 9

“Mother of the Blues” Ma Rainey on sheet-music cover 13

Old-style mechanical metronome 15

Gertrude “Ma” Rainey (1886–1939) and her Georgia Jazz Band, Chicago, 1923 25

American jazz musician Louis Armstrong (1901–1971) smiles as he poses on stage with a band for the WMSB radio station in New Orleans, Louisiana, 1920s 26

Jazz musicians performing in a nightclub 33

The typical jazz drum set 35

April 16, 1912: The front-page New York Times newspaper headline announces the sinking of The Titanic ocean liner 45

Map tracing Christopher Columbus’s voyages, which resemble slave-trade routes 51

Slaves returning from the cotton fields in South Carolina, c.1860 54

Fisk Jubilee Singers 55

Bessie Smith, “Empress of the Blues” 59

Promotional photo, c.1930, of W.C. Handy, “Father of the Blues” 61

1899 sheet-music cover of Scott Joplin’s “Maple Leaf Rag” 65

Portrait of American ragtime composer and pianist Scott Joplin (1868–1917), c.1910 66

Player piano roll of Scott Joplin’s “Maple Leaf Rag,” patented September 13, 1904 67

An American suffragette wears a sign proclaiming “Women! Use your vote,” c.1920 75

Portrait of the Buddy Bolden Band, New Orleans, Louisiana, c.1900 81

The Original Dixieland Jass Band 84

Pianist, composer, arranger, singer, and bandleader Lilian Hardin Armstrong 86

King Oliver’s Creole Jazz Band in the early 1920s 87

Composer and pianist Jelly Roll Morton at the piano 89

Louis Armstrong and his Hot Five 92

Sidney Bechet plays clarinet for a Blue Note Records session, June 8, 1939 94

Henry Ford and his son Edsel in front of their new model in New York in 1927–1933 99

Marathon dance competitions were part of the growing phenomenon of youth culture in the 1920s, Chicago 101

Bix Beiderbecke and the Wolverines in the Gennett Recording Studios, in 1924, in New York 103

Cornetist Bix Beiderbecke (1903–1931) poses for a portrait, c.1925 105

Frankie Trumbauer and unidentified guitarist 107

Paul Whiteman and his orchestra 109

A crowd of depositors outside the American Union Bank in New York, having failed to withdraw their savings before the bank collapsed 112

Exterior of the Renaissance Casino ballroom in Harlem, New York, late 1920s 114

James P. Johnson poses for a studio portrait in 1921 115

Corner of Lennox Avenue and 147th Street in Harlem showing the exterior of the M&S Douglas Theatre and a sign for the Cotton Club a few doors down, 1927 125

Jazz pianist Teddy Wilson playing with a quartet during the set break of Benny Goodman’s band, because racially mixed bands were not the rule in New York City at the “Madhattan Room” in the Hotel Pennsylvania 131

Bandleader, pianist, composer/arranger Fletcher Henderson 133

Coleman Hawkins, “the father of jazz tenor saxophone” 135

Duke Ellington and his band performing at the legendary Cotton Club 139

Dancers performing onstage at the Cotton Club 141

Composer Duke Ellington, singer Ivie Anderson, and drummer Sonny Greer pose for a portrait with the orchestra in 1943, in Los Angeles, California 143

Bandleader and clarinetist Benny Goodman (center) performs for a large crowd at Manhattan Beach, New York, August 11, 1938 148

The Benny Goodman Sextet 149

Guitarist Charlie Christian on stage with the Benny Goodman Orchestra, in New York, c.1940 150

Big-Band Leader Artie Shaw performs in 1945, Los Angeles, California 151

December 8, 1941: The front page of the New York World Telegram announces Japanese air attack at Pearl Harbor, commencing the U.S. entry into World War II 159

The Count Basie Orchestra performs on stage in Chicago in 1940 162

Count Basie with his “All American Rhythm Section” 163


Tenor saxophonist Lester Young performs while holding his instrument in his classic sideways style 165

Pianist, composer, arranger Mary Lou Williams 168

Billie Holiday singing at a Decca recording session, c.1946 170

Ella Fitzgerald, the “First Lady of Song,” 1940 172

Art Tatum Trio 175

Special edition of Jazzmen, produced by the Armed Services and designed to fit in soldiers’ knapsacks 177

The ruins of a cinema stand stark against the rubble after the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima August 8, 1945, brought World War II to a close 189

The Onyx jazz club in New York, advertising singer Maxine Sullivan 193

The club named after Charlie Parker, located at 1678 Broadway, New York 195

Dizzy Gillespie, with characteristic puffed cheeks and upturned trumpet 200

Jay McShann Orchestra in New York, 1942 201

Charlie Parker, with Miles Davis, trumpet; Tommy Potter, bass 202

Pianist Earl “Bud” Powell 203

Tenor saxophonist Dexter Gordon in Los Angeles, 1947 205

Thelonious Monk at Minton’s Playhouse 207

Drummer Max Roach 210

Vocalist Sarah Vaughan 211

Latin jazz singer and bandleader Machito (Frank Raul Grillo) holding maracas, while leading his band 214

Saxophonist James Moody, Cuban conga player Chano Pozo, and trumpeter Dizzy Gillespie performing in 1948 215

Race riots and picketers in Birmingham, Alabama 225

Miles Davis recording in 1959 231

The Dave Brubeck Quartet, with Brubeck at the piano, Paul Desmond on saxophone, Eugene Wright on bass, and Joe Morello on drums, in 1959 236

Pianist Bill Evans 238

Stan Getz in a live performance 244

Pianist Lennie Tristano 247

American civil rights leader Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. (1929–1968) speaks at a rally held at the Robert Taylor Houses in Chicago, Illinois, 1960s 255

Art Blakey and the Jazz Messengers play at the Birdhouse, a Chicago jazz club, 1961 258

Clifford Brown at a recording session 262

Tenor saxophonist Sonny Rollins performs at the Berkshire Music Barn Jazz Festival in Lenox, MA, 1956 262

Guitarist Wes Montgomery, c.1960 266

Jimmy Smith sitting at the Hammond B3 organ 266

Contemporary bandleader Stan Kenton rehearses his jazz band in London, in preparation for a performance at the Royal Albert Hall 268


Saxophonist Ornette Coleman with trumpeter Don Cherry at the 5 Spot, New York City 272

Jazz bassist and composer Charles Mingus 276

Apollo 11, the first manned lunar-landing mission, was launched on July 16, 1969, and Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin became the first and second men to walk on the moon 285

Miles Davis’s nonet in a recording studio for the sessions released as Birth of the Cool 288

John Coltrane, Cannonball Adderley, Miles Davis, and Bill Evans perform in the studio, New York, May 26, 1958 292

Trumpeter Miles Davis and producer/arranger Gil Evans record the album Quiet Nights in 1962 295

Miles Davis with Herbie Hancock, Ron Carter, and Wayne Shorter at the 1967 Newport Jazz Festival 297

Miles Davis performing in Copenhagen, 1973, wearing hip clothes of the day 304

John Coltrane performing on soprano saxophone with his quartet in West Germany, 1959 307

Demonstrators march up Avenue of Americas on their way to Central Park in New York as part of a rally against the Vietnam War, April 5, 1969 321

The rock band Blood, Sweat and Tears performs on stage at the Longhorn Jazz Festival, Dallas, Texas 324

Weather Report performs on stage at the Playboy Jazz Festival at the Hollywood Bowl, Los Angeles, June 1981 328

Herbie Hancock using a portable synthesizer keyboard 330

Guitarist John McLaughlin and violinist Jean-Luc Ponty from the Mahavishnu Orchestra perform in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, in 1974 332

Return To Forever performs in May 1977 335

Popular Philadelphia soulful saxophonist Grover Washington, Jr. 337

Chuck Mangione playing his signature flugelhorn 338

A demonstration outside the Whitehouse in support of the impeachment of President Nixon (1913–1994) following the watergate revelations 343

Jazz pianist Keith Jarrett, c.1975 346

Dexter Gordon and quartet performing in the UK 349

Trumpeter/composer Wynton Marsalis in 1982 351

Pianist Cecil Taylor performs at Ronnie Scott’s in London 354

Jazz pianist and composer Toshiko Akiyoshi conducts her orchestra, c.1977 357

U.S. President Bill Clinton plays a saxophone along with musician Everett Harp at the Arkansas inaugural ball 20 January 1993 363

Michael Brecker performing with the Brecker Brothers at the New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival 369

Contemporary guitarist Pat Metheny 369

Popular smooth-jazz artist Chris Botti 371


Trumpeter/composer Tim Hagans at the 2008 IAJE Conference in Toronto, Canada 372

Diana Krall performing in 2004 at the Mountain Winery, in Saratoga, California 374

Esperanza Spalding performs at the 4th Annual Roots Picnic at the Festival Pier, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, June 4, 2011 375

Maria Schneider conducts the Maria Schneider Orchestra on stage during the Festival Internacional de Jazz de Barcelona at Palau De La Musica, in Barcelona, Spain, 2011 379

Pianist Danilo Pérez 383

Jason Moran performs at Thelonious Monk Town Hall 50th Anniversary Celebration, 2009 390

xviii PHOTOS


2.1 Graphic representation of “Happy Birthday” 14 2.2 Illustration of a simple syncopation in measure 1 that results from handclaps on

off beats that create a tension between major beats represented by the foot tapping a steady pulse. By the second beat of the second measure, the handclaps are lined up precisely with the foot tapping on beats 2, 3, and 4, hence no syncopation and no tension 17

2.3 Using similar graphics, the following example illustrates a simple polyrhythm. In this case, the foot taps indicate a 3/4 meter and fundamental rhythm. The hand-clapping introduces a new rhythm in opposition to the foot tapping. If the foot tapping suddenly stops, the continuing handclaps give the illusion of 2/4 meter. The combined result when both are executed simultaneously is a polyrhythm 17

2.4 Two-octave C scale. Raised half-steps in between each scale note (black keys) are labeled above as sharps 19

2.5 Chord symbols in a typical progression that jazz musicians must learn to interpret 20

2.6 Visualization of monophonic texture. The light, horizontal, wavy line represents the melodic shape of a solo singer. There are no other layers present in this single-dimensional texture 21

2.7 Visualization of homophonic texture. The wavy, horizontal line represents the melodic shape of a solo singer. The vertical bars represent chords, with darker shades indicating major chords, and lighter shades representing minor chords 21

2.8 Visualization of polyphony. The light, horizontal, wavy lines represent the melodic shape of a solo singer and a second melodic voice complementing the primary vocal melody below it. The vertical bars represent chords, with darker shades indicating major chords, and lighter shades representing minor chords. Black dots represent a rising and falling bass line in counterpoint with the melody line. The entire texture, with multiple layers of activity, is described as polyphonic 21

2.9 Lowered third, fifth and seventh (E flat, G flat, B flat) are called “blue notes” and are indicated in the following keyboard example 24

2.10 Typical jazz chord progression illustrated by symbols 27 3.1 Swing ride cymbal pattern 36 3.2 Visual notations of special effects associated with jazz 38

4.1 The first line shows your foot tapping down and up, indicating 2 beats per measure. The second line adds handclaps that help to divide each beat in half, showing 1&2& 1&2&, corresponding to line 1. The third line adds handclaps to divide each measure of line 1 into triplets, or three pulses for every 2 foot taps. The last line shows handclaps dividing each beat in line 1 into groups of three, faster triplets than those line 3 47

4.2 African fundamental or ground pattern. Although many readers would likely not understand music notation, laymen can execute the following graphic representation of the pattern. The feet establish the pulse or basic beat, while the handclaps outline the specific ground rhythm pattern 48

4.3 The habanera rhythm is represented below in 4/4 meter for convenience, although it is usually found in 2/4 meter. Try to coordinate your hands and feet in a steady tempo. The handclap emphasizes the habanera rhythm, while the feet establish a basic tempo 52

4.4 Notice the close resemblance between this Charleston rhythm and the habanera at the middle of the measure 52

4.5 The clavé rhythm: The following illustrations are graphic representations of the 3–2 and 2–3 clavé patterns. The vertical line serves to delineate measures. You should try executing these rhythms with your hands and feet 53

4.6 Classic 12-bar blues. Each block represents 1 measure 57 4.7 Final rhythm from Stephen Foster’s “Camptown Races” 64 7.1 A graphic representation of 1 measure in 4/4 meter showing alternation

between a full quarter note of full value on beats 1 and 3, followed by even eighth-note divisions of beats 2 and 4. This rhythm pattern does not swing 129

7.2 A graphic representation of 1 measure in 4/4 meter showing the uneven division of beats 2 and 4, causing a feeling of anticipation of the following beats (3 and 1). This was the typical pattern played by the drummer on the cymbals, expressed below by the syllables. This rhythm helps to create the basis of the “swing” feel. Horn soloists and pianists would likely also swing in this uneven fashion 130

7.3 Contrast between arpeggiated and linear styles 136 9.1 Graphic representation of the jazz conga drum variation. Tap your left foot

in a steady tempo following the graphic while clapping the conga drum pattern 213

10.1 Eighth-note triplets 238 10.2 Quarter-note triplets 239 10.3 Samba rhythmic ostinato patterns; the foot image represents downward taps 242 10.4 Hand clapping syncopated bossa nova rhythm—syncopated tensions occur

when hand claps fall between the foot taps. There are numerous variations to the ostinato bossa nova rhythm patterns 243

11.1 Modern and postmodern jazz coexist 279 12.1 Piano with whole and chromatic half-steps indicated over two octaves,

C to C 290 12.2 By using different visual shades to represent sound, it is possible to differentiate

between modal and functional harmony as shown in the following illustrations. (A) Visual conceptualization of a modal texture. There is a sameness about this visual texture, much like there is in a modal section of music, where all notes, whether used vertically as a chord or horizontally to form melodic lines, stem from the same essential set of pitches (color, in this example).


(B) Visual conceptualization of functional harmony: Each horizontal bar represents a changing chord in a progression. Some chords are related, whereas others serve a quite different role. The black represents the strong chords that supply more variety than the above example 291

15.1 Piano keyboard based on Western music system with half-steps. Imagine 12 more keys (notes) added between C and C on this traditional Western keyboard 388



1.1 Jazz styles timeline 10 7.1 Typical big-band seating arrangement 128 7.2 Memorable Swing Era hits and associated bands 153 7.3 Important artists to emerge from Woody Herman and Stan Kenton bands 154 7.4 Popular vocalists and associated bands 154 8.1 Cost of living index, c.1940 167 8.2 Well-known territory bands and their locales 167 9.1 Comparison of swing and bebop styles 198

10.1 Comparison of bebop and cool styles 230 11.1 Jazz Messengers Sidemen 259 11.2 Horace Silver Sidemen 259 11.3 A study in contrasts: A comparison in the characteristics of free jazz and

more traditionally grounded, modern mainstream jazz styles 275 12.1 Miles Davis’s innovations 305 12.2 John Coltrane’s innovations 311 14.1 Distinguishing characteristics of Keith Jarrett’s music 347 15.1 Late 20th- and early 21st-century trends and artists in jazz 366 15.2 21st-century women in jazz 380 15.3 21st-century emerging innovators 389


I do not agree that the layman’s opinion is less of a valid judgment of music than that of a professional musician. In fact, I would often rely more on the judgment of a sensitive layman than that of a professional … —Jazz Pianist Bill Evans, from The Universal Mind of Bill Evans

Jazz is about America. It is American as apple pie and baseball, but surprisingly few people fully understand it or appreciate its wonder and appeal. Jazz represents the spirit and cultural fabric of America and has served as the basis of most popular music styles. Perhaps this is why our lives are invaded daily with jazz music – on television, in commercials selling everything from cars to banks and clothing, in films, in elevators and doctors’ offices, in restaurants and shopping malls and countless other pubic places. It is music that evokes basic human emotions and can be soothing, chilling, sensual, raucous, uplifting, thought provoking, transformational, spiritual, meditative, annoying, or even jarring. Sometimes it strikes controversy among listeners. Anyone is capable of enjoying these fundamental feelings, but the experience is enhanced beyond expectation when one knows more about how the music is produced, its roots, developments and place in American history.

Pictured on the front cover is Swing Street, 52nd Street in New York City in 1948. It was the place to hear jazz in the mid-20th Century. Miles Davis, Charlie Parker, Billie Holiday Dizzy Gillespie, and performers from the earlier “Swing Era” could be heard in clubs like the Onyx and Three Deuces that lined the street between 5th and 7th Avenue as shown in the cover photo. Jazz in the 1930s and ’40s was America’s popular music. It was embedded in American culture and was the soundtrack for American life. The jazz musician helped to tell our country’s story at nightclubs, dance halls, and on records and radio. Their music was accessible, daring and represented freedom to the outside world.

This same street shown in the 2007 photo overleaf by comparison looks quite different though still the home for aspects of the entertainment business. Jazz was associated with entertainment in its early years and considered forbidden fruit by some. Over time Jazz has gained a respect and stature shared by art music, studied and analyzed much like Western classical music. Jazz is now found in most university curricula, cultivated in high school and middle schools jazz bands, and no longer associated with underbelly of society. Jazz has become and international language recognized as an American tradition. We invite you to explore and experience this unique national treasure, listen to landmark recordings and hear the stories of the artists who changed American culture.

Experiencing Jazz, Second Edition, places the music in an historical, cultural, and social context of American society. By placing Jazz within the context of social history, students better understand

its relevance. It also helps them to relate the music to their own interest areas, and to understand why, to some extent, the music may have developed as it did. In this way, Experiencing Jazz, Second Edition, goes beyond many textbooks.


Experiencing Jazz provides clear explanations of each jazz style and how it contrasts or is similar to other styles. Each style is presented in association with its primary innovators. The material is presented in a logical chronological sequence, but art is never that clean and easy to categorize or sort out. The reader will find the occasional paradox within a single chapter created by the juxtaposition of one style against a polar opposite. This approach was chosen rather than compartmentalizing styles and artists and confining their discussions to nice, cleanly sectionalized chapters. The multiplicity of styles is precisely what was encountered at the time, particularly from about 1950 on, leaving audiences, critics and the musicians to make sense of it all. To frame the socio-cultural backdrop and keep its importance at the fore, each chapter begins with a section described as “Jazz in Perspective” and closes with a “Chronicle of Historic Events,” serving as a reminder of the larger American fabric in which the music discussed throughout the chapter is an important thread.


August Wilson Theatre (formerly Virginia Theatre)/Neil Simon Theatre 52nd Street, Manhattan, New York City. May 2007

Experiencing Jazz—the textbook and website with streamed music—provide the reader with an understanding of how jazz works, how and why it evolved, who its primary innovators were, how to listen to it, and how in some cases jazz has been informed by certain aspects of American society including the evolution of new technologies that parallel the growth of jazz. The book and website familiarize the student with the basic building blocks of music as they relate to a discussion of jazz. Without an elementary understanding of music construction and jazz performance practices, it is difficult to fully appreciate a jazz performance. It is for this reason that such topics are discussed in Chapters 2 and 3 rather than at the end of the book as appendices. Experiencing Jazz is designed to create educated listeners, not just to present facts, dates, figures, lists of tunes and performers.

Each style chapter includes a retrospective glimpse at the reception of jazz in America by providing the reader with some insight into how the music was perceived by critics, historians and fans.


Fifteen chapters in all, the text is designed exclusively for the non-musician, carefully defining basic musical concepts as they relate to an understanding of a jazz performance. Such concepts are reinforced throughout the book.

• All key terms are shown in bold with immediate definitions. A comprehensive glossary of terms is included as an appendix.

• Explanations of fundamental musical concepts are often accompanied by graphic illustrations, making such concepts easier to understand by the non-musician.

• Each historic chapter begins with a section “Jazz in Perspective” that provides a context and historic backdrop for the music being discussed.

• Each historic chapter ends with a “Chronicle of Historic Events,” once again reminding the reader of how jazz styles are woven into the fabric of American culture at the time.

• Specific references are made to the website where activities are provided to support the chapter.

• Each jazz style is carefully examined through discussion and comparison to performance characteristics of earlier jazz styles. Helpful quick reference comparative and descriptive tables are also provided to summarize salient characteristics.

• Chapters focus on the primary innovators including the bands and soloists and what made their work innovative.

• Listening guides are provided in each chapter to serve as road maps through each featured audio track. These guides focus on important points using laymen terms or terms that have been well defined and used throughout the text.

• Discussions of how jazz was received and marketed are also included. • Chapter summaries and helpful study guides including a list of key performers, bands, terms

and places along with review questions are found at the end of each chapter. Supplementary listening lists are also included at the close of each chapter.


Since jazz is in a constant state of change it stands to reason that this second edition of Experiencing Jazz has been significantly revised:


• A final chapter addresses jazz at the close of the 20th century and the first decade of this new millennium.

• New sections about the internationalization of jazz as a global language and women in jazz have been added to the final chapter along with discussions and new recordings showing contemporary trends.

• Since a book about jazz should emphasize the music, a comprehensive collection of audio tracks—to accompany any text—is provided.

• Improved discussions of fundamental musical concepts as they relate to jazz performance are provided to cater to the needs of a non-musician in grasping basic musical concepts as they relate to a better understanding of jazz.

• Discussions of Afro-Cuban and Latin jazz trends are now integrated chronologically throughout the book.

• The narrative has been streamlined, reducing the page count. • New links to historic recordings only recently made available by the Library of Congress. • A new, greatly enhanced website providing streamed audio tracks, video, and additional

supplementary materials including more listening guides for landmark recordings not provided in the companion audio collection.


Experiencing Jazz offers a web streamed, comprehensive audio collection featuring landmark recordings by leading performers that illustrate the various styles discussed throughout the text. A complete list of tracks is included inside the covers. This collection is quite comprehensive, providing expanded coverage of women in jazz, Afro-Cuban and Latin jazz styles, and often overlooked styles or artists such as African music, rural blues, ragtime, organ trios, early symphonic jazz, vocalists and third-stream jazz. Some texts appear to be biased against certain styles, but Experiencing Jazz does not take sides and presents what listeners need to know in order to formulate their own aesthetic.

Listening guides that track each recording as it is streamed from the companion website clarify the listening experience. The website also includes additional listening guides for supplementary tunes easily found in most library collections or online suppliers. These guides are designed specifically for the non-musician and draw on skills acquired through readings about the elements of jazz and jazz performance practice presented in the first three chapters. Nothing has been assumed of the reader in terms of prerequisite knowledge. It is not enough to merely read about jazz, it must be keenly listened to and Experiencing Jazz provides all the necessary guidance to engage with the recordings and live performances.

A collection of audio recordings, combined with numerous video and audio tutorials found on the website reinforce the principles and performance practices associated with jazz. Emphasis is placed on artists who made and are making significant contributions to jazz rather than confusing the reader with lengthy lists of performers who, while their contributions to the evolution of jazz should be noted, are not considered in retrospect as major trendsetters or innovators. Special attention has been paid through the text design to emphasize one or two artists in each chapter who exemplify a particular style or trend. The decision to feature one artist over another was difficult but based logically on the artists innovative impact, longevity, and their overall impact and contributions to further developing the music. A case could certainly be made to highlight others.



These are provided to most of the historically significant recordings streamed and from the companion website. The website also includes additional listening guides for supplementary study of tunes easily found in most library collections or online suppliers. These guides are designed specifically for the non-musician and draw on skills acquired through readings about the elements of jazz and jazz performance practice presented in the first three chapters. Nothing has been assumed of the reader in terms of prerequisite knowledge. It is not enough to merely read about jazz it must be keenly listened to and Experiencing Jazz provides all the necessary guidance to fully appreciate the recordings and live performance.

Not every significant recording or artist can be represented in any collection, no matter how extensive. The selection of recordings to include confronted the author with difficult choices as it does most teachers. In some cases recording companies were unwilling to license some landmark recordings, however, excellent alternatives were found and listening guides for others not included are found on the website.


Since this book embraces and recognizes the needs of non-musicians, web-based materials were developed to enhance student’s understanding and appreciation of jazz by providing a more informed listening experience through audio, video and interactive tutorials. The companion website carefully parallels Chapters 1–3 in the text, providing audio and visual examples that bring to life the basic elements of music, jazz performance practices, improvisation styles, the instruments associated with jazz, and the concepts that help to define it. Chapters 4–15 provide suggestions for supplemental material found on the website such as interviews with innovative artists, YouTube links, and so on. A wealth of support material is included here that closely follows readings in the text. The website should therefore be considered as a closely integrated companion to the book. While it would be useful to have ready access to the website as each chapter is studied, it is not imperative or mandatory. All web-based activities are highlighted with icons throughout the text to direct students and teachers to additional information that can be found on the site.

This website provides a wide range of support for the students and teachers including:

• Interactive materials that clearly explain fundamentals of melody, rhythm, harmony, form, blues, and performance practice in jazz including improvisation

• Instructional videos to provide a keen awareness of form, the instruments associated with jazz including Latin percussion and their roles in an ensemble, solo jazz piano styles, and jazz drum-set performance techniques associated with jazz styles.

• An audio introduction to each instrument associated with jazz that also acquaints the user with special effects, performance techniques and brass mutes associated with the jazz style. There is an instrument identification quiz provided as well.

• Additional listening guides for recordings not provided in the streamed audio collection. • Photos and documents that relate to each stylistic era. • Numerous audio excerpts from interviews with noted musicians including Miles Davis, Gil

Evans, Chick Corea, Keith Jarrett, Charles Mingus, Herbie Hancock, Pat Metheny, Charlie Parker, Dexter Gordon, Bud Powell, Stan Kenton, Stan Getz, John Coltrane, Billie Holiday,


Louis Armstrong, Gerry Mulligan, Dizzy Gillespie, and others bring authenticity to the text and the total experience.

• A condensed history of disc recording and discussion of the relationship of this medium to jazz.

• A glossary of terms that is linked to the any music specific terms used on the website.

Jazz has become a universal music that has gone global, recognized worldwide and identified with the United States, but no longer “owned” by Americans. It is a unique American nationalist style representing the most significant cultural contribution that the US has made to the global arts landscape. Jazz has become synonymous with modern American thought and is a metaphor for democracy and freedom of expression. It should be studied, experienced and treasured!

Richard J. Lawn Summer 2012


I offer my sincere thanks and appreciation to the following individuals for their significant contributions and assistance during various stages in the development of this text and companion materials.

Special thanks to: Dan Morgenstern, Tad Hershorn, and the staff of the Rutgers Institute of Jazz Studies; UT-Austin College of Fine Arts Information Technology staff Jim Kerkhoff, Frank Simon, Andy Murphy, and Tyson Breaux; Paul Young, Glenda Smith, Todd Hastings, and Paul White who, as students at The University of Texas, helped in the development of a CD-ROM as a prototype of the new website; David Aaberg for his tenacious editorial suggestions and concise chapter summaries; Ben Irom and Mark “Kaz” Kazanoff, who helped to create some of the listening guides; David Fudell and the staff of the Center for Instructional Technologies at The University of Texas; The Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center at UT-Austin; Jack Cooper for his composition Video Blues; Austin, Texas musicians Greg Wilson, Randy Zimmerman, Pat Murray, Mike Koenning, Craig Biondi, Paul Haar, John Fremgen, Steve Snyder, Chris Maresh, Eric Middleton, Russell Scanlon, and John Kreger for their recorded contributions; Charlie Richard, Steve Hawk, and the Hawk–Richard Jazz Orchestra, whose Sea Breeze Jazz CD (SB-2093) The Hawk Is Out provided a source for brief audio examples; Paul DeCastro, Jeff Benedict, and members of Rhumbumba for their self-titled Sea Breeze Jazz CD (SB-3067) that provided Afro-Cuban examples; members of the Third Coast Jazz Orchestra, whose Sea Breeze Jazz CD (SB-2116) Unknown Soldiers provided a source for additional audio clips; Marc Dicciani and Marlon Simon from the University of the Arts School of Music for their Afro-Cuban demonstrations; Sara MacDonald from the UArts Library; Wesley Hall for his assistance in gaining permissions for the website; Denny Tek for her perseverant photo research; and Constance Ditzel and the staff at Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, for believing in the lasting value of this project.

xxviii PREFACE


Understanding Jazz


C H A P T E R 1

The Nature of Jazz Jazz isn’t a noun. It’s a verb. It’s a process, a way of being, a way of thinking.1

—Pat Metheny

American bandleader James Reese Europe (1881–1919) poses (center, with baton) with members of his Clef Club Band, New York, 1914


Music is the most elusive, abstract, and in some ways most intangible of all art forms. It cannot be touched, felt, or seen. It does, however, evoke any number of emotional responses, which is why it has become such an important part of the human experience. The only way to truly understand music, like any art form, is to experience it. No art form can be genuinely appreciated without an intimate experience with it. By working with clay, one gains a new perspective on what the sculptor faces when creating a work of art. By closely examining jazz performance practice, one gains a new view and appreciation of the music-making process.

Jazz is a performance art—a spontaneous art designed for the moment. Although it can be described in words, analyzed, and placed in a historic continuum, it cannot be fully understood and appreciated without the music being experienced first hand. Yet words alone cannot do justice to the listening experience, and it is important to understand that it is the music that points to the words we use to describe it. Jazz is a work in progress, an ongoing experiment and music in constant evolution. To quote jazz guitarist Larry Coryell, “jazz is a workshop.” One of the enduring qualities of jazz, and a defining characteristic, has been its ability to change, chameleon- like in nature, while absorbing every style it encounters, resulting in a new by-product.

Like any of the other art forms, music can be divided into numerous subcategories that, over time, have been described in great detail and consequently named. Words such as swing, bebop, cool, fusion, and smooth jazz have been coined in an effort to describe and compartmentalize jazz styles. It is the naming of these styles that often tends to confuse the listener, as there are often only subtle differences between them. The naming of various styles is the result of historians and critics attempting to better explain and describe the music. To some extent, these stylistic names are also the result of commercial marketing strategies. The term “jazz,” used to describe this uniquely American music, is no less confusing than the terms “classical” or “pop” music. Each of these general headings can imply numerous substyles. What is unique about jazz compared with classical music, among other things, is the rate at which jazz styles have evolved. In a mere 100 years, this American music has been transformed to include countless innovations in performance practice. These stylistic changes are so significant that the jazz of today bears only subtle similarities to the earliest forms from 100 years ago, and yet buried beneath the surface are common threads binding all of the uniquely different styles together to form a rich tapestry. The fun lies in finding these common characteristics. The essence of jazz is its ability to absorb, trans – form, and change. Like any art form, it is periodically renewed by various influences. Throughout its development, jazz has been viewed variously as folk music, entertainment, and art music. All three views often existed simultaneously, a fact still true today. It is a music that crosses all social, economic, racial, and geographic boundaries. Centuries from now, only the unique American innovations will be recognized and remembered. These will be sports such as baseball, inventions such as the personal computer, and, no doubt, jazz. Its influence has endured, and it is a unique, original American art form that has been designated a national treasure by the U.S. government.


It wasn’t that long ago we used to hear the word “jazz” frequently in common speech. It first appeared in American vocabulary in the early 1900s. Phrases such as “jazz up your wardrobe,” “put some jazz in your savings account,” “own the jazziest car on the road,” and “quit jazzin’ me!” came into being and were commonly heard. In the hit stage and film musical, Chicago, the most popular and most performed song is “All That Jazz.” The storyline takes place in the “gangsta” days of Al Capone in the 1920s, when jazz was in the early stages of becoming America’s popular music.


Existing as a slang term before it was used to describe music, its origins have puzzled historians for many years. Theories about the origins of the word jazz are largely unsubstantiated. Some have associated the word with the red-light district of New Orleans. Garvin Bushell, a circus band musician from New Orleans, offers the following observation:

They said that the French had brought the perfume industry with them to New Orleans, and the oil of jasmine was a popular ingredient locally. To add it to perfume was called “jassing it up.” The strong scent was popular in the red light district, where a working girl might approach a perspective customer and say, “Is jazz on your mind tonight, young fellow?”2

As late as 1947, Berry’s American Dictionary of Slang cited the word under copulate. The term jazz was supposedly related to the act itself—“he’s jazzin’ her”3 (a line from the musical Chicago). The New York Times used the term in its February 2, 1917 issue, in an advertisement taken by Reisenweber’s club to promote “The First Eastern Appearance of the Famous Original Dixieland Jazz Band.”4 According to Nick LaRocca, the group’s cornetist, “jass” was changed to “jazz” to discourage people from defacing signs by erasing the letter “j.” The associations of the word jazz to vulgarity, sex, and the bordello, coupled with the many styles that the word could describe, probably explains why some jazz musicians rarely, if ever, use the word in discussing their own music.5

Others attribute the word’s origins to linguistic variations. One writer points out the word’s relationship to the French word jaser, which means “to chat,” “to chatter,” “to prattle,” or “talk


Original Dixieland Jass Band promotional photo

a lot and say nothing.” Prior to the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, the French owned the Mississippi Delta area, often referred to as the birthplace of jazz.

Creoles, a racial mix resulting from unions between French, African-Americans and sometimes Spanish, spoke a hybrid form of French. Some theorists suggest that the word “jazz” in Creole meant to speed things up. Another theory to consider is the claim that the term jazz is derived from West African languages, a natural conclusion because the Gold (west) Coast of Africa served as the point of origin for many slaves. Early jazz artists’ names such as Charles and James morphed from their formal spellings to nicknames such as Chaz and Jas or Jazz.6 A 1919 article in the Music Trade Review refers to the wild, barbaric music played by trumpeter Jasbo Brown after he’d had a few drinks. Patrons who enjoyed his musically gregarious behavior shouted, “More Jasbo,” which eventually distorted to just “more jazz.”7 Jazz historian Robert Goffin attributed the word to a black musician named Jess who played in a “jerky, halting style.” As early as 1904, James Reese Europe, a black society bandleader, believed the word was a distortion of the name of a New Orleans band known as Razz’s Band. Other historians speculate that the term “jazz” stemmed from a vaudeville expression meaning to excite, stir things up, or make things go faster.8

As jazz developed into a more sophisticated, acceptable art form, efforts were even made to rename the music and discard “jazz,” owing to its undesirable connotations. In 1949, Down Beat magazine sponsored a contest to find a new name for jazz. The publisher announced prizes and a distinguished panel of judges (including the well-known, contem porary big-band leader Stan Kenton and author S.I. Hayakawa). After months of deliberation, the winner was announced— CREWCUT. The winner collected her $1,000 first prize from the magazine and defended her entry as “simply the exact opposite of the slang name for ‘classical’ music—‘Longhair’.” Other winning selections were Amerimusic, Jarb, Syncope, Improphony, and Ragtibop. The results were announced in the magazine, but this surprising statement was added: “The judges were unanimous in the opinion, shared by the editors of Down Beat, that none of the hundreds of words submitted is adequate as a substitute for Jazz.”9

Whatever the true story is about the derivation of this uniquely American word, the music and the word quickly gained recognition worldwide. One can fully experience jazz only by exploring how it is unique, how it can be described and identified, and how to evaluate and appreciate its forms and variety.

Before reading the following section, visit the website to listen to the collage recording that traces approximately 80 years of recorded jazz. Make note of how different each excerpt is from the others, and make a list of the similar and distinctly different features. Repeat this exercise once you have read the following section.


Jazz is a direct result of West African influences on European-derived music styles and popular American music. Since its beginnings at the turn of the 19th to 20th centuries, it has shown an ability to absorb aspects of other music styles and transform them into something entirely new and different. Jazz is, therefore, both a noun and a verb, as it is a way of interpreting music. In true West African tradition, jazz is shaped by the performers’ individual musical gestures and spontaneous variations. It is a music in which the performers assume the most prominent role and bear the greatest responsibility. It features certain instruments and special effects that are synonymous with the style. Many of these instrumental affectations may have been an effort to emulate the flexibility and expressiveness of the human voice. These instrumental effects alter and color the sound in unusual ways and exerted an impact on 20th century “classical” music. Although jazz is closely associated with certain instruments, any instrument can be used to imply


the style. A wide range of instrumentalists and/or singers can present jazz, from solo performers to large orchestras. Self-proclaimed inventor of jazz Jelly Roll Morton advocated that almost any kind of music could sound like jazz, as jazz is a way of playing and interpreting music in an individualistic and spontaneous way.

Emerging in the first decades of the 1900s as an unpolished folk music, jazz reflected diverse influences. Among them are the blues, marching bands, polkas, field hollers and work songs, religious music, ragtime, and, of course, West African, Latin, and Afro-Cuban music, with an emphasis on individualistic expression through improvisation. Spontaneity, rhythmic complexity, and a close association with dance are other characteristics shared by African music and jazz. Jazz has been a chameleon even since the beginning, absorbing and reflecting the musical influences present in America at the turn of the century.

Although jazz is a distinctive style, recognizable worldwide, it has been difficult to define and has confounded many critics and historians. The difficulty of defining jazz is exacerbated because it remains in a constant state of change, influenced by popular culture, advancements in technology, and the musicians’ own desire for change and self-improvement. Therefore, like the music itself, there is no absolute set of criteria for defining it. Nonetheless, different combinations of certain traits can always be found in jazz music. Jazz is a rhythmically vibrant and complex music that often includes a rhythm section (piano, bass, and drums). It is this rhythm section that eventually inspires other popular American music styles such as R & B, blues, and various rock styles. The rhythms of jazz are richly complex, creating an element of tension. Rhythm is not the sole source of this tension, for it is also found in the sometimes-dissonant harmonies and complex improvisations associated with jazz.

Some definitions of jazz assert that swing, a certain rhythmic phenomenon, and improvisation are two absolute criteria for authentic jazz. Although these can be important features, they are not entirely unique to jazz, nor are they required for the music to be considered jazz. Much contemporary jazz post-1970 does not swing in the same way jazz was played in the 1940s. Music in a jazz style may not contain much improvisation, but can still be identified as jazz. On the other hand, some non-jazz may contain jazz characteristics. For example, does jazz saxophonist Phil Woods’s improvised solo on Billy Joel’s pop hit “Just the Way You Are” make it jazz? It is not uncommon to hear improvisation in many pop and rock performances.


Jazz singer Joe Williams


Jazz has become a truly eclectic music, embracing musical styles from around the world and transforming them into a uniquely American form of artistic expression that frequently requires the performer to improvise. The blues, in itself an individualistic and spontaneous form of expression, remains an important component of jazz and a significant contribution by black Americans. Black performers have been the primary developers of jazz and blues, although some white performers and composers contributed significantly to advancing the music and to developing it as a viable commercial product. At the dawn of the 21st century, jazz can easily be considered one of the most significant musical accomplishments of the previous century and one that shows promise for continued advancement.

In conclusion, the following elements and features characterize all jazz styles:

1. Jazz evolved in the US at the dawn of the 20th century by absorbing characteristics from African music, blues, ragtime, marching bands, polkas, field hollers and work songs, religious music, Afro-Cuban and Latin music, and American folk music.

2. Jazz is an ever-changing style of music with multiple substyles and is significantly influenced by an evolving popular culture.

3. African-American performers have been the principal innovators throughout the history of jazz.

4. Jazz is a way of performing that places emphasis on interpretation, improvisation, and individualistic expression, in the African tradition.

5. It is usually the performer who is most important to a jazz performance, not the composer. 6. Although jazz began as a folk music and became an important form of music associated with

entertainment, it gradually matured to become art music, to be taken as seriously as classical music.

7. Until rock ’n’ roll attracted younger Americans’ attention, jazz had been the soundtrack for American life.

8. Rhythmic complexity, inspired by a rhythm section of piano, bass and drums, and sometimes guitar, is a predominant feature of jazz, including the special swing feel attributed to some styles.

9. Some instruments, such as the saxophone, guitar, drum set, and mutes used to color the sound of brass instruments, originated with jazz.

10. Jazz is the most unique and indigenous American art form.

The subsection “Characterizing Jazz,” found in the corresponding chapter of the companion website, provides an excellent supplement to this section and includes excerpts of interviews with many prominent performers. These artists offer their own insights into what makes this music so special. Note: All terms in bold are defined in the glossary included in Appendix I of this book and on the website.


Jazz is a music that developed in America at the dawn of the 20th century. Many styles of music and music-making that influenced the beginnings of jazz reflect the melting pot that is America. This mix includes elements from both European and African music. A product of these diverse influences, jazz is a music containing a great variety of substyles, from early ragtime and blues-influenced jazz to free jazz and rock-influenced fusion.

Succinctly defining the word “jazz,” considering its many substyles and the fact that jazz is constantly changing, is challenging. Origins of the word itself are also murky, with no single

explanation substantiated. A change in approach to improvisation is one of the most important factors in the development of the various styles of jazz, and yet examples of jazz containing little or no improvisation exist. At one time, jazz was played exclusively in a swing feel. Approaches to playing swing evolved with each new style of jazz, and, because jazz continues to evolve and adapt, embracing music styles from around the world, jazz is no longer played exclusively in a swing feel. Certain instruments and performance techniques have become associated with jazz, which can be played or sung by any number of performers. Individuality, spontaneity, and the importance of the performer instead of the composer have always been at the core of jazz.

What can be unequivocally stated about jazz is that it was pioneered primarily by black Americans, is often improvised, is rhythmically driven, and combines European, African, American, and, sometimes, Afro-Latin elements. Further, jazz continually evolves as it is influenced by technology, current events, different cultures, and music from throughout the world.


1. What are some of the theories regarding the origins and derivation of the word “jazz”?

2. Name some of the identifying or salient characteristics of jazz, regardless of substyle.

3. Jazz was the result of what primary non-European or American influence?

4. What other styles of music, European or American, were factors in the formation of early jazz styles?

5. Is the composer or performer more important to the jazz style?


The World Saxophone Quartet performing in 1992

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6. Music from what continents or regions influenced the formation of jazz?

7. Can any piece of music that was not conceived as jazz be played in a jazz style? Explain your answer.

8. An aspect of rhythmic interpretation that is unique to jazz is called ________.

9. Define the term “Creole”.

10. What style, born in America, is undoubtedly the most important African-American contribution to jazz?

11. What are the instruments or instrument groupings that are unique to jazz?


C H A P T E R 2

The Elements of Jazz Jazz did not exist until the 20th century. It has elements that were not present either in Europe or in Africa before this century. And at any of its stages it represents . . . a relationship among rhythm, harmony, and melody that did not exist before.1

—Martin Williams

“Mother of the Blues” Ma Rainey on sheet- music cover

Ha ppy Birth day To You Ha ppy Birth day To You

Ha ppy Birth day Dear Su san……………….. Ha ppy Birth

day To You………………..

EXAMPLE 2.1 Graphic representation of “Happy Birthday”

Jazz can be examined and discussed in the same ways that apply to any style of music. All music is discussed in terms of rhythm, melody, harmony, form, and texture.


Rhythm is accomplished through varying lengths of notes, combined with space, all in relationship to a steady pulse. Some notes in a melody last longer than others, and some move more quickly. So, duration is an expression of rhythm and time. Without rhythm, music has no sense of motion, and melodies would be monotonous and boring. It is the rhythm of music that propels it forward and ensures that it is not static. Without using complex musical notation, consider the graphic symbols in Example 2.1 that illustrates the familiar tune “Happy Birthday.” Some notes are lower or higher in pitch (vertical scale), some are louder than others (indicated by darker images), and some are shorter or longer in duration (horizontal scale), indicating rhythm. Silence, or rests, seems to separate some of these notes. Sing the familiar tune to yourself as you move through the graphic from left to right.

Jazz, since its uncomplicated beginnings as a folk music, has evolved to become a complex and sophisticated music. Despite the many influences and changes that jazz has experienced over a century of development, and its uniqueness when compared with other music styles, jazz shares ingredients common to all forms of music.


Although brief discussions of musical terms important to your understanding of jazz are provided throughout this chapter, you should refer to the website in order to more fully understand these concepts. The section entitled the “Elements of Jazz” provides audio demonstrations and more in-depth explanations of these terms and concepts.


Meter and Tempo

Meter defines the number of primary beats, or pulses, in each measure of music, and is the organization of rhythms. Measure (or bar) is a unit that serves as a container, holding a specific number of beats as defined by the meter. A waltz emphasizes a triple meter (1–2–3), where each measure has three beats, and a march features a duple meter (1–2), with two beats per measure.

Poetry has rhythm and meter. Sonnets, rhymes, and limericks all project rhythm and meter. Think of measures as inch marks on a ruler. In 4/4 meter, each beat would be represented by 1⁄4-inch marks, as there are four quarters to each inch. The 1⁄4-inch subdivision can be further divided into smaller increments, as is the case with music note values. To continue this analogy, how fast or slowly we move across a tape measure or yardstick, progressing from one inch to the next, is a measure of the tempo. Tempo, another concept important to the understanding of how music works, is an expression of pace or speed at which the music moves. It could also be compared to the pace of someone walking or running. Some songs seem to have no regular tempo, moving slowly and described as rubato.

It is safe to say that jazz performers and composers were content for decades to deal largely with music in duple meter—primarily 2/4 and 4/4 meters. For example, most ragtime piano music was written in 2/4 meter, and nearly all the instrumental jazz literature that followed well into the 1940s was in common time or 4/4 meter. Jazz musicians were most concerned during the first three decades of the formative years with honing skills as improvisers. Attention was focused on developing performance technique. It was not until the 1950s that jazz artists began to venture outside the safe confines of duple meters. Jazz waltzes were not popular until the 1950s and 1960s.

Old-style mechanical metronome


Listen to all or a portion of the following tracks, which serve as excellent examples of different meters. “Take Five,” for example, is in 5/4 meter. Compare “Take Five” with “Every Tub,” “Summertime,” “Pent Up House” written in the more common 4/4 meter, or “La Fiesta,” played in a fast 3/4 time. Also think about their differing tempos.

Symphony orchestras and bands have conductors to control the pace of the music—jazz ensembles have rhythm sections. There is flexibility in terms of tempo associated with a “classical” music ensemble performance. In larger ensembles such as symphony orchestras, the conductor controls the tempo. In smaller ensembles, the performers control the tempo and must work carefully together to adjust the tempo or risk a poor, disorganized performance. The rate of the steady pulse, or tempo, in a jazz or pop/rock group is consistent and generally maintained throughout the piece by the rhythm section, which is comprised of piano, bass, drums, and often guitar. Within this group of instruments, there is likely to exist a hierarchy of time-keeping responsibilities that may be somewhat dependent on the particular style of jazz. The other musicians in the ensemble must then strive to rhythmically coexist within this tempo. At times, performers in a jazz band may seem to rush or drag behind the rhythm section’s steady pulse, but it is frequently by choice, not by error. The dragging sensation is described as laying back and is often associated with the sound of a particular band and helps to define its style.

The subject of rhythm as it relates to jazz is a thorny one that has provoked debate for many years. Attempts to define the special rhythmic qualities of jazz have sometimes ended in poetic metaphors and metaphysical phrases in attempts to make feelings and individual interpretations tangible. The very existence of a group of instruments described as the “rhythm section” points to the importance of this basic musical element to the jazz style. What other music ensemble, other than in related popular music styles that share similar roots with jazz (rock, R & B, pop), includes a group of instruments known as the “rhythm section”? The emphasis on steady rhythm is a distinguishing feature of this music, and, aside from the spontaneously improvised aspect of jazz, its unique rhythmic features are among the most important characteristics establishing jazz as a truly original style.

Listen to all or a portion of the following tracks from the online audio anthology, which serve as excellent examples of different tempos. Wynton Marsalis’ “Delfeayo’s Dilemma” presents the illusion of several different tempos. “Intuition” seems to have no set tempo, while “Poem for Brass” takes some time before a steady tempo is established. Compare these tracks with the slow, but steady, tempo of “Moon Dreams.”

Rhythmic Devices Important to Jazz

The rhythmic terms syncopation and swing are synonymous with jazz. Syncopation occurs when a rhythm appears on a weak, normally un-emphasized portion of a beat (when your foot moves up), interacting with a regularly occurring rhythm or major beat emphasis (when your foot pats down). The rhythm that is normally un-emphasized becomes accented and creates a syncopation or tension.

A polyrhythm results when two or more different rhythms are played simultaneously, layered one on top of the other. One fundamental rhythm usually serves as the foundation, and other layers are added. The examples that follow clarify these two important concepts.

Much has been said about the predominance of syncopation in jazz, its importance in contributing to the unique nature of jazz rhythms, and the relationship to African music. To quote Gunther Schuller, from his book Early Jazz:

By transforming his natural gift for against-the-beat accentuation into syncopation, the Negro was able to accomplish three things: he reconfirmed the supremacy of rhythm in the hierarchy of musical elements; he found a way of retaining the “democratization” of rhythmic impulses [meaning that any portion of a beat could have equal emphasis]; and by combining these two features with his need to conceive all rhythms as rhythmicized melodies, he maintained a basic, internally self-propelling momentum in his music.2

Schuller is also defining to some degree what swing is. It is this form of propulsion or forward momentum that we feel when something “swings.”

Listen to the following track, which offers excellent examples of complex rhythms happening simultaneously and syncopations. The opening section of Keith Jarrett’s “The Windup” (0:00–0:39) juxtaposes a regular rhythm played by one hand with improvised, syncopated rhythms that work against the regular rhythm and are played by the other hand. Listen to the “Bamaaya,” the African music track in the online audio anthology, to hear complex polyrhythms played by the drummers.


1 & 2 & 3 & 4 & 1 & 2 & 3 & 4 &

EXAMPLE 2.2 Illustration of a simple syncopation in measure 1 that results from handclaps on off beats that create a tension between major beats represented by the foot tapping a steady pulse. By the second beat of the second measure, the handclaps are lined up precisely with the foot tapping on beats 2, 3, and 4, hence no syncopation and no tension

1 & 2 & 3 & 1 & 2 & 3 &

EXAMPLE 2.3 Using similar graphics, the following example illustrates a simple polyrhythm. In this case, the foot taps indicate a 3/4 meter and fundamental rhythm. The hand-clapping introduces a new rhythm in opposition to the foot tapping. If the foot tapping suddenly stops, the continuing handclaps give the illusion of 2/4 meter. The combined result when both are executed simultaneously is a polyrhythm


Audio clips illustrating all of these terms used to describe various aspects of rhythm can be found in the corresponding chapter of the website. Here you can explore the subsection about rhythm.

Swing as an Aspect of Jazz Rhythm

Have you ever tried to explain how a food tastes to someone? It is almost impossible to truly appreciate the flavor of a particular food without actually tasting it. That same analogy is true for describing “swing.” It is certainly one of the most difficult characteristics to define when discussing jazz rhythm. Musicians and analysts alike have struggled to respond to the frequently posed question—what is swing? Big-band leader Count Basie, when asked to define swing, said things such as, “pat your foot” or “tap your toe.”3 Jazz pioneer Louis Armstrong is reputed to have said, “If you have to ask, you’ll never know.”4 Big-band Swing Era trumpeter Jonah Jones may have come closest when he implied that it was a feeling.5 Duke Ellington defined swing as, “the un-mechanical but hard driving and fluid rhythm over which soloists improvise.”6 None of these responses, however, provides a precise, more scientific explanation of the rhythmic phenomenon that began to be described in the 1920s as “swing.”

André Hodeir, author of the important 1956 publication Jazz: Its Evolution and Essence, said that: “jazz consists essentially of an inseparable but extremely variable mixture of relaxation and tension,”7 and that the “feelings of tension and relaxation coexist at the same moment.”8 In other words, some performers are playing things on the beat, while others are simultaneously playing syncopated accents on other portions of the beat. The combined result is a forward momentum we describe as swing, and there can be many subtle variations of swing—as many variations as there are players. Swing can be compared to skipping. When we skip, we divide our even pace unevenly, which is a characteristic of swinging in jazz. We make an otherwise even-paced walk uneven; we make it skip, even though we may get from point A to point B in the same amount of time as it would have taken had we walked with an even pace (tempo).

A sound byte is worth 1,000 words in helping to define swing. Listen to The Count Basie Band play “Every Tub.” This great band set the standard for swing, and the Basie rhythm section illustrates this concept at 0:32–0:55. You may be intrigued enough to listen to the entire track.


Melody is the result of an organization of notes that move by varying distances—by step and leap—either ascending or descending, to form a musical statement. Melody is thought of as moving in a linear, horizontal fashion. A complete musical idea or statement is often termed a phrase. The term phrase can refer to a melodic, harmonic, or rhythmic statement. Short melodic phrases are strung together to create entire tunes.

The Count Basie recording of “Every Tub” on the companion website provides an excellent example of a musical phrase. Listen to 2:02–2:17 in this track to hear the repetitive melodic phrase played by the saxophones, with brass accompaniment.

Melody is by far the easiest ingredient to understand. Melodies can stand alone, be coupled with other melodies, or be sung/played with accompaniment. Melody is the aspect of most musical styles usually remembered more easily than harmony or even rhythm. A melody is often easy to recognize and remember because it may consist of only a few notes. Most listeners identify a lyric with a melody and hear them as one ingredient. Lyrics even help to clarify the overall form or architecture of a piece. Instrumental jazz is perhaps less easily grasped because it lacks a lyric


to help listeners keep track of the various twists and turns of the melody. Remove the lyrics of a tune, and many listeners lose their way. The memorable melody of a show or pop tune that serves as the basis for an instrumental jazz treatment can become altered beyond easy recognition, as instrumentalists are not bound by lyrics. These show and pop tunes from the 1930s and 1940s were used in jazz improvisations. As jazz matured, performers discarded popular dance and show tunes from their repertoire, and the new, original jazz melodies became less easily recognized and more difficult to follow and remember.

A piano keyboard is grouped into repeating sets of 12 different white and black notes, with each group of 12 defining an octave. A melody can begin on any of the 12 different notes. Singers often practice a song in different keys, dictating they begin on a different note, until they find the one that they feel most suits the mood of the tune and best accommodates their own voice range. Have you ever tried unsuccessfully to sing the “Star Spangled Banner” or a church hymn, struggling to make the highest or lowest note? You struggled because the tune was in the wrong key for you, forcing you to start on the wrong first note. This musical key falls into one of two categories that define a tonality, usually major or minor. The major or minor tonality helps to describe the aural character of a piece of music, a melody or a single harmony. Harmony and melody work together to establish a tonality. Atonal describes a piece that lacks any specific tonality and is therefore neither major nor minor. Only some very contemporary, avant-garde jazz music lacks tonality. A song may have more than one tonality, depending upon its complexity. Tonality could be compared to a painting where many colors may be used, but one seems dominant.

Most of the music presented in the online audio anthology is considered tonal and is in either a major or minor key. Duke Ellington’s “Ko-Ko,” for example, is in a minor key. Bill Evans’s version of “Witchcraft” is an example of major key or tonality. The Ornette Coleman track “Mind and Time,” however, is a good example of atonal improvisation, as Coleman pays no real regard to key, harmony, or prescribed melody. Begin your listening either at the beginning to listen first to the composed tune or at the start of his solo at 0:23.

Go to the website section entitled “Performance Practice” found under “Listening to Jazz.” Good audio examples of homophony and polyphony can also be found as the first two excerpts on the second page of the subsection labeled, “Dissecting a Jazz Performance.”

C# D# F# G# A# C# (black keys)

D# F#


G#A# etc.

D E F G A B C etc.

EXAMPLE 2.4 Two-octave C scale. Raised half-steps in between each scale note (black keys) are labeled above as sharps


EXAMPLE 2.5 Chord symbols in a typical progression that jazz musicians must learn to interpret


Harmony is a collection of two or more notes played together and, in contrast to melody, is viewed as a vertical event, as notes are stacked one on top of another and sounded simultaneously. Chords are similarly defined. The most basic of chords is the three-note triad. Harmony is typically used to accompany a melody. A succession of chords is called a chord progression, or just progression. The harmonic rhythm defines the pace at which chords move from one to another in a progression. Most jazz tunes feature a progression of chords that creates tension followed by resolution. This practice, known as functional harmony, is based on the notion that there are certain tendencies that lead one chord logically to another. This practice serves as the basis for a high percentage of jazz tunes and American popular music. We may feel unsettled when a chord progression does not follow this principle and seems to be unresolved.

The sense of key, or center of tonal gravity, is established by the tendencies of functional harmony and helps jazz players to create logical improvisations—melodies that relate back to this center of gravity. Jazz tunes often feature only one or two key centers, depending on how many uniquely different sections there are to the tune. It is essential that jazz improvisers are thoroughly conversant in functional harmony, as it is these principles that guide the soloist to create new melodies. The best soloists can identify the chords in a progression by hearing them, without the aid of printed music.

The harmonic language of jazz is largely borrowed from light classical, popular dance, religious, and various forms of entertainment music. Aside from the blues, the earliest forms of jazz were based on marches, cakewalks, quadrilles, and polkas—all dance forms popular in the 19th century.

For a more detailed explanation of melody and keys, along with musical examples, use the website and explore the section on melody found in the corresponding chapter “Elements of Jazz.”

Use the website to gain more insight into how harmony is constructed and functions. The section about “Harmony” is found in the corresponding chapter and includes many examples that can be played, helping you to understand these concepts.

Eventually, jazz adopted a more sophisticated harmonic vocabulary, including other altered tones that were not uncommon in 20th century “classical” music by composers such as Stravinsky, Debussy, and Bartók. Chords become richer and denser as more tones are added, often creating tension.

On the website, listen to the lush, slow moving but changing harmonies (chord progression) used to support the melody of “Moon Dreams” from Miles Davis’s Birth of the Cool recording. Listen to the entire track or just the opening section at 0:00–0:25.


Music can be perceived as a mosaic or fabric where melodies and harmonies interact and intertwine, serving as the tiles or fibers in the completed work. The ways in which each musical tile or fiber interacts with one another—melody with harmony, or several melodies with one another— contribute to what is described as the music’s texture. Texture can be dense or sparse, busy or static—transparent or dark and rich. These textures are further described as monophonic, homophonic, or polyphonic. Monophonic describes a single melodic line unaccompanied by harmony—for example, you singing by yourself in the shower. Music is homophonic when a melody line is supported by chord accompaniment. Homophonic textures are therefore denser than monophonic ones, because they have two layers—melody and chord accompaniment. Polyphonic music features two or more intertwined melodic lines. The different melodic lines are


EXAMPLE 2.6 Visualization of monophonic texture. The light, horizontal, wavy line represents the melodic shape of a solo singer. There are no other layers present in this single-dimensional texture

EXAMPLE 2.7 Visualization of homophonic texture. The wavy, horizontal line represents the melodic shape of a solo singer. The vertical bars represent chords, with darker shades indicating major chords, and lighter shades representing minor chords

EXAMPLE 2.8 Visualization of polyphony. The light, horizontal, wavy lines represent the melodic shape of a solo singer and a second melodic voice complementing the primary vocal melody below it. The vertical bars represent chords, with darker shades indicating major chords, and lighter shades representing minor chords. Black dots represent a rising and falling bass line in counterpoint with the melody line. The entire texture, with multiple layers of activity, is described as polyphonic


said to be moving in counterpoint (literally, note against note) to one another. If you sang “Row, Row, Row Your Boat” as a round with staggered entrances, your friend beginning after you started, the resulting texture would be called polyphonic. The addition of chords, adding another layer to the texture, could also accompany the overlapping melodies in this round. Textures with a greater number of elements become increasingly challenging for the listener.

Excellent examples of these textural concepts can be heard on the companion website. For example, “Line For Lyons” offers an excellent example of polyphony or counterpoint at 0:00–0:45. Keith Jarrett’s unaccompanied solo in “The Windup,” beginning at 1:55–2:30, serves to further describe a monophonic texture, and “Take Five,” beginning at 0:22, provides a good illustration of a homophony. More dense textures can be heard in J.J. Johnson’s “Poem For Brass” excerpt.

Using Example 2.1, “Happy Birthday,” you can see and hear illustrations of many concepts discussed to this point. For example, the melody continues to ascend in the first three phrases. The melody begins to descend in the third phrase. The melody, which constantly changes direction, is constructed of close steps and wider leaps. Where is the climax reached, at least in terms of the highest note? How many phrases comprise this familiar tune? If you sang it by your self, unaccompanied, the texture would be described as monophonic. If you were accompanied by piano chords, the texture would be described as homophonic. If, after singing it once, you began again on a different starting pitch, you would be changing the key. If another person improvised another melodic line with you, they would be adding counterpoint, creating polyphony.


Form in music describes its overall architecture—how many different melodies are there? Do they repeat, and if so how many times? Are sections repeated exactly or with variation? Form gives music structure similar to the organization we find in other art forms, in nature, everyday life and in architecture (suspension bridge, building, etc.). It is an important musical ingredient to comprehend in order to understand what you hear. Although form, on the surface, may seem to be the easiest element to understand, without the benefit of lyrics and a singer it may be difficult for the untrained listener to discern.

Most jazz compositions have more than one clearly defined section. A letter—A, B, C, etc. —defines each large section in the overall form. Each of these sections usually features a distinctly different melody and accompanying chord progression. For example, ragtime pieces are often based on the following formal scheme: AABBACCDD. This form is derived from the rondo form, a European “classical” model also evident in the march and the polka. The rondo describes a form where one section (A) reoccurs and is juxtaposed with contrasting sections (B, C, D). The consecutive letters in such a scheme (AA or BB) indicate that there is a repeat of that particular theme before the move on to a new one. Often, a piece that follows this model changes key at the C section.

Listen to the recording of Scott Joplin’s “Maple Leaf Rag” on the companion website. It is close to resembling a rondo form, with multiple themes and changing keys. Can you determine when each new theme is introduced?

Many American popular songs that served as springboards for jazz improvisations followed the song form model, usually represented by ABA or AABA. One statement of the form is often called a chorus. The return to A to end the form gives one a sense of symmetry and finality. Each section (A and B) is typically 8 measures in length. Jazz musicians often refer to the B section as the bridge or channel. The blues is the simplest of all forms, as it is usually only 12 measures long, lacking a B or C theme.

Once again, “Take Five” on the companion website offers a good example of the classic song form—ABA. Each section of the form is divided up into two, 4-measure phrases. Following a brief introduction by the rhythm section, the A section begins at 0:22, with the second phrase occurring at 0:30 through repeat of the first. The first phrase of the B section begins at 0:38, with the second phrase following at 0:45. The A section returns at 0:52, and the second phrase occurs at 1:00. The improvised solo begins at 1:08.

The Billie Holiday rendition of “Body and Soul” and Stan Getz’s recording of “Só Danço Samba,” also included on the website, provide additional examples of AABA song-form structure that is easy to follow because of the lyric content. Can you identify the bridge in these two vocal pieces?

“James and Wes” is a good illustration of a 12-bar instrumental blues based on a repetitive melody and simple form.



Extemporaneous playing; spontaneous composition; creating music on the spur of the moment. These are simple phrases to describe the act of improvising. People now think of jazz at the mere mention of the term improvisation, although there are often improvised solos in pop tunes, and improvisation is often a component of Indian and other world music. Descriptions of jazz from almost any era agree that improvisation is a salient feature. Jazz historian Ostransky stated that, in jazz, “reading music is considered a lesser accomplishment than improvising it.”9 Discussing the importance of improvisation to jazz, noted jazz scholar James Lincoln Collier wrote that, “it is always the soloist that is written about, always the solo that is analyzed.”10 Earlier writings about jazz portrayed improvisation as a mysterious or divine process, adding to the music’s mystique. Recently, more thoughtful discussions have helped understanding of the true process behind this unique form of creativity. As improvisation is an important feature of jazz, the intelligent listener needs to learn about its nature in order to develop skills for identifying and appreciating it.

Something Borrowed—The European Tradition

An early tradition of improvised music is found in medieval chants and in music from the Renaissance (c.1450–1600) and Baroque (c.1600–1750) periods. Composers were expected to deviate from the original melodies, as did Baroque composer Georg Philipp Telemann when he composed the Methodical Sonatas. He provided the basic melody on one line and, on another line, suggestions for improvisations not terribly different than those used by modern jazz soloist Charlie Parker.11 In 1765, violinist and composer Karel von Dittersdorf wrote that: “A new custom developed . . . To show their improvisational creativity they [the soloists] start fantasias in which they play a simple subject which they then very artfully vary several times according to the best rules of composition.”12 Baroque composers J.S. Bach and G.F. Handel also included passages where improvisation was invited, and this practice continued until the beginning of the Romantic period (c.1820–1900). Although a fine improviser, Ludwig van Beethoven, an extraordinary composer from this period, began a new trend away from this improvisation. The increasing complexity of the music, the growth of music publishing businesses, and the increasing number

The section about form found in the corresponding chapter on the website provides a thorough explanation of form in music, with examples drawn from the jazz repertoire.



EXAMPLE 2.9 Lowered third, fifth and seventh (E flat, G flat, B flat) are called “blue notes” and are shaded in the following keyboard example

of amateur musicians caused “classical” composers such as Beethoven to seek more control over their compositions. Franz Liszt, another composer and improviser, summed up this new trend by saying, “the most absolute respect for the masterpieces of the great masters has replaced the need for novelty and individuality.”13 More attention was paid to interpretation of the musical composition as written, and, by the late 1800s, the role of improvisation was diminishing in European music. However, at the same time, in the United States new styles of music were emerging that once again placed a high value on spontaneity and individuality.

Something New, Something Blue—The Jazz Tradition

The roots of American jazz can be compared to any folk tradition—impromptu, spontaneous, and simplistic. These characteristics, as well as rhythm, lyric, and melody, were of utmost importance in early vocal styles. Perhaps the closest thing to true improvisation in the late 1800s and early 1900s in America could be found in African-American vocal styles such as work songs and field hollers improvised by slaves and chain-gang workers, and especially in the blues. This vocal style featured blue notes, slightly altered tones where a special inflection was given to the third and seventh scale tones by lowering the pitch slightly. Instrumentalists later imitated this blues vocal style.


A distinguishing aspect of many jazz melodies, improvised and composed, is the blues. Blues melodies are based on alterations of a traditional scale. Some believe that the altered thirds, fifths, and sevenths of the blues scale can be attributed to certain African singing practices. A scale is a logical progression of ascending and descending notes, arranged in half- and whole-step intervals. The piano keyboard shown in Example 2.9 makes it easy to see these two basic intervals, which serve as building blocks for all scales. Note names are labeled. The distance from C to D is a whole-step interval, and the black key in between represents a half-step interval. Scales are comprised of eight consecutive notes, following a particular key signature, and are named in accordance with the starting note. On this keyboard, the C scale would be played as C–D–E–F–G–A–B–C. The third, fifth and seventh notes of this traditional scale are altered to form the blues scale, as shown in the example. The purple- shaded notes indicate the lowered third (E flat), lowered fifth (G flat), and lowered seventh (B flat) and are referred to as blue notes. There are gradations of blue notes, as singers and instrumentalists are capable of being less precise than a pianist when lowering these pitches.

The blues scale is almost an amalgamation of pitches from the major and minor tonalities. Leroy Ostransky, author of Understanding Jazz, felt that, “early jazz players probably saw little distinction between major and minor modes [scales] and used major and minor thirds interchangeably.”14 Whatever the origins, these slightly flatted pitches (third, fifth, and seventh scale degrees) became known as blue notes and are responsible for much of the special melodic and harmonic character in jazz that distinguishes it from other forms of music. Blue notes often


help to communicate a melancholy feeling. Blues songs are sometimes associated with a depressed, downtrodden, or melancholy mood. The use of blue notes does not always, however, achieve this feeling, nor are these alterations always used to create this “blue” mood. They are merely one way to make a melodic line more personalized and expressive.

Some historians believe that the blues may have evolved as a result of African slaves attempting to reconcile their predominant five-note pentatonic scale with the Western eight-note scale and harmony they found in the US.

Gertrude “Ma” Rainey (1886–1939) and her Georgia Jazz Band, Chicago, 1923

The most unique aspect of jazz harmony for many years was introduced through the application of blue notes to chords. Those altered tones that we identify with a blues melody were eventually incorporated into the harmonies to form more colorful and dissonant chords, beyond the simple three-note triad.

The similarity between blues and pentatonic scales is illustrated by an audio example found on the website in the corresponding chapter.

Go to the corresponding section of the website (Chapter 2) and you will find audio examples further helping you to hear what the blues sounds like. The online audio anthology includes examples of blues from two different periods of jazz history—“St. Louis Blues” and “Jimmy and Wes.”


Improvisation in Jazz

As a whole, the earliest jazz instrumentalists were not known for their ability to improvise new solos each time they performed. Typically, these early musicians performed a piece nearly the same way each time, once their approach to a particular song had been refined. Their playing was largely a theme and variation style in which a melody was merely embel lished and ornamented in new ways. Thematic variation is the simplest form of improvisation and is probably what Alphonse Picou (1878–1961), a New Orleans clarinetist, referred to when he described this early form of jazz as a “style of playing without notes.”15

The study of the development of early instrumental jazz is difficult because, during this era, the music could be preserved only in a written format, or passed on aurally. No audible artifact remained for study, as recording technology had not yet been invented. As each jazz performance is an interpretation of a composition, the printed page could not totally capture the live performance and its unwritten subtleties. However, after the turn of the 20th century, jazz became perhaps the first music to be greatly influenced by the advent of sound recording, for it directly paralleled the growth of jazz. (See the brief history of recording included on the website.) Recordings provided lasting aural artifacts that faithfully reproduced the live performance other musicians could now be influenced by and could imitate. Recordings were also responsible for the very rapid changes in jazz, compared with the slower pace in previous musical history, where one style was popular for decades before a significant change occurred. Recordings, though, became both an asset and a disadvantage. On one hand, they quickly spread the music and were models for younger musicians trying to learn through imitation. On the other hand, musicians with a popular record now found that the public often wanted to hear live performances exactly

Photo of a jazz band in a radio studio, broadcasting, circa mid to late 1920s

as they remembered the record ing. The pressures of popularity, customer satisfaction, and marketing could then discourage improvisation.

As jazz matured, largely through the work of Louis Armstrong in the mid 1920s, the concept and importance of improvisation solidified. There are many levels of improvisation at work within the hierarchy of a jazz ensemble. For example, drummers and bassists probably improvise the greatest percentage of the time, though often what they play is not new to them. They rely on familiar patterns that they have played many times. There is no precise duplication, however, and what they improvise often depends on the style of the tune, the tempo, and, of course, with whom they are playing. The amount of improvisational content in a particular performance is dependent, to a great extent, on the size of the ensemble and the intent of the music. Larger ensembles usually mean a lesser amount of improvisation, whereas small ensembles, such as trios and quartets, rely a great deal more on improvisation. Jazz aimed at a dance audience usually features less improvisation, because the music assumes a more subservient role.

Improvisation inspires a musical dialogue between the soloist and rhythm section, each complementing the other, while suggesting new ideas for elaboration as the improvisation evolves. Many performers have described the jazz solo as a story with a beginning, middle, and end. To tell a good story, there are characters; in musical situations, memorable melodic phrases serve the role of characters and are often repeated with some variation to provide continuity to an improvisation. The performer’s duty is to take the listener on a journey. The more listeners are led to predict musical outcomes in this journey, the more engaged they are in the performance. But, if they can predict too much, they become bored and unchallenged. Listeners can easily tune out when a high percentage of what they hear is unpredictable or previously unexperienced.

Jazz soloists are faced with creating spontaneous, new melodies; however, they must adhere to certain guidelines. With each new style of jazz came new and often more chal lenging principles to which the soloist must adhere in order to gain the respect of peers and audiences while advancing the art form to a new level. Jazz players have learned about music theory and have developed the ability to hear harmonies. Each improvised solo, usually referred to as a chorus, should build as the musical story unfolds. The notes chosen must relate to the same progression of chords used to accompany the original melody. The only thing written out in the music for the soloist (and rhythm-section players) is a series of symbols that represent these chord structures. This form of abbreviated chord notation is shown in Example 2.10. It is the result of years of dedicated practice and inspiration that enables a jazz soloist, given only this simple, cryptic chart of information, to construct a moving, engaging, and coherent improvised solo.

To ensure that their improvisations are consonant with these harmonies, soloists use certain tools, such as scales and modes that relate to harmonies (chords), to help them negotiate a pro – gression of chords in order to construct new, melodic improvisations. Soloists also use the notes of the chords themselves in order to improvise new melodies. It is a difficult process, as choices must be made on the fly. To allow the creative side of the brain time to recover from being spontaneous and consider what to play next, soloists often rely on “licks,” or pre-learned patterns and phrases. These phrases, used throughout an improvised solo, often refer to the tradition, as they may be quotes of melodies played by another soloist years earlier. Even the great improviser


EXAMPLE 2.10 Typical jazz chord progression illustrated by symbols

Charlie Parker, in a bebop improvisation, quoted a Louis Armstrong solo recorded many years earlier. These quotes and memorized phrases can be strung together in many different ways to create new material. Phrases borrowed from the tradition could be compared to the many ways that we can express an idea in words. For example, take a phrase such as “The new-fallen snow is beautiful.” This simple idea could be expressed and embellished in many different ways. One could have said, “The new snow that fell last night is beautiful,” or “New snow like we got last night is really beautiful.” These multiple means of expression are exactly what jazz players employ when they use a pre-learned phrase and put it to use in an improvised solo. In using a pre-learned phrase, the soloist creates the illusion of pure spontaneity for the listener. Although the sequences of pre-learned ideas are assembled and reassembled in new ways from performance to performance, many of the memorized ideas can be repeated. Ostransky wrote about this phenomenon in his book The Anatomy of Jazz. He said, “They [jazz improvisers] do not compose on the spur of the moment; their significant improvisations are the result of long practice and experience.”16

Through years of listening, borrowing, assimilating, analyzing, and imitating, soloists amass a collection of jazz phrases that suit their individual style and can be recalled at any time in the course of a solo. In other words, soloists play what they enjoy playing. Therefore, not everything played during a jazz solo is spontaneously created. These solos, more frequently than not, are based on a series of recreations—bits and pieces of pre-learned material coupled with newly created ideas to form fresh, new improvisations. In the fall of 1958, the then well-known swing band leader/composer Duke Ellington traveled to England for a tour with his orchestra. He expressed his thoughts and feelings about jazz improvisation in an article entitled, “The Future of Jazz” included in the souvenir program. In this article he said:

There are still a few die-hards who believe there is such a thing as unadulterated improvisation without preparation or anticipation. It is my belief that there has never been anybody who has blown even two bars worth listening to who doesn’t have some idea about what he was going to play, before he started. If you just ramble through the scales or play around the chords, that’s nothing more than musical exercise. Improvisation really consists of picking out a device here, and connecting it with a device there; changing the rhythm here, and pausing there; there has to be some thought preceding each phrase, otherwise it is meaningless.17

Other forms of quotes used by jazz soloists include humorous ones, such as “Here Comes the Bride” (from the opera Lohengrin by Richard Wagner), which almost everyone knows, and melodies from other standard tunes that fit the particular chord progression. Quotes of this nature sometimes serve as homage to earlier players and a display of machismo, demonstrating to fellow musicians and informed listeners how much is known about the tradition. The player’s ultimate objective is to have an effective dialogue with the other musicians, while creating exciting new ideas and incorporating appropriate aspects of the tradition. To quote contemporary trumpeter Tom Harrell, “He improves on his heritage, but he also tries to invent music that has never been heard before.”18 Only the greatest soloists, the true virtuosos on their instruments, are capable of spontaneously creating a high percentage of completely new material each time they improvise. The most innovative improvisers in the history of jazz were those who dared to break from tradition and forge new pathways that relied less on what had come before.

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functional health pattern assessment

Children’s Functional Health Pattern Assessment

Functional Health Pattern Assessment (FHP)ToddlerErickson’s Developmental Stage:Preschool-AgedErickson’s Developmental Stage:School-AgedErickson’s Developmental Stage:
Pattern of Health Perception and Health Management:List two normal assessment findings that would be characteristic for each age group.List two potential problems that a nurse may discover in an assessment of each age group.
Nutritional-Metabolic Pattern:List two normal assessment findings that would be characteristic for each age group.List two potential problems that a nurse may discover in an assessment of each age group.
Pattern of Elimination:List two normal assessment findings that would be characteristic for each age group.List two potential problems that a nurse may discover in an assessment of each age group.
Pattern of Activity and Exercise:List two normal assessment findings that would be characteristic for each age group.List two potential problems that a nurse may discover in an assessment of each age group.
Cognitive/Perceptual Pattern:List two normal assessment findings that would be characteristic for each age group.List two potential problems that a nurse may discover in an assessment of each age group.
Pattern of Sleep and Rest:List two normal assessment findings that would be characteristic for each age group.List two potential problems that a nurse may discover in an assessment of each age group.
Pattern of Self-Perception and Self-Concept:List two normal assessment findings that would be characteristic for each age group.List two potential problems that a nurse may discover in an assessment of each age group.
Role-Relationship Pattern:List two normal assessment findings that would be characteristic for each age group.List 2 potential problems that a nurse may discover in an assessment of each age group.
Sexuality – Reproductive Pattern:List two normal assessment findings that would be characteristic for each age group.List two potential problems that a nurse may discover in an assessment of each age group.
Pattern of Coping and Stress Tolerance:List two normal assessment findings that would be characteristic for each age group.List wo potential problems that a nurse may discover in an assessment of each age group.
Pattern of Value and Beliefs:List two normal assessment findings that would be characteristic for each age group.List two potential problems that a nurse may discover in an assessment of each age group.

Short Answer Questions

Address the following based on the above assessment findings. Expected answers will be 1-2 paragraphs in length. Cite and reference outside sources used.

1) Compare and contrast identified similarities as well as differences in expected assessment across the childhood age groups.

2) Summarize how a nurse would handle physical assessments, examinations, education, and communication differently with children versus adults. Consider spirituality and cultural differences in your answer.

© 2016. Grand Canyon University. All Rights Reserved.

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a firm in a competitive market receives $500 in total revenue and has marginal revenue of $10.


• Because a competitive firm is a price taker, its revenue is proportional to the amount of output it produces. The price of the good equals both the firm’s average revenue and its marginal revenue.

• To maximize profit, a firm chooses a quantity of output such that marginal revenue equals mar- ginal cost. Because marginal revenue for a com- petitive firm equals the market price, the firm chooses quantity so that price equals marginal cost. Thus, the firm’s marginal-cost curve is its supply curve.

• In the short run when a firm cannot recover its fixed costs, the firm will choose to shut down temporarily if the price of the good is less than average variable cost. In the long run when the firm can recover both fixed and variable costs, it

KEY CONCI.PJ:S. competitive market, p. 280 average revenue, p. 281

1. What is meant by a competitive firm? 2. Explain the difference between a firm’s revenue

and its profit. Which do firms maximize? 3. Draw the cost curves for a typical firm. For a

given price, explain how the firm chooses the level of output that maximizes profit. At that level of output, show on your graph the firm’s total revenue and total costs.

4. Under what conditions will a firm shut down temporarily? Explain.

1. Many small boats are made of fiberglass, which is derived from crude oil. Suppose that the price of oil rises. a. Using diagrams, show what happens to the

cost curves of an individual boat-making firm and to the market supply curve.

b. What happens to the profits of boat makers in the short run? What happens to the number of boat makers in the long run?

2. You go out to the best restaurant in town and order a lobster dinner for $40. After eating half

will choose to exit if the price is less than average total cost.

• In a market with free entry and exit, profits are driven to zero in the long run. In this long-run equilibrium, all firms produce at the efficient scale, price equals the minimum of average total cost, and the number of firms adjusts to satisfy the quantity demanded at this price.

• Changes in demand have different effects over different time horizons. In the short run, an increase in demand raises prices and leads to profits, and a decrease in demand lowers prices and leads to losses. But if firms can freely enter and exit the market, then in the long run, the number of firms adjusts to drive the market back to the zero-profit equilibrium.

marginalrevenue,p.282 sunk cost, p. 286

5. Under what conditions will a firm exit a ” market? Explain. ( 6:\Does a firm’s price equal marginal cost in the ~–thort run, in the long run, or both? Explain. V Does a firm’s price equal the minimum of

average total cost in the short run, in the long run, or both? Explain.

8. Are market supply curves typically more elastic in the short run or in the long run? Explain.

of the lobster, you realize that you are quite full. . Your date wants you to finish your dinner because . you can’t take it home and because “you’ve already paid for it.” What should you do? Relate your answer to the material in this chapter.

3. Bob’s lawn-mowing service is a profit-maximizing, competitive firm. Bob mows lawns for $27 each. His total cost each day is $280, of which $30 is a fixed cost. He mows 10 lawns a day. What can you say about Bob’s short-run decision regarding shutdown and his long-run decision regarding exit?

total cost and total revenue given in following table:

012 3 4 56 7

Total cost Total revenue

$8 9 10 $0 8 16

11 13 19 27 37 . ‘ ‘ 24 32 40 48 .Sf> ·

a. Calculate profit for each quantity. How much should the firm produce to maximize profit?

b. Calculate marginal revenue and marginal cost for each quantity. Graph them. (Hint: Put the points between whole numbers. For example, the marginal cost between 2 and 3 should be graphed at 2~.) At what quantity do these curves cross? How does this relate to your answer to part (a)?

c. Can you tell whether this firm is in a competitive industry? If so, can you tell whether the industry is in a long-run equilibrium?

5. Ball Bearings, Inc. faces costs of production as follows:

Total Total Fixed Variable

Quantity Costs Costs

0 $100 $ 0 1 100 50 2 100 70 3 100 90 4 100 140 5 100 200 6 100 360

a. Calculate the company’s average fixed costs, average variable costs, average total costs, an~ marginal costs at each level of production.

b. The price of a case of ball bearings is $50. Seeing that she can’t make a profit, the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) decides to shut down operations. What are the firm’s profits/ losses? Was this a wise decision? Explain.

c. Vaguely remembering his introductory economics coutse, the Chief Financial Officer tells·the CEO it is better to produce 1 case of ball bearings, because marginal revenue equals marginal cost at that quantity. What are the firm’s profits/losses at that level of production? Was this the best decision? Explain.

6. Suppose the book-printing industry is competitive and begins in a long-run equilibrium. a. Draw a diagram describing the typical firm

in the industry. b. Hi-Tech Printing Company invents a new

process that sharply reduces the cost of


printing books. What happens to Hi-Tech’s profits and the price of books in the short run when Hi-Tech’s patent prevents other firms from using the new technology?

c. What happens in the long run when the pat~nt expires and other firms are free to use the technology?

7. A firm in a competitive market receives $500 in total revenue and has marginal revenue of $10. What is the average revenue, and how many units were sold? .

8. A profit-maximizing firm in a competitive market is currently producing 100 units of output. It has average revenue of $10, average total cost of $8, and fixed costs of $200. a. What is its profit? b. What is its marginal cost? c. What is its average variable cost? d. Is the efficient scale of the firm more than,

~ less than, or exactly 100 units?

The market for fertilizer is perfectly competitive. Firms in the market are producing output, but are currently making economic losses. a. How does the price of fertilizer compare to

the· average total cost, the average variable cost, and the marginal cost of producing fertilizer?

b. Draw two graphs, side by side, illustrating the present situation for the typical firm and in the market. ‘

c. Assuming there is no change in either demand or the firms’ cost curves, explain what will happen in the long run to the price of fertilizer, marginal cost, average total cost, the quantity supplied by each firm, and the total quantity supplied to the market.

10. The market for apple pies in the city of Ectenia is competitive and has the following demand schedule:

Price Quantity Demanded

$ 1 1.200 pies 2 1,100 3 1,000 4 %0 5 800 6 700 7 600 8 500 9 400

10. . 300

11 200 12 100 13 0 .

pay for research paper research paper done for you research paper writing service

timothy o’sullivan was a photographer whose images were the result of random snapshots.

Chapter Title Chapter

#11Photography If your pictures aren’t

good enough, you aren’t

close enough.

Robert Capa (Endre Ernő Friedmann) 1913–1954 PHOTOJOURNALIST

Once you see the forlorn face of Flor- ence Thompson, you will never forget her (Figure 11.1). With furrowed forehead, a faraway look, hand cupped to her chin in a gesture of uncertainty, two children shyly hiding their faces in the warmth of her shoulders, and an infant sleeping on her lap, the photograph is more than a simple portrait of a family. The image is reminiscent of the “Madonna and Child” religious icon known to millions because painters throughout the history of Christi- anity have captured it on canvas. But here in black and white is a real-life symbol for all parents struggling to survive and feed their families during the Great Depres- sion and for all uncertain economic times. “Migrant Mother” is probably the world’s most reproduced photograph in the his- tory of photography because it makes people care about this mother on a deep, personal level.

But it was a picture that almost was not taken.

Dorothea Nutzhorn was born in Hobo- ken, New Jersey, in 1895. When she was 12 years old she took her mother’s maiden name of Lange after her father left the family. As a child she suffered from polio that gave her a limp in her right leg for the rest of her life. Although she’d never held a camera, at 14 she wanted to be a photographer, because she said that her disability “gave her an almost telepathic connection with those who suffered.” After studying at Columbia University under the photographer Clarence White, she moved in 1918 to San Francisco, where she enjoyed the Bay Area’s bohe- mian lifestyle. She married the painter Maynard Dixon and had two sons. She supported her family through her studio photography business. By 1932, she had become an able portrait photographer


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with a reputation for capturing the personalities of the rich San Francisco matrons of the day.

News reports of the terrible living conditions of rural Americans prompted Lange to want to document their lives. The country was undergoing the worst drought in its history; dust storms blew away the once-fertile topsoil. The stock market crashed in 1929 and farm prices plummeted, throwing millions out of work. People lived from day to day, and thousands of farmers from the Midwest

Figure 11.1 “Migrant Mother,” 1936, by Dorothea Lange. The disturb- ing and touching story line of a woman alone with her children during the height of America’s Great Depression spurred many to help others. But is she posing or wish- ing the photographer would leave?

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and Great Plains who had lost their land and livelihoods took off in mattress- topped automobiles for the golden West. Lange obtained a job with the State of California to document agricultural labor conditions. She was teamed with social economist Dr. Paul Schuster Taylor, whom she later married.

After completion of the project, the head of the Resettlement Administra- tion (RA), Rexford Tugwell, reviewed her pictures in Washington and promptly hired her.

The RA, later renamed the Farm Secu- rity Administration (FSA), was an agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. President Franklin D. Roosevelt created it to help relocate farmers to more fertile farmland, obtain massive subsidies to offset the low prices farmers were get- ting for their crops, and convince the American public that controversial social programs needed to be passed by the conservative Congress. Thus, the FSA was more of a propaganda wing that the government used to get New Deal legisla- tion through Congress than a direct aid to rural residents. Besides Lange, famous photographers who worked for the FSA were Walker Evans, Russell Lee, Gordon Parks, Arthur Rothstein, and Marion Post Wolcott (Figure 11.2).

The FSA photographers produced an exhaustive document of rural and urban life in America during the 1930s and 1940s that has never been equaled. Newspapers and magazines used their pictures because they were free. However, in 1943 the FSA was eliminated and its employees transferred to the Office of War Information, which was ended in 1945. Nevertheless, the images succeeded in helping pass New Deal legislation and also inspired other photographers to fol- low in their documentary footsteps. More

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had passed. Finally, the image of the people she had briefly seen overpow- ered her desire to get home. She turned her car around and drove back to the camp. Lange retrieved her press camera, a portable version of the tripod-bound,

Figure 11.2 “Fleeing a Dust Storm,” 1936, by Arthur Rothstein. Okla- homa farmer Arthur Coble and his two sons weather a storm. During the Great Depression, the Farm Security Administration of the U.S. government produced numer- ous classic documents such as this Dust Bowl picture by Arthur Rothstein.

Figure 11.3 Photojournalists call the first picture taken at a scene a “cover shot.” If you are asked or are forced to leave, at least you have something. With the older girl avoiding the camera, the younger one smiling for the lens, and Flor- ence Thompson looking back at a daughter hiding behind her, this image is almost a snapshot—not a particularly telling moment.

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than 250,000 of their images are stored in the collection at the Library of Congress, and a copy of each one can be purchased at a nominal price.

But the image in the collection—the most revered and reproduced—is Lange’s “Migrant Mother.”

Tired, hungry, and anxious to get home after a month-long project taking pictures in central California, Lange drove her car north along the cold and wet Camino Real Highway (101) in early March 1936. Along the way she noted a migrant workers’ camp of about 2,500 people outside the small town of Nipomo. On the side of the road someone had placed a sign that sim- ply proclaimed, “Pea-Pickers Camp.” These sights were all too common, with poor people from all over the country forced to stop for lack of money and gasoline and earn a few dollars picking local crops.

For 30 minutes, Lange drove toward home and thought about the camp she

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large-format camera, and immediately found Florence Thompson sitting in the barely adequate shelter of an open tent with her daughters (Figure 11.3). With the crop destroyed by a freeze, there was no work at the camp. An engine chain had broken on their Model T Ford, so they were stuck. Thompson’s two sons, along with a man living with Thompson at the time, went to town to get the car fixed, leaving her to care for her daughters. She

Figure 11.4 Perched atop her 1933 Ford Model C four-door wagon, Dorothea Lange poses with a Graflex 4 × 5 Series D cam- era. She was driving this car when she spotted Florence Thompson and her family at the side of the road and used this camera for her famous photograph.

Figure 11.5 The book jacket of An Ameri- can Exodus: A Record of Human Erosion by Dorothea Lange and Paul Taylor shows a typical sight along the roads during America’s Great Depression—a truck filled with household goods. With Lange’s pictures and Taylor’s words, the two documented the migration of many from ruined Dust Bowl farms to migrant worker camps out West.

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was pregnant with her sixth child. She would eventually have seven children.

In notes about the brief encounter, Lange later wrote, “Camped on the edge of a pea field where the crop had failed in a freeze. She said that she had been living on frozen vegetables from the sur- rounding fields and birds that the children had killed.” Lange did not ask her name or anything about her past history. She stayed ten minutes and made six expo- sures (Figure 11.4).

When she returned home, Lange made several prints and gave them to an edi- tor of the San Francisco News, where they were published under the headline, “FOOD RUSHED TO STARVING FARM COLONY.” Two of Lange’s photographs accompanied the story that detailed the situation of the migrants and the efforts of relief workers to bring food and cleanup crews to the camp. The famous close-up was not published. Because of the story and pictures, the camp residents received about 20,000 pounds of food from the government, but Thompson and her family had left before help arrived.

But back in Washington, the historical and social significance of the Thompson portrait were recognized immediately. The picture soon became an American classic with a life of its own. Newspapers across the country reproduced it. In 1941, the Museum of Modern Art in New York City exhibited it. When John Steinbeck saw the picture, it inspired him to write The Grapes of Wrath. Without question, the picture made Lange famous. And despite her later achievements as a staff photographer for Life magazine, her collaboration with Paul Taylor on their book An American Exodus: A Record of Human Erosion, and her docu- mentation of Japanese American internees during World War II, she is forever linked to it (Figure 11.5). Frustrated over that

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story was published about her situation. Readers who saw the story and remem- bered the emotional image were moved to send money to her—more than $15,000 ($33,500 today)—before she died. Many of the letters that contained money noted how the writers’ lives had been touched by Lange’s close-up portrait of the “Migrant Mother.”

In 1998, a print signed by Lange was sold for $244,500 ($328,000 today) at Sotheby’s auction house in New York to an anonymous collector who promptly sold it to the J. Paul Getty Museum in Los Angeles for a higher undisclosed sum.

In a 2008 interview with a CNN reporter, Thompson’s daughter Kather- ine (the girl on her mother’s right shoul- der in the famous photograph) said that the “photograph’s fame made the family feel shame at their poverty.” And yet, on Florence Thompson’s gravestone at the Lakewood Memorial Park in Hughson, California, about 250 miles north of Nipomo, it reads, “Migrant Mother—A Legend of the Strength of American Motherhood.” And in Nipomo, one of the major north–south streets that runs parallel with Highway 101 is named Thompson.


Any great work of art always has many stories to tell. There is the story of the sub- jects within the frame, why and how it was created, and what happened after it was made public. But one of the most impor- tant stories any visual message tells is the one the viewer makes up. The way you interpret an image is the story of your life.

Even a casual glance at “Migrant Mother” reveals without question an

fact, she once complained that she was not a “one-picture photographer.” In 1965, Lange died at the age of 70 after a long and event-filled life made possible by her photographic skills and her sensitivity to the important moments in everyday life.

But Florence Thompson’s life didn’t change for the better after the picture was published.

Born to poverty in rural Oklahoma in 1903, her father died when she was a baby. When she was 18 she married Cleo Owens, a logger. Finding little work in their home state, they moved to California in 1922 to work in the sawmills. By 1929 the couple had five children. After Owens lost his job, they moved from field to field to pick peaches until he caught a fever and died at the age of 32. She moved with her children from town to town seeking help from her family, went back home to Oklahoma for a brief time, and returned to California to continue the farm-picking migrant life, traveling from camp to camp.

When she first saw it in print, she didn’t like the image and tried to get it sup- pressed. When that effort failed, she tried to get Lange and/or the government to pay her for being in the picture. In 1979, 44 years after the picture was taken and 14 years after the death of Dorothea Lange, Thompson was finally identified as the woman in the famous photograph after she wrote a letter to the Sacramento Bee and was still bitter about the fact that the photograph made Dorothea Lange famous but didn’t improve her life. In a newspaper article that followed, Thompson, living in a mobile home in Modesto, California, complained to a reporter, “That’s my pic- ture hanging all over the world, and I can’t get a penny out of it.” In 1983, Thompson suffered from colon cancer and couldn’t pay her medical bills. Family members alerted the local newspaper and a national

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emotionally charged, sad moment in a woman’s life. Much of the picture’s power comes from its obvious symbolic link to religious paintings. But where the Madonna icon is a positive affirmation of future possibilities for her child, the Thompson portrait is an anti-Madonna icon filled with uncertainty about the future for herself and her children (Figure 11.6).

With a normal perspective, medium- sized lens opening for limited focus, medium shutter speed to avoid camera blur, black and white film to avoid any distractions color might provide, and a 4-by-5-inch negative for maximum resolu- tion, the picture demonstrates the highest quality possible using the gelatin dry plate photographic process in combination with a large format, portable press camera.

Legally, Dorothea Lange did all that was required. Her job as a visual reporter was to record Thompson’s image on film and give prints to a newspaper for publication, not to help Thompson and her family

directly. But what is strictly legal and what is ethical do not always absolve a person’s moral responsibility to help someone in a more direct way. Lange should have at least asked Thompson’s name. The public learned her name only after newspa- per accounts published her complaints about the image. Lange was one year younger than Thompson, and under dif- ferent circumstances, they might have had much to say to each other. But Lange was anxious to get home and stayed for a short time. Realistically, however, given the differences in their cultures based on their economic situations alone, commu- nication between them would have been difficult.

Another controversial aspect of the photograph was the way it was manipu- lated in two different ways. In a later version of the print, part of a hand and a thumb holding a tent flap was airbrushed from the image (Figure 11.7). But more significantly, the picture was a stage-man- aged setup by Lange. This fact should not be surprising given Lange’s roots as a portrait photographer. Linda Gordon in the Los Angeles Times wrote, “Always a portraitist, she never sought to capture her subjects unaware, as a photojournalist might.”

When one studies the images of Thompson and her family members in the order they were taken, the collaboration between Lange and the children is espe- cially marked by an obvious degree of stage managing. The initial image shows 14-year- old Viola sitting glumly on a rocking chair inside the tent. Daughter Katherine smiles at the camera while Thompson holds baby Norma and looks behind her for Ruby who hides behind her back. The next picture is a formal and stiff portrait of the family group. Viola is now in front of the lean- to tent sitting awkwardly on the rocker.

Figure 11.6 “Madonna dell Granduca,” c. 1505, oil on wood, by Raf- faello Sanzio. Known simply as Raphael, the High Renais- sance Italian painter shared the era with Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo. Typical of the times, he was orphaned at an early age but through an uncle found apprenticeship work where he learned his craft. Best known for his religious works, many of his paintings can be found at the Vatican. He died on his birthday at the age of 37 after having exuberant sex with his mistress. Many have compared Lange’s “Migrant Mother” with Raphael’s Madonna and Child because of the downward, worried gaze of the mother in the painting.

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Figure 11.7 Compare the lower-right corner of this original version of “Migrant Mother” with the retouched photograph that starts this chapter and you will notice the distracting thumb that is probably her eldest daughter Viola’s as she holds the tent flap out of the way. The retouched, darkened thumb is a picture manipula- tion that was common in the day.

Figure 11.8 In this formal portrait of the family group, the older Viola strikes a model’s pose as she sits awkwardly on the cane rocking chair as (from left) Ruby, coaxed from behind her mother and wearing a wool cap, Katherine, Florence, and baby Norma are inside the lean-to tent. Lange is now obviously stage-managing this situation, an ethical viola- tion for documentary and news photographs by today’s standards.

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away to avoid the distraction of their faces. Although such overt manipulations of a news photograph would be discouraged today and could get a photojournalist fired, the ethics of that time were different.

Inside the tent Ruby, who wears a wool cap, has been coaxed to join the others for a picture (Figure 11.8). As an experienced image maker, Lange knew that a family portrait with an older girl would not be an emotionally powerful image, so for the next three pictures, Lange moved in close to concentrate on Thompson with her small children. In one, she nurses the baby (Figure 11.9). In another, Ruby rests her chin on her mother’s shoulder without her knit cap (Figure 11.10). In the third Ruby leans her head more comfortably on the shoulder while grasping the tent pole. With its vertical view that includes the crude camp-life necessities of a kerosene lamp, a tin plate, a suitcase used as a table, a wed- ding ring, and a view of the barren ground beyond the tent, this image is a strong document of the Dust Bowl and further demonstrates Lange’s photographic artistry (Figure 11.11). Finally, the famous portrait is a close-up of Lange looking into the dis- tance with the two children told to turn

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Lange and Thompson came from dif- ferent worlds with no common bond except being at the same place at the same time. The camera became the basis for their relationship that lasted a little longer than the shutter was open. For Thompson the person, not Thompson the public icon, the image revealed a weary numbness in which she was prob- ably too polite or helpless to refuse being photographed. But she was saying “no” in the photograph the only way she could. She looked off as if wishing this “city girl” would move on and leave her alone. The image forever stereotyped Florence Thompson as a homeless matriarch who could survive only with contributions from the public. Never mind that she had worked hard to feed and clothe her fam- ily as best she could, given the country’s and her family’s economic hard times. That is why she was probably upset that the picture was published. As such, “Migrant Mother” is a study not only of Great Depression photography but also a commentary on the ethics of manipu- lation and the right to privacy of those pictured.


Photography runs the gamut from sim- ple, amateur snapshots to enormously expensive professional enterprises. Artists use images to express their inner emo- tions, commercial photographers to sell products and ideas, visual journalists to illustrate the lives of those in the news, and scientists to make an unseen world visible. With equipment that ranges from less than ten dollars to several thousand dollars, photographers take and preserve millions of images every year. The great Irish playwright and humorist Bernard Shaw, himself an amateur photographer, once said about the medium, “I would willingly exchange every single paint- ing of Christ for one snapshot.” Such a sentiment speaks directly to the power of photography. An image is considered truthful and believable—so much so that it is used as evidence in courts of law. Time will tell if the notion of “seeing is believing” remains for the medium in the digital era.

Figure 11.9 (top left) Wisely, Dorothea Lange quit taking overall portraits and moved in closer to concen- trate on Florence Thompson. Although much richer in content than the famous portrait, with the breast- feeding baby, kerosene lamp, and wedding ring, this photograph does not have the same emotional quality as “Migrant Mother.” Notice that the edge of the canvas tent flap hangs parallel with the wooden pole.

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Figure 11.11 If “Migrant Mother” had never been created, this photograph would have been revered as a powerful portrait of migrant life, with probably as much attention given to it as its famous cousin. Florence looks just as forlorn as in “Migrant Mother” and little Ruby now seems more comfortable with one hand on her moth- er’s shoulder as she grasps the pole with the other, but this image also contains more information with the addition of the simple metal plate and worn trunk used as a table and the outside, forbidding farm field beyond the tent’s inadequate shelter.

Figure 11.12 Although inexpensive cam- eras with automatic expo- sure and focus capabilities do not produce professional quality images, they make photography a fun and popular hobby for millions of persons. A tourist (the author’s mother) in New York City captures a mem- ory from her hotel window.

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(Figure 11.12). Not surprisingly, most victims of catastrophic events caused by wind, water, or fire report that after the secured safety of their loved ones, what they most regret and wish could have been preserved from their destroyed houses were their precious photographs.

Personal Perspective

After learning how to use paint on fin- gers, a pencil, and a brush, many children are introduced to a simple point-and- shoot camera, often their first contact with the image-making process using a machine. Although their first attempts may be out of focus, blurred, off-center, or incorrectly exposed, they are never- theless awed by the magic of capturing light and seeing it on a computer screen. Part of the joy of photography is that high-quality pictures can be taken with relative ease—the machine itself is easy to master.

Moments captured by amateur pho- tographers are a combination of space and time that often are prized possessions preserved in ornate frames and leather- bound albums. Pictures give evidence of a trip once taken, a car long since sold, and a baby who is now a grown woman. We use photographs not simply to show others where we have been, what we possess, or whom we have loved, but to remind ourselves of those important events, things, and people in our lives

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Historical Perspective

The camera predates the photographic process by at least 1,000 years. Aristotle wrote about the phenomenon of light that produces an upside-down view of the outside world through a pinhole in one wall of a darkened chamber, called a cam- era obscura. From what is now Iraq, Abu Ali Hasan Ibn al-Hayitham, or simply al Hazen to his Western friends, was the first to use the principle to watch an eclipse of the sun inside a tent in the year 1000 to solidify his ideas about the speed of light and the fact that light travels in straight lines for his scientific work Book of Optics published in 1021 (Figure 11.13). Artists used the camera obscura as a tool to trace rough sketches of natural scenes on paper or canvas, to be filled in later with paint. In the 2003 motion picture Girl with a Pearl Earring, the artist Jan Vermeer shows

the maid, Griet, how to see images with the device. The camera obscura device led to the idea of using photosensitive materi- als in place of a canvas (Figure 11.14).

Throughout the history of photogra- phy, nine main photographic processes have preserved the views captured through the camera obscura: the heliograph, the daguerreotype, calotype, wet-collodion, color emulsions, gelatin- bromide dry plate, holography, instant, and digital (Figure 11.15).


Joseph Nicéphore Niépce has been called the founder of photography because he produced the first permanent photo- graph, which can still be viewed. Born to rich and well-educated parents in 1765 in the town of Chalon-Sur-Saône, France, about 350 kilometers southeast of Paris, he became interested in the many

Figure 11.13 Abu Ali al-Hasan ibn al- Haytham or al Hazen is the figure on an Iraqi ten-dinar bank note (worth about one U.S. penny) in 1982. Born in Basra in 965 ce, his scien- tific achievements include significant contributions to astronomy, medicine, and visual perception. He is considered the founder of modern optics.

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Figure 11.15 (right) As this 19th-century wood- cut shows, before light meters were invented, pho- tographers looked to the sky to gauge the intensity of the sun during an exposure.

Figure 11.16 “View from the Window at Le Gras,” heliograph, c. 1826, by Joseph Nicéphore Niépce. For photography to become a successful medium for vis- ual communication, inven- tors needed to use light- recording materials within a camera that (1) could produce a sharp image, (2) stop fast action, (3) could be easily reproduced, and (4) was simple to operate. With this heliograph, considered the first photographic image produced by the French inventor, none of those con- ditions were met.Co

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and amateur inventor who used Niépce’s basic work to produce the first practical photographic process.


Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre was born in 1789 in Cormeilles, France, just north of Paris. He became famous in that city for his dioramas, illusionary pictorial effects with painted backdrops and lighting changes. An optician who supplied lenses

scientific and technological discoveries of the day. At the age of 51, Niépce began work that eventually led to the photo- graphic process. In an attempt to improve upon the recently-invented lithographic process for making printing plates, he discovered that bitumen of Judea (a type of asphalt) hardened when exposed to the sun. After the soft, unexposed parts of the picture were washed away, the result was a positive image. Niépce placed his asphalt emulsion on a pewter plate within a crudely constructed camera obscura and produced the world’s first photo- graph—the view outside his home—in 1826 (Figure 11.16). It was the first and only photograph that Niépce ever made. The image now is a part of the Gernsheim photography collection at the University of Texas. The faint picture is encased within a Plexiglas frame where xenon gas protects it from deterioration.

Niépce named his process heliography (Greek for “writing with the sun”). The process never attracted much public attention because the exposure time required was about eight hours, the image was extremely grainy in appearance, it appeared to be out of focus, and the pub- lic never learned of the procedure until many years after Niépce’s death. Never- theless, the process did attract the atten- tion of Louis Daguerre, a theatrical artist

Figure 11.14 (left) This replica of the tabletop camera obscura used by the inventor William Henry Fox Talbot was built for the Science Museum (London). Similar to a photographic camera, an artist would look through the viewfinder at the top, focus the image by sliding the lens in front back and forth, and make a drawing on thin tissue paper. Little wonder inven- tors thought of this device as a way of preserving images through chemical means.

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for Niépce’s camera obscura told Daguerre about the heliographs. At the age of 64, in ill health and in serious financial difficul- ties, Niépce reluctantly signed a contract with Daguerre to share information about the heliographic process. In 1833, Joseph Niépce died before seeing the results from Daguerre’s experiments, but his son Isidore maintained the partnership. Daguerre switched from pewter to a copper plate

and used mercury vapor to speed the exposure time. These technical changes resulted in a one-of-a-kind, reversed image as if seen in a mirror, of extraordi- nary sharpness (Figures 11.17 and 11.18). Daguerre modestly named the first practi- cal photographic process the daguerreo- type (Greek for “Picture by Daguerre”).

On January 7, 1839, the French astrono- mer Arago formally announced Daguerre’s invention to the prestigious Academy of Science. Upon seeing the wondrous exam- ples, the American physician and author Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr. dubbed the reversed daguerreotype image a “mirror with a memory,” while John Ruskin wrote in a letter to his father in 1845, “Daguerreo- types taken by this vivid sunlight are glori- ous things. It is very nearly the same thing as carrying off a palace itself—every chip of stone and stain is there.” The French gov- ernment paid Louis Daguerre and Isidore Niépce an annual pension in return for making the process available to the public.

The precious, positive, one-of-a-kind portraits were an instant hit because com- mon people could finally afford to have a

Figure 11.17 The incredible sharpness of the daguerreotype proc- ess is evident in this image taken by an unknown photographer before 1851. The view shows retail stores and homes of Portsmouth Square in San Francisco. The area is now known as the “Heart of Chinatown.”

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Figure 11.18 Born in Massachusetts in 1791, Samuel Finley Breese Morse was an accomplished painter most famous for his invention of the telegraph and his dot-dash code. In 1830 he traveled to Europe to study painting where in Paris he met Louis Daguerre, the co- inventor of the daguerreotype. Morse helped spark its devel- opment in America by estab- lishing one of the first studios in New York and taught Mat- thew Brady, among others, the process. The one-of-a-kind special quality of the image is indicated by the elaborate frame and case.

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Figure 11.19 Cover of The Pencil of Nature, 1844, by William Henry Fox Talbot, the first book printed with photo- graphs.

picture made of themselves. Before, only the wealthy could afford to hire an artist to paint a picture, which is why museums are mostly filled with images of the rich. Daguerreotypes were often displayed within elegantly crafted miniature boxes made of papier-mâché, leather, or highly finished wood. Samuel F. B. Morse, inventor of the dot-dash code used in telegraphy, opened the first photographic studio in New York City and taught many entrepre- neurs, including the famous photographer Mathew Brady, the process. With a faster chemical process, a larger lens that let in more light, and a smaller plate size, expo- sure times were reduced to 30 seconds.

The new process needed a name other than a derivative of Daguerre. England’s Sir John Herschel coined the word photogra- phy for the new light-sensitive process, from the Greek words that mean “writing with light.” However, the process, as stunning as it was, had two significant drawbacks—it produced a positive image that couldn’t be reproduced, and depending on lighting conditions, exposures were too long for fast action.


Coincidentally, a different photographic process was announced the same month as the daguerreotype. Sometimes referred to as the talbotype, the calotype (Greek for “beautiful picture”) was invented by William Henry Fox Talbot. The process is the foundation for modern photography.

Talbot was born in Dorset, England, in 1800. After being educated at Trinity Col- lege in Cambridge, he devoted the next 50 years of his life to studying physics, chemistry, mathematics, astronomy, and archaeology. In 1833, while vacationing in Italy, he came to the conclusion that images from a camera obscura could be

preserved using light-sensitive paper. After several experiments upon his return home in August 1835, he produced a one-inch- square paper negative of a window of his house. He then produced a positive pic- ture by placing another sheet of sensitized paper on top of the negative image and exposing it to the sun. The exposure time was about three minutes in bright sunlight. Talbot continued to produce many views of his estate, which were later collected in the first book illustrated with photographs, The Pencil of Nature, published from 1844 to 1846 (Figure 11.19). The work was pub- lished without binding to subscribers who were meant to collect all 24 plates and pay to have the pages bound. But due to a lack of interest from the public, only six plates were created (Figure 11.20). The calotype process never became widespread because of two reasons—its quality when com- pared with daguerreotypes, and Talbot’s insistence on making the process available

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collodion in 1847 solved that problem. A mixture of guncotton or nitrocellulose dissolved in alcohol and ether, collodion was used to protect wounds from infec- tion. When poured on any surface, it forms a tough film. Archer mixed collo- dion with light-sensitive silver nitrate.

His wet-collodion process produced glass negatives of amazing detail and subtlety of tone that could be used to make hundreds of positive prints. The exposure time was a remarkable 10 sec- onds. Although the process required that the glass plate be exposed while moist and developed immediately, serious por- trait and documentary photographers around the world used the wet-collodion process for the next 30 years. Most of the photographs taken during the Ameri- can Civil War, for example, utilized the wet- collodion process. However, with the long exposure times, only before and after battle scenes could be captured (Figure 11.21). This era also saw the intro- duction of several processes that were popular with the public such as inexpen- sive wet-collodion tintypes (images on metal plates), ambrotypes (images on paper), and albumen prints, a process that used egg whites to bind the photographic emulsion to paper, which was usually used to print small calling cards that were handed out between friends and business associates called carte de visites.

Color Emulsions

Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell is credited with producing the first color slide. In a lecture to the Royal Institu- tion in London in 1861, he admitted that his work was influenced by Thomas Young’s discoveries about the eye’s color perception. Maxwell made three separate pictures of a ribbon through red, green,

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Figure 11.20 “Plate VI—The Open Door,” 1844, by William Henry Fox Talbot. What Talbot wrote about the picture is also a call for being more observant generally: “This is one of the trifling efforts of [photogra- phy’s] infancy, which some partial friends have been kind enough to commend. A painter’s eye will often be arrested where ordinary peo- ple see nothing remarkable. A casual gleam of sunshine, or a shadow thrown across his path, a time withered oak, or a moss covered stone may awaken a train of thoughts and feelings, and picturesque imaginings.” With Talbot’s calotype process, photogra- phy satisfied one other con- dition for its popularity—a negative image that could easily reproduce any number of positive prints, but the pictures weren’t as sharp as daguerreotypes.

only to those who paid for the formula. Because a positive image had to print through the paper fibers of the negative view, Talbot’s pictures never achieved the sharp focus of daguerreotypes. Further- more, unlike the daguerreotype process that was released by the French govern- ment, Talbot charged interested parties a large sum to learn the secret of the calotype. Consequently, few took him up on his offer. Nevertheless, the process represents the first instance in which the modern terms negative and positive were used. Once a negative image was created, any number of positive prints could be made. This concept is the basis for modern photography and encouraged economic development of the medium until it was replaced by digital photography.


In March 1851, the year Louis Daguerre died, Frederick Scott Archer published his formula for all to read in a popular jour- nal of the day, The Chemist. Archer was a British sculptor and part-time calotype photographer. He had grown weary of the poor quality of prints obtained from using paper negatives. He suggested glass as a suitable medium for photographic emulsion. The problem with glass, how- ever, was in making the emulsion adhere to its surface. However, the invention of

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n Figure 11.22 “Tartan Ribbon,” 1861, by Thomas Sutton. The Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell had Thomas Sutton pho- tograph a Scottish “tartan” ribbon three times, each time with a different color filter over the lens. Ironically for Maxwell, who identified the electromagnetic spectrum, the photographic emulsion used for the picture was not sensitive to the red wave- length. However, the red dye of the day used in the ribbon fluorescently created the “red” color for the film. See color insert following page 338.

colored potato starch grains randomly throughout a photographic emulsion. Although the film was quite expensive for the day, photographers immediately favored autochrome because of the qual- ity of the images produced.

Gelatin-Bromide Dry Plate

Dr. Richard Maddox of London was an amateur scientist who helped change the face of photography and sparked motion pictures. A medical doctor and amateur

Figure 11.21 “Battle-field of Gettysburg— Dead Confederate sharp- shooter at foot of Little Round Top,” 1863, by Timothy H. O’Sullivan. Since the famed photographer Mathew Brady was practically blind by the time of the American Civil War, he hired several photog- raphers to take photographs for him. One of those was Timothy O’Sullivan, who made this silent study of a young sniper’s body using Frederick Archer’s wet-col- lodion process. Now, the pho- tographic medium had two conditions met—sharp images that were reproducible.

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and blue colored filters. When he pro- jected the three separate images with the colored light from each filter at the same time and aligned the views, a color slide was the result (Figure 11.22).

But because of the impracticality of Maxwell’s discovery, attention soon focused on color print materials. In 1903, Auguste and Louis Lumière, important figures in the history of motion pictures, started selling their autochrome photo- graphic plates to the public. The Lumière brothers mixed red, green, and blue

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scientist and photographer, he was look- ing for a substitute for collodion as a pho- tography emulsion. After experimenting with a number of sticky substances, he tried gelatin, an organic material obtained from the bones, skins, and hooves of ani- mals. The result was a light-sensitive emul- sion with silver bromide that could be manufactured, stored, and exposed much later by a photographer, unlike the wet- collodion process that had to be taken with the emulsion damp and developed immediately.

With his invention, photography was advanced to a point at which it could truly be a successful mass medium. It now had exposure times that could stop fast action, sharply focused images, and a neg- ative that could produce any number of positive prints. Maddox’s discovery led to the invention of motion picture film after

Figure 11.23 Frank Church made one of the first snapshots in the history of photography. It shows George Eastman hold- ing his invention—a Kodak camera—that made amateur photography possible. Now the photographic process was complete with sharp images, fast shutter speeds, easily reproducible images, and so simple a child can be a photographer.

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the American Thomas Edison saw stop- motion images of animals and persons as discussed in Chapter 12.

His photographic process also started the amateur photography craze after an innovation by an American inven- tor. George Eastman of Rochester, New York, invented cameras that used gelatin dry plate films in long rolls. In 1888, he introduced his $25 Kodak camera (in today’s dollars, the camera would cost about $500). Kodak simply was an eas- ily pronounced and remembered name that he invented (Figure 11.23). With the motto “You push the button—we do the rest,” the camera came loaded with 100 exposures. After taking all the pictures, a customer mailed the camera back to Rochester where the round negatives were printed. The camera was reloaded with film and sent back. By 1900, Eastman was

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selling his enormously popular cameras for one dollar each ($20 today).


In 1947, Hungarian scientist Dennis Gabor developed holography to improve the sharpness of views obtained with an elec- tron microscope. The unique aspect of holographic images is that they reproduce a three-dimensional view of an object pho- tographed on one sheet of film. Russian researcher Yuri Denisyuk created a slightly different process that is used today to dis- play logos on credit cards, unique jewelry and art presentations, novelty stickers for children, and for publications (Figure 11.24). One of the first mass-produced holographic displays was a picture of an eagle for the March 1984 cover of National Geographic, which featured stories on holography, China, Calgary, Canada, and the rhinoceros. In 2009 an opening bid for the issue was set at $2.99.


Edwin Land was a prolific American inventor with more than 500 patents to his name. In 1948, he introduced his most famous invention—the black-and-white Polaroid 50-second film camera. Instant photography was born. About 15 years later he announced a color version, calling it Polacolor. Once popular with married couples on their honeymoons and with artists and other professional photogra- phers, the process has been replaced by digital cameras (Figure 11.25). However, artists such as William Wegman have used large-format, 20 × 24-inch cameras to produce fine-quality, one-of-a-kind Polaroid portraits. Another such artist is Stephanie Schneider, who manipulates the colors with heat and pressure to produce

Figure 11.24 A holographic image, such as this one from the Massa- chusetts Institute of Technol- ogy (MIT) Museum, when printed in a textbook will not reproduce the engaging three-dimensional effect when viewed on an acetate sheet from a single light source.

Figure 11.25 Polaroid photographs were once the process of choice for recording weddings and subsequent honeymoons such as these from a wed- ding and reception taken on a beach near San Francisco in 1989. These one-of-a-kind images should remind you of the early daguerreotype pictures—they are in sharp focus, but not easily copied.

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striking results. The Australian musi- cian Sia Furler used about 2,500 Polaroid images in an animation style for the pro- duction of a video for her song, “Breathe Me,” in 2004 (Weblink 11.1).


In 1981, Sony introduced its electronic still video camera, the Mavica (Magnetic Video Camera). Its two-inch disc could record only 50 color images, which were viewed on a television screen. As such, the camera was not technically a digital camera because it recorded an electronic video signal. Nevertheless, the camera started the era of digital photography, with all the major camera companies pro- ducing true digital models. After an expo- sure, photographers can use a program such as Photoshop and make exposure,

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color balance, and cropping adjustments, just as in a traditional darkroom. The computer images can then be sent to anyone in the world via a cell phone or a wireless connection.

Technical Perspective

It shouldn’t be surprising that a camera’s parts and functions are similar to those of the eye. Knowledge of the physical workings of the eye directly helped in the camera’s development. The essential elements of a camera are housed within a protective box; the eye is protected by an outgrowth of the skull. A visual art- ist often uses a drop of solution to clean the glass elements of the lens of dust and smudges; the eye has a built-in lens-clean- ing system with its salty tears. The shutter regulates the amount of time a computer chip is exposed to light; the eyelids open and shut so that vision is possible. The aperture is an opening that lets light enter

the camera; the pupils with their compan- ion muscles perform the same function for the eye. The lens focuses the outside image to a point at the back of the eye or the camera’s dark chamber. In photogra- phy, a sheet of thin, light-sensitive emul- sion or an electronic process records the picture. Photoreceptors in the back of the eye process the light rays. Photographers manipulate and print their images in a darkroom or on a computer; humans pro- cess their images within the visual cortex region of the brain.

Specifically, you should be aware of five main technical considerations when ana- lyzing your own or someone else’s image: lens type, lens opening, shutter speed, lighting, and image quality.

Lens Type

Lenses come in three variations: wide- angle, normal, and telephoto. As their names imply, a wide-angle lens gives a viewer an expansive, scene-setting view. The visual array photographed also has great depth of field—more is in focus. A normal lens mimics the angle of view as seen by the human eyes and is seldom used by professionals. A telephoto lens produces a close-up, narrow perspective of a scene with the foreground and back- ground compressed. It also has a shallow depth of field with little in focus. If a photographer wants a viewer to see many details at once, a wide-angle lens is pre- ferred over a telephoto (Figure 11.26).

Lens Opening

The opening of a lens is like the pupil in the eye—it regulates the amount of light that enters the camera. If you squint your eyelids, your pupils get smaller and more will be in focus. The same is true for a Cou

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Figure 11.26 “Firebomb Damaged Sale,” 1981. Life and sales go on in Belfast, Northern Ireland, despite violent actions from terrorist organizations. A wide-angle lens is used not only to show as much infor- mation along the edges of the frame as possible but also to give a viewer the illusion of being in the scene.

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typically use shutter speeds of 1/500th of a second and faster (Figure 11.29).


Photography exists because of light. Knowledge of how lighting is used by photographers is essential in the analy- sis of an image. There are two kinds

lens. A small opening or aperture will pro- duce an image with much a greater depth of field, whereas a large lens opening will have a shallow depth of field. Like the choice of the type of lens, a photographer can select elements of a scene she wants a viewer to notice by the choice of lens opening (Figures 11.27 and 11.28).

Shutter Speed

The amount of time a camera’s shut- ter stays open—its shutter speed—can greatly affect a picture’s content. A speed of 1/30th of a second or longer will usu- ally cause blurring of anything that moves. A faster shutter speed will stop motion and is required to overcome shaking of the camera during exposure (referred to as camera blur). An important feature of many modern cameras is motion stabi- lizer technology that produces a sharp image during longer shutter speeds and/ or jarring conditions such as on a motor- boat. An extremely fast shutter speed is necessary to photograph fast-moving sub- jects without blur. Sports photographers

Figures 11.27 and 11.28 “Vinton Cemetery #1, Califor- nia,” and “Vinton Cemetery #2, California,” 2002, by Gerry Davey. With a small aperture setting on a camera’s lens, objects close in the fore- ground as well as those in the distance are in focus. How- ever, if a large aperture set- ting is chosen, a photographer can chose what to emphasize within a picture’s frame by controlling focus.

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of lighting: lighting that comes from available sources and lighting that the photographer brings to a location. Natu- ral lighting, most often called available light, is illumination that already exists within a scene. Although its name implies light from the sun, it can also refer to incandescent bulbs, neon light tubes, or fire from a candle. Lighting equipment that a photographer brings to a photog- raphy shoot or that is contained within a studio is called artificial lighting. The most commonly used artificial light for location work is the electronic flash.

Image Quality

Learning how to evaluate the quality of an image in terms of its exposure and contrast is important. A picture that will reproduce well in a publication or

for a web page must have a full range of tones supplied by proper exposure and contrast. As a general rule, a pic- ture is considered properly exposed if it shows detail in the shadow areas and in the light areas. Contrast is defined as the difference between the black and white tones of the image. A low con- trast image has little differences in light and dark areas; a high contrast picture has extreme differences (Figure 11.30). With color correcting software within a program such as Photoshop, a photogra- pher can make most images, even those poorly exposed, acceptable for viewing. For web presentations a pixel-per-inch, or dots-per-inch (DPI), resolution of 72 with GIF, JPG, or PNG picture formats is fine. For printed work, however, a DPI of 300 or greater saved as a TIF file is preferred.

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Figure 11.29 An example of the stopping quality of a camera’s shutter is provided by this picture of a young boy seeking relief from the 100-degree heat in Del Rio, Texas. Note how the mesquite tree in the back- ground seems to cradle the boy in space.

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showed their viewers the full extent of the war with gruesome depictions and wondered why their Western media coun- terparts were sanitizing the violence. The difference may be one of editorial intent.

The executive director of “NBC Nightly News” explained, “You watch some Arab

Ethical Perspective

Visual communicators must be aware of five major ethical concerns whenever images are used. Two of those concerns— visual persuasion and stereotypes—have been discussed. The three other main eth- ical issues are showing victims of violence, violating rights to privacy, and picture manipulations.

Victims of Violence

After the publication or broadcast of a controversial image that shows, for exam- ple, either dead or grieving victims of vio- lence, people often make telephone calls and write letters attacking the photogra- pher as being tasteless and adding to the anguish of those involved. And yet, vio- lence and tragedy are staples of American journalism because readers have always been morbidly attracted to gruesome stories and photographs. It is as if viewers want to know that tragic circumstances exist but don’t want to face the uncom- fortable details (Figure 11.31).

During the war in Iraq that began in March 2003, about 500 journalists were “embedded” with military troops dur- ing the initial stage of the conflict. What resulted was an unprecedented access to fighting areas. Editors were faced with tough choices. Many of the images taken by photojournalists showed bloodied combatants and civilians—victims of the ravages of war. In a New York Times article, for example, a picture submitted to Time magazine was described as “the bloodied head of a dead Iraqi with an American soldier standing tall in the background.” And yet, few images of corpses were ever shown to American print readers or tele- vision or web viewers. Arab and other news agencies around the world, however,

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Figure 11.30 With a selected exposure that creates a high contrast between the dark shadows and the sunlit wall, the diago- nal lines and outline shape of the wild parrot are empha- sized.

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Figure 11.31 The front page of the Bakers- field Californian is a study in contrasts. Mickey Mouse and Edward Romero’s grieving family share the front page. A reader firestorm of 500 letters to the editor, 400 telephone calls, 80 subscription cancel- lations, and one bomb threat resulted. Many readers prob- ably were sparked to protest publication of the picture because of its insensitive dis- play near the popular cartoon character.

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coverage and you get a sense that there is a blood bath at the hand of the U.S. mili- tary. That is not my take on it.” The dif- ference may also be a judgment call based on the taste for such images by readers and viewers. The managing editor of Time, James Kelly, admitted, “You don’t want to give the reader a sanitized war, but there has to be some judgment and taste.”

Susan Sontag, author of Regarding the Pain of Others, took a skeptical view when she stated, “I am always suspicious when institutions talk about good taste. Taste belongs to individuals.” Taste—the presumed appetite of viewers to stomach gruesome and/or controversial images—is a matter of etiquette, not ethics. The news media should report what a govern- ment does in its people’s name. Some- times that means grisly images must be a part of those reports. As Ted Koppel, then of ABC’s “Nightline” said, “The fact that people get killed in a war is precisely what people need to be reminded of.”

Although against the Geneva Conven- tions, prisoners are also tortured during

wartime—whether during a declared war or the so-called “War Against Terrorism” waged by the United States and other countries. But it is rare to see visual evi- dence of such abuse. The chilling images of the torture of Iraqi prisoners at Abu Ghraib in 2003 and 2004 with many that were hooded, naked, and forced to simu- late sexual acts by military personnel was appalling and shameful to most everyone who saw them (Figure 11.32). In this age of high quality and relatively inexpen- sive digital cameras and camera phones, battlefield images taken by the soldiers themselves will no doubt reveal other horrors of war to which seasoned photo- journalists will not have access. Perhaps not surprisingly, the Pentagon has banned digital cameras—including camera phones—from U.S. Army bases in Iraq. In 2009 President Obama reversed an earlier decision to release photographs “depicting alleged abuse of detainees by U.S. soldiers” for fear it might “further inflame anti- American opinion and to put our troops in greater danger.” However, newspaper editorials and the American Civil Liberties Union make the point that the images are part of the historical record and should be made public. Regardless of the outcome that will be decided by the court system, the controversy shows how images more than words are highly emotional objects.

Gruesome images closer to home can have a longer impact on viewers. Reporter Charlie LeDuff of The Detroit News received a telephone call telling him that there was a body “encased in ice, except his legs, which are sticking out like pop- sicle sticks” within an elevator shaft of an abandoned warehouse. Wanting to make sure of the facts before he called police, he investigated and found the gruesome scene. The resulting story and published image shocked the citizens of Detroit and Cou

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Figure 11.32 Images of tortured victims taken with digital cameras and shared via CDs and e-mails by U.S. military per- sonnel stationed at the Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq in 2003 and 2004 were eventually released to the public and shocked the world. Most of these gruesome pictures were not printed in newspapers, but can be easily found on the web.

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videos of returning war dead at Dover Air Force Base in Delaware in 1991. It was said that the policy was made out of respect for the families’ privacy. But when Russ Kick of “The Memory Hole” website was given 288 images of war dead from Afghanistan and Iraq after filing a Freedom of Information Act request, he posted the images on his website (Weblink 11.3). Many newspapers around the country published an image from the collection on their front pages (Figure 11.33). John Molino, a deputy undersecre- tary of defense, explained that the photo- graphs, taken by military photographers for historical purposes, were censored because “we don’t want the remains of our service members who have made the ultimate sacrifice to be the subject of any kind of attention that is unwarranted or undignified.” However, a Boston Globe editor said, “I don’t know how [the pub- lishing of the images] can be disrespectful to the families. They are official photos of flag-draped coffins being treated with respect by military personnel.” In 2009 during the Obama Administration, the Pentagon changed its policy and allowed families of the war dead to decide

the nation. LeDuff’s report illustrated that hard economic times, with over 20,000 persons homeless, sometimes caused cal- lous behavior that should be prevented whenever possible. A month after the gruesome find, the body was identified as a homeless man named Johnnie Redding. LeDuff described his sad life and burial in subsequent stories (Weblink 11.2).

Print and broadcast journalists have a duty to report the news as objectively, fairly, and accurately as possible. Editors and producers should be mindful that some images, because of their emotional content, have the potential to upset many people. However, decisions should be guided, never ruled, by readers and view- ers. One solution attempted by some media organizations is to show contro- versial pictures on a website with a strong disclaimer. That way a user can decide whether or not she wants to click on the link and see the image.

A Right to Privacy

Florence Thompson looked away from Dorothea Lange’s camera lens in the famous “Migrant Mother” photograph because that was the only way she thought she could protect her privacy. When subjects of news events and their families, through no fault of their own, are suddenly thrust into the harsh light of public scrutiny, they often complain bit- terly, as Thompson did the rest of her life.

Many readers of newspaper and maga- zine special editions recoiled in horror at the images of people falling from the World Trade Center twin towers. Some of the com- plaints from viewers were made because it was thought family members might be able to recognize the person falling.

U.S. military officials banned pho- tojournalists from taking pictures and Cou

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Figure 11.33 Flag-draped coffins line the inside of a military transport plane as soldiers honor the dead by standing at atten- tion and saluting. From World War II on, government officials have often censored photographs of those killed in combat from the public on the grounds that they violate the privacy of the soldiers and their families, but more often than not, such images honor those who have fallen rather than exploit them.

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Picture Manipulations

Since the birth of photography, photog- raphers have manipulated subjects and images to produce the result they desired. Hippolyte Bayard was the French inventor of a unique photographic process who did not receive the attention or pension of Louis Daguerre. In protest, he faked his own death in an 1839 photograph. It is the first example of a manipulated image in the history of photography (Figure 11.34). Roger Fenton, one of the most respected war photographers in history, moved cannonballs during the Crimean War in 1855 to make his “Valley of the Shadow of Death” image more harrowing. Coming from a painting tradition in which subjects and compositions were regularly manipu- lated, the Swiss Oscar Rejlander in 1857 produced a good versus evil tableau called “The Two Ways of Life” using at least 30 separate pictures within the composition (Figure 11.35). Before the invention of the halftone process, skillful engravers regu- larly altered the content of photographs. For example, artists regularly added and subtracted subjects portrayed in photo- graphs for their printed engravings of the American Civil War. A curious artistic pro- cess common in newspaper photographs from the turn of the 20th century until as late as the 1970s was the heavy retouching of news images. Retouchers with paints, inks, airbrushes, and scissors “would remove backgrounds to make stark silhou- ettes or add additional elements, including cut-in vignettes or cutaway diagrams of events.”

Critics get most upset when images intended for documentary and news pur- poses are altered for aesthetic reasons. The wake-up call for many was a 1982 cover story on Egypt in National Geo- graphic. A pyramid in Giza was moved

whether to invite the media to their reunion with their loved ones in a casket. The return of the flag-draped coffin con- taining the body of 30-year-old Air Force Staff Sergeant Phillip Myers of Hopeville, Virginia, was the first fallen soldier cov- ered by the media under the new policy.

The judicial system in America has recognized that private and public per- sons have different legal rights in terms of privacy. Privacy laws are much stricter in protecting private citizens not involved in a news story than they are for public celebrities who often invite media atten- tion. As many as 60 paparazzi (if it’s Britney Spears or Paris Hilton) regularly stake out the places where celebrities shop and go clubbing on a 24/7 basis. The general public often justifies such extreme behavior because of the intense interest in the celebrities. Tabloid magazines, tele- vision shows, and websites pay as much as $100,000 for an exclusive picture that shows a private moment of a troubled star. Although photographers need to be aware of the laws concerning privacy and trespass, ethical behavior should not be guided by what is strictly legal.

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Figure 11.34 “Self-Portrait as a Drowned Man,” 1840, by Hippolyte Bayard. The French inventor Hippolyte Bayard created the first practical photographic process that predated the daguerreotype, had the first public exhibition of photo- graphs, made the first self- portrait, and created the first manipulated picture in the history of medium. Frustrated by not receiving recognition from the French government that Daguerre and Niépce enjoyed, Bayard staged a photograph with a caption that read, “The corpse which you see here is that of M. Bayard. The Government which has been only too gen- erous to Monsieur Daguerre, has said it can do nothing for Monsieur Bayard, and the poor wretch has drowned himself.”

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by computer software to accommodate the vertical format (Weblink 11.4). Read- ers who had been to Egypt immediately contacted the magazine to question how the image could have been produced. As a result, the director of photography at the time was forced to resign, and all of the images and words within the maga- zine were subject to question. You may purchase this famous cover on eBay for a starting bid of $9.99.

The police mug shot of O.J. Simpson arrested for the murder of his wife and her friend in 1994 was used for the covers of Time and Newsweek magazines the same week (Weblink 11.5). The Time cover was criticized for illustrator Matt Mahurin’s darkening of O.J.’s facial features, which some said was a slap at all African Ameri- cans, and yet Newsweek was never criti- cized for the manipulation of the words on the cover, “A Trail of Blood.” Brian Walski of the Los Angeles Times was fired for a photo composite he created while a photojournalist covering the war in Iraq (Weblink 11.6). No doubt fatigue, tough conditions, and competition were factors responsible for him combining parts of

two images into a third. However, there is no good reason for such an ethical lapse. Credibility is a precious commodity that should be protected with as much fervor as can be mustered.

But there is little credibility with some types of photography. Wedding and por- trait photographers remove unwanted warts and wrinkles from their subjects. Advertising art directors customarily combine parts of pictures, change col- ors, and create fantasy images to attract customers. Most persons are well aware of such practices and knowingly suspend disbelief when looking at portrait and advertising images. Still, examples such as a Newsweek cover photograph of Martha Stewart’s smiling face just after she was let out of prison sitting on top someone else’s body, a portrait of CBS News anchor Katie Couric with a digitally slimmed waist, and tennis player Andy Roddick with computer-enhanced arms on the cover of Men’s Fitness, all help to degrade the photographic medium’s credibility as a whole. Ironically, during the 2008 presi- dential campaign, many criticized a close- up portrait of Governor Sarah Palin on

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Figure 11.35 One of the first images to be manipulated by a photogra- pher was Oscar Rejlander’s “Two Ways of Life.” He spliced 30 separate pictures together to form the composite. Gambling, drinking, sexual activity, and vanity are the themes to the young boy’s right, and pious behavior, education, philan- thropy, and hard work are pre- sented on the other side.

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the cover of Newsweek because it wasn’t touched-up.

Cultural Perspective

The story of photography, as with any other medium, is never simply about the technical contributions made by scientists and inventors to improve the process. Technological advances allow photogra- phers to communicate the cultural values of the time, but a photographer’s style is formed by the culture in which the pictures are made. Studying the images produced within a certain time period is a study of the society from which they come. Throughout the history of photog- raphy, various photographic styles have reflected the people and the times.

Photographer as Portraitist

One of the earliest uses of the photo- graphic medium was to capture the faces of people, both famous and ordinary.

Eventually, photography became a great equalizer. Because long exposure times and bright sunlight were required for early photography, Victorian portrait subjects appear to be grim, unsmiling people. In reality, they had to keep still in order to get the best picture possible.

In the 19th century, several photogra- phers created a photographic style that reflected the culture of the times. Scottish calotype photographers David Octavius Hill and Robert Adamson made sensitive studies of ordinary people. Julia Margaret Cameron, one of the few women in visual communication history, made dynamic images of her famous friends: Alfred Tennyson, Sir John Herschel, Thomas Carlyle, Charles Darwin, Robert Brown- ing, and Henry Longfellow (Figure 11.36). Gaspard Felix Tournachon, or Nadar, as he was known, matched his bold shoot- ing style with the strong personalities of the day. Before he photographed the Civil War, Mathew Brady had portrait galler- ies in New York and Washington. Brady is credited for the daguerreotype image of President Lincoln that appears on the redesigned five-dollar bill that was first issued in 2008 (Figure 11.37).

The portrait tradition continued with August Sander’s portraits of everyday Ger- man citizens before World War II, Diane Arbus’s direct and sensitive portraits of extraordinary subjects, Irving Penn’s series of everyday workers, Richard Avedon’s large-format images of known and unknown Americans, and Philip-Lorca Di Corcia’s “Heads,” portraits of random pedestrians at Times Square, New York. A standout in this genre is Annie Leibovitz, who made the sensitive portrait of John Lennon and Yoko Ono taken for Roll- ing Stone early on the day of the Beatle’s death, the naked and pregnant Demi Moore on the cover of Vanity Fair, and Cou

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Figure 11.36 “Sir John Herschel,” 1867, by Julia Margaret Cameron. One of the most respected individuals in the history of photography is the British astronomer and scientist Sir John Herschel. He not only discovered a way to make photographic images so they wouldn’t eventually fade if exposed to light, he also invented the cyanotype pho- tographic process later called “blueprints” used by the English botanist Anna Atkins and in architecture, created the first picture on glass, and came up with the terms “snapshot,” “negative,” “posi- tive,” and most importantly, the word “photography,” Greek for “writing with light.” Julia Margaret Cameron, born in India, took up photography when she was 48 years old. She eventually made portraits of many of the most impor- tant figures in the worlds of literature and science at that time.

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views with their awkward wet-collodion technology. In 1873, O’Sullivan made one of his most famous pictures at the ruins of “White House” at the Cañon de Chelle in Arizona (Figure 11.40). The power of photography to shape the opinion of oth- ers is demonstrated by these views of the land. The images became synonymous with what people thought of as natural and beautiful. Jackson, who lived to be 99 years old, made the first photographs of the Yellowstone area in 1871, which helped convince Congress to set aside the land as the country’s first national park because the land was viewed, within the photographs, as naturally beautiful. Fol- lowing in the footsteps of the early land- scape photographers, Ansel Adams, Wynn Bullock, and Harry Callahan all have made photographs that record exquisitely nature’s beauty and sharpen our sense of wonder of it. Contemporary New York photographer Paul Raphaelson captures hauntingly beautiful post-apocalyptic urban landscapes (Weblink 11.8).

Queen Elizabeth II during her state visit to Virginia (Weblink 11.7). Another is the relative newcomer Suzanne Opton, whose close-up portraits of American soldiers who have served in Iraq or Afghanistan have been shown in print, on websites, and on public billboards (Figure 11.38).

Photographer as Painter

Many painters feared that photography would soon replace their profession. To hedge their bets, some artists became photographers who mimicked the style of allegorical painters to tell a story with photographs in the tradition of paint- ings of the day. Two photographers who worked in this style during the 19th century were Oscar Rejlander and Henry Peach Robinson. Rejlander’s “The Two Ways of Life” was discussed earlier. Robinson’s most famous image, “Fading Away,” is a combination print using five separate pictures to show a young woman on her deathbed. Other photographers thought that the new medium should have its own style distinct and apart from that of painting. A photographic school known as “straight photography,” headed by Edward Weston and Ansel Adams, shunned manipulated work. Contem- porary photographers Vicky Alexander, Richard Prince, and Mike and Doug Starn use “cut-and-paste” techniques to pro- duce elaborate artistic renderings from their own or previously published pictures (Figure 11.39).

Photographer as Landscape Documentarian

Photographers have always enjoyed tak- ing pictures of natural scenes. When the American Civil War ended, Timothy O’Sullivan and William Jackson traveled west to explore and photograph scenic

Figure 11.37 “Abraham Lincoln,” daguerreo- type (reversed), 1864, by Mathew Brady. Born in upstate New York, Mathew Brady moved to New York City when he was 18 years old and learned the daguerreotype process from the American inventor of the telegraph, Samuel Morse, who had his own studio. Three years later Brady opened his own studio, and by the time of the American Civil War he was the most famous pho- tographer of his day. Despite reservations from friends, Brady hired and outfitted more than 20 photographers, including Alexander Gardner and Timothy O’Sullivan, to document the battles of the Civil War; Brady took credit for their photographic work. He spent more than $100,000 of his own money (equivalent to about $2.4 million today) and never recouped his investment. Depressed over his financial situation and the death of his wife, he died penniless in the charity ward of a New York hospital after being struck by a streetcar in 1896.

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Photographer as Artist

Many traditional artists have looked down on photography, thinking it a simple craft. Another problem artists had with photography was that any number of images could be made from a single negative. Therefore, acceptance of pho- tography as a fine art on the same level as painting was slow in coming. One of the most important figures in elevat- ing the medium to a fine art was the American Alfred Stieglitz (Figure 11.41).

Not only did he exploit photography’s unique technological features, he also opened a gallery that exhibited painting and photography on an equal footing and published a critical journal about photography, Camera Work. Married to artist Georgia O’Keeffe, he was a strong proponent of modern art photography and inspired many photographers to build that tradition. Recent photographers who view photography as a way of expressing a deeply personal statement include Lucien Clerque, Yasumasa Morimura, and Sandy

Figure 11.38 “Birkholz—353 Days in Iraq, 205 Days in Afghanistan,” 2007, by Suzanne Opton. For her “Soldier” series, Suzanne Opton photographed nine American soldiers who were between tours in Iraq and Afghanistan stationed at Fort Drum, New York. Of her series, Opton says, “We all experi- ence strategic moments when we feel most alive. These are the moments we will always remember, be they transcend- ent or horrific. After all, what are we if not our collection of memories? In making these portraits of soldiers, I simply wanted to look in the face of someone who’d seen some- thing unforgettable.”

Figure 11.39 “Attracted to Light 1,” toned silver prints on Thai mul- berry paper, 4 × 7.3 yards, 1996–2002, by Doug and Mike Starn. The size of this com- posite piece might evoke the Japanese science fiction classic Mothra (1961), the first of the Godzilla monster genre of movies, metaphors for the use of weapons of mass destruc- tion. At once aesthetically pleasing with subtle tones, tex- tual intricacies, and a gestalt sensibility, it is also slightly menacing as you become hyp- notized by the insect’s inces- sant stare. See color insert following page 338.

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Figure 11.40 Stereocard of “Ancient Ruins in the Cañon de Chelle, New Mexico,” 1873, by Timothy O’Sullivan. Born in New York City, Timothy O’Sullivan was a teenager when he was hired by Mathew Brady to work in his studio. After fighting in the Civil War as a Union Army officer and honorably discharged, he joined Brady’s team of photographers to doc- ument war participants and the aftermath of battles. One of his most powerful images is the eerily disturbing “The Harvest of Death,” taken after the battle at Gettysburg, Penn- sylvania, as seen in Figure 8.14. Perhaps disgusted by the death and destruction, after the war O’Sullivan joined several expe- ditions exploring the western United States and Panama. But after an expedition’s boat capsized while exploring the Colorado River, he lost most of his 300 glass negatives. How- ever, the image of the majestic Native American ruins pre- cariously set within a canyon’s wall survived. Nine years after he made the photograph, O’Sullivan died of tuberculosis at the age of 42.

Skoglund. In a reversal of the process, Marc Trujillo makes large paintings that feature a street corner with gas a station, workers in a fast food drive-in restaurant, and passersby in a shopping mall that look like color photographs (Figure 11.42).

Photographer as Social Documentarian

Because images have the capacity to spark interest and convey emotional mes- sages, many photographers have used the medium to shed light on social problems in the hope of getting the public to act. In 1877, John Thompson teamed with writer Adolphe Smith for a book about London’s poor, Victorian London Street Life. News- paper reporter-turned-photographer Jacob Riis used photography to illustrate his writings and lectures on the slums in New York City (Figure 11.43). In 1890, he published his work in a book, How the Other Half Lives. In 1909, Lewis Wickes Hine managed to help enact child labor laws with his sensitive portraits of children working in dangerous, backbreaking occu- pations around the country (Figure 11.44).

Following in their tradition, French photographers Eugene Atget in the 1920s, a social documentarian with a view camera, and Henri Cartier-Bresson in the 1930s, with a small, handheld camera, showed views of ordinary people. Cartier-Bresson captured the “decisive moment”—a term he used to describe the instant when content and composi- tion are at their most revealing.

The FSA photographers documented living conditions of homeless people for the U.S. government during the Great Depression. Photographers for Life maga- zine, most notably W. Eugene Smith, produced photographic stories that illustrated the lives of diverse individu- als. Mary Ellen Mark, James Nachtwey, Eugene Richards, and Sebastião Salgado are photojournalists who continue in Smith’s documentary style tradition. Greg Constantine is an independent photojournalist who travels the world documenting displaced persons, and his images are used by such groups as Doc- tors Without Borders and the United Nations Refugee Agency (Figure 11.45; Weblink 11.9).

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Figure 11.41 “A Bit of Venice,” 1894, by Alfred Stieglitz. One of the most important figures in the history of photography as a practitioner, editor, and advocate, Alfred Stieglitz elevated the medium into a respected fine art form. Born in New York to upper-mid- dle-class parents, he studied mechanical engineering in Germany where he happened to enroll in a chemistry class taught by the photographer and inventor Hermann Vogel. Intrigued with the medium, Stieglitz entered and won several competitions. He later promoted photography through two publications, Camera Notes and Camera Work, the Photo-Secession pictorial art movement, and his galleries “291” and “An American Place.” Taken while on his honeymoon with his first wife, whom he left in 1923 to marry the American artist Georgia O’Keeffe, who was known for her erotic paintings of flowers, “A Bit of Venice” reveals the ethereal and transformative power of photographs over paintings after you realize that this cor- ner of the canalled city actu- ally existed in the real world.

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Critical Perspective

Photography was invented at the height of the Industrial Revolution, during which millions of people around the world even- tually had more money and free time to spend taking pictures. Photography, with its emphasis on realistic scenes, freed art- ists to be more expressive. Impressionism and surrealism, for example, flourished because painters no longer had to render natural scenes exactly on canvas.

Photography educated people about social problems within their own commu- nities and among native peoples around the world. Visual messages inspired immigrants to learn to read words after pictures hooked them into buying a news- paper. But photography also was used to mislead and misinform. Government agencies in both totalitarian and demo- cratic countries used photography to

persuade citizens to adopt a desired point of view.

Photographs entertain and educate. They provide a historical record that relies on the idea that a camera does not lie. Throughout the history of photography, the picture enjoyed far greater credibility than the printed or spoken word. But computer operators who can alter the content of a digitized news picture as eas- ily as an advertising image are undermin- ing the picture’s credibility.


Photography is undergoing exciting and challenging changes. This era in its history is not unlike the time when the wet-col- lodion process was replaced by the gelatin bromide dry plate. Of the nine major advances in the technological history of photography, only four have significantly changed the way people think about the medium. The daguerreotype introduced the world to the medium. The wet-col- lodion process proved that photography could be a high-quality and reproducible method of communicating visual mes- sages to large numbers of people. The gelatin-bromide dry plate process made photography easy for both amateurs and professionals. Finally, digital photography, which combines the medium with the computer, promises unlimited possibili- ties for visual communicators. As more of us view photographs on monitors, paper prints are less important. Home comput- ers contain collections of images that can be easily shared through wireless connec- tions. Viewers can share their precious pictures with anyone anywhere in the world.

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Figure 11.42 “6800 Hayvenhurst Avenue,” oil on canvas, 2008, by Marc Trujillo. Although photography is not used in his artistic proc- ess, Marc Trujillo’s paintings of drive-thru restaurants, big box stores, and shopping malls dis- play a photographic presence combined with an Edward Hopper unease. See color insert following page 338.

Figure 11.43 “Bandit’s Roost,” New York City, 1888, by Richard Hoe Lawrence. Social reformer Jacob Riis was not a trained photographer, so he often hired them to accompany him on his nightly journeys through New York’s seedy underworld. He used the pic- tures in his lectures and for his book, How the Other Half Lives. One of the most famous photographs that he took credit for, “Bandit’s Roost,” was actually taken by Richard Hoe Lawrence. Taken in an alley off Mulberry Street, today located within New York’s Chinatown district, a menacing and accommodating street gang poses for the photograph. The lines of laundry in the background were a favorite of Riis who wrote, “The true line to be drawn between pauper- ism and honest poverty is the clothesline. With it begins the effort to be clean that is the first and best evidence of a desire to be honest.”Co

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Still cameras may be replaced by digital camcorders that enable the recording of still and moving images with the same quality. If a viewer wants to see a single frame from a recording, the equipment satisfies that option with simply the press of a key or utterance of a word or two. But the stilled moment will always be a vital component of mass commu- nication messages because there is no way to escape its underlying power. As Carina Chocano, a critic for the Los Ange- les Times, wrote, “Video may dominate the visible world, but still photography trumps it when it comes to administering electric jolts to the imagination.”

Examples of the need for still images are easy to find in both the art and docu- mentary worlds. For example, director Steven Soderbergh’s trailer for his 2005 motion picture Bubble was a tribute to still photography, with spooky images taken within a doll factory (Weblink 11.10). David Crawford (Weblink 11.11) takes hundreds of still images of persons riding subways throughout the world and then creates stop-motion studies. When seen on a computer, the effect is a moving, still

image. A commercial for the Olympus PEN camera used a stop-motion animation technique with about 10,000 photographs that told the story of a man’s life in an intriguing and compelling visual array (Weblink 11.12). Artists who use the stop- motion technique with still photographs present their work on Noah Kalina took one picture of himself

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Figure 11.44 “Newsboys Selling on Brooklyn Bridge, 3 a.m.,” 1908, by Lewis Wickes Hine. The American sociologist Lewis Hine encour- aged his students at New York’s Ethical Culture School to use photographs to document the immigrants arriving daily into the city. After he tried it himself, he devoted the rest of his life to documentary photography. Working for the National Child Labor Committee, he made thousands of pictures of children suffering under long hours in dangerous situations throughout the United States so that the images could be used as evidence to persuade members of Congress to enact child labor laws. He also documented the efforts of the Red Cross in America and in Europe, the construction of the Empire State Building, and served as the chief photogra- pher with the government’s Works Progress Administration (WPA), which concentrated on how work affects workers.

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Figure 11.45 “Bihari woman,” by Greg Con- stantine. During Pakistani rule, the Bihari were a prosperous and privileged community, but after a civil war in East Pakistan resulted in the birth of Bangladesh, they were fired from government jobs and lost ownership of their land. Since 1971 more than 300,000 live in 66 refugee camps where they are exploited, harassed, and unwanted.

every day starting in 2000 and continues to add to the collection the first day of every month (Figure 11.46; Weblink 11.13), “madandcrazychild” took a photo of her- self every day for 200 days (Weblink 11.14), and in a parody of the genre, “Phil” took a picture of himself every day for two days (Weblink 11.15).

One still image project didn’t require a camera. A flash mob called “Improv Everywhere,” comprising more than 200 individuals, dispersed randomly within the Main Concourse of Grand Central Station in New York City (Weblink 11.16). At the same moment they all stood perfectly still for five minutes. Commuters and tourists were obviously intrigued by the stunt and gave a round of applause when the frozen players started moving again.

For documentary presentations, Brian Storm (Weblink 11.17) maintains one of the premiere websites to see the work of still photographers within multimedia presentations that also include voice- overs, sound, music, and interactive navi- gation features. With a master’s degree in photojournalism from the prestigious University of Missouri and experiences as the former director of multimedia for and vice president of News, Multimedia & Assignment Services for the picture agency Corbis, Storm runs a mul- timedia production studio, MediaStorm, that presents stories created by journal- ists throughout the world. He also trains professionals and academics how to make

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Figure 11.46 “Everyday,” detail, 2009, by Noah Kalina. New York based Noah Kalina is primarily an advertising photographer with clients that include Motorola, Sony, and Neiman Marcus, but he possesses an artist’s inde- pendent spirit. On January 11, 2000, he started to photograph his face every day, a project that continues. A video of the collection was a YouTube favorite and inspired many imitators.

Figure 11.47 “Intended Consequences by Jonathan Torgovnik,” 2009. The MediaStorm interactive mul- timedia website is a showcase of the best photojournalism can offer with text, audio, and video presentations. “Intended Consequences” records the aftermath of the 1994 Rwanda war between the native tribes of Hutu and Tutsis that resulted in more than 800,000 persons killed. It is estimated that 20,000 children were born from rapes of women perpetrated by soldiers. There was also a rampant spread of HIV/AIDS. Women survivors tell their stories in words and pictures on the website.

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Ka lin

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f J on

at ha

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their own multimedia programs. Its “Crisis Guide: Darfur” produced for the Coun- cil on Foreign Relations and “Kingsley’s Crossing” by Olivier Jobard won Emmy Awards. Other stories tell of the lives of

women raped in Rwanda in 1994, drug addicts in a New York City apartment, and the lives of Kurdish people in north- ern Iraq— stories you rarely can find on paper (Figure 11.47).

82820_11_ch11_p259-292.indd 29182820_11_ch11_p259-292.indd 291 1/26/10 1:46:35 AM1/26/10 1:46:35 AM


Regardless of how still and moving images are combined and presented, the stilled moment will always be important. A moving image shocks, illuminates, and entertains, but it is fleeting, quickly replaced by another picture. A stilled image, one that freezes time forever in a powerfully arresting moment, will always have the capacity to rivet a viewer’s atten- tion so that long-term analysis is possible.


• Abu Ghraib • Airbrush • Allegorical

• American Civil Liberties Union

• Aperture

• Bitumen of Judea • Collodion • Contrast • Crop • Darkroom • Depth of field • Dioramas • Doctors Without

Borders • Dust Bowl • eBay • Electromagnetic

spectrum • Emulsion • Flash • Flash mob • Geneva Conventions • Gelatin

• GIF • Grain • Impressionism • Industrial Revolution • JPG • Large-format

camera • Life magazine • Lithography • Paparazzi • Plate • Polio • Silver bromide • Silver nitrate • Surrealism • TIF • Visual cortex • Visual journalists

To locate active URLs for the weblinks mentioned in this chapter, please go to the compan- ion site at and select the proper chapter.

82820_11_ch11_p259-292.indd 29282820_11_ch11_p259-292.indd 292 1/26/10 1:46:36 AM1/26/10 1:46:36 AM

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nothing puzzles god

The country of Nigeria was very unstable after gaining its independence from Great Britain in 1960. From July 1967 to January 1970, there was a great Civil War when Ibo tried to separate and form the Republic of Biafra. The country was finally forced to surrender in 1970, after several years of horrific war. Chinua Achebe’s story, “Civil Peace,” takes place shortly after the war ends.

Initial Post Instructions
Chinua Achebe repeats, “Nothing puzzles God,” several times throughout “Civil Peace.” Considering the author’s background and setting of the story, why is this line so significant? Use specific examples from the text to illustrate your claims.

Do NOT use Sparksnotes, eNotes, Wikipedia, or similar websites, as these are not academic in nature. If you do so, you will earn an automatic F. Your discussion may be submitted to Turnitin, so please use the University library or .org and .edu resources.

Secondary Post Instructions
As you are responding to your peers, consider the main character in the story, Jonathan. Do you agree with your peers’ statements regarding his character? Why or why not? Use specific examples from the text to illustrate your claims.

Writing Requirements 

  • In addition to one initial post, respond to at least two peers.
  • Initial Post Length: minimum of 250 words
  • Secondary Post Length: minimum of 200 words per post
  • Use APA format for in-text citations and list of references.
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climate change studies suggest the worst impacts will be felt by the wealthiest people.


  1. Climate change studies suggest the worst impacts will be felt by the wealthiest people.
  2. The greenhouse effect is caused by the burning of fossil fuels and deforestation.
  3. Net-zero energy refers to a building or installation that produces less energy than it consumes, considered to be energy reliant.
  4. Which statement is true regarding nuclear energy?
  5. Which of the following is an impact of increased ocean acidification as caused by global climate change?
  6. Which statement best summarizes the world’s reaction to stratospheric ozone depletion discussed in Chapter 7.4 of your text?
  7. What is the central difference between climate and weather discussed in your text?
  8. Which statement is not true regarding hydroelectric power?
  9. Life-cycle cost is the sum of all recurring and one-time (non-recurring) costs over the full life span of a good, service, structure, or system.
  10. What is the central theme of the “As Cheap as Coal” portion in Section 8.1 of your text?
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students ashworthcollege edu portal

Exams & QuizzesHome



Chat Room

Ask Your Teacher Student Lounge

Welcome Video


Student Handbook



Curriculum Map Pacing Guide


Lesson 1

Lesson 2

Lesson 3

Lesson 4

Lesson 5

Lesson 6

Lesson 7

Exams & Quizzes

Midterm Exam


Lesson 2 Exam 1

Part 1 of 1 – 60.0/ 100.0 Points

Question 1 of 20 5.0/ 5.0 Points

Determine whether the relation is a function. {(-7, -7), (-7, -8), (-1, 4), (6, 5), (10, -1)}

A. Not a function

B. Function

Question 2 of 20 5.0/ 5.0 Points

Find the domain of the function.

g(x) =

A. (-∞, ∞)

B. (-∞, -9) (-9, 9) (9, ∞)

C. (81, ∞)

D. (-∞, 0) (0, ∞)

Question 3 of 20 5.0/ 5.0 Points

Graph the line whose equation is given.

y = x + 2











Question 4 of 20 0.0/ 5.0 Points

Use the shape of the graph to name the function.

A. Standard quadratic function

B. Standard cubic function

C. Square root function

D. Constant function

Question 5 of 20 5.0/ 5.0 Points

An open box is made from a square piece of sheet metal 19 inches on a side by cutting identical squares from the corners and turning up the sides. Express the volume of the box, V, as a function of the length of the side of the square cut from each corner, x.

A. V(x) = 361x

B. V(x) = (19 – 2x)2

C. V(x) = x(19 – 2x)

D. V(x) = x(19 – 2x)2

Question 6 of 20 5.0/ 5.0 Points

Use the graph of the function f, plotted with a solid line, to sketch the graph of the given function g.

g(x) =






Question 7 of 20 0.0/ 5.0 Points

Find the domain of the function.

f(x) =

A. (-∞, 6) (6, ∞)

B. (-∞, ) ( , ∞)

C. (-∞, ]

D. (-∞, 6]

Question 8 of 20 5.0/ 5.0 Points

An investment is worth $3518 in 1995. By 2000 it has grown to $5553. Let y be the value of the investment in the year x, where x = 0 represents 1995. Write a linear equation that models the value of the investment in the year x.

A. y = -407x + 7588

B. y = x + 3518

C. y = -407x + 3518

D. y = 407x + 3518

Question 9 of 20 5.0/ 5.0 Points

Use the graph to determine the function’s domain and range.

A. domain: [0, ∞) range: [-1, ∞)

B. domain: (-∞, ∞) range: [-1, ∞)

C. domain: [0, ∞) range: [0, ∞)

D. domain: [0, ∞) range: (-∞, ∞)

Question 10 of 20 5.0/ 5.0 Points

Complete the square and write the equation in standard form. Then give the center and radius of the circle.

10×2 + 10y2 = 100

A. x2 + y2 = 100 (0, 0), r = 10

B. x2 + y2 = 10 (0, 0), r =

C. x2 + y2 = 10 (0, 0), r = 10

D. (x – 10)2 +(y – 10)2 = 10 (10, 10), r =

Question 11 of 20 0.0/ 5.0 Points

Graph the equation.

y = – x – 6





D. ’

Question 12 of 20 5.0/ 5.0 Points

Find the domain of the function.

f(x) = -2x + 4

A. (-∞, 0) (0, ∞)

B. (-∞, ∞)

C. [-4, ∞)

D. (0, ∞)

Question 13 of 20 0.0/ 5.0 Points

Graph the equation in the rectangular coordinate system.

3y = 15

3y = 15






Question 14 of 20 0.0/ 5.0 Points

Use the given conditions to write an equation for the line in point-slope form.

Passing through (-5, -7) and (-8, -6)

A. y – 7 = – (x – 5) or y – 6 = – (x – 8)

B. y + 7 = – (x + 8) or y + 6 = – (x + 5)

C. y + 7 = – (x + 5) or y + 6 = – (x + 8)

D. y + 7 = – x – 5 or y + 6 = – x + 7

Question 15 of 20 5.0/ 5.0 Points

Does the graph represent a function that has an inverse function?

A. No

B. Yes

Question 16 of 20 0.0/ 5.0 Points

Use the graph of y = f(x) to graph the given function g.

g(x) = -2f(x). Where f(x) is the solid function and g(x) is the dotted.





Question 17 of 20 5.0/ 5.0 Points

Find the inverse of the one-to-one function.

f(x) =

A. f-1(x) =

B. f-1(x) =

C. f-1(x) =

D. f-1(x) =

Question 18 of 20 5.0/ 5.0 Points

Complete the square and write the equation in standard form. Then give the center and radius of the circle.

x2 + y2 – 10x – 8y + 29 = 0

A. (x – 5)2 +(y – 4)2 = 12 (5, 4), r = 12

B. (x – 5)2 +(y – 4)2 = 12 (-5, -4), r = 2

C. (x – 5)2 +(y – 4)2 = 12 (5, 4), r = 2

D. (x + 5)2 +(y + 4)2 = 12 (-5, -4), r = 2

Question 19 of 20 0.0/ 5.0 Points

Use the graph to determine the x- and y-intercepts.

A. x-intercept: -3; y-intercepts: 3, 1, 5

B. x-intercepts: -3, 1, -5; y-intercept: -3

C. x-intercepts: 3, 1, 5; y-intercept: -3

D. x-intercept: -3; y-intercepts: -3, 1, -5

Question 20 of 20 0.0/ 5.0 Points

Along with incomes, people’s charitable contributions have steadily increased over the past few years. The table below shows the average deduction for charitable contributions reported on individual income tax returns for the period 1993 to 1998. Find the average annual increase between 1995 and 1997.

A. $270 per year

B. $280 per year

C. $335 per year

D. $540 per year

Logout Copyright 2003-2011 The Sakai Foundation. All rights reserved. Portions of Sakai are copyrighted by other parties as

described in the Acknowledgments screen. Ashworth College – – Sakai (Kernel 1.3.3)- Server ashworth7

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sas curriculum pathway


FOCUS QUESTION: How and why are chemical equations balanced?

TAB 1: Equations Read the questions below. Then complete this Journal by interacting with the online Simulation. Remember: the Journal does NOT check your answers. Review your text entries and make sure you’ve transferred data to the correct table rows.

Chemical equations represent what happens during the course of chemical reactions. Reactants and products, their quantities, and their physical states can be represented, as in the following equation: Zn (s) + 2 HCl (aq)0020 2192→ ZnCl2 (aq) + H2 (g). In words, solid zinc reacts with aqueous hydrochloric acid (hydrogen chloride) to yield aqueous zinc chloride and hydrogen gas. The “2” in front of HCl is called a coefficient. Coefficients indicate the simplest, whole-number ratios between the substances in the reaction. Their purpose is to ensure that the equation is balanced and that matter is conserved. In a balanced equation, the number of atoms of an element on the reactant side of the equation equals the number of atoms of that same element on the product side.

In this section, you will learn how to count the number of atoms within a substance and to recognize balanced and unbalanced chemical equations.

In the Simulation (to the right) select a reaction from the pull-down menu. Drag the molecules to the two- pan balance to count the numbers of reactant and product atoms and to determine if the equation is balanced.

1.1 Data Collection For each chemical reaction:

• Pay attention to the Data panel as you drag each molecule to the balance. Observe how the atom counts change. • Use the Transfer Data button ( ) to transfer the atom count from the Data panel to the table. • Then, use the pull-down menus to indicate if each substance is balanced.

Reaction 1: CO + 2 H20020 2192→ CH3OH elements: C O H

# of reactant atoms: 1 1 4

# of product atoms: 1 1 4

balanced? yes yes yes

Reaction 2: Fe2O3 + 3 Mg0020 2192→ MgO + 2 Fe elements: Fe O Mg

# of reactant atoms: 2 3 3

# of product atoms: 2 1 1

balanced? yes no no

Reaction 3: 2 NH3 + O20020 2192→ 2 NO + 3 H2O elements: N H O

# of reactant atoms: 2 6 2

# of product atoms: 2 6 5

balanced? yes yes no

Science 1194 SAS® Curriculum Pathways®

Chemical Equations: Journal

NAME: ray CLASS: chem90 DATE: 10/27/2013

Copyright © 2013, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA, All Rights Reserved Page 1 of 6

Reaction 4: (NH4)2PtCl60020 2192→ 2 NH4Cl + Pt + 2 Cl2 elements: N H Pt Cl

# of reactant atoms: 2 8 1 6

# of product atoms: 2 8 1 6

balanced? yes yes yes yes

Reaction 5: 2 C2H6 + 7 O20020 2192→ 4 CO2 + 6 H2O elements: C H O

# of reactant atoms: 4 12 14

# of product atoms: 4 12 14

balanced? yes yes yes

1.2 Name and state the law requiring chemical equations to be balanced (discussed in the Welcome video).

It is the law of conservation of mass. It states that the mass is neither created nor destroyed. Thus, the mass in the reactacnt should be the same in the product.

1.3 For Reaction 2, putting a coefficient of 3 in front of MgO produces a balanced equation. Explain why the equation cannot be balanced by changing MgO to Mg3O3.

Putting in front 3 MgO is technically not allowed. Besides the law of definite composition states that chemical compounds are composed of fixed ratio of elements by mass. Thus there’s only MgO and not Mg3O3

1.4 Can Reaction 3 be balanced by putting a coefficient of 5/2 in front of O2? Why or why not?

It can be balanced but it is not customary to leave coeficients as fractions. We need to multiply coefficients in both sides by two as per the law of multiple proportion which states that masses of one element which combine with a fixed mass of second element are in a ratio of whole numbers.

1.5 In Reaction 4, 2 NH4Cl molecules are formed. In total, how many atoms of each element do these two molecules contain? Explain your reasoning.

N = 2 H = 8 Cl = 2 .In doing so, we only need to multiply each coefficient with the subscript to obtain the number of atoms in each element. So for N its 2×1 = 2. for H its 2×4=8 and for Cl its 2×1=2 .

1.6 In Reaction 5, the atom count for oxygen is 14. Explain how the product side of the equation represents 14 oxygen atoms.

In 4O2 the number of Oxygen atoms is 4×2 = 8 In 6H2O the number of oxygen atoms is 6×1 = 6 So 6+8 there are now 14 oxygen atoms in total

TAB 2: Balancing In this section, you will develop your equation-balancing skills. The process of balancing a chemical equation could involve trial and error, but having a procedure to follow makes the task simpler. To view a step-by-step process, click the “how-to” button.

In the Simulation (to the right) select a reaction from the pull-down menu. Balance the equation by dragging substances to the reactant and product areas. The Simulation displays a Congratulations message when the equation is correct. Pay close attention to the Data panel as you work.

Science 1194 SAS® Curriculum Pathways®

Copyright © 2013, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA, All Rights Reserved Page 2 of 6

2.1 Data Collection After balancing an equation, use the Transfer Data button ( ) to transfer both the equation and atom count from the Data panel to the table.

Reaction 1: 1 FeCl3 + 3 KOH0020 2192→ 3 KCl + 1 Fe(OH)3 elements: Fe Cl K O H

# of reactant atoms: 1 3 3 3 3

# of product atoms: 1 3 3 3 3

Reaction 2: 2 Na3PO4 + 3 Cu(NO3)20020 2192→ 1 Cu3(PO4)2 + 6 NaNO3 elements: Na P O Cu N

# of reactant atoms: 6 2 26 3 6

# of product atoms: 6 2 26 3 6

Reaction 3: 2 Y(OH)3 + 3 H2SO40020 2192→ 1 Y2(SO4)3 + 6 H2O elements: Y O H S

# of reactant atoms: 2 18 12 3

# of product atoms: 2 18 12 3

Reaction 4: 4 PH3 + 8 O20020 2192→ 1 P4O10 + 6 H2O elements: P H O

# of reactant atoms: 4 12 16

# of product atoms: 4 12 16

Reaction 5: 2 CH3OH + 3 O20020 2192→ 2 CO2 + 4 H2O elements: C H O

# of reactant atoms: 2 8 8

# of product atoms: 2 8 8

Reaction 6: 1 C6H5CH3 + 9 O20020 2192→ 7 CO2 + 4 H2O elements: C H O

# of reactant atoms: 7 8 18

# of product atoms: 7 8 18

TAB 3: Practice In this section, you will continue to develop skills in generating balanced chemical equations.

In the Simulation (to the right) select a reaction from the pull-down menu. Balance the equation by dragging substances to the reactant and product areas. The Simulation displays a Congratulations message when the equation is correct.

Science 1194 SAS® Curriculum Pathways®

Copyright © 2013, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA, All Rights Reserved Page 3 of 6

3.1 Data Collection • Enter the atom counts in the table as you work to balance an equation. • Use the Transfer Data button ( ) to transfer the balanced equation from the Data panel to the table. • Make sure your final atom counts are based on the balanced equation.

Reaction 1: 2 Na + 2 H2O0020 2192→ 2 NaOH + 1 H2 elements: Na H O

# of reactant atoms: 2 4 2

# of product atoms: 2 4 2

Reaction 2: 1 Fe2O3 + 3 CO0020 2192→ 2 Fe + 3 CO2 elements: Fe O C

# of reactant atoms: 2 6 3

# of product atoms: 2 6 3

Reaction 3: 2 Fe(OH)3 + 3 H2S0020 2192→ 1 Fe2S3 + 6 H2O elements: Fe O H S

# of reactant atoms: 2 6 12 3

# of product atoms: 2 6 12 3

Reaction 4: 1 P4S3 + 8 O20020 2192→ 1 P4O10 + 3 SO2 elements: P S O

# of reactant atoms: 4 3 16

# of product atoms: 4 3 16

Reaction 5: 4 KO2 + 2 CO20020 2192→ 2 K2CO3 + 3 O2 elements: K O C

# of reactant atoms: 4 12 2

# of product atoms: 4 12 2

Reaction 6: 1 Mg3N2 + 8 HCl0020 2192→ 3 MgCl2 + 2 NH4Cl elements: Mg N H Cl

# of reactant atoms: 3 2 8 8

# of product atoms: 3 2 8 8

Reaction 7: 1 P4O10 + 12 HClO40020 2192→ 4 H3PO4 + 6 Cl2O7 elements: P O H Cl

# of reactant atoms: 4 58 12 12

# of product atoms: 4 58 12 12

Science 1194 SAS® Curriculum Pathways®

Copyright © 2013, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA, All Rights Reserved Page 4 of 6


TAB 4: Analysis Refer to the Journal, as needed, to answer the following questions.

Balancing Equations A.1 Using what you learned in the first three tabs, balance the following equations.

• Complete each table by entering the appropriate coefficients and atom counts. • Coefficients of “1” do not need to be entered.

Reaction 1: 4 FeS2 + 11 O20020 2192→ 2 Fe2O3 + 8 SO2 elements: Fe S O

# of reactant atoms: 4 8 22

# of product atoms: 4 8 22

Reaction 2: 2 C7H6O2 + 15 O20020 2192→ 14 CO2 + 6 H2O elements: C H O

# of reactant atoms: 14 12 34

# of product atoms: 14 12 34

Reaction 3: 4 C3H5NO + 19 O20020 2192→ 12 CO2 + 4 NO2 + 10 H2O elements: C H N O

# of reactant atoms: 12 20 4 42

# of product atoms: 12 20 4 42

Reaction 4: C6H12O6 + 4 KClO30020 2192→ 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + 4 KCl elements: C H O K Cl

# of reactant atoms: 6 12 18 4 4

# of product atoms: 6 12 18 4 4

Conclusion A.2 Focus Question — How and why are chemical equations balanced? In answering this question, discuss:

• the reason equations must be balanced • what you can change to balance an equation • the process of equation-balancing

Finally, to demonstrate your understanding, balance the following equation (from the end of the Welcome video): Cu(NO3)2 + Na3PO40020 2192→ NaNO3 + Cu3(PO4)2. NOTE: you cannot type subscripts in the text box below. Cu(NO3)2, for example, would be entered as Cu(NO3)2.

Science 1194 SAS® Curriculum Pathways®

Chemical Equations: Analysis

NAME: ray CLASS: chem90 DATE: 10/27/2013

Copyright © 2013, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA, All Rights Reserved Page 5 of 6

Answer to Focus Question: Equations should be balanced in accordance with the law of conservation of mass which states that the mass is neither created nor destroyed which means we have to balance equation such that the mass in the reactant is the same as the product. In balancing equation it is the coefficients that we can change. To balance equation, we need to find the right coefficients in the reactants and products that will yield the same number of atoms of each elements in each side. Answer to balancing equation: 3 Cu(NO3)2 + 2Na3PO4 -> 6NaNO3 + Cu3(PO4)2

Science 1194 SAS® Curriculum Pathways®

Copyright © 2013, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA, All Rights Reserved Page 6 of 6

  • Journal
    • TAB 1: Equations
    • TAB 2: Balancing
    • TAB 3: Practice
  • Analysis
    • TAB 4: Analysis
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universal intellectual standards

Intellectual Standards

For our assignment this week, examine the Universal Intellectual Standards as described in our readings. Select one of these standards, and describe how using that standard has helped you in your:

Work life

School life

Personal life

Your essay should consist of five paragraphs, and should follow the format below:

In your first paragraph, write a detailed description of the standard you have selected and why you selected it.

Then, in a paragraph each, describe how that standard has helped you in your work life, in your school life, and in your personal life. Each paragraph should contain at least one example.

Finally, in your concluding paragraph, discuss the ways you can continue to improve upon this standard moving forward.

Your completed assignment should be written primarily in first person and should be 500-750 words in length. If you use sources in your writing, be sure to identify them. If you use any direct language from a source, be sure to place those words in quotation marks.

Your assignment should adhere to the stated page length requirement for the week and use APA style formatting including a title page and reference section. You should use Times New Roman, 12pt. font, double-spaced lines, and one inch margins. A description of APA style and the APA template can be found in the Writing Center.

Grading Criteria Assignments Maximum Points

Meets or exceeds established assignment criteria 40

Demonstrates an understanding of lesson concepts 20

Clearly present well-reasoned ideas and concepts 30

Mechanics, punctuation, sentence structure, spelling that affects clarity, and citation of sources as needed            10

Total 100 

Copyright Grantham University 2016. All Rights Reserved


W4 Reflection Journal “What Is Intelligence?”

Strategies for Decision Making

What Is Intelligence?

This week’s lecture focused on the role of human intelligence. In your own words, what do you think intelligence is? Do you think intelligence is something you are born with or something that you can grow and develop? Why do you feel the way you do about that? How can engaging in good critical thinking impact your intelligence (or can it?)

Your work should be at least 500 words, but mostly draw from your own personal experience. This should be written in first person and give examples from your life. Be sure if you are using information from the readings that you properly cite your readings in this, and in all assignments.

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4-5 pages

12-point Times New Roman font, double-spaced, 1” margins

Appropriate MLA formatting for all in-text quotations/citations

See A Pocket Style Manual for details

You are encouraged to work with They Say, I Say templates from relevant chapters to practice “academic moves” in your writing

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capsim practice round 1

1 © 2011 Capsim Management Simulations, Inc. All rights reserved.

Capstone® Debrief Rubric Report

Table of Contents

How to Use This Report ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 2

Sample Report …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3

The Company Rubric ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 4 ROS ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 4

EPS (Earnings Per Share) …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 5

Contribution Margin ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 5

Change in Stock Price ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 6

Leverage …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 6

Stock Price ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 7

Bond Rating …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 8

Emergency Loans …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 8

Current Ratio …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 9

Inventory Reserves…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 10

Plant Purchases Funded ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 11

Accounts Receivable ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 12

Accounts Payable …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 13

Asset Turnover ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 14

Sales to Current Assets …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 14

Overall Plant Utilization ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 15

Stock Outs (Company level) …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 15

Bloated Inventories ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 16

Overall Actual vs. Potential Demand ………………………………………………………………………………………… 16

Cost Leadership ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 16

Product Breadth …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 17

Market Share Overall ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 17

Overall Awareness …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 18

Overall Accessibility ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 18

Overall Design ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 19

Asset Base …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 19

2 © 2011 Capsim Management Simulations, Inc. All rights reserved.

The Product Rubric ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 19 Positioning ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 19

Age ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 20

Reliability ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 20

Price Percentile ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 21

Awareness …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 21

Accessibility …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 22

Customer Survey Score …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 22

Potential Share/Average Share ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 23

Actual Share/Potential Share …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 23

Plant Utilization ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 24

Automation …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 24

Contribution Margin ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 24

Days of Inventory …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 24

Promotion Budget ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 25

Sales Budget ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 25

R&D Utilization ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 25

Overall Product Evaluation ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 25

Summary Rubrics ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 26

How to Use This Report

The Capstone® Debrief Rubric Report offers a comprehensive evaluation of a company and its products.

It is prepared as a rubric, with each item in the report scored on a scale of zero to three: • Excellent – 3 points • Satisfactory – 2 points • Poor – 1 point • Trouble – 0 points

There are seven categories ranging from “Margins & Profitability” to individual products. Each line item is discussed below, beginning with how the item was scored.

To make quick use of the report, scan it for zeros. Find the description below to learn why the company earned a zero. We recommend having a Capstone Courier at your disposal as you interpret the results.

3 © 2011 Capsim Management Simulations, Inc. All rights reserved.

Sample Report

DEBRIEF REPORT 2013 Ferris C42681

COMPANY RUBRIC Points (0..3)

Margins & Profitability Asset Utilization ROS (Profits/Sales) 0 Asset turnover (Sales / Assets) 1 EPS (Earnings Per Share) 0 Sales to Current Assets 1 Contribution Margin 2 Overall plant utilization 2 Change in Stock Price 0 Total (Max 9) 4 Total (Max 12) 2

Ability to raise growth capital Forecasting Leverage 2 Stock outs 2 Stock price 0 Bloated inventories 2 Bond rating 1 Overall Actual vs. Potential Demand 3 Total (Max 9) 3 Total (Max 9) 7

Sound Fiscal Policies Competitive Advantage Emergency loans 3 Cost leadership 0 Leverage 2 Product breadth 3 Current Ratio 3 Market share 2 Inventory reserves 0 Overall Awareness 2 Plant purchases funded 3 Overall Accessibility 2 Accounts Receivable 2 Overall Design 1 Accounts Payable 2 Asset Base 3 Total (Max 21) 15 Total (Max 21) 10

PRODUCT RUBRIC Cake Cedar Cid Coat Cure Ch Cp Cs Overall Primary Segment Trad Low High Pfmn Size 0 Pfmn Size Positioning 1 3 2 2 2 0 1 1 2 Age 3 3 1 3 3 0 2 1 2 Reliability 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Price Percentile 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Awareness 2 2 3 3 3 0 2 2 2 Accessibility 2 2 0 2 2 0 2 2 2 CustomerSurveyScore 1 0 3 3 3 0 3 1 2 PotentialShare/Avg 1 1 3 3 3 0 0 0 1 ActualShare/Potential 3 2 3 3 2 0 2 2 2 PlantUtilization 3 3 3 2 2 0 0 0 2 Automation 0 0 1 2 2 0 2 2 1 ContributionMargin 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Days of Inventory 2 2 2 1 2 0 0 0 1 Promotion Budget 0 0 3 3 3 0 3 3 2 Sales Budget 0 0 3 3 3 0 2 2 2 R&D Utilization 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Total (Max 48) 18 19 27 30 30 0 19 16 21

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The Company Rubric

ROS Return on Sales (Profit/Sales) answers the question, “How much of every sales dollar did we keep as profit?”

Excellent ROS > 8% Satisfactory 4% < ROS <=8% Poor 0% < ROS <= 4% Trouble ROS <= 0%

Between 0% and 4%, while the company is at least making a profit, it is not bringing in sufficient new equity to fund growth. The industry is growing at about 15% per year. The industry consumes about 15% more capacity each year, which arrives in the form of plant expansions and new products. Therefore, as the simulation begins, an average company would add about $12 million in new plant each year. If half that or $6 million was funded with bonds, an average company would need about $6 million in new equity. Therefore, if the company does not have the profits, it must either issue $6 million in new stock, or $12 million in bonds, or not grow to keep up with demand. Worse, if it has no profits, its stock price falls, making it difficult to raise equity through stock issues.

This ignores investments in automation, which also require a funding mix of equity and debt.

In the opening round of Capstone® companies have an excess of assets, and that can convert idle assets into productive ones. Therefore, do not worry too much if the company’s profits are low. But after year 3, expect that idle asset cushion to be gone. Profits become critical because those companies with profits can grow, and those without cannot.

What if profits are negative? The company is destroying equity. Its stock price has plummeted, making it more difficult to raise equity. All of the problems described above are now accelerated. In short, trouble.

How can companies improve ROS? Here are a few questions to pose.

1. Can you raise prices? 2. Can you reduce your labor costs? Your material costs? 3. Can you forecast sales better and thereby reduce your inventory carrying expenses? 4. Have you pushed your promotion or sales budgets into diminishing returns? 5. Can you sell idle plant to reduce depreciation? Alternatively, can you convert idle plant into

some other productive asset, like automation or new products? 6. Is your leverage too high, resulting in high interest expenses. (See leverage.)

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EPS (Earnings Per Share) EPS (profits/shares outstanding) answers the question, “What profits did each share earn?” EPS is a driver of stock price, and stock issues are an important source of growth capital.

Excellent EPS > $2 + Round # Satisfactory ($2 + Round #)/3 < EPS <= $2 + Round # Poor $0.00 < EPS < ($2 + Round #)/3 Trouble EPS <= $0.00

In the table, “Round #” refers to the year in the Capstone®. Round 1 is year 1, round 2 is year 2. The market is growing, and so should profits. In Round 5, for example, an excellent EPS would be ($2 + $5) = $7.00 per share, and a satisfactory EPS would be at least 1/3 that or $2.33.

EPS is important for three reasons. First, profits bring new equity into the company. Second, EPS drives stock price, and the company can issue shares to bring in new equity. Third, any new equity can be leveraged with new debt.

An example may help. Suppose the company wants to invest $15 million in new plant and equipment each year for the next three years. If its profits are zero and it issues no stock, the purchases would need to be funded entirely with bonds. But this would drive up interest expense, and worse, eventually the company would reach a ceiling where bond holders would give it no additional debt. The company would stop growing.

In the end, a company’s growth is built upon equity. If it has equity, it can get debt, too.

How can companies improve EPS? Improve sales volume while maintaining margins. EPS is closely linked with the Asset Utilization and Competitive Advantage categories.

Contribution Margin Contribution margin is what is left over after variable costs. Variable costs include the cost of goods (material and labor) and inventory carrying expense.

The biggest expense is the cost of goods. If the contribution margin is 30%, then out of every sales dollar, $0.70 paid for inventory and $0.30 is available for everything else, including profits.

Excellent Contribution Margin > 35% Satisfactory Contribution Margin > 27% Poor Contribution Margin > 22% Trouble Contribution Margin < 22%

Fixed costs are those expenses that will be paid regardless of sales. They include promotion, sales budget, R&D, admin, and interest expenses.

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As the contribution margin falls below 30%, it becomes increasingly difficult to cover fixed costs.

How can a company improve its contribution margin? Guard price and attack material and labor expenses.

Change in Stock Price The change in stock price from one year to the next is an indicator for the long term growth potential of the company.

Excellent > $20.00 Satisfactory > $7.00 Poor > – $5.00 Trouble < – $5.00

If the stock price is increasing, the company will enjoy easier access to new equity via profits and stock issues, which in turn can be leveraged with additional bonds, and the combined capital can fund plant improvements and new products.

If the stock price is falling, it becomes increasingly difficult to obtain new investment capital, either equity or debt. Eventually the company’s ability to make improvements comes to a halt.

Leverage In Capstone® Leverage is defined as Assets/Equity. (It is sometimes defined as Debt/Equity, but in either case, Leverage is addressing the question, “How much of the company assets are funded with debt?”) The higher the Assets/Equity ratio, the more debt is in the mix.

Using Assets/Equity, a Leverage of 2.0 means half the assets are financed with debt and half with equity. Read it as, “There are $2 of assets for every $1 of equity.” A leverage of 3 reads as, “There are $3 of assets for every $1 of equity.”

Excellent 1.8 < Leverage < 2.5 Satisfactory 1.6 < Leverage <1.8 , or 2.5 < Leverage < 2.8 Poor 1.4 < Leverage <1.6, or 2.8 < Leverage < 3.2 Trouble Leverage < 1.4, or Leverage > 3.2

It is easy to see why too much Leverage can cause problems. As debt increases, loans become more expensive. The company becomes high risk, and lenders eventually decline to lend the company money.

On the other hand, companies with a competitive advantage usually have a larger asset base than their competitors. For example, a broad product line implies a larger plant. A highly automated facility implies a large investment. Growing the company’s asset base quickly calls for prudent use of debt.

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Here is an example. Suppose Andrews has assets of $100 million, and Baldwin $125 million. Assume that each team is utilizing their assets productively. An observer will bet on Baldwin because its larger asset base translates into more products or more productivity. Now suppose that Andrews is leveraged at 2.0, and Baldwin at 2.5. If so, they both have $50 million in equity. By leveraging its equity, Baldwin gained an advantage.

Too little leverage can also indicate weakness, provided that investment opportunities exist. Think of it this way. When a company retires debt, it is saying to stockholders, “We are out of ideas for investments. The best we can come up with is to save you the interest on debt.” This will not impress stockholders, who are looking for a high return on their equity (ROE). An investor expecting a 20% ROE will be unhappy learning that their money was used to reduce debt at 10%.

ROS * Asset Turnover *Leverage = Price/Sales * Sales/Assets * Assets/ Equity = ROE. If the company can somehow hold its margins and productivity constant, increasing leverage improves ROE.

If leverage is falling, here are some things to suggest to the company.

1. Decide upon a policy towards leverage. For example, “Our leverage will be 2.5.” Adjust your leverage before saving your decisions. (Issue/retire debt, issue/retire stock, pay dividends.)

2. Find investment opportunities. For example, if the market is still growing, and you are already at a high plant utilization, you will need to add some capacity each year. Or perhaps you can add a new product. Fund these investment opportunities with a mix of debt and equity consistent with your policy.

3. In the latter rounds of Capstone® you are likely to become a “cash cow”. You discover that you have excess working capital that cannot be put to good use. In the real world management might get into new businesses, but in Capstone® there are no such alternatives. In this case, make your stockholders happy by buying back stock or paying dividends to maintain the leverage.

Stock Price Stock price is a function of book value, EPS and the number of shares outstanding. Book value sets a floor, although negative earnings can depress stock price below book. Stock price can also be negatively impacted by emergency loans. In the absence of losses and emergency loans, Capstone’s stock price is primarily a function of past and present EPS.

Excellent Stock price > $40 + 5 * Round number Satisfactory Stock price > $25 + 5 * Round number Poor Stock price > $10 + 5 * Round number Trouble Stock price < $10 + 5 * Round number

In the table, “Round Number” refers to the year in the Capstone®. Round 1 is year 1, round 2 is year 2. The market is growing, and so should profits. As time passes and EPS increases, we should expect stock price to increase.

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Stock price is important because, ultimately, equity drives the company’s ability to raise capital for growth. Even if it never issues a share, a rising stock price means it is accumulating profits as retained earnings. More equity means that it can raise additional debt, and together its mix of debt and equity fuels the company’s growth.

Also see the discussion for EPS and Leverage.

Bond Rating The bond ratings are, from best to worst, AAA, AA, A, BBB, BB, B, CCC, CC, C, DDD. Bond ratings are driven by leverage. As bond ratings fall, interest rates climb on both short term and long term debt.

As the bond rating decays, bond holders become reluctant to give the company additional debt. This sets a limit on the company’s ability to acquire additional assets, particularly automation, capacity, and new products.

Since leverage is a function of equity, the bond rating is in some sense derived from equity. Companies can improve their bond rating by adding equity, either as a stock issue or as profits. The more equity they have, the more debt they can raise, and the bigger their asset base.

Alternatively, companies can improve their bond rating by reducing debt. However, reducing debt also implies shrinking the asset base. While there are always exceptions to the rule, shrinking the asset base in a growing market would be limiting to growth.

Excellent AAA, AA, A Satisfactory BBB, BB, B Poor CCC, CC, C Trouble DDD

Emergency Loans If a company is out of cash on December 31st, a character in the simulation, Big Al, arrives to give it just enough money to bring its cash balance to zero. The company pays Big Al its short term interest rate plus a 7.5% premium. Stock price also falls – how much depending upon the severity of the loan.

Excellent No emergency loan Satisfactory Emergency loan less than $1 million Poor Emergency loan less than $8 million Trouble Emergency loan greater than $8 million

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The great majority of emergency loans are rooted in three mistakes.

1. The company purchased a plant, but did not fund it adequately. 2. The company forecasted too much demand, and when it did not materialize, its inventory

expansion exceeded reserves. 3. The company neglected to fund your current assets adequately, usually because it brought its

current debt to zero.

You can also direct students to the online Team Member Guide, and the Analyst Report, where emergency loans are also discussed at some length.

While painful, an emergency loan that purchased assets is not destructive so long as the assets are useful. After all, the company could have and should have funded the assets with cheaper debt. It now has an asset at its disposal, even though it overpaid for it.

However, there is another cause of emergency loans – sustained negative profits. The company is, well, a zombie, kept in motion by transfusions from the deep pockets of Big Al. The only advice we can offer here is, intervene before the company joins the walking dead. If profits are negative two years in row, intervene to improve margins and reverse the trend.

Current Ratio Current Ratio is defined as Current Assets/Current Liabilities, which in turn is (Cash + A/R + Inventory) / (A/P + Current Debt). From a banker and vendor’s point of view, it answers the question, “How likely am I to get my money back?”

Excellent 1.8 < Current Ratio <= 2.2 Satisfactory 1.6 < Current Ratio <=1.8, or 2.2 < Current Ratio <= 2.4 Poor 1.3 < Current Ratio <=1.4, or 2.4 < Current Ratio <= 2.7 Trouble Current Ratio < 1.3, or Current Ratio > 2.7

Like any asset, current assets are paid for with a mix of debt and equity. The debt is Accounts Payable and Current Debt, which we can think of as “short term funding”. The balance is “long term funding”, and it is probably equity, but it could be long term debt. More precisely this long term funding is Working Capital, which is defined as Current Assets – Current Liabilities.

What should the Current Ratio be? While that is a policy decision, we suggest starting with the debt/equity mix of the entire company. If the mix is 50/50 overall, why would the company have a different policy for Current Assets? If Current Assets are funded half with Current Liabilities and half with equity, then the Current Ratio is 2.0.

Where does trouble begin? A Current Ratio of 1.0 says that Current Assets are funded entirely with Current Liabilities. Bankers and Vendors are very worried, and are likely to withhold additional funding. They do not begin to relax until the ratio reaches 1.3, which in effect says for every $1.30 of current assets they fund $1.00. By 1.6 they remain watchful but are less concerned, and at 1.8 they are happy to lend money or offer credit.

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However, trouble exists at the high side, too. A Current Ratio of 3.0 says that the company has $3.00 of assets for every $1.00 of debt, and therefore $2.00 of current assets are being funded with long term money. But if long term money is tied up with current assets, it cannot be used to fund long term assets – capacity, automation, and new products.

Consider a stockholder. The stockholder knows that he/she gets no return on current assets. Stockholders make no return on Cash, on Accounts Receivable, or on inventory. In some sense they are necessary evils. Stockholders recognize the necessity of current assets, but if they expect a 20% return on their investment, they would rather the company borrow money from a bank at 10% so their money can be invested in wealth producing assets – capacity, automation, and new products. A stockholder wants to see a low Current Ratio, while vendors want to see a high Current Ratio.

It follows from this reasoning that paying current debt to $0 is a mistake. The question companies must answer is, “How much current debt should be in the mix?”

In the real world, bankers will typically fund up to 75% of Accounts Receivable and 50% of inventory. Using this as a rule of thumb, here is a quick method to arrive at Current Debt before a company saves decisions.

1. Drive the proforma financial statements into a “worst case scenario”. In the worst case, the pessimistic unit sales forecast is put into the Marketing worksheet, and the best case unit sales forecast into the Production schedule. In the worst case, the proforma balance sheet ‘s inventory is at a maximum.

2. Looking at the proforma balance sheet, calculate 50% of the inventory and 75% of the Receivables.

3. On the Finance sheet, enter the result as Current Debt for next year.

Companies will discover that if its policy towards A/R is 30 days, its policy towards inventory is 90 days, and it has $1 of cash, then a policy of A/P at 30 days, and current debt at 75% of A/R and 50% of inventory, will give it a Current Ratio of about 2.0.

Inventory Reserves Inventory expansions are the number one cause of emergency loans. This can be further broken down into two root causes – forecasting, and inadequate inventory reserves.

By inventory reserves we mean, “How much inventory are we willing to accumulate during the year in our worst case?” We express this as “days of inventory.”

Suppose the gross margin is 30%. If so, then the cost of inventory consumes 70% of every sales dollar. If sales are $100 million, over the course of a year the company spends $70 million on inventory. In one day it spends $191 thousand. In 30 days it spends $5.7 million. In 90 days $17.3 million.

We are interested in how many days of inventory the company planned to be able to absorb, because if inventory expanded beyond this, it would see Big Al for an emergency loan.

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Excellent 75 to 105 days of inventory Satisfactory 55 to 75 days, or 105 to 135 days of inventory Poor 30 to 55 days, or 135 to 160 days of inventory Trouble Below 30 days or more than 160 days of inventory

To find inventory reserves we determine cash and inventory positions on January 2nd, after all the dust has settled from borrowing, stock issues, bond issues, debt retirement, etc.

Inventory reserves in days = ((Starting Cash + Starting Inventory)/COG) * 365. For example, if starting cash and inventory totaled 30 million on January 2nd, and annual cost of goods is expected to be $120 million, then days of inventory was $30/$120 * 365 or 91 days.

If the company sells its entire inventory, it converts it all to cash. The more inventory accumulated, the more that cash is crystallized as inventory. Eventually the company runs out of cash and turns to Big Al to pay for the inventory that has accumulated in the warehouse.

Companies can develop an inventory reserves policy by considering their worst case forecast for sales. If the inventory policy is 90 days, they can plan the production schedule so that they will have (1 + 90/365) = 125% of their worst case forecast, including any starting inventory.

Companies cannot predict what competitors will do in detail. Therefore, companies plan for the worst and hope for the best.

Trouble is highly likely to occur when inventory reserves are less than 30 days. The company may get away with it, but that requires both precise forecasting and predictable competitors or, more likely, lots of luck.

Trouble appears in a different form when inventory reserves exceed 160 days. Now the company has idle assets, which should either have been put to work or given back to the stockholders.

Plant Purchases Funded Failure to fully fund plant purchase is the number two cause of emergency loans. The error occurs because companies often count on profits or perhaps inventory reductions that do not materialize.

Excellent Fully funded Satisfactory Funding shortfall is within $4 million Poor Funding shortfall is within $8 million Trouble Funding shortfall is greater than $8 million

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Funding sources include:

1. Depreciation 2. Stock issue 3. Bond issues 4. Excess current assets

Depreciation often confuses students. While we do pay cash for expenses like promotion or inventory, we never actually pay cash for depreciation. And yet governments allow businesses to deduct depreciation as an expense, thereby reducing profits and taxes. Why?

Governments want businesses to continue to pay taxes, and they agree that equipment wears out and must be replaced. The purpose of depreciation is to set aside a guaranteed cash flow that can be used for the purchase of new plant and equipment. Teams can successfully argue that cash from depreciation is a valid source of funding.

Stock and bond issues raise long term funds for any investment in the company.

Excess current assets can be defined as “anything greater than the current assets required to operate in our worst case scenario”. For our purposes, we assume that teams need a minimum of 90 days of inventory, 30 days of accounts receivable, and $1 of cash. Of course, teams might want to have deeper reserves, but in applying the rubric to Plant Purchases, we allow companies to apply anything above this minimum to plant purchases. We use the January 1st balance sheet (same as the December 31st balance sheet from last year’s reports) to discover starting current assets.

If the sum of the company’s funding sources is greater than its plant purchases, the company fully funded the purchase. If the shortfall is less than $4 million, it is plausible that its intention was to reduce the current asset base by $4 million. If the funding shortfall is $8 million, it is conceivable albeit unlikely that the shortfall was planned. Anything more than $8 million is cutting deeply into current assets, and will likely result in an emergency loan.

Accounts Receivable The accounts receivable policy affects both demand and the balance sheet. Companies express the policy in days. A 30 day policy means that accounts receivable will be 30/365 * Sales.

Excellent 45 to 60 days Satisfactory 30 to 45 days, or 60 to 75 days Poor 20 to 30 days, or 75 to 90 days Trouble Less than 20 days or more than 90 days

On the balance sheet, if a company expands A/R policy from 30 days to 60 days, it doubles A/R. In effect it gives a loan to customers, and in the process it incurs the additional expense of carrying that loan. For

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example, if accounts receivable expanded from $10 million to $20 million, and the company funded the expansion with short term debt at 10%, it would incur an additional $1.0 million in interest expense.

On the other hand, demand would increase by about 5% from $120 million to $126 million, while fixed costs would remain the same. Profits would increase by about $0.8 million after paying the additional $1 million in interest expense. And, of course, the additional $6 million in sales came out of competitors.

But there is a risk. It is trivial for competitors to copy A/R policies, and if that happens, the increase in demand is neutralized while everyone absorbs the additional $1.0 million in interest expense. The question then is, “Will competitors realize we have expanded our credit terms? All of them?”

Beyond 60 days, the incremental cost in interest exceeds the incremental gain in demand.

As companies shorten A/R policy, they effectively reduce the loan they have made to customers. Cash goes up, interest expense falls. However, customers want credit terms. If the company demands cash payment, demand falls to 65% of its potential.

These relationships are easily explored with the company’s Marketing worksheet. As they vary the A/R policy, they should watch the computer’s demand forecast.

Accounts Payable Accounts payable policy affects both parts deliveries and the balance sheet. Companies express the policy in days. A 30 day policy means that it pays vendors 30 days after it receives a bill.

Excellent 0 to 15 days Satisfactory 15 to 30 days Poor 30 to 45 days Trouble Over 45 days

On the balance sheet, if companies expand A/P policy from 30 to 60 days, it doubles A/P. In effect it extracts a loan from vendors on which its pay no interest. If payables expand from $10 million to $20 million, that means that it could borrow $10 million less from its banker, and if interest rates are 10%, it saves $1 million in interest expense.

However, vendors want to be paid. If they are not paid, they begin withholding parts deliveries. At 60 days, parts deliveries fall 8%. The company pays for the workforce, but it gets 8% less inventory to sell. In Round 1 this translates to about $2.35 million in wasted labor expense, and potentially missed sales from stockouts.

A policy between 0 and 15 days improves production about 2%. This translates to about 84 thousand units that the company in Round 1 that the company would not have had before. In effect, the labor cost on these units is free, a savings of $700 thousand, plus the contribution margin on these units, another $800 thousand.

These relationships are easily explored with the Production worksheet. As the company varies A/P policy, watch the impact upon total Production After Adjustments.

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Asset Turnover Asset Turnover or Sales/Assets answers the question, “For every dollar of assets, how many sales dollars do we generate?” We would like to generate as many sales dollars as possible.

Excellent ATO > 1.3 Satisfactory 1.0 < ATO <=1.3 Poor 0.8 < ATO <= 1.0 Trouble ATO <= 0.8

In Capstone®, 1.0 to 1.3 (that is, $1.00 to $1.30 of sales for every dollar of assets) is considered satisfactory. Anything over 1.3 is excellent. Between 0.8 and 1.0, chances are the company has idle assets.

Consider its starting Traditional product (Able, Baker, Cake, Daze, Eat, or Fast). In Round 0 it could produce 1.8 million units on first shift, yet demand was only 1.0 million units. Almost half the plant was idle. Its Sales/Assets ratio was depressed, dragging down the entire company’s Asset Turnover.

Below 0.8 the company is in trouble. Either sales are depressed, or the assets are unproductive, or both.

What can companies do to improve Asset Turnover? Fundamentally a company needs to increase demand or reduce the asset base. Many of the other items in the rubric drill down into these issues. Consider these questions:

1. Is the plant utilization on any product below 130%? (See plant utilization.) 2. Can the company make its products more competitive? (See Design, Awareness, Accessibility). 3. Are its current assets appropriate for its sales base? (See Sales to Current Assets).

Excellent Asset Turnover >1.3 Satisfactory 1.0 < Asset Turnover < 1.3 Poor 0.8 < Asset Turnover < 1.0 Trouble Asset Turnover < 0.8

Sales to Current Assets This ratio asks the question, “Given our sales base, do we have adequate current assets to operate the company?” Current assets are comprised of Cash, Accounts Receivable and Inventory. In the worst case scenario, cash has dwindled to $1 as inventory expanded. The accounts receivable policy (for example, 30 day terms) is a direct function of Sales.

Given the A/R policy in days, inventory policy in days, and sales, it is easy to calculate whether a company has adequate Current Assets to operate the company. For example, suppose the company projects worst case sales to be $120 million, sets A/R policy to 30 days, and is willing to carry 90 days of inventory. If its gross margin is 30%, then it will spend 70% * $120 million on inventory during the year,

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or $84 million, and a 90 day inventory policy translates to 90/365*$84 = $21 million. Accounts Receivable will be 30/365*$120 million = $10 million. In the worst case the company will have only $1 in cash. Current Assets = $1 + $10 million + $21 million = $31 Million. Sales/Current Assets = 3.8

Excellent 3.5 < Sales/Current Assets <4.5 Satisfactory 3.0 to 3.5, or 4.5 to 5.0 Poor 2.5 to 3.0, or 5.0 to 5.5 Trouble Sales/Current Assets < 2.5, or > 5.5

Too low a ratio risks a visit from Big Al. Too high a ratio indicates idle current assets which should either be put to work or given back to shareholders as a dividend or stock repurchase.

Overall Plant Utilization Overall Plant Utilization asks the question, “Are we working our plant hard?” It is calculated as Total Production / Total Capacity.

Excellent Plant Utilization > 1.7 Satisfactory Plant Utilization > 1.3 Poor Plant Utilization > 0.9 Trouble Plant Utilization < 0.9

It is easy to demonstrate that second shift is nearly always more profitable than first shift. This often surprises students who look at the 50% second shift wage premium and assume that second shift must be something to avoid. But suppose we only run one shift – by necessity it must pay all of the fixed costs – depreciation, R&D, Promotion, Sales Budget, Admin, and Interest. Anything on second shift only pays for the 50% premium on labor.

It follows that we want to run as much second shift as possible. In a perfect world, we would run two shifts, our best case demand forecast would come true, and we would have only one unit of inventory left at the end of the year. On the other hand, if we max out second shift, there is a good chance we could stock out, and stock outs are very costly. Therefore, 170% plant utilization or more is considered excellent and 130% satisfactory.

Stock Outs (Company level) Stock outs are HUGELY expensive. Consider a typical stock out. Demand is 500 thousand. The company stocks out at 400 thousand. The price is $30, and the unit cost is $21. Consider – the 400 thousand that were sold must have paid for all of the fixed costs – depreciation, R&D, Promotion, Sales Budget, Admin, and Interest. Therefore, the missed units would have only have paid for their cost of goods, contributing $900 thousand towards profit, been taxed at 35%, resulting in a $585 thousand net profit.

At the company level, we are interested in how many of the company’s products stocked out. (At the product level below, we will examine the individual stock out.) Chronic stock outs suggest problems with forecasting.

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Excellent No product stocked out Satisfactory 1 product stocked out Poor 2 products stocked out Trouble 3 or more products stocked out

Bloated Inventories We define a bloated inventory as any product that has more than 4 months of sales sitting in the warehouse.

While it is not uncommon to be taken by surprise by a competitor on a single product (perhaps a new product was introduced), if inventories are bloated across several products, the company is having difficulty forecasting demand.

Excellent No product had a bloated inventory Satisfactory 1 or 2 products with bloated inventories Poor 3 or 4 products with bloated inventories Trouble 5 or more products with bloated inventories

Overall Actual vs. Potential Demand The company worked hard to create the demand, but did it meet it?

Potential Demand tells companies what they deserved to sell based upon customer preferences. Actual demand is what companies actually sold, and it is often affected by stock outs.

If companies are not meeting potential demand, the problem is usually forecasting, and sometimes capacity shortages.

Excellent Met potential demand (or exceeded) Satisfactory Met 98% of potential demand Poor Met 96 % of potential demand Trouble Met less than 96% of potential demand

Cost Leadership Cost leaders attack the cost of goods, both material and labor costs. We can assess overall cost leadership by assess the average unit cost across the company’s product line.

Excellent < $18 – (Round #/4) Satisfactory <$20 – (Round #/4) Poor <$22 – (Round # /4) Trouble >$22 – (Round#/4)

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Over time we expect companies to become more efficient. The simulation advances the clock a year at a time, and a Round is one advance. Using the formula, an excellent average cost of goods in Round 2 is $17.50.

Companies can attack cost of goods by:

1. Reducing MTBF. 2. Placing products well behind the leading edge of the segment. The Material cost can be several

dollars cheaper per unit at the trailing edge versus the leading edge. 3. Automating to reduce labor costs

Product Breadth How many products does the company have in its line-up?

Consider this thought experiment. Suppose that there are four competitors in a segment and they all offer identical products. Each gets a 25% share. Now the “A” competitor adds a fifth identical product. “A’s” share becomes 40%. The gain was not free. “A” doubled its R&D, Promotion, Sales Budget, Admin costs, and it had to buy a new plant for its new product. But it has 40% share.

“B” likes this and adds a sixth identical product to the mix. Its share (and “A’s”) are now 33%. What should “C” and “D” do? If they match, everybody’s costs double. If they do not match, their share falls from 25% to 16%.

Product breadth also impacts accessibility. In Capstone® two products in a segment both contribute towards the Accessibility because two Sales Budgets are contributing instead of 1. You can only reach 100% accessibility if you have two or more products in the segment.

Excellent 7 or 8 products Satisfactory 4, 5 or 6 products Poor 3 products Trouble 1 or 2 products

Market Share Overall Overall market share is an indicator of strength or weakness. Companies began the simulation with a share of 1/#Teams.

Excellent 1.5 times average share Satisfactory 0.9 to 1.5 times average share Poor 0.6 to 0.9 times average share Trouble <0. 6 times average share

There is a synergistic relationship between falling share and expenses. Fixed costs do not vary much relative to sales from year to year. Fixed costs include R&D, Promotion, and Sales Budget. The R&D budget will be about the same whether the product is making $20 million in sales or $40 million in sales.

18 © 2011 Capsim Management Simulations, Inc. All rights reserved.

But as market share slips, companies feel pressure to reduce these fixed costs. Trimming R&D, Promotion and Sales leads to reduced demand, which leads to lower share, then further trimming – a deadly spiral.

Overall Awareness Economists speak of “perfect information”. In Capstone® 100% awareness means that the product loses none of its attractiveness because some potential customers are not aware of it. Awareness answers two questions, “How many potential customers know about a product before they make a purchase decision? How difficult is it for them to discover a product offer?” If awareness is 75%, then 75% know about the product beforehand, and 25% have to work to discover it.

Attractiveness is expressed in the Customer Survey score. Products are evaluated on a scale of 0 to 100 on the four buying criteria – price, positioning, age, and reliability. A perfect product scores 100. If awareness is 100%, the perfect product keeps all 100 points. But as awareness falls, so does its product score. At 0% awareness, the perfect product is down to 50 points.

Excellent Average awareness > 85% Satisfactory Average awareness > 70% Poor Average awareness > 50% Trouble Average awareness < 50%

Overall awareness looks at the product line average awareness. A low average exposes a chronic problem with awareness.

Overall Accessibility Accessibility addresses the question, “How easy is it for customers to work with the company during and after the sale?” Accessibility translates into sales people, distribution centers, customer service departments, etc. If accessibility is 75%, then 75% of customers find it easy to work with the company, and 25% have problems ranging from getting through to a salesman to taking delivery.

Capstone® requires two products in a segment to reach 100% accessibility. With a single product, companies can reach 75% accessibility. This constraint is relaxed if the Advanced Marketing module is switched on, in which case teams are given direct access to their distribution channel budgets.

Like Awareness, Accessibility affects the Customer Survey score. Products are evaluated on a scale of 0 to 100 on the four buying criteria – price, positioning, age, and reliability. A perfect product scores 100. If accessibility is 100%, the product keeps all 100 points. But as accessibility falls, so does its product score. At 0% accessibility, the perfect product’s score is down to 50 points. At 75% accessibility, an otherwise perfect product would score 87.5.

Excellent Average accessibility > 70% Satisfactory Average accessibility > 60% Poor Average accessibility > 50% Trouble Average accessibility < 50%

19 © 2011 Capsim Management Simulations, Inc. All rights reserved.

Overall accessibility looks at the product line’s average accessibility. A low average exposes a chronic problem with accessibility.

Overall Design In Capstone® product design includes Positioning, Age, and Reliability. They offer the customer “value”, which is then compared with Price. Overall design averages these three design attributes across the product line.

See the Product Rubric for Positioning, Age, and Reliability criteria. From an overall perspective, we average these rubric scores.

Excellent Average across design attributes > 2.5 Satisfactory Average across design attributes > 1.5 Poor Average across design attributes > 0.5 Trouble Average across design attributes <0.5

A low average exposes a chronic problem with design.

Asset Base Companies with a competitive advantage usually have a larger asset base than their competitors. For example, a broad product line or a highly automated plant implies a large investment in equipment. (See the discussion on Leverage.)

Over time we expect teams to accumulate more assets.

Excellent Assets > $84M + $20M * Round# Satisfactory Assets > $84M + $16M * Round# Poor Assets > $84M + $12M * Round# Trouble Assets < $84M + $12M * Round#

In the table, “Round #” refers to the year in the Capstone®. Round 1 is year 1, round 2 is year 2. The market is growing, and so should our asset base. In Round 5, for example, and excellent asset base would be $84M + $20M * 5 = $184M, and a satisfactory asset base would be at least $164M.

The Product Rubric

Positioning Positioning refers to the product’s placement on the Perceptual Map relative to the Ideal Spot in its primary segment. The closer a product is to the ideal spot, the more points it earns towards its Customer Survey Score.

20 © 2011 Capsim Management Simulations, Inc. All rights reserved.

The ideal spot is moving constantly across the map, while products only move when an R&D project finishes. Products play “leap frog” with the ideal spot.

Excellent Product within 0.5 of ideal spot Satisfactory Product within 1.0 of ideal spot Poor Product within 1.5 of ideal spot Trouble Product beyond 1.5 of ideal spot

Segment Importance Ideal Positioning Traditional 21% Ideal spot in center of segment. Low End 16% Ideal spot trails the center of the segment. High End 43% Ideal spot leads the center of the segment. Performance 29% Ideal spot leads the center of the segment. Size 43% Ideal spot leads the center of the segment.

Age Age refers the customer’s perceived age of the design. When a product is repositioned in an R&D project, on the day of completion its age is cut in half. It becomes “the new improved” product, which is not as old as the previous model, but not brand new either.

Product’s age throughout the year, becoming a little older each month.

Excellent Product within 0.5 of ideal age Satisfactory Product within 1.0 of ideal age Poor Product within 1.5 of ideal age Trouble Product beyond 1.5 of ideal age

Segment Importance Ideal Age Traditional 47% 2.0 Years Low End 24% 7.0 Years High End 29% 0.0 Years Performance 9% 1.0 Years Size 29% 1.5 Years

Reliability Reliability refers the customer’s expectations for MTBF (Mean Time Before Failure) specification. This does not change over time.

Excellent MTBF within 1000 hours of the top of the range Satisfactory MTBF within 2500 hours of the top of the range Poor MTBF within 4000 hours of the top of the range Trouble MTBF below 4000 hours of the top of the range

21 © 2011 Capsim Management Simulations, Inc. All rights reserved.

Segment Importance MTBF Range Traditional 9% 14000 – 19000 hours Low End 7% 12000 – 17000 hours High End 19% 20000 – 25000 hours Performance 45% 22000 – 27000 hours Size 19% 16000 – 21000 hours

Price Percentile The Price Percentile is defined as (Price – Low End of Expected Price Range)/(High End – Low End). For example, if the expected price range is $30-$40, a $32 is at the 20th percentile.

The Expected Price Range declines by $0.50 each year. For example, if the expected price range was $20-$30 last year, it will be $19.50 to $29.50 this year.

Excellent Below the 50th percentile Satisfactory Below the 75th percentile Poor Below the 90th percentile Trouble Above the 90th percentile

Segment Importance Expected Price Range Round 0 Traditional 23% $20 – $30 Low End 53% $15 – $25 High End 9% $30 – $40 Performance 19% $25 – $35 Size 9% $25 – $35

To be candid, this particular item in the rubric is difficult to defend. For example, in the High End, it makes little sense to price below the 50th percentile. Further, competitive rivalry is certainly a factor in pricing, yet what is “Excellent” in one situation could be “Poor” in another.

Yet we must say something about pricing. In the end we decided to use the customer’s perspective. A customer would say that any price below the 50th percentile in the range is an excellent price.

Awareness (See also Overall Awareness.) Economists speak of “perfect information”. In Capstone® 100% awareness means that your product loses none of its attractiveness because some potential customers are not aware of the product. Awareness answers two questions, “How many potential customers know about the product before they make a purchase decision? How difficult is it for them to discover the product offer?” If awareness is 75%, then 75% know about your product beforehand, and 25% have to work to discover it.

Attractiveness is expressed in the Customer Survey score. Products are evaluated on a scale of 0 to 100 on the four buying criteria – price, positioning, age, and reliability. A perfect product scores 100. If

22 © 2011 Capsim Management Simulations, Inc. All rights reserved.

awareness is 100%, a product keeps all 100 points. But as awareness falls, so does the product score. At 0% awareness, the perfect product is down to 50 points.

Excellent Awareness > 90% Satisfactory Awareness > 75% Poor Awareness > 50% Trouble Awareness <= 50%

Accessibility (See also Overall Accessibility.) Accessibility addresses the question, “How easy is it for customers to work with the company during and after the sale?” Accessibility translates into sales people, distribution centers, customer service departments, etc. If accessibility is 75%, then 75% of customers find it easy to work with the company, and 25% have problems ranging from getting through to a salesman to taking delivery.

Capstone® requires two products in a segment to reach 100% accessibility. With a single product, companies can reach 75% accessibility. This constraint is relaxed if the Advanced Marketing module is switched on, in which case teams are given direct access to their distribution channel budgets.

Like Awareness, Accessibility affects the Customer Survey score. Products are evaluated on a scale of 0 to 100 on the four buying criteria – price, positioning, age, and reliability. A perfect product scores 100. If accessibility is 100%, the product keeps all 100 points. But as accessibility falls, so does the product score. At 0% accessibility, the product score is down to 50 points. At 75% accessibility, an otherwise perfect product would score 87.5.

Excellent Accessibility > 75% Satisfactory Accessibility > 60% Poor Accessibility > 50% Trouble Accessibility <= 50%

Customer Survey Score In any month, a product’s demand is driven by its monthly customer survey score. Assuming it does not run out of inventory, a product with a higher score will outsell a product with a lower score.

A customer survey score reflects how well a product meets its segment’s buying criteria. Company promotion, sales and accounts receivable policies also affect the survey score.

Scores are calculated once each month because a product’s age and positioning change a little each month. If during the year a product is revised by Research and Development, the product’s age, positioning and MTBF characteristics can change quite a bit. As a result, it is possible for a product with a very good December customer survey score to have had a much poorer score – and therefore poorer sales – in the months prior to an R&D revision.

23 © 2011 Capsim Management Simulations, Inc. All rights reserved.

The Rubric exams the December Customer Survey score. Scores are on a scale of 0 to 100, but scores above 60 are rare.

Excellent December Customer Survey Score > 45 Satisfactory December Customer Survey Score > 30 Poor December Customer Survey Score > 15 Trouble December Customer Survey Score <= 15

Potential Share/Average Share This ratio offers insight into how well the product is doing relative to an average product. The potential share is what the product would have sold had there been sufficient inventory in every month.

Average share is 1/Teams. If there are 6 teams, average share would be 16.67%.

For example, if product Able’s potential share was 20%, then the ratio would be 20%/16.67% = 1.2.

Observe that the fewer the products in a segment, the higher the potential. We are not using the number of products to compute an average share, but the number of competitors in the industry. All teams had one product in the segment at the beginning of the simulation. We are also interested in the rivalry in the segment, and where the team has chosen to compete.

For example, if only 3 products are left in the segment, and our product had a 40% share, the ratio would yield 40%/16.67% = 2.4. But if there are now 10 products in the segment, and our share is 12%, the ratio would yield 12%/16.67% = 0.72.

Therefore, we are asking the related questions, “Did you choose a good place to compete?”, and “Were you successful in either driving competitors out or in keeping them from entering?”

Excellent Potential/Average Share > 1.5 Satisfactory Potential/Average Share > 1.0 Poor Potential/Average Share > 0.5 Trouble Potential/Average Share < 0.5

Actual Share/Potential Share This ratio examines the question, “Did the product meet the demand it generated?” It ignores those situations where the product picked up undeserved demand from a competitor’s stock out.

Excellent Actual/Potential share > 0.999 Satisfactory Actual/Potential share > 0.949 Poor Actual/Potential share > 0.899 Trouble Actual/Potential share <=0.899

24 © 2011 Capsim Management Simulations, Inc. All rights reserved.

Plant Utilization See also Overall Plant Utilization. As discussed some second shift production is desirable.

Excellent Plant Utilization > 150% Satisfactory Plant Utilization > 100% Poor Plant Utilization > 90% Trouble Plant Utilization <=90%

Automation Potential automation levels in a segment are affected by R&D cycle times. On the one hand, a team wants all the automation they can get. On the other, the higher the automation level, the more difficult it becomes to reposition a product in a 12 month time-frame. For example, in the fastest moving High End segment, it is highly desirable to reposition a product every year. At an automation level of 6.5 to 7.0, this becomes difficult. R&D cycle times are further constrained by the number of projects underway – the more projects, the longer each project takes. Therefore, a differentiator with a broad product line cannot automate as highly as a niche differentiator with a narrower product line.

In the table below, automation levels are listed by segment in the order of Traditional, Low End, High End, Performance and Size.

Excellent Automation > (8,9,6,7,7) Satisfactory Automation > (6,7,5,6,6) Poor Automation > (5,6,4,5,5) Trouble Automation < (5,6,4,5,5)

Contribution Margin Contribution margin is defined as: (Price – Unit Cost)/Price.

It is the percentage of the price left over after paying for the inventory. The remainder can then be applied towards fixed costs. As a practical matter it is difficult to make a profit in Capstone® if the contribution margin is less than 30%.

Excellent Contribution Margin > 36% Satisfactory Contribution Margin > 30% Poor Contribution Margin > 25% Trouble Contribution Margin <= 25%

Days of Inventory Days of Inventory addresses the question, “Given our rate of annual sales, how many more days would it take to sell our inventory?”

25 © 2011 Capsim Management Simulations, Inc. All rights reserved.

Excellent 1 <= Days of Inventory <=45 Satisfactory 45 < Days of Inventory <=90 Poor 90 < Days of Inventory <= 120 Trouble 120 < Days of Inventory OR 0 (stocked out)

Promotion Budget The promotion budget is subject to diminishing returns. Beyond $2 million per year little additional gain is seen in awareness, and by $3 million any gain has disappeared. On the other hand, we would like to see a product reach 100% awareness eventually. If it does reach 100%, the company can maintain its awareness for $1.4 million each year.

Excellent $1.4M < Promo Budget <=$2.0M Satisfactory $1.0..$1.4M, or $2.0..$2.5M Poor $0.7..$1.0M, or $2.5..$3.0M Trouble <$0.7M, or >$3.0M

Sales Budget The Sales Budget is subject to diminishing returns. Beyond $3.0M the product contributes no additional gain in accessibility.

Excellent $2.2M < Sales Budget <=$3.0M Satisfactory $1.5M < Sales Budget <=$2.2M Poor $0.7M < Sales Budget <= $1.5M Trouble Sales Budget < $0.7M

R&D Utilization We would like to see the R&D department work as hard as possible. If a project ends before December, we are wasting months of potential R&D time. If a company discovers that they can reposition a product perfectly in less than 12 months, it should add additional automation to both reduce labor costs and improve R&D utilization.

Excellent Project ends in December Satisfactory Project ends in November Poor Project ends in October Trouble Project ends before October

Overall Product Evaluation How did the team do on each element across the product line? We sum the row and divide by the product count. For example, if a team has 4 products and their positioning scores are (3,2,3,2), the formula will yield 10/4 = 2.5 which will round to 3.

26 © 2011 Capsim Management Simulations, Inc. All rights reserved.

Summary Rubrics

Using the Courier Excellent – 3 points Satisfactory –

2 points Poor – 1

point Trouble – 0


1 Pg 1. ROS >8% 4%..8% 0%..4% < 0% 2 Pg 1. Turnover >1.3 1.0..1.3 0.8..1.0 < 0.8

3 Pg 1. Leverage 1.8 – 2.5 1.6-1.8, 2.5-2.8

1.4-1.6,2.8 – 3.2 <1.4, >3.2

4 Pg 1. Emergency Loan $0 $0 – $1M $1M .. $8M >$8M 5 Pg 1. Contrib. Margin >35% 27% .. 35% 22% .. 27% <22%


Pg 1. Market Share (depends on # teams) >1.5 times

average share

0.9 – 1.5 times average


0.6 – 0.9 times

average share

< 0.6 times average share

7 Pg 2. Stock Price (round # =

1..8) >$40 +

5*Round # >$25 +

5*Round # >$10 +

5*Round # <$10 +

5*Round #

8 Pg 2. Stock Price Change

>$20 >$7 >-$5 <-$5

9 Pg 2. EPS (round # = 1..8) >$2 + Round

# >(2 +

round#)/3 $0..(2+Roun

d#)/3 < $0

10 Pg 2. Bond Rating AAA, AA, A BBB, BB, B CCC, CC, C DDD


Pg 3. Inventory fluctuation reserves 75..105 days 55..75, or 105..135 days

30..55, or 135..160


<30 or >160 days


Pg 3. Plant Improvement $12M to $24M investment

$6..12M or $24..30M


$0..$6M or $31..$36M investment

<$0M or >$36M investment


Pg. 3. Plant purchases funded. StockIssues+BondIssues+Depre ciation+Excess Working Capital

– Plant Improvement

Fully funded. Funding-Plant Improvement>


Funded within $4M.

Funding-Plant Improvement

> -$4M

Funded within $8M.

Funding- Plant

Improvemen t > -$8M

Not funded within $8M


Pg 3. Sales to Current Assets (Note. Typically AR policy is 30

days and inventory 90 days. Ratio between

3.5 and 4.5

Ratio is 3.0..3.5 or


Ratio 2.5..3.0 or


Ratio <2.5 or >5.5


Pg 3. Current Ratio (Current Assets over Current Liabilities) Ratio between

1.8 and 2.2 Ratio 1.6..1.8

or 2.2..2.4 1.3..1.6 or

2.4..2.7 <1.3 or >2.7

16 Pg. 3 Total Assets >($84M+20*R

ound#) >($84M+16*R

ound#) >($84M+12*

Round#) <($84M+12*Ro



Pg. 4. Overall Plant Utilization (Total Production/Total Capacity)

>1.7 >1.3 >0.9 <0.9


Pg.4 Automation Spread All Product Automation with 2.0 of each other

All Product Automation with 3.0 of each other

>All Product Automation within 4.0 of each other

Automation spread>4

27 © 2011 Capsim Management Simulations, Inc. All rights reserved.

19 Pg 4. Product count >7 products >=4 products <4 products <4 products 20 Pg 4. Stock outs None 1 stockout 2 stockouts 3 or more


Pg. 4 Products with Big Inventories. (More than > 4

months of sales.) None <=2 products <=4 products 5+ products

22 A/R credit terms 45-60 days 30-45 or 60-75 days

20-30 or 75- 90 days

<20 days or >90 days

23 A/P credit terms 0-15 days 15-30 days 30-45 days >45 days


Pg 10 Overall Actual versus Potential Demand Met Demand

Met 98% of potential demand

Met 96% of potential demand

Met < 96% of potential demand

25 Average Unit Cost <$18-round#/4 <$20-round#/4

<$22- round#/4 >$22-Round#/4

Product Rubric

Excellent – 3 points

Satisfactory – 2 points

Poor – 1 point

Trouble – 0 point

1 Positioning Within 0.5 of Ideal Spot Within 1.0 Within 1.5 Beyond 1.5

2 Age Within 0.5 of

ideal age Within 1.0 Within 1.5 Beyond 1.5

3 Reliability

Within 1000 of top of range Within 2500 Within 4000

Below 4000 from top of


4 Price Percentile <50% of the

range <75% of the

range <90% of the

range >90% of the

range 5 Awareness >90% >75% >50% <=50% 6 Accessibility >75% >60% >50% <=50% 7 Customer Survey Score >45 >30 >15 <15

8 Potential Share/Avg

>1.5*average share

>Average share

>0.5 * average


<0.5 * average share

9 Actual Share/Potential >0.999 >0.949 >0.899 Unit

Sales<=.899 10 Plant Utilization >=150% >=100% >=90% <90%

11 Automation >=(8,9,6,7,7) >=(6,7,5,6,6) >=(5,6,4,5,5

) <(5,6,4,5,5)

12 Contribution Margin >=36% >=30% >=25% <25%

13 Days of Inventory 1..45 days 45..90 days 90..120

days >120 days or

stock out

14 Promotion Budget $1.4M..2.0M 1.0M..1.4M, 2.0M..2.5M

0.7M..1.0M, 2.5M..3M.. <0.7M or >3.0M

15 Sales Budget $2.2M..3.0M 1.5M..2.2M 0.7M..1.5M <0.7M or >3.0M

16 R&D Utilization Project ends in December

Project ends in November

Project ends in October

Project ends before October

  • How to Use This Report
  • Sample Report
  • The Company Rubric
    • ROS
    • EPS (Earnings Per Share)
    • Contribution Margin
    • Change in Stock Price
    • Leverage
    • Stock Price
    • Bond Rating
    • Emergency Loans
    • Current Ratio
    • Inventory Reserves
    • Plant Purchases Funded
    • Accounts Receivable
    • Accounts Payable
    • Asset Turnover
    • Sales to Current Assets
    • Overall Plant Utilization
    • Stock Outs (Company level)
    • Bloated Inventories
    • Overall Actual vs. Potential Demand
    • Cost Leadership
    • Product Breadth
    • Market Share Overall
    • Overall Awareness
    • Overall Accessibility
    • Overall Design
    • Asset Base
  • The Product Rubric
    • Positioning
    • Age
    • Reliability
    • Price Percentile
    • Awareness
    • Accessibility
    • Customer Survey Score
    • Potential Share/Average Share
    • Actual Share/Potential Share
    • Plant Utilization
    • Automation
    • Contribution Margin
    • Days of Inventory
    • Promotion Budget
    • Sales Budget
    • R&D Utilization
    • Overall Product Evaluation
  • Summary Rubrics
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studies have shown that with the exception of “traditional competitive bargaining,” men were:

The Mind and Heart of the Negotiator

Boston Columbus Indianapolis New York San Francisco Upper Saddle River Amsterdam Cape Town Dubai London Madrid Milan Munich Paris Montréal Toronto

Delhi Mexico City São Paulo Sydney Hong Kong Seoul Singapore Taipei Tokyo

S i x t h E d i t i o n

Leigh L. Thompson Kellogg School of Management

Northwestern University

Editor in Chief: Stephanie Wall Acquisitions Editor: Kristin Ellis-Levy Program Management Lead: Ashley Santora Program Manager: Sarah Holle Editorial Assistant: Bernard Olila Director of Marketing: Maggie Moylan Marketing Manager: Erin Gardner Project Management Lead: Judy Leale Project Manager: Thomas Benfatti Procurement Specialist: Nancy Maneri Program manager/Design Lead: Jon Boylan Cover Designer: PMG Media Cover Art: Robert Weeks Full-Service Project Management and Composition: Anand Natarajan/Integra Software Services. Printer/Binder: STP Courier/Westford Cover Printer: STP Courier/Westford Text Font: 10/12 Times LT Std.

Credits and acknowledgments borrowed from other sources and reproduced, with permission, in this textbook appear on appropriate page in text.

Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030. All rights reserved. Manufactured in the United States of America. This publication is protected by Copyright, and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. To obtain permission(s) to use material from this work, please submit a written request to Pearson Education, Inc., Permissions Department, 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Thompson, Leigh L. The mind and heart of the negotiator/Leigh L. Thompson, Kellogg School of Management, Northwestern University.—Sixth edition. pages cm ISBN-13: 978-0-13-357177-6 (alk. paper) ISBN-10: 0-13-357177-7 (alk. paper) 1. Negotiation in business. 2. Negotiation. I. Title. HD58.6.T478 2014 658.4’052—dc23 2014004868

ISBN 10: 0-13-357177-7 ISBN 13: 978-0-13-357177-6

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

To the loves of my life:

Bob, Sam, Ray, and Anna


Part I Essentials of Negotiation 1 Chapter 1 Negotiation: The Mind and The Heart 1

Chapter 2 Preparation: What to Do Before Negotiation 12

Chapter 3 Distributive Negotiation: Slicing the Pie 38

Chapter 4 Win-Win Negotiation: Expanding the Pie 69

Part II advanced Negotiation Skills 91 Chapter 5 Developing a Negotiating Style 91

Chapter 6 Establishing Trust and Building a Relationship 122

Chapter 7 Power, Gender, and Ethics 149

Chapter 8 Creativity and Problem Solving in Negotiations 173

Part III applications and Special Scenarios 208 Chapter 9 Multiple Parties, Coalitions, and Teams 208

Chapter 10 Cross-Cultural Negotiation 245

Chapter 11 Social Dilemmas 278

Chapter 12 Negotiating Via Information Technology 308

aPPENdIcES Appendix 1 Are You a Rational Person? Check Yourself 328

Appendix 2 Nonverbal Communication and Lie Detection 349

Appendix 3 Third-Party Intervention 360

Appendix 4 Negotiating a Job Offer 369



Preface xix

About the Author xxii

Part I Essentials of Negotiation 1

chapter 1 NEgotIatIoN: thE MINd aNd thE hEart 1 Negotiation: Definition and Scope 2

Negotiation as a Core Management Competency 3

Dynamic Nature of Business 3

Interdependence 3

Economic Forces 4

Information Technology 4

Globalization 4

Most People are Ineffective Negotiators 5

Negotiation Traps 5

Why People are Ineffective Negotiators 6

Egocentrism 6

Confirmation Bias 6

Satisficing 7

Self-Reinforcing Incompetence 7

Debunking Negotiation Myths 8

Myth 1: Negotiations are Fixed-Sum 8

Myth 2: You Need to be either Tough or Soft 8

Myth 3: Good Negotiators are Born 8

Myth 4: Life Experience is a Great Teacher 9

Myth 5: Good Negotiators Take Risks 9

Myth 6: Good Negotiators Rely on Intuition 9

Learning Objectives 10

The Mind and Heart 11

chapter 2 PrEParatIoN: What to do BEforE NEgotIatIoN 12 Self-Assessment 13

What Do I Want? 13

What Is My Alternative to Reaching Agreement in This Situation? 15


vi Contents

Determine Your Reservation Point 16

Be Aware of Focal Points 16

Beware of Sunk Costs 16

Do Not Confuse Your Target Point with Your Reservation Point 19

Identify the Issues in the Negotiation 19

Identify the Alternatives for Each Issue 19

Identify Equivalent Multi-Issue Proposals 19

Assess Your Risk Propensity 20

Endowment Effects 23

Am I Going to Regret This? 24

Violations of the Sure Thing Principle 24

Do I Have an Appropriate Level of Confidence? 25

Other Assessment 26

Who Are the Other Parties? 26

Are the Parties Monolithic? 26

Counterparties’ Interests and Position 26

Counterparties’ BATNAs 27

Situation Assessment 27

Is the Negotiation One Shot, Long Term, or Repetitive? 27

Do the Negotiations Involve Scarce Resources, Ideologies, or Both? 27

Is the Negotiation One of Necessity or Opportunity? 28

Is the Negotiation a Transaction or Dispute? 29

Are Linkage Effects Present? 29

Is Agreement Required? 30

Is it Legal to Negotiate? 30

Is Ratification Required? 31

Are Time Constraints or Other Time-Related Costs Involved? 31

Are Contracts Official or Unofficial? 33

Where Do the Negotiations Take Place? 34

Are Negotiations Public or Private? 34

Is Third-Party Intervention a Possibility? 35

What Conventions Guide the Process of Negotiation (Such as Who Makes the First Offer)? 35

Do Negotiations Involve More Than One Offer? 35

Contents vii

Do Negotiators Communicate Explicitly or Tacitly? 36

Is There a Power Differential Between Parties? 36

Is Precedent Important? 36

Conclusion 36

chapter 3 dIStrIButIvE NEgotIatIoN: SlIcINg thE PIE 38 The Bargaining Zone 39

Bargaining Surplus 40

Negotiator’s Surplus 41

Pie-Slicing Strategies 41

Strategy 1: Assess Your BATNA and Improve It 43

Strategy 2: Determine Your Reservation Point, but do not reveal It 43

Strategy 3: Research the Other Party’s BATNA and Estimate Their Reservation Point 44

Strategy 4: Set High Aspirations (Be Realistic but Optimistic) 44

Strategy 5: Make the First Offer (If You Are Prepared) 46

Strategy 6: Immediately Reanchor if the Other Party Opens First 47

Strategy 7: Plan Your Concessions 48

Strategy 8: Support Your Offer with Facts 49

Strategy 9: Appeal to Norms of Fairness 49

Strategy 10: Do Not Fall for the “Even Split” Ploy 50

The Most Commonly Asked Questions 50

Should I Reveal My Reservation Point? 50

Should I Lie About My Reservation Point? 50

Should I Try to Manipulate the Counterparty’s Reservation Point? 52

Should I Make a “Final Offer” or Commit to a Position? 52

Saving Face 53

The Power of Fairness 54

Multiple Methods of Fair Division 54

Situation-Specific Rules of Fairness 54

Social Comparison 56

The Equity Principle 58

Restoring Equity 59

Procedural Justice 60

viii Contents

Fairness in Relationships 62

Egocentrism 62

Wise Pie Slicing 66

Consistency 66

Simplicity 67

Effectiveness 67

Justifiability 67

Consensus 67

Generalizability 67

Satisfaction 67

Conclusion 68

chapter 4 WIN-WIN NEgotIatIoN: ExPaNdINg thE PIE 69 What Is Win-Win Negotiation? 70

Telltale Signs of Win-Win Potential 70

Does the Negotiation Contain More Than One Issue? 70

Can Other Issues Be Brought In? 71

Can Side Deals Be Made? 71

Do Parties Have Different Preferences Across Negotiation Issues? 71

Most Common Pie-Expanding Errors 72

False Conflict 72

Fixed-Pie Perception 73

Most Commonly Used Win-Win Strategies 74

Commitment to Reaching a Win-Win Deal 74

Compromise 74

Focusing on a Long-Term Relationship 74

Adopting a Cooperative Orientation 74

Taking Extra Time to Negotiate 75

Effective Pie-Expanding Strategies 75

Perspective Taking 75

Ask Questions About Interests and Priorities 76

Reveal Information About Your Interests and Priorities 78

Unbundle the Issues 79

Logrolling and Value-Added Trade-Offs 81

Make Package Deals, Not Single-Issue Offers 81

Make Multiple Offers of Equivalent Value Simultaneously 82

Contents ix

Structure Contingency Contracts by Capitalizing on Differences 85

Presettlement Settlements (PreSS) 87

Search for Postsettlement Settlements 88

A Strategic Framework for Reaching Integrative Agreements 88

Resource Assessment 88

Assessment of Differences 89

Offers and Trade-Offs 89

Acceptance/Rejection Decision 90

Prolonging Negotiation and Renegotiation 90

Conclusion 90

Part II advanced Negotiation Skills 91

chapter 5 dEvEloPINg a NEgotIatINg StylE 91 Motivational Orientation 93

Assessing Your Motivational Style 93

Strategic Issues Concerning Motivational Style 96

Interests, Rights, and Power Model of Disputing 100

Assessing Your Approach 102

Strategic Issues Concerning Approaches 105

Emotions and Emotional Knowledge 112

Genuine Versus Strategic Emotion 112

Negative Emotion 113

Positive Emotion 117

Emotional Intelligence and Negotiated Outcomes 118

Strategic Advice for Dealing with Emotions at the Table 119

Conclusion 121

chapter 6 EStaBlIShINg truSt aNd BuIldINg a rElatIoNShIP 122 The People Side of Win-Win 122

Trust as the Bedrock of Relationships 124

Three Types of Trust in Relationships 125

Building Trust: Rational and Deliberate Mechanisms 127

Building Trust: Psychological Strategies 130

What Leads to Mistrust? 134

Repairing Broken Trust 135

x Contents

Reputation 139

Relationships in Negotiation 140

Negotiating with Friends 141

Negotiating with Businesspeople 144

When in Business with Friends and Family 146

Conclusion 148

chapter 7 PoWEr, gENdEr, aNd EthIcS 149 Power 150

The Power of Alternatives 150

Power Triggers in Negotiation 152

Symmetric and Asymmetric Power Relationships 152

The Effect of Using Power on Powerful People 152

The Effects of Power on Those with Less Power 153

Status 154

Gender 155

Gender and Negotiation Outcomes 155

Initiating Negotiations 156

Leveling the Playing Field 157

Evaluations of Negotiators 159

Gender and Race Discrimination in Negotiation 159

Gender and Third-Party Dispute Resolution 160

Ethics 160

Ethics and Lying 161

Other Questionable Negotiation Strategies 163

Sins of Omission and Commission 166

Costs of Lying 166

Under What Conditions Do People Engage in Deception? 168

Responding to Unethical Behavior 171

Conclusion 172

chapter 8 crEatIvIty aNd ProBlEM SolvINg IN NEgotIatIoNS 173 Creativity in Negotiation 173

Test Your Own Creativity 174

What Is Your Mental Model of Negotiation? 174

Haggling 174

Cost-Benefit Analysis 179

Game Playing 179

Contents xi

Partnership 179

Problem Solving 180

Creative Negotiation Agreements 180

Fractionating Single-Issue Negotiations into Multiple Issues 180

Finding Differences: Looking for Patterns in Offers 180

Expanding the Pie 181

Bridging 181

Cost Cutting 182

Nonspecific Compensation 182

Structuring Contingencies 183

Threats to Effective Problem Solving and Creativity 185

The Inert Knowledge Problem 186

Availability Heuristic 189

Representativeness 189

Anchoring and Adjustment 190

Unwarranted Causation 191

Belief Perseverance 191

Illusory Correlation 191

Just World 192

Hindsight Bias 192

Functional Fixedness 193

Set Effect 193

Selective Attention 193

Overconfidence 194

The Limits of Short-Term Memory 195

Techniques for Enhancing Creative Negotiation Agreements 195

Negotiating Skills Training 195

Bilateral or Unilateral Training 196

Feedback 196

Learning Versus Performance Goals 197

Analogical Training 198

Counterfactual Reflection 199

Incubation 199

Rational Problem-Solving Model 200

Brainstorming 201

Deductive Reasoning 201

Inductive Reasoning 203

Conclusion 203

xii Contents

Part III applications and Special Scenarios 208

chapter 9 MultIPlE PartIES, coalItIoNS, aNd tEaMS 208 Analyzing Multiparty Negotiations 209

Multiparty Negotiations 211

Key Challenges of Multiparty Negotiations 211

Strategies for Successful Multiparty Negotiations 215

Coalitions 217

Key Challenges of Coalitions 217

Strategies for Maximizing Coalitional Effectiveness 222

Principal-Agent Negotiations 223

Disadvantages of Agents 224

Strategies for Working Effectively with Agents 226

Constituent Relationships 228

Challenges for Constituent Relationships 228

Strategies for Improving Constituent Relationships 231

Team Negotiation 231

Challenges That Face Negotiating Teams 233

Strategies for Improving Team Negotiations 234

Intergroup Negotiation 236

Challenges of Intergroup Negotiations 236

Strategies for Optimizing Intergroup Negotiations 238

Conclusion 242

chapter 10 croSS-cultural NEgotIatIoN 245 Learning About Cultures 246

Culture as an Iceberg 246

Cultural Values and Negotiation Norms 247

Individualism versus Collectivism 247

Egalitarianism versus Hierarchy 258

Direct versus Indirect Communications 261

Key Challenges of Intercultural Negotiation 264

Expanding the Pie 264

Dividing the Pie 265

Sacred Values and Taboo Trade-Offs 265

Biased Punctuation of Conflict 267

Ethnocentrism 268

Contents xiii

Affiliation Bias 269

Faulty Perceptions of Conciliation and Coercion 270

Naïve Realism 270

Predictors of Success in Intercultural Interactions 271

Advice for Cross-Cultural Negotiations 272

Anticipate Differences in Strategy and Tactics That May Cause Misunderstandings 272

Cultural Perspective Taking 272

Recognize That the Other Party May Not Share Your View of What Constitutes Power 273

Avoid Attribution Errors 273

Find Out How to Show Respect in the Other Culture 274

Find Out How Time is Perceived in the Other Culture 275

Know Your Options for Change 275

Conclusion 277

chapter 11 SocIal dIlEMMaS 278 Social Dilemmas in Business 280

The Prisoner’s Dilemma 280

Cooperation and Defection as Unilateral Choices 281

Rational Analysis 282

Psychological Analysis of Why Tit-for-Tat Is Effective 284

Ultimatum Dilemma 289

Dictator Game 290

Trust Game 291

Binding versus Nonbinding Contracts 291

Social Networks and Reputations 292

Relationship Threat 292

Self-Blame and Regret 292

Restoring Broken Trust 293

Volunteer Dilemma 293

Multiparty Dilemmas 294

The Tragedy of the Commons 294

Types of Social Dilemmas 295

How to Build Cooperation in Social Dilemmas 297

How to Encourage Cooperation in Social Dilemmas When Parties Should Not Collude 303

xiv Contents

Escalation of Commitment 303

Avoiding the Escalation of Commitment in Negotiations 306

Conclusion 307

chapter 12 NEgotIatINg vIa INforMatIoN tEchNology 308 Place-Time Model of Social Interaction 309

Face-to-Face Communication 309

Same Time, Different Place 312

Different Time, Same Place 313

Different Place, Different Time 314

Information Technology and Its Effects on Social Behavior 318

Trust 318

Deception 318

Status and Power: The “Weak Get Strong” Effect 318

Social Networks 320

Risk Taking 321

Rapport and Social Norms 321

Paranoia 322

Intergenerational Negotiation 322

Strategies for Enhancing Technology-Mediated Negotiations 325

Initial Face-to-Face Experience 325

One-Day Videoconference/Teleconference 326

Schmoozing 326

Humor 327

Conclusion 327

appendix 1 arE you a ratIoNal PErSoN? chEck yourSElf 328 Why Is It Important to Be Rational? 328

Individual Decision Making 328

Riskless Choice 329

Decision Making Under Uncertainty 331

Risky Choice 331

Summing Up: Individual Decision Making 343

Game Theoretic Rationality 343

Nash Bargaining Theory 344

Contents xv

appendix 2 NoNvErBal coMMuNIcatIoN aNd lIE dEtEctIoN 349 What Are We Looking for in Nonverbal Communication? 349

Are Women More “Nonverbally Gifted” Than Men? 350

Dominance 351

Personal Charisma 352

Detecting Deception 353

Direct Methods 355

Indirect Methods 355

How Motivation and Temptation Affect Lying and Deception 357

Deception Success 358

appendix 3 thIrd-Party INtErvENtIoN 360 Common Third-Party Roles 360

Mediation 360

Arbitration 361

Mediation-Arbitration 362

Arbitration-Mediation 362

Key Choice Points in Third-Party Intervention 362

Outcome versus Process Control 363

Formal versus Informal 363

Invited versus Uninvited 363

Interpersonal versus Intergroup 363

Content versus Process Orientation 363

Facilitation, Formulation, or Manipulation 363

Disputant Preferences 364

Mediators and Gender 364

Challenges Facing Third Parties 364

Meeting Disputants’ Expectations 365

Increasing the Likelihood That Parties Reach an Agreement if a Positive Bargaining Zone Exists 365

Promoting a Pareto-Efficient Outcome 365

Promoting Outcomes That Are Perceived as Fair in the Eyes of Disputants 365

Improving the Relationship Between Parties 366

Empowering Parties in the Negotiation Process 366

xvi Contents

Debiasing Negotiators 366

Maintaining Neutrality 367

Enhancing the Effectiveness of Third-Party Intervention 368

Accept Your Share of Responsibility 368

Test Your Own Position 368

Role-Play a Third Party in Your Own Dispute 368

Training in Win-Win Negotiation 368

appendix 4 NEgotIatINg a JoB offEr 369 Preparation 369

Step 1: Determine What You Really Want 369

Step 2: Do Your Homework 369

Step 3: Determine Your BATNA and Your Aspiration Point 371

Step 4: Research the Employer’s BATNA 371

Step 5: Determine the Issue Mix 371

Step 6: Prepare Several Scenarios 371

Step 7: Consider Getting a “Coach” 371

In Vivo: During the Negotiation Itself 372

Think About the Best Way to Position and Present Your Opening Offer 372

Assume the Offer Is Negotiable 372

Put the Focus On How You Can Solve Problems, Not Make Demands 373

Don’t Reveal Your BATNA or Your Reservation Point 374

Rehearse and Practice 375

Imagine You Are Negotiating on Behalf of Someone Else (Not Just Yourself) 375

Comparables and Benchmarks 375

Post-Offer: You Have the Offer, Now What? 376

Think Before Posting Anything on Social Media 376

Do Not Immediately Agree to the Offer 376

Get the Offer in Writing 376

Be Enthusiastic and Gracious 376

Assess the Interviewer’s Power to Negotiate with You 376

State Exactly What Needs to Be Done for You to Agree 376

Contents xvii

Do Not Negotiate If You Are Not or Could Not Be Interested 377

Exploding Offers 377

Do Not Try to Create a Bidding War 377

Know When to Stop Pushing 377

Use a Rational Strategy for Choosing Among Job Offers 378

Name Index 379

Subject Index 396

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This book is dedicated to negotiators who want to improve their ability to negotiate—whether in multimillion-dollar business deals or personal interactions. It is possible for most people to dra- matically improve their ability to negotiate. You can improve your economic outcomes and feel better about yourself and the people with whom you deal. The book integrates theory, scientific research, and practical examples. New to this edition are special sections on gender, ethics, emo- tions, intergenerational negotiations, and job negotiations. The book contains hundreds of real examples from business, politics, and personal life spanning the globe to illustrate effective, as well as ineffective, negotiation skills.

Here is what you can expect when you read this book:

• Illustrative case studies. Each chapter opens with a case study of an actual negotiation, drawn from business, government, world affairs, community, and personal life. New to this edition are more than 100 updated examples from the business world, many involving international issues.

• Skills-based approach. Each chapter provides practical takeaway points for the man- ager and the executive. A good example is Chapter 4 on integrative negotiation. A series of hands-on principles that have been proven to increase the value of negotiated deals is provided.

• Self-insight. Most chapters contain several self-assessments, quizzes, and examples that readers can use to examine their negotiation attitudes and behaviors. For example, Chapter 5 gives negotiators an opportunity to assess their “instinctive” bargaining style and provides suggestions for how to further develop their bargaining repertoire. In Chapter 7, negotiators can examine their ethical principles in negotiation. Moreover, Chapter 10 pro- vides a deep look at cultural differences in negotiation so that the negotiator can better understand his or her own cultural style and that of others.

• Advanced bargaining skills. The second and third sections of the book deal with com- plex yet commonly occurring negotiating situations, such as negotiating with people of different generations, different genders, agents, mediation and arbitration, negotiating via e-mail and conference calls, negotiating with competitor companies, and of course, nego- tiating cross-culturally. These sections have been revised in this edition.

• Scientific Research. New to this edition are the groundbreaking results of more than 120 new scientific articles on negotiation.

I benefit greatly from the advice, comments, and critiques given to me by my students and colleagues, and I hope their advice keeps coming so that I am able to improve upon the book even further. The research and ideas in this book come from an invaluable set of scholars in the fields of social psychology, organizational behavior, sociology, negotiation, and cognitive psychology. My research, thinking, and writing have been inspired in important ways by the following people: Wendi Adair, Cameron Anderson, Evan Apfelbaum, Linda Babcock, Chris


Note: Every effort has been made to provide accurate and current Internet information in this book. However, the Internet and information posted on it are constantly changing, so it is inevitable that some of the Internet addresses listed in this textbook will change.

xx Preface

Bauman, Max Bazerman, Kristin Behfar, Terry Boles, Jeanne Brett, Susan Brodt, Karen Cates, Hoon-Seok Choi, Taya Cohen, Susan Crotty, Jeanne Egmon, Hal Ersner-Hershfield, Gary Fine, Craig Fox, Adam Galinsky, Wendi Gardner, Dedre Gentner, Robert Gibbons, Kevin Gibson, James Gillespie, Rich Gonzalez, Deborah Gruenfeld, Erika Hall, Reid Hastie, Andy Hoffman, Elizabeth Howard, Peter Kim, Shirli Kopelman, Rod Kramer, Laura Kray, Terri Kurtzburg, Geoffrey Leonardelli, John Levine, Allan Lind, George Loewenstein, Jeff Loewenstein, Brian Lucas, Deepak Malhotra, Beta Mannix, Kathleen McGinn, Vicki Medvec, Tanya Menon, Dave Messick, Terry Mitchell, Don Moore, Michael Morris, Keith Murnighan, Janice Nadler, Maggie Neale, Kathy Phillips, Robin Pinkley, Ashleigh Rosette, Nancy Rothbard, Catherine Shea, Ned Smith, Marwan Sinaceur, Harris Sondak, Roderick Swaab, Tom Tyler, Leaf Van Boven, Kimberly Wade-Benzoni, Laurie Weingart, Judith White, and Elizabeth Ruth Wilson. Throughout the text of The Mind and Heart of the Negotiator, I use the pronoun “we” because so much of my thinking has been influenced and shaped by this set of eminent scholars.

The revision of this book would not have been possible without the dedication, organiza- tion, and editorial skills of Larissa Tripp, Ellen Hampton, Joel Erickson, and Lee Sol Jee, who created the layout, organized hundreds of drafts, mastered the figures, and researched many case studies for this book.

In this book, I talk about the “power of the situation” and how strongly the environ- ment shapes our behavior. The Kellogg School of Management is one of the most supportive, dynamic environments I have ever had the pleasure to be a part of. In particular, Dean Sally Blount strongly supports research and intellectual leadership as well as pedagogical leadership. I am particularly indebted to my wonderful visionary colleague, Jeanne Brett, who created the Dispute Resolution Research Center (DRRC) at Kellogg in 1986, and to the Hewlett Foundation for their generous support of the DRRC.

This book is very much a team effort of the people I have mentioned here, whose talents are diverse, broad, and extraordinarily impressive. I am deeply indebted to my colleagues and my students, and I feel grateful that they have touched my life and this book.


This book is divided into three major sections. The first section deals with the essentials of negotiation—the key principles and groundwork for effective negotiation. Chapter 2 leads the manager through effective preparation strategies for negotiation. Chapter 3 discusses distribu- tive negotiation skills, or how to optimally allocate resources in ways that are favorable to one’s self—a process called “slicing the pie.” Chapter 4 is the integral chapter of the book; it focuses on “win-win” negotiation or, more formally, integrative negotiation. This creative part of nego- tiation involves expanding the pie of resources in ways that provide more gains to go around.

The second section of the book deals with advanced and expert negotiation skills. Chapter 5 focuses on assessing and developing your negotiation style. This chapter invites readers to hon- estly appraise their own negotiation style in terms of three dimensions: motivational orientation, disputing style, and emotional expression. The negotiator can accurately assess his or her own style and its limitations and learn to assess the styles adopted by other negotiators. Chapter 6 focuses on establishing trust and building relationships. This chapter examines business and per- sonal relationships and how trust is developed, broken, and repaired. Chapter 7 discusses power, gender, and ethics in negotiation. This chapter looks at the topic of persuasion and influence as it occurs across the bargaining table and also deals with the important issues of gender and ethics in negotiation. In Chapter 8, the focus is on problem solving and creativity. This chapter

Preface xxi

provides strategies for learning how to think out of the box and provides techniques for using creativity and imagination in negotiation.

The third section deals with special scenarios in negotiation. Chapter 9 examines the com- plexities of negotiating with multiple parties, such as conflicting incentives, coalitions, voting rules, and how to leverage one’s own bargaining position when negotiating with multiple parties. Chapter 10 focuses on cross-cultural negotiation, which addresses the key cultural values and negotiation norms across a variety of nationalities, along with some advice for cross-cultural negotiations. Chapter 11 deals with dilemmas, or situations in which negotiators make choices in a mixed-motive context, where cooperation involves building trust with the other party and competition involves an attempt to increase one’s own share of resources. This chapter examines the nature of social dilemmas and how to negotiate successfully within various types of dilem- mas. Chapter 12 focuses on information technology and its impact on negotiation and uses a place-time model of social interaction to examine the challenges and opportunities of negotiation as it occurs in this technological age. It includes a section on intergenerational negotiation and e-negotiations.

Four appendices provide a variety of additional material: Appendix 1 invites readers to examine the rationality of their negotiation beliefs and preferences; Appendix 2 provides a short course on lie detection and nonverbal communication; Appendix 3 reviews the essen- tials of third-party intervention; and Appendix 4 provides tips and a checklist for negotiating a job offer.

Faculty resOurces

instructor resource center At, instructors can access a variety of resources available with this text in downloadable, digital format.

Once you register, you will not have additional forms to fill out, or multiple usernames and passwords to remember to access new titles and/or editions. As a registered faculty member, you can log in directly to download resource files, and receive immediate access and instructions for installing Course Management content to your campus server.

Our dedicated Technical Support team is ready to assist instructors with questions about the media supplements that accompany this text. Visit for answers to frequently asked questions and toll-free user support phone numbers.

To download the supplements available with this text, including an Instructor’s Manual, Power Point presentation, and Test Item File, please visit: educator.

reviewers The author would like to thank the following colleagues for providing valuable comments and suggestions on how to improve the book.

Lehman Benson: University of Arizona Jason Harris-Boundy San Francisco State Dale F. Kehr: University of Memphis Barry Goldman: University of Arizona Stanley Braverman: La Salle University


Leigh L. Thompson joined the Kellogg School of Management in 1995. She is the J. Jay Gerber Distinguished Professor of Dispute Resolution and Organizations. She directs the Leading High Impact Teams executive program and the Kellogg Team and Group Research Center and codirects the Negotiation Strategies for Managers program. An active scholar and researcher, she has published over 100 research articles and chapters and has authored 10  books, including Creative Conspiracy: The New Rules of Breakthrough Collaboration, Making the Team, Creativity in Organizations, Shared Knowledge in Organizations, Nego- tiation: Theory and Research, The Social Psychology of Organizational Behavior: Essential Reading, Organizational Behavior Today, The Truth about Negotiation, and Conflict in Orga- nizational Teams. Thompson has worked with private and public organizations in the United States, Latin America, Canada, Europe, and the Middle East. Her teaching style combines experiential learning with theory-driven best practices. For more information about Leigh Thompson’s teaching and research, please visit



A $7.2 billion merger between Microsoft and Nokia began with a phone call and three simple words, “Can we talk?” When Microsoft CEO Steve Ballmer called Nokia Chairman Risto Siilasmaa on a cold January day with that question, it set in motion eight months of complex negotia- tions. Whereas the companies were longtime working partners in the development of Microsoft’s Windows Phone, Ballmer was frustrated with the slow pace of growth for the device. Microsoft and Nokia were each duplicating their efforts—investing marketing money to build separate brands and lure app developers, but they were both solidly way behind—the Windows Phone was considered to be a second-tier product behind Google’s Android and Apple’s iOS. Nokia’s stock price and revenue had declined alarmingly. After the phone call, executives from both companies met for an hour in Barcelona to discuss their ideas; a month later in New York at the offices of Nokia’s outside law firm, the deal nearly fell apart due to Siilasmaa’s frustration over the low perceived value of Nokia by Microsoft executives. Siilasmaa broke the silence the next day, send- ing a text message to Ballmer to reopen talks. When the company executives met in London the following month, a scream was heard during a break. Deep in thought, CEO Ballmer had failed to see a clear glass coffee table in front of him, tripped, and hit his head. As the security team patched up Ballmer’s forehead, he began to talk to the Nokia executives. Meetings followed in Nokia’s home base of Finland, and then back in New York where the CEOs shook hands on key issues, which subsequently led to legal pacts covering patents, trademarks, the selling of Nokia’s handset business, and platform mapping. That fall, Ballmer flew to Finland to finalize one of the largest mergers of all time.1

NegotiatioN: the MiNd aNd the heart


W hereas most of us are not involved in billion-dollar mergers, one thing that business scholars and businesspeople are in complete agreement on is that everyone negotiates nearly every day. Getting to Yes begins by stating, “Like it or not, you are a negotiator…. Everyone negotiates something every day.”2 Similarly, Lax and Sebenius, in The Manager as Negotiator, state that “Negotiating is a way of life for managers. . . when managers deal with their superiors, boards of directors, even

2 Fisher, R., & Ury, W. (1981). Getting to yes (p. xviii). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Part I: Essentials of Negotiation

1 Stoll, J. D. (2013, September 13). Nokia’s last great deal: Zero to $7.2 billion. Wall Street Journal.; Mossberg, W. (2013, September 4). From “Can we talk?” to a coffee-table mishap: The inside story of Microsoft’s Nokia deal. All Things Digital.

2 Part I • Essentials of Negotiation

legislators.”3 G. Richard Shell, who wrote Bargaining for Advantage, asserts, “All of us negoti- ate many times a day.”4 Herb Cohen, author of You Can Negotiate Anything, dramatically sug- gests that “your world is a giant negotiation table.” One business article on negotiation warns, “However much you think negotiation is part of your life, you’re underestimating.”5

Negotiation is your key communication and influence tool inside and outside the company. Anytime you cannot achieve your objectives (whether an acquisition or a dinner date) without the cooperation of others, you are negotiating. We provide dramatic (and disturbing) evidence in this chapter that most people do not live up to their negotiating potential. The good news is that you can do something about it.

The sole purpose of this book is to improve your ability to negotiate. We do this through an integration of scientific studies of negotiation and real business cases. And in case you are wondering, it is not all common sense. Science drives the best practices covered in this book. We focus on business negotiations, and understanding business negotiations helps people to be more effective negotiators in their personal lives.6

In this book, we focus on three major negotiation skills: creating value, claiming value, and building trust. By the end of this book, you will have a mindset or mental model that will allow you to know what to do and say in virtually every negotiation situation. You can prepare effectively for negotiations and enjoy the peace of mind that comes from having a game plan. Things may not always go according to plan but your mental model will allow you to perform effectively and, most important, to learn from your experiences. Indeed, people who view nego- tiation as a challenge are more successful in reaching high-quality deals than people who view negotiation as threatening.7 Moreover, people who believe that negotiation ability is changeable with experience and practice are more likely to discover win-win agreements than people who believe that negotiation skills are not teachable.8

NegotiatioN: DefiNitioN aND Scope

Negotiation is an interpersonal decision-making process necessary whenever we cannot achieve our objectives single-handedly. Negotiations include not only one-on-one business meetings but also multiparty, multicompany, and multinational relationships. Some negotiations involve bargaining over a few dollars; other negotiations involve billions of dollars, such as Kellogg’s acquisition of the Pringles brand from Proctor and Gamble for $2.7 billion. Some negotiations are conducted in less than a few minutes; others linger on for years, such as Hertz’s five-year courtship with rival Dollar Thrifty for an ultimate price of $2.5 billion.9 People negotiate in their

3 Lax, D. A., & Sebenius, J. K. (1986). The manager as negotiator (p. 6). New York: Free Press. 4 Shell, G. R. (1999). Bargaining for advantage: Negotiation strategies for reasonable people (p. 76). New York: Viking. 5 Walker, R. (2003, August). Take it or leave it: The only guide to negotiating you will ever need. Inc., 25(8) 75–82. 6 Gentner, D., Loewenstein, J., & Thompson, L. (2003). Learning and transfer: A general role for analogical encoding. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95(2), 393–408. 7 O’Connor, K. M., Arnold, J. A., & Maurizio, A. M. (2010). The prospect of negotiating: Stress, cognitive appraisal and performance. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46(5), 729–735. 8 Wong, E. M., Haselhaun, M. P., & Kray, L. J. (2012). Improving the future by considering the past: The impact of upward counterfactual reflection and implicit beliefs on negotiation performance. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48(1), 403–406. 9 Applegate, E., & Mider, Z. (2013, December). The year in M&A deals. Businessweek, pp. 64–65.

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Shadow IT for Business Operations (20 points)

Organizations do not always provide information systems that allow their staff to perform their responsibilities efficiently and effectively. Read the article, “Lifting the Veil Off Shadow IT.” Then, respond to the following:

o Take a position favoring or opposing shadow IT.

o If you are in favor, give one reason that shadow IT should be allowed. If you are not in favor, provide one way that the organization can reduce the risks of shadow IT.

o What is the best way an IT department can meet users’ technology needs without additional cost or risk to the organization? Justify your answer by responding to another student’s post that differs from your answer. Explain why your idea is preferable.

o Do not repeat suggestions from the article or that have been posted by another student.


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clc nursing

Pros and cons of mandatory continuing nursing education

Karen DeFilippis, Idalmis Espinosa

Lasharia Graham, Ijeoma Igbokwe

Karan Kortlander, Jessica McGillen

October 01, 2017


Discuss the pros and cons of continuing education in nursing in the following areas:

Impact on competency.

Impact on knowledge and attitudes.

Relationship to professional certification.

Relationship to ANA Scope and Standards of Practice.

Relationship to ANA Code of Ethics.

Impact on competency

Pros: Cons:

Increased personal knowledge Time

Increased use of EBP treatments Cost

Improved patient outcomes

Increased confidence

Developing and maintaining skills

Professional Networking

“Currently in many states, a nurse is determined to be competent when initially licensed and thereafter unless proven otherwise. Yet many believe this is not enough and are exploring other approaches to assure continuing competence in today’s environment where technology and practice are continually changing, new health care systems are evolving and consumers are pressing for providers who are competent” (Whittaker, Carson, & Smolenski, 2000).

“The ultimate outcomes of continuing nursing education (CNE) activities are to improve the professional practice of nursing and thereby the care that is provided by registered nurses to patients” (American Nurses Credentialing Center’, 2014)

Effective workplace learning, based on current evidence, appears to show potential to prevent errors, support health professional reflection on practice and performance, foster ongoing professional development, and sustain improved individual and organization performance outcomes.

Cost- “Continuing education can be costly. For instance, it is costly to pay employees to attend a nursing lecture or conference and to be away from the patients’ bedside. Additionally, purchasing videos or subscribing to magazines does require an associated payment. Lastly, implementing a change is costly it requires training and often new equipment. Without question, cost is a confounding variable” (Ward, 2013)

Time- This can be time away from work and family. For the employer ‘implementing a change in practice does require time, as does completing continuing education credit hours. This could mean time away from the patient which, in most instances, is frowned upon” (Ward, 2013)


Pros of higher education in nursing

Enhance patients’ outcome.

Reduces medication errors.

Update with new trends.

Increased knowledge on technology use.

Treatment evaluation and recovery.

Enhance collaboration and networking.

Widens employment opportunities for nurses (University of Saint Mary,2017).

Higher nursing education prepares nurses to make a difference in delivering safe and effective care to patients, nurses gain the skills needed to safely administer medication while eliminating or reducing medication errors, monitoring and assessing the patient’s response to medications (University of Saint Mary, 2017). Nurses acquire proficiency on the use of new technologies because higher education programs explores the latest technology. Nurses are updated on the new trends in healthcare to keep up with patients’ changing needs. Nurses are able to effectively and proficiently coordinate patients’ care by collaborating and communicating with other health care teams, gain new knowledge through networking; nurses are exposed to seminars where they meet and interact with other healthcare professional.

Nurses are prepared to evaluate patients’ response to treatment and follow up after discharge to improve the quality of patients lives (University of Saint Mary, 2017). Nurses who have higher education certificates have more employment opportunities. Most hospitals requiring nurses to go back to school to get BSN, and preferring to hire nurses who have BSN.


Cons and attitudes of not continuing with higher education in nursing

Limited career opportunities and positions.

Poor patient outcome.

Lack of confidence.

Limited Knowledge, competency and skills.

Lack of opportunities for collaboration.

There are several disadvantage of not pursing higher education in nursing, nurses are most times denied of a job or a position due to the level of their education. Nurses who starts as staff nurses are promoted to a higher position with experience, good performance and continuous education (College Grad, 2017). Studies have linked poor patients outcome to lack of nursing skills and knowledge; Thus to enhance patient’s safety and quality care, nurses are required to go for a higher education or study as recommended in Institute of medicine report . Higher education does not only benefit the patients but also boost the confidence of nurses. Lack of confidence decrease self-esteem, every nurses needs to believe in him/herself to work effectively and efficiently while collaborating with other health care team. Lack of education limits learning new skills and opportunity to grow in knowledge and also could hinder opportunities to fellowship or collaborate effectively with other health care professionals.


Pros of continuing higher education related to the relationship to professional certification

Increases knowledge and quality of care in nursing practice.

Enhances nurses’ ability to compete in the job market.

Develops a nurses’ confidence and professionalism.

Defines nursing practice and attests to ongoing qualifications (Brunt).

The ANA defines certification as an achievement of exemplary nursing knowledge; therefore, continuing education promotes the above noted benefits. The question of mandatory continuing education for nurses has been brewing since the 1960s (Brunt). The National League for Nursing supports that mandatory continuing education should be required for relicensure. Currently, there are more than 68 various certifications available to nurses, and most of them require continuing education programs.



Cons include:

Education does not assure competence.

Continuing education is expensive.

Evaluation tools are ineffective and not always accurate (Brunt).

Continuing education does not show evidence of better patient-care outcomes (Eustace, 2001).

Those opposed to mandatory continuing education maintain that as professionals, nurses are personally responsible to identify and acquire appropriate education (Brunt). Some have pointed out that mandatory continuing education does not necessarily address advanced practice nurses, or those in administration, research, and education. Others argue that it may be difficult to obtain continuing education in remote areas, and that most healthcare practitioners already take part in continuing education on their own (Brunt).



Improves quality of patient care

Expands knowledge and contribute to career growth

Ensures competency in practice

Providing best evidence based nursing care

The scope of practice is defined by the , “who”, “what”, “where”, “when”, “why”, and “how” of nursing practice. The practice of nursing requires specialized knowledge, skills and independent decision making. Every nurse should be knowledgeable and up to date with the latest evidence based practice in order to provide the best care to their patients. With higher education nurses are able to take on leadership roles. Leadership roles are important to help lead change to transform health care, and for “public, private, and governmental health care decision makers at every level” to “include representation from nursing on boards (Campaign for Action, 2014).



Cost of Tuition

Balancing Personal life

Lack of appropriate knowledge on the subject

Lack of a guarantee that the continuing education standards will assist the nurse in the nursing field

The cost of going back to school can be very expensive. There are programs to help pay for some of the cost for tuition, but you still are responsible for a portion of the tuition. Some may not even know about the different programs to help you pay for school. They may be paying out of pocket. And we all know once we graduate, loan repayment will be waiting on us.

Another disadvantage of returning to school is balancing personal life. Some of us work full time jobs and have kids like myself. I also have a part time job as well. It can become very difficult squeezing classes in on top of our already busy schedule. Sometimes I don’t get a chance to do my work until the last minute when its due. I know there were plenty of times I felt like just giving up on classes because I don’t have enough time in a day to get every thing done. Then I start thinking of all the benefits of higher education


CODE OF ETHICS provision 5 related to Continuing Education

As outlined by the ANA, provision 5 includes that nurses owe the same duties to self as others, this includes responsibility to preserve integrity and safety, maintain competence, and to continue personal professional growth (Fowler and American Nurse Association, 2010).


Fair and equal treatment

Safe patient care

Be competent

Be educated to provide the best care

Grow professional and personally

Expand career knowledge and skills


Builds confidence

Helps guide better decision making

Creates trust

Extends positive influence


Personal and professional growth requires a time commitment

Being competent and advancing can include a financial commitment

Growing pains

Feeling out of comfort zone

The Code of Ethics is a public expression of what a nurse commits oneself to when entering the workforce as a nurse. The Code expresses values, duties, and commitments that all nurses will strive for (ANA, 2010). There are many pros and a few cons to nurses agreeing to follow the Code of Ethics. The pros mentioned above can greatly outweigh the cons. As nurses we are here to serve people, we extend ourselves to care for others. In caring for others we must also care for our self in the process. The ANA outlines for professional growth a nurse is responsible for “continued reading, study, observation, and investigation” (2010). All of the above are outlined by the ANA.



Fowler and the American Nurses Association defined provision 7 as, a nurses participation in the advancement of the profession through contributions to practice, education, administration, and knowledge development (2010).



In education

In practices of care

In administration



Having the need to want advancement

Time commitment

Possible financial commitment

Growing pains

Being pushed out of your comfort zone

Nurses are the forefront of advancement for the medical field. We hold many positions from floor nursing, administration and educators within the health care system. For the field of nursing and nurses to continue to grow and advance we all must pledge to participate in advancing the profession with education, and the search of knowledge. Examples of ways that nursing has advanced from the past is nurses now have advanced degrees such as: Master and doctoral level educations and also Nurse Practitioners. The ANA provides specifics on where nurses can advance the profession; be involved in healthcare policy, develop, maintain and implement professional standards in clinical practice, administration and education practices, and apply knowledge development, dissemination and application to practice (2010). As nurses the ANA Code of Ethics provides a pathway to things that will improve nursing practice as a whole.





American Nurses Credentialing Center. (2014). The Importance of Evaluating the Impact of Continuing Nursing Education on Outcomes:Professional Nursing Practice and Patient Care. Retrieved from

Fowler, M. D., & American Nurses Association. (2010). Guide to the code of ethics for nurses: Interpretation and application. Silver Spring, MD: American Nurses Association.

Ward, J. (2013, January 23). The Pros and Cons of Getting Nursing CEUs. Retrieved from Nurse Together: http://

Whittaker, S., Carson , W., & Smolenski, M. C. (2000, September). Assuring Continued Competence – Policy Questions and Approaches: How Should the Profession Respond? Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. Retrieved from :

Brunt, B. The importance of lifelong learning in managing risks. The Nursing

Risk Management Series(3). Retrieved from

Eustace, L. (2001). Mandatory continuing education:past, present, and future trends & issues.

The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing 32(3).


Nursing: Scope and Standard of Practice. Retrieved from

ANA Leadership – American Nurses Foundation. Retrieved from

University of Saint Mary. (2017) Higher Nursing Education and its Impact on Patient Safety. Retrieved on September 21st from

College Grad (2017) Registered nurses. Retrieved September 24th, from

research paper done for you research paper writing service writing a research paper


Employers have been coming up with innovative employee rewards to boost morale and acknowledge employee needs for creativity and personal goal accomplishment. Some of the latest potential employee rewards include using the Internet at work for personal reasons such as shopping, communicating with friends, or personal finances; bringing a pet to work; instituting a controlled napping policy, and the sports and office betting pools.  

Write an eight to ten (8-10) page paper in which you: 

  1. Determine how innovations in employee benefits can improve the overall competitive compensation strategy of the organization.
  2. Explain how innovative benefits could be tied to specific jobs.
  3. Critique the effectiveness of equity-based rewards systems versus those with more creative approaches.
  4. Discuss the key elements of integrating innovation into a traditional total rewards program.
  5. Recommend a process that optimizes an employee-based suggestion program to continually refresh the total rewards of the organization.
  6. Use at least five (5) quality academic resources in this assignment. Note: Wikipedia and other Websites do not quality as academic resources.

Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:

  • Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.
  • Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length.
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genogram example with key

Constructing a Genogram

Constructing a Genogram Program Transcript

TRACEY PHILLIPS: Hi, I’m Dr. Tracey Phillips. Genograms are like family trees in many ways. They use symbols and lines to represent relationships between parents and children across generations. Typically, however, a family tree only represents basic biological information such as siblings, parent-child relationships, marriages, et cetera. A genogram provides a more sophisticated level of information that may be of use to medical or mental health professionals working with an individual or a family.

Genograms use a broader array of symbols and family trees to represent family relationships– for example, cohabitation, divorce, or even a love affair; emotional relationships– for example, estranged, abuse, in love, manipulative; diseases or health risks– for example, substance abuse, cancer, diabetes, and even social relationships outside of traditional family spheres such as neighbor, mentor, spiritual leader, or co-worker.

Genograms are very useful to human service professionals, because they provide a visual representation of the relationships, emotional bonds, and patterns that exist in an individual or family’s past or present. They can be very useful not only to help the professional identify the patterns, but are a great tool to help explain patterns to clients.

For this assignment you will gain experience by completing a genogram and constructing one of you and a non-family member, To give you an idea of what a genogram looks like, here is an example. Somewhere in your genogram you will first have to have a key. The key is there for the reader to be able to understand the relationships that exist within the family members.

In this example, you will see that males are indicated by a square and females are indicated by a circle. If the male is alive, then the square is yellow. If the female is alive, the square is pink. If the male or female are deceased, you will notice that the square and circle are blue.

Also, on the key you will have the nature of the relationship. If the relationship is intact, there will be a solid line. If the relationship is broken, then there will be a dotted line or a broken line, as you can see on this example at the bottom. Inside each circle or square you will be able to see, according to the key, the nature of that person’s status.

For example, if the person is alive and well, you will see an A&W as indicated by the key. If the person has or had cancer, it will say, CANC. You can go down the key to see each individual status. So let’s go through the example. The client, as you will notice, is in the middle. The client is a 37-year-old female. She is alive and well as indicated by A&W.

© 2016 Laureate Education, Inc. 1

Constructing a Genogram

If you go to the left, you will see that the client had a spouse– a 40-year-old male– as indicated by the yellow square. The reason you know the client and the spouse are divorced is the broken relationship or the broken line between them. He also was an alcoholic. As you can see under it says, ALC.

They have two children– a 12-year-old female and an 8-year-old male who are both alive and well. To the right of the client you’ll notice that she has two siblings– a 32-year-old male and a 30-year-old female who are both alive and well. As you move up in your genogram, you’ll go back three generations.

In this example, you see the mother and the father of the client. The mother is a 60-year-old female who suffers from mitral valve prolapse. The father is a 66- year-old male who suffers from hypertension. You can also go further up into the grandparents.

And you can see that three of the client’s grandparents are deceased– one a 68- year-old male who died of cancer, an 80-year-old female who died of hypertension, and a 70-year-old male who died of cardiovascular disease. The client has a 77-year-old living grandmother who currently suffers from hypertension and breast cancer.

As you complete your genogram, you will go back three generations. And you will indicate the relationship status within family members as well as whether or not they are alive or deceased and their current physical or emotional state. You’ll create your own key to let the reader know what the status of each family member is.

© 2016 Laureate Education, Inc. 2

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which of the following statements about special sessions of the texas legislature is true?


Marks: 1

The structural weakening of the office of the governor and the creation of the plural executive in Texas was NOT the result of which of the following?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. The reaction of Texans to Reconstruction
[removed]b. The desire of the founding fathers of Texas to closely copy the structure and operation of the executive branch of the federal government in Washington
[removed]c. The Constitution of 1876
[removed]d. The reaction of Texans to the governorship of E.J. Davis


Marks: 1

Legislators in Texas are

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. appointed by the governor.
[removed]b. elected in single-member districts in the House of Representatives and in at-large elections in the Texas Senate.
[removed]c. all elected in single-member districts.
[removed]d. subject to term limitation by the Texas Constitution of 1876.
[removed]e. all elected in at-large elections.


Marks: 1

Although the Governor prepares a budget to submit to the Texas Legislature at the beginning of a session, the members of the Legislature typically ignore the budget proposed by the Governor in favor of a budget drafted by the

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. State Commission on Budgetary Development and Analysis.
[removed]b. Comptroller.
[removed]c. State Treasurer.
[removed]d. Legislative Budget Board.
[removed]e. Congressional Budget Office.


Marks: 1

The governor of Texas may grant executive clemency.




Marks: 1

The vice president of the United States is, according to the U.S. Constitution, the president of the U.S. Senate; however, according to the rules of the U.S. Senate he has little authority over that body. The real head of the U.S. Senate is the Senate Majority Leader. Who is the President of the Texas Senate and the real leader of the Texas Senate?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. the lieutenant governor of Texas is the president of the Texas Senate but the real leader of the Texas Senate is the Senate majority leader of the Texas Senate
[removed]b. the lieutenant governor is the president of the Texas Senate and is, under the rules of the Texas Senate, the real leader of the Texas Senate
[removed]c. the lieutenant governor of Texas is the president of the Texas Senate, however, the real leader of the Texas Senate is the leader of the majority party in the Texas Senate
[removed]d. the vice president of Texas is the president of the Texas Senate, however, the real leader of the Texas Senate is the Senate majority leader
[removed]e. the speaker of the Texas House also acts as the president of the Texas Senate and is its actual leader


Marks: 1

In what type of committee is the bulk of the work in the legislature done?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. Joint committee
[removed]b. Standing committee
[removed]c. Combined committee
[removed]d. Special committee
[removed]e. Conference committee


Marks: 1

How long is a special session of the Texas Legislature?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. up to 140 days
[removed]b. no more than two weeks
[removed]c. up to 30 days
[removed]d. as long as required to complete the agenda of the governor.
[removed]e. no more than one year


Marks: 1

How many members are there on the Texas Railroad Commission?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. three
[removed]b. nine
[removed]c. 12
[removed]d. 15
[removed]e. six


Marks: 1

The principal responsibility of the Texas Secretary of State is

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. to negotiate treaties for Texas with foreign governments.
[removed]b. to regulate electric and telephone rates in Texas.
[removed]c. to act as the chief election officer for the State of Texas.
[removed]d. to collect taxes for the State of Texas.
[removed]e. to act as the head of the president of the Senate when the Texas legislature is in session.


Marks: 1

Before an appointment by the governor to an executive branch board or agency becomes effective, the governor’s nominee must first be reviewed and approved by

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. the judicial branch of Texas government, in the form of the Texas Supreme Court, in its oversight function of the executive and legislative branches of government.
[removed]b. a vote of the Texas Senate.
[removed]c. a vote of the full legislature.
[removed]d. a vote of the Texas House.
[removed]e. a joint conference committee made up of Texas Senators and Representatives.


Marks: 1

Which branch is the central policymaking institution of state government?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. the Texas Supreme Court
[removed]b. the Joint Committee on Public Policy of the Texas House of Representatives
[removed]c. the plural executive
[removed]d. the Central Policy Commission of Texas
[removed]e. the Texas legislature


Marks: 1

Most of the legislative work of the Texas Legislature is conducted

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. by the governor.
[removed]b. in legislative committees.
[removed]c. on the floor of the Texas House.
[removed]d. during special sessions of the legislature.
[removed]e. in the House of Representatives.


Marks: 1

The largest area of tax revenue for State of Texas comes from

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. income taxes.
[removed]b. sales taxes.
[removed]c. severance taxes.
[removed]d. ad valorem taxes.
[removed]e. property taxes.


Marks: 1

There are how many members in the Texas House of Representatives?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. 435
[removed]b. 32
[removed]c. 31
[removed]d. it varies from session to session depending on the state’s population
[removed]e. 150


Marks: 1

Probably the most contentious issue facing the State Board of Education is its periodic review of

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. textbook adoptions.
[removed]b. state budget requests.
[removed]c. teacher salaries.
[removed]d. state football programs.
[removed]e. University Interscholastic League literary competition rules.


Marks: 1

The Comptroller of Public Accounts is

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. the chief election officer of the State of Texas.
[removed]b. the chief tax collector for the State of Texas.
[removed]c. responsible for collecting overdue child support payments for Texans.
[removed]d. responsible for administering the Texas Veterans’ Land Board.
[removed]e. issuing corporation charters and monitoring public corporations in the State of Texas.


Marks: 1

How can the Texas Legislature override a legislative veto by the Governor?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. the Texas Constitution forbids the Legislature to override a gubernatorial veto
[removed]b. by a vote of a conference committee
[removed]c. by a majority vote of the Texas Senate alone in the exercise of its advise and consent power
[removed]d. by a 2/3rds vote of members present from both houses
[removed]e. by a simple majority vote of members present from both houses


Marks: 1

What type of bill applies only to one unit of local government (example: the Legislature creates a new county-court-at-law for Harris County)?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. general bill
[removed]b. a true bill
[removed]c. a resolution
[removed]d. a special bill
[removed]e. private bill


Marks: 1

The predominant occupation for members of today’s Texas legislature are

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. pharmacy and real estate.
[removed]b. business and finance.
[removed]c. medicine and insurance.
[removed]d. law and business.
[removed]e. education. 
education and sales.


Marks: 1

The Lieutenant Governor is elected every four years by

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. the voters of the State of Texas.
[removed]b. the members of the Texas Senate.
[removed]c. the caucus of the majority party at the start of a new legislative session.
[removed]d. a vote of the full legislature.
[removed]e. a single-member district election in Travis County, home county for the Texas Legislature (in Austin).


Marks: 1

David Dewhurst is the

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. Texas Land Commissioner
[removed]b. Governor of Texas
[removed]c. Comptroller of Public Accounts
[removed]d. Lieutenant Governor of Texas
[removed]e. Texas Secretary of State


Marks: 1

Rick Perry is currently the

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. Lieutenant Governor of Texas.
[removed]b. Texas Secretary of State.
[removed]c. Comptroller of Public Accounts.
[removed]d. Governor of Texas.
[removed]e. Texas Agricultural Commissioner.


Marks: 1

Which of the following government entities does NOT rely on or operate primarily from property taxes?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. County government
[removed]b. Independent school districts
[removed]c. State government
[removed]d. Municipal government
[removed]e. Community college districts


Marks: 1

Which of the following officials enforces the state’s weights and measures laws?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. Texas Secretary of State
[removed]b. Governor of Texas
[removed]c. Texas Land Commissioner
[removed]d. Comptroller of Public Accounts
[removed]e. Texas Agriculture Commissioner


Marks: 1

What is the purpose served by an interim committee of the Texas Legislature?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. to iron out differences between different versions of legislation passed by the House and the Senate
[removed]b. to meet and study issues in the period between regular legislative sessions
[removed]c. to draft a state budget for consideration be the full legislature
[removed]d. to consider overrides of gubernatorial vetoes
[removed]e. to assign bills to calendars for scheduling on the House floor


Marks: 1

The governor of Texas is considered to have military powers because he is commander-in-chief of

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. all U.S. military troops which are stationed in Texas at a given time.
[removed]b. the Austin Chapter of the American Legion.
[removed]c. the Texas National Guard.
[removed]d. the Fort Hood military installation in Central Texas.
[removed]e. the Corps of Cadets at Texas A&M University.


Marks: 1

The impeachment process for a high Texas state official begins with articles of impeachment (the charges, or official allegations) being brought by the

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. Texas Senate.
[removed]b. Texas House of Representatives.
[removed]c. Governor of Texas.
[removed]d. Attorney General of Texas.
[removed]e. Supreme Court of Texas.


Marks: 1

Police powers are attributed to the Texas governor since he has the authority to appoint members of

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. Criminal Science Institute (CSI) of Texas.
[removed]b. Texas Rangers.
[removed]c. the director of the Texas Bureau of Investigation.
[removed]d. the board of the Department of Public Safety.
[removed]e. state investigatory grand jury.


Marks: 1

With regard to the creation and adoption of the biennial budget for the State of Texas, the Governor of Texas

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. has tremendous influence over the preparation, creation and adoption of the budget of the state each biennial session.
[removed]b. greatly influences the creation and adoption of the budget for the state through the Government Office of Management and Budget.
[removed]c. influences the creation and adoption of the state’s biennial budget through his selection and appointment of the Texas Secretary of the Treasury.
[removed]d. has sole constitutional power in the state to develop and set the state biennial budget; he then sends the completed budget to the legislature for implementation and distribution based upon his (the governor’s) specific and strict directions
[removed]e. has little official power and influence over the creation and final adoption of the biennial state budget during the regular legislative session.


Marks: 1

Which of the following is true concerning regular sessions of the Texas Legislature?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. The Legislature meets in regular session starting in January for 160 days every odd-numbered year.
[removed]b. The Legislature meets in regular session every year, holding 140-day sessions in odd-numbered years and 160-day sessions in even-numbered years.
[removed]c. The Legislature meets in regular session starting in January every year, adjourning at the end of the year in early December.
[removed]d. The Legislature meets in regular session for 260 days every other year.
[removed]e. The Legislature meets in regular session starting in January for 140 days every odd-numbered year.


Marks: 1

Respond to the following statement: “The state income tax in Texas is set at 6.25% of a person’s annual income.”

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. True
[removed]b. False–The income tax is set at 2% of a person’s annual income. When added to the federal income tax requirement, a Texas citizen pays 8.25% of her income in income taxes.
[removed]c. False–there is no state income tax.
[removed]d. False–the state income tax is based on the biennial income of a Texas citizen.


Marks: 1

The state agency which regulates telephone and electric rates in Texas is called

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. the Legislative Budget Board.
[removed]b. the Public Utility Commission.
[removed]c. the Texas Railroad Commission.
[removed]d. Texas State Board of Insurance.
[removed]e. the Sunset Advisory Board.


Marks: 1

A committee which has members from both the House and the Senate to serve a unique, particular function is called a

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. joint committee.
[removed]b. combined committee.
[removed]c. conference committee.
[removed]d. special committee.
[removed]e. standing committee.


Marks: 1

In Texas, the more than ____ agencies have substantial independence from the governor, which means that each agency has more latitude and independence than federal agencies in deciding what was meant by the legislature and in applying the law to unforeseen circumstances.

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. 100
[removed]b. 50
[removed]c. 10
[removed]d. 900
[removed]e. 200


Marks: 1

Who is the current Commissioner of Agriculture for the State of Texas?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. Earl Butz
[removed]b. Todd Staples
[removed]c. Jim Hightower
[removed]d. Hank Gilbert
[removed]e. Susan Combs


Marks: 1

Regular formal review and subsequent legislative affirmation to determine that if a state agency or program is to continue is known as

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. senatorial courtesy.
[removed]b. sunset review.
[removed]c. sunshine legislation.
[removed]d. administrative oversight and review.
[removed]e. redistricting.


Marks: 1

The Attorney General of Texas is LEAST involved in which of the following activities?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. initiating lawsuits against parents delinquent on child support payments
[removed]b. issuing legal opinions interpreting state laws before issues relating to the laws are adjudicated by the courts
[removed]c. defending the state against lawsuits
[removed]d. prosecuting individuals accused of serious crimes
[removed]e. acting as the constitutional lawyer for agencies, boards, and commissions of the state of Texas.


Marks: 1

In total, how many states in the U.S. (including Texas) have NO personal income tax?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. None; all states, including Texas, tax the personal income of residence of their states
[removed]b. seven
[removed]c. 31
[removed]d. two
[removed]e. 15


Marks: 1

The Lieutenant Governor is most analogous to what officer in the federal government?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. Vice President
[removed]b. President
[removed]c. Majority Leader of the U.S. Senate
[removed]d. Secretary of State
[removed]e. Speaker of the U.S. House


Marks: 1

The Texas Legislature cannot pass a state budget which creates a budget deficit. This is required by

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. the Texas Constitution.
[removed]b. a resolution passed by the Texas Legislature in 1980.
[removed]c. the United State Constitution.
[removed]d. the Texas Supreme Court in a constitutional ruling in the early part of the 1950s.
[removed]e. the U.S. Congress.


Marks: 1

The Governor may use the line-item veto on which of the following bills?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. a bill to increase criminal penalties on drug possession
[removed]b. the governor no longer has the line-item veto power–the Texas line-item veto was declared illegal by a federal court ruling
[removed]c. a bill declaring the Southern Baptist religion the official state religion of Texas
[removed]d. a bill to raise the minimum drinking age
[removed]e. a bill to appropriate money to operate state prisons


Marks: 1

Which of the following is solely and completely responsible for regulating railroad freight and railroad passenger service in the state of Texas?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. Texas Agriculture Commissioner
[removed]b. No commission or agency or department in Texas government has this power
[removed]c. Texas Railroad Commission
[removed]d. General Land Commission
[removed]e. Texas Secretary of State


Marks: 1

Which of the following has as its primary responsibly oil and gas regulation in Texas?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. Texas Agriculture Commissioner
[removed]b. Texas Department of Energy
[removed]c. Public Utility Commission
[removed]d. Texas Railroad Commission
[removed]e. Texas Department of Petroleum Development


Marks: 1

Who calls special legislative sessions in Texas?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. The Governor may call a special session, but only with the approval of the Legislature by a majority vote of both houses
[removed]b. Either the Speaker or Lieutenant Governor may call a special session
[removed]c. Only the Governor may call a special session
[removed]d. The Legislature calls itself into special session by a 2/3rds vote of both houses
[removed]e. The Texas Secretary of State calls special sessions with the approval of the Lieutenant Government and Speaker of the House


Marks: 1

Which of the following statements is true about the term of office for the governor of Texas?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. The governor is elected by a vote of the Texas Senate every two years at the start of the session of the Texas Legislature in January of odd numbered years
[removed]b. Governors may serve no more than four two-year terms consecutively
[removed]c. The term of office for governor of Texas is four years and the Texas Constitution sets no limit on the number of terms a governor may serve
[removed]d. The governor serves a two-year term of office and there is no limit set by the Texas Constitution as to how many terms he or she may serve
[removed]e. The governor serves an elected four year term but is limited by constitutional amendment to serving no more than ten years (two full elected terms and up to two additional years if first assuming the office due to the death, resignation, or impeachment and conviction of the preceding governor


Marks: 1

Greg Abbott is the

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. Texas Attorney General.
[removed]b. Speaker of the Texas House of Representatives.
[removed]c. Texas Commissioner of Agriculture.
[removed]d. Comptroller of Public Accounts.
[removed]e. Lieutenant Governor of Texas.


Marks: 1

Which of the following officials may the Governor normally appoint?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. the Lieutenant Governor
[removed]b. the Texas Attorney General
[removed]c. the Chief Justice of the Texas Supreme Court
[removed]d. the Texas Secretary of State
[removed]e. a member of the Railroad Commission


Marks: 1

The first Republican to be elected governor in Texas following the Reconstruction administration of Gov. E.J. Davis was

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. Preston Smith.
[removed]b. James Ferguson.
[removed]c. Rick Perry.
[removed]d. Bill Clements.
[removed]e. George W. Bush.


Marks: 1

This process of redrawing the boundaries of legislative and congressional districts by the state legislature is called

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. district resolution.
[removed]b. district development.
[removed]c. congressional reapportionment.
[removed]d. redistricting.
[removed]e. redlining.


Marks: 1

The Texas Constitution requires that an estimate be made of state revenues for the upcoming biennial budget period and given to the legislature for its biennial session so that it can prepare a balanced budget? What state official is responsible for the preparation of this estimate and its reporting to the legislature?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. governor
[removed]b. attorney general
[removed]c. chairman of the Legislative Budget Board
[removed]d. treasurer
[removed]e. comptroller


Marks: 1

How many members are there on the State Board of Education?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. six
[removed]b. three
[removed]c. 12
[removed]d. nine
[removed]e. 15


Marks: 1

The governor’s State of the State address is

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. an important aspect of the governor’s “bully pulpit” because it is broadcast live on network television during prime-time to the people of Texas.
[removed]b. an informal tradition initiated by Gov. E. J. Davis during Reconstruction and is an official state holiday.
[removed]c. given by the governor every year at the start of the Texas legislative session in January.
[removed]d. called for by the Texas Constitution and is given before a joint session of the Texas Legislature following the start of the regular session.
[removed]e. is no longer given in person by the governor in the form of a speech delivered before the legislature but instead is a printed message sent to both legislative bodies and posted at the front entrance to each chamber.


Marks: 1

The only unicameral legislature in the United States is

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. is found in Nebraska.
[removed]b. the U.S. Congress.
[removed]c. is in Texas.
[removed]d. now banned by the U.S. Constitution.
[removed]e. now gone, abandoned when the State of Texas moved to a bicameral organization in the 1970s.


Marks: 1

Spending bills (i.e., appropriation bills) in Texas must originate

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. in the Legislative Budget Board
[removed]b. in the Texas Senate.
[removed]c. with the governor.
[removed]d. with the Comptroller of Public Accounts.
[removed]e. in the Texas House.


Marks: 1

How is the Speaker of the Texas House chosen?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. The Speaker is appointed by the Governor and is approved by the Senate in its advice and consent powers
[removed]b. The Secretary of State serves ex officio as Speaker of the Texas House
[removed]c. The Speaker is a state representative elected by the full House to serve as speaker
[removed]d. The Speaker is elected statewide
[removed]e. The Lieutenant Governor acts, as part of his constitutional duties, as Speaker of the Texas House of Representatives.


Marks: 1

Jerry Patterson is the current

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. Lieutenant Governor of Texas.
[removed]b. Texas Secretary of State.
[removed]c. Texas Land Commissioner.
[removed]d. Comptroller of Public Accounts
[removed]e. Governor of Texas.


Marks: 1

While the Texas Governor has some appointment powers over the executive branch,

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. he lacks any significant independent removal power over his appointments.
[removed]b. he has complete authority to appoint judges for life terms to all the courts of the state judicial branch at any time at all levels throughout the state of Texas.
[removed]c. he had complete power over the length of service of those appointments, holding the power to independently dismiss any of his appointments at any time without any consultation by or approval from the Texas Legislature.
[removed]d. he has ultimate authority in times of crisis over all the military personnel and bases of the United States quartered in Texas including the power to make field promotions of officers and commanders.
[removed]e. has significant power to make committee assignments for members of the Texas Legislature.


Marks: 1

A committee created whenever a bill is passed in different versions by the House and Senate is called a

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. joint committee.
[removed]b. combined committee.
[removed]c. conference committee.
[removed]d. special committee.
[removed]e. standing committee


Marks: 1

Removal powers of the governor over appointees to state boards and commissions are

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. similar to that of an employer in the private sector–he may fire any member of a state board or commission except when that firing is considered racially motivated or retaliatory.
[removed]b. limited to only those members of state boards and commissions from previous administrations.
[removed]c. limited to only those specifically appointed by the governor, with approval of the Senate (two-thirds vote).
[removed]d. unlimited. As chief executive officer of the state, he has the power to appoint and dismiss any member of the state executive branch or its agencies and commissions.
[removed]e. denied to the governor. Once the governor appoints someone to a state board or commission that person cannot be removed from office except by impeachment.


Marks: 1

Texas’s biggest employers are

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. oil and gas companies.
[removed]b. in the medical field.
[removed]c. farmers and ranchers.
[removed]d. governments.
[removed]e. in the insurance industry.


Marks: 1

The Texas Secretary of State is

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. Esperanza “Hope” Andrade.
[removed]b. John Steen.
[removed]c. also, by law, the Lieutenant Governor of the State.
[removed]d. Geoffrey Connor.
[removed]e. Roger Williams.


Marks: 1

Who was the lieutenant governor of Texas to succeed Governor George W. Bush when Bush resigned as governor to become president of the United States?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. Rick Perry
[removed]b. Ted Cruz
[removed]c. Bill Ratliff
[removed]d. David Dewhurst
[removed]e. William “Bill” Hobby


Marks: 1

The judicial power of the governor consists of his ability

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. appoint judges and justices to state courts when there is a vacancy on a court due to a death, resignation, or removal of the judge or justice.
[removed]b. to reduce prison overcrowding by executive order.
[removed]c. to order the death penalty be imposed following the conviction of a defendant for capital murder.
[removed]d. review and reverse decisions of lower courts when the decisions are appealed directly to his office.
[removed]e. appoint all judges and justices to all the courts on all levels in the State of Texas.


Marks: 1

The base sales tax rate for the State of Texas is

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. 6.25%.
[removed]b. 8.25%.
[removed]c. tied directly to the federal treasury bills rate.
[removed]d. 7.25%.


Marks: 1

Who, among the following elected officials, is NOT a member of the Legislative Redistricting Board?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. Attorney General of Texas
[removed]b. Lieutenant Governor of Texas
[removed]c. Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts
[removed]d. Speaker of the Texas House of Representatives
[removed]e. Governor of Texas


Marks: 1

Regarding the structural powers of the Governor of Texas, how do they compare with the powers of other state governors?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. The official powers of the Governor or Texas are about average in comparison with other governors.
[removed]b. The official powers of the Governor of Texas are among the weakest in the nation.
[removed]c. The official powers of the Governor of Texas are among the strongest in the nation.
[removed]d. They are somewhat above average in comparison with the other governors’ powers.


Marks: 1

Which of the following in NOT a type of committee in the Texas legislature?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. Joint committee
[removed]b. Special committee
[removed]c. Standing committee
[removed]d. Conference committee
[removed]e. Irregular committee


Marks: 1

The Veterans’ Land Board provides low interest property loans to Texas veterans. This board is supervised by the

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. Commissioner of the Veterans’ Land Board of Texas.
[removed]b. Commissioner of the Texas General Land Office.
[removed]c. Chairman of the Texas Veterans Administration.
[removed]d. Comptroller of Public Accounts.
[removed]e. Lieutenant Governor.


Marks: 1

Governors elected after Reconstruction until the late 1970s were all

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. liberal Democrats.
[removed]b. conservative-to-moderate Democrats.
[removed]c. conservative to ultra-conservative Republicans.
[removed]d. former lieutenant governors.
[removed]e. members of the Tea Party of Texas.


Marks: 1

The only Texas governor to be impeached by the Texas House and convicted of the impeachment charges in the Texas Senate was

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. George W. Bush.
[removed]b. E.J. Davis.
[removed]c. William Clements.
[removed]d. James Ferguson.
[removed]e. Miriam Ferguson.


Marks: 1

In order to become a Texas State Senator, one must be at least ___ years old to be elected and a resident of Texas for __ years preceding the election.

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. 42/seven
[removed]b. 19/two
[removed]c. 35/six
[removed]d. 26/five
[removed]e. 24/one


Marks: 1

The U.S. Supreme Court decided a case in its 2013 regarding affirmative action in higher education that modified but did not overturn its prior 2003 decision in Grutter v. Michigan. That case was

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. Marbury v. Madison.
[removed]b. Ruiz v. Texas A&M University-Kingsville.
[removed]c. Brown v. Board of Education.
[removed]d. Fisher v. The University of Texas.
[removed]e. Hopwood v. Texas.


Marks: 1

There are three members of the Texas Railroad Commission. All three are

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. appointed to their positions by the Governor of Texas (with the approval of the Texas Senate).
[removed]b. required by the Texas Constitution of 1876 to have worked for at least a ten-year period in the railroad industry in Texas.
[removed]c. required by law to serve only one six-year term in office.
[removed]d. elected in single-member district elections from three separate sections of the state by the people of Texas with the approval of the vote of both chambers of the legislature.
[removed]e. elected to their positions by the people of Texas.


Marks: 1

As a result of the Texas Constitution of 1876, Texas has a

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. bicameral executive system of government.
[removed]b. unitary executive system of government.
[removed]c. cabinet system in operation in the executive branch of government.
[removed]d. nonpartisan unicameral system of government.
[removed]e. plural executive system operating the executive branch of government.


Marks: 1

How is the Lieutenant Governor of Texas normally chosen?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. The Lieutenant Governor is a member of the House selected by the Texas House to serve as Lieutenant Governor
[removed]b. The Lieutenant Governor is elected every four years by the Texas delegates to the Elector College at their electoral meeting held every four years held prior to voting for the presidential selection.
[removed]c. The Lieutenant Governor is elected statewide directly by the citizens of Texas
[removed]d. The Lieutenant Governor is appointed by the Governor and is approved by the Senate in its advice and consent power
[removed]e. The Lieutenant Governor is a member of the Texas Senate elected by the full Senate to serve as Lieutenant Governor


Marks: 1

Redistricting–the process of redrawing the boundaries of legislative and congressional districts–generally occurs every ten years in the Texas legislature following the

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. presidential elections.
[removed]b. results of the most recent election of the U.S. House of Representatives and of the Texas House of Representatives.
[removed]c. directives issued by the Senate Committee on Redistricting and the Census.
[removed]d. report from Congress on reapportionment based on the national census.
[removed]e. report of the Interstate Redistricting Commission.


Marks: 1

Currently, the Texas Legislature is

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. meeting in special session.
[removed]b. meeting in regular session.
[removed]c. meeting as a Committee of the Whole to revise the Texas Constitution of 1876.
[removed]d. not in session.


Marks: 1

A bill may be formally introduced by

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. any member of the Texas legislature or a member of the Texas delegation to the U.S. Congress.
[removed]b. the Speaker or the Lieutenant Governor only.
[removed]c. any member of the legislature or the governor.
[removed]d. any member of the legislature in the member’s own chamber.
[removed]e. any current or former member of the legislature.


Marks: 1

Members of the Texas Public Utilities Commission are

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. appointed to their positions by a vote of the Texas Legislature.
[removed]b. are appointed by the Secretary of the Department of Energy and have full authority over the production of and development of all energy resources within the state of Texas.
[removed]c. ex officio officeholder, serving in their PUC positions as a part of their duties as Lieutenant Governor, Speaker of the House, and Comptroller of Public Accounts.
[removed]d. elected to their positions by a direct, statewide vote of the people of Texas.
[removed]e. appointed to their positions by the Governor of Texas (with the approval of the Texas Senate).


Marks: 1

The chief legal officer of the State of Texas is the

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. Secretary of State.
[removed]b. Comptroller.
[removed]c. Legal Counsel to the Governor of Texas.
[removed]d. Attorney General.
[removed]e. Chief Justice of the Texas Supreme Court.


Marks: 1

The Texas Legislature is a creation of

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. the Constitutional Convention of 1787.
[removed]b. Article I of the United States Constitution.
[removed]c. the annexation agreement between the United States and the Republic of Texas.
[removed]d. the U.S. Supreme Court decision in Lopez v. Texas.
[removed]e. the Texas Constitution of 1876.


Marks: 1

Texas has a biennial budget because

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. the Texas Legislature is a bicameral body.
[removed]b. the U.S. Constitution in Article I and II requires it.
[removed]c. the Texas Constitution requires that the state legislature pass a balanced budget.
[removed]d. the governor has a two year term of office.
[removed]e. the Texas Legislature meets once every two years.


Marks: 1

Which of the following offices was created by the Texas Legislature rather than the Texas Constitution?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. Commissioner of Agriculture.
[removed]b. Lieutenant Governor.
[removed]c. Chief Justice of the Supreme Court.
[removed]d. Secretary of State.
[removed]e. Attorney General.


Marks: 1

Who among the following was NEVER a governor of Texas?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. George H.W. Bush
[removed]b. Ann Richards
[removed]c. George W. Bush
[removed]d. Miriam Ferguson
[removed]e. E.J. Davis


Marks: 1

Which of the following statements accurately describes the Texas Legislature?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. The Texas House has 150 members elected for two-year terms while the Texas Senate has 31 members elected for six-year terms
[removed]b. The Texas House has 150 members elected for two-year terms while the Texas Senate has 31 members elected for four-year terms
[removed]c. The Texas House has 435 members elected for 2-year terms and the Texas Senate has 100 members elected for 6-year terms
[removed]d. The Texas Legislature is a unicameral legislative body made up of 100 members.
[removed]e. The Texas House has 31 members elected for four-year terms while the Texas Senate has 150 members elected for two-year terms


Marks: 1

The next regular session of the Texas Legislature will meet next year starting in January.




Marks: 1

If a vacancy occurs during the term of office of the lieutenant governor (such as death, resignation, or succession to the governorship), how is a new lieutenant governor selected?

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. the president pro tempore of the Texas Senate takes over the vacated position for the remainder of the term of office
[removed]b. by a called special state-wide election to fill the remaining term of the former lieutenant governor
[removed]c. the governor appoints a new lieutenant governor, with the approval of a vote of the full legislature
[removed]d. the president of the Senate moves into the position of Lieutenant for the remainder of the Lieutenant Governor’s term of office
[removed]e. the Senate elects one of its members to the position of lieutenant governor to serve the balance of the vacant term


Marks: 1

In the senate, the membership of committees is determined

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. the Committee Assignment Committee.
[removed]b. by seniority.
[removed]c. by appointment by the lieutenant governor.
[removed]d. by the lieutenant governor and a vote of the full Senate.
[removed]e. agreement among the members meeting as a committee of the whole in a conference committee.


Marks: 1

The impeachment process in Texas ends with the trial and verdict on the articles of impeachment conducted and arrived at by the

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. Texas House of Representatives.
[removed]b. governor’s cabinet and the Governor of Texas.
[removed]c. Supreme Court of Texas with the Chief Justice of Texas sitting as the chief judge over the proceedings.
[removed]d. Texas Senate.
[removed]e. Attorney General of Texas sitting as the head of a court made up of members of the Texas Supreme Court and the Texas Court of Criminal Appeals.


Marks: 1

The state official in charge of supervising the Permanent University Fund is the

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. Executive Director of the Texas Education Agency.
[removed]b. Chairman of the Higher Education Coordinating Board.
[removed]c. Attorney General.
[removed]d. Land Commissioner.
[removed]e. Comptroller of Public Accounts.


Marks: 1

Bills rarely reach the floor of the Senate for a vote without the approval of

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. the Lieutenant Governor.
[removed]b. Senate minority leader.
[removed]c. Governor.
[removed]d. Speaker of the House.
[removed]e. Chairman of the House Ways and Means Committee.


Marks: 1

Texas has had two woman governors in its history–Ann Richards and

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. Sonia Sotomayor.
[removed]b. Kay Bailey Hutchinson.
[removed]c. Carol Keeton Strayhorn.
[removed]d. Miriam Ferguson.
[removed]e. Susan Combs.


Marks: 1

Child support enforcement and collection for the State of Texas is the responsibility of

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. the Lieutenant Governor of Texas.
[removed]b. the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.
[removed]c. the Attorney General of Texas.
[removed]d. the Comptroller of Public Accounts.
[removed]e. the Governor of Texas.


Marks: 1

Upon receiving a bill passed by the legislature, the governor has _____ in which to sign a bill, veto it, or allow it to become law without a signature.

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. 10 days
[removed]b. 140 days
[removed]c. until one week after the end of the legislative session
[removed]d. three weeks
[removed]e. three days


Marks: 1

Joe Straus is the

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. Texas Commissioner of Agriculture.
[removed]b. Texas Attorney General.
[removed]c. Speaker of the Texas House of Representatives.
[removed]d. Comptroller of Public Accounts.
[removed]e. Lieutenant Governor of Texas.


Marks: 1

The Governor of Texas is empowered by the Texas Constitution of 1876 to appoint

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. the three members of the Texas Railroad Commission to office.
[removed]b. the Lieutenant Governor of Texas to office.
[removed]c. the Texas Agricultural Commissioner to office.
[removed]d. the Texas Secretary of State to office.
[removed]e. the Texas Attorney General to office.


Marks: 1

Fragmentation of the state executive into so many largely independent agencies was an intentional move by the framers to the Texas Constitution and later legislatures to avoid

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. centralized power.
[removed]b. violating the U.S. Constitution.
[removed]c. a diffusion of power.
[removed]d. confusion.
[removed]e. the spread of socialism.


Marks: 1

Texas legislative district lines are usually redrawn once every

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. ten years.
[removed]b. year.
[removed]c. five years.
[removed]d. time the Speaker of the House and the Lieutenant Governor decide it is necessary and prudent to do so.
[removed]e. two years.


Marks: 1

In order to be a member of the Texas House of Representatives, one must be at least ___ years old to be elected and a resident of Texas for _____ years prior to the election.

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. 42/ten
[removed]b. 35/five
[removed]c. 26/five
[removed]d. 21/two
[removed]e. 18/one


Marks: 1

Susan Combs is currently the

Choose one answer.

[removed]a. Speaker of the Texas House of Representatives
[removed]b. Comptroller of Public Accounts
[removed]c. Lieutenant Governor of Texas
[removed]d. Texas Attorney General
[removed]e. Texas Commissioner of Agriculture
research paper done for you research paper writing service writing a research paper

total contribution margin in dollars divided by pretax income is the:

1.Product A requires 5 machine hours per unit to be produced, Product B requires only 3 machine hours per unit, and the company’s productive capacity is limited to 240,000 machine hours. Product A sells for $16 per unit and has variable costs of $6 per unit. Product B sells for $12 per unit and has variable costs of $5 per unit. Assuming the company can sell as many units of either product as it produces, the company should:

2.Parker Plumbing has received a special one-time order for 1,500 faucets (units) at $5 per unit. Parker currently produces and sells 7,500 units at $6.00 each. This level represents 75% of its capacity. Production costs for these units are $4.50 per unit, which includes $3.00 variable cost and $1.50 fixed cost. To produce the special order, a new machine needs to be purchased at a cost of $1,000 with a zero salvage value. Management expects no other changes in costs as a result of the additional production. Should the company accept the special order?

3.The break-even time (BET) method is a variation of the:

4.After-tax net income divided by the annual average investment in an investment, is the:

5.The following data concerns a proposed equipment purchase: Cost…………………$144,000 Salvage value…………..$4,000 Estimated useful life……. 4years Annual net cash flows……$46,100 Depreciation method……..straight-line Assuming that net cash flows are received evenly throughout the year, the accounting rate of return is:

6.The rate that yields a net present value of zero for an investment is the:

7.Select cost information for Winfrey Enterprises is as follows: For 1000 units of output Total Cost/unit Direct material $5,000 $5.00 Utilities expense $1,000 $1.00 Rent expense $4,000 $4.00 For 5,000 units of output Total Cost/unit Direct materials $25,000 $5.00 Utilities expense $3,750 $0.75 Rent expense $4,000 $0.80 Based on this information:

8.The margin of safety is the excess of:

9.Use the following information to determine the margin of safety in dollars:

Unit sales………………..50,000 units

Dollar sales………………$500,000

fixed costs……………….$204,000

Variable costs…………….$187,000

10.Total contribution margin in dollars divided by pretax income is the:

11.Brown Company’s contribution margin ratio is 24%. Total fixed costs are $84,000. What is Brown’s break-even point in sales dollars?

12.A company manufactures and sells a product for $120 per unit. The company’s fixed costs are $68,760, and its variable costs are $90 per unit. The company’s break-even point in units is:

13.Yamaguchi Company’s break even point in units is 1,000. The sales price per unit is $10 and variable cost per unit is $7. If the company sells 2,500 units, what will net income be?

14.A firm sells two products, A and B. For every unit of A the firm sells, two units of B are sold. The firm’s total fixed costs are $1,612,000. Selling prices and cost information for both products follow: Product Unit sales price Veriable costs per Unit A… $20 $8 B… $24 $4 The contribution margin per composite unit is:

15.Wayward Enterprises manufactures and sells three distinct styles of bicycles: the Youth model sells for $300 and has a unit contribution margin of $105; the Adult model sells for $850 and has a unit contribution margin of $450; and the Recreational model sells for $1,000 and has a unit contribution margin of $500. The company’s sales mix includes: 5 Youth models; 9 Adult models; and 6 Recreational models. If the firm’s annual fixed costs total $6,500,000, calculate the firm’s break-even point in sales dollars.

 16.The master budget includes:

17.A plan that lists the types and amounts of operating expenses expected that are not included in the selling expenses budget is a:

18.A plan showing the units of goods to be sold and the revenue to be derived from sales, that is the usual starting point in the budgeting process, is called the:

19.Ecology Co. sells a biodegradable product called Dissol and has predicted the following sales for the first four months of the current year:

Sales in units…. Jan.1,700; Feb.1,900; March 2,100; April1,600

Ending inventory for each month should be 20% of the next month’s sales, and the December 31 inventory is consistent with that policy. How many units should be purchased in February?

20.A quantity of merchandise or materials over the minimum needed reduce the risk of running short is called:

21.A plan that shows the expected cash inflows and cash outflows during the budget period, including receipts from loans needed to maintain a minimum cash balance and repayments of such loans, is called a(n):

22.Long-term liability data for the budgeted balance sheet is derived from:

23.The Palos Company expects sales for June, July, and August of $48,000, $54,000, and $44,000, respectively. Experience suggests that 40% of sales are for cash and 60% are on credit.

The company collects 50% of its credit sales in the month following sale, 45% in the second month following sale, and 5% are not collected. What are the company’s expected cash receipts for August from its current and past sales?

24.Which of the following budgets is part of the manufacturing budget?

25.A process of examining the differences between actual and budgeted costs and describing them in terms of the amounts that resulted from price and quantity differences is called:

26.A report based on predicted amounts of revenues and expenses corresponding to the actual level of output is called a:

27.Sales analysis is useful for:

28.Product A has a sales price of $10 per unit. Based on a 10,000-unit production level, the variable costs are $6 per unit and the fixed costs are $3 per unit. Using a flexible budget for 12,500 units, what is the budgeted operating income from Product A?

29.A job was budgeted to require 3 hours of labor per unit at $8.00 per hour. The job consisted of 8,000 units and was completed in 22,000 hours at a total labor cost of $198,000. What is the total labor cost variance?

30.A company has determined that its standard costs to produce a single unit of output is as follows: Direct material 6 pounds at $0.90 per pound=$5.40 Direct labor 0.5 hour at $12.00 per hour=$6.00 Manyfacturing overhead 0.5 hour at $4.80 per hour=$2.40 During the latest month, the company purchased and used 58,000 pounds of direct materials at a price of $1.00 per pound to produce 10,000 units of output. Direct labor costs for the month totaled $56,350 based on 4,900 direct labor hours worked. Variable manufacturing overhead costs incurred totaled $15,000 and fixed manufacturing overhead incurred was $10,400. Based on this information, the direct materials quantity variance for the month was

31.The difference between the total budgeted overhead cost and the overhead applied to production using the predetermined overhead rate is the:

32. Regarding overhead costs, as volume increases:

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what is the value of x given that pq bc

What is the value of x, given PQ || BC?
Triangle: A, B, C with bisector PQ
AP = 8
PB = x
AQ = 12
QC = 18

1 0 709
asked by Anonymous
Feb 12, 2015
Apparently PQ is not a bisector. It is just parallel to BC.


12/18 = 8/x
x = 12

0 0
posted by Steve
Feb 13, 2015

0 1
posted by aman
Jun 24, 2016
Each triangle is different -_-

0 1
posted by Wolfcat
Mar 27, 2018
for this same Q!!!

0 1
posted by Wolfcat
Mar 27, 2018

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when constructing an angle bisector why must the arcs intersect

  1. When constructing a perpendicular bisector, why must the compass opening be greater 1/2 than the length of the segment? 0 0 704
    asked by stacey
    Aug 29, 2014 0 0
    Ms. Sue
    Aug 29, 2014
    i don’t get it 0 0
    posted by stacey
    Aug 29, 2014
    can you explain it to me 0 0
    posted by stacey
    Aug 29, 2014
    I can’t explain it any better than that web site. What is it that you don’t understand?

Or try this site.

0 0
Ms. Sue
Aug 29, 2014

i don’t get why the compass has to be open more than 1/2 the length segment

0 0
posted by stacey
Aug 29, 2014
Get a compass and try it.

How else are you going to get arcs above and below the line?

0 0
Ms. Sue
Aug 29, 2014
so i would answers it like….

the reason that the compass opening has to be greater than 1/2 of the segment is so it can make arcs.

0 0
posted by stacey
Aug 29, 2014
That’s a good start. Continue —

0 0
Ms. Sue
Aug 29, 2014
i don’t know how to finish it

0 0
posted by stacey
Aug 29, 2014

Where do the arcs have to cross?

0 0
Ms. Sue
Aug 29, 2014
in the middle

0 0
posted by stacey
Aug 29, 2014

0 0
Ms. Sue
Aug 29, 2014
so now it would be

the reason that the compass opening has to be greater than 1/2 of the segment is so it can make arcs. and the arcs would have to cross in the middle so that when go to draw the line it would be straight.

0 0
posted by stacey
Aug 29, 2014
Yay! You’re right!

0 0
Ms. Sue
Aug 29, 2014

thank you

0 0
posted by stacey
Aug 29, 2014
You’re welcome.

0 0
Ms. Sue
Aug 29, 2014
For once Ms. Sue is helpful! gasp

0 0
posted by lol
Aug 30, 2018
The response was probably from before she ever started getting floods of kids. Or like James Bond, the title just gets passed down person-to-person, so the Ms. Sue we have now is just a jerk.

1 0
posted by lol no kidding
Sep 5, 2018

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what is the simplified form of the following expression?

1)What is the simplified form of the following expression?
24,371 results
Using the formula r = d/t, where d is the distance in miles, r is the rate, and t is the time in hours, at which rate must you travel to cover 212.5 miles in 2.5 hours? a- 71 mph b- 106 mph c- 150 mph d- 85 mph ? What is the simplified form of the

asked by Anonymous on September 21, 2013
math 12 – sequences and series
Given the expression Sn = n^2 + 2n for the sume of the first n terms of a series, determine a) An expression, in simplified form, for Sn-1 in tmers of n b) an expression, in simplified form, for the nth terms, tn in terms of n

asked by CL on March 1, 2010
This problem is going to reveal the first name of the offender. Simplify the expression: (6^4⋅6^9/6^3)3 If the simplified expression is 6^16 , the first name of the culprit is Mandy. If the simplified expression is 6^18 , the first name of the culprit is

asked by Bri on January 9, 2018
Algebra 2 help plsss?
what is a simpler form of the radical expression? 4sqrt1296 x^16 y^12 how can you write the expression with rationalized denominator? 3 sqrt 2 / 3 sqrt 4 what is the quotient (4-x)/(x^2 + 5x – 6) / (x^2 – 11x + 28)/(x^2 + 7x + 6) in simplified form? State

asked by Nyanka on May 18, 2016
Can someone please check ny answers and tell me if I’m correct? I did the FOIL method for each of these.. 1.What is the simplified form of (x-2)(2x+3) My answer; 2x^2-x-6 2.What is the simplified form of (3x+2)(4x-3)? My answer; 12x^2-x-6 3.What is the

asked by Sage on February 29, 2016

What does it mean to be “simplified” which one is most “simple” 2(3+5) or 6 + 10 ??? I’ve been told both and wonder if someone can give me the correct answer some of my teachers told me simplified means all of the operations that can be done are done and

asked by Kate on July 21, 2010
Algebra Answer Check
What is the simplified form of the following expression? 7m^2 + 6.5n – 4n + 2.5m^2 – n a. 9.5m^2 + 1.5n (?) b. 4.5m^2 + 1.5n c. 1.5m^2 – 4.2n d. 9.5m^2 – 1.5n Simplify the following expression. 1/3(21m + 27) a. 7m + 27 b. 7m + 9 (?) c. 63m + 9 d. 7m + 81

asked by Anonymous on September 21, 2013
This problem is going to reveal the first name of the offender. Simplify the expression: (64⋅69/63)3 If the simplified expression is 6^16 , the first name of the culprit is Mandy. If the simplified expression is 6^18 , the first name of the culprit is

asked by Bri on January 5, 2018
Write an expression in simplest form that represents the perimeter of the polygon. the measure of the sides are 3x, x + 10, 2x + 2, and 5x. Would the simplified expression be 11x + 12?

asked by sal on December 15, 2015
1) what is the degree of the monomial 3x^2y^3 A)2 B)3 C)5 D)6 2. What is the simplified form of 8b^3c^2 + 4b^3 c^2 A) 12bc B)12b^3c^2 C) 12b^6 c^4 D) 12b^9c^4 3. What is the simplified form of (4j^2+6)+(2j^2-3) A) 6j^2-3 B) 6j^2+3 C) 6j^2 + 9 D) 4j^4+3 4.

asked by Glen on February 4, 2015
What is the simplified form of the following expression? -(7x – 4y)

asked by REEEEEEEEEE on January 16, 2018
Algebra 1
What is the simplified form of the expression? 7(63/(5 sq-2 sq)-1)

asked by Steve on December 29, 2014
what is the simplified form of the expression -(8d-3w)

asked by Nikki on September 9, 2015
what is the simplified form of the expression? (3c^2d^4)^3(2c^5d^8)^3

asked by Daniel on November 15, 2010
Algerbra 1
What is the simplified form of the expression? -(8d – 3w) A. 8d – 3w B. -8d + 3w C. 8d + 3w D. -8d – 3w

asked by Lenny on July 23, 2013

what is the simplified form of the expression? (3c^2d^4)^3(2c^5d^8)^3

asked by Daniel on November 15, 2010
what is the simplified form of the expression? (3c^2d^4)^3(2c^5d^8)^3

asked by Daniel on November 15, 2010
What is the simplified form of the following expression? 2x^2y + 3x^2 + 4y + 3x^2y + 2y

asked by REEEEEEEEEE on January 16, 2018
Maths! GAH!
What is the simplified form of the expression? 2b^–6 • b^12

asked by Codi on May 23, 2014
algebra 1
What is the simplified form of the expression? x^82y^105x^5

asked by anne on June 1, 2016
Another this math tho
what is the simplified form of the expression? 2b^-6 * b^12 I think its 2b^6

asked by This Girl on June 13, 2014
algebra 1
what is the simplified form of the following expression -28st over -4s -7t 7t** -7s 7s

asked by 9th grader on September 3, 2016
What is the simplified form of the following expression? 10yz/-2z

asked by Anonymous on September 28, 2018
What is the simplified form of the expression? (y^-5)-10 -5 and -10 are exponents

asked by Daniel on November 15, 2010
Algebra 1 Check
Hi! Can someone check this and see if they are correct? Thanks! 1.) Which value of x should the expression be further simplified? √(21)x a.) 5 B.) 6 c.) 11 D. 55 My answer: a 2.) 2√43x is show: Which value of x makes the expression equivalent to

asked by Abby on October 5, 2014

Math Check
Hi! Can someone check this and see if they are correct? Thanks! 1.) Which value of x should the expression be further simplified? √(21)x a.) 5 B.) 6 c.) 11 D. 55 My answer: a 2.) 2√43x is show: Which value of x makes the expression equivalent to

asked by Abby on October 5, 2014
Can you guys please check my answers? Evaluate x/y for x = 2/3 and y =6/7 1. 7/9 2. 8/10* 3. 9/12 4. 12/21 Simplify the expression (3/7^2) 1. 3/7 2. 6/14 3. 9/49* 4. 5/9 What is the simplified form of the expression 7[63 ÷ (52 – 22) – 1]? 1. 10 2.

asked by unknownchild on January 10, 2018
Math help Ms. Sue please

  1. What is the simplified form of the expression? 7m^2 + 6.5n – 4n + 2.5m^2 – n 9.5m^2 + 1.5n 4.5m^2 + 1.5n 1.5m^2 – 4.2n 9.5m^2 – 1.5n 2. What is the sum? 9/4 + (-1/5) 41/20 -41/20 -1/3 8/20 3. Order the following numbers from least to greatest. √7,

asked by Charlotte on September 19, 2013
algebra 1
what is the simplified form of the expression 5(14-2)^2 _ 2 60 30 72 360***

asked by 9th grader on August 30, 2016

  1. What is the simplified form of the following expression? 12[6^2/(5^2-4^2)+7] A. 12.6 B. 195 C. 33.8 D. 132 2. What is the value of xy over z if x= -1, y =10 and z=2? A. 5 B. -5 C. 1/5 D. -1/5

asked by bluah on September 18, 2017
Math! HELP!
For questions 14-15, find the simplified form of each expression. (3/2b^4)^3 (3/5y^4)^-2

asked by Abby on February 21, 2014

  1. Use the Distributive Property to simplify the expression. (-1) (4-c) 2. Use the Distributive Property to simplify the expression. 4 (2 x – 4) 3. Use the Distributive Property to simplify the expression (10+4y) 1/2 4. To which subsets of real numbers

asked by PolkaDot on October 14, 2016
Algebra 1. Use the Distributive Property to simplify the expression. (-1)(4-c) 2. Use the Distributive Property to simplify the expression. 4(2x -4) 3. Use the Distributive Property to simplify the expression. (10 + 4 y) 1/2 4. To which subsets of real

asked by dfhsh on September 25, 2018

  1. Use the Distributive Property to simplify the expression. (-1)(4-c) 2. Use the Distributive Property to simplify the expression. 4(2x -4) 3. Use the Distributive Property to simplify the expression. (10 + 4 y) 1/2 4. To which subsets of real numbers

asked by PolkaDot on October 7, 2016
Math (Very Easy Math)
I’m kind of confused as to what simplified mean? Can you please provide me with a definiton… Like I’m kind of stumped as to what one is more simplified -7(2x + 3) or -14x -21 Please explain what it mean for an expression to be “simplified”

asked by Kate on July 24, 2010

What is the simplified form of each expression? 1) 3g^-2b^2 A)3b^2/g^2 B)3g^2b^-2 C)3gb^-4* D)b^2/3g^2 2) 3/g^-2h^3 A)3/g^2h^3* B)3g^2/h^3 C)6g/h^3 D)3/gh Are these correct? If not, please explain.

asked by Scarlet on August 30, 2016
Which radical expression is in simplified form? a.11y/sq rt 3 b.sq rt 6/5y c. sq rt 17/sq rt 4 d.sq rt 25/81 I think it might be B…not positive though…?

asked by Cassie on March 13, 2013
Math (check answers)
1)What is the simplified form of the expression? 5d^6d^-12? A)5d^-72 B)6d^-72 C)5d^-6*** D)6d^-6 I think that the answer is C. If anyone could tell me if I am correct that would be great.

asked by Sasha on June 1, 2015
Please help! Give the square and the cube of each expression in simplified form. -2t^2k

asked by Nina on March 28, 2017

  1. –(10)^–1 (1 point) –1/10* -1/-1^10 1/10 10 2. 1/c^-5 (1 point) c^5 5c –c^5* –5/c 3. What is the value of y^-5/x^-3 for x = 2 and y = –4? (1 point) 10/3 128 -1/128 –128*** 4. Is the number written in scientific notation? If not,

asked by Bethany on April 22, 2016
algebra 1 study helps
Any help would be appreciated. Thanks. What is the simplified form of the expression? 2b–6 • b12 3b–72 2b6 2b–72 3b6

asked by Jennifer W. on May 30, 2013
What is the simplified form of the expression? 1/3(21m + 27) A. 63m + 9 B. 7m + 9 C. 7m + 81 D. 7m + 27 i need help plz don’t know how to do it.

asked by Martin1162 on April 25, 2016
simplify the expression if possible. IN e^5. Type an exact answer in simplified form.

asked by willa on June 18, 2011
Expressions help
I have no idea on how to do this equation please help me. What is the simplified form of the following expression 2x^2y+3x^2+4y+3x^2y+2y possible answers 1.)5x^4y^2+3x^2 2.)8x^2y+6y^2 3.)5x^2y+3x^2+6y 4.)14x^2y Is it 3?

asked by Alex on September 24, 2013
Could you please help me with this question. Determine an expression, in simplified form, for the slope of the secant PQ. a.) P(1,3), Q(1+h,f(1+h)), where f(x)=3x^2

asked by Sabrina on February 7, 2010


  1. Which expression is equivalent to (-2)(a+6)? A. -2a+6 B. 2a+12 C. -2a-12* D. -2a+12 2. To which sets of real numbers does the number -22 belong? Choose all subsets that apply. (There’s two right answers) Whole Numbers Rational Numbers* Integers***

asked by EmberShy on January 11, 2017
Algebra 1
Where do I add parentheses to make this expression equal a 1 when it is simplified? Expression: 6 + 9 / 3 – 2 When this expression is simplified w/o any parentheses, it equals 7. I just need to know where to put the parentheses so that it will equal 1. And

asked by Joy on September 4, 2008
8th Grade Algebra…HELP!
Where do I add parentheses to make this expression equal a 1 when it is simplified? Expression: 6 + 9 / 3 – 2 When this expression is simplified w/o any parentheses, it equals 7. I just need to know where to put the parentheses so that it will equal 1. And

asked by Joy on September 4, 2008
What is the simplified form of this expression? m^9t^-10/m^-4t^-5 m^13/t^15 m^5t^5 m^13/t^5 m^-13t^-15 I think it’s the third, but I’m not sure if that’s correct. I would appreciate if someone could show me how to solve it if it’s incorrect.

asked by Leah on February 9, 2016
What is the simplified form of this expression? m^9t^-10/m^-4t^-5 m^13/t^15 m^5t^5 m^13/t^5 m^-13t^-15 I think it’s the third, but I’m not sure if that’s correct. I would appreciate if someone could show me how to solve it if it’s incorrect.

asked by Leah on February 10, 2016
Write the simplified form of the expression. {q^-2/3} {q^1/3} ————— q^4/3 Using positive exponents. ————————————- Solution: {q^-2/3} {q^1/3} = q^-1/3 = 1 ————— —— —- q^4/3 q^4/3 q^5 Thanks in advance

asked by Lucina on January 19, 2015
Use the binomial Theroum to expand the expression and express the results in simplified form (3X + 2)^3

asked by john on December 9, 2007
What is the simplified form of the expression? A fraction with a numerator of 5(14 – 2) squared and a denominator of 2. 60 30 72 360

asked by Trish on September 3, 2015
math help
what is the simplified form of this expression 5x(2×2 to the second power) 10×3 20×2 10×2 100×4

asked by ttng on August 17, 2015
I need help with these Algebra problems in which I need to give the square and the cube of each expression in simplified form. 1. -2t^2k 2. 3rs^4 3. 5m^3n 4. -4x^2y^2

asked by Drew on March 28, 2017

Determine an expression, in simplified form, for the slope of the secant PQ. Given: P(1,3) , Q(1+h, f(1+h)) , where f(x) = 3x^2 PQ=Y2-Y1/X2-X1 I keep getting wrong answer, arghhh.

asked by Jake on February 8, 2012
Algebra 1
1) what is the simplified form of (x-2)(2x+3)? Use the distributive property. A) 2x^2-x-6 B) 2x^2-6 C)2x^2-7x-6 D) 2x^2 +x-6* 2) what is the simplified form of (3x+2)(4x-3) use a table. A)12x^2+18x+6 B) 12x^2+x-6 C) 12x^2+18x-6* D)12x^2-x-6 3) what

asked by Tris on February 9, 2015
Math! Please Help!

  1. What is the simplified form of (–3x^3y^2)(5xy^–1)? I think it is 15x^4y 2. What is the simplified form of –9m^–2n^5 × 2m^–3n^–6? I have no idea on this one. :/ 3. A rectangular pasture has a fence around the perimeter. The length of the

asked by Electro on January 15, 2014
What is the simplified form of the expression 8[60÷(4^2-2^2)-2] I am so tired of looking at this equation I want to cry I keep getting different answers that aren’t it I’m so frustrated a.)24 b.)30 c.)72 d.)104

asked by Mari on June 10, 2016
1.) An expression is show: √21x; for which value of x should the expression be further simplified? a.) 5 b.) 8 c.) 37 d.) 54 2.) An expression is show: √42x; for which value of x should the expression be further simplified? a.) 11 b.) 13 c.) 20 d.) 55

asked by Gabby on October 4, 2014
What is the second simplified form of these two problems if there is any other way? 3. There are many ways to simplify exponents. Provide two different ways to simplify each of the problems below. Please write all final answers using positive exponents.

asked by anonymous on August 31, 2018
Explain why each radical expression is or is not in simplified form. 1. 3/√3 It’s not in simp form: √3 2. 5√30 It is in simp form Okay, I know the answers… but what do they mean about “explain”? What do they want? Just the answer and how I got it

asked by SkatingDJ on May 1, 2015
Please check all of my answers and tell me if they are right. 1. What is the simplified form of the following expression? 7m^2 + 6.5n – 4n + 2.5m^2 – n (1 point) A. 9.5m^2 + 1.5n*** B. 4.5m^2 + 1.5n C. 1.5m^2 – 4.2n D. 9.5m^2 – 1.5n

asked by HELP on October 9, 2016
The expression (16xy^2/-24x^3y)^-3 may be simplified into the form A/B where none of the factors of A and B are raised to a negative power. Answer: A = and B = _

asked by Chandrakant on February 25, 2013
1.What is the simplified form of the expression? 4d^-3•d^18 A.5d^-54 B.5d^15 C.4d^15* D.4d^-54 2.Suppose that y varies inversely with X and that y=2 when x=8. What is an equation for the inverse variation? A.y=8/2x B.y=2/8x* C.y=x/16 D.y=16/x I

asked by GummyBears on May 13, 2016

5)Which property is illustrated by the following statement ? 3z+4=4+3z A)Associative property of addition B)Commutative property of multiplication C)Inverse property of multiplication D)commutative property of addition 12) What is the algebraic expression

asked by ASTROLATER on September 22, 2016
1.) Use the distributive Property to simplify the expression . (-1)(4 – c) A. 4 – c B. -4 + c C. 4 + c D.-4 – c 2.)Use the distributive Property to simplify the expression 4(2x – 4) A.8x + 4 B.8x – 4 C.8x – 16 D.4x – 16 3.) Use the distributive Property to

asked by Math is going to be the death of me on September 5, 2018
Algebra 1.) Use the distributive Property to simplify the expression . (-1)(4 – c) A. 4 – c B. -4 + c C. 4 + c D.-4 – c 2.)Use the distributive Property to simplify the expression 4(2x – 4) A.8x + 4 B.8x – 4 C.8x – 16 D.4x – 16 3.) Use the distributive

asked by dfhsh on September 13, 2018
explain why the expression (x^2+6) / (x^2+3) which seemingly can be simplified, actually cannot be simplified.

asked by Anonymous on September 27, 2014
Explain why the expression (x^2+ 6) ——- (x^3+3) , which seemingly can be simplified, actually cannot be simplified.

asked by Anonymous on September 27, 2014
american goverment check answers

  1. Which of the following statements support the idea that free speech is essential for democracy? Select all that apply. (2 points) Free speech can be limited in times of war. Free speech advances knowledge. Free speech encourages the expression of

asked by Anonymous on January 27, 2017
Please Check My Math Work
(3sqrt5)(2sqrt10) I got:6sqrt50 Is this correct.? You can take this one step further. 6√50 can be simplified to this: 6√(25 * 2) –>you can take the square root of 25. 6 * 5 √2 = 30√2 –>this is the simplified form. thanks can you help me with my

asked by Margie on February 6, 2007
1)What is the simplified form of the following expression? 2x^2y+3x^2+4y+3x^2y+2y A)5x^4y^2+3x^2y+2y B)8x^2y+6y^2 C)5x^2y+3x^2=6y D)14x^2y 2)Simplify the following expression 1/3 (21m+27) A)7m+27 B)7m+9 C)63m+9 D)7m+81 3) What is the sum 7/4+(-1/5) A)31/20

asked by ASTROLATER on September 21, 2016
Algebra Two
Write the expression in simplified radical form. 2-2Square root 3 over 7+ square root 3

asked by Josh on December 7, 2012

  1. What is the sum? 7 over 3+ -3 over 8 A. 65/24 B. 47/24 C. -4/5 D. -5/4 2. What is the difference? 9 over 5 – 1 over 6 A. 49/30 B. -8/1 C. 59/30 D. -1/8 3. What is the simplified form of the following expression? 4 over 7^3 A. 343/64 B. 21,952 C. 407 D.

asked by Meh on September 18, 2017

Find the simplified form of the expression. Give your answer in scientific notation. (3 × 106)(8 × 10–4) A. 1.1 × 103** B. 2.4 × 103 C. 1.1 × 10–23 D. 2.4 × 10–23

asked by @realBlueface on February 27, 2019
What is the simplified form of the expression? (2x^6)(3x^1/2) A.6x^13/2 B.6x^3 C.5x^13/2 D.5x^3 I got the answer 3x^7 but that’s not one of the answer choices and I’m really lost.

asked by Jasmine on December 11, 2015
math i need help
What is the simplified form of each expression? 1. Alg 1 (1 point) A.Alg 1 B.n4 *** C.n8 D.n12 i think it’s B

asked by freddy on January 21, 2016
What is the simplified form of the following expression? 7m^2 + 6.5n – 4 + 2.5m^2 – n A. 9.5m^2 + 1.5n B. 4.5m^2 + 1.5n C. 1.5m^2 – 4.2n D. 9.5m^2 -1.5n*

asked by Jordan on September 19, 2018
Algebra Answer Check
What is the algebraic expression for the following word phrase: the quotient of 6 and the sum of 5 and y? 6 a. —– 5-y 6 b. —– (?) 5+y c. 6(5+y) d. 6/5 + 6y What is the algebraic expression for the following word phrase: the quotient of j and 8? a.

asked by Anonymous on September 21, 2013
how does a rodeo star get around?? well if you cant give me an answer can you help me. heres the instructions First Simplify the expression below. Then evaluate the expression for the given value or the variable. Find the simplified expression in the

asked by Anonymous on August 27, 2009
Math: Please check my answers

  1. What is the degree of the monomial 3x2y3? 2 3 5 6 2. What is the simplified form of 8b3c2 + 4b3c2? 12bc 12b3c2 12b6c4 12b9c4 3. What is the simplified form of (4j2 + 6) + (2j2 – 3) ? (1 point) (0) 6j2 – 3 (1) 6j2 + 3 (0) 6j2 + 9 (0) 4j4 + 3 4. What

asked by Deborah on January 28, 2013
8th Grade Pre-Algebra
Find the value of the following expression: (2^8 ⋅ 5−5 ⋅ 19^0)−2 ⋅ (5-2/2^3)^4 ⋅ 2^28 (5 points) Write your answer in simplified form. Show all of your steps. (5 points) Please somebody help me I’m so confused. I know I’m supposed to use PEMDAS

asked by Music Lover 14 on October 26, 2016
Determine if the function f(x) is the simplified form of g(x). If it is, state the non-permissible values. If it is not, determine the corrected simplified form, including the non-permissible values. (2 marks – show your work) g(x)=6x^2+x-12/2x+3,f(x)=3x-4

asked by Alex on January 8, 2015
Determine if the function f(x) is the simplified form of g(x). If it is, state the non-permissible values. If it is not, determine the corrected simplified form, including the non-permissible values. (2 marks) – Show your work g(x)=2x^2-7x+3/x-3, f(x)=2x+1

asked by Alex on January 8, 2015

Determine if the function f(x) is the simplified form of g(x). If it is, state the non-permissible values. If it is not, determine the corrected simplified form, including the non-permissible values. (2 marks – show your work)

asked by Alex on January 9, 2015
Determine if the function f(x) is the simplified form of g(x). If it is, state the non-permissible values. If it is not, determine the corrected simplified form, including the non-permissible values. (2 marks) – Show your work g(x)=(2x^2-7x+3)/(x-3)

asked by Alex on January 9, 2015
Simplify the expression 6ab + 3ab – 7ab. What is the coefficient of the simplified expression? A. a B. ab C. 2 D. b B

asked by Martin1162 on May 3, 2016
simplify the expression, identify the constants, coefficients, and variables of the simplified expression. 3x – y – 5 ( -8x + 2y + 5z)

asked by chihuahualover2010 on August 12, 2010
Last questions Ms. Sue please for math

  1. To which subset(s) does the number √42 belong? Rational numbers Irrational numbers Whole numbers, integers, rational numbers While numbers, natural numbers, integers 2. Evaluate the following expression for the values given. P/s + r^2q ( p = 60, q =

asked by Charlotte on September 19, 2013
1.What is the simplified form of the following expression? 13[6^2€(5^2-4^2)+9] A.169 B.585* C.181 D.26 2.What is the simplified form of the expression? 6xyz/2xz A.3 B.3y C.3xyz* D.3x^2yz^2 3.In a football game. A running back ran for -7 and -5 on

asked by GummyBear on August 31, 2015

  1. Simplify the expression: 4√18+5√32 A.45√2 B.32√2 C.116√2 D.9√50 2. Simplify the expression: 7√5-3√80 A.-5√5 B.-4√75 C.-5 D.4√-75 3. Simplify the expression: √21(√3+√14) A.9√7-49√6 B.2√6+√35 C.3√7+7√6 D.√357

asked by GummyBears16 on April 5, 2016
Assume that x, y, and z are positive numbers. Use the properties of logarithms to write the expression 2lnx – 6lny + 1/3ln e^12 as a simplified logarithm. Is this 2lnx – 6lny + 4, or can it be simplified further?

asked by Anonymous on June 2, 2016
Create a unique example of dividing a polynomial by a monomial and provide the simplified form. Explain, in complete sentences, the two ways used to simplify this expression and how you would check your quotient for accuracy. please explain :/ i only

asked by JoJo on July 6, 2011
in math to change simplified fraction form 2/3 to decimal form and percent form

asked by ivan on November 1, 2014

algebra 2
On a second report that you reviewed, the team simplified the expression to 4. Show how to simplify the rational expression correctly. Explain your steps so that the team understands how to simplify an expression similar to this in future experiments.

asked by hannah on October 23, 2013
What is a simplified form of the expression [sec^2x-1]/[(sinx)(secx)]? a. cot x b. csc x c. tan x* d. sec x tan x I think this is the correct answer, but I do not understand why. Can someone please explain?

asked by girly girl on April 27, 2018
A field has a width of x m. Its length is 5 m more than its width. Write an algebraic expression, in simplified form, for the area of the field.

asked by Anonymous on December 18, 2013
Decide whether the given statement is always, sometimes, or never true. The domain of a rational expression and any simplified form are equivalent. a. sometimes true b. never true c. always true

asked by Olivia N J on March 7, 2017
College Math
Simplify the algebraic expression 3xz + 4xy – 2yz + xy + 5yz – 9xz and evaluate it for x = 3, y = -2, z = -5. Identify the variables, constants, and coefficients in the simplified expression.

asked by Richard D on October 11, 2012

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which of the following best describes science fiction

  1. Which of the following best describes science fiction?
    Answer:C The characters often face problems related to future tech advancements.
  2. A literary analysis should contain a
    Answer: A thoughtful interpretation of a work
  3. Which sentence below is incorrectly punctuated?
    Answer: B Help me shovel the driveway please?

I studied and got these answers, are they correct?

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asked by Lena Cronedy
Oct 24, 2018
It looks as though two are wrong. But it’s hard to tell without seeing the other choices.

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Ms. Sue
Oct 24, 2018
No Lena Cronedy is correct.

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Nov 27, 2018
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Feb 26, 2019

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which of the following statements is true about the internet?

Which of the following statements is true?

All search engines will provide the same results when you enter the same query.

All search engines use the same amount of advertisements.

Some search engines are also browsers. (MY ANSWER)

Search engines often provide different results, even when you enter the same query.

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asked by LOVE
Feb 24, 2016
I think there is a better answer.

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posted by Reed
Feb 24, 2016

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Mar 28, 2017
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Feb 9, 2018
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Apr 3, 2018

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posted by hi
Sep 17, 2018
Thanks. Jazz

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posted by Elijah
Oct 24, 2018