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CENGAGE ADVANTAGE EDITION

BUILDING A SPEECH Eighth Edition

Sheldon Metcalfe Community College of Baltimore County

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To my mother, who gave me the values, and my father, who gave me the vision

to write this book.

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Brief Contents

Preface xxi

Unit One SURVEYING THE LANDSCAPE

Chapter 1 Introducing the Study of Public Speaking 2

Chapter 2 Understanding and Reducing Your Apprehension 15

Chapter 3 Building Your First Speech 28

Chapter 4 Analyzing Your Audience 43

Chapter 5 Improving Your Listening Skills 64

Chapter 6 Considering the Ethics of Public Speaking 81

Unit Two PREPARING THE FOUNDATION

Chapter 7 Selecting the Topic and Purpose 102

Chapter 8 Conducting Research 116

Chapter 9 Choosing Supporting Materials 141

Unit Three CREATING THE STRUCTURE

Chapter 10 Organizing the Body of the Speech 160

Chapter 11 Selecting the Introduction and Conclusion 179

Unit Four REFINING THE APPEARANCE

Chapter 12 Using Audiovisual Aids 206

Chapter 13 Considering Language 229

Chapter 14 Developing the Delivery 247

v

Unit Five CONSIDERING DIFFERENT TYPES OF STRUCTURE

Chapter 15 Speaking to Inform 270

Chapter 16 Speaking to Persuade 292

Chapter 17 Speaking to Persuade: Motivating Audiences 324

Chapter 18 Speaking for Special Occasions 340

Chapter 19 Speaking in Groups 357

v i Brief Contents

Contents

Preface xxi

Unit One Survey ing the Landscape

Chapter 1 Introducing the Study of Public Speaking 2 COMMUNICATION IN THE MODERN WORLD 3

THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS 4

A Communication Model 5

The Sender: Encoding Ideas into Symbols 5

The Message 6

The Channel 6

The Receiver: Decoding Symbols into Ideas 6

Feedback 7

Setting 7

Noise 8

UNDERSTANDING THE TOOLS OF COMMUNICATION 10

APPLYING THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS 12

DESIGNING A PLAN FOR SUCCESS 13

SUMMARY 14

SKILL BUILDERS 14

BUILDING A SPEECH ONLINE 14

Chapter 2 Understanding and Reducing Your Apprehension 15 SPEECH ANXIETY IS COMMON 16

RESEARCH INTO STRESS AND COMMUNICATION APPREHENSION 17

REDUCING COMMUNICATION APPREHENSION 19

Face Anxiety Honestly and Overcome It 19

Develop a Positive Attitude 21

Adopt Constructive Behaviors 23

Maintain a Healthy Body 23

Be Thoroughly Prepared 24

Reward Yourself 24

Learn from Mistakes 25

Accept Constructive Criticism 25

vii

TAKING RESPONSIBILITY TO REDUCE APPREHENSION 26

SUMMARY 27

SKILL BUILDERS 27

BUILDING A SPEECH ONLINE 27

Chapter 3 Building Your First Speech 28 EXTEMPORANEOUS DELIVERY AND SPEAKING STYLES 29

CREATING A BLUEPRINT 30

Step 1: Choose an Interesting, Well-Defined Topic 30

Step 2: Understand the General Purpose 31

Step 3: Conduct Extensive Research 31

Step 4: Write Specific Purpose and Thesis Statements 32

Step 5: Write a Comprehensive Outline 32

Step 6: Be Sensitive to Audience Members 33

Step 7: Understand Your Ethical Responsibilities 33

Step 8: Choose Extemporaneous Delivery 33

Step 9: Practice the Speech 33

Step 10: Be Confident and Prepared 35

THE CAREER SPEECH 36

Researching the Career Speech 36

Developing the Career Speech 37

SAMPLE SPEECH: CAREERS IN ANTHROPOLOGY 37

SUMMARY 41

SKILL BUILDERS 42

BUILDING A SPEECH ONLINE 42

Chapter 4 Analyzing Your Audience 43 THE IMPORTANCE OF AUDIENCE ANALYSIS 44

Audience Perception of the Speaker 45

Audience Perception of the Topic 46

Motivations of the Audience 49

Physiological Needs 50

Safety Needs 50

Love Needs 50

Esteem Needs 50

Self-Actualization Needs 50

Impact of Social Groups on Listeners 51

Age 51

Gender 52

Religion 53

Cultural and Ethnic Origin 53

Educational Level, Occupation, and Interests 55

Income Level 56

v i i i Contents

Geographic Location 56

Social Organizations 56

Targeting Specific Groups 57

Impact of the Occasion on Listeners 58

The Purpose of the Occasion 58

The Physical Location of the Event 59

The Expectations of the Speaker 59

CONDUCTING AN AUDIENCE ANALYSIS 60

Collecting Demographic Data about the Audience 60

Informal Assessments 60

Surveys 60

Questionnaires 61

Interviews 61

Processing the Data with a Computer 62

Evaluating the Audience Profile 62

SUMMARY 62

SKILL BUILDERS 62

BUILDING A SPEECH ONLINE 63

Chapter 5 Improving Your Listening Skills 64 THE SIGNIFICANCE OF LISTENING 65

THE PROCESS OF LISTENING 66

KINDS OF LISTENING 68

Discriminative Listening 68

Evaluative Listening 69

Appreciative Listening 69

Empathic Listening 70

Active and Passive Listening 70

BARRIERS TO LISTENING: THE LACK OF BEING “PRESENT” 70

Yielding to Distractions 71

Blocking Out Communication 72

Listening Selectively 73

Overcriticizing the Speaker 74

Faking Attention 74

Avoiding Difficult or Unpleasant Listening Situations 74

HOW TO BECOME AN ACTIVE LISTENER AND SPEAKER 75

Withhold Judgment 75

Avoid the Appearance Trap 75

Don’t Be Easily Swayed by Delivery and Style 76

Give All Topics a Fair Hearing 76

Avoid Extraneous Mental Activity During the Speech 76

Give Honest, Attentive Feedback 76

Contents ix

Eliminate Distractions 78

Evaluate the Communication When It Is Finished 78

SUMMARY 79

SKILL BUILDERS 80

BUILDING A SPEECH ONLINE 80

Chapter 6 Considering the Ethics of Public Speaking 81 THE NEED FOR ETHICS IN SOCIETY 83

EVALUATING A SPEAKER’S ETHICS 84

Honesty and the Speaker 84

The Speaker’s Reliability 87

The Speaker’s Motivations 87

The Speaker’s Policies 88

APPLYING ETHICAL STANDARDS 90

Be Honest 91

Direct Quotation 91

Paraphrased Passage 91

Plagiarized Passage 91

Advocate Ideas That Benefit Others 92

Evaluate Your Motives for Speaking 92

Develop a Speaking Code of Ethics 93

SAMPLE SPEECH: PRACTICE, PRACTICE, PRACTICE: KNOWING IS NOT THE SAME THING AS DOING 95

SUMMARY 99

SKILL BUILDERS 99

BUILDING A SPEECH ONLINE 99

Unit Two Prepar ing the Foundat ion

Chapter 7 Selecting the Topic and Purpose 102 GETTING IDEAS 103

Your Own Knowledge and Experience 103

Brainstorming 104

Library Databases and the Internet 104

Ask for Help 104

SELECTING THE TOPIC 104

It Should Interest You, the Speaker 104

It Should be Sufficiently Narrow and Conform to the Time Limit 105

It Should Provide New Information 106

It Should be Appropriate 106

It Should Conform to the General Purpose 107

Speeches to Inform 107

Speeches to Persuade 107

Speeches to Entertain 108

x Contents

WRITING THE SPECIFIC PURPOSE 108

Be Clear, Concise, and Unambiguous 108

Include Only One Major Idea 109

Use a Declarative Statement 110

WORDING THE THESIS STATEMENT 110

Problems with the Thesis Statement 112

PUTTING IT TOGETHER 113

SUMMARY 114

SKILL BUILDERS 114

BUILDING A SPEECH ONLINE 115

Chapter 8 Conducting Research 116 PREPARING FOR RESEARCH 117

ESTABLISHING CREDIBILITY 117

PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SOURCES 118

ACCESSING THE LIBRARY 119

The Online Catalog 119

Databases 119

GUIDELINES FOR SEARCHING THE INTERNET 121

RESEARCHING REFERENCE SOURCES 123

Biographies 123

Directories and Handbooks 124

The Dictionary and Thesaurus 124

Encyclopedias 124

Almanacs, Yearbooks, and Statistical Publications 125

Collections of Quotations 125

Books 125

Magazines, Journals, and Newspapers 125

Legal Research 126

Audiovisual Aids 126

Interviews with Authorities 127

Legislative and Governmental Research 129

Institutional and Organizational Research 129

Specialized Libraries and Museums 130

KEEPING ACCURATE NOTES 130

INTERVIEWING 132

Preparing for the Interview 132

Conducting the Interview 133

Taking Notes During the Interview 134

THE BIBLIOGRAPHY: HOW TO RECORD AN ENTRY 134

AVOIDING PLAGIARISM 136

THINKING CRITICALLY ABOUT SPEECH RESEARCH AND CONSTRUCTION 136

Contents xi

Be Willing to Test Information 136

Be Organized 138

View Ideas from Different Perspectives 138

Think for Yourself 139

SUMMARY 140

SKILL BUILDERS 140

BUILDING A SPEECH ONLINE 140

Chapter 9 Choosing Supporting Materials 141 MAKING THE APPROPRIATE SELECTION 142

STATISTICS, POLLS, AND SURVEYS 142

Using Statistics 142

Poll 143

Study 143

Startling Statistics 143

EXAMPLES, ILLUSTRATIONS, CASE STUDIES, AND NARRATIVES 144

Using Examples 144

Example 144

Hypothetical Example 145

Illustration 145

Case Study 146

Narrative 147

QUOTATIONS AND TESTIMONY 147

Using Quotations and Testimonies 148

Quotation 148

Expert Testimony 148

Prestige Testimony 149

Personal Testimony 149

VISUAL EVIDENCE 149

COMPARISONS AND CONTRASTS 149

Using Comparisons and Contrasts 150

PERSONAL EXPERIENCE AND OBSERVATION 151

Using Experience and Observation 151

HUMOR AND ANECDOTES 152

Using Humor and Anecdotes 152

ROLE-PLAYING 153

Using Role-Playing Techniques 153

SAMPLE SPEECH: THE FLAG RAISINGS ON IWO JIMA 154

SUMMARY 157

SKILL BUILDERS 157

BUILDING A SPEECH ONLINE 157

xi i Contents

Unit Three Creat ing the Structure

Chapter 10 Organizing the Body of the Speech 160 APPROACHING ORGANIZATION LOGICALLY 161

PRINCIPLES OF OUTLINING 161

Building Block One: The Body Should Contain Between Two and Four Main Points or Numerals in a Five- to Seven-Minute Speech 162

Building Block Two: Main Points in the Body Should be Structured in an Organizational Sequence that is Logical, Interesting, and Appropriate to the Topic 162

Chronological Sequence 162

Spatial Sequence 163

Cause-Effect Sequence 164

Topical Sequence 164

Other Sequences 165

Building Block Three: A System of Roman Numerals, Letters, and Arabic Numbers Should be Combined with Indentation to Identify Main and Subordinate Levels 166

Building Block Four: The Outline Should Include Supporting Materials That are Coordinated and Subordinated in a Logical Manner 167

Building Block Five: Every Subdivision must Contain at Least Two Items 169

Building Block Six: Each Point Should Include Only One Topic or Idea 170

Building Block Seven: Main Points (Numerals) and Supporting Items Should be Linguistically Parallel 171

Building Block Eight: The Outline Should be Expressed in Either Sentences or Topics 172

Building Block Nine: The Outline Should Identify Sources for Major Supporting Materials 173

Building Block Ten: The Outline Should Include External Transitions Between Main Numerals 174

YOUR SPEAKING NOTES 175

SUMMARY 177

SKILL BUILDERS 177

BUILDING A SPEECH ONLINE 178

Chapter 11 Selecting the Introduction and Conclusion 179 PURPOSE OF THE INTRODUCTION 180

THE INADEQUATE INTRODUCTION 180

PLANNING AN EFFECTIVE INTRODUCTION 181

Examples, Stories, and Illustrations 182

Shocking Statement or Situation 183

Statistics 184

Questions 185

Quotation 186

Suspense 186

Contents xi i i

Personal Reference, Compliment, or Reference to the Occasion 187

Humor 188

The Flexible Introduction 189

Combination of Strategies 190

OUTLINING THE INTRODUCTION 190

PURPOSE OF THE CONCLUSION 191

THE INADEQUATE CONCLUSION 191

PLANNING THE EFFECTIVE CONCLUSION 192

Summary of Main Points 192

Quotation 193

Reference to the Introduction 194

Challenge or Appeal 194

Humor 195

Question 196

Story, Illustration, and Example 197

Statistics 197

OUTLINING THE CONCLUSION 198

SPEAKING NOTES FOR THE INTRODUCTION AND CONCLUSION 199

SAMPLE OUTLINE: RAISING THE MONITOR 200

SUMMARY 203

SKILL BUILDERS 203

BUILDING A SPEECH ONLINE 203

Unit Four Ref in ing the Appearance

Chapter 12 Using Audiovisual Aids 206 TYPES OF AUDIOVISUAL AIDS 207

Electronic Media 207

The Data Projector and Computer 207

Devices for Capturing Text and Media 208

The Document Camera 208

The Touch Screen Monitor or Whiteboard 209

Audience Response Systems 209

Older Technologies 209

Graphs 213

Illustrations, Photographs, and Pictures 214

Posters, Flipcharts, and Chalkboards 218

Models and Objects 220

You as a Visual Aid 220

Copyright Cautions 223

xiv Contents

SAMPLE SPEECH: HOW DO AIRPLANE WINGS PRODUCE LIFT? 223

SUMMARY 227

SKILL BUILDERS 228

BUILDING A SPEECH ONLINE 228

Chapter 13 Considering Language 229 DEVELOPING CLARITY 230

Avoiding Euphemisms 231

USING CONCRETE LANGUAGE 232

Denotation and Connotation 233

BUILDING A UNIQUE STYLE 234

Similes 234

Metaphors 235

Alliteration 236

Amplification 236

Antithesis 236

Repetition 237

Mnemonic Phrases 237

BEING APPROPRIATE 238

Be Aware of Cultural Differences 238

Recognize Differences Due to Gender 240

Avoid Offensive Terms 241

Eliminate Irrelevant Language 241

Avoid Trite Expressions 242

Eliminate Grammatical Errors 242

Build Vocabulary Skills 243

MAKING IDEAS MEANINGFUL AND INTERRELATED 243

Personal Pronouns 243

Transitions 244

SUMMARY 245

SKILL BUILDERS 246

BUILDING A SPEECH ONLINE 246

Chapter 14 Developing the Delivery 247 DELIVERING THE SPEECH 248

PROPER BREATHING FOR VOCAL DELIVERY 249

VOCAL DELIVERY 250

Volume 250

Articulation 251

Pitch and Inflection 251

Quality 252

Rate 253

Contents xv

Pronunciation 253

Pauses 254

Emphasis and Phrasing 255

VISUAL, NONVERBAL DELIVERY 256

Eye Contact 256

Appearance 257

Gestures 257

Facial Expression 258

Body Position and Movement 259

Culture and Nonverbal Delivery 260

Gender and Nonverbal Delivery 261

COMBINING VOCAL AND VISUAL DELIVERY 263

BUILDING SKILLS IN DELIVERY 264

Know Your Material 264

Be Well Organized 264

Prepare Your Speaking Notes 264

Practice the Delivery 266

SUMMARY 267

SKILL BUILDERS 267

BUILDING A SPEECH ONLINE 268

Unit Five Considering Dif ferent Types of Structure

Chapter 15 Speaking to Inform 270 THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN INFORMATION AND PERSUASION 271

TYPES OF INFORMATIVE SPEECHES 272

The Descriptive Speech 272

An Example 273

Outlining the Descriptive Speech 275

The Demonstration Speech 276

An Example 278

Outlining the Demonstration Speech 278

The Speech of Definition 280

Other Informative Types: Reports, Lectures, and Personal Experience 282

SAMPLE SPEECH: RAISING THE MONITOR 285

Alternative Introduction: Series of Questions 289

Alternative Conclusion: Quotation 290

SUMMARY 290

SKILL BUILDERS 291

BUILDING A SPEECH ONLINE 291

xv i Contents

Chapter 16 Speaking to Persuade 292 PERSUASION IN TODAY’S SOCIETY 293

THE NATURE OF PERSUASION 293

Speeches to Convince 294

Speeches to Stimulate 294

Speeches to Actuate 294

Selecting the Persuasive Topic 295

Wording the Proposition Statement 295

Propositions of Fact, Value, and Policy 296

ETHOS, PATHOS, AND LOGOS: THE MEANS OF PERSUASION 297

Ethos: The Ethical Appeal 297

Pathos: The Emotional Appeal 299

Identify Emotions 300

Understand Audience Emotions 301

Express Your Own Feelings 302

Connect Emotions to the Occasion 303

LOGOS: THE APPEAL TO REASON 304

Arguments Based on Enumeration 305

Arguments Based on Analogy 306

Arguments Based on Causation 307

Developing Rebuttal Arguments 308

METHODS OF ORGANIZING PERSUASIVE SPEECHES 311

Reasons 311

Problem-Solution 313

Comparative Advantages 315

Motivated Sequence 316

SAMPLE SPEECH: COMPUTER-ENHANCED ADVERTISING SHOULD BE CLEARLY LABELED 318

SUMMARY 322

SKILL BUILDERS 323

BUILDING A SPEECH ONLINE 323

Chapter 17 Speaking to Persuade: Motivating Audiences 324

STRATEGIES FOR MOTIVATING LISTENERS 325

Appeal to the Needs of the Audience 325

Physical 325

Safety and Security 325

Love 325

Esteem 326

Self-Actualization 326

Appeal to Listeners’ Beliefs and Values 326

Contents xv i i

Provide Listeners with Incentives 327

Involve the Audience Emotionally 328

THE SPEECH TO ACTUATE 329

Attention Step 329

Need Step 329

Satisfaction Step 330

Visualization Step 330

Action Step 330

Phrasing the Thesis 330

APPLYING THE MOTIVATED SEQUENCE 331

Attention Step 331

Need Step 331

Satisfaction Step 332

Visualization Step 332

Action Step 333

Outlining the Motivated Sequence 335

SAMPLE SPEECH: GENOCIDE IN SUDAN 336

SUMMARY 338

SKILL BUILDERS 339

BUILDING A SPEECH ONLINE 339

Chapter 18 Speaking for Special Occasions 340 TYPES OF SPECIAL-OCCASION SPEECHES 341

The Speech of Tribute 341

Construct a Brief Biographical Sketch 341

Acknowledge Significant Achievements and Virtues 341

Convey Hope and Encouragement 341

The Presentation Speech 342

The Acceptance Speech 343

The Speech of Dedication 344

The Speech of Welcome 345

The Speech of Introduction 345

The Keynote Speech 346

The Nominating Speech 347

The Farewell Speech 348

The Victory Speech 348

The Commencement Speech 349

The After-Dinner Speech 349

Toasts 350

SAMPLE SPEECH: DEDICATION OF THE WORLD WAR II MEMORIAL 352

SUMMARY 355

SKILL BUILDERS 355

BUILDING A SPEECH ONLINE 356

xv i i i Contents

Chapter 19 Speaking in Groups 357 CHARACTERISTICS OF SMALL GROUPS 358

Shared Goals 358

Group Interaction 359

Size 359

Time Period 359

Leadership 359

DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL GROUPS 360

Forming 360

Storming 361

Norming 361

Performing 361

SOLVING PROBLEMS IN GROUPS 361

Questions for Discussion 361

Questions of Fact 361

Questions of Value 362

Questions of Policy 362

Developing a Problem-Solving Agenda 362

Define the Problem 362

Narrow the Problem 362

Analyze the Issue 363

Set Up Criteria 363

Suggest Solutions 363

Apply Criteria to Solutions 364

Implement the Selected Solution 364

Monitor the Success of the Solution 364

A Sample Agenda 365

PARTICIPATING IN GROUPS 365

Group-Centered Behavior 366

Be an Active Observer 366

Support Group Procedure 366

Be Reliable 366

Be Willing to Compromise 366

Be Courteous and Respectful 367

Encourage and Energize Members 367

Self-Centered Behavior 367

LEADERSHIP IN SMALL GROUPS 369

Leadership Theories 369

Positive Leadership Behaviors 369

Be Prepared 369

Keep to Time Limits 370

Be Organized 371

Know When to Intervene 371

Contents xix

SPECIAL DISCUSSION FORMATS 374

Focus Groups 374

The Symposium 375

The Panel 375

The Forum 376

Buzz Groups 376

Role-Playing Groups 376

SUMMARY 376

SKILL BUILDERS 377

BUILDING A SPEECH ONLINE 377

Notes 378

Glossary 387

Suggested Topic Areas 395

Index 400

xx Contents

Preface

Public speaking is a building process wherein students gradually acquire skills in speech research, organization, and delivery. Students learn these skills step-by-step from their own experiences, by observing the presentations of others, through peer criticism, and from the guidance of effective instructors. This book establishes a caring environment for the learning process using a conversational style that aims to both interest and moti- vate students while conveying encouragement through topics such as apprehension and listening that will help students to realize that they are not alone in their struggles. It is grounded in the philosophy that students can master the steps of speech construction if provided with a caring environment, clear blueprints, and creative examples.

PLAN OF THE BOOK The five units in this book organize skills in a sequence that is meaningful and under- standable to students.

Unit One, “Surveying the Landscape,” presents modern theories of communication and a brief overview of communication in our contemporary world. In addition, it con- siders apprehension, introduces students to their first speaking experience, and includes chapters on listening and ethics.

Unit Two, “Preparing the Foundation,” describes how to select topics, write purpose statements, conduct research, and choose supporting materials for speeches.

Unit Three, “Creating the Structure,” discusses outlining as well as speech introduc- tions and conclusions.

Unit Four, “Refining the Appearance,” describes the refinements necessary to com- plete speech construction. It helps students build skills in delivery and language, explains the use of visual aids, and includes a sample demonstration speech.

Unit Five, “Considering Different Types of Structures,” discusses descriptive and process speeches and includes a sample descriptive speech; examines persuasive speaking, with sample convincing and actuating speeches; considers presentations for special occa- sions, including the after-dinner speech; and explores the dynamics of speaking in group situations.

FEATURES OF THE EIGHTH EDITION The Eighth Edition retains all of the popular features of previous editions, including a conversational style, vivid examples, and guidelines for speeches. It retains essential chapters on apprehension, listening, ethics, and discussion of diversity. In addition, Building a Speech, Eighth Edition, includes the following new and revised features:

Expanded and Relocated Apprehension Chapter Since studies show that speech apprehension is among the top two fears of most Amer- icans, “Understanding and Reducing Your Apprehension” is now presented as Chapter 2 to help students handle this anxiety early in the course. Chapter 2 has been

xxi

expanded as well. The section titled, “Accept Anxiety Honestly and Face It,” includes a three-column table that identifies a fear, asks challenge questions in response to the fear, and provides encouraging statements of affirmation to help students reduce their anxiety. In the section “Adopt Constructive Behaviors,” journaling before and after a speech is recommended and sample journal entries are provided for student practice. There are also updated examples of celebrities who have reported anxiety before per- formances and a new box with a statement about stage fright by actor Al Pacino.

Updated Chapter 1 Chapter 1, “Introducing the Study of Public Speaking,” includes a new discussion of past and present speakers who have influenced our modern world. In addition to well known leaders of the past such as Roosevelt, Kennedy, King, and Reagan, Chapter 1 describes how Elie Wiesel, Bono, Mother Teresa, Nelson Mandela, Princess Diana, Christopher Reeve, Michael J. Fox, Condoleezza Rice, Hillary Clinton, and Michelle Obama have used communication to shape our world. Reviewers suggested that the inclusion of con- temporary speakers replace discussion of ancient orators presented in earlier editions.

Boxed Examples in Audience Analysis Chapter Two example boxes have been added to Chapter 4, “Analyzing Your Audience.” One box includes a discussion of political lightening rods Nancy Pelosi and Sarah Palin and how public perception has changed over time regarding the policies and actions of these controversial political women. Another includes an example from Wall Street Journal col- umnist Jeffrey Zaslow who describes how a phrase he used as a college student was hurt- ful to the ethnicity of his Spanish professor.

New Boxed Examples and Building Strategies in Listening Chapter New example boxes have also been added to Chapter 5, “Improving Your Listening Skills.” “Caught by the Camera” describes how a sports writer for the Daily Herald in Arlington, Illinois was captured napping in a photograph when he should have been doing his job taking notes as a reporter and listening to a political speaker. A second boxed example presents an individual who is so absorbed in texting that she loses aware- ness and creates an embarrassing situation for herself. The chapter concludes with a new “building” box that summarizes skills that students need when listening to the content and delivery of a speech.

Updated Ethics Chapter Chapter 6, “Considering the Ethics of Public Speaking,” includes updated examples of the ethical lapses of prominent speakers in business and politics. The chapter also con- tains a boxed example describing accusations of plagiarism that caused Senator Joseph Biden to withdraw from the Democratic presidential primary race in the 1980s. There is also a boxed example describing an incident in which a Columbia University valedic- torian plagiarized a portion of his commencement address to his 2010 graduating class. In addition to an updated example of plagiarism, the chapter presents a new “building” box to help students develop a code of ethics for public speaking.

Revised MLA Examples in Research Chapter Since the Modern Language Association recently revised the format for bibliographic citations, all new bibliographic examples in Chapter 8, “Conducting Research,” conform to the new MLA standard. There are also updated examples for citing sources, new note card illustrations, and a new plagiarism example.

xxi i Preface

Revisions and Additions to Supporting Materials Chapter In Chapter 9, “Choosing Supporting Materials,” polls, studies, and startling statistics are more clearly defined and indicated. In addition, brief and hypothetical examples, illustra- tions, case studies, and narratives are more clearly differentiated. The chapter also now includes and explains the differences among expert, prestige, and personal testimony. Although visual aids are extensively presented and discussed in Chapter 12, visual evi- dence is introduced as a significant supporting material in Chapter 9.

Additional Development of the Introduction and Conclusion Chapter 11, “Selecting the Introduction and Conclusion,” further develops and clarifies the purpose of the introduction and conclusion. In addition, the chapter presents exam- ples of ineffective beginnings and endings and explains why they are poor. The chapter also clearly highlights the thesis to each sample introduction so students can see the sig- nificance of its placement as the last line of the introduction.

Updated Terminology in the Visual Aids Chapter In Chapter 12, “Using Audiovisual Aids,” terminology in the electronic media section has been updated and revised to help student speakers understand how current advance- ments such as audience response systems, document cameras, whiteboards, touch screens, and file capturing can help speakers create visuals more easily and stimulate added inter- est among listeners. A new section is also included titled, “Copyright Cautions,” to help students understand the important legal difference between “fair use” and “commercial use” for copyrighted visual and textual materials that require written permission.

Revised Speaking Notes in Delivery Chapter The section titled, “Prepare Your Speaking Notes,” in Chapter 14, “Developing the Delivery,” has been expanded and revised. Since extemporaneous delivery is so impor- tant for the beginning speaker to learn, this section provides five sample note cards to show students how to use key words and brief phrases to present a speech instead of a written manuscript. This section also explains and visually illustrates how students can use markings on their speaking notes to remind them where to state sources, use visuals, or emphasize significant words and phrases. The speech titled, “How Do Airplane Wings Produce Lift?,” from Chapter 12 is used for the sample note cards.

New Table Identifying Fallacies in Persuasive Chapter In addition to describing ethical and logical fallacies in Chapter 16, “Speaking to Persuade,” now contains a comprehensive table that identifies, defines, and provides examples of the principal ethical and logical fallacies presented in the chapter for easier student access. Additional logical fallacies are also included to help students avoid com- mon speaking errors. The chapter also contains an updated boxed example showing students how to construct persuasive arguments on opposing sides of the controversial issue, “The detention facility at Guantanamo Bay should be closed and detainees should be brought to trial in U.S. civilian courts.”

Original Cartoon Illustrations In addition to other updates and changes, the Eighth Edition includes original cartoons drawn by artist George Goebel whose Greek cartoon appears in Chapter 1 and was also featured in earlier editions. New cartoons in this edition include a nervous speaker in Chapter 2, texting in front of truck in Chapter 5, and gullible students in a strange med- ical lecture in Chapter 8.

Preface xxi i i

STUDENT RESOURCES Building a Speech, Eighth Edition, features an outstanding array of supplements to assist in making this course as meaningful and effective as possible. Available student resources include:

• Resource Center. This useful site offers a variety of rich learning assets designed to enhance the student experience. Organized by tasks as well as by chapter, these assets include self-assessments, Web activities, chapter outlines, and review questions. The Resource Center also features course resources such as Speech Builder Express™ 3.0, InfoTrac College Edition, and more.

• Speech Builder Express™ 3.0. This online program coaches students through the entire process of preparing speeches and provides the additional support of built-in video speech models, a tutor feature for concept review, direct links to InfoTrac College Edition, an online dictionary and thesaurus, and leading professional organizations’ online documentation style guidelines and sample models. Equipped with their speech type or purpose, a general topic, and preliminary research, students respond to the program’s customized prompts to complete interactive activities that require critical thinking about all aspects of creating an effective speech. Students are able to specify a speech purpose, identify an organizational pattern, write a thesis statement or central idea, establish main points, integrate support material, craft transitions, plan visual aids, compose their speech introduction and conclusion, and prepare their bibliography. Students are also able to stop and start work whenever they choose and to complete, save online, export to Microsoft Word®, or e-mail up to five outlines.

• InfoTrac College Edition with InfoMarks™. This online library provides access to more than 18 million reliable, full-length articles from over 5,000 academic and popular periodicals. Students also have access to InfoMarks—stable URLs that can be linked to articles, journals, and searches to save valuable time when doing research—and to the InfoWrite online resource center, where students can access grammar help, critical thinking guidelines, guides to writing research papers, and much more. For more information about InfoTrac College Edition and the InfoMarks linking tool, visit www.infotrac-college.com and click on “User Demo.”

• Book Companion Website. The website features study aids such as chapter outlines, flash cards, and other resources for mastering glossary terms as well as chapter quizzes that help students check their understanding of key concepts.

• iChapters.com. This online store provides students with exactly what they’ve been asking for: choice, convenience, and savings. A 2005 research study by the National Association of College Stores indicates that as many as 60 percent of students do not purchase all required course material; however, those who do are more likely to succeed. This research also tells us that students want the ability to purchase “a la carte” course material in the format that suits them best. Accordingly, iChapters.com is the only online store that offers eBooks at up to 50 percent off, eChapters for as low as $1.99 each, and new textbooks at up to 25 percent off, plus up to 25 percent off print and digital supplements that can help improve student performance.

• A Guide to the Basic Course for ESL Students. Written specifically for communi- cators whose first language is not English, this guide features FAQs, helpful URLs, and strategies for managing communication anxiety.

• Conquer Your Speech Anxiety. Learn How to Overcome Your Nervousness About Public Speaking by Karen Kangas Dwyer. Drawing from the latest research, this

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innovative resource helps students understand and develop a plan to overcome their fear of public speaking. The CD-ROM includes both audio relaxation exercises and techniques for overcoming anxiety.

RESOURCES FOR INSTRUCTORS Building a Speech, Eighth Edition, also features a full suite of resources for instructors. To evaluate any of these instructor or student resources, please contact your local Cengage Learning representative for an examination copy, contact our Academic Resource Cen- ter at 800-354-9706, or visit us at www.cengage.com/. Instructor resources include:

• Instructor’s Resource Manual. Written by the author, the Instructor’s Resource Manual provides a comprehensive teaching system. Included in the manual are a syllabus, criteria for evaluation, chapter objectives, in-class activities, handouts, and transparency masters. All of the Skill Builder and InfoTrac College Edition exercises included on the Resource Center and companion website are included in the Instructor’s Resource Manual in case online access is unavailable or inconvenient. The Instructor’s Resource Manual includes a printed test bank that features class- tested and reliability-rated multiple-choice, true-false, short-answer, essay, and fill-in-the-blank test questions. Print and electronic versions are available.

• Instructor’s Website. The password-protected instructor’s website includes electronic access to the Instructor’s Resource Manual and other tools for teaching. To gain access to the website, simply request a course key by opening the site’s home page.

• PowerLecture. This CD-ROM contains an electronic version of the Instructor’s Resource Manual, ExamView computerized testing, and videos associated with Building a Speech. This all-in-one tool makes it easy for you to assemble, edit, and present materials for your course.

• Turn-It-In®. This proven online plagiarism-prevention software promotes fairness in the classroom by helping students learn to correctly cite sources and allowing instructors to check for originality before reading and grading papers and speeches. Turn-It-In quickly checks student work against billions of pages of Internet content, millions of published works, and millions of student papers and speeches and within seconds generates a comprehensive originality report.

• Wadsworth Communication Video and DVD Library. Wadsworth’s video and DVD series for speech communication includes communication scenarios for critique and analysis, student speeches for critique and analysis, and ABC News videos and DVDs for human communication, public speaking, interpersonal communication, and mass communication.

• The Teaching Assistant’s Guide to the Basic Course. Written by Katherine G. Hendrix of the University of Memphis, this resource was prepared specifically for new instructors. Based on leading communication teacher-training programs, this guide discusses some of the general issues that accompany a teaching role and offers specific strategies for managing the first week of classes, leading productive discus- sions, managing sensitive topics in the classroom, and grading students’ written and oral work.

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