Secondary data is the data which has already been gathered previously by someone and is used by other researchers for conducting their studies. Newspaper, journals, and magazines are some of the excellent examples of secondary data. Every researcher takes help from the secondary data even for collecting data through primary sources. Secondary data is available for almost every topic imaginable in this world. This makes it very useful for the researchers as they have some information available to head start their current research.
The secondary data can be used for several purposes because it helps to determine the economic
Forecast in the companies. The secondary data is very useful when it comes to predicting the market trend or the company position in the future. Some of the uses are listed below:
- It is used for the Economic Forecasting
- Provides useful insights on industries
- It can be very useful in designing interviews
- Play important role in Census.
Opening a retirement home in these areas would be a better business idea. The reason behind this is that there is a huge increase in some old aged people in comparison to the children. The population of people aged 55 to 74 is larger in comparison to children aged 0 to 4. The surge in the number of old aged people is likely to continue in future as well because the population of people aged 35 to 54 is also very high.
Secondary data is classified into two parts:
Internal Secondary Data
This data is collected by an organization from within itself. The organization uses its past sales, records, invoices and internal databases for fulfilling its need of secondary data.
External Secondary Data
It is the data which firm obtain from the outside sources. The sources could be newspaper and
A database is the collection of organized data which can be used for extracting information. It is a mechanism where information can be stored, managed and retrieved. The information inside a database can be in any format such as printed, electronic, graphic or their combination. Following are the components of the data base:
- Product record
- Consumer record
- Inventory records
A data base which could gather a range of data about product, labor costs and the amount of toppings being used on each pizza would be very useful. A traffic light system can be developed which could alert the store manager about the under performing pizza types. This system can also be developed further to alert about inconsistencies of topping on every pizza.
Data mining is the process through which managers collect meaningful information from the countless information stored in a database. On the other hand, micro marketing is the process of using differentiated marketing mix for attracting a specific consumer segment. Micro marketing is made possible with the effective use of database and data mining. Companies use the database for generating information through data mining for a specific customer case.
Company T’s use of its database for identifying the pregnant women in its marketing area is ethical. The company is doing nothing wrong as it is trying to sell its product through a micro-marketing strategy. It wants to target the pregnant women at an early stage of their pregnancy so that they can sell them more products. The company uses the marketing research technique for generating customer information.
Quantitative research is defined as study concerning the management of a set of designed questions with pre-scheduled response preferences to a great number of respondents. Qualitative research, on the other hand, includes gathering, evaluating and understand the data by noticing what individuals say. The difference between two searches is that qualitative research is directed in a natural setting with the intention to recognize human or social difficulties. While the quantitative is established on the objective of the analyzing theory.
Observational research is a societal and communal technique of research that involves the thorough observation of occurrences in their natural situation. The content of publications, radio broadcasts, television broadcasts or the article and newspapers are observed. Observation maybe mechanical or personal. Recording is done to observe the direct behavior of the individual and to discover the results and effect of the activities
Convert observation would be appropriate because observed is attentive of the observation or study. It is likely that one might alter their activities and performance resulting in the difference and typical behavior in the observation. How parent’s restraint their kids may vary significantly if they were alert that they are being observed. For example, a parent might scream on a child in an eating plat of the research was not known.
Traditional focus groups can deliver perfect statistics and are less costly than the other methods of the outdated marketing study. There can be extensive charges if merchandise is to be advertised on a country wide base. It would be dangerous to collect respondents from several locations all over the country ever since approached about new merchandise may differ because of the geographical concerns.
The two formats of the online focus groups are discussed which the contemporary focus group is. As this is the kind of focus group which the client ca detect and notice any online activity from any remote location which shows that this is easy for the client to detect and investigate. While the moderator’s focus group is the one who is accountable for building an environment that is favorable to openness and need to have good interactive and observation skills.
It is usually assumed that the finest focus groups are the ones where the participants have similar characteristics. The necessity for related demographic or other important characteristics in the member of the focus group is highlighted by the information that the participant’s focus group is usually strangers. It has been observed that participants feel more comfortable when they realize they have a connection such as job situations and similar ages.
Protective means something that is capable of being produced by projection. Projective techniques are the conditions where the applicants attach themselves into an exclusive stimulus condition. A protective technique, on the other hand, consist of two features. A vague stimulus is offered to all participants and the in responding to the stimulus the applicants may disclose internal feelings that might not be discovered.
The respondents have given the answers, in the way that was meaning to them, however, test was typically provide in the beginning of the sentence. The association of the exchange of the words; association can be known as a common word game, in the process related to the respondents. There is the balloon occlusion test, the game than known as the noun phrase and the test undertake when there are abnormalities in the four of the main arteries.
Ethnographic research is derived from anthropology. This is a descriptive and a detailed study if the cluster and its actives, actions, performance, features, culture and so on. Etnos individual and grapy defining them. Anthropologists have achieved visions and understanding into the individual’s behavior by breathing with or amid their focuses. This has been repeated for a long period to order to study their feelings.
Below is the importance of the survey research method that is quantitative: Standardization is the response, and the reaction of respondents is only towards the question which is presented identically. While the subgroups are used to find out the sensible differences, all the respondents can be segmented for comparison. The third is the administration ease as the questionnaires can be recorded easily and quickly.
The survey that is computer administered is very influential to marketing researchers. Computer administered possesses certain characteristics which are very helpful in the main survey process. These surveys are error free and fast. Their speed makes them beneficial than the orthodox method of doing surveys. As they give the real time data capture capability and they have the ability to apply graphics and pictures.
The survey which is person administers has many special advantages of rapport, adaptability, feedback and quality control whereas the surveys which are computer administered only have two unique advantages like quality and feedback. Hence the advantages that person administered possess over the computer administered are adaptability and rapport.
In the case of a mixed-mode approach, more than two data collection methods are used by the researchers to work on representative’s sample. It has collective benefits of different survey methods. The researchers get motivated by this survey method because it requires mixtures to the use of different pulses. The mixed-mode method is very efficient and cost effective. The design used in these survey give an edge to over extended population of interest.
The Telephone Surveys
The telephone survey can be completed very quickly, and results can be achieved within n time. The results of telephone surveys are accurate and random because less selective samples are selected in this case. In telephone surveys, the individuals are much trained and result in better quality control. This is the most adaptable survey of the recent times.
Comparison is shown below between the online survey and other methods:
The methods mentioned in the case is an observation method of data collection rather than a survey. The situation is an observational research as there is no structured questionnaire. The rate of compliance is very high as the observation is implied. The store manager will give the sample of information to the market directors. However, the main weakness could be lack of structure if the survey would be conclusive or quantitative research.
Objective properties are the characteristics which can verify physically. These are tangible and observable. An example includes the income, age, number of units purchased and lot more. While on the other hand, subjective properties are related to the characteristics which can’t be verified directly. These are intangible and unobservable. Examples include consumer behavior, attitude, preferences and much more
The three measures which are used in marketing research are: Nominal Scales as this possess only the characteristics of description while the ordinal scales imply that assigning rank-order to the responses of the respondents. While to measure both of this scale there two scale measurements. One is interval scales, and the other one is ratio scales. In interval scales, each level is known while in the ratio scales in which the true zero origin exists.
In interval scales, the distance between each level is known as the researchers normally define the distance as one scale unit. The example of the interval scale is that ask the student to evaluate an art class either its extremely enjoyable, very enjoyable, somewhat enjoyable, or not enjoyable. While on the other hand ratio scale is those in which a true zero origin exists. The example of it is the actual number of dollars spend on some children.
Subjective properties are the characteristics which can’t be verified directly. These are intangible and unobservable. When a subjective property such as an attitude or a preference has intensity, the individual’s position can be located on a scale ranging from very negative to very positive. Measurement continuum is this range of intensity.
Those who argue about some of the respondents, have the particular item, on which their opinion is formed, there was opportunities, which indicates the uncertainty regarding to the neutral option. The respondents may hide their choices, or they dodge, while giving the answers, so based on this analysis; we can say that the respondents used the inclusion of the neutral process.These respondents would be forced to indicate their opinions or feelings if the neutral opinion option is eliminated.
The difference between all these three is that in the Likert scale respondents are as-disagree scale for each of a series of statements. While in the life style scale this is different as in this scale the special application of the Likert question takes place. And in the semantic differential scale this one translates an individual’s qualitative judgments into numerical estimates.
A general feeling on a stimulus such as a store brand is known as the halo effect. The impressions of a respondent on its particular properties will be prejudiced by the halo effect. It is measured with a semantic differential scale. The researcher can flip the ends of the bipolar adjectives on the scale so as to avoid having all negative on one side and all positives on the other side.
A measure is said to be reliable widely different answers to a similar question from the same person indicate that there is something wrong with the question. In validity, the assessment of the exactness of the measurement compared to what exists. A valid measure is always truthful.
The functions of the questionnaire include the translation of the research objective into specific questions, standardizing. Throughout the interview, the related question and the response category, every respondent was to the identical stimuli. The wording, flow of the questions and the appearance level of the question make the respondent involved.A sit also works as the permanent record of the research which is very important during the research and can help to give the forecast of any research or about the product.
The introduction plays an important role into the design of the questionnaire. An introduction is referred to as the differently depending upon the form of the research.it should identify the surveyor or the sponsor. The questionnaire should be able to describe the purpose of the research or the study. It should provide the explanation of the respondent selection.
Screening question describes the qualification of the potential respondent is enough to participate in the survey or not. While the warm-ups questions are simple and easy to answer. These may pertain to the research objectives. Warm-up questions are followed by the transition questions. These questions serve to move the respondent further along in the process of responding. Skip questions provide direction to the respondent to move or skip over the following question based on the answer to the current question.
The Marketing Management and Research Process With Examples
Comparison Between Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methods