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Where are there many students? A) very large and beautiful What does Pablo take notes about? B) papers How do you say “Oh my!” In Spanish? __________! C) nice How is Mrs. Black? D) would Who gets good grades in English class? E) in history class How is the classroom? F) Pablo How is the English teacher? G) Mrs. Black What does Paul get in history class? H) bad grades What’s in Pablo’s backpack? I) books, pens and history notes Who is smart? J) Woe is me

Question 1:

For this case, the first thing you should know is that we have to conjugate the present progressive sentence.

For this, we use the following grammatical structure:

to be + verb + ing

We then have the following sentence:

I am sleeping

Translating the sentence in Spanish we have:

Estoy durmiendo

Answer:

Estoy durmiendo

Question 2:

For this case we have the following expression in English:

be nice

The first word in Spanish, refers to the use of the verb “ser” or “estar”

The second word has a translation in Spanish that is “amable”

Therefore, as we refer to the second person singular, then the translation of the sentence is given by:

Sé amable

Answer:

A word that I would use to tell someone to “be nice” is:

Sé amable (option 1)

Question 3:

For this case we have the following expression:

go straight

Normally, this is an expression that is used to give directions in Spanish.

The first word refers in Spanish to the verb “ir”

The second word refers in Spanish to the address “derecho”

Therefore the translation of the sentence in Spanish is:

Ve derecho

Answer:

Ve derecho

Question 4:

For this case, the first thing you should know is that we have to translate an expression that is in progressive present.

This means that the sentence has the following structure:

Subject + To be + verb + ing

We want to translate this sentence for the first person plural.

Therefore, the correct translation in Spanish is:

Estamos siguiendo.

Answer:

Estamos siguiendo.

Question 5:

For this case, the first thing you should know is the personal pronoun to which we are referring.

In the given expression, we are referring to the first person plural.

The given sentence, in English is:

They are waiting for us.

Therefore, the correct translation of the expression in Spanish, is given by:

Ellos nos están esperando

Answer:

A direct object that substitutes the underlined word is:

“nos”

Ellos nos están esperando

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Agatha harkness-smythe is determined to ban guns in the united states. this is a controversial topic and social scientists have debated whether the ownership of guns by citizens increases or decreases crime. agatha could go to the library and look up studies on the linkage between guns and crime rates. instead, agatha just reads the local newspaper and only cuts out articles about robberies in which the “bad guy” used a firearm. agatha is demonstrating a ____________.


Answer:

The correct answer to fill in the blank would be this: Interpersonal psychotherapy, also known as IPT, refers to the short-term therapy that focuses on the contect of current social relationships.

Explanation:

Interpersonal Psychotherapy was first developed around the 1970´s by Gerald Klerman and Myrna Weissman to treat, in coordination with cognitive behavioral therapy, and medication, severe cases of major depression. This type of therapy, as well as cognitive therapy, are known as psychosocial interventions that require professionals to be trained specifically in them to be able to apply them. The focus of IPT is precisely to be a short-term, no more than 16 weeks, treatment that exposes the patients to understand the way that mood can impact life´s events and vice versa, and it also works on interpersonal problems, among other things.

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There is a public debate between the three candidates for the U.S. Senate. During the debate, the topics of oil and energy are addressed. Each candidate expressed their view on the issue: Edgar Eisenhower: “We need to cut our dependence on foreign oil. Instead, let’s use the natural world around us. Think about the sun, wind, water, the heat of the earth, and the crops in our fields. These will make for affordable energy in the 21st century. We should fund research in those areas. Let us also increase tax credits for private investment in clean, renewable sources of energy.” Rebecca Roosevelt: “We need to cut our dependence on foreign oil and develop a national energy strategy. We should provide tax incentives for producing energy in the U.S. Let’s increase U.S. supplies of coal, oil, and natural gas. We should promote environmentally responsible exploration and development of oil and gas reserves. That includes federal land like Alaska’s National Wildlife Refuge. Let’s also advance clean coal technology.” Terrance Taft: “Looking at our energy supply is one thing—how we’re using it is another. We can drive smaller, more fuel efficient cars. We can invest in more efficient technology for our homes and businesses. These things add up and make a big difference. In fact, in several new buildings associated with Taft Inc., we address our energy needs with locally produced renewable energy. That wouldn’t be possible if we were using outdated, energy guzzling technology.” Often politicians will agree that something is a priority, but have very different recommendations on how to best address it. What would be the best example of this from the previous section? 1. Both Terrance Taft and Edgar Eisenhower agree that inefficiency is bad, but disagree on how to make things more efficient. 2. Both Rebecca Roosevelt and Edgar Eisenhower agree that we need to reduce our dependence on foreign oil, but disagree on the best way of doing so. 3. Both Terrance Taft and Rebecca Roosevelt agree that alternative energy is important, but disagree about which form would be the best to invest in. 4. Both Rebecca Roosevelt and Terrance Taft agree that developing alternative energy sources is important, but differ on the best way of doing so.


Answer:

The American participation in the Vietnam War was very different from its involvement in the Bay of Pigs Invasion.

In the Vietnam War, the United States carried out direct participation, with first-hand military planning and execution and large-scale attacks. Some 60,000 Americans died in the conflict, of about one million who participated.

In contrast, in the Bay of Pigs Invasion, American participation was indirect. That is, the attack was planned and the troops trained by American forces, but these were made up of Cuban exiles, not American soldiers. In addition, it was a small-scale attack, both because of the low number of men involved and because of its short duration.

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Read the excerpt from Act I of The Importance of Being Earnest. Algernon. In the third place, I know perfectly well whom she will place me next to, to-night. She will place me next Mary Farquhar, who always flirts with her own husband across the dinner-table. That is not very pleasant. Indeed, it is not even decent . . . and that sort of thing is enormously on the increase. The amount of women in London who flirt with their own husbands is perfectly scandalous. It looks so bad. It is simply washing one’s clean linen in public. Besides, now that I know you to be a confirmed Bunburyist I naturally want to talk to you about Bunburying. Which part of the excerpt contains a paradox? “. . . I know perfectly well whom she will place me next to . . .” “She will place me next Mary Farquhar, who always flirts . . .” “It is simply washing one’s clean linen in public.” “Besides, now that I know you to be a confirmed Bunburyist . . .”


Chaucer’s descriptions from “The Monk’s Tale” which best illustrates Fortune as unreliable is “And when men trust in her she then will fail / And cover her bright  face as with a cloud.”

The monk’s tale fits the category of parable because it tells the results of different people’s good and bad behavior.

The Monk tale is a series of tragedies which represents the news that the wealth and position is just an illusion. He refers through the example of many falling from high to low ends, such as the example of Lucifer falling from heaven. Through such example and stories, he continues to show the people who have fallen from grace.

Model of tragedies which Monk offers is a Boethian one that is which is a reminder of the versatility of the life itself, to bring on top to those who are crashing down on the grounds and that the tendency of the feminine, whimsical fortune to spin her wheels. Hence, it is a simple narrative and Boethian reminder that high status often ends inadequately.

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What explanation does Eumaeus give for the bad behavior of the suitors? He says that the suitors have no fear of the gods. He says that the suitors have been raised by their parents to expect Penelope to provide feasts for them. He says they are simply rotten scoundrels who should be killed. He believed Penelope must choose a new husband and that the pillaging of the palace is her fault.


Answer:

12. What the quote from “The Cask of Amontillado” reveal about Montresor’s intentions is B)He wants to make sure that Fortunato does not suspect his motives

13. unreliable

14. The details of the setting that contribute least to the poem’s mysterious and despairing mood are B)The room is decorated with busts of ancient gods.

16. The effect that the author’s use of onomatopoeia has on the reader is B)It adds to the suspense.

17. The fact that boys build a big pile of stones help create suspense because A)The reader wonders why the boys build a big pile of stones.

18. The quote from “The Lottery” that best illustrates the theme that good people can do bad things when conforming to a group’s social expectations is B)“Although the villagers had forgotten the ritual and lost the original black box, they still remembered to use stones.”

19. Many horror and suspense stories such as “The Lottery” use stereotypical C) stock characters instead of complex individuals because readers readily relate to them.

Explanation:

12.- By using warning expression the character shows himself as a not dangerous one.

13. An unreliable narrator has compromised their credibility so the reader doesn’t know what to expect from them, a situation that increases the suspense.

14. The other options are more connected to the psychological effects of color and atmosphere.

16. an Onomatopeia represents a word that produces physically the sound of its pronunciation which can make the reader get deeper in the story.

17. The fact of unknowing what is about to happen is one of the basic action for writers to create suspense.

18. The villagers were eager to keep on going with a tradition that carries a lot of violence within even when they were not violent selves.

19.  A stock character is an archetype which is easy to relate to and identify in a story without any complications or turns since they are flat characters.

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Is Outsourcing Good or Bad


Running Head… Outsourcing: Good or Bad?

Outsourcing IT has been the topic of significant discussion, not only on how best to do it, but also on its consequences for organisational types and leadership. There are distinct opinions on outsourcing and its business advantages, but all scientists demonstrate that achievement depends on the company’s capacity to bring outsourcing into organisational environments. Outsourcing offers excellent possibilities to cut economic expenses and enhance technology for contemporary organisations.

The terms outsourcing and insourcing do not capture the complexity of sourcing options available on the market place. There are several taxonomies of sourcing decisions that have been adopted. Total outsourcing means the decision to transfer IS assets, leases, staff, and management responsibility far delivery of IS services from an internal IS function to a single third party vendor which represents more than 80 per cent of the IS budget. Millar (1994 cited Greaver 1999) defines four basic types of outsourcing arrangements: General outsourcing encompasses three alternatives:

  1. Selective outsourcing where one particular area of IS activity is chosen to be turned over to a third party, such as data centre operations;
  2. Value-added outsourcing where an area of IS activity is transferred to a third party who is believed to be willing to provide a level of assistance or service that adds value to the activity that the internal IS group could not provide cost-effectively;
  3. Co-operative outsourcing where some targeted IS activities are jointly performed by a third party provider and the internal IS department.

Researchers found that many businesses were investigating outsourcing as a result of the inability of IS executives to prove the importance of IS to different stakeholders within the organisation. Many distinct stakeholders (senior executives, executives of company units, IS managers, IS employees and end customers) had different IS preferences, expectations, perceptions and agendas.

Is Outsourcing Good or Bad

Form post-modernization point of view, the enthusiasm for IS outsourcing in the trade press is not unique-any new management trend promises to be the panacea to organizational problems. Through radical change, be it business process re-engineering, total quality management, virtual corporations, etc, practitioners are offered yet another utopia. Such positive press tempts many senior executives to jump on the latest bandwagon, and subsequent research shows that many organizations improve radically (Burnett, 1998).

Financial Benefits of Outsourcing

Many senior managers cite financial reasons for outsourcing. Senior executives in specific perspective outsourcing as a means of reducing expenses, improving cost control, and restructuring the IS budget. Many businesses expect outsourcing to save them cash. They perceive that vendors enjoy economies of scale that enable then to provide IS services at a lower cost than internal IS departments. Senior executives think in specific that the unit cost of a vendor is less costly owing to the efficiency of mass production and labor specialization (Greaver 1999).

Another financial rationale for outsourcing is gaining control over IS costs. IS expenses are directly connected to IS customer requirements, as any IS manager will attest. However, IS expenses are regulated in most organisations through overall allocation mechanisms that motivate consumers to excessively demand and consume resources. General allocation systems are analogous to splitting a restaurant tab–each dinner companion is motivated to order an expensive dinner because the cost will be shared by the other parties. Participants saw outsourcing as a means of controlling expenses, as suppliers enforce cost controls that more directly link utilization to costs. Furthermore, customers no longer call their favourite analysts to ask frivolous modifications, but must submit applications through a formal price control system. This results in the curtailing of excessive user demands and thus reduces overall IS costs. Some companies state that the reason for initiating outsourcing was for restructuring their IS budgets from cumbersome capital budgets to more flexible operating budgets. Through outsourcing, organizations could more efficiently purchase IS resources as needed rather than invest in capital (Greaver, 1999).

Business Benefits of Outsourcing

Even within companies, perceptions over IS’s contribution to core activities varied. In general, senior executives tend to view the entire IS function as a non-core activity whereas IS managers and some business unit managers contend that certain IS activities are core to the business. Also, outsourcing help companies to pursue a growth strategy through mergers and acquisitions. Mergers and acquisitions create many IS nightmares. For IS managers because they are required to absorb acquired companies into existing systems. Organizations expect that outsourcing solve the technical incompatibilities, absorb the excess IS assets, such as additional data centers, and absorb the additional IS employees generated by mergers and acquisitions (Greaver 1999). Some companies outsource IS when the company is first incorporated. At the time, they expect that outsourcing is a quicker and cheaper way to provide IS services. Taylor (2005) explains that:

Producing more per hour is how an economy raises the average standard of living over time. U.S. firms have generated this remarkable productivity growth in large part by taking advantage of the gains in information and communications technology–and outsourcing is one mechanism by which this has happened. The practice of outsourcing both to domestic and foreign firms allows businesses to harness dramatic innovations in communications and information technology more effectively than they could if they just gave each of their own payroll-department employees a fancy new computer.

As start-up companies, they simply could not afford the capital investment required to erect internal IS departments. Managers from a number of organizations initiate outsourcing evaluations in response to devolution of organizational and management structures occurring in a wider business context. Often termed downsizing, participants intended to use outsourcing as a means to reduce headcount and thus the costs associated with salaries, pensions, and benefits.

Also Study: Business Outsourcing Benefits With Example of Apple

In addition, the length of many contracts is relatively unusual. According to Burnett (1998), short contracts are for companies that are experimenting with outsourcing and are not really convinced. The previous experience in outsourcing in other areas gives them great confidence in the way that they are able to deal with IT. IT is different but not that different; the general outsourcing lessons and principles from other areas are seen to be applicable.

Technical Benefits of Outsourcing

At the beginning of the 21st century, many companies are dissatisfied with the technical services provided by their in-house IS departments. In this case, outsourcing helps to overcome negative impact of modernization and create a completely new structure of dealing with environment. For instance, the IS departments deliver systems late and over budget and do not respond in a timely manner to user requests. Outsourcing becomes a way to improve technical service; managers explain that outsourcing vendors possess a technical expertise lacking in internal IS departments. Some companies prove that outsourcing provides access to technical talent. Many companies find it difficult to retain staff with the state-of-the-art technical skills. Vendors are felt to have core competencies in technology skills which allow them to bring these skills to the organization through outsourcing. Numerous companies consider outsourcing partly for the access to greater IS expertise it would bring. Some organizations state that outsourcing provides a conduit to new, emerging technologies (Greaver 1999). They view outsourcing as a way to hedge bets on emerging technologies, providing them access to the products of the vendors’ large research and development departments. Participants from a number of companies initiate outsourcing evaluations to focus the internal IS staff on core technical activities, such as the development of new applications, while outsourcing non-core technical activities, such as the support of legacy systems. Many companies initiate outsourcing decisions to acquire new resources, such as machine upgrades, additional personnel, or cash. IT executives indicated that enhancing competitiveness, generating strategic advantages, improving customer service quality and enhancing access to knowledge were key advantages” (Crandall and Murray 2006, 4). IS managers are well aware that their requests for capital funds would be met with questions such as, ‘isn’t it cheaper to outsource this?’ outsourcing evaluations help managers acquire resources by showing that outsourcers could not provide the additional resources at a lower cost (Crandall and Murray, 2006).

Following Greaver (1999) because IS demand is erratic, IS managers have difficulty planning for IS services. Rather than react to demand fluctuations, IS managers outsourced. By including a clause that varies fees with volumes, IS managers effectively dispensed with the risks associated with uncertainty. Another political reason identified was the desire of participants to eliminate a troublesome function. Since senior executives do not fully value IS, IS administrators receive few accolades for managing the function. Many senior managers assume that outsourcing vendors submit lower bids because they are inherently more efficient due to economies of scale. The theory of economies of scale states that large-sized companies achieve lower average costs than small-sized companies due to mass production and labor specialization efficiencies. In the outsourcing arena, however, the applicability of the economies of scale model may be questioned.

Crandall and Murray (2006) find that managers eventually doubted that IS managers would meet their cost reduction mandates and decided that outsourcing is the solution. The outsourcing threat served to align all stakeholders to their cost minimizations agenda. Following Crandall and Murray (2006): ”outsourcing requires additional resources for managing the outsourcing relationship, such as monitoring vendor performance, collaborating on service problems and negotiating change”. By creating this shared agenda, some IS managers were able to compete with vendor bids by proposing to replicate their cost reduction tactics. Business unit managers and users realized that either their familiar IS managers or external vendors would implement cost reduction tactics. While companies desperately attempted to reduce IS costs, most IS executives preferred to believe that customer service is crucial. In spirit IS attempted to highlight the criticality of customer support. The recent emergence of the function relationship management within IS is a case in point. This function ostensibly creates an account manager role between IS and its business unit customers, and clearly demonstrates that customer service is valued. However, customer service does suffer if cost considerations become the guiding light.

Outsourcing and Multicultural Environment

While cultural differences may be regarded as a barrier to the achievement of a truly harmonized single market, they do not act as a barrier to doing business abroad. By adapting to local cultural conditions firms can operate successfully across the nations. Indeed, it is possible to argue that the divergence of cultures actually offers international firms an advantage over their international competitors as it permits scope to identify national strengths and weaknesses and develop strategies which tap into these critical resources (Bartlett and Ghoshal 1999). Exposure to distinct cultures also offers possibilities to learn new methods to do business and improve the efficiency of the company. Management has to balance the need for adaptability in meeting the challenges and opportunities presented by change with, at the same time, preserving an atmosphere of stability and continuity in the interests of members of the organization. Following Taylor (2005) “The major change is that increase outsourcing, of both goods and services, challenges the traditional notions of what a successful firm looks like”.

Form post-modernization point of view, users’ demands for service excellence requires that packaged software be customized to their idiosyncratic needs, a practice that drove up IS development and maintenance costs. When IS managers try to contain costs by implementing packaged software ‘as is’, users complained their needs are not being met (Bartlett and Ghoshal 1999). An example of the cost/service trade-off in the area of hardware was response time. Users demanded service excellence, defined by them as sub-second response time all the time. This increased hardware costs because IS managers purchased excess capacity or other devices to deliver service excellence. On the other hand, business managers and end users perceived that their data centers provided critical support and wanted a differentiated service. Unlike senior managers, business unit managers and users asserted that data centers are hardly homogeneous. Different companies used different hardware configurations, operating software, software utilities, facilities for cooling/lighting/fire prevention, levels of software automation, and disaster recovery strategies. All of these contributed to service levels in terms of response time, availability, and, in particular, support (Burnett, 1998). Users want their own dedicated and culturally competent support staff who understand what systems they run at what times with what particular problems (Bartlett and Ghoshal 1999).

In general sense, the task of management in the international organization is to remove prejudice from the organization and the individuals it employs, to ensure that all employees, regardless of gender, ethnic origin, re­ligion and lifestyle, receive equal treatment in the organization. Form post-modernization point of view, organizations which have a multi-country operation or business should give some thought to how intercultural differences impede or enhance business success. This becomes of even greater importance when entering into strategic alliances with organizations in other countries; in acquisition situations; when departments in different countries (such as research and development) have to work closely together; when individuals of one country are sent to work in another; and when there is a need to have subsidiaries of various countries commit to a common vision, and common methods and processes (Bartlett and Ghoshal 1999).

The key elements in the convergence process are technology, the growth of big business and professional management and the impact of mul­tinationals. The main imperative of all nations was seen as efficient production and the key elements were developments in science and technology that were available to all. Businesses in all nations, faced with the same problems, adopted the same solutions. These included increasing size, increasing specialization and formalization, the development of similar systems of authority, occupational types and structures and adopting similar systems of education and training. Much of man­agement behavior is culturally determined and that the key to suc­cessful international management lies in the understanding of these cultural differences (Bartlett and Ghoshal 1999). It is possible to singles out an anthropological approach and attempts to examine cultural differences in the way managers relate to others, in their attitudes to time and in their attitudes to the environment. The greater the differences between the cultures of the seller and the buyer, the greater the probability for cross-cultural miscommunication to occur. To avoid this unpleasant experience every export manager should be well aware of cultural differences and traditions of the partner company (Taylor, 2005).

Outsourcing is influenced by cultural context and cultural differences. For the manager, the key advantages are that ideas and techniques developed in one cultural or national setting may be transferred to another and used effectively. Furthermore, developing nations are able to learn from those more advanced countries and thus benefit from the mistakes of others (Taylor, 2005). Such thinking is clearly behind the adoption by British and American firms of Japanese techniques such as quality circles and just-in-time and the focus on American theories of motivation by British management trainers. Belief in the transferability of techniques has led management to turn elsewhere for solutions to problems. Multicultural management may be defined as that part of business action that is socially as opposed to genetically transmitted. It comprises ideas through which managers perceive and interpret the world, symbols they use to communicate these ideas, and institutions which enable individuals to become socialized and satisfy their needs. The way businesses conduct their affairs affects and often changes the particular culture in which they operate; the operation of the multinational corporation in the Third World being a case in point.

In sum outsourcing proposes great opportunities for modern companies to transform their structure and meet changing market conditions. Also, outsourcing enables companies to understand the importance of putting the effort into building the contract and getting it right. It gives them the confidence to go for a long contract and seek a partnership rather than base everything on price considerations. Outsourcing helps companies to develop their own form of IS organization, that relates to the particular multi-vendor form of IT outsourcing they could adopt for a complex organizational structure and set of business requirements. Outsourcing brings in new skills and knowledge. In such cases outsourcing and introducing vendor staff usually result in improved performance from in-house staff. Outsourcing pushes organizations into large-scale changes, usually guided by the requirement to focus on core business and competencies. Finally, the international organization needs to recognize that doing business in foreign markets involves cross-cultural communication in all aspects of the relationship. When the person from the other culture does not receive the sender’s message in the manner intended, cross-cultural miscommunication occurs.

References;
  1. Bartlett, C. and Ghoshal, S. (1999). Managing Across Borders: The Transnational Solution. 2nd edition, London: Ramsden House.
  2. Burnett, R. (1998). Outsourcing It-The Legal Aspects. Gower Publishing Company.
  3. Crandall, R.E., Murray, M.J. (2006). IT Offshore Outsourcing Requires a Project Management Approach. SAM Advanced Management Journal, 71 (1), 4.
  4. Greaver, M.F. (1999). Strategic Outsourcing: A Structured Approach to Outsourcing Decisions and Initiatives. AMACOM/American Management Association.
  5. Taylor, T. (2005). In Defense of Outsourcing. The Cato Journal, 25 (2), 367.



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Pros and Cons of Year Round Schools | Why Good or Bad


Year-Round Schools: A Debate

Introduction

There have been a number of researchers who are interested in knowing and understanding the factors that affect children’s learning and development. Year-round Schooling is the idea that developed to ensure that students do not waste time and utilize their potentials of learning and gaining knowledge throughout the year without any long gaps. The year-round schooling distributes the long vacations like summer vacations in regular intervals throughout the year. This is one of the major differences in year-round schooling and traditional calendar schooling. However, the debate should be about the fact that year-round school normally proposes the same amount of time to students in the educational institution like traditional schooling systems. The only difference as per the timings and extent of learning is that the year-round schools do not give a long time for vacations which may distract children’s attention from studies. The traditional nine months schooling system provided an extended vacations of 3 months to the students, whereas, year-round school provides a number of short vacations to the students. There are certain positive and negative issues related to this relatively new approach. This paper starts up a debate on year-round schooling and analyzes the pros and cons related to year round schooling.

Pros and Cons of Year Round Schools

Students’ Need

There is a debate over encouraging the best possible way to promote a structural learning environment for the children. Children need a properly structured and well-organized system of learning. The longer breaks and cut-off from the educational environment affect the stability of students’ learning habits. An article on ‘Education Bug’ supports this claim by asserting that year-round school eliminates the threats of learning gap and loss of learning by eliminated longer time periods off the school.

The year-round schools design the vacation structure in such a way that different student groups are off-campus at different timings. This, firstly, ensures that all students are not on vacations at the same time providing more space to the teachers to concentrate on the remaining population of students on campus. Secondly it reduces the class size and children’s regular regiment remains unchanged.

Satisfaction of Needs

The most efficient use of the school system is the one which provides greater satisfaction to the parents and students in terms of learning. The obvious reason for joining educational institutes is to promote active learning and keeping that learning pace steady and organized. The year-round schooling system is an obvious attempt to keep the learning environment steady and effective for students. The important fact to notice is that it enhances students’ lives by providing regular intervals in their busy school schedule. Johnson (2010) asserts that an estimation of 10% of the total admissions in America will be directed towards year-round schooling by 2012.

Year-round schooling provides a balanced schedule and it is expected that Naylor (1995) provides a balanced view on year-round schooling. In doing so a number of studies are amalgamated which provide views for and against this approach of schooling. National Association for Year-Round Education (NAYRE), according to Naylor, gives a positive opinion on the improved performance of students. The main proposition remains the same that year-round education provides more chances to the students to stay connected to the educational environment. Their attention is not distracted and hence they are able to stay in touch with the learning environment. This uninterrupted link between students and the learning environment supports their performance and helps them in attaining good results.

Visualization

The discussion above provides a brief overview of the benefits associated with year-round education system. To understand things better, there is a need to weigh between the pros and cons related to this schooling system.

Introducing year-round schooling is not as simple as it seems to be. This system brings in a number of conflicts between students, faculty staff, management, parents and other related parties. The main concern for the management or administration is the cost related to designing, implementing and maintaining this system of schooling. The planning of year-end schooling (especially multi-track year-round schools) provide an additional cost of managing students ion equal groups and maintaining equal gaps between their vacations. The increased costs are related to this planning and an additional cost to answer the requirements of the faculty to be present in the school at all times in the year. This requires careful planning and scheduling techniques from professionals to avoid any conflicts or problems.

Scheduling conflicts are also found to be relevant in this schooling system. The schedules prepared by professional or administration may not be suitable for the staff or students. The schedules may be questioned or called for change which would produce an additional burden of work, require more time for amendments and more finances if the professional or employee refuses to make changes. Alternatively, staff or students’ dissatisfaction will arise which may affect the whole learning environment and performance of the students.

Summer employment acts as another challenge for the school management and system. Most of the people and staff consider summer as their vacation period and may want to take off from the school. However, this does not act as a major threat to the success of year-round schools today as college students, teachers and trainees tend to work in the summer to make efficient savings and gaining experience.

The community programs which are developed to entertain and engage students during their vacations face the biggest threat by this new approach to schooling system. The awareness campaigns, amusement programs, sporting events and others which grabbed students’ and younger generations’ attention during summer vacations face a threat.

The major point of concern for families is the loss of their family vacation time which used to provide them space to spend time with each other. The busy schedule of children does not let the family enjoy or spend vacations together. The different vacation timings and relatively shorter vacations disable the options of going on longer trips. This new approach to schooling is, hence, not welcomed by families.

Despite of the disadvantages or challenges that year-round schools bring the reasons behind its use and increasing fame is the number of benefits it brings. These benefits include avoiding overcrowded class structures and school environment, reduced stress, reduction in class size and continuous interaction with school and learning environment.

One of the best benefits that year-round schooling brings include the less crowded space in the school for the children as the groups are sent on vacations separately (in multi-track year-round schools). The less crowded classrooms and school provide ease of managing the students and giving proper attention to the individuals. The regular breaks provide a less troublesome and stressful schedule to the students. The students get intervals regularly which free them from stressful and strict schedule of the school. The continuity of interaction and association with school, the learning environment and teachers, help in stabilizing the attitudes of children towards education. This helps in maintaining their performance and activities by keeping them restricted to the schedule of the school and learning habits (Education Bug).

Conclusion

In the end, I would like to suggest that although there are certain inappropriate effects which may stand against the year-round school system, it still has a positive side which is stronger and non ignorable. So I urge you all to be advocates for year around schooling. If students had structure than perhaps their performance would have been better than what they have now. I personally believe that students might have a more positive impact on their development and psychological well being than on their academic performance.

Also Study: Pros and Cons of School Uniforms

Bibliography;
  • Education Bug. (n.d.). Year round school debate. Retrieved from http://www.educationbug.org/a/year-round-school-debate.html
  • Naylor, Charlie. BCTF Research and Technology Division, (1995). Do year-round schools improve student learning? (BCTF Research Report section XII, 95-EI-03). Government Printing Office. Retrieved from http://bctf.ca/publications/ResearchReports.aspx?id=5608
  • Johnson, Alex. (2010, oct 27). Year-round school gains ground around u.s.. Retrieved from http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/39748458/ns/us_news-life/
  • Family education. (n.d.). Year-round school. Retrieved from http://school.familyeducation.com/experimental-education/educational-research/41266.html