Consider the Audience
• Analyzing the audience is central to the speechmaking process; consider your audience at every step of the way in preparing and presenting your speech. • Gather information about your audience by asking questions or surveying them more formally. • Summarize and analyze the information you have gathered.
Select and Narrow Your Topic
• Consider the audience: Who are your listeners and what do they expect? • Consider the occasion: What is the reason for the speech? • Consider your own interests and skills: What are your strengths?
Determine Your Purpose
• Decide whether your general speech purpose is to inform, to persuade, or
to entertain, or a combination of these goals. • Decide on your specific purpose:
What do you want your listeners to be able to do after you finish your speech? • Use your specific purpose to guide
you in connecting your message to your audience.
Develop Your Central Idea
• State your central idea for your speech in one sentence. • Your central idea should be a single idea
presented in clear, specific language. • Relate your central idea to your audience.
Generate Main Ideas
• Determine whether your central idea can be supported with logical divisions using a topical arrangement. • Determine whether your central idea can be supported with reasons the idea is true. • Determine whether your central idea can be supported with a series of steps.
Gather Supporting Material
• Remember that most of what you say consists of supporting material such
as stories, descriptions, definitions, analogies, statistics, and opinions.
• The best supporting material both clarifies your major ideas and holds your listeners’ attention. • Supporting material that is personal, concrete, and appealing to the listeners’
senses is often the most interesting.
Organize Your Speech
• Remember the maxim: Tell us what you’re going to tell us (introduction); tell us (body); and tell us what you told us (conclusion). • Outline your main ideas by topic, chronologically, spatially, by cause and effect, or by problem and solution. • Use signposts to clarify the overall structure of your message.
Rehearse Your Speech
• Prepare speaking notes and practice using them well in advance of your speaking date. • Rehearse your speech out loud, standing as you would stand while delivering your speech. • Practice with well-chosen visual aids that are big, simple, and appropriate for your audience.
Deliver Your Speech
• Look at individual listeners. • Use movement and gestures that fit your natural style of speaking.
Why Do You Need This New Edition? If you’re wondering why you should buy this new edition of Public Speaking: An Audience- Centered Approach, here are eight good reasons!
1. We’ve kept the best and improved the rest. The eighth edition of Public Speaking: An Audience-Centered Approach continues its unique focus on the importance of analyzing and considering the audience at every point in the speech- making process, but is now an easier-to-use and more effec- tive learning tool than ever.
2. We’ve streamlined the book to 16 chapters, so that every chapter can be covered during a standard semester. Chapter 1 now combines an introduction to public speaking with an overview of the audience-centered model. Chapter 6 now combines information on gathering supporting mate- rial with advice on how to integrate supporting material into a speech.
3. New end-of-chapter Study Guides are designed to help you retain and apply chapter concepts. Study Guides feature chapter summaries; “Using What You’ve Learned” questions posing realistic scenarios; “A Question of Ethics” to reinforce the importance of ethical speaking; and referrals to selected online resources that help you find resources to use in your own speeches.
4. More tables and Recap boxes summarize the content of nearly every major section in each chapter. These frequent reviews help you check understanding, study for exams, and rehearse material to aid retention.
5. The eighth edition continues our popular focus on control- ling speaking anxiety, developed through expanded and updated coverage of communication apprehension in Chapter 1 and reinforced with tips and reminders in “Confidently Connecting with Your Audience” features in the margins of every chapter.
6. New and expanded coverage of key communication theories and current research, including studies of anxiety styles in Chapter 1, introductions to social judgment theory in Chapter 14, and emotional response theory in Chapter 15, help you apply recent theories and findings.
7. Every chapter of the eighth edition boasts engaging fresh examples to help you connect concepts to your own life and interests, including new references to contemporary technology such as social media sites in Chapter 4 and iPads in Chapter 12.
8. New speeches, including Barack Obama’s inaugural speech, contribute to an impressive sample speech appendix that will inspire and instruct you as you work with your own material.
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8 Public SpeakingAN AUDIENCE-CENTERED APPROACH Steven A. Beebe Texas State University—San Marcos
Susan J. Beebe Texas State University—San Marcos
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Beebe, Steven A.
Public speaking : an audience-centered approach / Steven A. Beebe, Susan J. Beebe. — 8th ed. p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-205-78462-2 (alk. paper)
1. Public speaking. 2. Oral communication. I. Beebe, Susan J. II. Title. PN4129.15.B43 2012 808.5’1—dc22
Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States. To obtain permission to use material from this work, please submit a written request to Pearson Education, Inc., Permissions Department, 501 Boylston Street, Suite 900, Boston, MA 02116, fax: (617) 671-2290. For information regarding permissions, call (617) 671-2295 or e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10—QGD—14 13 12 11
ISBN-13: 978-0-205-78462-2 www.pearsonhighered.com ISBN-10: 0-205-78462-3
Dedicated to our parents, Russell and Muriel Beebe and Herb and Jane Dye
And to our children, Mark, Matthew, and Brittany Beebe
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1 Speaking with Confidence 3 2 Speaking Freely and Ethically 35 3 Listening to Speeches 49 4 Analyzing Your Audience 77 5 Developing Your Speech 111 6 Gathering and Using Supporting Material 133 7 Organizing Your Speech 161 8 Introducing and Concluding Your Speech 183 9 Outlining and Revising Your Speech 203
10 Using Words Well: Speaker Language and Style 217 11 Delivering Your Speech 235 12 Using Presentation Aids 265 13 Speaking to Inform 289 14 Understanding Principles of Persuasive Speaking 315 15 Using Persuasive Strategies 337 16 Speaking for Special Occasions and Purposes 373
Appendix A Speaking in Small Groups 392
Appendix B Speeches for Analysis and Discussion 400
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Speaking with Confidence 3 Why Study Public Speaking? 4
Empowerment 4 ● Employment 4
The Communication Process 5 Communication as Action 5 ● Communication as Interaction 6 ● Communication as Transaction 7
The Rich Heritage of Public Speaking 7 LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS Martin Luther King Jr. 8
Improving Your Confidence as a Speaker 9
SAMPLE OUTLINE 24
Gather Visual Supporting Material 25
Organize Your Speech 25
Select and Narrow Your Topic 20 Determine Your Purpose 21
Determine Your General Purpose 21 ● Determine Your Specific Purpose 21
Develop Your Central Idea 22 Generate the Main Ideas 22 Gather Supporting Material 23
Gather Interesting Supporting Material 23
Understand Your Nervousness 10 ● How to Build Your Confidence 13
CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Begin with the End in Mind 17
An Overview of Audience-Centered Public Speaking 17 Consider Your Audience 19
Gather and Analyze Information about Your Audience 19 ● Consider the Culturally Diverse Backgrounds of Your Audience 19
Rehearse Your Speech 27
Deliver Your Speech 27
SAMPLE SPEECH 29
STUDY GUIDE 30
SPEECH WORKSHOP Improving Your Confidence as a Public Speaker 33
Speaking Freely and Ethically 35 Speaking Freely 37
Free Speech and the U.S. Constitution 37 ● Free Speech in the Twentieth Century 37 ● Free Speech in the Twenty-first Century 38
Speaking Ethically 39 Have a Clear, Responsible Goal 39
LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS Mohandas Gandhi 40
Use Sound Evidence and Reasoning 40 ● Be Sensitive to and Tolerant of Differences 41 ● Be Honest 41 ● Don’t Plagiarize 42
CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Remember That You Will Look More Confident Than You May Feel 42
SAMPLE ORAL CITATION 44
Speaking Credibly 44
STUDY GUIDE 46
SPEECH WORKSHOP Avoiding Plagiarism 47
Listening to Speeches 49 Overcoming Barriers to Effective Listening 51
Managing Information Overload 52 ● Overcoming Personal Concerns 53 ● Reducing Outside Distractions 53 ● Overcoming Prejudice 54 ● Using Differences between Speech Rate and Thought Rate 54 ● Managing Receiver Apprehension 55
How to Become a Better Listener 55 Listen with Your Eyes as Well as Your Ears 56 ● Listen Mindfully 57
LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS César Chávez 58
Listen Skillfully 59 ● Listen Ethically 62
Improving Listening and Critical Thinking Skills 63 Separate Facts from Inferences 63 ● Evaluate the Quality of Evidence 64 ● Evaluate the Underlying Logic and Reasoning 65
Analyzing and Evaluating Speeches 65 Understanding Criteria for Evaluating Speeches 66 ● Identifying and Analyzing Rhetorical Strategies 68 ● Giving Feedback to Others 69 ● Giving Feedback to Yourself 70
CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Look for Positive Listener Support 71
STUDY GUIDE 72
SPEECH WORKSHOP Evaluating a Speaker’s Rhetorical Effectiveness 74
Analyzing Your Audience 77 Gathering Information about Your Audience 79 Analyzing Information about Your Audience 80
Look for Audience Member Similarities 81 ● Look for Audience Member Differences 82 ● Establish Common Ground with Your Audience 82
Adapting to Your Audience 82
LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS Winston Churchill 83
CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Learn as Much as You Can about Your Audience 83
Analyzing Your Audience before You Speak 84 Demographic Audience Analysis 84 ● Psychological Audience Analysis 94 ● Situational Audience Analysis 96
Adapting to Your Audience as You Speak 99
DEVELOPING YOUR SPEECH STEP BY STEP Consider Your Audience 99
Identifying Nonverbal Audience Cues 100 ● Responding to Nonverbal Cues 101 ● Strategies for Customizing Your Message to Your Audience 101
Analyzing Your Audience after You Speak 103 Nonverbal Responses 104 ● Verbal Responses 104 ● Survey Responses 104 ● Behavioral Responses 105
STUDY GUIDE 106
SPEECH WORKSHOP Developing Communication Strategies to Adapt to Your Audience 108
Developing Your Speech 111 Select and Narrow Your Topic 112
Guidelines for Selecting a Topic 113
CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Select an Interesting Topic 113
LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS Frederick Douglass 115
Strategies for Selecting a Topic 115 ● Narrowing the Topic 117
DEVELOPING YOUR SPEECH STEP BY STEP Select and Narrow Your Topic 117
Determine Your Purpose 118 General Purpose 118 ● Specific Purpose 119
DEVELOPING YOUR SPEECH STEP BY STEP Determine Your Purpose 121
Develop Your Central Idea 121 A Complete Declarative Sentence 122 ● Direct, Specific Language 122
DEVELOPING YOUR SPEECH STEP BY STEP Develop Your Central Idea 123 ● A Single Idea 123 ● An Audience-Centered Idea 123
Generate and Preview Your Main Ideas 124 Generating Your Main Ideas 124 ● Previewing Your Main Ideas 125
Meanwhile, Back at the Computer . . . 126
DEVELOPING YOUR SPEECH STEP BY STEP Generate Your Main Ideas 127
STUDY GUIDE 128
SPEECH WORKSHOP Strategies for Selecting a Speech Topic 130
Gathering and Using Supporting Material 133 Sources of Supporting Material 134
Personal Knowledge and Experience 134 ● The Internet 134 ● Online Databases 135 ● Traditional Library Holdings 137 ● Interviews 139
Research Strategies 141 Develop a Preliminary Bibliography 141 ● Locate Resources 142 ● Assess the Usefulness of Resources 142 ● Take Notes 143
DEVELOPING YOUR SPEECH STEP BY STEP Gather Supporting Material 143
Identify Possible Presentation Aids 144
Types of Supporting Material 144 Illustrations 145
LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS Eleanor Roosevelt 146
Descriptions and Explanations 147 ● Definitions 148 ● Analogies 149 ● Statistics 150 ● Opinions 152
CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Prepare Early 153
The Best Supporting Material 154
STUDY GUIDE 156
SPEECH WORKSHOP Identifying a Variety of Supporting Material for Your Speech 158
Organizing Your Speech 161 Organizing Your Main Ideas 163
CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Organize Your Message 163
Organizing Ideas Topically 163 ● Ordering Ideas Chronologically 164 ● Arranging Ideas Spatially 166 ● Organizing Ideas to Show Cause and Effect 166
LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS Desmond Tutu 166
Organizing Ideas by Problem-Solution 167 ● Acknowledging Cultural Differences in Organization 169
Subdividing Your Main Ideas 170 Integrating Your Supporting Material 170
Prepare Your Supporting Material 170 ● Organize Your Supporting Material 171
DEVELOPING YOUR SPEECH STEP BY STEP Organize Your Speech 172
Incorporate Your Supporting Material into Your Speech 173
Developing Signposts 173
SAMPLE INTEGRATION OF SUPPORTING MATERIAL 173
Transitions 174 ● Previews 175 ● Summaries 176
Supplementing Signposts with Presentation Aids 177
STUDY GUIDE 178
SPEECH WORKSHOP Organizing Your Ideas 180
Introducing and Concluding Your Speech 183 CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Be Familiar with Your
Introduction and Conclusion 184
Purposes of Introductions 184 Get the Audience’s Attention 184 ● Give the Audience a Reason to Listen 185 ● Introduce the Subject 185 ● Establish Your Credibility 186 ● Preview Your Main Ideas 186
Effective Introductions 187 Illustrations or Anecdotes 187 ● Startling Facts or Statistics 188 ● Quotations 188 ● Humor 189 ● Questions 190 ● References to Historical Events 191 ● References to Recent Events 192 ● Personal References 192 ● References to the Occasion 192 ● References to Preceding Speeches 193
Purposes of Conclusions 193 Summarize the Speech 193 ● Provide Closure 194
Effective Conclusions 195 Methods Also Used for Introductions 196 ● References to the Introduction 196 ● Inspirational Appeals or Challenges 196
LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS Patrick Henry 197
STUDY GUIDE 198
SPEECH WORKSHOP Developing the Introduction and Conclusion to Your Speech 200
Outlining and Revising Your Speech 203 Developing Your Preparation Outline 204
The Preparation Outline 204 ● Sample Preparation Outline 206
Revising Your Speech 207
SAMPLE PREPARATION OUTLINE 208
Developing Your Delivery Outline and Speaking Notes 209 The Delivery Outline 210
SAMPLE DELIVERY OUTLINE 210
Sample Delivery Outline 211 ● Speaking Notes 212
CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Use Your Well-Prepared Speaking Notes When You Rehearse 212
LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS Mark Twain 213
STUDY GUIDE 214
SPEECH WORKSHOP Outlining Your Speech 215
Using Words Well: Speaker Language and Style 217 Differentiating Oral and Written Language Styles 218 Using Words Effectively 219
Use Specific, Concrete Words 219 ● Use Simple Words 220 ● Use Words Correctly 220 ● Use Words Concisely 221
Adapting Your Language Style to Diverse Listeners 221 Use Language That Your Audience Can Understand 222 ● Use Appropriate Language 222 ● Use Unbiased Language 222
Crafting Memorable Word Structures 223 Creating Figurative Images 224 ● Creating Drama 225 ● Creating Cadence 225
LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS John F. Kennedy 228
Analyzing an Example of Memorable Word Structure 228
Using Memorable Word Structures Effectively 229
CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Use Words to Manage Your Anxiety 229
STUDY GUIDE 230
SPEECH WORKSHOP Conducting a “Language Style Audit” of Your Speech 232
Delivering Your Speech 235 The Power of Speech Delivery 236
Listeners Expect Effective Delivery 236 ● Listeners Make Emotional Connections with You through Delivery 237 ● Listeners Believe What They See 238
Methods of Delivery 238 Manuscript Speaking 238 ● Memorized Speaking 239 ● Impromptu Speaking 240 ● Extemporaneous Speaking 241
Characteristics of Effective Delivery 242
LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS Marcus Tullius Cicero 242
Eye Contact 243 ● Gestures 243 ● Movement 246 ● Posture 247 ● Facial Expression 248 ● Vocal Delivery 248 ● Personal Appearance 253
Audience Diversity and Delivery 253
DON’T GET LOST IN TRANSLATION 255
Rehearsing Your Speech: Some Final Tips 256 CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Re-create the Speech Environment When You Rehearse 257
DEVELOPING YOUR SPEECH STEP BY STEP Rehearse Your Speech 257
Delivering Your Speech 257
DEVELOPING YOUR SPEECH STEP BY STEP Deliver Your Speech 257
Responding to Questions 258
STUDY GUIDE 261
SPEECH WORKSHOP Improving Your Speech Delivery 263
Using Presentation Aids 265 The Value of Presentation Aids 266
LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS Ronald Reagan 267
Types of Presentation Aids 268 Three-Dimensional Presentation Aids 268 ● Two-Dimensional Presentation Aids 269 ● PowerPoint™ Presentation Aids 274 ● Tips for Using PowerPoint™ 275 ● Audiovisual Aids 277
CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Practice with Your Presentation Aids to Boost Your Confidence 277
Guidelines for Developing Presentation Aids 279 Make Them Easy to See 279 ● Keep Them Simple 279 ● Select the Right Presentation Aid 280 ● Do Not Use Dangerous or Illegal Presentation Aids 280
Guidelines for Using Presentation Aids 280 Rehearse with Your Presentation Aids 281 ● Make Eye Contact with Your Audience, Not with Your Presentation Aids 281 ● Explain Your Presentation Aids 281 ● Do Not Pass Objects among Members of Your Audience 282 ● Use Animals with Caution 282 ● Use Handouts Effectively 282 ● Time the Use of Visuals to Control Your Audience’s Attention 283 ● Use Technology Effectively 284 ● Remember Murphy’s Law 284
STUDY GUIDE 285
SPEECH WORKSHOP A Checklist for Using Effective Presentation Aids 287
Speaking to Inform 289 Types of Informative Speeches 290
LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS Oprah Winfrey 291
Speeches about Objects 292 ● Speeches about Procedures 293 ● Speeches about People 294 ● Speeches about Events 295 ● Speeches about Ideas 295
Strategies to Enhance Audience Understanding 296 Speak with Clarity 296 ● Use Principles and Techniques of Adult Learning 297 ● Clarify Unfamiliar Ideas or Complex Processes 298 ● Appeal to a Variety of Learning Styles 299
Strategies to Maintain Audience Interest 300 Motivate Your Audience to Listen to You 300 ● Tell a Story 301 ● Present Information That Relates to Your Listeners 301 ● Use the Unexpected 301
SAMPLE INFORMATIVE SPEECH 302
Strategies to Enhance Audience Recall 303 Build In Redundancy 303 ● Make Your Key Ideas Short and Simple 304 ● Pace Your Information Flow 304 ● Reinforce Key Ideas 304
Developing an Audience-Centered Informative Speech 305 Consider Your Audience 305 ● Select and Narrow Your Informational Topic 305 ● Determine Your Informative Purpose 306 ● Develop Your Central Idea 306 ● Generate Your Main Ideas 306
CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Focus on Your Information Rather Than on Your Fear 307
Gather Your Supporting Materials 307 ● Organize Your Speech 307 ● Rehearse Your Presentation 307 ● Deliver Your Speech 307
STUDY GUIDE 309
SPEECH WORKSHOP Developing a Vivid Word Picture 311
Understanding Principles of Persuasive Speaking 315 Persuasion Defined 314
Changing or Reinforcing Audience Attitudes 314 ● Changing or Reinforcing Audience Beliefs 315 ● Changing or Reinforcing Audience Values 315 ● Changing or Reinforcing Audience Behaviors 316
How Persuasion Works 316 Aristotle’s Traditional Approach: Using Ethos, Logos, and Pathos to Persuade 316 ● ELM’S Contemporary Approach: Using a Direct or Indirect Path to Persuade 317
How to Motivate Listeners 319 Use Cognitive Dissonance 319 ● Use Listener Needs 322 ● Use Positive Motivation 324 ● Use Negative Motivation 324
How to Develop Your Persuasive Speech 326 Consider the Audience 326 ● Select and Narrow Your Persuasive Topic 327
LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS Elizabeth Cady Stanton 327
Determine Your Persuasive Purpose 328 ● Develop Your Central Idea and Main Ideas 328 ● Gather Supporting Material 331
CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Breathe to Relax 332
Organize Your Persuasive Speech 332 ● Rehearse and Deliver Your Speech 332
STUDY GUIDE 333
SPEECH WORKSHOP Developing a Persuasive Speech 335
Using Persuasive Strategies 337 Enhancing Your Credibility 338
Elements of Your Credibility 338 ● Phases of Your Credibility 339
Using Logic and Evidence to Persuade 340 Understanding Types of Reasoning 341 ● Persuading the Culturally Diverse Audience 345 ● Supporting Your Reasoning with Evidence 347 ● Using Evidence Effectively 348 ● Avoiding Faulty Reasoning 349
Using Emotion to Persuade 351
LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS Franklin Delano Roosevelt 351
Tips for Using Emotion to Persuade 352 ● Using Emotional Appeals: Ethical Issues 355
Strategies for Adapting Ideas to People and People to Ideas 356 Persuading the Receptive Audience 356 ● Persuading the Neutral Audience 357 ● Persuading the Unreceptive Audience 357
CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Enhance Your Initial Credibility 358
Strategies for Organizing Persuasive Messages 359 Problem–Solution 360 ● Refutation 361 ● Cause and Effect 362 ● The Motivated Sequence 363
SAMPLE PERSUASIVE SPEECH 366
STUDY GUIDE 369
SPEECH WORKSHOP Adapting Ideas to People and People to Ideas 371
Speaking for Special Occasions and Purposes 373 Public Speaking in the Workplace 374
Group Presentations 374 ● Public-Relations Speeches 377
CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Seek a Variety of Speaking Opportunities 378
Ceremonial Speaking 378 Introductions 378 ● Toasts 379 ● Award Presentations 379 ● Nominations 380 ● Acceptances 380 ● Keynote Addresses 381 ● Commencement Addresses 382 ● Commemorative Addresses and Tributes 382 ● Eulogies 383
After-Dinner Speaking: Using Humor Effectively 383
LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS Dave Barry 384
Humorous Topics 384 ● Humorous Stories 385 ● Humorous Verbal Strategies 386 ● Humorous Nonverbal Strategies 387
STUDY GUIDE 388
SPEECH WORKSHOP Introducing a Speaker 389
Speaking in Small Groups 392 Solving Problems in Groups and Teams 393
1. Identify and Define the Problem 393 ● 2. Analyze the Problem 394 ● 3. Generate Possible Solutions 394 ● 4. Select the Best Solution 395 ● 5. Test and Implement the Solution 395
Participating in Small Groups 395 Come Prepared for Group Discussions 395 ● Do Not Suggest Solutions before Analyzing the Problem 396 ● Evaluate Evidence 396 ● Help Summarize the Group’s Progress 396 ● Listen and Respond Courteously to Others 396 ● Help Manage Conflict 396
Leading Small Groups 397 Leadership Responsibilities 397 ● Leadership Styles 398
Speeches for Analysis and Discussion 400 I Have a Dream, Martin Luther King Jr. 400 Delivering the Gift of Freedom to Future Generations (Inaugural Address), Barack Obama 402 Find Your Passion, and Find a Way to Get Paid to Follow It, Anne Lynam Goddard 406 Sticky Ideas: Low-Tech Solutions to a High-Tech Problem, Richard L. Weaver, II 410
Land of the Free Because of the Homeless, Shaunna Miller 414
Endnotes 417 Index 431
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The eighth edition of Public Speaking: An Audience-Centered Approach is writ-ten to be the primary text in a course intended to help students become bet-ter public speakers. We are delighted that since the first edition of the book was published two decades ago, educators and students of public speaking have found our book a distinctively useful resource to enhance public-speaking skills. We’ve worked to make our latest edition a preeminent resource for helping students enhance their speaking skills by adding new features and retaining the most success- ful elements of previous editions.
New to the Eighth Edition We’ve refined and updated the book you are holding in your hands to create a pow- erful and contemporary resource for helping speakers connect to their audience. We’ve added several new features and revised features that both instructors and stu- dents have praised.
Streamlined Organization In response to suggestions from instructors who use the book, we’ve consolidated re- lated topics to reduce the book to a total of 16 chapters, allowing instructors to in- clude every chapter during a standard semester. Chapter 1 now offers a preview of the audience-centered speaking model as well as introducing students to the history and value of public speaking and starting the process of building their confidence as public speakers. Chapter 6 now not only shows stu- dents how to gather sup- porting material, but also immediately provides them advice and examples for ef- fective ways to integrate their supporting materials into a speech.
facts! . . . Always
have the courage to
say to yourself—
I am ignorant.
—IVAN PETROVICH PAVLOV
Sources of Supporting Material Personal Knowledge and
Experience The Internet Online Databases Traditional Library Holdings Interviews
Research Strategies Develop a Preliminary Bibliography Locate Resources Assess the Usefulness of Resources
Take Notes Identify Possible Presentation Aids
Types of Supporting Material Illustrations Descriptions and Explanations Definitions Analogies Statistics Opinions
The Best Supporting Material
6 Gathering and UsingSupporting Material
A pple pie is your specialty. Your family and friends relish your flaky crust,spicy filling, and crunchy crumb topping. Fortunately, not only do you havea never-fail recipe and technique, but you also know where to go for the best ingredients. Fette’s Orchard has the tangiest pie apples in town. For your crust,
you use only Premier shortening, which you buy at Meyer’s Specialty Market. Your
crumb topping requires both stone-ground whole-wheat flour and fresh creamery
butter, available on Tuesdays at the farmer’s market on the courthouse square.
Chapter 6 covers the speech-development step highlighted in Figure 6.1 on
page 134: Gather Supporting Material. Just as making your apple pie requires
that you know where to find specific ingredients, creating a successful speech re-
quires a knowledge of the sources, research strategies, and types of supporting
material that speechmakers typically use.
After studying this chapter you should be able to do the following:
1. List five potential sources of supporting material for a speech.
2. Explain five strategies for a logical research process.
3. List and describe six types of supporting material.
4. List and explain six criteria for determining the best supporting material to use in a speech.
Alexandra Exter (1882–1949), Sketch for a Scenic Design, ca. 1924, gouache on paper. Photo: M. E. Smith/Private Collection. © DeA Picture Library/Art Resource, N. Y.
Updated Features In the eighth edition, we have added more marginal Recap boxes and tables to summarize the content of nearly every major section in each chapter. Students can use the Recaps and tables to check their understanding, review for exams, and to reference key advice as they prepare their speeches.
New End-of-Chapter Study Guides We’ve provided a new, consolidated Study Guide at the end of each chapter. This practical feature helps students to review and check their understanding of chapter topics. The Study Guide summarizes the content of each major section of the chapter; restates the chapter’s best ideas for being an audience-centered speaker; poses discussion- sparking scenarios that show how chapter concepts might apply in real speaking and ethical situations; and points readers in the direction of relevant online resources that they can use as speakers.
Purposes of Introductions It is important to begin and end your speech in a way that is memorable and that also provides the repetition audiences need. A good introduction gets the audience’s attention, gives the audience a reason to listen, intro- duces your subject, establishes your credibility, and pre- views your main ideas.
Introducing your subject and previewing the body of your speech can be accomplished by includ- ing your central idea and preview statement in the introduction.
Being Audience-Centered ● Introductions and conclusions provide audiences
with important first and final impressions of speaker and speech.
● As a speaker, your task is to ensure that your in- troduction convinces your audience to listen to you.
● A credible speaker is one whom the audience judges to be a believable authority and a compe-
k E bli hi dibili l i
Being Audience-Centered ● If your audience is linguistically diverse or com-
posed primarily of listeners whose first language is not English, it may be preferable not to use humor in your introduction. Because much humor is cre- ated verbally, it may not be readily understood and it rarely translates well.
Using What You’ve Learned ● Nakai is planning to give his informative speech on
Native American music, displaying and demon- strating the use of such instruments as the flute, the Taos drum, and the Yaqui rain stick. He asks you to suggest a good introduction for the speech. How do you think he might best introduce his speech?
A Question of Ethics ● Marty and Shanna, who are in the same section of a
public-speaking class, are discussing their upcoming speeches. Marty has discovered an illustration that she thinks will make an effective introduction. When she tells Shanna about it, Shanna is genuinely enthu- siastic In fact she thinks it would make a great in-
198 CHAPTER 8 Introducing and Concluding Your Speech
TABLE 4.3 Adapting Your Message to Different Types of Audiences
Type of Audience Example How to Be Audience-Centered
Interested Mayors who attend a talk by the gov- ernor about increasing security and reducing the threat of terrorism
Acknowledge audience interest early in your speech; use the interest they have in you and your topic to gain and maintain their attention.
Uninterested Junior-high students attending a lecture about retirement benefits
Make it a high priority to tell your lis- teners why your message should be of interest to them. Remind your listeners throughout your speech how your mes- sage relates to their lives.
Favorable A religious group that meets to hear a group leader talk about the importance of their beliefs
Use audience interest to move them closer to your speaking goal; you may be more explicit in telling them in your speech conclusion what you would like them to do.
Unfavorable Students who attend a lecture by the university president explaining why tuition and fees will increase 15 percent next year
Be realistic in what you expect to ac- complish; acknowledge listeners’ oppos- ing point of view; consider using facts to refute misperceptions they may hold.
Voluntary Parents attending a lecture by the new principal at their children’s school
Anticipate why listeners are coming to hear you, and speak about the issues they want you to address.
Captive Students in a public-speaking class Find out who will be in your audience and use this knowledge to adapt your message to them.
We’ve updated the extended example that appears in Developing Your Speech Step by Step boxes throughout the book. We’ve also updated our popular Learning from Great Speakers features, which identify specific tips and lessons students can learn from great speakers, and our practical Speech Workshop worksheets, which end each chapter and guide students in implementing chapter advice. These worksheets are designed as aids to help students with what they are most concerned about: developing and delivering their own speeches with confidence.
New Speeches We’ve added new annotated student speeches and speech examples throughout the book. In addition, nearly every speech in our revised Appendix B is new, selected to provide readers with a variety of positive models of effective speeches.
P Adapting to Your Audience To ethically use information to help an audience understand your message, consider your:
• speech goal
• speech content
Avoid pandering to listeners or making up information.
Organizing Your Ideas Use this worksheet to help you identify the overall organizational strategy for your speech.
____ To inform
____ To persuade
____ To entertain
At the end of my speech, the audience will be able to ___________________________
SPEECH WORKSHOP 180 CHAPTER 7 Developing Your Speech
New Examples and Illustrations New examples and illustrations integrated in every chapter provide both classic and contemporary models to help students master the art of public speaking. As in previous editions, we draw on both stu- dent speeches and speeches delivered by well-known people.
New Material in Every Chapter In addition to these new and expanded features, each chapter has been revised with new examples, illustrations, and references to the latest research conclusions. Here’s a summary of the changes and revisions we’ve made:
Chapter 1: Speaking with Confidence ● The chapter now includes a preview of the audience-centered speaking
process to offer a more complete introduction to public speaking. ● New research on biological causes and effects of speech anxiety provides
advice for channeling physiological arousal in ways that help the speaker. ● A new discussion of anxiety styles helps readers choose confidence-building
tips that are most effective for their style. ● A new figure and a new discussion of the timing of speech anxiety help speak-
ers to time their use of confidence-building strategies for maximum effect.
Chapter 2: Speaking Freely and Ethically ● A revised and updated discussion of free speech helps students understand
the evolution of interpretation of the First Amendment. ● New examples throughout the chapter keep material current and relevant to
readers. ● A new section, Speaking Credibly, reinforces the importance of ethics and
remaining audience-centered and connects concepts across chapters of the book.
Chapter 3: Listening to Speeches ● A new introduction to working memory theory helps students understand
how to cope with information overload that can impede listening. ● A new summary of research on the importance of awareness of one’s own
listening guides students to assess how well they stay on-task as listeners. ● The chapter is streamlined by removing discussion of note-taking, a skill
most students at this level have learned in other contexts. ● A new Listening Ethically section helps to reinforce the importance of ethics
introduced in the previous chapter.
Chapter 4: Analyzing Your Audience ● Our discussion of methods for gathering information has been updated to
include use of the Internet and social media. ● New definitions of race, ethnicity, and culture help readers to clarify the im-
portance of adapting to the audience’s cultural diversity.
Chapter 5: Developing Your Speech ● A new speech, in the Developing Your Speech Step by Step featured in several
chapters, provides an extended example of how to implement audience- centered speechmaking concepts.
Speech Assignment Given
You Begin Your Speech
● Updated lists of potential speech topics can spark students’ own topic brainstorms. ● New material helps students to clarify and distinguish among the general purpose,
specific purpose, and central idea of their speeches. ● New examples throughout the chapter keep material current and relevant to readers.
Chapter 6: Gathering and Using Supporting Material ● This streamlined chapter combines two previously separate chapters to show students
not only where to find supporting material but also how to most effectively use the material they find.
● A thoroughly updated section on sources of information guides students to use Inter- net sources, online databases, traditional library holdings and more, without rehashing research basics students have learned in other contexts.
● The revised end-of-chapter Speech Workshop offers students structured guidance for planning their use of supporting materials.
Chapter 7: Organizing Your Speech ● New examples provide clear demonstrations of how to use popular organizational
patterns, establish main ideas, integrate supporting material, and signal transitions with signposts.
Chapter 8: Introducing and Concluding Your Speech ● New examples of effective introductions and conclusions from both student and
seasoned speakers show students how to implement the techniques described in the chapter.
Chapter 9: Outlining and Revising Your Speech
● We’ve moved our discussion of editing to Chapter 10, where it helps students to focus on the process of rehearsing with a preparation outline as a way to guide them in revising their speeches.
● We’ve included a new Sample Preparation Outline and Delivery Outline to give students complete models of the best practices in organization and revision.
Chapter 10: Using Words Well: Speaker Language and Style
● A discussion of editing your speech, formerly in Chapter 9, helps students to under- stand how to make their speeches more effective by keeping their words concise.
● New examples throughout the chapter clarify discussions of memorable word struc- tures, including similes, metaphors, inversion, suspension, parallelism, antithesis, and alliteration.
Chapter 11: Delivering Your Speech
● New information offers guidance in using eye contact effectively. ● A new table summarizes recommendations for working with a translator when speak-
ing to audiences who do not speak English. ● We’ve streamlined the chapter by removing discussion of adapting speech delivery for
television. ● A revised end-of-chapter Speech Workshop offers students structured guidance for
evaluating how to improve their speech delivery.
Chapter 12: Using Presentation Aids ● Updated information on two-dimensional presentation aids suggests more effective,
economical technological alternatives when using photographs, slides, and overhead transparencies.
● We’ve added new information on the latest research about using PowerPoint™. ● New discussions of using video aids and audio aids include references to current stor-
age technology, such as iPods and iPads, as well as current content sources, such as YouTube.
Chapter 13: Speaking to Inform ● A new section shows readers how to appeal to a variety of listener learning styles when
speaking to inform. ● Another new section shows the applicability of every step of the audience-centered
model of public speaking to informative speeches.
Chapter 14: Understanding Principles of Persuasive Speaking ● A clarified definition helps students to understand key elements of persuasion. ● New and expanded discussion of ELM persuasion theory and how it compares to Aris-
totle’s classical theory focuses on how persuasive speakers can effectively apply both theories.
● A new discussion and figure on social judgment theory help students to apply theoret- ical concepts to their own real-life speaking situations.
● An expanded section How to Develop Your Persuasive Speech shows students how to apply every step of the audience-centered speaking model to their persuasive speeches.
Chapter 15: Using Persuasive Strategies ● Our updated discussion of credibility helps students to plan how to establish and sup-
port their own credibility at various phases of their speech. ● New examples help to clarify explanations of strategies for organizing persuasive
messages, including refutation, cause and effect, and the motivated sequence. ● A new Sample Persuasive Speech gives students a complete model of how to use the
motivated sequence and other principles of persuasion.
Chapter 16: Speaking for Special Occasions and Purposes ● New chapter opening examples reinforce the value of public speaking with dollars-
and-cents evidence. ● New examples throughout the chapter demonstrate models of speeches for ceremonial
occasions including award acceptances, commencement addresses, and eulogies, as well as humorous speaking.
Successful Features Retained in This Edition The goal of the eighth edition of Public Speaking: An Audience-Centered Approach remains the same as that of the previous seven editions: to be a practical and user-friendly guide to help speakers connect their hearts and minds with those of their listeners. While adding powerful new features and content to help students become skilled public speakers, we have also endeavored
to keep what students and instructors liked best. Specifically, we retained five areas of focus that have proven successful in previous editions: our audience-centered approach; our focus on over- coming communication apprehension; our focus on ethics; our focus on diversity; and our focus on skill development. We also continue our partnership with instructors and students by offer- ing a wide array of print and electronic supplements to support teaching and learning.
Our Audience-Centered Approach The distinguishing focus of the book is our audience-centered approach. Over 2,300 years ago, Aristotle said, “For of the three elements in speechmaking—speaker, subject, and person ad- dressed—it is the last one, the hearer, that determines the speaker’s end and object.” We think Aristotle was right. A good speech centers on the needs, values, and hopes of the audience, who should be foremost in the speaker’s mind during every step of the speech development and de- livery process. Thus, in a very real sense, the audience writes the speech. Effective and ethical public speaking does not simply tell listeners only what they want to hear—that would be a manipulative, speaker-centered approach. Rather, the audience-centered speaker is ethically responsive to audience interests without abandoning the speaker’s end and object.
It is not unusual or distinctive for a public-speaking book to discuss audience analysis. What is unique about our audience-centered approach is that our discussion of audience analy- sis and adaptation is not confined to a single chapter; rather, we emphasize the importance of considering the audience throughout our entire discussion of the speech preparation and delivery process. From the opening overview of the public-speaking process until the final chapter, we illuminate the positive power of helping students relate to their audience by keep- ing their listeners foremost in mind.
Preparing and delivering a speech also involves a sequence of steps. Our audience-centered model integrates the step-by-step process of speech preparation and delivery with the ongoing
process of considering the audience. Our audience-centered model of public speaking, shown here and intro- duced in Chapter 1, reappears throughout the text to remind students of the
steps involved in speech preparation and delivery, while simultaneously emphasizing the importance of considering the audience. Viewing the
model as a clock, the speaker begins the process at the 12 o’clock position with “Select and Narrow Topic” and moves around the
model clockwise to “Deliver Speech.” Each step of the speech preparation and delivery process touches the center portion of the model, labeled “Consider the Audience.” Arrows connect- ing the center with each step of the process illustrate how the audience influences each of the steps involved in designing and presenting a speech. Arrows pointing in both directions around the central process of “Consider the Audience” repre- sent how a speaker may sometimes revise a previous step be-
cause of further information or thought about the audience. A speaker may, for example, decide after having gathered support-
ing material for a speech that he or she needs to go back and revise the speech purpose. Visual learners will especially appreciate the
illustration of the entire public-speaking process provided by the model. The colorful, easy-to-understand synopsis will also be appreci-
ated by people who learn best by having an overview of the entire process before beginning the first step of speech preparation.
After introducing the model in the very first chapter of the book, we continue to emphasize the centrality of considering the audience by revisiting it at appropriate points throughout the book. A highlighted version of the model appears in several chapters, as a visual reminder of the place the chapter’s topic occupies in the audience-centered speech- making process. Similarly, highlighted versions appear in Developing Your Speech Step by Step boxes. Another visual reminder comes in the form of a miniature version of the model, the icon shown here in the margin. When you see this icon, it will remind you that the material
Generate Main Ideas
Select and Narrow Topic
presented has special significance for considering your audience.
Our Focus on Communication Apprehension One of the biggest barriers that keeps a speaker, especially a novice public speaker, from connecting to his or her audience is apprehension. Fear of failure, forgetting, or fumbling words is a major distraction. In this edition, we help students to overcome their apprehension of speaking to others by focusing on their listeners rather than on their fear. We’ve updated and expanded our discussion of communication appre- hension in Chapter 1, adding the most contemporary research conclusions we can find to help stu- dents overcome the anxiety that many people experience when speaking publicly. To help students integrate confidence-boosting strategies through their study of public speaking, we offer students powerful pointers for managing anxiety in the Confidently Connecting with Your Audience features found in the margins of each chapter. To provide yet additional help for managing apprehension, we’ve distilled several seminal ideas keyed to our audience-centered model on the inside back cover. So, from Chapter 1 until the literal last page in the book, we help stu- dents manage their apprehension.
Our Focus on Ethics Being audience-centered does not mean that a speaker tells an audience only what they want to hear; if you are not true to your own values, you will have become a manipulative, unethical communicator rather than an audience-centered one. Audience-centered speakers articulate truthful messages that give audience members free choice in responding to a message, while they also use effective means of ensuring message clarity and credibility.
From the first chapter onward, we link being an audience-centered speaker with being an ethical speaker. Our principles and strategies for being rhetorically skilled are anchored in eth- ical principles that assist speakers in articulating a message that connects with their audience. We not only devote an entire chapter (Chapter 2) to being an ethical speaker, but we also offer reminders, tips, and strategies for making ethical speaking and listening an integral part of human communication. As part of the Study Guide at the end of each chapter, students and in- structors will find questions to spark discussion about and raise awareness of ethical issues in effective speechmaking.
Our Focus on Diversity Just as the topic of audience analysis is covered in most public-speaking textbooks, so is diversity. Sometimes diversity is discussed in a separate chapter; sometimes it is presented in “diversity boxes” sprinkled throughout a book. We choose to address diversity not as an add-on to the main discussion but rather as an integral part of being an audience-centered speaker. To be audience- centered is to acknowledge the various ethnic and cultural backgrounds, attitudes, beliefs, values, and other differences present when people assemble to hear a speech. We suggest that inherent in the process of being audience-centered is a focus on the diverse nature of listeners in contempo- rary audiences. The topic of adapting to diverse audiences is therefore not a boxed afterthought but is integrated into every step of our audience-centered approach.