Outsourcing has reduced manufacturing jobs within the United States. What are some benefits of outsourcing?
Outsourcing has reduced manufacturing jobs within the United States. What are some benefits of outsourcing?
Nation states acquire status as independent, sovereign nations when they are recognized by other nation states. For example, when Palestine has been recognized as a nation state despite its dismemberment by Israel, its’ government establishes itself as a key part of the ephemeral peace accords and deserves to be treated with respect by Israel with an equal voice in the relations between the two countries. Also, Palestine can then vote in the UN General Assembly on matters such as the blockade against Cuba or similar international affairs. A third way that Palestine can benefit is by being able to receive foreign aid especially to rebuild its cities after Israel bombing raids such as in the Gaza strip a few years agol
Yes, Geothermal energy is a renewable source.
Geothermal energy is a renewable source because its source is generated unlimited amount of heat by the earth core. It is a sustainable energy source. It is also a non-renewable source because it can be re-used multiple times again and again and looses its ability to create energy.
It is the excellent energy for the meetings, because it opposes to other renewable sources such as wind and solar energy. Great for heating and cooling and used in even small households can benefit. Geothermal energy has been used for thousand of years in some countries like turkey, unites states, new zealand and japan for heating and cooling. It cost less fluctuation and stable electricity prizes.
Yes, its consequences is very bad to communities or surrounding environments because it involves no combustion. So, the level of air pollutants they emit are low. It emits 97% low acid rain which causing sulfur compounds and 82% of green house gases.
What is a public interest lobby? a group that conducts research and analysis on public policy issues a group that expresses its political views publicly a group that works to gain benefits for society as a whole a group that represents workers within a particular industry?
A nurse is preparing a class for a group of women at a family planning clinic about contraceptives. when describing the health benefits of oral contraceptives, which benefits would the nurse most likely include?
Americans will pay more for goods produced in Mexico in 2011.
This is a situation of devaluation of the dollar in relation to the Mexican peso. If in 2009 the dollar was worth 16 pesos, but in 2011 it is 14, it means that the purchasing power of the dollar in relation to the Mexican peso has decreased, although it is still high.
In that case, for an American to buy products produced in Mexico in 2011, he or she will spend a little more dollars than he or she would spend in 2009. This is common, since the currencies fluctuate according to the financial market . Thus, the dollar can be valued or devalued, as happened in this example.
If, for example, in 2015 the dollar will buy 20 pesos, it will mean that the dollar appreciated in relation to the peso, increasing the purchasing power of Americans for Mexican products.
Learning the Spanish language makes you look diverse academically, you can cover your college language credits if you take enough in high school, too. Personally, you are helping your brain to grow and connect regions of your brain by learning and figuring out the language that can’t otherwise be connected except by learning a language. Socially, you can connect and talk to people in Spanish, professionally you may be the chosen hire and be paid double if you know a language such as Spanish. These are a few examples, I hope they help!!
The Neolithic revolution was a profound change in the life of mankind, in which one moves from a nomadic to a sedentary lifestyle, and an economy of collection and hunting is changed to one of agricultural production.
The cultivation of cereals, especially rye, wheat and barley, characteristic of the Fertile Growing zone, became relevant. It is believed, however, that they were not the first plant species to grow. Legumes date a very old crop and also some fruit trees from Asia. The use of ferments and yeasts, responsible for the production of bread and dairy products and, consequently, of alcoholic beverages, is also recorded.
The first animal to enter the habitat of man was the dog. Sheep, bovine and caprine domestication constitute a fundamental pillar of production today. The domestication of the horse occurred at that time, in the area of Central Asia, along with that of the camelids, which occurred in different sectors.
In the Neolithic there was a demographic increase with respect to the paliolithic, so society was divided between those who plowed the earth, those who harvested, those who polished the stones, the collectors, those who work the ceramics and used the looms – mostly women- , those who built homes and those who looked after livestock. It is necessary to mention the entry into surplus scene. From its appearance, it is possible to exchange goods. This first type of trade is called barter.
I don’t really want to go to that graduation ceremony, Mom. I don’t care about Brenda’s graduation at all. He won’t stop repeating what a great class they were and that they have a great future to go. It’s annoying, Mom. – Tommy said-
You’ve got to go, Tommy. – Mom said – Brenda will be sad if you don’t go.
The original conversation shows the use of more formal vocabulary and structure, in the provided answer some of the words and expressions were changed by more popular ones without going to the full opposite by presenting a totally informal conversation all covered with slang words.
Popular words are considered “natural” in spoken English.
Explains the benefits of college and how you will work toward gaining entrance into your college of choice. please help
Ovation-by definition- is show of appreciation from an audience, for a person’s accomplishments or flaw.
“Everyone deserves a standing ovation because we all overcometh the world.”
A person’s accomplishment could be how they made a positive change in this world, strong leadership- that makes them a effective leader or simply helping others. A person’s flaw- mistakes in life, sin or even guilt should also be considered an appreciation- an ovation for representing mankind’s flaw and that humanity makes mistakes, fulfilling at least one deadly sin such as greed, lust, selfishness etc.
Thus, regardless of a person’s achievement or flaw- a person deserves an applause for, not the least, living in this society and this world that we are all living together and dying together.
That was just the introduction.. the best part is yet to come.. now it’s your turn!!
Here are other pointers to talk about in your essay:
Shakespeare’s famous line “All the World’s a stage. That agrees with your line: “Everybody deserves a standing ovation…”
Shakespeare explains that men and women are like players: they live, and die, some being celebrated and some forever living in solitude till their death. Shakespeare states the world is a “stage” which symbolizes that mankind is in its peak. The world is changing everyday: little by little and humanity is falling behind.
Due to our world turning into machinery: factories, an automotive future: where humans only job to live (entrance) and to die (exit) the famous humans remembered and the flawed not recalled.
This is according to Shakespeare’s imagery.
I don’t know what grade your in, but I think simplifying Shakespeare’s word of mouth in your essay would be handy and useful as it has strong references of your quote, and agrees strongly in your essay.
Hope this helps 🙂
Charlie had a waist circumference of 47 inches and a BMI of 29 this shows that she is overweight. BMI test level is high from normal ranges shows that she is at higher risk of disease. She should lose weight and concern to the doctor.
Body mass index (BMI) is a measured value derived from the height of a person and mass.
BMI indicates whether the person is healthy or overweight mainly used by physicians.
• Range of BMI in a normal person is 18.5-25
• Range of BMI in skinfold person is 25-30
• Range of BMI in underweight person is 15-18.5
The skinfold measurement test is used to determine a person’s body fat percentage and body composition.
In this test, we are the proportion of body fat by determining skinfold thickness at pinches specific part of the body. The estimate of these folds is determined the fat beneath the skin, also called subcutaneous adipose tissue.
The tester pinches the skin at the site and drags the fold of skin away from the muscle so only the fat tissue and skin are being held. The skinfold thickness is measured by skinfold calipers in millimeters.
Skin test includes the seven locations of the body:
Charlie had a waist circumference of 47 inches and a BMI of 29 this shows that she is overweight. Females with waist size 47 inches have higher risk of having disease. BMI test level is high from normal ranges shows that she is at higher risk of disease.She should lose weight and concern to the doctor.
1. Learn more about carbohydrate monomer brainly.com/question/6947177
2. Learn more about core muscle stabilization brainly.com/question/1231927
3. Learn more about energy storagehttps://brainly.com/question/523624
Grade: High School
Chapter: Physical Fitness
Body index mass, weight, doctor, triceps, abdomen, midaxilla, Quadriceps, skinfold, mass, height, pectoral.
What are the benefits of living in a permanent settlement vs. a nomadic settlement? Include at least three benefits
I am pleased to share with you this unclassified version of a new National Intelligence Estimate on the reemergence of the threat from infectious diseases worldwide and its implications for the United States.
This report represents an important initiative on the part of the Intelligence Community to consider the national security dimension of a nontraditional threat. It responds to a growing concern by senior US leaders about the implications–in terms of health, economics, and national security–of the growing global infectious disease threat. The dramatic increase in drug-resistant microbes, combined with the lag in development of new antibiotics, the rise of megacities with severe health care deficiencies, environmental degradation, and the growing ease and frequency of cross-border movements of people and produce have greatly facilitated the spread of infectious diseases.
In June 1996, President Clinton issued a Presidential Decision Directive calling for a more focused US policy on infectious diseases. The State Department’s Strategic Plan for International Affairs lists protecting human health and reducing the spread of infectious diseases as US strategic goals, and Secretary Albright in December 1999 announced the second of two major U.S. initiatives to combat HIV/AIDS. The unprecedented UN Security Council session devoted exclusively to the threat to Africa from HIV/AIDS in January 2000 is a measure of the international community’s concern about the infectious disease threat.
As part of this new US Government effort, the National Intelligence Council produced this National Intelligence Estimate. It examines the most lethal diseases globally and by region; develops alternative scenarios about their future course; examines national and international capacities to deal with them; and assesses their national and global social, economic, political, and security impact. It then assesses the infectious disease threat from international sources to the United States; to US military personnel overseas; and to regions in which the United States has or may develop significant equities.
As a result of the Peloponnesian War, Sparta dominated Greece for a number of years. Peloponnesian War was a war between Sparta and Athens which were two leading city-states in Ancient Greek.
Peloponnesian War happened in 431-404 BCE. This war included Sparta and Athens. Sparta led an alliance of independent states. This alliances of independent states included most of the major land powers of the central Greece, Peloponnese, and sea power Corinth. Athens was an empire with its alliance included most of the coastal states around the eastern and southers shores of the Aegean Sea, as well as the island around that area. Sparta had a strong army while the Athens had a strong navy. Yet, Athens had better financial preparation that Sparta.
Peloponnesian War happened for years and followed by series of war. In 394-386 BC, Corinthian War happened as the following war after the Peloponnesian War. These wars shaped the ancient Greek world.
Historically, Peloponnesian War was divided into three phases. The first phase was when Sparta launched continously invasion off Attica. In the other hand, Athens took benefits from its marine sovereignity to raid the coast of the Peloponnese. The second phase was when Athens sent an enormous expeditionary force to attack Syracuse while Sparta got support from the Achaemenid Empire. The third phase was when Corinth and Thebes requested Athens to be destroyed and its citizens to be enslaved but the Sparta refused.
If you’re interested in learning more about this topic, we recommend you to also take a look at the following questions:
1. As a result of the Peloponnesian War, Sparta
KEYWORDS: Peloponnesian War, Sparta
Sub-chapter: Peloponnesian War
Now, speed is distance over time while velocity is displacement over time. Since we’re talking about the same object’s motion, the total time traveled is (120 + 90) = 210 seconds.
Now, the total distance traveled by the object is (400 + 250) = 650 m. Meanwhile the total displacement traveled by the object is 400 m, East + 250 m, West = 150 m, East.
Now, to find the speed and velocity, we just divide the values of distance and displacement, respectively, over time. Thus, we have
speed = 650 m / 210s ≈ 3.095 m/s
velocity = 150 m, East /210 s ≈ 0.714 m/s, East
Now, rounding the values up to 2 significant digits, we have
a) speed = 3.1 m/s
b) velocity = 0.71 m/s, East
Managerial accounting is indeed an activity that helps managers determine the costs of products and services, plan future activities, and compare actual to planned results. Managerial accounting also provides information for the managers within the company or organization.
Also known as cost accounting, managerial accounting can be defined as a process of identifying, analyzing, and communicating information to managers. This information will help managers within the company or organization to make decisions following the organization’s goals.
What does managerial accounting do?
As the name suggests, managerial accounting performs all fields of accounting. This includes margin analysis, constraint analysis, capital budgeting, trend forecasting, and product costing. Several concepts and techniques are used in managerial accounting. A managerial accountant usually has to perform planning and budgeting, project decision making, and performance measurement. All information resulting from this will be delivered to the company’s managers to help him make business decisions.
How does managerial accounting differ from financial accounting?
Even though managerial accounting and financial accounting are often overlapped, these two roles are different from each other. Below here are several differences between managerial accounting and financial accounting:
If you’re interested in learning more about this topic, we recommend you to also take a look at the following questions:
Managerial accounting, financial accounting.
Class: High School
Subchapter: Managerial Accounting
For the first question, it’s basically asking what you did to ensure that you have appealed to your designated audience, or the demographic that you are trying to attract to your product/whatever you’re advertising. It also asks about your purpose, and since I don’t know your purpose for making your promo, you’ll have to answer this yourself.
For the second question, you’ll have to add all of the media types that you used to create your promo. Did you write your promo down on paper, then take a picture of it? Did you use images, and if you did, were these images created by you using paper and pencil/a digital program or found on a website? What did you use to convey your message, television? Social media? A physical medium, like a billboard or flyer? Did you use video or sound recording in addition to any of the things I stated?
For the third question, you’ll have to inquire with your test buddy.
For the final question, you’ll have to describe what you did to the response your test buddy gave you. Did you change anything? Did you take any action outside of changing your work, preferably non-violent? (That was a joke, I think they’re just asking what you did related to your promo).
I hope this helped you out! Feel free to ask me any additional questions if you have any. 🙂
Benefits of staying tobacco free include
ANSWER 1: Reaction Time
EXPLANATION: When someone is playing Volleyball, reaction time is very important to respond to the incoming volleyball. The definition of reaction time is the length of time taken for a person or system to respond to a given stimulus or event. This timing should be perfect in order to give back the reply to opponent.
ANSWER 2: Balance
EXPLANATION: Though Competitive Biking is a non-racing sport still it needs balance for participants. Balance helps a person to stay on the bicycle even on lower speed. Jim would need to excel and give his utmost attention to improve balance.
ANSWER 3: Weight lifting and dancing
EXPLANATION: Outside school, Weight lifting and dancing can accomplish the most vigorous physical activity. These sports are widely available outside the school. Weight lifting can be done in any gym and dance in one of the most popular activity for many though it is not seen as a form of physical activity or sports.
ANSWER 4: Archery and Bicycling
EXPLANATION: For Emma to avoid sports which includes power, she must avoid Archery. Archery requires a lot of power and sometimes even body-builders find it difficult to pull a bow. Archery uses muscles of the shoulders and upper back are the rhomboids, levator scapulae, trapezius, deltoids, latissimus dorsi, and the rotator cuff muscle group, which includes the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and teres minor. Bicycling also uses muscles of quadriceps and hamstrings in the upper leg, and the gastrocnemius and soleus in the calf. This causes pedaling action.
ANSWER 5: Aerobic, because it uses oxygen for a long duration
EXPLANATION: To raise heart rate to middle of target heart rate zone if the person is doing cycling, it is similar to doing aerobics. Aerobics is a cardio-vascular exercise which usually increases the breathing rate with the increase of heart rate.
ANSWER 6: Benefits of muscle strength increase as you get older.
EXPLANATION: The benefits of muscle strength increases as you get older. Older persons need more focus on muscles. Muscle get attached to the skin and gives skin a strength which helps them to sustain the old age and keeps them fit.
ANSWER 7: Tyrell
EXPLANATION: Comparing all the other members, Tyrell has worked the most. His heart rate zone is 140 – 183 bpm which is maximum than all the other members mentioned in the table. This range shows the comparison of heart rate of different individuals, out of which Tyrell had the highest heart rate for the exercise of stair climbing.
ANSWER 8: Special Offer
EXPLANATION: The advertisement doesn’t claim any generalized statement rather it has a special offer. Fitness programs are one of the products which people know they need to buy but still doesn’t get attention. This is why advertisements are made like this so that people gets attracted to it.
ANSWER 9: Make it measurable by explaining how far away the target is
EXPLANATION: If a person needs to work on his/her strength, nothing is better than measuring your statistics so that you can keep a close track on your performance target. This makes working on strengths a fun process and a happening place to practice, thus improving the accuracy without having any stress.
ANSWER 10: Increase the amount of time he runs
EXPLANATION: For Mason to get the most benefit from his heart, he should increase the amount of time of running. This will increase his heartbeat because more oxygen would be needed to release the energy during the running. The more the heart will pump the blood, the more energy will be released and eventually the hear rate will increase.
Listed below are examples of existing and potential benefits offered by the use of rDNA biotechnology.
Plant Attribute Benefits. rDNA biotechnology- derived food crops offer growers: increased crop resistance to pests, disease, and environmental stress; increased crop yields; and decreased production costs. Potential advantages for consumers include: improved organoleptic and nutritional quality; improved shelf-life of fresh fruits and vegetables; and reduced allergen concentrations.
Food Technology Uses of Bioprocessing. rDNA biotechnology enables optimization of the microorganisms and enzymes necessary for processing of fermented foods such as cheeses, pickles, wine, beer, and sausages, resulting in food ingredients of higher quality and purity as well as ingredients not otherwise available.
Environmental Benefits. rDNA biotechnology has been used to develop herbicide-tolerant crops that enable the use of comparatively environmentally benign herbicides and increase the flexibility in crop rotation. In addition, these crops facilitate no-till agriculture, which reduces fossil fuel use, soil erosion, and air pollution. Increased yields on existing farm land, especially through crops adapted to local soil or drought conditions, will help provide the necessary quantities of food as the world’s population grows without converting our remaining forests into farm land.
Diet, Nutrition, and Health Benefits. rDNA biotechnology has the potential to provide more food to the world and foods of improved nutritional composition to meet the specific needs of different populations. In addition, specific plant components now recognized for their ability to contribute to improved health and the prevention of some degenerative diseases could also be incorporated into foods.
To critically understand the benefits that diversity brings into the workplace, one must completely understand the term ‘diversity’. The Committee on Diversity of the Chancellor describes it as: “The variety of experiences and perspectives that result from differences in race, culture, religion, mental or physical abilities, heritage, age, gender, sexual orientation, gender identity and other features “(UT 1). Diversity brings people from all walks of life with a common goal to pursue into a single business environment. It also allows the organization to bring ideas and experiences from people from different backgrounds. Diversity also allows a company to pool into a wider range of resources, which is essential to perform business tasks and solve business-related issues.
A diverse workforce can seize a larger consumer market segment. This is because it allows a company to bring people from different backgrounds, thus enabling the organization to better understand the different cultures, races or genders that make up the consumer market. Understanding the consumer market allows the organization to meet the consumer market preferences directly, as well as allowing the organization to market its products or services more efficiently. Furthermore, understanding different languages, cultures and ethics enables an organization to operate globally.
Companies that do not prejudice their employee selection will find that they can select employees from a larger pool of candidates. This allows them to select only the best, and selection is based on talent and skills rather than culture, generation or gender.
Diversity promotes a workplace that is more “creative and innovative” (Dolly 1). Companies that incorporate a more diverse workplace can foster a wider range of ideas and points of view. As a result, employees can contribute more to the pool of ideas that a business uses to fulfill its business tasks. In a 2011 Forbes study, 85% of 321 global companies generating annual revenues of at least $500 million agree that “diversity is crucial to fostering workplace innovation” (Dolly 1).
Increased adaptability will be found among companies that promote diversity within their employee population. Having the capacity of a diverse workforce means that companies can pool business-related issues that the company may encounter in a wider variety of solutions. Employees can bring ideas or personal talents from various walks of life.
Customers can come from extremely diverse backgrounds in an existing organization. Employees in any organization with similar natural diversity help significantly enhance customer relationships and connections. This is enhanced by sharing the vision of the organization with the staff. In return, it enables employees to reach out to customers and manage their needs in the way they want. This allows customers to develop a sense of assimilation with the organization and thus become part of the organization (Laura 1).
Promoting diversity, talent and inclusion within a company gives customers, partners and media a favorable viewpoint. This attracts talented individuals because it is usually seen as a good workplace. The positive environment creates a successful breeding ground, attracting the brighter and best staff from all over the world.
Organizations who actively promote gender diversity in the workplace will increase the company’s understanding on preferences for women and children. With a population of just slightly lower than men, women make up about 49.7% of the entire world population. This just shows how equally important they are to the men. Companies who recruit women are able to bring experience not only from a woman’s point of view but also from a mother’s perspective as a result, companies are able to tailor their marketing techniques and produce their products in a manner that fits their customer preferences.
Since World War II, every generation has been known to possess specific set of traits either positive or negative. The greatest generation applied to those born before 1945. In the generation members tend to sacrifice abide to rules and think of others before thinking of themselves. The me generation, baby Boomer, which was born between 1965 and 1964, was thought to change the world via working and relating well with others. The X generation, born between 1965 and 1979 was skeptical, inquisitive and self reliant hence result driven and realistic. Millennial generation is an achievement and service oriented, reluctant to refrain from difficulties. (Bigelow 1. the diversification of this services enables them to educate people of all ages.
Companies who employ a culturally diverse workforce are able to perform business tasks from a global perspective. Employing people from different cultural backgrounds allows the organization to better understand different cultures that make-up a consumer market. Therefore, they are able to market their products or service better. Bringing in different cultures also allows a company to design or cater its products or services in a way that is preferential to the global consumer market. Employing a diverse workforce also means incorporating a diverse work ethic; companies will have more ways of making a profit and can have greater knowledge of how businesses from around the world perform their tasks. In addition, the ability of a company to employ a diverse workforce relates greatly on its reputation. In a very ethnically diverse nation companies who employ a culturally diverse workforce will bring in more talented candidates from a more culturally diverse pool of candidates. Globally, a company’s reputation will also grow if they are able to employ people coming from different cultural backgrounds of the world.
Integration of employees from different cultural background and countries in your work force increase internal and external communication barrier filters. Heterogeneous work culture makes communication easier for employees do not strain to overcome language barriers and cultural issues. This is one of the reasons why big organization employs interpreters and diverse trainers to help employees overcome communication challenges of diversity (Kokemuller 1).
Josh Greenberg the president of employee survey firm once pointed out that in the work place, resistance to change is general phenomena. The growth of organization and companies changes the nature of workplace and the kind of relationship exhibited there in. This change sometimes can be stressful among employees resulting to the development of negative working relationship poor morale in incidences of poor management and planning. Therefore, training employee about diversity is extremely important if it affects their work roles and processes.
The companies that hire internationally often have human resource department in place to manage the diversity that occurs. However, it takes time for companies to become diverse on many level. Incidences of discrimination may be found in companies that become slowly diverse without a strategic plan in place between managers and employees. Since diversity is based on distinguishing workers trains, the presence of a diverse workforce probes opportunity for discrimination. For example, if a male dominated workplace is going to hire females, it is going to increase the workplace tension and unwelcome changes. Nobody likes to break homeostasis, and it takes detailed planning to create a new productive culture. At the worst, it could also lead to high employee turnover rate.
Greenberg in his recommendation to effective diversity management, he included its assessment, implementation and development of a diverse workforce plans and approach as the step for its effective management. These approaches have cost association directly or indirectly. Examples of indirect cost are incurred in training and participating time employed by the company employees as well as others aspects of implementing diversity.
A Harvard business review writer, Peter Bregman, suggested that it is critical to train the employee to see others as individuals, instead of categories. (Bregman 3)
Also Study: Example of Diversity in Organization
Answer: Guilds were the ones that organized trade in medieval cities and towns.
#2) What is a fief?
Answer: It was land given in exchange for loyalty during the Feudal system.
#3) Christians and Muslims wanted to control the Holy Land because?
Answer: Out of all the options that are available the one that best represents the reason why Christians and Muslims wanted to control the Holy Land is that they believed it was a sacred place. Christians saw it as the place where Jesus was crucified and ascended to heaven while Muslims as the place where Muhammad ascended to heaven.
#4) All of the following advances in technology contributed to the Age of Exploration EXCEPT?Answer: Out of all the advances in technology the only one that is not mentioned as one that contributed to the Age of Exploration is Circumnavigation.
#5) How did Peter the Great change Russia??
Answer: The way Peter the Great change Russia was by modernizing the army. He went to examine his rivals and vowed to transform Russia into a great power.
#6) Which statement describes the thinking of the Enlightenment??
Answer: The statement that best describes the thinking of the Enlightenment is that the power of reason is most important. During this period there was a lot of emphasis on scientific methods, learning, religious tolerance, universal education, individual liberty, reason and the separation of church and state.
#7) What was one cause of the English Civil War?
Answer: One cause of the English Civil War was that Charles I did not recognize Parliament’s power. He was arrogant and conceited and had many arguments with parliament regarding money and religion. His abuse of power and the attempt to seize power and become an absolute monarch is considered the reason of the English Civil War.
#8) What event helped to cause World War II?
Answer: Out of all the options that are available the one that represents an event that helped cause World War II is the German invasion of Poland.
#9) Why did the Cold War end??
Answer: The main reason why the Cold War ended was because communism in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union collapsed. The systems failure resulted on the soviet side with a lack of cutting-edge weapons and consumer goods while on the other hand the US could afford superior military technology.
#10) The members of NAFTA are?
Answer: The countries that make up NAFTA are Canada, US, and Mexico. The correct answer is choice D).
I hope it helps, Regards.
Stem cells are unspecialized cells which are capable of self-renewal and also of differentiation into specialized cells. Stem cell research holds the promise of making an unmatched contribution towards tissue transplants, replacement of aging or damaged tissue, gene therapy and effective drug testing. The advantages and benefits of Stem Cell Research far outweigh any potential disadvantages.
Stem cell research is one of the most controversial topics in contemporary medical and ethical debate. Stem cells are unspecialized cells which are capable of self-renewal and also of differentiation into specialized cells. These cells constitute an internal repair system, dividing limitlessly to replace damaged and worn-out cells as long as there is life. There are three types of stem cells. Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are derived from the embryo and are pluripotent: they have the potential to become all the different cell types of the body. Adult or somatic stem cells are found in organs or tissues and are multipotent: they can distinguish the specific kinds of cells that comprise that specific organ or tissue and are essential for organ or tissue maintenance and repair. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are genetically reprogrammed adult cells to an embryonic stem cell-like state. The dual ability of stem cells for self-renewal and differentiation into specific cell and tissue kinds provides excellent potential for regenerating faulty body components and curing illnesses that have so far defied drug-based therapy (NIH, 2002). Advocates of stem cell research consider it to be mankind’s greatest hope of survival. At the other end of the spectrum are the detractors, who paint a doomsday scenario of “a new world of “embryo farms” and “cloning mills” for the cultivation of human spare parts” (Weiss, n.d.). The benefits of stem cell research far outweigh any potential disadvantages. Stem cell research holds the promise of making an unmatched contribution towards tissue transplants, replacement of aging or damaged tissue, gene therapy and effective drug testing.
Adult stem cells are used in bone marrow transplants. Bone marrow contains blood-forming stem cells (hematopoietic stem cells) that have been used for over four decades to treat blood cancers and other inherited blood disorders. Bone marrow transplants are able to permanently replace a patient’s diseased blood system and give the patient a new lease on life. Persons who have diseases of the bone marrow are injected with healthy hematopoietic stem cells that produce healthy blood cells, and replace the function of their own non-functioning bone marrow (NIH, 2002). Umbilical cord blood, which is harvested from the umbilical cord of the baby after birth, is another source of hematopoietic stem cells that is being used in treatment. Cord blood is rich in a kind of stem cell that gives rise to oxygen-carrying red blood cells, disease-fighting white blood cells, and other parts of the blood and immune systems (Weiss, n.d.). The benefit of cord blood cells is that these stem cells can be frozen (‘ cryopreserved ‘) in cell banks and subsequently used to treat kids with cancerous blood disorders such as leukaemia and genetic blood diseases such as Fanconi anaemia. Another advantage of cord blood transplants is that they are less likely than conventional bone marrow transplants to be rejected by the immune system, or to result in a negative reaction such as Graft versus Host Disease. (EuroStemCell, 2013). Unlike conventional blood transfusions, which provide only temporary volumes of cells which die in a few months and have to be replaced yet again, the stem cells found in bone marrow and cord blood can generate fresh blood and immune cells for a lifetime (Weiss, n.d.). More advanced techniques for collecting, or “harvesting,” hematopoietic stem cells are now used in order to treat leukemia, lymphoma, multiple myeloma, non-Hodgkin myeloma and several other blood disorders. Stem cells are used in the treatment of several diseases.
The replacement of aging or damaged tissue is one of the most promising potentials of stem cell research. Healthy stem cells can replace damaged cells in an adult. The National Institutes of Health indicates that approximately 1.1 million Americans suffer a heart attack each year, with over half a million fatalities. Adult mesenchymal stem cells hold the promise of new ways to repair damaged cardiovascular muscle cells and arteries after a heart attack. These cells are found in the bone marrow and are responsible for bone and cartilage repair and in supporting blood stem cells. They also produce fat cells. Research gives promise of potential treatments for repairing bone or cartilage and the repair of lung tissue in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Stem cell research is actively testing the potential of mesenchymal stem cells in protecting pancreatic beta islet cells in adults and children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes, by adding healthy pancreatic cells that produce insulin. Human spinal cord stem cells are undergoing clinical trial testing in the treatment of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), also known as Lou Gehrig ’s disease. Mesenchymal stem cells might also replace damaged nerve cells in Alzheimer’s disease and spinal cord injury, provide healthy new skin tissue in the case of burn victims and add nerve cells that secrete dopamine in Parkinson’s disease. Adult eye stem cells are being tested as to their efficacy in repairing corneal damage. (NIH, 2012).
Stem cells can also be used to screen fresh drugs and toxins and to understand birth defects without toxins and drugs being subjected to human volunteers. In the early stages of drug screening, living cell cultures are used to test the effectiveness and safety of new drug compounds. Compounds that work best on cells are then tested in research animals, and finally in clinical trials with human patients. One of the great promises of embryonic stem cell research is that these cells might be used to create very specific cell cultures for the initial stages of drug testing. These stem cells develop into the tissue targeted for testing and are subjected to drugs. For example, embryonic stem cells could generate human brain cells that show the effects of Alzheimer’s disease. Researchers could then screen millions of potential drugs against this more realistic cellular model and identify the most effective compounds. These compounds could then be tested on animals and humans. The speed and accuracy of drug screening would be improved by the use of real human cells that mimic diseases. Safety of clinical testing could be vastly improved. (University of Michigan web site, 2012).
Another treatment possibility is to use stem cells in gene therapy. Stem cell research will help us understand inherited diseases by allowing us to study human cells bearing the exact genetic defects that cause disease in patients. Stem cells could find use as vectors (a tool used to deliver genetic information between cells) where they serve as the agents used to transfer genetic material from one cell to another. For example, hematopoietic stem cells could theoretically be genetically altered to make them resistant to HIV and AIDS and then inserted into a person who has HIV or AIDS. The genetically altered cells may take on the function of healthy cells thereby helping the person with HIV or AIDS fight off infection and illness. (University of Minnesota Center for Bioethics, n. d.). In essence, human embryonic stem cells may be genetically manipulated to treat human patients with immunodeficiency or other illnesses that can be fixed by cell transplantation. Embryonic stem cells may also be indirectly beneficial for cellular gene therapy, by providing a constant in vitro source of cellular material for cellular based gene therapy. Haematopoietic stem cells are loaded with replacement genes to take the place of defective genes and released into the blood stream of the patient. These engineered stem cells correct defective cells in the nervous system by supplying the normal version of the defective gene. The stem cells also reproduce to form new blood cells that reinforce their effect. Stem cell gene therapy shows great promise in immune system dysfunction and neurodegenerative diseases (NIH, 2009).
In spite of the infinite potential advantages and benefits of Stem Cell Research, it is bogged down by ethical controversies. The issue with rouses most opposition is the use of embryonic stem cells. Opponents of stem cell research hold that embryos are human individuals and should not be used or destroyed for research purposes. This position is unsound. During in vitro fertilization, a large number of embryos are created to ensure that at least one succeeds. The unneeded embryos are destroyed or given for research with the parents’ consent. Stem cell research is largely based on the use of embryos which have already been destroyed or on embryos which are left over from in vitro fertilization procedures and are destined to be discarded. There are currently more than 200,000 “excess embryos” frozen in fertility centers around the United States. (University of Minnesota’s Center for Bioethics, n. d.). The use of left over embryos from assisted reproduction treatments for stem cell research is amply justified in the scientific quest to alleviate human suffering. A second argument raised by opponents of stem cell research is that it may be the ‘slippery slope’ which leads to human cloning. This again is fallacious reasoning, as the therapeutic cloning used in stem cell research is a laboratory process to create embryonic stem cell lines and is completely different from the reproductive cloning in which a cloned product is implanted into a uterus to generate a pregnancy.
Stem cell research is mankind’s hope for the future. It is the new frontier of medical research and has the potential for under-standing disease development and progression, for regenerative medicine, and for targeted drug development. It is a part of the quest for new knowledge which has always characterized mankind and makes him the master of the universe. Stem cell research is one of the most powerful tools available to Science in its effort to combat human suffering and enhance the quality of life. The need of the hour is accelerated stem cell research conducted under the well-defined ethical boundaries. The advantages and benefits of Stem Cell Research are so evident that all arguments against it are bound to fail. No power can arrest the inevitable progress of this science which promises to create a better world for all.