1. The right answer is polymerization.
Polymerization refers to the chemical reaction or process by which small molecules (eg hydrocarbons of two to ten carbon atoms) react with one another to form molecules of higher molecular weights. The initial molecules may be monomers or prepolymers; synthesis leads to polymers.
2. The right answer is hydrolysis.
Hydrolysis is a chemical reaction in which a covalent bond is broken by the action of a molecule of water.
For organic substances such as proteins, hydrolysis is equivalent to the cleavage of the peptide bonds between the different amino acids that constitute them.
Amino acids are cleaved by enzymes. So is the hydrolysis of starch or amylolysis, used in breweries or generally in the food industry to obtain glucose syrup.
3. The right answer is polymer.
The term polymer denotes a molecule of high molecular mass generally organic or semi-organic. A macromolecule consisting of a sequence of a large number of repeating units, one or more monomers, united to each other by covalent bonds.
Thus starch or proteins are polymers, just as silk or wood are made of polymers. Thermoplastics, thermosets and elastomers are also among the polymers. And polymer matrices are widely used in composite materials.
4. The right answer is lipid.
Lipids are the fat of living things. They are hydrophobic or amphiphilic molecules – hydrophilic molecules having a hydrophilic domain – very diversified, including among others fats, waxes, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins, mono-, di- and triglycerides, or even phospholipids.
5. The right answer is carbohydrate.
Carbohydrates are a class of organic compounds containing a carbonyl group (aldehyde or ketone) and at least two hydroxyl groups (-OH). Included in this class are substances derived from monosaccharides by reduction of the carbonyl group, by oxidation of at least one functional group at the end of the carboxylic acid chain or by replacement of one or more hydroxyl groups by an atom of hydrogen, an amino group, a thiol group or any similar atom.
6. The right answer is nucleic acid.
Nucleic acids are macromolecules, that is, relatively large, relatively complex molecules. They enter the family of biomolecules since they are of great importance in the realm of life, “bios” meaning life in Greek.
Nucleic acids are polymers whose base unit, or monomer, is the nucleotide. These nucleotides are linked by phosphodiester bonds.
7. The right answer is protein.
Proteins are fundamental materials of living matter. Most of our food contains it. From the biochemical point of view, these are large molecules made of chains of varying length of amino acids. All proteins, whether of bacterial, plant or animal origin, consist of a group of 20 amino acids.