Read the two passages. Passage One Our school’s mission statement stresses community, cooperation, and personal and intellectual growth. But one of our school’s practices—selecting a valedictorian, or the student with the highest rank in the graduating class—does not support our mission. This practice is divisive, unfair, and archaic. So let’s end it now! Passage Two It is only with great care that administrators consider implementing any system-wide changes to their mission statements. Administrators carefully craft these statements to reflect their school’s fundamental and philosophical approach to education. They take great care in making sure that this mission statement is educationally sound. Based on these two passages, which statement is true? Neither author is open or receptive to opinions contrary to his or her own. Based on an examination of word choice, it is evident that the author of the first passage is someone in administration, while the author of the second is not. Based on an examination of structure, it is clear that both authors reveal their viewpoints most clearly in the last sentence. Both authors are in support of the mission statement.
Treaty of Tordesillas in 1494 was forced on Spain and Portugal by the Pope. The Pope basically said that all lands in the New World belonged to Spain and all new non-Christian lands in the Eastern Hemisphere belong to Portugal. No other Catholic countries can do anything in those areas without the approval of the owner.
The pope basically drew two lines on the globe setting the border. The western line started at the north pole cut half way through Greenland and ended at the south pole. The new world was everything to the west. Problem is that it ran through a chunk of Brazil which is why Brazil is an ex-Portuguese colony.
The Eastern line starts at the North Pole runs through siberia, through the pacific just west of Japan, and cuts Australia in half. Of course, Australia hadn’t been discovered yet. Everything to the the east of this line is the new world.
Obviously, this treaty didn’t hold up well, but the reformation gave the protestant countries an excuse to explore the new world since they didn’t have to take orders from the Pope. Even so, France, a catholic country, ignored it too.
Really, the only country that was effected by the reformation in the exploration of the Americas was England. All the other countries, changed their religion once and then went to war with the nearest catholic country. Sweden became Lutheran and stayed that way. The Dutch Republic became Calvinists and stayed that way.
England kept switching. First it was Catholic. Then, Henry VIII made it protestant. Then, Henry’s daughter Mary I made it catholic again. Henry’s other daughter Elizabeth I (with the two hit movies) made it Protestant again.
Years latter, Oliver Cromwell over through the monarchy, executed the King Charles I, and established a Protestant fundamentalist religious military dictatorship. He outlawed drinking,smoking, gambling, theater, dirty books, sports, prostitution, and anything generally fun. He would have made Saudi Arabia proud. Basically, all you could do is work, pray, and die. Sex was allowed for creating children, but you couldn’t enjoy it.
When Cromwell died, the people of England said enough was enough and brought back the King. Charles II kicked out the fundamentalists and brought back drinking, smoking, gambling, dirty books, sports, prostitution, and having fun during sex. Incidentally, those were also all his hobbies.
This brings us to the famous Pilgrims. They were part of Cromwell’s crowd. They kept agitating a return to the no-fun policy. They annoyed everybody. They weren’t persecuted for practicing their religion, they were persecuted because they kept trying to force their religion on everyone else. Sort of like Southern Baptists.
Charles II was the most easy going monarch in British history. Do realize how annoying you have to be to get him to throw you out.
Charles’s brother James II was obsessed with turning Great Britain catholic again. After four years of trying, they kicked him and his followers out.
The correct answer to the question: Which action best illustrates France´s mission civilisatrice, would be, A: Bringing running water to remote villages.
The French Mission Civilisatrice, also known as the Civilizing mission, was a system that was adopted by both French and Portuguese colonizers, and their governments, to justify the process of intervention and colonization of countries and nations that were considered uncivilized, or barbaric, and which needed, in their eyes, to be civilized. This happened between the 15th and 20th centuries and the purposes of this process were to: bring Christianity to these barbaric lands and generate a process of assimilation, or westernization, for these peoples´ greater good. Because unsanitary conditions, and the lack of certain services, like running water, would be considered by the French as part of the “backward” state of their colonies, it became their duty to correct such a problem by building acueducts and systems that ensured water supply to remote places. This is why the answer is A.