Thomas Hobbes: Leviathan> In the Leviathan Hobbes (1587-1666) assumes that men are selfish and that the world does not satisfy all their needs, which makes them hostile to others. This would be the state of nature, where all would fight against all seeking individual interests. For peace of mind, men must give up some liberties. For this, all men make a Social Contract, giving moderating power to the State.
John Locke: 2nd Treaty on Civil Government> Locke contradicts Hobbes by arguing that the state of nature could not be a war of all against all, but a state of perfect freedom, without any form of subordination or subjection, all men being equal in power. In this context, men would be judges of their own causes and therefore the punishments would be extreme, which made them create a pact for the mutual conservation of life, through the Social Contract.
Jean Jacques Rousseau: The Social Contract> Unlike Hobbes and Lock, Rousseau considers man naturally good in the state of nature, and tries to explain the reason for the revocation of man’s freedom through the Social Contract. His conclusion is that in the civil state power relations may be disproportionate and the preservation of man’s well-being in civil society would depend on a hierarchy of socially instituted power.
William Blackstone: Commentaries on the Laws of England> Commentaries on the Laws of England> Introduces the “common law” of the people before the institutionalization and the evolution of the laws in England. His work of four volumes is a milestone for being the first that dealt with legal principles in a tangible way for lay people.