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____ occur over time and slowly deteriorate the organization’s capacity to withstand their effects.

Question 1

1. The SP must include its own mission statement or statement of purpose as well as be a uniquely customized approach for the needs of the specific organization for which it is developed.

True

False

Question 2

1. The term Blank 1 means making an organization ready for possible contingencies that can escalate to become disasters.

Question 3

1. A(n) Blank 1 must support the immediate reestablishment of operations at an alternate site and eventual reestablishment of operations back at the primary site.

Question 4

1. Blank 1 are those that occur suddenly, with little warning, taking the lives of people and destroying the means of production.

Question 5

1. A(n) Blank 1 is a collection of nodes in which the segments are geographically dispersed.

Wide area network

Question 6

1. Blank 1 is the movement of employees among positions at the same organizational level rather than through progression and promotion.

Question 7

1. The primary goal of the Blank 1 phase is to repair all damage to the primary site or select or build a replacement facility.

Question 8

1. The Blank 1 is simply a legal record of where the evidence was at each point in its lifetime and documentation of each and every access to it.

Question 9

1. Blank 1 represents the final response of the organization when faced with any interruption of its critical operations.

Question 10

1. Mainframes are perceived as being more robust than n-tier server architectures.

True

False

Question 11

1. Blank 1 when an individual, an application, or another program, through access to the operating system’s application programming interface (API), attempts to and/or gains access to an information asset without explicit permission or authorization to do so.

Question 12

1. Blank 1 is a category of incidents that covers a spectrum of violations made by authorized users of a system who nevertheless use the system in ways specifically prohibited by management.

Question 13

1. The initial determination of the scope of the breach of confidentiality, integrity, and availability of information and information assets is called the Blank 1 .

Question 14

1. Blank 1 is the process of preparing for, responding to, recovering from, and managing communications during a crisis.

Question 15

1. Blank 1 is the use of forensics techniques when the source of evidence is a computer system.

Question 16

1. The BC plan should identify how staffing operations will function and who is responsible for overseeing and implementing them.

True

False

Question 17

1. Blank 1 occur over time and slowly deteriorate the organization’s capacity to withstand their effects.

Question 18

1. A(n) Blank 1 is the list of officials, ranging from an individual’s immediate supervisor to the top executive of the organization.

Question 19

1. Blank 1 is the process that enables an organization to cope with any loss of personnel with a minimum degree of disruption to the functionality of the organization, by predefining the promotion of internal personnel usually by position.

Question 20

1. A(n) Blank 1 is an information system with a telephony interface that can be used to automate the alert process.

Question 21

1. Blank 1 occurs when management had a responsibility to do something, in line with due diligence or due care, but did not do anything or did the wrong things.

Question 22

1. Blank 1 is the determination of the initial flaw or vulnerability that allowed the incident to occur; it is done by examining the systems, networks, and procedures that were involved.

Question 23

1. The term Blank 1 is used is in the military and government sectors to represent the process of moving out of temporary facilities and returning them back to the owners or managers.

Question 24

1. Blank 1 is the preparation for and recovery from a disaster, whether natural or man-made.

Question 25

1. Blended attacks can occur via any type of Internet or network service, such as e-mail, Web servers or clients, and Windows shares.

True

False

Question 26

1. A(n) Blank 1 is a significant business disruption with a direct impact on the lives, health, and welfare of an organization and its employees.

Question 27

1. The term Blank 1 refers to the process of accounting for all personnel – that is, determining each individual’s whereabouts – during an emergency.

Question 28

1. Blank 1 are those individuals who are hired above and beyond the minimum number of personnel needed to perform a business function

Question 29

1. Blank 1 is functionally similar to job rotation but only involves the rotation of a portion of a job.

Question 30

1. The maintenance of the IR plan is a trivial commitment for an organization.

True

False

Question 31

1. Blank 1 is the legal component of civil law whereby one party can obtain evidence from the opposing party through specific requests for information.

Question 32

1. The goal of the Blank 1 is to initiate implementation of secondary functions.

Question 33

1. A(n) Blank 1 is a scripted description of the disaster and consists of just enough information so that each responder knows what portion of the DR plan to implement without impeding the notification process.

Question 34

1. Blank 1 is the rapid relocation of an organization’s critical business functions to an alternate location until such time as the organization is able to return to the primary site or relocate to a new permanent facility.

Question 35

1. Blank 1 is simply a human response that is part of dealing with the inexplicable travesty associated with loss – loss of life, limb, or property.

Question 36

1. Blank 1 is the use of methodical technical investigation and analysis techniques to identify, collect, preserve, and analyze objects and information of potential evidentiary value so that it may be admitted as evidence in a court of law, used to support administrative action, or simply used to further analyze suspicious events.

Question 37

1. Blank 1 involves an attempt made by those who may become subject to digital forensic techniques to obfuscate or hide items of evidentiary value.

Question 38

1. Network IDPSs cannot detect all incidents, especially those attacks that are not network-based.

True

False

Question 39

1. Mitigation of impact is the inclusion of action steps to minimize the damage associated with the disaster on the operations of the organization.

True

False

Question 40

1. The Blank 1 phase involves activating the DR plan and following the steps outlined therein.

Question 41

1. Blank 1 is defined as the search for, collection, and review of items stored in electronic (or, more precisely, digital) format that are of potential evidentiary value based on criteria specified by a legal team.

Question 42

1. The key role of a DR plan is defining how to reestablish operations at the location where the organization is usually located.

True

False

Question 43

1. During the Blank 1 phase, the organization begins the recovery of the most time-critical business functions – those necessary to reestablish business operations and prevent further economic and image loss to the organization.

Question 44

1. The Blank 1 is the amount of time that the business can tolerate until the alternate capabilities are available.

Question 45

1. The mainframe is a large, multi-user system designed to provide both computational capacity and high-volume data storage support for large organizations.

True

False

Question 46

1. A(n) Blank 1 is a detailed examination of the events that occurred, from first detection to final recovery.

Question 47

1. When the primary site has been restored to working order, all business functions must return at the same time.

True

False

Question 48

1. Blank 1 is information, graphics, images, or any other physical or electronic item that could have value as evidence in a legal proceeding, whether criminal or civil.

Question 49

1. The term Blank 1 is used to describe the group responsible for the process of initiating the occupation of the alternate facility.

Question 50

1. Blank 1 is the movement of employees from one position to another so they can develop additional skills and abilities.

Question 1

1.

The SP must include its own mission statement or statement of purpose as well as be a uniquely

customized approach for the needs of the specific organization for which it is developed.

True

False

Question 2

1.

The term Blank 1

means making an organization ready for possible contingencies that

can escalate to become disasters.

Question 3

1.

A(n) Blank 1

must support the immediate reestablishment of operations at an

alternate site and eventual reestablishment of operations back a

t the primary site.

Question 4

1.

Blank 1

are those that occur suddenly, with little warning, taking the lives of people

and destroying the means of production.

Question 5

1.

A(n) Blank 1

is a collection of nodes in which the segments are geographically

d

ispersed.

Wide area network

Question 6

1.

Blank 1

is the movement of employees among positions at the same organizational

level rather than through progression and promotion.

Question 1

1. The SP must include its own mission statement or statement of purpose as well as be a uniquely

customized approach for the needs of the specific organization for which it is developed.

True

False

Question 2

1. The term Blank 1

means making an organization ready for possible contingencies that

can escalate to become disasters.

Question 3

1. A(n) Blank 1

must support the immediate reestablishment of operations at an

alternate site and eventual reestablishment of operations back at the primary site.

Question 4

1. Blank 1

are those that occur suddenly, with little warning, taking the lives of people

and destroying the means of production.

Question 5

1. A(n) Blank 1

is a collection of nodes in which the segments are geographically

dispersed.

Wide area network

Question 6

1. Blank 1

is the movement of employees among positions at the same organizational

level rather than through progression and promotion.

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which one of the following items is an example of a symbol in “bernice bobs her hair”?

When you have completed your exam and reviewed your answers, click Submit Exam. Answers will not be recorded until you hit Submit Exam. If you need to exit before completing the exam, click Cancel Exam.

Questions 1 to 20: Select the best answer to each question. Note that a question and its answers may be split across a page break, so be sure that you have seen the entire question and all the answers before choosing an answer.

1. The most basic purpose of reading is

A.  education.

B.   getting information.

C.  providing entertainment.

D.  acquiring insight.

2. Which one of the following genres presents the author’s personal ideas and feelings about a particular topic?

A.  Short story

B.   Poem

C.  Novel

D.  Essay

3. The connotative meaning of a word refers to

A.  its dictionary definition.

B.   the irony suggested by the word.

C.  its meaning at a specific time in history.

D.  what it suggests about something.

4. It’s most accurate to say that interpretative literature

A.  contains or suggests universal truths.

B.   is intended to meet the reader’s expectations.

C.  refers to today’s hot topics.

D.  weaves exciting action around a standard formula.

5. Which one of the following types of writing would most likely be fiction?

A.  Informational literature

B.   Novel

C.  Essay

D.  Autobiography

6. The label detective novel is an example of

A.  a genre.

B.   a character study.

C.  informational reading.

D.  a universal truth.

7. Interpretative literature is said to be interactive because

A.  you can read most of these works on the Internet now.

B.   the reader has to take part in discovering the meaning of the work.

C.  the conflict shows the interaction between two elements of the story.

D.  the story consists of a rising action and a falling action.

8. During what part of “Bernice Bobs Her Hair” does Bernice cut Marjorie’s braids?

A.  Falling action

B.   Rising action

C.  Climax

D.  Epiphany

9. Which one of the following items is an example of a symbol in “Bernice Bobs Her Hair”?

A.  Marjorie’s talk with her mother

B.   Bernice’s haircut

C.  Bernice’s car

D.  The dinner-dance at the country club

10. In “A White Heron,” having made her choice between an attraction of the heart and her bond with nature, Sylvia

A.  chooses human love over her loyalty to nature.

B.   retains her loyalty to nature as her affection for the hunter grows.

C.  retains her loyalty to nature and becomes more suspicious of human nature.

D.  is able to experience a lasting inner calm.

11. What is Sarah Jewett suggesting when she writes about Sylvia’s increasing attraction to the hunter in “A White Heron”?

A.  Sylvia cares more about people than animals.

B.   Sylvia is experiencing falling in love.

C.  Sylvia does one thing but believes the opposite.

D.  Sylvia will do anything for money.

12. In fiction, use of conventions leads to

A.  imagination.

B.   escapism.

C.  expectations.

D.  entertainment.

13. Because Bernice changes during the course of “Bernice Bobs Her Hair,” she’s said to be a _______ character.

A.  static

B.   dynamic

C.  one-dimensional

D.  symbolic

14. Suppose you’ve just read a romance novel that has stock characters and a happily-ever-after ending. What kind of literature were you probably reading?

A.  Universal literature

B.   Interpretive literature

C.  Escapist literature

D.  Informational literature

15. Which one of the following terms best describes the period of the 1920s?

A.  Proper

B.   Rebellious

C.  Symbolic

D.  Moral

16. In F. Scott Fitzgerald’s story “Bernice Bobs Her Hair,” we are very likely to

A.  decide that Bernice will never escape her dependent nature.

B.   see Marjorie’s personality as shallow.

C.  think of both Marjorie and Bernice as painfully naïve.

D.  realize that Marjorie is sensitive to Bernice’s feelings.

17. Which of the words printed in italics in the following sentences is most likely to convey a denotative meaning?

A.  Do you know what the owl signifies?

B.   The recipe calls for one pint of cream.

C.  Deliver the goods soon, or else.

D.  What time did he call?

18. The most significant conflict in “Bernice Bobs Her Hair” is between

A.  Marjorie and men in general.

B.   Bernice and Marjorie.

C.  Bernice and herself.

D.  Warren and Marjorie.

19. Great literature is educational because it

A.  helps you draw on ideas you already have.

B.   won’t challenge your beliefs.

C.  teaches rather than entertains.

D.  allows you to simply observe and analyze.

20. An author of a detective novel is most likely to use figurative language to

A.  help the reader visualize a character.

B.   suggest hidden meanings.

C.  mislead the reader.

D.  entertain the reader.

End of exam

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fue rebeca buscó el apartamento.

ChooseSelect the appropriate word or phrase. 

  •    I’m looking for a house in the outskirts of Quito.
  • Mariela and her husband, I met in Barcelona, ​​are artists.
  • Where are the shoes I like?
  • The teachers, they are Dominicans, they go on a trip tomorrow.
  • That’s the girl with I get the best.
  • If you work a lot, you’re going to get what you want.

Diagnostics_number_2

 Looking for housingFill in the blanks with the appropriate relative pronouns. 

  • – This semester I do not have money to rent an apartment. (1) [removed]  (What / What) I need is to rent a room. How many bedrooms does your apartment have?
    -The apartment  (2) [removed]  (what / what) I have has two, but the other one is already rented. Although ( Although ) yesterday I met a boy  (3) [removed]  (who / who) rents a room near the university.
    -True? And that guy a  (4) [removed]  (who / who) did you meet, what’s his name?

Diagnostics_number_3

 To completeFill in the blanks with relative pronouns. 

  • It was Rebeca [removed] searched the apartment.
  • The picture [removed] put on the wall of the room is very ugly.
  • I do not have [removed] I need: a good vacuum cleaner.
  • The ladies to [removed] you saw in the kitchen are my aunts.
  • [removed] bothers me is injustice.
  • The person [removed] I love the most is my mother.

Diagnostics_number_4

 DefinitionsFill in the blanks with relative pronouns. Then write the word from the list that matches the definition. Two words will not be used.

the carpetbedNapkin
toasterthe outskirtsthe neighbors
  • It’s a [removed] appliance you need to make toast: [removed]
  • They are the people with [removed] you share the neighborhood: [removed]
  • It is [removed] you use to clean your mouth after eating: [removed]
  • It’s the furniture in [removed] we go to sleep:
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why would a network administrator use wireshark and netwitness investigator together?

26 | Lab #1 Performing Reconnaissance and Probing Using Common Tools

Lab #1 – Assessment Worksheet

Performing Reconnaissance and Probing Using Common Tools

Course Name and Number: _____________________________________________________ Student Name: ________________________________________________________________ Instructor Name: ______________________________________________________________ Lab Due Date: ________________________________________________________________

Overview

In this lab, you explored the common tools available in the virtual lab environment. You

used Wireshark to capture and analyze network traffic and OpenVAS to scan the

network. You reviewed a sample collection of data using NetWitness Investigator,

connected to a remote Windows machine, and explored two file transfer applications,

FileZilla and Tftpd64. You used PuTTY to connect to a Linux machine and ran several

Cisco commands to display statistics for the network interfaces. Finally, you used

Zenmap to perform a scan of the network and created a network topology chart.

Lab Assessment Questions & Answers

1. Name at least five applications and tools used in the lab.

2. What is promiscuous mode?

3. How does Wireshark differ from NetWitness Investigator?

4. Why is it important to select the student interface in the Wireshark?

5. What is the command line syntax for running an Intense Scan with Zenmap on a target subnet of 172.30.0.0/24?

6. Name at least five different scans that may be performed with Zenmap.

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7. How many different tests (i.e., scripts) did your Intense Scan perform?

8. Based on your interpretation of the Intense Scan, describe the purpose/results of each tests script performed during the report.

9. How many total IP hosts did Zenmap find on the network?

52 | Lab #2 Performing a Vulnerability Assessment

Lab #2 – Assessment Worksheet

Performing a Vulnerability Assessment

Course Name and Number: _____________________________________________________ Student Name: ________________________________________________________________ Instructor Name: ______________________________________________________________ Lab Due Date: ________________________________________________________________

Overview

In this lab, you used Nmap commands within the Zenmap application to scan the virtual network

and identify the devices on the network and the operating systems and services running on them.

You also used OpenVAS to conduct a vulnerability assessment and record the high risk

vulnerabilities identified by the tool. Finally, you used the information you gathered from the

report to discover mitigations for those risks and make mitigation recommendations based on

your findings.

Lab Assessment Questions & Answers

1. What is Zenmap typically used for? How is it related to Nmap? Describe a scenario in which you would use this type of application.

2. Which application can be used to perform a vulnerability assessment scan in the reconnaissance phase of the ethical hacking process?

3. What must you obtain before you begin the ethical hacking process or penetration test on a live production network, even before performing the reconnaissance step?

4. What is a CVE listing? Who hosts and sponsors the CVE database listing Web site?

5. Can Zenmap detect which operating systems are present on IP servers and workstations? Which option includes that scan?

6. How can you limit the breadth and scope of a vulnerability scan?

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7. Once a vulnerability has been identified by OpenVAS, where would you check for more information regarding the identified vulnerability, exploits, and any risk

mitigation solution?

8. What is the major difference between Zenmap and OpenVAS?

9. Why do you need to run both tools like Zenmap and OpenVAS to complete the reconnaissance phase of the ethical hacking process?

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Lab #3 – Assessment Worksheet

Enabling Windows Active Directory and User Access Controls

Course Name and Number: _____________________________________________________ Student Name: ________________________________________________________________ Instructor Name: ______________________________________________________________ Lab Due Date: ________________________________________________________________

Overview

In this lab, you followed the Microsoft approach to securing the CIA triad. You created new user

accounts and security groups, and applied the new user accounts to the security groups, just as

you would in a real world domain. You created nested folders on the remote server and assigned

unique file permissions using the new user accounts and security groups. You modified the

Windows Group Policy enabling each new user account to use remote desktop services to

remotely access the TargetWindows01 server. Finally, you tested the security layers you placed

in the previous parts of the lab by using each new user account to access and modify the nested

folders on the remote server.

Lab Assessment Questions & Answers

1. What are the three fundamental elements of an effective security program for information systems?

2. Of these three fundamental controls, which two are used by the Domain User Admin to create users and assign rights to resources?

3. If you can browse a file on a Windows network share, but are not able to copy it or modify it, what type of access controls and permissions are probably configured?

4. What is the mechanism on a Windows server where you can administer granular policies and permissions on a Windows network using role-based access?

5. What is two-factor authentication, and why is it an effective access control technique?

82 | Lab #3 Enabling Windows Active Directory and User Access Controls

6. Relate how Windows Server 2012 Active Directory and the configuration of access controls achieve CIA for departmental LANs, departmental folders, and data.

7. Is it a good practice to include the account or username in the password? Why or why not?

8. Can a user who is defined in Active Directory access a shared drive on a computer if the server with the shared drive is not part of the domain?

9. When granting access to LAN systems for guests (i.e., auditors, consultants, third-party individuals, etc.), what security controls do you recommend be implemented to

maximize CIA of production systems and data?

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Lab #4 – Assessment Worksheet

Using Group Policy Objects and Microsoft Baseline Security Analyzer for Change Control

Course Name and Number: _____________________________________________________ Student Name: ________________________________________________________________ Instructor Name: ______________________________________________________________ Lab Due Date: ________________________________________________________________

Overview

There are many tools and suites designed to aid the security practitioner and the organization in

implementing and managing change management. In this lab, you explored two such tools for

the Windows platform: Group Policy Objects (built into the Windows operating systems) and the

Microsoft Security Baseline Analyzer (provided free of charge). You used Group Policy Objects

to strengthen the organization’s password policy by adding complexity and minimum password

length requirements. You scanned the Windows server with the Microsoft Baseline Security

Analyzer (MBSA) to assess its security state, and you examined the results of the Microsoft

Baseline Security Analyzer in detail.

Lab Assessment Questions & Answers

1. Define why change control management is relevant to security operations in an organization.

2. Name six (6) policies you could enable in a Windows Domain.

3. What is the minimum password length enforced by the Password must meet complexity requirements policy?

4. What sources could you use as a source to perform the MBSA security scan?

5. What are some of the options that you can exercise when initiating the MBSA scan?

136 | Lab #5 Performing Packet Capture and Traffic Analysis

Lab #5 – Assessment Worksheet

Performing Packet Capture and Traffic Analysis

Course Name and Number: _____________________________________________________ Student Name: ________________________________________________________________ Instructor Name: ______________________________________________________________ Lab Due Date: ________________________________________________________________

Overview

In this lab, you used common applications to generate traffic and transfer files between the

machines in this lab. You captured data using Wireshark and reviewed the captured traffic at the

packet level, and then you used NetWitness Investigator, a free tool that provides security

practitioners with a means of analyzing a complete packet capture, to review the same traffic at a

consolidated level.

Lab Assessment Questions & Answers

1. Why would a network administrator use Wireshark and NetWitness Investigator together?

2. What was the IP address for LanSwitch1?

3. When the 172.16.8.5 IP host responded to the ICMP echo-requests, how many ICMP echo-reply packets were sent back to the vWorkstation?

4. What was the terminal password for LanSwitch 1 and LanSwitch 2?

5. When using SSH to remotely access a Cisco router, can you see the terminal password? Why or why not?

6. What were the Destination IP addresses discovered by the NetWitness Investigator analysis?

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7. Are packet-capturing tools like Wireshark less dangerous on switched LANs?

160 | Lab #6 Implementing a Business Continuity Plan

Lab #6 – Assessment Worksheet

Implementing a Business Continuity Plan

Course Name and Number: _____________________________________________________ Student Name: ________________________________________________________________ Instructor Name: ______________________________________________________________ Lab Due Date: ________________________________________________________________

Overview

In this lab, you implemented a portion of your organization’s BCP. On the basis of the BIA, the

organization determined that the internal Active Directory database and the corporate Web site

must be recoverable in the event of system failure or natural disaster. To accomplish this, you

configured local backups of Active Directory on the existing virtual server using Windows

Server Backup. You also configured the organization’s Web servers to host content from a single

NFS share, and to back up that NFS share daily using Windows.

Lab Assessment Questions & Answers

1. What is the purpose of the business impact analysis (BIA)?

2. What is the difference between a disaster recovery plan (DRP) and a business continuity plan (BCP)?

3. What are the commands used in Windows 2012 to mount the NFS share on the Linux server.

4. Is creating redundancy for systems such as Active Directory or Web servers a part of the DRP or the BCP?

5. Why use the mklink command?

6. What role/service is Windows 2012 Server Backup part of?

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a. Windows Group Policy b. Windows Collaboration Server c. Windows Server Essentials Experience

7. Which Linux file makes a local share available to NFS clients? a. transports b. imports c. fstab d. exports

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Lab #7 – Assessment Worksheet

Using Encryption to Enhance Confidentiality and Integrity

Course Name and Number: _____________________________________________________ Student Name: ________________________________________________________________ Instructor Name: ______________________________________________________________ Lab Due Date: ________________________________________________________________

Overview

In this lab, you learned how cryptography tools can be used to ensure message and file transfer

integrity and how encryption can be used to maximize confidentiality. You used Kleopatra, the

certificate management component of GPG4Win, to generate both a public and a private key as

both a sender and a receiver. You used the sender’s keys to encrypt a file, sent it to the receiver,

and decrypted it using the receiver’s copy of the keys.

Lab Assessment Questions & Answers

1. If you and another person want to encrypt messages, should you provide that person with your public key, private key, or both?

2. What does Kleopatra allow you to do once it is installed?

3. What key type was used to create the certificate on Kleopatra? What other types of encryption key types are possible?

4. What was the fingerprint generated with your Kleopatra certificate?

5. If someone sends you his public key and you import it into Kleopatra, will he be able to decrypt the encrypted messages you send him?

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Lab #8 – Assessment Worksheet

Performing a Web Site and Database Attack by Exploiting Identified Vulnerabilities

Course Name and Number: _____________________________________________________ Student Name: ________________________________________________________________ Instructor Name: ______________________________________________________________ Lab Due Date: ________________________________________________________________

Overview

In this lab, you performed simple tests to verify a cross-site scripting (XSS) exploit and an SQL

injection attack using the Damn Vulnerable Web Application (DVWA), a tool left intentionally

vulnerable to aid security professionals in learning about Web security. You used a Web browser

and some simple command strings to identify the IP target host and its known vulnerabilities,

and then attacked the Web application and Web server using cross-site scripting (XSS) and SQL

injection to exploit the sample Web application running on that server.

Lab Assessment Questions & Answers

1. Why is it critical to perform a penetration test on a Web application and a Web server prior to production implementation?

2. What is a cross-site scripting attack? Explain in your own words.

3. What is a reflective cross-site scripting attack?

3. Which Web application attack is more likely to extract privacy data elements out of a database?

4. What security countermeasures could be used to monitor your production SQL databases against injection attacks?

204 | Lab #8 Performing a Web Site and Database Attack by Exploiting Identified Vulnerabilities

5. What can you do to ensure that your organization incorporates penetration testing and Web application testing as part of its implementation procedures?

6. Who is responsible for the C-I-A of production Web applications and Web servers?

226 | Lab #9 Eliminating Threats with a Layered Security Approach

Lab #9 – Assessment Worksheet

Eliminating Threats with a Layered Security Approach

Course Name and Number: _____________________________________________________ Student Name: ________________________________________________________________ Instructor Name: ______________________________________________________________ Lab Due Date: ________________________________________________________________

Overview

In this lab, you used AVG, an antivirus scanning program, to identify malware found on a

compromised system. You also examined the services available on the Windows vWorkstation

machine and disabled an unnecessary service. In addition, you configured the Windows Firewall,

enabled ICMP traffic, and created a new rule for the FileZilla Server application.

Lab Assessment Questions & Answers

1. What is the main difference between a virus and a Trojan?

2. A virus or malware can impact which of the three tenets of information systems security (confidentiality, integrity, or availability)? In what way?

3. Why is it recommended to do an antivirus signature file update before performing an antivirus scan on your computer?

4. Why might your coworker suggest encrypting an archive file before e-mailing it?

5. What kind of network traffic can you filter with the Windows Firewall with Advanced Security?

6. What are typical indicators that your computer system is compromised?

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7. What elements are needed in a workstation domain policy regarding use of antivirus and malicious software prevention tools?

246 | Lab #10 Implementing an Information Systems Security Policy

Lab #10 – Assessment Worksheet

Implementing an Information Systems Security Policy

Course Name and Number: _____________________________________________________ Student Name: ________________________________________________________________ Instructor Name: ______________________________________________________________ Lab Due Date: ________________________________________________________________

Overview

In this lab, you acted as a member of the network security team. You were given an assignment

to implement two security standards that have been accepted by the organization. First, you

enforced a newly adopted corporate password policy using the Group Policy Management

console. Additionally, you joined a standalone Linux machine to the Active Directory domain

using an open source tool, PowerBroker Identity Services Open.

Lab Assessment Questions & Answers

1. What is the correct command syntax to force GPO settings?

a. /force GPO b. gpupdate /now c. gpupdate /force d. policyupdate /force

2. Why is it important to set a strict password policy as part of your security template?

3. Why is it important to bring standalone systems into the Domain?

4. What was the command line syntax to connect as the root user to 172.30.0.11 using PuTTY?

5. Name five different Windows password policies.

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a firm evaluates all of its projects by applying the irr rule

Financial Statements 

fin370

Week 3 Assignment

Ch. 9: Questions 7 & 8 

7. Calculating IRR [LO5] A firm evaluates all of its projects by applying the IRR rule. If the required return is 14 percent, should the firm accept the following project?

8. Calculating NPV [LO1] For the cash flows in the previous problem, suppose the firm uses the NPV decision rule. At a required return of 11 percent, should the firm accept this project? What if the required return is 24 percent?

Ch. 10: Questions 3 & 13 

3. Calculating Projected Net Income [LO1] A proposed new investment has projected sales of $635,000. Variable costs are 44 percent of sales, and fixed costs are $193,000; depreciation is $54,000. Prepare a pro forma income statement assuming a tax rate of 35 percent. What is the projected net income?

13. Project Evaluation [LO1] Dog Up! Franks is looking at a new sausage system with an installed cost of $540,000. This cost will be depreciated straight-line to zero over the project’s five-year life, at the end of which the sausage system can be scrapped for $80,000. The sausage system will save the firm $170,000 per year in pretax operating costs, and the system requires an initial investment in net working capital of $29,000. If the tax rate is 34 percent and the discount rate is 10 percent, what is the NPV of this project?

Ch. 11: Questions 1 & 7 

1. Calculating Costs and Break-Even [LO3] Night Shades, Inc. (NSI), manufactures biotech sunglasses. The variable materials cost is $9.64 per unit, and the variable labor cost is $8.63 per unit. a. What is the variable cost per unit? b. Suppose NSI incurs fixed costs of $915,000 during a year in which total production is 215,000 units. What are the total costs for the year? c. If the selling price is $39.99 per unit, does NSI break even on a cash basis? If depreciation is $465,000 per year, what is the accounting break-even point?

7.Calculating Break-Even [LO3] In each of the following cases, calculate the accounting break-even and the cash break-even points. Ignore any tax effects in calculating the cash break-even.

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access chapter 2 grader project

Access Chapter 2 Grader* Project [Assessment 1]

Metropolitan Zoo

Project Description:

The Metropolitan Zoo tracks its animals in Excel. The organization decides to use a database to organize the data about the animals, their trainers, and the animal exhibits. In this project, you open an existing database and create a new table. You import an Excel file containing information about the animals, and you query the database to determine which animals need a checkup. You also create a query to obtain a listing of the animals in each exhibit.

Instructions:

For the purpose of grading the project you are required to perform the following tasks:

StepInstructionsPoints Possible
1Start Access. Open the downloaded Access file named exploring_a02_grader_a1.0
2Create a new table in Design view. Add the field name ExhibitID with the AutoNumber Data Type. Add the caption Exhibit ID. Set the ExhibitID field as the Primary Key for the table. Save the table using the name Exhibits.6
3Add the following fields and set their field properties as shown:

Field Name                   Data Type                  Field Size Property          Caption
ExhibitName                 Short Text                  15                                      Exhibit Name
Acres                              Number                      Integer
                            (none)
InitialCost                     Currency                   (no change)                         Initial Cost
YearlyCost                     Currency                   (no change)                       Yearly Cost
DateOpened                  Date/Time                (no change)                         Date Opened
Show                              Yes/No                       (no change)                       (none)
8
4Switch to Datasheet view. Add the following records letting Access assign the Exhibit ID:

Exhibit Name       Acres           Initial Cost           Yearly Cost        Date Opened   Show
Asia                       2                  2000000                300000                1/15/2011     Yes
Africa                    4                  3500000                500000                2/3/2014       Yes
The Americas       3                  1500000                250000                5/15/2005     No

Save and close the table.
9
5Import the downloaded exploring_a02_grader_a1_Zoo.xlsx workbook as a new table in the current database. Using the Import Spreadsheet Wizard, specify that the first row contains column headings, set the AnimalID field to be indexed with no duplicates, and set the AnimalID field as the primary key. Import the table with the name Animals and do not save the import steps.10
6View the Animals table in Design view and change the field size for the AnimalID field to Long Integer. Change the field size for the ExhibitID and TrainerID fields to Long Integer. Save the table and the changes to the design of the table. Click Yes in the dialog box indicating that some data may be lost. Close the table.6
7Begin establishing relationships in the database by adding the Animals, Exhibits, and Trainers tables to the Relationships window. Close the Show Table dialog box. Resize the tables so all fields display. Create a one-to-many relationship between the ExhibitID field in the Exhibits table and the ExhibitID field in the Animals table, enforcing Referential Integrity. Select the option to cascade update the related fields.9
8Create a one-to-many relationship between the TrainerID field in the Trainers table and the TrainerID field in the Animals table and enforcing Referential Integrity. Select the option to cascade update the related fields. Save and close the Relationships window.7
9Create a query using the Simple Query Wizard. From the Animals table, add the AnimalID, AnimalType, and DateOfLastCheckup fields (in that order). Ensure the query is a Detail query. Name the query Checkup List and finish the wizard.10
10View the query in Design view, and then set the criteria for the DateOfLastCheckup field so that only animals whose last checkup was before 1/1/2016 are displayed.6
11Sort the query in ascending order by the DateOfLastCheckup field. Save the query. Run the query and then close the query.6
12Create a new query in Design view. Add the Animals, Exhibits, and Trainers tables to the query design window. Add the following fields to the query (in this order):

AnimalType
Origin
ExhibitName
FirstName
LastName
Position

10
13Set Africa as the criteria for the ExhibitName field and sort the query in ascending order by Origin. Run the query and save the query as African Exhibit. Close the query.7
14Copy the African Exhibit query in the Navigation pane and paste it with the name Asian Exhibit. Modify the query in Design view to replace Africa with Asia.6
15Close all database objects. Close the database and then exit Access. Submit the database as directed.0
 Total Points100
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pressing the ____ key to complete an entry activates the adjacent cell to the right.

Question 1

You can enter the correct range in a function by typing the beginning and ending cell references separated by a ____. 

Question 2

How many chart types does Excel offer? 

Question 3

In Excel, a number can contain the characters _____. 

Question 4

To enter a number such as 6,000,000,000,000,000 you can type 6,000,000,000,000,000 or
you can type _____. 

Question 5

What effect does the Comma Style format have on the selected cells? 

Question 6

To enter data in a cell, you must first select or activate the _____. 

Question 7

Pressing the _____ key to complete an entry activates the adjacent cell to the right. 

Question 8

Clicking the _____ box completes an entry. 

Question 9

By default, text is _____ in a cell. 

Question 10

The _____ is the small black square located in the lower-right corner of the heavy border around the active cell. 

Question 11

nar005-1.jpg

In the accompanying figure, the _____ identifies the colors assigned to each bar in the chart on a worksheet. 

Question 12

To cancel an entire entry before entering it into the cell, press the _____ key. 

Question 13

nar004-1.jpg

A _____ is a series of two or more adjacent cells in a column or row or a rectangular group of cells, as shown in the accompanying figure. 

Question 14

What effect does the Accounting Number Format have on the selected cells? 

Question 15

The first step in creating an effective worksheet is to make sure you _____. 

Question 16

Which of the following calculations multiplies 23 by 0.01? 

Question 17

Which of the following happens when you enter the formula =G15 into a cell? 

Question 18

To start a new line in a cell, press the _____ keys. 

Question 19

To copy cell contents, you can select the cell and then press the _____ keys. 

Question 20

When you enter a two-digit year that is less than 30, Excel changes the year to _____. 

Question 21

Which of the following is the path to the Conditional Formatting button? 

Question 22

You can select a range using the keyboard by pressing the _____ key and then an ARROW key. 

Question 23

Which of the following is the path to the Spelling button? 

Question 24

All of the following are valid Excel arithmetic operators except _____. 

Question 25

The adjusted cell references in a copied and pasted formula are called _____ references. 

Question 26

Which of the following is not a valid format symbol? 

Question 27

_____ refers to cells not wide enough to display the entire entry. 

Question 28

Which of the following formulas contains an absolute cell reference? 

Question 29

nar005-1.jpg

In the accompanying figure, the split double arrow mouse pointer _____. 

Question 30

The _____ function is useful when you want to assign a value to a cell based on a logical test. 

Question 31

When you set up a worksheet, you should use cell references in formulas whenever possible, rather than _____ values. 

Question 32

If formulas located in other cells reference cells in a deleted row or column, Excel does not adjust these cell references but instead displays the _____ error message. 

Question 33

You can press the _____ keys to open the Format Cells dialog box. 

Question 34

Pressing the _____ key(s) removes the marquee from the source area. 

Question 35

Which of the following is the path to the Increase or Decrease Indent button? 

Question 36

The _____ function sums the numbers in the specified range and then divides the sum by the number of cells with numeric values in the range. 

Question 37

When Excel follows the order of operations, the formula, 8 * 3 + 2, equals _____. 

Question 38

The _____ function determines the lowest number in a range. 

Question 39

The _____ function displays the highest value in a range. 

Question 40

The _____ displays numbers with a fixed dollar sign to the left of the number, a comma every three positions to the left of the decimal point, and displays numbers to the nearest cent.

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to match expenses against revenues means to​ ________.

A company receives payment from one of its customers on August 5 for services performed on July 21. Which of the following entries would be recorded if the company uses accrual basis​ accounting?

A.

Supplies​1,000
      Cash     ​1,000

B.

Cash​1,000
      Accounts Receivable     ​1,000

C.

Cash​1,000
      Service Revenue     ​1,000

D.

Salaries Expense​1,000
      Cash     ​1,000

2

The accounting principle that ensures all expenses are recorded during the period when they are incurred and offsets those expenses against the revenues of the period is called the​ ________ principle.

A.

matching

B.

revenue recognition

C.

comparison

D.

accrual

3

To match expenses against revenues means to​ ________.

A.

add expenses incurred during one period from revenues earned during the previous period

B.

add expenses incurred during one period from revenues earned during that same period

C.

subtract expenses incurred during one period from revenues earned during the previous period

D.

subtract expenses incurred during one period from revenues earned during that same period

4

Adjusting entries are needed to correctly measure the​ ________.

A.

net income​ (loss) on the balance sheet

B.

net income​ (loss) on the income statement

C.

ending balance in the Cash account

D.

beginning balance in the Cash account

5

Classic​ Artists’ Services signed a contract with a maintenance service company to maintain a building that Classic will use for office purposes. The contract states that the work will begin work on February 1 and end on May 31. Classic​ Artists’ will pay the maintenance service company

$8,000

at the end of May. It accrues Maintenance Expense at the end of every month. What is the balance in the Accounts Payable account for amounts owed to the maintenance service company at the end of​ March?

A.

Credit balance of$8,000

B.

Credit balance of $4,000

C.

Debit balance of $4,000

D.

Debit balance of $ 8000

6

Saturn, Inc. signed a

oneminus−year

​$24,000 note payable at​ 8% interest on March​ 1, 2017. How much interest expense must be accrued on May​ 31, 2017? ​(Round any intermediate calculations to two decimal​ places, and your final answer to the nearest whole​ number.)

A.

​$1,920

B.

​$12,800

C.

​$480

D.

​$240

7

Anthony Delivery Service has a weekly payroll of

$39,000.

December 31 falls on Tuesday and Anthony will pay its employees the following Monday​ (January 6) for the previous full week. Assume that Anthony has a

fivefiveminus−day

workweek and has an unadjusted balance in Salaries Expense of

$885,000.

What is the December 31 balance of Salaries Expense after adjusting entries are recorded and​ posted?

A.

$900,600

B.

$924,000

C.

$908,400

D.

$ 885000

8

On January​ 1, 2015, the Accounts Receivable of​ Linda, Inc. had a debit balance of

$200,000.

During​ January, the company provided services for

$400,000

on account. The company collected

$230,000

from its customers on account in January. What was the ending balance in the Accounts Receivable account at the end of​ January?

A.

$600,000

B.

$170,000

C.

$370,000

D.

$ 400,000

9

The following Office Supplies account information is available for​ Able, Inc.

Beginning balance​$1,800
Office Supplies expensed​5,000
Ending balance​2,000

From the above​ information, calculate the amount of office supplies purchased.

A.

​$1,800

B.

​$5,200

C.

​$5,000

D.

​$2,000

10

Qwerty, Inc. prepaid

$9,600

on October​ 1, 2014 for a

oneminus−year

insurance premium. On January​ 1, 2015 of the next year​ (after December 31​ adjustments), the Prepaid Insurance account will have a debit balance of​ ________. (Round any intermediate calculations to two decimal​ places, and your final answer to the nearest whole​number.)

A.

$7,200

B.

$9,600

C.

$8,000

D.

$1,600

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management by​ ________ is the practice that directs executive attention to large budget variances.

Management by​ ________ is the practice that directs executive attention to large budget variances.

A.

control

B.

exception

C.

objective

D.

analysis

2) 

The maintenance department that focuses on efficiency at Continental Airlines may be classified as​ a(n)

A.

cost center.

B.

investment center.

C.

profit center.

D.

revenue center.

3) 

Which type of variance causes operating income to be greater than the budgeted operating​ income?

A.

Reverse variance

B.

Favorable variance

C.

Unfavorable variance

D.

Neutral variance

4) 

A manager can increase return on investment​ (ROI) by doing which of the​ following?

A.

Increase operating expenses 

B.

Decrease operating expenses

C.

Decrease sales

D.

Increase operating assets

5) 

Assume the Hiking Shoes division of the All About Shoes Corporation had the following results last year​ (in thousands).​ Management’s target rate of return is 

15​% 

and the weighted average cost of capital is 20​%. Its effective tax rate is 35​%.

Sales

$5,000,000

Operating   income

$2,250,000

Total   assets

$1,500,000

Current   liabilities

$810,000

What is the​ division’s Return on Investment​ (ROI)?

A.

150.00​%

B.

33.33​%

C.

54.00​%

D.

45.00​%

6) 

The following data relates to Haven Corporation and its Northern Division.

Light   Bulb Division sales

$6,500,000

Light   Bulb Division operating income

$780,000

Light   Bulb Division total assets 

$3,250,000

Light   Bulb Division current liabilities

$530,000

Corporate   target rate of return

19​%

Corporate   weighted average cost of capital

10​%

What is the Northern​ Division’s Residual Income​ (RI)?

A.

$780,000

B.

$617,500

C.

$162,500

D.

$325,000

7) 

With regard to a static budget instead of a flexible​ budget, which of the following is 

true​?

A.

A static budget is adjusted for changes in the level of sales activity.

B.

A static budget is prepared for only one level of sales activity.

C.

A static budget is also known as a fixed budget.

D.

A static budget is a budget that stays the same from one period to the next.

8) 

The number of new services offered during the period may be an example of measuring which perspective of the balanced​ scorecard?

A.

Financial

B.

Customer

C.

Internal business

D.

Learning and growth

9) 

The type of standard that provides allowances for normal amounts of waste and inefficiency in the production process is referred to as​ a(n)

A.

practical standard.

B.

ideal standard.

C.

realistic standard.

D.

perfection standard.

10)

Piper​ Corporation, which manufactures dog​ toys, is developing direct labor standards. The basic direct labor rate is 

$15.70 

per hour. Payroll taxes are 

8​% 

of the basic direct labor​ rate, while fringe benefits such as vacation and health care​ insurance, are 

$4.30 

per hour. What is the standard rate per direct labor​ hour?

A.

$16.96

B.

$20.00

C.

$21.26

D.

$15.70

11)

Which variance is directly impacted if a worker drops the raw material during production and the raw material must be​ discarded?

A.

Direct labor efficiency variance

B.

Direct materials price variance

C.

Direct materials quantity variance

D.

Direct labor rate variance

12)

A favorable direct materials price variance indicates which of the​ following?

A.

The Actual Quantity​ (AQ) of materials used was less than the standard quantity of materials used for actual production.

B.

The standard cost of materials purchased was greater than the actual cost of materials purchased.

C.

The actual cost of materials purchased was greater than the standard cost of materials purchased.

D.

The standard cost of materials purchased was less than the actual cost of materials purchased.

13)

Which variance is directly impacted if the employees who build the product go on strike and temporary workers who are slower and not as skilled are​ hired?

A.

Direct materials quantity variance

B.

Direct labor efficiency variance

C.

Direct labor rate variance

D.

Direct materials price variance

14) 

A favorable direct labor efficiency variance and an unfavorable direct labor rate variance might indicate which of the​ following?

A.

Unskilled workers using more actual hours than​ standard, paid at a higher rate per hour than the standard rate

B.

Unskilled workers using less actual hours than​ standard, paid a lesser rate per hour than the standard rate

C.

Skilled workers using less actual hours than​ standard, paid at a higher rate per hour than the standard rate

D.

Skilled workers using more actual hours than​ standard, paid at a higher rate per hour than the standard rate

15) 

The following information describes a​ company’s usage of direct labor in a recent​ period:

Actual   direct labor hours used

33,000

Actual   rate per hour

$24.00

Standard   rate per hour

$13.75

Standard   hours for units produced

27,500

How much is the direct labor rate​ variance?

A.

$338,250 

unfavorable

B.

$338,250 

favorable

C.

$281,875 

unfavorable

D.

$281,875 

favorable

16) 

Which of the following is an advantages of using standard costs and​ variances?

A.

The timeliness that occurs when computing standards monthly.  

B.

Maintaining updated standards is inexpensive.

C.

Standard costs are benchmarks that managers use to judge actual costs.

D.

Price and efficiency variances motivate 

frontminus−line 

employees more than operational performance measures.  

17) 

The Stallard Corporation manufactures Product X that consumes a large amount of overhead. For the month of October Stallard produced 

15,850 

units of Product X and incurred actual overhead costs of 

$211,000. 

The standard costs developed for Product X by Stallard​ follow:

Standard   direct labor hours per unit

33

Standard   direct labor rate per hour

$15.00

Standard   overhead hours per unit

8

Standard   overhead rate per hour

$6.60

What was the total variable overhead variance for Product X in​ October?

A.

$625,880 

unfavorable

B.

$625,880 

favorable 

C.

$106,390 

unfavorable

D.

$106,390 

favorable

18) 

Which of the following examples may lead directly to a favorable fixed overhead volume​ variance?

A.

Producing more units than anticipated

B.

A decrease in wages paid to factory maintenance workers

C.

Receiving a volume discount on indirect materials purchased

D.

A decrease in county property taxes for the factory

19)

Redwood Corporation is considering two alternative investment proposals with the following​ data:

Proposal X

Proposal Y

Investment

$820,000

$481,000

Useful   life

7 years

7 years

Estimated annual net

cash inflows for 

77 

years

$135,000

$89,000

Residual   value

$43,000

$-

Depreciation   method

Straight-Line

Traight-Line

Required   rate of return

18​%

11​%

How long is the payback period for Proposal​ X?

A.

6.07 

years

B.

5.4 

years

C.

9.21 

years

D.

19.07 

years

20)

Redwood Corporation is considering two alternative investment proposals with the following​ data:

Proposal X

Proposal Y

Investment

$880,000

$ 496 $496,000

Useful   life

10 years

10 years

Estimated annual net

cash inflows for  10 10

years

$ $100,000

$86,000

Residual   value

$14,000

$-

Depreciation   method

Straight-Line 

Straight-Line

Required   rate of return

10​%

9​%

What is the accounting rate of return for Proposal​ X? ​(Round any intermediary calculations to the nearest​ dollar, and round your final answer to the nearest hundredth of a​ percent, X.XX%.)

A.

1.36​%

B.

7.34​%

C.

1.52​%

D.

11.36​%

21) 

On a whim you purchased a 

scratchminus−off 

lottery ticket at the gas station. It must have been your lucky day because you won 

$2,500,000. Being logical and rational you decide to invest the money at 2​% 

for 12 years until you are ready to start a family. At the end of 12 

​years, how much will your investment be​ worth? 

​(Click 

the icon to view the future value of​ $1 table.)

LOADING…

​(Click 

the icon to view the future value of annuity of​ $1 table.)

A.

1,970,000

B.

$33,530,000

C.

$3,170,000

D.

$3,235,000

22) 

What will happen to the net present value​ (NPV) of a project if the discount rate is increased from​ 8% to​ 10%?

A.

NPV will always decrease.

B.

NPV will always increase. 

C.

The discount rate change will not affect NPV.

D.

We cannot determine the direction of the effect on NPV from the information provided.

23) 

Coyne Corporation is evaluating a capital investment opportunity. This project would require an initial investment of $40,000 to purchase equipment. The equipment will have a residual value at the end of its life of $1,000. 

The useful life of the equipment is 5 years. The new project is expected to generate additional net cash inflows of $23,000 per year for each of the five years.​ Coyne’s required rate of return is 

12​%. 

The net present value of this project is closest​ to:

​(Click 

the icon to view the present value of​ $1 table.)

LOADING…

​(Click 

the icon to view the present value of annuity of​ $1 table.)

A.

$43,482.

B.

$13,002.

C.

$42,915.

D.

$60,802.

24) 

Glassworks Inc. is considering the purchase of a special 

blowminus−molding machine that would cost $53,854 

and would have a useful life of 6 years. The machine would generate 

$13,100 of net annual cash inflows per year for each of the 

6 years of its life. The internal rate of return on the machine would be closest​ to:

​(Click 

the icon to view the present value of​ $1 table.)

LOADING…

​(Click 

the icon to view the present value of annuity of​ $1 table.)

A.

10​%.

B.

12​%.

C.

14​%.

D.

8​%.

25) 

In what ways are the Net Present Value and Internal Rate of Return methods of capital budgeting​ alike?

A.

They both compute the​ project’s unique rate of return.  

B.

They both factor in the time value of money.

C.

They both focus on GAAP.  

D.

They both measure the profitability index.

26) 

Results from Super Corporation’s most recent year of operations are presented in the following table.

​(Click 

the icon to view the​ information.)

Requirements

1.

Calculate the sales​ margin,   capital​ turnover, and return on investment​ (ROI).

2.

Calculate the residual income​ (RI).

Requirement 1. Calculate the sales​ margin, capital​ turnover, and return on investment​ (ROI).

First enter the​ formula, then calculate the sales margin.

Next enter the​ formula, then calculate the capital turnover. ​(Round your answer to two decimal​ places.)

Now enter the​ formula, then calculate the ROI.

Requirement 2. Calculate the residual income​ (RI).

Enter the​ formula, then calculate the residual income.

28) 

Awning manufactures awnings and uses a standard cost system. The company allocates overhead based on the number of direct labor hours. The following are the​ company’s cost and standards​ data:

​(Click 

the icon to view the​ standards.)

Actual cost and operating data from the most recent month are as​ follows:

LOADING…

​(Click 

the icon to view the actual​ results.)

All manufacturing overhead is allocated on the basis of direct labor hours.

1.

Calculate the standard cost of one awning.

2.

Calculate the following​ variances:

a. The direct material variances.

b. The direct labor variances.

c. The variable manufacturing overhead variances.

d. The fixed manufacturing overhead variances.

3.

Explain what each of the variances you   calculated means and give at least one possible explanation for each of those   variances. Are any of the variances likely to be​ interrelated?

Requirement 1. Calculate the standard cost of one awning. 

Requirement 2a. Calculate the direct material variances. ​(Enter the variances as positive numbers. Enter currency amounts to the nearest cent and your answers to the nearest whole dollar. Label the variance as favorable​ (F) or unfavorable​ (U). Abbreviations​ used: DM​ = Direct​ materials.)

First determine the formula for the price​ variance, then compute the price variance for direct materials. 

Determine the formula for the quantity​ variance, then compute the quantity variance for direct materials.

Requirement 2b. Calculate the direct labor variances. ​(Enter the variances as positive numbers. Enter currency amounts to the nearest cent and your answers to the nearest whole dollar. Label the variance as favorable​ (F) or unfavorable​ (U). Abbreviations​ used: DL​ = Direct​ labor.)

First determine the formula for the rate​ variance, then compute the rate variance for direct labor. 

First determine the formula for the efficiency​ variance, then compute the efficiency variance for direct labor. 

Requirement 2c. Calculate the variable manufacturing overhead variances. ​(Enter the variances as positive numbers. Enter currency amounts to the nearest cent and your answers to the nearest whole dollar. Label the variance as favorable​ (F) or unfavorable​ (U).)

First determine the formula for the rate​ variance, then compute the rate variance for variable manufacturing overhead. ​(Round interim calculations to the nearest​ cent.)

Now compute the variable manufacturing overhead efficiency variance. First determine the formula for the efficiency​ variance, then compute the efficiency variance for variable manufacturing overhead. 

Requirement 2d. Calculate the fixed manufacturing overhead variances. ​(Enter the variance as a positive number. Label the variance as favorable​ (F) or unfavorable​(U).)

Begin by computing the fixed manufacturing overhead budget variance. First determine the formula for the budget​ variance, then compute the budget variance for fixed manufacturing overhead. 

Fixed   MOH

Actual   fixed overhead

Budgeted   fixed overhead

=

budget   variance

57200

51200

=

6000

U

Now compute the fixed manufacturing overhead volume variance. First determine the formula for the volume​ variance, then compute the volume variance for fixed manufacturing overhead. 

Requirement 3.  Explain what each of the variances you calculated means and give at least one possible explanation for each of those variances.

.

28)

Scenario 1. 

AdamAdam 

just hit the jackpot in Las Vegas and won $50,000​! If he invests it now at a 10% 

interest​ rate, how much will it be worth in 20 years? ​(Round your answer to the nearest whole​ dollar.)

Future value 

=   $

336350

Scenario 2. 

Roderick would like to have $3,000,000 saved by the time he retires in 

30 years. How much does he need to invest now at a 10% 

interest rate to fund his retirement​ goal? ​(Round your answer to the nearest whole​ dollar.)

Present   value

=   $

171000

Scenario 3. 

Assume that Vivian accumulates savings of $ 2million by the time she retires. If she invests this savings at 8​%, how much money will she be able to withdraw at the end of each year for 20 years? ​(Round your answer to the nearest whole dollar and enter as a positive​ amount.)

Scenario 4. 

Jessica plans to invest $4,500 at the end of each year for the next eight 

years. Assuming a 14​% interest​ rate, what will her investment be worth 

eight years from​ now? ​(Round your answer to the nearest whole​ dollar.)

Scenario 5. 

Assuming a 6​% interest​ rate, how much would Amanda have to invest now to be able to withdraw $10,000 at the end of every year for the next ten years? ​(Round your answer to the nearest whole​ dollar.)

Present   value

=   $

Scenario 6. 

Chuckie is considering a capital investment that costs $520,000 and will provide 

net cash inflows for three years. 

Using a hurdle rate of 10​%, find the NPV of the investment. ​(Round your answer to the nearest whole dollar. Use parentheses or a minus sign to represent a negative​ NPV.)

Net Present Value (NPV)

Scenario 7. 

What is the IRR of the capital investment described in Question​ 6? 

The IRR is the interest rate at which the investment 

NPV = 0. 

We tried 10​% in question​ 6, now​ we’ll try 12​% and calculate the NPV. ​(Round your answer to the nearest whole dollar. Use parentheses or a minus sign to represent a negative​ NPV.)

The IRR for the project is 

between 10% and 12%

between 8% and 10%

between 10% and 12%

between 12% and 14%

between 14% and 16%

.

29)

is considering purchasing a water park in 

Newark comma New JerseyNewark, New Jersey​, for $2,050,000. 

The new facility will generate annual net cash inflows of 

$520,000 for eight years. Engineers estimate that the facility will remain useful for 

eight years and have no residual value. The company uses​ straight-line depreciation. Its owners want payback in less than five years and an ARR of 10​% 

or more. Management uses a 12​% hurdle rate on investments of this nature.

Requirement 1. Compute the payback​ period, the​ ARR, the​ NPV, and the approximate IRR of this investment.​ (If you use the tables to compute the​ IRR, answer with the closest interest rate shown in the​ tables.) ​(Round the payback period to one decimal​ place.)

The payback period is

​(Round the percentage to the nearest tenth​ percent.)

The ARR (accounting rate of return) is

​(Round your answer to the nearest whole​ dollar.)

Net present value $

The IRR​ (internal rate of​ return) is between 

18% and 20%

16% and 18%

20% and 22%

22% and 24%

18% and 20%

.

Requirement 2. Recommend whether the company should invest in this project.

​Recommendation: 

Invest in the new facility.

Do not invest in the new facility.

Invest in the new facility.

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¿quién te llevó los entremeses? (mis amigas)

3 – Who are they?

Answer the questions, using double object pronouns.

OCT

17

11:59 pm

3 remaining prompts

Grade settings

257-260

 Grammar presentation  Tutorial

Top of Form

Model

Who bought you those shoes? (my uncle) My uncle bought them for me.

1. Who did you write the postcards to? (to them)

1. Who recommended that dish? (your uncle)

1. Who will open the door for us at this time? (Sonia)

1. Who served them the roasted fish? (Miguel)

1. Who brought you the hors d’oeuvres? (my friends)

1. To whom does Roberto offer fruits? (To his family)

4 – Dinner

Read the two conversations. Then answer the questions, with complete sentences and using double object pronouns.

OCT

Top of Form

CELIA  ( To Tito ) Rosalía recommended this restaurant to me. OWNER  Good evening, gentlemen. I bring you some hors d’oeuvres, courtesy of the restaurant. WAITER  Good evening. Do you want to see the menu? TITO  Yes, please. Is the lobster good? WAITER  Yes, it’s the specialty of the restaurant. CELIA  How much is the lobster worth? WAITER  Worth thirty dollars. TITO  Then we want to order two. CELIA And I want a glass of red wine, please. WAITER  We have flan and fruit for dessert ( for dessert ). CELIA Excuse me, can you repeat it?WAITER  We have flan and fruit. CELIA  I do not want anything for dessert, thank you. OWNER  Did you like dinner? TITO  Yes, we loved it. Thank you. It was a delicious dinner.

1. Who recommended the restaurant to Celia?

1. Who served the hors d’oeuvres to Celia and Tito?

1. Who brought the menus to Celia and Tito?

1. To whom did Celia ask the price of the lobster?

1. Who asked the lobsters for the waiter?

1. Who asked the waiter for a red wine?

1. Who repeated the list of desserts to Celia?

1. Who did Tito thank when they left?

Textbook

Try it! 

Write the equivalent of the words in English.

OCT

Top of Form

Model

Ernesto watches more television  than  ( than ) Alberto.

1. You are ( less ) like Federico.

1. The waitress serves ( as much ) meat as fish.

1. I receive ( more ) tips than you.

1. I do not study ( as many as ) you.

1. Do you know how to play tennis as well as your sister?

1. Can you drink ( as many ) sodas like me?

1. My friends seem as nice as you.

1. I am ( less ) skinny than my brother

Bottom of Form

Bottom of Form

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02.03 the anti-federalists: assessment

Assessment

Prominent​ ​Americans​ ​wrote​ ​essays​ ​and​ ​gave​ ​speeches​ ​to​ ​support​ ​their​ ​positions.​ ​You​ ​will now​ ​follow​ ​their​ ​example​ ​by​ ​writing​ ​and​ ​editing​ ​your​ ​own​ ​persuasive​ ​argument​ ​either​ ​for​ ​or against​ ​ratifying​ ​the​ ​Constitution.​ ​You​ ​will​ ​find​ ​it​ ​helpful​ ​to​ ​complete​ ​this​ ​​Activity​ ​on​ ​Argument Writing​​ ​before​ ​you​ ​begin.

Steps

1. Choose​ ​whether​ ​to​ ​argue​ ​as​ ​a​ ​Federalist​ ​or​ ​as​ ​an​ ​Anti-Federalist.​ ​Review​ ​the​ ​lesson​ ​to make​ ​sure​ ​you​ ​understand​ ​their​ ​main​ ​points.

2. Using​ ​quotes​ ​from​ ​the​ ​​Federalist​ ​and​ ​Anti-Federalist​ ​Papers​,​ ​write​ ​an​ ​opinion​ ​article​ ​for​ ​a newspaper,​ ​or​ ​create​ ​a​ ​speech​ ​podcast​ ​to​ ​convince​ ​people​ ​in​ ​your​ ​state​ ​to​ ​agree​ ​with your​ ​position.​ ​Include​ ​the​ ​following​ ​in​ ​your​ ​speech​ ​or​ ​article:

○ ©​ ​2012​ ​Polka​ ​Dot/Thinkstock ○ introductory​ ​paragraph​ ​that​ ​clearly​ ​states​ ​your​ ​position​ ​as​ ​a​ ​Federalist​ ​or

Anti-Federalist ○ at​ ​least​ ​two​ ​paragraphs​ ​describing​ ​differences​ ​between​ ​the​ ​Federalist​ ​and

Anti-Federalist​ ​points​ ​of​ ​view.​ ​Use​ ​at​ ​least​ ​two​ ​quotes​ ​from​ ​each​ ​of​ ​the Federalist​ ​Papers​​ ​and​ ​​Anti-Federalist​ ​Papers​.

○ ○ If​ ​you​ ​would​ ​like​ ​to​ ​explore​ ​more​ ​of​ ​the​ ​​Federalist​ ​Papers​​ ​and​ ​​Anti-Federalist

Papers​​ ​to​ ​find​ ​your​ ​own​ ​quotes,​ ​these​ ​sites​ ​will​ ​be​ ​helpful. ○ ○ Federalist​ ​Papers

■ American​ ​Studies​​ ​at​ ​the​ ​University​ ​of​ ​Virginia ■ The​ ​Avalon​ ​Project​​ ​at​ ​Yale​ ​Law​ ​School ■ The​ ​Law​ ​Center​​ ​at​ ​the​ ​University​ ​of​ ​Oklahoma

○ ○ Anti-Federalist​ ​Papers

■ Document​ ​Library​​ ​by​ ​Teaching​ ​American​ ​History ○ at​ ​least​ ​one​ ​paragraph​ ​to​ ​explain​ ​why​ ​you​ ​disagree​ ​with​ ​the​ ​opposing​ ​stance.

For​ ​example,​ ​if​ ​you​ ​have​ ​chosen​ ​to​ ​argue​ ​as​ ​a​ ​Federalist,​ ​you​ ​will​ ​explain​ ​why you​ ​disagree​ ​with​ ​the​ ​Anti-Federalist​ ​position,​ ​using​ ​quotes​ ​from​ ​the documents​ ​to​ ​support​ ​your​ ​argument.

○ strong​ ​concluding​ ​paragraph​ ​that​ ​summarizes​ ​your​ ​argument​ ​and​ ​encourage others​ ​to​ ​support​ ​youhttp://learn.flvs.net/webdav/educator_usgovt_v12/global/LO_assets/Persuasive_Writing_LO/pages/00_00_11.htmhttp://learn.flvs.net/webdav/educator_usgovt_v12/global/LO_assets/Persuasive_Writing_LO/pages/00_00_11.htmhttp://learn.flvs.net/webdav/educator_usgovt_v12/module02/02_03_10_a.htmhttp://learn.flvs.net/webdav/educator_usgovt_v12/module02/02_03_10_d.htmhttp://xroads.virginia.edu/~HYPER/FEDERAL/frame.htmlhttp://avalon.law.yale.edu/subject_menus/fed.asphttp://www.law.ou.edu/ushistory/federalist/http://teachingamericanhistory.org/library/index.asp?subcategory=73

3. Your​ ​argument​ ​should​ ​be​ ​created​ ​in​ ​a​ ​formal​ ​style.​ ​One​ ​important​ ​element​ ​of​ ​formal writing​ ​is​ ​using​ ​third​ ​person​ ​point-of-view.​ ​The​ ​sentence​ ​”I​ ​believe​ ​that​ ​the​ ​Federalist’s structure​ ​of​ ​government”​ ​is​ ​written​ ​from​ ​first​ ​person​ ​point-of-view​ ​because​ ​it​ ​uses​ ​the pronoun​ ​”I.”​ ​The​ ​sentence​ ​”The​ ​Federalist’s​ ​structure​ ​of​ ​government”​ ​is​ ​written​ ​from​ ​third person​ ​point-of-view.​ ​In​ ​formal​ ​writing,​ ​use​ ​third​ ​person​ ​point-of-view.​ ​While​ ​you​ ​won’t really​ ​present​ ​your​ ​work​ ​to​ ​the​ ​Second​ ​Continental​ ​Congress,​ ​you​ ​should​ ​prepare​ ​your argument​ ​as​ ​if​ ​you​ ​will​ ​be​ ​sharing​ ​it​ ​with​ ​a​ ​group​ ​of​ ​very​ ​important​ ​members​ ​of​ ​Congress.

4. Edit​ ​your​ ​work​ ​before​ ​submitting.​ ​Be​ ​sure​ ​your​ ​article​ ​or​ ​speech​ ​has​ ​an​ ​introduction,​ ​a separate​ ​paragraph​ ​for​ ​each​ ​point​ ​you​ ​make,​ ​and​ ​a​ ​strong​ ​conclusion.​ ​If​ ​you​ ​choose​ ​to make​ ​a​ ​podcast,​ ​be​ ​sure​ ​you​ ​are​ ​in​ ​character​ ​when​ ​you​ ​perform​ ​your​ ​speech.

5. 6. There​ ​are​ ​many​ ​21st​ ​century​ ​tools​ ​available​ ​for​ ​creating​ ​and​ ​submitting​ ​your​ ​work

in​ ​the​ ​online​ ​environment.​ ​For​ ​more​ ​information​ ​on​ ​tools​ ​your​ ​school​ ​uses,​ ​contact your​ ​instructor​ ​or​ ​visit​ ​the​ ​Web​ ​2.0​ ​tools​ ​area.

The​ ​Anti-Federalists​ ​02.03​ ​​Assessment

Please​ ​view​ ​the​ ​​Opinion​ ​Article​ ​or​ ​Speech​ ​Rubric​​ ​before​ ​starting​ ​the​ ​assignment.

1. Complete​ ​the​ ​reading​ ​and​ ​activities​ ​for​ ​this​ ​lesson. 2. Review​ ​your​ ​notes​ ​for​ ​this​ ​lesson. 3. Complete​ ​and​ ​submit​ ​your​ ​​Opinion​ ​Article​ ​or​ ​Speech​ ​​to​ ​​02.03​ ​The

Anti-Federalists​.

The​ ​work​ ​contains​ ​​all​​ ​of​ ​the​ ​required​ ​elements:

● article​ ​or​ ​speech ● paragraph​ ​clearly​ ​stating​ ​position ● at​ ​least​ ​two​ ​paragraphs​ ​explaining​ ​the​ ​​Federalist​ ​Papers​ ​and​ ​Anti-Federalist​​ ​point​ ​of

view. ● Two​ ​quotes​ ​from​ ​the​ ​Federalist​ ​Papers​ ​and​ ​two​ ​quotes​ ​from​ ​the​ ​Anti-Federalist​ ​Papers. ● at​ ​least​ ​one​ ​paragraph​ ​arguing​ ​against​ ​selected​ ​quotes ● concluding​ ​paragraph​ ​that​ ​summarizes​ ​position​ ​and​ ​persuadeshttp://learn.flvs.net/webdav/educator_usgovt_v12/module02/02_03_10_b.htm

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cine prado english

Infinitely tired, Blas de Irmos moves his hand toward the head of the bed.

It would seem that he is trying to touch his temple. But the Francis- can, motionless in his corner, understands. He approaches the deathbed, slides his hand under the pillow. The bundle of papers passes quickly into his sleeve. One last look at the bed where the reddish light of the candle plays; at lJrsula, her arms hanging at her sides; at Cecilia, wiping away her tears with a corner of her white shawl. He leaves the house. Blas has seen nothing, heard nothing. He has returned to his world of alternating light and shadow, the light fading as the shadows deepen.

At dawn, something like a cloud or an enonnous wing veils the ir- resolute sky outside the door. Ursula and Cecilia have run to the river bank. If Blas were awake, he would know it was the ships setting sail with the colonists of Santa Maria del Buen Ayre aboard. But Blas de Lemos is lying motionless on the bed. His right hand is reaching down, as if to seize the earth.

Tianslated by Catherine Ro drtguez-N ieto

Park Cinema

Elena Poniatowska

Sefrorita: As of today, you will have to strike my name from the list of your

admirers. Perhaps I ought not to inform you of this decision, but to

do so would be to betray a personal integrity that has never shied away

from the exigencies of the Tiuth. By thus divorcing myself from y9u, I

am acting in accordance with a profound change in spirit, which leads

me to thJ decision never again to number myself among the viewers of

your films. This afternoon–{r rather, this evening-you have destroyed me’ I

do not know whether this matters to you, but I am a man shattered to

pieces. Do you understand what I am saying? A devotee who has fol-

iowed yout -i-ug”

on the screens of first-run houses and neighborhood

theateis, a loving critic who would justify the very worst of your moral

behavior, I now swear on my knees to renounce you forever, though a

mere poster fromForbidden Fruit is enough to shake my resolve. As’you

-uy .Le, I am yet a man seduced by appearances’

comfortably ensconced in my seat I was one in a multitude, a crea-

ture lost in an anonymous darkness, who suddenly felt himself caught

up in a personal sadness, bitter and inescapable. It was then that I was

truly myself, the loner who suffers and now addresses you. For no broth-

erlyhand reached to touch mine. while you were calmly destroying my

heirt on the screen, all those around me stayed passionately true. Yes,

there was even one scoundrel who laughed shamelessly while I watched

you swoon in the arms of that abominable suitor who dragged you to

the final extremes of human degradation. And let me ask you this, sefrorita: Is he worthless whose every ideal

is suddenlv lost?

t77

172 Park Cinema

You will say I am a dreamer, an eccentric, one of those meteorites that fall to earth against all calculated odds. You may dispense with your hypotheses: it is I who is judging you, and do me the favour of taking greater responsibility for your actions, and before you sign a contract or accept a co-star, do consider that a man such as I might be among your future audience and might receive a fatal blow. It is not jealousy that makes me speak this way, but, believe me: in Slaves of Desire,you were kissed, caressed and assaulted to excess.

I do not know whether my memory makes me exaggerate, but in the cabaret scene there was no reason for you to half-open your lips in that way, to let your hair down over your shoulders, and to tolerate the impudent manners of that sailor who yawns as he leaves you, who abandons you like a sinking ship after he has drowned your honor on the bed.

I know that actors owe a debt to their audience; that they, in a sense, relinquish their free will and give themselves up to the capricious desires of a perverse director; moreover, I know that they are obliged to follow point by point all the deficiencies and inconsistencies of the script they must bring to life, but let me state that everyone, even in the worst of contingencies, retains a minimum of initiative, a fragment of freedom- and you could not or chose not to exercise it.

If you were to take the trouble, you might say in your defense that the very things I am accusingyou oftodayyou have done ever since your screen debut. Ti’ue, and I am ashamed to admit that I cannot justify my feelings. I undertook to love you just asyou are. Pardon-as I imagined you to be. Like anyone who has ever been disillusioned, I curse the day that linked my life with your cinematographic destiny. And I want to make clear that I accepted you when you were an obscure newcomer, when no one had ever heard of you, when they gave you the part of that streetwalker with crooked stockings and worn-down heels, a part no decent woman could have accepted. Nonetheless I forgave you, and in that dirty and indifferent theater I hailed the birth of a star. It was I who discovered you, I was the only one who could perceive your soul, immaculate as it was despite your torn handbag and your sheepish man- ner. By what is dearest to you in the world? Forgive the bluntness of my outburst.

Your mask has slipped, sefrorita. I have come to see the vileness of your deceit. You are not that creature of delights, that tender, fragile dove I had grown used to, that swallow innocent in flight, your face in my dreams hidden by a lacy veil-no, you are a tramp through and through,

Elena Poniatowska

the dregs of the earth, a passing fancy in the worst sense of the word. From this moment on, my dear sefrorita, you must go your way and I mine. Go on, go, keep walking the streets, I have already drowned in your sewer like a rat. But I must stress that I continue to address you as “sefrorita” solely because, in spite of the blows you have dealt me, I am still a gentleman. My saintly old mother had instilled in my innermost being the importance of always keeping up appearances. Images linger, my life as well. Hence … sefiorita. Thke it, if you will, as a sort of desperate irony.

I have seen you lavish kisses and receive caresses in hundreds of films, but never before did you receive your fortunate partner into your spirit. You kissed with simplicity like any good actress: as one would kiss a cardboard cutout. For-and I wish to make this clear once and for all-the only worthwhile sensuality is that which involves the soul, for the soul surrounds our body as the skin of the grape its pulp, as the peel contains the juice within. Before now, your love scenes did not upset me, for you always preserved a shred of dignity albeit profaned; I was always aware of an intimate rejection, a last-minute withdrawal that redeemed my anguish and consoled my lament. But in Rapture in the Body,your eyes moist with love, you showed me your true face, the one I never wish to see again. Go on, confess it: you really are in love with the scoundrel, that second-rate flash-in-the-pan comedian, aren’t you? What avails an impudent denial? At least every word of mine, every promise I made, was true: and every one of your movements was the expression of a spirit that had surrendered itself. Why did you toy with me the way they all do? Why did you deceive me like all women deceive, wearing one different mask after another? Why would you not reveal all at once, in the beginning, the detestable face that now torments me?

This drama of mine is practically metaphysical, and I can find no possible solution. I am alone in the nighttime of my delirium. Well, all right, my wife does understand me completely, and at times she even shares in my distress. We were still revelling in the sweet delights ap- propriate to newlyweds when, our defenses down, we saw the first of your films. Do you still remember it? The one about the dumb athletic diver who ended up at the bottom of the sea because of you, wetsuit and all. I left the theater completely deranged and it would have been futile effort to try to keep it from my wife. But at least she was com- pletely on my side, and had to admit that your deshabilles were truly splendid. Nor did she find it inconvenient to accompany me to the cin- ema six more times, believing in good faith that the enchantmentwould

173

174 Park Cinema

be broken by routine. But, alas, things grew worse with every new film of yours that opened. our family budget underwent serious modifica- tions in order to permit cinema attendince on the order of three times a week. And it goes without saying that after each cinematographic session we spent the.rest of the night arguing. Ail the same, niy mate did not get rufled. For after all, you weie but a defenseless shaiow, a two-dimensional silhouette, subject to the deficiencies of light. And my wife good-naturedly accepted as her rival a phantom whosJappearance could be controlled at will, although she waited no opportunity to huu” a good laugh at our expense. I remember her pleasuribn the fatal night when, due to a technical difficurties, you rpoke for a good ten minutes with an inhuman voice, almost that of a robot, going lrom a falsetto to deepest bass. And while we’re on the subject of your-voice, I would have you know that I set myself to studying French because I could not resign myself to the abridged subtitres in Spanish, colourless and misleading. I learnedto decipher the melodious sound of your voice, and with that ac- complishment came the intolerable scourgJ of hearing atrocious words directed at your person or issuing from your very lipsl I longed for the time when these words had reached -” by *uy oi a priggish tianslation; now, they were slaps in the face.

The most serious aspect to this whole thing is that my wife is showing disquieting signs of ill-humor. Allusions to you and to your.on-screen conduct are more and more frequent and ferbcious. Lately she has con- centrated on your intimate apparel and tells me that I am ialking in vain to a woman of no substance. And sincerely now, just between orirselves, why this profusion of infamo_us transparency, thii wasteful display of in- timate bits of filmy acetate?.when the ontyitring I want to fini iri yo” is that little sparkle, sad and bitter, that you once nao in your eyes . .”. But let’s q,et back to my wife. She makes faces and mimics you. 3n” makes fun of me too. Mockingly, she echoes some of rny -ort heart-rending sighs. “Those kisses that pained me in unforyettable you still burn me like fire.” Wherever we may be, she is woni to speak of you; she says we m^ust confront this problem from a purely rational angie, from u ,”i”rr- tific point of view, and she comes up with absurd but p6tent arguments. she does no less than claim you ari not rear and that she herielf is an actual woman. And by dint of proving it to me, she is demolishing my illr:sions one by on”. i do not t ro* ,it ut will happen to me if what is so far only a rumor shourd turn out to be the truth: that you will come here to make a film, that you will honor our country with i visit. For the love of God, by the holiest of holies-stay where you are, senorita!

I I

r75Elena Poniatowska

No, I do not want to go see you again, for every time the music dies away and the action fades from the screen, I am overwhelmed. I’m speaking of that fatal barrier represented by the three cruel letters that put an end to the modest measure of happiness of my nights of love, at two pesos apiece. Bit by bit I have relinquished the desire to stay and live with you on film, and I no longer die of pain as I am towed away from the cinema by my wife, who has the bad habit of getting up as soon as the last frame has passed. Sefrorita, I leave you here. I do not even ask you for an autograph, for should you ever send me one I would be capable of forgetting your unpardonable treason. Please accept this letter as the final act of homage of a devastated soul, and forgive me for including you in my dreams. Yes, more than one night I dreamt about you, and there is nothing that I have to envy those fly-by-night lovers who collect a salary to hold you in their arms and ply you with borrowed eloquence.

Your humble servant

PS. I had neglected to tell you that I am writing from behind bars. This

letter would never have reached your hands, had I not feared that the world would give you an erroneous account of me. For the newspa- pers (which always twist things around) are taking advantage of this ridiculous event: “Last night, an unknown man, either drunk or men- tally deranged, interrupted a showing of Slaves of Desire at its most stir- ring point, when he ripped the screen of the Park Cinema by plunging a knife in the breast of Frangoise Arnoul. In spite of the darkness, three members of the audience saw the maniac rush towards the actress bran- dishing a knife, and they got out of their seats to get a better look at him so they could identiff him at the time of arraignment. This was easily done, as the individual collapsed once the crime had been committed.”

I know that it’s impossible, but I would give anything for you to re- member always that sharp stab in your breast.

Ti,anslated by Teres Mendeth-Faith and Elisabeth Heinicke

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suppose str = “xyzw”;. after the statement str[2] = ‘y’; the value of str is “____”.

Question Completion Status:
Question 1
1. Suppose that printHeadingis a function without any parameters. Which of the following is a valid
function heading?
2. 3. 4. void printHeading();
5. 6. 7. void printHeading()
8. 9. 10. void printHeading(noParameters);
11. 12.13. void printHeading(void)
3 points
Question 2
1. Which of the following is a legal C++ function definition?
2. 3. 4. void funcTest(int& u, double& v){ cout << u << ” ” << v << endl;}
5. 6. 7. void funcTest(int& u, double& v);{ cout << u << ” ” << v <<
endl;}
8. 9. 10. void funcTest(int& u, double& v)( cout << u << ” ” << v << endl)
11. 12.13. void funcTest(int& u, double& v)[ cout << u << ” ” << v << endl;]
3 points
Question 3
1. There are two types of ____ parameters: value parameters and reference parameters.
2. 3. 4. actual
5. 6. 7. formal
8. 9. 10. active
11. 12.13. passive
3 points
Question 4
1. If an & is attached after the data type of a formal parameter, then the formal parameter is a ____.
2. 3. 4. value parameter
5. 6. 7. reference parameter
8. 9. 10. global variable
11. 12.13. default variable
3 points
Question 5
1. A void function accomplish has three parameters: a parameter u of type int, a parameter v of
type double, and a parameter letter of type char. The parameters uand letter need to pass
their values out of the function and the parameter v is to only receive the value from the calling
environment. Which of the following is a correct function heading?
2. 3. 4. void accomplish(int& u, double v, char& letter)
5. 6. 7. void accomplish(int u, double& v, char letter)
8. 9. 10. void accomplish(int& u, double v, char& letter);
11. 12.13. void accomplish(int u, double& v, char letter);
3 points
Question 6
1. Consider the following definition.void funBbeta(int& one, double two){ …}Based on this
function definition, which of the following statements is valid?
2. 3. 4. one is a value parameter and two is a reference parameter.
5. 6. 7. one is a reference parameter and two is a value parameter.
8. 9. 10. one and two are reference parameters.
11. 12.13. one and two are value parameters.
3 points
Question 7
1. Which of the following is a legal C++ function definition?
2. 3. 4. void funcAlpha(int u, double v &){ cout << u << ” ” << v <<
endl;}
5. 6. 7. void funcAlpha(int #, double #){ cout << u << ” ” << v << endl;}
8. 9. 10. void funcAlpha(int &, double &){ cout << u << ” ” << v << endl;}
11. 12.13. void funcAlpha(int u, double& v){ cout <<u << ” ” << v << endl;}
3 points
Question 8
1. During program execution, a(n) ____ parameter manipulates the data stored in its own memory
space.
2. 3. 4. formal value
5. 6. 7. actual
8. 9. 10. active
11. 12.13. passive
3 points
Question 9
1. When a function is called, the value of the ____ parameter is copied into the corresponding formal
parameter.
2. 3. 4. reference
5. 6. 7. default
8. 9. 10. actual
11. 12.13. static
3 points
Question 10
1. If a formal parameter is a nonconstant
reference parameter, its corresponding actual parameter
during a function call must be a(n) ____.
2. 3. 4. default value
5. 6. 7. value
8. 9. 10. expression
11. 12.13. variable
3 points
Question 11
1. You can declare a(n) ____ parameter as a constant by using the keyword const.
2. 3. 4. absolute
5. 6. 7. relative
8. 9. 10. reference
11. 12.13. actual
3 points
Question 12
1. Suppose that you have the following function.
2. void mystery(int& one, int two){ int temp temp = one; one =
two; two = temp;}
3. What are the values of x and y after the following statements? (Assume that variables are
properly declared.)
4. x = 10;y = 15;mystery(x, y);
5. 6. 7. x = 10; y = 10
8. 9. 10. x = 10; y = 15
11. 12.13. x = 15; y = 10
14. 15.16. x = 15; y = 15
3 points
Question 13
1. Consider the following function definition.
2. void strange(int& u, char& ch){ int a; a = u++; u = 2 * u; a =
static_cast<int>(ch); a++; ch = static_cast<char>(a);
3. }What are the values of one and letter after the following statements execute?int one
=5;char letter = ‘A’;strange(one, letter);
4. 5. 6. one = 5; letter = ‘A’
7. 8. 9. one = 10; letter = ‘A’
10. 11.12. one = 10; letter = ‘B’
13. 14.15. one = 12; letter = ‘B’
3 points
Question 14
1. ____ identifiers are not accessible outside of the function (block).
2. 3. 4. Local
5. 6. 7. Global
8. 9. 10. Internal
11. 12.13. External
3 points
Question 15
1. In C++, the scope resolution operator is ____.
2. 3. 4. |
5. 6. 7. .
8. 9. 10. :
11. 12.13. ::
3 points
Question 16
1. To declare w as an external variable of type int inside the function, the function must contain
which statement?
2. 3. 4. external w
5. 6. 7. external int w;
8. 9. 10. extern w
11. 12.13. extern int w;
3 points
Question 17
1. A variable for which memory is allocated at block entry and deallocated at block exit is called a(n)
____ variable.
2. 3. 4. side effect
5. 6. 7. static
8. 9. 10. automatic
11. 12.13. global
3 points
Question 18
1. Suppose that you have the following declaration. enum cars {FORD, GM, TOYOTA,
HONDA};cars domesticCars = FORD;The statement domesticCars =
static_cast<cars>(domesticCars + 1); sets the value of domesticCars to ____.
2. 3. 4. FORD
5. 6. 7. GM
8. 9. 10. TOYOTA
11. 12.13. HONDA
3 points
Question 19
1. What is the output of the following code?enum courses {ALGEBRA, BASIC, PASCAL,
PHILOSOPHY, ANALYSIS};courses registered;registered = ALGEBRA;cout <<
registered << endl;
2. 3. 4. ALGEBRA
5. 6. 7. 0
8. 9. 10. 1
11. 12.13. “ALGEBRA”
3 points
Question 20
1. Which of the following statements creates an anonymous type?
2. 3. 4. enum grades {A, B, C, D, F};
5. 6. 7. enum grades {};
8. 9. 10. enum {};
11. 12.13. enum {A, B, C, D, F} grades;
3 points
Question 21
1. In C++, ____ is a reserved word.
2. 3. 4. deftype
5. 6. 7. typedef
8. 9. 10. typecc
11. 12.13. alias
3 points
Question 22
1. In July ____, the ANSI/ISO Standard C++ was officially approved.
2. 3. 4. 1996
5. 6. 7. 1998
8. 9. 10. 1999
11. 12.13. 2000
3 points
Question 23
1. In C++, ____ is called the scope resolution operator.
2. 3. 4. .
5. 6. 7. ?
8. 9. 10. :
11. 12.13. ::
3 points
Question 24
1. The scope of a namespace member is local to the ____.
2. 3. 4. function
5. 6. 7. block
8. 9. 10. file
11. 12.13. namespace
3 points
Question 25
1. Which of the following statements is used to simplify the accessing of all globalType namespace
members?
2. 3. 4. using globalType;
5. 6. 7. using namespace globalType:all;
8. 9. 10. using namespace globalType::all;
11. 12.13. using namespace globalType;
3 points
Question 26
1. Before using the data type string, the program must include the header file ____.
2. 3. 4. enum
5. 6. 7. iostream
8. 9. 10. string
11. 12.13. std
3 points
Question 27
1. Suppose that str1, str2, and str3 are string variables. After the following statements execute,
the value of str3 is “____”.
2. str1 = “abc”;str2 = “xyz”;
3. str3 = str1 + ”
+ str2;
4. 5. 6. abc
7. 8. 9. xyz
10. 11.12. abcxyz
13. 14.15. xyzabc
3 points
Question 28
1. Suppose str = “xyzw”;. After the statement str[2] = ‘Y’; The value of str is “____”.
2. 3. 4. xyzw
5. 6. 7. xYzw
8. 9. 10. xyYw
11. 12.13. xzYw
3 points
Question 29
1. Suppose str = “ABCDEFGHI”. The output of the statement cout << str.length() << endl;
is ____.
2. 3. 4. 7
5. 6. 7. 8
8. 9. 10. 9
11. 12.13. 10
3 points
Question 30
1. The length of the string “Hello There. ” is ____.
2. 3. 4. 11
5. 6. 7. 12
8. 9. 10. 13
11. 12.13. 14
3 points
Question 31
1. Consider the following statements. string str = “ABCDEFD”;string::size_type
position;After the statement position = str.find(‘D’); executes, the value of position is
____.
2. 3. 4.
5. 6. 7.
8. 9. 10.
11. 12.13.
3 points
Question 32
1. Consider the following statements.
2. string str1 = “ABCDEFGHIJKLM”;string str2;
3. After the statement str2 = str1.substr(1,4); executes, the value of str2 is “____”.
4. 5. 6. ABCD
7. 8. 9. BCDE
10. 11.12. BCD
13. 14.15. CDE
3 points
Question 33
1. Consider the following statements.
2. string str1 = “Gone with the wind”;
3. string str2;After the statement str2 = str1.substr(5,4); executes, the value of str2 is
“____”.
4. 5. 6. Gone
7. 8. 9. with
10. 11.12. the
13. 14.15. wind
3 points
Question 34
1. The ____ function is used to interchange the contents of two string variables.
2. 3. 4. iterator
5. 6. 7. traverse
8. 9. 10. swap
11. 12.13. change
3 points
Question 35
1. Which of the following statements declares alpha to be an array of 25 components of the type
int?
2. 3. 4. int alpha[25];
5. 6. 7. int array alpha[25];
8. 9. 10. int alpha[2][5];
11. 12.13. int array alpha[25][25];
3 points
Question 36
1. Assume you have the following declaration int beta[50];. Which of the following is a valid
element of beta?
2. 3. 4. beta[‘2’]
5. 6. 7. beta[‘3’]
8. 9. 10. beta[0]
11. 12.13. beta[50]
3 points
Question 37
1. Suppose that list is an array of 10 components of type int. Which of the following codes
correctly outputs all the elements of list?
2. 3. 4. for (int j = 1; j < 10; j++) cout << list[j] << ” “;cout << endl;
5. 6. 7. for (int j = 0; j <= 9; j++) cout << list[j] << ” “;cout << endl;
8. 9. 10. for (int j = 1; j < 11; j++) cout << list[j] << ” “;cout << endl;
11. 12.13. for (int j = 1; j <= 10; j++) cout << list[j] << ” “;cout << endl;
3 points
Question 38
1. What is the output of the following C++ code?
2. int list[5] = {0, 5, 10, 15, 20};int j;for (j = 0; j < 5; j++) cout <<
list[j] << ” “;cout << endl;
3. 4. 5. 0 1 2 3 4
6. 7. 8. 0 5 10 15
9. 10.11. 0 5 10 15 20
12. 13.14. 5 10 15 20
3 points
Question 39
1. What is the value of alpha[2] after the following code executes?
2. int alpha[5];int j;for (j = 0; j < 5; j++)
3. alpha[j] = 2 * j + 1;
4. 5. 6.
7. 8. 9.
10. 11.12.
13. 14.15.
3 points
Question 40
1. What is the output of the following C++ code?int alpha[5] = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10};int j;for
(j = 4; j >= 0; j)
cout << alpha[j] << ” “;
2. cout << endl;
3. 4. 5. 2 4 6 8 10
6. 7. 8. 4 3 2 1 0
9. 10.11. 8 6 4 2 0
12. 13.14. 10 8 6 4 2
3 points
Question 41
1. What is the output of the following C++ code?
2. int list[5] = {0, 5, 10, 15, 20};int j;for (j = 1; j <= 5; j++) cout <<
list[j] << ” “;cout << endl;
3. 4. 5. 0 5 10 15 20
6. 7. 8. 5 10 15 20 0
9. 10.11. 5 10 15 20 20
12. 13.14. Code contains index outofbounds
3 points
Question 42
1. Suppose that gamma is an array of 50 components of type int and j is an int variable. Which of
the following for loops sets the index of gamma out of bounds?
2. 3. 4. for (j = 0; j <= 49; j++) cout << gamma[j] << ” “;
5. 6. 7. for (j = 1; j < 50; j++) cout << gamma[j] << ” “;
8. 9. 10. for (j = 0; j <= 50; j++) cout << gamma[j] << ” “;
11. 12.13. for (j = 0; j <= 48; j++) cout << gamma[j] << ” “;
3 points
Question 43
1. Consider the following declaration int alpha[5] = {3, 5, 7, 9, 11};. Which of the following
is equivalent to this statement?
2. 3. 4. int alpha[] = {3, 5, 7, 9, 11};
5. 6. 7. int alpha[] = {3 5 7 9 11};
8. 9. 10. int alpha[5] = [3, 5, 7, 9, 11];
11. 12.13. int alpha[] = (3, 5, 7, 9, 11);
3 points
Question 44
1. Consider the following declaration int alpha[3];. Which of the following input statements
correctly inputs values into alpha?
2. 3. 4. cin >> alpha >> alpha >> alpha;
5. 6. 7. cin >> alpha[0]>> alpha[1] >> alpha[2];
8. 9. 10. cin >> alpha[1]>> alpha[2] >> alpha[3];
11. 12.13. cin >> alpha
3 points
Question 45
1. In C++, the null character is represented as ____.
2. 3. 4. ‘\0’
5. 6. 7. “\0”
8. 9. 10. ‘0’
11. 12.13. “0”
3 points
Question 46
1. Consider the following declaration char str[15];. Which of the following statements stores
“Blue Sky” into str?
2. 3. 4. str = “Blue Sky”;
5. 6. 7. str[15] = “Blue Sky”;
8. 9. 10. strcpy(str, “Blue Sky”);
11. 12.13. strcpy(“Blue Sky”);
3 points
Question 47
1. Consider the following declaration.char charArray[51];char discard;Assume that the input
is:Hello There!How are you?
2. What is the value of discard after the following statements execute? cin.get(charArray,
51);cin.get(discard);
3. 4. 5. discard = ‘ ‘ (Space)
6. 7. 8. discard = ‘!’
9. 10.11. discard = ‘\n’
12. 13.14. discard = ‘\0’
3 points
Question 48
1. Consider the statement int list[10][8];. Which of the following about list is true?
2. 3. 4. list has 10 rows and 8 columns.
5. 6. 7. list has 8 rows and 10 columns.
8. 9. 10. list has a total of 18 components.
11. 12.13. list has a total of 108 components.
3 points
Question 49
1. Which of the following correctly declares and initializes alpha to be an array of four rows and
three columns and the component type is int?
2. 3. 4. int alpha[4][3] = {{0,1,2} {1,2,3} {2,3,4} {3,4,5}};
5. 6. 7. int alpha[4][3] = {0,1,2; 1,2,3; 2,3,4; 3,4,5};
8. 9. 10. int alpha[4][3] = {0,1,2: 1,2,3: 2,3,4: 3,4,5};
11. 12.13. int alpha[4][3] = {{0,1,2}, {1,2,3}, {2,3,4}, {3,4,5}};
3 points
Question 50
1. Given the following declaration,
2. int j;int sum; double sale[10][7];
3. which of the following correctly finds the sum of the elements of the fifth row of sale?
4. 5. 6. sum = 0;for(j = 0; j < 7; j++) sum = sum + sale[5][j];
7. 8. 9. sum = 0;for(j = 0; j < 7; j++) sum = sum + sale[4][j];
10. 11.12. sum = 0;for(j = 0; j < 10; j++) sum = sum + sale[5][j];
13. 14.15. sum = 0;for(j = 0; j < 10; j++) sum = sum + sale[4][j];
3 points
Question 51
1. In row order form, the ____.
2. 3. 4. first row is stored first
5. 6. 7. first row is stored last
8. 9. 10. first column is stored first
11. 12.13. first column is stored last
3 points
Question 52
1. A struct is a ____ data structure.
2. 3. 4. simple
5. 6. 7. dynamic
8. 9. 10. heterogeneous
11. 12.13. linked
3 points
Question 53
1. The components of a struct are called the ____ of the struct.
2. 3. 4. variables
5. 6. 7. identifiers
8. 9. 10. elements
11. 12.13. members
3 points
Question 54
1. Which of the following struct definitions is correct in C++?
2. 3. 4. struct studentType{ int ID;};
5. 6. 7. struct studentType{ string name; int ID; double
gpa;}
8. 9. 10. int struct studentType{ ID;}
11. 12.13. struct studentType{ int ID = 1;};
3 points
Question 55
1. Consider the following struct definition
2. struct rectangleData{ double length; double width; double area;
double perimeter;
3. };Which of the following variable declarations is correct?
4. 5. 6. rectangle rectangleData;
7. 8. 9. struct rectangleData();
10. 11.12. rectangleData myRectangle;
13. 14.15. rectangleData rectangle = new rectangleData();
3 points
Question 56
1. An array name and index are separated using ____.
2. 3. 4. curly brackets
5. 6. 7. square brackets
8. 9. 10. a dot
11. 12.13. a comma
3 points
Question 57
1. Consider the following statements.
2. struct rectangleData{ double length; double width; double area;
double perimeter;};rectangleData bigRect;
3. Which of the following statements correctly initializes the component length of bigRect?
4. 5. 6. bigRect = {10};
7. 8. 9. bigRect.length = 10;
10. 11.12. length[0]= 10;
13. 14.15. bigRect[0]= 10
3 points
Question 58
1. In C++, the ____ symbol is an operator, called the member access operator.
2. 3. 4. :(colon)
5. 6. 7. .(dot)
8. 9. 10. ,(comma)
11. 12.13. $ (dollar sign)
3 points
Question 59
1. Consider the following statements.
2. struct rectangleData{ double length; double width; double area;
double perimeter;};
3. rectangleData bigRect;Which of the following statements is valid in C++?
4. 5. 6. cin >> bigRect.length >> width;
7. 8. 9. cout << bigRect.length;
10. 11.12. cout << bigRect;
13. 14.15. cout << length;
3 points
Question 60
1. Consider the following statements.struct circleData{ double radius; double area;
double circumference;};
2. circleData circle;Which of the following statements is valid in C++?
3. 4. 5. cin >> circle.radius;circle.area = 3.14 * radius * radius;
6. 7. 8. cin >> circle.radius;circle.area = 3.14 * circle.radius * radius;
9. 10.11. cin >> circle;
12. 13.14. cin >> circle.radius;
3 points
Question 61
1. Consider the following statements.struct personalInfo{ string name; int age;
double height; double weight;};struct commonInfo{ string name; int
age;};
2. personalInfo person1, person2;commonInfo person3, person4;Which of the following
statements is valid in C++?
3. 4. 5. person1 = person3;
6. 7. 8. person2 = person1;
9. 10.11. person2 = person3;
12. 13.14. person2 = person4;
3 points
Question 62
1. Consider the following statements.struct studentType1
2. { string name; int ID; double gpa;
3. };studentType1 student1, student2;struct studentType2
4. { string name; int ID; double gpa;
5. };studentType2 student3, student4;Which of the following statements is valid in C++?
6. 7. 8. student2 = student3;
9. 10.11. student1 = student4;
12. 13.14. student2.ID = ID;
15. 16.17. student1.ID = student3.ID;
3 points
Question 63
1. You can assign the value of one struct variable to another struct variable of ____ type(s).
2. 3. 4. any
5. 6. 7. the same
8. 9. 10. a different
11. 12.13. a heterogeneous
3 points
Question 64
1. Consider the following statements.
2. struct rectangleData{ double length; double width; double area;
double perimeter;};
3. rectangleData bigRect;rectangleData smallRect;Which of the following statements is
legal in C++?
4. 5. 6. if (bigRect == smallRect)
7. 8. 9. if (bigRect != smallRect)
10. 11.12. if (bigRect.length == width)
13. 14.15. if (bigRect.length == smallRect.width)
3 points
Question 65
1. Which of the following aggregate operations can be executed on array variables?
2. 3. 4. Arithmetic
5. 6. 7. Assignment
8. 9. 10. Comparison
11. 12.13. Parameter passing
3 points
Question 66
1. A list has two items associated with it: ____.
2. 3. 4. the length and the references
5. 6. 7. the values and the references
8. 9. 10. the indexes and the length
11. 12.13. the values and the length
3 points
Question 67
1. Consider the following statements.
2. struct supplierType
3. { string name; int supplierID;
4. };struct applianceType
5. { supplierType supplier; string modelNo; double cost;
6. };
7. applianceType applianceList[25];Which of the following best describes applianceList?
8. 9. 10. It is an array.
11. 12.13. It is a struct.
14. 15.16. It is an array of structs.
17. 18.19. It is a struct of arrays.
3 points
Question 68
1. Consider the following statements.struct supplierType
2. { string name; int supplierID;
3. };struct paintType
4. { supplierType supplier; string color; string paintID;
5. };
6. paintType paint;What is the data type of paint.supplier?
7. 8. 9. string
10. 11.12. paintType
13. 14.15. supplierType
16. 17.18. struct
3 points
Question 69
1. The components of a class are called the ____ of the class.
2. 3. 4. elements
5. 6. 7. members
8. 9. 10. objects
11. 12.13. properties
3 points
Question 70
1. If a member of a class is ____, you cannot access it outside the class.
2. 3. 4. public
5. 6. 7. automatic
8. 9. 10. private
11. 12.13. static
3 points
Question 71
1. clockType
2. hr:
intmin:
intsec:
int
3. +setTime(int, int, int): void+getTime(int&, int&, int&) const:
void+printTime() const: void+incrementSeconds(): int+incrementMinutes():
int+incrementHours(): int+equalTime(const clockType&) const: bool
4.
5. The word ____ at the end of the member functions in the class clockType specifies that these
functions cannot modify the member variables of a clockType object.
6. 7. 8. static
9. 10.11. const
12. 13.14. automatic
15. 16.17. private
3 points
Question 72
1. A ____ sign in front of a member name on the UML diagram indicates that this member is a
private member.
2. 3. 4.
5. 6. 7.
8. 9. 10.
11. 12.13.
3 points
Question 73
1. class rectangleType{public: void setLengthWidth(double x, double y);
//Postcondition: length = x; width = y; void print() const; //Output length
and width; double area(); //Calculate and return the area of the
rectangle; double perimeter(); //Calculate and return the parameter;
rectangleType(); //Postcondition: length = 0; width = 0;
rectangleType(double x, double y); //Postcondition: length = x; width =
y;private: double length; double width;}; Consider the accompanying class
definition. Which of the following class variable declarations is correct?
2. 3. 4. rectangle rectangleType;
5. 6. 7. class rectangleType rectangle;
8. 9. 10. rectangleType rectangle;
11. 12.13. rectangle rectangleType.area;
3 points
Question 74
1. Consider the accompanying class definition, and the declaration:rectangleType bigRect;
2. Which of the following statements is correct?
3. 4. 5. rectangleType.print();
6. 7. 8. rectangleType::print();
9. 10.11. bigRect.print();
12. 13.14. bigRect::print();
3 points
Question 75
1. In C++, the ____ is an operator called the member access operator.
2. 3. 4. .
5. 6. 7. ,
8. 9. 10. ::
11. 12.13. #
3 points
Question 76
1. A class object can be ____. That is, it can be created once, when the control reaches its
declaration, and destroyed when the program terminates.
2. 3. 4. static
5. 6. 7. automatic
8. 9. 10. local
11. 12.13. public
3 points
Question 77
1. In C++, the scope resolution operator is ____.
2. 3. 4. :
5. 6. 7. ::
8. 9. 10. $
11. 12.13. .
3 points
Question 78
1. To guarantee that the member variables of a class are initialized, you use ____.
2. 3. 4. accessors
5. 6. 7. mutators
8. 9. 10. constructors
11. 12.13. destructor
3 points
Question 79
1. class secretType{public: static int count; static int z; secretType();
secretType(int a); void print(); static void incrementY();private:
int x; static int y;};secretType::secretType(){ x =
1;}secretType::secretType(int a){ x = a;}void secretType::print(){ cout <<
“x = ” << x << “, y = ” << y << “z = ” << z << “, count = ” <<
count << endl;}static void secretType::incrementY(){ y++;}
2. Consider the accompanying class and member functions definitions. How many constructors are
present in the class definition above?
3. 4. 5.
6. 7. 8.
9. 10.11.
12. 13.14.
3 points
Question 80
1. class secretType{public: static int count; static int z; secretType();
secretType(int a); void print(); static void incrementY();private:
int x; static int y;};secretType::secretType(){ x =
1;}secretType::secretType(int a){ x = a;}void secretType::print(){ cout <<
“x = ” << x << “, y = ” << y << “z = ” << z << “, count = ” <<
count << endl;}static void secretType::incrementY(){ y++;} Consider the
accompanying class and member functions definitions. Which of the following statements
correctly creates the object mySecret of type secretType and sets the value of the member
variable x to 9?
2. 3. 4. secretType mySecret(9);
5. 6. 7. mySecret = secretType(9);
8. 9. 10. secretType = mySecret(9);
11. 12.13. secretType(9).mySecret;
3 points
Question 81
1. How many destructors can a class have?
2. 3. 4. 0
5. 6. 7. 1
8. 9. 10. 2
11. 12.13. Any number
3 points
Question 82
1. What does ADT stand for?
2. 3. 4. abstract definition type
5. 6. 7. asynchronous data transfer
8. 9. 10. abstract data type
11. 12.13. alternative definition type
3 points
Question 83
1. A C++ implementation file has the extension ____.
2. 3. 4. .imp
5. 6. 7. .h
8. 9. 10. .exe
11. 12.13. .cpp
3 points
Question 84
1. If a function of a class is static, it is declared in the class definition using the keyword static in
its ____.
2. 3. 4. return type
5. 6. 7. parameters
8. 9. 10. heading
11. 12.13. main function
3 points
Question 85
1. ____ is an “isa”
relationship.
2. 3. 4. Inheritance
5. 6. 7. Encapsulation
8. 9. 10. Composition
11. 12.13. Polymorphism
3 points
Question 86
1. The new classes that we create from existing classes are called ____ classes.
2. 3. 4. sibling
5. 6. 7. base
8. 9. 10. derived
11. 12.13. parent
3 points
Question 87
1. Suppose that bClass is a class. Which of the following statements correctly derives the class
dClass from bClass?
2. 3. 4. class dClass:: public bClass{ //classMembersList};
5. 6. 7. class dClass: private bClass{ //classMembersList};
8. 9. 10. class dClass:: protected bClass{ //classMembersList};
11. 12.13. class bClass: public dClass{ //classMembersList};
3 points
Question 88
1. Consider the following class definition. class dClass: bClass{ //class members
list};The class dClass is derived from the class bClass using the ____ type of inheritance.
2. 3. 4. public
5. 6. 7. private
8. 9. 10. protected
11. 12.13. static
3 points
Question 89
1. Which of the following is a valid definition of the derived class bClass?
2. 3. 4. class aClass: public bClass{ //…};
5. 6. 7. class bClass: public aClass{ //…};
8. 9. 10. class aClass::bClass{ //…};
11. 12.13. class bClass::aClass{ //…}
3 points
Question 90
1. Which of the following is true about inheritance?
2. 3. 4. All public member functions of the base class become the public member functions of the
derived class.
5. 6. 7. All public member variables of the base class become the public member variables of the
derived class.
8. 9. 10. All public members of the base class become the public members of the derived class.
11. 12.13. The public member variables of the base class become the public or private member
variables of the derived class.
3 points
Question 91
1. Which of the following class definitions makes the public members of the class aClass become
the public members of the class bClass?
2. 3. 4. class aClass: public bClass{ //…};
5. 6. 7. class bClass: public aClass{ //…};
8. 9. 10. class bClass: aClass{ //…};
11. 12.13. class aClass: bClass{ //…};
3 points
Question 92
1. Which of the following is true about a derived class?
2. 3. 4. A derived class can directly access any member variable of the base class.
5. 6. 7. A derived class can redefine any public member function of the base class.
8. 9. 10. A derived class can have at most one base class.
11. 12.13. A derived class can redefine any member function of the base class.
3 points
Question 93
1. To ____ a public member function of a base class in the derived class, the corresponding
function in the derived class must have the same name, number, and types of parameters.
2. 3. 4. redefine
5. 6. 7. overload
8. 9. 10. rename
11. 12.13. reuse
3 points
Question 94
1. If the corresponding functions in the base class and the derived class have the same name but
different sets of parameters, then this function is ____ in the derived class.
2. 3. 4. reused
5. 6. 7. redefined
8. 9. 10. overloaded
11. 12.13. overridden
3 points
Question 95
1. Consider the following class definitions. class bClass{public: void setX(int);
void print() const;private: int x;};class dClass: public bClass{public:
void setXY(int, int); void print() const;private: int y;};Which of the following
statements correctly redefines the member function print of bClass?
2. 3. 4. void dClass::print() const { dClass:print(); cout << ” ” <<
y << endl; }
5. 6. 7. void dClass::print() const { cout << x << ” ” << y << endl;
}
8. 9. 10. void bClass::print() const { cout << x << ” ” << y << endl;
}
11. 12.13. void dClass::print() const { bClass::print(); cout <<
“y = ” << y << endl; }
3 points
Question 96
1. If the derived class classD overrides a public member function functionName of the base class
classB, then to specify a call to that public member function of the base class you use the ____
statement.
2. 3. 4. classD::functionName();
5. 6. 7. classB::functionName();
8. 9. 10. classD.functionName();
11. 12.13. classB.functionName();
3 points
Question 97
1. What is the output of the following program?
2. #include <iostream>using namespace std;class bClass{public: void print()
const; bClass(int a = 0, int b = 0); //Postcondition: x = a; y =
b;private: int x; int y;};class dClass: public bClass{public:
void print() const; dClass(int a = 0, int b = 0, int c = 0);
//Postcondition: x = a; y = b; z = c;private: int z;};int main(){ bClass
bObject(2, 3); dClass dObject(3, 5, 8); bObject.print(); cout << endl;
dObject.print(); cout << endl; return 0 ;}void bClass::print() const{
cout << x << ” ” << y << endl;}bClass::bClass(int a, int b){ x = a; y =
b;}void dClass::print() const{ bClass:print(); cout << ” ” << z <<
endl;}dClass::dClass(int a, int b, int c) : bClass(a, b){ z = c;}
3. 4. 5. 2 32 3
6. 7. 8. 2 33 5 8
9. 10.11. 3 5 83 5 8
12. 13.14. 5 83 5 8
3 points
Question 98
1. ____ is the ability to combine data, and operations on that data, in a single unit.
2. 3. 4. Inheritance
5. 6. 7. Encapsulation
8. 9. 10. Polymorphism
11. 12.13. Composition
3 points
Question 99
1. OOP implements ____.
2. 3. 4. UML
5. 6. 7. IPE
8. 9. 10. EIP
11. 12.13. OOD
3 points
Question 100
1. The ____ members of an object form its internal state.
2. 3. 4. private
5. 6. 7. protected
8. 9. 10. public
11. 12.13. static

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all of the following statements are true regarding cash flow presentations except

Question 1 

Zoum Corporation had the following transactions during 2014:
 

1 – Issued $125,000 of par value common stock for cash.
2 – Recorded and paid wages expense of $60,000.
3 – Acquired land by issuing common stock of par value $50,000.
4 – Declared and paid a cash dividend of $10,000.
5 – Sold a long-term investment (cost $3,000) for cash of $3,000.
6 – Recorded cash sales of $400,000.
7 – Bought inventory for cash of $160,000.
8 – Acquired an investment in Zynga stock for cash of $21,000.
9 – Converted bonds payable to common stock in the amount of $500,000.
10 – Repaid a 6 year note payable in the amount of $220,000.
 

What is the net cash provided by financing activities?

$<105,000>.

$395,000.

$<605,000>.

$115,000.

Question 2 

The acquisition of a building by issuing bonds would be considered an investing and financing activity that did not affect cash.

True 

False 

Question 3 

Authentic Exposure Company had the following transactions that took place during the year:
I.    Paid amount owing to suppliers $2,750.
II.   Purchased new equipment for $5,000 by signing a long-term note payable.
III.  Purchased a patent and paid $15,000 cash for the asset.
 

How what is the total effect of these transactions on Free Cash Flow, Current Cash Debt Coverage, and Cash Debt Coverage respectively?
           Free                          Current Cash Debt                         Cash Debt
Cash Flow Coverage Coverage 

Increase                                   Increase                                    Increase

Decrease                                 Decrease                                   Decrease

No Effect                                  No Effect                                   No Effect

Increase                                   No Effect                                   No Effect

Question 4 

The current cash debt coverage ratio is considered a better representative of liquidity than the current ratio because it involves the entire year rather than a balance at one point in time.

True 

False 

Question 5 

Which of the following transactions does not affect cash during a period?

Write-off of an uncollectible   account.

Collection of an accounts receivable.

Sale of treasury stock.

Redeeming bonds before maturity.

Question 6 

The information to prepare the statement of cash flows comes from all of the following sources except

comparative balance sheets.

additional transaction data about   cash provided or used during the period.

adjusted trial balance.

current income statement.

Question 7 

In order to determine net cash provided by operating activities, a company must convert net income from an accrual basis to a cash basis under

the direct method only.

the indirect method only.

both the direct method and the   indirect method.

neither the direct nor the indirect   method.

Question 8 

Generally, the most important category on the statement of cash flows is cash flows from

operating activities.

investing activities.

financing activities.

significant noncash activities.

Question 9 

The statement of cash flows will not provide insight into

why dividends were not increased.

whether cash flow is greater than net   income.

the exact proceeds of a future bond   issue.

how the retirement of debt was   accomplished.

Question 10 

All of the following statements are true regarding cash flow presentations except

the balance sheet provides only   limited information about a company’s cash flows.

the balance sheet provides information   about how property, plant, and equipment were financed.

the income statement does not show   how much cash was generated by operating activities.

if cash from operations is compared   to net income, information about the quality of reported net income is   revealed.

Question 11 

For each of the following items, indicate by using the appropriate code letter, how the item should be reported in the statement of cash flows, using the indirect method.

Decrease in   accounts payable during a period

Declaration and   payment of a cash dividend.

Loss on disposal of   land.

Decrease in   accounts receivable during a period.

Redemption of bonds   for cash.

Proceeds from sale   of equipment at book value.

Issuance of common   stock for cash.

Purchase of a   building for cash.

Acquisition of land   in exchange for common stock.

Increase in     inventory during a period.

A.

Cash     outflow—financing activity

B.

Cash inflow—investing     activity

C.

Deducted from net     income

D.

Added to net     income

E.

Cash     inflow—financing activity

F.

Cash     outflow—investing activity

G.

Significant     noncash investing and financing activity

Question 12 

Peninsula Company reported net income of $260,000 for the year. During the year, accounts receivable increased by $21,000, accounts payable decreased by $9,000 and depreciation expense of $45,000 was recorded. Net cash provided by operating activities for the year is

$275,000.

$245,000.

$227,000.

$260,000.

Question 13 

The statement of cash flows

must be prepared on a daily basis.

summarizes the operating, financing,   and investing activities of an entity.

is another name for the income   statement.

is a special section of the income   statement.

Question 14 

In calculating cash flows from operating activities using the indirect method, a loss on the sale of equipment will appear as a(n)

subtraction from net income.

addition to net income.

addition to cash flow from investing   activities.

subtraction from cash flow from   investing activities.

Question 15 

The cash debt coverage ratio indicates a company’s ability to repay its liabilities from cash generated from operations.

True 

False 

Question 16 

Laser Performance Inc. has the following information available (amount in thousands).
Net Income                                                     $30,000
Average Total Liabilities                                   80,000
Average Current Liabilities                               36,000
Cash Provided by Operations                          48,000
Cash Sales                                                     130,000
Capital Expenditures                                        22,000
Dividends Paid                                                   6,000
 

What is the current cash debt coverage?

1.333 times.

.600 times .

.833 times .

.369 times.

Question 17 

The net income reported on the income statement for the current year was $440,000. Depreciation was $62,000. Accounts receivable and inventories decreased by $20,000 and $32,000, respectively. Prepaid expenses and accounts payable increased, respectively, by $2,000 and $16,000. How much cash was provided by operating activities?

$496,000.

$568,000.

$536,000.

$436,000.

Question 18 

The statement of cash flows is a required statement that must be prepared along with an income statement, balance sheet, and retained earnings statement.

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are packet capturing tools like wireshark less dangerous on switched lans?

26 | Lab #1 Performing Reconnaissance and Probing Using Common Tools

Lab #1 – Assessment Worksheet

Performing Reconnaissance and Probing Using Common Tools

Course Name and Number: _____________________________________________________ Student Name: ________________________________________________________________ Instructor Name: ______________________________________________________________ Lab Due Date: ________________________________________________________________

Overview

In this lab, you explored the common tools available in the virtual lab environment. You

used Wireshark to capture and analyze network traffic and OpenVAS to scan the

network. You reviewed a sample collection of data using NetWitness Investigator,

connected to a remote Windows machine, and explored two file transfer applications,

FileZilla and Tftpd64. You used PuTTY to connect to a Linux machine and ran several

Cisco commands to display statistics for the network interfaces. Finally, you used

Zenmap to perform a scan of the network and created a network topology chart.

Lab Assessment Questions & Answers

1. Name at least five applications and tools used in the lab.

2. What is promiscuous mode?

3. How does Wireshark differ from NetWitness Investigator?

4. Why is it important to select the student interface in the Wireshark?

5. What is the command line syntax for running an Intense Scan with Zenmap on a target subnet of 172.30.0.0/24?

6. Name at least five different scans that may be performed with Zenmap.

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7. How many different tests (i.e., scripts) did your Intense Scan perform?

8. Based on your interpretation of the Intense Scan, describe the purpose/results of each tests script performed during the report.

9. How many total IP hosts did Zenmap find on the network?

52 | Lab #2 Performing a Vulnerability Assessment

Lab #2 – Assessment Worksheet

Performing a Vulnerability Assessment

Course Name and Number: _____________________________________________________ Student Name: ________________________________________________________________ Instructor Name: ______________________________________________________________ Lab Due Date: ________________________________________________________________

Overview

In this lab, you used Nmap commands within the Zenmap application to scan the virtual network

and identify the devices on the network and the operating systems and services running on them.

You also used OpenVAS to conduct a vulnerability assessment and record the high risk

vulnerabilities identified by the tool. Finally, you used the information you gathered from the

report to discover mitigations for those risks and make mitigation recommendations based on

your findings.

Lab Assessment Questions & Answers

1. What is Zenmap typically used for? How is it related to Nmap? Describe a scenario in which you would use this type of application.

2. Which application can be used to perform a vulnerability assessment scan in the reconnaissance phase of the ethical hacking process?

3. What must you obtain before you begin the ethical hacking process or penetration test on a live production network, even before performing the reconnaissance step?

4. What is a CVE listing? Who hosts and sponsors the CVE database listing Web site?

5. Can Zenmap detect which operating systems are present on IP servers and workstations? Which option includes that scan?

6. How can you limit the breadth and scope of a vulnerability scan?

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7. Once a vulnerability has been identified by OpenVAS, where would you check for more information regarding the identified vulnerability, exploits, and any risk

mitigation solution?

8. What is the major difference between Zenmap and OpenVAS?

9. Why do you need to run both tools like Zenmap and OpenVAS to complete the reconnaissance phase of the ethical hacking process?

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Lab #3 – Assessment Worksheet

Enabling Windows Active Directory and User Access Controls

Course Name and Number: _____________________________________________________ Student Name: ________________________________________________________________ Instructor Name: ______________________________________________________________ Lab Due Date: ________________________________________________________________

Overview

In this lab, you followed the Microsoft approach to securing the CIA triad. You created new user

accounts and security groups, and applied the new user accounts to the security groups, just as

you would in a real world domain. You created nested folders on the remote server and assigned

unique file permissions using the new user accounts and security groups. You modified the

Windows Group Policy enabling each new user account to use remote desktop services to

remotely access the TargetWindows01 server. Finally, you tested the security layers you placed

in the previous parts of the lab by using each new user account to access and modify the nested

folders on the remote server.

Lab Assessment Questions & Answers

1. What are the three fundamental elements of an effective security program for information systems?

2. Of these three fundamental controls, which two are used by the Domain User Admin to create users and assign rights to resources?

3. If you can browse a file on a Windows network share, but are not able to copy it or modify it, what type of access controls and permissions are probably configured?

4. What is the mechanism on a Windows server where you can administer granular policies and permissions on a Windows network using role-based access?

5. What is two-factor authentication, and why is it an effective access control technique?

82 | Lab #3 Enabling Windows Active Directory and User Access Controls

6. Relate how Windows Server 2012 Active Directory and the configuration of access controls achieve CIA for departmental LANs, departmental folders, and data.

7. Is it a good practice to include the account or username in the password? Why or why not?

8. Can a user who is defined in Active Directory access a shared drive on a computer if the server with the shared drive is not part of the domain?

9. When granting access to LAN systems for guests (i.e., auditors, consultants, third-party individuals, etc.), what security controls do you recommend be implemented to

maximize CIA of production systems and data?

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Lab #4 – Assessment Worksheet

Using Group Policy Objects and Microsoft Baseline Security Analyzer for Change Control

Course Name and Number: _____________________________________________________ Student Name: ________________________________________________________________ Instructor Name: ______________________________________________________________ Lab Due Date: ________________________________________________________________

Overview

There are many tools and suites designed to aid the security practitioner and the organization in

implementing and managing change management. In this lab, you explored two such tools for

the Windows platform: Group Policy Objects (built into the Windows operating systems) and the

Microsoft Security Baseline Analyzer (provided free of charge). You used Group Policy Objects

to strengthen the organization’s password policy by adding complexity and minimum password

length requirements. You scanned the Windows server with the Microsoft Baseline Security

Analyzer (MBSA) to assess its security state, and you examined the results of the Microsoft

Baseline Security Analyzer in detail.

Lab Assessment Questions & Answers

1. Define why change control management is relevant to security operations in an organization.

2. Name six (6) policies you could enable in a Windows Domain.

3. What is the minimum password length enforced by the Password must meet complexity requirements policy?

4. What sources could you use as a source to perform the MBSA security scan?

5. What are some of the options that you can exercise when initiating the MBSA scan?

136 | Lab #5 Performing Packet Capture and Traffic Analysis

Lab #5 – Assessment Worksheet

Performing Packet Capture and Traffic Analysis

Course Name and Number: _____________________________________________________ Student Name: ________________________________________________________________ Instructor Name: ______________________________________________________________ Lab Due Date: ________________________________________________________________

Overview

In this lab, you used common applications to generate traffic and transfer files between the

machines in this lab. You captured data using Wireshark and reviewed the captured traffic at the

packet level, and then you used NetWitness Investigator, a free tool that provides security

practitioners with a means of analyzing a complete packet capture, to review the same traffic at a

consolidated level.

Lab Assessment Questions & Answers

1. Why would a network administrator use Wireshark and NetWitness Investigator together?

2. What was the IP address for LanSwitch1?

3. When the 172.16.8.5 IP host responded to the ICMP echo-requests, how many ICMP echo-reply packets were sent back to the vWorkstation?

4. What was the terminal password for LanSwitch 1 and LanSwitch 2?

5. When using SSH to remotely access a Cisco router, can you see the terminal password? Why or why not?

6. What were the Destination IP addresses discovered by the NetWitness Investigator analysis?

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7. Are packet-capturing tools like Wireshark less dangerous on switched LANs?

160 | Lab #6 Implementing a Business Continuity Plan

Lab #6 – Assessment Worksheet

Implementing a Business Continuity Plan

Course Name and Number: _____________________________________________________ Student Name: ________________________________________________________________ Instructor Name: ______________________________________________________________ Lab Due Date: ________________________________________________________________

Overview

In this lab, you implemented a portion of your organization’s BCP. On the basis of the BIA, the

organization determined that the internal Active Directory database and the corporate Web site

must be recoverable in the event of system failure or natural disaster. To accomplish this, you

configured local backups of Active Directory on the existing virtual server using Windows

Server Backup. You also configured the organization’s Web servers to host content from a single

NFS share, and to back up that NFS share daily using Windows.

Lab Assessment Questions & Answers

1. What is the purpose of the business impact analysis (BIA)?

2. What is the difference between a disaster recovery plan (DRP) and a business continuity plan (BCP)?

3. What are the commands used in Windows 2012 to mount the NFS share on the Linux server.

4. Is creating redundancy for systems such as Active Directory or Web servers a part of the DRP or the BCP?

5. Why use the mklink command?

6. What role/service is Windows 2012 Server Backup part of?

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a. Windows Group Policy b. Windows Collaboration Server c. Windows Server Essentials Experience

7. Which Linux file makes a local share available to NFS clients? a. transports b. imports c. fstab d. exports

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Lab #7 – Assessment Worksheet

Using Encryption to Enhance Confidentiality and Integrity

Course Name and Number: _____________________________________________________ Student Name: ________________________________________________________________ Instructor Name: ______________________________________________________________ Lab Due Date: ________________________________________________________________

Overview

In this lab, you learned how cryptography tools can be used to ensure message and file transfer

integrity and how encryption can be used to maximize confidentiality. You used Kleopatra, the

certificate management component of GPG4Win, to generate both a public and a private key as

both a sender and a receiver. You used the sender’s keys to encrypt a file, sent it to the receiver,

and decrypted it using the receiver’s copy of the keys.

Lab Assessment Questions & Answers

1. If you and another person want to encrypt messages, should you provide that person with your public key, private key, or both?

2. What does Kleopatra allow you to do once it is installed?

3. What key type was used to create the certificate on Kleopatra? What other types of encryption key types are possible?

4. What was the fingerprint generated with your Kleopatra certificate?

5. If someone sends you his public key and you import it into Kleopatra, will he be able to decrypt the encrypted messages you send him?

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Lab #8 – Assessment Worksheet

Performing a Web Site and Database Attack by Exploiting Identified Vulnerabilities

Course Name and Number: _____________________________________________________ Student Name: ________________________________________________________________ Instructor Name: ______________________________________________________________ Lab Due Date: ________________________________________________________________

Overview

In this lab, you performed simple tests to verify a cross-site scripting (XSS) exploit and an SQL

injection attack using the Damn Vulnerable Web Application (DVWA), a tool left intentionally

vulnerable to aid security professionals in learning about Web security. You used a Web browser

and some simple command strings to identify the IP target host and its known vulnerabilities,

and then attacked the Web application and Web server using cross-site scripting (XSS) and SQL

injection to exploit the sample Web application running on that server.

Lab Assessment Questions & Answers

1. Why is it critical to perform a penetration test on a Web application and a Web server prior to production implementation?

2. What is a cross-site scripting attack? Explain in your own words.

3. What is a reflective cross-site scripting attack?

3. Which Web application attack is more likely to extract privacy data elements out of a database?

4. What security countermeasures could be used to monitor your production SQL databases against injection attacks?

204 | Lab #8 Performing a Web Site and Database Attack by Exploiting Identified Vulnerabilities

5. What can you do to ensure that your organization incorporates penetration testing and Web application testing as part of its implementation procedures?

6. Who is responsible for the C-I-A of production Web applications and Web servers?

226 | Lab #9 Eliminating Threats with a Layered Security Approach

Lab #9 – Assessment Worksheet

Eliminating Threats with a Layered Security Approach

Course Name and Number: _____________________________________________________ Student Name: ________________________________________________________________ Instructor Name: ______________________________________________________________ Lab Due Date: ________________________________________________________________

Overview

In this lab, you used AVG, an antivirus scanning program, to identify malware found on a

compromised system. You also examined the services available on the Windows vWorkstation

machine and disabled an unnecessary service. In addition, you configured the Windows Firewall,

enabled ICMP traffic, and created a new rule for the FileZilla Server application.

Lab Assessment Questions & Answers

1. What is the main difference between a virus and a Trojan?

2. A virus or malware can impact which of the three tenets of information systems security (confidentiality, integrity, or availability)? In what way?

3. Why is it recommended to do an antivirus signature file update before performing an antivirus scan on your computer?

4. Why might your coworker suggest encrypting an archive file before e-mailing it?

5. What kind of network traffic can you filter with the Windows Firewall with Advanced Security?

6. What are typical indicators that your computer system is compromised?

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7. What elements are needed in a workstation domain policy regarding use of antivirus and malicious software prevention tools?

246 | Lab #10 Implementing an Information Systems Security Policy

Lab #10 – Assessment Worksheet

Implementing an Information Systems Security Policy

Course Name and Number: _____________________________________________________ Student Name: ________________________________________________________________ Instructor Name: ______________________________________________________________ Lab Due Date: ________________________________________________________________

Overview

In this lab, you acted as a member of the network security team. You were given an assignment

to implement two security standards that have been accepted by the organization. First, you

enforced a newly adopted corporate password policy using the Group Policy Management

console. Additionally, you joined a standalone Linux machine to the Active Directory domain

using an open source tool, PowerBroker Identity Services Open.

Lab Assessment Questions & Answers

1. What is the correct command syntax to force GPO settings?

a. /force GPO b. gpupdate /now c. gpupdate /force d. policyupdate /force

2. Why is it important to set a strict password policy as part of your security template?

3. Why is it important to bring standalone systems into the Domain?

4. What was the command line syntax to connect as the root user to 172.30.0.11 using PuTTY?

5. Name five different Windows password policies.

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in the last line of “god’s grandeur,” we see an unusual and complicated use of

Student ID: 21973473

Exam: 986828RR – Lesson 5 Poetry, Part 2

When you have completed your exam and reviewed your answers, click Submit Exam. Answers will not be recorded until you hit Submit Exam. If you need to exit before completing the exam, click Cancel Exam.

Questions 1 to 20: Select the best answer to each question. Note that a question and its answers may be split across a page break, so be sure that you have seen the entire question and all the answers before choosing an answer.

1. In the last line of “God’s Grandeur,” we see an unusual and complicated use of A. repetition.

B. consonance.

C. alliteration.

D. assonance.

2. Which one of the following lines is written in iambic pentameter? A. “And sorry I could not travel both”

B. “When the proofs, the figures, were ranged in columns before me”

C. “Not that the pines are darker there”

D. “I lift my lamp beside the golden door”

3. In the poem “God’s Grandeur,” we find the words reck and rod. By analysis we can determine that the word rod probably comes from the Bible and means A. God’s wrath.

B. God’s power.

C. a principle of ethics.

D. a tool of correction.

4. A villanelle is A. a narrative poem written in blank verse.

B. a favorite technique of John Donne.

C. a formal poem using extensive repetition.

D. a type of complex sonnet.

5. A theological argument offered by Donne in “Death Be Not Proud” may be summarized as A. death cannot be overcome.

B. chance and fate rule all.

C. the human essence is immortal.

D. life is illusion.

6. Consider the line “(the soil)/ Is bare now, nor can feet feel, being shod.” By analysis, we deduce that Hopkins means people are out of touch with God because they’re A. out of touch with the earth.

B. depending on worthless machinery.

C. too concerned with property.

D. moving to cities.

7. Emily Dickinson’s poetry was rescued for posterity by A. the residents of Amherst.

B. a cleric from Boston.

C. her secret lover.

D. her sister.

8. Who is the speaker in Sandburg’s “Grass”? A. A conductor

B. A passenger

C. The grass

D. Napoleon

9. In “Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night,” Dylan Thomas’s phrase “wild men” describes A. those who celebrate life.

B. people who deny death.

C. people who embrace death.

D. those who trade dignity for madness.

10. Which poet, who seems be using iambic pentameter, bends the meter most? A. Emily Dickinson

B. Gerard Manley Hopkins

C. Emma Lazarus

D. John Donne

This question is based on the following poem. How Doth the Little Crocodile How doth the little crocodile Improve his shining tail, And pour the waters of the Nile On every golden scale! How cheerfully he seems to grin, How neatly spreads his claws, And welcomes little fishes in With gently smiling jaws!

11. What is the rhyme scheme in “How Doth the Little Crocodile”? A. ABAB ABAB

B. ABBA ABBA

C. ABAB CDCD

D. AABB CCDD

12. Describing the chariot that bears the human soul as “frugal” is an example of A. realism.

B. denotation.

C. paradox.

D. epiphany.

13. The theme of the poem “Richard Cory” is that A. Richard Cory was a victim of fate.

B. a person’s inner reality is often hidden.

C. money can’t buy love.

D. surface glitter may be fool’s gold.

14. One difference between the English sonnet and the Italian sonnet is its A. meter.

B. rhyme scheme.

C. theme.

D. subject matter.

15. Which one of the following poems depends heavily on the use of allusion for effect? A. “Grass”

B. “Death, Be Not Proud”

C. “God’s Grandeur”

D. “Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night”

16. In Donne’s sonnet, what does the phrase “one short sleep past” mean? A. Death is more permanent than sleep.

B. Death is unavoidable.

C. Death comes sooner than expected.

D. Death, like a nap, isn’t permanent.

17. Which one of the following elements is characteristic of the poem “Richard Cory”? A. Sonnet form

B. Surprise ending

C. Blank verse

D. Lack of rhyme scheme

End of exam

18. What type of poem is “Death, Be Not Proud”? A. Narrative

B. Discursive

C. Reflective

D. Descriptive

19. The form of the poem “God’s Grandeur” is that of A. blank verse.

B. an English sonnet.

C. an Italian sonnet.

D. a villanelle.

20. In “The New Colossus,” the Statue of Liberty is compared to a/an A. immigrant.

B. door.

C. mother.

D. European queen.

Categories
pay for college essay we do your essays write my book report

which monomial is a perfect cube? 1×3 3×3 6×3 9×3

GEOMETRIC FORMULAS

Formulas for area A, perimeter P, circumference C, volume V :

Rectangle Box

A � l„ V � l„ h

P � 2l � 2„

Triangle Pyramid

A � �1 2

� bh V � �1 3

�ha2

Circle Sphere

A � �r 2 V � �4 3

��r 3

C � 2�r A � 4�r 2

Cylinder Cone

V � �r 2h V � �1 3

��r 2h

HERON’S FORMULA

Area � �s 1�s��� a�2 1�s��� b�2 1�s��� c�2� where s � �

a � 2 b � c �

hh

r

r

r r

h

b a a

h

l

h

l „

EXPONENTS AND RADICALS

xmxn � xm�n � x x

m

n� � x m�n

1xm2n � xm n x�n � � x 1

n�

1xy2n � xnyn a�xy�b n

� � x y

n

n�

x1�n � �n x� xm�n � �n xm�� � Q�n x�Rm

�n xy� � �n x� �n y� �n xy��� � �

n x�

�n y� ��

�m �n��x� ��n �m��x� � �mnx�

SPECIAL PRODUCTS

1x � y22 � x 2 � 2xy � y 2 1x � y22 � x 2 � 2xy � y 2 1x � y23 � x 3 � 3x 2y � 3xy 2 � y 3 1x � y23 � x 3 � 3x 2y � 3xy 2 � y 3

FACTORING FORMULAS

x 2 � y 2 � 1x � y2 1x � y2 x 2 � 2xy � y 2 � 1x � y22 x 2 � 2xy � y 2 � 1x � y22 x 3 � y 3 � 1x � y2 1x 2 � xy � y 22 x 3 � y 3 � 1x � y2 1x 2 � xy � y 22

QUADRATIC FORMULA

If ax 2 � bx � c � 0, then

x �

INEQUALITIES AND ABSOLUTE VALUE

If a � b and b � c, then a � c.

If a � b, then a � c � b � c.

If a � b and c � 0, then ca � cb.

If a � b and c � 0, then ca � cb.

If a � 0, then

⏐x⏐ � a means x � a or x � �a.

⏐x⏐ � a means �a � x � a.

⏐x⏐ � a means x � a or x � �a.

�b �b�2��� 4�a�c� ��

2a

b

B

CA

ac

DISTANCE AND MIDPOINT FORMULAS

Distance between P11x1, y12 and P21x2, y2 2 : d � � 1x�2��� x�12�2��� 1�y2� �� y�12�2�

Midpoint of P1P2: a�x1 � 2

x2. �, �

y1 �

2

y2. �b

LINES

Slope of line through P11x1, y12 and P21x2, y2 2 Point-slope equation of line y � y1 � m 1x � x12 through P11x1, y12 with slope m Slope-intercept equation of y � mx � b line with slope m and y-intercept b

Two-intercept equation of line with x-intercept a and y-intercept b

LOGARITHMS

y � loga x means a y � x

loga a x � x a loga x � x

loga 1 � 0 loga a � 1

log x � log10 x ln x � loge x

loga xy � loga x � loga y loga a�xy�b � loga x � loga y loga x

b � b loga x logb x �

EXPONENTIAL AND LOGARITHMIC FUNCTIONS

0

1

y=a˛ 0<a<1

0

1

y=a˛ a>1

1

y=loga x a>1

0

y=loga x 0<a<1

10

y

x

y

x

y

x

y

x

loga x

log a b

� a x

� � � b y

� � 1

m � � x

y2

2

y

x 1

1 �

GRAPHS OF FUNCTIONS

Linear functions: f 1×2 � mx � b

Power functions: f 1×2 � xn

Root functions: f 1×2 � �n x�

Reciprocal functions: f 1×2 � 1/xn

Absolute value function Greatest integer function

Ï=“x ‘

1

1

x

y

Ï=|x |

x

y

Ï= 1≈

x

y

Ï= 1x

x

y

Ï=£œ∑x

x

y

Ï=œ∑x

x

y

Ï=x£

x

y

Ï=≈ x

y

Ï=mx+b

b

x

y

Ï=b

b

x

y

COMPLEX NUMBERS

For the complex number z � a � bi the conjugate is

the modulus is ⏐z⏐ � �a2 � b2���� the argument is , where tan � b/a

Polar form of a complex number

For z � a � bi, the polar form is

z � r 1cos � i sin 2 where r � ⏐z⏐ is the modulus of z and is the argument of z

De Moivre’s Theorem

z n � �r 1cos � i sin 2 n � rn 1cos n � i sin n 2 �n z� � �r 1cos � i sin 2 1�n

� r 1�n acos � � n 2k� � � i sin �

n 2k� �b

where k � 0, 1, 2, . . . , n � 1

ROTATION OF AXES

0

P(x, y) P(X, Y)

Y

X

ƒ x

y

Re

Im

bi

0

| z| a+bi

¨ a

z � a � bi

Angle-of-rotation formula for conic sections

To eliminate the xy-term in the equation

Ax2 � Bxy � Cy2 � Dx � Ey � F � 0

rotate the axis by the angle � that satisfies

cot 2� � � A �

B C

POLAR COORDINATES

x � r cos

y � r sin

r2 � x2 � y 2

tan � � y

x �

x

y

0

r

¨ x

y

P (x, y) P (r, ¨)

Rotation of axes formulas

x � X cos � � Y sin �

y � X sin � � Y cos �

CONIC SECTIONS

Circles

1x � h2 2 � 1y � k2 2 � r 2

Parabolas x 2 � 4py y 2 � 4px

Focus 10, p2 , directrix y � �p Focus 1p, 02 , directrix x � �p

y � a 1x � h22 � k, y � a 1x � h2 2 � k, a � 0, h � 0, k � 0 a � 0, h � 0, k � 0

Ellipses

� a

x2

2� � �b

y2

2� � 1 x2

b2 �� �

y2

a2 �� � 1

Foci 1 c, 02 , c2 � a2 � b2 Foci 10, c2 , c2 � a2 � b2

Hyperbolas

� a

x2

2� � �b

y2

2� � 1 � x2

b2 �� �

y2

a2 �� � 1

Foci 1 c, 02 , c2 � a2 � b2 Foci 10, c2 , c2 � a2 � b2

a

b

_a

_b

b

a

_b

_a

_c c

c

_c

x

y

x

y

a>b

b

a

_b

_a

c

_c

a>b

a

b

_a

_b

c_c x

y

x

y

0

y

x

(h, k)

0

y

x

(h, k)

y

x

p>0

p<0

y

x

p>0p<0

p

p

0

C(h, k)

r

x

y

This page intentionally left blank

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T H I R D E D I T I O N

ALGEBRA AND TRIGONOMETRY

A B O U T T H E A U T H O R S

JAMES STEWART received his MS from Stanford University and his PhD

from the University of Toronto. He did

research at the University of London

and was influenced by the famous

mathematician George Polya at Stan-

ford University. Stewart is Professor

Emeritus at McMaster University and is

currently Professor of Mathematics at

the University of Toronto. His research

field is harmonic analysis and the con-

nections between mathematics and

music. James Stewart is the author of a

bestselling calculus textbook series

published by Brooks/Cole, Cengage

Learning, including Calculus, Calculus:

Early Transcendentals, and Calculus:

Concepts and Contexts; a series of pre-

calculus texts; and a series of high-

school mathematics textbooks.

LOTHAR REDLIN grew up on Van- couver Island, received a Bachelor of

Science degree from the University of

Victoria, and received a PhD from

McMaster University in 1978. He sub-

sequently did research and taught at

the University of Washington, the Uni-

versity of Waterloo, and California

State University, Long Beach. He is

currently Professor of Mathematics at

The Pennsylvania State University,

Abington Campus. His research field is

topology.

SALEEM WATSON received his Bachelor of Science degree from

Andrews University in Michigan. He

did graduate studies at Dalhousie

University and McMaster University,

where he received his PhD in 1978.

He subsequently did research at the

Mathematics Institute of the University

of Warsaw in Poland. He also taught at

The Pennsylvania State University. He

is currently Professor of Mathematics

at California State University, Long

Beach. His research field is functional

analysis.

Stewart, Redlin, and Watson have also published Precalculus: Mathematics for Calculus, College Algebra, Trigonometry, and

(with Phyllis Panman) College Algebra: Concepts and Contexts.

The cover photograph shows the Science Museum in the City of Arts and Sciences in Valencia, Spain. Built from 1991 to 1996, it was designed by Santiago Calatrava, a Spanish architect. Calatrava has always been very interested in how mathematics can help him realize the buildings he imagines. As a young student, he taught himself descriptive geometry from books in order to represent

three-dimensional objects in two dimensions. Trained as both an engineer and an architect, he wrote a doctoral thesis in 1981 entitled “On the Foldability of Space Frames,” which is filled with mathematics, especially geometric transformations. His strength as an engineer enables him to be daring in his architecture.

ABOUT THE COVER

ALGEBRA AND TRIGONOMETRY JAMES STEWART M C M A S T E R U N I V E R S I T Y A N D U N I V E R S I T Y O F TO R O N TO

LOTHAR REDLIN T H E P E N N S Y LVA N I A S TAT E U N I V E R S I T Y

SALEEM WATSON C A L I F O R N I A S TAT E U N I V E R S I T Y, LO N G B E A C H

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T H I R D E D I T I O N

Algebra and Trigonometry, Third Edition James Stewart, Lothar Redlin, Saleem Watson

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CO N T E N T S

PREFACE xi

TO THE STUDENT xix

PROLOGUE: PRINCIPLES OF PROBLEM SOLVING P1

C H A P T E R P PREREQUISITES 1 Chapter Overview 1

P.1 Real Numbers and Their Properties 2 P.2 The Real Number Line and Order 8 P.3 Integer Exponents 14 P.4 Rational Exponents and Radicals 22 P.5 Algebraic Expressions 28 P.6 Factoring 33 P.7 Rational Expressions 40

Chapter P Review 49

Chapter P Test 52

■ FOCUS ON MODELING Modeling the Real World with Algebra 53

C H A P T E R 1 EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES 59 Chapter Overview 59

1.1 Basic Equations 60 1.2 Modeling with Equations 68 1.3 Quadratic Equations 80 1.4 Complex Numbers 90 1.5 Other Types of Equations 95 1.6 Inequalities 104 1.7 Absolute Value Equations and Inequalities 113

Chapter 1 Review 117

Chapter 1 Test 119

■ FOCUS ON MODELING Making the Best Decisions 120

v

C H A P T E R 2 COORDINATES AND GRAPHS 125 Chapter Overview 125

2.1 The Coordinate Plane 126 2.2 Graphs of Equations in Two Variables 132 2.3 Graphing Calculators: Solving Equations and Inequalities Graphically 140 2.4 Lines 149 2.5 Making Models Using Variations 162

Chapter 2 Review 167

Chapter 2 Test 170

■ FOCUS ON MODELING Fitting Lines to Data 171

Cumulative Review Test: Chapters 1 and 2 181

C H A P T E R 3 FUNCTIONS 183 Chapter Overview 183

3.1 What Is a Function? 184

3.2 Graphs of Functions 194

3.3 Getting Information from the Graph of a Function 205

3.4 Average Rate of Change of a Function 214

3.5 Transformations of Functions 221

3.6 Combining Functions 232

3.7 One-to-One Functions and Their Inverses 241

Chapter 3 Review 249

Chapter 3 Test 253

■ FOCUS ON MODELING Modeling with Functions 255

C H A P T E R 4 POLYNOMIAL AND RATIONAL FUNCTIONS 265 Chapter Overview 265

4.1 Quadratic Functions and Models 266 4.2 Polynomial Functions and Their Graphs 274 4.3 Dividing Polynomials 288 4.4 Real Zeros of Polynomials 295 4.5 Complex Zeros and the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra 306 4.6 Rational Functions 314

Chapter 4 Review 329

Chapter 4 Test 332

■ FOCUS ON MODELING Fitting Polynomial Curves to Data 333

C H A P T E R 5 EXPONENTIAL AND LOGARITHMIC FUNCTIONS 339 Chapter Overview 339

5.1 Exponential Functions 340 5.2 The Natural Exponential Function 348 5.3 Logarithmic Functions 353

vi Contents

5.4 Laws of Logarithms 363 5.5 Exponential and Logarithmic Equations 369 5.6 Modeling with Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 378

Chapter 5 Review 391

Chapter 5 Test 394

■ FOCUS ON MODELING Fitting Exponential and Power Curves to Data 395

Cumulative Review Test: Chapters 3, 4, and 5 405

C H A P T E R 6 TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS: RIGHT TRIANGLE APPROACH 407 Chapter Overview 407

6.1 Angle Measure 408 6.2 Trigonometry of Right Triangles 417 6.3 Trigonometric Functions of Angles 425 6.4 Inverse Trigonometric Functions and Right Triangles 436 6.5 The Law of Sines 443 6.6 The Law of Cosines 450

Chapter 6 Review 457

Chapter 6 Test 461

■ FOCUS ON MODELING Surveying 463

C H A P T E R 7 TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS: UNIT CIRCLE APPROACH 467 Chapter Overview 467

7.1 The Unit Circle 468 7.2 Trigonometric Functions of Real Numbers 475 7.3 Trigonometric Graphs 484 7.4 More Trigonometric Graphs 497 7.5 Inverse Trigonometric Functions and Their Graphs 504 7.6 Modeling Harmonic Motion 510

Chapter 7 Review 521

Chapter 7 Test 524

■ FOCUS ON MODELING Fitting Sinusoidal Curves to Data 525

C H A P T E R 8 ANALYTIC TRIGONOMETRY 531 Chapter Overview 531

8.1 Trigonometric Identities 532 8.2 Addition and Subtraction Formulas 538 8.3 Double-Angle, Half-Angle, and Product-Sum Formulas 545 8.4 Basic Trigonometric Equations 555 8.5 More Trigonometric Equations 562

Chapter 8 Review 568

Chapter 8 Test 570

■ FOCUS ON MODELING Traveling and Standing Waves 571

Cumulative Review Test: Chapters 6, 7, and 8 576

Contents vii

C H A P T E R 9 POLAR COORDINATES AND PARAMETRIC EQUATIONS 579 Chapter Overview 579

9.1 Polar Coordinates 580 9.2 Graphs of Polar Equations 585 9.3 Polar Form of Complex Numbers; De Moivre’s Theorem 593 9.4 Plane Curves and Parametric Equations 602

Chapter 9 Review 610

Chapter 9 Test 612

■ FOCUS ON MODELING The Path of a Projectile 613

C H A P T E R 10 VECTORS IN TWO AND THREE DIMENSIONS 617 Chapter Overview 617

10.1 Vectors in Two Dimensions 618 10.2 The Dot Product 627 10.3 Three-Dimensional Coordinate Geometry 635 10.4 Vectors in Three Dimensions 641 10.5 The Cross Product 648 10.6 Equations of Lines and Planes 654

Chapter 10 Review 658

Chapter 10 Test 661

■ FOCUS ON MODELING Vector Fields 662

Cumulative Review Test: Chapters 9 and 10 666

C H A P T E R 11 SYSTEMS OF EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES 667 Chapter Overview 667

11.1 Systems of Linear Equations in Two Variables 668 11.2 Systems of Linear Equations in Several Variables 678 11.3 Matrices and Systems of Linear Equations 687 11.4 The Algebra of Matrices 699 11.5 Inverses of Matrices and Matrix Equations 710 11.6 Determinants and Cramer’s Rule 720 11.7 Partial Fractions 731 11.8 Systems of Nonlinear Equations 736 11.9 Systems of Inequalities 741

Chapter 11 Review 748

Chapter 11 Test 752

■ FOCUS ON MODELING Linear Programming 754

C H A P T E R 12 CONIC SECTIONS 761 Chapter Overview 761

12.1 Parabolas 762 12.2 Ellipses 770 12.3 Hyperbolas 779

viii Contents

12.4 Shifted Conics 788 12.5 Rotation of Axes 795 12.6 Polar Equations of Conics 803

Chapter 12 Review 810

Chapter 12 Test 813

■ FOCUS ON MODELING Conics in Architecture 814

Cumulative Review Test: Chapters 11 and 12 818

C H A P T E R 13 SEQUENCES AND SERIES 821 Chapter Overview 821

13.1 Sequences and Summation Notation 822 13.2 Arithmetic Sequences 832 13.3 Geometric Sequences 838 13.4 Mathematics of Finance 846 13.5 Mathematical Induction 852 13.6 The Binomial Theorem 858

Chapter 13 Review 867

Chapter 13 Test 870

■ FOCUS ON MODELING Modeling with Recursive Sequences 871

C H A P T E R 14 COUNTING AND PROBABILITY 877 Chapter Overview 877

14.1 Counting Principles 878 14.2 Permutations and Combinations 882 14.3 Probability 891 14.4 Binomial Probability 902 14.5 Expected Value 907

Chapter 14 Review 909

Chapter 14 Test 912

■ FOCUS ON MODELING The Monte Carlo Method 913

Cumulative Review Test: Chapters 13 and 14 917

APPENDIX: Calculations and S ignific ant Figures 919

ANSWERS A1

INDEX I1

Contents ix

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xi

P R E FA C E

For many students an Algebra and Trigonometry course represents the first opportunity to discover the beauty and practical power of mathematics. Thus instructors are faced with the challenge of teaching the concepts and skills of the subject while at the same time im- parting an appreciation for its effectiveness in modeling the real world. This book aims to help instructors meet this challenge.

In writing this Third Edition, our purpose is to further enhance the usefulness of the book as an instructional tool for teachers and as a learning tool for students. There are sev- eral major changes in this edition including a restructuring of each exercise set to better align the exercises with the examples of each section. In this edition each exercise set begins with Concepts Exercises, which encourage students to work with basic concepts and to use math- ematical vocabulary appropriately. Several chapters have been reorganized and rewritten (as described below) to further focus the exposition on the main concepts; we have added a new chapter on vectors in two and three dimensions. In all these changes and numerous others (small and large) we have retained the main features that have contributed to the success of this book.

New to the Third Edition ■ Exercises More than 20% of the exercises are new. This includes new Concept Ex-

ercises and new Cumulative Review Tests. Key exercises are now linked to examples in the text.

■ Book Companion Website A new website www.stewartmath.com contains Dis- covery Projects for each chapter and Focus on Problem Solving sections that high- light different problem-solving principles outlined in the Prologue.

■ CHAPTER 3 Functions This chapter has been completely rewritten to focus more sharply on the fundamental and crucial concept of function. The material on quadratic functions, formerly in this chapter, is now part of the chapter on polynomial functions.

■ CHAPTER 4 Polynomial and Rational Functions This chapter now begins with a section on quadratic functions, leading to higher degree polynomial functions.

■ CHAPTER 5 Exponential and Logarithmic Functions The material on the natural exponential function is now in a separate section.

■ CHAPTER 6 Trigonometric Functions: Right Triangle Approach This chapter in- cludes a new section on inverse trigonometric functions and right triangles (Section 6.4) which is needed in applying the Laws of Sines and Cosines in the following section, as well as for solving trigonometric equations in Chapter 8.www.stewartmath.com

■ CHAPTER 7 Trigonometric Functions: Unit Circle Approach This chapter in- cludes a new section on inverse trigonometric functions and their graphs. Introduc- ing this topic here reinforces the function concept in the context of trigonometry.

■ CHAPTER 8 Analytic Trigonometry This chapter has been completely revised. There are two new sections on trigonometric equations (Sections 8.4 and 8.5). The material on this topic (formerly in Section 8.5) has been expanded and revised.

■ CHAPTER 9 Polar Coordinates and Parametric Equations This chapter is now more sharply focused on the concept of a coordinate system. The section on parametric equations is new to this chapter. The material on vectors is now in its own chapter.

■ CHAPTER 10 Vectors in Two and Three Dimensions This is a new chapter with a new Focus on Modeling section.

■ CHAPTER 11 Systems of Equations and Inequalities The material on systems of nonlinear equations is now in a separate section.

■ CHAPTER 12 Conic Sections This chapter is now more closely devoted to the topic of analytic geometry, especially the conic sections; the section on parametric equations has been moved to Chapter 9.

Teaching with the Help of This Book We are keenly aware that good teaching comes in many forms, and that there are many different approaches to teaching the concepts and skills of precalculus. The organization of the topics in this book is designed to accommodate different teaching styles. For ex- ample, the trigonometry chapters have been organized so that either the unit circle ap- proach or the right triangle approach can be taught first. Here are other special features that can be used to complement different teaching styles:

EXERCISE SETS The most important way to foster conceptual understanding and hone technical skill is through the problems that the instructor assigns. To that end we have provided a wide selection of exercises.

■ Concept Exercises These exercises ask students to use mathematical language to state fundamental facts about the topics of each section.

■ Skills Exercises Each exercise set is carefully graded, progressing from basic skill- development exercises to more challenging problems requiring synthesis of previ- ously learned material with new concepts.

■ Applications Exercises We have included substantial applied problems that we be- lieve will capture the interest of students.

■ Discovery, Writing, and Group Learning Each exercise set ends with a block of exercises labeled Discovery ■ Discussion ■ Writing. These exercises are designed to encourage students to experiment, preferably in groups, with the concepts devel- oped in the section, and then to write about what they have learned, rather than sim- ply look for the answer.

■ Now Try Exercise . . . At the end of each example in the text the student is directed to a similar exercise in the section that helps reinforce the concepts and skills devel- oped in that example (see, for instance, page 3).

■ Check Your Answer Students are encouraged to check whether an answer they ob- tained is reasonable. This is emphasized throughout the text in numerous Check Your Answer sidebars that accompany the examples. (See, for instance, page 61).

FLEXIBLE APPROACH TO TRIGONOMETRY The trigonometry chapters of this text have been written so that either the right triangle approach or the unit circle approach may be taught first. Putting these two approaches in different chapters, each with its relevant ap-

xii Preface

plications, helps to clarify the purpose of each approach. The chapters introducing trigonometry are as follows:

■ Chapter 6 Trigonometric Functions: Right Triangle Approach This chapter in- troduces trigonometry through the right triangle approach. This approach builds on the foundation of a conventional high-school course in trigonometry.

■ Chapter 7 Trigonometric Functions: Unit Circle Approach This chapter intro- duces trigonometry through the unit circle approach. This approach emphasizes that the trigonometric functions are functions of real numbers, just like the polynomial and exponential functions with which students are already familiar.

Another way to teach trigonometry is to intertwine the two approaches. Some instruc- tors teach this material in the following order: Sections 7.1, 7.2, 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 7.3, 7.4, 7.5, 7.6, 6.4, 6.5, and 6.6. Our organization makes it easy to do this without obscuring the fact that the two approaches involve distinct representations of the same functions.

GRAPHING CALCULATORS AND COMPUTERS We make use of graphing calculators and computers in examples and exercises throughout the book. Our calculator-oriented exam- ples are always preceded by examples in which students must graph or calculate by hand, so that they can understand precisely what the calculator is doing when they later use it to simplify the routine, mechanical part of their work. The graphing calculator sections, subsections, examples, and exercises, all marked with the special symbol , are optional and may be omitted without loss of continuity. We use the following capabilities of the calculator.

■ Graphing, Regression, Matrix Algebra The capabilities of the graphing calculator are used throughout the text to graph and analyze functions, families of functions, and sequences; to calculate and graph regression curves; to perform matrix algebra; to graph linear inequalities; and other powerful uses.

■ Simple Programs We exploit the programming capabilities of a graphing calcula- tor to simulate real-life situations, to sum series, or to compute the terms of a recur- sive sequence. (See, for instance, pages 825 and 829.)

FOCUS ON MODELING The “modeling” theme has been used throughout to unify and clarify the many applications of precalculus. We have made a special effort to clarify the essential process of translating problems from English into the language of mathematics (see pages 256 and 674).

■ Constructing Models There are numerous applied problems throughout the book where students are given a model to analyze (see, for instance, page 270). But the material on modeling, in which students are required to construct mathematical models, has been organized into clearly defined sections and subsections (see for example, pages 255, 378, and 525).

■ Focus on Modeling Each chapter concludes with a Focus on Modeling section. The first such section, after Chapter P, introduces the basic idea of modeling a real- life situation by using algebra. Other sections present ways in which linear, polyno- mial, exponential, logarithmic, and trigonometric functions, and systems of inequal- ities can all be used to model familiar phenomena from the sciences and from everyday life (see for example pages 333, 395, and 525).

BOOK COMPANION WEBSITE A website that accompanies this book is located at www. stewartmath.com. The site includes many useful resources for teaching precalcu- lus, including the following:

■ Discovery Projects Discovery Projects for each chapter are available on the web- site. Each project provides a challenging but accessible set of activities that enable students (perhaps working in groups) to explore in greater depth an interesting

Preface xiiiwww.stewartmath.com

aspect of the topic they have just learned. (See for instance the Discovery Projects Visualizing a Formula, Relations and Functions, Will the Species Survive?, and Computer Graphics I and II.)

■ Focus on Problem Solving Several Focus on Problem Solving sections are avail- able on the website. Each such section highlights one of the problem-solving prin- ciples introduced in the Prologue and includes several challenging problems. (See for instance Recognizing Patterns, Using Analogy, Introducing Something Extra, Taking Cases, and Working Backward.)

MATHEMATICAL VIGNETTES Throughout the book we make use of the margins to pro- vide historical notes, key insights, or applications of mathematics in the modern world. These serve to enliven the material and show that mathematics is an important, vital ac- tivity, and that even at this elementary level it is fundamental to everyday life.

■ Mathematical Vignettes These vignettes include biographies of interesting mathematicians and often include a key insight that the mathematician discovered and which is relevant to precalculus. (See, for instance, the vignettes on Viète, page 82; Salt Lake City, page 127; and radiocarbon dating, page 371).

■ Mathematics in the Modern World This is a series of vignettes that emphasizes the central role of mathematics in current advances in technology and the sciences (see pages 321, 738, and 797, for example).

REVIEW SECTIONS AND CHAPTER TESTS Each chapter ends with an extensive review section including the following.

■ Concept Check The Concept Check at the end of each chapter is designed to get the students to think about and explain in their own words the ideas presented in the chapter. These can be used as writing exercises, in a classroom discussion set- ting, or for personal study.

■ Review Exercises The Review Exercises at the end of each chapter recapitulate the basic concepts and skills of the chapter and include exercises that combine the different ideas learned in the chapter.

■ Chapter Test The review sections conclude with a Chapter Test designed to help students gauge their progress.

■ Cumulative Review Tests The Cumulative Review Tests following Chapters 2, 5, 8, 10, 12, and 14 combine skills and concepts from the preceding chapters and are designed to highlight the connections between the topics in these related chapters.

■ Answers Brief answers to odd-numbered exercises in each section (including the review exercises), and to all questions in the Concepts Exercises and Chapter Tests, are given in the back of the book.

Acknowledgments We thank the following reviewers for their thoughtful and constructive comments.

REVIEWERS FOR THE SECOND EDITION Heather Beck, Old Dominion University; Paul Hadavas, Armstrong Atlantic University; and Gary Lippman, California State University East Bay.

REVIEWERS FOR THE THIRD EDITION Raji Baradwaj, UMBC; Chris Herman, Lorain County Community College; Irina Kloumova, Sacramento City College; Jim McCleery, Skagit Valley College, Whidbey Island Campus; Sally S. Shao, Cleveland State Univer- sity; David Slutzky, Gainesville State College; Edward Stumpf, Central Carolina Com- munity College; Ricardo Teixeira, University of Texas at Austin; Taixi Xu, Southern Poly- technic State University; and Anna Wlodarczyk, Florida International University.

xiv Preface

We are grateful to our colleagues who continually share with us their insights into teaching mathematics. We especially thank Andrew Bulman-Fleming for writing the Study Guide and the Solutions Manual and Doug Shaw at the University of Northern Iowa for writing the Instructor Guide.

We thank Martha Emry, our production service and art editor; her energy, devotion, ex- perience, and intelligence were essential components in the creation of this book. We thank Barbara Willette, our copy editor, for her attention to every detail in the manuscript. We thank Jade Myers and his staff at Matrix Art Services for their attractive and accurate graphs and Precision Graphics for bringing many of our illustrations to life. We thank our designer Lisa Henry for the elegant and appropriate design for the interior of the book.

At Brooks/Cole we especially thank Stacy Green, developmental editor, for guiding and facilitating every aspect of the production of this book. Of the many Brooks/Cole staff involved in this project we particularly thank the following: Jennifer Risden, content proj- ect manager, Cynthia Ashton, assistant editor; Lynh Pham, media editor; Vernon Boes, art director; and Myriah Fitzgibbon, marketing manager. They have all done an outstanding job.

Numerous other people were involved in the production of this book—including per- missions editors, photo researchers, text designers, typesetters, compositors, proof read- ers, printers, and many more. We thank them all.

Above all, we thank our editor Gary Whalen. His vast editorial experience, his exten- sive knowledge of current issues in the teaching of mathematics, and especially his deep interest in mathematics textbooks, have been invaluable resources in the writing of this book.

Preface xv

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INSTRUCTOR RESOURCES Printed Complete Solution Manual ISBN-10: 1-111-56811-1; ISBN-13: 978-1-111-56811-5 The complete solutions manual provides worked-out solutions to all of the problems in the text.

Instructor’s Guide ISBN-10: 1-111-56813-8; ISBN-13: 978-1-111-56813-9 Doug Shaw, author of the Instructor Guides for the widely used Stewart calculus texts, wrote this helpful teaching companion. It contains points to stress, suggested time to al- lot, text discussion topics, core materials for lectures, workshop/discussion suggestions, group work exercises in a form suitable for handout, solutions to group work exercises, and suggested homework problems.

Media Enhanced WebAssign ISBN-10: 0-538-73810-3; ISBN-13: 978-0-538-73810-1 Exclusively from Cengage Learning, Enhanced WebAssign® offers an extensive online program for Precalculus to encourage the practice that’s so critical for concept mastery. The meticulously crafted pedagogy and exercises in this text become even more effective in Enhanced WebAssign, supplemented by multimedia tutorial support and immediate feedback as students complete their assignments. Algorithmic problems allow you to as- sign unique versions to each student. The Practice Another Version feature (activated at your discretion) allows students to attempt the questions with new sets of values until they feel confident enough to work the original problem. Students benefit from a new Premium eBook with highlighting and search features; Personal Study Plans (based on diagnostic quizzing) that identify chapter topics they still need to master; and links to video solutions, interactive tutorials, and even live online help.

ExamView Computerized Testing ExamView® testing software allows instructors to quickly create, deliver, and customize tests for class in print and online formats, and features automatic grading. Includes a test bank with hundreds of questions customized directly to the text. ExamView is available within the PowerLecture CD-ROM.

Solution Builder www.cengage.com/solutionbuilder This online instructor database offers complete worked solutions to all exercises in the text, allowing you to create customized, secure solutions printouts (in PDF format) matched exactly to the problems you assign in class.

A N C I L L A R I E S

xviiwww.cengage.com/solutionbuilder

PowerLecture with ExamView ISBN-10: 1-111-56815-4; ISBN-13: 978-1-111-56815-3 This CD-ROM provides the instructor with dynamic media tools for teaching. Create, de- liver, and customize tests (both print and online) in minutes with ExamView® Computer- ized Testing Featuring Algorithmic Equations. Easily build solution sets for homework or exams using Solution Builder’s online solutions manual. Microsoft® PowerPoint® lecture slides and figures from the book are also included on this CD-ROM.

STUDENT RESOURCES Printed Student Solution Manual ISBN-10: 0-8400-6923-5; ISBN-13: 978-0-8400-6923-8 Contains fully worked-out solutions to all of the odd-numbered exercises in the text, giv- ing students a way to check their answers and ensure that they took the correct steps to ar- rive at an answer.

Study Guide ISBN-10: 1-111-56810-3; ISBN-13: 978-1-111-56810-8 This carefully crafted learning resource helps students develop their problem-solving skills while reinforcing their understanding with detailed explanations, worked-out ex- amples, and practice problems. Students will also find listings of key ideas to master. Each section of the main text has a corresponding section in the Study Guide.

Media Enhanced WebAssign ISBN-10: 0-538-73810-3; ISBN-13: 978-0-538-73810-1 Exclusively from Cengage Learning, Enhanced WebAssign® offers an extensive online program for Precalculus to encourage the practice that’s so critical for concept mastery. You’ll receive multimedia tutorial support as you complete your assignments. You’ll also benefit from a new Premium eBook with highlighting and search features; Personal Study Plans (based on diagnostic quizzing) that identify chapter topics you still need to master; and links to video solutions, interactive tutorials, and even live online help.

Book Companion Website A new website www.stewartmath.com contains Discovery Projects for each chapter and Focus on Problem Solving sections that highlight different problem-solving principles outlined in the Prologue.

CengageBrain.com Visit www.cengagebrain.com to access additional course materials and companion re- sources. At the CengageBrain.com home page, search for the ISBN of your title (from the back cover of your book) using the search box at the top of the page. This will take you to the product page where free companion resources can be found.

Text-Specific DVDs ISBN-10: 1-111-57275-5; ISBN-13: 978-1-111-57275-4 The Text-Specific DVDs include new learning objective based lecture videos. These DVDs provide comprehensive coverage of the course—along with additional explana- tions of concepts, sample problems, and applications—to help students review essential topics.

xviii Ancillarieswww.stewartmath.comwww.cengagebrain.com

TO T H E S T U D E N T

This textbook was written for you to use as a guide to mastering algebra and trigonome- try. Here are some suggestions to help you get the most out of your course.

First of all, you should read the appropriate section of text before you attempt your homework problems. Reading a mathematics text is quite different from reading a novel, a newspaper, or even another textbook. You may find that you have to reread a passage several times before you understand it. Pay special attention to the examples, and work them out yourself with pencil and paper as you read. Then do the linked exercises referred to in “Now Try Exercise . . .” at the end of each example. With this kind of preparation you will be able to do your homework much more quickly and with more understanding.

Don’t make the mistake of trying to memorize every single rule or fact you may come across. Mathematics doesn’t consist simply of memorization. Mathematics is a problem- solving art, not just a collection of facts. To master the subject you must solve problems— lots of problems. Do as many of the exercises as you can. Be sure to write your solutions in a logical, step-by-step fashion. Don’t give up on a problem if you can’t solve it right away. Try to understand the problem more clearly—reread it thoughtfully and relate it to what you have learned from your teacher and from the examples in the text. Struggle with it until you solve it. Once you have done this a few times you will begin to understand what mathematics is really all about.

Answers to the odd-numbered exercises, as well as all the answers to the concept exer- cises and to each chapter test, appear at the back of the book. If your answer differs from the one given, don’t immediately assume that you are wrong. There may be a calculation that connects the two answers and makes both correct. For example, if you get 1/( ) but the answer given is 1 � , your answer is correct, because you can multiply both numer- ator and denominator of your answer by � 1 to change it to the given answer. In round- ing approximate answers, follow the guidelines in the Appendix: Calculations and Signifi- cant Figures.

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your personal strategy card is based on

As you read in Chapter 4 section 4.4, the centerpiece of the rehearsal phase of metacognition is the strategy card. After decoding tasks and strategizing how to FIT your Learning Patterns to the task, you can use your knowledge of your Learning Patterns to develop personal strategies to direct your efforts. The most efficient way to do this is to develop a personal strategy card.

Strategy cards convert general study skills into personalized strategies for learning based on each learner’s Patterns. Personal strategy cards are essential to effective rehearsal because they help you address the requirements that you have decoded from the assignment and they help you connect to the instructor’s expectations. Strategy cards help you organize your approach to achieving success on the task. They allow you to practice “smarter, not harder.”

You are more effective when you develop a strategy card for each major task or assignment. In doing so, you become more disciplined and you match your efforts to each requirement. In preparation for your reflection assignment that you will complete in Week 5, we will use the Week 5 Final Reflection assignment instructions for the decoding section of this strategy card. This way, next week, you’ll be able to approach your assignment with intention as you skillfully apply your Learning Patterns.

Directions: Your task is to complete your own Personal Strategy Card.

a. Watch the  Completing Your Personal Strategy Card  video https://youtu.be/fAK3RpNzGg8.

b. You will be filling out the Personal Strategy Card form below to complete the assignment.

EXP 105: Week 4

Personal Strategy Card

Name:

A. LCI Scores

SequencePrecisionTechnicalReasoningConfluence
Record your LCI scores in the boxes provided.31251822

B. Carefully describe the degree to which you use each of your Learning Patterns.

(Refer to the Personal Learning Profile you developed for your Week Two assignment and any feedback provided by your instructor to determine if you need to refine your responses as you complete this section.)

Sequence:

Precision:

Technical Reasoning:

Confluence:

C. Identify all verbs and specific terms from the assignment instructions and describe how each Learning Pattern will be used to effectively complete the Week 5 assignment.

(Critically review the Final Reflection assignment in Week Five and decode it.)

Sequence:

Precision:

Technical Reasoning:

Confluence:

D. Explain how you will Forge, Intensify, or Tether (FIT) your Learning Patterns to implement personal strategies so you can complete the Week Five assignment efficiently and effectively.

(If you do not need to FIT a Pattern, include a description of the strategies you naturally use which help you to be successful on these types of tasks.)

Sequence:

Precision:

Technical Reasoning:

Confluence:

https://bridgepoint.equella.ecollege.com/curriculum/file/27bf2626-5d1a-4edb-9cf3-d23af28a074f/1/Docicon.png

 Click to view a Model Personal Strategy Card  (tips included!). Many students have found that the instructions in this guide was invaluable for completing the assignment successfully.

· Section A: List your LCI scores in the indicated boxes on the Personal Strategy Card.

· Section B: Carefully describe the degree to which you use each of your Learning Patterns. Refer to the Personal Learning Profile you developed for your Week Two assignment and any feedback provided by your instructor to determine if you need to refine your responses as you complete this section.

· Section C: Critically review the Final Reflection assignment instructions and decode them. Click here to download a copy of the Week 5 Final Reflection instructions (in the online classroom). Identify all verbs and specific terms from the assignment instructions and describe how each Learning Pattern will be used to effectively complete the Week 5 assignment.

· Section D: Explain how you will forge, intensify, or tether (FIT) your Learning Patterns to implement personal strategies so you can complete the Week Five assignment efficiently and effectively. If you do not need to FIT a Pattern, include a description of the strategies you naturally use which help you to be successful on these types of tasks.

c. Save your work and then submit your Word document using Waypoint.

4.4 The Action Phases of Metacognition

What follows is a list of the action phases that your mind goes through as it completes a learning task. The terms (seeFigure 4.2) are words chosen to represent what occurs in each phase.

These are not scientific terms, but instead learner-friendly descriptive words that allow a student to observe andunderstand what is going on in his or her mind. They were chosen to help students respond to the age-old question:”What are you thinking?” and the equally frustrating criticism frequently leveled at them: “You know I can’t read yourmind!”

Phase 1: Mull

Virtually all tasks begin with some form of mulling—meaning you get inside the assignment or the task and seek tounderstand, “What am I being asked to do? Have I ever done this before? What were the results? Do I want to repeatthose results or avoid them?” You don’t start to do anything until you have a sense of where you are going and howyou are going to do it. If the voices of your Patterns are crying out for clearer directions or a greater sense of purpose,then ask for what you need. Don’t let the frustration of not knowing how to start the task escalate from simmeringquestions to boiling anger. Mulling is healthy; boiling isn’t. To avoid reaching that level of frustration, clarify what isexpected of you by decoding the assignment.

Decoding is a learning strategy that helps you mull and connect metacognitively to the instructor’s expectations. Thegoal of decoding is twofold: 1) to identify and clarify the intent of the directions—that is, what the instructor expectsfrom you; and 2) to complete the task in the way your instructor expects it to be done.

A pivotal tool to assist in decoding is a word wall; it is a chart divided into four sectors, with each sector labeled for adifferent Learning Pattern (see Figure 4.3). By using the cue words from the word wall to indicate what Patterns arerequired to complete the task, you can decode assignments, objectives, or any course-related task.

Figure 4.3: Word Wall

Which decoding words do you think will help you decipher assignments the most?

Four differently colored cells filled with words that align with the four Learning Patterns: Sequence, Precision, Technical Reasoning, and Confluence.

Source: © Let Me Learn, Inc.

When you are just beginning to learn how to decode, use a generic word wall. As you become experienced at findingthe cue words in your assignments, add more of them to the word wall. As you take more specialized courses, buildyour own word wall by identifying the key terms associated with each subject and associating them with each of thefour Learning Patterns.

Decoding tasks accurately is the main point of mulling. The steps to decoding are the following:

1. First, read the directions for the task.

2. Next, circle the verbs, specific terms, and titles that are intended to direct you.

3. Then, using the word wall, find the words you circled within the assignment, noting the Learning Pattern that eachword falls under. Go back to the directions, and above each word, write the first letter of the Learning Pattern it isdirecting you to use. See Figure 4.4 for an example.

Figure 4.4: Decoding an Assignment: Critical Thinking

Decoding a task is an efficient way to discern what the task requires.

Example of a decoded assignment. At the top of the figure are the assignment directions, and below the assignment is a decoded version in which particular words are circled and assigned specific Learning Patterns.

Source: © Let Me Learn, Inc.

By breaking down the assignment into the Learning Patterns required, you have a much clearer understanding of whatis expected of you. At least three of the actions to be taken require the use of Precision. Only one requires Sequenceand one requires Technical Reasoning. This assignment calls for no Confluence. That means that the instructor is notasking for your outside-the-box ideas or unique perspective. The instructor wants an accurate description of criticalthinking (Precision) presented in a concise (Technical Reasoning) bulleted list (Sequence). Decoding the task clarifiedhow to proceed and meet the instructor’s expectations.

Now try your hand at decoding the task described in Figure 4.5. Which would you circle as the key action words andspecific terms and titles? Refer to the word wall to find each of your circled words, and determine the letter of theLearning Pattern that should go above the word(s). Remember: All terms and phrases fall under Precision even thoughthey may not be listed specifically under that category.

Figure 4.5: Decoding an Assignment: Transformational Learning Process

The more involved the requirements, the more important it is that you decode the assignment beforestarting.

Example of an assignment and how to decode it. At the top of the worksheet are the assignment directions and below the directions are a decoded version of it.

Source: © Let Me Learn, Inc.

What specific Learning Patterns are going to be required to complete this task? Can you identify when you will need tobe using one Pattern more than another? Knowing the Patterns that you will be called upon to use when completing aspecific task helps you feel more confident about what the instructor’s expectations are for the assignment, and whatyou are being asked to do to complete it.

Dan, Cassie, and Nia all need to learn how to decode their assignments; it will save them valuable time, improve theirlearning outcomes, and increase their grades. Remember Dan’s dilemma? Instead of generating ideas or organizing histhoughts, Dan became fixated on the belief that he had no idea what he was supposed to be doing. Cassie was faringeven worse: She sat in front of her computer rereading the directions for the assignment, trying to guess what theinstructor wanted her to do. Nia didn’t even realize that she needed to take the time to mull and decode theassignment, which required a critical analysis with support from three sources. She simply wrote a paper stating heropinion of the article.

All three used their study time inefficiently and ineffectively because they did not take the time to mull the assignmentand decode it. If they had, they would have saved valuable time and submitted work that matched the expectations ofthe instructor.

Phase 2: Connect

The second action phase of metacognition is the act of mindfully connecting to the assignment. If you have mulled anddecoded the assignment accurately, then you begin to make connections to the requirements of the task. Of coursethere are various types of assignments, but most involve critical reading and critical writing, and each requires that youinteract with text.

Connecting to Your Reading

Using the steps below to guide you, connect your ideas and experiences to the content of an assigned reading(s):

· As you’re reading, think of a similar assignment you’ve had in the past. In your mind, can you begin to comparewhat you are reading now to what you have read in the past?

· Jot down questions that cross your mind. Post your questions and read others’ responses to them.

· Search for relevancy in the assigned reading. “Deep read” the passage, rather than skimming it.

· Anticipate the conclusion of the assigned reading before you complete it. Are you surprised by the outcome?

Understand what you are reading:

· Look for a thread of logic or a progression of thought (e.g., Step 1, Step 2, Step 3).

· Pick out new terminology and look up words you didn’t know.

· Search for the central point; pull it together from different parts of the reading if it is not explicitly stated.

· Consider the reading from several different angles.

Connect to the points in what you are reading by asking yourself:

· Do you feel you were “of like mind” with the author?

· Do the facts speak to you?

· Can you relate your own experiences to its message?

· Do you see any parts of the reading as a jumping off point for your own thinking?

Regardless of the type of assignment, intentional learners use their Learning Patterns to connect to the task, first bymulling and decoding, and next by connecting to it.

Neither Dan, nor Cassie, nor Nia invest in connecting to their assignments. Each allows personal issues, including self-doubt, fear of failure, and lack of personal investment of time, to get in the way of completing the assignmentsuccessfully. None is likely to succeed on current or future assignments if each continues his or her current approach.Conversely, if they allow their Patterns to guide them in connecting fully with the task at hand, they are much morelikely to succeed (Johnston, 2005; Johnston, 2006).

FIT: Forge, Intensify, Tether

A second aspect of connecting to the assignment involves fitting yourself to the task. FIT is an acronym comprised ofthe first letter of the words ForgeIntensify, and Tether. FIT describes the type of self-regulation you need to use inorder to fit your Learning Patterns specifically to the task you are facing. Your goal should be to match the amount ofeach Learning Pattern required of you to the amount of that Pattern you use.

Take for example, the task decoded earlier (see Figure 4.4):

“Write in bulleted form a brief description of critical thinking.”

When decoded, you recognize that the task requires you to use Precision (as noted by three different terms, write,define, and critical thinking) first and foremost. Suppose your Precision, at a score of 18, is borderline Avoid/Use asNeeded. In order for you to complete the task successfully, you will need to temporarily increase or forge yourPrecision to fit the task. Once you are conscious of the possible disconnect between the assignment and your LearningPatterns, you can do something about it. Even though you don’t enjoy operating at a high level of Precision, you areable to do so once you recognize what the task calls for and you find a strategy to help you increase your Precision tocomplete the task.

As noted in Figure 4.5, the assignment you decoded requires you to do the following:

Example of an assignment and how to decode it. At the top of the worksheet are the assignment directions and below the directions are a decoded version of it.

Of the 17 key words decoded in this assignment, 12 require the use of Precision. Two require Sequence, and threerequire Technical Reasoning. None requires the use of Confluence. Clearly the assignment requires a great deal ofPrecision and a moderate use of Sequence and Technical Reasoning. But what if your Learning Patterns don’t match theassignment? Do you give up? No, you take action and forge the Pattern until it fits the level of Precision required by theassignment.

Forge

The term forge is intended to be applied to those Patterns that fall between 07 and 17 on the LCI “degree of use”continuum. The purpose of forging a Pattern is to increase the use and performance of it. Forging requires you to workin a way that you would usually prefer not to. However, because you know the Pattern is necessary for the task, youseek to make proper and appropriate use of it. Impossible? No. Does it require your attention and intention?Absolutely! It also requires an increased use of mental energy.

The amount of mental energy needed to alter your natural level of performance in a Pattern is directly related to thedegree you are required to use it. For example, Dan avoids Confluence (14). He is not a risk-taker, and this assignmentis asking him to do something he has never done before. In addition, he almost avoids Precision (18). Therefore, whenhe is required to “write, describe, and explain” a specific term, his tendency to avoid Precision has him feeling stressedand filled with doubt about his writing ability. Consequently, he needs to use a significant amount of energy to intensify(energize) his Precision and forge (increase) his Confluence in order to free himself to take on the assignment andbelieve he can achieve.

Cassie, too, has a Pattern she avoids: Technical Reasoning (10). It is not easy for Cassie to problem-solve. By notknowing how to use her Technical Reasoning to ground her Precision (29) and make it work for her, she allows hermind to go round and round in circles, never certain of what to do or how to proceed. Her Technical Reasoning couldprove helpful to her in completing the assignment if she knew how to put forth the mental energy to forge its use. Forexample, she could use her Sequence to plan a step-by-step approach to forging her Technical Reasoning and solve theproblem she is facing.

Forging is a metacognitive skill that takes patience, practice, and determination. Forging a Pattern is a challenge. Thesame is not the case if you use a Pattern at the Use as Needed level. Then increasing the use of it requires only thatyou intensify it.

Intensify

The term intensify is intended to be used with the Patterns that you Use as Needed. Use as Needed Patterns scores fallfrom 18 to 24 on the LCI continuum. They are the “quiet” ones that stay in the background until called upon. If theyoperate closer to the Avoid edge of the Use as Needed continuum, then they remain almost dormant unless awakened.If they operate at close to the Use First edge of the Use as Needed continuum, then they are more actively and readilyavailable for use without a great deal of effort. Your Use as Needed Patterns provide a rich set of options for you. Theyprovide a counterweight to the extremes of your Use First and Avoid Patterns.

Dan, Cassie, and Nia provide you with good examples of how their Use as Needed Patterns can help balance the use oftheir other Patterns. Dan Uses Precision as Needed, while Nia Uses Technical Reasoning as Needed. Cassie has two Useas Needed Patterns, Sequence and Confluence. If they were aware of the potential power of their Use as NeededPatterns, their study sessions would be more productive. Dan could intensify his Precision and use the increasedenergy to address the degree of Precision the writing assignment is calling for, thus raising his confidence and loweringhis self-doubt. Cassie could awaken her Sequence and use it to feel more secure in following the assignment’sdirections. She could also use her Confluence to lessen her fear of doing the assignment incorrectly, and instead, freeup her Precision to be willing to take a little risk and trust that she is using the right words when she makes herpoints in her analysis.

Nia also has a Pattern that could help her regulate her study behaviors. In Nia’s case, it is her Use as Needed Pattern ofTechnical Reasoning. If she were to intensify it, she would be better prepared to complete her written responsebecause her Technical Reasoning would demand that she carefully craft it to meet the assignment’s specifications. Ofcourse, Nia also has three Patterns that she Uses First that drive her behaviors as a student in ways that are not alwaysproductive. In many cases, she needs to tether them.

Tether

The term tether is applied to those Patterns you Use First. These are the Patterns that fall into the 25 to 35 range onthe LCI scoring continuum. These Patterns drive your life and your learning.

Of course, the challenge of using a combination of Use First Patterns in concert with your Avoid and Use as NeededPatterns is to do so with intention. In the case of your Use First Patterns, you must stay alert for when thesedominating Patterns need to be tethered—that is, pulled back, held down, or restrained.

Tethering involves addressing those mental processes that leave you feeling self-assured and confident. Theysometimes must be restrained because Use First Patterns do not necessarily represent competence. Their confidence issometimes misplaced, particularly when they are not the dominant Patterns required for a task. Thus, tethering yourUse First Patterns helps you gain perspective and anchors you to the current reality of the assignment, and it preventsyou from getting stuck trying to do things the assignment doesn’t require or allow.

Dan, Cassie, and Nia all have Use First Patterns that warrant tethering because even Use First Patterns can mislead alearner. For example, Dan could benefit from tethering his Technical Reasoning (30), his tendency to use few words,which can inhibit his Use as Needed Precision (18). In the case of the assignment calling for an analysis with detailedsupport from three sources, he needs to intensify his Precision and tether his Technical Reasoning in order to write apaper of an acceptable length, with sufficient supporting details.

Cassie could benefit from tethering her Precision (29) because it makes demands for perfection on virtually everythingshe does. Her Sequence (20) never organizes well enough; her Confluence (22) never has good enough ideas; and herTechnical Reasoning (10) is virtually ignored because it doesn’t help her have the precise words to assist her whenwriting. When Cassie doesn’t tether her Precision, all of her other Patterns are stifled.

Nia’s three Use First Patterns are a force to be reckoned with. Collectively, her Sequence (33), Precision (32), andConfluence (27) have her believing she can tune out the rest of the world and listen only to what she perceives to bethe right structure (Sequence), the best answer (Precision), and the greatest idea (Confluence). Tethering for Nia isvital. Only then will she be able to connect to the world outside of herself. Left untethered, Nia is destined to continuedown an isolated pathway as a Strong-Willed learner unable to recognize how she allowed her Patterns to ambush hersuccess.

“FITing” your Patterns to a task takes energy. The task at hand must be carefully and accurately decoded. The amountof resources needed to accomplish the task needs to be carefully assessed. Consequently, it is vital that you giveyourself the space emotionally, mentally, and physically to FIT your Patterns to the task. Build in opportunities toregenerate your energy if you have been tethering or forging your Patterns for several hours at a time, because themental workout you will experience is every bit as tiring as an hour or two at the gym.

Know, however, that the effort is well worth it. Never underestimate the tremendous feeling of accomplishment thatawaits you when you have succeeded in completing a task to a degree that you have not achieved before. Always keepin mind that “Learning strategies are most effective when students can make informed choices about which strategiesto use in particular learning situations” (Lovett, 2008).

https://media.thuze.com/MediaService/MediaService.svc/constellation/book/AUEXP105.13.3/%7Bimages%7Dtipbox4.4.jpg

Phase 3: Rehearse

A change in study behavior does not happen without practice. The metacognitive term is  rehearse, a robust form ofpractice. Rehearse involves studying the situation, preparing to meet expectations, running through the actual sequenceof completing the assigned task or test, and then repeating the actions for the purpose of improving your performanceor outcome. The rehearse phase allows your Patterns to go through a trial run to make certain that the performance ofthe task, the completion of the project, and/or the public presentation will meet the standards set by the instructor.Rehearsal prepares for expression by allowing any mistakes to be identified and corrected in advance of submitting thefinal product.

The centerpiece of the rehearsal phase is the personal learning tool called the strategy card. After decoding andstrategizing how to FIT your Patterns to the task, you can use your knowledge of your Patterns to develop personalstrategies to direct your efforts. The most efficient way to do this is to develop a personal strategy card (see Figure4.6).

Figure 4.6: Personal Strategy Card

Strategy cards convert general study skills into personalized strategies for learning based on each learner’sPatterns.

Figure of a personal strategy card. The Learning Patterns make up four columns; seven rows of questions and directions help learners decipher their own personal learning strategies.

Source: © Let Me Learn, Inc.

Personal strategy cards are essential to effective rehearsal because they help you address the requirements that youhave decoded from the assignment and they help you connect to the instructor’s expectations. Strategy cards help youorganize your approach to achieving success. They allow you to practice “smarter, not harder.” You are more effectivewhen you develop a strategy card for each major task or assignment. In doing so, you become more disciplined andyou match your efforts to each requirement. Dan, Cassie, and Nia can each benefit from developing personal strategycards to guide their study and completion of work.

Dan begins his next assignment using some personal learning strategies and tools. See Figure 4.7 for the newassignment, which Dan has decoded. Then, using a strategy card, he matches his Patterns to the task, and developsstrategies that will help him see the path to being successful, and thereby motivate him to complete the task efficientlyand effectively.

Figure 4.7: Dan’s Decoding of a New Assignment

After decoding his assignment, what Patterns does Dan now know he needsto use?

Figure showing Dan’s writing on his assignment. He has circled and marked key words that will help him pick out what is required.

Source: © Let Me Learn, Inc.

Before he understood himself as a learner, Dan would have looked at the task and given up. Now that he knows how tometacognitively make his Patterns work for him, he invests himself in completing the task. Read through Dan’s strategycard (see Figure 4.8). What can you learn from Dan’s example?

Figure 4.8: Dan’s Strategy Card

After decoding his assignment, the personal strategy card helps him FIT his Patterns to the Patterns theassignment requires.

A personal strategy card with the four Learning Patterns across the top heading four columns, and questions and directions along seven rows. Inside the cells are Dan’s responses to the questions and directions he has tackled to decode his assignment.

Source: © Let Me Learn, Inc.

Now it’s your turn. Using the same assignment as Dan, complete a strategy card in Worksheet 4.2. Begin by filling inyour LCI scores and explaining the degree to which you use each of your Patterns. Remember, you can refer to thePersonal Learning Profile you developed in Chapter 2.

Next, look at the assignment again in Figure 4.7. How well does what you are being asked to do match with yourLearning Patterns? Where are your Patterns comfortable? Where do you experience a sense of discomfort? Once youhave identified the fit of your Patterns to the task, begin to fill in your strategy card.

Note that in order to FIT who you are as a learner to the assignment, you may need to use strategies in just one area,or in several. See how well your Patterns match or to what degree you will need to forge, intensify, and tether in each.Then complete the worksheet.

Worksheet 4.2: Your Personal Strategy Card

How will this personal strategy card help you with your next assignment?

A personal strategy card with empty cells for students to fill out. Across the top are the four Learning Patterns. Down the left-hand side are rows of questions and directions for students to answer in order to FIT their Patterns.

Source: © Let Me Learn, Inc.

Recording the strategies you use to achieve success in one assignment creates a resource bank that you can draw onthe next time you are confronted with a similar one. Having a set of effective strategies also raises your confidence anddecreases your self-doubt. Having personal learning strategies disciplines you to put forth intentional, focused effort.Developing a strategy card requires you to invest, not avoid, and dig deeper, rather than skim the surface of the task athand. Using a strategy card keeps you grounded in the requirements of each assignment and able to use your LearningPatterns skillfully.

Phase 4: Attend

In order to maintain the level of insight you gained about yourself as you rehearsed, you will need to attend to usingthe strategies that brought you to a new level of achievement. Often, students who begin to use personal strategy cardsthat help them understand, study, and complete learning tasks set them by the wayside once they have learned how tocomplete certain types of assignments successfully. They decide to operate on autopilot, based on the strategies theyhave used so far. In doing so, they jeopardize all the study ground they have just conquered. They can quickly findthemselves back to square one, especially when a new type of assignment rattles them. (Author’s note: As one whoavoids Sequence, I frequently create a strategy card to help meet book deadlines or to complete what for me aretedious tasks, such as writing a grant proposal that is based on a strict set of requirements that allow for no deviationfrom the format. It works on many levels, personally and professionally.)

The metacognitive phase that cautions you to attend to—that is, to pay attention to—a task also disciplines you to stayfocused and not waver from the high level of performance you have developed when using your personal strategies.Attending to a learning task is to be in an active state of focus, clearing away distractions, and concentrating on whatyou need to consciously do to complete the task well. To attend means you don’t let up; you’ll continue to operate at ahigh level of focused energy. The reason this is so important is that when you submit your work, or complete anassessment, or in any way perform the action that you have been rehearsing, you want it to occur at the same highlevel of performance that you achieved during the rehearsal phase.

How many times have you seen a playoff in which one team wins its division easily and must wait for its opponents tofinish out a close series? When they finally begin the playoffs, supposedly as the dominant team, the team’s play islackluster. Often, they can’t get back the mojo they had in the earlier round. The team that finishes first often loses itsability to attend at the same level as the rival team that experienced no downtime. The attend phase of metacognitionis when you need to be coaching, encouraging, and challenging your Learning Patterns to be on alert and to continuedoing the work of intentional learning.

Phase 5: Express

To express means to go public with what you have been rehearsing. It’s the real thing. To reach the metacognitivephase of express indicates that you have mulled, decoded, connected, FITed, rehearsed, developed personal strategies,and attended to maintaining a high level of performance. The paper being submitted is your best work. The projectbeing presented is your best work. The comments being posted represent your best effort. All of your effort has beenprocessed and refined. It is the result of not mere study habits, but the metacognitive behaviors of an intentionallearner determined to succeed.

Phase 6: Reflective Practice—Assess, Reflect, Revisit

The final phases of metacognition form the basis of something called reflective practice, which is actually a part ofcritical thinking. Reflective practice is also known as double-looped learning because it takes you back to examine thedefining questions you asked yourself as you entered into doing the assignment (your assumptions, actions, anddecisions) and the results you achieved at the conclusion (success, partial success, or failure). Reflective practice allowsyou to learn from your decisions and actions while determining their effectiveness. Don’t skip these vital stages, as theyhelp you gain confidence and avoid repeating any mistakes.

Assess

The metacognitive phases, when faithfully followed, always include a time to assess. Unlike external assessment ortesting, the assess phase of metacognition means confronting questions internally, such as “What have I reallyachieved?” and “To what degree have I achieved it?”

You need to ask yourself, “What is the outcome of my effort?” and let the feedback from your instructor lead you toconsider the results of your efforts. The metacognitive phase that follows links to this one—it too focuses on thequestion, “What is the outcome of my effort?”

Reflect

When you reflect, you begin your internal conversation with “As a result of my effort, I. . ..” and you conclude with,”Next time, I will. . .” When you reflect, you ask, “Where does the buck stop? Who is responsible for this success? Thisfailure? This mess?”

This is the piece of professional and personal growth you may have been missing. After all, anyone can use the phrase”mistakes have been made” to anonymously attribute failure and blame. But only mindful individuals with a clear senseof their personal Learning Patterns face themselves (Osterman & Kottkamp, 2004) and say precisely, “I screwed up, andI am prepared to take the heat for it.”

Nia, the Strong-Willed learner, avoids this phase of learning at all costs. Her unwillingness to reflect costs her. Usingyour metacognition well equips you to reach a powerful self-awareness and to be open to ask, “What did I allow myselfto do? What did I fail to do? Where did my Learning Patterns steer me off course?”

This is the autopsy of failure and of success. Without intentionally focusing on your actions, approaches, and thoughts,you are doomed to continue to achieve less than you could. You cannot continue to repeat the same actions, believingthat they will yield a different outcome. Reflection requires us to face ourselves—specifically how we have used ourmetacognitive talk and our self-correcting opportunities and how we have failed to do so. This is the key to being anintentional learner.

Revisit

The good news found in reflective practice is that it does not conclude with simply assigning blame or with rewardingsuccess. Reflective practice invites you instead to revisit your metacognitive phases, noting both those that enrichedand those that frustrated your venture. Revisiting metacognitive decisions serves to reinforce the specific strategiesthat led to success and to reconsider those that led to failure. Revisiting grows both metacognitive capacity andpersonal insight.

There is no doubt that when you understand your Learning Patterns and are aware of the internal talk of your Patternsas they work through the metacognitive phases, you are well equipped, as Peter Senge, the guru of professionaldevelopment, describes, “to consistently enhance your capacity to produce results that are truly important to you”(1999, p. 45).

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anteayer / danilo / ir / playa

¿Quiénes más fueron?
        ¿Fue Carlos también?
        ¿Cómo fue la comida (food)?
        ¿Adónde fueron después de comer?
        ¿Fue divertido?


Diagnostics_number_3

 OracionesWrite sentences using the information provided. Use the preterite and make any necessary changes.

Modelo

 ¿adónde / ir / (usted) / vacaciones?
¿Adónde fue usted de vacaciones?

  1. anteayer / Danilo / ir / playa
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an aspect of the interstate reciprocal arrangement concerns

1. A federal unemployment tax is levied on:A) employees only.B) both employers and employees.C) employers only.D) government employers only.E) no one.2.For FUTA purposes, an employer can be any one of the following except:A) an individual.B) a partnership.C) a trust.D) a corporation.E) All of these can be employers.3.Included under the definition of employees for FUTA purposes are:A) independent contractors.B) insurance agents paid solely on commission.C) student nurses.D) officers of a corporation.E) members of partnerships.4.Which of the following is not a factor considered in determining coverage of interstate employees?A) Location of base of operationsB) Place where work is localizedC) Location of company’s payroll departmentD) Location of employee’s residenceE) Location of place from which operations are controlled5.An aspect of the interstate reciprocal arrangement concerns:A) the status of Americans working overseas.B) the taxability of dismissal payments.C) the determination of an employer’s experience rating.D) the transfer of an employee from one state to another during the year.E) none of these.6.Which of the following types of payments are not taxable wages for federal unemployment tax?A) Retirement payB) Cash prizes and awards for doing outstanding workC) Dismissal payD) Bonuses as remuneration for servicesE) Payment under a guaranteed annual wage plan7.Which of the following payments are taxable payments for federal unemployment tax?A) Christmas gifts, excluding noncash gifts of nominal valueB) Caddy feesC) Courtesy discounts to employees and their familiesD) Workers’ compensation paymentsE) Value of meals and lodging furnished employees for the convenience of the employer8.If the employer is tardy in paying the state contributions, the credit against the federal tax is limited to what percent of the late payments that would have been allowed as a credit if the contributions had been paid on time?A) 6.2B) 90C) 5.13D) 20E) 09.Which of the following provides for a reduction in the employer’s state unemployment tax rate based on the employer’s experience with the risk of unemployment?A) Voluntary contributionB) Title XII advancesC) Pooled-fund lawsD) Experience-rating planE) None of these10.Voluntary contributions to a state’s unemployment department are:A) allowed in all states.B) designed to increase an employer’s reserve account in order to lower the employer’s contribution rate.C) capable of being paid at any time with no time limit.D) returned to the employer at the end of the following year.E) sent directly to the IRS.11.If the employer has made timely deposits that pay the FUTA tax liability in full, the filing of Form 940 can be delayed until:A) December 31.B) February 15.C) February 10.D) February 1.E) March 31.12.The person who is not an authorized signer of Form 940 is:A) the individual, if a sole proprietorship.B) the accountant from the company’s independent auditing firm.C) the president, if a corporation.D) a fiduciary, if a trust.E) All of these are authorized signers.13.When making a deposit of FUTA taxes, the employer must make the deposit by the:A) end of the month after the quarter.B) 15th of the month after the quarter.C) 10th of the month after the quarter.D) same day of the FICA and FIT deposits.14.An employer must deposit the quarterly FUTA tax liability if the liability is more than:A) $3,000.B) $500.C) $1,000.D) $1.E) $100.15.In order to avoid a credit reduction for Title XII advances, a state must repay the loans by:A) the end of the year of the loans.B) the end of the year the credit reduction is scheduled to take effect.C) the end of the third year after the year of the loans.D) November 10 of the year the credit reduction is scheduled to take effect.E) June 30 of the year after the loans.
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las dependientas venden algunas blusas.

Las dependientas venden algunas blusas.

Alguien va de compras al centro comercial

Siempre me cepillo los dientes antes de salir.

Te traigo algún programa de la computadora

Mi hermano prepara algo de comer

Quiero tomar algo en el café de la librería

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how many different estimating techniques were discussed in the case?

THE ESTIMATING PROBLEM1 Barbara just received the good news: She was assigned as the project manager for a project that her company won as part of competitive bidding. Whenever a request for proposal (RFP) comes into Barbara’s company, a committee composed mainly of senior managers reviews the RFP. If the decision is made to bid on the job, the RFP is turned over to the Proposal Department. Part of the Proposal Department is an estimating group that is responsible for estimating all work. If the estimating group has no previous history concerning some of the deliverables or work packages and is unsure about the time and cost for the work, the estimating team will then ask the functional managers for assistance with estimating. Project managers like Barbara do not often participate in the bidding process. Usually, their first knowledge about the project comes after the contract is awarded to their company and they are assigned as the project manager. Some project managers are highly optimistic and trust the estimates that were submitted in the bid implicitly unless, of course, a significant span of time has elapsed between the date of submittal of the proposal and the final contract award date. Barbara, however, is somewhat pessimistic. She believes that accepting the estimates as they were submitted in the proposal is like playing Russian roulette. As such, Barbara prefers to review the estimates. One of the most critical work packages in the project was estimated at twelve weeks using one grade 7 employee full time. Barbara had performed this task on previous projects and it required one person full time for fourteen weeks. Barbara asked the estimating group how they arrived at this estimate. The estimating group responded that they used the three-point estimate where the optimistic time was four weeks, the most likely time was thirteen weeks, and the pessimistic time was sixteen weeks. Barbara believed that the three-point estimate was way off of the mark. The only way that this work package could ever be completed in four weeks would be for a very small project nowhere near the complexity of Barbara’s project. Therefore, the estimating group was not considering any complexity factors when using the three-point estimate. Had the estimating group used the triangular distribution where each of the three estimates had an equal likelihood of occurrence, the final estimate would have been thirteen weeks. This was closer to the fourteen weeks that Barbara thought the work package would take. While a difference of 1 week seems small, it could have a serious impact on Barbara’s project and incur penalties for late delivery. Barbara was now still confused and decided to talk to Peter, the employee that was assigned to do this task. Barbara had worked with Peter on previous projects. Peter was a grade 9 employee and considered to be an expert in this work package. As part of the discussions with Barbara, Peter made the following comments: I have seen estimating data bases that include this type of work package and they all estimate the work package at about 14 weeks. I do not understand why our estimating group prefers to use the three point estimate. “Does the typical data base account for project complexity when considering the estimates?”

asked Barbara. Peter responded: Some data bases have techniques for considering complexity, but mostly they just assume an average complexity level. When complexity is important, as it is in our project, analogy estimating would be better. Using analogy estimating and comparing the complexity of the work package on this project to the similar works packages I have completed, I would say that 16–17 weeks is closer to reality, and let’s hope I do not get removed from the project to put out a fire somewhere else in the company. That would be terrible. It is impossible for me to get it done in 12 weeks. And adding more people to this work package will not shorten the schedule. It may even make it worse. Barbara then asked Peter one more question: Peter, you are a grade 9 and considered as the subject matter expert. If a grade 7 had been assigned, as the estimating group had said, how long would it have taken the grade 7 to do the job? “Probably about 20 weeks or so,” responded Peter. QUESTIONS 1. How many different estimating techniques were discussed in the case? 2. If each estimate is different, how does a project manager decide that one estimate is better than another? 3. If you were the project manager, which estimate would you use? Case Study 735

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after you’ve mulled the assignment and before you rehearse the assignment, you need to

As you read in Chapter 4 section 4.4, the centerpiece of the rehearsal phase of metacognition is the strategy card. After decoding tasks and strategizing how to FIT your Learning Patterns to the task, you can use your knowledge of your Learning Patterns to develop personal strategies to direct your efforts. The most efficient way to do this is to develop a personal strategy card.

Strategy cards convert general study skills into personalized strategies for learning based on each learner’s Patterns. Personal strategy cards are essential to effective rehearsal because they help you address the requirements that you have decoded from the assignment and they help you connect to the instructor’s expectations. Strategy cards help you organize your approach to achieving success on the task. They allow you to practice “smarter, not harder.”

You are more effective when you develop a strategy card for each major task or assignment. In doing so, you become more disciplined and you match your efforts to each requirement. In preparation for your reflection assignment that you will complete in Week 5, we will use the Week 5 Final Reflection assignment instructions for the decoding section of this strategy card. This way, next week, you’ll be able to approach your assignment with intention as you skillfully apply your Learning Patterns.

Directions: Your task is to complete your own Personal Strategy Card.

a. Watch the  Completing Your Personal Strategy Card  video https://youtu.be/fAK3RpNzGg8.

b. You will be filling out the Personal Strategy Card form below to complete the assignment.

EXP 105: Week 4

Personal Strategy Card

Name:

A. LCI Scores

SequencePrecisionTechnicalReasoningConfluence
Record your LCI scores in the boxes provided.31251822

B. Carefully describe the degree to which you use each of your Learning Patterns.

(Refer to the Personal Learning Profile you developed for your Week Two assignment and any feedback provided by your instructor to determine if you need to refine your responses as you complete this section.)

Sequence:

Precision:

Technical Reasoning:

Confluence:

C. Identify all verbs and specific terms from the assignment instructions and describe how each Learning Pattern will be used to effectively complete the Week 5 assignment.

(Critically review the Final Reflection assignment in Week Five and decode it.)

Sequence:

Precision:

Technical Reasoning:

Confluence:

D. Explain how you will Forge, Intensify, or Tether (FIT) your Learning Patterns to implement personal strategies so you can complete the Week Five assignment efficiently and effectively.

(If you do not need to FIT a Pattern, include a description of the strategies you naturally use which help you to be successful on these types of tasks.)

Sequence:

Precision:

Technical Reasoning:

Confluence:

https://bridgepoint.equella.ecollege.com/curriculum/file/27bf2626-5d1a-4edb-9cf3-d23af28a074f/1/Docicon.png

 Click to view a Model Personal Strategy Card  (tips included!). Many students have found that the instructions in this guide was invaluable for completing the assignment successfully.

· Section A: List your LCI scores in the indicated boxes on the Personal Strategy Card.

· Section B: Carefully describe the degree to which you use each of your Learning Patterns. Refer to the Personal Learning Profile you developed for your Week Two assignment and any feedback provided by your instructor to determine if you need to refine your responses as you complete this section.

· Section C: Critically review the Final Reflection assignment instructions and decode them. Click here to download a copy of the Week 5 Final Reflection instructions (in the online classroom). Identify all verbs and specific terms from the assignment instructions and describe how each Learning Pattern will be used to effectively complete the Week 5 assignment.

· Section D: Explain how you will forge, intensify, or tether (FIT) your Learning Patterns to implement personal strategies so you can complete the Week Five assignment efficiently and effectively. If you do not need to FIT a Pattern, include a description of the strategies you naturally use which help you to be successful on these types of tasks.

c. Save your work and then submit your Word document using Waypoint.

4.4 The Action Phases of Metacognition

What follows is a list of the action phases that your mind goes through as it completes a learning task. The terms (seeFigure 4.2) are words chosen to represent what occurs in each phase.

These are not scientific terms, but instead learner-friendly descriptive words that allow a student to observe andunderstand what is going on in his or her mind. They were chosen to help students respond to the age-old question:”What are you thinking?” and the equally frustrating criticism frequently leveled at them: “You know I can’t read yourmind!”

Phase 1: Mull

Virtually all tasks begin with some form of mulling—meaning you get inside the assignment or the task and seek tounderstand, “What am I being asked to do? Have I ever done this before? What were the results? Do I want to repeatthose results or avoid them?” You don’t start to do anything until you have a sense of where you are going and howyou are going to do it. If the voices of your Patterns are crying out for clearer directions or a greater sense of purpose,then ask for what you need. Don’t let the frustration of not knowing how to start the task escalate from simmeringquestions to boiling anger. Mulling is healthy; boiling isn’t. To avoid reaching that level of frustration, clarify what isexpected of you by decoding the assignment.

Decoding is a learning strategy that helps you mull and connect metacognitively to the instructor’s expectations. Thegoal of decoding is twofold: 1) to identify and clarify the intent of the directions—that is, what the instructor expectsfrom you; and 2) to complete the task in the way your instructor expects it to be done.

A pivotal tool to assist in decoding is a word wall; it is a chart divided into four sectors, with each sector labeled for adifferent Learning Pattern (see Figure 4.3). By using the cue words from the word wall to indicate what Patterns arerequired to complete the task, you can decode assignments, objectives, or any course-related task.

Figure 4.3: Word Wall

Which decoding words do you think will help you decipher assignments the most?

Four differently colored cells filled with words that align with the four Learning Patterns: Sequence, Precision, Technical Reasoning, and Confluence.

Source: © Let Me Learn, Inc.

When you are just beginning to learn how to decode, use a generic word wall. As you become experienced at findingthe cue words in your assignments, add more of them to the word wall. As you take more specialized courses, buildyour own word wall by identifying the key terms associated with each subject and associating them with each of thefour Learning Patterns.

Decoding tasks accurately is the main point of mulling. The steps to decoding are the following:

1. First, read the directions for the task.

2. Next, circle the verbs, specific terms, and titles that are intended to direct you.

3. Then, using the word wall, find the words you circled within the assignment, noting the Learning Pattern that eachword falls under. Go back to the directions, and above each word, write the first letter of the Learning Pattern it isdirecting you to use. See Figure 4.4 for an example.

Figure 4.4: Decoding an Assignment: Critical Thinking

Decoding a task is an efficient way to discern what the task requires.

Example of a decoded assignment. At the top of the figure are the assignment directions, and below the assignment is a decoded version in which particular words are circled and assigned specific Learning Patterns.

Source: © Let Me Learn, Inc.

By breaking down the assignment into the Learning Patterns required, you have a much clearer understanding of whatis expected of you. At least three of the actions to be taken require the use of Precision. Only one requires Sequenceand one requires Technical Reasoning. This assignment calls for no Confluence. That means that the instructor is notasking for your outside-the-box ideas or unique perspective. The instructor wants an accurate description of criticalthinking (Precision) presented in a concise (Technical Reasoning) bulleted list (Sequence). Decoding the task clarifiedhow to proceed and meet the instructor’s expectations.

Now try your hand at decoding the task described in Figure 4.5. Which would you circle as the key action words andspecific terms and titles? Refer to the word wall to find each of your circled words, and determine the letter of theLearning Pattern that should go above the word(s). Remember: All terms and phrases fall under Precision even thoughthey may not be listed specifically under that category.

Figure 4.5: Decoding an Assignment: Transformational Learning Process

The more involved the requirements, the more important it is that you decode the assignment beforestarting.

Example of an assignment and how to decode it. At the top of the worksheet are the assignment directions and below the directions are a decoded version of it.

Source: © Let Me Learn, Inc.

What specific Learning Patterns are going to be required to complete this task? Can you identify when you will need tobe using one Pattern more than another? Knowing the Patterns that you will be called upon to use when completing aspecific task helps you feel more confident about what the instructor’s expectations are for the assignment, and whatyou are being asked to do to complete it.

Dan, Cassie, and Nia all need to learn how to decode their assignments; it will save them valuable time, improve theirlearning outcomes, and increase their grades. Remember Dan’s dilemma? Instead of generating ideas or organizing histhoughts, Dan became fixated on the belief that he had no idea what he was supposed to be doing. Cassie was faringeven worse: She sat in front of her computer rereading the directions for the assignment, trying to guess what theinstructor wanted her to do. Nia didn’t even realize that she needed to take the time to mull and decode theassignment, which required a critical analysis with support from three sources. She simply wrote a paper stating heropinion of the article.

All three used their study time inefficiently and ineffectively because they did not take the time to mull the assignmentand decode it. If they had, they would have saved valuable time and submitted work that matched the expectations ofthe instructor.

Phase 2: Connect

The second action phase of metacognition is the act of mindfully connecting to the assignment. If you have mulled anddecoded the assignment accurately, then you begin to make connections to the requirements of the task. Of coursethere are various types of assignments, but most involve critical reading and critical writing, and each requires that youinteract with text.

Connecting to Your Reading

Using the steps below to guide you, connect your ideas and experiences to the content of an assigned reading(s):

· As you’re reading, think of a similar assignment you’ve had in the past. In your mind, can you begin to comparewhat you are reading now to what you have read in the past?

· Jot down questions that cross your mind. Post your questions and read others’ responses to them.

· Search for relevancy in the assigned reading. “Deep read” the passage, rather than skimming it.

· Anticipate the conclusion of the assigned reading before you complete it. Are you surprised by the outcome?

Understand what you are reading:

· Look for a thread of logic or a progression of thought (e.g., Step 1, Step 2, Step 3).

· Pick out new terminology and look up words you didn’t know.

· Search for the central point; pull it together from different parts of the reading if it is not explicitly stated.

· Consider the reading from several different angles.

Connect to the points in what you are reading by asking yourself:

· Do you feel you were “of like mind” with the author?

· Do the facts speak to you?

· Can you relate your own experiences to its message?

· Do you see any parts of the reading as a jumping off point for your own thinking?

Regardless of the type of assignment, intentional learners use their Learning Patterns to connect to the task, first bymulling and decoding, and next by connecting to it.

Neither Dan, nor Cassie, nor Nia invest in connecting to their assignments. Each allows personal issues, including self-doubt, fear of failure, and lack of personal investment of time, to get in the way of completing the assignmentsuccessfully. None is likely to succeed on current or future assignments if each continues his or her current approach.Conversely, if they allow their Patterns to guide them in connecting fully with the task at hand, they are much morelikely to succeed (Johnston, 2005; Johnston, 2006).

FIT: Forge, Intensify, Tether

A second aspect of connecting to the assignment involves fitting yourself to the task. FIT is an acronym comprised ofthe first letter of the words ForgeIntensify, and Tether. FIT describes the type of self-regulation you need to use inorder to fit your Learning Patterns specifically to the task you are facing. Your goal should be to match the amount ofeach Learning Pattern required of you to the amount of that Pattern you use.

Take for example, the task decoded earlier (see Figure 4.4):

“Write in bulleted form a brief description of critical thinking.”

When decoded, you recognize that the task requires you to use Precision (as noted by three different terms, write,define, and critical thinking) first and foremost. Suppose your Precision, at a score of 18, is borderline Avoid/Use asNeeded. In order for you to complete the task successfully, you will need to temporarily increase or forge yourPrecision to fit the task. Once you are conscious of the possible disconnect between the assignment and your LearningPatterns, you can do something about it. Even though you don’t enjoy operating at a high level of Precision, you areable to do so once you recognize what the task calls for and you find a strategy to help you increase your Precision tocomplete the task.

As noted in Figure 4.5, the assignment you decoded requires you to do the following:

Example of an assignment and how to decode it. At the top of the worksheet are the assignment directions and below the directions are a decoded version of it.

Of the 17 key words decoded in this assignment, 12 require the use of Precision. Two require Sequence, and threerequire Technical Reasoning. None requires the use of Confluence. Clearly the assignment requires a great deal ofPrecision and a moderate use of Sequence and Technical Reasoning. But what if your Learning Patterns don’t match theassignment? Do you give up? No, you take action and forge the Pattern until it fits the level of Precision required by theassignment.

Forge

The term forge is intended to be applied to those Patterns that fall between 07 and 17 on the LCI “degree of use”continuum. The purpose of forging a Pattern is to increase the use and performance of it. Forging requires you to workin a way that you would usually prefer not to. However, because you know the Pattern is necessary for the task, youseek to make proper and appropriate use of it. Impossible? No. Does it require your attention and intention?Absolutely! It also requires an increased use of mental energy.

The amount of mental energy needed to alter your natural level of performance in a Pattern is directly related to thedegree you are required to use it. For example, Dan avoids Confluence (14). He is not a risk-taker, and this assignmentis asking him to do something he has never done before. In addition, he almost avoids Precision (18). Therefore, whenhe is required to “write, describe, and explain” a specific term, his tendency to avoid Precision has him feeling stressedand filled with doubt about his writing ability. Consequently, he needs to use a significant amount of energy to intensify(energize) his Precision and forge (increase) his Confluence in order to free himself to take on the assignment andbelieve he can achieve.

Cassie, too, has a Pattern she avoids: Technical Reasoning (10). It is not easy for Cassie to problem-solve. By notknowing how to use her Technical Reasoning to ground her Precision (29) and make it work for her, she allows hermind to go round and round in circles, never certain of what to do or how to proceed. Her Technical Reasoning couldprove helpful to her in completing the assignment if she knew how to put forth the mental energy to forge its use. Forexample, she could use her Sequence to plan a step-by-step approach to forging her Technical Reasoning and solve theproblem she is facing.

Forging is a metacognitive skill that takes patience, practice, and determination. Forging a Pattern is a challenge. Thesame is not the case if you use a Pattern at the Use as Needed level. Then increasing the use of it requires only thatyou intensify it.

Intensify

The term intensify is intended to be used with the Patterns that you Use as Needed. Use as Needed Patterns scores fallfrom 18 to 24 on the LCI continuum. They are the “quiet” ones that stay in the background until called upon. If theyoperate closer to the Avoid edge of the Use as Needed continuum, then they remain almost dormant unless awakened.If they operate at close to the Use First edge of the Use as Needed continuum, then they are more actively and readilyavailable for use without a great deal of effort. Your Use as Needed Patterns provide a rich set of options for you. Theyprovide a counterweight to the extremes of your Use First and Avoid Patterns.

Dan, Cassie, and Nia provide you with good examples of how their Use as Needed Patterns can help balance the use oftheir other Patterns. Dan Uses Precision as Needed, while Nia Uses Technical Reasoning as Needed. Cassie has two Useas Needed Patterns, Sequence and Confluence. If they were aware of the potential power of their Use as NeededPatterns, their study sessions would be more productive. Dan could intensify his Precision and use the increasedenergy to address the degree of Precision the writing assignment is calling for, thus raising his confidence and loweringhis self-doubt. Cassie could awaken her Sequence and use it to feel more secure in following the assignment’sdirections. She could also use her Confluence to lessen her fear of doing the assignment incorrectly, and instead, freeup her Precision to be willing to take a little risk and trust that she is using the right words when she makes herpoints in her analysis.

Nia also has a Pattern that could help her regulate her study behaviors. In Nia’s case, it is her Use as Needed Pattern ofTechnical Reasoning. If she were to intensify it, she would be better prepared to complete her written responsebecause her Technical Reasoning would demand that she carefully craft it to meet the assignment’s specifications. Ofcourse, Nia also has three Patterns that she Uses First that drive her behaviors as a student in ways that are not alwaysproductive. In many cases, she needs to tether them.

Tether

The term tether is applied to those Patterns you Use First. These are the Patterns that fall into the 25 to 35 range onthe LCI scoring continuum. These Patterns drive your life and your learning.

Of course, the challenge of using a combination of Use First Patterns in concert with your Avoid and Use as NeededPatterns is to do so with intention. In the case of your Use First Patterns, you must stay alert for when thesedominating Patterns need to be tethered—that is, pulled back, held down, or restrained.

Tethering involves addressing those mental processes that leave you feeling self-assured and confident. Theysometimes must be restrained because Use First Patterns do not necessarily represent competence. Their confidence issometimes misplaced, particularly when they are not the dominant Patterns required for a task. Thus, tethering yourUse First Patterns helps you gain perspective and anchors you to the current reality of the assignment, and it preventsyou from getting stuck trying to do things the assignment doesn’t require or allow.

Dan, Cassie, and Nia all have Use First Patterns that warrant tethering because even Use First Patterns can mislead alearner. For example, Dan could benefit from tethering his Technical Reasoning (30), his tendency to use few words,which can inhibit his Use as Needed Precision (18). In the case of the assignment calling for an analysis with detailedsupport from three sources, he needs to intensify his Precision and tether his Technical Reasoning in order to write apaper of an acceptable length, with sufficient supporting details.

Cassie could benefit from tethering her Precision (29) because it makes demands for perfection on virtually everythingshe does. Her Sequence (20) never organizes well enough; her Confluence (22) never has good enough ideas; and herTechnical Reasoning (10) is virtually ignored because it doesn’t help her have the precise words to assist her whenwriting. When Cassie doesn’t tether her Precision, all of her other Patterns are stifled.

Nia’s three Use First Patterns are a force to be reckoned with. Collectively, her Sequence (33), Precision (32), andConfluence (27) have her believing she can tune out the rest of the world and listen only to what she perceives to bethe right structure (Sequence), the best answer (Precision), and the greatest idea (Confluence). Tethering for Nia isvital. Only then will she be able to connect to the world outside of herself. Left untethered, Nia is destined to continuedown an isolated pathway as a Strong-Willed learner unable to recognize how she allowed her Patterns to ambush hersuccess.

“FITing” your Patterns to a task takes energy. The task at hand must be carefully and accurately decoded. The amountof resources needed to accomplish the task needs to be carefully assessed. Consequently, it is vital that you giveyourself the space emotionally, mentally, and physically to FIT your Patterns to the task. Build in opportunities toregenerate your energy if you have been tethering or forging your Patterns for several hours at a time, because themental workout you will experience is every bit as tiring as an hour or two at the gym.

Know, however, that the effort is well worth it. Never underestimate the tremendous feeling of accomplishment thatawaits you when you have succeeded in completing a task to a degree that you have not achieved before. Always keepin mind that “Learning strategies are most effective when students can make informed choices about which strategiesto use in particular learning situations” (Lovett, 2008).

https://media.thuze.com/MediaService/MediaService.svc/constellation/book/AUEXP105.13.3/%7Bimages%7Dtipbox4.4.jpg

Phase 3: Rehearse

A change in study behavior does not happen without practice. The metacognitive term is  rehearse, a robust form ofpractice. Rehearse involves studying the situation, preparing to meet expectations, running through the actual sequenceof completing the assigned task or test, and then repeating the actions for the purpose of improving your performanceor outcome. The rehearse phase allows your Patterns to go through a trial run to make certain that the performance ofthe task, the completion of the project, and/or the public presentation will meet the standards set by the instructor.Rehearsal prepares for expression by allowing any mistakes to be identified and corrected in advance of submitting thefinal product.

The centerpiece of the rehearsal phase is the personal learning tool called the strategy card. After decoding andstrategizing how to FIT your Patterns to the task, you can use your knowledge of your Patterns to develop personalstrategies to direct your efforts. The most efficient way to do this is to develop a personal strategy card (see Figure4.6).

Figure 4.6: Personal Strategy Card

Strategy cards convert general study skills into personalized strategies for learning based on each learner’sPatterns.

Figure of a personal strategy card. The Learning Patterns make up four columns; seven rows of questions and directions help learners decipher their own personal learning strategies.

Source: © Let Me Learn, Inc.

Personal strategy cards are essential to effective rehearsal because they help you address the requirements that youhave decoded from the assignment and they help you connect to the instructor’s expectations. Strategy cards help youorganize your approach to achieving success. They allow you to practice “smarter, not harder.” You are more effectivewhen you develop a strategy card for each major task or assignment. In doing so, you become more disciplined andyou match your efforts to each requirement. Dan, Cassie, and Nia can each benefit from developing personal strategycards to guide their study and completion of work.

Dan begins his next assignment using some personal learning strategies and tools. See Figure 4.7 for the newassignment, which Dan has decoded. Then, using a strategy card, he matches his Patterns to the task, and developsstrategies that will help him see the path to being successful, and thereby motivate him to complete the task efficientlyand effectively.

Figure 4.7: Dan’s Decoding of a New Assignment

After decoding his assignment, what Patterns does Dan now know he needsto use?

Figure showing Dan’s writing on his assignment. He has circled and marked key words that will help him pick out what is required.

Source: © Let Me Learn, Inc.

Before he understood himself as a learner, Dan would have looked at the task and given up. Now that he knows how tometacognitively make his Patterns work for him, he invests himself in completing the task. Read through Dan’s strategycard (see Figure 4.8). What can you learn from Dan’s example?

Figure 4.8: Dan’s Strategy Card

After decoding his assignment, the personal strategy card helps him FIT his Patterns to the Patterns theassignment requires.

A personal strategy card with the four Learning Patterns across the top heading four columns, and questions and directions along seven rows. Inside the cells are Dan’s responses to the questions and directions he has tackled to decode his assignment.

Source: © Let Me Learn, Inc.

Now it’s your turn. Using the same assignment as Dan, complete a strategy card in Worksheet 4.2. Begin by filling inyour LCI scores and explaining the degree to which you use each of your Patterns. Remember, you can refer to thePersonal Learning Profile you developed in Chapter 2.

Next, look at the assignment again in Figure 4.7. How well does what you are being asked to do match with yourLearning Patterns? Where are your Patterns comfortable? Where do you experience a sense of discomfort? Once youhave identified the fit of your Patterns to the task, begin to fill in your strategy card.

Note that in order to FIT who you are as a learner to the assignment, you may need to use strategies in just one area,or in several. See how well your Patterns match or to what degree you will need to forge, intensify, and tether in each.Then complete the worksheet.

Worksheet 4.2: Your Personal Strategy Card

How will this personal strategy card help you with your next assignment?

A personal strategy card with empty cells for students to fill out. Across the top are the four Learning Patterns. Down the left-hand side are rows of questions and directions for students to answer in order to FIT their Patterns.

Source: © Let Me Learn, Inc.

Recording the strategies you use to achieve success in one assignment creates a resource bank that you can draw onthe next time you are confronted with a similar one. Having a set of effective strategies also raises your confidence anddecreases your self-doubt. Having personal learning strategies disciplines you to put forth intentional, focused effort.Developing a strategy card requires you to invest, not avoid, and dig deeper, rather than skim the surface of the task athand. Using a strategy card keeps you grounded in the requirements of each assignment and able to use your LearningPatterns skillfully.

Phase 4: Attend

In order to maintain the level of insight you gained about yourself as you rehearsed, you will need to attend to usingthe strategies that brought you to a new level of achievement. Often, students who begin to use personal strategy cardsthat help them understand, study, and complete learning tasks set them by the wayside once they have learned how tocomplete certain types of assignments successfully. They decide to operate on autopilot, based on the strategies theyhave used so far. In doing so, they jeopardize all the study ground they have just conquered. They can quickly findthemselves back to square one, especially when a new type of assignment rattles them. (Author’s note: As one whoavoids Sequence, I frequently create a strategy card to help meet book deadlines or to complete what for me aretedious tasks, such as writing a grant proposal that is based on a strict set of requirements that allow for no deviationfrom the format. It works on many levels, personally and professionally.)

The metacognitive phase that cautions you to attend to—that is, to pay attention to—a task also disciplines you to stayfocused and not waver from the high level of performance you have developed when using your personal strategies.Attending to a learning task is to be in an active state of focus, clearing away distractions, and concentrating on whatyou need to consciously do to complete the task well. To attend means you don’t let up; you’ll continue to operate at ahigh level of focused energy. The reason this is so important is that when you submit your work, or complete anassessment, or in any way perform the action that you have been rehearsing, you want it to occur at the same highlevel of performance that you achieved during the rehearsal phase.

How many times have you seen a playoff in which one team wins its division easily and must wait for its opponents tofinish out a close series? When they finally begin the playoffs, supposedly as the dominant team, the team’s play islackluster. Often, they can’t get back the mojo they had in the earlier round. The team that finishes first often loses itsability to attend at the same level as the rival team that experienced no downtime. The attend phase of metacognitionis when you need to be coaching, encouraging, and challenging your Learning Patterns to be on alert and to continuedoing the work of intentional learning.

Phase 5: Express

To express means to go public with what you have been rehearsing. It’s the real thing. To reach the metacognitivephase of express indicates that you have mulled, decoded, connected, FITed, rehearsed, developed personal strategies,and attended to maintaining a high level of performance. The paper being submitted is your best work. The projectbeing presented is your best work. The comments being posted represent your best effort. All of your effort has beenprocessed and refined. It is the result of not mere study habits, but the metacognitive behaviors of an intentionallearner determined to succeed.

Phase 6: Reflective Practice—Assess, Reflect, Revisit

The final phases of metacognition form the basis of something called reflective practice, which is actually a part ofcritical thinking. Reflective practice is also known as double-looped learning because it takes you back to examine thedefining questions you asked yourself as you entered into doing the assignment (your assumptions, actions, anddecisions) and the results you achieved at the conclusion (success, partial success, or failure). Reflective practice allowsyou to learn from your decisions and actions while determining their effectiveness. Don’t skip these vital stages, as theyhelp you gain confidence and avoid repeating any mistakes.

Assess

The metacognitive phases, when faithfully followed, always include a time to assess. Unlike external assessment ortesting, the assess phase of metacognition means confronting questions internally, such as “What have I reallyachieved?” and “To what degree have I achieved it?”

You need to ask yourself, “What is the outcome of my effort?” and let the feedback from your instructor lead you toconsider the results of your efforts. The metacognitive phase that follows links to this one—it too focuses on thequestion, “What is the outcome of my effort?”

Reflect

When you reflect, you begin your internal conversation with “As a result of my effort, I. . ..” and you conclude with,”Next time, I will. . .” When you reflect, you ask, “Where does the buck stop? Who is responsible for this success? Thisfailure? This mess?”

This is the piece of professional and personal growth you may have been missing. After all, anyone can use the phrase”mistakes have been made” to anonymously attribute failure and blame. But only mindful individuals with a clear senseof their personal Learning Patterns face themselves (Osterman & Kottkamp, 2004) and say precisely, “I screwed up, andI am prepared to take the heat for it.”

Nia, the Strong-Willed learner, avoids this phase of learning at all costs. Her unwillingness to reflect costs her. Usingyour metacognition well equips you to reach a powerful self-awareness and to be open to ask, “What did I allow myselfto do? What did I fail to do? Where did my Learning Patterns steer me off course?”

This is the autopsy of failure and of success. Without intentionally focusing on your actions, approaches, and thoughts,you are doomed to continue to achieve less than you could. You cannot continue to repeat the same actions, believingthat they will yield a different outcome. Reflection requires us to face ourselves—specifically how we have used ourmetacognitive talk and our self-correcting opportunities and how we have failed to do so. This is the key to being anintentional learner.

Revisit

The good news found in reflective practice is that it does not conclude with simply assigning blame or with rewardingsuccess. Reflective practice invites you instead to revisit your metacognitive phases, noting both those that enrichedand those that frustrated your venture. Revisiting metacognitive decisions serves to reinforce the specific strategiesthat led to success and to reconsider those that led to failure. Revisiting grows both metacognitive capacity andpersonal insight.

There is no doubt that when you understand your Learning Patterns and are aware of the internal talk of your Patternsas they work through the metacognitive phases, you are well equipped, as Peter Senge, the guru of professionaldevelopment, describes, “to consistently enhance your capacity to produce results that are truly important to you”(1999, p. 45).

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why is productivity growth considered to be the most important factor in the ad/asad/as model?

ECON201 Homework 3

Question 1 (1 point)

Question 1 Unsaved

 The term ”full employment GDP” is synonymous with which of the following?

Question 1 options:

a)  potential GDP
b)  Keynesian zone
c)  aggregate GDP
d)  macroeconomic equilibrium

Question 2 (1 point)

Question 2 Unsaved

 Whether the economy is in a recession is illustrated in the AD/AS model by how close the _____________________ is to the potential GDP line.

Question 2 options:

a)  AS and AD curve
b)  equilibrium
c)  AD curve
d)  AS curve

Question 3 (1 point)

Question 3 Unsaved

42. The __________________ in an AD/AS diagram is most relevant to Keynes’s Law.

Question 3 options:

a)  AD curve
b)  AS curve
c) steep portion of the AS curve
d)  flat portion of the AS curve

Question 4 (1 point)

Question 4 Unsaved

 Changes in the price level of the different components of aggregate demand are reflected in the AD/ASAD/AS macroeconomic model by a ________________________.

Question 4 options:

a) shorter distance to equilibrium point
b) longer distance to equilibrium point
c)  flatter top portion of AD curve
d) downward sloping AD curve

Question 5 (1 point)

Question 5 Unsaved

 Why is productivity growth considered to be the most important factor in the AD/ASAD/AS model?

Question 5 options:

a) it shifts the AD curve in the short-term
b) it shifts the AS curve in the long-term
c) it shifts the AS curve in the short-term
d)  it shifts the AD curve in the long-term

Question 6 (1 point)

Question 6 Unsaved

 _______________________ are economists who generally emphasize the importance of aggregate supply in determining the size of the macroeconomy over the _____________.

Question 6 options:

a)  Keynesian economists; long run
b)  Neoclassical economists; short run
c)  Keynesian economists; short run
d) Neoclassical economists; long run

Question 7 (1 point)

Question 7 Unsaved

 Potential GDP in the U.S. will be unaffected by ____________________.

Question 7 options:

a)  the unemployment rate
b)  the amount of capital available
c)  government institutions
d)  technology

Question 8 (1 point)

Question 8 Unsaved

 As the aggregate price level in an economy decreases,

Question 8 options:

a)  interest rates decrease.
b)  imports decrease.
c) consumer demand decreases.
d) investment decreases.

Question 9 (1 point)

Question 9 Unsaved

The ____________ describes a situation where sufficient credit is available, but the economy experiences a reduction in consumption and investment.  

Question 9 options:

a)  interest rate effect
b) inflation rate effect
c) price effect
d)  wealth effect

Question 10 (1 point)

Question 10 Unsaved

 The ____________________ in an AD/AS diagram is most relevant to Say’s Law.

Question 10 options:

a)  steep portion of the AS curve
b)  AD curve
c)  AS curve
d)  flat portion of the AS curve
a) an increase in economic growth
b)  an increase in input prices
c)  less inflationary pressures 
d)  a decrease in the natural unemployment rate

Question 12 (1 point)

 Refer to the graph above. A government creating economic policy in these circumstances should be most concerned about: 

Question 12 options:

unemployment but not inflation.
 inflation but not unemployment.
 inflation and unemployment.       
neither inflation nor unemployment.

Question 13 (1 point)

Question 13 Unsaved

 The sum of all the income received for contributing resources to GDP is called ___________________.

Question 13 options:

a) marginal income (X)
b) national revenue (Y)
c) national income (Y)
d)  marginal revenue (X)

Question 14 (1 point)

Question 14 Unsaved

 According to the Keynesian framework, ________________ in __________________ may cause inflation, but not a recession. 

Question 14 options:

a)  decrease; interest rates
b)  an increase; domestic investment
c)   an increase; a major trading partner’s economy
d)  a decrease; a major trading partner’s export prices

Question 15 (1 point)

Question 15 Unsaved

 If a Phillips curve shows that unemployment is high and inflation is low in the economy, then that economy:

Question 15 options:

a)  is producing at its potential GDP.
b)  is producing at its equilibrium point.
c)  is producing at a point where output is less than potential GDP.
d)  is producing at a point where output is more than potential GDP.

Question 16 (1 point)

Question 16 Unsaved

 In a Keynesian cross diagram, what name is given to the distance between an output level that is below potential GDP and the level of potential GDP?

Question 16 options:

a)  national income (Y)
b)  expenditure-output
c)  inflationary gap
d) recessionary gap

Question 17 (1 point)

Question 17 Unsaved

Which of the following will cause the multiplier to be smaller and cause changes in investor confidence to have a smaller effect in an economy?

Question 17 options:

a)  decreased trade
b)  bigger leakages
c)  increased trade
d)  smaller leakages

Question 18 (1 point)

Question 18 Unsaved

Aggregate demand is more likely to _________________ than aggregate supply in the short run.

Question 18 options:

a)  increase slightly
b) . decrease substantially
c)  shift substantially
d)  remain unchanged

Question 19 (1 point)

Question 19 Unsaved

 Keynesian economics focuses on explaining why recessions and depressions occur, as well as offering a ______________________ for minimizing their effects.

Question 19 options:

a)  policy prescription
b)  set of menu costs
c)  pricing strategy
d)  macro-economic model

Question 20 (1 point)

Question 20 Unsaved

 Which of the following is a distinguishing characteristic of a Keynesian cross diagram?

Question 20 options:

a)  45-degree line
b)  real GDP on the horizontal axis
c)  a flat line
d)  several different Phillips curves

Question 21 (1 point)

Question 21 Unsaved

35. Which of the following data would be analyzed to determine whether any shift in the MPI has occurred over the course of the past 5 year period? 

Question 21 options:

a)  interest rates
b)  exchange rates
c) MPS
d)  foreign income

Question 22 (1 point)

Question 22 Unsaved

 According to the _____________________ argument, a market-oriented economy has no obvious way to implement a plan of systematic wage reductions.

Question 22 options:

a)  sticky wage
b)  sticky wage and price
c)  coordination
d)  Keynesian

Question 23 (1 point)

Question 23 Unsaved

 Refer to the graph shown below.  At point B:

https://learn.umuc.edu/content/enforced/68535-002381-01-2155-OL3-7381/37.png?_&d2lSessionVal=U4xIT0sDpLxsraduGAcxhrlRi

Question 23 options:

a) economic growth it low or even negative.
b) unemployment is very low.
c)  output is expanding.
d)  businesses may raise prices.

Question 24 (1 point)

Question 24 Unsaved

When the economy is in a recession, the government will want to increase output. If the multiplier equals 2.5 and the government increases spending by 200, how much will output increase by?

Question 24 options:

a)  500
b)  900
c)  100
d)  300

Question 25 (1 point)

Question 25 Unsaved

 Suppose that out of the original 100 increase in government spending, 33 will be recycled back into purchases of domestically produced goods and services in the second round and 10.89 is spent in the third round. Following this multiplier effect, what value would be recycled in the fourth round of this cycle? 

Question 25 options:

a)  9.89
b)  3.37
c)  5.23
d)  3.59
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in a proper webpage, which tag holds all of a webpages visible html?

Web Development Test   This page has a initial time limit of 0:30:00 Would you like to disable all future page timer notifications?       Test      True or False: HTML and CSS are front end technology. * This question is required.  ⚪True  ⚪False       What is the difference between HTML and CSS? * This question is required.  ⚪CSS is a markup language unlike HTML  ⚪HTML is a backend technology and CSS is a front end technology  ⚪HTML focuses on a web page’s structure and CSS focuses on its presentation  ⚪As of HTML5 there is no difference       In a proper webpage, which tag holds all of a webpages visible HTML? * This question is required.  ⚪html  ⚪head  ⚪body  ⚪link  ⚪script  ⚪doctype       Alphabet for your reference:  A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z   If the code for CAT is ECV  what is the code for DOG? * This question is required.  ⚪FQI  ⚪BIT  ⚪FDW  ⚪GRJ       The sum of two consecutive numbers is 37.  What are they? * This question is required.  ⚪18, 19  ⚪7, 30  ⚪20, 17  ⚪36, 1               It’s 3 PM. How many degrees are in the angle between the hour and minute hand? * This question is required.  ⚪90  ⚪60  ⚪15  ⚪25  ⚪180       What does the following code alert?   var person = {    name: “Mike”,    age: 25,    favoriteFood: “pizza”  };   alert(“My best friend’s name is” + person.name + “,he’s ” + person.age + ” years old and his favorite food is ” + person.favoriteFood);    * This question is required.  ⚪My best friend’s name isMike,he’s 25 years old and his favorite food is pizza  ⚪My best friend’s name is Mike, he’s 25 years old and his favorite food is pizza.  ⚪My best friend’s name isMike ,he’s 25 years old and his favorite food is pizza.  ⚪My friend’s best name isMike,he’s 25 years old and his favorite food is pizza.       What language(s) MUST be used to display a bare-minimum web page?    ⚪HTML, SQL, Node.js  ⚪HTML  ⚪JavaScript & PHP  ⚪SQL       What is the best image format for our website if we needed our image to have a transparent background?    ⚪JPEG  ⚪JPG  ⚪GIF  ⚪PNG  ⚪PSD  ⚪TIFF  ⚪None of these       Which one of these is the most different?    ⚪JavaScript  ⚪PHP  ⚪Ruby  ⚪Python  ⚪MySQL       Which of these statements is true?    ⚪Agile is a programming language  ⚪SQL is a database language  ⚪HTML stands for “Hypertext Markup Link”  ⚪Java is short for JavaScript               It’s 2 PM. How many degrees are in the angle between the hour and minute hand?    ⚪90  ⚪60  ⚪15  ⚪25  ⚪180             The following HTML and CSS is COMPLETELY CORRECT. This code makes up a web page. When the following code renders onto the screen, which paragraph appears bolded?    ⚪The Wonder Years is an American television comedy-drama created by Neal Marlens and Carol Black.  ⚪It ran on ABC from 1988 until 1993.  ⚪The pilot aired on January 31, 1988, following ABC’s coverage of Super Bowl XXII.  ⚪All of the above       Which operation could we perform in order to find the number of milliseconds in a year?    ⚪60 * 60 * 24 * 7 * 365  ⚪1000 * 60 * 60 * 24 * 365  ⚪24 * 60 * 100 * 7 * 52  ⚪1000 * 60 * 24 * 7 * 52  ⚪None of these       You are facing North. Turn 90 degrees left. Turn 180 degrees right. Reverse direction. Turn 45 degrees left. Reverse direction. In which direction are you now facing?     ⚪North  ⚪West  ⚪South West  ⚪South East  ⚪North West  ⚪North East       Albert thought of a number, added 5, multiplied the result by 2, took away 6 and then divided by 2 to give an answer of 8.    ⚪5  ⚪6  ⚪3  ⚪4       If you’re driving one and a half miles per minute, slow down by 15 miles per hour, and then reduce your speed by one third, how fast are you going now?    ⚪90 miles per hour  ⚪60 miles per hour  ⚪50 miles per hour  ⚪75 miles per hour  ⚪45 miles per hour       What is the value of ?????  ???? + ???? = 10;  ???? + ???? = 6;  ???? + ???? = 5;    ⚪6  ⚪9  ⚪7  ⚪8  ⚪1       Which CSS attribute would change an element’s font color to blue?    ⚪font-color: blue;  ⚪background: blue;  ⚪color: blue;  ⚪background-color: blue;  ⚪font: blue;       What is the largest number that can be produced by multiplying any three individual numbers from the following list.   [-2, 1, 3, -8, 5, 9, -9, 4, 7, -7, 8]    ⚪648  ⚪504  ⚪732  ⚪888