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“That you want us to call him Nikhil.” “That is correct.” Mrs. Lapidus nods. “The reason being?” “That is our wish.” “I’m not sure I follow you, Mr. Ganguli. Do you mean that Nikhil is a middle name? Or a nickname? Many of the children go by nicknames here. On this form there is a space—” “No, no, it’s not a middle name,” Ashoke says. He is beginning to lose patience. “He has no middle name. No nickname. The boy’s good name, his school name, is Nikhil.” Mrs. Lapidus presses her lips together and smiles. “But clearly he doesn’t respond.” “Please, Mrs. Lapidus,” Ashoke says. “It is very common for a child to be confused at first. Please give it some time. I assure you he will grow accustomed.” Which statement best explains how Lahiri explores conflict brought on by globalization? 1.Lahiri uses descriptions to compare elements of traditional schooling in different cultures. 2.Lahiri uses the characters’ actions to show how people from different cultures can work together to resolve conflicting values. 3.Lahiri uses the setting to highlight her opinions on the educational systems in both the United States and India. 4.Lahiri uses dialogue to show how people from different cultures can have difficulty relating to each other’s experiences.

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Answered by answersmine AT 22/10/2019 – 03:00 AM

The answer is D. Lahiri want’s to bring attention to how much cultural tension there is between an Indian transfer student and a typical American school. In this  example the conflict isn’t between the child and the teacher: but the communication barrier they have over his name.

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Postmodernist literature is characterized by its focus on A. individualism and the common man. B. globalization and multiculturalism. C. sharing beliefs and convictions. D. realism and countercultures.

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Postmodernist literature is characterized by its focus on A. individualism and the common man. B. globalization and multiculturalism. C. sharing beliefs and convictions. D. realism and countercultures.

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In Muslim cultures, what are some arguments for and against globalization?

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The correct answer is – B) False.

The Mayans were everything but persecuted and culturally isolated civilization, nor they were impoverished. This civilization thrived in Mesoamerica, and it was the greatest and most advanced civilization in the New World during its existence.

The cultural isolation can be easily debunked as the Mayan culture was based on the earlier Olmec culture, and also the civilizations that were contemporary of the Mayans adopted this from them, as well as the later civilizations in the region, like the Aztecs, that had lot of cultural influence from them.

The Maya had nice prosperous empire, with magnificent buildings, and development in multiple scientific fields. They were ruling over some other people, but they were not terrible rulers, so they were respected and the empire was unified.

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How is globalization affecting economies and societies around the world?

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How is globalization affecting economies and societies around the world?

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How did modern globalization is the result of a process of specialization and trade

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1- The correct answer is B, as one result of the Great Society was that the lives of many underprivileged Americans improved.

The Great Society was a set of US national reform programs announced by President Lyndon B. Johnson for the first time in a speech at Ohio University on May 7, 1964 and more fully illustrated on May 22, 1964 at the University of Michigan. These reform programs were subsequently presented to the Congress of the United States and largely approved during the 1960s, thanks to the consent of its supporters of the Democratic Party.

Two main goals of social reforms were the elimination of poverty and racial injustice. During this period new large spending programs were launched in the fields of education, medical care, urban problems and transport. Johnson’s “Great Society” was linked, in its objectives and policies, to President Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s New Deal program.

Some proposals of the Great Society resumed initiatives contained in the New Frontier program, interrupted by the tragic death of President John F. Kennedy. Johnson’s success in promoting and endorsing his reforms depended on his considerable congressional political influence, his persuasion, and the favorable historical circumstances resulting from the 1964 presidential elections, which allowed the Democratic Party to dominate Congress and to elect the House of Representatives with the largest number of exponents of the liberal current since 1938.

The evolution of the Vietnam war and the massive involvement of the American military machine in the conflict, however, partly undermined the success of the “Great Society” program. Growing, huge expenditures for the continuation of the war made more difficult to finance the reform programs. Representatives of the Democratic Party against the war in Vietnam complained that military spending decisively stifled the Great Society program. On the whole, however, despite growing political and economic difficulties, which forced the administration to eliminate or reduce the financing of some projects, President Johnson managed to activate a series of programs of great importance, including Medicare, Medicaid, the Older Americans Act and the federal education funding, which are still active.

2- The correct answer is C, as the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 was necessary because the previous existing American immigration policies were discriminatory.

On October 3, 1965, President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the law into effect, saying: “The [old] system violates the basic principle of American democracy, the principle according to which the valuation and reward of each man should be established on the basis of his merits as a man. It has been anti-American in the highest sense, because it has been unfaithful to the faith that led thousands to these shores, even before we were a country. ”

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16. How does globalization lead to interdependence among nations? A)Leaders make agreements with other nations to buy goods and services. B)People come to depend on foreign industry to provide them with employment. C)Nations begin to rely on each other for things they cannot produce themselves. D)Workers ask other nations to persuade sweatshops to provide a living wage.

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Here are the following effects of loose money and tight
money policies on the actions being listed.

A. A loose money policy
is usually implemented as an effort to encourage economic growth.
This can lead to inflation when uncontrolled. The effects are:

1. Borrowing becomes easy

2. Consumer buys more

3. Since more people are willing to buy,
businesses expand

4. Employment rate increases due to
expansion of businesses

5. Since more people are employed, thus
production also increases

 

B. A tight money policy is a course of action to restrict spending
in an economy that is growing too quickly or to hold back inflation when it is
rising too fast. This can lead to recession when uncontrolled. The
effects are:

1. Borrowing becomes difficult

2. Consumer buys less

3. Since people don’t have a lot of
money, business don’t expand

4. Unemployment rate increases due to businesses
slowing down

5. Production decreases

 

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16. How does globalization lead to interdependence among nations? A)Leaders make agreements with other nations to buy goods and services. B)People come to depend on foreign industry to provide them with employment. C)Nations begin to rely on each other for things they cannot produce themselves. D)Workers ask other nations to persuade sweatshops to provide a living wage.

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Here are the following effects of loose money and tight
money policies on the actions being listed.

A. A loose money policy
is usually implemented as an effort to encourage economic growth.
This can lead to inflation when uncontrolled. The effects are:

1. Borrowing becomes easy

2. Consumer buys more

3. Since more people are willing to buy,
businesses expand

4. Employment rate increases due to
expansion of businesses

5. Since more people are employed, thus
production also increases

 

B. A tight money policy is a course of action to restrict spending
in an economy that is growing too quickly or to hold back inflation when it is
rising too fast. This can lead to recession when uncontrolled. The
effects are:

1. Borrowing becomes difficult

2. Consumer buys less

3. Since people don’t have a lot of
money, business don’t expand

4. Unemployment rate increases due to businesses
slowing down

5. Production decreases

 

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Using what you have learned, describe the effect of communications technology on globalization. Be sure to mention how communications technology affects trade.

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Using what you have learned, describe the effect of communications technology on globalization. Be sure to mention how communications technology affects trade.

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Are the effects of globalization better for developed countries or developing countries?~Support your answer with historical evidence~

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The correct answer is D. They have created instability by carrying out attacks and political uprisings.

Several radical Islamist groups have accumulated great power in the Middle East during the last decades.

Islamism comprehend a wide range of political ideologies that seek to adapt public and political life to the precepts of Islam, or at least to their interpretations of what those precepts are. Many radical Islamist groups tend to do so by any mean, even using violence and terror against Muslim and non-Muslim populations. The largest attack in the West by one of these terrorist groups, Al-Qaeda, was the attack against the World Trade Center in 2001.

After this event, the United States declared the war against terrorism and started the invasion of Afghanistan in 2001, in order to overthrow the Taliban regime. Two years later the war of Iraq took place, its objective was to overthrow the regime of Saddam Hussein, which was not Islamist but anti-American. This goal was accomplished, but it created a vacuum of power in Iraq, which was taken as an advantage by radical Islamist groups that spread all over Iraq.

With the instability that took over Syria after the Arab Spring, many of these groups entered in Syria from Iraq and deepened the ongoing civil war. In 2014 a new radical Islamist group that nucleated many others declared an Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS) as the Caliphate of all Muslims. This terrorist group tends to expand its frontiers and committed many atrocities since then.

Other radical Islamist groups are implicated in ongoing conflicts and recurrent attacks in Yemen, Palestine, Israel, Lebanon, and Libya. Many of the political uprisings of the Arab Spring were supported by Islamist (not necessarily terrorist/radical) groups and parties, like the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt.

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Pros and Cons of Globalization Research Paper Example

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Pros and Cons of Globalization Contents

Pros and Cons of Globalization – Introduction

Globalization can not be seen as a single idea that can be embraced and defined within a time frame. It can not be defined as a process with a start or a definite end. Furthermore, it cannot be applied with certainty to all individuals across all regions. Globalization involves integration of the economy, transfer of various policies and regulations across borders, knowledge transmission, cultural stability, relations, reproductions and power discourse. (Mcausland 5-20). It certainly controls a global process. The concept of globalization is however quiet old. Some connotations refer to it with a revolution, idea, and worldwide market institution free from social and political colonialism, regression, and destabilization, while others refer to stability and growth, collaboration, and inclusion, and advancement. Globalization interpretation is described by the social status, political ideology, and cultural background, local and religious background, and ethnic background of an individual. According to Pugel (104-140), “In order to improve the global economy, globalization is the mechanism of communication between world nations. Globalization interpretation is described by the social status, political ideology, and cultural background, local, religious, and ethnic background of an individual. According to Pugel (104-140), “In order to improve the global economy, globalization is the mechanism of communication between world nations.

Thus it can be understood that no specific definition can define globalization that encompasses all its beneficial and negative characteristics. Many scientists and writers, however, have given descriptions that understand one or more globalization realities. Globalization is a method that reduces the world by reducing distances and bringing stuff closer to each other. It can be compared with the availability and ease with which individuals at one corner of the globe can interact at the other end of the globe, for mutual benefit. Albrow (1990) invented the word “worldwide society.” According to him, globalization can be linked to all those operations and procedures through which people around the world are integrated into a single world of culture, known as worldwide culture.

Pros and Cons of Globalization Research Paper

Globalization is increasingly becoming omnipresent (Friedman 10). It is regarded as one of the most important change in the history of human culture. This can be expressed in different fields, particularly in social constructions, widespread social interactions around the globe. The criticism of globalization has been discovered to be similarly powerful. Recent growth in numerous anti-globalization campaigns and organizations is evidence that individuals are not entirely satisfied with the policies and possibilities that a globalized economy provides. Globalization has caused weaker and smaller nations to lose their culture and traditional characteristics, according to critics. In nations, globalization has developed so many associations and pacts that the economic crisis spreads at a much quicker pace than anticipated from one nation to another. Critics also claim that more strong countries ‘ dictatorship over other nations is becoming clearer. Migration or financial flows can not be controlled by nations. Inequality and unemployment are other variables that have put globalization on the adverse side. The present study aims to analyze globalization pros and cons. Globalization and its different ideas will be discussed in order to gain a better understanding of its current status, history and evolution. In terms of its impact on multifaceted variables, the multiple benefits and disadvantages of globalization will be assessed.

History and Origin of Globalization

Discussing the history and origins of globalization is extremely difficult, as many perspective and theories surround on this issue. In the following section globalization has been described through five different perspectives.

According to this theory, globalization has originated from the basic urge of human beings seeking a more fulfilling and better life. This theory can be traced back to Ice age when primates left Africa in search of better security and food. Thousands of years have passed and the wandering across ocean and regions in still seems to continue. The four aspects of globalization which can be related to the basic urge were concluded to be missionary works such as religion, commerce or trade, conquest such as warfare or politics and adventures.

This perspective of globalization is described as a long term and cyclical process. According to this theory, it is very difficult to find a single origin point for globalization as it consist of a series of long term cycles and the most important of them do not come in any particular point or phase of origin. It suggests that in the past other global ages have occurred and they have been transformed into what is known as the new age of globalization (Baker, Epstein and Pollin 40-50). However, these ages or high points are destined to diminish and disappear in near future. The old era is eventually replaced by a new globalization cycle.

Globalization has occurred in waves of epochs, this is the third perspective for the evolution of this concept. Six great waves or epochs of globalization have been identified and occurred sequentially, each with its own origin point.

  • Between fourth and seventh centuries, the world witnesses globalization in terms of religion such as origin or Christianity and Islam.
  • Conquests of European colonies dominated the fifteenth century
  • Globalization was introduced as a result of various intra-European wars between 18th and 19th centuries
  • Occurrence of European imperialism between mid 19th century and 1918.
  • Period after world war two
  • Period after cold war

From the above points it was concluded that in today’s world, globalization cannot be considered unique. However, this view also rejects the cyclic perspective of globalization.

Role of Globalization is Structuring Economy

In order to understand economic structures associated with globalization, it is important to relate them with economic history. During the epoch (1896-1914), global progress was directly related to transportation developments such as steam ships and railroads. Compared to this, airplanes have played influential role in the recent global developments. Economic development of the globe largely depends on large scale capital flows.

It is interesting to note that globalization is mainly studied in terms of its effect of business and economy. However, much of its influences on various other aspects such as culture, habits, preferences and lifestyle often go unnoticed. For example, studies have been conducted on the spread of English as a global language and soccer or football as a globally accepted and favored sport, but most of these researches do not substantiate these influences in further detail (Tomlinson 50-73). For example, they failed to explain the cultural implications of these changes.

One of the important phases for globalization was the development of economy during and after First and Second World Wars. Depression and the two World Wars had left all major economies in a faltering state. However, during that time, globalization was more focused on political aspects rather than economic. As a result of these factors and increasing affinity towards internationalization, United States, United Kingdom and other major economies started major global restructuring. Major focus was given on reduction of trade barriers and free flow of investment and money. (Grossman and Krueger 360-370).

It is a multilateral organization with headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland. They have more than 152 nations as group members with the primary focus on the trade places as the centre of economic globalization. Every member state of this organization possesses equal right to vote. WTO as a trade multinational is expected to decrease various strains and stresses between developing and developed nations. While the organization is focused more on trade barriers which are non-tariff, as well as making sure that nations gain from open and free trade. It has been constantly criticized for providing insufficient help for the management of more complex trade barriers and not eliminating them for a better and free flow of trade (“Trade and Globalization”).

  • International Monetary Fund (IMF)

Macroeconomic stability is the ultimate goal of IMF, for both general economy as well as member nations. In more specific terms, IMF deals with balance of payments, exchange rates, capital flows in international terms and monitoring of the members states as well as their economic policies. The major criticism surrounding IMF is that it is seen as an organization which supports developed countries and tries to impose their regulations and policies or weaker or less developed economies (Boyer and Drache 50-75). However, supporters of IMF see it as a major key to the development of the economy in global terms. The organization deals with sophisticated factors such as monetary policies, majority of its policies and regulations which keep changing with the changing economy. Here too, the organization has been criticized for endowing the western nations with the powers of dominance.

One of the most critical parts of the World Bank group (WBG), World Bank is a specialized agency of the United Nations. The World Bank was established in the year 1944 and became functional in 1946. Member states of the international Monetary Fund have open memberships and the bank has more than 184 nations as its members. The major activities of World Bank include providing funds to programs sponsored and operated by government to part two countries also described as poorer and middle-income group nations (Benvenisti and Nolte 20-30). The mission is to develop productive resources and facilities in countries that are less developed, funding for productive results in situations when private capital is difficult to obtain on reasonable terms, facilitating international investment with the objective of promoting international trade, equilibrium and development in balance of payments and facilitating member countries with an improved living standard, productivity and labor conditions. Decisions made by the bank are expected to be purely economic and not on a political or any other grounds. However, the current policies and laws are not specific in terms of defining the specificities of the factors and situations in terms of their nature. Over the years, controversies have started surrounding the World Bank. The most popular is that the bank is dominated by developed and rich nations and less developed nations and non-states have a very little say in the decisions taken. The bank has also been criticized for encroaching on other agency’s activities and thus weakening them.

Pros and Cons of Globalization

As a result of various implications, globalization has been referred to as both positive and negative. In the next section, various pros and cons of globalization will be discussed.

Global trade has expanded in a rapid manner in the past two centuries. Since 1986, growth has been consistent and faster than the gross domestic product (GDP) of the world. Under the frame work of General Agreement on Trade and Tariff (GATT), trade liberalization was gradual and modest and the involvement of industrialized and developed countries was much more significant than the developing and poorer ones. However, at the beginning of 1980s, the extent of globalization as well as trade liberalization had begun accelerating, especially in developing and emerging nations (Boris and Haaff 38-40). This particular trade expansion was not uniform across all nations. The industrialized countries as well as a group of twelve emerging nations accounted for highest share in the trade processes. Compared to this, most of the developing nations did not get a chance to experience trade expansion in a significant share. There has been a decline in world trade in the recent past. This can be attributed to the sluggish economies and the continuous downfall of European nations.

Also Study: Globalization in Trade

Globalization has opened many opportunities and arenas for international trade. Consumers are now able to choose from a broader selection of services and products. In order to manage this ever increasing and ever flowing services, capital and goods, various institutions and government agencies have been introduced. Increase in international trade has led to enormous economic growth around the world such as creation of jobs, reduction in prices, raising incomes and an increase in the earning power of workers. However, this same trade can also bring political, social and economic disruption. As a result of the increasing interconnection in trade and economy, the sufferings and crisis are also being passed on to the developing nations from developed countries (Chintrakarn and Millimet 435-445). Thus, it can be said that international trade is also responsible for the rapid spread of the global economic crisis, which would otherwise remain concentrated in few economies only.

Globalization’s impact on women is more complicated and prevalent. Globalization sees no difference between women and man. However, the large scale deprivation of women from opportunities as well as resources has affected them more. Both positive and negative aspects are visible. With the increase in global networks in communication and exchange of cross-cultural factors, the overall status of women has changed (“Globalization and its impacts on women”). However, this change cannot be categorized as a large extent or high value change. Economists believe that the overall effect of globalization on women differs in different regions. For example, opportunities might be present in both development and developing nations but the resources and path will be different but much difficult in developing nations. Various religious groups which were previously strict with women are giving many opportunities to them (Friedman 55-75). Other opportunities provided by globalization are employment. With the expansion of mass communication and advertising medias, the awareness level of women has increased and they have better chances of proving themselves. Globalization demonstrated internet and created the opportunity for e-commerce. For example, with the help of internet and digital photos, more than 60000 women from the rural areas were able to deliver their services and goods in to the target market. This process has helped them in gaining better profits. With a boost in their income level, women are able to have more access to indicators of human development such as health, training, free access to communication and information, participation in political and social life etc. Apart from that, the participation of women in vital service categories such as banks, insurance companies, products, programming and retail have a profound effect on the overall performance.

However, the negative effects of globalization on women cannot be neglected either. Unfair deals happening in the free market space especially in the developing nations are forcing women to lose out on their jobs. There has been a continuous reduction in social services especially for women which have made them more vulnerable than male in many categories.

  • Outsourcing and Globalization

The concept of outsourcing was one the biggest discovery of globalization process. Outsourcing helped developing and emerging economies to transfer their talent and skills to other developed nations and got their exposure in the international business and functions. Various reasons can be attributed to the process and culture of outsourcing. The prominent advantage is that it saves capital. Majority of the organizations which provides outsourcing services are able to do so at a considerably less capital. This is more so in cases where they do not required to provide benefits to their employees and overhead expenses are fewer than in a regular on-role job. Outsourcing also helps firms in focusing on various other issues of business as most of the details of the core job are looked after by experts externally. This also means that a large quantity of attention and resources can be used for much broader and important issues within the organization. The specialized firm who handles the outsourced works is generally streamlined with the world-class capabilities and advanced technology which the outsourcing company cannot afford to buy. Apart from this, outsourcing business can also be regarded as a cost-effective method of building foundations in other nations.

There are however, few negative aspects of outsourcing as well. Outsourcing business is often criticized for eliminating direct communication as well as interaction between a firm and its clients. Thus, the firm is not able to build solid and effective relationships with their clients and customers. Many a times, this result in dissatisfaction on the client’s as well as company’s part. Once a project or work is outsourced, the outsourcing organization loses control over the project. This may prove to be dangerous in cases of delayed project implementation and communication. Also, a lot of sensitive and classified information are shared by the outsourced company. This makes the outsourcing firm vulnerable and open to various threats.

  • Environment and Globalization

Globalization has altered the global environment. The overall ecological impact is termed as both positive and negative. Globalization helps in fostering cooperative institutions and economic growth which is necessary for the long term operations and management of global environment. However, it has also resulted in force sinking of the globe in a hip of ecological decay. This has accelerated the destructive process as too many individuals are consuming too many resources, both natural and manmade. It can be said that its effects are far reaching and much more than planned and expected (Welsch 670-680). Critics have pointed out that globalization has resulted in an increase in food consumption creating an impact on the ecological cycle. As a result of the increased consumption, production of goods has increased and this has created an enormous stress on the environment. Raw material transportation has also increased as a result of globalization and boosted international trade. As a result, fuel consumption has also increased to an enormous quantity, leading to national fuel depletion and increase in fuel prices. In addition to this, increased consumption and transportation have also given rise to noise, water and air pollution. The amount of industrial waste generated is increasingly being dumped into oceans and nearby water sources which has resulted in death of a large number of sea creatures (Becker and Henderson 380-400). Toxins and waste produced dumped on land have affected the overall quality of the soil and as a result, the overall genetic makeup of the plants have been diminished. It is interesting to note that at one side, scientists and researchers are involved in creating genetically hybrid plants with the objective of better quality and nutritional value. On the other side, the same people are responsible for the overall degradation of the quality of food that they daily consume (Shafik 760-770). Dumping of non-biodegradable products into water and earth has made even worse impact and has resulted in the widespread pollution of the environment. Apart from the above factors, globalization has also raised concerns in terms of greenhouse effects and global warming. Global climate changes can be regarded by far the major impact of globalization (Brunnermeier and Levinson 10-20; Neumayer 35-40) High level production and use of products such as nitrous oxide and methane in land and farming practices and production of industrial gases which are unnatural and enhance the overall greenhouse effect are few of the factors responsible for the recent global warming. Also, deforestation and population growth have resulted in people using more natural resources thereby altering the balance of nature (Stern 45-74)

  • Technology and Globalization

In order to enable and facilitate globalization, technology was necessary and had emerged from more developed nations. The economic relationship between nations changed as knowledge became an increasingly important and critical component in services and goods productions. High technology and knowledge industries have become the fastest growing ones around the globe and for other nations to compete in these industries they require substantial investment in training and education. Thus, technology is easier for some nations than others. Typically, technology has been established in developing nations by large and multinational organizations doing business in these economies. As most of these corporations perform their research and development process in these economies, these nations suddenly become of highest interest in terms of new market development and penetration strategies. However, it has also been argued that this is decreasing the bargaining power of emerging and developing nations as well as increasing the MNCs power in international markets.

Technology has also enabled better and more effective communication between countries. Greater access to communication and information is impacting the world in a much profound manner. Digital technology has created new arenas to global networking system. Here all kind of knowledge and information as well as all ideologies important for the maintenance, realization and system reproduction are shared and enhanced. Since its development, technology has been used in a series of facets. Most important of them include communication and information technology, transport technology, security and maintenance systems as well as business information systems.

Information Technology

Essentially known as a global computer network, the internet has become a critical linkage to communicate the globe. Originally used by individuals from the military and defense regions, it has become more common in recent era. The role of United States can be considered significant in this phenomenon as they have a critical influence in facilitating the whole process.

Communication Technology

There have been dramatic and exclusive developments in the field of telecommunications technology. Initially, the days belonged to ‘snail mail’ which takes weeks to arrive in case of overseas communications. Internet plays an important role in connecting individuals from all over the world. With the help of globalization, countries, governments as well as organizations are now able to communicate with each other without meeting personally. Video conferencing, chat programs etc have changes the face of modern business. Thus, business has become faster and more convenient as the individuals are able to instantly communicate with each other without any hinges. It can be rightly said that internet as well as communications technology has revolutionized social as well as business lives.

Transport Technology

As a result of the advancements in transport technology, the effects of globalization have become much more prominent. With the invention of combustion and steam engine, the industrial revolution had started, almost hundred years ago. Since then, various technological developments in this industry have influenced transformation in rail, road, air travel and sea.

There have been dramatic improvements in personal transport too. Vehicles are now manufactured with better safety, fuel efficiency and faster, thus making them cheaper and more affordable. As a result, more people are able to buy cars now which have helped in increasing the overall living standard of individuals across the globe. Manufacturers are also concentrating on rendering these personal vehicles more environmental friendly so that minimum damage is done to the nature. Trade as well as tourism is now more convenient and affordable as a result of cheap and efficient airline transport facilities. Although the era of passenger planes started off vary late, there have been dramatic improvements in overall quality since then. These changes have been facilitated through the use of latest technological advancements, high-tech equipments for manufacturing and production. Researchers are constantly searching for newer and faster ways of technology which is continuously contributing to the overall living conditions of human beings all over the world.

Social and Culture Implications of Globalization

Globalization has impacted the culture in a diverse and immense manner. The overall affect on individuals across the globe is profound and visible. For example, Coca-cola advertisements are available all across the world crossing boundaries of cities, towns and even that of far reaching remote villages where even drinking water is not available. Globalization and culture can be explained through various factors.

  • Globalization is rendering the culture heterogeneous. The diversity and variety of cultural products is increasing constantly and core cultural elements are getting mixed with each other (De Mooij 123-170).
  • Globalization has also resulted in homogenization of the culture. Local cultures, particularly of the less developed as well as emerging nations are quickly losing their traditional values and aura and are getting highly influenced by American and western models. For example, Mc Donald’s and KFC, basically American food giants have spread across the globe in such a manner that it has become a staple outside food in every country where it has been established. However, this phenomenon has resulted in loss of sales and growth and ultimately shutdown of various local and regional food joints across the globe (Cojocaru 995-998).
  • Another negative aspect of globalization is deterritorialization. It has been criticized for fracturing the splitting loyalties of the practices that are responsible for knowledge and understand within the social and family unit. As discussed above, globalization has lead to intermingling and mixing of cultures from different regions and nations. Previously stable relationships, social structures, cultural representations and social structures are being fractured as a result of this phenomenon. The cultural and human symbols have been disembodied from their original place. Thus globalization has indirectly resulted in detachment of cultural and social practices and blurred the natural relationship between geographic territories and culture (Hall 19-40).

However, globalization has also provided means to share traditions, cultures and experiences between various nations. This has improved the overall way of living of families and individuals. One of the most influential global phenomenons is the evolution of online communities. Last decade has seen an enormous rise in the popularity of online communities ranging from politics, business, culture, music to science, technology etc. Irrespective of the nationality, religion, culture and communities, people are involved in various discussions, debates as a team. This has given rise to a new acculturation phase. New identities of individuals have been created as a result of this. New methods, ideas of work as well as good governance and life are increasingly being shared even in the remotest corner of the globe.

Currents and ideas are being carried across continents through the global proliferation and it is resulting in sensitization of people in the remote areas to various global agendas and promotion of mutual agendas. A very good example of this kind of global phenomenon is global campaigning against organizations and brand names which are criticized for exploiting child labor. Such movements towards a bigger social justice and fundamental equality are taking place as a direct result of the growing awareness among citizens of different nations. These have been all possible because of globalization.

As a result of globalization and internationalization, increasing number of multinational enterprises (MNE) are participating in emerging and new markets  primarily because of the worldwide integration of economic and financial system, lowering of entry barriers resulting in trade liberalization and deregulation as well as emergence of economic homogeneity and a global culture.

Globalization has resulted in increased competition. This occurs in terms of service and product costing, pricing strategies, technological adaptation, target markets, quick production, quick response etc. When an organization is involved in production of services and goods which costs less, the market share is automatically increased. The most important influence of globalization is that it provides opportunities and efficiencies created by open markets. Businesses are able to communicate in an effective and efficient manner with their suppliers, partners and customers. They are also able to manage their inventories, supplies and distribution network in a much effective manner. Thus the overall sales and profits of these organizations have increased manifolds (“The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly Side of Globalization”). Local producers are now able to sell their services and products into distant and far reaching markets with the same speed and ease as in their native place. Another positive aspect of globalization is the rising leverage and easy credit facilities. Easy flow of money across national and local boundaries has boosted the aggregate demand. Leverage and credit fuels the financial bubble and the global economy enters into a virtuous cycle of employment and income (Baker 150-170).

As much as globalization is credited for the booming of economy, it is also blamed for creating various factors. Globalization is criticized for increasing the gap between rich and poor. The opportunities provided by globalization are wonderful for investors and managers, but it has little or no gain for workers and lower level employees. Unlike higher level employees and management staff, these people do not even receive basic amenities such as leave, health insurance etc. As a direct result of this, the number of various lockouts, strikes and hate campaigns has been constantly increasing among members of various trade and labor unions (Agénor 2-10). Multinational organizations are also accused of unfair conditions during work, social injustice including poor working and living conditions, meager wages, mismanagement of resources, lack of environmental concern as well as ecological damage. During the early days of globalization, organizations were involved in commercial activities only. However, in the last decade, increasing number of multinationals are involved in political issues which influences their decisions. Critics fear that this might be a threat to the world as these corporations are quickly gaining power over the governments. Opponents have also criticized that globalization is responsible for giving way to rich organizations to act with less credit and accountability. Anti-globalists have also claimed that globalization has not worked for majority of the globe. Rapid growth in investment and global trade took place from 1960 to 1988. During this period, inequality got worse in both local and international terms. According to the development program of United Nations, out of the total world’s population, the rich accounts for 20 percent and they consume around 80 percent of total resources in the world. On the other hand, 14 percent of these resources are consumed by almost 80 percent of world’s poor (Davis and Thomas and Amponsah 45-50; Adams and Page 5-20). Globalization is then blamed for incursion of deadly and communicable diseases such as AIDS/HIV which spread through travelers even in the remotest corner of the earth.

  • Consumer Perception and Brand Recognition

This era of globalization is highly characterized by commoditization, competition and rapid obsolesce of technology. Brand managers and marketers are under new kind of pressure. Unlike previous marketing strategies which were concentrated on production and sales concept, now they have to focus on new and innovative conceptual bases in terms of designing and augmentation and continue their branding programs. Traditional marketing has lost its charm and effectiveness and strategic managers are now looking at integrated marketing communication as even mass advertising campaigns are not working enough (Medabesh and Mohiuddin 683-687). Sales promotion and discounts campaigning has been increasingly proved to be largely unbeneficial. Managers are also realizing that short term profit strategies will not be helpful for long term and sustainable growth of their organization. New services and products are also fading at a much faster rate.

There are two major challenges which the brand and marketing managers are facing as a direct impact of globalization and industrialization. The first one is customer and their perception. In today’s world, it is becoming extremely difficult to understand consumer and their changing minds (Kale and De 288-290). The other major problem is brand differentiation. Brand managers are finding it really hard to differentiate their services and products from other competitors (Wang, Solan and Xu 94-98). The objective of current marketing and branding strategies of organizations is creating a service or product which is significant, superior in terms of value for money and targets the exact market. However, with the proliferation of a large number of brands with similar offerings, it is very difficult to develop creative strategies for them. Few brands have however, learned the tactics at an early age and have made a permanent place in consumer’s hearts and minds (Keller 35-75). Brands such as Nokia, Coca-Cola, Mc Donald’s, Gillette and Emirates have learned and experienced in a simultaneous manner and have become the ultimate examples of rulers in the branding world.

Globalization has transformed markets and products into over-supplied and mature and this type of saturation have resulted in various implications. Now, managers cannot rely on classic marketing strategies and they are increasingly becoming less lucrative and obsolete (Agnes and Dubitsky 23-27). For example, banking sector and financial industry have seen enormous change in their business as well as marketing operations, as a result of technological revolution (Domzal and Kemsin 5-15). However, as a direct result of this the relationship between customers and companies is becoming more indirect and virtual which again is a concern for the customer relationship management strategies.

Brand managers and marketers are also facing a tough time understanding the unpredictable choices and actions of consumers (Loudon and Della Bitta 35-50). Loss of brand loyalty and commitment as well as freedom of choosing their own products has made it extremely difficult to judge the customers. Managers have now realized the increasing importance of offering a service or product which is of great quality so that the risk of switching decreases.

Another controversial aspect arising out of globalization is the country of origin, products and services (Suh and Smith 130-135). The world has changed into one single market where customers and companies from any region or nation are able to exchange products and services. However, a product or service made by US company might not be able to attract Japanese customers. In such cases, it is very difficult to construct a global strategy which will fit in every target nation or region (Machida 440-450). Age old rivalries and wars are another reason why particular brands and products which are loved in one country might be hated in others.

  • Terrorism and Globalization

There are a number of variables through which terrorism can be linked to globalization. Terrorism can be described as a weapon used by the weak against strong (Clark 15). According to critics, a major potential link between terrorism and globalization is the dominance of developed countries over emerging and various nations. Terrorism has been in the world for a long time. However, with the recent overpowering of America and other European nations over these nations, many new and unknown groups have started to take shape (Patman 170-175). Internet and readily available technology is another force facilitating terrorism. Financial and cyber crime have increased at an alarming rate. Google is a readily available source and anyone can gain information on things such as soaps as well as bombs. Poverty and unemployment in under-developed countries has also been blamed for the rise in different terrorist groups.

Terrorism has both direct and indirect impact on business. The situation has drastically changed after the attack on World Trade Centre (Pilat 172). Business relations with the eastern economies have become more fragile and complicated. Security levels have been increased at an alarming rate. It can also be seen that business relations are getting hampered as a result of terrorist attacks on different nations. For example-the recent Chinese insurgency have hampered the business relations between India and China. Import-export businesses have also declined temporarily as many business houses are afraid of doing business now.

Globalization Conclusion

The civilization today can be regarded as the post modern era. It is supposed to affect the perception and behavior of consumers across the globe. And if this is indeed happening, organizations must be able to accept and accustom to this trend. Another wide change which is visible is the booming of service sector both in good terms and bad terms. It has been seen earlier that many new forms of services are emerging and gaining popularity. However, it is also becoming increasingly over-supplied and mature. Further, innovations in technology have increased the chances of providing services through communication channels which are highly impersonal. All this has increased the overall competition within industry and companies are taking a more aggressive approach in order to create substantial brands with a volatile environmental dynamics.

The purpose of the study was to evaluate the various pros and cons of globalization. The objective was to understand the various benefits and negative effects of globalization on overall business functions. In terms of a broader perspective, the study also identified why it is important for brands and organizations to create sustainable brands in the current markets. Globalization has made way for free business and trade. It has also facilitated better communication around the world. With the evolution of technology, business operations have become much faster and efficient and the gains as well as profits are incredible. It can be rightly said that globalization has helped the world in becoming a better place for living. Other benefits of globalization can be summarized in terms of women empowerment, improvement in general health facilities across the world, intermingling of various cultures and societies as well as their issues. However, globalization is the reason for the generation of many negative issues too. As discussed earlier, environmental factors such as pollution, global warming have come to an alarming stage and even increasing industrialization is  majorly responsible for this. Diseases which were not even known to exist are spreading to the remotest corners of the world due to easy and cheap transportation facilities. Decline of traditional culture and language is another disadvantage of globalization. For example, in most of the Asian continents, the idea of “Brand” is catching up. This implies that people are increasingly becoming brand and standard conscious and tends to buy international brands (Malota 95-100). Asian continent is known for its rich culture and tradition which is increasingly running towards extinction. Another major con of globalization is capitalization. Globalization has increased the gap between rich and poor to many folds. Political scenarios are getting worse and corporations are increasingly influencing the regional as well as national government. Deep rooted problems like poverty, unemployment etc are highly overlooked, especially in developing and under-developed nations. Apart from that, globalization can also be responsible for terrorism. With the help of technology and easy access to transport, various terrorist groups are able to reach places which are highly secure and unbreakable. Access to communication has also made it possible for them to plan from any place. The attack on World Trade center on 9/11 is a perfect example explaining how terrorism can greatly impact business and economy.

Thus it can be concluded that globalization has both advantages and disadvantages. It is up to the nations and business to devise and plan strategies which will help in minimizing the overall negative effect of globalization. It can also be concluded that globalization cannot be slowed down or stopped. However, the outcomes and spread can be checked. Business need to understand the relationship between globalization and changing consumption perceptions. It is only through continuous market research and observing consumer trend, that the brands will be able to attract and retain customers.

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Impact of Globalization with Example

Works Cited;
  • Adams, Richard H. Jr. and John Page. “International migration, remittances, and poverty in developing countries.” World Bank, Policy Research Working Paper, 3179 (2003): 1-36. Print.
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  • Becker, Randy and Vernon Henderson. “Effects of Air Quality Regulations on Polluting Industries.” Journal of Political Economy, 108.2(2000): 379-421. Print.
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Relationship Between Globalization and Education

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Globalization And Education

Globalization means to increase the working or efficiency of a country’s economy and its society at a high level. It is to increase the likeness or reputation of the one country to over all countries in the world. Globalization is very much beneficial and efficient for the countries in terms of increasing their working efficiency of the overall economy of their country. The globalized countries get more fame and benefits of having positive relationships with other countries and meet the best efficiency on demand. The globalization performs the best in terms of increasing the efficiency of the country.

The education is that important factor without which countries even a single person cannot survive and get success. The most important factor is that education tells a person how efficiently and beneficially he or she can manage its life to live happily and with the best outcome in terms of having success. The education teachers the person that what is right and what is wrong. Which things person should think or choose and what about not. Education is something that leads you to the right path because education teaches you about life aspects that ho3w must face that situation and how that situation will accompany you if you face it n good way. (Jackson, 2016)

Relationship Between Globalization and Education

Globalization is actually a method of increasing the working efficiency of one country in terms of having a positive impact on other countries. Globalization provides you with the ways in which you can increase your reputation in a positive way into the eyes of other countries as well as they are going to manage the working of the country at a high level as the other countries would know about you because of globalization. As a matter of fact, when countries get themselves globalize they get the best place into the overall world because they became known by the most of the countries in the world. Because globalization takes the image of your country at a very high place.

Globalization in education is a very beneficial and important step as it takes your education level at a high place.  Education needs to be given to every person in the country, as it is the right of every citizen of the country that he or she should provide by the best form of education. The education is the fact that should be accepted according to its true needs and wants with which it should be accepted well. Education when globalized it increases the level of education as well as it enhances the education system of that specific country because it improves the education system and brings revolutionary changes in the education system of the globalized country. (Education.stateuniversity.com, 2018)

The country which gets themselves globalized will get the most unique and different way of teaching to the kids from unique teaching technique learned by the foreign teachers and instructors. They will guide you about the unique and efficient way of teaching to the kids that they will involve more in the teaching and they will feel study as fun. Sometimes it happens that students do not give efficient results as well as they do not want to study more due to some infinite reasons which make their teaching efficiency low. This is a bad sign for a country that leads to the failure of their education system. As well as that leads to the deficiency of the rate of educated children or elders in their country.

When teachers do not introduce the new way of learning’s for the kids then those kids do not pay proper attention towards their students then children do not want to get an education anymore from you as well. The way of teaching of the teachers towards kids is always very much positive as well as it should also be very much unique so that it will attract themselves towards the study more and they do not find it a burden. They must like to study and they should get motivated by the way, you teach them so that they will get the best success in the overall criteria of life. The globalization affects very much positively on the teaching efficiency of the kids towards their studies as well as towards the education scale of the country. The more you introduce an innovative and unique way of teachings to the kids the more efficiency you will have in your education system. (Misra, 2011)

The globalization influences the education with unique topics of research with them.  In fact, it provides a bulk of information for the teacher to get themselves learned from it as well as they will get the best out of it if they have the right form of study criteria in their teachings. The criteria of teaching are the actual form of working that needs to be done with a lot of consistency and efficiency because of the increase of education level based on the teaching system of your education centres. The more you have efficient teaching system in your institutions the more efficiently you will have your teaching scale increased and your education system depends very much on the improved methods of your teaching to the children of your country

The actual thing is that globalization provides you from the ways that enhance your education efficiency as well as that increases the working criteria of you in your teaching places like school colleges, universities. Every level of education requires being conducted in a different way you cannot teach school level kid by the method of teaching college level kids even you cannot teach college level kid by the style you teach to the school level kid. Both level kids have different mindsets, which needs to be understood first in order to teach them well and in order to take the best results in the education sector. The overall scenario uses to say that education is the most superiority in a country that needs to be focused very keenly in order to get a high rate of success in your living country.  (Stewart, 2018).

Also Study,

Pros and Cons of Globalization

Impact of Globalization with Example

References
  • stateuniversity.com. (2018). Globalization of Education – Globalization Theory, The Role of Education. Retrieved from http://education.stateuniversity.com/pages/2010/Globalization-Education.html
  • Jackson, L. (2016, October). Globalization and Education. Retrieved from http://education.oxfordre.com/view/10.1093/acrefore/9780190264093.001.0001/acrefore-9780190264093-e-52
  • Misra, S. (2011, April 2). Implications of Globalization on Education. Retrieved from https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1800740
  • Stewart, V. (2018). Globalization and Education. Retrieved from http://www.ascd.org/publications/books/111016/chapters/Globalization-and-Education.aspx



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Advantages and Disadvantages of Globalization for Business

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Evaluate the Advantages and Disadvantages of Globalization for Business

Globalization is a major notion that has played a important role over the previous centuries in business processes. In different respects, globalization impacts businesses, the environment, world economies and societies. Those mostly impacted by globalization are nearly all corporations. Organizational changes are probable due to vibrant technological advances, fast competition and exchange of data. To respond to these dynamic changes companies are required to recognize the various elements of the major effects of globalization. A couple of years ago management guru peter Drucker foresaw what global firms would look like, explaining that they were going to be integrated jointly  and managed through strategies not by their proprietors.

Also Study: Pros and Cons of Globalization Research Paper

Globalization can be defined as the incorporation of national economies into the world market. Integration is achieved through international direct investment, trade migration, cash flow and the advancement and spread of technology (Rick, 2013). Markets where it is prevalent and specifically widespread are financial markets such as credit and money markets, insurance markets and capital markets. Commodity markets for example gold, oil, coffee and tin. Product markets for example consumer electronics and motor vehicle. Globalization in relation to business can be described as the process allowing investment and financial markets to carry out business internationally mainly as a result of deregulation and better communications.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Globalization for Business

It is obvious that the present world is strongly linked. However it is easy to loose focus just how rapid and systematically globalization is occurring and how much business organizations are being run. Drucker observed that globalization is not an economic but a psychological phenomenon. He noted that all of the advanced western principles and approaches are taken as the norm by many nations. The view took shape for Drucker in 2001 when an old student from Taiwan working in china paid him a visit. Drucker questioned him, “What is the most significant thing about the last three to five years that has occurred in China?” the former student paused for a while and answered that the Chinese at that time considered purchasing a vehicle is a need not a luxury. The exact situation is same in Russia where business analysts anticipate the country surpassing Germany and becoming the biggest car market within Europe. However taking advantage of such opportunities need a specific set of expertise. For instance there is no need in strategizing the activities of the forever more intricate network of world suppliers, extracting profit on every deal. In his book, Management Challenges for the 21st Century, Drucker wrote “to succeed in the ever competitive world market, a company has to know the costs of its entire economic chain and has to work with other members of the chain to manage costs and maximize yields”. Drucker predicted this balancing step as a trademark for current business to function split global polity and global world economies. Drucker however points out that proprietorship will definitely still exist. In his book Management in the Next Society however, business enterprise, pacts, know-how, contracts treaties and joint ventures will steadily be the building blocks of a business mergers.

Advantages of Globalization

Globalization brings numerous potential advantages to world products and world economies. It is the benefits of globalization that cause economic wellbeing on global levels, therefore benefiting a wider population.  Explained below are the benefits of globalization to business which enables the growth of international economies hugely. These benefits are; free trade which is the manner in which different countries exchange goods/services and resources. Meaning countries can focus on manufacturing products that have a less relative benefit. (World Bank World Development Indicators, 2010). This translates into countries manufacturing products at a very low opportunity cost. This consequently leads to reduced product prices for consumers, larger export opportunities for local manufactures, great choice for products, and economies of scale through focusing on specific products, free labor movement and increased competitive advantage. Rapid labor migration offers advantage to local citizens and its workers. When unemployment rates go up in a country, the result is increased opportunism to source for recruits elsewhere. (Broda and Weinstein, 2006)

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The practice of labor migration further facilitates reduction of geographical bias. For instance many nationals from Eastern European nations have largely migrated to the Western for better salaried positions. In addition it enables organizations with fewer workers to recruit employees (International Organization for Migration, 2010). For instance the United Kingdom hired citizens from Eastern Europe to fill in vacant nursing positions. Nevertheless labor migration is quite a contentious issue. Some are worried that free migration of people across the world can create extra pressure for some nations (Revenga, 1999). Countries like America have responded by attempting to control the influx of immigrant workers. Secondly globalization has facilitated the manufacture and distribution of goods across the globe. With the rise in economies of scale, production is certainly customized. Better specialization leads to reduced product prices for consumers and lower production costs.

Another advantage of a global world economy is it presents greater competition. Local monopolies were safeguarded by lack of rivalry. Nevertheless globalization translates to companies facing greater competition from foreign ones. Globalization of mass media has lessened world space considerably (Economy Watch, 2010). Many people are conscious of the current world news through various electronic and print media. Advancement in international communication network results to easy flow of vital data not only to person’s but at business levels too. Democratic opinions are quickly spread among nations across the globe. Economic globalization steers up the theory   of open economy. This necessitates new concepts and ideas to be imported from overseas. Hiring and recruitment in the export leaning nations generally offer good salaries by about 15 percent compared to the import oriented job countries. (Muendler, 2004)

As a result of globalization increased investment levels has enabled countries to appeal to current and future investment. Investment by successful global organizations plays a major function in developing the economies of third word countries. Advantages of foreign investment to host countries include exchange of technology and knowledge between nations. Globalization also aids in international access to low cost materials thus enabling companies to be cost competitive within their economies and abroad. Importing cheap   materials form around the globe is known as global sourcing. Due to lowered costs and improved profit returns, globalization ensures increased benefits for company shareholders.

Disadvantages of Globalization

Globalization has evidently benefited many businesses across the globe; however these advantages come with risks. One of the major disadvantages of globalization to companies is raising risks linked to inter-reliance across markets. As nations continue to rely on each other, a harmful financial shock in one nation can easily spread to others. For instance a decline in automobile sale in the United Kingdom was felt across other European markets because many of the vehicles purchased in the UK were imports form the EU zone. The 1990s Far East crisis was prompted by the decline of some Japanese financial credit banks. Most present example is the downturn of America’s sub-prime housing sector which generated a world crisis in the world banking system. Banks across the globe suffered a decline of asset value further decreased by borrowing among each other. As a result of the crisis it generated a liquidity problem and triggered a severe collapse in the world economy. Over customization for example, over dependence on manufacturing a limited amount of products for the international market is another disadvantage linked to globalization. An abrupt decline in global demand for one of the goods can throw several economies into recessive state. Several third world nations suffer by over customizing in a restricted range of goods such as tourism and agriculture sector.

Karl Marx in his communist manifesto cautioned that small companies will be mopped out of the market by larger businesses in a capitalist setting. According Marx, the devastation on domestic enterprises leads to rise of monopoly and culture change which to some extent vary across nations. Visiting the present China, it is hard to dispute Marx’s sentiments. The modern scenery is littered with global company brands such as McDonalds, KFCs, Starbucks and Pizza Huts. Also a visit to the a Chinese store display is almost similar to department stores in the US, with alike world brands such as Gucci, Chanel, Coach, Armani displayed in designer shops. (Thoenig and Verdier, 2003).  On the other hand at a keen look, present global organizations are not close to described as menacing capitalist that Marx foresaw. Products are highly customized to cater for local consumer taste. Businesses have created shared valuable relations with foreign nations to improve their sales. Even as some small companies as described, suffer at the hands of global brands, there are ones that have evaded being eliminated by bigger brands. In China for example, there are a numerous and successful coffee shops and restaurants even with the flood of American cafes chains. These local restaurants prevailed by offering local menu delicacies such as Peking duck, noodles, dumplings than foreign restaurant lack the knowledge to prepare. Lesson for small companies is to make products different from competition. (Leo, 2010)

As a result of globalization winner and loose emerge. From this rationale inequality is likely to rise where the gap between the rich and the poor widens especially among developing countries. Another danger linked to globalization is the over regulation of goods through universal branding (Rodrik, 2009). Such as a large number of global computers apply Microsoft windows operating system. Obviously standardization as argued by many, offer a lot of advantages however critics point out that it causes a decline in product efficiency and creating barriers of penetrating local and smaller markets. Large corporations influence and power is also disadvantageous. To enable them to alter their investment interest in prospects of favourable country laws between nations. They can run their business as domestic monopolies of work, alter salaries compared to the free market standards (Feenstra, and Hanson 2003). Critics of globalization also point out that it is disadvantageous; owing to impartial trade, there is a high likelihood of losing local work markets.

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Tax competition and tax evasion is another disadvantage linked to globalization and business. Large firms like Google and Amazon can build outlets in nations such as Luxembourg and Bermuda where they charge minimal tax rates, later channel their returns through their subsidiary. Low tax rates are bad business for hosting countries because governments have to raise income tax and VAT. It is further viewed as discriminative for local companies who do conform to the same tax evasion guidelines. The higher the cash flow means that nations have resorted to promote local investment by allowing the lowest tax for businesses. For example Ireland offers minimal tax rules thus leading to increase charges of other tax means (Goldberg, and Pavcnik, 2003). A further problem caused by globalization on business is environmental costs. Increased consumption of non renewable energy by industries leads to climate change and pollution.

Business growth has further increased the reduction on non re usable energy sources for example oil. Jobs sometimes are lost owing to the structural transformation due to globalization. These changes may culminate into structural unemployment and sometimes broaden the gap between foreigner and locals within a country. Globalization advances the rate of deindustrialization which means the gradual erosion of an economies production base. Large corporations are able to set up factories in countries where environmental rules are less stringent. Though possibly the crisis is not stressed much on climate change but failure by countries to create and implement suitable environmental regulations. Some businesses suffer labor drain as a result of globalization. This is because they find it hard to retain their highly talented employees who migrate to other countries for better wages. Free market trade can be hazardous for economies in third world countries since they constantly fight to compete with advanced nations (Angie, 2005). It is disputed that free market trade is more advantageous to developing countries. There exists an infant industry case that states that upcoming industries in developing nations require security from free market economies to be able to realize growth. However these nations are frequently harmed by tariff safety Western nations put on agricultural products.

Several experts argue that currently we require a different sort of globalization. There ought to be methods to ensure that all countries benefit from the advantageous side of globalization. Developed nations should assist poorer countries by offering better education standards and demonstrating to them how new innovations work. Globalization has promoted ridding off man made obstacles, enabling rapid standardization of platforms and process, by integrating and linking nations that had initially lived separately. Globalization has created fresh resurgence bringing great opportunity to more individuals than any development in the past (Rodrik, 2011)

Hitherto this very unique process has rendered businesses to new threats. Companies have to strategize on how to manage these disadvantages. Businesses also has a significant responsibility of assisting local governments and non profit organizations raise community awareness in order to make certain that threats are acknowledged. It is certain that companies have benefited from the gradual assimilation and development of markets. However the threats related to globalization keep on growing. Organizations all over will have to concentrate on managing and supervising these risks altogether. Yearly, managers of the world’s largest industrial nations around the globe meet to discuss global economic problems. The gathering is also referred to as the G8 summit. Within the past few years opponents of globalization organized demonstrations to highlight that not every citizen is pleased with the manner in which global economies are growing.

Bibliography;
  1. Angie, Mohr. (2005). the Effects of Economic Globalization on Developing Countries. Finances & Taxes.
  2. Broda, C and Weinstein, D. (2006). ‘Globalization and the Gains from Variety’, the Quarterly Journal of Economics, May2006, pp. 541-585.
  3. Economy Watch. (2010). Advantages of Globalization.
  4. Feenstra, R. and G. Hanson (2003): “Global Production Sharing and Rising Inequality: A Survey of Trade and Wages,” in Choi, E.K. and J. Harrigan (eds.) Handbook of International Trade. Blackwell: Malden, MA, 146-185.
  5. Goldin, I. and Cameron, G. (2011) Exceptional People: How Migration Shaped our World and Will Define our Future. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  6. Goldberg, P. and N. Pavcnik (2003): “The Response of the Informal Sector to Trade Liberalization”, Journal of Development Economics, 72, 463-496.
  7. International Organization for Migration. (2010)
  8. Leo, Sun. (2012). Impact of Globalization on Small Businesses
  9. Muendler, M. A. (2004): “Trade, Technology, and Productivity: A Study of Brazilian Manufacturers, 1986-1998”, University of California, San Diego mimeo.
  10. Revenga, A. (1992): “Exporting Jobs? The Impact of Import Competition on Employment and Wages in U.S. Manufacturing”, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 107(1), pp. 255-284.
  11. Rick, Wartzman (2013). What Globalization Really Means: Business and Money.
  12. Rodrik, R. (2011). Has Globalization Gone Too Far? Washington D.C.: Institute for International Studies.
  13. Rodrik, R. (2009). “Why do More Open Economies Have Bigger Governments?” Journal of Political Economy 106, 997-1032.
  14. Thoenig, M., Verdier, T., (2003): “A theory of defensive skill-based innovation and Globalization.” American Economic Review 93, 709-728
  15. World Bank World Development Indicators, (2010)



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Impact of Globalization on Tourism

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Globalization And The Tourist’s Industry

Globalization is that factor which increased the efficiency of your country’s economy in terms of giving that economy a good fame and a rapid increase in the growth of that economy. The economy of every country should be increased very much because it reflects the position of the economy of that country to be good. The globalization explores many ways in order to increase the efficiency of your economy in terms of providing the best of the best efficiency to your country’s economy to make it successful among the other countries. The overall scenario of the globalization depends on the working of the economy of the country which is about to be globalized by the country itself. (Globalization101.org, 2009)

The most efficient way that globalization provides to the country is that it increases the working efficiency of the economy of that country fast and efficient as well as it increases the working ability of the country in terms of improving its economy around the whole world and by making it more efficient and powerful. The globalization provides the country with most of the unique ideas to get a high rate of success into the working of increasing of its economy because it is very much authentic and efficient way of working on the improvement of the economy of the country. The best way of globalization is that you will provide your best product in the globalized market so that they will come to know about your services or product that is best for you.

Impact of Globalization on Tourism

The more people will come to know about it the more they provide you with the fame and efficiency of working. Globalization provides too many ways to the country, which is globalized in terms of increasing the working efficiency of that country into its economy because they are the real purpose of doing globalization. The more you have the options for improvement in the economy matters of your country the more you get success in your country’s economy that gives your country a success and fame in the global market.

Tourism and hospitality are the services that are related to the providence of your services to the people who came from other countries into your country. The most important factor is that the services you are going to provide to the people of other countries they are of which type. Every country has its own rules and regulations in terms of providing hospitality services to the tourists who visited their country. The most important part is that what services will suits the best to your guests. The tourism is that factor that provides the foreign exchange to the country in a big amount. Foreign exchange is the factor that is concerned with the money of the foreign country that foreigners bring into your country. (The Asian Entrepreneur Authors & Contributors, 2016)

The currency is considered very much important in terms of getting a high place in the overall world. As they are going to manage the working of the country in a different way. The most important factor is that tourism brings different people to your country. People look at the beauty of your country they will get impacted by the natural beauty of your country. He natural beauty of your country should be known by another country, as it not only increases the amount of foreign exchange for your country as well as it enhances the beauty of your country in terms of entertaining more guests into your country. Most people love to travel. They love to visit a place to place in order to increase their knowledge about the world.

The more you provide them better facility the more they like to visit your country so in this way, it increases the working efficiency of your country’s tourism techniques and tourism factors so that they can be made more efficient and more effective. In fact, sometimes, when you do not provide efficient services to your tourists that it will cause a very bad impact on the reputation of your country. The reputation of the country should be remaining in a positive way because they are to be maintained in the list of overall countries of the world. The hospitality services in your country should be improved as well as they are to be maintained well in order to serve the best to the society as well as in order to keep a good place at a good level.

The more you have the good reputation in the overall world, the more your country get globalized because the most of the efficiency refers to the tourism and hospitality services of you to other people of the different countries, You must provide them with the best services you have so that they can rely on your services and that they low to come to your place to visit your natural beauty and to take facility of your services again and again. (The globalization of the hospitality and tourism industry, 2015)

You may also study:

Advantages and Disadvantages of Globalization for Business

Strategic Role of HRM in Tourism and Hospitality Industry

References
  • org. (2009, January 05). Globalization and the Tourism Industry. Retrieved from http://www.globalization101.org/globalization-and-the-tourism-industry-2/
  • The Asian Entrepreneur Authors & Contributors. (2016, October 26). Globalization’s Impact on Tourism. Retrieved from http://www.asianentrepreneur.org/globalization-tourism/
  • The globalization of the hospitality and tourism industry. (2015, March 23). Retrieved from https://www.ukessays.com/essays/tourism/the-globalization-of-the-hospitality-and-tourism-industry.php



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