Home / essay help / essay writing services / the permanent replacement of normal tissue by fibrous tissue is called

the permanent replacement of normal tissue by fibrous tissue is called

Art-based Question Chapter 4 Question 1

Part A

Diagram of the plasma membranes of two adjacent cells. There are protein channels holding the cells together. Arrows show that substances can pass through the pore-like channels.

The type of cellular junctions in the figure are __________.

ANSWER:

cell-adhesion molecules
gap junctions
tight junctions
desmosomes

Multiple Choice Question 4.1

Part A

Histology is the study of:

ANSWER:

tissues.
cells.
atoms.
diseases.

Art-based Question Chapter 4 Question 3

Part A

Diagram of an epithelial tissue with a labeled basement membrane and underlying connective tissue. The epithelial tissue is made of a single layer of flattened cells.

This is an example of __________.

ANSWER:

simple squamous epithelium
stratified cuboidal epithelium
stratified squamous epithelium
simple cuboidal epithelium

Chapter 4 Chapter Test Question 6

Part A

What is the function of simple columnar epithelium lining parts of the digestive tract, such as the small intestines?

ANSWER:

energy reserve
calcium storage
absorption
contraction

Chapter 4 Reading Question 3

Part A

Where in the body would you expect to find simple columnar epithelium?

ANSWER:

kidney tubules
lining of the digestive tract
epidermis of skin
nasal cavity and upper respiratory passages

Chapter 4 Reading Question 5

Part A

Glands that secrete their products directly into the blood are called __________.

ANSWER:

holocrine glands
endocrine glands
merocrine glands
exocrine glands

Multiple Choice Question 4.10

Part A

The general type of tissue with an apical surface and a basement membrane is:

ANSWER:

connective.
muscle.
nervous.
epithelial.

Multiple Choice Question 4.12

Part A

Which statement best describes epithelial tissue?

ANSWER:

Simple epithelia are commonly found in areas of high mechanical abrasion.
Stratified epithelia are associated with diffusion, osmosis, and filtration.
Paracellular or transcellular transport moves substances across simple epithelia.
Pseudostratified epithelia are commonly keratinized.

Multiple Choice Question 4.14

Part A

Simple squamous epithelium is found lining the:

ANSWER

air sacs of the lungs.
urinary bladder.
nasal cavity.
uterine tubes of a female.

Multiple Choice Question 4.16

Part A

https://session.masteringaandp.com/problemAsset/1939962/1/04_01.jpg

The tissue pictured in this figure is: 

ANSWER:

composed of a single layer of columnar cells appearing stratified.
composed of multiple layers of columnar cells.
composed of two layers of cuboidal cells.
composed of two layers of columnar cells.

Multiple Choice Question 4.18

Part A

Keratinized, dead cells are associated with:

ANSWER:

simple squamous epithelium.
simple columnar epithelium.
pseudostratified columnar epithelium.
stratified squamous epithelium.

Multiple Choice Question 4.20

Part A

What protein makes stratified epithelial tissues resistant to friction?

ANSWER

collagen
keratin
reticular
elastic

Multiple Choice Question 4.22

Part A

Which of the following is composed of multiple layers of cells?

ANSWER

simple columnar epithelium
simple squamous epithelium
transitional epithelium
pseudostratified columnar epithelium

Multiple Choice Question 4.24

Part A

Glands, such as the thyroid, that secrete their products directly into the blood rather than through ducts are classified as:

ANSWER:

endocrine.
exocrine.
sebaceous.
ceruminous.

Multiple Choice Question 4.26

Part A

What type of secretion involves the release of substances, such as saliva and sweat, in secretory vesicles by exocytosis?

ANSWER

apocrine
holocrine
endocrine
merocrine

True/False Question 4.82

Part A

Stratified epithelium does not line areas where transcellular transport is required.

ANSWER:

True
False

True/False Question 4.84

Part A

Stratified squamous epithelium is composed of multiple layers of flattened cells.

ANSWER:

True
False

Art-based Question Chapter 4 Question 6

Part A

A LM image of a tissue at 845x magnification. The tissue contains thick pink collagen fibers arranged in bundles parallel to one another. There is ground substance in space between the fibers and fibroblasts stained in a darker pink color, located in between the bundles of collagen fibers. The collagen bundles, fibroblasts, and ground substance are all labeled.

Where in the body would you find this type of tissue?

ANSWER:

epidermis of skin
cartilage
bones
tendons

Chapter 4 Chapter Test Question 9

Part A

Intervertebral discs are composed of __________.

ANSWER:

areolar connective tissue
fibrocartilage
smooth muscle
bone tissue

Chapter 4 Reading Question 6

Part A

You are observing a tissue under the microscope and notice dark concentric circles of matrix and osteocytes in lacunae. You identify this tissue as __________.

ANSWER:

adipose tissue
loose connective tissue
cartilage
bone tissue

Multiple Choice Question 4.28

Part A

Connective tissues proper (or general connective tissues) produce collagen fibers using cells known as:

ANSWER:

mast cells.
phagocytes.
fibroblasts.
adipocytes.

Multiple Choice Question 4.30

Part A

Brown adipose tissue is found in:

ANSWER:

adolescents.
infants and young children.
males of any age.
adults.

Multiple Choice Question 4.32

Part A

https://session.masteringaandp.com/problemAsset/1939978/1/04_02.jpg

What fibers are common in this tissue? 

ANSWER:

collagen only
reticular only
both elastic and some reticular
both elastic and some collagen

Multiple Choice Question 4.34

Part A

The major energy reserve in the body is found stored as fat in:

ANSWER

adipose tissue.
areolar connective tissue.
reticular tissue.
fibrocartilage.

Multiple Choice Question 4.36

Part A

Which of the following is constructed of elastic cartilage?

ANSWER:

intervertebral discs
external ear
nose
fetal skeleton

Multiple Choice Question 4.38

Part A

Bone, or osseous, tissue provides protection for our vital organs since the inorganic ground substance is:

ANSWER:

calcium and phosphate crystals.
collagen fibers.
mostly water, dissolved solutes, and proteins.
both collagen and elastic fibers.

Multiple Choice Question 4.40

Part A

What type of large, multinucleated cell destroys bone?

ANSWER

osteoblast
chondroblast
osteoclast
osteocyte

Multiple Choice Question 4.42

Part A

The ECM of blood is known as:

ANSWER:

osteoid.
lacunae.
plasma.
bone marrow.

True/False Question 4.87

Part A

Osteoblasts are immature cells that build bone and carry out the process of bone deposition.

ANSWER.

True
False

Chapter 4 Reading Question 7

Part A

The type of muscle tissue composed of long, cylindrical, striated, multinucleate cells, arranged parallel to each other is __________.

ANSWER:

smooth muscle
cardiac muscle
nervous tissue
skeletal muscle

Multiple Choice Question 4.43

Part A

Striations are a structural feature associated with some:

ANSWER:

fibroblasts.
neurons.
adipocytes.
muscle cells.

Multiple Choice Question 4.45

Part A

What do skeletal and cardiac muscle cells share in common?

ANSWER:

multinucleate cells
striations
branched cells
intercalated discs situated between cells

Multiple Choice Question 4.47

Part A

https://session.masteringaandp.com/problemAsset/1939993/1/04_03.jpg

Name this tissue.  

ANSWER:

smooth muscle tissue
cardiac muscle tissue
skeletal muscle tissue
dense irregular connective tissue

Chapter 4 Chapter Test Question 12

Part A

The supportive cells of nervous tissue are called __________.

ANSWER:

fibroblasts
neuroglial cells
neurons
adipocytes

Chapter 4 Reading Question 8

Part A

The tissue responsible for conducting electrical signals and can control the function of other tissues is __________.

ANSWER:

connective tissue
epithelial tissue
nervous tissue
muscle tissue

Multiple Choice Question 4.48

Part A

Cells that generate, conduct, and receive electrical messages are:

ANSWER:

neurons.
neuroglial cells.
soma.
dendrites.

Multiple Choice Question 4.49

Part A

What part of a neuron conducts electrical signals away from the cell body?

ANSWER:

What part of a neuron conducts electrical signals away from the cell body?

dendrite
soma
neuroglial cell
axon

Multiple Choice Question 4.50

Part A

Why are damaged neurons usually not replaced?

ANSWER:

Neurons are voluntarily controlled by the brain.
Neurons are supported by neuroglial cells.
Neurons are excitable cells.
Neurons are amitotic.

True/False Question 4.90

Part A

Nervous tissue is unique because it completely lacks an ECM.

ANSWER

True
False

Multiple Choice Question 4.51

Part A

Which of the following is a more complex structure than a tissue?

ANSWER

macromolecule
fiber
cell
organ

Multiple Choice Question 4.52

Part A

A serous membrane contains a superficial layer of epithelial tissue and a deeper layer of connective tissue. Thus, serous membranes are classified as:

ANSWER:

organs.
tissues.
avascular.
amitotic.

Art-based Question Chapter 4 Question 9

Part A

Diagram of a knee joint, labeled as a freely moveable joint. The image zooms into the membrane surrounding the joint and show three layers of tissue. On the outside is dense irregular connective tissue, in the middle is loose connective tissue and on the inside are two layers of rectangular cells with centrally located nuclei. The first two layers are labeled.

What type of membrane is shown in this figure?

ANSWER:

mucous membrane
synovial membrane
serous membrane
cutaneous membrane

Chapter 4 Chapter Test Question 14

Part A

The skin is also called the __________.

ANSWER

cutaneous membrane
serous membrane
mucous membrane
synovial membrane

Multiple Choice Question 4.53

Part A

A patient is diagnosed with mesothelioma. This cancer affects the:

ANSWER:

cutaneous membranes.
serous membranes.
mucous membranes.
synovial membranes.

Multiple Choice Question 4.55

Part A

What lubricates movable joints such as the hip, knee, and elbow?

ANSWER

serous fluid
mucus
synovial fluid
saliva

Multiple Choice Question 4.57

Part A

What type of membrane lines cavities that open to the outside of the body?

ANSWER:

serous membrane
cutaneous membrane
synovial membrane
mucous membrane

True/False Question 4.91

Part A

True membranes must fit these structural and functional qualifications: consist of a superficial layer of epithelial tissue and a layer of connective tissue on which it rests; and, anchor organs in place, serve as barriers, function in immunity and secrete various substances.

ANSWER:

True
False

Art-based Question Chapter 4 Question 10

Part A

Diagram of cardiac muscle tissue with an injury repair in which the cells have been replaced by collagen fibers and fibroblasts. The fibroblasts, collagen fibers, and region of cells replaced with collagen fibers and fibroblasts are labeled on the diagram.

The type of tissue repair seen in this figure is _____.

ANSWER:

thrombosis
fibrosis
coagulation
regeneration

Chapter 4 Chapter Test Question 15

Part A

Tissue repair in epithelial tissues is usually by __________.

ANSWER:

formation of scar tissue
fibrosis
regeneration
none of the listed modes

Chapter 4 Reading Question 10

Part A

The type of tissue repair in which stem cells give rise to new cells to replace dead or damaged cells is called __________.

ANSWER:

coagulation
apoptosis
regeneration
fibrosis

Multiple Choice Question 4.59

Part A

What happens to epithelial tissue damaged from a superficial paper cut?

ANSWER

Epithelial tissue heals by regeneration.
Epithelial tissue heals by fibrosis.
Epithelial tissue is replaced by scar tissue.
Epithelial tissue is replaced by dense irregular connective tissue.

Multiple Choice Question 4.60

Part A

The permanent replacement of normal tissue by scar tissue is called:

ANSWER:

necrosis.
apoptosis.
fibrosis.
inflammation.

Multiple Choice Question 4.61

Part A

Fibrosis results in the formation of a type of:

ANSWER:

adipose tissue.
dense irregular connective tissue.
loose connective tissue.
dense regular collagenous connective tissue.

Multiple Choice Question 4.62

Part A

A tissue is more likely to heal by regeneration if it:

ANSWER

is avascular.
lacks satellite cells.
is amitotic.
possesses stem cells.

True/False Question 4.92

Part A

Repair of epithelial tissues always involves the formation of scar tissue.

ANSWER:

True
False

Chapter 4 Running Case: The Case of Will Smithers

A surprising amount of information can be learned about an individual just by studying their tissues. In this case, you have been assigned to shadow histopathologist Dr. Jonas Riehm as he attempts to identify the cause of death of 42-year-old Will Smithers. Mr. Smithers’ body was discovered in his car near an alley several miles from his home. There was no obvious cause of death, necessitating an autopsy to determine if the death was from natural causes or foul play. However, due to a clerical error, Mr. Smithers’ body was released and interred before a proper autopsy could be performed, and an official cause of death was not established. Fortunately, several tissue samples were taken before the interment and remain available for examination. Mr. Smithers’ family does not wish to have his body exhumed, so local law enforcement professionals have asked Dr. Riehm to examine the tissue samples in the hopes of determining the cause of death, and whether or not an exhumation is needed. The following sections have been taken from the official report that Dr. Riehm sent to the local coroner’s office. You are to report to Dr. Riehm’s office with your anatomy and physiology textbook. He expects students to answer questions related to the work that he does in his histopathology laboratory. Dr. Riehm enjoys teaching, and has a collection of microscope slides that he uses to introduce students to the fascinating universe of histology. He starts with the following definition: histology is the study of the normal structure of tissues. Although Dr. Riehm is an expert in the study of the diseases and abnormalities of tissues, he is a firm believer that you must be able to recognize normal tissue before you can understand diseased tissue. He has set up four microscope stations for students to view slides of normal tissues.

Part A – Module 4.1 Introduction to Tissues

Dr. Riehm shows you an unlabeled tissue slide and says the tissue is very resistant to stretching, tearing, and compression. He then asks you what you can conclude about the structure of the extracellular matrix (ECM)

ANSWER

The ECM contains collagen fibers embedded in a fluid ground substance.
The ECM contains only collagen fibers but no ground substance.
The ECM has many elastic fibers and a fluid ground substance.
The ECM has abundant collagen fibers in a gel-like ground substance.

Part B – Module 4.2 Epithelial Tissues

Satisfied that you are properly introduced to the concepts of normal tissue, Dr. Riehm begins to fill you in on the details of Mr. Smithers’ case, whose tissue samples have arrived just in time for your shadowing visit. The first set of slides included an epithelium sample taken from Mr. Smithers’ forehead. The slide was taken from some oddly colored patches of skin that revealed some abnormal cells, specifically, squamous cell carcinoma. These cancerous cells were in the early stages of the disease and had not spread, or metastasized, to other tissues; therefore, this was not the cause of Mr. Smithers’ death. Dr. Riehm continued to ask questions about epithelial tissues. He used the eyepiece pointer of the microscope to mark a structure in an area of normal skin, and you are able to identify the structure as a sweat gland. Since sweat is secreted onto the skin, you know that sweat glands are __________ glands and their products have effects on __________ cells.

ANSWER:

Exocrine; local.
Exocrine; distant.
Endocrine; distant.
Endocrine; local.

Part C – Module 4.3 Connective Tissues

Dr. Riehm began to review slides prepared from liver tissue and blood smears. Microscopic evaluation of the liver tissue shows abnormal deposits of adipose tissue interspersed throughout the normal structure of the liver tissue, which suggests hepatic lipidosis, or fatty liver. The most likely cause of hepatic lipidosis is excessive alcohol consumption, but this would need to be confirmed by further investigation. For the record, he documented his findings of hepatic lipidosis. He then explained that these findings indicate that Mr. Smithers had tissue evidence of an unhealthy behavior, likely alcoholism, which could be a contributing factor in the cause of his death but was unlikely the cause of death itself. His family and friends would need to fill in the details about Mr. Smithers’ personal life. This wasn’t enough to warrant an exhumation of the body, nor was it enough to establish the cause of death as liver failure. He explained that this is a common histological finding in several long-standing illnesses but in particular hepatitis, obstructive jaundice, and acute and chronic alcoholism with liver disease. This was still not enough to establish a cause of death, but it was more information that would support an exhumation order by the state authorities. A review of Mr. Smithers’ medical history or a report from his personal physician would be helpful in determining the relevance of this finding. Dr. Riehm moved on to Mr. Smithers’ peripheral blood smear slides. The erythrocytes appeared abnormally large, which provided more evidence that Mr. Smithers had done some significant damage to his body and tissues with alcohol consumption. Dr. Riehm documented his findings from the blood smear as abnormal, having found these large round erythrocytes called macrocytes. This condition called megaloblastic anemia leads to fewer normal cells, which limits the amount of oxygen and metabolic waste products that can be transported. This is a common finding in the peripheral blood smears of alcoholic patients with anemia. Many people suffering from alcohol dependence also have nutritional deficiencies, including poor intake of vitamin B12 and folate, both of which are critical for the normal development of erythrocytes in the bone marrow. Dr. Riehm has asked you to develop some flashcards pertaining to the different cells found in connective tissue proper. Which one of the following is not a normal resident cell found in connective tissue proper?

ANSWER:

Fibroblasts.
Adipocytes.
Chondrocytes.
Mast cells.

Part D – Module 4.4 Muscle Tissues

Dr. Riehm prepares to review slides of Mr. Smithers’ cardiac muscle tissue. He described regions of necrosis, or dead tissue, where cardiac muscle cells have died after being separated from the blood supply. This finding indicated that Mr. Smithers had a myocardial infarction, or heart attack. Dr. Riehm then poses this question: Are heart attacks always fatal? In other words, can we determine from this slide that this event preceded and therefore caused Mr. Smithers’ death? People survive heart attacks, don’t they? Dr. Riehm would need to look at the slides more closely later in the day before he completed this portion of his report. He was not ready to sign off on myocardial infarction as the cause of death just yet. Dr. Riehm reviewed the remaining slides in the set. He selected a blood vessel slide and discovered hypertrophy, or an enlargement of the smooth muscle, and damage to the endothelium lining the vessel walls. Both were signs of vascular disease, as was the finding of atherosclerosis, or plaque, which had probably clogged Mr. Smither’s arteries and veins. All of these were pathological findings that supported a diagnosis of vascular disease. Vascular disease increases the likelihood of myocardial infarction. Mix the cardiovascular findings with fatty liver disease, anemia, and enough alcohol, and that could explain this man’s death. But, it would still be speculation. All of these certainly could lead to a myocardial infarction, no doubt. There was evidence that a cardiac event had happened at some point in Mr. Smithers’ life. Like his fatty liver, these findings indicated that Mr. Smithers was unhealthy. A review of Mr. Smithers’ medical history or a report from his personal physician would be helpful in determining the relevance of these findings. A pathologist would probably need to see the actual heart itself to make a cause of death by myocardial infarction determination. Dr. Riehm reminded you to get those slides filed away so we could move on to the last set of samples from Mr. Smithers’ brain tissue. While making your flashcards, you see that skeletal muscle cells are multinucleated. Why do skeletal muscle cells have this property?

ANSWER:

Skeletal muscle fibers are formed by the fusion of osteogenic cells and the nucleus of each osteogenic cell is retained in the mature muscle fiber.
Skeletal muscle fibers are formed by the fusion of embryonic chondroblasts.
The original nucleus in a skeletal muscle fiber undergoes repeated rounds of mitosis.
Multinucleation is an advantage because of skeletal muscle fiber size and the amount of protein synthesis that takes place in these metabolically active cells.

Part E – Module 4.5 Nervous Tissue

Dr. Riehm began his review of Mr. Smithers’ nervous tissue slides. Mr. Smithers had suffered blunt trauma to the back of his head, and brain tissue revealed evidence of tissue swelling and neuronal damage. Was this injury the result of a fall or a deliberate blow to the head? It is possible that this information is related to Mr. Smithers’ cause of death, but Dr. Riehm was unable to make that determination. Unfortunately, there are too many unanswered questions surrounding the death of this man. Therefore, Mr. Smithers’ body must be exhumed. Access to his complete remains for autopsy would likely provide evidence that tissue samples could not. It seems that the case has nearly reached its conclusion, although there was still something odd about those nervous tissue slides. In addition to the trauma, there was some microscopic evidence of dementia, which would be unusual in a middle-aged person. Hopefully, a full pathology report could provide some explanation for these abnormal nervous tissue slides. Time was of the essence in this case, and there was only one last issue to address before the paperwork could be completed. You have been reviewing nervous tissue slides for hours. Dr. Riehm has asked you to discuss the structure and function of a neuron. Which of the following statements is correct?

ANSWER: .

Dendrites are always long unbranched processes that receive and carry signals toward the cell body.
Axons are long singular extensions of the cell body that carry nerve impulses away from the cell body.
Both axons and dendrites are highly branched extensions of the cell body that send and receive nerve impulses to and from the cell body.
Axons are always short, with numerous branches that carry nerve impulses away from the cell body.

Part F – Module 4.8 Tissue Repair

Finally, being thorough, Dr. Riehm wanted to review his assessment of the cardiac tissue slides. Finding evidence of fibrous tissue interspersed among cardiac muscle cells indicated that the heart had tried to heal itself. Mr. Smithers would have had to be alive long enough for scar tissue to form in his heart. The evidence from the cardiac tissue was consistent with an old myocardial infarction that Mr. Smithers survived. There was no evidence in the tissue samples to suggest that he had had an acute myocardial infarction. Dr. Riehm could only document what he observed in a small amount of cardiac tissue. Mr. Smithers could have had an acute and fatal myocardial infarction in a region of the heart from which no tissue samples were collected. From what he observed in the available tissue slide, however, it was unlikely that a cardiac event caused his death. His report would undoubtedly leave more unanswered questions about the cause of Mr. Smithers’ death. A full gross examination of Mr. Smithers’ heart was needed, which would require that his body be exhumed. Tissue repair and healing depends on adequate supplies of all of the following EXCEPT:

ANSWER

Entrance of cells of the immune system into the injured tissue.
Vitamin D from the diet.
Nutrition that supplies enough amino acids, vitamins, and other nutrients.
Blood flow to the injured tissue.

About eduhawks

Check Also

for what value of r would the potential difference across each of the bulbs be 2.4 v ?

Two bulbs are connected in parallel across a source of emf EMF = 10.0V with …