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A polygon is a type of plane figure a square is a type of parallegram which is a special quadrilateral A quadrilateral is a four sided polygon a trapezoid is a type of quadrilateral using the sets definitions below which of the following statements about the sets given is true

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A polygon is a type of plane figure a square is a type of parallegram which is a special quadrilateral A quadrilateral is a four sided polygon a trapezoid is a type of quadrilateral using the sets definitions below which of the following statements about the sets given is true

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In order to prevent injury during your weight-training session, it is necessary to __________. A. do performance testing prior to setting up your workout routine, stretch before and after each workout, get the proper amount of rest and nutrition, and modify your workout as needed B. have your friend check your workout to be sure it is well-designed, exercise only three days a week, and allow for adequate rest between workouts C. never change your workout routine, stretch before and after each workout, allow time to warm up and cool down, and adjust your form as needed D. use slow bouncing movements to warm up and stretch before each workout, follow a plan that includes proper sets and repetitions, adjust your workout and form as needed, and workout every day

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In order to prevent injury during your weight-training session, it is necessary to __________. A. do performance testing prior to setting up your workout routine, stretch before and after each workout, get the proper amount of rest and nutrition, and modify your workout as needed B. have your friend check your workout to be sure it is well-designed, exercise only three days a week, and allow for adequate rest between workouts C. never change your workout routine, stretch before and after each workout, allow time to warm up and cool down, and adjust your form as needed D. use slow bouncing movements to warm up and stretch before each workout, follow a plan that includes proper sets and repetitions, adjust your workout and form as needed, and workout every day

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The correct progression for someone who can lift 20 pounds for 20 repetitions on all sets is to:

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Answered by answersmine AT 22/10/2019 – 05:28 AM

The correct progression for someone who can lift 20 pounds for 20 repetitions on all sets is to: increase weight by 5 pounds and decrease the number of repetitions per set to a minimum of 12.
Increasing the total weight and the total set at the same time will put too much pressure on your muscle and joints and will risk an injury. To prevent that, you need to increase one thing while lowering the other

Post your answer

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Which of the following sets could be the sides of a right triangle? A.){2, 3, } B.){3, 5, } C.){5, 8, 12}

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Which of the following sets could be the sides of a right triangle? A.){2, 3, } B.){3, 5, } C.){5, 8, 12}

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In the diagram above, what will happen if the government sets the price for rent at Point B?

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In the diagram above, what will happen if the government sets the price for rent at Point B?

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The table below shows data from a survey about the amount of time high school students spent reading and the amount of time spent watching videos each week (without reading): Reading Video 5 1 5 4 7 7 7 10 7 12 12 15 12 15 12 18 14 21 15 26 Which response best describes outliers in these data sets? A) Neither data set has suspected outliers. B) The range of data is too small to identify outliers. C) Video has a suspected outlier in the 26-hour value. D) Due to the narrow range of reading compared to video, the video values of 18, 21, and 26 are all possible outliers.

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Answer with explanation:

Arranging the data in ascending order

1, 4,5,5,7,7,7,7, 10,12,12,12,12,14,15,15,15,18,21,26

There are 20 data values in data set.

Mean of data set

=frac{text{Sum of all the data values in the data set}}{text{Total number of values}}\\=frac{225}{20}\\=11.25

Since there are , even number of data values in the data set,

So, Median

=frac{(10th +11th) term}{2}\\=frac{12+12}{2}=12

First Quartile and third Quartile can be calculated directly ,using the concept of even and odd number of Observations in the data set.

Q_{1}=7, Q_{2}=15

Mode> 12

Since data values is negatively skewed, Mean < Median <Mode.

To calculate Outlier

Interquartile Range (IQR)

 =Q_{3}-Q_{1}\\ =15-7\\=8

Also, 1. Q_{1}-1.5 *IQR\\=7-1.5 *8\\=-5\\2. Q_{3}+1.5 *IQR\\=15+1.5*8\\=15+12\\=27

No, value exceeds 27, nor any value is less than -5.

So, there are no outliers in Data set, which has 20 values.

Option A:  Neither data set has suspected outliers.

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Every day Carla sets aside time to work on the novel she is writing. Carla wrote 2 manuscript pages in 5 hours. If she keeps writing at this rate, how many pages will she write in 12.5 hours

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Answer:

3 hours.          

Step-by-step explanation:

Let x be the time taken by shoe repairman to repair one pair.

We have been given that his assistant, who takes twice as long to repair a pair of shoes. So time taken by his assistant to repair one pair of shoes would be 2x.

The number of pair of shoes repaired by repairman in one hour would be frac{1}{x}.

The number of pair of shoes repaired by assistant in one hour would be frac{1}{2x}.

We have been given that together they can fix 16 pairs of shoes in an eight-hour day. We can represent this information in an equation as:

frac{1}{x}+frac{1}{2x}=frac{8}{16}

frac{1}{x}+frac{1}{2x}=frac{1}{2}

Let us have a common denominator.

frac{2*1}{2*x}+frac{1}{2x}=frac{1}{2}

frac{2}{2x}+frac{1}{2x}=frac{1}{2}

frac{2+1}{2x}=frac{1}{2}

frac{3}{2x}=frac{1}{2}  

Upon cross multiplying our equation we will get,

2x*1=3*2

2x=3*2

frac{2x}{2}=frac{3*2}{2}

x=3

Therefore, it take 3 hours for the repairman to fix one pair of shoes by himself.

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Which of these sets of words best complete this sentence? Ayer fui al parque y disfruté de los ___________ y las _____________. árboles, bibliotecas árboles, flores libros, tarjetas árboles, computadoras

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Which of these sets of words best complete this sentence? Ayer fui al parque y disfruté de los ___________ y las _____________. árboles, bibliotecas árboles, flores libros, tarjetas árboles, computadoras

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The question is “Find the number of elements in the following sets” I sort of get it but it docks me points every time I get it wrong so I don’t want to risk it

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Answer:

5 in 0.05 is 10 times greater than 5 in 0.005.

Step-by-step explanation:

To find : In which number does the digit 5 have greater value 0.05 or 0.005 how many times as great is it and how do you know ?

Solution :

According to the place value stem,

Ones      Tenths      Hundredths     Thousandths

 0              0                   5                                           – 0.05

 0              0                   0                        5                 – 0.005

In 0.05 5 is in hundredths place and in 0.005 5 is in thousandths place.

So, 5 in 0.05 is 10 times greater than 5 in 0.005.

As 0.05=5times frac{1}{100}

0.005=5times frac{1}{1000}

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Highlighter pens cost $3.86 per set at an office supply store. Which equation can be used to determine the price, P, of n sets of these pens? n = 3.86P P equals 3.86 over n n equals 3.86 over P P = 3.86n

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Answer:

Number of copy machines must be made to minimize the unit cost=160.

Step-by-step explanation:

We are given that the unit cost function C ( the cost in dollars to make each copy machine)

If machines are made =x

Then the unit cost function is given by

C(x)=0.8x^2-256x+25939

We have to find the number of copy machines for  minimize the unit  cost

C(x)=0.8x^2-256x+25939

Differentiate with respect to x

Then we get

frac{mathrm{d}C}{mathrm{d}x}=1.6x-256 ……(equation I)

To find the value of x then we susbtitute frac{mathrm{d}C}{mathrm{d}x} is equal to zero

frac{mathrm{d}C}{mathrm{d}x}=0

1.6x-256=0

1.6x=256

x=frac{256}{1.6}

By using division property of equality

x= 160

Again differentiate the equation I with respect to x then we get

frac{mathrm{d}^2 C}{mathrm{d}^2 x}=1.6 >0

Hence, the unit cost is minimize for x=160

Therefore, the number of copy machines must be made to minimize the unit cost =160

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Name the set(s) of numbers to which 1.18 belongs.

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Name the set(s) of numbers to which 1.18 belongs.

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An obese man sets a long term goal of losing 40 pounds. What’s a reasonable benchmark? a) to start a new diet and exercise plan b) to lose 10 lbs in a month

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1. The answer is “C”.

“Identical twins” who have been raised apart are typically more similar in intelligence level than biological siblings raised together because they have been born with the same genetic code.

Identical twins originate from a single fertilized egg that parts into two. Before it parts, it is either male or female. After it parts, there are either two guys or two females. The two sections of the fertilized egg embed in the uterus and every create one of the twins.  

Identical twins have the equivalent hereditary source. No immediate reason for monozygotic twinning has been resolved; it isn’t innate. Monozygotic twins speak to around 33% all things considered. They may look strikingly comparative, and it might be hard to reveal to them separated.

2. The answer is “A”.

Lawrence Kohlberg felt that one of the only ways individuals will accomplish the objectives in each of his six stages was to participate in “consensus democracy” in small group settings.

Lawrence Kohlberg felt that the best way to support development through these stages was by discourse of good problems and by investment in consensus democracy inside small groups. Consensus democracy was rule by understanding of the gathering, not larger part rule. This would invigorate and widen the reasoning of youngsters and grown-ups, enabling them to advance starting with one phase then onto the next.

3. The answer is “D.  showing a learner how to correct common mistakes”.

The term scaffolding alludes to a procedure in which instructors display or exhibit how to take care of an issue, and afterward venture back, offering support as required. Analyst and instructional architect Jerome Bruner first utilized the term ‘scaffolding’ in this setting, harking back to the 1960s. The hypothesis is that when understudies are given the help they require while discovering some new information, they stand a superior possibility of utilizing that learning freely. Bruner suggests positive association and three methods of portrayal amid educating: activities, pictures, and dialect.  

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If you want to increase your muscular endurance, which workout would be BEST suited to help you reach your goals? A. a workout that uses five sets of five reps and works out each specific muscle group three times a week, treating every other day as a rest day B. a workout that works out each muscle group each day, using high weight and low repetitions C. a workout that uses three sets of 15 repetitions and works each muscle group four times a week, treating every other day as a rest day D. a workout that isolates one muscle group a day, using low weight and low repetitions

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1. The answer is “C”.

“Identical twins” who have been raised apart are typically more similar in intelligence level than biological siblings raised together because they have been born with the same genetic code.

Identical twins originate from a single fertilized egg that parts into two. Before it parts, it is either male or female. After it parts, there are either two guys or two females. The two sections of the fertilized egg embed in the uterus and every create one of the twins.  

Identical twins have the equivalent hereditary source. No immediate reason for monozygotic twinning has been resolved; it isn’t innate. Monozygotic twins speak to around 33% all things considered. They may look strikingly comparative, and it might be hard to reveal to them separated.

2. The answer is “A”.

Lawrence Kohlberg felt that one of the only ways individuals will accomplish the objectives in each of his six stages was to participate in “consensus democracy” in small group settings.

Lawrence Kohlberg felt that the best way to support development through these stages was by discourse of good problems and by investment in consensus democracy inside small groups. Consensus democracy was rule by understanding of the gathering, not larger part rule. This would invigorate and widen the reasoning of youngsters and grown-ups, enabling them to advance starting with one phase then onto the next.

3. The answer is “D.  showing a learner how to correct common mistakes”.

The term scaffolding alludes to a procedure in which instructors display or exhibit how to take care of an issue, and afterward venture back, offering support as required. Analyst and instructional architect Jerome Bruner first utilized the term ‘scaffolding’ in this setting, harking back to the 1960s. The hypothesis is that when understudies are given the help they require while discovering some new information, they stand a superior possibility of utilizing that learning freely. Bruner suggests positive association and three methods of portrayal amid educating: activities, pictures, and dialect.  

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Which of the following sets represents the range of the function shown? {(−3, 4), (5, 11), (9, −1), (10, 13)} (5 points) {−3, 5, 9, 10} {−1, 4, 11, 13} {(4, −3), (11, 5), (−1, 9), (13, 10)} {−3, −1, 4, 5, 9, 10, 11, 13}

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Which of the following sets represents the range of the function shown? {(−3, 4), (5, 11), (9, −1), (10, 13)} (5 points) {−3, 5, 9, 10} {−1, 4, 11, 13} {(4, −3), (11, 5), (−1, 9), (13, 10)} {−3, −1, 4, 5, 9, 10, 11, 13}

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How can you use the mean absolute deviation of two data sets to compare them?

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The scatter graph of the data is shown in the first picture below

The ‘line of best fit’ shows a negative gradient

Part A: The most likely coefficient is -0.98. 
If the coefficient is -1, then each point would be exactly on the straight line (which they are not as shown on the graph). The graph however still shows a strong negative coefficient. It can be seen from the close distance of each point from the line of best fit. So -0.5 and -0.02 is unlikely as they show weak negative correlation

Part B: Refer to the second picture to see the horizontal and vertical distance between day 15 and day 20

The horizontal distance is 5 units
The vertical distance is read between 61 and 71.5, hence it’s 10.5
The slope = Vertical distance ÷ Horizontal Distance = 10.5÷5 = 2.1
The ‘downhill’ slope shows a negative gradient, hence the value of the slope is -2.1
The value of the slope shows that the surface area of the lake shrinks by 2.1 for every one day

Part C: The data in the table represents the relation between two variables. Since one variable doesn’t cause the change in the other variable, the data table represents correlation rather than a causation. 

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Two sets of quadratic expressions are shown below in various forms: Line 1: x2 + 3x + 2 (x + 1)(x + 2) (x + 1.5)2 − 0.25 Line 2: x2 + 5x + 6 (x + 2)(x + 3) (x + 2.5)2 + 6.25 Which line contains three equivalent expressions?

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Two sets of quadratic expressions are shown below in various forms: Line 1: x2 + 3x + 2 (x + 1)(x + 2) (x + 1.5)2 − 0.25 Line 2: x2 + 5x + 6 (x + 2)(x + 3) (x + 2.5)2 + 6.25 Which line contains three equivalent expressions?

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The Chief Justice of the United States serves for life without exception and has the power to dismiss the other justices sets the court agenda and would preside over a presidential impeachment trial is simply a title for the most senior member of the court, and the title has no significance is the leader of the other justices, and the job rotates among justices each year

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Dearest great-granddaughter, 
I have been through thick and thin, hardships and moments I will remember forever. I am passing this on to you, for I know I may die soon but you will surely live on to the 2000th century. Below is enclosed the changes I have been through and advice to help you through them in the future. 
  Wars are awful,terrible,terrible things; it hurts the lives of many. As soon as you think everything is better it gets worse again. You find everything around you crashing down. My advice on this is: stay strong and believe in what you know is right. Military has never been an easy topic. I cry for fear of what may happen to you, but no matter what, STAY STRONG. This is important no matter what.
  All through your life, you will find people changing and growing into different lifestyles. This is okay. Culture is meant to change, my dear. Choose what you feel is right and live it out with all your might. Culture is what makes us unique. We all have at least a little bit of variation.
  Now for science and technology. Oh, the times, they are changing! It seems every day a new man finds a solution to a problem he has been searching for for years! First, it was that man Thomas Edison, presenting the light bulb and now W.H. Carrier patents the design of the air conditioner! Oh, I’m sure soon there will be a different type of telephone and all these fascinating things to imagine! I do wish I could watch it all, but I’m afraid my days are numbered.
  I love you, dear, and I hope that this will help you find your way through life. Embrace the bad things that happen, so you can love the good things even more. I love you with all my heart.
With Love,
So-and-so

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Exit Which of the following sets of numbers could be the lengths of the sides of a triangle? A. 3.5 cm, 7 cm, 10.5 cm B. 3.5 cm, 7 cm, 14 cm C. 3.5 cm, 3.5 cm, 3.5 cm D. 3.5 cm, 5 cm, 10 cm

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Exit Which of the following sets of numbers could be the lengths of the sides of a triangle? A. 3.5 cm, 7 cm, 10.5 cm B. 3.5 cm, 7 cm, 14 cm C. 3.5 cm, 3.5 cm, 3.5 cm D. 3.5 cm, 5 cm, 10 cm

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Which of the following sets of coordinates are for the city of Windhoek?

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During the night of July 18, 64 AD, fire broke out in the merchant area of the city of Rome. Fanned by summer winds, the flames quickly spread through the dry, wooden structures of the Imperial City. Soon the fire took on a life of its own consuming all in its path for six days and seven nights. When the conflagration finally ran its course it left seventy percent of the city in smoldering ruins.

Rumors soon arose accusing the Emperor Nero of ordering the torching of the city and standing on the summit of the Palatine playing his lyre as flames devoured the world around him. These rumors have never been confirmed. In fact, Nero rushed to Rome from his palace in Antium (Anzio) and ran about the city all that first night without his guards directing efforts to quell the blaze. But the rumors persisted and the Emperor looked for a scapegoat. He found it in the Christians, at that time a rather obscure religious sect with a small following in the city. To appease the masses, Nero literally had his victims fed to the lions during giant spectacles held in the city’s remaining amphitheater.

From the ashes of the fire rose a more spectacular Rome. A city made of marble and stone with wide streets, pedestrian arcades and ample supplies of water to quell any future blaze. The debris from the fire was used to fill the malaria-ridden marshes that had plagued the city for generations.

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Read the passage. Then, answer the question(s). A modern dentist would certainly enjoy having a hadrosaur as a client. Although an adult human being has only 32 teeth, these duck-billed dinosaurs of the Late Cretaceous Period had up to 2,000 teeth, with 500 along each side of each jaw. Unlike human beings, who grow two sets of teeth in their lifetimes, the hadrosaurs, like sharks and modern reptiles, had built-in replacement teeth. If a tooth became worn down or broke off, a new one would take its place. In skeletal remains of the jaws of these toothy beasts, scientists have found entire banks of replacement teeth. Like athletes sitting on the bench, they were ready and waiting to be put to use. Which statement or detail from the passage best helps readers picture a hadrosaur’s teeth?

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The correct answer is A. A tragedy has characters who suffer pain and loss, while a comedy has funny situations and a happy ending.

Explanation;

Both tragedy and comedy are genres of literature that commonly display fictional stories, character, and events; however, they differ in their focus and features. In the case of tragedy, this has a sad ending and the situations presented include mostly events that focus on suffering and difficult situations the characters are unable to overcome.

On the other hand, the comedy focuses on humor and entertaining situations, has a happy ending and aims at entertaining and making the audience laugh rather than making them feel bad about characters. According to this, the statement that shows the difference between tragedy and comedy is “A tragedy has characters who suffer pain and loss, while a comedy has funny situations and a happy ending”.

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Who sets the salary of the president?

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Who sets the salary of the president?
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When focusing on muscular size or endurance, how long should you rest in between sets? 2 minutes 20-30 seconds 30-60 seconds do not rest, keep pushing the muscles

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1. ISOTONIC contraction

Lifting a weight 10 times is a kind of ISOTONIC contraction.

Lifting heavy cans and putting them on a shelf may be called an ISOTONIC contraction.

Lifting your heavy book bag several times is good ISOTONIC contraction.

Isotonic actually signifies ‘same tension,’ where ‘iso’- signifies ‘the same’ and ‘tonic’ alludes to ‘tension or force’ – for this situation, in the muscle. Isotonic contractions keep up consistent strain in the muscle as the muscle changes length. This can happen just when a muscle’s maximal power of compression surpasses the aggregate load on the muscle. Isotonic muscle contractions can be either concentric (muscle abbreviates) or flighty (muscle extends).  

2. ISOMETRIC contraction

Holding a heavy machine part steady while securing it in place may be categorized as ISOMETRIC contraction.

Flexing your leg muscles and holding the flex is an ISOMETRIC contraction.

In an isometric muscle contraction, the muscle fires (or actuates with a power and pressure) yet there is no development at a joint.  

As such, the joint is static; there is no protracting or withdrawal of the muscle strands and the appendages don’t move.  

In this kind of muscle contractions , there is no adjustment in the length of the muscle filaments themselves, and there is additionally no development at the joints, yet the muscle strands still fire.

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In the United States, about 1% of all births are multiple births (2 or more babies at one time). One hospital averages 12 sets of twins out of 1,000 births. Choose the answer that expresses this ratio as a fraction in lowest terms.

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Answer:  $78 is the Madyson’s final payment.

Step-by-step explanation:

Since we have given that

Amount from her father to purchase airplane tickets = $1200

On first week , she paid = $50

According to question it is mentioned that  she is able to repay her father $2 more than the previous week, except in the last week.

So, we will apply “Arithmetic Progression”

a = $50

d = $2

So, we know the formula for “Sum of n terms “

S_n=frac{n}{2}(2a+(n-1)d),1200\\frac{n}{2}[2times 50+(n-1)2]<1200\\frac{n}{2}[100+2n-2]<1200\\frac{n}{2}[98+2n],1200\\n^2+49n<1200

Now, we will apply “Quadratic formula “

quad x_{1,:2}=frac{-bpm sqrt{b^2-4ac}}{2a}\\n=frac{-49+sqrt{7201}}{2},:n=frac{-49-sqrt{7201}}{2}\\n=17.98text{ other root is negative so, we will ignore it }\\n=17

So, after 7th week its amount will be

S_7=frac{17}{2}[2times 50+(17-1)2]\\S_7=frac{17}{2}[100+16times 2]\\S_7=frac{17}{2}[132]\\S_7=17times 66=$1122

so, Madyson’s final payment will be

1200-1122=$78

Hence, $78 is the Madyson’s final payment.

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An area with several things in common that sets it apart from other areas of the world

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Here’s what I would do:

Make Sure To Indent Each Paragraph

1st paragraph 1st sentence- remove “any”
1st paragraph 2nd sentence- change “especially applies” to “is crucial”, remove the comma, and replace “including” with “such as”

2nd paragraph, 1st sentence- remove “with our enemy being Japan,” *this adds unnecessary info*
2nd paragraph 3rd sentence- remove “with our enemy being North Vietnam,” *this adds unnecessary info*
2nd paragraph 5th sentence- remove “war” after “nuclear” of add “war” after “conventional”
2nd paragraph(?)- remove this sentence “The transformation of conventional war…”

3rd paragraph, 1st sentence- add “but” before “specific”
3rd paragraph 2nd sentence- add “that influenced American society’s opinions of the Vietnam War” before “included the My Lai Massacre…” and remove the capitalization on “shootings”
3rd paragraph 3rd sentence- remove “a company of”, replace “the population of” with “citizens living in”
3rd paragraph 4th/5th sentence- replace the period with a semicolon, remove “the” and capitalize “president”, remove comma after “President”,
3rd paragraph 7th sentence- I’m not sure about “whom,” so just leave it
3rd paragraph 8th sentence- remove “greatly affected the opinions of the American public…” *since you listed it earlier in the paragraph*

4th paragraph 1st sentence- replace “things” with “events” or “actions” (or both), place a period after support (where the comma is)
4th paragraph 2nd sentence- remove “and”, Capitalize “In”, and replace “pertaining to” with “that occurred during”

Overall, you wrote a good essay. I hope I was able to help!

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PLZZ HELP FASSSSST 1. Which of the following eyects would you expect if red blood cells were shaped like neurons? (1 point) They would not be able to move as easily through capillaries. They would more easily carry out gas exchange in the alveoli. They would not need to be transported through the body. They would become more eyective at picking up urea discarded by body cells. 2. Which of the following is not a function of the skeletal system? (1 point) supports the body works with other body systems to allow movement manufactures new blood cells sends signals to the brain 3. Which of the following body systems are involved in the first line of defense of the immune system against infection? (1 point) integumentary, digestive, respiratory nervous, circulatory, skeletal muscular, endocrine, urinary urinary, skeletal, integumentary 4. Which of the following sets of structures would be involved in ridding the body of unwanted urea? (1 point) sensory neuron, interneuron, spinal cord alveoli, atrium, cilia capillary, nephron, ureter brain, esophagus, small intestine 5. An infectious disease is a disease that (1 point) is caught because the weather turns cold. is caused by pathogens. can be spread only by bacteria. cannot be cured. 6. Which of the following statements is true regarding infectious agents? (1 point) Infectious agents are all too small to be seen without a microscope, and none can be classified as living. All infectious agents are living because they are all classified as microorganisms. Of all the infectious agents, only viruses are considered living because they actively inject their DNA or RNA into host cells. Viruses cannot be treated with antibiotics because they are not living organisms. 7. Which discovery in the 1800s led to the development of germ theory? (1 point) Vaccines could prevent a disease. Antibiotics exist that can be given to counteract an infection. Infection rates decline when health care professionals wash their hands in between seeing patients. Some diseases, such as cancer, are caused by chemical factors. 8. Follow a carbon atom in a piece of bread eaten by a boy. Which of the following describes a path that this atom could take? (1 point) mouth esophagus stomach large intestine blood body cell mouth esophagus stomach small intestine blood body cell mouth large intestine esophagus stomach blood body cell mouth esophagus small intestine stomach blood body cell 9. Which of the following sets of structures is innervated by the somatic nervous system? (1 point) esophagus, stomach, small intestine atrium, ventricle, arteries biceps, triceps, quadriceps diaphragm, bladder, large intestine 10. Which of the following cell types would you expect to increase in number azer a person becomes infected with a pathogen? (1 point) sensory neurons white blood cells epidermal cells red blood cells

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There are four variables which govern changes in population size.
births
deaths
immigration
emigration

A population gains individuals by birth and immigration and loses individuals by death and emigration.

Biotic Potential
Populations vary in their capacity to grow. The maximum rate at which a
population can increase when resources are unlimited and environmental
conditions are ideal is termed the population’s biotic potential. Each
species will have a different biotic potential due to variations in
the species’ reproductive span (how long an individual is capable of reproducing)
the frequency of reproduction (how often an individual can reproduce)
“litter size” (how many offspring are born each time)
survival rate (how many offspring survive to reproductive age)

There are always limits to population growth in nature. Populations
cannot grow exponentially indefinitely. Exploding populations always
reach a size limit imposed by the shortage of one or more factors such
as water, space, and nutrients or by adverse conditions such as disease,
drought and temperature extremes. The factors which act jointly to
limit a population’s growth are termed the environmental resistance. The interplay of biotic potential and density-dependent environmental resistance keeps a population in balance.
Carrying Capacity
For a given region, carrying capacity is the maximum number of
individuals of a given species that an area’s resources can sustain
indefinitely without significantly depleting or degrading those
resources. Determining the carrying capacities for most organisms is
fairly straightforward. For humans carrying capacity is much more
complicated. The definition is expanded to include not degrading our
cultural and social environments and not harming the physical
environment in ways that would adversely affect future generations.

For populations which grow exponentially, growth starts out slowly,
enters a rapid growth phase and then levels off when the carrying
capacity for that species has been reached. The size of the population
then fluctuates slightly above or below the carrying capacity.
Reproductive lag time may cause the population to overshoot the carrying
capacity temporarily. Reproductive lag time is the time required for
the birth rate to decline and the death rate to increase in response to
resource limits. In this scenario, the population will suffer a crash
or dieback to a lower level near the carrying capacity unless a large
number of individuals can emigrate to an area with more favorable
conditions. An area’s carrying capacity is not static. The carrying
capacity may be lowered by resource destruction and degradation during
an overshoot period or extended through technological and social
changes.

An example of dieback occurred in Ireland after a fungus infection
destroyed the potato crop in 1845. During this potato famine
approximately 1 million people died and 3 million people emigrated to
other countries. Increased food production due to improved agricultural
practices, control of many diseases by modern medicine and the use of
energy to make historically uninhabitable areas of Earth inhabitable are
examples of things which can extend carrying capacity. The question is
how long will we be able to keep increasing our population on a planet
with finite size and resources?

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