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the _______ is the innermost layer of the sun’s atmosphere.

Exam: 007527RR – The Atmosphere and the Oceans

1. The SI temperature scale used in science is the

A. Kelvin.

B. Celsius.

C. boiling point.

D. Fahrenheit.

2. The greenhouse effect is a result of

A. absorption and radiation of energy in the atmosphere.

B. absorption and radiation of energy in the hydrosphere.

C. consumption of fruits and vegetables that produce a biofuel.

D. consumption and radiation of energy in the atmosphere.

3. Which of the following is not a major ocean on Earth?

A. Southern

B. Atlantic

C. Pacific

D. Indian

4. A narrow region between two air masses of different densities is a

A. system.

B. gulley.

C. ridge.

D. front.

5. Which of the following instruments is used to measure air pressure?

A. Thermometer

B. Barometer

C. Anemometer

D. Hygrometer

6. The area in which sediment is deposited along the shore is the

A. cave.

B. beach.

C. current.

D. cove.

7. The Köppen classification system is used as a classification system for

A. climates.

B. high-pressure systems.

C. low-pressure systems.

D. weather systems.

8. The three stages in the development of a full tropical cyclone are formative, mature, and

A. tropical cyclone.

B. dissipation.

C. tornado.

D. damage.

9. If you ever get caught in a rip current, you should swim

A. toward the shoreline.

B. parallel to the shoreline.

C. with the rip current.

D. against the rip current.

10. Which statement best describes saturation?

A. Saturation is reached when the amount of water vapor in the air has reached the maximum amount.

B. Saturation refers to the lack of rainfall on a given day.

C. Saturation refers to the total rainfall for a year.

D. Saturation occurs only in hot, dry climates.

11. Lightning heats the surrounding air to

A. 30,000°C.

B. 3,000°C.

C. 300°C.

D. 300,000°C.

12. What is the total salt content of seawater as measured in parts per thousand (ppt)?

A. 350 ppt

B. 35 ppt

C. 3.5 ppt

D. 3 ppt

13. Climate is best described as

A. the long-term average of weather variations in a specific area.

B. the short-term average of weather variations in a specific area.

C. the areas only where the temperatures drop below freezing.

D. the daily weather as predicted by a meteorologist.

14. Which of the following is not a natural cause of climatic change?

A. Human activity

B. Volcanic activity

C. Solar activity

D. Earth’s tilt

15. Which statement about supercell storms is false?

A. A supercell storm can develop into a self-sustaining, extremely powerful storm.

B. A supercell storm is characterized by rotating updrafts.

C. A supercell storm occurs only during the winter months.

D. A supercell storm can produce some of the most violent weather conditions on Earth.

16. Hydrogenous sediments originate from elements in

A. warm water.

B. seawater.

C. cold water.

D. freshwater.

17. Which of the following is an example of a long-term climatic change?

A. Ice age

B. Summer

C. Winter

D. Blizzard

18. By using sound waves, _______ signals allow oceanographers to determine ocean depth.

A. radio

B. phone

C. sonar

D. radar

19. Which of the following is not a layer of the atmosphere?

A. Thermosphere

B. Lithosphere

C. Exosphere

D. Mesosphere

20. What is the basic cause of ocean tides?

A. Gravitational attraction between the Moon and the entire solar system

B. Gravitational attraction between Earth, the Moon, and the Sun

C. Gravitational force of atmospheric pressure

D. Gravitational force of volcanic activity

Exam: 007529RR – Geologic Time

1. Scientists can determine if oxygen existed in Earth’s Archean atmosphere by

A. determining the lack of oxidation that occurred.

B. determining how many people survived.

C. looking at the amount of salt content in rocks.

D. looking for oxidized iron in rocks.

2. The microscopic organisms at the base of the marine food chain are known as

A. phytoplankton.

B. primitive life.

C. plant life.

D. terrestrial animals.

3. The time units used by scientists to divide Earth’s history are part of the

A. 360° latitude.

B. 24-hour model.

C. 180° longitude.

D. geologic time scale.

4. A substance that enters Earth’s cycles and does harm to living things is

A. hydrogen.

B. freshwater.

C. a pollutant.

D. oxygen.

5. The Cenozoic Era is also referred to as the

A. First Era.

B. Age of Dinosaurs.

C. Age of Fish.

D. Age of Mammals.

6. In addition to being necessary for respiration, _______ also provides UV radiation protection.

A. water

B. oxygen

C. hydrogen

D. carbon dioxide

7. What is the oldest and most stable part of a continent?

A. Pluton

B. Crust

C. Craton

D. Shield

8. The resources that are provided by Earth are known as _______ resources.

A. nonrenewable

B. renewable

C. natural

D. synthetic

9. Small fragments of orbiting bodies that have fallen on Earth’s surface are known as

A. asteroids.

B. uranium.

C. zirconium.

D. meteorites.

10. Another name for unicellular organisms that dominated Earth up to the Precambrian time is

A. prokaryotes.

B. stromatolites.

C. eukaryotes.

D. cyanobacteria.

11. Ancient cyanobacteria released ______, which assisted in creating the atmosphere as we know it today.

A. ore

B. oxygen

C. lead

D. hydrogen

12. The combination of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, and atmospheric moisture creates

A. drinking water.

B. pesticides.

C. acid rain.

D. smog.

13. The building blocks of proteins are known as

A. euphoric acid.

B. amino acids.

C. oxygen.

D. carbon dioxide.

14. What is the most abundant fossil fuel?

A. Wood

B. Gas

C. Coal

D. Oil

15. The process to convert seawater into freshwater is known as

A. deforestation.

B. salination.

C. desertification.

D. desalination.

16. The ancient geographic setting of an area is known as its

A. paleogeography.

B. phytoplankton.

C. passive margin.

D. transgression.

17. Geologists have divided Earth’s history into time units, which are largely based on

A. oral histories.

B. climates.

C. fossils.

D. written correspondences.

18. Which of the following resources is a nonrenewable resource?

A. Carbon

B. River

C. Tree

D. Gold

19. The change in isotopes over time due to the emission of radioactive particles is known as

A. radiometric dating.

B. radioactive decay.

C. half-life.

D. absolute-age dating.

20. Fuels derived from living things are known as

A. biomass fuels.

B. synthetic fuels.

C. hybrid fuels.

D. electricity.

Exam: 007530RR – Beyond Earth

1. Fusion occurs in the _______ of the Sun, where the pressure and temperature are very high.

A. solar wind

B. photosphere

C. chromosphere

D. core

2. The cloud of interstellar dust and gas that forms a star is known as a

A. protostar.

B. red giant.

C. nebula.

D. white dwarf.

3. Edwin Hubble categorized galaxies according to their

A. inhabitants.

B. food supplies.

C. colors.

D. shapes.

4. A constellation is _______ that forms a pattern resembling animals, mythological characters, or objects.

A. one single planet

B. a group of meteors

C. an entire galaxy

D. a group of stars

5. With a diameter that’s 11 times larger than Earth’s, _______ is the largest planet.

A. Venus

B. Saturn

C. Jupiter

D. Mars

6. Which statement best describes perigee?

A. The farthest point in the Moon’s orbit to Earth

B. The Sun’s orbit that is closest to the Moon

C. The closest point in Earth’s orbit of the Sun

D. The closet point in the Moon’s orbit to Earth

7. A basic observation of a star is how bright it appears. This brightness is known as the star’s

A. luminosity.

B. absolute magnitude.

C. absent magnitude.

D. apparent magnitude.

8. _______ discovered that there were other galaxies besides the Milky Way.

A. Albert Einstein

B. Galilei Galileo

C. Edwin Hubble

D. Sir Isaac Newton

9. Large groups of galaxy clusters that appear in sheetlike and threadlike shapes are known as

A. large clusters.

B. local clusters.

C. Milky Way center.

D. superclusters.

10. The Moon is made up of minerals similar to those on Earth, which are

A. lunar breccias.

B. highlands.

C. silicates.

D. rilles.

11. Which variable stars have pulsation periods between 1.5 hours and 1.2 days?

A. Protostars

B. Cepheid variables

C. Nebulas

D. RR Lyrae variables

12. The dark, smooth surface areas of the Moon are known as

A. craters.

B. maria.

C. rilles.

D. highlands.

13. An explosion that destroys the outer portion of a star is known as a

A. supernova.

B. nebula.

C. protostar.

D. supergiant.

14. When electromagnetic radiation is arranged to wavelength and frequency, it forms the

A. multiple-spectrum vividness.

B. ecliptic plane.

C. multiple-vivid spectrum.

D. electromagnetic spectrum.

15. The passing of the Moon directly between Earth and the Sun is a/an

A. elliptical ocular illusion.

B. meteor shower.

C. solar eclipse.

D. solar shower.

16. The four terrestrial planets that have solid, rocky surfaces are

A. Mercury, Venus, Jupiter, and Mars.

B. Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars.

C. Mercury, Jupiter, Saturn, and Mars.

D. Mars, Venus, Earth, and Jupiter.

17. Which types of telescope use a mirror to bring light to focus?

A. Reflecting telescopes

B. Refracting telescopes

C. Array telescopes

D. Interferometry telescopes

18. What is the largest object in our solar system?

A. The Sun

B. An asteroid

C. Saturn

D. Jupiter

19. The photosphere is the innermost layer of the Sun, and it’s also the

A. visible surface of the Sun.

B. nickname for the outer atmosphere of Earth.

C. atmospheric pressure of Jupiter.

D. invisible surface of the Sun.

20. When the Moon reaches equal periods of orbital and rotational periods, it’s known as _______ rotation.

A. imbalanced

B. synchronous

C. non-conforming

D. asynchronous

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