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Postman: The Complete Guide – REST API Testing

BestsellerCreated by Valentin DespaLast updated 9/2019English

English Subs [Auto-generated]What you’ll learn

  • Work with the Postman App
  • Submit RESTful requests using Postman
  • Write API tests using JavaScript
  • Automate test execution

Course contentall 131 lectures 13:52:37Requirements

  • Basic programming and/or JavaScript knowledge is required (needed for writing tests)
  • Basic HTTP knowledge required (address, message body, headers, cookies, …)
  • Basic knowledge about RESTful APIs and JSON
  • Basic Jenkins experience, if an integration with Jenkins is desired
  • Basic NodeJS/NPM experience (needed for test automation)
  • Optional – Basic Docker experience (for Jenkins or Newman)
  • A computer with Windows, macOS or Linux is required for viewing the lectures and installing Postman. Using a mobile phone is not recommended.

Description

RESTful APIs (or simply REST API) are everywhere nowadays but at the same time they are getting more complex to get started with: different HTTP methods,, headers, cookies, dealing with file uploads or authentication with api keys, tokens, OAuth and so much more.

But before you start investing time writing code to retrieve the data the API is offering, why not test the request first to make sure everything is working as expected?

This is where the Postman App comes in! Postman allows you very quickly create a request with the required HTTP method and parameters, submit the request and easily inspect the results.

Postman can help if you are developing APIs as well! I have created this course for testing engineers and well as for software developers.  Postman can help you during the development of your API as well as after the API is completed, by running tests that make sure your API is still working as intended.

In the first part of the course we will start exploring the features of Postman and continue by writing API tests with the intention of integrating them in a CI server where the tests will run on a current basis.

But this is not the normal course you take part in. Because your needs may be different and because I hate leaving you wondering what to do next, the second part of the course will include user questions and answers to problems that were not yet covered in the course or that are more specific and may not interest everybody.

So let’s look at what you are going to learn:

  • Start with simple requests and advance towards more complex scenarios
  • Learn to deal with authentication / authorization mechanisms like Basic Auth, API Keys, or OAuth.
  • Start writing API tests
  • Organize tests in collections and share them with your team
  • Run API tests in Jenkins or any other CI server
  • You ask, I answer

So after this course you will know how to use Postman as a pro.

Excited to learn Postman? Sign-up up today!Who this course is for:

  • This course is targeted towards testing engineers and developers.

Size: 4.02GB

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JSON With Java APIs, JQuery And JSON REST Web Services


JSON With Java APIs, JQuery And JSON REST Web Services – Download Udemy Courses For Free | freetutorials.us

































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Learn and understand JSON AJAX with JQuery and Java APIs such as Jackson and JSON RESTful Web Service with Apache Jersey

What you’ll learn

  • Learn the benefits and advantages of using JSON
  • Learn how to create dynamic content on web pages with JSON and JQuery
  • Learn the differences between XML and JSON data formats
  • Learn how to integrate JSON with JQuery
  • Learn how to develop rich client applications using JSON and JQuery
  • Learn how to use AJAX in order to send and receive JSON
  • Understand the structure of JSON and data types
  • Learn how to send and get JSON data with REST
  • Learn how to configure RESTful web services with Apache Jersey

Requirements

  • Basic knowledge of HTML and eagerness to learn JSON

Description

Welcome to JSON with Java APIs, jQuery and REST udemy course.

After attending this useful and practical course, you are going to learn how to develop web-based applications with JSON, jQuery and RESTful Web Services.

***Live JSON samples are coded from scratch***
***Your questions will be answered within 24 hours***
***Source codes of the sample applications are included***

The following technologies are explained with examples; JSON, Jackson JSON API, jQuery(AJAX), Apache Jersey REST and Eclipse

The benefits of attending this udemy course are listed like as below;

  • You will learn the latest parsing technologies for JSON data format
  • Learn how to send AJAX request to application server
  • You will learn how to send and receive JSON data along with jQuery and REST
  • Learn how to download and configure Apache Tomcat 8 in order to test REST services
  • Learn how to import Eclipse based projects into Eclipse Workspace
  • You will learn how to download and install Java JDK 8
  • Learn how to add jar dependencies to projects using Apache Maven build tool and pom xml
  • We will only use FREE Open Source Software tools during the development of components in this course.

Course Agenda;

  • What is JSON (JavaScript Object Notation)?
  • JSON Data Types and Syntax 
  • JSON jackson Data Binding 
  • JSON jackson Java API Annotations
  • JSON jackson Tree Model
  • JSON jackson Streaming API
  • JSON jackson Schema and Validation
  • JSON Low-level parsing with Java Jackson API
  • JSON Serialization-Deserialization
  • XML jackson JAXB annotations
  • JSON with JavaScript, jQuery and RESTful Web Services

What is JSON?

  • JSON is a light-weight, text-based open standard for interchanging data
  • JSON is human readable and language independent
  • It is easy for computers to read and generate JSON
  • JSON is used in order to send data between client and servers (Browsers/Clients to Application Servers)
  • JSON is the abbreviation of Java Script Object Notation (derived version of it)

Please feel free to ask me questions regarding the lectures if you attend this udemy course. I will try to answer your questions as soon as possible.

HD quality (full screen) recorded course content and you will be able to see the source code clearly (HD format) if you attend this udemy course as a student.

Who this course is for:

  • Front-end and Back-end developers interested in learning JSON Data Exchange format
  • Anyone you wants to learn JSON and display data on WEB browsers
  • Developers interested in learning JSON with Java and JQuery
  • University Students planning to develop projects using JSON
  • Developers interested in parsing JSON files
  • Developers interested in mapping JSON files to JAVA objects

Created by Tuna Tore
Last updated 12/2016
English
English [Auto-generated]

Size: 823.37 MB

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Read this passage from a persuasive essay about animal testing. Which sentence provides evidence of a new technique that doesn’t require animal testing?



Read this passage from a persuasive essay about animal testing. Which sentence provides evidence of a new technique that doesn’t require animal testing?

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Suppose you are testing different soils to determine which grows healthier bean plants. You count and record the number of leaves on each test every three days for six weeks. What type of graph would be best to display your data?



Suppose you are testing different soils to determine which grows healthier bean plants. You count and record the number of leaves on each test every three days for six weeks. What type of graph would be best to display your data?

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What does a genetic counselor do? gives people with Down syndrome education and job training so they can be independent develops new methods to track, test for, and cure various genetic disorders uses DNA testing, pedigrees, and karyotypes to determine the causes of genetic disorders helps couples understand their chances of having a child with a genetic disorder



What does a genetic counselor do? gives people with Down syndrome education and job training so they can be independent develops new methods to track, test for, and cure various genetic disorders uses DNA testing, pedigrees, and karyotypes to determine the causes of genetic disorders helps couples understand their chances of having a child with a genetic disorder

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In order to prevent injury during your weight-training session, it is necessary to __________. A. do performance testing prior to setting up your workout routine, stretch before and after each workout, get the proper amount of rest and nutrition, and modify your workout as needed B. have your friend check your workout to be sure it is well-designed, exercise only three days a week, and allow for adequate rest between workouts C. never change your workout routine, stretch before and after each workout, allow time to warm up and cool down, and adjust your form as needed D. use slow bouncing movements to warm up and stretch before each workout, follow a plan that includes proper sets and repetitions, adjust your workout and form as needed, and workout every day



In order to prevent injury during your weight-training session, it is necessary to __________. A. do performance testing prior to setting up your workout routine, stretch before and after each workout, get the proper amount of rest and nutrition, and modify your workout as needed B. have your friend check your workout to be sure it is well-designed, exercise only three days a week, and allow for adequate rest between workouts C. never change your workout routine, stretch before and after each workout, allow time to warm up and cool down, and adjust your form as needed D. use slow bouncing movements to warm up and stretch before each workout, follow a plan that includes proper sets and repetitions, adjust your workout and form as needed, and workout every day

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Optimization problem:A manufacturer determines that x employees on a certain production line will produce y units per month where . To obtain the maximum monthly production, how many employees should be assigned to the production line?**It is NOT sufficient to find an answer that you think is a max or a min without testing for relative extrema. You MUST test relative extrema at all times by using either the first or second derivative test even if you only have one critical value/point.


Cal problem!

given production 
P(x)=75x^2-0.2x^4

To find relative extrema, we need to find P'(x) and solve for P'(x)=0.

P'(x)=150x-0.8x^3    [by the power rule]

Setting P'(x)=0 and solve for extrema.
150x-0.8x^3=0  =>
x(150-0.8x^2)=0 =>
0.8x(187.5-x^2)=0
0.8x(5sqrt(15/2)-x)(5sqrt(15/2)+x)=0
=>
x={0,+5sqrt(15/2), -5sqrt(15/2)}   by the zero product rule.
[note: eqation P'(x)=0 can also be solved by the quadratic formula]

Reject negative root because we cannot hire negative persons.

So possible extrema are x={0,5sqrt(15/2)}

To find out which are relative maxima, we use the second derivative test.  Calculate P”(x), again by the power rule, 
P”(x)=-1.6x
For a relative maximum, P”(x)<0, so
P”(0)=0  which is not <0  [in fact, it is an inflection point]
P”(5sqrt(15/2))=-8sqrt(15/2) < 0, therefore x=5sqrt(15/2) is a relative maximum.

However, 5sqrt(15/2)=13.693 persons, which is impossible, so we hire either 13 or 14, but which one?

Let’s go back to P(x) and find that
P(13)=6962.8
P(14)=7016.8

So we say that assigning 14 employees will give a maximum output.

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Fill in the blank testing is mainly used in A. Standardized testing B. Content-area classroom testing C. STAR testing D. College admissions testing


Technician is a worker trained with special skills, especially in science and engineering.

1. Agricultural technician – gathers crop or animal samples for scientific testing. (Agricultural: used for farming or relating to farming.)

2. Hydorelectric technician – Analyzes water for envinromental issues, such as drought, pollution, or erosion. (Hydroelectric – electricity produced by the energy of fast -moving water.)

3, Home appliance repairman – troubleshoots and repairs faulty machinery and equipment. (Appliance: a device, machine or piece of equipment)

4. Textile tender – operates and tends cutting machines for various textiles.

(Textile: a cloth made by hand or machine)

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Match the careers with the job tasks. Tiles 1.agricultural technician 2.hydroelectric technician 3.home appliance repairman 4.textile tender Pairs A.analyzes water for environmental issues, such as drought, pollution, or erosion B.gathers crop or animal samples for scientific testing C.operates and tends cutting machines for various textiles D. troubleshoots and repairs faulty machinery and equipment


Technician is a worker trained with special skills, especially in science and engineering.

1. Agricultural technician – gathers crop or animal samples for scientific testing. (Agricultural: used for farming or relating to farming.)

2. Hydorelectric technician – Analyzes water for envinromental issues, such as drought, pollution, or erosion. (Hydroelectric – electricity produced by the energy of fast -moving water.)

3, Home appliance repairman – troubleshoots and repairs faulty machinery and equipment. (Appliance: a device, machine or piece of equipment)

4. Textile tender – operates and tends cutting machines for various textiles.

(Textile: a cloth made by hand or machine)

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An educator, disgusted with standardized testing and teaching methods, decides to start a charter school that doesnt give students grades and encourages creative thinking over rote learning. how would robert mertons strain theory of deviance classify this character?


Well; You have the classics

1984, you might have been asked to read this one already in school, if not I suggest going ahead and reading it; its fun to be ahead of your class. 

Originally published in 1949 by George Orwell, 1984 depicts a dystopian world of the ‘future’. The book is less of a prediction more then it is a warning of what could be. It follows one character who is desperately trying to remember what real life is like, and gets tangled up in all sorts of messes along the way.

You could read Alice in Wonderland or Mary Poppins, theres a million great classics out there Im sure you can find on any website. 

Personally I prefer fantasy novels; 

Brandon Sanderson’s The Rithmatist 
This book follows a young student through a steampunk style, magic infused world. It takes a moment to not chuckle at the concept of monsters that are essentially drawings, but its a very well done book with beautiful writing and mental scenery 

Patrick Rothfuss’s, The Name of the Wind 
This is my favorite book of all time. Patrick Rothfuss’s work is honestly amazing in this book. Mind you its probably not all that wise for the feint of heart through perhaps the second chapter; but it really is amazing. The sculpting of the world, the depth of the characters its utterly masterful. The story opens with Kote, a fairly normal seeming innkeeper and his dark haired companion Bast. Fairly normal until a man happens upon the inn, looking for a certain Kvothe, a man thought to just be a legend and a story… and Kote’s past is drug up, and other things that should probably be better left alone.

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A child has recovered from an anaphylactic reaction which brought him to the ed 3 weeks ago. the client has begun sensitivity testing to determine the allergen which caused his anaphylactic reaction. in scratch testing, which part of the body is more sensitive to allergens?


Charlie had a waist circumference of 47 inches and a BMI of 29 this shows that she is overweight. BMI test level is high from normal ranges shows that she is at higher risk of disease. She should lose weight and concern to the doctor.

Further Explanation:

Body mass index (BMI) is a measured value derived from the height of a person and mass.

{text{BMI}}=dfrac{{{text{mass (kg)}}}}{{{{left( {{text{height}}}right)}^2}{{left({text{m}}right)}^2}}}

BMI indicates whether the person is healthy or overweight mainly used by physicians.

• Range of BMI in a normal person is 18.5-25mathbf{kg/m}^{2}

• Range of BMI in skinfold person is 25-30mathbf{kg/m}^{2}

• Range of BMI in underweight person is 15-18.5mathbf{kg/m}^{2}

The skinfold measurement test is used to determine a person’s body fat percentage and body composition.

In this test, we are the proportion of body fat by determining skinfold thickness at pinches specific part of the body. The estimate of these folds is determined the fat beneath the skin, also called subcutaneous adipose tissue.  

The tester pinches the skin at the site and drags the fold of skin away from the muscle so only the fat tissue and skin are being held. The skinfold thickness is measured by skinfold calipers in millimeters.

Skin test includes the seven locations of the body:

1. Triceps

2. Quadriceps

3. Suprailiac

4. Pectoral

5. Subscapular

6. Midaxilla

7. Abdomen

Charlie had a waist circumference of 47 inches and a BMI of 29 this shows that she is overweight. Females with waist size 47 inches have higher risk of having disease. BMI test level is high from normal ranges shows that she is at higher risk of disease.She should lose weight and concern to the doctor.

Learn more:  

1. Learn more about carbohydrate monomer brainly.com/question/6947177

2. Learn more about core muscle stabilization brainly.com/question/1231927

3. Learn more about energy storagehttps://brainly.com/question/523624

Answer Details:

Grade: High School

Subject: Health

Chapter: Physical Fitness

Keywords:

Body index mass, weight, doctor, triceps, abdomen, midaxilla, Quadriceps, skinfold, mass, height, pectoral.

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Mr. powell, age 74, presents to his urologist with symptoms of bladder obstruction: urgency, nocturia, dribbling, and inability to empty his bladder completely. digital rectal examination reveals his prostate to be enlarged. his psa is elevated. after further urologic testing, mr. powell is diagnosed with bph, which means that mr. powell has a


Charlie had a waist circumference of 47 inches and a BMI of 29 this shows that she is overweight. BMI test level is high from normal ranges shows that she is at higher risk of disease. She should lose weight and concern to the doctor.

Further Explanation:

Body mass index (BMI) is a measured value derived from the height of a person and mass.

{text{BMI}}=dfrac{{{text{mass (kg)}}}}{{{{left( {{text{height}}}right)}^2}{{left({text{m}}right)}^2}}}

BMI indicates whether the person is healthy or overweight mainly used by physicians.

• Range of BMI in a normal person is 18.5-25mathbf{kg/m}^{2}

• Range of BMI in skinfold person is 25-30mathbf{kg/m}^{2}

• Range of BMI in underweight person is 15-18.5mathbf{kg/m}^{2}

The skinfold measurement test is used to determine a person’s body fat percentage and body composition.

In this test, we are the proportion of body fat by determining skinfold thickness at pinches specific part of the body. The estimate of these folds is determined the fat beneath the skin, also called subcutaneous adipose tissue.  

The tester pinches the skin at the site and drags the fold of skin away from the muscle so only the fat tissue and skin are being held. The skinfold thickness is measured by skinfold calipers in millimeters.

Skin test includes the seven locations of the body:

1. Triceps

2. Quadriceps

3. Suprailiac

4. Pectoral

5. Subscapular

6. Midaxilla

7. Abdomen

Charlie had a waist circumference of 47 inches and a BMI of 29 this shows that she is overweight. Females with waist size 47 inches have higher risk of having disease. BMI test level is high from normal ranges shows that she is at higher risk of disease.She should lose weight and concern to the doctor.

Learn more:  

1. Learn more about carbohydrate monomer brainly.com/question/6947177

2. Learn more about core muscle stabilization brainly.com/question/1231927

3. Learn more about energy storagehttps://brainly.com/question/523624

Answer Details:

Grade: High School

Subject: Health

Chapter: Physical Fitness

Keywords:

Body index mass, weight, doctor, triceps, abdomen, midaxilla, Quadriceps, skinfold, mass, height, pectoral.

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Researchers want to test the effectiveness of a new anti-anxiety medication. three hundred eighty patients were recruited to participate in the clinical trial and were randomly assigned to two groups, of which one received the medication, and the other, a placebo. in clinical testing, 64 out of 200 people taking the medication reported symptoms of anxiety. of the other 180 people receiving a placebo, 88 reported symptoms of anxiety. do you think if the patients in the two groups performed significantly different with respect to symptoms of anxiety? please use 0.05 as the level of significance. (hint: use 1.96 and -196 as the critical z-values).


The Contribution Margin per unit (CM) can be calculated
from the difference of Selling Price per unit (SP) and Total Expenses per unit
(TE).

 

First, let’s calculate the value of SP:

SP = Sales / Units sold

SP = $1,043,400 / 22,200 units sold

SP = $47

 

Second, calculate all expenses:

Direct materials per unit = $234,948 / 27,970 units
manufactured = $8.4

Direct labor per unit = $131,459 / 27,970 units
manufactured = $4.7

Variable manufacturing overhead per unit = $240,542 / 27,970
units manufactured = $8.6

Variable selling expenses per unit = $113,220 / 22,200
units sold = $5.1

TE = $26.8

 

Therefore the CM is:

CM = SP – TE

CM = $47 – $26.8

CM = $20.2 per unit

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As a result of the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, a. the Soviet Union ended all nuclear testing b. nearly 40 countries ended aboveground nuclear tests c. relations between the United States and the Soviet Union worsened d. the United States and the Soviet Union ceased to communicate


The correct answer is B. As a result of the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, nearly 40 countries ended aboveground nuclear tests.

The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty is an international treaty, signed for the first time on September 10, 1996, which prohibits the conduct of nuclear tests in and by the signatory countries.

The treaty was opened for signature in New York on September 24, 1996, when it was signed by 71 states, including five of the eight with nuclear capacity. Currently, the CTBT has been signed by 178 countries out of a total of 195, and ratified by 144. On January 16, 2007 ratification of the treaty was completed by all European countries, with the ratification of Moldova.

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1. Medicare provides free or low-cost medical insurance to welfare recipients. True False 2. In response to labor strikes that threatened to cripple the nation, Harry S. Truman threatened to draft business owners into the military. True False 3. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 made segregation illegal in which of the following? private universities churches public accommodations country clubs 4. The hot line established in 1963 did all of the following except make communication in a crisis easier. link the White House and the Kremlin. ease Cold War tensions. ban nuclear testing. 5. Advertising revenues for TV and radio increased dramatically. True False


When the Texan revolution broke out and the war for independence began in 1835, Goliad was seen as a solid military stronghold because there was an important military supply barracks in the Fort of the Bay, built by the former Spanish Army.

Goliad was located halfway between the port of Copano, to which the Mexican army sent by sea soldiers, ammunition, armament, garrisons destined for the Alamo de San Antonio de Béjar, which functioned as the main political center of Texas.

When Goliad was taken in the second battle of the war, this forced the Mexican army to send its provisions by land, which would severely hamper logistics and would be key in the capture of General Santa María and consequent conclusion of the conflict and declaration of Independence winning the Texas Army.

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Explain how the medical assistant can ensure the identified aspects of quality laboratory testing can be met. Provide specific examples


Charlie had a waist circumference of 47 inches and a BMI of 29 this shows that she is overweight. BMI test level is high from normal ranges shows that she is at higher risk of disease. She should lose weight and concern to the doctor.

Further Explanation:

Body mass index (BMI) is a measured value derived from the height of a person and mass.

{text{BMI}}=dfrac{{{text{mass (kg)}}}}{{{{left( {{text{height}}}right)}^2}{{left({text{m}}right)}^2}}}

BMI indicates whether the person is healthy or overweight mainly used by physicians.

• Range of BMI in a normal person is 18.5-25mathbf{kg/m}^{2}

• Range of BMI in skinfold person is 25-30mathbf{kg/m}^{2}

• Range of BMI in underweight person is 15-18.5mathbf{kg/m}^{2}

The skinfold measurement test is used to determine a person’s body fat percentage and body composition.

In this test, we are the proportion of body fat by determining skinfold thickness at pinches specific part of the body. The estimate of these folds is determined the fat beneath the skin, also called subcutaneous adipose tissue.  

The tester pinches the skin at the site and drags the fold of skin away from the muscle so only the fat tissue and skin are being held. The skinfold thickness is measured by skinfold calipers in millimeters.

Skin test includes the seven locations of the body:

1. Triceps

2. Quadriceps

3. Suprailiac

4. Pectoral

5. Subscapular

6. Midaxilla

7. Abdomen

Charlie had a waist circumference of 47 inches and a BMI of 29 this shows that she is overweight. Females with waist size 47 inches have higher risk of having disease. BMI test level is high from normal ranges shows that she is at higher risk of disease.She should lose weight and concern to the doctor.

Learn more:  

1. Learn more about carbohydrate monomer brainly.com/question/6947177

2. Learn more about core muscle stabilization brainly.com/question/1231927

3. Learn more about energy storagehttps://brainly.com/question/523624

Answer Details:

Grade: High School

Subject: Health

Chapter: Physical Fitness

Keywords:

Body index mass, weight, doctor, triceps, abdomen, midaxilla, Quadriceps, skinfold, mass, height, pectoral.

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At what point after conception can a pregnancy be confirmed through blood or urine testing


Ketones are products of fat metabolism. Usually they are not present in urine. However, they may appear in the urine if the diet fails to provide adequate amount of insulin, as in the case of prolonged fasting or starvation or as a result of insulin deficiency (diabetes mellitus). Further, insulin helps the body to use sugar for energy, but without it, fats are break down as energy source.

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With respect to intelligence testing in adulthood, scores on items measuring fluid intelligence _____ with age and scores on items measuring crystallized intelligence _____ with age.



With respect to intelligence testing in adulthood, scores on items measuring fluid intelligence _____ with age and scores on items measuring crystallized intelligence _____ with age.

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?a physician who asks you to cross your legs and then taps just below the knee is testing your ____ reflexes. ?constriction slow? stretch ? fast?


In order to obtain a learners permit, teen drivers are required to pass a
written test. Typically they will prepare for this exam by completing a
drivers education course. Though not a requirement in all states,
drivers ed is the easiest way to be thoroughly prepared for the
complicated driving laws and scenarios you’ll face on the permit exam.
Once you pass your permit test and earn a permit, there may still be
certain restrictions attached to this provisional license — such as
requiring a licensed driver over a certain age to be seated in the
passenger seat, limiting your driving to daylight hours, and other
state-mandated rules.

General United States Permit Requirements

While
each state has its own set of guidelines, in general, teens between 14
and 18 years of age can start the drivers education and learners permit
process. Once a teen driver has obtained a learners permit, there are
additional state-specific requirements they must meet before they can
apply for their drivers license.

Before obtaining a learners
permit in any state, a teenager is required to pass a driving knowledge
test. Drivers education is the best way for a teen to prepare for this
exam, whether the state requires it or not. In some cases, passing a
drivers ed final exam can substitute for the written exam. No matter how
the test is taken, students must pass with at least a 70% or higher,
depending on that state’s minimum. Once he or she passes, a teen driver
will be issued a learners permit. Some states require teen drivers to
have a permit for a minimum of 6 months before they can take their
drivers license exam.

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The Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty signed by the United States, the Soviet Union, and Great Britain in 1963 stopped the testing of nuclear weapons in all locations, EXCEPT __________.



The Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty signed by the United States, the Soviet Union, and Great Britain in 1963 stopped the testing of nuclear weapons in all locations, EXCEPT __________.

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Scientists determined the historic levels of carbon dioxide in the Earth’s atmosphere by _____. 1. testing air bubbles in Antarctic ice 2. testing soil samples all over the world 3. evaluating tree ring growth 4. mapping the growth of redwood trees



Scientists determined the historic levels of carbon dioxide in the Earth’s atmosphere by _____. 1. testing air bubbles in Antarctic ice 2. testing soil samples all over the world 3. evaluating tree ring growth 4. mapping the growth of redwood trees

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Which is an important difference between the freedom rides and unauthorized marches? Freedom rides were primarily carried out by Northerners riding through the South, while unauthorized marches were usually carried out by Southerners. Freedom rides took place only in the deep South, while unauthorized marches were held throughout the South. Freedom rides were testing whether an existing law would be upheld, while unauthorized marches were intentionally breaking an unjust law. Freedom rides were intentionally provoking violence, while unauthorized marches were not at

Posted in History

The correct answer is Freedom
rides were testing whether an existing law would be upheld, while
unauthorized marches were intentionally breaking an unjust law.

Freedom rides were illegal but there were many people who didn’t care about the law because it was not a law that protected them from being endangered or something. It was an unjust racist law and many didn’t uphold it. The marches however were illegal and their breaking was intentional so as to provoke and spark controversy.


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Posted in History

PLEASE HELP!!?? How did the Second Industrial Revolution Affect the North, South, West, and Midwest? Politically, socially, economically, Population growth, and Transportation, for each Region. Explain how the Second Industrial Revolution affected the North, South, West, and Midwest. Which region would you have preferred to live in during this period? Why

Well let me explain it to you like this: Industrial revolution affected the north a great deal and was all pretty much positive except for the problems that came when immigrants started to coming in. The only problems were the labor unions that formed when the workers decided they wanted more pay and better working conditions and the wealthy wanted to increase profits in their businesses. In the South there were many struggles when it came to segregation and discrimination. The economy was being rebuilt. The population was low and it didnt seem like a great place to be during this period.In the midwest there were also labor unions like in the north but they like the north also had many positive things come out of the revolution. In the West their transportaion was great with the transcontinental railroad and there economy base was agriculture but they had problems when immigrats from China came in and offered to work for less wages. The best parts to be living at that time were the North or Midwest because their economy was booming, the cities were expanding. Hope this works good for you

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HELPPP!!!!!!!!!! Choose one of the following cases: McCulloch v. Maryland, Gibbons v. Ogden, or District of Columbia v. Heller. In at least two well-written paragraphs, explain why the case is important to understanding the changing nature of American federalism.

Well even though im not gigivng you the two paragraphs you need, I can give you information on two of the cases so that you can write about them: McCulloch vs. Maryland: “The power to tax equals the power to destroy” — The state of Maryland attempted to tax the Baltimore branch of the Bank of the United States (federally-created) — Confirmed the legitimacy (in Marshall’s opinion) of the Bank of the United States, thus upholding Congress’ use of the elastic clause. Also further emphasized Article VI (Supremacy Clause) that the states had no power to tax a federal institution. Clearly defining that federal law/power trumps state.

Gibbons vs. Ogden: Federally issued permit vs. State (NY) issued permit to navigate waterways around New York. Marshall court re-emphasized Article VI (Supremacy) stating that federal law trumps state AND this decision further emphasized the Commerce Clause stating that commerce was not defined solely as the buying and selling of goods, but the transportation thereof as well. Establishing that only the national Congress had the ability to regulate INTERstate trade, further strengthening the federal government over the states. Hope this works for you.

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Why did President Reagan call for Soviet leader Gorbachev to “tear down” the Berlin Wall? He believed that Germany could remain divided without the wall. He believed that the wall was a threat to US national security. He believed that the wall’s removal would signal a new era of freedom. He believed that the wall’s removal would improve relations with the Soviet Union.

Answer:

He believed that the wall’s removal would signal a new era of freedom.

Explanation:

On June 12, 1987, the then president of the United States, Ronald Reagan, made a speech, with his back to the Brandenburg Gate, enclosed by the Berlin Wall, in which he requested his fall and which has become a recurrent argument when the history of the division of Germany is told.

“Mr. Gorbachev, open this door, Mr. Gorbachev, you tear down this wall,” Reagan asked the then Soviet leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, before about 40,000 people who had met on the street.

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Where do most people in South America live?

South America ranks fourth in area (after Asia, Africa, and North America) and fifth in population (after Asia, Africa, Europe, and North America). Brazil is by far the most populous South American country, with more than half of the continent’s population, followed by Colombia, Argentina, Venezuela and Peru.

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Breining Institute Certifications and Credentials Verification Testing System


The Breining Institute is an International Institute for the Certified Credentialed Counselors (CCCo). They provide Certification and have your Credential Verification from here. It has served in 47 US States and 18 different countries have also availed their services. Such Institutes have proved very valuable and helpful when it comes to the services they provide, the methodology they provide and the consequences or the value of their certification. Brening Institute has been holding these amazing criterion and have been serving the world for years.

Coming towards the process of their Certification, people can get the certification to join the addiction professionals in all their served areas who have earned professional credentials from Breining Institute. Once you get certified, the job has a vast scope in your accreditation. For instance, the US department of labor proposed that jobs in areas like substance abuse, behavioral disorder and mental health counselors will grow 20 percent from 2016 to 2026 “much faster than average”.

the Certified Credentialed Counselors CCCo

Discussing the career paths, they offer RAS Career Path (Registered Addiction Specialist) credentials. The levels include RAS (Registered Addiction Specialist), RAS I (Advanced RAS level II), RAS II (Advanced RAS level III), and M-RAS (Masters Level RAS). Coming towards the Exam wavier; candidates for the RAS credential do not require to take ACE exam if they possess State Approved License, National Certified Addiction Counselor  (NCAC) Exam, Level I or II, administered by National Association of Alcohol and Drug Abuse Counselors (NAADAC), Alcohol and Drug Counselor (ADC) or Advanced Alcohol and Drug Counselor (AADC) Exam, administered by International Certification & Reciprocity Consortium (ICRC). The diversity of alternates is  the proof of hot scope of this field and it represents that there are many other degrees or accreditations offered. Breining Institute also offers Special Credentials which can be earned by the completion of online courses such as Clinical Supervisor Credential (CSC), Master Counselor in Addictions (MCA), Certified Women’s Treatment Specialist (CWTS), Medication-Assisted Treatment Counselor (MATC), Forensic Addictions Counselor (FAC), Certified Co-occurring Disorders Specialist (CCDS), and Certified Case Manager Interventionist (CCMI). This Institute not only provides these initial level credentials but they also provide services for the Masters Credentials such as M-RAS and MCA. M-RAS stands for Master Level – Registered Addiction Specialist and MCA stands for Master Counselor in Addictions.  Considering the laws and regulations of different countries, Brening Institute provides the accommodation in accreditation of degrees. For example, California law requires individual Alcohol and other Drug Counselling (AOD) services in a state licensed program. Brening Institute gives Substance Use Disorders (SUD) Counselor Certification in California. Once you hold the entry level certification according to the California law, you may then be eligible for the Breining Institute nationally administered RAS and other respective specialty credentials. Such certificates hold their individual integrity and helps the accredited person to utilize the skills for the betterment of the drug abusers and play their role in attracting them towards the colors of life instead of the mesmerizing effects of the drugs that they consume.

The importance does not lie in holding the credentials, but the actual worth is determined by the verification of the credentials. The question of authenticity should be satisfied for the better use of accreditation. Breining Institute provides the International Credential Verification. They verify according to the International Credential Verification System (ICV). In case of California, California law requires a State-licensed program for individuals providing AOD counseling services to be registered and hold entry-level certification with a State-approved agency. Their following websites provide the confirmation to registration and/or certification by State-approved agencies.

  • California Association of DUI Treatment Programs (CADTP): www.cadtp.org
  • California Consortium of Addiction Programs and Professionals (CCAPP): www.ccapp.us
  • California Association for Alcohol / Drug Educators (CAADE) (State-approval through November 30, 2017): www.caade.org

Amongst the services they include Credential Renewal. The validity answers the question of authenticity therefore, every single accredited person have to renew its Brening Institute Credentials every two years. This way they keep their professionals updated with the modern drug abusers and tehri problems that need to be tackled in a special manner. The number of continuing education (CE) required is at least 40-hours every two years, and CE coursework may be obtained from any legitimate source, including Breining’s online CE courses. Renewal forms are available at Online Credential Renewal Application and the links that can be our helping hands for the completion of the Continuing Education Requirement (CE) includes:

  • Breining online Continuing Education (CE) courses
  • Breining Institute Accredited (BIA) education programs

Brening Institute also accommodates the requests for the duplicate certificate sin case the professionals lost their certificates, they can always get back to the Institute for the duplicate Credential Certification this implys that Brening Institute has the record of all their professionals and therefore no one can play cheat over them.  Breining Institute provides a display-worthy Certificate to new credential holders, upon the initial issuance of each new credential, at no extra charge to the credential holder, which is sent to the credential holder by U.S. Postal Mail or equivalent service. If an individual credential holder wishes a duplicate of the original certificate, with a current renewal date displayed, Breining will be pleased to provide such, upon receipt of the Request for Duplicate Credential Certificate form and $75 processing fee payment for each certificate ordered.

Since we are living in the modern world of Internet and like many other such Institutes, Brening institute provides the Online Specialist Credential Courses, the list is as follows:

  • Clinical Supervisor Education Course: 40-hour course
  • Women’s Treatment Counselor Education Course: 40-hour course
  • Co-occurring Disorders Education Course: 40-hour course
  • MAT Counselor Education Course: 40-hour course
  • Forensic Counselor Education Course: 40-hour course

From all the above discussion of the Brening Institute, we should praise the efforts of Brening Institute. They have been providing the educational accreditation to the people from all over the world considering all their concerns such as the question of legal proceedings, authenticity, validation and job prospects of their Credentials.



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Pros and Cons of Animal Testing


Animal Testing: Pros and Cons

In many cases, it was tested on animals long before a product, cosmetic, vaccine or medicine was available for human use. Cancer fighting drugs are routinely tested on mice to see if the agent has any potential to eradicate cancer in the human body. Lab rats have for centuries been used as the test subject of choice in the early phases of a wide range of medical treatments and experiments. As the item becomes more sophisticated, primates are often used as a final exam before a fresh therapy is submitted to humans. Cosmetics are used for testing skin responses and allergies in mammals. While animals have been a large part of product research and have been instrumental in revealing dangers or indicating safety, opponents contend that the research on animals is unnecessary and unjustified. Critics of animal testing argue that testing on animals is unscientific, unreliable, and a violation of our morality. This paper will argue the pros and the cons of animal testing and reach the conclusion that widespread gratuitous testing goes too far and needs to be subjected to a standard of ethical evaluation that considers the rights of the animals.

Pros of Animal Testing

The medical community and advocates of animal testing can point to a long history of success in the use of animals for medical research. Products such as the polio vaccine and AIDS fighting drugs have all come as the result of animal testing. The polio vaccine that was introduced in 1961 was responsible for saving tens of thousands of children from suffering a lifelong crippling disease. Albert Sabin, a polio researcher who helped develop the drug by testing it on monkeys states, “there could have been no oral polio vaccine without the use of innumerable animals, a very large number of animals” (qtd. in Hurley). A radical treatment involving a bone marrow transplant from a baboon into an AIDS patient requires that the baboon be put to death. Researchers are given the responsibility to weigh the harm done to the animal against the good done for the patient. While it is unfortunate that a primate dies during the procedure, the treatment also has, “enormous possibilities for leukemia and lymphoma patients, who frequently go without transplants because of the lack of donors. Most importantly, almost all scientists believe that animal experiments are essential to finding an AIDS vaccine” (Hurley). Life sometimes presents scenarios where someone must risk their life to save others, such as soldiers, firefighters, and medical research where ethical decisions have no clear answer. The use of the animals is a worthwhile sacrifice made to save thousands of human lives from unnecessary suffering and death.

Pros and Cons of Animal Testing

Animal testing is used in almost every facet of medical research and development, and their success has no viable or economic alternative. While nearly 99 percent of the animals used are mice and small rodents bred specifically for research, the small number of dogs, cats and primates have contributed to, “virtually every major advance in medical knowledge and treatment. Two-thirds of Nobel Prizes in Medicine awarded since 1901 were won for discoveries that required the use of animals” (Corthan). These statistics make clear that no alternative forms of testing, such as computer modeling or human experimentation, could have yielded the results or give the promise of future breakthroughs that animal testing has given us. Human testing would have been impractical both from the standpoint of ethics as well as economics. According to Doherty, “TB [tuberculosis] inflicts significant costs even on the industrialized countries and the loss both economic and human to the developing world is incalculable” (824). A recent breakthrough in treatment for TB could only be introduced in human trials after it had, “shown promise in animal models, up to and including non-human primates, and all are strongly immunogenic and apparently safe” (Doherty 818). The treatment for TB is just one of many examples where animals are the only practical method of attaining medical advancements.

Cons of Animal Testing

Opponents of animal research techniques will contend that animals are the moral equivalent of man because they are social and feel pain. Pain and distress are important issues regarding animal research, “and are not the only aversive states that animals in laboratories can experience; others include fear and anxiety. Death can be considered the ultimate aversive state or harm” (Stephens, Mendoza, Weaver, and Hamilton 16). Indeed, many animals including large primates are not administered pain relieving drugs that could help alleviate their suffering (Stephens et al. 20). This suffering is clearly unwarranted as Gordon contends, “Primates are clearly capable of suffering pain and distress, and modern techniques provide non-animal alternatives to using them in experiments”. The suffering that animals endure to improve man’s life is an unacceptable ethical cost that should be mediated by the medical research community.

An even greater concern to animal testing opponents is the unscientific data that is gathered from animal testing and its irrelevance to human trials. Animals react so differently to chemicals than humans that the tests are of little or no real value. In fact, they can be misleading or even dangerous. According to Irwin Bross, the former director of biostatistics at the Roswell Institute for Cancer Research stated, “Conflicting animal outcomes have often postponed and hindered progress in the cancer war and have never made any significant progress in the prevention or therapy of human cancer. ” (qtd. in Carlson). “Aspirin kills cats and penicillin kills guinea pigs. However, the same guinea pigs can securely consume strychnine — one of human’s deadliest poisons, but not monkeys. Sheep can swallow huge amounts of arsenic once the favorite poison of the killers. Potassium cyanide, deadly for humans, is harmless for the owl” (Burgos). Many drugs have made it to market after animal testing only to be found to be unsafe after widespread human use.

The claims of great advancements in medical science due to animal testing are exaggerated and not founded in scientific fact. The reduction in human mortality and suffering has not been the result of animal testing as proponents claim. According to Carlson, “Researchers at Boston and Harvard Universities found that medical measures (drugs and vaccines) accounted for at most between 1 and 3.5 percent of the total decline in mortality in the United States since 1900”. Mankind has only added a very short time to his lifespan due to the great sacrifice made by animals. Other factors such as improved sanitation, technology breakthroughs, improved diets, and standard of living have greatly eclipsed any advancement that may have come from animal testing (Carlson). Animal testing has resulted in great pain and unjustifiable death to many animals that have contributed little or nothing to the benefit of mankind.

I believe that animal testing may be a viable alternative only in rare cases where no other options are available. Clearly, the results of animal testing are too often unreliable and may even endanger the credibility of further research. Today’s technology can make it possible to use computer models for the initial phases of testing that are often done on mice and small rodents. The introduction of these techniques has no doubt been delayed due to the availability of animals, their convenience, and research traditions. However, it is time to take a close look at all animal testing to determine what is essential and what is simply gratuitous. After all, maintaining animal research facilities is expensive and using computer modeling may in some cases prove a cost savings effort. Where it may be vital to use animals, such as testing a bone marrow transplant between a baboon and an AIDS patient, there needs to be a high level of oversight and precaution. While the procedure may save a human life, it must be done so that the animal does not suffer and is allowed to die with dignity and gratitude. The days of taking animals for granted as a means of medical research are gone, and we must evaluate animal testing from a new ethical standpoint that gives animals many of the same rights afforded to our fellow man.

In conclusion, the issue of animal testing has convincing evidence on both sides of the issue. There has been a long history of medical success and the elimination of human suffering that is highlighted by it advocates. However, opponents point to the unreliability and unscientific nature of the test results. They claim that the effects of animal testing are exaggerated and take credit for other advances in public health. The research community simply cannot inflict the great pain, suffering, and death on animals to obtain information that is of little or no value. The issue of animal testing must be evaluated from an ethical standpoint that examines the animal costs against the good for mankind. Many of the successes may be illusory, but it would also be unwise to ban it in every situation. The long and contentious history of animal testing should give way to a more thoughtful and ethical approach to the rights of animals.

Works Cited;
  • Burgos, Javier B. “Animal Experimentation Is Unscientific.” At Issue: Animal Experimentation. Ed. David Haugen. San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press, 2004.
  • Carlson, Peggy. “Animal Medical Experimentation Is Unjustified.” Current Controversies: The Rights of Animals. Ed. Tamara Roleff. San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press, 1999
  • Doherty, T M. “New Vaccines Against Tuberculosis.” Tropical Medicine and International Health 9.7 (2004): 818-26.
  • Gordon, Nicky. “Animal Models.” New Scientist 183.2465 (2004). EBSCO. 17 Nov. 2008.
  • Opposing Viewpoints. “Animal Experimentation Is Always Justified.” Opposing Viewpoints: Animal Experimentation. Ed. Jennifer A. Hurley. San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press, 1999.
  • Opposing Viewpoints. “Experimenting on Nonhuman Primates Is Vital to Science.” Opposing Viewpoints: Animal Experimentation. Ed. Helen A. Corthan. San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press, 2002.
  • Stephens, Martin L., Philip Mendoza, Adrianna Weaver, and Tamara Hamilton. “Unrelieved Pain and Distress in Animals: An Analysis of USDA Data on Experimental Procedures.” Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 1.1 (1998): 15-26.



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Genetic testing cannot be used to determine



Genetic testing cannot be used to determine