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The pictures below show a cave and a geyser. Which of these statements is correct about the cave and geyser shown in the pictures? a. Both are formed when groundwater gets heated. b. Both are formed when groundwater reacts with the limestone in rocks. c. The cave is formed when groundwater reacts with the limestone in rocks and the geyser is formed when groundwater gets heated. d. The cave is formed when groundwater gets heated and the geyser is formed when groundwater reacts with the limestone in rocks.

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I think the correct answer from the choices listed above is option C. The statement that is correct about  the cave and geyser would be that the cave is formed when groundwater reacts with the limestone in rocks and the geyser is formed when groundwater gets heated. Hope this answers the question.


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Which scientist formed his ideas about living things by performing observations with out using a microscope? A.Hooke B.malpighi C.van leeuwenhoek D.vesalius

The correct answer is D. Vesalius

Explanation:

Andreas Vesalius was a Flemish scientist and anatomist that lived during the 16th century, considered as the father of modern anatomy. During this life, Vesalius studied anatomy mainly using dissection and observing the tissues, organs, and structures in them, especially those in animals and humans. Also, he used his findings and ideas to create written works that were the base for later studies in anatomy. Besides this, as compound microscopes for studying living organisms had not been created during Vesalius time, he only used regular observations different to other scientists such as Hooke or Malpighi. Thus, it was Vesalius the one that formed his ideas by performing observations without using a microscope.

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In 1953, who developed the model that is shown below?

The right answer is Watson and Crick.

The famous science journal “Nature” published an article of two pages, accompanied by one figure, titled “A Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid”. Its authors are James Dewey Watson (24) and Francis Crick (36).

They synthesized the work of their scientific colleagues and were able to explain with a remarkable art of deduction how the DNA molecule contained in the cells of all living beings was duplicated.

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The diagram shows the stages of the eukaryotic cell cycle. Which stage is labeled E in the diagram? mitosis interphase S phase G0 phase

Answer:

The correct answer would be interphase.

The cell cycle is mainly divided into two phases: mitosis (M) and interphase.

Interphase is the phase in which a cell spends most of its time. It is the phase of growth and DNA replication.  

It can be sub-divided into three stages:

  • Gap 1 (G₁) phase which is represented by letter A in the given diagram.
  • Synthesis (S) phase in which DNA replication takes place. It is represented by letter B in the given diagram.
  • Gap 2 (G₂) phase which is represented by letter C in the given diagram.

Letter D represents mitosis (M) phase in which the actual division of the cell takes place.

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The diagram shows changes of state between solid, liquid, and gas. The atoms of a substance lose energy during a change of state. Before the change, the atoms are close together but are able to slide past one another. Which arrow represents the change of state described above? M- gas to solid N-liquid to gas P-solid to liquid Q-liquid to solid

The correct option is this: Q – LIQUID TO SOLID.

Looking at the information given above, we are told that, before the change, the atoms are close together but are able to slide past one another. This is one of the characteristics of liquids, the particle in liquids are held together by inter molecular forces but they are still able to slide past one another. So, this tell us that, the substance was originally in the liquid state.

We are also told that, the atoms of the substance lose energy during the change of state. If there is a loss of energy, it means that, the little energy that the particles had before, which they were using to slide past one another is now removed and the particles becomes more compact. This implies that, the substance changes to solid. If the substance change to gas, there would have been gain of energy not loss. Therefore, the correction option is D. The substance change from liquid state to solid state.

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How do scientists think the earliest cells formed?

The earliest cells were formed by cells that don’t need oxygen to survive but they did produce oxygen to the water. The oxygen got sucked up by iron deposits in the waters at first. Then the oxygen started to oxygenate the water and air where as evolution interfered eucryotic cells formed and evolved creating life with a Biosphere.

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Which of the following statements is correct with respect to the photosynthetic pathway of grass or a cactus? In a cactus, carbon is fixed only during the day. In grass, carbon is fixed only during the night. In a cactus, carbon is fixed only during the night.

The answer is In a cactus, carbon is fixed only during the night.

There are three types of carbon fixation in plants – C3, C4, and CAM fixation. C3 and C4 plants open their stomata during the day while CAM plants open stomata during the night. Mostly, plants fix carbon during the day. However, plants in arid locations, such as cactuses, use CAM carbon fixation because of adaptation to water deficiency. Their stomata are closed during the day and water loss is reduced. In the night when is colder, stomata open and carbon dioxide enters through stomata.

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A student takes notes in class as shown below. A. Uses an objective process Is updated constantly B. Is not objective Does not use a process Resists new information Which are the best titles for A and B? A: “Science”; B: “Pseudoscience” A: “Pseudoscience”; B: “Science” A: “Characteristics of Science”; B: “Limitations of Science” A: “Limitations of Science”; B: “Characteristics of Science”

Answer;

A: “Science”; B: “Pseudoscience”

Explanation;

  • Science is a body of knowledge and the process of acquiring new knowledge, using scientific processes. Science uses objective processes and is updated constantly, when new ideas or information is discovered.
  • Pseudoscience on the other hand, does not follow scientific processes. It is a practice or a belief that claims to be science, but does not follow specific criteria, that is ,an objective processes.
  • Science is defined by criteria, which include, experimentation, replication of results, and peer review. Therefore, pseudoscience are beliefs and claims that do not meet such criteria.

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A gas sample is heated from -20.0°c to 57.0°c and the volume is increased from 2.00 l to 4.50 l. if the initial pressure is 0.140 atm, what is the final pressure

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A gas sample is heated from -20.0°c to 57.0°c and the volume is increased from 2.00 l to 4.50 l. if the initial pressure is 0.140 atm, what is the final pressure

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An oxygen bottle containing a fixed volume of o2 gas has a pressure of 800.00 mm hg and a temperature of 295k. if the bottle is heated to 328k what will the pressure of o2 gas be within the bottle and which law will you use to solve it?

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The equation for how temperature changes the resistance R is: 

R=R₀(1+α(T-T₀)), where R₀ is the resistance at T₀=20°C, T is the temperature for which we want to calculate the resistance and α is the temperature coefficient for resistance. 

The resistance of the copper wire increases by 18% or by 0.18, so the new value for the resistance is R=1.18*R₀.

T₀=20°C
=0.0068
R=1.18*R₀

Now we need to input that into the equation for resistance change and solve for temperature T.  

1.18R₀=R₀(1+α(T-20)), R₀ cancels out,

1.18=1+α(T-20),

1.18-1=α(T-20), we divide by α,

0.18/α=T-20, we put 20 on the left side,

26.47+20=T

T=46.47°C

So the temperature on which the resistance of copper wire will increase by 18% is T=46.47°C. 

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A sample of hydrated magnesium sulfate has a mass of 4.052 g. After it is heated, it has a mass of 1.979 g. What is the percentage by mass of water in the hydrate?

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This problem is to apply Roult’s Law.

Roult’s Law states that the vapor pressure, p, of a solution of a non-volatile solute is equal to the vapor pressure of the pure solvent, Po solv, times the mole fraction of the solvent, Xsolv

p = Xsolv * Po sol

X solv = number of moles of solvent / number of moles of solution

The solvent is water and the solute (not volatile) is glycerin.

Number of moles = mass in grams / molar mass

mass of water = 132 ml * 1 g/ml = 132 g

molar mass of water = 18 g/mol

=> number of moles of water = 132 g / 18 g/mol = 7.33333 mol

mass of glycerin = 27.2 g

molar mass of glycerin:, C3H8O3: 3 * 12 g/mol + 8 * 1 g/mol + 3*16 g/mol = 92 g/mol

number of moles of glycerin = 27.2g / 92 g/mol = 0.29565

total number of moles = 7.33333 moles + 0.29565 moles = 7.62898 moles

=> X solv = 7.33333 / 7.62898 = 0.96125

=> p = 0.96125 * 31.8 torr ≈ 30.57 torr ≈ 30.6 torr.

Answer: 30.6 torr

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The cell membrane around a cell forms a barrier that protects and regulates the cell. Certain chemicals can pass through the plasma membrane because they have similar chemical properties as the membrane. Which best describes those that can pass through? They are concentrated. They are soluble. They are diluted. They are heated.

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The cell membrane around a cell forms a barrier that protects and regulates the cell. Certain chemicals can pass through the plasma membrane because they have similar chemical properties as the membrane. Which best describes those that can pass through? They are concentrated. They are soluble. They are diluted. They are heated.

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A metal sample is heated and placed into the water in a calorimeter at room temperature. Which statement best describes how the calorimeter can be used to determine the specific heat capacity of the metal sample? Energy transfers to the metal from the water and calorimeter until they are all at room temperature. Energy transfers from the metal to the water and calorimeter until they are all at room temperature. Energy transfers to the metal from the water and calorimeter until they all reach a single temperature. Energy transfers from the metal to the water and calorimeter until they all reach a single temperature.

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This problem is to apply Roult’s Law.

Roult’s Law states that the vapor pressure, p, of a solution of a non-volatile solute is equal to the vapor pressure of the pure solvent, Po solv, times the mole fraction of the solvent, Xsolv

p = Xsolv * Po sol

X solv = number of moles of solvent / number of moles of solution

The solvent is water and the solute (not volatile) is glycerin.

Number of moles = mass in grams / molar mass

mass of water = 132 ml * 1 g/ml = 132 g

molar mass of water = 18 g/mol

=> number of moles of water = 132 g / 18 g/mol = 7.33333 mol

mass of glycerin = 27.2 g

molar mass of glycerin:, C3H8O3: 3 * 12 g/mol + 8 * 1 g/mol + 3*16 g/mol = 92 g/mol

number of moles of glycerin = 27.2g / 92 g/mol = 0.29565

total number of moles = 7.33333 moles + 0.29565 moles = 7.62898 moles

=> X solv = 7.33333 / 7.62898 = 0.96125

=> p = 0.96125 * 31.8 torr ≈ 30.57 torr ≈ 30.6 torr.

Answer: 30.6 torr

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Calculate the molar enthalpy change of H2O (l) when liquid water is heated from 41.7 C to 76.2 C

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This problem is to apply Roult’s Law.

Roult’s Law states that the vapor pressure, p, of a solution of a non-volatile solute is equal to the vapor pressure of the pure solvent, Po solv, times the mole fraction of the solvent, Xsolv

p = Xsolv * Po sol

X solv = number of moles of solvent / number of moles of solution

The solvent is water and the solute (not volatile) is glycerin.

Number of moles = mass in grams / molar mass

mass of water = 132 ml * 1 g/ml = 132 g

molar mass of water = 18 g/mol

=> number of moles of water = 132 g / 18 g/mol = 7.33333 mol

mass of glycerin = 27.2 g

molar mass of glycerin:, C3H8O3: 3 * 12 g/mol + 8 * 1 g/mol + 3*16 g/mol = 92 g/mol

number of moles of glycerin = 27.2g / 92 g/mol = 0.29565

total number of moles = 7.33333 moles + 0.29565 moles = 7.62898 moles

=> X solv = 7.33333 / 7.62898 = 0.96125

=> p = 0.96125 * 31.8 torr ≈ 30.57 torr ≈ 30.6 torr.

Answer: 30.6 torr

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2. How many grams of water can be heated from 20.0 oC to 75oC using 12500.0 Joules?

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This problem is to apply Roult’s Law.

Roult’s Law states that the vapor pressure, p, of a solution of a non-volatile solute is equal to the vapor pressure of the pure solvent, Po solv, times the mole fraction of the solvent, Xsolv

p = Xsolv * Po sol

X solv = number of moles of solvent / number of moles of solution

The solvent is water and the solute (not volatile) is glycerin.

Number of moles = mass in grams / molar mass

mass of water = 132 ml * 1 g/ml = 132 g

molar mass of water = 18 g/mol

=> number of moles of water = 132 g / 18 g/mol = 7.33333 mol

mass of glycerin = 27.2 g

molar mass of glycerin:, C3H8O3: 3 * 12 g/mol + 8 * 1 g/mol + 3*16 g/mol = 92 g/mol

number of moles of glycerin = 27.2g / 92 g/mol = 0.29565

total number of moles = 7.33333 moles + 0.29565 moles = 7.62898 moles

=> X solv = 7.33333 / 7.62898 = 0.96125

=> p = 0.96125 * 31.8 torr ≈ 30.57 torr ≈ 30.6 torr.

Answer: 30.6 torr

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A 132 g piece of nickel is heated to 100.0 °c in a boiling water bath and then dropped into a beaker containing 877 g of water (density = 1.00 g/cm3) at 5.0 °c. what was the final temperature of the nickel and water after thermal equilibrium was reached

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The equation for how temperature changes the resistance R is: 

R=R₀(1+α(T-T₀)), where R₀ is the resistance at T₀=20°C, T is the temperature for which we want to calculate the resistance and α is the temperature coefficient for resistance. 

The resistance of the copper wire increases by 18% or by 0.18, so the new value for the resistance is R=1.18*R₀.

T₀=20°C
=0.0068
R=1.18*R₀

Now we need to input that into the equation for resistance change and solve for temperature T.  

1.18R₀=R₀(1+α(T-20)), R₀ cancels out,

1.18=1+α(T-20),

1.18-1=α(T-20), we divide by α,

0.18/α=T-20, we put 20 on the left side,

26.47+20=T

T=46.47°C

So the temperature on which the resistance of copper wire will increase by 18% is T=46.47°C. 

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In an experiment, a student gently heated a hydrated copper compound to remove the water of hydration. the following data was recorded: 1. mass of the crucible, cover and contents before heating 23.4g. 2. mass of empty crucible and cover. 3. mass of crucible, cover, and contents after heating to constant mass 20.94g

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This problem is to apply Roult’s Law.

Roult’s Law states that the vapor pressure, p, of a solution of a non-volatile solute is equal to the vapor pressure of the pure solvent, Po solv, times the mole fraction of the solvent, Xsolv

p = Xsolv * Po sol

X solv = number of moles of solvent / number of moles of solution

The solvent is water and the solute (not volatile) is glycerin.

Number of moles = mass in grams / molar mass

mass of water = 132 ml * 1 g/ml = 132 g

molar mass of water = 18 g/mol

=> number of moles of water = 132 g / 18 g/mol = 7.33333 mol

mass of glycerin = 27.2 g

molar mass of glycerin:, C3H8O3: 3 * 12 g/mol + 8 * 1 g/mol + 3*16 g/mol = 92 g/mol

number of moles of glycerin = 27.2g / 92 g/mol = 0.29565

total number of moles = 7.33333 moles + 0.29565 moles = 7.62898 moles

=> X solv = 7.33333 / 7.62898 = 0.96125

=> p = 0.96125 * 31.8 torr ≈ 30.57 torr ≈ 30.6 torr.

Answer: 30.6 torr

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A 1.50-g sample of hydrated copper(ii) sulfatewas heated carefully until it had changed completely to anhydrous copper(ii) sulfate () with a mass of 0.957 g. determine the value of x. [this number is called the number of waters of hydration of copper(ii) sulfate. it specifies the number of water molecules per formula unit of in the hydrated crystal.]

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This problem is to apply Roult’s Law.

Roult’s Law states that the vapor pressure, p, of a solution of a non-volatile solute is equal to the vapor pressure of the pure solvent, Po solv, times the mole fraction of the solvent, Xsolv

p = Xsolv * Po sol

X solv = number of moles of solvent / number of moles of solution

The solvent is water and the solute (not volatile) is glycerin.

Number of moles = mass in grams / molar mass

mass of water = 132 ml * 1 g/ml = 132 g

molar mass of water = 18 g/mol

=> number of moles of water = 132 g / 18 g/mol = 7.33333 mol

mass of glycerin = 27.2 g

molar mass of glycerin:, C3H8O3: 3 * 12 g/mol + 8 * 1 g/mol + 3*16 g/mol = 92 g/mol

number of moles of glycerin = 27.2g / 92 g/mol = 0.29565

total number of moles = 7.33333 moles + 0.29565 moles = 7.62898 moles

=> X solv = 7.33333 / 7.62898 = 0.96125

=> p = 0.96125 * 31.8 torr ≈ 30.57 torr ≈ 30.6 torr.

Answer: 30.6 torr

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A 9.84 ounces ingot of unknown metal is heated from 73.2 degrees fahrenheit – 191.2 degrees fahrenheit this requires 3.912 calories of energy calculate the specific heat of the metal

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A 9.84 ounces ingot of unknown metal is heated from 73.2 degrees fahrenheit – 191.2 degrees fahrenheit this requires 3.912 calories of energy calculate the specific heat of the metal
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Describe the process that ice on Mount Everest goes through when being heated from 10o Fahrenheit to 305o Kelvin. Explain how the energy requirements change at different steps of the heating curve. What are the energy transfers that happen in the ice on Mount Everest?

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Answer:  C. He measured the different wavelengths emitted by the electrons of the element using x-rays

Explanation:   Moseley was the scientist who determined that atomic number of the element that is number of electrons in atoms of the particular elements.

He studied the X ray spectra of the atoms starting from aluminum and ending at gold. Out of the lines of the spectra, he determined the frequency of the particular line which was found to be increasing as the atomic mass of the element is increasing.

Then he explained that the frequency value of the line is precisely same as the serial number of element . Thus he specified Z as the atomic number symbol.

He also plotted the graph between the square root of the frequency and the atomic number which was found to be the straight line.

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