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decomposition reaction worksheet

Worksheet #2


GENERAL EQUATION: AB  A + B [ Compound  Element1 + Element2 ]


  1. salt  metal + nonmetal
  2. ternary acid  nonmetal oxide (acid anhydride) + water
  3. metal hydroxide  metal oxide (basic anhydride) + water
  4. metal chlorate  metal chloride + oxygen
  5. salt (with polyatomic ion)  nonmetal oxide + metal oxide
  6. metal carbonate  metal oxide + carbon dioxide
  7. metal oxide  metal + oxygen
  8. hydrated salts  anhydrous salt + water


nonmetal oxides (g) metal oxides (s)
salts (s)
water as a product (g) water as a reactant (l) acids (aq)

individual elements (look at periodic chart for state)

THE DIATOMICS: H2, N2, O2, F2, Cl2, Br2, I2

DIRECTIONS: Determine the products of each reaction. Balance the equation. Indicate the states of matter on all reactants and products. Place the rule number for each to the right of each problem.

  1. ZnCO3  _______________________________
  2. Ba(ClO3) 2 _____________________________
  3. Sb2O5 ________________________________
  4. CaCO3 _______________________________
  5. KClO3 _______________________________
  6. H2CO3 _______________________________
  7. Ba(OH) 2 _____________________________
  8. HgO ________________________________
  9. NaCl ________________________________
  10. H2SO4 _______________________________

11. Ag2O _________________________________ 12. Fe(OH) 2 _______________________________ 13. PBr5 __________________________________ 14. CuSO4 • 5H2O _________________________ 15. Mg(OH) 2 ______________________________ 16. H3PO4 _________________________________ 17. Al(OH)3 ________________________________ 18. Zn(NO3)2 _______________________________ 19. Ca3(PO4)2_______________________________ 20. NaO2 __________________________________

Chemical Equations

page 2 

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southwest airlines culture values and operating practices

Week 3 Written Assignment – Southwest Airlines in 2016

Southwest Airlines in 2016: Culture,Values, and Operating Practices Assignment Questions

1. Is there anything that you find particularly impressive about Southwest Airlines?

2. What are the key policies, procedures, operating practices, and core values underlying Southwest’s efforts to implement and execute its strategy?

3. What are the key elements of Southwest’s culture? What problems do you foresee that Gary Kelly has in sustaining the culture now that Herb Kelleher, the company’s long-time spiritual leader, has departed?

4. Which of Southwest’s strategy execution approaches and operating practices do you believe have been most crucial in accounting for the success that Southwest has enjoyed in executing its strategy? Are there any policies, procedures, and operating approaches at Southwest that you disapprove of or that are not working well?

5. How well has Southwest Airlines performed for its shareholders over the past several decades? Please employ liquidity, profit and solvency ratios to assess their overall performance.

6. What strategic issues and problems do Gary Kelly and Southwest executives need to address and what recommendations would you make to Gary Kelly and Southwest executives as the company heads towards the end of 2017 and beyond?

Your submission should be between 3 to 7 pages using APA format. 

Spell and Grammar Check

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Process and Laws in Special Education

The intent to provide special education is to have equal opportunities toward education for all children. This starts from birth up until

twenty-one. Services are individualized and specialized to meet the need for each child. Below you will see information regarding an

overview of the special education process and brief explanations of its components.


STEP 1. Evaluation


Before a child can obtain services there must first be an evaluation to see if the child has an eligible disability as described by

IDEA. If so, other pertinent questions will be asked; does the disability affect the educational process and does the child need

specialized instruction? An evaluation request can come from the parent and/or from the school district. Retrieved June 29,

2016 from Arkansas Department of Education Special Education website from

STEP 2. Prior written

notice to



Under IDEA guidelines, it is required that a parent be given a written notice about the school is wanting to give the child an

evaluation. Included in the notice must be an explanation about why the school wants to conduct the evaluation, explain each

phase of the evaluation, where parents can go to obtain the results of the evaluation, alternatives considered and any other

pertinent information that will be included. Retrieved June 29, 2016 from Arkansas Department of Education Special

Education website from

STEP 3. Parental



Before a child can obtain services there must first be an evaluation to see if the child has an eligible disability as described by

IDEA. If so, other pertinent questions will be asked; does the disability affect the educational process and does the child need

specialized in? An evaluation request can come from the parent and/or from the school district. Retrieved June 29, 2016 from

Arkansas Department of Education Special Education website from




Time given for completion & details of the evaluation

The initial evaluation must be given within 60 days of parental approval to give evaluation to the child. Once the approval is

granted, the Individualized Education Plan (IEP) team appointment is made and during the meeting the student’s IEP is

prepared. Everyone on the team must give their consent. After IEP is completed, services for the child are awarded. Progress is

documented and shared with parents. The IEP is reviewed once per year and during this time changes can be made by the

team. The child is re-evaluated within three years. Retrieved June 29, 2016 from Arkansas Department of Education Special

Education website from

Process and Laws in Special Education

Your presence is requested to attend a development meeting with your child Jennifer’s educational staff. During the meeting we will

all discuss Jennifer’s disability and the special education process within our district. The reason for the meeting is to obtain Jennifer’s

potential need to develop transitional services that are used to determine if Jennifer will be eligible to receive special education

services. These services are in accordance with the individuals with disabilities education act (IDEA) and our school district.

During the meeting we all will be discussing Jennifer’s disability along with the steps used to determine whether or not she will be

able to obtain special education services. The topics that will be discussed in greater details are:

The evaluation process (identifying the need for services): before a child can obtain services there must first be an evaluation to see if

the child has an eligible disability as described by IDEA. If so, other pertinent questions will be asked; does the disability affect the

educational process and does the child need specialized instruction? An evaluation request can come from the parent and/or from the

school district. Retrieved June 29, 2016 from Arkansas Department of Education Special Education website from

Prior written notice to the parent(s) (giving parents prior notice): Under IDEA guidelines, it is required that a parent be given a

written notice about the school is wanting to give the child an evaluation. Included in the notice must be an explanation about why the

school wants to conduct the evaluation, explain each phase of the evaluation, where parents can go to obtain the results of the

evaluation, alternatives considered and any other pertinent information that will be included. Retrieved June 29, 2016 from Arkansas

Department of Education Special Education website from

Parental permission (parents’ permission and input) before a child can obtain services there must first be an evaluation to see if the

child has an eligible disability as described by IDEA. If so, other pertinent questions will be asked; does the disability affect the

educational process and does the child need specialized instruction? An evaluation request can come from the parent and/or from the

school district. Retrieved June 29, 2016 from Arkansas Department of Education Special Education website from

Timeframe and scope of the evaluation (time given for completion and details of the evaluation) the initial evaluation must be given

within 60 days of parental approval to give evaluation to the child. Once the approval is granted, the Individualized Education Plan

(IEP) team appointment is made and during the meeting the student’s IEP is prepared. Everyone on the team must give their consent.

After IEP is completed, services for the child are awarded. Progress is documented and shared with parents. The IEP is reviewed once

Process and Laws in Special Education

per year and during this time changes can be made by the team. The child is re-evaluated within three years. Retrieved June 29, 2016 from Arkansas Department of Education Special Education website from

Each persons’ role is very vital. Therefore, it is very necessary for all parties to attend. I have highlighted all of our roles; as a student

it is expected that Jennifer actively participate in all discussions and decisions. As a parent it is expected that support be given to the

Jennifer and reinforcement is given to any pertinent information regarding all areas where Jennifer needs assistance. Also, there will

be other board members as myself present. During that time the board members will be providing input and allocating necessary

resources to ensure the student needs are met and as the teacher, I will provide input in regards to needed services. We have invited;

Ms. Rose Delano-Parent, Jennifer Delano-Student, Stephanie Edwards-Inspiring Special Education Teacher, and IEP team members.

You are welcome to invite other people that have knowledge about Jennifer’s disability.

The date and time scheduled will be August 26, 2016 at 10:00 a.m. The meeting will be held in conference room two. Please inform

me as to whether you will be able to accompany Jennifer at the date and time that is requested by returning the correspondence letter

to me by August 1, 2016. Also, kindly inform me if there are others whom you will be inviting (or persons who would like to come) to

Jennifer’s meeting and I will arrange and facilitate the meeting. If you have any questions about this letter or the meeting, please give

me a call at (501) 514-3599.

I and the team look forward to working with you to help Jennifer attain her personal and professional goals.


Inspiring Special Education Teacher

Process and Laws in Special Education

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in contrast to folk culture, popular culture is more likely to vary

Chapter 4

Folk and Popular Culture

Culture and Customs

• People living in other locations often have extremely different social customs.

• Geographers ask why such differences exist and how social customs are related to the cultural landscape.

Folk and Popular Culture

• The Key Issues are:

1. Where do folk and popular cultures originate and diffuse?

2. Why is folk culture clustered?

3. Why is popular culture widely distributed?

4. Why does globalization of popular culture cause problems?

Material Culture Material artifacts of culture are the visible objects that a group possesses and leaves behind for the future.

• Here we look at two facets of material culture. 1) Survival activities.

2) Leisure activities • The arts

• Recreation.

Material Culture Defined

• Culture can be distinguished from habit and custom. – A habit is a repetitive act

that a particular individual performs.

– A custom is a repetitive act of a group.

• A collection of social customs produces a group’s material culture.

Folk vs. Popular Culture

• Folk culture is traditionally practiced primarily by small, homogeneous groups living in isolated rural areas.

• Popular culture is found in large, heterogeneous societies.

Folk vs. Popular Culture Continued

• Landscapes dominated by a collection of folk customs change relatively little over time.

• In contrast, popular culture is based on rapid simultaneous global connections.

• Thus, folk culture is more likely to vary from place to place at a given time, whereas popular culture is more likely to vary from time to time at a given place.

Effects of Popular Culture

• In Earth’s globalization, popular culture is becoming more dominant, threatening the survival of unique folk cultures.

• The disappearance of local folk customs reduces local diversity in the world and the intellectual stimulation that arises from differences in background.

• The dominance of popular culture can also threaten the quality of the environment.

Issue 1: Origins and Diffusion of Folk and Popular Cultures

• Origin of folk and popular cultures

– Origin of folk music

– Origin of popular music

• Diffusion of folk and popular cultures

– The Amish: Relocation diffusion of folk culture

– Sports: Hierarchical diffusion of popular culture

Origin of Folk and Popular Cultures

• A social custom originates at a hearth, a center of innovation.

• Folk customs often have anonymous hearths.

• They may also have multiple hearths.

• Popular culture is most often a product of the economically more developed countries.

• Industrial technology permits the uniform reproduction of objects in large quantities.

Folk Music

• Music exemplifies the differences in the origins of folk and popular culture.

• Folk songs tell a story or convey information about daily activities such as farming, life-cycle events (birth, death, and marriage), or mysterious events such as storms and earthquakes.

Origin of Country Music

Fig. 4-1: U.S. country music has four main hearths, or regions of origin: southern Appalachia, central Tennessee and Kentucky, the Ozark-Ouachita uplands, and north-central Texas.

Origin of Popular Music

• In contrast to folk music, popular music is written by specific individuals for the purpose of being sold to a large number of people.

Tin Pan Alley and Popular Music

Fig. 4-2: Writers and publishers of popular music were clustered in Tin Pan Alley in New York City in the early twentieth century. The area later moved north from 28th Street to Times Square.

Diffusion of American Music

• The diffusion of American popular music worldwide began in earnest during World War II, when the Armed Forces Radio Network broadcast music to American soldiers.

• English became the international language for popular music.

Hip Hop

• Hip hop is a more recent form of popular music that also originated in New York.

• Lyrics make local references and represent a distinctive hometown scene.

• At the same time, hip hop has diffused rapidly around the world through instruments of globalization.

A Mental Map of Hip Hop

Fig. 4-3: This mental map places major hip hop performers near other similar performers and in the portion of the country where they performed.

Diffusion of Folk and Popular Cultures

• The broadcasting of American popular music on Armed Forces radio illustrates the difference in diffusion of folk and popular cultures.

• The spread of popular culture typically follows the process of hierarchical diffusion from hearths or nodes of innovation.

• In contrast, folk culture is transmitted primarily through migration, relocation diffusion.

The Amish: Relocation Diffusion of Folk Culture

• Amish customs illustrate how relocation diffusion distributes folk culture.

• Amish folk culture remains visible on the landscape in at least 17 states.

• In Europe the Amish did not develop distinctive language, clothing, or farming practices and gradually merged with various Mennonite church groups.

• Several hundred Amish families migrated to North America in two waves.

• Living in rural and frontier settlements relatively isolated from other groups, Amish communities retained their traditional customs, even as other European immigrants to the United States adopted new ones.

Amish Settlements in the U.S.

Fig. 4-4: Amish settlements are distributed through the northeast U.S.

Sports: Hierarchical Diffusion of Popular Culture

• In contrast with the diffusion of folk customs, organized sports provide examples of how popular culture is diffused.

• Many sports originated as isolated folk customs and were diffused like other folk culture, through the migration of individuals.

• The contemporary diffusion of organized sports, however, displays the characteristics of popular culture.

Folk Culture Origin of Soccer

• Early soccer games resembled mob scenes.

• In the twelfth century the rules became standardized.

• Because soccer disrupted village life, King Henry II banned the game from England in the late twelfth century.

• It was not legalized again until 1603 by King James I.

• At this point, soccer was an English folk custom rather than a global popular custom.

Globalization of Soccer

• The transformation of soccer from an English folk custom to global popular culture began in the 1800’s.

• Sport became a subject that was taught in school.

• Increasing leisure time permitted people not only to view sporting events but to participate in them.

• With higher incomes, spectators paid to see first- class events.

Soccer’s Globalization

• Soccer was first played in continental Europe in the late 1870s by Dutch students who had been in Britain.

• British citizens further diffused the game throughout the worldwide British Empire.

• In the twentieth century, soccer, like other sports, was further diffused by new communication systems, especially radio and television.

• Although soccer was also exported to the United States, it never gained the popularity it won in Europe and Latin America

Sports in Popular Culture • Each country has its own

preferred sports. • Cricket is popular primarily in

Britain and former British colonies.

• Ice hockey prevails, logically, in colder climates.

• The most popular sports in China are martial arts, known as wushu, including archery, fencing, wrestling, and boxing.

• Baseball became popular in Japan after it was introduced by American soldiers.

Lacrosse as a Popular Sport

• Lacrosse is a sport played primarily in Ontario, Canada, and a few eastern U.S. cities, especially Baltimore and New York. – It has also fostered cultural identity

among the Iroquois Confederation of Six Nations.

– In recent years, the International Lacrosse Federation has invited the Iroquois nation to participate in the Lacrosse World Championships.

Issue 2: Clustering of Folk Cultures

• Isolation promotes cultural diversity

– Himalayan art

• Influence of the physical environment

– Distinctive food preferences

– Folk housing

– U.S. folk house forms

Isolation and Cultural Diversity

• Folk culture typically has unknown or multiple origins among groups living in relative isolation.

• A combination of physical and cultural factors influences the distinctive distributions of folk culture.

• Folk customs observed at a point in time vary widely from one place to another, even among nearby places.

Himalayan Art

• In a study of artistic customs in the Himalaya Mountains, geographers P. Karan and Cotton Mather demonstrate that distinctive views of the physical environment emerge among neighboring cultural groups that are isolated.

• These groups display similar uniqueness in their dance, music, architecture, and crafts.

Himalayan Folk Cultural Regions

Fig. 4-5: Cultural geographers have identified four distinct culture regions based on predominant religions in the Himalaya Mountains.

Influence of the Physical Environment

• People respond to their environment, but the environment is only one of several controls over social customs.

• Folk societies are particularly responsive to the environment because of their low level of technology and the prevailing agricultural economy.

• Yet folk culture may ignore the environment. • Broad differences in folk culture arise in part from physical conditions and

these conditions produce varied customs. • Two necessities of daily life—food and shelter—demonstrate the influence

of cultural values and the environment on development of unique folk culture.

Distinctive Food Preferences

• Folk food habits derive from the environment.

• For example, rice demands a milder, moist climate, while wheat thrives in colder, drier regions.

• People adapt their food preferences to conditions in the environment.

• A good example is soybeans. – In the raw state they are toxic and

indigestible. – Lengthy cooking renders (soybeans)

edible, but cooking fuel is scarce in Asia.

– Asians make foods from soybeans that do not require extensive cooking.

Food Preferences in Europe

• In Europe, traditional preferences for quick-frying foods in Italy resulted in part from cooking fuel shortages.

• In Northern Europe, an abundant wood supply encouraged the slow stewing and roasting of foods over fires, which also provided home heat in the colder climate.

Food Diversity in Transylvania

• Food customs are inevitably affected by the availability of products, but people do not simply eat what is available in their particular environment.

• In Transylvania, currently part of Romania, food preferences distinguish among groups who have long lived in close proximity.

• Soup, the food consumed by poorer people, shows the distinctive traditions of the neighboring cultural groups in Transylvania.

• Long after dress, manners, and speech have become indistinguishable from those of the majority, old food habits often continue as the last vestige of traditional folk customs.

Food Attractions and Taboos

• According to many folk customs, everything in nature carries a signature, or distinctive characteristic, based on its appearance and natural properties.

• Certain foods are eaten because their natural properties are perceived to enhance qualities considered desirable by the society, such as strength, fierceness, or lovemaking ability.

• People refuse to eat particular plants or animals that are thought to embody negative forces in the environment.

• Such a restriction on behavior imposed by social custom is a taboo.

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this assignment must be done by tomorrow 6pm California time……. 

Must be at least 300 words…… reference page or cover page………

do the following…… 

1. Briefly review Japan’s economic development history since WWII. What are the most critical factors for Japan’s economic successes?

2. Watch the following video about Japan’s washlet products: (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.

Why washlet is popular in Japan? Can washlet become popular in the U.S.? Explain.

3. Find one product or service that is uniquely produced or sold in Japan. Briefly describe the product and provide a link or upload an image of the product/service.

must be done by tomorrow 6pm California time 

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what is the formula for zinc fluoride

Nomenclature Activity Name: ____________________

NMNM= nonmetal-3-2-1NM
+1+2md= metalloidmdNMNMNMNMNM

Type I Binary Ionic Compounds

Type I binary ionic compounds contain a metal and a nonmetal AND the metal that is present only forms one type of cation. Metals with only one cation (shaded below with charges). Both the metal and the nonmetal form ions, which is why it is called an ionic compound.

1) From the following list, cross out those compounds that do NOT belong in the category for Type I binary ionic compounds.

NaCl FeCl2 CaCl2 TiO2 MgO AlBr3 KCl K2S BeF2 Cu2O3 AgCl Zn3N2

Formula and name examples for Type I binary ionic compounds:

KI = potassium iodide BaO = barium oxide ZnF2 = zinc fluoride Na2S = sodium sulfide

Ag3N = silver nitride BeCl2 = beryllium chloride

2) What type of element is always listed first (metal or nonmetal)? ____________ second? ___________

3) Is the name of the first element in the compound different from the element? (yes/no)

4) What is the common ending for all the names? ______________

5) In zinc fluoride, there are 2 fluoride atoms, are they indicated in the name? (yes/no)

6) What is the charge on the zinc ion? _______

7) What is the charge on the fluoride ion? _______

8) Why do you need one zinc ion and two fluoride ions for the formula for zinc fluoride?

9) Why do you need two sodium ions for every sulfide ion in sodium sulfide?

10) As a team, determine the rules for naming type I binary ionic compound when given the formula.

11) As a team, determine the rules for writing the formula for a type I binary compound when given the name.

12) Name each of the type I binary ionic compounds listed in question 1.

Type II Binary Ionic Compounds

Type II binary ionic compounds also contain a metal and a nonmetal however the metal that is present here can form more than one type of cation. Metals with multiple possible charges are listed in the periodic table as blank. Type II metals are NOT Type I metals. Again, both the metal and the nonmetal form ions, and it is still called an ionic compound. These metals usually only form two different ions.

1) From the following list, cross out those compounds that do NOT belong in the category for Type II binary ionic compounds.

AlP FeCl2 Ag2O VBr5 CoS SnF2 K3N SrF2 CuBr AuCl3 ZnO HgS

Formula and name examples for Type II binary ionic compounds:

Fe2O3 = iron(III) oxide or ferric oxide FeO = iron(II) oxide or ferrous oxide

CuS = copper(II) sulfide or cupric sulfide CuCl = copper(I) chloride or cuprous chloride

MnO2 = manganese(IV) oxide or manganic oxide MnCl2 = manganese(II) chloride or manganous chloride

2) What type of element is always listed first (metal or nonmetal)? ____________ second? ___________

3) Is the name of the first element in the compound different from the element? (yes/no)

4) What is the common ending for the nonmetal portion of the names? ______________

5) In the compound FeO, what is the charge on iron? _______

6) In the compound Fe2O3, what is the charge on iron? ________

7) What does the Roman number after the metal name represent?

8) When the metal name ends in –ic, to what ion does it refer? (higher charge/lower charge)

9) When the metal name ends in –ous, to what ion does it refer? (higher charge/lower charge)

10) As a team, determine the rules for naming type II binary ionic compound when given the formula.

11) As a team, determine the rules for writing the formula for a type II binary compound when given the name.

12) Name each of the type II binary ionic compounds listed in Question 1 of Type II section.

Type III Binary Compounds

Binary compounds that do not contain metals have covalent bonds instead of ionic bonds. A covalent bond is formed by sharing one or more pairs of electrons. The pair of electrons is shared by both atoms. For example, in forming H2, each hydrogen atom contributes one electron to the single bond.

1) From the following list, cross out those compounds that do NOT belong in the category for binary compounds containing only nonmetals or metalloids.

CCl4 AlCl3 CO SeF6 SiO2 SrI2 P4O10 TiO2 SeO3 IrCl ZrO2 N2O5


Formula and name examples for Type III binary ionic compounds:

CO2​ = carbon dioxide H2O = dihydrogen monoxide

IF5 = iodine pentafluoride BF3 = boron trifluoride

2) Which element is listed first in the name?

3) Is the name of the first element in the compound different from the element? (yes/no)

4) What is the common ending for all the names? ______________

5) What do the prefixes (di-, mono-, penta-, tri-) in the names above mean?

6) Is the prefix mono- used when there is only one atom of the first element? (yes/no) Is the prefix mono- used when there is one atom of the second element? (yes/no)

7) As a team, determine the rules for naming type III binary ionic compound when given the formula.

8) Name each of the type III binary compounds listed above.

Compounds Containing Polyatomic Ions

Polyatomic ions are ions that as a group have a set charge. Polyatomic ions are usually recognized in a formula by the grouping of more than one nonmetal elements after a metal. Your book has a table listing polyatomic ions. Use your book’s table to fill in the following table with the appropriate names/formulas of the polyatomic ions.


Polyatomic ions containing oxygen (oxyanions) are somewhat special.

carbonate = CO3-2

1) Match the location of carbon on the periodic table with the two figures on the right.

2) What number is in the carbon location on the left figure? To what does this number refer?

3) What number is the carbon location on the right figure? To what does this number refer?

4) What element must all oxyanions contain?

5) What is the ending of the name of the ion determined from these tables?

6) Determine the formula for the following oxyanions using the figures above. Phosphate _________ Silicate ________ Bromate ________ Iodate ________ Sulfate ________ Nitrate ________

perchlorate = ClO4¯ chlorate = ClO3¯ chlorite = ClO2¯ hypochlorite = ClO¯

7) When comparing the oxyanions above, is the charge of the chlorate ion the same as the charge for the other chloro-oxyanions?

8) How many less oxygen atoms does chlorite have compared to chlorate?

9) How many more oxygen atoms does perchlorate have compared to chlorate?

10) How many less oxygen atoms does hypochlorite have compared to chlorate?

11) What name ending(s) can help you identify the presence of an oxyanion in a compound?

12) If sulfate is SO4-2, what would the formula for sulfite be?

13) In the table below, fill in the name and formula for the oxyanions in the shaded column. Use the figures on the previous page

14) In the table below, fill in the name and formula for the rest of the oxyanions.

Elementper-___ -ate ion____-ate ion_____-ite ionhypo-____-ite ion
Bromine (Br)
Iodine (I)
Phosphorus (P)
Nitrogen (N)

Use your knowledge of Type I and Type II metals as well as the appropriate polyatomic name/formula to fill in the following table.

sodium carbonateCu(NO2)2
iron(II) nitratecalcium sulfate
MnSO4ammonium nitrate

Check your work:

Were the polyatomic ions correctly identified for the above table? Remember when you have parentheses, you must identify the polyatomic ions by looking inside the parentheses and the numbers outside the parentheses just indicate how many of that polyatomic ion you have.

Are the compound formulas you filled into the table above neutral in charge?

Do all type II metals in the table abovehave their charge indicated by either a Roman numeral or their Latin name with an –ous or –ic ending?

Are all type I metals listed without a Roman numeral?


Acids are compounds that when dissolved in water, produce hydrogen ions (H+). Naming acids can also be tricky. Use the following chart and try to classify each acid below to an area on the chart.


Given that the ion formula is NO2-1, how can one determine the name of the ion, acid formula, and acid name?

Ion name:

1) Based on the –ate determination figures, what is the formula for nitrate? Is NO2-1 the nitrate ion or the nitrite ion?

Acid formula:

2) According to the figure above, what must be added to create an acid? What is the charge of the ion?

3) How many of the hydrogen ions must be added to NO2-1 to make a neutral acid (zero charge)?

4) What is the acid formula for the acid created when hydrogen ion(s) are added to NO2-1?

Acid name:

5) Based on your answer to Question 1 above, does the name for the NO2-1 ion end in –ite or –ate?

6) Use the figure above to determine how the name changes when we have the compound HNO2. Name the acid, HNO2.

Fill in the following table:

Acid FormulaAcid NameIon FormulaIon Name
HClhydrochloric acidCl¯chloride
sulfuric acid
carbonic acid
C2H3O2 ¯

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“The best tribute to ‘They Say / I Say’ I’ve heard is this, from a student: ‘This is one book I’m not selling back to the bookstore.’ Nods all around the room. The students love this book.”

—Christine Ross, Quinnipiac University

“What effect has ‘They Say’ had on my students’ writing? They are finally entering the Burkian Parlor of the university. This book uncovers the rhetorical conventions that transcend dis- ciplinary boundaries, so that even freshmen, newcomers to the academy, are immediately able to join in the conversation.”

—Margaret Weaver, Missouri State University

“It’s the anti-composition text: Fun, creative, humorous, bril- liant, effective.”

—Perry Cumbie, Durham Technical Community College

“Loved by students, reasonable priced, manageable size, readable.” —Roxanne Munch, Joliet Junior College

“This book explains in clear detail what skilled writers take for granted.” —John Hyman, American University

“The ability to engage with the thoughts of others is one of the most important skills taught in any college-level writing course, and this book does as good a job teaching that skill as any text I have ever encountered.” —William Smith, Weatherford College

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“THEY SAY I SAY” The Move s Tha t Ma t t e r

i n Academ i c Wr i t i n g



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“THEY SAY !I SAY” The Move s Tha t Ma t t e r

i n Academ i c Wr i t i n g



CATHY BIRKENSTEIN both of the University of Illinois at Chicago

RUSSEL DURST University of Cincinnatti

B w . w . n o r t o n & c o m p a n y

n e w y o r k | l o n d o n

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W. W. Norton & Company has been independent since its founding in 1923, when William Warder Norton and Mary D. Herter Norton first published lectures delivered at the People’s Institute, the adult education division of New York City’s Cooper Union. The firm soon expanded its program beyond the Institute, publishing books by celebrated academics from America and abroad. By mid-century, the two major pillars of Norton’s publishing program—trade books and college texts—were firmly established. In the 1950s, the Norton family transferred control of the company to its employees, and today—with a staff of four hundred and a comparable number of trade, college, and professional titles published each year—W. W. Norton & Company stands as the largest and oldest publishing house owned wholly by its employees.

Copyright © 2017, 2015, 2014, 2012, 2010, 2009, 2006 by W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.

All rights reserved Printed in the United States of America

Permission to use copyrighted material is included in the credits section of this book, which begins on page 747.

The Library of Congress has cataloged an earlier edition as follows: Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Graff, Gerald, author. “They say/I say”: the moves that matter in academic writing, with readings / Gerald Graff, University of Illinois at Chicago ; Cathy Birkenstein, University of Illinois at Chicago ; Russel Durst, University of Cincinnati.—Third Edition. p. cm Previous edition: 3rd. ed. 2014. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-393-93751-0 (pbk.) 1. English language—Rhetoric—Handbooks, manuals, etc. 2. Persuasion (Rhetoric)—Handbooks, manuals, etc. 3. Report writing—Handbooks, manuals, etc. 4. Academic writing—Handbooks, manuals, etc. 5. College readers. I. Birkenstein, Cathy, editor. II. Durst, Russel K., 1954- editor. III. Title. PE1431.G73 2014 808′.042—dc23 2014033777

This edition: ISBN 978-0-393-61744-3

W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 500 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10110

W. W. Norton & Company Ltd., 15 Carlisle Street, London W1D 3BS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0

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To the great rhetorician Wayne Booth, who cared deeply

about the democratic art of listening closely to what others say.

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preface to the third edition xi i i

preface: Demystifying Academic Conversation xviii

introduction: Entering the Conversation 1

PART 1. “THEY SAY” 1 “they say”: Starting with What Others Are Saying 19 2 “her point is”: The Art of Summarizing 30 3 “as he himself puts it”: The Art of Quoting 42

PART 2. “ I SAY”

4 “yes / no / okay, but”: Three Ways to Respond 55 5 “and yet”: Distinguishing What You Say

from What They Say 68 6 “skeptics may object”:

Planting a Naysayer in Your Text 78 7 “so what? who cares?”: Saying Why It Matters 92


8 “as a result”: Connecting the Parts 105 9 “a in’t so / is not”: Academic Writing Doesn’t Always

Mean Setting Aside Your Own Voice 121 10 “but don’t get me wrong”:

The Art of Metacommentary 129 11 “he says contends”: Using the Templates to Revise 139


12 “i take your point”: Entering Class Discussions 163 13 “imho”: Is Digital Communication Good or Bad—or Both? 167 14 “what’s motivating this writer?”:

Reading for the Conversation 173 15 “analyze this”: Writing in the Social Sciences 184

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stephanie owen and isabel sawhill, Should Everyone Go to College? 208

sanford j. ungar, The New Liberal Arts 226

charles murray, Are Too Many People Going to College? 234

liz addison, Two Years Are Better than Four 255

freeman hrabowski, Colleges Prepare People for Life 259

gerald graff, Hidden Intellectualism 264

mike rose, Blue-Collar Brilliance 272

michelle obama, Bowie State University Commencement Speech 285


Kevin kelly, Better than Human: Why Robots Will—and Must—Take Our Jobs 299

nicholas carr, Is Google Making Us Stupid? 313

brooke gladstone and josh neufeld, The Influencing Machines 330

clive thompson, Smarter than You Think: How Technology Is Changing Our Minds for the Better 340

michaela cullington, Does Texting Affect Writing? 361

sherry turkle, No Need to Call 373

jenna wortham, I Had a Nice Time with You Tonight. On the App. 393

malcolm gladwell, Small Change: Why the Revolution Will Not Be Tweeted 399


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michael pollan, Escape from the Western Diet 420

steven shapin, What Are You Buying When You Buy Organic? 428

mary maxfield, Food as Thought: Resisting the Moralization of Eating 442

jonathan safran Foer, Against Meat 448

david zinczenko, Don’t Blame the Eater 462

radley balko, What You Eat Is Your Business 466

michael moss, The Extraordinary Science of Addictive Junk Food 471

marion nestle, The Supermarket: Prime Real Estate 496

david h. freedman, How Junk Food Can End Obesity 506


david leonhardt, Inequality Has Been Going on Forever . . . but That Doesn’t Mean It’s Inevitable 542

edward mcclelland, RIP, the Middle Class: 1946–2013 549

paul krugman, Confronting Inequality 561

gary becker and kevin murphy, The Upside of Income Inequality 581

monica potts, What’s Killing Poor White Women? 591

brandon king, The American Dream: Dead, Alive, or on Hold? 610

tim roemer, America Remains the World’s Beacon of Success 618

shayan zadeh, Bring on More Immigrant Entrepreneurs 623

pew research team, King’s Dream Remains an Elusive Goal 627


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sheryl sandberg, Lean In: What Would You Do If You Weren’t Afraid? 642

bell hooks, Dig Deep: Beyond Lean In 659

anne-marie slaughter, Why Women Still Can’t Have It All 676

richard dorment, Why Men Still Can’t Have It All 697

stephen mays, What about Gender Roles in Same-Sex Relationships? 718

dennis baron, Facebook Multiplies Genders but Offers Users the Same Three Tired Pronouns 721

ellen ullman, How to Be a “Woman Programmer” 726

saul kaplan, The Plight of Young Males 732

penelope eckert and sally mcconnell-ginet, Learning to Be Gendered 736

credits 747

acknowledgments 753

index of templates 765

index of authors and titles 781


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preface to the third edition


When we first set out to write this book, our goal was simple: to offer a version of “They Say / I Say”: The Moves That Matter in Academic Writing with an anthology of readings that would demonstrate the rhetorical moves “that matter.” And because “They Say” teaches students that academic writ- ing is a means of entering a conversation, we looked for read- ings on topics that would engage students and inspire them to respond—and to enter the conversations. The book has been more successful than we ever imagined possible, which we believe reflects the growing importance of academic writing as a focus of first-year writing courses, and the fact that students find practical strategies like the ones offered in this book to be particularly helpful. In addition, some teach- ers have told us that this book works well in courses that focus on argument and research because students find these strategies easier to grasp than those in the books that teach various kinds of formal argumentation. Our purpose in writing “They Say” has always been to offer students a user-friendly model of writing that will help them put into practice the important principle that writing is a social activity. Proceeding from the premise that effective writers enter conversations of other writers and speakers, this book encour- ages students to engage with those around them—including those who disagree with them—instead of just expressing their

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ideas “logically.” Our own experience teaching first-year writing students has led us to believe that to be persuasive, arguments need not only supporting evidence but also motivation and exigency, and that the surest way to achieve this motivation and exigency is to generate one’s own arguments as a response to those of others—to something “they say.” To help students write their way into the often daunting conversations of aca- demia and the wider public sphere, the book provides tem- plates to help them make sophisticated rhetorical moves that they might otherwise not think of attempting. And of course learning to make these rhetorical moves in writing also helps students become better readers of argument. That the two versions of “They Say / I Say” are now being taught at more than 1,500 schools suggests that there is a wide- spread desire for explicit instruction that is understandable but not oversimplified, to help writers negotiate the basic moves necessary to “enter the conversation.” Instructors have told us how much this book helps their students learn how to write academic discourse, and some students have written to us saying that it’s helped them to “crack the code,” as one student put it. This third edition of “They Say / I Say” with Readings includes forty-three readings on five compelling and controversial issues. The readings provide a glimpse into some important conver- sations of our day—and will, we hope, provoke students to respond and thus to join in those conversations.


Forty-three readings that will prompt students to think— and write. Taken from a wide variety of sources, including the New York Times, the Wall Street Journal, Salon, the Atlantic, the


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Pew Research Center, the New Yorker, Wired magazine, best- selling trade books, celebrated speeches, and more, the readings represent a range of perspectives on five important issues:

• Is College the Best Option? • Are We in a Race against the Machine? • What Should We Eat? • What’s Up with the American Dream? • What’s Gender Got to Do with It?

The readings can function as sources for students’ own writing, and the study questions that follow each reading focus students’ attention on how each author uses the key rhetorical moves— and include one question that invites them to write, and often to respond with their own views.

A chapter on reading (Chapter 14) encourages students to think of reading as an act of entering conversations. Instead of teaching students merely to identify the author’s argument, this chapter shows them how to read with an eye for what arguments the author is responding to—in other words, to think carefully about why the writer is making the argument in the first place, and thus to recognize (and ultimately become a part of) the larger conversation that gives meaning to reading the text.

Two books in one, with a rhetoric up front and readings in the back. The two parts are linked by cross-references in the margins, leading from the rhetoric to specific examples in the readings and from the readings to the corresponding writ- ing instruction. Teachers can therefore begin with either the rhetoric or the readings, and the links will facilitate movement between one section and the other.

Preface to the Third Edition

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what’s new

Two topics are new, two are updated—all addressing impor- tant conversations taking place today. The chapters on gender and technology are new. The food chapter now reaches beyond fast food to address a broader question: what should we eat? And the education chapter asks not just is college worth the price but whether it is even the best option.

Thirty-one new readings, including at least one documented piece and one essay written by a student in each chapter, added in response to requests from many teachers who wanted more complex and documented writing.

They Say / I Blog. Updated monthly, this blog provides up-to- the-minute readings on the issues covered in the book, along with questions that prompt students to literally join the con- versation. Check it out at

A new chapter on “Using the Templates to Revise,” which grew out of our own teaching experience, where we found that the templates in this book had the unexpected benefit of help- ing students when they revise.

A new chapter on writing online, exploring the debate about whether digital technologies improve or degrade the way we think and write, and whether they foster or impede the meet- ing of minds.

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A complete instructor’s guide, with teaching tips for all the chapters, syllabi, summaries of the readings, and suggested answers to the study questions. Go to to access these materials.

We hope that this new edition of “They Say / I Say” with Read- ings will spark students’ interest in some of the most pressing conversations of our day and provide them with some of the tools they need to engage in those conversations with dexterity and confidence. Gerald Graff Cathy Birkenstein Russel Durst

Preface to the Third Edition

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Demystifying Academic Conversation


Experienced writing instructors have long recognized that writing well means entering into conversation with others. Academic writing in particular calls upon writers not simply to express their own ideas, but to do so as a response to what others have said. The first-year writing program at our own university, according to its mission statement, asks “students to partici- pate in ongoing conversations about vitally important academic and public issues.” A similar statement by another program holds that “intellectual writing is almost always composed in response to others’ texts.” These statements echo the ideas of rhetorical theorists like Kenneth Burke, Mikhail Bakhtin, and Wayne Booth as well as recent composition scholars like David Bartholomae, John Bean, Patricia Bizzell, Irene Clark, Greg Colomb, Lisa Ede, Peter Elbow, Joseph Harris, Andrea Lunsford, Elaine Maimon, Gary Olson, Mike Rose, John Swales and Christine Feak, Tilly Warnock, and others who argue that writing well means engaging the voices of others and letting them in turn engage us. Yet despite this growing consensus that writing is a social, conversational act, helping student writers actually partici- pate in these conversations remains a formidable challenge. This book aims to meet that challenge. Its goal is to demys- tify academic writing by isolating its basic moves, explaining them clearly, and representing them in the form of templates.

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In this way, we hope to help students become active partici- pants in the important conversations of the academic world and the wider public sphere.


• Shows that writing well means entering a conversation, sum- marizing others (“they say”) to set up one’s own argument (“I say”).

• Demystifies academic writing, showing students “the moves that matter” in language they can readily apply.

• Provides user-friendly templates to help writers make those moves in their own writing.

• Includes a chapter on reading, showing students how the authors they read are part of a conversation that they them- selves can enter—and thus to see reading as a matter not of passively absorbing information but of understanding and actively entering dialogues and debates.

how this book came to be

The original idea for this book grew out of our shared interest in democratizing academic culture. First, it grew out of arguments that Gerald Graff has been making throughout his career that schools and colleges need to invite students into the conversa- tions and debates that surround them. More specifically, it is a practical, hands-on companion to his recent book, Clueless in Academe: How Schooling Obscures the Life of the Mind, in which he looks at academic conversations from the perspective of those who find them mysterious and proposes ways in which

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such mystification can be overcome. Second, this book grew out of writing templates that Cathy Birkenstein developed in the 1990s, for use in writing and literature courses she was teaching. Many students, she found, could readily grasp what it meant to support a thesis with evidence, to entertain a counter- argument, to identify a textual contradiction, and ultimately to summarize and respond to challenging arguments, but they often had trouble putting these concepts into practice in their own writing. When Cathy sketched out templates on the board, however, giving her students some of the language and patterns that these sophisticated moves require, their writing—and even their quality of thought—significantly improved. This book began, then, when we put our ideas together and realized that these templates might have the potential to open up and clarify academic conversation. We proceeded from the premise that all writers rely on certain stock formulas that they themselves didn’t invent—and that many of these formulas are so commonly used that they can be represented in model templates that students can use to structure and even generate what they want to say. As we developed a working draft of this book, we began using it in first-year writing courses that we teach at UIC. In class- room exercises and writing assignments, we found that students who otherwise struggled to organize their thoughts, or even to think of something to say, did much better when we provided them with templates like the following.

j In discussions of , a controversial issue is whether

. While some argue that , others contend

that .

j This is not to say that .

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One virtue of such templates, we found, is that they focus writers’ attention not just on what is being said, but on the forms that structure what is being said. In other words, they make students more conscious of the rhetorical patterns that are key to academic success but often pass under the classroom radar.

the centrality of “they say / i say”

The central rhetorical move that we focus on in this book is the “they say / I say” template that gives our book its title. In our view, this template represents the deep, underlying structure, the internal DNA as it were, of all effective argument. Effective persuasive writers do more than make well-supported claims (“I say”); they also map those claims relative to the claims of others (“they say”). Here, for example, the “they say / I say” pattern structures a passage from an essay by the media and technology critic Steven Johnson.

For decades, we’ve worked under the assumption that mass cul- ture follows a path declining steadily toward lowest-common- denominator standards, presumably because the “masses” want dumb, simple pleasures and big media companies try to give the masses what they want. But . . . the exact opposite is happening: the culture is getting more cognitively demanding, not less.

Steven Johnson, “Watching TV Makes You Smarter”

In generating his own argument from something “they say,” Johnson suggests why he needs to say what he is saying: to correct a popular misconception.

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Even when writers do not explicitly identify the views they are responding to, as Johnson does, an implicit “they say” can often be discerned, as in the following passage by Zora Neale Hurston.

I remember the day I became colored. Zora Neale Hurston, “How It Feels to Be Colored Me”

In order to grasp Hurston’s point here, we need to be able to reconstruct the implicit view she is responding to and question- ing: that racial identity is an innate quality we are simply born with. On the contrary, Hurston suggests, our race is imposed on us by society—something we “become” by virtue of how we are treated. As these examples suggest, the “they say / I say” model can improve not just student writing, but student reading compre- hension as well. Since reading and writing are deeply recipro- cal activities, students who learn to make the rhetorical moves represented by the templates in this book figure to become more adept at identifying these same moves in the texts they read. And if we are right that effective arguments are always in dialogue with other arguments, then it follows that in order to understand the types of challenging texts assigned in college, students need to identify the views to which those texts are responding. Working with the “they say / I say” model can also help with invention, finding something to say. In our experience, students best discover what they want to say not by thinking about a subject in an isolation booth, but by reading texts, listening closely to what other writers say, and looking for an opening through which they can enter the conversation. In other words, listening closely to others and summarizing what they have to say can help writers generate their own ideas.

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the usefulness of templates

Our templates also have a generative quality, prompting stu- dents to make moves in their writing that they might not oth- erwise make or even know they should make. The templates in this book can be particularly helpful for students who are unsure about what to say, or who have trouble finding enough to say, often because they consider their own beliefs so self-evident that they need not be argued for. Students like this are often helped, we’ve found, when we give them a simple tem- plate like the following one for entertaining a counterargument (or planting a naysayer, as we call it in Chapter 6).

j Of course some might object that . Although I concede

that , I still maintain that .

What this particular template helps students do is make the seemingly counterintuitive move of questioning their own beliefs, of looking at them from the perspective of those who disagree. In so doing, templates can bring out aspects of stu- dents’ thoughts that, as they themselves sometimes remark, they didn’t even realize were there. Other templates in this book help students make a host of sophisticated moves that they might not otherwise make: sum- marizing what someone else says, framing a quotation in one’s own words, indicating the view that the writer is responding to, marking the shift from a source’s view to the writer’s own view, offering evidence for that view, entertaining and answering counterarguments, and explaining what is at stake in the first place. In showing students how to make such moves, templates do more than organize students’ ideas; they help bring those ideas into existence.

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okay, but templates?

We are aware, of course, that some instructors may have res- ervations about templates. Some, for instance, may object that such formulaic devices represent a return to prescriptive forms of instruction that encourage passive learning or lead students to put their writing on automatic pilot. This is an understandable reaction, we think, to kinds of rote instruction that have indeed encouraged passivity and drained writing of its creativity and dynamic relation to the social world. The trouble is that many students will never learn on their own to make the key intellectual moves that our templates repre- sent. While seasoned writers pick up these moves unconsciously through their reading, many students do not. Consequently, we believe, students need to see these moves represented in the explicit ways that the templates provide. The aim of the templates, then, is not to stifle critical thinking but to be direct with students about the key rhetori- cal moves that it comprises. Since we encourage students to modify and adapt the templates to the particularities of the arguments they are making, using such prefabricated formulas as learning tools need not result in writing and thinking that are themselves formulaic. Admittedly, no teaching tool can guarantee that students will engage in hard, rigorous thought. Our templates do, however, provide concrete prompts that can stimulate and shape such thought: What do “they say” about my topic? What would a naysayer say about my argument? What is my evidence? Do I need to qualify my point? Who cares? In fact, templates have a long and rich history. Public orators from ancient Greece and Rome through the European Renais- sance studied rhetorical topoi or “commonplaces,” model passages and formulas that represented the different strategies available

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to public speakers. In many respects, our templates echo this classical rhetorical tradition of imitating established models. The journal Nature requires aspiring contributors to follow a guideline that is like a template on the opening page of their manuscript: “Two or three sentences explaining what the main result [of their study] reveals in direct comparison with what was thought to be the case previously, or how the main result adds to previous knowledge.” In the field of education, a form designed by the education theorist Howard Gardner asks postdoctoral fellowship applicants to complete the following template: “Most scholars in the field believe . As a result of my study,

.” That these two examples are geared toward post- doctoral fellows and veteran researchers shows that it is not only struggling undergraduates who can use help making these key rhetorical moves, but experienced academics as well. Templates have even been used in the teaching of personal narrative. The literary and educational theorist Jane Tompkins devised the following template to help student writers make the often difficult move from telling a story to explaining what it means: “X tells a story about to make the point that

. My own experience with yields a point that is similar/different/both similar and different. What I take away from my own experience with is . As a result, I conclude .” We especially like this template because it suggests that “they say / I say” argument need not be mechanical, impersonal, or dry, and that telling a story and mak- ing an argument are more compatible activities than many think.

why it’s okay to use “i”

But wait—doesn’t the “I” part of “they say / I say” flagrantly encourage the use of the first-person pronoun? Aren’t we aware

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that some teachers prohibit students from using “I” or “we,” on the grounds that these pronouns encourage ill-considered, subjective opinions rather than objective and reasoned argu- ments? Yes, we are aware of this first-person prohibition, but we think it has serious flaws. First, expressing ill-considered, subjective opinions is not necessarily the worst sin beginning writers can commit; it might be a starting point from which they can move on to more reasoned, less self-indulgent perspectives. Second, prohibiting students from using “I” is simply not an effective way of curbing students’ subjectivity, since one can offer poorly argued, ill-supported opinions just as easily without it. Third and most important, prohibiting the first person tends to hamper students’ ability not only to take strong positions but to differentiate their own positions from those of others, as we point out in Chapter 5. To be sure, writers can resort to vari- ous circumlocutions—“it will here be argued,” “the evidence suggests,” “the truth is”—and these may be useful for avoid- ing a monotonous series of “I believe” sentences. But except for avoiding such monotony, we see no good reason why “I” should be set aside in persuasive writing. Rather than prohibit “I,” then, we think a better tactic is to give students practice at using it well and learning its use, both by supporting their claims with evidence and by attending closely to alternative perspectives—to what “they” are saying.

how this book is organized

Because of its centrality, we have allowed the “they say / I say” format to dictate the structure of this book. So while Part 1 addresses the art of listening to others, Part 2 addresses how to offer one’s own response. Part 1 opens with a chapter on

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“Starting with What Others Are Saying” that explains why it is generally advisable to begin a text by citing others rather than plunging directly into one’s own views. Subsequent chapters take up the arts of summarizing and quoting what these others have to say. Part 2 begins with a chapter on different ways of responding, followed by chapters on marking the shift between what “they say” and what “I say,” on introducing and answering objections, and on answering the all-important questions: “so what?” and “who cares?” Part 3 offers strategies for “Tying It All Together,” beginning with a chapter on connection and coher- ence; followed by a chapter on formal and informal language, arguing that academic discourse is often perfectly compatible with the informal language that students use outside school; and concluding with a chapter on the art of metacommentary, showing students how to guide the way readers understand a text. Part 4 offers guidance for entering conversations in specific academic contexts, with chapters on entering class discussions, writing online, reading, and writing in literature courses, the sciences, and social sciences. Finally, we provide five readings and an index of templates.

what this book doesn’t do

There are some things that this book does not try to do. We do not, for instance, cover logical principles of argument such as syllogisms, warrants, logical fallacies, or the differences between inductive and deductive reasoning. Although such concepts can be useful, we believe most of us learn the ins and outs of argumentative writing not by studying logical principles in the abstract, but by plunging into actual discussions and debates, trying out different patterns of response, and in this way getting

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a sense of what works to persuade different audiences and what doesn’t. In our view, people learn more about arguing from hearing someone say, “You miss my point. What I’m saying is not , but ,” or “I agree with you that

, and would even add that ,” than they do from studying the differences between inductive and deductive reasoning. Such formulas give students an immediate sense of what it feels like to enter a public conversation in a way that studying abstract warrants and logical fallacies does not.

engaging with the ideas of others

One central goal of this book is to demystify academic writing by returning it to its social and conversational roots. Although writing may require some degree of quiet and solitude, the “they say / I say” model shows students that they can best develop their arguments not just by looking inward but by doing what they often do in a good conversation with friends and family— by listening carefully to what others are saying and engaging with other views. This approach to writing therefore has an ethical dimension, since it asks writers not simply to keep proving and reasserting what they already believe but to stretch what they believe by putting it up against beliefs that differ, sometimes radically, from their own. In an increasingly diverse, global society, this ability to engage with the ideas of others is especially crucial to democratic citizenship. Gerald Graff Cathy Birkenstein

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“THEY SAY I SAY” The Move s Tha t Ma t t e r

i n Academ i c Wr i t i n g



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Entering the Conversation


Think about an activity that you do particularly well: cooking, playing the piano, shooting a basketball, even some- thing as basic as driving a car. If you reflect on this activity, you’ll realize that once you mastered it you no longer had to give much conscious thought to the various moves that go into doing it. Performing this activity, in other words, depends on your having learned a series of complicated moves—moves that may seem mysterious or difficult to those who haven’t yet learned them. The same applies to writing. Often without consciously real- izing it, accomplished writers routinely rely on a stock of estab- lished moves that are crucial for communicating sophisticated ideas. What makes writers masters of their trade is not only their ability to express interesting thoughts but their mastery of an inventory of basic moves that they probably picked up by reading a wide range of other accomplished writers. Less experienced writers, by contrast, are often unfamiliar with these basic moves and unsure how to make them in their own writ- ing. This book is intended as a short, user-friendly guide to the basic moves of academic writing. One of our key premises is that these basic moves are so common that they can be represented in templates that you can use right away to structure and even generate your own

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writing. Perhaps the most distinctive feature of this book is its pre sentation of many such templates, designed to help you successfully enter not only the world of academic thinking and writing, but also the wider worlds of civic discourse and work. Instead of focusing solely on abstract principles of writing, then, this book offers model templates that help you put those principles directly into practice. Working with these templates can give you an immediate sense of how to engage in the kinds of critical thinking you are required to do at the college level and in the vocational and public spheres beyond. Some of these templates represent simple but crucial moves like those used to summarize some widely held belief.

j Many Americans assume that .

Others are more complicated.

j On the one hand, . On the other hand, .

j Author X contradicts herself. At the same time that she argues

, she also implies .

j I agree that .

j This is not to say that .

It is true, of course, that critical thinking and writing go deeper than any set of linguistic formulas, requiring that you question assumptions, develop strong claims, offer supporting reasons and evidence, consider opposing arguments, and so on. But these deeper habits of thought cannot be put into practice unless you have a language for expressing them in clear, orga- nized ways.

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Entering the Conversation


state your own ideas as a response to others

The single most important template that we focus on in this book is the “they say ; I say ” formula that gives our book its title. If there is any one point that we hope you will take away from this book, it is the importance not only of expressing your ideas (“I say”) but of presenting those ideas as a response to some other person or group (“they say”). For us, the underlying structure of effective academic writing—and of responsible public discourse—resides not just in stating our own ideas but in listening closely to others around us, summarizing their views in a way that they will recognize, and responding with our own ideas in kind. Broadly speaking, academic writ- ing is argumentative writing, and we believe that to argue well you need to do more than assert your own position. You need to enter a conversation, using what others say (or might say) as a launching pad or sounding board for your own views. For this reason, one of the main pieces of advice in this book is to write the voices of others into your text. In our view, then, the best academic writing has one under- lying feature: it is deeply engaged in some way with other peo- ple’s views. Too often, however, academic writing is taught as a process of saying “true” or “smart” things in a vacuum, as if it were possible to argue effectively without being in conver- sation with someone else. If you have been taught to write a traditional five-paragraph essay, for example, you have learned how to develop a thesis and support it with evidence. This is good advice as far as it goes, but it leaves out the important fact that in the real world we don’t make arguments without being provoked. Instead, we make arguments because some- one has said or done something (or perhaps not said or done

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something) and we need to respond: “I can’t see why you like the Lakers so much”; “I agree: it was a great film”; “That argu- ment is contradictory.” If it weren’t for other people and our need to challenge, agree with, or otherwise respond to them, there would be no reason to argue at all. To make an impact as a writer, you need to do more than make statements that are logical, well supported, and consis- tent. You must also find a way of entering a conversation with others’ views—with something “they say.” If your own argu- ment doesn’t identify the “they say” that you’re responding to, it probably won’t make sense. As the figure above suggests, what you are saying may be clear to your audience, but why you are saying it won’t be. For it is what others are saying and thinking that motivates our writing and gives it a reason for being. It follows, then, as the figure on the next page suggests, that your own argument—the thesis or “I say” moment of your text—should always be a response to the arguments of others. Many writers make explicit “they say / I say” moves in their writing. One famous example is Martin Luther King Jr.’s “Letter

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Entering the Conversation


from Birmingham Jail,” which consists almost entirely of King’s eloquent responses to a public statement by eight clergymen deploring the civil rights protests he was leading. The letter— which was written in 1963, while King was in prison for leading a demonstration against racial injustice in Birmingham—is structured almost entirely around a framework of summary and response, in which King summarizes and then answers their criticisms. In one typical passage, King writes as follows.

You deplore the demonstrations taking place in Birmingham. But your statement, I am sorry to say, fails to express a similar concern for the conditions that brought about the demonstrations.

Martin Luther King Jr., “Letter from Birmingham Jail”

King goes on to agree with his critics that “It is unfortunate that demonstrations are taking place in Birmingham,” yet he hastens

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to add that “it is even more unfortunate that the city’s white power structure left the Negro community with no alternative.” King’s letter is so thoroughly conversational, in fact, that it could be rewritten in the form of a dialogue or play.

King’s critics: King’s response: Critics: Response:

Clearly, King would not have written his famous letter were it not for his critics, whose views he treats not as objections to his already-formed arguments but as the motivating source of those arguments, their central reason for being. He quotes not only what his critics have said (“Some have asked: ‘Why didn’t you give the new city administration time to act?’ ”), but also things they might have said (“One may well ask: ‘How can you advocate breaking some laws and obeying others?’ ”)—all to set the stage for what he himself wants to say. A similar “they say / I say” exchange opens an essay about American patriotism by the social critic Katha Pollitt, who uses her own daughter’s comment to represent the national fervor of post-9/11 patriotism.

My daughter, who goes to Stuyvesant High School only blocks from the former World Trade Center, thinks we should fly the American flag out our window. Definitely not, I say: The flag stands for jingoism and vengeance and war. She tells me I’m wrong—the flag means standing together and honoring the dead and saying no to terrorism. In a way we’re both right. . . .

Katha Pollitt, “Put Out No Flags”

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Entering the Conversation


As Pollitt’s example shows, the “they” you respond to in crafting an argument need not be a famous author or someone known to your audience. It can be a family member like Pollitt’s daughter, or a friend or classmate who has made a provocative claim. It can even be something an individual or a group might say—or a side of yourself, something you once believed but no longer do, or something you partly believe but also doubt. The important thing is that the “they” (or “you” or “she”) represent some wider group with which read- ers might identify—in Pollitt’s case, those who patriotically believe in flying the flag. Pollitt’s example also shows that responding to the views of others need not always involve unqualified opposition. By agreeing and disagreeing with her daughter, Pollitt enacts what we call the “yes and no” response, reconciling apparently incompatible views. While King and Pollitt both identify the views they are responding to, some authors do not explicitly state their views but instead allow the reader to infer them. See, for instance, if you can identify the implied or unnamed “they say” that the following claim is responding to.

I like to think I have a certain advantage as a teacher of literature because when I was growing up I disliked and feared books.

Gerald Graff, “Disliking Books at an Early Age”

In case you haven’t figured it out already, the phantom “they say” here is the common belief that in order to be a good teacher of literature, one must have grown up liking and enjoy- ing books.

See Chapter 4 for more on agreeing, but with a difference.

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As you can see from these examples, many writers use the “they say / I say” format to agree or disagree with others, to chal- lenge standard ways of thinking, and thus to stir up controversy. This point may come as a shock to you if you have always had the impression that in order to succeed academically you need to play it safe and avoid controversy in your writing, making statements that nobody can possibly disagree with. Though this view of writing may appear logical, it is actually a recipe for flat, lifeless writing and for writing that fails to answer what we call the “so what?” and “who cares?” questions. “William Shakespeare wrote many famous plays and sonnets” may be a perfectly true statement, but precisely because nobody is likely to disagree with it, it goes without saying and thus would seem pointless if said.

ways of responding

Just because much argumentative writing is driven by disagree- ment, it does not follow that agreement is ruled out. Although argumentation is often associated with conflict and opposition, the type of conversational “they say / I say” argument that we focus on in this book can be just as useful when you agree as when you disagree.

j She argues , and I agree because .

j Her argument that is supported by new research

showing that .

Nor do you always have to choose between either simply agree- ing or disagreeing, since the “they say / I say” format also works to both agree and disagree at the same time, as Pollitt illustrates above.

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Entering the Conversation


j He claims that , and I have mixed feelings about it.

On the one hand, I agree that . On the other hand,

I still insist that .

This last option—agreeing and disagreeing simultaneously—is one we especially recommend, since it allows you to avoid a simple yes or no response and present a more complicated argu- ment, while containing that complication within a clear “on the one hand / on the other hand” framework. While the templates we offer in this book can be used to structure your writing at the sentence level, they can also be expanded as needed to almost any length, as the following elaborated “they say / I say” template demonstrates.

j In recent discussions of , a controversial issue has

been whether . On the one hand, some argue

that . From this perspective, . On the other

hand, however, others argue that . In the words of

, one of this view’s main proponents, “ .”

According to this view, . In sum, then, the issue is

whether or .

My own view is that . Though I concede that

, I still maintain that . For example,

. Although some might object that , I would

reply that . The issue is important because .

If you go back over this template, you will see that it helps you make a host of challenging moves (each of which is taken up in forthcoming chapters in this book). First, the template helps you open your text by identifying an issue in some ongoing conversation or debate (“In recent discussions of ,

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a controversial issue has been ”), and then to map some of the voices in this controversy (by using the “on the one hand / on the other hand” structure). The template also helps you introduce a quotation (“In the words of ”), to explain the quotation in your own words (“According to this view”), and—in a new paragraph—to state your own argument (“My own view is that”), to qualify your argument (“Though I con- cede that”), and then to support your argument with evidence (“For example”). In addition, the template helps you make one of the most crucial moves in argumentative writing, what we call “planting a naysayer in your text,” in which you summarize and then answer a likely objection to your own central claim (“Although it might be objected that , I reply ”). Finally, this template helps you shift between general, over- arching claims (“In sum, then”) and smaller-scale, supporting claims (“For example”). Again, none of us is born knowing these moves, especially when it comes to academic writing. Hence the need for this book.

do templates stifle creativity?

If you are like some of our students, your initial response to templates may be skepticism. At first, many of our students complain that using templates will take away their originality and creativity and make them all sound the same. “They’ll turn us into writing robots,” one of our students insisted. Another agreed, adding, “Hey, I’m a jazz musician. And we don’t play by set forms. We create our own.” “I’m in college now,” another student asserted; “this is third-grade-level stuff.” In our view, however, the templates in this book, far from being “third-grade-level stuff,” represent the stock in trade of

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sophisticated thinking and writing, and they often require a great deal of practice and instruction to use successfully. As for the belief that pre-established forms undermine creativity, we think it rests on a very limited vision of what creativity is all about. In our view, the above template and the others in this book will actually help your writing become more original and creative, not less. After all, even the most creative forms of expression depend on established patterns and structures. Most songwriters, for instance, rely on a time-honored verse- chorus-verse pattern, and few people would call Shakespeare uncreative because he didn’t invent the sonnet or the dramatic forms that he used to such dazzling effect. Even the most avant- garde, cutting-edge artists (like improvisational jazz musicians) need to master the basic forms that their work improvises on, departs from, and goes beyond, or else their work will come across as uneducated child’s play. Ultimately, then, creativity and originality lie not in the avoidance of established forms but in the imaginative use of them. Furthermore, these templates do not dictate the content of what you say, which can be as original as you can make it, but only suggest a way of formatting how you say it. In addition, once you begin to feel comfortable with the templates in this book, you will be able to improvise creatively on them to fit new situations and purposes and find others in your reading. In other words, the templates offered here are learning tools to get you started, not structures set in stone. Once you get used to using them, you can even dispense with them altogether, for the rhetorical moves they model will be at your fingertips in an unconscious, instinctive way. But if you still need proof that writing templates do not stifle creativity, consider the following opening to an essay on the fast-food industry that we’ve included at the back of this book.

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If ever there were a newspaper headline custom-made for Jay Leno’s monologue, this was it. Kids taking on McDonald’s this week, suing the company for making them fat. Isn’t that like middle-aged men suing Porsche for making them get speeding tickets? Whatever happened to personal responsibility? I tend to sympathize with these portly fast-food patrons, though. Maybe that’s because I used to be one of them.

David Zinczenko, “Don’t Blame the Eater”

Although Zinczenko relies on a version of the “they say / I say” formula, his writing is anything but dry, robotic, or uncre- ative. While Zinczenko does not explicitly use the words “they say” and “I say,” the template still gives the passage its underlying structure: “They say that kids suing fast-food com- panies for making them fat is a joke; but I say such lawsuits are justified.”

but isn’t this plagiarism?

“But isn’t this plagiarism?” at least one student each year will usually ask. “Well, is it?” we respond, turning the question around into one the entire class can profit from. “We are, after all, asking you to use language in your writing that isn’t your own—language that you ‘borrow’ or, to put it less delicately, steal from other writers.” Often, a lively discussion ensues that raises important questions about authorial ownership and helps everyone better understand the frequently confusing line between pla- giarism and the legitimate use of what others say and how they say it. Students are quick to see that no one person owns a conventional formula like “on the one hand . . . on the other hand . . . ” Phrases like “a controversial issue”

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Entering the Conversation

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are so commonly used and recycled that they are generic— community property that can be freely used without fear of committing plagiarism. It is plagiarism, however, if the words used to fill in the blanks of such formulas are borrowed from others without proper acknowledgment. In sum, then, while it is not plagiarism to recycle conventionally used formulas, it is a serious academic offense to take the substantive content from others’ texts without citing the author and giving him or her proper credit.

putting in your oar

Though the immediate goal of this book is to help you become a better writer, at a deeper level it invites you to become a certain type of person: a critical, intellectual thinker who, instead of sit- ting passively on the sidelines, can participate in the debates and conversations of your world in an active and empowered way. Ultimately, this book invites you to become a critical thinker who can enter the types of conversations described eloquently by the philosopher Kenneth Burke in the following widely cited passage. Likening the world of intellectual exchange to a never- ending conversation at a party, Burke writes:

You come late. When you arrive, others have long preceded you, and they are engaged in a heated discussion, a discussion too heated for them to pause and tell you exactly what it is about. . . . You listen for a while, until you decide that you have caught the tenor of the argument; then you put in your oar. Someone answers; you answer him; another comes to your defense; another aligns himself against you. . . . The hour grows late, you must depart. And you do depart, with the discussion still vigorously in progress.

Kenneth Burke, The Philosophy of Literary Form

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What we like about this passage is its suggestion that stating an argument and “putting in your oar” can only be done in conversation with others; that we all enter the dynamic world of ideas not as isolated individuals but as social beings deeply connected to others who have a stake in what we say. This ability to enter complex, many-sided conversations has taken on a special urgency in today’s diverse, post-9/11 world, where the future for all of us may depend on our ability to put ourselves in the shoes of those who think very differently from us. The central piece of advice in this book—that we listen carefully to others, including those who disagree with us, and then engage with them thoughtfully and respectfully—can help us see beyond our own pet beliefs, which may not be shared by everyone. The mere act of crafting a sentence that begins “Of course, someone might object that ” may not seem like a way to change the world; but it does have the potential to jog us out of our comfort zones, to get us thinking critically about our own beliefs, and perhaps even to change our minds.


1. Read the following paragraph from an essay by Emily Poe, a student at Furman University. Disregarding for the moment what Poe says, focus your attention on the phrases she uses to structure what she says (italicized here). Then write a new paragraph using Poe’s as a model but replacing her topic, vegetarianism, with one of your own.

The term “vegetarian” tends to be synonymous with “tree-hugger” in many people’s minds. They see vegetarianism as a cult that brainwashes its followers into eliminating an essential part of their

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daily diets for an abstract goal of “animal welfare.” However, few vegetarians choose their lifestyle just to follow the crowd. On the contrary, many of these supposedly brainwashed people are actu- ally independent thinkers, concerned citizens, and compassionate human beings. For the truth is that there are many very good reasons for giving up meat. Perhaps the best reasons are to improve the environment, to encourage humane treatment of livestock, or to enhance one’s own health. In this essay, then, closely examining a vegetarian diet as compared to a meat-eater’s diet will show that vegetarianism is clearly the better option for sustaining the Earth and all its inhabitants.

2. Write a short essay in which you first summarize our rationale for the templates in this book and then articulate your own position in response. If you want, you can use the template below to organize your paragraphs, expanding and modifying it as necessary to fit what you want to say.

In the Introduction to “They Say / I Say”: The Moves That Matter in

Academic Writing, Gerald Graff and Cathy Birkenstein provide tem-

plates designed to . Specifically, Graff and Birkenstein

argue that the types of writing templates they offer . As

the authors themselves put it, “ .” Although some people

believe , Graff and Birkenstein insist that .

In sum, then, their view is that .

I [agree/disagree/have mixed feelings]. In my view, the types

of templates that the authors recommend . For

instance, . In addition, . Some might object,

of course, on the grounds that . Yet I would argue

that . Overall, then, I believe —an important

point to make given .

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“they say”

Starting with What Others Are Saying


Not long ago we attended a talk at an academic conference where the speaker’s central claim seemed to be that a certain sociologist—call him Dr. X—had done very good work in a number of areas of the discipline. The speaker proceeded to illustrate his thesis by referring extensively and in great detail to various books and articles by Dr. X and by quoting long pas- sages from them. The speaker was obviously both learned and impassioned, but as we listened to his talk we found ourselves somewhat puzzled: the argument—that Dr. X’s work was very important—was clear enough, but why did the speaker need to make it in the first place? Did anyone dispute it? Were there commentators in the field who had argued against X’s work or challenged its value? Was the speaker’s interpretation of what X had done somehow novel or revolutionary? Since the speaker gave no hint of an answer to any of these questions, we could only wonder why he was going on and on about X. It was only after the speaker finished and took questions from the audience that we got a clue: in response to one questioner, he referred to several critics who had

The hypo- thetical audience in the figure on p. 4 reacts similarly.

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o n e o n e “ T H E Y S A Y ”

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vigorously questioned Dr. X’s ideas and convinced many soci- ologists that Dr. X’s work was unsound. This story illustrates an important lesson: that to give writ- ing the most important thing of all—namely, a point—a writer needs to indicate clearly not only what his or her thesis is, but also what larger conversation that thesis is responding to. Because our speaker failed to mention what others had said about Dr. X’s work, he left his audience unsure about why he felt the need to say what he was saying. Perhaps the point was clear to other sociologists in the audience who were more familiar with the debates over Dr. X’s work than we were. But even they, we bet, would have understood the speaker’s point better if he’d sketched in some of the larger conversation his own claims were a part of and reminded the audience about what “they say.” This story also illustrates an important lesson about the order in which things are said: to keep an audience engaged, a writer needs to explain what he or she is responding to—either before offering that response or, at least, very early in the discussion. Delaying this explanation for more than one or two paragraphs in a very short essay or blog entry, three or four pages in a longer work, or more than ten or so pages in a book reverses the natural order in which readers process material—and in which writers think and develop ideas. After all, it seems very unlikely that our

conference speaker first developed his defense of Dr. X and only later came across Dr. X’s critics. As someone knowledgeable in his field, the speaker surely encoun- tered the criticisms first and only then was compelled to respond and, as he saw it, set the record straight.

Therefore, when it comes to constructing an argument (whether orally or in writing), we offer you the following advice: remember that you are entering a conversation and therefore need to start with “what others are saying,” as the

See how an essay about community

college opens by quoting its critics, p. 255.

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title of this chapter recommends, and then introduce your own ideas as a response. Specifically, we suggest that you summarize what “they say” as soon as you can in your text, and remind readers of it at strategic points as your text unfolds. Though it’s true that not all texts follow this practice, we think it’s important for all writers to master it before they depart from it. This is not to say that you must start with a detailed list of everyone who has written on your subject before you offer your own ideas. Had our conference speaker gone to the opposite extreme and spent most of his talk summarizing Dr. X’s critics with no hint of what he himself had to say, the audience probably would have had the same frustrated “why-is-he-going-on-like- this?” reaction. What we suggest, then, is that as soon as possible you state your own position and the one it’s responding to together, and that you think of the two as a unit. It is generally best to summarize the ideas you’re responding to briefly, at the start of your text, and to delay detailed elaboration until later. The point is to give your readers a quick preview of what is motivating your argument, not to drown them in details right away. Starting with a summary of others’ views may seem to con- tradict the common advice that writers should lead with their own thesis or claim. Although we agree that you shouldn’t keep readers in suspense too long about your central argument, we also believe that you need to present that argument as part of some larger conversation, indicating something about the arguments of others that you are supporting, opposing, amending, compli- cating, or qualifying. One added benefit of summarizing others’ views as soon as you can: you let those others do some of the work of framing and clarifying the issue you’re writing about. Consider, for example, how George Orwell starts his famous essay “Politics and the English Language” with what others are saying.

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Most people who bother with the matter at all would admit that the English language is in a bad way, but it is generally assumed that we cannot by conscious action do anything about it. Our civiliza- tion is decadent and our language—so the argument runs—must inevitably share in the general collapse. . . . [But] the process is reversible. Modern English . . . is full of bad habits . . . which can be avoided if one is willing to take the necessary trouble.

George Orwell, “Politics and the English Language”

Orwell is basically saying, “Most people assume that we cannot do anything about the bad state of the English language. But I say we can.” Of course, there are many other powerful ways to begin. Instead of opening with someone else’s views, you could start with an illustrative quotation, a revealing fact or statistic, or— as we do in this chapter—a relevant anecdote. If you choose one of these formats, however, be sure that it in some way illustrates the view you’re addressing or leads you to that view directly, with a minimum of steps. In opening this chapter, for example, we devote the first para- graph to an anecdote about the conference speaker and then move quickly at the start of the second paragraph to the miscon- ception about writing exemplified by the speaker. In the follow- ing opening, from an opinion piece in the New York Times Book Review, Christina Nehring also moves quickly from an anecdote illustrating something she dislikes to her own claim—that book lovers think too highly of themselves.

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ot frames of reference

South University, Richmond

Occupational Therapy Assistant Program

OT Frame of Reference Comparison Paper

OTA 1001 Introduction to OT

FOR Comparison Paper Assignment

Student Outcome(s) Addressed:

6.) Describe basic features of models of practice and frames of reference used in occupational therapy.

ACOTE Standards Addressed:

6.) Describe basic features of models of practice and frames of reference that are used in occupational therapy. (B.3.2)

5.) Describe basic features of the theories that underlie the practice of occupational therapy. (B.3.1)

1. Read Chapter 8, pages 35-36: Frank: Right Cerebrovascular Accident, Left Hemiplegia, Left Neglect. You will find this chapter in the Halloran, P, & Lowenstein, N. (2015). Case studies through the healthcare continuum: a workbook for the occupational therapy student. Thorofare: NJ.

Don’t worry about understanding the range of motion results or any other test results in the occupational therapy evaluation section; just focus on Frank’s overall abilities and deficits.

Here are some of the abbreviations used in the case and what they mean:

CVA – cerebrovascular accident, which is another term for a stroke

UE – upper extremity – from the shoulder down (distal) to the fingers

LE – lower extremity – from the hip down (distal) to the toes

AROM – active range of motion – motion that Frank has at any joint when he moves

PROM – passive range of motion – motion that Frank has at his joints when someone else, like the therapist, moves his arm. Frank has less motion that he can initiate on his own than when the therapist moves his arm due to muscle weakness on the right side.

WNL – within normal limits – if range of motion is limited by a few degrees from normal

then it is said to be within normal limits

ADL – activities of daily living

2. Read about the Rehabilitation (p.75-76) and the Cognitive Rehabilitation (p.84-85) frames of reference in Chapter 7 of your Ryan’s (2015) textbook.

In a paper that is no longer than five pages, following the prescribed format, you will provide the following information:

a. Define and describe the terms theory, frame of reference, and a model.

b. Why are assumptions made or defined when explaining frames of reference?

c. Identify and describe the Rehabilitation Frame of Reference.

d. Identify and describe the Cognitive Rehabilitation Frame of Reference.

e. What are the similarities between your two frames of reference?

f. How do your two frames of reference differ from each other?

g. Describe why the Rehabilitation and the Cognitive Rehabilitation Frames of

Reference are appropriate frameworks on which to base your treatment approach to working with Frank in occupational therapy.

h. Why is it important that OT practitioners base their approach to client treatment on a

frame of reference?

NOTE: Please copy the Evaluation Rubric and paste the entire Rubric into the very end of your paper — after any references or appendices. A missing rubric will incur a 10% reduction. Thank you!

Evaluation Rubric for Written Analysis of Research Article Assignment

This assignment is worth 25 points, which is 15% of your grade for this course. It will be evaluated according to the following rubric:

CRITERIA for Frame of Reference Paper25 pointsAbove AverageProfessionalAcceptableInconsistent ProfessionalismBelow AverageDeficient in professional skillsUnacceptableLacks professionalism
1. Definition of theory, frame of reference and model and assumptionsDefinitions and descriptions of terms are clear; complete information provided(5 points)Partial definition and description of terms; adequate information provided(3-4 points)Incomplete definition and description of terms; minimal and superficial information provided(1-2 point)Definitions and descriptions are unclear or incorrect; extraneous information provided ; reads like a first draft(0.5 points)
2. Scope of Content: Description of each frame of reference; identification of similarities & differencesSubstantial, pertinent information and details provided about each frame of reference, including at least two similarities and two differences; point of view supported by evidence and examples; effective organization; good flow of information(5 points)Adequate information and some details provided about each frame of reference, including one similarity and one difference; point of view somewhat supported by an example; ineffective organization with awkward flow(3-4 points)Superficial information; minimal details provided; point of view supported by flawed reasoning and insufficient evidence; ineffective organization; difficult to follow(1-2 points)Description of frames of reference is unclear or incorrect; point of view is unsupported or supported incorrectly; reads like a first draft(0.5 points)
3. Description of ways in which frames of reference guide practice and why that is importantSubstantial, pertinent information and details clearly stated about how frames of reference pertain to case and areas of practice; effective organization(5 points)Some details provided about how frames of reference pertain to case and areas of practice; ineffective organization with awkward flow(3-4 point)Superficial information about how frames of reference pertain to case and areas of practice; point of view supported by flawed reasoning and insufficient evidence; lack of flow leads to confusion;(1-2points)Description of frames of reference is unclear or incorrect; point of view is unsupported or supported incorrectly; reads like a first draft(0.5 points)
4. StyleRequired formatting and APA style (if relevant) applied correctly and consistently throughout(5 points)Required formatting and APA style (if relevant) applied is correct but applied inconsistently throughout(3-4 point)Required formatting and APA style (if relevant) applied incorrectly and inconsistently throughout (1-2points)Required formatting and APA style (if relevant) not evident or reads like a first draft(0.5 points)
5. GrammarEffective command of grammar, spelling, usage, and punctuation; paper contains fewer than five errors(5 points)Fair command of grammar, usage, spelling and punctuation; paper contains fewer than five errors per page on all pages(3-4 point)Below average command of grammar, usage, spelling, punctuation; paper contains five errors per page on five or more pages(1-2 points)Poor command of grammar, spelling usage and punctuation; excessive errors interfere with understanding; reads like a first draft(0.5 points)

OTA Program South University, Richmond adapted by C. Cox 4.20.16; modified 1/17/18MAS

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rearrange this equation to isolate c.

Rearrange this equation to isolate c.


0 0 137
asked by Zachary
Feb 9, 2013
a = b (-d-c)/cd

Multiply cd times both sides then distribute the b.

acd = -bd-bc

add bc to both sides:

acd+bc = -bd

factor out the c

c(ad+b) = -bd

Divide both sides by (ad+b) to solve for c.

0 0
posted by JJ
Feb 11, 2013

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the density of solid w is 19.3 g/cm3. how many atoms are present per cubic centimeter of w?

The density of solid W is 19.3 g/cm3. How many atoms are present per cubic centimeter of W?

As a solid, W adopts a body-centered cubic unit cell. How many unit cells are present per cubic centimeter of W?

What is the volume of a unit cell of this metal?

What is the edge length of a unit cell of W?

Please explain! Thanks!

0 0 436
asked by Anonymous
Jan 18, 2013
In 1 cc of W you have 19.3 grams. There are 6.02E23 atoms in 183.84

atoms 19.3 g = 19.3/6.02E23 = ?

The volume of a unit cell is v = mass/density.
mass unit cell = 2*183.84/6.02E23 = 6.2E-22 but you need to do that more accurately. (Note: The 2 comes from “there are two atoms per unit cell”.)
Density = 19.3 from the problem.
volume = 3.2E-23 cc = volume unit cell.

edge length = V1/3

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Jan 18, 2013

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Postmodern global terrorist groups engage sovereign nations asymmetrically with prolonged, sustained campaigns driven by ideology. Increasingly, transnational criminal organizations operate with sophistication previously only found in multinational corporations. Unfortunately, both of these entities can now effectively hide and morph, keeping law enforcement and intelligence agencies in the dark and on the run.

Perhaps more disturbing is the fact that al Qaeda, Hezbollah, FARC, drug cartels, and increasingly violent gangs—as well as domestic groups such as the Sovereign Citizens—are now joining forces. Despite differing ideologies, they are threatening us in new and provocative ways. The Terrorist-Criminal Nexus: An Alliance of International Drug Cartels, Organized Crime, and Terror Groups frames this complex issue using current research and real-world examples of how these entities are sharing knowledge, training, tactics, and—in increasing frequency—joining forces.

Providing policy makers, security strategists, law enforcement and intelligence agents, and students with new evidence of this growing threat, this book:

• Examines current and future threats from international and domestic criminal and terror groups

• Identifies specific instances in which these groups are working together or in parallel to achieve their goals

• Discusses the “lifeblood” of modern organizations—the money trail • Describes how nefarious groups leverage both traditional funding

methods and e-commerce to raise, store, move, and launder money • Explores the social networking phenomenon and reveals how it is the

perfect clandestine platform for spying, communicating, recruiting, and spreading propaganda

• Investigates emergent tactics such as the use of human shields, and the targeting of first responders, schools, hospitals, and churches

This text reveals the often disregarded, misunderstood, or downplayed nexus threat to the United States. Proving definitively that such liaisons exist, the book provides a thought-provoking new look at the complexity and phenomena of the terrorist-criminal nexus.

The Terrorist- Criminal Nexus

Jennifer L. HestermanISBN: 978-1-4665-5761-1 9 781466 557611


An Alliance of International Drug Cartels, Organized Crime, and Terror Groups

H esterm

an The Terrorist-Crim

inal N exus

w w w . c r c p r e s s . c o m


Homeland Security/Terrorism

The Terrorist- Criminal Nexus

An Alliance of International Drug Cartels, Organized Crime, and Terror Groups

The Terrorist- Criminal Nexus

Jennifer L. Hesterman

An Alliance of International Drug Cartels, Organized Crime, and Terror Groups

CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group 6000 Broken Sound Parkway NW, Suite 300 Boca Raton, FL 33487-2742

© 2013 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC CRC Press is an imprint of Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business

No claim to original U.S. Government works Version Date: 20130220

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-1-4665-5762-8 (eBook – PDF)

This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or the consequences of their use. The authors and publishers have attempted to trace the copyright holders of all material reproduced in this publication and apologize to copyright holders if permission to publish in this form has not been obtained. If any copyright material has not been acknowledged please write and let us know so we may rectify in any future reprint.

Except as permitted under U.S. Copyright Law, no part of this book may be reprinted, reproduced, transmitted, or utilized in any form by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying, micro- filming, and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without written permission from the publishers.

For permission to photocopy or use material electronically from this work, please access (http://www. or contact the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc. (CCC), 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, 978-750- 8400. CCC is a not-for-profit organization that provides licenses and registration for a variety of users. For organizations that have been granted a photocopy license by the CCC, a separate system of payment has been arranged.

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and the CRC Press Web site at


© 2010 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC


Preface xv

About the Author xxi

Chapter 1 A Poisonous Brew 1 References 5

Chapter 2 Transnational Organized Crime: The Dark Side of Globalization 7 Multinational Corporate Sophistication 8

Transnational Organized Crime on the Rise 9

Scoping the TOC Challenge 10

Eurasian Transnational Crime: Size, Wealth, Reach 11

Italian Transnational Crime: Not Your Grandfather’s Mafia 13

Baltic Transnational Crime: Emergent and Deadly 17

Asian Transnational Crime: Sophisticated and Multicultural 18

African Criminal Enterprises: Internet Savvy and Vast 20

Emerging Area of Concern: North Korea 22

Fighting Transnational Crime Overseas … and within Our Borders 23

Palermo Convention: First Strike on TOC 24

National Strategy to Combat Transnational Organized Crime 25

Agencies and Methods 28

INL 28

DOJ 29

FBI 30

vi Contents

© 2010 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Major Areas of Concern, Progress, and Lessons Learned 32

Counternarcotics 32

Human Trafficking 35

Money Laundering 37

Corruption 38

Lessons Learned 39

References 40

Chapter 3 Postmodern Terrorist Groups 43

Postmodern Organizational Theory: The Rise of Modern Terrorism and Groups 45

Genesis of Postmodern Groups and Thinking 45

Upstream Thinking 46

Epistemology 47

Deconstruction 47

Deconstruction’s Danger 48

Postmodern Organizational Theory 48

Neo-Marxist Organizational Theory 49

Diagnostic Tools of Postmodernism 51

Systems Theory 51

Environmental Theory 52

Symbolic Theory 53

Postmodern Theory and the Rise of Modern Terrorism 53

Final Thoughts on Postmodernism 54

Modern Terrorism’s Roots 55

What Is Terrorism? 55

Terrorism’s Target 56

The New Anatomy of a Terrorist Group 57

Life Cycle Study 58

Terrorist Group Members 60

Behavior 60

Motivation 61

Culture 62

Environment 63


© 2010 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

How Terrorist Groups End 64

International Terrorist Groups: The “Big 3” 66

Al Qaeda and Affiliates 66

The Ideology 67

Rise of bin Laden and al Qaeda 68

Emergent al Qaeda 69

AQAP or Ansar al-Sharia 69

Other Al Qaeda Splinter Groups 70

Bin Laden Speaks 72

Al Qaeda’s New Goals and Tactics 73

Al Qaeda and Nexus 73

Hezbollah 75

Unique Structure 76

Methodology and Objectives 76

Primary Area of Operations 77

Tactical Depth and Breadth 77

Political Acumen 78

Leveraging the Community 78

Strong Leadership 79

Active and Deadly 79

Global Operations 80

Latin America 80

Nexus Concern: Venezuela 80

West Coast of Africa 82

Europe 83

Iraq 83

Canada 83

United States 84

U.S. Response 85


Colombia: A Sophisticated, Transnational Narco-State 86

Final Thoughts 87

References 88

viii Contents

© 2010 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Chapter 4 Domestic Terrorism and the Homegrown Threat 93

History of Domestic Terrorism in the United States 94

The Twenty-First Century and the Rising Tide of Domestic Extremism 99

Right-Wing Extremism 100

Militias 102

Sovereign Citizens 103

Left-Wing 106

Anarchists 106

Single-Issue or Special-Interest Terrorism 110

The Earth Liberation Front (ELF) 110

Animal Liberation Front (ALF) 110

Homegrown Terror 113

Rehabilitation and the Domestic Terrorist 115

Jihadist Defined 116

Recidivism 116

Terrorist Recidivism 116

Counterradicalization Efforts 117

Inside the Saudi Program 117

Possible Solutions in the Homeland 119

The Lone Wolf 120

Gangs: Evolving and Collaborating 122

MS-13—Moving toward 3G2 123

History 124

Structure 124

Operational Activities 124

Adaptable and Morphing 124

Sophistication 124

Internationalization 124

Rival Gang 125

Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs (OMGs) 126

Prison Gangs 126

Special Concern: Gangs and the Military 127


© 2010 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

The Way Ahead 127

References 128

Chapter 5 Drug-Trafficking Organizations Go Global 133 The Battle in Mexico 133

Ideology: Money 134

Tactic: Brutal Violence 135

Goals: Money, Power, Control 138

Major DTOs Impacting the United States 138

Nuevo Cartel de Juárez 138

Gulf Cartel/New Federation 139

Sinaloa Cartel 139

Beltran Leyva Organization (BLO) 140

Tijuana/Arellano Felix Organization (AFO) 140

La Familia Michoacana (LFM) 141

Special Concern: Los Zetas 141

Zeta Tactics 142

Increasing Reach in the United States 144

Interaction with Dark Networks 147

Nexus with Gangs 147

Criminal Activity Expanding 148

Savvy Propaganda Campaigns 148

DTOs Cross the Border: Cartels in the Heartland 149

LE Operations against DTOs in the United States 150

Operation Dark Angel 152

Project Delirium 152

Project Deliverance 153

Project Xcellerator 153

Project Reckoning 153

Nexus Area: Terrorists, SIAs, and DTOs 154

Corruption at the Border: Opening the Gates 157

DTOs: Foreign Terrorist Organizations? 159

Final Thoughts 160

References 161

x Contents

© 2010 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Chapter 6 Traditional Terrorist and Criminal Financing Methods: Adapting for Success 165

Funding Terror 166

Earning, Moving, Storing 167

Tactics 167

Earn 168

Move 168

Store 168

Earning 169

Charities 169

Designation 169

Zakat 172

Commodities Smuggling and Organized Retail Crime 173

Intellectual Property Crime (IPC) 175

Identity Theft 179

Other Fund-Raising Methods 183

Mortgage Fraud: Emergent Earning Method 184

Moving 186

A Paper Chase in a Paperless World: Informal Value Transfer Systems 186

Hawala 188

Storing, Earning, and Moving 189

Precious Metals and Diamonds 189

Money Laundering 192

Fronts, Shells, and Offshores 194

Bulk Cash Smuggling 196

E-gambling and E-gaming: Emergent Money-Laundering Concerns 197

E-gambling 197

E-gaming 198

The Way Forward 200

References 200


© 2010 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Chapter 7 Terrorists and Criminal Exploitation of E-commerce: Following the Money Just Got Tougher 205

New Payment Methods Defined 206

Typologies and Concerns 207

Use of a Third Party 207

Person-to-person (P2P) Transactions 208

Lack of Human Interaction and Oversight 208

NPM Financing 209

Nonbanks 210

Internet-Based Nonbanks 211

The MSB 212

Methods of Using MSBs to Move Money 213

Digital Currency Exchange Systems 215

Prepaid Access Cards 219

Limited-Purpose/Closed-Loop Cards 220

Multipurpose/Open-Loop Cards 221

E-purse or Stored-Value Cards (SVCs) 223

Devices with Stored Value 224

Auction and Bulletin Board Websites 228

Auction Sites 229

Auction Site Intellectual Property Theft (IPT) 230

P2P Websites 232

Digital Precious Metals 235

E-dinar 237

The Battle Ahead 239

References 240

Chapter 8 Exploitation of Social Networking and the Internet 243

The Internet: A Twenty-First-Century Black Swan 244

Rise of Social Networking: Are We Users … or Targets? 245

The Mind as a Battlefield: The War of Ideology 247

Shifting the Cognitive Center of Gravity 247

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© 2010 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Preying on Maslow’s Needs: Affiliation 248

Social Cognitive Theory at Play 249

Marketing Ideology and Fear 250

Hizb-ut-Tahrir (HuT) 250

Exploitation by Other Groups 253

Looking through a New Lens at Social Networking 254

Second Life 254

LinkedIn 256

Facebook 258

YouTube 260

Hidden Messages on the Web 260

Enter Hackers and Cyber Vigilantes 262

th3j35t3r and th3raptor 264

Other Notable Vigilantes 265

The Way Ahead 268

References 270

Chapter 9 Sharing Tactics 273

Drug-Trafficking Organizations and Terrorist Group Interface 275

Tunnels 275

Bombs 276

IRA Inc. 278

Hezbollah and Hamas: Partnering for Success 280

IEDs, Fertilizer, and Sticky Bombs 280

IEDs 281

Fertilizer 282

Sticky Bombs 282

First Response and the Threat of Secondary Devices 283

Use of Human Shields by Terror Groups on the Rise 285

Hamas 285

LTTE 286

Asymmetric Threats 286

WMD 288


© 2010 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Final Thoughts 291

References 291

Chapter 10 Conclusions about the Nexus and Thoughts on Resiliency and the Way Forward 295 Resiliency as a Weapon 298

Glossary 301

Appendix: List of Foreign Terrorist Organizations 313

Current List of Designated Foreign Terrorist Organizations 313

Identification 314

Designation 315

Legal Criteria for Designation under Section 219 of the INA as Amended 316

Legal Ramifications of Designation 316

Other Effects of Designation 317


© 2010 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC


September 11, 2001 began as all others, with a morning office meeting to discuss the daily schedule and downing a few cups of coffee to fuel the way ahead. I was an Air Force lieutenant colonel, stationed at Seymour- Johnson Air Force Base, North Carolina, an Air Combat Command base with several squadrons of F-15E fighter aircraft and thousands of mili- tary personnel and their families. We were gathered around the office television to watch live video of the “aircraft accident” in New York City and the increasingly thick smoke pouring out of the North Tower of the World Trade Center. At 9:03 A.M., a collective gasp filled the room as we witnessed the second aircraft impacting the South Tower. The mood immediately shifted from concern to horror as we realized our coun- try was under attack. And I instantly knew from years of research and study: the attacker was unmistakably al Qaeda.

Suddenly, I was in the unexpected position of trying to secure a major military installation and its panicked residents from an enemy with unknown intentions and capabilities. In the command center, my stunned colleagues and I watched the Defense Readiness Condition change to DEFCON 3, the highest level since the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962. The Pentagon, which I had just left three months earlier, was attacked and burning. I had to suppress thoughts and concerns about my E-ring office and my many colleagues in danger or possibly dying. With more hijacked aircraft airborne, our jets were immediately loaded with weapons and crews put on alert. My husband, then a colonel, com- manded the fleet of fighter aircraft and crew members; he had to make sure his pilots were prepared to shoot down a civilian airliner on com- mand, something they had never trained for or considered a remote possibility prior to this fateful morning. We soon received the order to launch, and I could hear the aircraft thundering into the skies to fly Combat Air Patrol sorties over major east coast cities to guard from further attacks.

My job at the helm of the Emergency Operations Center was cha- otic for the next thirty-six hours. As the installation gates were locked down, we had children (including our young daughter) outside the fence in

xvi Preface

© 2010 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

community schools and worried parents who were trying to get to them. Landlines and cellular phone networks crashed, and our most reliable way to communicate was through handheld radios, known as “bricks” for their cumbersome bulk. I ordered the communications squadron to break into deployment kits and access every other storage area on base to harvest bricks, batteries, and charging stations for commanders and first responders. Upon wise counsel from a staff member, I immediately executed a long standing contingency contract to withdraw bottled water from the base commissary for safekeeping in case the installation became a self-sustaining island. Sure enough, within hours, the grocery store was inundated with base employees and family members who understandably stripped the shelves of basic essentials. My security forces defenders estab- lished Force Protection Delta posture, emptying the base armory of battle gear, M-16s and service revolvers. Snipers and counter snipers took posi- tions around the base to protect us from attack. As I watched the surreal situation unfold, I remember thinking that the hundreds of mundane exer- cises endured during our careers were paying off: we were a calm, precise, well-oiled machine during the most intense stress of our young lives.

As I executed seven binders of emergency checklists, my team was faced with several unanticipated threats, starting with the escape of an inmate from a minimum security federal prison on base. A convict with an “interesting” background had taken advantage of the 9/11 morning confusion to jump the base fence; a quick check of records revealed he routinely participated in work details all over the base, in unclassified facilities and along the flight line, mowing grass, picking up trash and likely interacting with base personnel. The standard operating proce- dure was to put up search helos, however the state police were denied flight clearance due to the national emergency. Instead, we implemented a coordinated ground search with local sheriffs, but without further intelligence about the 9/11 attackers, we were flying blind: the prisoner’s intimate knowledge of our base and possible intentions were of extreme concern. A few hours later, an FBI agent from a local office requested a secure phone call with our military federal agents residing in the base Air Force Office of Special Investigations (AFOSI). We listened with sur- prise as his staff described ongoing surveillance operations and suspi- cious activities within the state and at nearby facilities, some frequented by military personnel. The most worrisome call came later in the day, from a local military retiree whose daughter was in an arranged mar- riage with a Middle Eastern citizen, both residing near the base. His son- in-law, who had visited our base on many occasions including during airshows, had unexpectedly left the U.S for a “country of interest” in the days prior to 9/11. We later learned the man had remote connections to the 9/11 attack planners; however, our contacts at the embassy overseas


© 2010 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

were unable to lay eyes on him. In light of these potential external dan- gers, the base was suddenly not the “island” it had always seemed. I also learned to operate within a new realm, that of ambiguity and the “inescapable unknowables.”

Thankfully, no threats to the installation materialized in the coming days, and eventually our attention shifted from protecting the homeland to taking the battle to the enemy. Sworn to protect our country from ene- mies foreign and domestic, we were anxious to leverage years of combat training and enter the fight of our lives to eradicate the threat. Indeed, in the intervening time since 9/11, our country has taken the fight to terror- ists around the globe. Yet, after 11 years, trillions of dollars, and most importantly, the thousands of young, promising lives lost in battle, the terrorist threat remains.

Despite our efforts, the radical Islamic ideology has spread like wild- fire, ignited by globalization and technological advances in the infor- mation, financing, and social networking realms. Al Qaeda is the most feared organization, but other international terrorist groups are poised to endanger our country, whether through direct engagement or circu- itously through trafficking or financial corruption. Many of our chal- lenges at home are also fed by modernized transnational crime, which, despite our countering efforts, is on the rise. Anarchy resulting from the end of the Cold War led to a boom in transnational crimes and groups involved operate with a level of sophistication previously only found in multinational corporations, exacerbating the problem. Hezbollah, Hamas, FARC, drug cartels, and increasingly violent gangs and domes- tic groups such as the Sovereign Citizens are threatening us in new, pro- vocative ways and now joining forces despite differing ideologies.

I have spent more than two decades leading organizations. Some were the high performing, well-oiled machine I worked with on 9/11. Others were dysfunctional and dying. The size, type, and business of an organization are virtually irrelevant as to whether it fails or succeeds. All organizations share the basics: structure, culture, and environment. They all have customers, stakeholders, and products. Activities are the same—recruiting, retention, planning, and execution. Organizations are populated by human beings, all of whom are driven by the same basic instincts and needs. In fact, the rise of modern terrorist and criminal groups can be predicted when viewed through the lens of foundational organizational and sociological theories. Furthermore, viewing the life- cycles of the groups and how they start, thrive, and terminate is extraor- dinarily helpful when discussing mitigation and engagement. It may be quite possible to inject game changers at the micro level that force groups to alter course and even implode from the inside – without ever firing a shot in anger or losing a life.

xviii Preface

© 2010 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Perhaps the most powerful statement in the 9/11 Commission report comes from Chapter 11 and is entitled “Foresight–And Hindsight,” as the committee cites a lack of imagination as a root cause of the two worst attacks in our country, Pearl Harbor and 9/11. Certainly, any study of the terror-criminal nexus requires a fusion of imagination, “dot con- necting” intuition, and corroborated, foundational evidence. As such, this book synthesizes more than 350 sources, including congressional testimony, subpoenas, scholarly studies, and historical documents. My objective was to academically frame the nexus issue, providing policy makers, strategists, operators, and students both new evidence and a different perspective for their planning and research efforts.

In the following chapters, we will explore current and future threats from international and domestic groups, and identify specific instances in which they are working together or in parallel to achieve goals. The money trail is increasingly the “lifeblood” of modern organizations, and this work examines how nefarious groups are leveraging both tra- ditional funding methods and e-commerce to raise, store, move, and launder money. An exploration of the social networking phenomenon will reveal how it is the perfect clandestine platform for spying, com- municating, recruiting, and spreading propaganda. Finally, this work investigates emergent tactics such as the use of human shields, and the targeting of first responders, schools, hospitals, and churches; the enemy doesn’t play by our rules, creating a dangerous blindspot that must be addressed.

I would like to thank the many colleagues, friends and family mem- bers who supported my efforts to produce this book. Numerous federal agents, state, and local law enforcement officers, intelligence analysts, and military personnel spoke with me off record, not to provide spe- cific information, but to lend validation and context to the nexus chal- lenges. They truly added a “voice” to this work and I appreciate their intense dedication to keeping us safe, despite being under resourced and overtasked. I would like to convey special thanks to a former student, Mark Manshack, a veteran law enforcement officer in Texas and mem- ber of my “brain trust” who gave great insight into the expanding pres- ence of cartels in his state. Sadly, as I put the finishing touches on the manuscript, Mark called with distressing news: his best friend, Deputy Brandon Nielsen, and his partner were killed in an ambush in La Place, Louisiana by a group of heavily armed Sovereign Citizens. Between them, the deputies leave behind six children and a grieving community. The La Place case is explored in Chapter 4, and serves as a reminder of both the importance of information sharing between agencies and the need for enhanced emergent threats training for our frontline defenders. Our new reality is that Americans will kill fellow citizens in the name of


© 2010 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

many things, be it faith, guns, drugs, money, or ideology. Loyalty to fac- tion now transcends loyalty to nation; undeniably this is a hard concept to grasp, but we must prepare and be resilient.

On the work front, a special thank you to Alex Anyse and Tae Kim at the MASY Group and to Chris Graham, the editor of the Counter Terrorist magazine, for your friendship and ongoing support of my myr- iad endeavors. Also, I would like to thank my doctoral cohort colleagues and friends, Lisa Greenhill, John DiGennaro, and Aaron Clevenger for their encouragement and good humor. You wouldn’t let me abandon my studies during the juggling of this book project with school, and for that, I am forever grateful. Also, I owe a large debt of gratitude to my patient and extraordinary editors at Taylor and Francis, Mark Listewnik, Prudy Taylor Board, and Stephanie Morkert.

I would like to give special appreciation to my family for their love and support. My parents, Lloyd and Barbara Whitnack, bestowed both a great work ethic and the belief that anything is possible. Thank you to my brother, Matt Whitnack, for a lifetime of friendship. Much appre- ciation and love to my wonderful family, husband, John and daughter, Sarah for always supporting my dreams. Finally, thanks to my office companion and good-natured Lab, Hunter, for somehow always know- ing when I needed to take a walk in the park for fresh air and perspective.

You all inspire me to be a better person and to live each day richly and without regret.


© 2010 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

About the Author

Colonel (Ret.) Jennifer L. Hesterman was commissioned in 1986 as a graduate of Air Force ROTC at Penn State University. During her twenty- one-year career, she served three Pentagon tours and commanded multiple units in the field. Her last assignment was Vice Commander, 316th Wing at Andrews Air Force Base, Maryland, the home of Air Force One. She was responsible for installation security, force support, and the 1st Helicopter Squadron, and regularly greeted the President

and other heads of state on the ramp. Her decorations include the Legion of Merit and the Meritorious Service Medal with five oak leaf clusters.

Colonel Hesterman is a doctoral candidate at Benedictine University where she is completing her dissertation regarding espionage on our college campuses. She also holds master’s degrees from Johns Hopkins University and Air University. In 2003, she was a National Defense Fellow at the Center for Strategic and International Studies in Washington, DC, where she immersed herself in a year-long study of the nexus between organized crime and international terrorism. Her resulting book won the 2004 Air Force research prize and was published by AU Press. Colonel Hesterman is also a 2006 alumnus of the Harvard Senior Executive Fellows program. Since her retirement in 2007, Jenni has worked as a cleared professional for The MASY Group, a global intelligence firm, and was a full-time instructor and then director of the national and homeland security pro- grams at American Military University. She is a contributing editor for The Counter Terrorist magazine and a guest lecturer for federal and state law enforcement agencies.


© 2010 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

C H A P T E R 1 A Poisonous Brew

While organized crime is not a new phenomenon today, some govern- ments find their authority besieged at home and their foreign policy interests imperiled abroad. Drug trafficking, links between drug traf- fickers and terrorists, smuggling of illegal aliens, massive financial and bank fraud, arms smuggling, potential involvement in the theft and sale of nuclear material, political intimidation, and corruption all con- stitute a poisonous brew— a mixture potentially as deadly as what we faced during the Cold War.

—R. James Woolsey Former director, CIA1

Al Qaeda works with the Mafia. The Mafia works with outlaw motor- cycle gangs. Biker gangs work with white supremacists. Surprised?

Ten years ago, when I wrote my first book on this subject, the num- ber of experts who would acknowledge that a nexus may exist between terrorists and criminals could be counted on one hand. In fact, Mr. Woolsey’s chapter-opening statement was made in 1994, long before most people heard of al Qaeda, human trafficking, and loose nukes. Unfortunately, the “poisonous brew” is becoming more toxic with time. Transnational organized crime is escalating, the cartels are global and undeterred, and the list of State Department Foreign Terrorist Organizations continues to grow.

Transnational crime is a growing U.S. national security concern, and it threatens us in new, provoking ways. For example, Americans for- merly viewed drug use as a law enforcement or health issue. Only very recently has drug trafficking been established as a global crime with a corresponding national security threat. A lesser known and understood example of a growing transnational threat reaching our borders is human trafficking. When a boat filled with women and children leaves the shores of a distant country, delivering them to a life of enslavement and unimaginable abuse, we obviously feel compelled to engage out of moral obligation and belief that human dignity must be upheld and protected.

2 The Terrorist-Criminal Nexus

© 2010 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Consider that 18,000 to 20,000 of these human beings are delivered annually by criminals to the United States and forced into labor or pros- titution; trafficking becomes an obvious and direct threat to the fabric of our society. Unbeknownst to many, our National Security Strategy con- tains a goal entitled “Champion Aspirations for Human Dignity,” which ties human trafficking to our nation’s safety and prosperity. Factor ter- rorists and their use of established drug- and human-trafficking routes in and around our country into the equation, and these issues take on new and pressing significance.

Despite economic woes at home, our government continues to spend billions of dollars to help other countries identify and battle their transna- tional crimes issues, all of which impact our national security. Globally, drug-trafficking routes are robust and plenty; the ghastly business of human trafficking is flourishing; and money is laundered in amounts and ways never before imagined. Many resource-constrained countries strug- gle to deal with their role in this epidemic and are attempting to contain it. Others are corrupt and choose to look the other way, or worse, benefit from illicit activity. Bad actors are smart; they prey on nations in turmoil where the rule of law is weak and leadership lacking. Many nation-states are on the brink of thriving or failing, and their fate depends either on us … or on the help of organized crime and terrorists. Therefore we must engage. History also reveals that failing countries are like dominoes; they lead to failing regions, an even greater threat to our national security.

In the last decade, after eradicating al Qaeda’s base in Afghanistan we watched the group franchise and scatter throughout the Middle East and Africa. Bound by ideology, and despite the death of leader Osama bin Laden and others, radical Islamists continue undaunted on their mis- sion of establishing the caliphate under Sharia law. They envision the Islamist flag flying over world capitals, including ours. Besides radical ideology, what fuels these terrorist groups? How can they continue to operate with such abandon despite our efforts and those of our allies to fight a global war on terror? One answer is the corresponding rise in transnational crime. Another is the ability to leverage unexpected and emergent funding methods such as mortgage fraud and the e-gaming industry. Additionally, exploitation of the unpatrolled, uncontrolled Internet has allowed terrorist groups unrestrained recruitment, morale- boosting, and propaganda campaigns.

As this book reveals, the nexus exists. The executive branch of our government is so troubled about the partnering of terrorists and criminals that they issued a strongly worded document in July 2011 entitled Strategy to Combat Transnational Organized Crime: Addressing Converging Threats to National Security. The White House, acknowledging the nexus, stated, “Terrorists and insurgents increasingly are turning to crim- inal networks to generate funding and acquire logistical support.”2

3A Poisonous Brew

© 2010 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Groups with dissimilar ideologies are working together to further their goals. They are also copying successful tactics, learning from each other’s mistakes, and at the very least operating in the same physical or virtual “space.” To fully grasp the complex issue of the nexus, we must first investigate root causes and the environment contributing to its rise and persistence.

Transnational criminal groups now have sophisticated business models that parallel legitimate corporations. Feeding on globalization and advances in communications and logistics technology, modern transnational crime is more expansive, far deadlier, and extremely dif- ficult to eradicate. Adding further context to the issue is an overview of international agencies involved, methods used, and lessons learned in the fight against transnational crime, all of which should be simultane- ously applied to the global war on terror.

The discussion of the rise of postmodern terrorist groups is deeply rooted in the soft sciences; a fusion of psychology, sociology, and orga- nizational development and behavioral theory allows insight into many of the vexing “whys” about the terrorism phenomenon. Viewing the life cycle of terrorist groups yields a new solution set for engagement and an intuitive understanding as to why and when they liaise with actors espousing dissimilar ideologies. The “Big Three” international terror- ist groups that most threaten the homeland, al Qaeda, Hezbollah, and FARC, are morphing in structure and changing strategy and tactics. Understanding their new goals and methodology is important for policy makers, strategic planners, and operators alike.

Domestic terrorism from right-wing, left-wing, and single-issue groups remains a great concern for our law enforcement agencies. The growing propensity of these organizations and their members to “act out” and to step up and engage law enforcement is alarming. The radi- calization of Americans continues, with several successful attacks and more than fifty thwarted in our country since 9/11. Lacking a rehabili- tation program, we have no way of ensuring that jihadists who serve their prison sentence and return to society will not go back to their old ways … with a vengeance. The threat of the lone wolf, already embedded in society and acting alone with unyielding determination, is extremely worrisome. Factor in an unprecedented increase in hate groups and gangs in our country, and the domestic terrorism picture is quite grim with resource-constrained law enforcement agencies struggling to juggle myriad challenges.

Drug-trafficking organizations are flourishing south (and north) of our border with Mexico. Now operating in the United States, cartels are using gangs to move product and are attempting to corrupt border patrol officers to open lanes for moving people, drugs, and potentially worse into our nation. The Los Zetas cartel provides the most vexing

4 The Terrorist-Criminal Nexus

© 2010 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

threat, as a paramilitary organization with the tactical knowledge and equipment of a small army. Two questions are posed for the reader’s con- sideration: Are the Mexican cartels a U.S national security risk, or have we overblown the threat? Is their activity in the United States terroristic or merely criminal in nature?

The lifeblood of any nefarious group is money. For criminal organi- zations and cartels, money is the motivation, with a side goal of corrup- tion and influencing the political process in their favor to keep profits flowing. However, for terrorist groups, the driver is the religious ide- ology, extreme and even apocalyptic. Financing operations off of law enforcement’s radar is critical, and the cost to move and train people, as well as procure material, is rising. For all groups, earning, moving, storing, and laundering are critical, whether “dirty” money that must be cleaned or “clean” money that will become dirty when funding a terror operation. Many traditional avenues of financing that funded the 9/11 attacks have been under intense scrutiny, such as charitable giving; therefore, terror groups are increasingly turning to intellectual property crime, counterfeit goods, and physical precious metals as ways to deal with money issues. The e-commerce boom has presented other oppor- tunities such as e-gambling, digital precious metals, e-gaming, anony- mous fronts and offshores, and the use of gift cards and e-banks to move money outside the regulated banking sector.

Money is a precious resource to terror groups, but if ideology is their center of gravity, then people are perhaps an even greater com- modity. The rise of social networking as a “Black Swan” is explored, and viewing the mind as the battlefield provides a framework for discus- sion regarding exploitation of Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, and virtual worlds such as Second Life. The use of steganography, combined with networking sites, provides a unique opportunity for clandestine commu- nication between groups and their followers. A provocative discussion regarding patriot hackers and cyber vigilantes gives insight into citizens as combatants and their rights to engage the enemy.

Finally, investigation of the sharing and copying of tactics between groups, and emergent threats to first responders rounds out the discus- sion regarding the nexus of groups, their surprising commonalities, and how they will and do work together to further their goals. The modern terrorist threat is asymmetric, and as such, countering it requires an asymmetric approach.

Material regarding nexus activities is typically buried in court docu- ments, obscure government press releases, and articles printed in the for- eign press that often do not appear domestically. Through the synthesis of hundreds of sources, this body of work attempts to pull together a compendium of information regarding the nexus, answering the ques- tions who, why, and how for the reader. The material will appeal to

5A Poisonous Brew

© 2010 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

policy makers, strategic planners, operators, as well as citizens with an interest in our national security and emergent challenges who want to be force multipliers in this fight.

The overarching goal is less armchair speculation and a more practi- cal, informed view of the persistence of transnational criminals, cartels, and terrorists and their impact on our future.


1. Cilluffo, Frank J., and Linnea R. Raine. Global Organized Crime: The New Empire of Evil. Washington, DC: Center for Strategic & International Studies, 1994.

2. The White House. Strategy to Combat Transnational Organized Crime: Addressing Converging Threats to National Security. http:// Transnational_Organized_Crime_July_2011.pdf.


© 2010 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

C H A P T E R 2 Transnational

Organized Crime The Dark Side of Globalization

Transnational crime will be a defining issue of the 21st century for policymakers—as defining as the Cold War was for the 20th century and colonialism was for the 19th. Terrorists and transnational crime groups will proliferate because these crime groups are major beneficia- ries of globalization. They take advantage of increased travel, trade, rapid money movements, telecommunications and computer links, and are well positioned for growth.

—Louise I. Shelley1

The concept of transnational crime is not new. Drugs, money, and in- demand commodities have always been smuggled across borders and oceans, as criminals circumvent laws to enhance their illicit activity. For example, during the prohibition period in the United States, alcohol was illegally brought into the country from Mexico, Canada, and the Caribbean. Criminals and Mafia syndicates soon discovered that “boot- legging” was a far more profitable activity than extortion, prostitution, and gambling.

Early transnational crime was confined to regions, was not overly violent in nature, and consisted of small groups with a very orga- nized leadership structure. However, modern transnational crime is more expansive, far deadlier, and extremely difficult to eradicate due to a sophisticated, layered organizational structure, and “franchis- ing.” The vast threat posed by modern transnational organized crime to the political, economic, and social fabric of societies appeared in the mid-1990s. Contributing factors to its rise include globalization of business networks, lowered trade barriers, communication and techno- logical advances, and turmoil caused by the collapse of communism. A new class of actors emerged during this period, operating outside the

8 The Terrorist-Criminal Nexus

© 2010 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

traditional nation-state system, subsequently hindering our ability to apply diplomatic and economic pressure to compel nations to address their organized crime issues.

The situation is increasingly complex, and transnational orga- nized crime (TOC) is penetrating our society in new and dangerous ways. According to the National Security Council’s Strategy to Combat Transnational Organized Crime, TOC is a growing threat to national and international security.2 Grant D. Ashley, former assistant director of the Criminal Investigative Division at the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), testified, “It is our belief that the international growth of these very dangerous, criminally diverse and organized groups and their emergence in the United States has caused a significant expansion of our crime problem.”3 Former attorney general Michael B. Mukasey further stated, “Organized crime threatens the economy, national security, and other interests of the United States.”4 Naturally, expansion of any type of criminal activity is of interest to law enforcement. However, these vast global enterprises are increasingly used as a vehicle by terrorists to move resources, recruit, raise capital, or simply spread their sphere of influ- ence, raising the stakes. The liaison of criminals and terrorists makes the proliferation of TOC a pressing national security concern; however, as with all modern threats and groups, engagement is not easy and success is elusive.


While studying the nexus as senior defense fellow at the Center for Strategic and International Studies, a think tank in Washington, DC, I published my first book on the nexus topic. Transnational Crime and the Criminal-Terrorist Nexus: Synergies and Corporate Trends (AU Press, 1995) provides a detailed look at the sophistication of groups and serves as the basis for the following discussion. Although routinely underestimated, TOC syndicates are very sophisticated, act as networks, and pursue the same types of joint ventures and strategic alliances as legitimate multinational corporations. A multinational corporation (MNC) is defined as one operating on a worldwide scale, without ties to any specific nation or region. The global business environment is unique and multifaceted, requiring extra considerations. Due to the complex- ity of international operations, the right people (e.g., lawyers, accoun- tants, and subject-area experts) must be on the payroll. Analysis of the international customer base, product demand, and proper positioning of the product is necessary to maximize profit. The company must assess the cost of doing business and streamline staff and operational activi- ties, thus cutting overhead as much as possible. Any business must have

9Transnational Organized Crime

© 2010 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

good supply-chain management, from procurement to storage to prod- uct delivery; this process requires extra planning and an enhanced level of sophistication when applied to a global market. For example, under- standing international commerce laws and issues related to the operation of offshore businesses is a necessity. The company must acquire cultural knowledge of the countries involved in the transactions, including lan- guages, currencies, and business practices. Also, the corporate strategy must be in sync with these cultural nuances for success. Savvy business ventures are low risk and high return, and most are able to extract prof- its throughout the process. Finally, an MNC is able to leverage rapidly changing communication and transportation technology to stay viable.

The preceding could easily be a description of the Sinaloa drug cartel. Successful international criminal enterprises follow the same business plan and often work in parallel with unsuspecting legitimate corporations by using their business practices as a model. They maxi- mize profits and shift strategies as technology evolves, or when detected by law enforcement. The organizations are well resourced; most own and operate a variety of aircraft and boats, with skilled and highly paid operators at the helm. Sophisticated satellite phones and use of Global Positioning System equipment keeps criminals on the run and investiga- tors in the dark. Unfortunately for governments battling this issue, not only are transnational criminal networks harder to detect and infiltrate than ever, but despite their best efforts, business is booming.

college paper writing service pay for college essay write my book report writing a literature review

rank the following solutions in order of decreasing [h3o+].

Rank the following solutions in order of decreasing [H3O^+].

.10 M HC2H3C2
.10 M HC6H5O
.10 M HF
,10 M HBr

I think the correct order is: HBr>HF>HC2H3C2>HC6H5O

am i right?

0 0 352
asked by Kyle
Mar 21, 2010
Is that first one a typo and HC2H3O2 is correct? Is the second one phenol? Assuming both of those are true I think the order is correct.

0 0
posted by DrBob222
Mar 21, 2010
The first one should read HC2H3O2. yes the second one is phenol

0 0
posted by Kyle
Mar 21, 2010

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Communicating professionally and ethically is one of the essential skills we can teach you at Strayer. The following guidelines will ensure you:

· write professionally; · avoid plagiarizing others, which is essential to writing ethically; and · give credit to others in your work.

Visit Strayer’s Academic Integrity Center for more information.

Strayer University Writing Standards Fall 2018

1Strayer University Writing Standards

Strayer University Writing Standards 2

General Standards 3 Use Appropriate Formatting 3

Title Your Work 3

Write Clearly 3

Cite Credible Sources 3

Build a Source List 3

Giving Credit to Authors and Sources 4 Option #1: Paraphrasing 4

Option #2: Quoting 4

Using Web Sources 5 Using Home Pages 5

Using Specific Web Pages 5

Source List 6 Setting Up the Source List Page 6

Creating a Source List Entry 6

Source List Elements 7

Source List Elements Breakdown 7

Sample Source List 8

Writing Assignments 9 Paper and Essay Specific Format Guidelines 9

PowerPoint or Slideshow Specific Format Guidelines 9

Discussion Posts 10 Effective Internet Links 10

Share vs. URL Options 11

Charts, Images, and Tables 12

Table of Contents

… Include page numbers.

… Use 1-inch margins.

… Use Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, or Calibri font style.

… Use 10-, 11-, or 12-point font size for the body of your text.

… Use numerals (1, 2, 3, and so on) OR spell out numbers (one, two, three, and so on). Be consistent with your choice throughout the assignment.

… Use either single or double spacing, according to assignment guidelines.

… If assignment requires a title page: · Include the assignment title, your name, course title, your professor’s name,

and the date of submission on a separate page.

… If assignment does not require a title page (stated in the assignment details): · Include all required content in a header at the top of your document. · or Include all required content where appropriate for assignment format.

· Examples of appropriate places per assignment: letterhead of a business letter assignment or a title slide for a PowerPoint presentation

… Use appropriate language and be concise.

… Write in active voice when possible. Find tips here.

… Use the point of view (first, second, or third person) required by the assignment guidelines.

… Use spelling and grammar check and proofread to help ensure your work is error free.

… Use credible sources to support your ideas/work. Find tips here.

… Cite your sources throughout your work when you borrow someone else’s words or ideas. Give credit to the authors.

… Look for a permalink tool for a webpage when possible (especially when an electronic source requires logging in like the Strayer Library). Find tips here.

… Add each cited source to the Source List at the end of your assignment. (See the Giving Credit to Authors and Sources section for more details.)

… Don’t forget to cite and add your textbook to the Source List if you use it as a source.

… Include a Source List when the assignment requires research or if you cite the textbook.

… Type “Sources” centered on the first line of the page.

… List the sources that you used in your assignment.

… Organize sources in a numbered list and in order of use throughout the paper. Use the original number when citing a source multiple times.

… For more information, see the Source List section.

General Standards

Title Your Work

Use Appropriate Formatting

Write Clearly

Cite Credible Sources

Build a Source List

Strayer University Writing Standards 3

Giving Credit to Authors and Sources When quoting or paraphrasing another source, give credit by using an in-text citation. An in-text citation includes the author’s last name and the number of the source from the Source List. A well-researched assignment has at least as many sources as pages (see Writing Assignments for the required number of sources). Find tips here.

Option #1: Paraphrasing Rewording Source Information in Your Own Words

… Rephrase the source information in your words. Be sure not to repeat the same words of the author.

… Add a number to the end of your source (which will tie to your Source List).

… Remember, you cannot just replace words of the original sentence.


“Writing at a college level requires informed research.”


As Harvey wrote, when writing a paper for higher education, it is critical to research and cite sources (1).

When writing a paper for higher education, it is imperative to research and cite sources (Harvey, 1).

Option #2: Quoting Citing another person’s work word-for-word

… Place quotation marks at the beginning and the end of the quoted information.

… Add a number to the end of your source (which will tie to your Source List).

… Do not quote more than one to two sentences (approximately 25 words) at a time.

… Do not start a sentence with a quotation.

… Introduce and explain quotes within the context of your paper.


“Writing at a college level requires informed research.”


Harvey wrote in his book, “Writing at a college level requires informed research” (1).

Many authors agree, “Writing at a college level requires informed research” (Harvey, 1).

Strayer University Writing Standards 4

Strayer University Writing Standards 5

Using Web Sources A web source is any source accessed through an internet browser.

Before using any source, first determine its credibility. Then decide if the source is appropriate and relevant for your project. Find tips here.

Using Home Pages A home page is the main page that loads when you type a standard web address. For instance, if you type into the web browser, you will be taken to Google’s home page.

If you do need to cite a home page, use the webpage’s title from the browser. This is found by moving your mouse cursor over the webpage name at the top of the browser. When citing a homepage, it is likely because there is a news thread, image, or basic piece of information about a company that you wish to include in your assignment.

Using Specific Web Pages If you are using any web page other than the home page, include the specific title of the page and the direct link (when possible) for that specific page in your Source List Entry.

If you used multiple pages from the same author/source, create separate Source List Entries for each page when possible (if the title and/or web address is different).

Source List The Source List (which includes the sources that you used in your assignment) is a new page that should be added at the end of your paper. The list has two purposes; it credits the authors you used and informs your readers how to find the source. Build your Source List as you write.

Strayer University Writing Standards 6

… Type “Sources” at the top of a new page.

… Include a numbered list of the sources you used in your paper (the numbers indicate the order in which you used them).

1. Use the number one (1) for the first source used in the paper, the number two (2) for the second source, and so on.

2. Use the same number for a source if you use it multiple times.

… Ensure each source includes five parts: author or organization, publication date, title, page number (if needed), and how to find it. If you have trouble finding these details, then re-evaluate the credibility of your source.

… Use the browser link for a public webpage.

… Use a permalink for a webpage when possible. Find tips here.

… Instruct your readers how to find all sources that do not have a browser link or a permalink.

… Separate each Source List Element with a period on your Source List.

Setting Up the Source List Page

Creating a Source List Entry

Strayer University Writing Standards 7


 Example Michael Harvey

In the case of multiple authors, only list the first.


This is not the same as copyright date, which is denoted by ©

The Nuts & Bolts of College Writing

p. 1

Include p. and the page(s) used. login?url=http://search.ebscohost. com/login.aspx?direct=true&db =nlebk&AN=590706&site=eds- live&scope=site

 How it Will Look in Your Source List 1. Michael Harvey. 2013. The Nuts & Bolts of College Writing.

Source List Elements Breakdown AUTHOR The person(s) who published the source. This can be a single person, a group of people, or an organization. If the source has no author, use “No author” where you would list the author.

PUBLICATION DATE The date the source was published. If the source has no publication date, use “No date” where you would list the date.

TITLE The title of the source. If the source has no title, use “No title” where you would list the title.

PAGE NUMBER The page number(s) used. If the source has no page numbers, omit this section from your Source List Entry.

HOW TO FIND Instruct readers how to find all sources. Keep explanations simple and concise, but provide enough information so the source can be located. NOTE: It is your responsibility to make sure the source can be found.

 Sample Source List 1. Michael Harvey. 2013. The Nuts & Bolts of College Writing. p.1.

2. William R. Stanek. 2010. Storyboarding Techniques chapter in Effective Writing for Business, College and Life. http:// ds-live&scope=site&ebv=EB&ppid=pp_23

3. Zyad Hicham. 2017. Vocabulary Growth in College-Level Students’ Narrative Writing. login?url= aaf81420&site=eds-live&scope=site

4. Anya Kamenetz. July 10, 2015. The Writing Assignment That Changes Lives. ed/2015/07/10/419202925/the-writing-assignment-that-changes-lives

5. Brad Thor. June 14, 2016. The Best Writing Advice I Ever Got.

6. Karen Hertzberg. June 15, 2017. How to Improve Writing Skills in 15 Easy Steps. how-to-improve-writing-skills/

7. Roy Peter Clark. 2008. Writing Tools: 55 Essential Strategies for Every Writer. p.55-67. Book on

8. C.M. Gill. 2014. The Psychology of Grading and Scoring chapter in Essential Writing Skills for College & Beyond. Textbook.

9. ABC Company’s Policy & Procedures Committee. No Date. Employee Dress and Attendance Policy. Policy in my office.

10. Henry M. Sayre. 2014. The Humanities: Culture, Continuity and Change, Vol. 1. This is the HUM111 textbook.

11. Savannah Student. 2018. Image.

12. Don Dollarsign. 2018. Chart.

13. Company Newsletter Name. 2018. Table. Company Newsletter Printed Copy (provided upon request).

Strayer University Writing Standards 8

Writing Assignments Strayer University uses several different types of writing assignments. The Strayer University Student Writing Standards are designed to allow flexibility in formatting your assignment and crediting your sources. This section covers specific areas to help you properly format and develop your assignments. NOTE: The specific format guidelines override guidelines in the General Standards section.

… Use double spacing throughout the body of your assignment.

… Use a consistent 12-point font throughout your assignment submission. (For acceptable fonts, see General Standards section.)

… Use the point of view (first or third person) required by the assignment guidelines.

… Section headings can be used to divide different content areas. Align section headings (centered) on the page, be consistent, and include at least two section headings in the assignment.

… Follow all other General Standards section guidelines.

… Title slides should include the project name (title your work to capture attention if possible), a subtitle (if needed), the course title, and your name.

… Use spacing that improves professional style (mixing single and double spacing as needed).

… Use a background color or image on slides.

… Use Calibri, Lucida Console, Helvetica, Futura, Myriad Pro, or Gill Sans font styles.

… Use 28-32 point font size for the body of your slides (based on your chosen font style). Avoid font sizes smaller than 24-point.

… Use 36-44 point font size for the titles of your slides (based on chosen font style).

… Limit content per slide (no more than 7 lines on any slide and no more than 7 words per line).

… Include slide numbers when your slide show has 3+ slides. Place the numbers wherever you like (but be consistent).

… Include appropriate images that connect directly to slide content or presentation content.

… Follow additional guidelines from the PowerPoint or Slideshow Specific Format Guidelines section and assignment guidelines.

Paper and Essay Specific Format Guidelines

PowerPoint or Slideshow Specific Format Guidelines

Strayer University Writing Standards 9

Discussion Posts When quoting or paraphrasing a source for discussion threads, include the source number in parenthesis after the body text where you quote or paraphrase. At the end of your post, include a list of any sources that you cited. For more information on building a Source List Entry, see Source List section.

Strayer University Writing Standards 10

 Sample Post The work is the important part of any writing assignment. According to Smith, “writing things down is the biggest challenge” (1). This is significant because…

SOURCE 1. William Smith. 2018. “The Way Things Are”.

If you pulled information from more than one source, continue to number the additional sources in the order that they appear in your post.

 Sample Post The work is the important part of any writing assignment. According to Smith, “writing things down is the biggest challenge” (1). This is significant because…

The other side of this is also important. It is noted that “actually writing isn’t important as much as putting ideas somewhere useful” (2).

SOURCE 1. William Smith. 2018. The Way Things Are. 2. Patricia Smith. 2018. The Way Things Really Are.

Effective Internet Links When sharing a link to an article with your instructor and classmates, start with a brief summary and why you chose to share it. For example:

 Poor Example Hey check out this article: http://www.Jobs4You.FED/Jobs_u_can_get

 Better Example After reading the textbook this week, I researched job sites. I found an article on how to find the best job site depending on the job you’re looking for. The author shared some interesting tools such as job sites that collect job postings from other sites and ranks them from newest to oldest, depending on category. Check out the article at this link: http://www. Jobs4You.FED/Jobs_u_can_get

Be sure to check the link you’re posting to be sure it will work for your classmates. They should be able to simply click on the link and go directly to your shared site.

Share vs. URL Options Cutting and pasting the URL (web address) from your browser may not allow others to view your source. This makes it hard for people to connect to the content you used.

To avoid this problem, look for a “share” option and choose that when possible so your classmates and professor get the full, direct link. Always test your link(s) before submitting to make sure they work.

If you cannot properly share the link, include the article as an attachment. Interested classmates and your professor can reference the article shared as an attachment. Find tips here.

Strayer University Writing Standards 11

Charts, Images, and Tables Charts, images, and tables should be centered and followed by an in-text citation. Design your page and place a citation below the chart, image, or table. When referring to the chart, image, or table in the body of the assignment, use the citation.

… Author’s name (if created by you, provide your name)

… Date (if created by you, provide the year)

… Type (Chart, Image, or Table)

… How to find it (link or other information – See Source List section for additional details).

On your Source List, provide the following details of the visual:

Strayer University Writing Standards 12

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Assignment: Narrative Assessments  

In Week 1, you explored the use of genograms, which provide a visual representation of many elements of a person’s history or relationships at the micro, mezzo, and macros levels. Professionals can use this tool to identify patterns and relationships in client histories. For this Assignment, you expand the use of genograms by using them to develop narrative assessments.  In the simplest sense, a narrative is a story. Narrative assessments then, provide a story, or detailed account, of behaviors, relationships, and other factors in a client’s history. This account allows both the human or social service professional and the client to analyze the factors and patterns present and to create actionable plans to meet goals. They encourage self-reflection and the process of discovery.  Most pertinent to the topic of this course, genograms and narrative assessments can be used in conjunction with one another to analyze cultural factors present in family dynamics or relationships. For this Assignment, you develop a narrative assessment of the nonfamily member genogram from Week 1 and reflect upon the cultural influences present in it.  To Prepare: •Review the genogram that you completed in Week 1. Consider any cultural influences present in family dynamics and relationships of the individuals in the genogram. •Reflect on the NOHS Ethical Standards for Human Service Professionals and consider areas of your professional responsibilities to self, clients, and the profession that may be impacted by the cultural influences present in the genogram. •Review the media in this week’s Learning Resources entitled Narrative Assessment. Consider the elements included in a narrative assessment of a genogram.  

The Assignment (2pages): •Using the NOHS Ethical Standards for Human Service Professionals, develop a narrative assessment of the nonfamily member genogram you completed in Week 1. •Explain the cultural influences in family dynamics and relationships present and how they might impact your professional responsibilities.

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in the article “magnanimity and integrity as military virtues,” robinson argues that honor can:

Question 11 pts

According to Robinson’s article “Magnanimity and Integrity as Military Virtues”, a person who has integrity is someone who:

Does what is right, even when it is disapproved of by others
Does what is right, only if it is approved of by others
Does what is right, only when commanded to do so
Does what is right, unless they are commanded to do otherwise

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Question 21 pts

According to Aristotle, we should begin ethical inquiry by specifying:

the ultimate aim of all that we do.
what our fundamental duties are.
what constraints on behavior it would be reasonable to agree to.
the will of God.

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Question 31 pts

In the article “Magnanimity and Integrity as Military Virtues,” Robinson argues that integrity should be regarded as:

An absolute value in the honor group
An absolute value only on the battlefield
An absolute value only for noncombatants
None of the above

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Question 41 pts

Aristotle conceives of a virtue as:

a rule that tells you what the right action is.
a positive self-image.
a state of character that enables practically wise choices.
conformity to society’s standards.

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Question 51 pts

In The Emperor’s Club, what best describes the teacher’s (Kevin Kline) response to his student’s (Emile Hirsch) admission of cheating? 

He hugged him and thanked him for being honest.
He threatened to turn him in and have him punished.    d.  He reminded him that it is against school policy to cheat, and thus that he erred by breaking the school’s rules.
He challenged him to regard virtue and character as more important than success alone.

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Question 61 pts

Aristotle regards passions and feelings, such as anger, as:

capable of excess, defect, or the intermediate state characteristic of virtue.
good when directed by reason toward the right objects and the right amounts.
always either an excess or a defect in one’s character.
Both (a) and (b).

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Question 71 pts

According to the scene from The Bridge on the River Kwai, what is the ultimate reason Colonel Nicholson (Alec Guinness) insists that the soldiers work hard to build the best bridge possible:

Because it is an expression of the virtues of a soldier – like strength and dignity – even in captivity.
So that the British forces will be able to fight the Japanese more effectively.
Because the better the bridge, the more benefit they will receive and less punishment they will endure from their captors.
Because even in captivity, they know that God is watching them.

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Question 81 pts

According to Aristotle, happiness is:

a life that is lived well.
satisfying as many desires and goals as possible.
pleasure and the absence of pain.
constant feelings of euphoric bliss and joy.

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Question 91 pts

According to “Ideals of Human Excellence and Preserving Natural Environments,” Thomas Hill would claim that a failure to appreciate the aesthetic value of the environment

might indicate that the person simply has a different set of subjective tastes.
might indicate that one lacks a precise philosophical account of the beautiful.
might indicate an inability to appreciate the true value of things in general.
might indicate an inability to express proper self-deception.

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Question 101 pts

In the article “Magnanimity and Integrity as Military Virtues,” Robinson agrees with Aquinas’ idea that

Honor is unimportant
Honor is unrelated to integrity
Honor must be displayed in action
Honor is a subjective state of mind

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Question 111 pts

In the article “Magnanimity and Integrity as Military Virtues,” Robinson argues that honor can:

Encourage restraint in warfare
Encourage heroism in warfare
Encourage abuse in warfare
All of the above

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Question 121 pts

Aristotle describes each virtue as:

a maximum of some character trait.
a minimum of some character trait.
an intermediate between excess and defect of some character trait.
none of the above

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Question 131 pts

In the article “Magnanimity and Integrity as Military Virtues,” Robinson describes magnanimity and integrity as both primarily concerned with what?


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Question 141 pts

In the article “Magnanimity and Integrity as Military Virtues,” Robinson suggests that the more closely one associates with one’s identity with a certain group, the more one will

Associate one’s own honor with rejecting the honor of the group
Associate one’s own honor with the honor of the group
Associate one’s own honor with that of the enemy group
Associate one’s own honor with the virtue of prudence

Question 151 pts

According to Thomas Hill’s account of environmental ethics, a person might show a lack of virtue when they:

fail to find any aesthetic value in nature.
fail to realize that human needs and interests are worthless and unimportant.
fail to recognize the equal rights of nonsentient beings like plants and rocks.
All of the above. 

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Question 161 pts

In Aristotle’s view, how are the virtues acquired?

through abstract philosophical reflection.
through repetition of virtuous actions until they become habitual.
through genetics.
through reading a lot of self-help books.

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Question 171 pts

In what way would Thomas Hill’s notion of “self-acceptance”, as described in “Ideals of Human Excellence and Preserving Natural Environments”, correspond to Aristotle’s conception of eudaimonia?

They both are inherently immoral and contrary to virtue.
They both require the total rejection of standards outside the self.
They both have nothing to do with ethics.
They both involve acknowledging and respecting the kinds of creatures that we are.

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Question 181 pts

What would best express Colonel Nicholson’s (Alec Guinness) view regarding what makes a good soldier, as expressed in the The Bridge on the River Kwai clip?

The virtues of a good soldier are consistent no matter the circumstance.
A good solider acts virtuously even when it may not directly benefit himself and his country.
The good soldier maintains his or her integrity even if the enemy does not.
All of the above.

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Question 191 pts

In “Ideals of Human Excellence and Preserving Natural Environments,” Thomas Hill claims that a fruitful way to think about the badness of destroying the environment is:

To appeal to notions of the rights of plants, minerals, landscapes, etc.
To think about what kind of human would choose to destroy the earth.
To examine people’s intuitions about whether it is right to harm the environment.
To examine the pleasures or pains that humans might experience as a consequence of treating the environment certain ways.

Question 201 pts

In the article “Magnanimity and Integrity as Military Virtues,” Robinson describes integrity as a virtue that

Has excesses like arrogance and deficiencies such as weakness of will
Has excesses like generosity and deficiencies such as weakness of will
Has excesses like arrogance and deficiencies such as weakness of pleasure
Has excesses like generosity and deficiencies such as weakness of pleasure
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The Moral of the Story

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For Craig and my parents

Immorality may be fun, but it isn’t fun enough to take the place of 100 percent virtue and three square meals a day.

— Noel Coward , Design for Living

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Seventh Edition


San Diego Mesa College


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Published by McGraw-Hill, a business unit of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1221 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10020. Copyright © 2013 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Previous editions © 2009, 2006, 2003, 2000, 1997 and 1994. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written consent of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., including, but not limited to, in any network or other electronic storage or transmission, or broadcast for distance learning.

Some ancillaries, including electronic and print components, may not be available to customers outside the United States.

This book is printed on acid-free paper.

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ISBN 978-0-07-803842-6 MHID 0-07-803842-1

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All credits appearing on page or at the end of the book are considered to be an extension of the copyright page.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Rosenstand, Nina. The moral of the story : an introduction to ethics / Nina Rosenstand.—7th ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-07-803842-6 (alk. paper) 1. Ethics—Textbooks. I. Title. BJ1012.R59 2013 170—dc23 2012005695


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Chapter 1 Thinking About Values 1 Do We Need a Code of Ethics? 1 Values, Morals, and Ethics 3 Good and Evil 7 Debating Moral Issues from Religion to

Neurobiology and Storytelling 14 Martha Nussbaum: Stories, Ethics, and

Emotions 24 A Philosophical Example, a Real-Life

Event, and Two Fictional Stories about Lying 27

PRIMARY READING: Martha Nussbaum, Love’s Knowledge 31

PRIMARY READING: Philip Zimbardo, The Lucifer Effect 33

NARRATIVE: Smoke Signals 36 NARRATIVE: Big Fish 39 NARRATIVE: East of Eden 43

Chapter 2 Learning Moral Lessons from

Stories 50 Didactic Stories 50 The New Interest in Stories Across the

Professions 51 The Value of Stories Across Time and

Space 54 Are Stories Harmful? A New and Ancient

Debate 88 PRIMARY READING: Plato, Republic, Book X 97 PRIMARY READING: Aristotle, Poetics 101 PRIMARY READING: Umberto Eco, The Name of

the Rose 103 PRIMARY READING: Raymond Chandler,

“The Simple Art of Murder” 105 NARRATIVE: Medea 107 NARRATIVE: The Sorrows of Young Werther 111 NARRATIVE: The Education of Mingo 112 NARRATIVE: Pulp Fiction 116


Preface x Acknowledgments xv

P A R T 1

The Story as a Tool of Ethics

P A R T 2

What Should I Do? Ethics of Conduct

Chapter 3 Ethical Relativism 119 How to Deal with Moral

Differences 119 The Lessons of Anthropology 124 Problems with Ethical Relativism 129 Refuting Ethical Relativism 139

James Rachels and Soft Universalism 141

Ethical Relativism and Multiculturalism 146

PRIMARY READING: Ruth Benedict, “Anthropology and the Abnormal” 151

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PRIMARY READING: James Rachels, “Is Ethics Just a Matter of Social Conventions?” 154

PRIMARY READING: John Steinbeck, “Paradox and Dream” 158

NARRATIVE: The Poisonwood Bible 159 NARRATIVE: Possessing the Secret of Joy 165 NARRATIVE: Avatar 168

Chapter 4 Myself or Others? 171 Psychological Egoism: What About the

Heroes? 171 Psychological Egoism: From Glaucon to

Hobbes 174 Three Major Problems With Psychological

Egoism 183 The Selfish-Gene Theory and Its Critics 188 Ethical Egoism and Ayn Rand’s

Objectivism 192 Being Selfless: Levinas’s Ideal Altruism

Versus Singer’s Reciprocal Altruism 200 A Natural Fellow-Feeling? Hume and de

Waal 204 PRIMARY READING: Plato, The Republic 210 PRIMARY READING: Thomas Hobbes,

Leviathan 214 PRIMARY READING: Ayn Rand, “The Ethics of

Emergencies” 215 PRIMARY READING: Frans De Waal, Primates

and Philosophers: How Morality Evolved 218

NARRATIVE: Friends episode: “The One Where Phoebe Hates PBS” 220

NARRATIVE: Return to Paradise 223 NARRATIVE: Atlas Shrugged 226

Chapter 5 Using Your Reason, Part 1:

Utilitarianism 231 Jeremy Bentham and the Hedonistic

Calculus 232 Advantages and Problems of Sheer

Numbers: From Animal Welfare to the Question of Torture 241

John Stuart Mill: Higher and Lower Pleasures 247

Mill’s Harm Principle 254 Act and Rule Utilitarianism 260 PRIMARY READING: Jeremy Bentham, “Of the

Principle of Utility” 263 PRIMARY READING: John Stuart Mill,

Utilitarianism 265 PRIMARY READING: Peter Singer, “A Convenient

Truth” 268 NARRATIVE: “The Blacksmith and the

Baker” 271 NARRATIVE: The Brothers Karamazov 272 NARRATIVE: “The Ones Who Walk Away from

Omelas” 274 NARRATIVE: Extreme Measures 275 NARRATIVE: The Invention of Lying 278

Chapter 6 Using Your Reason, Part 2: Kant’s

Deontology 282 Consequences Don’t Count—Having a

Good Will Does 282 The Categorical Imperative 285 Rational Beings Are Ends in

Themselves 295 Beings Who Are Things 298 The Kingdom of Ends 302 PRIMARY READING: Immanuel Kant,

Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals 304

PRIMARY READING: Immanuel Kant, The Metaphysics of Morals 305

NARRATIVE: High Noon 308 NARRATIVE: 3:10 to Yuma 310 NARRATIVE: Abandon Ship! 314 NARRATIVE: Match Point 316

Chapter 7 Personhood, Rights, and Justice 320 What Is a Human Being? 320 The Expansion of the Concept “ Human” 321 Personhood: The Key to Rights 321 Science and Moral Responsibility: Genetic

Engineering, Stem Cell Research, and Cloning 327

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Questions of Rights and Equality 337 Distributive Justice: From Rawls to

Affirmative Action 348 Forward- and Backward-Looking Justice

and Affirmative Action 352 Criminal Justice: Restorative Versus

Retributive Justice 355 PRIMARY READING: The United Nations Universal

Declaration of Human Rights 363 PRIMARY READING: Jürgen Habermas, The

Future of Human Nature 366 PRIMARY READING: John Rawls, “Justice as

Fairness” 368

PRIMARY READING: Martin Luther King, Jr., “A Letter from Birmingham Jail” 371

PRIMARY READING: John Berteaux, “Defining Racism in the 21st Century” 373

PRIMARY READING: John Berteaux, “Unseen, Unheard, Unchosen” 375

NARRATIVE: The Island 376 NARRATIVE: Gattaca 380 NARRATIVE: Mississippi Burning 383 NARRATIVE: Hotel Rwanda 386

P A R T 3

How Should I Be? Virtue Ethics

Chapter 8 Virtue Ethics from Tribal Philosophy

to Socrates and Plato 391 What Is Virtue? What Is Character? 391 Non-Western Virtue Ethics: Africa and

Indigenous America 392 Virtue Ethics in the West 396 The Good Teacher: Socrates’ Legacy,

Plato’s Works 398 The Good Life 406 The Virtuous Person: The Tripartite

Soul 408 Plato’s Theory of Forms 412 Plato’s Influence on Christianity 417 PRIMARY READING: Plato, The Republic 418 PRIMARY READING: Plato, Apology 421 PRIMARY READING: Ronald Dworkin, What Is a

Good Life? 425 NARRATIVE: A Man for All Seasons 428 NARRATIVE: “The Myth of the Cave” 431 NARRATIVE: The Truman Show 434 NARRATIVE: The Store of the Worlds 437

Chapter 9 Aristotle’s Virtue Theory:

Everything in Moderation 440 Empirical Knowledge and the Realm of the

Senses 440

Aristotle the Scientist 441 Aristotle’s Virtue Theory: Teleology and the

Golden Mean 444 Aristotle’s Influence on Aquinas 459 Some Objections to Greek Virtue Theory 460 PRIMARY READING: Aristotle, Nicomachean

Ethics, Book II 463 PRIMARY READING: Aristotle, Nicomachean

Ethics, Book III 466 NARRATIVE: “The Flight of Icarus” 468 NARRATIVE: Njal’s Saga 470 NARRATIVE: Lord Jim 472 NARRATIVE: “A Piece of Advice” 474

Chapter 10 Contemporary Perspectives 477 Ethics and the Morality of Virtue as Political

Concepts 477 Have Virtue, and Then Go Ahead: Mayo,

Foot, and Sommers 481 The Quest for Authenticity: Kierkegaard,

Nietzsche, Heidegger, Sartre, and Levinas 490

PRIMARY READING: Søren Kierkegaard, J ohannes Climacus 519

PRIMARY READING: Søren Kierkegaard, Either∕Or 520

PRIMARY READING: Jean-Paul Sartre, “ Existentialism Is a Humanism” 521

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Women’s Historical Role in the Public Sphere 613

The Rise of Modern Feminism 619 Classical, Difference, and Radical

Feminism 625 PRIMARY READING: Harriet Taylor Mill,

“Enfranchisement of Women” 642 PRIMARY READING: Simone De Beauvoir, The

Second Sex 645 PRIMARY READING: Carol Gilligan, In a Different

Voice 648 NARRATIVE: A Doll’s House 650 NARRATIVE: Maids of Misfortune 655 NARRATIVE: “The Woman Destroyed” 658 NARRATIVE: A Thousand Splendid Suns 661

Chapter 13 Applied Ethics: A Sampler 665 The Question of Abortion and

Personhood 665 Euthanasia as a Right to Choose? 668 Media Ethics and Media Bias 671 Business Ethics: The Rules of the Game 681 Just War Theory 688 Animal Welfare and Animal Rights 694 Ethics of the Environment: Think Globally,

Act Locally 701 The Death Penalty 707 The Ethics of Self-Improvement: Narrative

Identity 716 A Final Word 724 PRIMARY READING: Andrew Belsey and Ruth

Chadwick, “Ethics as a Vehicle for Media Quality” 726

PRIMARY READING: Amber Levanon Seligson and Laurie Choi, “Critical Elements of an Organizational Ethical Culture” 728

PRIMARY READING: Scott Gottlieb, “How Safe Is Our Food? FDA Could Do Better” 729

PRIMARY READING: John Rawls, The Law of Peoples 731

PRIMARY READING: Great Ape Project, “The Declaration on Great Apes” 734

PRIMARY READING: Lee Hall and Anthony Jon Waters, “From Property to Person: The Case of Evelyn Hart” 735

PRIMARY READING: “The Paradox of Morality: An Interview with Emmanuel Levinas” 523

PRIMARY READING: Dwight Furrow, A Culture of Care 526

NARRATIVE: Groundhog Day 529 NARRATIVE: No Exit 531 NARRATIVE: Good Will Hunting 533 NARRATIVE: The Searchers 537

Chapter 11 Case Studies in Virtue 541 Courage of the Physical and Moral

Kind 541 Compassion: From Hume to Huck

Finn 549 Gratitude: Asian Tradition and Western

Modernity 559 Virtue and Conduct: The Option of Soft

Universalism 575 Diversity, Politics, and Common

Ground? 578 PRIMARY READING: John McCain, Why Courage

Matters: The Way to a Braver Life 581 PRIMARY READING: Philip Hallie, Tales of Good

and Evil, Help and Harm 584 PRIMARY READING: Jesse Prinz, Is Empathy

Necessary for Morality? 585 PRIMARY READING: Lin Yutang, “On Growing

Old Gracefully” 589 NARRATIVE: Courage: Band of Brothers, Third

Episode, “Carentan” 590 NARRATIVE: Courage: True Grit 592 NARRATIVE: Compassion: “The Parable of the

Good Samaritan” 596 NARRATIVE: Compassion: Schindler’s List 598 NARRATIVE: Gratitude: Eat Drink Man

Woman 601 NARRATIVE: Gratitude: Pay It Forward 604

Chapter 12 Different Gender, Different

Ethics? 608 Feminism and Virtue Theory 608 What Is Gender Equality? 610

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NARRATIVE: Business Ethics: The Insider 750 NARRATIVE: Business Ethics ∕ Environmental

Ethics: Cold Wind 753 NARRATIVE: The Death Penalty: “The Jigsaw

Man” 756 NARRATIVE: The Death Penalty: The Life of

David Gale 758

Credits C-1

Bibliography B-1

Glossary G-1

Index I-1

PRIMARY READING: Severin Carrell, “Al Gore: Clear Proof That Climate Change Causes Extreme Weather” 737

PRIMARY READING: Myles Allen, “Al Gore is Doing a Disservice to Science by Overplaying the Link Between Climate Change and Weather” 739

PRIMARY READING: Tom Sorell, “Two Ideals and the Death Penalty” 741

PRIMARY READING: Mark Fuhrman, Death and Justice: An Exposé of Oklahoma’s Death Row Machine 744

NARRATIVE: Media Ethics ∕ Business Ethics: State of Play 748

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L ike the previous editions of The Moral of the Story, the seventh edition is a combi- nation of classical questions in ethical theory and contemporary issues. The general concept remains the same: that discussions about moral issues can be facilitated using stories as examples, as a form of ethics lab where solutions can be tried out under controlled conditions. The book is written primarily for such college courses as Introduction to Ethics; Moral Philosophy; and Introduction to Philosophy: Val- ues. Many textbooks in value theory or ethics choose to focus on problems of social importance, such as abortion, euthanasia, and capital punishment. This book reflects my own teaching experience that it is better for students to be introduced to basic ethical theory before they are plunged into discussions involving moral judgments. Consequently, The Moral of the Story provides an overview of influential classical and contemporary approaches to ethical theory. However, without practical application of the theories, there can be no complete understanding of the problems raised, so each chapter includes examples that illustrate and explore the issues. As in previ- ous editions, each chapter concludes with a section of examples—summaries and excerpts—taken from the world of fiction, novels and films in particular. Within the last few decades, narrative theory has carved out a niche in American and European philosophy as well as in other academic disciplines. It is no longer un- usual for ethicists and other thinkers to include works of fiction in their courses as well as in their professional papers, not only as examples of problem solving, but also as illustrations of an epistemological phenomenon: Humans are, in Alasdair MacIntyre’s words, storytelling animals, and we humans seem to choose the narrative form as our favorite way to structure meaning as we attempt to make sense of our reality. The narrative trend is making itself felt in other fields as well: The medical profession is looking to stories that teach about doctor-patient relationships; psychotherapists rec- ommend that patients watch films to achieve an understanding of their own situation, and have patients write stories with themselves as the lead character. The court system is making use of films and novels to reach young people in trouble with the law. The U.S. military is partnering up with authors to anticipate possible scenarios for future assaults on American interests. NASA is teaming up with science fiction writers in an attempt to once again make space exploration exciting for new generations of readers. And neuroscientists tell us that we understand the world by superimposing narra- tive order on the chaos we experience. It seems that new fields are constantly being added to the list of professions that are discovering, or rediscovering, the potential of stories.


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Like the previous editions, the seventh edition of The Moral of the Story is divided into three major sections. Part 1 introduces the topic of ethics and places the phenomenon of storytelling within the context of moral education and discussion. Part 2 examines the conduct theories of ethical relativism, psychological and ethical egoism, altruism, utilitarianism, and Kantian deontology, and explores the concepts of personhood, rights, and justice. Part 3 focuses on the subject of virtue theory and contains chapters on Socrates and Plato, Aristotle, contemporary virtue theories in America, theories of authenticity in the Continental tradition, and gender theory. The virtues of courage, compassion, and gratitude are examined in detail, and the book concludes with a more detailed discussion of a broad selection of moral issues, applying theories introduced in previous chapters. Each chapter concludes with a set of study questions, a section of Primary Readings with excerpts from classical and contemporary texts, and a section of Narratives, a collection of stories that illustrate the moral issues raised in the chapter. The Primary Readings are selected for their value as discussion topics; they don’t necessarily reflect my own views, and I have made no attempt to select readings that cover all possible angles, because of space limitations. The Narratives will be described in more detail below.

Major Changes to the Seventh Edition

Major changes to the seventh edition include the following: Chapter One has been thoroughly revised, with a new introduction, “Do We Need a Code of Ethics?” invit- ing students to evaluate Montana’s 2011 decision to adopt a “Code of the West.” In addition, it expands on the theory that morality can be “hard-wired,” and discusses the momentum naturalism is gaining in today’s moral philosophy. A new box in- troduces Philippa Foot’s famous thought experiment, the “Trolley Problem”. The section “Good and Evil” has been updated and expanded to examine acts of good- will in the most current of events including the Japanese earthquake, the Ft. Hood shootings, and the Chilean mine collapse. Finally, Chapter One takes a deeper look at Martha Nussbaum’s impact on contemporary moral philosophy, especially her theory that well-written fictional stories can provide a better medium for examining moral issues than philosophical examples or actual events. Chapter Two has been updated with current examples of films and television shows illustrating moral problems, including Dexter and NCIS . Chapter Three has two new boxes, “The Adversarial Method,” which examines the traditional philosophical argumentative approach, and introduces Paul Ricoeur’s alternative approach, and “The Intersection of Moral and Legal Issues” which exam- ines whether a nation’s laws are reflective of universal values of its people or more indicative of a time and place in history—a section revised and moved from the sixth edition’s Chapter One. The chapter has a new Primary Reading, James Rachels’ “Is Ethics Just a Matter of Social Conventions?” A new Narrative, a summary of the film Avatar, encourages a discussion of fundamental cultural differences, seen through the theories of ethical relativism, hard universalism, soft universalism, and moral nihilism.


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Chapter Four expands upon the concept of “heroes” to explore the actions of the Ft. Hood army civilian police officers who reacted in the 2010 on-base shooting, as well as the workers who elected to stay and cool the Fukushima reactors. In addition, it has a new section on Ayn Rand’s Objectivism, in response to reviewer suggestions. In the Narratives section Rand’s Atlas Shrugged excerpt has been expanded with the introduction to “John Galt’s Speech.” Chapter Five has an expanded discussion of the happiness phenomenon and recent happiness studies, as well as an updated discussion about torture seen from a utilitarian perspective. In the Narratives section, the issues of lying and deceit are explored through Ricky Gervais’ film The Invention of Lying . Chapter Six has a story reinstated to the Narratives section from previous edi- tions, a favorite among reviewers, the film Abandon Ship . In Chapter Seven an updated box examines serial killers who hunt for victims living on the fringes of society as prostitutes and drug users, and the notion that such victims who break the law still have a right to live. In the chapter text, Jürgen Habermas’s critique of genetic enhancement has been added, and an excerpt from his book The Future of Human Nature appears in the Primary Readings. The topics of cognitive and moral enhancement have been added to the discussion. Two new boxes have been added, “A Right to Privacy?” about the new social media, and “An Alternative to Jus- tice Ethics” about the ethic of care. Chapter Eight now includes a discussion of “The Good Life” as presented by Ronald Dworkin, as well as an excerpt from his article, “What Is a Good Life” in the Primary Readings. The Narratives section now has a story from previous editions reinstated, “The Store of the Worlds,” by reviewer request. There are no major changes to Chapter 9, but Chapter Ten has a new section on Friedrich Nietzsche, as a result of repeated reviewer and reader requests. The section includes two new boxes, “Elisabeth Nietzsche and the Nazi Connection,” and “Without God, Is Everything Permitted?” In addition, the chapter has a new box featuring “The New Ethic of Care, a Political Vision,” about the theory developed by Dwight Furrow and Mark Wheeler, with an excerpt in the Primary Readings from Furrow’s Reviving the Left . And finally, the Narratives section now includes the film classic Groundhog Day , as an exploration of Nietzsche’s concept of the eternal return of the same. Chapter Eleven includes a new box, “When Empathy is Absent: Welcome to Cyberspace?” which examines how the absence of eye contact in the world of Inter- net social networks and other communication may have hampered our ability to feel compassion for others. In addition, it includes a new reading, “Is Empathy Neces- sary for Morality?” by Jesse Prinz, which investigates whether we require empathy in order to make sound ethical decisions. The Narratives now include a summary of the Cohen Brothers’ production True Grit, which discusses the plot’s focus on moral as well as physical courage. In Chapter Twelve , a new box, “Can a Conservative be a Feminist” examines whether contemporary female political figures and commentators such as Sarah Palin, Michelle Bachman, and Ann Coulter represent a form of feminism or, conversely, a throw-back to male-dominated politics. Also, the chapter has two new Narratives, an excerpt from the Victorian mystery Maids of Misfortune by historian M. Louisa Locke,

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and a summary of Khaled Hosseini’s novel from present-day Afghanistan, A Thousand Splendid Suns. Chapter Thirteen has several thoroughly revised sections, including boxes on “Some Religious Views on Fetal Personhood,” and “Social Media and Ethics.” In the Media Ethics section the British News of the World scandal has been added, as well as a mention of the WikiLeaks phenomenon. The Death Penalty section has been updated with recent facts, including the execution of Troy Davis. And the Narratives section has a new excerpt from C.J. Box’s mystery novel Cold Wind , as an illustration of issues in both Business Ethics and Environmental Ethics, as well as a summary of the film State of Play, illustrating Media Ethics as well as Business Ethics.

Using the Narratives

The Narratives have been chosen from a wide variety of sources ranging from epic prose, poems, and novels to films. I wish to emphasize that from a literary and ar- tistic point of view, summaries and excerpts do not do the originals justice; a story worth experiencing, be it a novel, short story, or film, can’t be reduced to a mere plot outline or fragment and still retain all of its essence. As Martha Nussbaum says, the form is an inherent part of the story content. Usually, there is more to the story than the bare bones of a moral problem, and in writing these summaries I have had to dis- regard much of the richness of story and character development. Nevertheless, I have chosen the summary or excerpt format in order to discuss a number of different sto- ries and genres as they relate to specific issues in ethics. Because I believe it is impor- tant to show that there is a cross-cultural, historic tradition of exploring moral prob- lems through telling a story, I have opted for a broad selection of Narratives. Each chapter has several Narratives, but it is not my intention that the instructor should feel obligated to cover all of them in one course; rather, they should be regarded as options that can be alternated from semester to semester—a method I like to use my- self for the sake of variety. There are, of course, other ways than summaries in which stories and ethical theory can be brought together; one might, for instance, select one or two short stories or films in their original format for class discussion. I hope that instructors will indeed select a few stories—novels, short stories, or films—for their classes to experience firsthand. However, the Narratives are written so that firsthand experience should not be necessary to a discussion of the problem presented by the story. The summaries and excerpts give readers just enough information to en- able them to discuss the moral problem presented. I hope that some readers will become inspired to seek out the originals on their own. In most cases the ending is important to the moral significance of a story, and whenever that is the case, I in- clude that ending. In cases where the ending is not significant to the moral drama, I have done my best to avoid giving it away because I don’t want to be a spoiler. Because space is limited, I have not been able to include more than a sampling of stories, and I readily admit that my choices are subjective ones; I personally find them interesting as illustrations and effective in a classroom context where students come from many different cultural backgrounds. Because I am a naturalized U.S. citi- zen, originally a native of Denmark, I have chosen to include a few references to the

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Scandinavian literary tradition. I am fully aware that others might choose other stories or even choose different ethical problems to illustrate, and I am grateful to the many users of the previous six editions, instructors as well as students, who have let me know about their favorite stories and how they thought this selection of stories might be expanded and improved. The new Narratives reflect some of those suggestions. Some students (and instructors) may be disappointed that this edition has no narratives from graphic novels. That is not because I find graphic novels to be any less suitable for exploring moral issues than films and novels—I just don’t have much experience with them, and I am considering including a few graphic novels in my ethics classes; if the experiment is successful, a future edition may contain such stories. However, one area which I have decided against including at this point is video games. I hear from my students that video games are increasingly focused on elaborate narratives rather than merely accumulating points and killing enemy enti- ties, and I can imagine that at some point, video game narratives may offer interesting ways of experiencing moral problems and decision-making, even involving scenarios of emotional and ethical complexity. However, judging from my research into current games, that level of complexity is not yet present in most games. I would be interested to hear from readers with another perspective on video games, and would welcome examples of games with plots involving moral complexity. As was the case with previous revisions, I have had to make some difficult choices, similar to choices made in the sixth edition: To keep the cost of the book down, I have had to cut materials from previous editions to make room for new readings, updates, and narratives. This is never easy, because many of the older readings and stories are favorites of mine, and I am well aware that they may also be the favorites of instructors using this book, and important elements in well-functioning syllabi. Fortunately, in this electronic age we can include new materials without losing all of the older elements. A website has been established by McGraw-Hill (www.mhhe .com/rosenstand7e) that includes a number of narratives from previous editions, such as Dead Man Walking, Do the Right Thing, Thelma and Louise, and The Count of Monte Cristo, for easy access and downloading by instructors. As in previous edi- tions, I emphasize that I wholeheartedly welcome e-mails from students as well as instructors who use this book, with relevant comments and suggestions for new stories as well as additional philosophical perspectives:

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A s always, I first want to thank my students in the classes Introduction to Philosophy: Values, Philosophy of Women, Issues in Social Philosophy, Reflections on Human Nature, Human Nature and Society, and Philosophy and Literature for their enthusiastic cooperation in suggesting good stories and discussing drafts of the stories and study questions with me—an invaluable help in fine-tuning the summaries and questions. Next, I would like to thank the Project Team at McGraw-Hill Higher Educa- tion for good communication and support: Sponsoring Editor Jessica Cannavo; Developmental Editor Nicole Bridges; Senior Project Manager Lisa A. Bruflodt; Marketing Manager Angela R. FitzPatrick, Permissions Editor Wesley Hall, Photo Researcher David A. Tietz, and Project Manager for MPS Ldt. Vivek Khandelwal. The cover painting is by artist Karen Barbour, and I am delighted that her evoca- tive visions have represented The Moral of the Story through seven editions. I also wish to thank the following reviewers, and one anonymous reviewer, for their suggestions:

Tamela Ice, Kansas City Community College

Jon Inglett, Oklahoma City Community College

Alice Independence Kyburg, University of Wisconsin-Oshkosh

Joy Branch, Southern Union State Community College

Russell H. Swanson, Edison State College

My colleagues at the Social Sciences and Behavioral and Multicultural Studies Department at San Diego Mesa College, which includes professors, adjuncts, and professors emeritus of philosophy, history, political science, and geography, are a wonderful support group—many of us come from different professional fields and have different outlooks on many things, but we all cherish the ambience of profes- sional integrity in our workplace and find time to discuss ethics-related issues on a regular basis: Thank you to my colleagues from the Social Sciences Department as well as other departments: In particular I wish to thank Department Chair Jonathan McLeod, Donald Abbott, Ken Berger, Michael Kuttnauer, Richard Hammes, Dean Charles Zappia, Terry Valverde, and Melinda Campbell. In addition, I would like to express my appreciation to Michael Mussachia, Josef Binter, and Arelene Wolinski for sharing their research—including informative articles—with me, and to Tony


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Pettina for being an advance reader on the section on Asian moral philosophy. A special thanks goes to Dwight Furrow for continual congenial collaboration on maintaining the high standard of teaching philosophy at Mesa College, and for jog- ging my memory about one of my favorite films, The Searchers, and pointing out its usefulness in illustrating Emmanuel Levinas’s theory of the face of the other. Because of Dwight’s inspired insight, The Searchers, one of the narratives in the first editions, found its way back to the sixth edition, in a different context. At Mesa College we have a biannual Meeting of the Minds tradition where philoso- phy faculty, contract as well as adjuncts, meet and share our thoughts about teach- ing and engage in debates about classical and current philosophical topics. I want to express my appreciation for the professional enthusiasm of all the philosophy faculty who participate regularly in these meetings in particular a very enlightening discus- sion of recent happiness studies. I treasure these discussions, which have inspired the establishing of a blog, Philosophy on the Mesa, administered by Dwight Furrow and myself, which I hope users of this book will visit from time to time: http://philosophy- My colleague John Berteaux, philosophy professor at Monterey State University, deserves my heartfelt thanks for being an old friend and colleague from the adjunct days who shares my concerns for issues in social ethics and who has gener- ously shared his work, including his archive of newspaper columns with me. A special, word of appreciation goes to my friend and colleague Harold Weiss, associate profes- sor of philosophy at Northhampton Community College. I would like to also thank Dominic Cerrato, TNCC, for sharing his insight on the Catholic Church and person- hood, and my good friend Linda MacDonald Glenn, University of Vermont School of Nursing and Allied Health Care, for her inspiring suggestions and continued passion for bioethics. Also, I want to thank Jeremy Hall, Newington College, Stanmore, NSW, Australia, editor of Dialogue , for his continued interest in my work, and encouraging e-mails. And I would like to say a very special thank you to my former colleague, Pro- fessor Emeritus of history Mary Lou Locke, who has taught me that (1) there is a life after teaching, and (2) that a post-teaching career can make history come alive through storytelling. I am grateful for her permission, as author M. Louisa Locke, to include an excerpt from her first novel in Chapter 12. The first and second editions wouldn’t have been possible without my first edi- tor at Mayfield Publishing Company, my good friend Jim Bull. And the previous editions have benefited from the help and suggestions from the following friends and colleagues: Michael Schwartz, School of Economics, Finance and Marketing Pro- fessor at the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, Australia; the late Stephen George, Brigham Young University; independent scholar and author Maxine Sheets- Johnstone; Helmut Wautischer, Sonoma State University; Eugene Troxell and Peter Atterton, San Diego State University; Betsy Decyk, Daniel Guerriere, and G. A. Spangler, California State University, Long Beach. In addition, I am grateful to the late Richard Taylor for his correspondence, to the late Philip Hallie for his inspiration, and to his late wife Dorrit Hallie; to Russell Means for sharing his views on American Indian traditions; to Leonard Maltin for his time and advice while I was working on the first edition; to Sue Savage-Rumbaugh for her time and comments on a draft of the second edition; to Carol Enns, College of the Sequoias; John Osborne, Butte

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College; Thomas Wren, Loyola University, Chicago; Lawrence Hinman, U niversity of San Diego; Peter Kemp, Danish University of Education; Hans Hertel, University of Copenhagen; Steen Wackerhausen, University of Aarhus. As in previous editions, I want to thank a few good friends outside the philo- sophical profession for their support, friendship, and intellectual contributions to this edition: author and historian J. R. Edmondson; author and film historian Frank Thompson; author Mark Fuhrman; vocational historian Phil Martin; Assistant Dean for Student Affairs at SDSU Randi McKenzie; my close friends since the early days of childhood, Christa W. Blichmann, M.D., and Susanne Schwer, M.D.; my cousin, author Søren Peter Hansen and his wife Jytte; my sister-in-law, Lois Covner; my brother-in-law Russell Covner; my cousin Karin Winther Rasmussen; close fam- ily friends Marianne Ammitzbøl, Karen Herand, and Elisabeth and Mie Millev Rix; my mother-in-law, Nancy R. Covner; and lastly my niece Jessica Humphrey and my cousins Astrid Marie Hansen, Ellen Marie Hansen, and Katrine Winther Rasmussen, four wise young women who are discovering the art of asking philosophical ques- tions, and making positive contributions to the world of tomorrow. My mother, Gladys Rosenstand, passed away in 2007, but I find myself daily reminded of her courage, her deeply ethical outlook on work and life—and, not least, her keen appreciation for life’s droller moments. I have the immense privilege of being able to again thank my father, Finn Rosenstand, for continued inspiring discussions about everything in life that matters, for always looking out for interest- ing books and articles for me, and for introducing me, at an early age, to his motto, adopted from Greek antiquity: Maeden agan. A man of great wisdom and a gifted storyteller, he has been instrumental in opening my mind to intellectual curiosity, human compassion, and a passion for history, literature, and film. Most of all, I want to thank my husband, Craig R. Covner, for his strength and loving support, for always being ready to share his insight into American history as well as Hollywood film history, for his understanding and patience with me in my writer’s work-mode, and for his wonderful sense of humor.

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Chapter One

Thinking About Values

Do We Need a Code of Ethics?

In 2011 the state of Montana’s Senate made an announcement about moral values that elicited fairly strong responses from a variety of groups, both positive and nega- tive. The Senate President Jim Peterson announced that the Montana legislature had decided to adopt as the offi cial state code what they called the Code of the West, based on James P. Owens’s book Cowboy Ethics. The concept itself is not new—Wyoming adopted the same code in 2010, and people of the Western United States have known the “Code of the West” or Cowboy Code of Ethics for a long time. And while the idea of doing things in a “cowboy way” or “go cowboy” may associate, to a modern urban mind-set, to handling things in an unorthodox way, perhaps through the use of force rather than negotiations, nothing could be further from what the Montanans had in mind. The code has a ten-point set of rules to live by, including “Live each day with courage,” Be tough, but fair,” and “Know where to draw the line.” The responses ranged from applauses and praise to anger, skepticism, and ridi- cule. Some felt that this was a very positive thing: Offi cials were fi nally reaching back to a set of values of common sense and decency that would help guide a young generation while at the same time keep the offi cials of the state of Montana on the straight and narrow if they felt the need to stray. Some laughed, and some pointed out that the Code of the West, or Cowboy Ethics, really was never part of the ruth- less life on the frontier in the nineteenth century, but a concoction created by mak- ers of Western movies and so-called cowboy poets in the early twentieth century. Some observers remarked that it really wasn’t the business of a state legislature to dictate people’s personal behavior, and others found that perhaps the whole thing was a business ploy to make the state of Montana look like a place where honor- able people could move their businesses to in morally shaky times—bottom line: money. But what perhaps was the most interesting response was that some observ- ers commented in their blogs, Why not? Why not fl oat a benign set of values that really doesn’t amount to much more than what ordinary good people expect of each other, if it can make a statement about the values of one of our fi fty states? Why should we be afraid to stand up and say, I really prefer if we all refrained from being devious and selfi sh and thought a little more about the needs of other people?

Some Current Values Discussions

You may fi nd that you’ve already made up your mind about the Montana and Wyoming decisions: commendable/silly/offensive/outdated—or perhaps totally un- important. But the entire issue serves as a kind of cultural mirror to hold up and take

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a look at ourselves, so this will be a question we return to several times in this book: Can we rely on people having their own set of values that not only will guide them through hard times, but will also make life with others run more smoothly? In other words, do we need a code of ethics as part of the social rules we learn as we grow up and move into society as active members? Is it the government’s business, or perhaps our schools’? Or is it strictly something we should control, as parents? The fact is that we all encounter issues involving moral values on an everyday basis; sometimes they involve small decisions, sometimes large ones. Some everyday issues that are in the news are questions about Internet fi le sharing /copying/down- loading of copyrighted material. Some fi nd it is rightfully illegal, while others fi nd it to be completely acceptable and even a morally decent thing—sharing new ideas with others. Another issue that you may have been engaged in discussing is the ethics of texting and Facebook communication, and what exactly is an appropriate level of intimacy and sharing of information if it risks getting into the wrong hands? And what is the kind of information we can, in all decency, text to each other—Is it acceptable to break up though a text message? Sexting—send sexy pictures taken without the portrayed person’s permission? Share gossip? All these questions involve an underly- ing code of ethics. So, too, do the major moral issues we as a society are struggling with: Some of the big questions and even confl icts we have dealt with during the fi rst decade of this century have involved the right to marry whomever you choose, including a person of your own gender, the question of the appropriate response to terrorism (through the civil courts, or military actions and tribunals), the use of tor- ture in interrogations of presumed terrorists, the right to have access to euthanasia, the continued question about the moral status of abortion, the periodically resurfac- ing discussion about the right to gun ownership, the moral status of pets as property or family members, and other such issues that involve both moral and legal perspec- tives. This book will deal with some of those issues, but perhaps more important, it will deal with the values underlying those issues—the moral theories explaining those values. Later in this chapter we look at the terms of values , morals, and ethics . For each of the issues mentioned above there is generally a side promoting it, and a side arguing against it. We’re used to that kind of debate in a free society, and you’ll see some of those questions discussed in this book, in particular in Chapters 7 and 13. What we have also become used to during the past decades is that our nation seems more divided than in previous decades—what some political commentators have la- beled a “50-50 nation.” In election years, particularly in 2000 and 2004 (where presi- dent George W. Bush was elected and re-elected), it was clear that political opinions divided the country almost in half—at least if there were only two options to choose from, Democratic or Republican. In 2008 the election of President Obama was a clearer majority than the previous two presidential elections, but many other issues on the ballot showed the same half-and-half support. Even if we have “blue states” and “red states” showing up in the electoral map, there are blue and red areas within each state. This is of course politics, and our main topic is going to be ethics and val- ues, but there is a relevant connection: There is a set of moral values commonly asso- ciated with Democratic policies, such as being pro-choice/ proabortion, increased gun control, pro-gay rights, and scaling back military operations, and another associated

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with Republican politics generally advocating pro-life/anti-abortion, pro-gun owner- ship, anti-gay rights, and strong support for the military. These are stereotypes that don’t always hold up, and in addition there is a growing movement of Independents, voters who “decline to state” a party affi liation on their voter registration form. So it may be misleading to say that the nation is divided down the middle—but it is a clear indication that across this nation we just don’t all agree on the details of how one should be a good citizen, other than it is a good thing to have a form of government where the people have the opportunity to vote. So if we’re looking for a code of ethics to live by, and even to promote, we should expect that not everyone is going to agree. But what is also commonplace is that we tend to think that those who disagree with us are either stupid, ignorant—or perhaps even evil. The blogosphere is full of such assumptions. And that lends itself to thinking that we, perhaps in fact, are citizens of two cultures within the United States, the culture of liberal values and the culture of conservative values (a pattern known in many other countries with a Western tradi- tion of democracy and right to free speech). Some call it a culture war . So here I have a little recommendation—an introduction of a moral value, if you will: For the sake of a good discussion—either in the classroom, online, or perhaps just as an internal dialogue with yourself, it may be useful not to jump to the immediate conclusion that people who disagree with you are stupid, ignorant, or evil. As we strive to become a nation of successful diversity, we sometimes forget that moral and political diversity also deserves a place alongside of diversity of gender, race, religion, economic back- ground, sexual orientation, and so forth. In other words, people have a right to have a wide variety of opinions, and some of them are arrived at through honest and consci- entious deliberation. We have little chance of being able to talk with one another and even learn from one another if we keep thinking that everybody who doesn’t agree with us is automatically wrong or wrongheaded. On the other hand, an acceptance of the fact that people disagree on moral issues doesn’t have to lead to a moral relativism, or an assumption that there is al- ways “another side” to everything. Despite our moral differences in this culture, most “reasonable” people are going to agree on some basic values: In my experience, the majority of Americans are in favor of justice and equality, and against murder, child abuse, racism, sexism, slavery, animal torture, and so forth. In Chapter 3 you’ll fi nd a discussion of ethical relativism, and in Chapter 11 you’ll fi nd a further discussion of the search for common values in a politically divided culture.

Values, Morals, and Ethics

In its most basic sense, something we value is something we believe is set apart from things that we don’t value or that we value less. When do we fi rst begin to value something? As babies, we live in a world that is divided into what we like and what we don’t like—a binary world of plus and minus, of yes and no. Some psychoanalysts believe we never really get over this early stage, so that some people simply divide the world into what they like or approve of, and what they dislike or disapprove of. However, most of us add to that a justifi cation for our preferences or aversions. And this is where the concept of moral values comes in. Having “values” implies that we

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have a moral code that we live by, or at least that we tell ourselves we try to live by, a set of beliefs about what constitutes good conduct and a good character. Perhaps equally important, having values implies that we have a conception of what society should be, such as a promoter of values we consider good, a safety net for when things go wrong, an overseer that punishes bad behavior and rewards good behavior, a caregiver for all our basic needs, or a minimalist organization that protects the people against internal and external enemies but otherwise leaves them alone to pursue their own happiness. In Chapter 7 we examine several of these conceptions of social values. In the late twentieth century the number of college classes in introductory ethics and value theory swelled. When they hear I teach ethics, people who are unfamiliar with how college classes in the subject are taught say, “Good! Our college students really need that!” That response always makes me pause: What do they think I teach? Right from wrong? Of course, we do have discussions about right and wrong, and we can, from time to time, even reach agreement about some moral responses being pref- erable to other moral responses. If students haven’t acquired a sense of values by the time they’re in college, I fear it’s too late: Psychologists say a child must develop a sense of values by the age of seven to become an adult with a conscience. If the child hasn’t learned by the second grade that other people can feel pain and pleasure, and that one should try not to harm others, that lesson will probably never be truly learned. Fortu- nately, that doesn’t mean everyone must be taught the same moral lessons by the age of seven—as long as we have some moral background to draw on later, as a sounding board for further ethical refl ections, we can come from morally widely diverse homes and still become morally dependable people. A child growing up in a mobster type of family will certainly have acquired a set of morals by the age of seven—but it isn’t necessarily the same set of morals as those acquired by a child in a liberal, secular, humanist family or in a Seventh-Day Adventist family. The point is that all these chil- dren will have their “moral center” activated and can expand their moral universe. A child who has never been taught any moral lessons may be a sociopath of the future, a person who has no comprehension of how other people feel, no empathy. If having moral values has to do with brain chemistry, and with simple likes and dislikes, why don’t we turn to the disciplines of neuroscience and psychology for an understanding of values? Why is philosophy the discipline that examines the values issue? That question goes to the core of what philosophy is: Neuroscience can tell us about the physical underpinnings of our mental life and possibly whether our mental reactions have a correlation to the world we live in, but as you saw earlier will see below, it can’t tell us whether our mental processes are socially appropriate or inap- propriate, morally justifi ed or unjustifi ed, and so forth. Neuroscience has recently identifi ed areas in the brain where moral decisions involving empathy take place, but that doesn’t mean that neuroscientists can tell us which moral decisions are more correct than others. Psychology can tell us only what people believe and possibly why they believe it; it can’t make a statement about whether people are justifi ed in believing it. Philosophy’s job, at least in this context, is to question our values; it forces us to provide reasons, and preferably good reasons, for giving our moral approval to one type of behavior and disapproving of another. Philosophy asks the fundamental question Why, in all its fi elds, including the fi eld of value theory/ethics. (Box 1.1 gives

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In the chapter text, you read that philosophy traditionally asks the question Why . This is one of the features that has characterized Western philosophy from its earliest years in Greek antiquity. We generally date Western philoso- phy from approximately seven hundred years B.C.E./B.C. (“before the common era”/“before Christ”), when some Greek thinkers, such as Thales, Heraclitus, and Parmenides, began to ask questions about what reality truly con- sists of: Is it the way we perceive it through the senses, or is there an underlying true real- ity that our intellect can understand? Thales believed the underlying reality was water; Heraclitus believed that it was a form of ever- changing energy; and Parmenides saw true reality as being an underlying realm of per- manence, elements that don’t change. We call this form of philosophy metaphysics; in Chapter 8 you will read a brief introduction to Plato’s famous theory of metaphysics, but otherwise the topic of metaphysics has only indirect bearing on the topic of this book. A few centuries after Thales, the next area of phi- losophy that manifested itself was ethics, with Socrates’ questioning of what is the right way to live (see chapter text). Two generations later the third area of philosophy was introduced, primarily through the writings of Aristotle: logic, the establishing of rules for proper think- ing as opposed to fallacious thinking. But the fourth area of Western philosophy didn’t re- ally take hold in the minds of thinkers until some two thousand years later, in the seven- teenth century, when René Descartes began to explore what the mind can know: epistemol- ogy, or theory of knowledge. All four branches of philosophy are represented today in school curricula and enjoy vibrant debates within the philosophical community. The only branch to have languished somewhat is metaphysics, since modern science has answered some of

its ancient questions: We now know about the subnuclear reality of quantum mechanics. But a classical question of metaphysics remains unanswered by science to this day: What is the nature of the human mind? Do we have a soul that outlives our bodies, or will our self be ex- tinguished with the demise of our brain? Until the mid–twentieth century, philosophy was usually taught in the West with the underly- ing assumption that philosophy as such was, by and large, a Western phenomenon. That rather ethnocentric attitude has changed considerably over the last decades. It is now recognized un- equivocally among Western scholars that Asian philosophy has its own rich traditions of explo- ration of metaphysics and ethics in particular; and some philosophers point out that in a sense, all cultures have metaphysics and ethics, even if they have no body of philosophical literature, because their legends, songs, and religious sto- ries will constitute the culture’s view of reality as well as the moral rules and their justifi cations. As for logic and epistemology, they are not as frequently encountered in non-Western cul- tures: Indian philosophy has established its own tradition of logic, but epistemology remains a Western philosophical specialty, according to most Western scholars. To the four classic branches, philosophy has added a number of specialized fi elds over the centuries, such as philosophy of art (aesthetics), social philosophy, philosophy of religion, politi- cal philosophy, philosophy of sports, philoso- phy of human nature, philosophy of gender, and philosophy of science. What makes these fi elds philosophical inquiries is their special approach to their subjects; they investigate not only the nature of art, social issues, religion, politics, and so on, but also the theoretical underpinnings of each fi eld, its hidden assumptions and agen- das, and its future moral and social pitfalls and promises.

Box 1.1 T H E F O U R C L A S S I C B R A N C H E S O F P H I L O S O P H Y

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an overview of the classic branches within philosophy.) Why do we have the values we have? Why do values make some people give up their comfort, even their lives, for a cause, or for other people’s welfare? Why do some people disregard the values of their society for a chosen cause or for personal gain? Is it ever morally appropriate to think of yourself and not of others? Are there ultimate absolute moral values, or are they a matter of personal or cultural choices? Such fundamental questions can be probed by philosophy in a deeper and more fundamental way than by neuroscience or psychology, and we will explore such questions in the upcoming chapters. If having values is such an important feature of our life, should elementary schools teach values, then? It may be just a little too late, if indeed a child’s moral sense is de- veloped by the age of seven, but at least there is a chance it might help; and for children whose parents have done a minimal job of teaching them respect for others, school will probably be the only place they’ll learn it. Some elementary schools are developing such programs. Problems occur, however, when schools begin to teach values with which not all parents agree. We live in a multicultural society, and although some parents might like certain topics to be on the school agenda, others certainly would not. Some parents want their children to have early access to sex education, whereas others consider it unthinkable as a school subject. There is nothing in the concept of values that implies we all have to subscribe to exactly the same ones, no matter how strongly we may feel about our own. So, beyond teaching basic values such as common courtesy, perhaps the best schools can do is make students aware of values and value differences and let students learn to argue effectively for their own values, as well as to question them. Schools, in other words, should focus on ethics in addition to morality . So what is the difference between ethics and morality? Ethics comes from Greek ( ethos, character) and morality from Latin ( mores, character, custom, or habit). Today, in English as well as in many other Western languages, both words refer to some form of proper conduct. Although we, in our everyday lives, don’t distinguish clearly between morals and ethics, there is a subtle difference: Some people think the word morality has negative connotations, and in fact it does carry two different sets of asso- ciations for most of us. The positive ones are guidance, goodness, humanitarianism, and so forth. Among the negative associations are repression, bigotry, persecution— in a word, moralizing . Suppose the introductory ethics course on your campus was labeled “Introduction to Morals.” You would, in all likelihood, expect something different from what you would expect from a course called “Introduction to Ethics” or “Introduction to Values.” The word morality has a slightly different connotation from that of the terms ethics and values . That is because morality usually refers to the moral rules we follow, the values that we have. Ethics is generally defi ned as theories about those rules; ethics questions and justifi es the rules we live by, and, if ethics can fi nd no rational justifi cation for those rules, it may ask us to abandon them. Moral- ity is the stuff our social life is made of—even our personal life—and ethics is the ordering, the questioning, the awareness, the investigation of what we believe: Are we justifi ed in believing it? Is it consistent? Should we remain open to other beliefs or not? If we live by a system of moral rules, we may or may not have understood them or even approved of them, but if we have a code of ethics we signal to the world that we stand by our values, understand them, and are ready to not only act on them

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but also defend them with words and deeds. (And that is, of course, why it was an interesting choice for the Montana legislature to get involved in advocating a code of ethics for their state.) In other words, it is not enough just to have moral rules; we should, as moral, mature persons, be able to justify our viewpoints with ethical arguments or, at the very least, ask ourselves why we feel this way or that about a certain issue. Ethics, therefore, is much more than a topic in a curriculum. As moral adults, we are re- quired to think about ethics all the time. Most people, in fact, do just that, even in their teens, because it is also considered a sign of maturity to question authority, at least to a certain extent. If a very young adult is told to be home at 11 P.M., she or he will usually ask, “Why can’t I stay out till mid- night?” When we have to make up our minds about whether to study over the weekend or go hiking, we usually try to come up with as many pros and cons as we can. When someone we have put our trust in betrays that trust, we want to know why. All those questions are practical applications of ethics: They question the rules of morality and the breaking of those rules. Although formal training in ethical questions can make us better at judging moral issues, we are, as adult human beings, already quite experi- enced just because we already have asked, “Why?” a number of times in our lives.

Good and Evil

You have probably heard the “E-word” (evil) recently, in conversation or in the media. And “good” is surely one of the most frequently used words in the English language. But interestingly, for most of the previous century ethicists preferred to use terms such as “morally acceptable and unacceptable,” or “right vs. wrong,” rather than good vs. evil. That pattern seems to be changing, and we’ll talk about why in this section. When terrible things happen to ordinary people, including natural disasters as well as calamities of human origin, from the 2011 earthquake and tsunami in Japan to

DILBERT © 1997 Scott Adams. Used by permission of UNIVERSAL UCLICK. All rights reserved.

Ethicists point out that having a system of values isn’t enough for a person to be morally mature— one must also engage in thinking about those values and critically examine them from time to time. Cartoonist Scott Adams obviously agrees.

Dilbert by Scott Adams

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In The Lord of the Rings (2001–3) the concept of evil is symbolized by the Ring. Here the hobbit Smeagol (Andy Serkis) fi nds the Ring on his birthday (top). Many years later the effects of evil are clearly visible: Smeagol has become Gollum (bottom), a solitary creature whose mind is focused exclusively on the Ring.

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the inundation of New Orleans during Hurricane Katrina, and terrorist attacks around the world including September 11, 2001, we usually hear stories of people who are not only victims of the disaster, but also subsequent victims of human schemes of violence or fraud. But we also hear about people who go out of their way to help oth- ers. During the nuclear crisis in Japan following the earthquake and tsunami, what became known as the Fukushima 50 (actually around 300 volunteers) chose to go in and work in the damaged nuclear reactors, in peril of their lives and certainly exposed to high levels of radiation, for the sake of the community. It was clear that they knew the risk, but also that they volunteered because they felt it was the right thing to do for their community. During the collapse of a mine in Chile in 2010, 33 miners who were trapped deep underground were rescued through a concerted effort by several teams from different parts of the world, literally inventing drilling methods that even- tually, after more than two months, brought up every single miner from the dark on live television as well as online coverage, to the cheers of a worldwide audience. In November 2009 at Ft. Hood, Army psychiatrist-turned- gunman Major Nidal Hasan shot into an unarmed crowd of military personnel (because on-base soldiers ordinar- ily don’t carry weapons) and managed to kill thirteen and wound thirty before he was shot and incapacitated by two police offi cers, Kimberly Munley and her partner Mark Todd, who exposed themselves to his gunfi re and were themselves wounded. In the Virginia Tech massacre in 2007 in Blacksburg, Virginia, thirty-two students and professors were murdered by a student, Seung-Hui Cho, but many more might have died had it not been for Dr. Liviu Livrescu, a 76-year-old semi-retired professor who blocked the door for Cho until all his students could make their escape through the window. In the end Dr. Livrescu couldn’t hold the door any longer, and Cho burst in and killed him, and subsequently killed himself. Such stories (of which you will hear more in Chapter 4 where we will discuss the phenomena of selfi shness and altruism) remind us that dreadful things can happen in the blink of an eye, but also that there are extraordinary people who will rise to the occasion and make decisions that may cost them their lives, for the sake of others. That, to most of us, may be the ultimate form of goodness, but the everyday kindness of a helping hand or a considerate re- mark shouldn’t be discounted, even if the kind person isn’t endangering his or her life. There is hardly a word with a broader meaning in the English language than “good”—we can talk about food tasting good, test results being good, a feeling being good, but also, of course, of actions being good and persons being good, and we mean something different in all these examples. In Box 1.2 you’ll fi nd a discussion of moral and nonmoral values, and “good” fi ts right into that discussion: It is a value term because it expresses approval, but it can be an approval that has to do with moral issues (such as actions and a person’s character) or it can be unrelated to moral issues, such as judging the result of a quiz, or a medical test, or something we ap- prove of because of its aesthetic qualities (it looks good, tastes good, sounds good). If we assume that we’re interested mostly in the moral value of “good,” we have only narrowed it down somewhat, because now we have to defi ne what, in our context and in our culture, is considered a morally good act. It could be acting according to the rules of one’s culture’s religion; it could be acting with compassion or with fore- sight as to the overall consequences of one’s actions; or it could be simply doing one’s

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duty. A “good person” could be someone who is simply nice by nature, but it could also be someone who struggles to do the right thing, perhaps even against his or her nature. Or it could be simply someone we approve of, based on our cultural rules. That particular moral attitude will be discussed in Chapter 3, Ethical Relativism . But there is also something called being “too good,” like a Goody Two-Shoes, so perhaps being morally above reproach isn’t always good? In the Narrative section at the end of this chapter, you’ll fi nd a selection from John Steinbeck’s famous novel East of Eden, with a discussion of not only the ultimate story of good and evil but also how the ideas of good and evil can be perceived by an adolescent who wants to be good like his twin brother but fi nds himself to be of quite a different nature. In our everyday life we encounter the term “evil” frequently in the media and entertainment, and most of us use it regularly. We even have a character in a popular series of comic movies about retro hero Austin Powers, Dr. Evil, who really is quite evil, and enjoying it. Entire fi lm franchises and book series are centered around the

What is a value? Most often the word refers to a moral value, a judgment of somebody’s behav- ior according to whether or not it corresponds to certain moral rules (for example, “Tiffany is a wonderful person; she always stays after the party to help with the dishes”). However, some value judgments have nothing to do with moral issues, and so they are called nonmoral , which is not the same as immoral (breaking moral rules) or amoral (not having any moral standards). Such nonmoral value judgments can include statements about taste (such as “The new gallery downtown has a collection of exquisite water- colors”; “I really dislike Bob’s new haircut”; and “Finn makes a great jambalaya”), as well as state- ments about being correct or incorrect about facts (such as “Lois did really well on her last math test” and “You’re wrong; last Saturday we didn’t go to the movies; that was last Sunday”). Like moral value judgments, nonmoral value judgments generally refer to something being right or wrong, good or bad; but, unlike moral value judgments, they don’t refer to morally right or wrong behavior. Nonmoral value concepts abound in our present-day society: What we call aesthetics, art theory, is a form of nonmoral

value theory, asking questions such as, Are there objective rules for when art is good? and Is it bad, or is it a matter of personal taste or of ac- culturation? If you dislike hip-hop music, or like Craftsman-style architecture, are there valid ob- jective justifi cations for your likes and dislikes, or are they relative to your time and place? Art theory even has an additional values concept: the relationship between light and dark colors in a painting. But the most prevalent nonmoral value concept in our everyday world surely has to do with getting good value —with buying something for less than it is worth. That prompted a po- litical commentator, Michael Kinsley, who was fed up with the political talk about moral values a few years ago, to quip, “When I want values, I go to Wal-Mart.” And McDonald’s has been running a commercial suggesting that parents who want family values should take their kids to McDonald’s for the Value Meal, appealing to the perennial parental guilt. In other words, sati- rists and copywriters can have a fi eld day doing a switcheroo on our conception of values, from nonmoral to moral and back again, and what we readers and consumers can do is stay on our toes so we aren’t manipulated.

Box 1.2 M O R A L A N D N O N M O R A L V A L U E S

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fi ght against evil, such as the Harry Potter series, The X-Men , and Lord of the Rings . But entertainment is one thing that we can leave behind—another thing is real life: The surviving students at Virginia Tech will have those memories for the rest of their lives, and many a young life was cut short that day, bringing grief to their families. And why? Cho apparently had psychological problems which perhaps could have been helped and Cho could have been stopped in time—he felt aggression toward other students whom he perceived as being “rich.” The Ft. Hood massacre is still a traumatic moment in our military history, and the events of 9/11 are seared into the memories of an en- tire nation. And then we have the media favorites: the serial killer stories where killers manage to evade the law for months, sometimes even decades, preying on young or otherwise vulnerable members of society—children, or prostitutes and drug addicts. From the Green River Killer James Ridgway to the BTK (Bind, Torture, Kill) killer Dennis Rader, to Joseph Duncan who killed an entire family in Idaho so he could abduct and abuse the two youngest children (of whom only the little girl survived, to become an excellent and clear-minded witness against him). In Austria Josef Fritzl was arrested for having kept his own daughter captive in a hidden room in the basement for twenty-four years, raping her and fathering seven children with her. And in Cali- fornia a young woman, Jaycee Dugard, resurfaced after eighteen years of captivity, kid- napped at the age of eleven by a man and his wife who then kept her prisoner in their backyard. She, too, was a victim of multiple rapes, resulting in two pregnancies. And football star Michael Vick confessed to being involved with an international dog fi ght- ing ring. He served twenty-one months in prison and two months’ home confi nement. Are such people who victimize others—humans or animals—evil? Or should we just say that their actions are evil? Or should we use another term entirely, such as being morally wrong ? What do the professionals say—the ethicists who make a living teaching theo- ries of moral values and writing papers, monographs, and textbooks? Interestingly, most contemporary ethicists tend to talk about issues such as selfi shness and unself- ishness, informed consent, weighing moral principles against overall consequences of one’s actions, group rights versus individual rights, and so forth. We hear dis- cussions about the concepts of moral right and wrong and the principles by which we determine such concepts. What we rarely hear mentioned by any contemporary ethicists are the concepts that most people associate with moral issues: good and evil . Exceptions would be American philosophers such as Philip Hallie and Richard Tay- lor and the British philosopher Mary Midgley. Why are so few philosophers these days interested in talking about good and evil, when it was one of the key topics in centuries past? For one thing, there is an underlying assumption that good and evil are religious concepts, and as we shall see, the philosophical discussions about ethics and values these days tend to steer clear of the religious connection to ethics. For another, talking about good and evil generally implies that we pass judgment on what is good and what is evil—which means that we take sides, we no longer analyze concepts in some lofty realm of objectivity, we engage ourselves in seeking good and shunning evil. It also means that we condemn those who are labeled evil and praise those we call good. In other words, we engage in what some would call moralizing, and most ethicists have for decades tried to avoid just that, with some

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exceptions. However, since September 11, 2001, the concept of evil has been part of our political vocabulary, spearheaded by President Bush, who labeled nations sup- porting terrorism as an axis of evil and referred to the terrorists of 9/11 and others as evildoers . A precedent was created when President Reagan labeled the Soviet Union “The Evil Empire” in the 1980s. Although that terminology, to some critics, is far too close to a religious vocabulary for comfort, for other Americans there is great relief and, indeed, comfort in being able to use a word with the weight of tradition behind it to describe something most of us consider dreadful acts committed by people with no consideration for human decency. But what exactly do we call evil? Is evil a force that exists outside human beings—is there a source of evil such as the devil, some satanic eternal power that tempts and preys on human souls? Or is it, rather, a force within the human mind, disregarding the needs and interests of other human beings just to accomplish a goal? Or might it perhaps be a lack of something in the human mind—a blind spot where the rest of us have a sense of community, belonging, empathy for others? In that case, might we explain the acts of “evildoers” as those of sick individuals? But wouldn’t that entail that they can’t be blamed for what they do, because we don’t usually blame people for their illnesses? Those are questions that involve religion, psychology, and ethics, and there is to this day no consensus among scholars as to how “evil” should be interpreted. Some see terrorists, serial killers, and child molesters as evil, but we may not agree on what makes them evil—a childhood deprived of love, a genetic predisposition, a selfi sh choice that involves disregard for other people’s humanity, a brainwashing by an ideology that distinguishes between “real” people and throwaway people, an outside superhuman evil force that chooses a human vehicle? For the German philosopher Immanuel Kant, whom you’ll meet in Chapter 6, there was no doubt what evil is: the self-serving choice that individuals make freely, even when they know full well the moral law they ought to be follow- ing. But that may not be all there is to it. When the Abu Ghraib prison scandal hit in 2005, many people were reminded of two groundbreaking American psychology experiments: the Stanley Milgram obedience experiments at Yale University in the nineteen sixties, wherein Professor Milgram showed that if you are under the infl u- ence of an authority who takes responsibility for your actions, you are likely to be willing to commit acts of atrocity toward other human beings; he demonstrated that test subjects, believing themselves to be assisting with an experiment, would over- come their unwillingness to give electric shocks to test subjects in another room (in reality actors who weren’t being harmed at all) to the point of killing them, as long as they were told they had to do it, and it was not their responsibility. The other infamous experiment was the Stanford Prison Experiment in 1971, conducted by psychologist professor Philip Zimbardo, wherein a group of experimental subjects— ordinary male college students—were divided into “prisoners” and “prison guards,” in order to examine why conditions would deteriorate so quickly in a real prison setting. Before long the “prison guards” began treating the “prisoners” with abusive cruelty, believing that such behavior was somehow warranted to maintain author- ity, and Zimbardo had to terminate the experiment within less than a week. Both an American fi lm and a German version, both titled The Experiment , are chilling reen- actments of the experiment. Some see such an event as proof that human nature is

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fundamentally bad—it doesn’t take much for the veneer of civilization to wear thin, and our true, evil nature surfaces. For others, all this means is that there are all kinds of reasons why people do what they do; some of what we call evil is based on a moral choice, and some of it is an outcome of environmental pressures or brain anomalies. In 2007 Zimbardo published a book, The Lucifer Effect, in which he drew par- allels between the experiment and the Abu Ghraib incident. You’ll fi nd an excerpt from this book in the Primary Readings section of this chapter. But already in 1963, the German philosopher Hannah Arendt had coined an expression for this particu- lar shade of wrongdoing: the banality of evil . Arendt was living in Germany when Hitler came to power, but she managed to fl ee to Paris before the Holocaust: She was a German Jew, and would undoubtedly have been swept up in the extermina- tion process. Years after the war she was tormented not only by the thought of the atrocities perpetrated in the death camps but also by the knowledge that so many human beings either stood by and let the Holocaust happen or actively participated in the torture and death of other human beings. (And, for the record, the Holocaust did happen—13 million people perished in the Nazi death camps on the orders of Hitler and his henchmen Himmler and Eichmann, and those who deny that fact are playing political games. Enough said.) The conclusion reached by Arendt and pub- lished in her book Adolf Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of Evil is that the German public who had an inkling of what was going on and the Nazis who were actively engaged in the Endlösung, or the “Final Solution,” were not evil in the sense that they (or most of them) deliberately sought to gain personal advantage by causing pain and suffering to others. Rather, it was more insidious: Little by little, they came to view the atrocities they were asked to perform, or disregard, as a duty to their country and their leader, as something their victims deserved, or simply as a normal state of affairs and not something hideous or depraved. They became banal, everyday acts, corrupting the minds of the victimizers. In Arendt’s words about Eichmann’s execution for his participation in the Holocaust:

It was as though in those last minutes he was summing up the lesson that this long course in human wickedness had taught us—the lesson of the fearsome, word-and-thought- defying banality of evil. . . . The trouble with Eichmann was precisely that so many were like him, and that the many were neither perverted nor sadistic, that they were, and still are, terribly and terrifyingly normal. From the viewpoint of our legal institutions and of our moral standards of judgment, this normality was much more terrifying than all the atrocities put together, for it implied—as had been said at Nuremberg over and over again by the defendants and their counsels—that this new type of criminal . . . commits his crimes under circumstances that make it well-nigh impossible for him to know or to feel that he is doing wrong. . . .

But before we begin to assume that all evil acts are of the kind that may lurk in ordinary people’s hearts, let us just remind ourselves that not all evil acts are “banal.” Surely, the deliberate torturing and killing of children by a Joseph Duncan is not the kind of evil that ordinary people are periodically persuaded to perform under extraordinary circumstances, and neither are the deliberate mass murders at Virginia Tech and Ft. Hood. For such acts involving deliberate choices directly intending and resulting in harm to innocent people we may want to reserve the terms egregious

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or extreme evil . If we want to adopt the vocabulary of “evil,” in addition to “morally wrong” and “misguided,” we must also recognize that there are degrees of evil, rang- ing from reluctantly causing pain (such as in the Milgram experiments) to humiliat- ing other human beings, to abusing, torturing, and killing them with deliberation and gusto. And perhaps it is a disservice to our sense of evil to assume that “we’re all capable of doing evil.” Some forms of evil are the result not of ordinary people being seduced into insensitivity but of some people’s deliberate choices to cause harm. And even in the Stanley Milgram experiment some test subjects refused to turn the shock dial. In Chapter 11, in the section about the philosopher Philip Hallie, you’ll read a story that goes into detail about rising up against evil: the story of a French village that rebelled against the Nazis. Hallie presents this story as an “antidote to cruelty,” and you will fi nd an additional reference to Philip Zimbardo and his coining of a new term, “the banality of heroism,” a theory that claims that if evil is a possibility in our hearts, so, too, are heroism and altruism—in other words, inherent goodness . Even if we have now taken a look at some different meanings of the term “evil,” we have of course by no means exhausted the topic, but a further discussion would be outside the scope of an introductory chapter. We might continue talking about where we think evil originates—as a failing to see others as equal human beings, maybe even a brain defi ciency that excludes empathy? Or is it willful selfi shness? In Chapter 4 we look at the concepts of selfi shness and unselfi shness. Or is it just a matter of perspective—one culture’s evil is another culture’s goodness? We look at the question of different cultural values in Chapter 3. Or we might also ask the question that has troubled many cultures for thousands of years, generally known as the Problem of Evil: If there is a god, and he, she, or it is a well-intended, all-powerful being, then why do terrible things happen to good people? That question, profound as it may be, belongs within Philosophy of Religion, and lies beyond the scope of this textbook. That doesn’t mean you’re not welcome to think about its implications.

Debating Moral Issues from Religion to Neurobiology and Storytelling

Every functional society on earth has had a “philosophy” of what one should do or be in order to be considered a good person. Sometimes that moral code is expressed orally in stories and songs, and sometimes it is expressed in writing. When it is ex- pressed as a set of rules with explanations justifying the rules, we may call it a code of ethics . For it to become a philosophical discipline, we must add the practice of examining and questioning the rules.

The Socratic Beginnings of Ethics

The Greek philosopher Socrates (fi fth century B.C.E.) is often credited with being the fi rst philosopher in the Western tradition to focus on ethics. That can be a reasonable observation, provided we don’t confuse ethics with morals. It would, of course, be preposterous to claim that any one person, including a famous philosopher, should get credit for inventing morals. Every society since the dawn of time has had a moral code, even if all it consisted of was “respect the chief and your elders.” Without a

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communal moral code you simply can’t maintain a society, and in every generation parents have been the primary teachers of the continuity of morality. In addition, as we’ll see in the next section, every society on the planet has had a religion of some sort, and into every religion is built a moral code. So what did Socrates contribute, if he didn’t invent morals? He elevated the discussion of morals to the level of an academic, critical examination, exploration, and justifi cation of values. It became an abstract discussion that was, for the fi rst time in the West, removed from both reli- gious dogma and social rules, at the same time becoming a personal matter of growth and wisdom. Most of our knowledge of Socrates comes from the works of the phi- losopher Plato, one of his students. In his series of Dialogues, conversations between Socrates and various friends, students, and enemies, Plato has Socrates observe, on his fi nal day before being executed for crimes against the Athenian state (see Chap- ter 8), that “the unexamined life is not worth living,” and that the ultimate question for every human being is “How should one live?” Acquiring moral wisdom is thus a requirement for a person who doesn’t want to go through life with blinders on. Although we can imagine that wise old men and women may have taught the same lesson throughout human time, Socrates was the fi rst that we know of to incorporate critical questions about moral values into a study of philosophical issues for adults. In other words, Socrates became the inventor of ethics as an academic discipline, not just a critical lifestyle. And for over two thousand years, philosophers in the West have included the study of ethics in their curricula, including the notion that to be a morally mature person you must engage in a personal critical examination of your own values and the values of your society. The famed Socratic or dialectic method has two major points: that if you approach an issue rationally, other rational minds will be able to accept your conclusion, and that a useful approach is a conversation, a dialogue, between teacher and student. The teacher will guide the student through a series of questions and answers to a rational conclusion, rather than give the student the answer up front. The method is to this day a favorite among philosophy instruc- tors, psychotherapists, and law school professors.

Moral Issues and Religion

Cultures developing independently of the Western tradition have experienced a sim- ilar fascination for the subject of acting and living right. Socrates’ version remains unique among ancient thinkers because he encouraged critical thinking instead of emphasizing being an obedient citizen. In China, Confucius expressed his philoso- phy of proper moral conduct as a matter of obedience to authorities and, above all, respect for one’s elders at approximately the same time that Socrates was teaching students critical thinking in the public square in Athens. In Africa, tribal thinkers de- veloped a strong sense of morality that stressed individuals’ sense of responsibility to the community and the community’s understanding of its responsibility to each in- dividual—a philosophy that has become known to the West in recent years through the proverb “It takes a village to raise a child.” Among American Indian tribes, the philosophy of harmony between humans and their environment— animate as well as inanimate nature—has been part of the moral code.

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For all cultures, however, there is a common denominator: Go back far enough in time and you’ll fi nd a connection between the social life of the culture, its mores, and its religion. In some cultures the connection is clear and obvious to this day: Religion is the key to the moral values of the members of the community, and any debate about values usually takes place within the context of that religion. In other cultures, such as large parts of Europe, Canada, Australia, and to some extent the United States, the connection to religion has become more tenuous and has in some cases all but vanished; public social life has become secularized, and moral values are generally tied to the question of social coexistence rather than to a religious basis. That doesn’t mean that individual people can’t feel a strong connection to the reli- gious values of their family and their community. This raises several questions, all depending on one’s viewpoint and personal experience. If you have grown up in a culture where religion is a predominant cultural phe- nomenon, or if you have grown up in a religious family, or if you fi nd yourself deeply connected to a religious community today, do you regard your moral values as being inextricably tied to your religion? Do you regard moral values as being closely con- nected to religion as such? If that is your background, then chances are that you’ll answer yes. And if you have grown up in a Western, largely secularized culture such as big-city USA, and have not grown up in a religious family, or have distanced your- self from religion for some reason or other, do you view the question of religion as irrelevant for moral values in a modern society and for your own moral decisions? Chances are that you’ll answer yes, if this description applies to you. Here, in a nutshell, is the problem when talking about religion and values. In this diverse world—diverse not just because of nationalities, ethnicity, gender, and religion but also because of the vast variety of moral and political views even within one community—it is very hard for us to reach any kind of consensus or fi nd common ground about values if we seek answers exclusively in our religion. Chances are that if you have a religion, it is not shared by a large number of people you associate with. If you stick exclusively to the group you share your faith (or nonfaith) with, of course you will feel fortifi ed by the confi rmation of your views through your religion, and your ideas aren’t going to be challenged; but if you plan to be out and about in the greater society of this Western culture, you can’t expect everyone to agree with you. (In Chapter 3 we discuss the issue of how to approach the subject of moral differences.) So how does moral philosophy approach this issue? Interestingly, you’ll fi nd religious as well as nonreligious moral philosophers in modern times. Go back to the nineteenth century and beyond, and you will fi nd that almost all the Western moral philosophers were religious—Christian or Jewish. In the twentieth century there was a sharp increase in moral philosophers who chose a secular basis of reasoning for their ethics, and that remains a feature of today’s ethical debates. But even in centuries past, most philosophers who argued about ethics and who professed to be religious tended to avoid using their religion as the ultimate justifi cation for their moral values. Because, how can you argue with faith? Either you share the faith or you don’t. But argue on a basis of rationality, and you have a chance of reaching an understanding of values, even if you disagree

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about religion—or at least you may gain an understanding of where the other per- son is coming from. Reason as a tool of ethics can be a bridge builder between be- lievers, atheists, and agnostics. For agnostics and atheists, there can be no turning to religion for unquestioned moral guidance, because they view religion itself as an unknown or nonexistent factor. Agnostics claim that they do not know whether there is a God or that it is impossible to know. Atheists claim that there is no God. Both the agnostic and the atheist may fi nd that religion suggests solutions to their problems, but such solutions are accepted not because they come from religion but because they somehow make sense. For a philosophical inquiry, the requirement that a solution make sense is par- ticularly important; although religion may play a signifi cant role in the development of moral values for many people, a philosophical investigation of moral issues must involve more than faith in a religious authority. Regardless of one’s religious belief or lack thereof, such an investigation must involve reasoning because, for one thing, philosophy teaches that one must examine issues without solely relying on the word of authority. For another thing, a rational argument can be a way for people to reach an understanding in spite of having different viewpoints on religion. Accordingly, a good way to communicate about ethics for both believers and nonbelievers is to approach the issue through the language of reason .

Moral Issues and Logic

As we saw at the end of the section on moral issues and religion, it has been a choice of philosophers from the earliest times to argue about moral issues on the basis of reasoning rather than religious faith, regardless of their own religious affi liations. That means that the classical philosophical fi eld of logic is considered a valuable tool for discussing moral issues, because if philosophers can agree on anything, it is usu- ally whether or not an argument violates the rules of logic. An “argument” in philosophy is not a heated discussion or a screaming contest but a certain type of communication that strives to convince a listener that something is true or reasonable. Here is an ultrashort account of the basic principles of logic: An argument has at least one premise, and usually several premises, followed by a conclusion. Such an argument can be either inductive or deductive . The conclusion of an inductive argument is based on a gathering of evidence (such as “Tom prob- ably won’t say thank you for the birthday present—he never does”), but there is no certainty that the conclusion is true, only that it is probable. On the other hand, in a deductive argument the premises are supposed to lead to a certain conclusion. A valid deductive argument is a deductive argument whose conclusion follows nec- essarily from its premise or premises. (For example, “All dogs are descendents of wolves; Fluffy is a dog; therefore, Fluffy is a descendent of wolves.” This is valid whether or not dogs actually are descendents of wolves, which inductive evidence shows they probably are.) A sound deductive argument is an argument that is valid and whose premises are also factually true (such as “On the vernal [spring] equinox, night and day are of equal length all over the planet. So, on the vernal equinox, the day is twelve hours long in Baghdad as well as in Seattle”).


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Logical fallacies invalidate a moral viewpoint just as they do any other kind of viewpoint. Have you heard someone claim that because she has been cheated by two auto mechanics, no auto mechanics can be trusted? That’s the fallacy of hasty generalization . Have you heard someone who is an expert in one fi eld claim to be an authority in another—or people referring to some vague “expert opinion” in defense of their own views? That is the fallacy of appeal to authority . When someone tries to prove a point just by rephrasing it, such as “I’m right, because I’m never wrong,” that is the fallacy of begging the question, a circular defi nition assuming that what you are trying to prove is a fact. How about a bully arguing that if you don’t give him your seat/purse/car, he will harm you? That’s the ad baculum (Latin for “by the stick”) fallacy, the fallacy of using physical threats. And if someone says, “Well, you know you can’t believe what Fred says—after all, he’s a guy,” that’s an ad hominem ( “to the man”) fallacy, which assumes that who a person is determines the correctness or incorrectness of what he or she says. And a politician declaring “If we continue to allow women to have abortions, then pretty soon nobody will give birth, and the human race will die out” offers a slippery slope argument, which assumes that drastic consequences will follow a certain policy. Closely related is the straw man fallacy, in- venting a viewpoint so radical that hardly anyone holds it, so you can knock it down: “Gun advocates want to allow criminals and children to own weapons, so we should work toward a gun ban.” And if you claim that “it is my way or the highway,” then you are bifurcating —you are creating a false dichotomy (unless, of course, we’re really talking about a situation with no third possibility, such as being pregnant—you can’t be a little bit pregnant; it’s either/or). Another fallacy is the famed red herring, familiar to every fan of mystery and de- tective stories. A “red herring” is placed on the path to confuse the bloodhound. In other words, it is a defl ection away from the truth. In an everyday setting, this can be accomplished by changing the subject when it gets too uncomfortable (“Why did you get an F on your test, Bob?” “Mom, have I ever told you you’re prettier than all my friends’ moms?”). The notoriety of the red herring fallacy in court cases is well known, from introducing the race issue in the O. J. Simpson criminal trial to attacking a rape victim’s sexual history to defl ect attention away from the defendant. A fallacy most of us who make our living teaching are very familiar with is the fallacy of ad misericor- diam, appeal to pity: “Please, can I get an extension on my paper? My backpack was stolen, my cat ran away, my grandma is in the hospital, and I’ve got these really killer hangnails.” Or is it hangovers, perhaps? We’ve heard them all, all the bad excuses. But an excuse becomes an ad misericordiam fallacy only if it is nothing but an excuse. Sometimes a person truly deserves special consideration because of individual hard- ship, of course. Those and other logical fallacies are rampant in media discussions, and part of proper moral reasoning consists in watching out for the use of such fl awed arguments, in one’s own statements as well as in those of others.

Moral Issues and the Neurobiological Focus on Emotions

But is logic all there is to a good moral argument? Some philosophers would say yes, even today: The force of a moral viewpoint derives from its compelling logic. But

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increasingly, other voices are adding that a good moral argument is compelling not just because of its logic but also because it makes sense emotionally . If we have no feeling of moral approval or outrage, then do we really care about whether something is morally right or wrong? If we don’t feel that it’s wrong to harm a child, then how is logic going to persuade us? A classic answer has been an appeal to the logic of the Golden Rule: You wouldn’t want someone to harm you, would you? But, say some, that’s an appeal to how you’d feel in the same situation. An appeal to pure feeling isn’t going to be enough, because feelings can be manipulated, and appeals to emotions don’t solve confl icts if we don’t share those emotions; but combined with the logic of reasoning emotions can form the foundation of a forceful moral argument, according to some modern thinkers. And they fi nd support from a group of researchers who normally haven’t had much occasion, or inclination, to converse with philosophers: neuroscientists. In 1999 researchers at the University of Iowa led by neuroscientist Antonio Damasio found that a general area of the brain, the prefrontal cortex, plays a pivotal role in our development of a moral sense. And in 2007 came a new conclusion, also published by Damasio with other scientists in the journal Nature, that the human brain contains an area that enables us to think about other people’s lives with empa- thy. And while Damasio is not a philosopher, he has a keen understanding of, and an interest in the history of philosophy and the philosophical and moral implica- tions of his fi ndings. Damasio sees human beings as primarily emotional beings, not predominantly rational beings. For generations philosophers have relied on the power of reason and logic to come up with solutions to moral problems; now that is being challenged by neuroscientists such as Damasio, and philosophers such as Martha Nussbaum (below), claiming that there is more to a good moral decision than relying exclusively on logic. But laypeople, without having much knowledge of the more elaborate moral theories expressed by philosophers, have generally relied on their moral and religious upbringing as well as their moral intuition : Some


DILBERT © 2001 Scott Adams. Used by permission of UNIVERSAL UCLICK. All rights reserved.

Lately, research has pointed to the existence of certain areas in the brain where moral deliberations happen. If those areas are damaged, the individual seems to have a hard time acting on moral de- liberations or even understanding moral issues. Obviously, this Dilbert cartoon takes a dim view of whether people in management have a functioning moral center.

Dilbert by Scott Adams

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actions have just seemed obviously right, and some obviously wrong, based on each person’s cultural and religious background (in Chapter 3 we discuss whether there might be universal moral values). Now neuroscientists are telling us that the old controversial assumption that we have a moral intuition is not far wrong—most of us seem to be born with a capacity for understanding other people’s plights, which means that naturalism as a moral philosophy is staging a strong comeback (Box 1.3 explores the new interest in moral naturalism as a result of the latest fi ndings in neu- roscience). But that doesn’t mean we always automatically know the right thing to do, or the proper way to be, especially when the world changes dramatically within a generation. Scientists tell us that much of what goes on within our moral intuition is based on the way humans used to live together thousands of years ago when we were living in small tribal groups consisting of perhaps 100 members, all of whom we knew personally. Our sense of duty, our concern for others, our joys of friend- ship, and our sense of fairness have for tens of thousands of years evolved within such small groups, and we have not yet adjusted to the world of relationships being so much bigger and more complex. But we all (at least those of us who are born

Over the course of the twentieth century and the beginning of the twenty-fi rst, ethicists (moral philosophers) have been divided as to the na- ture and origin of moral values. Some have claimed that, somehow, values are embedded in the human psyche and that every human being within the normal range, psychologically, has a set of values. Although such values will evidently differ somewhat from culture to culture, ac- cording to this theory values will not differ radi- cally from culture to culture, since we all come equipped with a moral intuition, hardwired from birth. Such viewpoints are referred to by the general term of moral naturalism. Others have claimed that our value systems are exclusively a matter of social convention, convenient systems for living in groups, so they can be completely different from culture to culture. Yet others have held that our morals, although not hardwired, are not relative but a result of rational delibera- tion. In upcoming chapters we look at the theo- ries of cultural and ethical relativism as well as the entire question of which values we ought to have—values that simply refl ect the culture we

live in, values that we feel naturally drawn to, or values that refl ect a timeless rational system of ethics regardless of our cultural affi liation. In a manner of speaking, both the view that morals are relative and the view that we have a moral intuition have found support in twenty- fi rst-century science: The relativist points to the vast knowledge amassed by anthropology over a hundred years showing that, indeed, moral val- ues differ dramatically all over the planet; in ad- dition, psychology has shown how fl exible the mind of the human child is, ready to adapt to any social convention favored by the group it grows up within. And yet, moral intuitionism has seen a boost from neuroscientists within the last few years and in the chapter text you’ll see how the studies performed by Antonio Damasio and oth- ers have provided support for philosophers who think our sense of right and wrong is somehow hard-wired into our nature: What makes us fl ourish as a social group is good for us, and as such deemed good by the society in question. But the idea is not new—24 centuries ago Aristo- tle (see Chapter 9) had similar thoughts.

Box 1.3 T H E R E T U R N O F M O R A L N A T U R A L I S M

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with an undamaged brain) come equipped with a sense of empathy. While not exactly a “moral center” (Damasio has been careful to point that out), the normal function of that area of the brain will result in a reluctance to cause harm to others, even if greater harm to a majority could thereby be avoided. This study dovetailed with previous research and speculations by other scientists: On the basis of a study of thirty people, out of whom six had suffered damage to their ventromedial frontal lobes, the neuroscientists concluded that we humans have an area in the brain that, when undamaged, makes us hesitate if faced with a tough decision involving other people’s lives. We have, from ancient times, developed an emotional reluctance to make decisions that will cause the death of other people, even if it is for the com- mon good. The research subjects with damage to that specifi c part of the brain had no problem making moral decisions that would save many but cause the deaths of one or a few humans. These subjects did not come across as callous, unfeeling peo- ple, and were absolutely not classifi ed as sociopaths. They would no more sell their daughters into sex slavery or torture an animal than would the “normal” subjects. However, when asked to make decisions that would cost human lives, they showed much less reluctance than the subjects with no damage to that part of the brain. Questions such as “Would you divert a runaway vehicle so that it will kill one per- son instead of the fi ve people in its current path?” were answered affi rmatively. The researchers concluded that the “normal” brain has evolved to recognize the value of a human life emotionally, probably because we are social beings and need to be able to have emotional ties to the people in our group. This study has made waves for several reasons. For one, it corroborated previ- ous studies that showed that humans have specifi c areas in the brain where moral decisions are made, a “moral compass.” In other words, we do appear to have been equipped with some sort of moral intuition from birth. For another, it weighed in on an ancient debate in moral philosophy: Are our moral decisions primarily emotional or primarily logical? And should they be primarily emotional or primarily logical? The vast majority of philosophers since the time of Plato have argued that the more we are able to disregard our personal emotions when we make moral decisions, the better our decisions will be. As you will see in several chapters in this book, philosophers (such as Plato, Chapters 4 and 8; Jeremy Bentham, Chapter 5; and Immanuel Kant, Chap ter 6) have argued that moral decisions ought to be either exclusively or predominantly ra- tional, logical, and unemotional. It is a rare exception to read a philosopher who ar- gues either that our moral decisions are in fact emotional (such as David Hume does; see Chapter 4) or that they should be emotional (argued by Richard Taylor; see Chap- ter 11). A handful of thinkers from Aristotle (Chapter 9) to Diane Whiteley ( Chapter 7) and Martha Nussbaum (in this chapter) argue that we shouldn’t make moral decisions without using our reason but that we shouldn’t disregard our emotions either. In Chapter 11 philosopher Jesse Prinz discusses whether we need moral empathy to make moral decisions. Box 1.4 discusses the Trolley Problem and its implications for our understanding of emotional and rational responses to moral dilemmas. The neuroscientists’ study seems to say that a healthy human brain will intui- tively incorporate emotions in its moral decisions involving other people’s lives— which would mean that all the philosophers who have argued that emotions should


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be avoided in moral decision making are somehow wrong and are even advocating something inhumane. So is that all we need to disprove them? Hardly. Neurosci- entists can tell us where in the brain our moral decisions take place, and evolution- ary psychologists can tell us how the whole fi eld of ethics has evolved, and some scientists even claim that when we make big complex decisions we tend to rely on our emotions, while smaller, simpler questions are typically solved rationally. These fi ndings may be enlightening to the fi eld of moral philosophy (and I person- ally think they are fascinating, and not to be disregarded). However, these scientists can’t necessarily tell us which moral decisions are better . But what may be even more important is that the classical philosophical point of arguing in favor of reason and against emotion is that even if it is hard to disregard our emotions in key moral deci- sions, then that is perhaps precisely what we ought to do from time to time? We may feel reluctant or squeamish about sacrifi cing one life to save a hundred, but that may be what is required of us in extreme situations, not because it is easy, or because we enjoy it, but because it is necessary. The diffi culty with this approach is that such ar- guments have been used, through time, to enslave countless innocent human beings,

The famous Trolley Problem is a so-called thought experiment fi rst envisioned by British philoso- pher Philippa Foot (see Chapter 10), and later developed further by American philosopher Judith Jarvis Thomson. In Foot’s version a trol- ley is running out of control toward fi ve people who have been tied to the tracks. You can di- vert it to another track, but one person is tied to that track. Should you do it? Foot’s point was to illustrate various responses based on differ- ent moral philosophies (which we look at in upcoming chapters), but Thomson’s version is even more challenging: The only way you can stop the trolley is by pushing “a fat man” next to you in front of the tracks. Here, she says, you’re not just defl ecting harm, you are causing ad- ditional harm, to someone with rights. Subse- quent versions have various numbers of people on the tracks versus having to sacrifi ce a larger or smaller number of people to save them— including imagining that the person you must sacrifi ce is someone dear to you. Such questions are good at illustrating a variety of moral con- cerns about rights, equality and consequences,

but very few people will ever have to make such agonizing “Sophie’s choices,” deriving from the fi lm classic Sophie’s Choice where a mother cap- tured by the Nazis during World War II has to choose life for one of her two children, and death for the other. However, the Trolley Prob- lem has also been picked up on by experimental philosophers (philosophers believing that prac- tical experience and experiments should dic- tate our philosophical theories) Joshua Green and Jonathan Cohen. What they found under lab conditions was that even if the test subjects know that they can save fi ve by killing one, the emotional response confl icts with the rational response. We just don’t want to harm that one person, even if we can save fi ve. And Damasio, in his 2007 study, adds to the result: Most of us have a natural empathy that make us reluctant to cause harm, even if reason tells us it is the only logical way. The philosophical question here is, of course, whether it sometimes makes sense to override our empathy and be rational— and save the many by sacrifi cing the few. We will discuss that issue in Chapter 5.

Box 1.4 T H E T R O L L E Y P R O B L E M A N D E M O T I O N V S . R E A S O N

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or use them as cannon fodder, or exterminate them, all in the name of reason. But it is also the only argument we have to justify shooting a plane full of passengers down if it has been hijacked and is headed for the Capitol, or to not forget about the law when a serial killer of children shows contrition in court and claims he has had a horrible life of abuse himself. At a less dramatic level, reason’s override of emo- tions is what we need when our child is crying because she doesn’t want to go to the dentist or to kindergarten; you will encounter this question again in Chapter 5. So, again, the neuroscientists can tell us what are normal and abnormal brain reactions, but without further philosophical discussion they can’t tell us what is morally right. Furthermore, if we take into account the results of the Stanley Milgram experiments and the Stanford Prison Experiment, we can’t conclude that humans will not harm one another—they may be reluctant, normally, to harm one another, but that reluc- tance can be overridden by other factors, such as threats, fear for their own safety, ambitions, and a wish to please their superiors. It takes a moral philosopher (with or without academic credentials) to engage in that discussion. And that is precisely what moral philosophers do. Some, such as Patricia Church- land, focus on the biology of the brain to get a more complete picture of where moral decisions originate, and how they work within human evolution and human social life. Others, like Martha Nussbaum, look at human behavior in general, to get a sense of how we understand our norms and values from a point of view that includes human emotions. We return to Nussbaum shortly.

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Baltzan, Paige. Business driven information systems/Paige Baltzan, Daniels College of Business, University of Denver.—FOURTH EDITION. pages cm Includes index. ISBN 978-0-07-337689-9 (alk. paper)—ISBN 0-07-337689-2 (alk. paper) 1. Information technology—Management. 2. Industrial management—Data processing. I. Title. HD30.2.B357 2014 658.4’038011—dc23 2012040826

The Internet addresses listed in the text were accurate at the time of publication. The inclusion of a web- site does not indicate an endorsement by the authors or McGraw-Hill, and McGraw-Hill does not guaran- tee the accuracy of the information presented at these sites.

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To Tony, Hannah, Sophie, and Gus: What do you always remember?

That I Love You! That I’m Proud of You!


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Brief Contentsviii

MODULE 1 Business Driven MIS

Chapter 1 Management Information Systems: Business Driven MIS

Chapter 2 Decisions and Processes: Value Driven Business

Chapter 3 Ebusiness: Electronic Business Value

Chapter 4 Ethics and Information Security: MIS Business Concerns

MODULE 2 Technical Foundations of MIS

Chapter 5 Infrastructures: Sustainable Technologies

Chapter 6 Data: Business Intelligence

Chapter 7 Networks: Mobile Business

MODULE 3 Enterprise MIS

Chapter 8 Enterprise Applications: Business Communications

Chapter 9 Systems Development and Project Management: Corporate



Appendix A Hardware and Software Basics

Appendix B Networks and Telecommunications

Appendix C Designing Databases

The Technology Plug-Ins

Apply Your Knowledge






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module 1 Business Driven MIS 1

CHAPTER 1 Management Information Systems: Business Driven MIS 2

Opening Case Study: The World Is Flat: Thomas Friedman 3

Section 1.1 Business Driven MIS 5 COMPETING IN THE INFORMATION AGE 5

Data 6 Information 7 Business Intelligence 8 Knowledge 10



Buyer Power 18 Supplier Power 19 Threat of Substitute Products or Services 19 Threat of New Entrants 20 Rivalry among Existing Competitors 20 Analyzing the Airline Industry 20

THE THREE GENERIC STRATEGIES—CHOOSING A BUSINESS FOCUS 22 VALUE CHAIN ANALYSIS—EXECUTING BUSINESS STRATEGIES 23 Learning Outcome Review 27 Opening Case Questions 29 Key Terms 29 Review Questions 29 Closing Case One: Apple—Merging Technology, Business, and Entertainment 30 Closing Case Two: Best of the Best of the Best—Under 25 32 Critical Business Thinking 34 Entrepreneurial Challenge 36 Apply Your Knowledge Business Projects 37 AYK Application Projects 41


CHAPTER 2 Decisions and Processes: Value Driven Business 42

Opening Case Study: Action Finally—Actionly 43

Section 2.1 Decision Support Systems 45 MAKING BUSINESS DECISIONS 45

The Decision-Making Process 46 Decision-Making Essentials 46

METRICS: MEASURING SUCCESS 48 Efficiency and Effectiveness Metrics 50 The Interrelationship Between Efficiency and Effectiveness MIS Metrics 51

SUPPORT: ENHANCING DECISION MAKING WITH MIS 53 Operational Support Systems 54 Managerial Support Systems 55 Strategic Support Systems 56

THE FUTURE: ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE 60 Expert Systems 61 Neural Networks 61 Genetic Algorithms 62 Intelligent Agents 62 Virtual Reality 63


Improving Operational Business Processes—Automation 72 Improving Managerial Business Processes—Streamlining 73 Improving Strategic Business Processes—Reengineering 74

THE FUTURE: BUSINESS PROCESS MANAGEMENT 77 Learning Outcome Review 78 Opening Case Questions 80 Key Terms 80 Review Questions 81 Closing Case One: Political Micro-Targeting: What Decision Support Systems Did for Barack Obama 81 Closing Case Two: Second Life: Succeeding in Virtual Times 83 Critical Business Thinking 84 Entrepreneurial Challenge 86

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Apply Your Knowledge Business Projects 87 AYK Application Projects 89

CHAPTER 3 Ebusiness: Electronic Business Value 90

Opening Case Study: Pinterest— Billboards for the Internet 91

Section 3.1 WEB 1.0: Ebusiness 94 DISRUPTIVE TECHNOLOGIES AND WEB 1.0 94

Disruptive versus Sustaining Technology 94 The Internet and World Wide Web—The Ultimate Business Disruptors 95 Web 1.0: The Catalyst for Ebusiness 96

ADVANTAGES OF EBUSINESS 98 Expanding Global Reach 98 Opening New Markets 98 Reducing Costs 100 Improving Operations 100 Improving Effectiveness 100

THE FOUR EBUSINESS MODELS 101 Business-to-Business (B2B) 102 Business-to-Consumer (B2C) 102 Consumer-to-Business (C2B) 103 Consumer-to-Consumer (C2C) 103 Ebusiness Forms and Revenue-Generating Strategies 103


Email 106 Instant Messaging 106 Podcasting 107 Videoconferencing 107 Web Conferencing 108 Content Management Systems 108

THE CHALLENGES OF EBUSINESS 108 Identifying Limited Market Segments 109 Managing Consumer Trust 109 Ensuring Consumer Protection 109 Adhering to Taxation Rules 109

Section 3.2 WEB 2.0: Business 2.0 109 WEB 2.0: ADVANTAGES OF BUSINESS 2.0 109

Content Sharing Through Open Sourcing 111 User-Contributed Content 111 Collaboration Inside the Organization 111 Collaboration Outside the Organization 112


BUSINESS 2.0 TOOLS FOR COLLABORATING 116 Blogs 116 Wikis 117 Mashups 117

THE CHALLENGES OF BUSINESS 2.0 118 Technology Dependence 118

Information Vandalism 119 Violations of Copyright and Plagiarism 119


Egovernment: The Government Moves Online 120 Mbusiness: Supporting Anywhere Business 121

Learning Outcome Review 121 Opening Case Questions 123 Key Terms 124 Review Questions 124 Closing Case One: Social Media and Ashton Kutcher 125 Closing Case Two:—Not Your Average Bookstore 126 Critical Business Thinking 128 Entrepreneurial Challenge 130 Apply Your Knowledge Business Projects 131 AYK Application Projects 135

CHAPTER 4 Ethics and Information Security: MIS Business Concerns 136

Opening Case Study: To Share—Or Not to Share 137

Section 4.1 Ethics 141 INFORMATION ETHICS 141

Information Does Not Have Ethics, People Do 144 DEVELOPING INFORMATION MANAGEMENT POLICIES 145

Ethical Computer Use Policy 145 Information Privacy Policy 146 Acceptable Use Policy 146 Email Privacy Policy 147 Social Media Policy 148 Workplace Monitoring Policy 149

Section 4.2 Information Security 151 PROTECTING INTELLECTUAL ASSETS 151

Security Threats Caused by Hackers and Viruses 153


People: Authentication and Authorization 156 Data: Prevention and Resistance 159 Attack: Detection and Response 160

Learning Outcome Review 161 Opening Case Questions 162 Key Terms 163 Review Questions 163 Closing Case One: E-Espionage 164 Closing Case Two: Hacker Hunters 165 Critical Business Thinking 167 Entrepreneurial Challenge 168 Apply Your Knowledge Business Projects 169 AYK Application Projects 171

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module 2 Technical Foundations of MIS 172

CHAPTER 5 Infrastructures: Sustainable Technologies 173

Opening Case Study: Pandora’s Music Box 174


Backup and Recovery Plan 178 Disaster Recovery Plan 179 Business Continuity Plan 181

SUPPORTING CHANGE: AGILE MIS INFRASTRUCTURE 183 Accessibility 183 Availability 184 Maintainability 185 Portability 185 Reliability 185 Scalability 185 Usability 187

Section 5.2 Building Sustainable MIS Infrastructures 187 MIS AND THE ENVIRONMENT 187

Increased Electronic Waste 188 Increased Energy Consumption 189 Increased Carbon Emissions 189


Grid Computing 189 Virtualized Computing 192 Cloud Computing 195

Learning Outcome Review 199 Opening Case Questions 200 Key Terms 201 Review Questions 201 Closing Case One: UPS Invests $1 Billion to Go Green 202 Closing Case Two: Turning Ewaste into Gold 203 Critical Business Thinking 203 Entrepreneurial Challenge 205 Apply Your Knowledge Business Projects 206 AYK Application Projects 209

CHAPTER 6 Data: Business Intelligence 210

Opening Case Study: Informing Information 211

Section 6.1 Data, Information, and Databases 214

THE BUSINESS BENEFITS OF HIGH-QUALITY INFORMATION 214 Information Type: Transactional and Analytical 214 Information Timeliness 216 Information Quality 216 Information Governance 219


Storing Data Elements in Entities and Attributes 221 Creating Relationships Through Keys 221


Increased Flexibility 222 Increased Scalability and Performance 223 Reduced Information Redundancy 223 Increased Information Integrity (Quality) 224 Increased Information Security 224


Multidimensional Analysis 229 Information Cleansing or Scrubbing 230

UNCOVERING TRENDS AND PATTERNS WITH DATA MINING 231 Cluster Analysis 234 Association Detection 235 Statistical Analysis 236

SUPPORTING DECISIONS WITH BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE 236 The Problem: Data Rich, Information Poor 237 The Solution: Business Intelligence 237 Visual Business Intelligence 238

Learning Outcome Review 239 Opening Case Questions 240 Key Terms 241 Review Questions 241 Closing Case One: Data Visualization: Stories for the Information Age 242 Closing Case Two: Zillow 243 Critical Business Thinking 244 Entrepreneurial Challenge 246 Apply Your Knowledge Business Projects 246 AYK Application Projects 249

CHAPTER 7 Networks: Mobile Business 250

Opening Case Study: The Ironman 251

Section 7.1 Connectivity: The Business Value of a Neworked World 253 OVERVIEW OF A CONNECTED WORLD 253

Network Categories 254 Network Providers 254 Network Access Technologies 255 Network Protocols 258 Network Convergence 260

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Improved Visibility 305 Increased Profitability 306

THE CHALLENGES OF SCM 307 THE FUTURE OF SCM 308 Section 8.2 Customer Relationship Management


Evolution of CRM 311 Operational and Analytical CRM 312 Marketing and Operational CRM 313 Sales and Operational CRM 314 Customer Service and Operational CRM 315 Analytical CRM 316 Measuring CRM Success 317


Core ERP Components 322 Extended ERP Components 324 Measuring ERP Success 325

THE CHALLENGES OF ERP 327 THE FUTURE OF ENTERPRISE SYSTEMS: INTEGRATING SCM, CRM, AND ERP 327 Learning Outcome Review 328 Opening Case Questions 330 Key Terms 330 Review Questions 330 Closing Case One: Can Customer Loyalty Be a Bad Thing? 331 Closing Case Two: Got Milk? It’s Good for You—Unless It’s Contaminated! 332 Critical Business Thinking 334 Entrepreneurial Challenge 336 Apply Your Knowledge Business Projects 337 AYK Application Projects 340

CHAPTER 9 Systems Development and Project Management: Corporate Responsibility 341

Opening Case Study: Getting Your Project On Track 342

Section 9.1 Developing Enterprise Applications 345 THE SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE (SDLC) 345

Phase 1: Planning 345 Phase 2: Analysis 346 Phase 3: Design 348

BENEFITS OF A CONNECTED WORLD 263 Sharing Resources 263 Providing Opportunities 265 Reducing Travel 265

CHALLENGES OF A CONNECTED WORLD 266 Security 266 Social, Ethical, and Political Issues 266

Section 7.2 Mobility: The Business Value of a Wireless World 267

WIRELESS NETWORK CATEGORIES 267 Personal Area Networks 268 Wireless LANs 268 Wireless MANs 269 Wireless WAN—Cellular Communication System 270 Wireless WAN—Satellite Communication System 272

BUSINESS APPLICATIONS OF WIRELESS NETWORKS 274 Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) 274 Global Positioning System (GPS) 275 Geographic Information Systems (GIS) 276

BENEFITS OF BUSINESS MOBILITY 278 Enhances Mobility 278 Provides Immediate Data Access 279 Increases Location and Monitoring Capability 279 Improves Work Flow 279 Provides Mobile Business Opportunities 280 Provides Alternative to Wiring 280

CHALLENGES OF BUSINESS MOBILITY 280 Protecting Against Theft 280 Protecting Wireless Connections 282 Preventing Viruses on a Mobile Device 283 Addressing Privacy Concerns with RFID and LBS 283

Learning Outcome Review 284 Opening Case Questions 286 Key Terms 286 Review Questions 287 Closing Case One: Wireless Bikes 287 Closing Case Two: Google Latitude . . . Without an Attitude? 288 Critical Business Thinking 289 Entrepreneurial Challenge 291 Apply Your Knowledge Business Projects 292 AYK Application Projects 295

module 3 Enterprise MIS 296

CHAPTER 8 Enterprise Applications: Business Communications 297

Opening Case Study: Zappos Is Passionate for Customers 298

Section 8.1 Supply Chain Management 300

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Output Devices A.8 Communication Devices A.9


System Software A.12 Application Software A.13 Distributing Application Software A.14

Key Terms A.15 Apply Your Knowledge A.15

APPENDIX B Networks and Telecommunications B.1


Peer-to-Peer Networks B.3 Client/Server Networks B.4


Ethernet B.6 Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol B.7

MEDIA B.8 Wire Media B.8 Wireless Media B.9

Key Terms B.10 Apply Your Knowledge B.10

APPENDIX C Designing Databases C.1



Basic Entity Relationships C.4 Relationship Cardinality C.6

RELATIONAL DATA MODEL AND THE DATABASE C.7 From Entities to Tables C.7 Logically Relating Tables C.8

Key Terms C.9 Apply Your Knowledge C.9

The Technology Plug-Ins T.1 Apply Your Knowledge AYK.1 Glossary G.1 Notes N.1 Credits C.1 Index I.1

Phase 4: Development 348 Phase 5: Testing 349 Phase 6: Implementation 349 Phase 7: Maintenance 350


Rapid Application Development (RAD) Methodology 353 Extreme Programming Methodology 353 Rational Unified Process (RUP) Methodology 353 Scrum Methodology 354


Unclear or Missing Business Requirements 356 Skipped Phases 356 Changing Technology 356 The Cost of Finding Errors in the SDLC 356 Balance of the Triple Constraint 357


Outsourcing Benefits 364 Outsourcing Challenges 364

Learning Outcome Review 367 Opening Case Questions 368 Key Terms 368 Review Questions 369 Closing Case One: Disaster at Denver International Airport 370 Closing Case Two: Reducing Ambiguity in Business Requirements 370 Critical Business Thinking 372 Entrepreneurial Challenge 373 Apply Your Knowledge Business Projects 374 AYK Application Projects 378


APPENDIX A Hardware and Software Basics A.1


Central Processing Unit A.2 Primary Storage A.3 Secondary Storage A.5 Input Devices A.7

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Business Driven Information Systems discusses various business initiatives first and how technology supports those initiatives second. The premise for this unique approach is that business initiatives should drive technology choices. Every discussion first addresses the business needs and then addresses the technology that supports those needs. This text provides the foundation that will enable students to achieve excellence in business, whether they major in operations management, manufacturing, sales, mar- keting, finance, human resources, accounting, or virtually any other business discipline. Business Driven Information Systems is designed to give students the ability to under- stand how information technology can be a point of strength for an organization.

Common business goals associated with information technology projects include reducing costs, improving productivity, improving customer satisfaction and loyalty, creating competitive advantages, streamlining supply chains, global expansion, and so on. Achieving these results is not easy. Implementing a new accounting system or mar- keting plan is not likely to generate long-term growth or reduce costs across an entire organization. Businesses must undertake enterprisewide initiatives to achieve broad general business goals such as reducing costs. Information technology plays a critical role in deploying such initiatives by facilitating communication and increasing business intelligence. Any individual anticipating a successful career in business whether it is in accounting, finance, human resources, or operation management must understand the basics of information technology that can be found in this text.

We have found tremendous success teaching MIS courses by demonstrating the correlation between business and IT. Students who understand the tight correlation between business and IT understand the power of this course. Students learn 10 percent of what they read, 80 percent of what they personally experience, and 90 percent of what they teach others. The business driven approach takes the difficult and often intangible MIS concepts, brings them to the student’s level, and applies them using a hands-on approach to reinforce the concepts. Teaching MIS with a business driven focus helps:

■ Add credibility to IT.

■ Open student’s eyes to IT opportunities.

■ Attract majors.

■ Engage students.


Business Driven Information Systems is state-of-the-art in its discussions, presents concepts in an easy-to-understand format, and allows students to be active participants in learn- ing. The dynamic nature of information technology requires all students, more specifically business students, to be aware of both current and emerging technologies. Students are facing complex subjects and need a clear, concise explanation to be able to understand and use the concepts throughout their careers. By engaging students with numerous case stud- ies, exercises, projects, and questions that enforce concepts, Business Driven Information Systems creates a unique learning experience for both faculty and students.

■ Audience. Business Driven Information Systems is designed for use in undergradu- ate or introductory MBA courses in Management Information Systems, which are required in many Business Administration or Management programs as part of the common body of knowledge for all business majors.

■ Logical Layout. Students and faculty will find the text well organized with the topics flowing logically from one chapter to the next. The definition of each term is provided before it is covered in the chapter and an extensive glossary is included at the back of the text. Each chapter offers a comprehensive opening case study, learning outcomes, closing case studies, key terms, and critical business thinking questions.


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■ Thorough Explanations. Complete coverage is provided for each topic that is intro- duced. Explanations are written so that students can understand the ideas presented and relate them to other concepts.

■ Solid Theoretical Base. The text relies on current theory and practice of informa- tion systems as they relate to the business environment. Current academic and pro- fessional journals cited throughout the text are found in the Notes at the end of the book—a road map for additional, pertinent readings that can be the basis for learning beyond the scope of the chapters or plug-ins.

■ Material to Encourage Discussion. All chapters contain a diverse selection of case studies and individual and group problem-solving activities as they relate to the use of information technology in business. Two comprehensive cases at the end of each chapter reinforce content. These cases encourage students to consider what concepts have been presented and then apply those concepts to a situation they might find in an organization. Different people in an organization can view the same facts from dif- ferent points of view and the cases will force students to consider some of those views.

■ Flexibility in Teaching and Learning. While most textbooks that are “text only” leave faculty on their own when it comes to choosing cases, Business Driven Information Systems goes much further. Several options are provided to faculty with case selec- tions from a variety of sources including CIO, Harvard Business Journal, Wired, Forbes, and Time, to name just a few. Therefore, faculty can use the text alone, the text and a complete selection of cases, or anything in between.

■ Integrative Themes. Several integrative themes recur throughout the text, which adds integration to the material. Among these themes are value-added techniques and methodologies, ethics and social responsibility, globalization, and gaining a competitive advantage. Such topics are essential to gaining a full understanding of the strategies that a business must recognize, formulate, and in turn implement. In addition to addressing these in the chapter material, many illustrations are provided for their relevance to business practice.

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Learning Outcomes

Learning Outcomes. These outcomes focus on what students should learn and be able to answer upon completion of the chapter.


section 3.1 Web 1.0: Ebusiness


3.1 Compare disruptive and sustaining technologies, and explain how the Internet and WWW caused business disruption.

3.2 Describe ebusiness and its associated advantages.

3.3. Compare the four ebusiness models.

3.4. Describe the six ebusiness tools for connecting and communicating.

3.5 Identify the four challenges associated with ebusiness.

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Walkthrough xvii

1. Knowledge: Do you consider Pinterest a form of disruptive or sustaining technology?

2. Comprehension: Categorize Pinterest as an example of Web 1.0 (ebusiness) or Web 2.0 (Business 2.0).

3. Application: Describe the ebusiness model and revenue model for Pinterest.

4. Analysis: What is open source software and how could Pinterest take advantage of it?


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opening case study

Pinterest—Billboards for the Internet

Pinterest has been called the latest addiction for millions of people around the world.

Pinterest, a visual social media network, allows users to create “interest boards” where

they “pin” items of interests found on the web. Terms you need to understand to use

Pinterest include:

■ Pin: A link to an image from a computer or a website. Pins can include captions for other

users. Users upload, or “pin,” photos or videos to boards.

■ Board: Pins live on boards and users can maintain separate boards, which can be cat-

egorized by activity or interests, such as cooking, do-it-yourself activities, fitness, music,

movies, etc.

■ Repin: After pinning an item, it can be repinned by other Pinterest users, spreading the

content virally. Repinning allows users to share items they like with friends and family.

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Chapter Opening Case Study. To enhance student interest, each chapter begins with an opening case study that highlights an organization that has been time-tested and value-proven in the business world. This feature serves to fortify concepts with relevant examples of outstanding companies. Discussion of the case is threaded throughout the chapter.

Opening Case Questions. Located at the end of the chapter, poignant questions connect the chapter opening case with important chapter concepts.

Chapter Opening Case Study and Opening Case Questions

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Projects and Case Studies

Case Studies. This text is packed with 27 case studies illustrating how a variety of prominent organizations and businesses have successfully implemented many of this text’s concepts. All cases are timely and promote critical thinking. Company profiles are especially appealing and relevant to your students, helping to stir classroom discus- sion and interest.

Apply Your Knowledge. At the end of each chapter you will find several Apply Your Knowledge projects that challenge students to bring the skills they have learned from the chapter to real business problems. There are also 33 Apply Your Knowledge projects on the OLC that accompanies this text ( ) that ask students to use IT tools such as Excel, Access, and Dreamweaver to solve business problems. These projects help to develop the applica- tion and problem-solving skills of your students through challenging and creative business-driven scenarios.

PROJECT I Making Business Decisions You are the vice president of human resources for a large consulting company. You are compiling a list of questions that you want each job interviewee to answer. The first question on your list is, “How can MIS enhance your ability to make decisions at our organization?” Prepare a one-page report to answer this question.

PROJECT I I DSS and EIS Dr. Rosen runs a large dental conglomerate—Teeth Doctors—that employs more than 700 dentists in six states. Dr. Rosen is interested in purchasing a competitor called Dentix that has 150 dentists in three additional states. Before deciding whether to purchase Dentix, Dr. Rosen must consider several issues:

■ The cost of purchasing Dentix.

■ The location of the Dentix offices.

■ The current number of customers per dentist, per office, and per state.

■ The merger between the two companies.

■ The professional reputation of Dentix.

■ Other competitors.


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Walkthrough xix

End-of-Chapter Elements

Key Terms. With page numbers referencing where they are discussed in the text.

Each chapter contains complete pedagogical support in the form of:

Critical Business Thinking. The best way to learn MIS is to apply it to scenarios and real-world business dilemmas. These projects require students to apply critical thinking skills and chapter concepts to analyze the problems and make recommended business decisions.

Entrepreneurial Challenge. This unique feature represents a running project that allows students to chal- lenge themselves by applying the MIS concepts to a real business. The flexibility of the case allows each student to choose the type of business he or she would like to operate throughout the case. Each chapter provides hands-on projects your students can work with their real-business scenarios.

Two Closing Case Studies. Reinforcing important concepts with prominent examples from businesses and organizations. Discussion questions follow each case study.

Business intelligence (BI), 8 Business process, 23 Business strategy, 15 Buyer power, 18 Chief information officer

(CIO), 15 Chief knowledge officer

(CKO), 15

Fact, 5 Feedback, 14 First-mover advantage, 17 Goods, 12 Information, 7 Information age, 5 Knowledge, 10 Knowledge worker, 10

Product differentiation, 20 Rivalry among existing

competitors, 20 Services, 12 Supplier power, 19 Supply chain, 19 Support value activities, 24 Switching costs, 18


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Political Micro-Targeting: What Decision Support Systems Did for Barack Obama

On the day he took the oath of office in 2009, President Barack Obama spoke a word rarely heard in inaugural addresses— data— referencing indicators of economic and other crises. His use of the word is perhaps not so surprising. Capturing and analyzing data were crucial to Obama’s rise to

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1. Modeling a Business Process Do you hate waiting in line at the grocery store? Do you find it frustrating when you go to the video rental store and cannot find the movie you wanted? Do you get annoyed when the pizza delivery person brings you the wrong order? This is your chance to reengineer the process that drives you


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1. You realize that you need a digital dashboard to help you operate your business. Create a list of all of the components you would want to track in your digital dashboard that would help you run your business. Be sure to justify how each component would help you gain insight into the opera- tions of your business and flag potential issues that could ruin your business. (Be sure to identify

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About the Plug-Ins

Located on the OLC that accompanies this text ( ), the overall goal of the plug-ins is to provide an alternative for faculty who find themselves in the situation of having to purchase an extra book to support Microsoft Office 2010 or 2013. The plug-ins presented here offer integration with the core chapters and provide critical knowledge using essential business applications, such as Microsoft Excel, Microsoft Access, DreamWeaver, and Microsoft Project. Each plug-in uses hands-on tutorials for compre- hension and mastery.

Each plug-in contains complete pedagogical support in the form of: Plug-In Summary. Revisits the plug-in highlights in summary format. Making Business Decisions. Small scenario-driven projects that help students focus individually on decision making as they relate to the topical elements in the chapters.

End-of-Plug-In Elements

Plug-In Description

T1. Personal Productivity Using IT This plug-in covers a number of things to do to keep a personal computer running effectively and efficiently. The 12 topics covered in this plug-in are:

■ Creating strong passwords. ■ Performing good fi le management. ■ Implementing effective backup and recovery strategies. ■ Using Zip fi les. ■ Writing professional emails. ■ Stopping spam. ■ Preventing phishing. ■ Detecting spyware. ■ Threads to instant messaging. ■ Increasing PC performance. ■ Using anti-virus software. ■ Installing a personal fi rewall.

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T2. Basic Skills Using Excel This plug-in introduces the basics of using Microsoft Excel, a spreadsheet program for data analysis, along with a few fancy features. The six topics covered in this plug-in are:

■ Workbooks and worksheets. ■ Working with cells and cell data. ■ Printing worksheets. ■ Formatting worksheets. ■ Formulas. ■ Working with charts and graphics.

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T4. Decision Making Using Excel This plug-in examines a few of the advanced business analysis tools used in Microsoft Excel that have the capability to identify patterns, trends, and rules, and create “what-if” models. The four topics covered in this plug-in are:

■ IF ■ Goal Seek ■ Solver ■ Scenario Manager

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Walkthrough xxi

Support and Supplemental Material All of the supplemental material supporting Business Driven Information Systems was developed by the author to ensure you receive accurate, high-quality, and in-depth content. Included is a complete set of materials that will assist students and faculty in accomplishing course objectives.

Online Learning Center ( ) The McGraw-Hill website for Business Driven Information Systems includes support for students and faculty. All supplements will be available exclusively on the OLC. This will allow the authors to continually update and add to the instructor support materials. The following materials will be available on the OLC:

Video Exercises. Each of the videos that accompany the text is supported by detailed teaching notes on how to turn the videos into classroom exercises where your students can apply the knowledge they are learning after watching the videos.

Test Bank. This computerized package allows instructors to custom design, save, and generate tests. The test program permits instructors to edit, add, or delete questions from the test banks; analyze test results; and organize a database of tests and students’ results.

Instructor’s Manual (IM). The IM, written by the author, includes suggestions for designing the course and presenting the material. Each chapter is supported by answers to end-of-chapter questions and problems, and suggestions concerning the discussion topics and cases.

PowerPoint Presentations. A set of PowerPoint slides, created by the author, accompanies each chapter and fea- tures bulleted items that provide a lecture outline, plus key figures and tables from the text, and detailed teaching notes on each slide.

Image Library. Text figures and tables, as permission allows, are provided in a format by which they can be imported into PowerPoint for class lectures.

Project Files. The author has provided files for all projects that need further support, such as data files.

Cohesion Case. The Broadway Café is a running case instructors can use to reinforce core material such as customer relationship management, supply chain management, business intelligence, and decision making. The case has 15 sections that challenge students to develop and expand their grandfather’s coffee shop. Students receive hands-on experience in business and learn technology’s true value of enabling business. Please note that the Cohesion Case is not a McGraw-Hill product but a Baltzan direct product. The case can be found at .

Video Content. Twenty videos accompany this text and cover topics from entrepreneurship to disaster recovery. Video content icons are placed throughout the text highlighting where we recommend watching the videos. Video IMs are also available so you can turn the videos into engaging classroom activities.

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McGraw-Hill Connect MIS


Less Managing. More Teaching. Greater Learning.

McGraw-Hill Connect MIS is an online assignment and assessment solution that connects students with the tools and resources they’ll need to achieve success.

McGraw-Hill Connect MIS helps prepare students for their future by enabling faster learning, more efficient studying, and higher retention of knowledge.

McGraw-Hill Connect MIS features

Connect MIS offers a number of powerful tools and features to make managing assignments easier, so faculty can spend more time teaching. With Connect MIS, students can engage with their coursework anytime and anywhere, making the learning process more accessible and efficient. Connect MIS offers you the features described next.

Simple Assignment Management

With Connect MIS, creating assignments is easier than ever, so you can spend more time teaching and less time managing. The assignment management function enables you to:

■ Create and deliver assignments easily with selectable end-of-chapter questions and test bank items.

■ Streamline lesson planning, student progress reporting, and assignment grading to make classroom manage- ment more efficient than ever.

■ Go paperless with the eBook and online submission and grading of student assignments.

Smart Grading

When it comes to studying, time is precious. Connect MIS helps students learn more efficiently by providing feedback and practice material when they need it, where they need it. When it comes to teaching, your time also is precious. The grading function enables you to: • Have assignments scored automatically, giving students immediate feedback on their work and side-by-side

comparisons with correct answers.

• Access and review each response; manually change grades or leave comments for students to review.

• Reinforce classroom concepts with practice tests and instant quizzes.

Instructor Library

The Connect MIS Instructor Library is your repository for additional resources to improve student engagement in and out of class. You can select and use any asset that enhances your lecture.

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Student Study Center

The Connect MIS Student Study Center is the place for students to access additional resources. The Student Study Center:

• Offers students quick access to lectures, practice materials, ebooks, and more.

• Provides instant practice material and study questions, easily accessible on the go.

• Gives students access to the Personalized Learning Plan described next.

Student Progress Tracking

Connect MIS keeps instructors informed about how each student, section, and class is performing, allowing for more productive use of lecture and office hours. The progress-tracking function enables you to:

• View scored work immediately and track individual or group performance with assignment and grade reports.

• Access an instant view of student or class performance relative to learning objectives.

• Collect data and generate reports required by many accreditation organizations, such as AACSB.

Lecture Capture

Increase the attention paid to lecture discussion by decreasing the attention paid to note taking. For an additional charge, Lecture Capture offers new ways for students to focus on the in-class discussion, knowing they can revisit important topics later. Lecture Capture enables you to:

• Record and distribute your lecture with a click of button.

• Record and index PowerPoint presentations and anything shown on your computer so it is easily searchable, frame by frame.

• Offer access to lectures anytime and anywhere by computer, iPod, or mobile device.

• Increase intent listening and class participation by easing students’ concerns about note taking. Lecture Capture will make it more likely you will see students’ faces, not the tops of their heads.

McGraw-Hill Connect Plus MIS

McGraw-Hill reinvents the textbook learning experience for the modern student with Connect Plus MIS. A seamless integration of an ebook and Connect MIS, Connect Plus MIS provides all of the Connect MIS features plus the following:

• An integrated ebook, allowing for anytime, anywhere access to the textbook.

• Dynamic links between the problems or questions you assign to your students and the location in the ebook where that problem or question is covered.

• A powerful search function to pinpoint and connect key concepts in a snap.

In short, Connect MIS offers you and your students powerful tools and features that optimize your time and energies, enabling you to focus on course content, teaching, and student learning. Connect MIS also

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offers a wealth of content resources for both instructors and students. This state-of-the-art, thoroughly tested system supports you in preparing students for the world that awaits.

For more information about Connect, go to , or contact your local McGraw-Hill sales representative.

Tegrity Campus: Lectures 24/7

Tegrity Campus is a service that makes class time available 24/7 by automatically capturing every lecture in a searchable format for students to review when they study and complete assignments. With a simple one-click start-and-stop process, you capture all computer screens and corresponding audio. Students can replay any part of any class with easy-to-use browser-based viewing on a PC or Mac.

Educators know that the more students can see, hear, and experience class resources, the better they learn. In fact, studies prove it. With Tegrity Campus, students quickly recall key moments by using Tegrity Campus’s unique search feature. This search helps students efficiently find what they need, when they need it, across an entire semester of class recordings. Help turn all your students’ study time into learning moments immediately supported by your lecture.

To learn more about Tegrity watch a two-minute Flash demo at .

Assurance of Learning Ready Many educational institutions today are focused on the notion of assurance of learning, an important element of some accreditation standards. Business Driven Information Systems is designed specifically to support your assur- ance of learning initiatives with a simple, yet powerful solution.

Each test bank question for Business Driven Information Systems maps to a specific chapter learning outcome/ objective listed in the text. You can use our test bank software, EZ Test and EZ Test Online, or in Connect MIS to easily query for learning outcomes/objectives that directly relate to the learning objectives for your course. You can then use the reporting features of EZ Test to aggregate student results in similar fashion, making the collection and presentation of assurance of learning data simple and easy.

AACSB Statement The McGraw-Hill Companies is a proud corporate member of AACSB International. Understanding the importance and value of AACSB accreditation, Business Driven Information Systems 4e recognizes the curricula guidelines detailed in the AACSB standards for business accreditation by connecting selected questions in the test bank to the six general knowledge and skill guidelines in the AACSB standards.

The statements contained in Business Driven Information Systems 4e are provided only as a guide for the users of this textbook. The AACSB leaves content coverage and assessment within the purview of individual schools, the mission of the school, and the faculty. While Business Driven Information Systems 4e and the teaching package make no claim of any specific AACSB qualification or evaluation, within Business Driven Information Systems 4e we have labeled selected questions according to the six general knowledge and skills areas.

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McGraw-Hill Customer Care Contact Information At McGraw-Hill, we understand that getting the most from new technology can be challenging. That’s why our services don’t stop after you purchase our products. You can email our product specialists 24 hours a day to get product-training online. Or you can search our knowledge bank of Frequently Asked Questions on our support website. For Customer Support, call 800-331-5094 or visit where you can look for your question on our FAQ or you can email a question directly to customer support. One of our technical support analysts will be able to assist you in a timely fashion.

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Apply Your Knowledge

Business Driven Information Systems contains 33 projects that focus on student application of core concepts and tools. These projects can be found on the OLC at .

Project Number Project Name Project Type Plug-In Focus Area Project Level Skill Set

Page Number

1 Financial Destiny

Excel T2 Personal Budget

Introductory Formulas AYK.4

2 Cash Flow Excel T2 Cash Flow Introductory Formulas AYK.4

3 Technology Budget

Excel T1, T2 Hardware and Software

Introductory Formulas AYK.4

4 Tracking Donations

Excel T2 Employee Relationships

Introductory Formulas AYK.4

5 Convert Currency

Excel T2 Global Commerce

Introductory Formulas AYK.5

6 Cost Comparison

Excel T2 Total Cost of Ownership

Introductory Formulas AYK.5

7 Time Management

Excel or Project T12 Project Management

Introductory Gantt Charts AYK.6

8 Maximize Profit

Excel T2, T4 Strategic Analysis

Intermediate Formulas or Solver


9 Security Analysis

Excel T3 Filtering Data Intermediate Conditional Formatting, Autofilter, Subtotal


10 Gathering Data

Excel T3 Data Analysis

Intermediate Conditional Formatting


11 Scanner System

Excel T2 Strategic Analysis

Intermediate Formulas AYK.8

12 Competitive Pricing

Excel T2 Profit Maximization

Intermediate Formulas AYK.9

13 Adequate Acquisitions

Excel T2 Break-Even Analysis

Intermediate Formulas AYK.9

14 Customer Relations

Excel T3 CRM Intermediate PivotTable AYK.9

15 Assessing the Value of Information

Excel T3 Data Analysis

Intermediate PivotTable AYK.10

16 Growth, Trends, and Forecasts

Excel T2, T3 Data Forecasting

Advanced Average, Trend, Growth


17 Shipping Costs Excel T4 SCM Advanced Solver AYK.12

18 Formatting Grades

Excel T3 Data Analysis

Advanced If, LookUp AYK.12


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Project Number Project Name Project Type Plug-In Focus Area Project Level Skill Set

Page Number

19 Moving Dilemma

Excel T2, T3 SCM Advanced Absolute vs. Relative Values


20 Operational Efficiencies

Excel T3 SCM Advanced PivotTable AYK.14

21 Too Much Information

Excel T3 CRM Advanced PivotTable AYK.14

22 Turnover Rates Excel T3 Data Mining Advanced PivotTable AYK.15

23 Vital Information

Excel T3 Data Mining Advanced PivotTable AYK.15

24 Breaking Even Excel T4 Business Analysis

Advanced Goal Seek AYK.16

25 Profit Scenario Excel T4 Sales Analysis

Advanced Scenario Manager


26 Electronic Résumés

HTML T9, T10, T11

Electronic Personal Marketing

Introductory Structural Tags


27 Gathering Feedback

Dreamweaver T9, T10, T11

Data Collection

Intermediate Organization of Information


28 Daily Invoice Access T5, T6, T7, T8

Business Analysis

Introductory Entities, Relationships, and Databases


29 Billing Data Access T5, T6, T7, T8

Business Intelligence

Introductory Entities, Relationships, and Databases


30 Inventory Data Access T5, T6, T7, T8

SCM Intermediate Entities, Relationships, and Databases


31 Call Center Access T5, T6, T7, T8

CRM Intermediate Entities, Relationships, and

Databases AYK.21

32 Sales Pipeline Access T5, T6, T7, T8

Business Intelligence

Advanced Entities, Relationships, and Databases


33 Online Classified Ads

Access T5, T6, T7, T8

Ecommerce Advanced Entities, Relationships, and Databases


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SimNet Online is McGraw-Hill’s leading solution for learning Microsoft Office skills and beyond! SimNet is our online training and assessment solution for Microsoft Office skills, computing concepts, Internet Explorer, and Windows content. With no downloads for installation and completely online (requires Adobe Flash Player), SimNet is accessible for today’s students through multiple browsers and is easy to use for all. Its consistent user interface and functional- ity will help save you time and help you be more successful in your course.

Moreover, SimNet offers you lifelong learning. Our codes never expire and the online program is designed with Self- Study and SimSearch features to help you immediately learn isolated Microsoft Office skills on demand. It’s more than a resource; it’s a tool you can use throughout your entire time at your higher education institution.

Finally, you will see powerful, measurable results with SimNet Online. See results immediately in the student grade- book and also generate custom training lessons after an exam to help you determine exactly which content areas you still need to study.

SimNet Online is your solution for mastering Microsoft Office skills!

SIMnet: Keep IT SIMple!

To learn more, visit

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McGraw-Hill Higher Education and Blackboard have teamed up. What does this mean for you?

1. Your life, simplified. Now you and your students can access McGraw-Hill’s Connect™ and Create™ right from within your Blackboard course—all with one single sign-on. Say good-bye to the days of logging in to multiple applications.

2. Deep integration of content and tools. Not only do you get single sign-on with Connect™ and Create™, you also get deep integration of McGraw-Hill content and content engines right in Blackboard. Whether you’re choos- ing a book for your course or building Connect™ assignments, all the tools you need are right where you want them—inside of Blackboard.

3. Seamless Gradebooks. Are you tired of keeping multiple gradebooks and manually synchronizing grades into Blackboard? We thought so. When a student completes an integrated Connect™ assignment, the grade for that assignment automatically (and instantly) feeds your Blackboard grade center.

4. A solution for everyone. Whether your institution is already using Blackboard or you just want to try Blackboard on your own, we have a solution for you. McGraw-Hill and Blackboard can now offer you easy access to industry leading technology and content, whether your campus hosts it, or we do. Be sure to ask your local McGraw-Hill representative for details.

Craft your teaching resources to match the way you teach! With McGraw-Hill Create, , you can easily rearrange chapters, combine material from other content sources, and quickly upload content you have written, like your course syllabus or teaching notes. Find the content you need in Create by searching through thousands of leading McGraw-Hill textbooks. Arrange your book to fit your teaching style. Create even allows you to personalize your book’s appear- ance by selecting the cover and adding your name, school, and course information. Order a Create book and you’ll receive a complimentary print review copy in 3–5 business days or a complimentary electronic review copy (eComp) via email in about one hour. Go to today and register. Experience how McGraw-Hill Create empowers you to teach your students your way.

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Stephen Adams Lakeland Community College

Adeyemi A. Adekoya Virginia State University—Petersburg

Joni Adkins Northwest Missouri State University

Chad Anderson University of Nevada—Reno

Anne Arendt Utah Valley University

Laura Atkins James Madison University

William Ayen University of Colorado

David Bahn Metropolitan State University—St. Paul

Nick Ball Brigham Young University—Provo

Patrick Bateman Youngstown State University

Terry Begley Creighton University

Craig Beytien University of Colorado—Boulder

Sudip Bhattacharjee University of Connecticut

Meral Binbasioglu Hofstra University

Joseph Blankenship Fairmont State College

Beverly Bohn Park University

Brenda Bradford Missouri Baptist University

Casey Cegielski Auburn University—Auburn

Amita Chin Virginia Commonwealth University

Steve Clements Eastern Oregon University

Cynthia Corritore Creighton University

Dan Creed Normandale Community College

Don Danner San Francisco State University

Sasha Dekleva DePaul University

Robert Denker Baruch College

Hongwei Du California State University, East Bay

Kevin Duffy Wright State University—Dayton

Annette Easton San Diego State University

Barry Floyd California Polytechnic State University

Valerie Frear Daytona State College

Laura Frost Walsh College

Don Gaber University of Wisconsin—Eau Claire

Biswadip Ghosh Metropolitan State College of Denver

Richard Glass Bryant University

Lakshmi Goel University of North Florida

Mark Goudreau Johnson & Wales University

Katie Gray The University of Texas at Austin

Gary Hackbarth Northern Kentucky University

Shu Han Yeshiva University

Peter Haried University of Wisconsin—La Crosse

Rosie Hauck Illinois State University

Jun He University of Michigan—Dearborn

James Henson California State University—Fresno

Terri Holly Indian River State College

Scott Hunsinger Appalachian State University

Ted Hurewitz Rutgers University

Yan Jin Elizabeth City State University

Brian Jones Tennessee Technological University


Working on the fourth edition of Business Driven Information Systems has been an involved undertaking, and there are many people whom we want to heartily thank for their hard work, enthusiasm, and dedication.

This text was produced with the help of a number of people at McGraw-Hill, including Brand Manager Wyatt Morris, Development Editor Alaina Tucker, and Kathryn Wright, our Project Manager.

Additionally, we would like to thank Scott Davidson (Director), Tiffany Russell (Marketing Manager), Matt Diamond (Designer), Kevin White (Digital Development Editor), and Keri Johnson (Content Licensing Specialist) for your support and dedica- tion to the success of this text.

Finally, we offer our sincerest gratitude and deepest appreciation to our valuable reviewers whose feedback was instrumental in successfully compiling this text. We could not have done this without you!

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Robert Judge San Diego State University

B. Kahn Suffolk University

Virginia Kleist West Virginia University

Meagan Knoll Grand Valley State University

Rick Kraas Kalamazoo Valley Community College

Chetan Kumar California State University—San Marcos

Guolin Lai University of Louisiana—Lafayette

Jose Lepervanche Florida State College—Jacksonville

Norman Lewis Wayne State University

Mary Lind North Carolina A&T State University

Steve Loy Eastern Kentucky University

Joan Lumpkin Wright State University—Dayton

Linda Lynam University of Central Missouri

Nicole Lytle-Kosola California State University—San Bernardino

Garth MacKenzie University of Maryland University College

Michael Martel Ohio University—Athens

Dana McCann Central Michigan University

David McCue University of Maryland

Lynn McKell Brigham Young University

Patricia McQuaid California Polytechnic State University

Fiona Nah University of Nebraska—Lincoln

Eric Nathan University of Houston Downtown

Bill Neumann University of Arizona

Richard Newmark University of Northern Colorado

Kathleen Noce Pennsylvania State University—Erie

Gisele Olney University of Nebraska—Omaha

Kevin Parker Idaho State University—Pocatello

Neeraj Parolia Towson University

Gang Peng Youngstown State University

Julie Pettus Missouri State University

Craig Piercy University of Georgia

Clint Pires Hamline University

Jennifer Pitts Columbus State University

Carol Pollard Appalachian State University

Lara Preiser-Houy California State Polytechnic University—Pomona

John Quigley East Tennessee State University

Muhammad Razi Western Michigan University

Lisa Rich Athens State University

Russell Robbins University of Pittsburgh

Fred Rodammer Michigan State University

Steve Ross Western Washington University

Mark Schmidt St. Cloud State University

Dana Schwieger Southeast Missouri State University

Darrell Searcy Palm Beach Community College

Jay Shah Texas State University

Vivek Shah Texas State University

Vijay Shah West Virginia University— Parkersburg

Jollean Sinclaire Arkansas State University

Changsoo Sohn St. Cloud State University

Toni Somers Wayne State University

Denise Sullivan Westchester Community College

Yi Sun California State University—San Marcos

Mike Tarn Western Michigan University

Mark Thouin The University of Texas at Dallas

Lise Urbaczewski University of Michigan—Dearborn

Hong Wang North Carolina A&T State University

Barbara Warner University of South Florida

Connie Washburn Georgia Perimeter College

Bruce White Quinnipiac University

Raymond Whitney University of Maryland University College

Rosemary Wild California Polytechnic State University

Marie Wright Western Connecticut State University

Yajiong Xue East Carolina University

Ali Yayla Binghamton University

Grace Zhang Midwestern State University

Lin Zhao Purdue University—Calumet

Jeanne Zucker East Tennessee State University

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About the Authorxxxii


Pa ige Ba l tzan Paige Baltzan teaches in the Department of Business Information and Analytics at the

Daniels College of Business at the University of Denver. She holds a B.S.B.A. specializing

in Accounting/MIS from Bowling Green State University and an M.B.A. specializing in

MIS from the University of Denver. She is a coauthor of several books, including Business

Driven Technology, Essentials of Business Driven Information Systems, I-Series, and a con-

tributor to Management Information Systems for the Information Age.

Before joining the Daniels College faculty in 1999, Paige spent several years working

for a large telecommunications company and an international consulting firm, where

she participated in client engagements in the United States as well as South America

and Europe. Paige lives in Lakewood, Colorado, with her husband, Tony, and daughters

Hannah and Sophie.

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MODULE 1: Business Driven MIS

MODULE 3: Enterprise MIS

MODULE 2: Technical Foundations

of MIS

module 1 Business Driven MIS

M OST COMPANIES TODAY rely heavily on the use of management information sys-

tems (MIS) to run various aspects of their businesses. Whether they need to order and ship

goods, interact with customers, or conduct other business functions, management information

systems are often the underlying infrastructure performing the activities. Management informa-

tion systems allow companies to remain competitive in today’s fast-paced world and especially

when conducting business on the Internet. Organizations must adapt to technological advances

and innovations to keep pace with today’s rapidly changing environment. Their competitors cer-

tainly will!

No matter how exciting technology is, successful companies do not use it simply for its own

sake. Companies should have a solid business reason for implementing technology. Using a

technological solution just because it is available is not a good business strategy.

The purpose of Module 1 is to raise your awareness of the vast opportunities made possible

by the tight correlation between business and technology. Business strategies and processes

should always drive your technology choices. Although awareness of an emerging technology

can sometimes lead us in new strategic directions, the role of information systems, for the most

part, is to support existing business strategies and processes.

Module 1: Business Driven MIS

CHAPTER 1:  Management Information Systems: Business Driven MIS

CHAPTER 2:  Decisions and Processes: Value Driven Business

CHAPTER 3:  Ebusiness: Electronic Business Value

CHAPTER 4:  Ethics and Information Security: MIS Business Concerns

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What’s in IT for me? This chapter sets the stage for the textbook. It starts from ground zero by providing a clear description of what information

is and how it fits into business operations, strategies, and systems. It provides an overview of how companies operate in

competitive environments and why they must continually define and redefine their business strategies to create competi-

tive advantages. Doing so allows them to survive and thrive. Information systems are key business enablers for successful

operations in competitive environments.

You, as a business student, must understand the tight correlation between business and technology. You must first rec-

ognize information’s role in daily business activities, and then understand how information supports and helps implement

global business strategies and competitive advantages. After reading this chapter, you should have a solid understanding of

business driven information systems and their role in managerial decision making and problem solving.


■ I d e n t i f y i n g C o m p e t i t i v e A d v a n t a g e s

■ T h e F i v e F o rc e s M o d e l — E v a l u a t i n g I n d u s t r y A t t r a c t i v e n e s s

■ T h e T h re e G e n e r i c S t r a t e g i e s — C h o o s i n g a B u s i n e s s F o c u s

■ Va l u e C h a i n A n a l y s i s — E x e c u t i n g B u s i n e s s S t r a t e g i e s

SECTION 1.2 Business Strategy

■ C o m p e t i n g i n t h e I n f o r m a t i o n A g e

■ T h e C h a l l e n g e : D e p a r t m e n t a l C o m p a n i e s

■ T h e S o l u t i o n : M a n a g e m e n t I n f o r m a t i o n S y s t e m s

SECTION 1.1 Business Driven MIS









Management Information Systems: Business Driven MIS

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3Business Driven MIS Module 1

opening case study

The World Is Flat: Thomas Friedman

Christopher Columbus proved in 1492 that the world is round. For centuries, sailors maneu-

vered the seas discovering new lands, new people, and new languages as nations began

trading goods around the globe. Then Thomas Friedman, a noted columnist for The New

York Times, published his book The World Is Flat.

Friedman argues that the world has become flat due to technological advances connecting

people in China, India, and the United States as if we were all next-door neighbors. Physicians

in India are reading X-rays for U.S. hospitals, and JetBlue Airways ticket agents take plane

reservations for the company from the comfort of their Utah homes. Technology has elimi-

nated some of the economic and cultural advantages developed countries enjoy, making the

world a level playing field for all participants. Friedman calls this Globalization 3.0.

Globalization 1.0 started when Christopher Columbus discovered the world is round and

the world shrank from large to medium. For the next several hundred years, countries domi-

nated by white men controlled business. Globalization 2.0 began around 1800, during the

Industrial Revolution, when the world went from medium to small. In this era international

companies dominated by white men controlled business. Globalization 3.0 began in early

2000, removing distance from the business equation, and the world has gone from small to

tiny. In this era, people of all colors from the four corners of the world will dominate busi-

ness. Farmers in remote villages in Nepal carry an iPhone to access the world’s knowledge

at, say, Wikipedia or the stock market closing prices at Bloomberg.

Outsourcing, or hiring someone from another country to complete work remotely, will

play an enormous role in this era. It has advantages and disadvantages. Outsourcing work

to countries where labor is cheap drives down production costs and allows companies to

offer lower prices to U.S. consumers. Having an accountant in China complete a U.S. tax

return is just as easy as driving to the H&R Block office on the corner, and probably far

cheaper. Calling an 800 number for service can connect consumers to an Indian, Canadian,

or Chinese worker on the other end of the line. Of course, outsourcing also eliminates some

U.S. manufacturing and labor jobs, causing pockets of unemployment. In fact, the United

States has outsourced several million service and manufacturing jobs to offshore, low-cost


Figure  1.1 shows Friedman’s list of forces that flattened the world. They converged

around the year 2000 and “created a flat world: a global, web-enabled platform for mul-

tiple forms of sharing knowledge and work, irrespective of time, distance, geography, and

increasingly, language.” Three powerful new economies began materializing at this time. In

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4 Chapter 1 Management Information Systems: Business Driven MIS

India, China, and the former Soviet Union, more than 3 billion new willing and able partici-

pants walked onto the business playing field. Business students will be competing for their

first jobs not only against other local students, but also against students from around the

country and around the globe.1

Friedman’s 10 Forces That Flattened the World

1. Fall of the Berlin Wall The events of November 9, 1989, tilted the worldwide balance of power toward democracies and free markets.

2. Netscape IPO The August 9, 1995, offering sparked massive investment in fiber- optic cables.

3. Work flow software The rise of applications from PayPal to VPNs enabled faster, closer coordination among far-flung employees.

4. Open sourcing Self-organizing communities, such as Linux, launched a collaborative revolution.

5. Outsourcing Migrating business functions to India saved money and a Third World economy.

6. Offshoring Contract manufacturing elevated China to economic prominence.

7. Supply chaining Robust networks of suppliers, retailers, and customers increased business efficiency.

8. In-sourcing Logistics giants took control of customer supply chains, helping mom-and-pop shops go global.

9. Informing Power searching allowed everyone to use the Internet as a “personal supply chain of knowledge.”

10. Wireless Wireless technologies pumped up collaboration, making it mobile and personal.

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what is the point of regan’s discussion about aunt bea and utilitarianism’s respect for human life?

Question 11 pts

In what way does Peter Singer think that speciesism is similar to racism and sexism? 

A )They all can be habits of thought and action that we should be striving to overcome.
B )They all involve favoring one group over another on the basis of morally arbitrary differences.
C) They are all forms of unjust prejudice and discrimination.
D )All of the above. 

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Question 21 pts

The video “Meet Your Meat” can best be described as primarily communicating which message?

A)Modern industrial farming methods involve extraordinary levels of cruelty and neglect of animal well-being.
B)Modern industrial farming methods are necessary in order to feed the world’s population.
C)Modern industrial farms are open and honest about the methods they use.
D)Modern industrial farms take every measure to ensure that animal products are healthy and free of contaminants. 

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Question 31 pts

What is the point of Regan’s discussion about Aunt Bea and utilitarianism’s respect for human life?

Utilitarianism feels that human life is sacred and not to be sacrificed under any circumstance
Utilitarianism would say that God’s law that “thou shalt not kill” has no exceptions
Utilitarianism might entail that one individual’s right to life can be overridden in order to save many other people’s lives
Utilitarianism says that human life does not have value at all, and so a person can be killed for almost any reason

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Question 41 pts

What is a key feature of utilitarianism according to the assigned texts?

Utilitarianism bases morality on the outcome of our actions.
Utilitarianism depends upon belief in God.
Utilitarianism denies that moral questions have a right or wrong answer.
Utilitarianism holds that actions are right or wrong regardless of the circumstances. 

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Question 51 pts

In what way is Peter Singer’s argument in “All Animals are Equal” utilitarian? 

It is based on an absolute prohibition on all forms of killing.
It is based on the obligation to maximize happiness and minimize suffering, no matter who or what is experiencing it.
It is based on the inherent superiority of animals to humans.
It is based on the idea that animals were created to be useful to humans.

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Question 61 pts

How do we determine the difference between higher and lower pleasures, according to Mill?

The preference of those who are acquainted with both.
The relative duration and intensity.
Their conformity to religious teaching.
We can’t, since there is no difference between pleasures.  

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Question 71 pts

Which of the following describes how egg-laying hens are treated in factory farms, according to the video “Meet Your Meat”?

They are allowed to scratch through dirt and grass looking for seeds and bugs in the fresh open air.
They are given ample space to roam and to express their own natural behavior
They are kept in such tight confinement that they cannot lift their wings
All of the above

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Question 81 pts

Tom Regan’s view of animals is that:

They are exactly the same as humans in every respect, and should be treated accordingly.
They seem to have experiences and to care about their lives, which gives them a right not to merely be used.
Their value lies in the purpose they were created for, which is to serve as resources for humans.
They have bodies but lack souls, and thus lack any dignity or value whatsoever.

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Question 91 pts

What is speciesism according to Peter Singer’s account?

Allowing the interests of one’s own species to override the greater interests of members of other species.
The practice of treating all animals equally regardless of their abilities.
The part of science that studies species membership.
The view that different species have different characteristics.

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Question 101 pts

According to chapter 2 of Understanding Philosophy, which of the following would be an expression of rule utilitarianism, rather than act utilitarianism?  

“Even if torturing this person right now might be beneficial, the overall consequences of permitting torture would be harmful, and so we shouldn’t allow it in any circumstance.”
“It’s okay to torture this person because it may save thousands of lives.”
“It’s immoral to torture this person because the pain it would cause him outweighs any potential benefits.”
“We shouldn’t torture this person because we wouldn’t want him torturing us.”

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Question 111 pts

According to John Stuart Mill, utilitarianism takes into account the happiness of:

only the agent.
only the agent and those the agent cares about.
everyone, and weights everyone’s happiness equally.
everyone, but weights the happiness of the agent more heavily.

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Question 121 pts

According to chapter 2 of Understanding Philosophy, which of the following makes it difficult to calculate the utility of an act, raising a potential problem for utilitarianism?    

the time frame of the consequences
disagreements about the meaning of pleasure or happiness
determining what constitutes the greatest good
all of the above

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Question 131 pts

Which of the following does Tom Regan say about the utilitarian approach to animal ethics?

It is wrong because it ignores ‘utility’ and therefore does not recognize the utility of animals for human happiness.
It is correct because it does not base morality on the greatest overall happiness
It is correct because it treats human suffering as more important than animal suffering
It is inadequate because it does not give value to individuals but only to their feelings

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Question 141 pts

What is Tom Regan’s position about the use of animals in research and agriculture?

Animals may be used whenever it can be proven that the human benefits outweigh the harms caused to the animals.
Animals may never be used for medical research or commercial agriculture.
Animals may be used in both medical research and agriculture but should be treated as humanely as possible.
a & c

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Question 151 pts

According to Mill, utilitarian morality holds that:

With the right social arrangements and education, individuals can come to associate their own individual happiness with the happiness of all.
If each individual strives to maximize their own happiness, the happiness of all will follow.
Each individual is required to sacrifice their own individual happiness for the happiness of all.
Neither the happiness of the individual nor the happiness of all is worth pursuing, since neither is attainable in this life.  

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Question 161 pts

What does Tom Regan say is the source of inherent value in an individual, whether human or animal?

Individuals have equal inherent value by virtue of their rational intelligence.
Individuals have equal inherent value by virtue of understanding and practicing morality.
Individuals have equal inherent value by virtue of being experiencing subjects of a life, i.e. conscious beings whose lives matter to them
Individuals have equal inherent value by virtue of being cared for and loved by others. 

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Question 171 pts

Which of the following does not describe the ways that chickens and turkeys are treated on factory farms, according to the video “Meet Your Meat”

They are raised in their own excrement among corpses of other birds
They are given ample space to roam and to express their own natural behavior.
Some are so crippled from unnatural growth that they are unable to move
They are often beaten with metal rods, which is considered legal by the industry

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Question 181 pts

How does John Stuart Mill respond to the complaint that utilitarianism is a doctrine worthy of pigs?

This complaint is based on prejudice against pigs and other animals.
The life of pigs is far preferable to the life of humans, and we should strive to be more pig-like.
It’s better to have a small amount of higher, human pleasures than a large amount of lower, animal pleasures.
(a) and (b).

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Question 191 pts

According to chapter 2 of Understanding Philosophy, utilitarianism is a form of what broader kind of ethical theory?

trolly problematic.

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Question 201 pts

Which of the following statements is the strongest evidence that the person saying it is a utilitarian?

Ginny: “Violations of rights are very serious, from the moral point of view.”
Helen: “I agree. It is always immoral to violate someone’s rights.”
Ginny: “Well, I wouldn’t say ‘always’. It’s o.k. to violate rights whenever the good you can produce by doing so outweighs the harm you do by violating the person’s rights.”
Kate: “I disagree with both of you. The notion of rights is just a mechanism for the lesser members of society to maintain control over those capable of greatness.”
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which surface lesion is a torn or jagged wound

Skin: Integumentary System

Chapter 12

Related Combining Forms

StructureRelated Combining Forms
Skincutane/o, dermat/o, derm/o
Sebaceous glandsseb/o
Sweat glandshidr/o
Hairpil/i, pil/o
Nailsonych/o, ungu/o

Integumentary System

Consists of skin and its related structures (sebaceous glands, sweat glands, hair, and nails)

Average adult has two square yards of skin, making it the largest body organ

Functions of Skin

Keeps the body waterproof, hence preventing fluid loss

When intact, skin blocks the entrance of pathogens

Contains receptors for the sense of touch

Synthesizes vitamin D from the sun


Functions of Related Structures

Sebaceous glands

Secrete sebum that lubricates skin and discourages growth of bacteria on skin

Sweat glands

Assist with body water content and temperature regulation

Excretion of small amounts of metabolic wastes

Functions of Related Structures


Helps control the loss of body heat


Protect dorsal surface of last bone of each toe and finger

Structures of Skin and Its Related Structures


Specialized tissues

Three layers




(cutane: skin; -ous: pertaining to)

Structures of Skin and Its Related Structures


(epi-: above or upon; derm: skin; -is: noun ending)

Outermost layer of skin

Made of specialized epithelial tissues

Contains no blood vessels or connective tissue

Depends on the lower layers for nourishment


Epithelial tissues

Form protective covering for internal and external surfaces of the body

Squamous epithelial tissue

Forms upper layer of epidermis

Flat, scaly cells continuously shed


Basal layer

Lowest layer of epidermis

Site of new cell production

When cells reach surface, they die and become filled with keratin


Fibrous, water-repellent protein

Soft keratin: component of epidermis

Hard keratin: found in hair and nails



Special cells in basal cell layer

Produce and contain dark brown to black pigment known as melanin


Pigment that determines color of skin, produces freckles and age spots

Protects skin from some of the harmful UV rays


Directly below epidermis

Contains connective tissue, blood and lymph vessels, nerve fibers, hair follicles, sebaceous glands, and sweat glands

Sensory nerve endings

Sensory receptors for touch, temperature, pain, and pressure

Tissues Within Dermis


Tough flexible fibrous protein found in skin, bones, cartilage, tendons, and ligaments

Mast cells

Found in connective tissue of dermis

Respond to injury, infection, or allergy by producing and releasing heparin (anticoagulant) and histamine (causes allergic response)

Subcutaneous Layer

Located below the layers of skin

Connects skin to the surface muscles

Made of loose connective tissue and adipose tissue

Lipocytes manufacture and store large quantities of fat

(lip/o: fat; -cytes: cells)

Sebaceous Glands

Located in dermis

Closely associated with hair follicles


Oily substance released through ducts opening into hair follicles

Lubricates skin

Acidic, thus discourages growth of bacteria on skin

Sebaceous Glands

Mammary glands

Produce milk

Also part of the reproductive system

Sweat Glands

Sudoriferous glands

Located on almost all body surfaces

Two types


Found at hair follicles


Open onto skin

Most numerous in palms, soles, and forehead

Sweat Glands


Opening on the surface of skin

Act as ducts of the sweat glands


Secreted by sweat glands

99% water plus salt and metabolic waste

Evaporation of sweat cools the body

Sweat Glands


Production and excretion of perspiration


Composed of dead protein cells filled with hard keratin

Color of hair determined by melanin

Hair follicles

Sacs holding the root of hair fibers

Arrector pili

Muscle fibers attached to hair follicles that cause hair to stand erect, reducing heat loss


Unguis (fingernail or toenail)

Keratin plate protecting dorsal surface of the last bone of each finger and toe

Nail body


Molded to surface of underlying tissues

Make of hard, keratinized plates of epidermal cells



Nail bed

Joins nail body to underlying connective tissue

Nourishes the nail

Blood vessels provide pink color

Free edge

Portion of nail not attached to the nail bed

Extends beyond tip of the finger or toe



Half-moon-shaped region at nail root

Site of new keratin cell formation

(lun: moon; -ula: little)


Epidermis attached to the surface of nail

Nail root

Fastens nail to finger/toe

Medical Specialties Related to Integumentary System


Specializes in diagnosing/treating disorders of the skin

(dermat: skin; -ologist: specialist)

Plastic surgeon

Specializes in surgical restoration or reconstruction of body structures

(-plasty: surgical repair)

Medical Specialties Related to Integumentary System

Cosmetic surgeon

Plastic surgeon who performs operations for aesthetic rather than medical reasons

Pathology of Integumentary System

Sebaceous Glands

Acne vulgaris

Chronic inflammatory disease caused by the overproduction of sebum around the hair shaft


Noninfected lesion composed of sebum and keratin in hair follicle

Closed comedo: whitehead

Open comedo: blackhead

Sebaceous Glands

Epidermoid cyst

Closed sac just under the skin

Contains fatty material


Overproduction of sebum

(seb/o: sebum; -rrhea: flow or discharge)

Sebaceous Glands

Seborrheic dermatitis

Inflammation causing scaling/itching of upper layers of skin/scalp

Seborrheic keratosis

Benign skin growth having a waxy appearance

Varied colors

Common in elderly

Sweat Glands


Condition of lacking sweat in response to heat

(an-: without; hidr: sweat; -osis: abnormal condition)


Profuse sweating

(dia-: through or complete; phor: movement; -esis: abnormal condition)

Heat rash

Itchy rash related to the blockage of sweat glands by bacteria and dead cells

Sweat Glands


Excessive sweating in one area or over the whole body

(hyper-: excessive; hidr: sweat; -osis: abnormal condition)

Sleep hyperhidrosis

Hyperhidrosis during sleep



Inflammation of hair follicles

(follicul: hair follicle; -itis: inflammation)

Trichomycosis axillaris

Superficial bacterial infection of hair shafts in areas with extensive sweat glands, such as armpits

(trich/o: hair; myc: fungus; -osis: abnormal condition; axill: armpit; -ary: pertaining to)

Excessive Hairiness


Excessive body and facial hair in women, usually occurring in a male pattern

(hirsut: hairy; -ism: condition)

Abnormal Hair Loss


Partial or complete loss of hair

(alopec: baldness; -ia: condition)

Alopecia areata

Autoimmune disorder attacking hair follicles

Occurs in patches on scalp or elsewhere on body

Abnormal Hair Loss

Alopecia totalis

Loss of all hair on the scalp

Alopecia universalis

Total loss of hair on all parts of the body

Androgenic alopecia

Hair loss due to hormonal changes

Occurs in males and females



Abnormal curving of nails

Often accompanied by enlargement of fingertips

May be hereditary

May be due to changes associated with oxygen deficiencies related to coronary or pulmonary disease



Outer surface of nail is concave

Often indicates iron-deficiency anemia

(koil: hollow or concave; onych: fingernail or toenail; -ia: condition)


Inflammation of matrix of nail

May result in the loss of nail



Edges of toenail curve inward and cut into the skin

(onych/o: fingernail or toenail; crypt: hidden; -osis: abnormal condition)


Fungal infection of nail

(myc: fungus)


Infection of skin fold around a nail

(par-: near)

Skin Pigmentation

Acanthosis nigricans

Development of dark wart-like patches on one or more areas of skin

Age spots

Discoloration caused by sun exposure


Genetic condition characterized by lack of pigment in skin, hair, and irises of eyes

(albin: white)

Skin Pigmentation


Brownish spots on face

May occur during pregnancy, and disappear after delivery of infant


Irregular patches of white skin related to destruction of melanocytes

Bleeding into Skin


Injury to underlying tissues without breaking the skin

Discoloration caused by accumulation of blood within the skin

(contus: bruise; -ion: condition)

Bleeding into Skin


Large, irregular purplish discoloration due to bleeding under the skin

(ecchym: pouring out of juice; -osis: abnormal condition)


Multiple purple discoloration on skin due to bleeding underneath the skin

(purpur: purple; -a: noun ending)

Bleeding into Skin

Bleeding into Skin


Small, pinpoint hemorrhages less than 2 mm in diameter


Usually due to injury

Swelling of clotted blood trapped in tissues

Blood is reabsorbed

(hemat: blood; -oma: tumor)

Surface Lesions


Collection of dried serum and cellular debris


Wearing away of a surface


Flat, discolored spot less than 1 cm in diameter

Surface Lesions

Surface Lesions


Solid, raised skin lesion larger than 0.5 cm in diameter


Raised, red lesion less than 0.5 cm in diameter

Does not contain pus

Surface Lesions


Scaly, solid raised area of closely spaced papules


Flakes or dry patches of excess dead epidermal cells

Some shedding is normal

Excessive shedding associated with the skin disorders

Surface Lesions


Small, hard skin lesions caused by human papillomavirus

Also known as warts


Small, itchy bump

May be due to an allergic reaction

Fluid-Filled Lesions


Closed pocket containing pus

Due to bacterial infection


Producing or containing pus


Fluid leaking out of an infected wound

Fluid-Filled Lesions


Abnormal sac containing fluid, or semisolid material


Small, circumscribed lesion containing pus

Contained within a limited area

Fluid-Filled Lesions

Fluid-Filled Lesions


Blister, less than 0.5 cm in diameter

Contains watery fluid


Large blister more than 0.5 cm in diameter

Lesions Through Skin


Superficial layers are scraped away


Crack-like break in the skin


Torn or jagged wound

Lesions Through Skin

Lesions Through Skin

Pressure sore

Open ulcerated wound caused by the prolonged pressure on an area of the skin

Needlestick injury

Accidental puncture wound caused by hypodermic needle


Open lesion resulting in tissue loss around the edges


Pigmented birthmarks

Also known as moles or café-au-lait spots

Vascular birthmarks

Caused by blood vessels close to the skin’s surface


Capillary hemangioma

Soft, raised, pink or red vascular birthmark

Benign tissue mass

(hem: blood; angi: blood or lymph vessels; -oma: tumor)

Port-wine stain

Flat vascular birthmark made up of dilated blood capillaries

Creates reddish-purple discoloration


Inflammation of the skin

Contact dermatitis

Localized allergic response

(dermat: skin; -itis: inflammation)


Recurring dermatitis characterized by redness, itching, and dryness


Exfoliative dermatitis

Widespread scaling of the skin


Itching associated with the most forms of dermatitis

(prurit: itching)


Redness of skin due to capillary dilation

(erythem: flushed; -a: noun ending)

Erythema infectiosum

Mildly contagious viral infection common in children

Also known as fifth disease


Erythema multiforme

Generalized allergic reaction to illness, infection, or medication

Erythema pernio

Purple-red inflammation occurring when small blood vessels below the skin are damaged



Abnormal redness of entire skin surface

(erythr/o: red; -derma: skin)


Widespread rash

Hand, foot, and mouth disease

Mild viral infection common in children under 5 years of age

Sores in mouth/throat; rash on hands/feet

General Skin Conditions


Denotes skin lesion or eruption of any type not associated with inflammation


Hereditary disorders characterized by dry, thickened, scaly skin

(ichthy: dry or scaly; -osis: abnormal condition)

General Skin Conditions


Characterized by accumulation of fat and fluid in tissues under the skin of hips and legs

(lip: fat; -edema: swelling)

Systemic lupus erythematosus

Autoimmune disorder characterized by red, scaly rash on face/upper trunk


Occurrence of red papules with silvery scales

General Skin Conditions


Tiny red pimples and broken blood vessels

Commonly seen in adults 30–60 years of age


Hyperplasia of tissues of nose

Usually seen in older men

(rhin/o: nose; -phyma: growth)

General Skin Conditions


Autoimmune disorder in which connective tissues become thickened and hardened

(scler/o: hard; -derma: skin)


Itchy wheals due to allergic reaction

(urtic: rash; -aria: connected with)

General Skin Conditions


Excessively dry skin

(xer/o: dry; -derma: skin)

Bacterial Skin Infections


Cluster of furuncles


Acute bacterial infection within connective tissues

Characterized by malaise, swelling, warmth, and red streaks

Bacterial Skin Infections


Large, tender, swollen areas caused by staphylococcal infection around hair follicles or sebaceous glands


Death of tissue, followed by bacterial invasion, which may also enter bloodstream

Commonly due to the loss of circulation to the affected tissues

Bacterial Skin Infections


Highly contagious bacterial skin infection

Common in children

Necrotizing fasciitis

Caused by Group A strep that enters the body through a skin wound

Bacterial Skin Infections


Acute, pus-forming bacterial skin infection

(py/o: pus; -derma: skin)

Fungal Skin Infections


Abnormal condition caused by fungus

(myc: fungus; -osis: abnormal condition)


Fungal infection on skin, hair, or nails

Known as ringworm

Parasitic Skin Infestations


Infestation with lice

(pedicul: lice; -osis: abnormal condition)


Skin infection caused by itch mites

Skin Growths


Thickening of the part of the skin caused by repeated rubbing


Normal scar

Granulation tissue

Forms during healing of a wound

Skin Growths


Small swelling of granulation tissue

May result from inflammation, injury, infection

(granul: granular; -oma: tumor)


Thickened scar expanding beyond the boundaries of original incision

(kel: growth or tumor; -oid: resembling)

Skin Growths


Overgrowth and thickening of the skin

(kerat: hard or horny)


Benign fatty tumor located between the skin and muscle layer


Small, dark skin growth developing from melanocytes

Skin Growths

Dysplastic nevi

Atypical moles

May develop into skin cancer


Benign wart-like growth on epithelial tissue or elsewhere in the body

(papill: resembling a nipple; -oma: tumor)

Skin Growths


Mushroom-like growth from the surface of mucous membrane

Skin tags

Flesh-colored polyps hanging from the body by fine stalks


Tend to enlarge with age

Skin Cancers

Malignant growth on skin

Three types

Basal cell carcinoma

Squamous cell carcinoma


Skin Cancers

Actinic keratosis

Precancerous skin growth occurring on sun-damaged skin

Lack of treatment may lead to cancer

Basal cell carcinoma

Malignant tumor of basal cell layer of epidermis

Rarely spreads

Skin Cancers

Squamous cell carcinoma

Malignant tumor of squamous cells of epithelium

Can spread quickly to other body systems

Malignant melanoma

Occurs in melanocytes

Initial symptoms are change in the size, shape, or color of a mole

(melan: black; -oma: tumor)


Injury caused by heat, flame, electricity, sun, chemicals, or radiation

Severity described according to the percentage of the total body skin surface affected or by depth or layer of skin involved

Diagnostic Procedures of Integumentary System


Removal of small piece of living tissue for confirmation of diagnosis

(bi: pertaining to life; -opsy: view of)

Exfoliative cytology

Cells are scraped from tissue for microscopic examination

Treatment Procedures of Integumentary System

Preventive measures


Blocks harmful ultraviolet B (UVB) rays or ultraviolet A (UVA) rays

Measured in terms of strength of sun protection factor (SPF)

Burn Treatment

Depends on degree of burn, and percentage of the body surface involved

Burn centers provide pain relief, debridement, dermoplasty, IV fluids and nutritional supplements, antibiotics, cosmetic reconstruction, and rehabilitation

Tissue Removal


Destruction of tissue by burning


Use of chemicals to remove outer layers of skin


Destruction or elimination of abnormal tissue cells

(cry/o: cold; -surgery: operative procedure)

Tissue Removal


Removal of surface material by scraping


Removal of dirt, foreign objects, damaged tissue, and cellular debris from a wound

Prevention of infection and promotion of healing

Irrigation and debridement

Pressurized fluid to clean wound debris

Tissue Removal


Involves use of revolving wire brush or sandpaper


Destruction of tissue by the use of electric spark


Use of surgical instrument to cut open a lesion

Tissue Removal

Mohs’ surgery

Layers of cancerous tissue are removed and examined under the microscope

Procedure is repeated until margin that is clear of all cancerous tissue is achieved

Laser and Light Source Treatments of Skin Conditions

Laser (Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation)

Laser tube filled with solid, liquid, or gas substance is stimulated to emit light at a specific wavelength

Photosensitizing drug

Administered topically or by injection

After activation, drugs produce a form of oxygen that kills nearby cells

Medications for Treatment of Skin


Derived from vitamin A and are used because of their effect on epithelial cell growth

Topical steroids

Derivatives of natural corticosteroid hormones

Treatment of various skin disorders

Cosmetic Procedures


Surgical reduction of upper and lower eyelids by removing sagging skin

(blephar/o: eyelid; -plasty: surgical repair)


Used to reduce moderate-to-severe frown lines, to treat migraines and muscle spasms

Collagen replacement therapy

Used for soft-tissue augmentation

Cosmetic Procedures


Replacement of damaged skin of a patient with the healthy tissue taken from a donor site


Use of electric current to destroy hair follicles


Surgical removal of fat from beneath the skin to improve physical appearance

Cosmetic Procedures


Surgical removal of fat beneath the skin with the aid of suction


Surgical removal of excess skin and fat from the face

(rhytid: wrinkle; -ectomy: surgical removal)

Cosmetic Procedures


Injection of a saline sclerosing solution for treatment of spider veins (nonessential veins seen through the skin)

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structural family therapy strengths and weaknesses

Structural and Strategic Family Therapy

Individuals are born into families, grow and develop in families, and live most of their lives in families. Therefore, it makes sense that clients are best understood within the context of the family system.

——Dr. Candice Knight, Psychotherapy for the Advanced Practice Psychiatric Nurse

The family system is a social unit that is based on unique relationships and roles. Structural and strategic therapies are important, because they offer unique insights to the theoretical underpinnings of this system. As a psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner, a strong theoretical foundation will help you better understand the family unit and family therapy; this understanding will, in turn, improve the effectiveness of your work with clients.

This week, as you continue exploring family therapy, you examine structural and strategic family therapies and their appropriateness for client families. You also consider your own practicum experiences involving family therapy sessions.

Photo Credit: [Blend Images/DreamPictures]/[Blend Images]/Getty Images

Learning Resources

Note:  To access this week’s required library resources, please click on the link to the Course Readings List, found in the  Course Materials  section of your Syllabus.

Required Readings

Nichols, M. (2014). The essentials of family therapy (6th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.

· Chapter 5, “Bowen Family Systems Therapy” (pp. 69–88)

· Chapter 6, “Strategic Family Therapy” (pp. 89–109)

· Chapter 7, “Structural Family Therapy” (pp. 110–128)

Gerlach, P. K. (2015). Use structural maps to manage your family well: Basic premises and examples. Retrieved from

McNeil, S. N., Herschberger, J. K., & Nedela, M. N. (2013). Low-income families with potential adolescent gang involvement: A structural community family therapy integration model. American Journal of Family Therapy, 41(2), 110–120. doi:10.1080/01926187.2011.649110

Note: Retrieved from Walden Library databases.

Méndez, N. A., Qureshi, M. E., Carnerio, R., & Hort, F. (2014). The intersection of Facebook and structural family therapy volume 1. American Journal of Family Therapy, 42(2), 167–174. doi:10.1080/01926187.2013.794046

Note: Retrieved from Walden Library databases.

Nichols, M., & Tafuri, S. (2013). Techniques of structural family assessment: A qualitative analysis of how experts promote a systemic perspective. Family Process, 52(2), 207–215. doi:10.1111/famp.12025

Note: Retrieved from Walden Library databases.

Ryan, W. J., Conti, R. P., & Simon, G. M. (2013). Presupposition compatibility facilitates treatment fidelity in therapists learning structural family therapy. American Journal of Family Therapy, 41(5), 403–414. doi:10.1080/01926187.2012.727673

Note: Retrieved from Walden Library databases.

Sheehan, A. H., & Friedlander, M. L. (2015). Therapeutic alliance and retention in brief strategic family therapy: A mixed-methods study. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 41(4), 415–427. doi:10.1111/jmft.12113

Note: Retrieved from Walden Library databases.

Szapocznik, J., Muir, J. A., Duff, J. H., Schwartz, S. J., & Brown, C. H. (2015). Brief strategic family therapy: Implementing evidence-based models in community settings. Psychotherapy Research, 25(1), 121–133. doi:10.1080/10503307.2013.856044

Note: Retrieved from Walden Library databases.

Required Media (Producer). (2010). Bowenian family therapy [Video file]. Mill Valley, CA: Author.

Note: You will access this media from the Walden Library databases. The approximate length of this media piece is 118 minutes.

Triangle Productions (Producer). (2001). Brief strategic therapy with couples [Video file]. La Jolla, CA: Author.

Note: You will access this media from the Walden Library databases. The approximate length of this media piece is 49 minutes.

Optional Resources

Coatsworth, J. D., Santisteban, D. A., McBride, C. K., & Szapocznik, J. (2001). Brief strategic family therapy versus community control: Engagement, retention, and an exploration of the moderating role of adolescent symptom severity. Family Process, 40(3), 313–332. Retrieved from

Golden Triad Films (Producer). (1986). The essence of change. [Video file]. Mill Valley, CA:

National Institute on Drug Abuse. (2003). Brief strategic family therapy for adolescent drug abuse. Retrieved from

Navarre, S. (1998). Salvador Minuchin’s structural family therapy and its application to multicultural family systems. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 19(6), 557–570. doi:10.1080/016128498248845 (Producer). (2000b). Satir family therapy [Video file]. Mill Valley, CA: Author. (Producer). (2011b). Salvador Minuchin on family therapy [Video file]. Mill Valley, CA: Author.

Radohl, T. (2011). Incorporating family into the formula: Family-directed structural therapy for children with serious emotional disturbance. Child & Family Social Work, 16(2), 127–137. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2206.2010.00720.x

Robbins, M. S., Feaster, D. J., Horigian, V. E., Rohrbaugh, M., Shoham, V., Bachrach, K., … Szapocznik, J. (2011). Brief strategic family therapy versus treatment as usual: Results of a multisite randomized trial for substance using adolescents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 79(6), 713–727. doi:10.1037/a0025477

Santisteban, D. A., Suarez-Morales, L., Robbins, M. S., & Szapocznik, J. (2006). Brief strategic family therapy: Lessons learned in efficacy research and challenges to blending research and practice. Family Process, 45(2), 259–271. doi:10.1111/j.1545-5300.2006.00094.x

Szapocznik, J., Schwartz, S. J., Muir, J. A., & Brown, C. H. (2012). Brief strategic family therapy: An intervention to reduce adolescent risk behavior. Couple & Family Psychology, 1(2), 134–145. doi:10.1037/a0029002

Szapocznik, J., Zarate, M., Duff, J., & Muir, J. (2013). Brief strategic family therapy: Engaging drug using/problem behavior adolescents and their families in treatment. Social Work in Public Health, 28(3-4), 206–223. doi:10.1080/19371918.2013.774666

Vetere, A. (2001). Therapy matters: Structural family therapy. Child Psychology & Psychiatry Review, 6(3), 133–139. Retrieved from

Weaver, A., Greeno, C. G., Marcus, S. C., Fusco, R. A., Zimmerman, T., & Anderson, C. (2013). Effects of structural family therapy on child and maternal mental health symptomatology. Research on Social Work Practice, 23(3), 294–303. doi:10.1177/1049731512470492

Assignment 1: Structural Versus Strategic Family Therapies

Although structural therapy and strategic therapy are both used in family therapy, these therapeutic approaches have many differences in theory and application. As you assess families and develop treatment plans, you must consider these differences and their potential impact on clients. For this Assignment, as you compare structural and strategic family therapy, consider which therapeutic approach you might use with your own client families.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

· Compare structural family therapy to strategic family therapy

· Create structural family maps

· Justify recommendations for family therapy

To prepare:

· Review this week’s Learning Resources and reflect on the insights they provide on structural and strategic family therapies.

· Refer to Gerlach (2015) in this week’s Learning Resources for guidance on creating a structural family map.

The Assignment

In a 2- to 3-page paper, address the following:

· Summarize the key points of both structural family therapy and strategic family therapy.

· Compare structural family therapy to strategic family therapy, noting the strengths and weaknesses of each.

· Provide an example of a family in your practicum using a structural family map. Note: Be sure to maintain HIPAA regulations.

· Recommend a specific therapy for the family, and justify your choice using the Learning Resources.

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the cognitive learning concept of _____ learning is associated most prominently with _____.

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If you’re wondering why we’re bringing you a new edition of Psychology: Core Concepts . . .

1 In the new seventh edition, we feature new cutting-edge research on the neuroscience of social interaction, cul- tural influences on perception, daydreaming, taste, and meditation, as well as updates on bullying, the slower rise of IQ scores (the Flynn effect) in developed coun- tries, the myth of multitasking, and much more. We also introduce readers to a groundbreaking modification of Maslow’s famous hierarchy of needs, newly framed by evolutionary psychologists.

2 Our lead author Philip Zimbardo has recently published a detailed description and analysis of his famous Stanford Prison Experiment in The Lucifer Effect: Understanding How Good People Turn Evil. We are pleased to include in Psychology: Core Concepts some of the insights he presented in Lucifer—particularly the notion of the effect of impersonal social systems, as well as social situations, on human behavior. Ours is the only introductory text in which you will find a discussion of how these social systems, such as organizations and bureaucracies, create a context that can profoundly influence the behavior of groups and individuals.

3 Dr. Zimbardo has also done important new work on the differences among people in their time perspective, re- ferring to a focus on the past, the present, or the future. This text is the only introduction to psychology to dis- cuss the powerful influence of time perspective on our decisions and actions.

4 In this edition, Read on MyPsychLab icons appear in the margins indicating that additional readings are

available for students to explore. For example, one of the Read features in Chapter 3 (Sensation and Percep- tion) deals with the classic study of backward masking. In Chapter 12 (Disorders and Therapy), you can read more about an African perspective on mental disorder.

5 One of our goals in this new edition is, again, to help you learn to “think like psychologists.” To do so, we have placed new emphasis on two kinds of psychological think- ing: (1) problem solving and (2) critical thinking. Every chapter begins with a Problem and ends with a critical analysis of an important psychological question, such as gender differences or repressed memory.

6 We have made a special effort in the seventh edition to provide clues throughout the chapter to help you un- derstand the solution to the chapter-opening Problem— which proved to be a popular feature in the last edition. The Chapter Summary now gives a brief “answer” to the problem as well.

7 We have designed the Critical Thinking applications at the end of each chapter to build upon a set of critical thinking skills introduced in Chapter One. Each of these focuses on an issue that is popularly misunderstood (e.g., the Mozart Effect) or contentious within the field (e.g., the evidence- based practice debate within clinical psychology). In this edition, we have also included the gist of the Critical Thinking section in the Chapter Summary.

8 Reflecting advances in multicultural and cross-cultural research, we have added even more coverage of culture and gender throughout the text. Our goal here is two- fold: We want you to see the relevance of psychology in your life, and we want you to understand that psychol- ogy is the science of behavior and mental processes that both generalizes and differs across cultures.

Why Do You Need This New Edition?

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Philip G. Zimbardo Stanford University

Robert L. Johnson Umpqua Community College

Vivian McCann Portland Community College

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Seventh Edition

Core Concepts

Student Edition ISBN-10: 0-205-18346-8

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Zimbardo, Philip G.

Psychology : core concepts / Philip G. Zimbardo, Robert L. Johnson, Vivian McCann. — 7th ed.

p. cm.

Includes bibliographical references and index.

ISBN-13: 978-0-205-18346-3

ISBN-10: 0-205-18346-8

1. Psychology. I. Johnson, Robert L. (Robert Lee) II. McCann, Vivian. III. Title.

BF121.Z53 2012



1 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

1 Mind, Behavior, and Psychological Science 2 2 Biopsychology, Neuroscience, and Human Nature 40 3 Sensation and Perception 86 4 Learning and Human Nurture 132 5 Memory 170 6 Thinking and Intelligence 212 7 Development Over the Lifespan 264 8 States of Consciousness 322 9 Motivation and Emotion 362 10 Personality: Theories of the Whole Person 412 11 Social Psychology 458 12 Psychological Disorders 514 13 Therapies for Psychological Disorders 554 14 From Stress to Health and Well-Being 596 Glossary G-1 References R-1 Answers to Discovering Psychology Program Review Questions A-1 Photo Credits C-1 Name Index I-1 Subject Index I-7



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CHAPTER 1 Mind, Behavior, and Psychological Science 2

PROBLEM: How would psychologists test the claim that sugar makes children hyperactive? 3

1.1 What Is Psychology—And What Is It Not? 4 Psychology: It’s More Than You Think 4 Psychology Is Not Psychiatry 6 Thinking Critically about Psychology

and Pseudo-Psychology 7

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology 10

1.2 What Are Psychology’s Six Main Perspectives? 11 Separation of Mind and Body and the Modern Biological

Perspective 12 The Founding of Scientific Psychology and the Modern

Cognitive Perspective 13 The Behavioral Perspective: Focusing on Observable

Behavior 16

The Whole-Person Perspectives: Psychodynamic, Humanistic, and Trait and Temperament Psychology 17

The Developmental Perspective: Changes Arising from Nature and Nurture 19

The Sociocultural Perspective: The Individual in Context 19 The Changing Face of Psychology 20

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Psychology as a Major 22

1.3 How Do Psychologists Develop New Knowledge? 23 Four Steps in the Scientific Method 24 Five Types of Psychological Research 27 Controlling Biases in Psychological Research 31 Ethical Issues in Psychological Research 32

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: The Perils of Pseudo-Psychology 33

CRITICAL THINKING APPLIED: Facilitated Communication 35

Chapter Summary 36 Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide 38

PROBLEM: What does Jill Bolte Taylor’s experience teach us about how our brain is organized and about its amazing ability to adapt? 42

2.1 How Are Genes and Behavior Linked? 43 Evolution and Natural Selection 43 Genetics and Inheritance 45

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Choosing Your Children’s Genes 48

2.2 How Does the Body Communicate Internally? 49 The Neuron: Building Block of the Nervous System 50 The Nervous System 56 The Endocrine System 58

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: How Psychoactive Drugs Affect the Nervous System 60

2.3 How Does the Brain Produce Behavior and Mental Processes? 62 Windows on the Brain 63 Three Layers of the Brain 65 Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex 69 Cerebral Dominance 73

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology 79

CRITICAL THINKING APPLIED: Left Brain versus Right Brain 80

Chapter Summary 81 Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide 84

CHAPTER 2 Biopsychology, Neuroscience, and Human Nature 40

CHAPTER 3 Sensation and Perception 86

PROBLEM: Is there any way to tell whether the world we “see” in our minds is the same as the external world—and whether we see things as most others do? 88

3.1 How Does Stimulation Become Sensation? 89 Transduction: Changing Stimulation to Sensation 90 Thresholds: The Boundaries of Sensation 91 Signal Detection Theory 93

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Sensory Adaptation 93

3.2 How Are the Senses Alike? How Are They Different? 94 Vision: How the Nervous System Processes Light 94 Hearing: If a Tree Falls in the Forest . . . 100 How the Other Senses Are Like Vision and Hearing 104 Synesthesia: Sensations across the Senses 108

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: The Sense and Experience of Pain 109

3.3 What Is the Relationship between Sensation and Perception? 112 Perceptual Processing: Finding Meaning in Sensation 112 Perceptual Ambiguity and Distortion 114 Theoretical Explanations for Perception 117 Seeing and Believing 124

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology 125

CRITICAL THINKING APPLIED: Subliminal Perception and Subliminal Persuasion 126

Chapter Summary 128 Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide 130 vii

viii C O N T E N T S

CHAPTER 4 Learning and Human Nurture 132

PROBLEM: Assuming Sabra’s fear of flying was a response she had learned, could it also be treated by learning? If so, how? 134

4.1 What Sort of Learning Does Classical Conditioning Explain? 136 The Essentials of Classical Conditioning 137 Applications of Classical Conditioning 139

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Taste Aversions and Chemotherapy 142

4.2 How Do We Learn New Behaviors By Operant Conditioning? 142 Skinner’s Radical Behaviorism 143 The Power of Reinforcement 143 The Problem of Punishment 149 A Checklist for Modifying Operant Behavior 152 Operant and Classical Conditioning Compared 153

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology 155

4.3 How Does Cognitive Psychology Explain Learning? 156 Insight Learning: Köhler in the Canaries with Chimps 157 Cognitive Maps: Tolman Finds Out What’s on a

Rat’s Mind 158 Observational Learning: Bandura’s Challenge to

Behaviorism 159 Brain Mechanisms and Learning 161 “Higher” Cognitive Learning 162

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Fear of Flying Revisited 162

CRITICAL THINKING APPLIED: Do Different People Have Different “Learning Styles”? 164

Chapter Summary 166 Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide 168

CHAPTER 5 Memory 170

PROBLEM: How can our knowledge about memory help us evaluate claims of recovered memories? 172

5.1 What Is Memory? 172 Metaphors for Memory 173 Memory’s Three Basic Tasks 174

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Would You Want a “Photographic” Memory? 175

5.2 How Do We Form Memories? 177 The First Stage: Sensory Memory 178 The Second Stage: Working Memory 180 The Third Stage: Long-Term Memory 184

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: “Flashbulb” Memories: Where Were You When . . . ? 189

5.3 How Do We Retrieve Memories? 190 Implicit and Explicit Memory 190 Retrieval Cues 191 Other Factors Affecting Retrieval 193

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: On the Tip of Your Tongue 194

5.4 Why Does Memory Sometimes Fail Us? 195 Transience: Fading Memories Cause Forgetting 196 Absent-Mindedness: Lapses of Attention Cause

Forgetting 198 Blocking: Access Problems 198 Misattribution: Memories in the Wrong Context 199 Suggestibility: External Cues Distort or Create Memories 200 Bias: Beliefs, Attitudes, and Opinions Distort Memories 201 Persistence: When We Can’t Forget 202 The Advantages of the “Seven Sins” of Memory 202 Improving Your Memory with Mnemonics 203

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology 204

CRITICAL THINKING APPLIED: The Recovered Memory Controversy 206

Chapter Summary 207 Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide 210

C O N T E N T S ix

CHAPTER 7 Development Over the Lifespan 264

PROBLEM: Do the amazing accounts of similarities in twins reared apart indicate we are primarily a product of our genes? Or do genetics and environment work together to influence growth and development over the lifespan? 266

7.1 What Innate Abilities Does the Infant Possess? 268 Prenatal Development 268 The Neonatal Period: Abilities of the Newborn Child 269 Infancy: Building on the Neonatal Blueprint 271

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Not Just Fun and Games: The Role of Child’s Play in Life Success 277

7.2 What Are the Developmental Tasks of Childhood? 279 How Children Acquire Language 279 Cognitive Development: Piaget’s Theory 282 Social and Emotional Development 288


7.3 What Changes Mark the Transition of Adolescence? 296 Adolescence and Culture 296

Physical Maturation in Adolescence 297 Adolescent Sexuality 298 Neural and Cognitive Development in Adolescence 299 Moral Development: Kohlberg’s Theory 300 Social and Emotional Issues in Adolescence 302

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology: Cognitive Development in College Students 304

7.4 What Developmental Challenges Do Adults Face? 305 Early Adulthood: Explorations, Autonomy, and Intimacy 306 The Challenges of Midlife: Complexity and Generativity 308 Late Adulthood: The Age of Integrity 310

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: A Look Back at the Jim Twins and Your Own Development 313


Chapter Summary 316 Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide 320

CHAPTER 6 Thinking and Intelligence 212

PROBLEM: What produces “genius,” and to what extent are the people we call “geniuses” different from others? 214

6.1 What Are the Components of Thought? 215 Concepts 215 Imagery and Cognitive Maps 217 Thought and the Brain 218 Intuition 219

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Schemas and Scripts Help You Know What to Expect 221

6.2 What Abilities Do Good Thinkers Possess? 223 Problem Solving 223 Judging and Making Decisions 227 Becoming a Creative Genius 229

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology 232

6.3 How Is Intelligence Measured? 233 Binet and Simon Invent a School Abilities Test 234 American Psychologists Borrow Binet and Simon’s Idea 235 Problems with the IQ Formula 236 Calculating IQs “on the Curve” 237 IQ Testing Today 238

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: What Can You Do for an Exceptional Child? 239

6.4 Is Intelligence One or Many Abilities? 242 Psychometric Theories of Intelligence 242 Cognitive Theories of Intelligence 243 The Question of Animal Intelligence 247

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Test Scores and the Self-Fulfilling Prophecy 249

6.5 How Do Psychologists Explain IQ Differences Among Groups? 250 Intelligence and the Politics of Immigration 251 What Evidence Shows That Intelligence Is Influenced

by Heredity? 251 What Evidence Shows That Intelligence is Influenced

by Environment? 252 Heritability (Not Heredity) and Group Differences 253 PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Stereotype Threat 256

CRITICAL THINKING APPLIED: The Question of Gender Differences 258

Chapter Summary 259 Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide 262

CHAPTER 8 States of Consciousness 322

PROBLEM: How can psychologists objectively examine the worlds of dreaming and other subjective mental states? 324

8.1 How Is Consciousness Related to Other Mental Processes? 324 Tools for Studying Consciousness 326 Models of the Conscious and Nonconscious Minds 327 What Does Consciousness Do for Us? 329 Coma and Related States 330

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology 331

8.2 What Cycles Occur in Everyday Consciousness? 332 Daydreaming 332

Sleep: The Mysterious Third of Our Lives 333 Dreaming: The Pageants of the Night 338

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Sleep Disorders 341

8.3 What Other Forms Can Consciousness Take? 344 Hypnosis 345 Meditation 347 Psychoactive Drug States 348

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Dependence and Addiction 354

CRITICAL THINKING APPLIED: The Unconscious—Reconsidered 356

Chapter Summary 358 Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide 360

x C O N T E N T S

CHAPTER 10 Personality: Theories of the Whole Person 412

PROBLEM: What influences were at work to produce the unique behavioral patterns, high achievement motivation, and consistency over time and place that we see in the personality of Mary Calkins? 414

10.1 What Forces Shape Our Personalities? 415 Biology, Human Nature, and Personality 416 The Effects of Nurture: Personality and the Environment 416 The Effects of Nature: Dispositions and Mental

Processes 417 Social and Cultural Contributions to Personality 417 PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Explaining Unusual People

and Unusual Behavior 418

10.2 What Persistent Patterns, or Dispositions, Make Up Our Personalities? 420

Personality and Temperament 421 Personality as a Composite of Traits 422 PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Finding Your Type 426

10.3 Do Mental Processes Help Shape Our Personalities? 428 Psychodynamic Theories: Emphasis on Motivation

and Mental Disorder 428

Humanistic Theories: Emphasis on Human Potential and Mental Health 439

Social-Cognitive Theories: Emphasis on Social Learning 442

Current Trends: The Person in a Social System 445 PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn

Psychology 445

10.4 What “Theories” Do People Use to Understand Themselves and Others? 447

Implicit Personality Theories 447 Self-Narratives: The Stories of Our Lives 448 The Effects of Culture on Our Views of Personality 449 PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: The Personality of Time 450

CRITICAL THINKING APPLIED: The Person–Situation Controversy 453

Chapter Summary 454 Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide 456

CHAPTER 9 Motivation and Emotion 362

PROBLEM: Motivation is largely an internal and subjective process: How can we determine what motivates people like Lance Armstrong to work so hard at becoming the best in the world at what they do? 364

9.1 What Motivates Us? 364 Why People Work: McClelland’s Theory 365 The Unexpected Effects of Rewards on Motivation 367 PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn

Psychology 368

9.2 How Are Our Motivational Priorities Determined? 369 Instinct Theory 369 Drive Theory 370 Freud’s Psychodynamic Theory 371 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs 372 Putting It All Together: A New Hierarchy of Needs 373

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Determining What Motivates Others 374

9.3 Where Do Hunger and Sex Fit into the Motivational Hierarchy? 375 Hunger: A Homeostatic Drive and a Psychological

Motive 376 The Problem of Will Power and Chocolate Cookies 379

Sexual Motivation: An Urge You Can Live Without 380 Sex, Hunger, and the Hierarchy of Needs 384

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: The What and Why of Sexual Orientation 385

9.4 How Do Our Emotions Motivate Us? 387 What Emotions Are Made Of 388 What Emotions Do for Us 389 Counting the Emotions 389 Cultural Universals in Emotional Expression 390

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Gender Differences in Emotion Depend on Biology and Culture 391

9.5 What Processes Control Our Emotions? 392 The Neuroscience of Emotion 393 Arousal, Performance, and the Inverted U 396 Theories of Emotion: Resolving Some Old Issues 397 How Much Conscious Control Do We Have Over Our

Emotions? 399

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Detecting Deception 403

CRITICAL THINKING APPLIED: Do Lie Detectors Really Detect Lies? 405

Chapter Summary 407 Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide 410

C O N T E N T S xi

CHAPTER 11 Social Psychology 458

PROBLEM: What makes ordinary people willing to harm other people, as they did in Milgram’s shocking experiment? 461

11.1 How Does the Social Situation Affect Our Behavior? 462 Social Standards of Behavior 463 Conformity 465 Obedience to Authority 471 Cross-Cultural Tests of Milgram’s Research 475 Some Real-World Extensions of the Milgram Obedience

to Authority Paradigm 477 The Bystander Problem: The Evil of Inaction 478 Need Help? Ask for It! 480

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: On Being “Shoe” at Yale U 482

11.2 Constructing Social Reality: What Influences Our Judgments of Others? 483 Interpersonal Attraction 484 Loving Relationships 488

Making Cognitive Attributions 490 Prejudice and Discrimination 492

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Stereotype Lift and Values Affirmations 498

11.3 How Do Systems Create Situations That Influence Behavior? 500 The Stanford Prison Experiment 500 Chains of System Command 502 Preventing Bullying by Systematic Changes and Reframing 504

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology 507

CRITICAL THINKING APPLIED: Is Terrorism “a Senseless Act of Violence, Perpetrated by Crazy Fanatics”? 508

Chapter Summary 510 Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide 512

PROBLEM: Is it possible to distinguish mental disorder from merely unusual behavior? That is, are there specific signs that clearly indicate mental disorder? 516

12.1 What Is Psychological Disorder? 517 Changing Concepts of Psychological Disorder 518 Indicators of Abnormality 521 A Caution to Readers 522

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: The Plea of Insanity 522

12.2 How Are Psychological Disorders Classified in the DSM-IV ? 524 Overview of the DSM-IV Classification System 524 Mood Disorders 526 Anxiety Disorders 530 Somatoform Disorders 534 Dissociative Disorders 535 Schizophrenia 537

Developmental Disorders 541 Personality Disorders 542 Adjustment Disorders and Other Conditions: The Biggest

Category of All 544 Gender Differences in Mental Disorders 544


12.3 What Are the Consequences of Labeling People? 545 Diagnostic Labels, Labeling, and Depersonalization 546 The Cultural Context of Psychological Disorder 546

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology 547

CRITICAL THINKING APPLIED: Insane Places Revisited—Another Look at the Rosenhan Study 548

Chapter Summary 550 Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide 552

CHAPTER 12 Psychological Disorders 514

xii C O N T E N T S

Glossary G-1 References R-1 Answers to Discovering Psychology Program Review Questions A-1 Photo Credits C-1 Name Index I-1 Subject Index I-7

CHAPTER 14 From Stress to Health and Well-Being 596

PROBLEM: Were the reactions and experiences of the 9/11 firefighters and others at the World Trade Center attacks typical of people in other stressful situations? And what factors explain individual differences in our physical and psychological responses to stress? 598

14.1 What Causes Distress? 600 Traumatic Stressors 601 Chronic Stressors 606

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Student Stress 611

14.2 How Does Stress Affect Us Physically? 613 Physiological Responses to Stress 614 Stress and the Immune System 617

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Cognitive Appraisal of Ambiguous Threats 619

14.3 Who Is Most Vulnerable to Stress? 620 Type A Personality and Hostility 622 Locus of Control 623 Hardiness 624

Optimism 625 Resilience 626

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology 628

14.4 How Can We Transform Negative Stress Into Positive Life Strategies? 629 Psychological Coping Strategies 630 Positive Lifestyle Choices: A “Two-for-One” Benefit to Your

Health 634 Putting It All Together: Developing Happiness and Subjective

Well-Being 637

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Behavioral Medicine and Health Psychology 639

CRITICAL THINKING APPLIED: Is Change Really Hazardous to Your Health? 641

Chapter Summary 643 Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide 646

CHAPTER 13 Therapies for Psychological Disorders 554

PROBLEM: What is the best treatment for Derek’s depression: psychological therapy, drug therapy, or both? More broadly, the problem is this: How do we decide among the available therapies for any of the mental disorders? 556

13.1 What Is Therapy? 556 Entering Therapy 557 The Therapeutic Alliance and the Goals of Therapy 557 Therapy in Historical and Cultural Context 559

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Paraprofessionals Do Therapy, Too 560

13.2 How Do Psychologists Treat Psychological Disorders? 561 Insight Therapies 562 Behavior Therapies 568 Cognitive–Behavioral Therapy: A Synthesis 571 Evaluating the Psychological Therapies 574

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Where Do Most People Get Help? 576

13.3 How Is the Biomedical Approach Used to Treat Psychological Disorders? 577 Drug Therapy 577

Other Medical Therapies for Psychological Disorders 581 Hospitalization and the Alternatives 583

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: What Sort of Therapy Would You Recommend? 584

13.4 How Do the Psychological Therapies and Biomedical Therapies Compare? 585 Depression and Anxiety Disorders: Psychological versus

Medical Treatment 587 Schizophrenia: Psychological versus Medical

Treatment 587 “The Worried Well” and Other Problems: Not Everyone Needs

Drugs 588

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology 588

CRITICAL THINKING APPLIED: Evidence-Based Practice 589

Chapter Summary 592 Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide 594

P R E FA C E xiii

T O T H E S T U D E N T . . .

There is one simple formula for academic success, and the following demonstration will show you what it is. Study this array of letters for a few seconds: I B M U F O F B I C I A

Now, without peeking, write down as many of the letters as you can (in the correct order).

Most people remember about five to seven letters correctly. A few people get them all. How do these exceptional few do it? They find a pattern. (You may have noticed some familiar initials in the array above: IBM, UFO, FBI, CIA.) Finding the pattern greatly eases the task because you can draw on material that is already stored in mem- ory. In this case, all that needs to be remembered are four “chunks” of information instead of 12 unrelated letters.

The same principle applies to material you study for your psychology class. If you try to remember each piece of information as a separate item, you will have a difficult time. But if instead you look for patterns, you will find your task greatly simplified— and much more enjoyable.

USING PSYCHOLOGY TO LEARN PSYCHOLOGY So, how can you identify the patterns? Your friendly authors have developed several learning features that will make meaningful patterns in the text stand out clearly:

Core Concepts We have organized each major section of every chapter around a single big idea called a Core Concept. For example, one of the four Core Concepts in Chapter 5, Memory, says:

Core Concept 5.4 Human memory is an information-processing system that works constructively to encode, store, and retrieve information.

The Core Concept, then, becomes the central theme around which about 10 pages of material—including several new terms—are organized. As you read each chapter, keep- ing the Core Concept in mind will help you encode the new terms and ideas related to that concept, store them in your memory, and later retrieve them when you are being tested. To borrow an old saying, the Core Concepts become the “forest,” while the details of the chapter become the “trees.”

Key Questions Each Core Concept is introduced by a Key Question that also serves as a main heading in the chapter. Here, for example, is a Key Question from the Memory chapter:

5.4 KEY QUESTION Why Does Memory Sometimes Fail Us?

Key Questions such as this will help you anticipate the most important point, or the Core Concept, in the section. In fact, the Core Concept always provides a brief answer to the Key Question. Think of the Key Question as the high beams on your car, helping


xiv T O T H E S T U D E N T

you focus on what lies ahead. Our Key Questions should also serve as guides for you in posing questions of your own about what you are reading.

Both the Key Questions and the Core Concepts later reappear as organizing fea- tures of the Chapter Summary.

Psychology Matters Psychology has many captivating connections with events in the news and in everyday life, and we have explored one of these connections at the end of each major section in every chapter. To illustrate, here are some examples from the Memory chapter:

• Would You Want a “Photographic” Memory? • “Flashbulb” Memories: Where Were You When . . . ? • On the Tip of Your Tongue

Such connections—practical, down to earth, and fascinating—will help you link your study of psychology with your real-life experiences. They will also help you critically evaluate many of the psychological ideas you encounter in the media—as when you see news stories that begin with “psychological research shows that . . .” By the end of this course, you will become a much wiser consumer of such information.

Psychology Matters: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology A special Psychology Matters section in every chapter explains how you can apply new knowledge from the chapter to make your studying more effective. For example, in Chapter 2, Biopsychology, Neuroscience, and Human Nature, we tell you how to put your understanding of the brain to work for more efficient learning. Similarly, at the end of Chapter 9, Motivation and Emotion, we explain how to use the psychological concept of “flow” to boost your academic motivation. Thus, Using Psychology to Learn Psychology not only reinforces points that you have studied but also brings the material home with immediate and practical applications to your life in college.

Do It Yourself! Throughout the book we have scattered active-learning demonstrations like the one in which you were asked to memorize the letters I B M U F O F B I C I A. Besides being fun, these activities have the serious purpose of illustrating important principles discussed in the text. In Chapter 5, for example, one Do It Yourself! box helps you find the capacity of your short-term memory; another lets you test your “photographic memory” ability.

Check Your Understanding Whether you’re learning psychology, soccer, or the saxophone, you need feedback on your progress, and that’s exactly what you will get from the Check Your Understanding quizzes. These quizzes appear at the end of every major section in the chapter, offering you a quick checkup indicating whether you have assimilated the main points from what you have read. Some questions call for simple recall; others call for deeper analysis or application of material. Some are multiple- choice questions; some are short-answer essay questions. These exercises will help you determine how well you have mastered the material.

MyPsychLab Integration Throughout the text, you will find marginal icons that link to important videos, simulations, podcasts, and activities you can find on MyPsychLab. New to this edition, we have developed reading activities (called Read on MyPsychLab) that will allow you to explore interesting topics more deeply. There are many more resources on MyPsychLab than those highlighted in the text, but the icons draw attention to some of the most high-interest materials. If you did not receive an access code with your text, you can purchase access at

Connection Arrows Links to important topics discussed in other chapters are often cross-referenced with an arrow in the margin, as you can see in the sample here. These links will help you integrate your new knowledge with information you have already learned, or will show you where in a later chapter you can find out more

Study and Review at MyPsychLab

Read the Document at MyPsychLab

Simulate the Experiment at MyPsychLab

Explore the Concept at MyPsychLab

Watch the Video at MyPsychLab

Listen to the Podcast at

T O T H E S T U D E N T xv

about what you are reading. Connecting these concepts in your mind will help you remember them.

Marginal Glossary The most important terms appear in boldface, with their glossary definitions readily accessible in the margin. We list these key terms again in the Chapter Summary. Then, at the end of the book, a comprehensive Glossary gathers together all the key terms and definitions from each chapter in one easy-to-find location.

Chapter Summaries We have written our Chapter Summaries to provide you with an overview of main points in each chapter—to help you preview and review the chapter. The summaries are organized around the Key Questions and Core Concepts introduced within the chapter to facilitate review and mastery of chapter material. But we offer one caution: Reading the Chapter Summary will not substitute for reading the entire chapter! Here’s a helpful hint: We recommend that you read the summary before you read the rest of the chapter to get a flavor of what’s ahead, then reread the summary after you finish the chapter. Reading the summary before will provide a framework for the material so that it can be more easily encoded and stored in your memory. And, naturally, reviewing the summary after reading the chapter will reinforce what you have just learned so that you can retrieve it when needed on an examination.

THINKING LIKE A PSYCHOLOGIST Learning all the facts and definitions of psychology won’t make you a psychologist. Beyond the facts, thinking like a psychologist requires learning some problem-solving skills and critical thinking techniques that any good psychologist should possess. With this goal in mind, we have added two unique features to this book.

Chapter-Opening Problems Each chapter begins with an important problem that you will learn how to solve with the tools you acquire in your reading. Examples of the chapter- opening problems include testing the claim that sweet treats give children a “sugar high,” evaluating claims of recovered memories, and judging the extent to which the people we call “geniuses” are different from the rest of us.

Critical Thinking Applied At the end of each chapter, you will be asked to consider issues disputed among psychologists and issues raised in the media, such as the nature of the unconscious mind and the effects of subliminal persuasion. Each of these issues requires a skeptical attitude and the application of a special set of critical thinking skills that we will introduce in Chapter 1.

DISCOVERING PSYCHOLOGY VIDEOS At the end of each chapter, you will notice viewing guides for Discovering Psychology, a 26-part video series produced by WGBH and Annenberg Media and narrated by the lead author of this textbook, Phil Zimbardo. The videos provide an overview of his- toric and current theories of human behavior and feature many of the researchers and studies introduced in this textbook. You can access the Discovering Psychology videos and additional viewing resources through MyPsychLab (, the online companion to this textbook.

We have one final suggestion to help you succeed in psychology: This book is filled with examples to illustrate the most important ideas, but you will remember these ideas longer if you generate your own examples as you study. This habit will make the information yours as well as ours. And so we wish you a memorable journey through the field we love.

Phil Zimbardo Bob Johnson


T O T H E I N S T R U C T O R . . .

Psychology has undergone remarkable changes since 2008, when we finished writing the previous edition of Psychology: Core Concepts. Here are just a few examples of the new developments we have included in this seventh edition:

• The brain’s “default network,” involving parts of the temporal lobe, the prefrontal cortex, and the cingulate cortex, becomes active when people focus their attention internally—when they are remembering personal events, making plans, or imagin- ing the perspectives of others. Unfortunately, daydreamers activating this default network while studying will probably not remember the material they have just studied.

• New research shows that analgesics such as Tylenol, normally used to treat physical pain, can reduce the painful psychological sensations resulting from social rejection and ruminating about unhappy relationships.

• Also in the realm of sensation, taste researcher Linda Bartoshuk has discovered a “Rosetta Stone,” enabling her to compare objectively the intensities of taste sensations experienced by different individuals.

• Meanwhile, perceptual psychologists have recently used brain scans to confirm the assertion that Americans and Asians perceive scenes differently.

• Brain scans have also enabled researchers to assess patients who have been classi- fied as in persistent vegetative states—and predict which ones might improve.

• In healthy individuals, scans have detected changes in the brains of volunteers who have undergone intensive training in meditation. The changes are most obvious in brain areas associated with memory, emotional processing, attention, and stress reduction.

• As cognitive psychologists continue to puzzle over the Flynn effect, IQ scores con- tinue to rise—but new studies show that the rise is slowing in developed countries of the West.

• Cognitive research also shows that one in four auto accidents results from the driver failing to notice hazardous conditions while using a cell phone—a bad decision probably deriving from a mistaken belief in multitasking. (Perhaps future research will determine whether the IQs of these drivers fall above or below the rising average.)

• New research by our own Phil Zimbardo shows that decisions can also be influenced by a personality trait that he calls time perspective—referring to a past, present, or future orientation.

• However, the ultimate influence on our decisions lies in natural selection, accord- ing to evolutionary psychologists—who have recently proposed a major new and controversial modification of Maslow’s famous hierarchy of needs.

In all, we have included some 350 new references in this new edition—gleaned from literally thousands we have perused. Which is to say that psychological knowledge continues to grow, with no end in sight. As a result, many introductory textbooks have grown to daunting proportions. Meanwhile, our introductory courses remain the same length—with the material ever more densely packed. We cannot possibly introduce students to all the concepts in psychology, nor can our students possibly remember everything.

The problem is not just one of volume and information overload; it is also a prob- lem of meaningfulness. So, while we have aimed to cover less detail than do the more encyclopedic texts, we have not given you a watered-down “brief edition” book. The result is an emphasis on the most important and meaningful ideas in psychology.


T O T H E I N S T R U C T O R xvii

Our inspiration for Psychology: Core Concepts came from psychological research: specifically, a classic study of chess players by Dutch psychologist and chess master Adriaan de Groot (1965). His work, as you may recall, involved remembering the locations of pieces on a chessboard. Significantly, when the pieces were placed on the board at random, chess experts did no better than novices. Only when the pat- terns made sense—because they represented actual game situations—did the experts show an advantage. Clearly, meaningful patterns are easier to remember than random assignments.

In applying de Groot’s findings to Psychology: Core Concepts, our goal has been to present a scientific overview of the field of psychology within meaningful patterns that will help students better remember what they learn so that they can apply it in their own lives. Thus, we have organized each major section of every chapter around a single, clear idea that we call a Core Concept, which helps students focus on the big picture so they don’t become lost in the details.

From the beginning, our intention in writing Psychology: Core Concepts has been to offer students and instructors a textbook that combines a sophisticated introduc- tion to the field of psychology with pedagogy that applies the principles of psychology to the learning of psychology, all in a manageable number of pages. Even with all the new material we have included, the book remains essentially the same size—which, of course, meant making some tough decisions about what to include, what to delete, and what to move into our extensive collection of ancillary resources.

Our goal was to blend great science with great teaching and to provide an alter- native to the overwhelmingly encyclopedic tomes or skimpy “brief edition” texts that have been traditionally offered. We think you will like the introduction to psychol- ogy presented in this book—both the content and the pedagogical features. After all, it’s a text that relies consistently on well-grounded principles of psychology to teach psychology.

NEW TO THIS EDITION This edition of Psychology: Core Concepts is certainly no perfunctory revision or slap- dash update. And here’s why . . .

We have reconceptualized our goal of helping students learn to “think like psychologists.” These days, of course, everyone emphasizes critical thinking. The new edition of Psychology: Core Concepts, however, gives equal weight to that other essen- tial thinking skill: problem solving.

To encourage the sort of problem solving psychologists do, every chapter begins with a Problem, a feature we introduced in the last edition. The Problem grows out of the opening vignette and requires, for its solution, material developed in the chapter. In this edition, we have focused on helping readers discover, throughout each chapter, the “clues” that lead to the solution of the problem.

But we have not neglected critical thinking. Throughout the text, we deal with common psychological misconceptions—such as the notion that venting anger gets it “out of your system” or the belief that punishment is the most effective way of chang- ing behavior. And in our Critical Thinking Applied segment at the end of each chapter, we also focus on an important psychological issue in the popular media or an ongoing debate within the field:

• Can “facilitated communication” help us understand people with autism? • Left vs. right brain: Do most of us use only one side of the brain? • Can our choices be influenced by subliminal messages? • Do people have different “learning styles”? • The recovered memory controversy: How reliable are reports of long-forgotten

memories of sexual abuse? • Gender issues: Are we more alike or more different? • The “Mozart Effect”: Can music make babies smarter?

xviii T O T H E I N S T R U C T O R

• The Unconscious reconsidered: Has modern neuroscience reshaped Freud’s concept of the unconscious mind?

• Do lie detectors really detect lies? • The person-situation controversy: Which is the more important influence on our

behavior? • Is terrorism “a senseless act of violence, perpetrated by crazy fanatics”? • Insane places revisited: Did Rosenhan get it right? • Evidence-based practice: Should clinicians be limited by the tested-and-true? • Is change really hazardous to your health?

But that’s not all. We have made extensive updates to the text (in addition to the new research listed above). And we have improved the pedagogical features for which Psychology: Core Concepts is known and loved. To give a few examples, we have:

• added MyPsychLab icons throughout the margins to highlight important videos, simulations, podcasts, and additional resources for students to explore online. New to this edition, we have created Read on MyPsychLab activities that allow students to read and answer questions about many interesting topics more deeply online.

• shifted the focus of psychology’s six main perspectives to practical applications, giving a concrete example of a real-life problem for each.

• clarified and updated our discussion of the scientific method to reflect more accurately how research is done in a real-world context.

• added material on interpreting correlations—to help students use the notions of correlation and causation more accurately in their everyday lives.

• simplified and consolidated our discussion of the split-brain experiments. • updated material on flashbulb memories, using up-to-date examples. • created a new section on cognitive theories of intelligence. • added a new Psychology Matters piece entitled “Not Just Fun and Games: The

Role of Child’s Play in Life Success,” telling of the growing role of self-control in life success, and how parents and teachers can help nurture this important ability.

• added new material on Vygotsky’s theory, including scaffolding and the zone of proximal development, plus new material on neural development in adolescence.

• revised and expanded the sections on daydreaming and on both REM and NREM sleep to reflect important new research.

• changed the order of topics in the Motivation and Emotion chapter, bringing in new material on practical ways of motivating people, updating the section on sexual orientation, and presenting a revised hierarchy of needs based in evolutionary psychology.

• added new material on cross-cultural differences in shyness, Carol Dweck’s research on mindset, and individual differences in time perspective.

• updated the section on positive psychology. • updated the Heroic Defiance section, including new examples from the recent

Egyptian protests and new material on events at the Abu Ghraib prison. • added new examples of recent replications of Milgram’s obedience experiment. • added new material on bullying, the jigsaw classroom, and stereotype lift. • reconceptualized depression in terms of Mayberg’s model, which emphasizes three

factors: biological vulnerability, external stressors, and abnormality of the mood- regulation circuits in the brain. Also presented the new studies on the value of exercise in combating depression and the anxiety disorders.

• added new material on psychopathy—which is attracting increasing interest but is not a DSM-IV disorder.

• discussed the growing rift within clinical psychology (and between APA and APS) over empirically supported treatments and empirically based practice.

T O T H E I N S T R U C T O R xix

• updated the information on telehealth therapy strategies. • connected the discussion of traumatic stress to the 2011 earthquake in Japan. • added a new Do It Yourself! The Undergraduate Stress Questionnaire: How Stressed

Are You?

We think you will find the seventh edition up-to-date and even more engaging for students than the previous edition. But the changes are not limited to the book itself. Please allow us to toot our horns for the supplements available to adopters.

TEACHING AND LEARNING PACKAGE The following supplements will also enhance teaching and learning for you and your students:

Instructor’s Manual Written and compiled by Sylvia Robb of Hudson County Community College, includes suggestions for preparing for the course, sample syllabi, and current trends and strategies for successful teaching. Each chapter offers integrated teaching outlines, lists the Key Questions, Core Concepts, and Key Terms for each chapter for quick reference, an extensive bank of lecture launchers, handouts, and activities, crossword puzzles, and suggestions for integrating third-party videos, music, and Web resources. The electronic format features click-and-view hotlinks that allow instructors to quickly review or print any resource from a particular chapter. This resource saves prep work and helps you maximize your classroom time.

Test Bank Written by Jason Spiegelman of Community College of Baltimore County, has provided an extensively updated test bank containing more than 2,000 accuracy- checked questions, including multiple choice, completion (fill-in-the-blank and short answer), and critical essays. Test item questions have been also written to test student comprehension of select multimedia assets found with MyPsychLab for instructors who wish to make MyPsychLab a more central component of their course. In addition to the unique questions listed previously, the Test Bank also includes all of the Check Your Understanding questions from the textbook and all of the test questions from the Discovering Psychology Telecourse Faculty Guide for instructors who wish to reinforce student use of the textbook and video materials. All questions include the correct answer, page reference, difficulty ranking, question type designation, and correlations to American Psychological Association (APA) Learning Goal/Outcome. A new feature of the Test Bank is the inclusion of rationales for each correct answer and the key distracter in the multiple- choice questions. The rationales help instructors reviewing the content to further evaluate the questions they are choosing for their tests and give instructors the option to use the rationales as an answer key for their students. Feedback from current customers indicates this unique feature is very useful for ensuring quality and quick response to student queries. A two-page Total Assessment Guide chapter overview makes creating tests easier by listing all of the test items in an easy-to-reference grid. The Total Assessment Guide organizes all test items by text section and question type/level of difficulty. All multiple- choice questions are categorized as factual, conceptual, or applied.

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Quiz 1: Create a semantic domainEthnosemantics is defined in our course glossary as “the study of how members of a culture use language to describe classifications; for example, color, kinship, weather, animals, and plants.” Read Week 4 Commentary, section “Ethnosemantics,” and follow the guidelines below to create a semantic domain. Supplies needed: index cards, paper clips.Select a person to interview. This may be someone you know from your own culture, or someone from another culture. You may wish to interview someone who speaks your ancestral language.Explain that you are trying to learn something about the culture of this person. You will be interviewing the person about some topic that is familiar to him or her, so you can learn about this topic.Find out something that this person knows something about or is interested in. He or she could know about motorcycles, fixing clocks, fitness clubs, rap music, baking cookies, making curry, playing soccer, or knitting socks.Invite your “native informant” to list all the terms associated with his or her field of interest. (For example: Types of cookies: chocolate chip, peanut butter, Snickerdoodles.)Write each term on a separate index card or paper. Ask open-ended questions to prompt. (For example: “What other items would you use?”)Invite your native informant to sort the cards into meaningful categories. First, ask him or her to sort them into at least two contrastive categories. Then, take each stack and ask him or her to divide those into at least two categories. Ask your interviewee to explain each category as you go along, and ask what is different about one pile as compared to the other.Take notes so you won’t forget what is said. You may wish to clip one stack together while you are working on another so you don’t get the cards mixed up.Check Table 4.1 (in Week 4 Commentary, section “Ethnosemantics”) and, using it as an example, draw a chart of a semantic domain based on all the terms collected and how they have been categorized.Write a brief report (no more than two pages) including the chart you have created and a discussion of how, in your interpretation, your informant views this topic, e.g., what is his or her criteria for organizing words in categories, what kind of categories he or she employs.Submit your report into your Assignments folder by the end of week 4.
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the task of crafting corporate strategy for a diversified company encompasses



Which one of the following is not a reason a company decides to enter foreign markets?

To spread business risk across a wider geographic market base

To capitalize on company competencies and capabilities

To achieve lower costs and enhance the firm’s competitiveness

To build the profit sanctuaries necessary to wage guerrilla offensives against global challengers endeavoring to invade its home market

To gain access to more buyers for the company’s products/services

4 points Saved


The advantages of using a licensing strategy to participate in foreign markets include

being especially well suited to the use of cross-market subsidization.

being able to charge lower prices than rivals.

enabling a company to achieve competitive advantage quickly and easily.

being able to leverage the company’s technical know-how or patents without committing significant additional resources to markets that are unfamiliar, politically volatile, economically uncertain, or otherwise risky.

being able to achieve higher product quality and better product performance than with an export strategy.

4 points Saved


Two drawbacks of a “think local, act local” multidomestic strategy are

that it is especially vulnerable to fluctuating exchange rates and that it can usually be defeated by companies employing cross-market subsidization tactics.

excessive vulnerability to fluctuating exchange rates and having to craft a separate strategy for each country market in which the company competes.

hindering a company’s transfer of competencies and resources across country boundaries (since somewhat different competencies and capabilities are likely to be employed in different host countries) and not promoting the building of a single, unified competitive advantage in all country markets where a company competes.

greater exposure to both increases in tariffs and restrictive trade barriers and added difficulty in accommodating the diverse trade restrictions and regulatory requirements of host governments.

not being able to export products manufactured in one country to markets in other countries and being largely unsuitable for competing in the markets of emerging countries.

4 points Saved


The advantages of using a franchising strategy to pursue opportunities in foreign markets include

having franchisees bear most of the costs and risks of establishing foreign locations and requiring the franchisor to expend only the resources to recruit, train, and support foreign franchisees.

being particularly well suited to the global expansion efforts of companies with multicountry strategies.

helping build multiple profit sanctuaries.

being well suited to companies that employ cross-market subsidization.

being well suited to the global expansion efforts of manufacturers.

4 points Saved


The reasons behind the accelerating pace of globalization include

countries with previously planned economies are embracing market or mixed economies.

information technology shrinks the importance of geographic distances.

ambitious growth-minded countries race to build global share.

lower barriers to international trade.

All of these.

4 points Saved


A “think global, act global” approach to strategy making is preferable to a “think local, act local” approach when

a big majority of the company’s rivals are pursuing localized multidomestic strategies.

country-to-country differences are small enough to be accommodated with the framework of a mostly uniform global strategy.

plants need to be scattered across many countries to avoid high shipping costs.

market growth rates vary considerably from country to country.

host governments enact regulations requiring that products sold locally meet strict manufacturing specifications or performance standards.

4 points Saved


The strategic options for expansion into foreign markets include

employing a franchising strategy.

maintaining a national (one-country) production base and exporting goods to foreign markets.

licensing foreign firms to produce and distribute one’s products.

establishing a subsidiary in a foreign market.

All of these.

4 points Saved


Strategic alliances, joint ventures, and cooperative agreements between domestic and foreign firms are a potentially fruitful means for the partners to

enter additional country markets.

gain better access to scale economies in production and/or marketing.

fill competitively important gaps in their technical expertise and/or knowledge of local markets.

share distribution facilities and dealer networks, thus mutually strengthening their access to buyers.

All of these.

4 points Saved


Checking a diversified firm’s business portfolio for the competitive advantage potential of cross-business strategic fits entails consideration of

whether the parent company’s competitive advantages are being deployed to maximum advantage in each of its business units.

whether the competitive strategies employed in each business act to reinforce the competitive power of the strategies employed in the company’s other businesses.

whether the competitive strategies in each business possess good strategic fit with the parent company’s corporate strategy.

the extent to which there are competitively valuable relationships between the value chains of sister business units and what opportunities they present to reduce costs, share use of a potent brand name, or transfer skills or technology or intellectual capital from one business to another.

how compatible the competitive strategies of the various sister businesses are and whether these strategies are properly aimed at achieving the same kind of competitive advantage.

4 points Saved


Diversifying into a new industry by forming a new internal subsidiary to enter and compete in the target industry is attractive when

all of the potential acquisition candidates are losing money.

it is impractical to outsource most of the value chain activities that have to be performed in the target business/industry.

there is ample time to launch the new business from the ground up.

the company has built up a hoard of cash with which to finance a diversification effort.

none of the companies already in the industry are attractive strategic alliance partners.

4 points Saved


A diversified company’s business units exhibit good resource fit when

each business is a cash cow.

a company has the resources to adequately support the requirements of its businesses as a group without spreading itself too thin and when individual businesses add to a company’s overall resource strengths.

each business is sufficiently profitable to generate an attractive return on invested capital.

each business unit produces large internal cash flows over and above what is needed to build and maintain the business.

the resource requirements of each business exactly match the resources the company has available.

4 points Saved


Retrenching to a narrower diversification base

is usually the most attractive long-run strategy for a broadly diversified company confronted with recession, high interest rates, mounting competitive pressures in several of its businesses, and sluggish growth.

is directed at improving long-term performance by building stronger positions in a smaller number of core businesses.

is an attractive strategy option for revamping a diverse business lineup that lacks strong cross-business financial fit.

is sometimes an attractive option for deepening a diversified company’s technological expertise and supporting a faster rate of product innovation.

is a strategy best reserved for companies in poor financial shape.

4 points Saved


Which of the following is an important appeal of a related diversification strategy?

Represents an effective way of capturing valuable financial fit benefits

Offers opportunities to transfer skills, expertise, technical know-how, or other capabilities from one business to another

Offers significant opportunities to strongly differentiate a company’s product offerings from those of rivals

Is more likely to pass the cost-of-entry test and the capital gains test than unrelated diversification

Is typically more profitable than unrelated diversification, which is a major factor in helping related diversification pass the attractiveness test

4 points Saved


Conclusions about what the priorities should be for allocating resources to the various businesses of a diversified company need to be based on such considerations as

each business’s profit and growth prospects.

industry attractiveness and competitive strength of the various businesses.

the degree of strategic fit and resource fit with other business units.

each business’s cash flow characteristics and return on capital invested.

All of these.

4 points Saved


Divestiture can be accomplished by

selling a business outright.

spinning the unwanted business off as a managerially and financially independent company by selling shares to the investing public via an initial public offering of stock.

spinning the unwanted business off as a managerially and financially independent company by distributing shares in the new company to existing shareholders of the parent company.

All of these.

None of these; the best and quickest ways to divest a business are either to close it or else just walk away and give the keys to creditors.

4 points Saved


The one factor that is not relevant for company managers to worry about when their company has many unrelated firms, especially when they are very diverse is to

stay abreast of what’s happening in each industry and subsidiary.

pick business-unit heads having requisite combination of managerial skills and know-how to motivate people.

understand the true value of strategic investment proposals by business-unit managers.

know what to do if a business unit stumbles.

rely on the skills and expertise of business-level managers to build competitive advantage.

4 points Saved


The task of crafting corporate strategy for a diversified company encompasses

picking the new industries to enter and deciding on the means of entry.

initiating actions to boost the combined performance of the businesses the firm has entered.

pursuing opportunities to leverage cross-business value chain relationships and strategic fits into competitive advantage.

steering corporate resources into the most attractive business units.

All of these.

4 points Saved


Vertical integration strategies

extend a company’s competitive and operating scope because its operations extend across more parts of the total industry value chain.

are one of the best strategic options for helping companies win the race for global market leadership.

are a cost effective means of expanding a company’s lineup of products and services.

are particularly effective in boosting a company’s ability to expand into additional geographic markets, particularly the markets of foreign countries.

are a good strategy option for improving a company’s supply chain management capabilities, pursuing efforts to remodel a company’s value chain, achieving direct control over the costs of performing value chain activities, and gaining access to buyers.

4 points Saved


Once a company has decided to employ one of the five basic competitive strategies, then it must also consider such additional strategic choices as

whether and when to go on the offensive and initiate aggressive strategic moves to improve the company’s market position.

whether to outsource certain value chain activities or perform them in-house.

whether to form strategic alliances and collaborative partnerships to add to its accumulation of resources and competitive capabilities.

whether to integrate forward or backward into more stages of the industry value chain.

All of these

4 points Saved


A strategic alliance

is a collaborative arrangement where companies join forces to defeat mutual competitive rivals.

involves two or more companies joining forces to pursue vertical integration.

is a formal agreement between two or more companies in which there is strategically relevant collaboration of some sort, joint contribution of resources, shared risk, shared control, and mutual dependence.

is a partnership between two companies that is typically intended to eliminate the need to engage in outsourcing.

is usually a cheaper and more effective way for companies to join forces than is merger.

4 points Saved


A blue ocean type of offensive strategy

refers to initiatives by a market leader to steal customers away from unsuspecting smaller rivals.

involves a preemptive strike to secure an advantageous position in a fast-growing market segment.

entails attacking rivals head-on with deep price discounts and continuous product innovation.

involves abandoning efforts to beat out competitors in existing markets and, instead, inventing a new industry or new market segment that renders existing competitors largely irrelevant and allows a company to create and capture altogether new demand.

involves the use of surprise hit-and-run guerrilla tactics to harass money-losing rivals and drive them into bankruptcy.

4 points Saved


Experience indicates that strategic alliances

are generally successful.

work well in cooperatively developing new technologies and new products but seldom work well in promoting greater supply chain efficiency.

work best when they are aimed at achieving a mutually beneficial competitive advantage for the allies.

stand a reasonable chance of helping a company reduce competitive disadvantage, but very rarely form the basis of a durable competitive advantage over rivals.

are usually a company’s best approach to building a distinctive competence.

4 points Saved


Which one of the following is not a strategically beneficial reason a company may enter into strategic partnerships or cooperative arrangements with key suppliers, distributors, or makers of complementary products?

To acquire or improve access to new markets

To expedite the development of promising new technologies or products

To enable greater vertical integration

To improve supply chain efficiency

To overcome deficiencies in technical and manufacturing expertise and to create desirable new skill sets and capabilities

4 points Saved


Which of the following is not an example of a defensive move to protect a company’s market position and restrict a challenger’s options for initiating competitive attack?

Granting volume discounts or better financing terms to dealers/distributors and providing discount coupons to buyers to help discourage them from experimenting with other suppliers/brands

Signaling challengers that retaliation is likely in the event they launch an attack

Publicly committing the company to a policy of matching a competitors’ terms or prices

Maintaining a war chest of cash and marketable securities

Challenging struggling runner-up firms that are on the verge of going under

4 points Saved


Why do mergers and acquisitions sometimes fail to produce anticipated results?

They do not produce the hoped for outcomes and changes to existing operations may not eventuate.

Cost savings may prove smaller than expected.

Gains in competitive capabilities may take substantially longer or never materialize.

Efforts to mesh corporate cultures can stall due to formidable resistance from organization members and key employees can become disenchanted and leave.

All of these.

4 points Saved

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a _____ is a document that thanks an interviewer and restates an applicant’s interest in the job.

Essentials of Organizational Behavior

Essentials of Organizational Behavior

An Evidence-Based Approach

Terri A. Scandura

University of Miami

To T.K.

For keeping it real.

SAGE was founded in 1965 by Sara Miller McCune to support the dissemination of usable knowledge by publishing innovative and high-quality research and teaching content. Today, we publish more than 850 journals, including those of more than 300 learned societies, more than 800 new books per year, and a growing range of library products including archives, data, case studies, reports, and video. SAGE remains majority-owned by our founder, and after Sara’s lifetime will become owned by a charitable trust that secures our continued independence.

Los Angeles | London | New Delhi | S ingapore | Washington DC

Essentials of Organizational Behavior

An Evidence-Based Approach

Terri A. Scandura

University of Miami

SAGE was founded in 1965 by Sara Miller McCune to support the dissemination of usable knowledge by publishing innovative and high-quality research and teaching content. Today, we publish more than 850 journals, including those of more than 300 learned societies, more than 800 new books per year, and a growing range of library products including archives, data, case studies, reports, and video. SAGE remains majority-owned by our founder, and after Sara’s lifetime will become owned by a charitable trust that secures our continued independence.

Los Angeles | London | New Delhi | S ingapore | Washington DC

Copyright 2016 by SAGE Publications, Inc.

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.

Printed in the United States of America

ISBN 978-1-4833-4565-9

This book is printed on acid-free paper.

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SAGE Publications, Inc.

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CHAPTER 1 •  What Is Organizational Behavior? 2

CHAPTER 2 •  Leadership: Core Concepts 23


CHAPTER 3 •  Individual Differences 56

CHAPTER 4 •  Attitudes and Job Satisfaction 86

CHAPTER 5 •  Perception 109

CHAPTER 6 •  Individual Decision Making 137


CHAPTER 7 •  Motivation: Core Concepts 168

CHAPTER 8 •  Motivation: Learning and Rewards 194


CHAPTER 9 •  Group Processes and Teams 224

CHAPTER 10 •  Managing Conflict and Negotiation 254


CHAPTER 11 •  Organizational Communication 284

CHAPTER 12 •  Cross-Cultural Differences and Adjustments 309


CHAPTER 13 •  Stress in the Context of Organizational Change 338

CHAPTER 14 •  Organizational Culture 365

CHAPTER 15 •  Leading Change 386

APPENDIX • Research Designs Used in Organizational Behavior 409








CHAPTER 1 •  What Is Organizational Behavior? 2 Chapter Learning Objectives 2 A Crisis of Leadership? 2 What Is Organizational Behavior? 3

Applied Social Psychology 4 From Theory to Practice 4

Evidence-Based Management 6 What Is Critical Thinking? 8 The Scientific Method 10 Outcome Variables in Organizational Behavior 11

Performance 11 Work-Related Attitudes 12 Motivation 12 Employee Withdrawal 12

Levels of Analysis in Organizational Behavior 14 How Organizational Behavior Can Increase Employee Performance 14 Toward More Effective Organizational Leaders: Plan for This Textbook 15 Leadership Implications: Thinking Critically 17 Key Terms 18 Suggestions for Further Reading 18

´ TOOLKIT ACTIVITY 1.1: Personal Leadership Development Plan 18

´ CASE STUDY 1.1: Organizational Science in the Real World 20 ´ SELF-ASSESSMENT 1.1: Assessing Your Experiential Evidence 21


CHAPTER 2 •  Leadership: Core Concepts 23 Chapter Learning Objectives 23 Have Leaders Lost Their Followers’ Trust? 23 What Is Leadership? 24

Differentiating Management and Leadership 25 Full-Range Leadership Development 26

Transactional Leadership 26 Transformational Leadership 27

Leader–Member Exchange 28 Leader–Member Exchange Development 31 Managing Your Boss 32 Follower Reactions to Authority 33 The Mentor Connection 33

The Importance of Trust 35 Calculus-Based Trust 35 Knowledge-Based Trust 35 Identification-Based Trust 36 Repairing Broken Trust 37

Power and Influence 38 Bases of Power 39 Organizational Sources of Power 40 Influence Strategies 41 Which Influence Strategies Are the Most Effective? 42

Organizational Politics and Political Skill 44 Ethical Leadership 45 Servant and Authentic Leadership 46 Leadership Implications: Developing Relationships and Leading Ethically 49 Key Terms 49 Suggestions for Further Reading 50

´ TOOLKIT ACTIVITY 2.1: Applying the Full-Range Leadership Development Model 50

´ CASE STUDY 2.1: Which Boss Would You Rather Work For? 51 ´ SELF-ASSESSMENT 2.1:

What’s Your Level of Political Acumen? 52


CHAPTER 3 •  Individual Differences 56 Chapter Learning Objectives 56 The Right Stuff at the Wrong Time 56 What Is Personality? 57

The Role of Heredity 57 Myers-Briggs Type Indicator 57 Limitations of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator 58 How the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Is Used in Organizations 58 “The Big Five” 59 Personality Traits and Health Research 60

Psychological Capital 62 Emotions and Moods at Work 64

Emotional Intelligence 66 Can Emotional Intelligence Be Learned? 66 Limitations of Emotional Intelligence 67 How Emotional Intelligence Is Used in Organizations 67 Emotional Labor: “Fake It Until You Make It” 67 Affective Events Theory: An Organizing Framework 68

Neuroscience 69 Ethical Issues in Neuroscience 70

Diversity 70 Surface-Level and Deep-Level Diversity 71

Generations at the Workplace 71 The Millennials 72

Leading Diverse Followers 73 Mindfulness 76 Leadership Implications: Embracing Diversity 77 Key Terms 78 Suggestions for Further Reading 79

´ TOOLKIT ACTIVITY 3.1: Generations at Work 79 ´ CASE STUDY 3.1: Managing Diversity at IBM Netherlands 80 ´ SELF-ASSESSMENT 3.1: The Big Five Personality Test 82 ´ SELF-ASSESSMENT 3.2: Type A Behavior Pattern 84

CHAPTER 4 •  Attitudes and Job Satisfaction 86 Chapter Learning Objectives 86

Job Satisfaction: A Downward Trend 86

What Is an Attitude? 87 Cognitive Dissonance 89

Do Attitudes Matter? 89 Job Satisfaction 90

Job Satisfaction Facets 91 Job Search Attitudes 94 Organizational Commitment 95

Job Involvement 96 Employee Engagement 97

Perceived Organizational Support 99 Psychological Empowerment 99 Leadership Implications: Creating Meaning at Work 100 Key Terms 101 Suggestions for Further Reading 102

´ TOOLKIT ACTIVITY 4.1: What Do Workers Want From Their Jobs? 102

´ CASE STUDY 4.1: A Crisis in Nursing 103 ´ SELF-ASSESSMENT 4.1:

Core Self-Evaluations Assessment 104 ´ SELF-ASSESSMENT 4.2:

Do You Experience Empowerment? 106

CHAPTER 5 •  Perception 109 Chapter Learning Objectives 109 Would You Be Happier if You Were Richer? 109 What Is Perception? 110 Understanding Why People Don’t See Eye to Eye 111

The Primacy Effect 112 The Recency Effect 112 The Availability Bias 113 Contrast Effects 115 Halo Error 116

Attribution Theory 117 Attributions and the Development of Leader–Member Relationships 119

The Romance of Leadership 120 The Pygmalion Effect 121 Employability: How Potential Employers Perceive You 122

Impression Management 124 Body Language 125

Leadership Implications: Leading Followers With Differing Perceptions 126 Key Terms 127 Suggestions for Further Reading 128

´ TOOLKIT ACTIVITY 5.1: Understanding the Pygmalion Effect 128

´ CASE STUDY 5.1: Lombardi’s Packers: From Last in the League to the Best Legs in the League 129

´ SELF-ASSESSMENT 5.1: Employability—Perceptions of Prospective Employers 130

´ SELF-ASSESSMENT 5.2: Your Impression Management Strategies 134

CHAPTER 6 •  Individual Decision Making 137

Chapter Learning Objectives 137

The Importance of Decisions 137

Decision Processes and Organizational Performance 138 Why Some People Can’t Make Decisions 138 Constraints on Individual Decision Making 139

The Rational Decision-Making Model 139 Limitations of the Rational Model 140 Bounded Rationality 141

Prospect Theory 141 The Importance of How Decisions Are Framed 142

Intuition 144 Benefits of Intuition 144 Wicked Organizational Problems 147 Heuristics 147

Decision Traps 149 Hindsight Bias 149 Overconfidence 149 Escalation of Commitment 150 Ethical Decision Making 152

Creative Problem Solving 153 Going With the “Flow” 154 Three-Component Model of Creativity 154 Creative Leadership 156

Leadership Implications: How Leaders Support Creativity 158 Key Terms 159 Suggestions for Further Reading 160

´ TOOLKIT ACTIVITY 6.1: Creative Problem-Solving Exercises 160

´ CASE STUDY 6.1: Do You Have to Spend Money to Make Money? 160

´ SELF-ASSESSMENT 6.1: How Would You Rate Your Creativity? 161


CHAPTER 7 •  Motivation: Core Concepts 168 Chapter Learning Objectives 168 Do You Have Grit? 168 What Is Motivation? 169 Need Theories 169

Goal Setting 171 “SMART” Goals 171 The Role of Leaders in Goal Setting 172

Job Characteristics Theory 173 The Motivating Potential of Work 173 Designing Work to Be Motivational 174 Job Crafting 176

The Importance of Fairness 177 Equity Theory 177 Organizational Justice: Expanding the Concept of Fairness 179 Developing a Fair Reputation 181

Expectancy Theory 182 Path–Goal Theory 185

Adapting to the Situation 185 Leadership Implications: Leaders as Motivators 187 Key Terms 187 Suggestions for Further Reading 188

´ TOOLKIT ACTIVITY 7.1: Future Me Letter 188 ´ TOOLKIT ACTIVITY 7.2: SMART Goals Template 189 ´ CASE STUDY 7.1: Building Motivation 190 ´ SELF-ASSESSMENT 7.1:

How Much Perseverance Do You Have? 191

CHAPTER 8 •  Motivation: Learning and Rewards 194 Chapter Learning Objectives 194 The Meaning of Money 194 Reinforcement Theory 195

Reinforcers 196 Punishment 196 Schedules of Reinforcement 196 Organizational Behavior Modification 199

Social Learning Theory 201 The Modeling Process 201

Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Rewards 202 Self-Determination Theory 204 Relationship Between Intrinsic and Extrinsic Rewards 204

What Money Can and Cannot Do 205 Pay Dispersion 205

Performance Management 205 Sources of Performance Management Ratings 207 Performance Management Methods 208

Problems With Performance Reviews 209 Feedback Seeking 211

Leadership Implications: Motivating With Rewards 212 Key Terms 213 Suggestions for Further Reading 213

´ TOOLKIT ACTIVITY 8.1: Performance Appraisal Dos and Don’ts 213

´ TOOLKIT ACTIVITY 8.2: Performance Management Role-Play 214 ´ CASE STUDY 8.1: Pay Inequity at Goodyear Tire and Rubber 219 ´ SELF-ASSESSMENT 8.1: Work Values Checklist 220


CHAPTER 9 •  Group Processes and Teams 224 Chapter Learning Objectives 224 Why Teams Matter: “The Orange Revolution” 224 What Is a Team? 225

Work Group Versus Team 225 Team Purpose 226 Team Development 226

Five-Stage Model 226 Team Performance Curve 228

Team Effectiveness 229 Team Learning 230 Team Creativity 231

Cohesion 232 Team Norms 233

The Team Charter 234 Team Metrics 234

Team Mental Models 235 Participation in Team Decisions 235 Team Decision-Making Methods 237

Brainstorming 237 Consensus 238 Multivoting 240 Nominal Group Technique 241 Stepladder 242

Team Challenges 242 Groupthink 243 Social Loafing 244 Virtual Teams 244 Multicultural Teams 246

Leadership Implications: Empowering the Team 246 Key Terms 248

Suggestions for Further Reading 248 ´ TOOLKIT ACTIVITY 9.1: The Team Charter 248 ´ TOOLKIT ACTIVITY 9.2:

The Marshmallow Challenge (Team Exercise) 250 ´ TOOLKIT ACTIVITY 9.3:

How to Run an Effective Meeting (Checklist) 251 ´ CASE STUDY 9.1: Texting All Teams:

Amazon Enters the Cell Phone Market 252 ´ SELF-ASSESSMENT 9.1: Teamwork Orientation 252

CHAPTER 10 •  Managing Conflict and Negotiation 254 Chapter Learning Objectives 254 What Are CEOs Getting Coaching For? 254 What Is Conflict? 255

Causes of Organizational Conflict 256 Is Conflict Always Bad? 258 Task Versus Relationship Conflict 260 Workplace Aggression and Violence 261

Conflict Resolution Styles 263 Team Conflict and Performance 265 Third-Party Interventions 268 Resolving Conflict Across Cultures 269 Negotiation 270

Distributive Bargaining 271 Integrative Bargaining 271

Leadership Implications: Perspective Taking 272 Key Terms 273 Suggestions for Further Reading 273

´ TOOLKIT ACTIVITY 10.1: Checklist for Difficult Conversations 274 ´ TOOLKIT ACTIVITY 10.2: Salary Negotiation 274 ´ TOOLKIT ACTIVITY 10.3: Negotiation Style Assessment 276 ´ CASE STUDY 10.1: Perspective Taking: Captain Owen Honors 277 ´ SELF-ASSESSMENT 10.1: Conflict Resolution Styles 278

CHAPTER 11 •  Organizational Communication 284 Chapter Learning Objectives 284 “Thin Slicing” a Conversation 284 What Is Organizational Communication? 285

The Communication Process 285 Barriers to Effective Communication 287

Communication Apprehension 287 Language 287 Active Listening 288

Communication Networks 288 Communication Flows in Organizations 290 The Grapevine 292

Electronic Communication 294 E-Mail 294 Text Messages 294 Social Networking 296 Videoconferencing 297

Cross-Cultural Communication 297 Nonverbal Communication 299 Silence 300 Leadership Implications: The Management of Meaning 302 Key Terms 303 Suggestions for Further Reading 303

´ TOOLKIT ACTIVITY 11.1: Active Listening Exercise 303 ´ CASE STUDY 11.1: Communication:

What Message Is Yahoo Really Relaying? 304 ´ SELF-ASSESSMENT 11.1: Quality of

Communication Experience 306

CHAPTER 12 •  Cross-Cultural Differences and Adjustments 309

Chapter Learning Objectives 309

Global Diversity: A Key Workforce Trend 309

What Is Culture? 310

High-Context Versus Low-Context Cultures 311

Hofstede’s Cultural Values 313 Criticisms and Usefulness of Hofstede’s Research 315

GLOBE Studies of Cross-Cultural Leadership 316 Cultural Tightness–Looseness 318 Developing Global Leaders 319

The Third Culture 320 Cultural Intelligence 322 Cross-Cultural Adjustment 322 Integrative Acculturation: Biculturals 324

Culture Shock 324 Cultural Retooling 326 Repatriation 326

Cross-Cultural Adjustment for Expatriates 328 Leadership Implications: “Explain Before Blame” 329 Key Terms 330 Suggestions for Further Reading 331

´ TOOLKIT ACTIVITY 12.1: Journey to Sharahad 331 ´ CASE STUDY 12.1: “A Person

Needs Face Like a Tree Needs Bark” 333 ´ SELF-ASSESSMENT 12.1: What Is Your Cultural Intelligence? 333


CHAPTER 13 •  Stress in the Context of Organizational Change 338

Chapter Learning Objectives 338 “Road Warriors” 338 What Is Stress? 339

Person–Environment Fit 340 Stress and Organizational Performance 341 Stress and Organizational Change 344 Sources of Work-Related Stress 345

Role Stress 345 “Toxic” Workplaces 348 Abusive Supervision 348

Stress Episode 350 Stress Is a Global Concern 351 Coping 352

Social Support 354 Preventive Stress Management in Organizations 354

Employee Assistance Programs 355 Work Redesign 356

Leadership Implications: Helping Employees Cope 357 Key Terms 358 Suggestions for Further Reading 359

´ TOOLKIT ACTIVITY 13.1: Warning Signs of Burnout 359 ´ TOOLKIT ACTIVITY 13.2: Stressful Life Events 360 ´ CASE STUDY 13.1: The Price of Entrepreneurship 361 ´ SELF-ASSESSMENT 13.1: Perceived Stress Scale 362

CHAPTER 14 •  Organizational Culture 365 Chapter Learning Objectives 365 When Elephants Learn to Dance 365 What Is Organizational Culture? 366

Seven Characteristics of Culture 366 National Culture and Organizational Culture 369 Strong Organizational Cultures 370

Organizational Subcultures 371

Socialization 372 Anticipatory Socialization 372 Organizational Entry and Assimilation 373 Metamorphosis 374

How Employees Learn Culture 374 Stories 374 Rituals 375 Symbols 375 Language 376

Organizational Climate 376 How Leaders Influence Climate 377 Ethical Climate 378

Leadership Implications: Changing Organizational Culture 380 Tool #1: Recruiting and Selecting People for Culture Fit 380 Tool #2: Managing Culture Through Socialization and Training 380 Tool #3: Managing Culture Through the Reward System 380

Key Terms 381 Suggestions for Further Reading 381

´ TOOLKIT ACTIVITY 14.1: Comparing Organizational Cultures: IDEO and Amazon 381

´ CASE STUDY 14.1: Culture Clash at B-MED 383 ´ SELF-ASSESSMENT 14.1: Comparing Service Climates 384

CHAPTER 15 •  Leading Change 386 Chapter Learning Objectives 386 Helping Employees Embrace Change 386 Forces Driving Organizational Change 387 Planned Organizational Change 388 Organizational Subsystems Involved in Planned Change 390 Organizational Development 391

Examples of Organizational Development Interventions 392 Resistance to Change 393

How to Overcome Resistance to Change 394 Leading Change 396

Lewin’s Three-Step Model 396 Force Field Analysis 397 Kotter’s Eight-Step Model 398

Effective Change Implementation 399 Leadership Implications: Creating Learning Organizations 400 Key Terms 402 Suggestions for Further Reading 402

´ TOOLKIT ACTIVITY 15.1: Appreciative Inquiry 402 ´ CASE STUDY 15.1: Alighting Innovation in the Utility Industry 403

´ SELF-ASSESSMENT 15.1: Leading Through Change Assessment 404

APPENDIX • Research Designs Used in Organizational Behavior 409

Qualitative and Quantitative Research 409 Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Studies 409 Correlational Field Study 410 Case Study 410 Action Research 410 Mixed Methods Research 410 Meta-Analysis 411 Key Terms 412





After decades of using Organizational Behavior (OB) textbooks, I realized they were not communicating the right message for today’s students. They memorized theories and dutifully wrote them down on exams, but I felt they were missing out on how to apply these theories to become a better leader. Students want take-away skills they can put into practice immediately. A new approach to teaching OB is needed and this textbook shows students how to be effective leaders and managers in organizations. With a focus on leadership and management development, students will go beyond memorizing theories and will apply the most relevant concepts to effectively motivate followers, lead their teams, and champion organizational change.

I have researched leadership for over 25 years. During five of those years, I was an acting dean at a major research university undergoing change. With this position, I put OB concepts into practice every day in my administrative position—I hired people, motivated them, set goals, and did annual performance appraisals. I helped employees, students, and faculty cope with organizational change. Based upon my research and the practical experience as an administrator with several direct reports, I began to look at my courses differently. I wanted to translate our rich evidence base into skills that managers can use every day. I also wanted to show how managers can become effective leaders through applications of course concepts. My process to achieve this was to start incorporating more skill-based assessments, role-plays, and team activities into each class meeting. Feedback from students was extremely positive and many cited these exercises as high points in their learning experience in my course evaluations. I decided to write a textbook that reviewed OB theory and distilled the most relevant concepts for the development of effective leaders in organizations. Keeping a sharp focus on what the evidence base in OB supports, I searched for and developed exercises and activities that reinforce the key takeaways from each area I taught.

This “essentials” book is not a condensed version of a larger OB textbook. It was written with an eye toward the fundamentals every managerial leader needs to know and how to apply them. I used an evidence-based approach, making prescriptions based on research. Theories are reviewed critically and students are encouraged to think critically about what they read. End-of-chapter assessments and activities make the linkage from theory to practice for students. For example, Chapter 8 includes an activity in which students role-play giving a performance appraisal. Based on my practical experience, performance appraisal is one of the most challenging scenarios a new manager faces. The activity is realistic and encourages students to practice the skill set of how to provide feedback in an effective way. This textbook fills another need by adopting an integrative OB textbook approach with a framework of leadership and management development throughout. References are made to other chapters in multiple places so students can see the connections across topics in OB. For example, Chapter 7 discusses core concepts in motivation and refers to the chapter immediately following, which focuses on the role of rewards in motivating followers. As a set, these two chapters compose a learning module entitled “leaders as motivators.” Chapter 1 contains a figure that is a “map” of the field



of OB that allows instructor to create integrated learning modules that can be used in courses of varying lengths (for example, six-week courses and 15-week courses).

The cases at the end of each chapter cover a wide range of organizational situations including small business, hospitals, large corporations, and many other types of organizations. My colleagues and I have tested the cases and exercises with students and they resonate with both MBAs and undergraduates. Regardless of the career paths students choose, they will find these assessments and activities valuable as they develop leadership and management skills.


I have written this book to be appropriate for MBA and Executive MBA core courses in OB as well as for upper-level undergraduate courses. Case studies and exercises will prepare students at all levels for today’s workplace. The content and activities have been carefully written so students can respond to discussion questions and assessments. For undergraduates, the role-plays and team activities at the end of the chapters are particularly valuable. This experiential approach to learning supports the application of OB fundamentals and the activities are interesting and fun. Textbook reviews have also indicated that this textbook will work very well in Industrial/Organizational Psychology courses as well as courses in Higher Education Leadership. In writing the textbook, I kept in mind that some OB courses are being offered in hybrid or online formats. The features of this textbook support these formats (for example, all boxed inserts and case studies have discussion questions that can be answered by students and submitted as assignments).


I always wanted a concise OB textbook that did certain things for my students. This textbook was written with three guiding principles:

1. An evidence-based management approach to the field of OB so practice recommendations are grounded in research.

2. Emphasis on critical thinking in Chapter 1 and throughout the textbook so students can evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of research before they move to practice applications.

3. A focus on leadership development for managers so rather than just memorizing theories, students apply them to cases and a variety of activities organized in toolkits at the end of each chapter.

Evidence-Based Management Hundreds of references to classic and current OB research are used in this textbook to build a new way of looking at the research as the foundation for leadership development. The Evidence-Based Management approach is described in detail in Chapter 1. The coverage of research is comprehensive with a focus on the most important topics managers need to


become effective leaders. These are the topics I have selected to teach for over 25 years to undergraduate, MBA, and Executive MBA students. This textbook offers a research-based approach that translates theory to practice, focusing on the contemporary approaches rather than the historical/classical approaches. Most students are less interested in historical development of theory and more interested in theories they can apply to be more effective leaders. There is far less emphasis on theories that don’t have solid research support than other textbooks that I have used and read. In fairness, certain topics are noted for their contribution to broad-based understanding of OB, followed by a critical assessment of the research support.

Critical Thinking Over the years, I have heard colleagues lament, “our students don’t think critically.” One day while teaching, it occurred to me that I had never actually included a lecture on critical thinking—what it is and why it is important. It wasn’t in my OB textbook. I researched critical thinking and started to lecture on it in my class lectures. I began to see a difference in how my students approached the material in my courses. The quality of classroom discussion improved and students began to really discuss strengths and weaknesses of theory and develop relevant examples as applications. Their answers on essay questions went beyond memorization to demonstration of understanding concepts, plus providing examples to show they could apply them as managers.

It just makes sense that we teach our students about critical thinking, and this is a major theme of this textbook. Critical thinking is defined and discussed in detail in Chapter 1 so students will understand what it is and why it is important for a managerial leader to think critically.

Leadership Development I have an extensive background studying the importance of leadership within organizations, in addition to holding positions of leadership at several points in my career. For this reason, leadership is a major theme that flows throughout the textbook. Leadership core concepts are covered early in the textbook in Chapter 2; while I believe this is foundational to a leadership and management development approach to OB, this chapter might be assigned later as many OB instructors do (this book is written to have such flexibility). In addition to a full chapter on leadership, each chapter includes a section discussing “leadership implications” in the context of the topic being discussed, as well as end-of-chapter activities and self-assessments designed to enhance students’ understanding of leadership and their own leadership styles and tendencies.

Trends in Organizational Behavior Along with the three guiding principles of evidence-based management, critical thinking, and leadership development, this textbook also touches upon emerging topics in OB. Throughout the chapters there is an emphasis on globalization and cross-cultural OB. For example, cross-cultural differences in stress are compared in Chapter 13.


A number of the chapters include discussions on ethics as well. An example of this theme is found in Chapter 11: Organizational Communication, where the Enron case is discussed as a grapevine effect that led to uncovering major ethical violations. Finally, in a number of places, positive psychology is integrated into the presentation of OB topics. For example, mindfulness is discussed as a coaching strategy for understanding diverse employees in Chapter 3.


Learning Objectives The learning objectives included at the beginning of each chapter highlight the key topics covered in the chapter, and note the skills students will develop after reading. These learning objectives are directly tied to main headers within the chapter and can be used to measure and assess students’ understanding of chapter material.

Chapter-Opening Vignette Each chapter begins with a research-based challenge facing managers based upon empirical data, often from national polls or consulting firms. For example, Chapter 8 discusses “the meaning of money.” These highlights are intended to get the students’ attention so they immediately see the relevance of the material in the chapter that follows.

Best Practices and Research in Action Boxes Within each chapter, there are two types of boxed inserts to enhance the application of the material to the student’s development as a leader—“Best Practices” and “Research in Action.” Best Practices highlight current applications of OB research in real organizations or consulting examples. One of my favorites is a best practices box that teaches students step-by-step how to use perceptual tools to remember people’s names. Research in Action vignettes demonstrate how OB research translates to leadership practice. An example is a short discussion of current research on the rise of workplace incivility that asks the question of whether we need to “send in Miss Manners.” Included in each of these boxed features, there are discussion questions to stimulate the student’s thinking on the application and can be used for in-class discussion. These discussion questions may be assigned prior to class to encourage students to read and apply the highlighted practice and research in these inserts. These boxed inserts can be integrated into class discussions to show how practice and research use OB theories.

Critical Thinking Questions To support critical thinking throughout the course, critical thinking questions are integrated within the textbook. These questions encourage students to pause, think about, and then apply the material just covered to an organizational challenge for leaders. For instructors teaching online courses, these questions can be assigned to check the student comprehension of assigned textbook readings.


Key Terms Key terms featured in each chapter have been set in bold throughout the text. Students will be able to quickly search for and locate these key terms.

The Toolkit Each chapter contains a “Toolkit” in which the student will apply the concepts covered within that chapter. Each chapter’s Toolkit contains the following features:

 • Key terms highlighted within the chapter.  • A short case study illustrating one or more concepts from the chapter.

These cases are followed by discussion questions that can be assigned prior to in-class case discussion.

 • At least one self-assessment, including personality tests or leadership assessments. Students learn something about themselves and others, making the concepts relevant to their personal lives and development as a leader.

 • The toolkit activities are team exercises, or role-plays, in which the students interact with other students to apply the material. I have used these exercises in my classes and I am pleased to provide them all in one package so you don’t have to search for them, and copy them for class.

 • Years ago, one of my MBA students asked me if I could compile a list of 10 books that every manager should read. I have included Suggestions for Further Reading to encourage further reading on classic and current books on OB topics. These books are referenced in the chapters and students may want to read them to learn more.



The edge every student needs SAGE edge for instructors supports teaching by making it easy to integrate quality content and create a rich learning environment for students.

 • Test banks provide a diverse range of pre-written options as well as the opportunity to edit any question and/or insert personalized questions to effectively assess students’ progress and understanding

 • Sample course syllabi for semester and quarter courses provide suggested models for structuring one’s course

 • Editable, chapter-specific PowerPoint® slides offer complete flexibility for creating a multimedia presentation for the course

 • Lecture outlines summarize key concepts by chapter to ease preparation for lectures and class discussions

 • Sample answers to in-text questions ease preparation for lectures and class discussions


 • Suggested course projects are designed to promote students’ in-depth engagement with course material.

 • Lively and stimulating ideas for class activities that can be used in class to reinforce active learning. The activities apply to individual or group projects.

 • Teaching notes for cases are designed for instructors to expand questions to students, or initiate class discussion.

 • EXCLUSIVE! Access to full-text SAGE journal articles that have been carefully selected to support and expand on the concepts presented in each chapter to encourage students to think critically

 • Multimedia content appeals to students with different learning styles  • A course cartridge provides easy LMS integration

SAGE edge for students provides a personalized approach to help students accomplish their coursework goals in an easy-to-use learning environment.

 • Mobile-friendly eFlashcards strengthen understanding of key terms and concepts

 • Mobile-friendly practice quizzes allow for independent assessment by students of their mastery of course material

 • A customized online action plan allows students to track their progress and enhance their learning experience

 • Chapter summaries with learning objectives reinforce the most important material`

 • EXCLUSIVE! Access to full-text SAGE journal articles that have been carefully selected to support and expand on the concepts presented in each chapter

 • Multimedia content appeals to students with different learning styles


My love of teaching began as a Ph.D. student with the first course I taught. I am excited to bring my perspective on the field of OB as an integrated and evidence-based foundation for the development of leaders to more students. This has truly been a labor of love. I have reflected on the field of OB and realized that we have so very much to offer our students because of the research we have done. I am in awe of my OB colleagues around the world for their theoretical insights and their rigorous research. It is with gratitude and humility that I am offering this book to instructors and their students.

I would like to thank my students Monica Sharif and Ronnie Grant for their assistance with various parts of this project. I am indebted to Stephanie Maynard-Patrick for writing case studies and working with me on the ancillary materials. I cannot express my gratitude enough for all of the authors and publishers that graciously allowed me to reprint their material in this book. I thank my principal mentors George Graen and Belle Rose Ragins for their support and insights throughout my career. I offer thanks to all of my colleagues in OB (too numerous to mention) who provide me with feedback and support on everything I do. My OB colleagues at the University of Miami read drafts of the tables of contents and chapters and offered suggestions for the toolkits (and allowed me to test them in their courses): Cecily Cooper, Marie Dasborough, Linda Neider, Chet Schriesheim, and Gergana Todorova. My family and friends suffered through my periods of me being a hermit and patiently listened to me talk about this book. I thank my family Laura Scandura Rea, Sandi Kennedy, Deanne Julifs, and Tommy Scandura for always believing in me—and not just with respect to this textbook. I would also like to thank Cindy Riesman for her practical down-to-earth advice and for making me laugh at just the right times. Last, but in no way least, I thank the team at SAGE. Nicole Mangona kept track of permissions and numerous other details. I greatly appreciate all of the retweets from Lori Hart. I am also grateful to Maggie Stanley and Abbie Rickard for their support throughout the project. They encouraged me to “hear” reviewer feedback but always respected my vison for the book. Special thanks to Cynthia Nalevanko at SAGE for encouraging me to write a textbook and getting me in touch with the right people to discuss this project. Thanks also to Katie Bierach, Liz Thornton, Amy Lammers, Erica DeLuca, Gail Buschman, and Laura Barrett at SAGE for their excellent work on this project. Without all of these people in their various ways of supporting me, this book would not have been possible.

I am grateful to the reviewers of this textbook who applied their own critical perspectives to the chapters. They made this textbook better in every way and I learned from their insightful comments and suggestions for additional research evidence to include. Thanks to the following reviewers for their participation in all stages of this book’s development:

Carrie S. Hurst, Tennessee State University

Lisa V. Williams, Niagara University Jody A. Worley, University of Oklahoma

Nancy Sutton Bell, University of Montevallo

Barbara A. Wech, University of Alabama at Birmingham



Chulguen (Charlie) Yang, Southern Connecticut State University

Carol Saunders, University of Central Florida

Mary Lynn Engel, Saint Joseph’s College

Eric Chen, University of Saint Joseph

Bruce Gilstrap, University of Southern Mississippi

Chan Hellman, University of Oklahoma

Marie Hansen, Husson University

Michael Buckley, University of Oklahoma

DeNisha McCollum, John Brown University

Hannah Rothstein, Baruch College

Mary Ann Gall, Franklin Pierce University

Roberta Michel, Oakland University

Minerva Cruz, Kentucky State University

Jim Byran, Fresno Pacific University

Ivan Muslin, Marshall University

Katherine Sliter, Indiana University— Purdue University

Carrie Bulger, Quinnipiac University

Cecily Cooper, University of Miami

Kim Lukaszewski, New Paltz SUNY

Jay Jacobson, Marquette University

James W. Bishop, New Mexico State University

David McCalman, University of Central Arkansas

Adam Payne, Bentley University– Northeastern University

Robert Toronto, University of Michigan– Dearborn

Nicholas Capozzoli, Indiana University Kokomo

Joel Baldomir, Marist College

Daniel E. Hallock, University of North Alabama

John Rowe, Florida Gateway College

C. Douglas Johnson, Georgia Gwinnett College

Leon Fraser, Rutgers University

Charles Kramer, University of La Verne

Roger Dean, Washington & Lee University

Barbara Stuart, University of Denver

Heather Wherry, Bellevue University

Kimberly Hunley, Northern Arizona University

Roselynn S. Dow, Empire State College

Nell Hartley, Robert Morris University

Mim Plavin-Masterman, Worcester State University

Charlena Patterson, Catholic University of America

Eric Chen, University of Saint Joseph

Becky J. Timmons, University of Arkansas– Fort Smith

Douglas Threet, Foothill College

Herb Wong, John F. Kennedy University

Carol Harvey, Suffolk University

Lissa Whyte-Morazan, Brookline College

Geni D. Cowan, California State University, Sacramento

Robert Whitcomb, Western Nevada College

Issam Ghazzawi, University of La Verne

Mehmet Sincar, University of Gaziantep

Jeff Paul, University of Tulsa


Terri A. Scandura is currently a Professor of Management in the School of Business Administration at the University of Miami. From 2007 to 2012, she served as Dean of the Graduate School of the University. Her fields of interest include leadership, mentorship, and applied research methods. She has been a visiting scholar in Japan, Australia, Hong Kong, China, and the United Arab Emirates.

Dr. Scandura has authored or co-authored over two hundred presentations, articles, and book chapters. Her research has been published in the Academy of Management Journal,

the Journal of Applied Psychology, the Journal of International Business Studies, the Journal of Vocational Behavior, the Journal of Organizational Behavior, Educational and Psychological Measurement, Industrial Relations, Research in Organizational Behavior, and Research in Personnel and Human Resource Management and others.

She has presented Executive Education programs on Leadership, Mentoring, Leading Change, and High Performance Teams to numerous organizations such as VISA International, Royal Caribbean Cruise Lines, the Young Presidents Organization, Hewlett- Packard, and Baptist Health Systems.

Dr. Scandura is a Fellow of the Society for Industrial & Organizational Psychology (Division 14 of the American Psychological Association), and the Southern Management Association. She is a member of the Society of Organizational Behavior (SOB) and the Academy of Management. She is a past-associate editor for Group & Organization Management, the Journal of International Business Studies, Journal of Management, and Organizational Research Methods. She currently serves on Editorial Boards for major journals including the Academy of Management Journal.



Chapter 1 • What Is Organizational Behavior?

Chapter 2 • Leadership: Core Concepts



Section 1: Organizational Behavior and Leadership Chapter 1: What is Organizational Behavior? Chapter 2: Leadership: Core Concepts

Section 2: Understanding Individuals in Organizations Chapter 3: Individual Differences Chapter 4: Attitudes and Job Satisfaction Chapter 5: Perception Chapter 6: Individual Decision Making

Section 3: Motivating Employees Chapter 7: Motivation: Core Concepts Chapter 8: Motivation: Learning and Rewards

Section 4: Building Relationships Chapter 9: Group Processes and Teams Chapter 10: Managing Conflict and Negotiation Chapter 11: Organizational Communication Chapter 12: Cross-Cultural Differences and Adjustments

Section 5: Creating Change Chapter 13: Stress in the Context of Organizational Change Chapter 14: Organizational Culture Chapter 15: Leading Change



Learning Objectives After studying this chapter, you should be able to do the following:

1.1. Define the concept of organizational behavior (OB).

1.2. List and give examples of the four sources of information used in evidence-based management (EBM).

1.3. Define critical thinking, and explain the critical thinking skills leaders need.

1.4. Describe the scientific method used in OB research.

1.5. Discuss four types of outcome variables studied in OB.

1.6. Compare the levels of analysis in OB research.

1.7. Develop plans for using OB research to improve employee job performance.


Recent polls conducted by the Gallup organization show that about 70% of people who hold full-time jobs in the United States either hate their jobs or have “mentally checked out.”1 This is a large impact considering that an estimated 100 million people work full-time in the United States. Workers who hate their jobs cost their organizations millions of dollars in low productivity. Even worse, many of the Gallup survey respondents reported actively engaging in destructive behavior by spreading their dissatisfaction throughout their organizations. One of the most important things the Gallup study found is that the source of dissatisfaction is not pay or the number of hours worked, however.